Sample records for submicrometer space articulate

  1. A Novel Relative Navigation Control Strategy Based on Relation Space Method for Autonomous Underground Articulated Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengqian Dou


    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel relative navigation control strategy based on the relation space method (RSM for articulated underground trackless vehicles. In the RSM, a self-organizing, competitive neural network is used to identify the space around the vehicle, and the spatial geometric relationships of the identified space are used to determine the vehicle’s optimal driving direction. For driving control, the trajectories of the articulated vehicles are analyzed, and data-based steering and speed control modules are developed to reduce modeling complexity. Simulation shows that the proposed RSM can choose the correct directions for articulated vehicles in different tunnels. The effectiveness and feasibility of the resulting novel relative navigation control strategy are validated through experiments.

  2. Articulation Rate and Vowel Space Characteristics of Young Males with Fragile X Syndrome: Preliminary Acoustic Findings (United States)

    Zajac, David J.; Roberts, Joanne E.; Hennon, Elizabeth A.; Harris, Adrianne A.; Barnes, Elizabeth F.; Misenheimer, Jan


    Purpose: Increased speaking rate is a commonly reported perceptual characteristic among males with fragile X syndrome (FXS). The objective of this preliminary study was to determine articulation rate--one component of perceived speaking rate--and vowel space characteristics of young males with FXS. Method: Young males with FXS (n = 38), …

  3. Space Photovoltaic Concentrator Using Robust Fresnel Lenses, 4-Junction Cells, Graphene Radiators, and Articulating Receivers (United States)

    O'Neill, Mark; McDanal, A. J.; Brandhorst, Henry; Spence, Brian; Iqbal, Shawn; Sharps, Paul; McPheeters, Clay; Steinfeldt, Jeff; Piszczor, Michael; Myers, Matt


    At the 42nd PVSC, our team presented recent advances in our space photovoltaic concentrator technology. These advances include more robust Fresnel lenses for optical concentration, more thermally conductive graphene radiators for waste heat rejection, improved color-mixing lens technology to minimize chromatic aberration losses with 4-junction solar cells, and an articulating photovoltaic receiver enabling single-axis sun-tracking, while maintaining a sharp focal line despite large beta angles of incidence. In the past year, under a NASA Phase II SBIR program, our team has made much additional progress in the development of this new space photovoltaic concentrator technology, as described in this paper.

  4. Articulating Atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinch, Sofie


    This paper presents an architectural approach to designing computational interfaces by articulating the notion of atmosphere in the field of interaction design. It draws upon the concept of kinesthetic interaction and a philosophical notion on atmosphere emphasizing the importance of bodily exper......” implications and qualities of the approach are identified through concrete examples of a design case, which also investigates the qualities and implications of addressing atmospheres both as design concern and user experience.......This paper presents an architectural approach to designing computational interfaces by articulating the notion of atmosphere in the field of interaction design. It draws upon the concept of kinesthetic interaction and a philosophical notion on atmosphere emphasizing the importance of bodily...... experience in space, presented as middle ground experience. In the field of HCI, middle ground experiences complete the unarticulated spectrum between designing for foreground of attention or background awareness. When “Articulating Atmospheres through Middle Ground Experiences in Interaction Design...

  5. ROM/RMF control of the flexible, articulated-truss space crane (United States)

    Reisenauer, Brian T.; Balas, Mark J.


    The large size and extreme flexibility of an articulated space crane entail great difficulties in precision positioning. Control strategies for the flexible multibody system are here developed using a Timoshenko-beam finite-element model (FEM) which captures the system's low frequency characteristics. From the FEM, a reduced-order model (ROM) controller is designed which rotates the fixed shape crane about the base alpha joint to actuate positioning control. Eigenvalue analysis of the closed-loop system shows the destabilizing effect of controller-structure interaction (CSI). Making use of a parallel bank of residual mode filters (RMFs) compensated for CSI, restoring system stability and performance. The linear control law is simulated in closed-loop with the beam model. The ROM-based control law with RMF compensation is an effective, low-order controller.

  6. ROM/RMF control of the articulated-truss space crane (United States)

    Reisenauer, Brian T.


    The design of an articulated space crane under NASA's 'Pathfinder' program continues to push forward. However, the large size and extreme flexibility of the crane entail major difficulties in precision positioning. We have begun to develop control strategies for the flexible system using a simplified finite element model. The model captures much of the system's low frequency characteristics. From the FEM, a reduced-roder model (ROM) based controller is designed based on a specific configuration of the crane. The ROM controller rotates the fixed shape crane about the alpha joint and uses three torque wheels at the tip to actuate its control law. Our analysis of the closed-loop system shows the de-stabilizing effect of control interaction its unmodeled system dynamics (Controller-Structure Interaction). Making use of a parallel bank of residual-mode filters (RMF), we are able to compensate for CSI and restore system stability and performance. Finally, the implementation of the discrete-time control law on the simplified multi-body model is completed using SAMCEF.

  7. Submicrometer grating light bar for a color-separation backlight. (United States)

    Liu, Chun-Wei; Lee, Chi-Hung; Yang, Tzu-Chun; Ting, Chia-Jen; Lin, Tsung-Hsin; Lin, Shih-Chieh


    A light bar patterned using a submicrometer grating was designed to replace conventional dye color filters for color liquid crystal displays. The light bar generates color rays by transmitting them from side-lit color light-emitting diodes through the submicrometer grating. These angular color rays are then redirected by a V-grooved light guide, and then converged by a lens array and mapped to corresponding subpixel positions to efficiently display color images. The results show that 106% of the National Television System Committee (NTSC) color space in a blue-green-red-green (B-G-R-G) repeating pattern display pixel layout can be achieved.

  8. Science and Exploration Workshop: A Forum to Articulate Science Enabled by Space Exploration (United States)

    Spann, J. F.; Niles, P. B.; Weber, R. C.; Needham, D. H.


    This talk outlines a plan to coordinate existing efforts that leverage human exploration and robotic investigations in a crucial step towards improving crew safety and enhancing science returns during upcoming space exploration operations.

  9. Space robotics--DLR's telerobotic concepts, lightweight arms and articulated hands. (United States)

    Hirzinger, G; Brunner, B; Landzettel, K; Sporer, N; Butterfass, J; Schedl, M


    The paper briefly outlines DLR's experience with real space robot missions (ROTEX and ETS VII). It then discusses forthcoming projects, e.g., free-flying systems in low or geostationary orbit and robot systems around the space station ISS, where the telerobotic system MARCO might represent a common baseline. Finally it describes our efforts in developing a new generation of "mechatronic" ultra-light weight arms with multifingered hands. The third arm generation is operable now (approaching present-day technical limits). In a similar way DLR's four-fingered hand II was a big step towards higher reliability and yet better performance. Artificial robonauts for space are a central goal now for the Europeans as well as for NASA, and the first verification tests of DLR's joint components are supposed to fly already end of 93 on the space station.

  10. Competence articulation:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Simon Bo; Bardram, Jakob


    Many studies and concepts within CSCW deal with the temporal, spatial, social, and computational aspects of supporting collaborative work. In this paper we want to pay attention to another central aspect to the achievement of collaborative work, namely the competence of the people involved. In pa...... communication options for competence articulation, which again improve collaboration and thus the quality of the treatment.......Many studies and concepts within CSCW deal with the temporal, spatial, social, and computational aspects of supporting collaborative work. In this paper we want to pay attention to another central aspect to the achievement of collaborative work, namely the competence of the people involved....... In particular, we want to look at the dynamic quality of competences, and investigate how competence is mutually developed in coordinated work. We have termed this process competence articulation, a concept which tries to emphasize competence as well as social development of competence as part of cooperation...

  11. Filtration of submicrometer particles by pelagic tunicates. (United States)

    Sutherland, Kelly R; Madin, Laurence P; Stocker, Roman


    Salps are common in oceanic waters and have higher per-individual filtration rates than any other zooplankton filter feeder. Although salps are centimeters in length, feeding via particle capture occurs on a fine, mucous mesh (fiber diameter d approximately 0.1 microm) at low velocity (U = 1.6 +/- 0.6 cmxs(-1), mean +/- SD) and is thus a low Reynolds-number (Re approximately 10(-3)) process. In contrast to the current view that particle encounter is dictated by simple sieving of particles larger than the mesh spacing, a low-Re mathematical model of encounter rates by the salp feeding apparatus for realistic oceanic particle-size distributions shows that submicron particles, due to their higher abundances, are encountered at higher rates (particles per time) than larger particles. Data from feeding experiments with 0.5-, 1-, and 3-microm diameter polystyrene spheres corroborate these findings. Although particles larger than 1 microm (e.g., flagellates, small diatoms) represent a larger carbon pool, smaller particles in the 0.1- to 1-microm range (e.g., bacteria, Prochlorococcus) may be more quickly digestible because they present more surface area, and we find that particles smaller than the mesh size (1.4 microm) can fully satisfy salp energetic needs. Furthermore, by packaging submicrometer particles into rapidly sinking fecal pellets, pelagic tunicates can substantially change particle-size spectra and increase downward fluxes in the ocean.

  12. Rules-based correction strategies setup on sub-micrometer line and space patterns for 200mm wafer scale SmartNIL process within an integration process flow (United States)

    Teyssedre, H.; Landis, S.; Brianceau, P.; Mayr, M.; Thanner, C.; Laure, M.; Zorbach, W.; Eibelhuber, M.; Pain, L.; Chouiki, M.; Wimplinger, M.


    In this paper the rules-based correction strategies for the nanoimprint lithography (NIL) technology are addressed using complete Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) characterizations. Performed onto 200 mm wafers imprinted with the HERCULES NIL equipment platform, Critical Dimension (CD) uniformity analyses are used to measure the evolution of lines and spaces features dimensions from the master to 50 consecutive imprints. The work brings focus on sub micrometer resolution features with duty cycles from 3 to 7. The silicon masters were manufactured with 193 optical lithography and dry etching and were fully characterized prior to the imprint process. Repeatability tests were performed over 50 wafers for two different processes to collect statistical and comparative data. The data revealed that the CD evolutions can be modelled by quadratic functions with respect to the number of imprints and feature dimension (CD and pitch) on the master. These models are used to establish the rules-based corrections for lines arrays in the scope of nanoimprint master manufacturing, and it opens the discussion on the process monitoring through metrology for the nanoimprint soft stamp technologies.

  13. M&A For Lithography Of Sparse Arrays Of Sub-Micrometer Features (United States)

    Brueck, Steven R.J.; Chen, Xiaolan; Zaidi, Saleem; Devine, Daniel J.


    Methods and apparatuses are disclosed for the exposure of sparse hole and/or mesa arrays with line:space ratios of 1:3 or greater and sub-micrometer hole and/or mesa diameters in a layer of photosensitive material atop a layered material. Methods disclosed include: double exposure interferometric lithography pairs in which only those areas near the overlapping maxima of each single-period exposure pair receive a clearing exposure dose; double interferometric lithography exposure pairs with additional processing steps to transfer the array from a first single-period interferometric lithography exposure pair into an intermediate mask layer and a second single-period interferometric lithography exposure to further select a subset of the first array of holes; a double exposure of a single period interferometric lithography exposure pair to define a dense array of sub-micrometer holes and an optical lithography exposure in which only those holes near maxima of both exposures receive a clearing exposure dose; combination of a single-period interferometric exposure pair, processing to transfer resulting dense array of sub-micrometer holes into an intermediate etch mask, and an optical lithography exposure to select a subset of initial array to form a sparse array; combination of an optical exposure, transfer of exposure pattern into an intermediate mask layer, and a single-period interferometric lithography exposure pair; three-beam interferometric exposure pairs to form sparse arrays of sub-micrometer holes; five- and four-beam interferometric exposures to form a sparse array of sub-micrometer holes in a single exposure. Apparatuses disclosed include arrangements for the three-beam, five-beam and four-beam interferometric exposures.

  14. Surround articulation. II. Lightness judgments. (United States)

    Schirillo, J A


    It has been hypothesized that to achieve color constancy, lightness judgments require an estimate of the illuminant. A companion paper [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 793 (1999)] suggests that surround articulation enhances the likelihood that a global luminance edge will be interpreted as being due to changes in illumination rather than in reflectance. Articulation is the process of adding equally spaced incremental and decremental patches within a surround while preserving the surround's space-average luminance. Such a process results in lightness judgments that correlate perfectly with equal local ratio matches. For decrements, lightness constancy does not require articulation. These findings help explain why Arend and Goldstein [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 2281 (1987)] obtained color constancy with complex Mondrian surrounds but not with simple center surrounds.

  15. Automated Digital Dental Articulation


    Xia, James J.; Chang, Yu-Bing; Gateno, Jaime; Xiong, Zixiang; Zhou, Xiaobo


    Articulating digital dental models is often inaccurate and very time-consuming. This paper presents an automated approach to efficiently articulate digital dental models to maximum intercuspation (MI). There are two steps in our method. The first step is to position the models to an initial position based on dental curves and a point matching algorithm. The second step is to finally position the models to the MI position based on our novel approach of using iterative surface-based minimum dis...

  16. Articulating Material Criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasling, Karen Marie


    , imitate and articulate the students’ inclusion of materials. This paper particularly discusses the experiences made and ideas generated after the execution of a material science course for second year students, with emphasis on the concept of the material selection matrix as an educational tool...

  17. Secondary submicrometer impact cratering on the surface of asteroid 25143 Itokawa (United States)

    Harries, Dennis; Yakame, Shogo; Karouji, Yuzuru; Uesugi, Masayuki; Langenhorst, Falko


    Particle RA-QD02-0265 returned by the Hayabusa spacecraft from near-Earth asteroid 25143 Itokawa displayed a unique abundance of submicrometer-sized (≤500 nm) impact craters, which are rarely observed among the Hayabusa samples. The particle consists of intensely twinned diopside that was subjected to a large-scale shock event before exposure to the space environment on the surface of 25143 Itokawa. Intense (sub-)micrometer-scale impact cratering may suggest a long surface exposure and, hence, a long residence time of regolith material on the surface of small asteroids, bearing implications for the dynamical evolution of these bodies. However, our combined FE-SEM and FIB/TEM study shows that the degree of solar wind-induced space weathering and the accumulation of solar flare tracks are not exceptionally different from other Hayabusa particles with surface exposure ages estimated to be less than 1 ka. A 500 nm wide crater on the surface of RA-QD02-0265 exhibits microstructural damage to a depth of 400 nm below its floor and contains residues of Fe-Ni metal, excluding a formation by space craft exhausts or curatorial handling. The geometrical clustering among the 15 craters is unlikely random, and we conclude that the craters have formed through the impacts of secondary projectiles (at least partially Fe-Ni metal) created in a nearby (micro-)impact event. Besides structural damage by the solar wind and deposition of impact-generated melts and vapors, secondary impact cratering on the submicrometer-scale is another potential mechanism to modify the spectral properties of individual regolith grains. The lack of extensively exposed regolith grains supports a dynamic regolith on the surface of 25143 Itokawa.

  18. Intelligent Articulated Robot (United States)

    Nyein, Aung Kyaw; Thu, Theint Theint


    In this paper, an articulated type of industrial used robot is discussed. The robot is mainly intended to be used in pick and place operation. It will sense the object at the specified place and move it to a desired location. A peripheral interface controller (PIC16F84A) is used as the main controller of the robot. Infrared LED and IR receiver unit for object detection and 4-bit bidirectional universal shift registers (74LS194) and high current and high voltage Darlington transistors arrays (ULN2003) for driving the arms' motors are used in this robot. The amount of rotation for each arm is regulated by the limit switches. The operation of the robot is very simple but it has the ability of to overcome resetting position after power failure. It can continue its work from the last position before the power is failed without needing to come back to home position.

  19. The psychoacoustics of musical articulation (United States)

    Spiegelberg, Scott Charles

    This dissertation develops psychoacoustical definitions of notated articulations, the necessary first step in articulation research. This research can be useful to theorists interested in timbre analysis, the psychology of performance, analysis and performance, the psychology of style differentiation, and performance pedagogy. An explanation of wavelet transforms precedes the development of new techniques for analyzing transient sounds. A history of timbre perception research reveals the inadequacies of current sound segmentation models, resulting in the creation of a new model, the Pitch/Amplitude/Centroid Trajectory (PACT) model of sound segmentation. The new analysis techniques and PACT model are used to analyze recordings of performers playing a melodic fragment in a series of notated articulations. Statistical tests showed that the performers generally agreed on the interpretation of five different articulation groups. A cognitive test of articulation similarity, using musicians and non-musicians as participants, revealed a close correlation between similarity judgments and physical attributes, though additional unknown factors are clearly present. A second psychological test explored the perceptual salience of articulation notation, by asking musically-trained participants to match stimuli to the same notations the performers used. The participants also marked verbal descriptors for each articulation, such as short/long, sharp/dull, loud/soft, harsh/gentle, and normal/extreme. These results were matched against the results of Chapters Five and Six, providing an overall interpretation of the psychoacoustics of articulation.

  20. Dimensional measurements with submicrometer uncertainty in production environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, L.; Gudnason, M. M.; Madruga, D.


    The work concerns a laboratory investigation of a method to achieve dimensional measurements with submicrometer uncertainty under conditions that are typical of a production environment. The method involves the concurrent determination of dimensions and material properties from measurements carried...... out over time. A laboratory set-up was developed comprising a pair of electronic probes mounted on a Zerodur block featuring near zero thermal expansion. Three temperature sensors, data acquisition system, and a temperature regulated plate for heating the workpiece were implemented. Investigations...... gauge blocks along with their uncertainties were estimated directly from the measurements. The length of the two workpieces at the reference temperature of 20 °C was extrapolated from the measurements and compared to certificate values. The investigations have documented that the developed approach...

  1. Three-dimensional structure of brain tissue at submicrometer resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saiga, Rino; Mizutani, Ryuta, E-mail: [Department of Applied Biochemistry, Tokai University, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan); Inomoto, Chie; Takekoshi, Susumu; Nakamura, Naoya; Tsuboi, Akio; Osawa, Motoki [Tokai University School of Medicine, Isehara, Kanagawa 259-1193 (Japan); Arai, Makoto; Oshima, Kenichi; Itokawa, Masanari [Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, Setagaya, Tokyo 156-8506 (Japan); Uesugi, Kentaro; Takeuchi, Akihisa; Terada, Yasuko; Suzuki, Yoshio [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (JASRI/SPring-8), Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan)


    Biological objects are composed of submicrometer structures such as cells and organelles that are essential for their functions. Here, we report on three-dimensional X-ray visualization of cells and organelles at resolutions up to 100 nm by imaging microtomography (micro-CT) equipped with Fresnel zone plate optics. Human cerebral tissue, fruit fly cephalic ganglia, and Escherichia coli bacteria labeled with high atomic-number elements were embedded in epoxy resin and subjected to X-ray microtomography at the BL37XU and BL47XU beamlines of the SPring-8 synchrotron radiation facility. The obtained results indicated that soft tissue structures can be visualized with the imaging microtomography.

  2. 21 CFR 872.3150 - Articulator. (United States)


    ... DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3150 Articulator. (a) Identification. An articulator is a... patient's teeth and gums are placed in the device to reproduce the occlusion (bite) and articulation of...

  3. Low LET protons focused to submicrometer shows enhanced radiobiological effectiveness. (United States)

    Schmid, T E; Greubel, C; Hable, V; Zlobinskaya, O; Michalski, D; Girst, S; Siebenwirth, C; Schmid, E; Molls, M; Multhoff, G; Dollinger, G


    This study shows that enhanced radiobiological effectiveness (RBE) values can be generated focusing low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation and thus changing the microdose distribution. 20 MeV protons (LET = 2.65 keV µm(-1)) are focused to submicrometer diameter at the ion microprobe superconducting nanoprobe for applied nuclear (Kern) physics experiments of the Munich tandem accelerator. The RBE values, as determined by measuring micronuclei (RBE(MN) = 1.48 ± 0.07) and dicentrics (RBE(D) = 1.92 ± 0.15), in human-hamster hybrid (A(L)) cells are significantly higher when 117 protons were focused to a submicrometer irradiation field within a 5.4 × 5.4 µm(2) matrix compared to quasi homogeneous in a 1 × 1 µm(2) matrix applied protons (RBE(MN) = 1.28 ± 0.07; RBE(D) = 1.41 ± 0.14) at the same average dose of 1.7 Gy. The RBE values are normalized to standard 70 kV (dicentrics) or 200 kV (micronuclei) x-ray irradiation. The 117 protons applied per point deposit the same amount of energy like a (12)C ion with 55 MeV total energy (4.48 MeV u(-1)). The enhancements are about half of that obtained for (12)C ions (RBE(MN) = 2.20 ± 0.06 and RBE(D) = 3.21 ± 0.10) and they are attributed to intertrack interactions of the induced damages. The measured RBE values show differences from predictions of the local effect model (LEM III) that is used to calculate RBE values for irradiation plans to treat tumors with high LET particles.

  4. Articulation points in complex networks (United States)

    Tian, Liang; Bashan, Amir; Shi, Da-Ning; Liu, Yang-Yu


    An articulation point in a network is a node whose removal disconnects the network. Those nodes play key roles in ensuring connectivity of many real-world networks, from infrastructure networks to protein interaction networks and terrorist communication networks. Despite their fundamental importance, a general framework of studying articulation points in complex networks is lacking. Here we develop analytical tools to study key issues pertinent to articulation points, such as the expected number of them and the network vulnerability against their removal, in an arbitrary complex network. We find that a greedy articulation point removal process provides us a different perspective on the organizational principles of complex networks. Moreover, this process results in a rich phase diagram with two fundamentally different types of percolation transitions. Our results shed light on the design of more resilient infrastructure networks and the effective destruction of terrorist communication networks.

  5. Articulated Deployment System for Antenna Reflectors (United States)

    Kroon, M.; Borst, G.; Grimminck, M.; Robroek, M.; Geuskens, F.


    An articulated deployment system is developed for the deployment and pointing of antenna reflectors with a larger diameter and extended focal length. The articulated boom can be folded in several configurations to stow on the spacecraft sidewall. The boom, made of carbon fibre that is configured for a low CTE of better than ±0.3μm/m-K, deploys by means of spring-driven hinges interconnected via synchronisation cables and is controlled by an actuator. When fully deployed the hinges are latched, providing a stiff structure essential for disturbance-free pointing of the antenna. For pointing, the existing ADTM Mk2 gimbal by Airbus Defence and Space UK is used. The arm is mounted (repeatably) to the spacecraft with an adjustable range of ±7mm in all axes for coarse adjustment and mounted (repeatably) to the reflector with fine adjustment range of ±2mm and ±1.5°.The reflector boom has a modular design, which allows a wide range of mission configurations by tuning only a few design parameters such as limb length, deployment angles, and the number of articulations required to stow the boom.

  6. Focusing of sub-micrometer particles and bacteria enabled by two-dimensional acoustophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antfolk, M.; Muller, Peter Barkholt; Augustsson, P.


    particles as small as 0.5 μm in diameter in microchannels of square or rectangular cross sections, is demonstrated. Numerical analysis was used to determine generic transverse particle trajectories in the channels, which revealed spiral-shaped trajectories of the sub-micrometer particles towards the center......Handling of sub-micrometer bioparticles such as bacteria are becoming increasingly important in the biomedical field and in environmental and food analysis. As a result, there is an increased need for less labor-intensive and time-consuming handling methods. Here, an acoustophoresis......-based microfluidic chip that uses ultrasound to focus sub-micrometer particles and bacteria, is presented. The ability to focus sub-micrometer bioparticles in a standing one-dimensional acoustic wave is generally limited by the acoustic-streaming-induced drag force, which becomes increasingly significant the smaller...

  7. About scavenging of near-water submicrometer aerosol in Arctic and Sub-Arctic regions (United States)

    Polkin, V. V.; Polkin, Vas. V.


    Situations with scavenging of submicrometer aerosol particles by precipitation are analyzed. Experiments were carries out in Arctic region (NABOS expedition) onboard research vessels "Akademik Fedorov" and "Professor Khlyustin" in August-September 2013.

  8. Kinematics and Path Following Control of an Articulated Drum Roller (United States)

    BIAN, Yongming; YANG, Meng; FANG, Xiaojun; WANG, Xiahui


    Automatic navigation of an articulated drum roller, which is an articulated steering type vehicle widely used in the construction industry, is highly expected for operation cost reduction and improvement of work efficiency. In order to achieve the path following control, considering that its steering system is articulated steering and two frames are articulated by an active revolute joint, a kinematic model and an error dynamic state-space equation of an articulated drum roller are proposed. Besides, a state-feedback control law based on Lyapunov stability theory is also designed, which can be proved to achieve the purpose of control by the analysis of stability. What's more, to evaluate the performance of the proposed method, simulation under the MATLAB/Simulink and experiments using positioning algorithm and errors correction at the uneven construction site are performed, with initial displacement error (-1.5 m), heading error (-0.11 rad) and steering angle (-0.19 rad). Finally, simulation and experimental results show that the errors and steering angle can decrease gradually, and converge to zero with time. Meanwhile, the control input is not saturated. An articulated drum roller can lock into a desired path with the proposed method in uneven fields.

  9. 21 CFR 872.6140 - Articulation paper. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Articulation paper. 872.6140 Section 872.6140 Food... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6140 Articulation paper. (a) Identification. Articulation paper is a device composed of paper coated with an ink dye intended to be placed between the...

  10. Hydrogen template assisted electrodeposition of sub-micrometer wires composing honeycomb-like porous Pb films (United States)

    Cherevko, Serhiy; Xing, Xiaoli; Chung, Chan-Hwa


    High surface area porous Pb films are electrodeposited using a hydrogen bubble dynamic template. The influence of the experimental parameters on the morphology features such as the pore size, wall thickness, and sub-micrometer size features is investigated. Two structural transformations between sub-micrometer wires and particles obtained by adjusting the HClO4 concentration are observed. At a low HClO4 concentration, the growth of sub-micrometer wires is favored. The deposition of particles or wires covered by particles is observed at higher H+ concentrations. The addition of sodium citrate as an additive facilitates the preservation of Pb in the form of wires. Adjusting the concentration of Pb(ClO4)2·3H2O influences the mass transfer of Pb and affects its morphology. At low concentrations, the deposition of porous Pb films composed of porous wires is shown. The additional deposition of particles on wires is observed at high concentrations. The formation process of honeycomb-like porous structures is revealed by analysis of films deposited during different deposition time. The influence of the current density on the micro and sub-micrometer scale morphologies is presented.

  11. Hygroscopic behavior of individual submicrometer particles studied by X-ray spectromicroscopy. (United States)

    Ghorai, Suman; Tivanski, Alexei V


    A novel application of single particle scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) and near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy is presented for quantitative analysis of hygroscopic properties and phase transitions of individual submicrometer particles. The approach utilizes the exposure of substrate-deposited individual particles to water vapor at different relative humidity followed by STXM/NEXAFS spectromicroscopy analysis. The hygroscopic properties of atmospherically relevant NaCl, NaBr, NaI, and NaNO(3) submicrometer particles were measured to evaluate the utility of the approach. An analytical approach for quantification of a water-to-solute ratio within an individual submicrometer particle during hydration and dehydration cycles is presented. The results for the deliquescence and efflorescence phase transitions and quantitative measurements of water-to-solute ratios are found in excellent agreement with available literature data. Oxygen K-edge NEXAFS spectra of submicrometer sodium halide droplets are reported along with a unique experimental observation of the formation of the halide-water anionic complex in NaBr and NaI microdimensional droplets. The analytical approach provides a unique opportunity for spectromicroscopy studies of water uptake on environmental particles collected in both laboratory and field studies.

  12. Coordinate measuring method with two operation modes based on the adjustable articulated arms (United States)

    Zhu, Lianqing; Li, Weixian; Pan, Zhikang; Guo, Yangkuan; Chen, Qingshan


    A coordinate measuring method with two operation modes, based on the adjustable articulated arms, is proposed to keep measurement capability in global space and improve the measurement precision in local space. The adjustable articulated arm coordinate measuring machine (AACMM) with an electromagnetic locking device can automatically switch between the all-free articulated arms operation mode and the partially bound articulated arms operation mode. In the former mode, three arms and six articulations can freely move and measure the coordinates of any point in global space. In the latter mode, the front two articulations are locked to improve the measurement precision by decreasing the importation of angle errors in the local space. A prototype of the adjustable AACMM has also been designed and developed. A mathematical model for the adjustable AACMM has been built. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulation show that the partially bound AACMM performed much better than the all-free AACMM in single point repeatability and length measurement precision in the local space. Therefore, the proposed coordinate measuring method based on the adjustable articulated arms is verified as being effective.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Ochoa


    Full Text Available The paper is based on the study of the relationship between the inner city and the waterfront, from the case of Lisbon, by means of the urban structures that link these two realities, called structures of articulation with the waterfront. The starting point is the identification of a territorial system underlying the urban structure: the comb structure, consisting of two logics: the horizontal logic (urban axes parallel to the waterfront and the vertical logic (urban axes transverse to the waterfront. In this system, public space plays an important role, because of its articulating properties and of the way it physically and visually allows the connection with the waterfront. But this is also a symbolic system. This research assumes that the different ways of physical and visual connection are related with one key factor: the existence of public art in those structures of articulation. Assuming the articulation with the waterfront as a complex reality, that should be observed by the crossing of different disciplines and analysed from its different aspects, which characterize it, this paper focuses on one of these aspects: the relationship between public art and the structures of articulation. First, the article quantifies the elements of public art in each of the 20 transversal axes and throughout the territory, observing the most charged areas. It also analyzes the different historical moments of placing (focusing on the date of placement in the public space, no on the date of the production of the different works, relating the chronology of placement of public art with the chronology of the interventions in the city. Then, it focuses on the belonging of the different elements, in each transversal axis, to the scope here defined as waterfront (the areas with a morphological unity within the overall organization of the respective cities, which correspond to the corridor of contact with the dividing line between land and water. Finally, the

  14. Assessment and Management of Articulation and Phonological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment and Management of Articulation and Phonological Disorders in School Children in Ghana. ... By these gains, the children had improved skills for effective communication, a great sense of pride and confidence and a fully active social life. Keywords: Articulation disorders, phonological disorders, phonemes, ...

  15. Injection molding of nanopatterned surfaces in the sub-micrometer range with induction heating aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menotti, Stefano; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Bissacco, Giuliano


    Replication of sub-micrometer structures by injection molding leads to special requirements for the mold in order to ensure proper replica and acceptable cycle time. This paper investigates the applicability of induction heating embedded into the mold for the improvement of nanopattern replication....... A tool insert having a surface containing functional geometries in the sub-micrometer range was produced using aluminum anodization and nickel electroplating. In order to provide elevated mold temperatures necessary for the complete replica of the pattern, a new mold setup was developed, which allows...... rapid heating of the cavity wall using an induction heating system. Temperature was measured using a thermocouple placed in the mold insert. The system was used to heat up the cavity wall with heating rates of up to 10 K/s. Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) and polycarbonate (PC) were used...

  16. Submicrometer particles and their effects on the association between air temperature and mortality in Brisbane, Australia. (United States)

    Wang, Lina; Tong, Shilu; Toloo, Ghasem Sam; Yu, Weiwei


    Air temperature and pollution can jointly affect human health. Submicrometer particles appearing to have particularly harmful effects compared with the coarse ones. However, little is known about how the association between temperature and mortality is affected by these particles. This study examined the association between air temperature and mortality before and after adjustment for particle concentrations among different age and disease groups from 1995 to 2000 in Brisbane, Australia. The monitoring of particle size distribution within the 15-750nm range was carried out by a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer. Corresponding climate and air pollutant data were collected from relevant government agencies. The association between temperature and mortality was quantified using a Poisson time-series model within a distributed lag non-linear modelling framework. The results showed that the effects of air temperature on mortality were lower among the elderly and people with respiratory diseases, and greater among people with cardiovascular diseases after controlling for submicrometer particle concentrations. Submicrometer particles seem to be an important confounder for the temperature-mortality relationship, particularly among vulnerable groups, and should be taken into account when assessing the impacts of air temperature on human health. Crown Copyright © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Local Computation of Lightness on Articulated Surrounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masataka Sawayama


    Full Text Available Lightness of a grey target on a uniform light (or dark surround changes by articulating the surround (articulation effect. To elucidate the processing of lightness underlying the articulation effect, the present study introduced transparency over a dark surround and investigated its effects on lightness of the target. The transparency was produced by adding a contiguous external field to the dark surround while keeping local stimulus configuration constant. Results showed that the target lightness did not change on the articulated surround when a dark transparent filter was perceived over the target, although it did on the uniform surround. These results suggest that image decomposition into a transparent filter and an underlying surface does not necessarily change lightness of the surface if the surface is articulated. Moreover, the present study revealed that articulating the surround does not always enhance lightness contrast; it can reduce the contrast effect when the target luminance is not the highest within the surround. These findings are consistent with the theoretical view that lightness perception on articulated surfaces is determined locally within a spatially limited region, and they also place a constraint on how the luminance distribution within the limited region is scaled.

  18. Design articulation for Aesthetics of Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Peter; Graves Petersen, Marianne


    In this paper we present three categories of design articulations addressing the characteristic qualities of aesthetics of interaction. By aesthetics of interaction we point to the process in which interactive technology brings about aesthetic experience in the use of interactive technology...... in everyday life. As designers we are prohibited access to the aesthetic experience of the user. However, we have the possibility of articulating intentions and values embedded in the artefact that can be interpreted in use and thereby providing the artefact an aesthetic potential for users to unleash. Design...... articulations serve as catalysts for developing and choosing design expressions in the design process. Design articulations are embodied in artifacts, that address desired, anticipated or identified user experiences and capabilities, carrying a format which enable discussions also with non...

  19. Beyond spaces of counselling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bank, Mads; Nissen, Morten


    The article articulates experiments with spatial constructions in two Danish social work agencies, basing on (a) a sketchy genealogical reconstruction of conceptualisations and uses of space in social work and counselling, (b) a search for theoretical resources to articulate new spaces, and (c...... spaces are forms of spatialisations which might be taken as prototypical in attempts to develop social work and counselling...

  20. Unscented Kalman filtering for articulated human tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen Lindbo Larsen, Anders; Hauberg, Søren; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup


    We present an articulated tracking system working with data from a single narrow baseline stereo camera. The use of stereo data allows for some depth disambiguation, a common issue in articulated tracking, which in turn yields likelihoods that are practically unimodal. While current state-of-the-...... with superior results. Tracking quality is measured by comparing with ground truth data from a marker-based motion capture system....

  1. Characterization of submicrometer exsolution lamellae in volcanic pyroxenes (Invited) (United States)

    Herrin, J. S.; Costa Rodriguez, F.; Tay, Y.; Liu, H.; Phua, E. J.


    The size of subsurface magmatic reservoirs is a primary determinant of the destructive potential of volcanic systems, yet is notoriously difficult to determine by geophysical methods. Since larger magma reservoirs tend to cool more slowly and sustain magmatic temperatures longer, knowledge of cooling rates and magma residence times, combined with thermal modelling, can give some indication of reservoir size. Great strides have been made in recent decades toward determination of magmatic timescales using both isotopic systems (U-Th disequilibria, zircon crystallization ages) and diffusion modelling of zoning patterns in crystals. Here we apply another diffusion-moderated process, the formation and growth of exsolution lamellae in pyroxenes, toward this aim. The presence of micrometer scale exsolution features in pyroxenes from very large caldera systems, such as Yellowstone, is well documented. Less documented is the presence of submicron exsolution features in pyroxenes from smaller volcanic systems. In some instances, particularly in silicic systems, the size and spacing of these lamellae can indicate the presence of large, long-lived magmatic reservoirs beneath volcanic vents, and perhaps even unrecognized potential for caldera-forming eruptions. As FEG-EPMA proliferates in the geologic community, improved electron imaging capabilities will likely lead to more observations of submicron lamellae in volcanic pyroxenes. EBSD complements these observations and serves to orient the plane of the specimen with respect to crystallographic axes so that the true size of these features can be determined. Chemical characterization of submicron features is at or beyond the limit of FEG-EPMA capabilities, even at low kV and/or low overvoltages. TEM-based techniques (EDS, SAED, EELS, HAADF) can augment these studies with additional chemical, textural, and crystallographic information, but quantitative analysis with EPMA-like precision remains challenging at these spatial scales

  2. Engineering spin-wave channels in submicrometer magnonic waveguides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XiangJun Xing


    Full Text Available Based on micromagnetic simulations and model calculations, we demonstrate that degenerate well and barrier magnon modes can exist concurrently in a single magnetic waveguide magnetized perpendicularly to the long axis in a broad frequency band, corresponding to copropagating edge and centre spin waves, respectively. The dispersion relations of these magnon modes clearly show that the edge and centre modes possess much different wave characteristics. By tailoring the antenna size, the edge mode can be selectively activated. If the antenna is sufficiently narrow, both the edge and centre modes are excited with considerable efficiency and propagate along the waveguide. By roughening the lateral boundary of the waveguide, the characteristics of the relevant channel can be easily engineered. Moreover, the coupling of the edge and centre modes can be conveniently controlled by scaling the width of the waveguide. For a wide waveguide with a narrow antenna, the edge and centre modes travel relatively independently in spatially-separate channels, whereas for a narrow strip, these modes strongly superpose in space. These discoveries might find potential applications in emerging magnonic devices.

  3. Natural metrics and least-committed priors for articulated tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauberg, Søren; Sommer, Stefan Horst; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup


    In articulated tracking, one is concerned with estimating the pose of a person in every frame of a film. This pose is most often represented as a kinematic skeleton where the joint angles are the degrees of freedom. Least-committed predictive models are then phrased as a Brownian motion in joint...... angle space. However, the metric of the joint angle space is rather unintuitive as it ignores both bone lengths and how bones are connected. As Brownian motion is strongly linked with the underlying metric, this has severe impact on the predictive models. We introduce the spatial kinematic manifold...... of joint positions, which is embedded in a high dimensional Euclidean space. This Riemannian manifold inherits the metric from the embedding space, such that distances are measured as the combined physical length that joints travel during movements. We then develop a least-committed Brownian motion model...

  4. Impact of Chinese anthropogenic emissions on submicrometer aerosol concentration at Mt. Tateyama, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Iida


    Full Text Available Rapid Asian economic development might engender secondary impacts of atmospheric aerosol particles over the western Pacific after conversion of gaseous pollutants such as SO2. To elucidate changes in aerosol concentrations in leeward areas undergoing remarkable industrialization, the number-size distributions of submicrometer (0.3–1.0 μm aerosols were measured at Murododaira (36.6° N, 137.6° E, 2450 m a.s.l. on the western flank of Mount Tateyama in central Japan during January 1999–February 2009. Nighttime data obtained from 2400 to 0500 were used to analyze free-tropospheric aerosol concentration. Monthly average volume concentrations were calculated for months with >50% daily data coverage. Volume concentrations of submicrometer aerosols were high in spring to early summer and low in winter. Significant increasing trends at 95% confidence levels were found for volume concentrations in winter–spring. Simulated monthly anthropogenic aerosol concentrations at Mt. Tateyama from results of regional aerosol modeling with emission inventory up to 2005 showed seasonal variation and winter–spring increasing trends similar to those of observed aerosol concentration. According to the model analyses, the contribution of anthropogenic aerosol concentrations derived from China was high during winter–spring (60–80% of total anthropogenic aerosols at Mt. Tateyama. This accords with the increasing trend observed for winter–spring. Because SO42− is the dominant component of total anthropogenic aerosols, these results suggest that increasing anthropogenic emissions, especially for SO2, in China, engender enhancement of submicrometer-diameter aerosols over Japan during winter–spring.

  5. [The controversy of routine articulator mounting in orthodontics]. (United States)

    Wang, Li; Han, Xianglong; Bai, Ding


    Articulators have been widely used by clinicians of dentistry. But routine articulator mounting is still controversial in orthodontics. Orthodontists oriented by gnathology approve routine articulator mounting while nongnathologic orthodontists disapprove it. This article reviews the thoughts of orthodontist that they agree or disagree with routine articulator mounting based on the considerations of biting, temporomandibular disorder (TMD), periodontitis, and so on.

  6. Extensional Information Articulation from the Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasufumi Saruwatari


    Full Text Available Information must have physical support and this physical universe comprisesphysical interactions. Hence actual information processes should have a description byinteractions alone, i.e., an extensional description. In this paper, such a model of the processof information articulation from the universe is developed by generalizing the extensivemeasurement theory in metrology. Moreover, a model of the attribute creation processis presented to exemplify a step of the informational articulation process. These modelsdemonstrate the valuableness of the extensional view and are expected to enhance theunderstanding of the extensional aspects of fundamentals of information.

  7. Acoustic analysis of changes in articulation proficiency in patients with advanced head and neck cancer treated with chemoradiotherapy. (United States)

    Jacobi, Irene; van Rossum, Maya A; van der Molen, Lisette; Hilgers, Frans J M; van den Brekel, Michiel W M


    Our aim was to characterize articulation proficiency and differences between tumor sites before and after chemoradiotherapy for advanced head and neck cancer with the help of acoustic measures. Our further goal was to improve objective speech measures and gain insight into muscle functioning before and after treatment. In 34 patients with laryngeal or hypopharyngeal, nasal or nasopharyngeal, or oral or oropharyngeal cancer, we acoustically analyzed nasality, vowel space, precision, and strength of articulation in 12 speech sounds (/a/, /i/, /u/, /p/, /s/, /z/, /1/, /t/, /tj/, /k/, /x/, /r/) before treatment and 10 weeks and 1 year after treatment. Outcomes were compared between assessment points and between tumor sites. Nasality in nonlaryngeal sites was significantly reduced by treatment. Most affected in articulation were the oral or oropharyngeal cancer sites, followed by the nasal or nasopharyngeal sites. One year after treatment, vowel space had not recovered and consonant articulation had weakened. Laryngeal sites were less affected in articulation by tumor or treatment. Analyses of articulatory-acoustic features are a useful instrument for assessing articulation and speech quality objectively. Assessment of a number of sounds representing various articulation manners, places, and tongue shapes revealed patterns of speech deterioration after chemoradiotherapy. The results suggest that patients' speech could benefit from articulation exercises to address changes in muscle coordination and/or sensitivity and to counteract side effects and "underexercise" atrophy.

  8. Direct Surface Tension Measurements of Individual Sub-Micrometer Particles Using Atomic Force Microscopy. (United States)

    Lee, Hansol D; Estillore, Armando D; Morris, Holly S; Ray, Kamal K; Alejandro, Aldair; Grassian, Vicki H; Tivanski, Alexei V


    Understanding the role of sea spray aerosol (SSA) on climate and the environment is of great interest due to their high number concentration throughout the Earth's atmosphere. Despite being of fundamental importance, direct surface tension measurements of SSA relevant sub-micrometer particles are rare, largely due to their extremely small volumes. Herein, atomic force microscopy (AFM) is used to directly measure the surface tension of individual sub-micrometer SSA particle mimics at ambient temperature and varying relative humidity (RH). Specifically, we probed both atmospherically relevant and fundamentally important model systems including electrolyte salts, dicarboxylic acids, and saccharides as single components and mixtures. Our results show that the single particle surface tension depends on RH or solute mole percentage and chemical composition. Moreover, for liquid droplets at and below 100 Pa s in viscosity, or at corresponding RH, we show good agreement between the AFM single particle and the bulk solution surface tension measurements at overlapping concentration ranges. Thus, direct surface tension measurements of individual particles using AFM is shown over a wide range of chemical systems as a function of RH, solute mole percentage, and viscosity than previously reported.

  9. Sub-micrometer adhesion modulation on polymer surfaces containing gratings produced by two-beam interference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Csete, M. [Department of Optics and Quantum Electronics, University of Szeged, Dom ter 9, H-6720 Szeged (Hungary)]. E-mail:; Kresz, N. [Department of Optics and Quantum Electronics, University of Szeged, Dom ter 9, H-6720 Szeged (Hungary); Vass, Cs. [Department of Optics and Quantum Electronics, University of Szeged, Dom ter 9, H-6720 Szeged (Hungary); Kurdi, G. [Research Group on Laser Physics, University of Szeged, Dom ter 9, H-6720 Szeged (Hungary); Heiner, Zs. [Department of Optics and Quantum Electronics, University of Szeged, Dom ter 9, H-6720 Szeged (Hungary); Deli, M. [Laboratory of Molecular Neurobiology, Institute of Biophysics, Biological Research Centre of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Temesvari krt. 62, H-6726 Szeged (Hungary); Bor, Zs. [Department of Optics and Quantum Electronics, University of Szeged, Dom ter 9, H-6720 Szeged (Hungary); Marti, O. [Department of Experimental Physics, University of Ulm, Albert Einstein Allee 11, D-89069 Ulm (Germany)


    Grating-like structures having a period of 416 nm were produced on the surface of poly-carbonate films by two-beam interference realized by the fourth harmonic of Nd:Yag laser. The period of the structures was half of that the applied master grating, the ratio of the width of the valleys to the period was tuned by the intensity, the depth of the modulation was increased by the number of laser pulses. Pulsed force mode atomic force microscopy was applied to study the topography and the adhesion on structured surfaces with sub-micrometer resolution. The adhesion modulation caused by the topography was calculated along line cross-sections of the AFM pictures taking into account the tip and surface geometry. The separation of the effects of the topography and the laser-induced material changes proved that the adhesion is increased at the areas illuminated by laser beam having a fluence above the melting threshold. The laser-induced material changes cause an additional adhesion increase at the valleys of the structure. It was shown that the adherence of albumin results in dense packing on poly-carbonate surface parts having sub-micrometer periodic adhesion modulation.

  10. Reaction of iodine atoms with submicrometer squalane and squalene droplets: mechanistic insights into heterogeneous reactions. (United States)

    Popolan-Vaida, Denisia M; Wilson, Kevin R; Leone, Stephen R


    The gas-phase reaction of iodine atoms with hydrocarbon molecules is energetically unfavorable, and there is no direct evidence for iodinated product formation by either H abstraction or I addition reactions at ambient temperature. Here we consider the possible heterogeneous reaction of I atoms with submicrometer droplets composed of a saturated alkane, squalane (Sq), and an unsaturated alkene, squalene (Sqe). The investigations are performed in an atmospheric pressure photochemical flow tube reactor in conjunction with a vacuum ultraviolet photoionization aerosol mass spectrometer and a scanning mobility particle sizer. Squalane, a branched alkane, is unreactive toward I atoms within the signal-to-noise, and an upper limit of the effective reactive uptake coefficient is estimated to be γI(Sq) ≤ 8.58 × 10(–7). In contrast, the reaction of I atoms with unsaturated submicrometer squalene droplets results in observable iodinated squalene products. The effective reactive uptake coefficient of I atom with squalene particles is determined to be γI(Sqe) = (1.20 ± 0.52) × 10(–4) at an average I concentration of 1.5 × 10(14) molecules·cm(–3).

  11. Differentiation to improve the articulation between levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.P. de Kraay


    In 1986, English became a compulsory subject in primary education in The Netherlands1. While secondary schools have, by law, been required to offer English since 1863 (Wilhelm, 2005) the articulation between Dutch primary and secondary education levels of English language teaching has always been

  12. Thank God for Babel: Analysis, Articulation, Antimony. (United States)

    Nyberg, David


    Three approaches to philosophical inquiry (analysis, articulation, antimony) are explored in a commentary on "Philosophy and Education: Eightieth Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education." A discussion of the sometimes-contradictory school role in providing both educational excellence and socialization illustrates how…

  13. Unusual Bones Articulating With the Pelvic Girdle

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the pectoral girdle but none for the pelvis (3,4). Acces- sory pelvic bones may offer ... Pelvic radiographs demonstrated accessory pelvic bones, with all the appearances of clavicles, articulating with the pelvic girdle. Unlike in the normal clavicle, these bones were on the posterior ... the clavicular fracture (4). These accessory ...

  14. Articulated Multimedia Physics, Lesson 9, Universal Gravitation. (United States)

    New York Inst. of Tech., Old Westbury.

    As the ninth lesson of the Articulated Multimedia Physics Course, instructional materials relating to universal gravitation are presented in this study guide. The subject is concerned with the quantitative meaning of the law of universal gravitation and its applications in astronomy. The content is arranged in scrambled form, and the use of matrix…

  15. Articulated Multimedia Physics, Lesson 10, Circular Motion. (United States)

    New York Inst. of Tech., Old Westbury.

    As the tenth lesson of the Articulated Multimedia Physics Course, instructional materials relating to circular motion are presented in this study guide. The topics are concerned with instantaneous velocity, centripetal force, centrifugal force, and satellite paths. The content is arranged in scrambled form, and the use of matrix transparencies is…

  16. Experimental Engineering: Articulating and Valuing Design Experimentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Anna; Grönvall, Erik; Fritsch, Jonas


    In this paper we propose Experimental Engineering as a way to articulate open- ended technological experiments as a legitimate design research practice. Experimental Engineering introduces a move away from an outcome or result driven design process towards an interest in existing technologies...

  17. Articulation of tacit and complex knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Per; Hansen, Poul H. Kyvsgård; Nielsen, Louise Møller


    The paper focuses on the articulation of tacit and complex knowledge by taking outset in a specific methodology: LEGO® SERIOUS PLAYTM. In order to expand the methodology and to develop it further we propose to regard it as a language. By choosing a language view we are able to ably a language...

  18. Reverse Articulation and 4 plus 2 (United States)

    Temple, Ronald J.


    Examines the advantages of reverse articulation, whereby a student, after completing a four-year liberal arts program, is advised into a two-year vocational/technical program which would use to advantage skills obtained in the four-year program while preparing the student for the job market.(TP)

  19. Thermoelectric properties of Si/CoSi2 sub-micrometer composites prepared by melt-spinning technique (United States)

    Xie, Jun; Ohishi, Yuji; Ichikawa, Satoshi; Muta, Hiroaki; Kurosaki, Ken; Yamanaka, Shinsuke


    We here report on the influence of CoSi2 precipitates on the thermoelectric properties of heavily doped p-type Si. A simple self-assembly process using a melt-spinning technique followed by spark plasma sintering is introduced to prepare bulk Si/CoSi2 composites with a nominal composition of (Si0.99B0.01)95Co5. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy observations present clear evidence of a sub-micrometer CoSi2 phase with a size ranging from 50 to 500 nm. These sub-micrometer precipitates resulted in a retention of the high electrical performance of heavily doped Si, while simultaneously reducing thermal conductivity by over 20% compared to a coarse CoSi2 phase (1-10 μm) in a comparative sample prepared by arc melting and spark plasma sintering. As a result, a figure of merit ZT value of 0.21 at 1073 K was achieved in the sub-micrometer Si/CoSi2, an increase of 16% compared with the ZT value for homogeneous p-type Si with a similar carrier concentration. This suggests that the self-assembled sub-micrometer inclusions effectively enhanced the thermoelectric performance of Si-based thermoelectric materials.

  20. Seasonal variation of aliphatic amines in marine sub-micrometer particles at the Cape Verde islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Herrmann


    Full Text Available Monomethylamine (MA, dimethylamine (DMA and diethylamine (DEA were detected at non-negligible concentrations in sub-micrometer particles at the Cap Verde Atmospheric Observatory (CVAO located on the island of São Vicente in Cape Verde during algal blooms in 2007. The concentrations of these amines in five stage impactor samples ranged from 0–30 pg m−3 for MA, 130–360 pg m−3 for DMA and 5–110 pg m−3 for DEA during the spring bloom in May 2007 and 2–520 pg m−3 for MA, 100–1400 pg m−3 for DMA and 90–760 pg m−3 for DEA during an unexpected winter algal bloom in December 2007. Anomalously high Saharan dust deposition and intensive ocean layer deepening were found at the Atmospheric Observatory and the associated Ocean Observatory during algal bloom periods. The highest amine concentrations in fine particles (impactor stage 2, 0.14–0.42 μm indicate that amines are likely taken up from the gas phase into the acidic sub-micrometer particles. The contribution of amines to the organic carbon (OC content ranged from 0.2–2.5% C in the winter months, indicating the importance of this class of compounds to the carbon cycle in the marine environment. Furthermore, aliphatic amines originating from marine biological sources likely contribute significantly to the nitrogen content in the marine atmosphere. The average contribution of the amines to the detected nitrogen species in sub-micrometer particles can be non-negligible, especially in the winter months (0.1% N–1.5% N in the sum of nitrate, ammonium and amines. This indicates that these smaller aliphatic amines can be important for the carbon and the nitrogen cycles in the remote marine environment.

  1. The history of articulators: the "Articulator Wars" phenomenon with some circumstances leading up to it. (United States)

    Starcke, Edgar N; Engelmeier, Robert L; Belles, Donald M


    At the dawn of the 20th century, all was not well with the practice of "plate prostheses." Removable prosthodontics had been degrading for several decades and was now generally in low esteem, even though there had been many significant advances. W. E. Walker had introduced adjustable condylar guides, George Snow, the facebow, and Carl Christensen, a method for clinically measuring the condylar inclines. Nevertheless, the average practicing dentist was still using simple hinge articulators and was apathetic to the deplorable state of the artificial teeth available; however, this was all going to change dramatically when two dentists, Alfred Gysi and J. Leon Williams, working together between 1910 and 1914, presented to the profession the "Trubyte Artificial Tooth System" that embodied both a typal system for selecting anterior teeth and new posterior occlusal carvings that made possible, for the first time, the articulation of artificial teeth. This incited many of prosthetic dentistry's elite to introduce their own theories of mandibular movement and the articulators that they designed to reflect those theories. The intense debates that ensued, both in the meeting halls and in the literature, were numerous and lasted for decades. At the time, the "Articulator Wars" had both positive and negative consequences. Today, with many of the "Articulator Wars" issues remaining as part of the practice of dentistry, the "Articulator Wars" can be considered a phenomenon of enlightenment.

  2. Distribution-based dimensionality reduction applied to articulated motion recognition. (United States)

    Nayak, Sunita; Sarkar, Sudeep; Loeding, Barbara


    Some articulated motion representations rely on frame-wise abstractions of the statistical distribution of low-level features such as orientation, color, or relational distributions. As configuration among parts changes with articulated motion, the distribution changes, tracing a trajectory in the latent space of distributions, which we call the configuration space. These trajectories can then be used for recognition using standard techniques such as dynamic time warping. The core theory in this paper concerns embedding the frame-wise distributions, which can be looked upon as probability functions, into a low-dimensional space so that we can estimate various meaningful probabilistic distances such as the Chernoff, Bhattacharya, Matusita, Kullback-Leibler (KL) or symmetric-KL distances based on dot products between points in this space. Apart from computational advantages, this representation also affords speed-normalized matching of motion signatures. Speed normalized representations can be formed by interpolating the configuration trajectories along their arc lengths, without using any knowledge of the temporal scale variations between the sequences. We experiment with five different probabilistic distance measures and show the usefulness of the representation in three different contexts-sign recognition (with large number of possible classes), gesture recognition (with person variations), and classification of human-human interaction sequences (with segmentation problems). We find the importance of using the right distance measure for each situation. The low-dimensional embedding makes matching two to three times faster, while achieving recognition accuracies that are close to those obtained without using a low-dimensional embedding. We also empirically establish the robustness of the representation with respect to low-level parameters, embedding parameters, and temporal-scale parameters.

  3. Electro-optical and dielectric characterization of submicrometer-sized PDLC films (United States)

    Krishna Koduru, Hari


    This report concerns thin films (25 µm thickness) of polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) composites having submicrometer-sized nematic liquid crystal domains. Such PDLC films were prepared by performing photo-induced phase separation of mixed soft material composed from the room-temperature nematic liquid crystal 4-n-heptyl cyanobiphenyl (7CB) and photo-curable polymer NOA-65. Being of interest for electro-optical (EO) and other applications driven by alternating-current electric field, the produced composites were studied by EO measurements and complex impedance spectroscopy. For the examined soft-solid composite material with a large content of submicro-confined nematic, was obtained information about the dielectric permittivity and molecular dynamics, useful for practice.

  4. Formation and Order Enhancement of submicrometer and nanoscale features in thin films (United States)

    Lau, Cindy Yee Cin

    The wide applications of two-dimensionally ordered submicrometer features have stimulated the development of cheap and fast fabrication techniques throughout the years. We showed that electrohydrodynamic patterning, which is known to produce ordered pillar arrays on polymer thin film at micrometer scale, could be extended to create submicrometer features as small as 351 +/- 78 nm quickly and economically. However, the dielectric breakdown of polymer imposed a fundamental limit on further reducing the feature size to nanoscale. We overcame the limited resolution by bottom-up colloidal assemblies which used nanoparticles between 49.8 +/- 8.7 nm and 117.6 +/- 6.7 nm as building blocks. By employing flow-coating deposition, we were able to control the deposited amount and achieve large area of uniform colloidal film easily. However, the single crystalline domain of a close-packed monolayer remained limited due to the restricted time for ordering through lateral capillary pressure before the particles were in contact. That motivated the deposition of initially ordered colloidal dispersions, attained through deionizing the solutions to extend electrostatic double layers for long-range repulsion. Although the deposited amount agreed reasonably well with our model adapted for a power-law fluid, the shear-thinning viscosity and final structure both revealed that the initial order was destroyed at high shear. On the other hand, the particle order was partially sustained during low shear depositions, yet the domain size was not particularly extensive. We attributed the limited order to the high compressibility of double layer during the evaporation phase. To improve the order of a colloidal monolayer, we investigated the effect of excess free ligands on 8.0 +/- 0.3 nm gold nanoparticles deposited by the Langmuir-Blodgett technique. We showed that the excess ligands, oleylamine, not only improved the order of particles that were deposited together with them, but could also

  5. Articulation and oromyofunctional behavior in children seeking orthodontic treatment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Fonteyne; E. D'haeseleer; Anke Luyten; G. Becue; K. van Lierde; G. van Maele; G. de Pauw; P. Corthals


    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this controlled study is to document articulation and oromyofunctional behavior in children seeking orthodontic treatment. In addition, relations between malocclusions, articulation, and oromyofunctional behavior are studied. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 56

  6. Articulation in Schoolchildren and Adults with Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (United States)

    Cosyns, Marjan; Mortier, Geert; Janssens, Sandra; Bogaert, Famke; D'Hondt, Stephanie; Van Borsel, John


    Several authors mentioned the occurrence of articulation problems in the neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) population. However, few studies have undertaken a detailed analysis of the articulation skills of NF1 patients, especially in schoolchildren and adults. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine in depth the articulation skills of…

  7. Hygroscopic growth of sub-micrometer and one-micrometer aerosol particles measured during ACE-Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Massling


    Full Text Available Hygroscopic properties of aerosol particles in the sub-micrometer and one-micrometer size ranges were measured during the ACE-Asia study (Aerosol Characterization Experiment-Asia in spring 2001. The measurements took place off the coasts of Japan, Korea, and China. All instruments contributing to this study were deployed in a container on the forward deck of the NOAA Research Vessel Ronald H. Brown. Air masses with primarily marine influence and air masses from the Asian continent affected by both anthropogenic sources and by the transport of desert dust aerosol were encountered during the cruise.

    Results showed very different hygroscopic behavior in the sub-micrometer size range compared to the one-micrometer size range. In general, for all continentally influenced air masses, the one-micrometer particle population was characterized by two different particle groups – a nearly hydrophobic fraction with growth factors around 1.0 representative of dust particles and a sea salt fraction with hygroscopic growth factors around 2.0. The number fraction of dust particles was generally about 60% independent of long-range air mass origin.

    For sub-micrometer particles, a dominant, more hygroscopic particle fraction with growth factors between 1.5 and 1.9 (depending on dry particle size consistent with ammonium sulfate or non-neutralized sulfates as major component was always found. In marine air masses and for larger sizes within the sub-micrometer range (Dp=250 and 350 nm, a sea salt fraction with growth factors between 2.0 and 2.1 was also observed. For all other air masses, the more hygroscopic particle fraction in the sub-micrometer size range was mostly accompanied by a less hygroscopic particle fraction with growth factors between 1.20 and 1.55 depending on both the continental sources and the dry particle size. Number fractions of this particle group varied between 4 and 39% depending on dry particle size and air mass

  8. Genetic algorithm trajectory plan optimization for EAMA: EAST Articulated Maintenance Arm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jing, E-mail: [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 350 Shushanhu Rd., Hefei, Anhui (China); Lappeenranta University of Technology, Skinnarilankatu 34, Lappeenranta (Finland); Wu, Huapeng [Lappeenranta University of Technology, Skinnarilankatu 34, Lappeenranta (Finland); Song, Yuntao; Cheng, Yong; Zhao, Wenglong [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 350 Shushanhu Rd., Hefei, Anhui (China); Wang, Yongbo [Lappeenranta University of Technology, Skinnarilankatu 34, Lappeenranta (Finland)


    Highlights: • A redundant 10-DOF serial-articulated robot for EAST assembly and maintains is presented. • A trajectory optimization algorithm of the robot is developed. • A minimum jerk objective is presented to suppress machining vibration of the robot. - Abstract: EAMA (EAST Articulated Maintenance Arm) is an articulated serial manipulator with 7 degrees of freedom (DOF) articulated arm followed by 3-DOF gripper, total length is 8.867 m, works in experimental advanced superconductor tokamak (EAST) vacuum vessel (VV) to perform blanket inspection and remote maintenance tasks. This paper presents a trajectory optimization method which aims to pursue the 7-DOF articulated arm a stable movement, which keeps the mounted inspection camera anti-vibration. Based on dynamics analysis, trajectory optimization algorithm adopts multi-order polynomial interpolation in joint space and high order geometry Jacobian transform. The object of optimization algorithm is to suppress end-effector movement vibration by minimizing jerk RMS (root mean square) value. The proposed solution has such characteristics which can satisfy kinematic constraints of EAMA’s motion and ensure the arm running under the absolute values of velocity, acceleration and jerk boundaries. GA (genetic algorithm) is employed to find global and robust solution for this problem.

  9. Sensory Integration with Articulated Motion on a Humanoid Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Rojas


    Full Text Available This paper describes the integration of articulated motion with auditory and visual sensory information that enables a humanoid robot to achieve certain reflex actions that mimic those of people. Reflexes such as reach-and-grasp behavior enables the robot to learn, through experience, its own state and that of the world. A humanoid robot with binaural audio input, stereo vision, and pneumatic arms and hands exhibited tightly coupled sensory-motor behaviors in four different demonstrations. The complexity of successive demonstrations was increased to show that the reflexive sensory-motor behaviors combine to perform increasingly complex tasks. The humanoid robot executed these tasks effectively and established the groundwork for the further development of hardware and software systems, sensory-motor vector-space representations, and coupling with higher-level cognition.

  10. Articulations of Health and Poverty Among Women on WIC. (United States)

    Yehya, Nadine A; Dutta, Mohan J


    With the global financial meltdown, the crisis of poverty has deepened in communities across the United States. This essay reports results from a culture-centered project on fostering spaces for listening to the voices of the poor in CrossRoads County, Indiana. It highlights the intersections of health and poverty as they emerge from the narratives of mothers utilizing the Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). Depression, humiliation, and inaccessibility to health care and healthy living outline the struggles of women as they negotiate their access to health. The articulations of agency are situated around competing cultural narratives that, on the one hand, draw on the threads of individual responsibility which resonate through mainstream discourses of poverty in the United States and, on the other hand, interrogate the structural erasure of the basic capacities of health.

  11. Accurate positioning of long, flexible ARM's (Articulated Robotic Manipulator) (United States)

    Malachowski, Michael J.


    An articulated robotic manipulator (ARM) system is being designed for space applications. Work being done on a concept utilizing an infinitely stiff laser beam for position reference is summarized. The laser beam is projected along the segments of the ARM, and the position is sensed by the beam rider modules (BRM) mounted on the distal ends of the segments. The BRM concept is the heart of the system. It utilizes a combination of lateral displacements and rotational and distance measurement sensors. These determine the relative position of the two ends of the segments with respect to each other in six degrees of freedom. The BRM measurement devices contain microprocessor controlled data acquisition and active positioning components. An indirect adaptive controller is used to accurately control the position of the ARM.

  12. Predicting articulated human motion from spatial processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauberg, Søren; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup


    We present a probabilistic interpretation of inverse kinematics and extend it to sequential data. The resulting model is used to estimate articulated human motion in visual data. The approach allows us to express the prior temporal models in spatial limb coordinates, which is in contrast to most......, we avoid the problem of accumulated variance, where noise in one joint affects all joints further down the kinematic chains. All this combined allows us to more easily construct high quality motion models. In the evaluation, we show that an activity independent version of our model is superior...

  13. Serpentine Locomotion Articulated Chain: ANA II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Cardona


    Full Text Available When humanity faces challenges in solving problems beyond their technical resources, and has no foundation to solve a problem, engineering must search for an answer developing new concepts and innovative frameworks to excel these limitations and travel beyond our capabilities. This project “Serpentine locomotion articulated chain: ANA II” is a self-contained robot built to evaluate the behavior of the platform being capable of serpentine movements, in a modular chain mechanical design, based on a master/slave architecture.

  14. Quantifying the Hygroscopic Growth of Individual Submicrometer Particles with Atomic Force Microscopy. (United States)

    Morris, Holly S; Estillore, Armando D; Laskina, Olga; Grassian, Vicki H; Tivanski, Alexei V


    The water uptake behavior of atmospheric aerosol dictates their climate effects. In many studies, aerosol particles are deposited onto solid substrates to measure water uptake; however, the effects of the substrate are not well understood. Furthermore, in some cases, methods used to analyze and quantify water uptake of substrate deposited particles use a two-dimensional (2D) analysis to monitor growth by following changes in the particle diameter with relative humidity (RH). However, this 2D analysis assumes that the droplet grows equally in all directions. If particle growth is not isotropic in height and diameter, this assumption can cause inaccuracies when quantifying hygroscopic growth factors (GFs), where GF for a for a spherical particle is defined as the ratio of the particle diameter at a particular relative humidity divided by the dry particle diameter (typically about 5% RH). However, as shown here, anisotropic growth can occur in some cases. In these cases, a three-dimensional (3D) analysis of the growth is needed. This study introduces a way to quantify the hygroscopic growth of substrate deposited particles composed of model systems relevant to atmospheric aerosols using atomic force microscopy (AFM), which gives information on both the particle height and area and thus a three-dimensional view of each particle. In this study, we compare GFs of submicrometer sized particles composed of single component sodium chloride (NaCl) and malonic acid (MA), as well as binary mixtures of NaCl and MA, and NaCl and nonanoic acid (NA) determined by AFM using area (2D) equivalent diameters, similar to conventional microscopy methods, to GFs determined using volume (3D) equivalent diameter. We also compare these values to GFs determined by a hygroscopic tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA; substrate free, 3D method). It was found that utilizing volume equivalent diameter for quantifying GFs with AFM agreed well with those determined by substrate-free HTDMA

  15. An Articulated Inspection Arm for fusion purposes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villedieu, E., E-mail: [CEA-IRFM, 13108 Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Bruno, V.; Pastor, P.; Gargiulo, L. [CEA-IRFM, 13108 Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Song, Y.T.; Cheng, Y.; Feng, H. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China); Liu, C. [CEA-IRFM, 13108 Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China); Shi, S.S. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China)


    Highlights: • Requirements for in vacuum tokamak inspection are presented. • Development of a prototype of the Articulated Inspection Arm is described. • The upgrade of the prototype to convert it into a fully operational device is detailed. • Future applications of inspection robots in the new fusion reactors is discussed. - Abstract: Fusion Tokamaks are complex machines which require special conditions for their operation, in particular, high vacuum inside the vessel and high temperature of the vessel walls. During plasma phases, the first wall components are highly stressed and a control is necessary in case of doubt about their condition. To be able to make safely such an inspection in a short period of time is a great advantage. The Articulated Inspection Arm (AIA) developed by the CEA provides the capability for fast inspections of the first wall overall surface keeping the vacuum and temperature conditions of the vessel. The robot prototype was validated in Tore Supra in 2008. In the frame of a joint laboratory, CEA/IRFM and ASIPP have decided to upgrade the existing AIA prototype to use it routinely in the EAST and WEST tokamaks. The robot has followed an important upgrade program in 2013 and 2014. The document presents the various upgrades made on the mechanics, the sensors, the electronics, the control station and the integration adaptation for the operation on EAST. From the AIA experience, thoughts for future inspection robots are given.

  16. Performance of combination drug and hygroscopic excipient submicrometer particles from a softmist inhaler in a characteristic model of the airways. (United States)

    Longest, P Worth; Tian, Geng; Li, Xiang; Son, Yoen-Ju; Hindle, Michael


    Excipient enhanced growth (EEG) of inhaled submicrometer pharmaceutical aerosols is a recently proposed method intended to significantly reduce extrathoracic deposition and improve lung delivery. The objective of this study was to evaluate the size increase of combination drug and hygroscopic excipient particles in a characteristic model of the airways during inhalation using both in vitro experiments and computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations. The airway model included a characteristic mouth-throat (MT) and upper tracheobronchial (TB) region through the third bifurcation and was enclosed in a chamber geometry used to simulate the thermodynamic conditions of the lungs. Both in vitro results and CFD simulations were in close agreement and indicated that EEG delivery of combination submicrometer particles could nearly eliminate MT deposition for inhaled pharmaceutical aerosols. Compared with current inhalers, the proposed delivery approach represents a 1-2 order of magnitude reduction in MT deposition. Transient inhalation was found to influence the final size of the aerosol based on changes in residence times and relative humidity values. Aerosol sizes following EEG when exiting the chamber (2.75-4.61 μm) for all cases of initial submicrometer combination particles were equivalent to or larger than many conventional pharmaceutical aerosols that frequently have MMADs in the range of 2-3 μm.

  17. Scene articulation: dependence of illuminant estimates on number of surfaces. (United States)

    Linnell, Karina J; Foster, David H


    The ability of observers to detect changes in illuminant over two scenes containing different random samples of reflecting surfaces was determined in an experiment with Mondrian-like patterns containing different numbers of coloured patches. Performance was found to improve as the number of patches increased from 9 to 49. In principle, observers could have used space-average scene colour as the cue ('grey-world' hypothesis) or the colour of the brightest surface in the scene ('bright-is-white' hypothesis), as the two cues generally covary. In a second experiment, observers matched illuminants across different patterns in which the space-average cue and the brightest-patch cue were independently manipulated. The articulation of the patterns was varied: the number of patches increased from 49 (patch width 1 deg visual angle) to over 50000 (patch width 0.03 deg), while the gamut of colours was held constant. Space-average colour was found to be the dominant cue with all patterns except for those with the largest patches.

  18. Characterization of dual-phase steel microstructure by combined submicrometer EBSD and EPMA carbon measurements. (United States)

    Pinard, Philippe T; Schwedt, Alexander; Ramazani, Ali; Prahl, Ulrich; Richter, Silvia


    Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) measurements are combined to characterize an industrial produced dual-phase steel containing some bainite fraction. High-resolution carbon mappings acquired on a field emission electron microprobe are utilized to validate and improve the identification of the constituents (ferrite, martensite, and bainite) performed by EBSD using the image quality and kernel average misorientation. The combination eliminates the ambiguity between the identification of bainite and transformation-induced dislocation zones, encountered if only the kernel average misorientation is considered. The detection of carbon in high misorientation regions confirms the presence of bainite. These results are corroborated by secondary electron images after nital etching. Limitations of this combined method due to differences between the spatial resolution of EBSD and EPMA are assessed. Moreover, a quantification procedure adapted to carbon analysis is presented and used to measure the carbon concentration in martensite and bainite on a submicrometer scale. From measurements on reference materials, this method gives an accuracy of 0.02 wt% C and a precision better than 0.05 wt% C despite unavoidable effects of hydrocarbon contamination.

  19. Sub-micrometer resolution proximity X-ray microscope with digital image registration. (United States)

    Chkhalo, N I; Pestov, A E; Salashchenko, N N; Sherbakov, A V; Skorokhodov, E V; Svechnikov, M V


    A compact laboratory proximity soft X-ray microscope providing submicrometer spatial resolution and digital image registration is described. The microscope consists of a laser-plasma soft X-ray radiation source, a Schwarzschild objective to illuminate the test sample, and a two-coordinate detector for image registration. Radiation, which passes through the sample under study, generates an absorption image on the front surface of the detector. Optical ceramic YAG:Ce was used to convert the X-rays into visible light. An image was transferred from the scintillator to a charge-coupled device camera with a Mitutoyo Plan Apo series lens. The detector's design allows the use of lenses with numerical apertures of NA = 0.14, 0.28, and 0.55 without changing the dimensions and arrangement of the elements of the device. This design allows one to change the magnification, spatial resolution, and field of view of the X-ray microscope. A spatial resolution better than 0.7 μm and an energy conversion efficiency of the X-ray radiation with a wavelength of 13.5 nm into visible light collected by the detector of 7.2% were achieved with the largest aperture lens.

  20. Evolution of Submicrometer Organic Aerosols during a Complete Residential Coal Combustion Process. (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Jiang, Jingkun; Duan, Lei; Hao, Jiming


    In the absence of particulate matter (PM) control devices, residential coal combustion contributes significantly to ambient PM pollution. Characterizing PM emissions from residential coal combustion with high time resolution is beneficial for developing control policies and evaluating the environmental impact of PM. This study reports the evolution of submicrometer organic aerosols (OA) during a complete residential coal combustion process, that is, from fire start to fire extinction. Three commonly used coal types (bituminous, anthracite, and semicoke coals) were evaluated in a typical residential stove in China. For all three types of coal, the OA emission exhibited distinct characteristics in the four stages, that is, ignition, fierce combustion, relatively stable combustion, and ember combustion. OA emissions during the ignition stage accounted for 58.2-85.4% of the total OA emission of a complete combustion process. The OA concentration decreased rapidly during the fierce combustion stage and remained low during the relatively stable combustion stage. During these two stages, a significant ion peak of m/z 73 from organic acids were observed. The degree of oxidation of the OA increased from the first stage to the last stage. Implications for ambient OA source-apportionment and residential PM emission characterization and control are discussed.

  1. Single molecule analysis of bacterial polymerase chain reaction products in submicrometer fluidic channels. (United States)

    Stavis, Samuel M; Corgié, Stéphane C; Cipriany, Benjamin R; Craighead, Harold G; Walker, Larry P


    Laser induced fluorescence in submicrometer fluidic channels was used to characterize the synthesis of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products from a model bacterial system in order to explore the advantages and limitations of on chip real time single molecule PCR analysis. Single oligonucleotide universal bacterial primers and PCR amplicons from the 16S rDNA of Thermobifida fusca (325 bp) were directly detected at all phases of the reaction with low sample consumption and without post-amplification purification or size screening. Primers were fluorescently labeled with single Alexa Fluor 488 or Alexa Fluor 594 fluorophores, resulting in double labeled, two color amplicons. PCR products were driven electrokinetically through a fused silica channel with a 250 nm by 500 nm rectangular cross section. Lasers with 488 nm and 568 nm wavelengths were focused and overlapped on the channel for fluorescence excitation. All molecules entering the channel were rapidly and uniformly analyzed. Photon burst analysis was used to detect and identify individual primers and amplicons, and fluorescence correlation and cross-correlation spectroscopy were used to account for analyte flow speed. Conventional gel and capillary electrophoresis were also used to characterize the PCR amplification, and the results of differences in detection sensitivity and analyte discrimination were examined. Limits were imposed by the purity and labeling efficiency of the PCR reagents, which must be improved in parallel with increases in detection sensitivity.

  2. A linear piezoelectric stepper motor with submicrometer step size and centimeter travel range. (United States)

    Judy, J W; Polla, D L; Robbins, W P


    A linear stepper motor capable of submicrometer controlled movement has been constructed using the piezoelectric material lead zirconate titanate (PZT). This motor consists of a 25.4-mmx12.7-mmx1.6-mm piezoelectric driving element connected between a glider base and an attached load. The device is inset in a trench to constrain motion to one dimension. An electrode on the bottom of the glider is used with an electrode on the top of the trench to implement an electrostatic clamp. This clamp enables the stepper motor to climb slopes of up to 12 degrees , whereas without the clamp only slopes of 6 degrees or less are tolerated. A linear inertial sliding motion can be achieved by expanding and contracting the piezoelectric bar, but the addition of the electrostatic clamp enhances the movement capabilities of the glider by the periodic clamping and unclamping of the glider. Glider velocities of 5.7-476 mum/s are measured by timing the movement of the glider over a 1.0-mm portion of the track through an optical microscope. Displacement steps of 0.07-1.1 mum are calculated by dividing the measured glider velocity by the frequency of the applied voltage pulses. Displacement step size and glider velocity are controlled by the application of PZT extension voltages ranging from +/-(60-340) V.

  3. High Gain Submicrometer Optical Amplifier at Near-Infrared Communication Band. (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoxia; Zhuang, Xiujuan; Yang, Sen; Chen, Yu; Zhang, Qinglin; Zhu, Xiaoli; Zhou, Hong; Guo, Pengfei; Liang, Junwu; Huang, Yu; Pan, Anlian; Duan, Xiangfeng


    Nanoscale near-infrared optical amplification is important but remains a challenge to achieve. Here we report a unique design of silicon and erbium silicate core-shell nanowires for high gain submicrometer optical amplification in the near-infrared communication band. The high refraction index silicon core is used to tightly confine the optical field within the submicron structures, and the single crystalline erbium-ytterbium silicates shell is used as the highly efficient gain medium. Both theoretical and experimental results show that, by systematically tuning the core diameter and shell thickness, a large portion of the optical power can be selectively confined to the erbium silicate shell gain medium to enable a low loss waveguide and high gain optical amplifier. Experimental results further demonstrate that an optimized core-shell nanowire can exhibit an excellent net gain up to 31  dB mm(-1), which is more than 20 times larger than the previously reported best results on the micron-scale optical amplifiers.

  4. Human object articulation for CCTV video forensics (United States)

    Zafar, I.; Fraz, M.; Edirisinghe, Eran A.


    In this paper we present a system which is focused on developing algorithms for automatic annotation/articulation of humans passing through a surveillance camera in a way useful for describing a person/criminal by a crime scene witness. Each human is articulated/annotated based on two appearance features: 1. primary colors of clothes in the head, body and legs region. 2. presence of text/logo on the clothes. The annotation occurs after a robust foreground extraction based on a modified approach to Gaussian Mixture model and detection of human from segmented foreground images. The proposed pipeline consists of a preprocessing stage where we improve color quality of images using a basic color constancy algorithm and further improve the results using a proposed post-processing method. The results show a significant improvement to the illumination of the video frames. In order to annotate color information for human clothes, we apply 3D Histogram analysis (with respect to Hue, Saturation and Value) on HSV converted image regions of human body parts along with extrema detection and thresholding to decide the dominant color of the region. In order to detect text/logo on the clothes as another feature to articulate humans, we begin with the extraction of connected components of enhanced horizontal, vertical and diagonal edges in the frames. These candidate regions are classified as text or non-text on the bases of their Local Energy based Shape Histogram (LESH) features combined with KL divergence as classification criteria. To detect humans, a novel technique has been proposed that uses a combination of Histogram of Oriented Gradients (HOG) and Contourlet transform based Local Binary Patterns (LBP) with Adaboost as classifier. Initial screening of foreground objects is performed by using HOG features. To further eliminate the false positives due to noise form background and improve results, we apply Contourlet-LBP feature extraction on the images. In the proposed method

  5. High-Performance 3D Articulated Robot Display (United States)

    Powell, Mark W.; Torres, Recaredo J.; Mittman, David S.; Kurien, James A.; Abramyan, Lucy


    In the domain of telerobotic operations, the primary challenge facing the operator is to understand the state of the robotic platform. One key aspect of understanding the state is to visualize the physical location and configuration of the platform. As there is a wide variety of mobile robots, the requirements for visualizing their configurations vary diversely across different platforms. There can also be diversity in the mechanical mobility, such as wheeled, tracked, or legged mobility over surfaces. Adaptable 3D articulated robot visualization software can accommodate a wide variety of robotic platforms and environments. The visualization has been used for surface, aerial, space, and water robotic vehicle visualization during field testing. It has been used to enable operations of wheeled and legged surface vehicles, and can be readily adapted to facilitate other mechanical mobility solutions. The 3D visualization can render an articulated 3D model of a robotic platform for any environment. Given the model, the software receives real-time telemetry from the avionics system onboard the vehicle and animates the robot visualization to reflect the telemetered physical state. This is used to track the position and attitude in real time to monitor the progress of the vehicle as it traverses its environment. It is also used to monitor the state of any or all articulated elements of the vehicle, such as arms, legs, or control surfaces. The visualization can also render other sorts of telemetered states visually, such as stress or strains that are measured by the avionics. Such data can be used to color or annotate the virtual vehicle to indicate nominal or off-nominal states during operation. The visualization is also able to render the simulated environment where the vehicle is operating. For surface and aerial vehicles, it can render the terrain under the vehicle as the avionics sends it location information (GPS, odometry, or star tracking), and locate the vehicle

  6. Landing Motion Control of Articulated Hopping Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngil Youm


    Full Text Available This paper deals with the landing motion of an articulated legged robot. Humans use a peculiar crouching motion to land safely which can be characterized by body stiffness and damping. A stiffness controller formulation is used to realize this human behavior for the robot. Using this method, the landing motion is achieved with only the desired body stiffness and damping values, without desired COG(Center of Gravity or joint paths. To achieve soft landing, variable body stiffness and damping values were optimized. PBOT, which has four links with flexible joints was used for validation of the landing controller. A body stiffness and damping controller was used as an outer landing control loop and a fast subsystem controller for flexible joints was used as an inner force control loop. Simulations and experimental results about the landing motion are presented to show the performance of the body stiffness and damping controller.

  7. Very fast motion planning for highly dexterous-articulated robots (United States)

    Challou, Daniel J.; Gini, Maria; Kumar, Vipin


    Due to the inherent danger of space exploration, the need for greater use of teleoperated and autonomous robotic systems in space-based applications has long been apparent. Autonomous and semi-autonomous robotic devices have been proposed for carrying out routine functions associated with scientific experiments aboard the shuttle and space station. Finally, research into the use of such devices for planetary exploration continues. To accomplish their assigned tasks, all such autonomous and semi-autonomous devices will require the ability to move themselves through space without hitting themselves or the objects which surround them. In space it is important to execute the necessary motions correctly when they are first attempted because repositioning is expensive in terms of both time and resources (e.g., fuel). Finally, such devices will have to function in a variety of different environments. Given these constraints, a means for fast motion planning to insure the correct movement of robotic devices would be ideal. Unfortunately, motion planning algorithms are rarely used in practice because of their computational complexity. Fast methods have been developed for detecting imminent collisions, but the more general problem of motion planning remains computationally intractable. However, in this paper we show how the use of multicomputers and appropriate parallel algorithms can substantially reduce the time required to synthesize paths for dexterous articulated robots with a large number of joints. We have developed a parallel formulation of the Randomized Path Planner proposed by Barraquand and Latombe. We have shown that our parallel formulation is capable of formulating plans in a few seconds or less on various parallel architectures including: the nCUBE2 multicomputer with up to 1024 processors (nCUBE2 is a registered trademark of the nCUBE corporation), and a network of workstations.

  8. A newer technique to program a semi adjustable articulator


    Venkateshwaran, R.; Suma Karthigeyan; Manoharan, P. S.; Jagadish Konchada; Manikandan Ramaswamy; Bhuminathan


    Introduction: The difficulty in reproducing accurate angle of condylar guidance in semi-adjustable articulators. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation between the angle of horizontal condylar inclination obtained on a semi-adjustable articulator and the corresponding angle traced on a temporomandibular joint (TMJ) radiograph in completely edentulous subject. Materials and Methods: The horizontal condylar inclination angle was obtained in a semi-adjustable articul...

  9. The Role of Virtual Articulator in Prosthetic and Restorative Dentistry (United States)

    Aljanakh, Mohammad


    Virtual reality is a computer based technology linked with the future of dentistry and dental practice. The virtual articulator is one such application in prosthetic and restorative dentistry based on virtual reality that will significantly reduce the limitations of the mechanical articulator, and by simulation of real patient data, allow analyses with regard to static and dynamic occlusion as well as to jaw relation. It is the purpose of this article to present the concepts and strategies for a future replacement of the mechanical articulator by a virtual one. Also, a brief note on virtual reality haptic system has been highlighted along with newly developed touch enabled virtual articulator. PMID:25177664

  10. X-Ray Nanofocus CT: Visualising Of Internal 3D-Structures With Submicrometer Resolution (United States)

    Weinekoetter, Christian


    High-resolution X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) allows the visualization and failure analysis of the internal micro structure of objects—even if they have complicated 3D-structures where 2D X-ray microscopy would give unclear information. During the past several years, computed tomography has progressed to higher resolution and quicker reconstruction of the 3D-volume. Most recently it even allows a three-dimensional look into the inside of materials with submicron resolution. With the use of nanofocus® tube technology, nanoCT®-systems are pushing forward into application fields that were exclusive to high cost and rare available synchrotron techniques. The study was performed with the new nanotom, a very compact laboratory system which allows the analysis of samples up to 120 mm in diameter and weighing up to 1 kg with exceptional voxel-resolution down to volumes, the nanotom® includes a variety of effective software tools to reduce ring-artefacts and correct beam hardenings or drift effects which occurred during data acquisition. The resulting CT volume data set can be displayed in various ways, for example by virtual slicing and sectional views in any direction of the volume. By the fact that this requires only a mouse click, this technique will substitute destructive mechanical slicing and cutting in many applications. The initial CT results obtained with the nanotom® demonstrate that it is now possible to analyze the three-dimensional micro structure of materials and small objects with submicrometer resolution. Any internal difference in material, density or porosity within a sample can be visualized and data like distances can be measured. NanoCT® widely expands the spectrum of detectable micro-structures. The nanotom® opens a new dimension of 3D-microanalysis and will replace more destructive methods—saving costs and time per sample inspected.

  11. Perceived Articulation Uniformity between Trumpet and Violin Performances (United States)

    Cooper, Shelly C.; Hamann, Donald L.


    Directors strive for a unified sound throughout their wind and orchestra ensembles. Articulation affects sound uniformity among winds and strings. This baseline study examined whether a trumpet player could better match a violin player's articulation, as perceived by participants listening to a recording of two performances, when: (a) performing…

  12. The Oklahoma PN/ADN Articulation Project Report. (United States)

    Oklahoma State Regents for Higher Education, Oklahoma City.

    In response to a critical nursing shortage in the state of Oklahoma, the Oklahoma Practical Nursing (PN)/Associate Degree Nursing (ADN) Articulation Project Coordinating Committee was formed in spring 1990 to develop a proposal for program articulation. A curriculum matrix was designed and adopted for use by five regional subcommittees which…

  13. Unusual Bones Articulating With the Pelvic Girdle | Otsyeno | Annals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unusual Bones Articulating With the Pelvic Girdle. FMT Otsyeno, JEO Atinga, FMT Otsyeno. Abstract. We report a case of a 44 year old man who presented with right gluteal pain following trivial trauma, associated with unusual bones, with all the characteristics of clavicles articulating with the pelvic girdle. The pain on that ...

  14. Design and wear testing of a temporomandibular joint prosthesis articulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Loon, JP; Verkerke, GJ; de Vries, MP; de Bont, LGM

    As part of the development of a total temporomandibular joint prosthesis, a prosthesis articulation was designed. The articulation consists of a spherical head (ball) of the mandibular part, rotating against an enveloping ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) disc with a flat cranial

  15. Virtual articulator for the analysis of dental occlusion: An update (United States)

    Romero-Millán, Javier; Peñarrocha-Oltra, David; Peñarrocha-Diago, María


    The future of dental practice is closely linked to the utilization of computer-based technology, specifically virtual reality, which allows the dental surgeon to simulate true life situations in patients. The virtual articulator has been designed for the exhaustive analysis of static and dynamic occlusion, with the purpose of substituting mechanical articulators and avoiding their errors. These tools will help both odontologists and dental prosthetists to provide the best individualized treatment for each patient. The present review analyzes the studies published in the literature on the design, functioning and applications of virtual articulators. A Medline-PubMed search was made of dental journals, with the identification of 137 articles, of which 16 were finally selected. The virtual articulator can simulate the specific masticatory movement of the patient. During mandibular animation, the program calculates the sites where the opposing teeth come into contact. The studies made to assess the reliability of the virtual articulator show good correspondence in visualization of the number and position of the dynamic contacts. The virtual articulator is a precise tool for the full analysis of occlusion in a real patient. Key words: Virtual articulator, dental occlusion, dental articulator. PMID:22157663

  16. Modernism and Postmodernism. The Margins of Articulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Nägele


    Full Text Available The difference between 'Modernism' and 'Postmodernism' is not one of definitions. The latter is rather a radicalization of a tendency inherent already in Modernism: calling into question the underlying principles of definitions, delimitations and boundaries. If, in Modernism, this tendency is marked by an increasing self-reflective gesture of the text, Postmodernism radicalizes this self-reflection to the point where the self-reflective circle and its closure are broken. The subversion of demarcation takes place not only on the semantic level, but on the level of the text's literal and linguistic qualities. Such a move displaces particularly any totalizing project, which, for example, is implied in Jürgen Habermas's recent critique of Post-modernism. The following essay traces some of these effects in the development of the German novel of the last two decades and in some examples of experimental and concrete texts, where the reflection on the principle of demarcation leads to the margins of articulation and with that to the margin where the cultural opposition of culture/nature is constituted.

  17. Nasal reconstruction with articulated irradiated rib cartilage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakami, C.S.; Cook, T.A.; Guida, R.A. (Univ. of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle (USA))


    Nasal structural reconstruction is a formidable task in cases where there is loss of support to both the nasal dorsum and tip. A multitude of surgical approaches and materials have been used for the correction of the saddle-nose deformity with varying degrees of success. Articulated irradiated rib cartilage inserted through an external rhinoplasty approach was used to reconstruct nasal deformities in 18 patients over a 6-year period. Simultaneous use of a midline forehead flap to reconstruct the overlying soft tissue was required in four cases. Follow-up ranged from 1 to 6 years (mean, 2.8 years). Results were rewarding in most cases with marked improvement in nasal support and airway. Revision and/or replacement secondary to trauma or warping of the graft was required in four cases. None of the patients exhibited infection, extrusion, or noticeable resorption. A description of the surgical technique, review of all the cases, and recommendation for continued use of this graft material are discussed.

  18. Phoneme articulation in students with cerebral palsy and intellectual disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurić-Zdravković Aleksandra


    Full Text Available There are not many studies that analyze the quality of phoneme articulation in students with cerebral palsy who have a cognitive deficit. Studies on articulation abilities in the context of cerebral palsy usually included subjects without cognitive deficits. The aim of this paper was to determine the quality of phoneme articulation in students with cerebral palsy combined with intellectual disability, as well as its relation to age and gender of the participants. The sample consisted of 33 patients with cerebral palsy with combined mild intellectual disability, aged seven to ten years and eleven months (M=8.91; SD=0.947, of both genders. Triage articulation test, which determines the quality of phoneme articulation in the Serbian language (Kostić, Vladisavljević, 1983, was used for data collecting. The participants achieved the best quality of articulation in pronouncing vowels, and the worst in pronouncing phonemes from the group of fricatives. One-way analysis of variance showed no significant differences between the quality of phoneme articulation in the Serbian language and calendar age of the participants (F=1.061, p=0.508. Although boys from the tested sample showed a higher quality of articulated phonemes, that quality was not on the level of statistical significance with regard to the quality of articulated phonemes in girls (F=0.746, p=0.727. The results indicate significant difficulties in phoneme articulation in these students, who were three to seven years behind compared to the expected quality typical of certain age.


    Highsmith, M Jason; Kahle, Jason T; Miro, Rebecca M; Mengelkoch, Larry J


    Transfemoral amputation (TFA) patients require considerably more energy to walk and run than non-amputees. The purpose of this study was to examine potential bioenergetic differences (oxygen uptake (VO2), heart rate (HR), and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE)) for TFA patients utilizing a conventional running prosthesis with an articulating knee mechanism versus a running prosthesis with a non-articulating knee joint. Four trained TFA runners (n = 4) were accommodated to and tested with both conditions. VO2 and HR were significantly lower (p ≤ 0.05) in five of eight fixed walking and running speeds for the prosthesis with an articulating knee mechanism. TFA demonstrated a trend for lower RPE at six of eight walking speeds using the prosthesis with the articulated knee condition. A trend was observed for self-selected walking speed, self-selected running speed, and maximal speed to be faster for TFA subjects using the prosthesis with the articulated knee condition. Finally, all four TFA participants subjectively preferred running with the prosthesis with the articulated knee condition. These findings suggest that, for trained TFA runners, a running prosthesis with an articulating knee prosthesis reduces ambulatory energy costs and enhances subjective perceptive measures compared to using a non-articulating knee prosthesis.

  20. Articulation handicap index: an instrument for quantifying psychosocial consequences of impaired articulation. (United States)

    Keilmann, Annerose; Konerding, Uwe; Oberherr, Constantin; Nawka, Tadeus


    Structural, neurological and muscular diseases can lead to impairments of articulation. These impairments can severely impact social life. To judge health status comprehensively, this impact must be adequately quantified. For this purpose, the articulation handicap index (AHI) has been developed. Psychometric analyses referring to this index are presented here. The AHI was completed by 113 patients who had undergone treatment of tumours of the head or neck. The patients also gave a general self-assessment of their impairments due to articulation problems. Furthermore, tumour size, tumour location and kind of therapy were recorded. Missing data were analysed and replaced by multiple imputation. Internal structure was investigated using principal component analysis (PCA); reliability using Cronbach's alpha. Validity was investigated by analysing the relationship between AHI and general self-assessment of impairments. Moreover, the relationships with tumour size, tumour location and kind of therapy were analysed. Only 0.12 % of the answers to the AHI were missing. The Scree test performed with the PCA results suggested one-dimensionality with the first component explaining 49.6 % of the item variance. Cronbach's alpha was 0.96. Kendall's tau between the AHI sum score and the general self-assessment was 0.69. The intervals of AHI sum scores for the self-assessment categories were determined with 0-13 for no, 14-44 for mild, 46-76 for moderate, and 77-120 for severe impairment. The AHI sum score did not systematically relate to tumour size, tumour location or kind of therapy. The results are evidence for high acceptance, reliability and validity.

  1. Articulating the Case for the Longevity Dividend. (United States)

    Olshansky, S Jay


    The survival of large segments of human populations to advanced ages is a crowning achievement of improvements in public health and medicine. But, in the 21st century, our continued desire to extend life brings forth a unique dilemma. The risk of death from cardiovascular diseases and many forms of cancer have declined, but even if they continue to do so in the future, the resulting health benefits and enhanced longevities are likely to diminish. It is even possible that healthy life expectancy could decline in the future as major fatal diseases wane. The reason is that the longer we live, the greater is the influence of biological aging on the expression of fatal and disabling diseases. As long as the rates of aging of our bodies continues without amelioration, the progress we make on all major disease fronts must eventually face a point of diminishing returns. Research in the scientific study of aging has already showed that the aging of our bodies is inherently modifiable, and that a therapeutic intervention that slows aging in people is a plausible target for science and public health. Given the speed with which population aging is progressing and chronic fatal and disabling conditions are challenging health care costs across the globe, the case is now being made in the scientific literature that delayed aging could be one of the most efficient and promising ways to combat disease, extend healthy life, compress morbidity, and reduce health care costs. A consortium of scientists and nonprofit organizations has devised a plan to initiate an accelerated program of scientific research to develop, test for safety and efficacy, and then disseminate a therapeutic intervention to delay aging if proven to be safe and effective; this is referred to as the Longevity Dividend Initiative Consortium (LDIC). In this review, I articulate the case for the LDIC. Copyright © 2016 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  2. Multiple measurement models of articulated arm coordinate measuring machines (United States)

    Zheng, Dateng; Xiao, Zhongyue; Xia, Xiang


    The existing articulated arm coordinate measuring machines(AACMM) with one measurement model are easy to cause low measurement accuracy because the whole sampling space is much bigger than the result in the unstable calibration parameters. To compensate for the deficiency of one measurement model, the multiple measurement models are built by the Denavit-Hartenberg's notation, the homemade standard rod components are used as a calibration tool and the Levenberg-Marquardt calibration algorithm is applied to solve the structural parameters in the measurement models. During the tests of multiple measurement models, the sample areas are selected in two situations. It is found that the measurement errors' sigma value(0.083 4 mm) dealt with one measurement model is nearly two times larger than that of the multiple measurement models(0.043 1 mm) in the same sample area. While in the different sample area, the measurement errors' sigma value(0.054 0 mm) dealt with the multiple measurement models is about 40% of one measurement model(0.137 3 mm). The preliminary results suggest that the measurement accuracy of AACMM dealt with multiple measurement models is superior to the accuracy of the existing machine with one measurement model. This paper proposes the multiple measurement models to improve the measurement accuracy of AACMM without increasing any hardware cost.

  3. Design and fabrication of an articulated four axes microrobot arm (United States)

    Zhang, Ruoshi; Yang, Zhong; Wei, Danming; Popa, Dan O.


    In order to carry out nanomanufacturing tasks, a microrobot requires both high precision and high reliability over prolonged periods of time. Articulated Four-Axis Microrobots (AFAM) have been introduced a decade ago as millimetric microrobots capable of carrying out nanoscale tasks. The original robot design relied on a Micro Electro Mechanical (MEMS) actuator bank positioned onto a Silicon substrate, and an assembled arm mechanically coupled to the actuators through a cable. Movement of two thermal actuator banks positions the AFAM's end effector in 3-Dimensional space with approximately 75 microns workspace and 50 nm repeatability. However, failure of the AFAM's cable mechanism was observed after less than 1 million cycles. In this paper, we propose a novel arm mechanism for AFAM that improve its performance. The design presented in this article substitutes the "wire-gluing" cable with an anchored electrostatic actuator, and therefore it simplifies assembly requirements, reduces overall footprint of the microrobot, and achieves higher operating frequency. Simulation results are presented for a rotary electrostatic comb drive as basis for the microrobot arm with overall dimensions of 2 mm × 2 mm. The AFAM arm cantilever is 1 mm long to achieve a workspace of dimension of 75 microns along the vertical axis. Experimental evaluation of the design was accomplished using a prototype fabricated on a silicon on insulator (SOI) wafer processed with the deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) process.

  4. Spatial compounding in ultrasonic imaging using an articulated scan arm. (United States)

    Hernandez, A; Basset, O; Chirossel, P; Gimenez, G


    A spatial compounding system has been designed to improve the quality of B-mode echographic images. It consists of constructing an improved image from the combination of several different images of the same cross-sectional plane. The "final" image is constructed by the registration and the superposition of the "original" images. For this, the relative position in the space of the original images has to be known. The use of a localization articulated arm, on which the ultrasonic probe is fixed, makes this possible. The main advantages of the technique are, on one hand, the elimination of the acoustic shadows following a strong reflector structure and, on the other hand, the reduction of the speckle generated in echographic images. The method of reconstruction has been validated on agar gel phantoms and provides good accuracy. In vivo experiments on human beings have also been performed. Acoustic shadows caused by bones in cross-sectional images of the thigh and the arm are eliminated. All the contours of the femur and humerus can be observed in the final images. The reduction of speckle is shown in kidney images and the signal-to-noise ratio improvement is quantified as a function of the number of images involved in the reconstruction.

  5. Scatterometry for semiconductor sub-micrometer and nanometer critical dimension metrology (United States)

    Al-Assaad, Rayan M.

    Scatterometry1 is one optical measurement technique that has been explored extensively for semiconductor sub-micrometer dimensional metrology. The technique refers to the measurements of reflected power upon the interaction of an incident beam with some periodic surface (grating). The characteristics of the diffractive surface affect directly the acquired measurements. Therefore it is possible to resolve some information about the grating line profile and dimensions from the measurements, which is referred to as the inverse scatterometry problem. As technology is continuously pushing lithographic processes to sub-nanometer precision2, aspects of the inverse scatterometry problem related to the accurate estimation and modeling of errors and the enhancement of the optimization methods become of great importance. For this purpose the effects of measurement errors on the estimated grating profile are analyzed in this dissertation and optimization methods are proposed to improve the accuracies in the estimated geometrical parameters for various grating profiles in real experimental conditions. A technique based on the information content analysis of the measurement data is further suggested to reduce the number of measurements required without the loss in the solution accuracies resulting in lower cost and more suitable real time implementation. Theoretical and experimental results are presented to validate these studies where the solutions to the profile parameters are accomplished by implementing a linear regression technique3. In addition a new scheme is proposed to address resolving more difficult profile parameters with sub-wavelength dimensions (sub-100 nm) that are until now subject to ongoing investigation with inconclusive results. The proposed approach consists of using a large number of angular reflectance measurements with linearly polarized TM incidence. In the case where the profile dimensions are many times smaller than the light wavelength, the parameter

  6. Surface organic monolayers control the hygroscopic growth of submicrometer particles at high relative humidity. (United States)

    Ruehl, Christopher R; Wilson, Kevin R


    Although many organic molecules commonly found in the atmosphere are known to be surface-active in macroscopic aqueous solutions, the impact of surface partitioning of organic molecules to a microscopic aqueous droplet interface remains unclear. Here we measure the droplet size formed, at a relative humidity (∼99.9%) just below saturation, on submicrometer particles containing an ammonium sulfate core and an organic layer of a model compound of varying thickness. The 12 model organic compounds are a series of dicarboxylic acids (C3 to C10), cis-pinonic, oleic, lauric, and myristic acids, which represent a broad range in solubility from miscible (malonic acid) to insoluble. The variation in droplet size with increasing organic aerosol fraction cannot be explained by assuming the organic material is dissolved in the bulk droplet. Instead, the wet droplet diameters exhibit a complex and nonlinear dependence on organic aerosol volume fraction, leading to hygroscopic growth that is in some cases smaller and in others larger than that predicted by bulk solubility alone. For palmitic and stearic acid, small droplets at or below the detection limit of the instrument are observed, indicating significant kinetic limitations for water uptake, which are consistent with mass accommodation coefficients on the order of 10(-4). A model based on the two-dimensional van der Waals equation of state is used to explain the complex droplet growth with organic aerosol fraction and dry diameter. The model suggests that mono- and dicarboxylic acids with limited water solubility partition to the droplet surface and reduce surface tension only after a two-dimensional condensed monolayer is formed. Two relatively soluble compounds, malonic and glutaric acid, also appear to form surface phases, which increase hygroscopicity. There is a clear alternation in the threshold for droplet growth observed for odd and even carbon number diacids, which is explained in the model by differences in the

  7. Gust Mitigation of Micro Air Vehicles Using Passive Articulated Wings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adetunji Oduyela


    Full Text Available Birds and insects naturally use passive flexing of their wings to augment their stability in uncertain aerodynamic environments. In a similar manner, micro air vehicle designers have been investigating using wing articulation to take advantage of this phenomenon. The result is a class of articulated micro air vehicles where artificial passive joints are designed into the lifting surfaces. In order to analyze how passive articulation affects performance of micro air vehicles in gusty environments, an efficient 8 degree-of-freedom model is developed. Experimental validation of the proposed mathematical model was accomplished using flight test data of an articulated micro air vehicle obtained from a high resolution indoor tracking facility. Analytical investigation of the gust alleviation properties of the articulated micro air vehicle model was carried out using simulations with varying crosswind gust magnitudes. Simulations show that passive articulation in micro air vehicles can increase their robustness to gusts within a range of joint compliance. It is also shown that if articulation joints are made too compliant that gust mitigation performance is degraded when compared to a rigid system.


    Dmitrić, Tanja; Veselinović, Mila; Mitrović, Slobodan M


    Articulation is the result of speech organs and it means clean, clear and distinct pronunciation of voices in words. A prospective study included 24 children between 5 and 15 years of age, of both sexes. All children were monolingual, Serbian being their native language. The quality of articulation was tested with Triage articulation test. Neither omission nor distortion of plosives was observed in any of them, whereas substitution of plosives occurred in 12% of patients. Omission of affricates was not observed in any of the subjects, but substitution and distortion occurred in 29%, and 76% of subjects, respectively. Omission of fricatives was found in 29% subjects, substitution in 52%, and distortion in 82% of subjects. Omission and distortion of nasals was not recorded in any of the subjects, and substitution occurred in 6% of children. Omission of laterals was observed in 6%, substitution in 46% and distortion in 52% of subjects with articulation disorders. Discussion and Articulation disorders were observed not only in children diagnosed with dyslalia but in those with dysphasia and stuttering as well. Children with speech disorders articulate vowels best, then nasals and plosives. Articulation of fricatives and laterals was found to be most severely deviated, including all three disorders, i.e. substitution, omission and distortion. Spasms of speech muscles and vegetative reactions were also observed in this study, but only in children with stuttering.

  9. Development of an ordered array of optoelectrochemical individually readable sensors with submicrometer dimensions: application to remote electrochemiluminescence imaging. (United States)

    Chovin, Arnaud; Garrigue, Patrick; Vinatier, Philippe; Sojic, Neso


    A novel array of optoelectrochemical submicrometer sensors for remote electrochemiluminescence (ECL) imaging is presented. This device was fabricated by chemical etching of a coherent optical fiber bundle to produce a nanotip array. The surface of the etched bundle was sputter-coated with a thin layer of indium tin oxide in order to create a transparent and electrically conductive surface that is insulated eventually by a new electrophoretic paint except for the apex of the tip. These fabrication steps produced an ordered array of optoelectrochemical sensors with submicrometer dimensions that retains the optical fiber bundle architecture. The electrochemical behavior of the sensor array was independently characterized by cyclic voltammetry and ECL experiments. The steady-state current indicates that the sensors are diffusively independent. This sensor array was further studied with a co-reactant ECL model system, such as Ru(bpy)(3)(2+)/TPrA. We clearly observed an ordered array of individual ECL micrometer spots, which corresponds to the sensor array structure. While the sensors of the array are not individually addressable electrochemically, we could establish that the sensors are optically independent and individually readable. Finally, we show that remote ECL imaging is performed quantitatively through the optoelectrochemical sensor array itself.

  10. Impact of the LSVT on vowel articulation and coarticulation in Parkinson's disease. (United States)

    Sauvageau, Vincent Martel; Roy, Johanna-Pascale; Langlois, Mélanie; Macoir, Joël


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of the Lee Silverman Voice Treatment (LSVT®) on vowel articulation and consonant-vowel (C-V) coarticulation in dysarthric speakers with Parkinson's disease (PD). Nine Quebec French speakers diagnosed with idiopathic PD underwent the LSVT®. Speech characteristics were compared before and after treatment. Vowel articulation was measured using acoustic vowel space and calculated with the first (F1) and second formant (F2) of the vowels /i/, /u/ and /a/. C-V coarticulation was measured using locus equations, an acoustic metric based on the F2 transitions within vowels in relation to the preceding consonant. The relationship between these variables, speech loudness and vowel duration was also analysed. Results showed that vowel contrast increased in F1/F2 acoustic space after administration of the LSVT®. This improvement was associated with the gain in speech loudness and longer vowel duration. C-V coarticulation patterns between consonant contexts showed greater distinctiveness after the treatment. This improvement was associated with the gain in speech loudness only. These results support the conclusions of previous studies investigating the relationship between the LSVT®, speech loudness and articulation in PD. These results expand clinical understanding of the treatment and indicate that loud speech changes C-V coarticulation patterns. Clinical applications and theoretical considerations are discussed.

  11. Efficacy Evaluation of a non-contact automatic articulating paper dispenser in controlling articulating paper microbial contamination. (United States)

    Li, Yajin; Chen, Litong; Yuan, Fusong; Li, Yugui; Zhou, Yongsheng; Sun, Yuchun


    This study is to quantitatively evaluate the efficacy of using a non-contact automatic articulating paper dispenser for reducing microbial articulating paper contamination. Articulating papers in four-handed mode, non-four-handed mode, and via an automatic articulating paper dispenser were evaluated. An adenosine triphosphate bioluminescence assay was used to quantitatively measure the relative light unit (RLU) values of the rest unused articulating papers in the same package to detect contamination at 4 time points, and triplicate examinations were performed for all three methods. The RLUs were recorded, compared, and evaluated. For four-handed mode (n = 36), the RLUs at the four time points were 2.44, 32.89, 37.89, and 27.22, with a satisfactory rate of 94%. The RLUs for non-four-handed mode (n = 36) were 2.22, 286.44, 299.44, and 493.56, with a satisfactory rate of 36%. The RLUs for using the automatic dispenser (n = 36) were all 0 with a satisfactory rate of 100%. The satisfactory rates were significantly different among three methods. No significant differences were observed in the satisfactory rates for the four time points samples. Contact by gloved hands can cause severe biological contamination of articulating paper. However, by using standard four-handed mode or a non-contact automatic articulating paper dispenser, contamination can be controlled.

  12. King County Metro Transit Hybrid Articulated Buses: Final Evaluation Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K.; Walkowicz, K.


    Final technical report compares and evaluates new diesel and diesel hybrid-electric articulated buses operated as part of the King County Metro Transit (KC Metro) fleet in Seattle, Washington. The evaluation lasted 12 months.

  13. Functional occlusion: II. The role of articulators in orthodontics. (United States)

    Clark, J R; Hutchinson, I; Sandy, J R


    Opinion is divided on whether there is a place for the use of semi-adjustable dental articulators in orthodontics. In this review we explore the validity and reproducibility of the techniques involved in mounting study models on a semi-adjustable dental articulator. We also look at the role of articulated study models in orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning, in the finishing stages of orthodontics and in planning for orthognathic surgery. We report that each of the many stages involved in mounting study models on a semi-adjustable articulator is a potential source of error and that only if the technique is carried out with a high degree of accuracy is it worth the additional chairside time.

  14. Articulating a Hermeneutic Pedagogy: The Philosophy of Interpretation. (United States)

    Sotirou, Peter


    Articulates the salient features of a hermeneutic pedagogy as utilized in a composition classroom. Foregrounds the hermeneutical conclusions of Hans-Georg Gadamer as they relate to the teaching of writing. (HB)

  15. Articulation in schoolchildren and adults with neurofibromatosis type 1. (United States)

    Cosyns, Marjan; Mortier, Geert; Janssens, Sandra; Bogaert, Famke; D'Hondt, Stephanie; Van Borsel, John


    Several authors mentioned the occurrence of articulation problems in the neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) population. However, few studies have undertaken a detailed analysis of the articulation skills of NF1 patients, especially in schoolchildren and adults. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine in depth the articulation skills of NF1 schoolchildren and adults, both phonetically and phonologically. Speech samples were collected from 43 Flemish NF1 patients (14 children and 29 adults), ranging in age between 7 and 53 years, using a standardized speech test in which all Flemish single speech sounds and most clusters occur in all their permissible syllable positions. Analyses concentrated on consonants only and included a phonetic inventory, a phonetic, and a phonological analysis. It was shown that phonetic inventories were incomplete in 16.28% (7/43) of participants, in which totally correct realizations of the sibilants /ʃ/ and/or /ʒ/ were missing. Phonetic analysis revealed that distortions were the predominant phonetic error type. Sigmatismus stridens, multiple ad- or interdentality, and, in children, rhotacismus non vibrans were frequently observed. From a phonological perspective, the most common error types were substitution and syllable structure errors. Particularly, devoicing, cluster simplification, and, in children, deletion of the final consonant of words were perceived. Further, it was demonstrated that significantly more men than women presented with an incomplete phonetic inventory, and that girls tended to display more articulation errors than boys. Additionally, children exhibited significantly more articulation errors than adults, suggesting that although the articulation skills of NF1 patients evolve positively with age, articulation problems do not resolve completely from childhood to adulthood. As such, the articulation errors made by NF1 adults may be regarded as residual articulation disorders. It can be concluded that the

  16. Virtual articulator for the analysis of dental occlusion : an update


    Maestre Ferrín, Laura; Romero Millán, Javier; Peñarrocha Oltra, David; Peñarrocha Diago, María


    The future of dental practice is closely linked to the utilization of computer-based technology, specifically virtual reality, which allows the dental surgeon to simulate true life situations in patients. The virtual articulator has been designed for the exhaustive analysis of static and dynamic occlusion, with the purpose of substituting mechanical articulators and avoiding their errors. These tools will help both odontologists and dental prosthetists to provide the best individualized treat...

  17. Virtual articulator for the analysis of dental occlusion: an update. (United States)

    Maestre-Ferrín, Laura; Romero-Millán, Javier; Peñarrocha-Oltra, David; Peñarrocha-Diago, María


    The future of dental practice is closely linked to the utilization of computer-based technology, specifically virtual reality, which allows the dental surgeon to simulate true life situations in patients. The virtual articulator has been designed for the exhaustive analysis of static and dynamic occlusion, with the purpose of substituting mechanical articulators and avoiding their errors. These tools will help both odontologists and dental prosthetists to provide the best individualized treatment for each patient. The present review analyzes the studies published in the literature on the design, functioning and applications of virtual articulators. A Medline-PubMed search was made of dental journals, with the identification of 137 articles, of which 16 were finally selected. The virtual articulator can simulate the specific masticatory movement of the patient. During mandibular animation, the program calculates the sites where the opposing teeth come into contact. The studies made to assess the reliability of the virtual articulator show good correspondence in visualization of the number and position of the dynamic contacts. The virtual articulator is a precise tool for the full analysis of occlusion in a real patient.

  18. Science and Exploration Deep Space Gateway Workshop (United States)

    Spann, James F.


    We propose a workshop whose outcome is a publically disseminated product that articulates SMD investigations and HEOMD Life Science research, including international collaborations, that are made possible by the new opportunities in space that result from the Deep Space Gateway.

  19. Articulation skills in Turkish speaking children with cochlear implant. (United States)

    Sevinc, Sebnem; Ozcebe, Esra; Atas, Ahmet; Buyukozturk, Sener


    The benefits of using cochlear implant (CI) on speech perception and production have been documented. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of age of cochlear implantation performed and length of auditory experience with CI on the development of articulation skills in prelingual children with CI. For this purpose, 14 children with CI were administered through the standardized articulation test named AAT (Ankara Articulation Test). In order to evaluate the development of articulation skills, AAT was applied to each child with CI at the first and the fourth years of CI. The test group was selected among those congenitally hearing impaired children who had used hearing aids bilaterally before the age of one and a half, and received intervention after fitting hearing aids. The test group was divided into two subgroups: Group 1 consisted of the children implanted at and below the age of 3 and Group 2 consisted of the children implanted after the age of 3. Evaluations of articulation skills between groups and within groups were performed in the first and fourth years of implantation. In the study, nonparametric statistics have been used to compare the test scores. Mann-Whitney U-test and Wilcoxon test have been used in the comparisons made between groups and within groups, respectively. While there has not been observed any statistically significant difference between the first year articulation skills of children with CI at and below the age of three and children with CI above the age of 3, for the fourth year this difference has been found to be statistically significant. The results demonstrate the importance of the early application of CI and length of auditory experience with CI in the development of articulation skills.

  20. Influence of short chain organic acids and bases on the wetting properties and surface energy of submicrometer ceramic powders. (United States)

    Neirinck, Bram; Soccol, Dimitri; Fransaer, Jan; Van der Biest, Omer; Vleugels, Jef


    The effect of short chained organic acids and bases on the surface energy and wetting properties of submicrometer alumina powder was assessed. The surface chemistry of treated powders was determined by means of Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform spectroscopy and compared to untreated powder. The wetting of powders was measured using a modified Washburn method, based on the use of precompacted powder samples. The geometric factor needed to calculate the contact angle was derived from measurements of the porous properties of the powder compacts. Contact angle measurements with several probe liquids before and after modification allowed a theoretical estimation of the surface energy based on the surface tension component theory. Trends in the surface energy components were linked to observations in infrared spectra. The results showed that the hydrophobic character of the precompacted powder depends on both the chain length and polar group of the modifying agent. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Articulation in children with Down's syndrome. A pilot study. (United States)

    Hohoff, A; Seifert, E; Ehmer, U; Lamprecht-Dinnesen, A


    The articulation of children with Down's syndrome (trisomie 21, T21) in comparison to a group of age-matched normal probands was investigated in a clinical study, using digital sonagraphics (recording of frequency, amplitude and time of the speech signal), with peripheral factors taken into consideration. The T21-Group (n = 10) revealed a higher variability as well as a longer articulation of the test word "Tasse" than the Control Group (n = 10). There was no clear-cut dependence of speed and quality of articulation on all of the peripheral factors evaluated (Angle Class, overbite, oral motor ability, hearing disorder, logopedics, Castillo-Morales stimulating plate treatment). The results of our investigation show differing patterns of articulation in T21 children compared with normal probands, using a reproducible method. A clear-cut influence of various influencing peripheral factors as reported in the literature could not be found for the T21-Group. Thus, central factors seem to have a great impact on articulation in T21 patients.

  2. A newer technique to program a semi adjustable articulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Venkateshwaran


    Full Text Available Introduction: The difficulty in reproducing accurate angle of condylar guidance in semi-adjustable articulators. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation between the angle of horizontal condylar inclination obtained on a semi-adjustable articulator and the corresponding angle traced on a temporomandibular joint (TMJ radiograph in completely edentulous subject. Materials and Methods: The horizontal condylar inclination angle was obtained in a semi-adjustable articulator by means of height tracer (extra oral tracing device and interocclusal records to program the articulator in 21 subjects. TMJ radiograph were recorded by the same operator with same orthopantomogram (OPG machine (planmeca. Tracings of inclines of articular eminence on the radiograph were compared with the angle obtained on a semi-adjustable articulator. Each measurement was made using manual methods of measuring angle. The results were subjected to the Pearson correlation statistical analysis (α =0.01. Results: The outline of the articular eminence in a TMJ tomogram radiographic image was identified and traced. A significant correlation was found between the horizontal condylar inclination on a semi-adjustable and the corresponding TMJ tomogram radiographic image for both right (R = 0.789; P = 0.001 and left (i = 0.747; P = 0.004 sides. Conclusion: The articular eminence traced on a TMJ tomogram image represents the horizontal condylar inclination with a mean difference of 5° in 21 subjects evaluated.

  3. Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maziar Nekovee


    Full Text Available Cognitive radio is being intensively researched as the enabling technology for license-exempt access to the so-called TV White Spaces (TVWS, large portions of spectrum in the UHF/VHF bands which become available on a geographical basis after digital switchover. Both in the US, and more recently, in the UK the regulators have given conditional endorsement to this new mode of access. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art in technology, regulation, and standardisation of cognitive access to TVWS. It examines the spectrum opportunity and commercial use cases associated with this form of secondary access.

  4. Linguistic humor comprehension in children with articulation impairments. (United States)

    Abrahamsen, Eileen P


    This study investigated the ability of children with articulation disorders to comprehend linguistic humor. It was hypothesized that children with articulation disorders would have more difficulty understanding humor based on phonological differences than humor based on lexical differences. A second hypothesis predicted that children with articulation disorders would have more difficulty understanding riddles in which the phoneme they misarticulated, either /s/ or /r/, was the source of ambiguity than riddles in which the source of ambiguity did not involve the phoneme they misarticulated. Results did not confirm the first hypothesis as there were no statistically significant differences between groups with regard to the children's ability to understand phonological vs lexical humor. The second hypothesis was supported. Children had significantly more difficulty understanding riddles in which the source of ambiguity related to the phoneme they misarticulated, either /s/ or /r/ than they did understanding phonological humor involving nonerror phonemes.

  5. Planar articulated mechanism design by graph theoretical enumeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kawamoto, A; Bendsøe, Martin P.; Sigmund, Ole


    This paper deals with design of articulated mechanisms using a truss-based ground-structure representation. By applying a graph theoretical enumeration approach we can perform an exhaustive analysis of all possible topologies for a test example for which we seek a symmetric mechanism. This guaran......This paper deals with design of articulated mechanisms using a truss-based ground-structure representation. By applying a graph theoretical enumeration approach we can perform an exhaustive analysis of all possible topologies for a test example for which we seek a symmetric mechanism....... This guarantees that one can identify the global optimum solution. The result underlines the importance of mechanism topology and gives insight into the issues specific to articulated mechanism designs compared to compliant mechanism designs....

  6. The Landscape of Mass Mediated Articulations of Biotechnology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horst, Maja

    The objective of this paper is to explore the associations made in mass mediatedarticulations of biotechnology. It serves as the basis for further analyses of massmediated controversies and the purpose is to establish a map of the landscape ofmass mediated articulation of biotechnology. Which kinds...... of genetic researchand technology are articulated in what way? What can be associated to what inthe mass mediation and when is it portrayed as controversial? In short this is astudy of associations in the news production that serves as a way of establishingan empirical archive for further work. It is based...... on a relational ontologyinspired by French philosopher Bruno Latour, supplemented with the method ofcontent analysis developed within sociology of mass media. The aim is to studythe production of networks of articulation in mass media by looking at theoutcome (the articles), which they produce....

  7. Swisstrolley 3 - An articulated trolley bus; SWISSTROLLEY 3. Gelenktrolleybus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gisler, H.-J.


    This illustrated final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the Swisstrolley 3 low-floor, articulated trolley bus developed in Switzerland by the Hess AG company. Various features of the variants of the trolley bus, including single vehicle, single and double-articulated buses and bus trailers, are discussed. The reductions achieved in energy consumption, weight and noise are discussed. Typical values for power consumption are presented in graphical form. Economic viability and passenger-friendliness are examined, as are possibilities for further improvement.

  8. Stuart Hall and the Theory and Practice of Articulation (United States)

    Clarke, John


    In this article, I argue that the idea of articulation links three different dimensions of Stuart Hall's work: it is central to the work of cultural politics, to the work of hegemony and to his practice of embodied pedagogy. I claim that his approach to pedagogy entails the art of listening combined with the practice of theorising in the service…

  9. [Comorbidities and behavioral problems in children with functional articulation disorder]. (United States)

    Zhao, Yun-Jing; Sun, Hong-Wei; Ma, Hong-Wei; Zhao, Ya-Ru


    To study the incidences of comorbidities and behavioral problems in children with functional articulation disorders. One hundred and twelve children with functional articulation disorders (aged 4-11 years) were enrolled. Their comorbidities were identified based on clinical investigations and the DSM-IV diagnosis criteria of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), stuttering, tic disorders and enuresis. Behavioral problems were evaluated by the Conners Parent Symptom Questionnaire and the Child Behavior Checklist. Sixty-nine patients (61.6%) had one or more comorbidities. The incidence of comorbidity in children with middle-severe functional articulation disorders was higher than in those with mild disorders. The most common comorbidity was language impairment (30.4%), followed by stuttering (16.1%), enuresis (13.4%), and tic disorders (6.3%). In school age children, ADHD (47.5%) was the most common comorbidity. The incidence of behavioral problems was 40.2% by the Child Behavior Checklist and 57.1% by the Parent Symptom Questionnaire. The children with functional articulation disorders have high incidence of comorbidity and many behavioral problems.

  10. Students’ emergent articulations of uncertainty while making informal statistical inferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ben-Zvi, D.; Aridor, K.; Makar, K.; Bakker, A.


    Research on informal statistical inference has so far paid little attention to the development of students’ expressions of uncertainty in reasoning from samples. This paper studies students’ articulations of uncertainty when engaged in informal inferential reasoning. Using data from a design

  11. Syllable reduction and articulation rates in Danish, Norwegian and Swedish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilton, N.H.; Schüppert, Anja; Gooskens, C.S.


    This investigation compares articulation rates of phonological and phonetic syllables in Norwegian, Swedish and Danish to investigate differences in degrees of syllable deletion (reduction) among these three languages. For the investigation two sets of data are used: one consisting of recorded

  12. Articulated Multimedia Physics, Lesson 13, Internal Energy, Heat, and Temperature. (United States)

    New York Inst. of Tech., Old Westbury.

    As the thirteenth lesson of the Articulated Multimedia Physics Course, instructional materials are presented in this study guide with relation to internal energy, heat, and temperature. The topics are concerned with collisions, thermometers, friction forces, degrees Centigrade and Fahrenheit, calories, Brownian motion, and state changes. The…

  13. GPU accelerated likelihoods for stereo-based articulated tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friborg, Rune Møllegaard; Hauberg, Søren; Erleben, Kenny


    For many years articulated tracking has been an active research topic in the computer vision community. While working solutions have been suggested, computational time is still problematic. We present a GPU implementation of a ray-casting based likelihood model that is orders of magnitude faster...

  14. data sets Simulations in articulating light-weight PRS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Berg, Bert


    The data sets are output of 3 different steps in the development a simulations of a PRS as described in chapter 3.3: Simulations in articulating light-weight PRS A case for Pedagogy-oriented and Rating-based Hybrid Recommendation Strategies Rob Nadolski, Bert van den Berg, Adriana Berlanga, Hans

  15. Compromising Composition: Articulating Quality and Practice in Distance Education Policy. (United States)

    Carnegie, Teena A. M.

    Policies exist in every aspect of people's lives from the landlord's policy on pets to the government's policy on literacy. As such, policy becomes the ideal place to begin to examine the articulation of distance education because policy inevitably marks the site where different kinds of political discourses and social practices intersect. By…

  16. Frida Kahlo: Visual Articulations of Suffering and Loss. (United States)

    Nixon, Lois LaCivita


    Illustrates the value of interdisciplinary approaches to patient care by exploring visual articulations of suffering as rendered by one artist. Makes general observations about the nature of humanities courses offered to medical students and depicts a visual portrayal of an illness story representing personal perspectives about patient suffering…

  17. [Treatment strategy of rotatory dislocation of atlantoaxial articulation in children]. (United States)

    Kang, Hui; Cai, Xian-hua; Xu, Feng; Huang, Yong


    To analyze appropriate strategy about treatment of rotatory dislocation of atlantoaxial articulation in children. From March 2005 to February 2009, 36 patients with rotatory dislocation of atlantoaxial articulation were retrospectively analyzed, including 25 males and 11 females, with the average age of 7.8 years (ranged 3 - 14 years). According to Fielding-Hawkins clinical classification, type I 24 cases, type II 8 cases, type III 2 cases, type IV 2 cases. All of the patients were assessed rotatory dislocation of atlantoaxial articulation and whether or not upper cervical spine malformation by X-ray, MRI and CT scan and three-dimensional reconstruction. Thirty-two cases received observational treatments which were reduction after cervical traction, without appearance of the deformity, without neurological symptoms. And another 4 serious cases (irreducible atlantoaxial dislocation or with os odontoideum) received posterior atlantoaxial fixed autograft fusion. Rotation of atlas decreased from 16.0° ± 4.4° (range, 5° to 26°) pre-therapy to 4.5° ± 1.5° (range, 0° to 8°) post-therapy in 35 cases, rotation of atlas had significant difference between pre-therapy and post-therapy (t = 14.75, P dislocation of atlantoaxial articulation in children. However, operative treatment should be considered in the following situations: irreducible atlantoaxial dislocation or patients with os odontoideum.

  18. Structural Parameter Identification of Articulated Arm Coordinate Measuring Machines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gao, Guanbin; Zhang, Huaishan; Wu, Xing; Guo, Yu


    ...]. This instrument has been widely used in the calibration and modeling of robotic systems. In particular, the articulated arm CMM (AACMM) is a new type of robot-like CMM with multiple degrees of freedom (DOF), which generally consists of a series of linkages connected by joints in series [2, 3]. The AACMM obtains the angles of joints ...

  19. Articulated arm and special multi-flags (corrected version)


    Pelletier, F.; Slayman, M.


    In this paper we give a kinematical illustration of some distributions called special multi-flags distributions. Precisely we define the kinematic model in angular coordinates of an articulated arm constituted of a series of (n + 1) segments in Rk+1 and construct the special multi-flag distribution associated to this model.

  20. Articulation and oromyofunctional behavior in children seeking orthodontic treatment. (United States)

    Van Lierde, K M; Luyten, A; D'haeseleer, E; Van Maele, G; Becue, L; Fonteyne, E; Corthals, P; De Pauw, G


    The purpose of this controlled study is to document articulation and oromyofunctional behavior in children seeking orthodontic treatment. In addition, relations between malocclusions, articulation, and oromyofunctional behavior are studied. The study included 56 children seeking orthodontic treatment. The control group, consisting of 54 subjects matched for age and gender, did not undergo orthodontic intervention. To determine the impact of the occlusion on speech, the Oral Health Impact Profile was used. Speech characteristics, intelligibility and several lip and tongue functions were analyzed using consensus evaluations. A significant impact of the occlusion on speech and more articulation disorders for/s,n,l,t/were found in the subjects seeking orthodontic treatment. Several other phenomena were seen more often in this group, namely more impaired lip positioning during swallowing, impaired tongue function at rest, mouth breathing, open mouth posture, lip sucking/biting, anterior tongue position at rest, and tongue thrust. Moreover, all children with a tongue thrust showed an anterior tongue position at rest. Children seeking orthodontics have articulatory and oromyofunctional disorders. To what extent a combined orthodontic and logopaedic treatment can result in optimal oral health (i.e. perfect dentofacial unit with perfect articulation) is subject for further multidisciplinary research. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Data-driven importance distributions for articulated tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauberg, Søren; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup


    We present two data-driven importance distributions for particle filterbased articulated tracking; one based on background subtraction, another on depth information. In order to keep the algorithms efficient, we represent human poses in terms of spatial joint positions. To ensure constant bone...

  2. Gaussian-like spatial priors for articulated tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauberg, Søren; Sommer, Stefan Horst; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup


    We present an analysis of the spatial covariance structure of an articulated motion prior in which joint angles have a known covariance structure. From this, a well-known, but often ignored, deficiency of the kinematic skeleton representation becomes clear: spatial variance not only depends on limb...

  3. Mapping Emplaced Articulated Concrete Mattress Using Geoelectrical and Electromagnetic Techniques. (United States)


    geoelectrical model is shown in Figure 25. To investigate the sensitivity of the numerical forward modeling methods to the electrical representation of... Geoelectrical and Electromagnetic Techniques by Keith J. Sjostrom, Dwain K. Butler, Robert F. Ballard Approved For Public Release; Distribution Is...documents. @ PRINTED ON RECYCLED PAPER Technical Report GL-98-17 August 1998 Mapping Emplaced Articulated Concrete Mattress Using Geoelectrical and

  4. The Pump-Valve Model of Speech Articulation. (United States)

    Dew, Donald

    The traditional respiration-phonation-articulation-resonation model of speech production which permeates introductory literature is not the only suitable model of this process. The pump-valve model, which derives from the acoustic theory of speech production, is a viable alternative. This newer model is also consistent with modern theories. It…

  5. Knowing nursing - The challenge of articulating knowing in practice. (United States)

    Carr, Susan M


    Learning and teaching in the clinical environment is complex and challenging. Development of the ability to articulate knowing in practice is essential to allow exploration of the richness and complexity of this type of nursing knowledge. This paper describes an innovative approach developed in collaboration with practitioners to assist in revealing hitherto hidden aspects of knowing nursing. The interpretive paradigm provides one means of voicing nursing knowledge, specifically by accessing the lived-experience of nursing. The approach is qualitatively different to reflection and critical incident as it focuses on the taken-for-granted rather than being problem based or problem solving. Hermeneutic phenomenology and constructivism are combined in an innovative model that allows experience to be captured and meaning to be explored, thereby providing a means to articulate knowing in practice. Practitioners involved in operationalising this model considered that it allowed them to articulate a level of practice knowledge which they had previously experienced difficulty in accessing. This approach to knowledge articulation may therefore be useful in assisting to widen the horizon of nursing knowledge.

  6. Statistical analysis and parameterization of the hygroscopic growth of the sub-micrometer urban background aerosol in Beijing (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Wu, Zhijun; Ma, Nan; Wu, Yusheng; Zeng, Limin; Zhao, Chunsheng; Wiedensohler, Alfred


    The take-up of water of aerosol particles plays an important role in heavy haze formation over North China Plain, since it is related with particle mass concentration, visibility degradation, and particle chemistry. In the present study, we investigated the size-resolved hygroscopic growth factor (HGF) of sub-micrometer aerosol particles (smaller than 350 nm) on a basis of 9-month Hygroscopicity-Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer measurement in the urban background atmosphere of Beijing. The mean hygroscopicity parameter (κ) values derived from averaging over the entire sampling period for particles of 50 nm, 75 nm, 100 nm, 150 nm, 250 nm, and 350 nm in diameters were 0.14 ± 0.07, 0.17 ± 0.05, 0.18 ± 0.06, 0.20 ± 0.07, 0.21 ± 0.09, and 0.23 ± 0.12, respectively, indicating the dominance of organics in the sub-micrometer urban aerosols. In the spring, summer, and autumn, the number fraction of hydrophilic particles increased with increasing particle size, resulting in an increasing trend of overall particle hygroscopicity with enhanced particle size. Differently, the overall mean κ values peaked in the range of 75-150 nm and decreased for particles larger than 150 nm in diameter during wintertime. Such size-dependency of κ in winter was related to the strong primary particle emissions from coal combustion during domestic heating period. The number fraction of hydrophobic particles such as freshly emitted soot decreased with increasing PM2.5 mass concentration, indicating aged and internal mixed particles were dominant in the severe particulate matter pollution. Parameterization schemes of the HGF as a function of relative humidity (RH) and particle size between 50 and 350 nm were determined for different seasons and pollution levels. The HGFs calculated from the parameterizations agree well with the measured HGFs at 20-90% RH. The parameterizations can be applied to determine the hygroscopic growth of aerosol particles at ambient conditions for the area

  7. A Collision-Free Path-Planning Method for an Articulated Mobile Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Quintero-Alvarez


    Full Text Available In previous works, we treated the collision-free path-planning problem for a nonholonomic mobile robot in a cluttered environment. We used a method based on a representation of the obstacles on the robot's velocity space. This representation is called Feasible Velocities Polygon (FVP. Every obstacle in the robot's influence zone is represented by a linear constraint on the robot's velocities such that a collision between the robot and the obstacle could be avoided. These constraints define a convex subset in the velocity space, the FVP. Every velocity vector in the FVP ensures a safe motion for the given obstacle configuration. The path-planning problem is solved by an optimization approach between the FVP and a reference velocity to reach the goal. In this paper, we have extended our work to an articulated mobile robot evolving in a cluttered environment. This robot is composed of a differential mobile robot and one or several modules that together form the trailer which are linked by off-center joints. This kind of robot is a strongly constrained system. Even in a free environment, under some circumstances, the robot may be blocked by its trailers in its progression towards the goal. The proposed approach, compared to other methods, has the main advantage of integrating anti-collision constraints between the articulated robot itself and the environment, in order to avoid and resolve dead-lock situations. For moving to the final position, the articulated mobile robot uses the FVP and a reference control law, to formulate the constraints method as a problem of minimal distance calculation. This formulation is then solved with the algorithm of minimal distance calculation proposed by Zeghloul (Zeghloul and Rambeaud, 1996. When a dead-locking situation arises and according to the robot–obstacle configuration, we have developed three different modules to solve these conditions. Each module uses a different approach to resolve the blocking

  8. Submicrometer Hollow Bioglass Cones Deposited by Radio Frequency Magnetron Sputtering: Formation Mechanism, Properties, and Prospective Biomedical Applications. (United States)

    Popa, A C; Stan, G E; Besleaga, C; Ion, L; Maraloiu, V A; Tulyaganov, D U; Ferreira, J M F


    This work reports on the unprecedented magnetron sputtering deposition of submicrometric hollow cones of bioactive glass at low temperature in the absence of any template or catalyst. The influence of sputtering conditions on the formation and development of bioglass cones was studied. It was shown that larger populations of well-developed cones could be achieved by increasing the argon sputtering pressure. A mechanism describing the growth of bioglass hollow cones is presented, offering the links for process control and reproducibility of the cone features. The composition, structure, and morphology of the as-synthesized hollow cones were investigated by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), grazing incidence geometry X-ray diffraction (GIXRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM)-selected area electron diffraction (SAED). The in vitro biological performance, assessed by degradation tests (ISO 10993-14) and cytocompatibility assays (ISO 10993-5) in endothelial cell cultures, was excellent. This allied with resorbability and the unique morphological features make the submicrometer hollow cones interesting candidate material devices for focal transitory permeabilization of the blood-brain barrier in the treatment of carcinoma and neurodegenerative disorders.

  9. Highly Localized Acoustic Streaming and Size-Selective Submicrometer Particle Concentration Using High Frequency Microscale Focused Acoustic Fields. (United States)

    Collins, David J; Ma, Zhichao; Ai, Ye


    Concentration and separation of particles and biological specimens are fundamental functions of micro/nanofluidic systems. Acoustic streaming is an effective and biocompatible way to create rapid microscale fluid motion and induce particle capture, though the >100 MHz frequencies required to directly generate acoustic body forces on the microscale have traditionally been difficult to generate and localize in a way that is amenable to efficient generation of streaming. Moreover, acoustic, hydrodynamic, and electrical forces as typically applied have difficulty manipulating specimens in the submicrometer regime. In this work, we introduce highly focused traveling surface acoustic waves (SAW) at high frequencies between 193 and 636 MHz for efficient and highly localized production of acoustic streaming vortices on microfluidic length scales. Concentration occurs via a novel mechanism, whereby the combined acoustic radiation and streaming field results in size-selective aggregation in fluid streamlines in the vicinity of a high-amplitude acoustic beam, as opposed to previous acoustic radiation induced particle concentration where objects typically migrate toward minimum pressure locations. Though the acoustic streaming is induced by a traveling wave, we are able to manipulate particles an order of magnitude smaller than possible using the traveling wave force alone. We experimentally and theoretically examine the range of particle sizes that can be captured in fluid streamlines using this technique, with rapid particle concentration demonstrated down to 300 nm diameters. We also demonstrate that locations of trapping and concentration are size-dependent, which is attributed to the combined effects of the acoustic streaming and acoustic forces.

  10. A method to transfer an individual graphene flake to a target position with a precision of sub-micrometer (United States)

    Wang, Yubing; Yin, Weihong; Han, Qin; Yang, Xiaohong; Ye, Han; Lü, Qianqian; Yin, Dongdong


    Graphene field-effect transistors have been intensively studied. However, in order to fabricate devices with more complicated structures, such as the integration with waveguide and other two-dimensional materials, we need to transfer the exfoliated graphene samples to a target position. Due to the small area of exfoliated graphene and its random distribution, the transfer method requires rather high precision. In this paper, we systematically study a method to selectively transfer mechanically exfoliated graphene samples to a target position with a precision of sub-micrometer. To characterize the doping level of this method, we transfer graphene flakes to pre-patterned metal electrodes, forming graphene field-effect transistors. The hole doping of graphene is calculated to be 2.16 × {10}12{{{cm}}}-2. In addition, we fabricate a waveguide-integrated multilayer graphene photodetector to demonstrate the viability and accuracy of this method. A photocurrent as high as 0.4 μA is obtained, corresponding to a photoresponsivity of 0.48 mA/W. The device performs uniformly in nine illumination cycles. Project supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (No. 2016YFB0402404), the High-Tech Research and Development Program of China (Nos. 2013AA031401, 2015AA016902, 2015AA016904), and the National Natural Foundation of China (Nos. 61674136, 61176053, 61274069, 61435002).

  11. Gender Recognition from Unconstrained and Articulated Human Body (United States)

    Wu, Qin; Guo, Guodong


    Gender recognition has many useful applications, ranging from business intelligence to image search and social activity analysis. Traditional research on gender recognition focuses on face images in a constrained environment. This paper proposes a method for gender recognition in articulated human body images acquired from an unconstrained environment in the real world. A systematic study of some critical issues in body-based gender recognition, such as which body parts are informative, how many body parts are needed to combine together, and what representations are good for articulated body-based gender recognition, is also presented. This paper also pursues data fusion schemes and efficient feature dimensionality reduction based on the partial least squares estimation. Extensive experiments are performed on two unconstrained databases which have not been explored before for gender recognition. PMID:24977203

  12. Silent articulation modulates auditory and audiovisual speech perception. (United States)

    Sato, Marc; Troille, Emilie; Ménard, Lucie; Cathiard, Marie-Agnès; Gracco, Vincent


    The concept of an internal forward model that internally simulates the sensory consequences of an action is a central idea in speech motor control. Consistent with this hypothesis, silent articulation has been shown to modulate activity of the auditory cortex and to improve the auditory identification of concordant speech sounds, when embedded in white noise. In the present study, we replicated and extended this behavioral finding by showing that silently articulating a syllable in synchrony with the presentation of a concordant auditory and/or visually ambiguous speech stimulus improves its identification. Our results further demonstrate that, even in the case of perfect perceptual identification, concurrent mouthing of a syllable speeds up the perceptual processing of a concordant speech stimulus. These results reflect multisensory-motor interactions during speech perception and provide new behavioral arguments for internally generated sensory predictions during silent speech production.

  13. Design and Construction of Passively Articulated Ornithopter Wings (United States)

    Mastro, Alexander Timothy

    Birds, bats, and insects are able to fly efficiently and execute impressive in-flight, landing, and takeoff maneuvers with apparent ease through actuation of their highly articulated wings. This contrasts the approach used to enable the flight of comparatively simple man-made rotary and fixed wing aircraft. The complex aerodynamics underlying flapping-based flight pose an everpresent challenge to scientists hoping to reveal the secrets of animal flight. Despite this, interest in engineering aircraft on the bird and insect scale is higher than ever. Herein, I present my attempt to design and construct bioinspired passively articulated ornithopter wings. Two different hinge-based joint design concepts are investigated across several design iterations. The advantages and disadvantages of each implementation are discussed. Finally, the necessary instrumentation to analyze the performance of the wings is designed and fabricated, followed by testing of the wings.

  14. Acquisition et didactique des langues : articulations, appropriation et dynamiques


    Sauvage, Jérémi


    Le premier chapitre, intitulé Itinéraire et cadre de recherche pour une articulation de l’acquisition et de la didactique des langues – une seconde introduction s’articule de manière chronologique. L’objectif est ici de montrer comment la réflexion générale a été nourrie par une expérience professionnelle diversifiée. Ainsi, les premiers résultats sur les variations articulatoires constatées dans la parole de jeunes enfants présentés dans le doctorat posent les questions du rôle et du statut ...

  15. Molecular Articulation in Response to Interactive Atomic Forces in Docker (United States)


    than the calculations.4-15 Figure 5-1: The number of CPU cycles used by the articulation functions for six test case consisting of 13, 92,154,272,397...and 608 atoms .............................................................. 5-3 Figure 5-2: The percentage of the total number of CPU cycles in...The ARM server is run on an Intel 80386 and is responsible for controlling the PER-Force force-reflective arm which is the interface allowing the

  16. A method for articulating and displaying the human spine. (United States)

    Mann, Robert W


    An inexpensive and effective method for articulating a dry human spine is described. By constructing a Styrofoam spine tray, analysts can now accurately position and align each vertebra in correct anatomical order, allow for gaps because of missing vertebrae, and lay out the spine for documentation and photography. The spine tray provides analysts with a quick, easy, and professional quality method for aligning and orienting the human spine in the field and laboratory.

  17. Articulated Arm Coordinate Measuring Machine Calibration by Laser Tracker Multilateration


    Jorge Santolaria; Majarena, Ana C.; David Samper; Agustín Brau; Jesús Velázquez


    A new procedure for the calibration of an articulated arm coordinate measuring machine (AACMM) is presented in this paper. First, a self-calibration algorithm of four laser trackers (LTs) is developed. The spatial localization of a retroreflector target, placed in different positions within the workspace, is determined by means of a geometric multilateration system constructed from the four LTs. Next, a nonlinear optimization algorithm for the identification procedure of the AACMM is explaine...

  18. The effect of skeletal pattern on determining articulator settings for prosthodontic rehabilitation: an in vivo study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Canning, Tom


    During extensive prosthodontic treatment, the use of an accurately adjusted articulator is recommended to simulate mandibular movements. This clinical study was undertaken to assess any possible effect of the underlying skeletal pattern on programming articulator settings.

  19. Articulation Therapy Using Distinctive Feature Analysis to Structure the Training Program: Two Case Studies. (United States)

    Ruder, Kenneth F.; Bunce, Betty H.


    Two case reports of 4 and 5 year old children describe the rationale and procedures for structuring an articulation therapy program on the basis of distinctive feature analysis of the child's articulation problems. (Author/DB)

  20. Open software architecture for east articulated maintenance arm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jing, E-mail: [Institute of Plasma Physics Chinese Academy of Sciences, 350 Shushanhu Rd Hefei Anhui (China); Lappeenranta University of Technology, Skinnarilankatu 34 Lappeenranta (Finland); Wu, Huapeng [Lappeenranta University of Technology, Skinnarilankatu 34 Lappeenranta (Finland); Song, Yuntao [Institute of Plasma Physics Chinese Academy of Sciences, 350 Shushanhu Rd Hefei Anhui (China); Li, Ming [Lappeenranta University of Technology, Skinnarilankatu 34 Lappeenranta (Finland); Yang, Yang [Institute of Plasma Physics Chinese Academy of Sciences, 350 Shushanhu Rd Hefei Anhui (China); Alcina, Daniel A.M. [Lappeenranta University of Technology, Skinnarilankatu 34 Lappeenranta (Finland)


    Highlights: • A software requirement of serial-articulated robot for EAST assembly and maintains is presented. • A open software architecture of the robot is developed. • A component-based model distribution system with real-time communication of the robot is constructed. - Abstract: For the inside inspection and the maintenance of vacuum vessel in the EAST, an articulated maintenance arm is developed. In this article, an open software architecture developed for the EAST articulated maintenance arm (EAMA) is described, which offers a robust and proper performance and easy-going experience based on standard open robotic platform OROCOS. The paper presents a component-based model software architecture using multi-layer structure: end layer, up layer, middle, and down layer. In the end layer the components are defined off-line in the task planner manner. The components in up layer complete the function of trajectory plan. The CORBA, as a communication framework, is adopted to exchange the data between the distributed components. The contributors use Real-Time Workshop from the MATLAB/Simulink to generate the components in the middle layer. Real-time Toolkit guarantees control applications running in the hard real-time mode. Ethernets and the CAN bus are used for data transfer in the down layer, where the components implement the hardware functions. The distributed architecture of control system associates each processing node with each joint, which is mapped to a component with all functioning features of the framework.

  1. Primary face motor area as the motor representation of articulation. (United States)

    Terao, Yasuo; Ugawa, Yoshikazu; Yamamoto, Tomotaka; Sakurai, Yasuhisa; Masumoto, Tomohiko; Abe, Osamu; Masutani, Yoshitaka; Aoki, Shigeki; Tsuji, Shoji


    No clinical data have yet been presented to show that a lesion localized to the primary motor area (M1) can cause severe transient impairment of articulation, although a motor representation for articulation has been suggested to exist within M1. Here we describe three cases of patients who developed severe dysarthria, temporarily mimicking speech arrest or aphemia, due to a localized brain lesion near the left face representation of the human primary motor cortex (face-M1). Speech was slow, effortful, lacking normal prosody, and more affected than expected from the degree of facial or tongue palsy. There was a mild deficit in tongue movements in the sagittal plane that impaired palatolingual contact and rapid tongue movements. The speech disturbance was limited to verbal output, without aphasia or orofacial apraxia. Overlay of magnetic resonance images revealed a localized cortical region near face-M1, which displayed high intensity on diffusion weighted images, while the main portion of the corticobulbar fibers arising from the lower third of the motor cortex was preserved. The cases suggest the existence of a localized brain region specialized for articulation near face-M1. Cortico-cortical fibers connecting face-M1 with the lower premotor areas including Broca's area may also be important for articulatory control.

  2. Oral approach-avoidance: affective consequences of muscular articulation dynamics. (United States)

    Topolinski, Sascha; Maschmann, Ira Theresa; Pecher, Diane; Winkielman, Piotr


    Can mouth movements shape attitudes? When people articulate different consonants (e.g., B or K) they press the tongue and the lips against various spots in the mouth. This allows for construction of words that feature systematic wanderings of consonantal stricture spots either from the front to the rear (inward; e.g., BENOKA) or from the rear to the front (outward; e.g., KENOBA) of the mouth. These wanderings of muscular strictures resemble the oral kinematics during either deglution (swallowing-like, inward movement) or expectoration (spitting-like, outward movement). Thus, we predicted that the articulation of inward and outward words induces motivational states associated with deglutition and expectoration--namely, approach and avoidance--which was tested in 9 experiments (total N = 822). Inward words were preferred over outward words, being labeled as nonsense words (Experiments 1, 4, 5, 6, and 9), company names (Experiment 2), or person names (Experiments 3, 7, and 8), with control words falling in between (Experiment 5). As a social-behavioral consequence, ostensible chat partners were more often chosen to interact with when having inward compared to outward names (Experiment 7). The effect was found in German-speaking (Experiments 1-5) and English-speaking (Experiment 6) samples, and it occurred even under silent reading (all experiments) and for negatively labeled targets (names of villains; Experiment 8). Showing articulation simulations as being the causal undercurrent, this effect was absent in aphasia patients who lacked covert subvocalizations (Experiment 9).

  3. Compliant articulation structure using superelastic NiTiNOL (United States)

    Liu, Jiening; Hall, Benjamin; Frecker, Mary; Reutzel, Edward W.


    A device that can provide articulation to surgical tool tips is needed in natural orifice transluminal endoscopy surgery (NOTES). In this paper, we propose a compliant articulation structure that uses superelastic NiTiNOL to achieve a large deflection angle and force in a compact size. Six geometric parameters are used to define this structure, and constraints based on the fabrication process are imposed. Using finite element analysis, a family of designs is evaluated in terms of the free deflection angle and blocked force. The same family of designs is evaluated for both NiTiNOL and stainless steel. It can be seen that significant benefits are observed when using NiTiNOL compared to 316 stainless steel; a maximum free deflection angle of 64.8° and maximum blocked force of 24.7 N are predicted. The structures are designed to avoid stress concentrations, and design guidelines are recommended. The meso-scale articulation structure is fabricated using both a Coherent Avia Q-switched, 355 nm laser and a Myachi Unitek 200 W single mode pulsed fiber laser with active water cooling. Select fabricated structures are then tested to validate the finite element models.

  4. Design of a Multitasking Robotic Platform with Flexible Arms and Articulated Head for Minimally Invasive Surgery (United States)

    Shang, Jianzhong; Payne, Christopher J.; Clark, James; Noonan, David P.; Kwok, Ka-Wai; Darzi, Ara; Yang, Guang-Zhong


    This paper describes a multitasking robotic platform for Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS). The device is designed to be introduced through a standard trocar port. Once the device is inserted to the desired surgical site, it can be reconfigured by lifting an articulated section, and protruding two tendon driven flexible arms. Each of the arms holds an interchangeable surgical instrument. The articulated section features a 2 Degrees-of-Freedom (DoF) universal joint followed by a single DoF yaw joint. It incorporates an on-board camera and LED light source at the distal end, leaving a Ø3mm channel for an additional instrument. The main shaft of the robot is largely hollow, leaving ample space for the insertion of two tendon driven flexible arms integrated with surgical instruments. The ex-vivo and in-vivo experiments demonstrate the potential clinical value of the device for performing surgical tasks through single incision or natural orifice transluminal procedures. PMID:24748998

  5. Beam rider for an Articulated Robot Manipulator (ARM) accurate positioning of long flexible manipulators (United States)

    Malachowski, M. J.


    Laser beam positioning and beam rider modules were incorporated into the long hollow flexible segment of an articulated robot manipulator (ARM). Using a single laser beam, the system determined the position of the distal ARM endtip, with millimetric precision, in six degrees of freedom, at distances of up to 10 meters. Preliminary designs, using space rated technology for the critical systems, of a two segmented physical ARM, with a single and a dual degree of freedom articulation, were developed, prototyped, and tested. To control the positioning of the physical ARM, an indirect adaptive controller, which used the mismatch between the position of the laser beam under static and dynamic conditions, was devised. To predict the behavior of the system and test the concept, a computer simulation model was constructed. A hierarchical artificially intelligent real time ADA operating system program structure was created. The software was designed for implementation on a dedicated VME bus based Intel 80386 administered parallel processing multi-tasking computer system.

  6. Dealing with Phrase Level Co-Articulation (PLC) in speech recognition: a first approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ordelman, Roeland J.F.; van Hessen, Adrianus J.; van Leeuwen, David A.; Robinson, Tony; Renals, Steve


    Whereas nowadays within-word co-articulation effects are usually sufficiently dealt with in automatic speech recognition, this is not always the case with phrase level co-articulation effects (PLC). This paper describes a first approach in dealing with phrase level co-articulation by applying these

  7. Factors in the Effectiveness of Articulation Therapy with Educable Retarded Children. Final Report. (United States)

    Sommers, Ronald K.

    To determine the effectiveness of group articulation therapy, 180 educable retarded children in special classes (average age 9, average IQ 70), all of whom had articulation problems, were rated on the Carter/Buck Prognostic Speech Test and a picture version of McDonald's deep test of articulation. Subjects were then randomly assigned to one of…

  8. Articulating What Infants Attune to in Native Speech (United States)

    Best, Catherine T.; Goldstein, Louis M.; Nam, Hosung; Tyler, Michael D.


    ABSTRACT To become language users, infants must embrace the integrality of speech perception and production. That they do so, and quite rapidly, is implied by the native-language attunement they achieve in each domain by 6–12 months. Yet research has most often addressed one or the other domain, rarely how they interrelate. Moreover, mainstream assumptions that perception relies on acoustic patterns whereas production involves motor patterns entail that the infant would have to translate incommensurable information to grasp the perception–production relationship. We posit the more parsimonious view that both domains depend on commensurate articulatory information. Our proposed framework combines principles of the Perceptual Assimilation Model (PAM) and Articulatory Phonology (AP). According to PAM, infants attune to articulatory information in native speech and detect similarities of nonnative phones to native articulatory patterns. The AP premise that gestures of the speech organs are the basic elements of phonology offers articulatory similarity metrics while satisfying the requirement that phonological information be discrete and contrastive: (a) distinct articulatory organs produce vocal tract constrictions and (b) phonological contrasts recruit different articulators and/or constrictions of a given articulator that differ in degree or location. Various lines of research suggest young children perceive articulatory information, which guides their productions: discrimination of between- versus within-organ contrasts, simulations of attunement to language-specific articulatory distributions, multimodal speech perception, oral/vocal imitation, and perceptual effects of articulator activation or suppression. We conclude that articulatory gesture information serves as the foundation for developmental integrality of speech perception and production. PMID:28367052

  9. From intricate to integrated: Biofabrication of articulating joints (United States)

    Groen, Wilhelmina Margaretha; Diloksumpan, Paweena; van Weeren, Paul René; Levato, Riccardo


    ABSTRACT Articulating joints owe their function to the specialized architecture and the complex interplay between multiple tissues including cartilage, bone and synovium. Especially the cartilage component has limited self‐healing capacity and damage often leads to the onset of osteoarthritis, eventually resulting in failure of the joint as an organ. Although in its infancy, biofabrication has emerged as a promising technology to reproduce the intricate organization of the joint, thus enabling the introduction of novel surgical treatments, regenerative therapies, and new sets of tools to enhance our understanding of joint physiology and pathology. Herein, we address the current challenges to recapitulate the complexity of articulating joints and how biofabrication could overcome them. The combination of multiple materials, biological cues and cells in a layer‐by‐layer fashion, can assist in reproducing both the zonal organization of cartilage and the gradual transition from resilient cartilage toward the subchondral bone in biofabricated osteochondral grafts. In this way, optimal integration of engineered constructs with the natural surrounding tissues can be obtained. Mechanical characteristics, including the smoothness and low friction that are hallmarks of the articular surface, can be tuned with multi‐head or hybrid printers by controlling the spatial patterning of printed structures. Moreover, biofabrication can use digital medical images as blueprints for printing patient‐specific implants. Finally, the current rapid advances in biofabrication hold significant potential for developing joint‐on‐a‐chip models for personalized medicine and drug testing or even for the creation of implants that may be used to treat larger parts of the articulating joint. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Orthopaedic Research Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the Orthopaedic Research Society. J Orthop Res 35:2089–2097, 2017. PMID:28621834


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesela MILANKOV


    Full Text Available Speech and language development is a good indicator of child’s cognitive development. The risk factors influencing development and functioning of prematurely born children are multiple. In addition to articulation disorder, there are motoric, conginitive and social aspects of delayed development. Premature babies are born before they physically ready to leave the womb. However, most babies born after about 26 weeks of gestational age have chances for survival, but they are at a greater risk of medical complications, since the earlier children are born, the less developed their organs are. Aim: To demonstrate basic parameters, establish differences, determine characteristics of disorder of sound articulation in fullterm and preterm children. Methodology: Research was conducted at the Clinics of Child’s Habilitation and Rehabilitation in Novi Sad. The prospective research study was carried out comprising 61 children with mean age of 4 years. The study inclusion criteria were gestational age and birth weight. Regarding these parameters, the children without major neurlologic or system disabilities were included, and they were Serbian speaking. The sample comprised 31 children with GS≥38 weeks and body weight of ≥3000 g, while the preterm group comprised 30 children with GS≤32 weeks and body weight of ≤1500 g. Results of the study indicate to a difference between fullterm children and preterm children with regard to articulation disorders, of which the statistically significant was a sound distortion. The overall sample showed that the substitution with distortion was most frequent disorder, while the interdental sigmatism was the most represented one. Conclusion: The obtained results lead to conclusion that preterm children, being a high-risk group, need to be followed up by age two, and provided timely proffesional help at pre-school age, since numerous adverse factors affect their overall development.

  11. Modeling, Simulation and Position Control of 3DOF Articulated Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Sadegh Lafmejani


    Full Text Available In this paper, the modeling, simulation and control of 3 degrees of freedom articulated robotic manipulator have been studied. First, we extracted kinematics and dynamics equations of the mentioned manipulator by using the Lagrange method. In order to validate the analytical model of the manipulator we compared the model simulated in the simulation environment of Matlab with the model was simulated with the SimMechanics toolbox. A sample path has been designed for analyzing the tracking subject. The system has been linearized with feedback linearization and then a PID controller was applied to track a reference trajectory. Finally, the control results have been compared with a nonlinear PID controller.

  12. Analysing co-articulation using frame-based feature trajectories

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Badenhorst, J


    Full Text Available for the first Fig. 1. Gradual trajectories revealing strong co-articulation for the vowel- vowel phone transition. Fig. 2. Steep trajectory slopes revealing the definite transition of the vowel- fricative class phone, similarly red crosses correspond... to frame-based values for the second phone label and the phone transition boundary as identified by the HMM-based ASR system is indicated as a vertical line. Figure 1 represents an example of the phone transition /oy/- /er/ within the vowel-vowel class...

  13. Optimization of Front Axle Suspension System of Articulated Dump Truck

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langer, Thomas Heegaard; Christensen, Brian B.; Mouritsen, Ole Ø.


    Manufacturers of construction machinery are challenged to accommodate legal requirements on the vibration exposure associated with their products. For such machines a crucial performance parameter is the whole body vibration level that the operator is subjected to. This paper presents results from...... ongoing research collaboration between Hydrema Produktion A/S, Aalborg University and the University of Agder on comfort improvement. The main goal of the research project is to improve ride comfort of articulated construction machinery by use of multibody simulation models. In this paper the application...

  14. Audio Logo Recognition, Reduced Articulation and Coding Orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Anders; Hansen, Allan Grutt


    connected to notions of brand recognisability and brand identification, thus resulting in the concept of ‘Reduced Articulation Form’ (RAF). The concept has been tested empirically through a survey of 137 upper secondary school students. On the basis of a conditioning experiment, manipulating five existing...... audio logos in terms of tempo, rhythm, pitch and timbre, the students filled out a structured questionnaire and assessed at which condition they were able to recognise the logos and the corresponding brands. The results indicated that pitch is a much more recognisable trait than rhythm. Also, while...

  15. A blind algorithm for recovering articulator positions from acoustics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogden, John E [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    MIMICRI is a signal-processing algorithm that has been shown to blindly infer and invert memoryless nonlinear functions of unobservable bandlimited signals, such as the mapping from the unobservable positions of the speech articulators to observable speech sounds. We review results of using MIMICRI on toy problems and on human speech data. We note that MIMICRI requires that the user specify two parameters: the dimensionality and pass-band of the unobservable signals. We show how to use cross-validation to help estimate the passband. An unexpected consequence of this work is that it helps separate signals with overlapping frequency bands.

  16. Electropalatography for articulation disorders associated with cleft palate. (United States)

    Lee, Alice S-Y; Law, James; Gibbon, Fiona E


    Cleft palate is the most common congenital deformity of the face. It could affect speech acquisition, resulting in articulation errors that could persist into adulthood. Electropalatography (EPG) has been used in speech therapy with individuals who have articulation problems that are unresponsive to "standard treatment" procedures. To determine the effectiveness of speech intervention using electropalatography (EPG) for treating articulation errors in individuals with repaired cleft palate. The following databases were searched: CENTRAL 2008 (Issue1), MEDLINE 1966 to March 2008, EMBASE 1974 to March 2008, CINAHL 1982 to March 2008, PsycINFO 1967 to March 2008 and eight other databases. We handsearched Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics (1987 to 2008, Issue 2), Cleft Palate Journal/ Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal (1980 to 2008, Issue 1), and the International Journal of Language and Communication Disorders (1980 to 2008, Issue 1). We searched the EPG bibliography (Gibbon 2007). We reviewed reference lists of relevant articles and approached researchers to identify other possible published and unpublished studies. Randomised controlled studies comparing EPG intervention to no treatment, delayed treatment, "standard treatment", or alternative treatment techniques for managing articulation problems associated with cleft palate in children or adults. One author searched the titles and abstracts and assessed trial quality. A second author checked judgements; disagreement was resolved through discussion. Three authors were available to examine any potential trials for possible inclusion in the review. One trial using parallel design met the inclusion criteria of this review; no meta-analysis was performed. The study reported that fewer therapy sessions were needed to achieve the treatment goals for the EPG therapy and frication display method (N = 2), followed by EPG therapy (N = 2) and "standard treatment" (N = 2). The included trial was a small-scaled study and there

  17. Optimal design of passive gravity compensation system for articulated robots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jin Gyun; Lee, Jae Young; Kim, Sang Hyun; Kim, Sung Rak [Hyundai Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    In this paper, the optimal design of a spring type gravity compensation system for an articulated robot is presented. Sequential quadratic programming (SQP) is adopted to resolve various nonlinear constraints in spring design such as stress, buckling, and fatigue constraints, and to reduce computation time. In addition, continuous relaxation method is used to explain the integer valued design variables. The simulation results show that the gravity compensation system designed by proposed method improves the performance effectively without additional weight gain in the main workspace.

  18. Error Compensation on Probe Parameters of Articulated Arm CMM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Dateng


    Full Text Available The error compensations on probe parameters were proposed to improve the measurement accuracy of an articulated arm coordinate measuring machines (AACMM. An AACMM’s probe parameters were analyzed and a measurement model including probe parameters solely was built. A simple cone socket components were used as a calibration tool and the LM algorithm was edited to solve the probe parameters. The results show that the average measurement error dealt with the probe parameters recalibration is 0.044mm, and its standard deviation is 0.050mm. They have increased by about 31% and 33% than those without recalibration.

  19. Articulated pipes conveying fluid pulsating with high frequency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard


    Stability and nonlinear dynamics of two articulated pipes conveying fluid with a high-frequency pulsating component is investigated. The non-autonomous model equations are converted into autonomous equations by approximating the fast excitation terms with slowly varying terms. The downward hangin...... is shown to affect the nonlinear behavior of the system, e.g. bifurcation types can change from supercritical to subcritical, creating several coexisting stable solutions and also anti-symmetrical flutter may appear.......Stability and nonlinear dynamics of two articulated pipes conveying fluid with a high-frequency pulsating component is investigated. The non-autonomous model equations are converted into autonomous equations by approximating the fast excitation terms with slowly varying terms. The downward hanging....... An approximate nonlinear solution for small-amplitude flutter oscillations is obtained using a fifth-order multiple scales perturbation method, and large-amplitude oscillations are examined by numerical integration of the autonomous model equations, using a path-following algorithm. The pulsating fluid component...

  20. Parametric Dependencies in Aero-Elastic, Articulated, Flapping Flight (United States)

    Willis, D. J.; Persson, P.; Peraire, J.; Breuer, K. S.


    Aero-elastic coupling and wing articulation both play a vital role in the generation of lift and propulsion in birds, bats and fish. We present results from a computational study that employs several tools of varying fidelity to explore the role of flexible structures on the performance and efficiency of bird and bat flight mechanics. The tools (both 2-D and 3-D) include a Wake only ``Betz'' analysis following the work of Hall, Pigott and Hall (J. Aircaft, 1998), a potential flow model coupled to a free-vortex wake (Willis, Peraire & White, AIAA 2005-0854), and lastly, a discontinuous Galerkin solver (Persson & Peraire, AIAA 2006-0113) for the full Navier-Stokes equations. Structural models include springs, beams and membranes to represent compliant biological structures. The results demonstrate the changes in efficiency that can be achieved by different parametric variations in the flight behavior, including the effects of increasing kinematic degrees of freedom (e.g. articulated wings) and the effect of compliance in wing and skeletal structures.

  1. Evaluation of articulation simulation system using artificial maxillectomy models. (United States)

    Elbashti, M E; Hattori, M; Sumita, Y I; Taniguchi, H


    Acoustic evaluation is valuable for guiding the treatment of maxillofacial defects and determining the effectiveness of rehabilitation with an obturator prosthesis. Model simulations are important in terms of pre-surgical planning and pre- and post-operative speech function. This study aimed to evaluate the acoustic characteristics of voice generated by an articulation simulation system using a vocal tract model with or without artificial maxillectomy defects. More specifically, we aimed to establish a speech simulation system for maxillectomy defect models that both surgeons and maxillofacial prosthodontists can use in guiding treatment planning. Artificially simulated maxillectomy defects were prepared according to Aramany's classification (Classes I-VI) in a three-dimensional vocal tract plaster model of a subject uttering the vowel /a/. Formant and nasalance acoustic data were analysed using Computerized Speech Lab and the Nasometer, respectively. Formants and nasalance of simulated /a/ sounds were successfully detected and analysed. Values of Formants 1 and 2 for the non-defect model were 675.43 and 976.64 Hz, respectively. Median values of Formants 1 and 2 for the defect models were 634.36 and 1026.84 Hz, respectively. Nasalance was 11% in the non-defect model, whereas median nasalance was 28% in the defect models. The results suggest that an articulation simulation system can be used to help surgeons and maxillofacial prosthodontists to plan post-surgical defects that will be facilitate maxillofacial rehabilitation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Rethinking care through social reproduction: articulating circuits of migration. (United States)

    Kofman, Eleonore


    Care has come to dominate much feminist research on globalized migrations and the transfer of labor from the South to the North, while the older concept of reproduction had been pushed into the background but is now becoming the subject of debates on the commodification of care in the household and changes in welfare state policies. This article argues that we could achieve a better understanding of the different modalities and trajectories of care in the reproduction of individuals, families, and communities, both of migrant and nonmigrant populations by articulating the diverse circuits of migration, in particular that of labor and the family. In doing this, I go back to the earlier North American writing on racialized minorities and migrants and stratified social reproduction. I also explore insights from current Asian studies of gendered circuits of migration connecting labor and marriage migrations as well as the notion of global householding that highlights the gender politics of social reproduction operating within and beyond households in institutional and welfare architectures. In contrast to Asia, there has relatively been little exploration in European studies of the articulation of labor and family migrations through the lens of social reproduction. However, connecting the different types of migration enables us to achieve a more complex understanding of care trajectories and their contribution to social reproduction.

  3. Vertical repositioning accuracy of magnetic mounting systems on 4 articulator models. (United States)

    Lee, Wonsup; Kwon, Ho-Beom


    Research of the ability of a cast mounted on an articulator on maintaining the identical position of a cast mounted on an articulator after repeated repositioning is lacking, despite the possible effects this may have on the occlusion of a mounted cast. The purpose of this in vitro study was to verify and compare the vertical repositioning accuracy of 4 different, commercially available articulator magnetic mounting plate systems. Four articulators and their associated magnetic mounting plates were selected for the study. These were the Artex AR articulator (Amann Girrbach AG), the Denar Mark II articulator (Whip Mix Corp), the Kavo Protar Evo articulator (Kavo Dental GmbH), and the SAM3 articulator (SAM Präzisionstechnik GmbH). Three new magnetic mounting plates were prepared for each articulator system. The repositioning accuracy of each mounting plate was evaluated by comparing the standard deviation of the vertical distances measured between the mounting plate and a laser displacement sensor. The lower arm of the articulator was secured, and the vertical distance was measured by positioning the laser displacement sensor positioned vertically above the mounting plate. Once the vertical distance was measured, the mounting plate was detached from the articulator and reattached manually to prepare for the next measurement. This procedure was repeated 30 times for each of the 3 magnetic mounting plates. Data were analyzed by ANOVA for 2-stage nested design and the Levene test (α=.05). Significant differences were detected among articulator systems and between magnetic mounting plates of the same type. The standard deviations of the measurements made with the Artex AR articulator, Denar Mark II articulator, Kavo Protar Evo articulator, and SAM3 articulator were 0.0027, 0.0308, 0.0214, and 0.0215 mm, respectively. Thus, the repositioning accuracy could be ranked in the order as follows: Artex AR, Kavo Protar Evo, SAM3, and Denar Mark II. The position of the

  4. Hygroscopicity of the submicrometer aerosol at the high-alpine site Jungfraujoch, 3580 m a.s.l., Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sjogren


    Full Text Available Data from measurements of hygroscopic growth of submicrometer aerosol with a hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA during four campaigns at the high alpine research station Jungfraujoch, Switzerland, are presented. The campaigns took place during the years 2000, 2002, 2004 and 2005, each lasting approximately one month. Hygroscopic growth factors (GF, i.e. the relative change in particle diameter from dry diameter, D0, to diameter measured at higher relative humidity, RH are presented for three distinct air mass types, namely for: 1 free tropospheric winter conditions, 2 planetary boundary layer influenced air masses (during a summer period and 3 Saharan dust events (SDE. The GF values at 85% RH (D0=100 nm were 1.40±0.11 and 1.29±0.08 for the first two situations while for SDE a bimodal GF distribution was often found. No phase changes were observed when the RH was varied between 10–90%, and the continuous water uptake could be well described with a single-parameter empirical model. The frequency distributions of the average hygroscopic growth factors and the width of the retrieved growth factor distributions (indicating whether the aerosol is internally or externally mixed are presented, which can be used for modeling purposes.

    Measurements of size resolved chemical composition were performed with an aerosol mass spectrometer in parallel to the GF measurements. This made it possible to estimate the apparent ensemble mean GF of the organics (GForg using inverse ZSR (Zdanovskii-Stokes-Robinson modeling. GForg was found to be ~1.20 at aw=0.85, which is at the upper end of previous laboratory and field data though still in agreement with the highly aged and oxidized nature of the Jungfraujoch aerosol.

  5. Comparison of 5 types of interocclusal recording materials on the accuracy of articulation of digital models. (United States)

    Sweeney, Sunya; Smith, Derek K; Messersmith, Marion


    One method of articulating digital models is to use a digitized interocclusal record. However, the accuracy of different interocclusal record materials to articulate digital models has yet to be evaluated. A plastic typodont was modified with reference points for interarch measurements and articulated in maximum intercuspal position on a semiadjustable hinge articulator. Twenty-five interocclusal records of each of the 5 experimental materials (Regisil Rigid, Dentsply, York, Pa; Futar Scan, Kettenbach, Huntington Beach, Calif; Byte Right, Motion View Software, Chattanooga, Tenn; Aluwax, Aluwax Dental Products, Allendale, Mich; and Beauty Pink wax, Miltex, York, Pa) were made on the mounted typodont and digitized using an Ortho Insight 3D laser surface scanner (Motion View Software). Motion View Software was used to articulate the digital models by matching points from the models to the digitized interocclusal records. The distances between corresponding interarch markers were measured and compared with the measurements taken on the physical typodont (gold standard). Polyvinyl siloxane materials were significantly more likely to lead to successful articulation than were the other interocclusal record materials. Statistical analysis showed a significant effect of the bite registration material on the probability of success of the articulation (P articulating digital models according to the process described in this study. Using a bite registration to articulate digital models should be considered the first step in the articulation process, with a likely residual need to manipulate the models manually. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Audiovisual materials are effective for enhancing the correction of articulation disorders in children with cleft palate. (United States)

    Pamplona, María Del Carmen; Ysunza, Pablo Antonio; Morales, Santiago


    Children with cleft palate frequently show speech disorders known as compensatory articulation. Compensatory articulation requires a prolonged period of speech intervention that should include reinforcement at home. However, frequently relatives do not know how to work with their children at home. To study whether the use of audiovisual materials especially designed for complementing speech pathology treatment in children with compensatory articulation can be effective for stimulating articulation practice at home and consequently enhancing speech normalization in children with cleft palate. Eighty-two patients with compensatory articulation were studied. Patients were randomly divided into two groups. Both groups received speech pathology treatment aimed to correct articulation placement. In addition, patients from the active group received a set of audiovisual materials to be used at home. Parents were instructed about strategies and ideas about how to use the materials with their children. Severity of compensatory articulation was compared at the onset and at the end of the speech intervention. After the speech therapy period, the group of patients using audiovisual materials at home demonstrated significantly greater improvement in articulation, as compared with the patients receiving speech pathology treatment on - site without audiovisual supporting materials. The results of this study suggest that audiovisual materials especially designed for practicing adequate articulation placement at home can be effective for reinforcing and enhancing speech pathology treatment of patients with cleft palate and compensatory articulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Dynamics and control of robotic aircraft with articulated wings (United States)

    Paranjape, Aditya Avinash

    There is a considerable interest in developing robotic aircraft, inspired by birds, for a variety of missions covering reconnaissance and surveillance. Flapping wing aircraft concepts have been put forth in light of the efficiency of flapping flight at small scales. These aircraft are naturally equipped with the ability to rotate their wings about the root, a form of wing articulation. This thesis covers some problems concerning the performance, stability and control of robotic aircraft with articulated wings in gliding flight. Specifically, we are interested in aircraft without a vertical tail, which would then use wing articulation for longitudinal as well as lateral-directional control. Although the dynamics and control of articulated wing aircraft share several common features with conventional fixed wing aircraft, the presence of wing articulation presents several unique benefits as well as limitations from the perspective of performance and control. One of the objective of this thesis is to understand these features using a combination of theoretical and numerical tools. The aircraft concept envisioned in this thesis uses the wing dihedral angles for longitudinal and lateral-directional control. Aircraft with flexible articulated wings are also investigated. We derive a complete nonlinear model of the flight dynamics incorporating dynamic CG location and the changing moment of inertia. We show that symmetric dihedral configuration, along with a conventional horizontal tail, can be used to control flight speed and flight path angle independently of each other. This characteristic is very useful for initiating an efficient perching maneuver. It is shown that wing dihedral angles alone can effectively regulate sideslip during rapid turns and generate a wide range of equilibrium turn rates while maintaining a constant flight speed and regulating sideslip. We compute the turning performance limitations that arise due to the use of wing dihedral for yaw control

  8. Fabrication of sub-micrometer PMOSFETs with sub-100 nm p sup + -n shallow junctions using Group III dual ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, C.-M. (Intel Corp., Santa Clara, CA (USA)); Steckl, A.J. (Cincinnati Univ., OH (USA). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering)


    Fabrication of sub-micrometer PMOSFETs with sub-100 nm p{sup +}-n source/drain junctions using all Group III ({sup 69}Ga, {sup 115}In, {sup 11}B, {sup 49}BF{sub 2}) dual ion implantation is reported. We have obtained low leakage p{sup +}-n shallow junctions with a depth less than 70 nm by implanting various combinations of Group III species in conjunction with low temperature rapid thermal annealing (25/3 keV Ga/B implant annealed at 600{sup 0}C for 30 s; 50/5 keV and 30/3 keV, In/B implants annealed at 900{sup 0}C for 10 s). Sub-micrometer (0.6-0.95 {mu}m) PMOSFETs have been fabricated with this technique. The Ga/B-implanted transistors exhibit a subthreshold slope of 95-105 mV/decade and yield a maximum transconductance of 35-45 mS/mm. The corresponding values for the In/B-implanted FETs are 100-110 mV/decade and 30-40 mS/mm. (author).

  9. Evaluation of accuracy of transfer of the maxillary occlusal cant of two articulators using two facebow/semi-adjustable articulator systems: An in vivo study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanath Shetty


    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of the angle made by Frankfort horizontal plane-occlusal plane on maxillary casts, mounted using the respective facebows on Artex Amann Girrbach and Hanau Wide-vue semi-adjustable articulators with cephalometrically derived Frankfort horizontal plane-occlusal plane angle as a control. Subjects and Methods: Maxillary casts of 30 subjects were mounted on Hanau Wide-vue and Artex Amann Girrbach semi-adjustable articulators following facebow transfer using respective facebows. The Frankfort horizontal plane-occlusal plane angles of these casts were measured using Wixey's digital angle gauge. They were also subjected to a lateral cephalogram, and the occlusal cant was measured using RadiAnt DICOM software. Statistical Analysis: Using Pearson correlation, the accuracy of the angle made by upper member of the articulator and occlusal plane of mounted maxillary casts in each of the articulator was compared to the Frankfort horizontal plane-occlusal plane angle in lateral cephalogram. Results: A mean difference of 1.9° was found between Hanau Wide-vue articulator and lateral cephalogram and a mean difference of 3.6° was found between Artex Amann Girrbach articulator and lateral cephalogram. Statistically, Pearson correlation value (r obtained between Hanau Wide-vue and lateral cephalogram was 0.46 and between Artex Amann Girrbach and lateral cephalogram was 0.25. Conclusion: From the statistical value (r derived, it can be inferred that the Frankfort horizontal plane-occlusal plane angle of the casts articulated on Hanau Wide-vue articulator was more accurate in comparison to that on Artex Amann Girrbach articulator.

  10. Does silent reading involve articulation? Evidence from tongue twisters. (United States)

    Haber, L R; Haber, R N


    To demonstrate an interfering effect of subvocal articulation on otherwise silent reading, college-student subjects were asked to repeatedly read, either silently or aloud, both tongue-twister sentences and control sentences matched for syntactic complexity, syllable count, and sentential stress pattern. A technique was developed to measure the amount of time needed for each repetition of a sentence whether done silently or aloud. A significant difference in reading time for tongue twisters as compared to their matched controls was found for both silent as well as out-loud reading. A variety of different kinds of articulatory errors occurred in the oral repetitions, and the number of such errors was highly correlated with oral reading time. While errors could not be measured in silent reading, this correlation suggested that comparable articulatory disturbances accounted for the slower time to silently repeat tongue twisters.

  11. Visual servo simulation of EAST articulated maintenance arm robot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yang, E-mail: [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 350 Shushanhu Rd, Hefei, Anhui (China); Song, Yuntao; Pan, Hongtao; Cheng, Yong; Feng, Hansheng [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 350 Shushanhu Rd, Hefei, Anhui (China); Wu, Huapeng [Lappeenranta University of Technology, Skinnarilankatu 34, Lappeenranta (Finland)


    For the inspection and light-duty maintenance of the vacuum vessel in the EAST tokamak, a serial robot arm, called EAST articulated maintenance arm, is developed. Due to the 9-m-long cantilever arm, the large flexibility of the EAMA robot introduces a problem in the accurate positioning. This article presents an autonomous robot control to cope with the robot positioning problem, which is a visual servo approach in context of tile grasping for the EAMA robot. In the experiments, the proposed method was implemented in a simulation environment to position and track a target graphite tile with the EAMA robot. As a result, the proposed visual control scheme can successfully drive the EAMA robot to approach and track the target tile until the robot reaches the desired position. Furthermore, the functionality of the simulation software presented in this paper is proved to be suitable for the development of the robotic and computer vision application.

  12. Articulating social science in the wild of global natures?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blok, Anders


    Building on multisited ethnographic case studies, this paper seeks to contrastively compare the demonstration and articulation formats of two social science expert cultures—economics and anthropology—enrolled ‘in the wild’ of transnational environmental politics. How, the paper asks, do different...... social sciences come to be configured within, and do performative work upon, heterogeneous assemblages of global natures? In the first case US economists translate carbon markets into a world of Indian ecoprofessionals, across serious North–South conflicts in climate politics. In the second case a group...... the noneconomic social sciences (eg, anthropology) may also be consequential in enacting particular nature-cultures. Theoretically, the paper situates these inquiries at the intersection of science and technology studies (STS) and political anthropology, in addressing the question—important to environmental...

  13. Articulated Arm Coordinate Measuring Machine Calibration by Laser Tracker Multilateration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Santolaria


    Full Text Available A new procedure for the calibration of an articulated arm coordinate measuring machine (AACMM is presented in this paper. First, a self-calibration algorithm of four laser trackers (LTs is developed. The spatial localization of a retroreflector target, placed in different positions within the workspace, is determined by means of a geometric multilateration system constructed from the four LTs. Next, a nonlinear optimization algorithm for the identification procedure of the AACMM is explained. An objective function based on Euclidean distances and standard deviations is developed. This function is obtained from the captured nominal data (given by the LTs used as a gauge instrument and the data obtained by the AACMM and compares the measured and calculated coordinates of the target to obtain the identified model parameters that minimize this difference. Finally, results show that the procedure presented, using the measurements of the LTs as a gauge instrument, is very effective by improving the AACMM precision.

  14. Articulated arm coordinate measuring machine calibration by laser tracker multilateration. (United States)

    Santolaria, Jorge; Majarena, Ana C; Samper, David; Brau, Agustín; Velázquez, Jesús


    A new procedure for the calibration of an articulated arm coordinate measuring machine (AACMM) is presented in this paper. First, a self-calibration algorithm of four laser trackers (LTs) is developed. The spatial localization of a retroreflector target, placed in different positions within the workspace, is determined by means of a geometric multilateration system constructed from the four LTs. Next, a nonlinear optimization algorithm for the identification procedure of the AACMM is explained. An objective function based on Euclidean distances and standard deviations is developed. This function is obtained from the captured nominal data (given by the LTs used as a gauge instrument) and the data obtained by the AACMM and compares the measured and calculated coordinates of the target to obtain the identified model parameters that minimize this difference. Finally, results show that the procedure presented, using the measurements of the LTs as a gauge instrument, is very effective by improving the AACMM precision.

  15. Palatalization in English: An Articulation Problem for Turkish Teacher Trainees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Dr. Mehmet Demirezen


    Full Text Available In the field of teacher training, there is a scarcity of teaching pronunciation teachingmethodology to cure the fossilized mistakes of teacher trainees and foreign language teacherson-the-job. A case study pertaining to this situation is handled for the first time in this articleunder the title of “Audio-articulation Method” (Demirezen, 2003; Hişmanoğlu, 2004. Thismethod takes up a fossilized mistake of teacher trainees or teachers on-the-job in fifty minutesand brings in pronunciation correction by using tongue-twisters, idioms, proverbs, and thelike. Thus, it cures the fossilized mistake to a grater extent by creating a higher awareness andimproving communicative fluency. This method through task-based point of view removesthe related fossilized mistake and brings in pronunciation betterment to the teacher traineesand the teachers on-the-job.

  16. Articulated figure positioning by multiple constraints. [in computer graphics (United States)

    Badler, Norman I.; Manoochehri, Kamran H.; Walters, Graham


    A problem that arises in positioning an articulated figure is the solution of three-dimensional joint positions (kinematics) when goal positions, rather than joint angles, are given. If more than one such goal is to be achieved, the problem is often solved interactively by positioning or solving one component of the linkage, then adjusting another, then redoing the first, and so on. This iterative process is slow and tedious. The paper presents a method that automatically solves multiple simultaneous joint position goals. The user interface offers a six-degree-of-freedom input device to specify joint angles and goal positions interactively. Examples are used to demonstrate the power and efficiency of this method for key-position animation.

  17. The complete mitochondrial genome of Articulate Brachiopod Terebratal ia transversa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helfenbein, Kevin G.; Brown, Wesley M.; Boore, Jeffrey L.


    We have sequenced the complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of the articulate brachiopod Terebratalia transversa. The circular genome is 14,291 bp in size, relatively small compared to other published metazoan mtDNAs. The 37 genes commonly found in animal mtDNA are present; the size decrease is due to the truncation of several tRNA, rRNA, and protein genes, to some nucleotide overlaps, and to a paucity of non-coding nucleotides. Although the gene arrangement differs radically from those reported for other metazoans, some gene junctions are shared with two other articulate brachiopods, Laqueus rubellus and Terebratulina retusa. All genes in the T. transversa mtDNA, unlike those in most metazoan mtDNAs reported, are encoded by the same strand. The A+T content (59.1 percent) is low for a metazoan mtDNA, and there is a high propensity for homopolymer runs and a strong base-compositional strand bias. The coding strand is quite G+T-rich, a skew that is shared by the confamilial (laqueid) specie s L. rubellus, but opposite to that found in T. retusa, a cancellothyridid. These compositional skews are strongly reflected in the codon usage patterns and the amino acid compositions of the mitochondrial proteins, with markedly different usage observed between T. retusa and the two laqueids. This observation, plus the similarity of the laqueid non-coding regions to the reverse complement of the non-coding region of the cancellothyridid, suggest that an inversion that resulted in a reversal in the direction of first-strand replication has occurred in one of the two lineages. In addition to the presence of one non-coding region in T. transversa that is comparable to those in the other brachiopod mtDNAs, there are two others with the potential to form secondary structures; one or both of these may be involved in the process of transcript cleavage.

  18. Optimal visual-haptic integration with articulated tools. (United States)

    Takahashi, Chie; Watt, Simon J


    When we feel and see an object, the nervous system integrates visual and haptic information optimally, exploiting the redundancy in multiple signals to estimate properties more precisely than is possible from either signal alone. We examined whether optimal integration is similarly achieved when using articulated tools. Such tools (tongs, pliers, etc) are a defining characteristic of human hand function, but complicate the classical sensory 'correspondence problem' underlying multisensory integration. Optimal integration requires establishing the relationship between signals acquired by different sensors (hand and eye) and, therefore, in fundamentally unrelated units. The system must also determine when signals refer to the same property of the world-seeing and feeling the same thing-and only integrate those that do. This could be achieved by comparing the pattern of current visual and haptic input to known statistics of their normal relationship. Articulated tools disrupt this relationship, however, by altering the geometrical relationship between object properties and hand posture (the haptic signal). We examined whether different tool configurations are taken into account in visual-haptic integration. We indexed integration by measuring the precision of size estimates, and compared our results to optimal predictions from a maximum-likelihood integrator. Integration was near optimal, independent of tool configuration/hand posture, provided that visual and haptic signals referred to the same object in the world. Thus, sensory correspondence was determined correctly (trial-by-trial), taking tool configuration into account. This reveals highly flexible multisensory integration underlying tool use, consistent with the brain constructing internal models of tools' properties.

  19. Material opportunities for children’s participation, articulation and re-experiencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Maj; Kolmos, Marie

    to know whether the researcher and the child share understandings of verbal articulations. A similar challenge counts for phenomena and experiences that may be difficult to describe and articulate in verbal language such as sensory and body experiences and diverse experiences of awareness, attention....... In both studies the mutual material references offer new opportunities for the children’s participation, articulation and re-experiencing in the interview situations....

  20. A maximum likelihood approach to estimating articulator positions from speech acoustics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogden, J.


    This proposal presents an algorithm called maximum likelihood continuity mapping (MALCOM) which recovers the positions of the tongue, jaw, lips, and other speech articulators from measurements of the sound-pressure waveform of speech. MALCOM differs from other techniques for recovering articulator positions from speech in three critical respects: it does not require training on measured or modeled articulator positions, it does not rely on any particular model of sound propagation through the vocal tract, and it recovers a mapping from acoustics to articulator positions that is linearly, not topographically, related to the actual mapping from acoustics to articulation. The approach categorizes short-time windows of speech into a finite number of sound types, and assumes the probability of using any articulator position to produce a given sound type can be described by a parameterized probability density function. MALCOM then uses maximum likelihood estimation techniques to: (1) find the most likely smooth articulator path given a speech sample and a set of distribution functions (one distribution function for each sound type), and (2) change the parameters of the distribution functions to better account for the data. Using this technique improves the accuracy of articulator position estimates compared to continuity mapping -- the only other technique that learns the relationship between acoustics and articulation solely from acoustics. The technique has potential application to computer speech recognition, speech synthesis and coding, teaching the hearing impaired to speak, improving foreign language instruction, and teaching dyslexics to read. 34 refs., 7 figs.

  1. Space space space

    CERN Document Server

    Trembach, Vera


    Space is an introduction to the mysteries of the Universe. Included are Task Cards for independent learning, Journal Word Cards for creative writing, and Hands-On Activities for reinforcing skills in Math and Language Arts. Space is a perfect introduction to further research of the Solar System.

  2. Kinematic modeling and simulation of articulated arm coordinate measuring machines based on MCPC method (United States)

    Lu, Jian; Gao, Guanbin


    The Articulated Arm Coordinate Measuring Machine (AACMM) is a new type of non-orthogonal system precision instrument with the advantages of large measuring range, small volume, low weight and portability. The kinematic models of AACMM are commonly established with the Denavit-Hartenberg (D-H) method. However, the D-H model exhibits the singularity in consecutive parallel joint axes due to it is neither complete nor parametrically continuous. The kinematic model of the AACMM established with MCPC (modified complete and parametrically continuous) method overcomes the disadvantages of incomplete and parametrically discontinuous of the D-H method. The transformation matrixes are obtained based on the MCPC method, which realizes the mapping form the joint space to measuring space of the AACMM. Numerical calculation and graphic simulation are used to verify the kinematic model of the AACMM. The result shows that the kinematic model is correct. The kinematic model of the AACMM based on MCPC method can provide a theoretical basis for measurement and calibration, and it also introduces a new kinematic modeling approach for the AACMM.

  3. Dimensionality Reduction in Controlling Articulated Snake Robot for Endoscopy Under Dynamic Active Constraints. (United States)

    Kwok, Ka-Wai; Tsoi, Kuen Hung; Vitiello, Valentina; Clark, James; Chow, Gary C T; Luk, Wayne; Yang, Guang-Zhong


    This paper presents a real-time control framework for a snake robot with hyper-kinematic redundancy under dynamic active constraints for minimally invasive surgery. A proximity query (PQ) formulation is proposed to compute the deviation of the robot motion from predefined anatomical constraints. The proposed method is generic and can be applied to any snake robot represented as a set of control vertices. The proposed PQ formulation is implemented on a graphic processing unit, allowing for fast updates over 1 kHz. We also demonstrate that the robot joint space can be characterized into lower dimensional space for smooth articulation. A novel motion parameterization scheme in polar coordinates is proposed to describe the transition of motion, thus allowing for direct manual control of the robot using standard interface devices with limited degrees of freedom. Under the proposed framework, the correct alignment between the visual and motor axes is ensured, and haptic guidance is provided to prevent excessive force applied to the tissue by the robot body. A resistance force is further incorporated to enhance smooth pursuit movement matched to the dynamic response and actuation limit of the robot. To demonstrate the practical value of the proposed platform with enhanced ergonomic control, detailed quantitative performance evaluation was conducted on a group of subjects performing simulated intraluminal and intracavity endoscopic tasks.

  4. Simulating aerosol microphysics with the ECHAM4/MADE GCM – Part II: Results from a first multiannual simulation of the submicrometer aerosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lauer


    Full Text Available First results of a multiannual integration with the new global aerosol model system ECHAM4/MADE are presented. This model system enables simulations of the particle number concentration and size-distribution, which is a fundamental innovation compared to previous global model studies considering aerosol mass cycles only. The data calculated by the model provide detailed insights into the properties of the global submicrometer aerosol regarding global burden, chemical composition, atmospheric residence time, particle number concentration and size-distribution. The aerosol components considered by the model are sulfate (SO4, nitrate (NO3, ammonium (NH4, black carbon (BC, organic matter (OM, mineral dust, sea salt and aerosol water. The simulated climatological annual mean global atmospheric burdens (residence times of the dominant submicrometer aerosol components are 2.25 Tg (4.5 d for SO4, 0.46 Tg (4.5 d for NH4, 0.26 Tg (6.6 d for BC, and 1.77 Tg (6.5 d for OM. The contributions of individual processes such as emission, nucleation, condensation or dry and wet deposition to the global sources and sinks of specific aerosol components and particle number concentration are quantified. Based on this analysis, the significance of aerosol microphysical processes (nucleation, condensation, coagulation is evaluated by comparison to the importance of other processes relevant for the submicrometer aerosol on the global scale. The results reveal that aerosol microphysics are essential for the simulation of the particle number concentration and important but not vital for the simulation of particle mass concentration. Hence aerosol microphysics should be taken into account in simulations of atmospheric processes showing a significant dependence on aerosol particle number concentration. The analysis of the vertical variation of the microphysical net production and net depletion rates performed for particle number concentration, sulfate mass and black carbon

  5. Method for analyzing articulated torques of heavy-duty six-legged robot (United States)

    Zhuang, Hongchao; Gao, Haibo; Ding, Liang; Liu, Zhen; Deng, Zongquan


    The accuracy of an articulated torque analysis influences the comprehensive performances of heavy-duty multi-legged robots. Currently, the extremal estimation method and some complex methods are employed to calculate the articulated torques, which results in a large safety margin or a large number of calculations. To quickly obtain accurate articulated torques, an analysis method for the articulated torque is presented for an electrically driven heavy-duty six-legged robot. First, the rearmost leg that experiences the maximum normal contact force is confirmed when the robot transits a slope. Based on the ant-type and crab-type tripod gaits, the formulas of classical mechanics and MATLAB software are employed to theoretically analyze the relevant static torques of the joints. With the changes in the joint angles for the abductor joint, hip joint, and knee joint, variable tendency charts and extreme curves are obtained for the static articulated torques. Meanwhile, the maximum static articulated torques and the corresponding poses of the robot are also obtained. According to the poses of the robot under the maximum static articulated torques, ADAMS software is used to carry out a static simulation analysis. Based on the relevant simulation curves of the articulated torques, the maximum static articulated torques are acquired. A comparative analysis of the maximum static articulated torques shows that the theoretical calculation values are higher than the static simulation values, and the maximum error value is approximately 10%. The proposed method lays a foundation for quickly determining accurate articulated torques to develop heavy-duty six-legged robots.

  6. Transforaminal lumbar interbody graft placement using an articulating delivery arm facilitates increased segmental lordosis with superior anterior and midline graft placement. (United States)

    Shau, David N; Parker, Scott L; Mendenhall, Stephen K; Zuckerman, Scott L; Godil, Saniya S; Devin, Clinton J; McGirt, Matthew J


    Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) is a frequently performed method of lumbar arthrodesis in patients failing medical management of back and leg pain. Accurate placement of the interbody graft and restoration of lordosis has been shown to be crucial when performing lumbar fusion procedures. We performed a single-surgeon, prospective, randomized study to determine whether a novel articulating versus traditional straight graft delivery arm system allows for superior graft placement and increased lordosis for single-level TLIF. Thirty consecutive patients undergoing single-level TLIF were included and prospectively randomized to one of the 2 groups (articulated vs. straight delivery arm system). Three radiographic characteristics were evaluated at 6-week follow-up: (1) degree of segmental lumbar lordosis at the fused level; (2) the percent anterior location of the interbody graft in disk space; and (3) the distance (mm) off midline of the interbody graft placement. Randomization yielded 16 patients in the articulated delivery arm cohort and 14 in the straight delivery arm cohort. The articulating delivery arm system yielded an average of 14.7-degree segmental lordosis at fused level, 35% anterior location, and 3.6 mm off midline. The straight delivery arm system yielded an average of 10.7-degree segmental lordosis at fused level, 46% anterior location, and 7.0 mm off midline. All 3 comparisons were statistically significant (Particulating delivery arm system facilitates superior anterior and midline TLIF graft placement allowing for increased segmental lordosis compared with a traditional straight delivery arm system.

  7. Effects of Articulation Styles on Perception of Modulated Tempos in Violin Excerpts (United States)

    Geringer, John M.; Madsen, Clifford K.; Macleod, Rebecca B.


    We investigated effects of legato, staccato and pizzicato articulation styles on the perception of modulated tempos. Seventy-two music majors served as participants. Two solo violin excerpts were chosen with contrasting rhythmic rates and were recorded in all three articulation styles. Examples were presented to listeners in three conditions of…

  8. Articulation and Noncomprehension Signaling in Adolescent and Adult Males with Down Syndrome and Fragile X Syndrome (United States)

    Fedak, Larissa Ann


    The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not decreased articulation of speech played a role in the ability of an individual with Down syndrome or Fragile X syndrome to signal noncomprehension and whether the two groups differed in their levels of articulation of speech and noncomprehension signaling ability. The research was conducted…

  9. Efficacy of Intervention for a Bilingual Child Making Articulation and Phonological Errors. (United States)

    Holm, Alison; Ozanne, Anne; Dodd, Barbara


    This treatment case study presents a 5-year-old bilingual Cantonese/English speaking boy with articulation and phonological errors. It reports two treatment phases: (1) articulation therapy; and (2) phonological therapy. Data have implications for the separateness of bilingual children's two phonological systems, and the differences between…

  10. Demanding Dynamics - Demand articulation of intermediary organisations in emerging pharmaceutical innovations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, W.P.C.


    User involvement in emerging technological fields is carried by so-called demand articulation processes. These demand articulation processes are interactive learning processes in which stakeholders try to address what they perceive as important characteristics of, and to unravel preferences for an

  11. The Articulation of Korean Coronal Obstruents: Data from Heritage Speakers and Second Language Learners (United States)

    Ko, Insung


    This study investigated where the consonantal constrictions take place when Korean coronal obstruents are articulated since there is disagreement over the place of articulation of these consonants. Unlike other studies in Korean phonetics, which focus on various acoustic features, the current study used static palatography (SPG) in the form of…

  12. A simple sheathless CE-MS interface with a sub-micrometer electrical contact fracture for sensitive analysis of peptide and protein samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Tam T. T. N.; Petersen, Nickolaj J.; Rand, Kasper Dyrberg


    of forming a sub-micrometer fracture directly in the capillary. The simple interface design allowed the generation of a stable ESI spray capable of ionization at low nanoliter flow-rates (45–90 nL/min) for high sensitivity MS analysis of challenging samples like those containing proteins and peptides...... profile was achieved and comparable sequence coverage was obtained by the CE-MS method (73%) compared to a representative UPLC-MS method (77%). The CE-MS interface was subsequently used to analyse a more complex sample of pharmaceutically relevant human proteins including insulin, tissue factor and α......Online coupling of capillary electrophoresis (CE) to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (MS) has shown considerable potential, however, technical challenges have limited its use. In this study, we have developed a simple and sensitive sheathless CE-MS interface based on the novel concept...

  13. Neural decoding of single vowels during covert articulation using electrocorticography. (United States)

    Ikeda, Shigeyuki; Shibata, Tomohiro; Nakano, Naoki; Okada, Rieko; Tsuyuguchi, Naohiro; Ikeda, Kazushi; Kato, Amami


    The human brain has important abilities for manipulating phonemes, the basic building blocks of speech; these abilities represent phonological processing. Previous studies have shown change in the activation levels of broad cortical areas such as the premotor cortex, the inferior frontal gyrus, and the superior temporal gyrus during phonological processing. However, whether these areas actually convey signals to representations related to individual phonemes remains unclear. This study focused on single vowels and investigated cortical areas important for representing single vowels using electrocorticography (ECoG) during covert articulation. To identify such cortical areas, we used a neural decoding approach in which machine learning models identify vowels. A decoding model was trained on the ECoG signals from individual electrodes placed on the subjects' cortices. We then statistically evaluated whether each decoding model showed accurate identification of vowels, and we found cortical areas such as the premotor cortex and the superior temporal gyrus. These cortical areas were consistent with previous findings. On the other hand, no electrodes over Broca's area showed significant decoding accuracies. This was inconsistent with findings from a previous study showing that vowels within the phonemic sequence of words can be decoded using ECoG signals from Broca's area. Our results therefore suggest that Broca's area is involved in the processing of vowels within phonemic sequences, but not in the processing of single vowels.

  14. A New Kinematic Model of Portable Articulated Coordinate Measuring Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Ning Zhao


    Full Text Available Portable articulated coordinate measuring machine (PACMM is a kind of high accuracy coordinate measurement instrument and it has been widely applied in manufacturing and assembly. A number of key problems should be taken into consideration to achieve the required accuracy, such as structural design, mathematical measurement model and calibration method. Although the classical kinematic model of PACMM is the Denavit-Hartenberg (D-H model, the representation of D-H encounters the badly-conditioned problem when the consecutive joint axes are parallel or nearly parallel. In this paper, a new kinematic model of PACMM based on a generalized geometric error model which eliminates the inadequacies of D-H model has been proposed. Furthermore, the generalized geometric error parameters of PACMM are optimized by the Levenberg-Marquard (L-M algorithm. The experimental result demonstrates that the measurement of standard deviation of PACMM based on the generalized geometric error model has been reduced from 0.0627 mm to 0.0452 mm with respect to the D-H model.

  15. Probe parameters calibration for articulated arm coordinate measuring machine (United States)

    Cheng, Wentao; Fei, Yetai; Yu, Liandong; Yang, Ruichang


    Articulated Arm Coordinate Measuring Machine (AACMM) is a kind of portable coordinate measuring equipment with a flexible structure, which employs a series of rotating components around generally perpendicular axes. As a portable device, the probe parameters of AACMM will change after probe switching or dismounting and reassembling the same probe during shipping AACMM from one place to another to carry out measurement tasks. As incorrect coordinates will be given without the correct probe parameters, the probe parameters must be re-identified. By analyzing the identifiability of geometrical parameters of kinematical model and presenting the non-redundant-parameter model in this paper, a simple approach for the probe parameters calibration of AACMM is proposed, to improve its portability and ensure the accuracy of AACMM. In addition a very simple accessory was designed to hold the spherical probe as a data capture device. Gauss-Newton method was adopted as an optimization method to figure out the probe parameters. A program was developed to carry out the calibration process. Experimental results prove that the calibration approach proposed in the paper was effective.

  16. Structural Parameter Identification of Articulated Arm Coordinate Measuring Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanbin Gao


    Full Text Available Precise structural parameter identification of a robotic articulated arm coordinate measuring machine (AACMM is essential for improving its measuring accuracy, particularly in robotic applications. This paper presents a constructive parameter identification approach for robotic AACMMs. We first develop a mathematical kinematic model of the AACMM based on the Denavit-Hartenberg (DH approach established for robotic systems. This model is further calibrated and verified via the practical test data. Based on the difference between the calculated coordinates of the AACMM probe via the kinematic model and the given reference coordinates, a parameter identification approach is proposed to estimate the structural parameters in terms of the test data set. The Jacobian matrix is further analyzed to determine the solvability of the identification model. It shows that there are two coupling parameters, which can be removed in the regressor. Finally, a parameter identification algorithm taking the least-square solution of the identification model as the structural parameters by using the obtained poses data is suggested. Practical experiments based on a robotic AACMM test rig are carried out, and the results reveal the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed identification approach.

  17. Evaluation of articulation of Turkish phonemes after removable partial denture application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özbeki Murat


    Full Text Available In this study, the adaptation of patients to removable partial dentures was evaluated related to articulation of Turkish phonemes. Articulation of /t,d,n,l,r/, /g,k/, /b,p,m/ and /s,z,Õ,v,f,y,j,h,c/ phonemes were evaluated by three speech pathologists, on records taken from 15 patients before the insertion of a removable partial denture, just after insertion, and one week later. The test consisted of evaluation of phoneme articulation of independent syllables in terms of distortion, omission, substitution, mass effect, hypernasality and hyponasality. Data were evaluated with Cochrane Q, McNemar and Kruskal-Wallis tests. The results showed that for some phonemes, problems in articulation occurred after the insertion of a removable partial denture while for others a significant amelioration was observed after the insertion of a removable partial denture. In general, problems in articulation of evaluated phonemes were resolved after one week of use.

  18. The (in)dependence of articulation and lexical planning during isolated word production (United States)

    Buz, Esteban; Jaeger, T. Florian


    The number of phonological neighbors to a word (PND) can affect its lexical planning and pronunciation. Similar parallel effects on planning and articulation have been observed for other lexical variables, such as a word’s contextual predictability. Such parallelism is frequently taken to indicate that effects on articulation are mediated by effects on the time course of lexical planning. We test this mediation assumption for PND and find it unsupported. In a picture naming experiment, we measure speech onset latencies (planning), word durations, and vowel dispersion (articulation). We find that PND predicts both latencies and durations. Further, latencies predict durations. However, the effects of PND and latency on duration are independent: parallel effects do not imply mediation. We discuss the consequences for accounts of lexical planning, articulation, and the link between them. In particular, our results suggest that ease of planning does not explain effects of PND on articulation. PMID:27376094

  19. Zootherapy in Recife (Pernambuco, Brasil: articulating history and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argus Vasconcelos de Almeida


    Full Text Available The use of animals in therapeutic practices has been a reality throughout human history, although it is not yet a well understood phenomenon. The main objective of this study was to describe and analyze the use of medicinal fauna in Recife, Pernambuco State, Brazil. Many aspects were taken into account, such as the identification of the animals used, preparation of the zootherapeutic products, and the articulation between current popular practices and the history of zootherapy in the region. Data were collected through semi-structured, open-ended interviews conducted with folk specialists in three public markets of Recife. For purposes of historical revision, data were also taken from the books written by two naturalists who lived in Pernambuco during the Dutch occupation: Guilherme Piso and Jorge Marcgrave. During the survey in public markets, 18 ethnotaxonomic categories of animals were found to be in current use for the treatment of 12 diseases, according to the popular medicinal diagnosis. In these cases, the prescriptions were characterized by dosage recommendation, association with plant products, and certain cultural rules. Among these 18 ethnocategories, 9 were similar to those used in the 17th century. These were used, during the Dutch occupation, for the preparation of 9 different kinds of medicines, which treated 10 diseases. Nevertheless, in most cases the current popular prescriptions differ from those reported in the colonial period. The results show the strong persistence of zootherapy in the region, since the reported diseases take part in the daily life of poor local people. Further studies on this body of knowledge, beliefs and popular practices may be a helpful tool for medical and pharmaceutical investigations, as well as for a better understanding of the interaction between local people and natural resources and conservation, in a historical perspective.

  20. A Parametric Model of Shoulder Articulation for Virtual Assessment of Space Suit Fit (United States)

    Kim, K. Han; Young, Karen S.; Bernal, Yaritza; Boppana, Abhishektha; Vu, Linh Q.; Benson, Elizabeth A.; Jarvis, Sarah; Rajulu, Sudhakar L.


    Suboptimal suit fit is a known risk factor for crewmember shoulder injury. Suit fit assessment is however prohibitively time consuming and cannot be generalized across wide variations of body shapes and poses. In this work, we have developed a new design tool based on the statistical analysis of body shape scans. This tool is aimed at predicting the skin deformation and shape variations for any body size and shoulder pose for a target population. This new process, when incorporated with CAD software, will enable virtual suit fit assessments, predictively quantifying the contact volume, and clearance between the suit and body surface at reduced time and cost.

  1. Modeling and Error Compensation of Robotic Articulated Arm Coordinate Measuring Machines Using BP Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanbin Gao


    Full Text Available Articulated arm coordinate measuring machine (AACMM is a specific robotic structural instrument, which uses D-H method for the purpose of kinematic modeling and error compensation. However, it is difficult for the existing error compensation models to describe various factors, which affects the accuracy of AACMM. In this paper, a modeling and error compensation method for AACMM is proposed based on BP Neural Networks. According to the available measurements, the poses of the AACMM are used as the input, and the coordinates of the probe are used as the output of neural network. To avoid tedious training and improve the training efficiency and prediction accuracy, a data acquisition strategy is developed according to the actual measurement behavior in the joint space. A neural network model is proposed and analyzed by using the data generated via Monte-Carlo method in simulations. The structure and parameter settings of neural network are optimized to improve the prediction accuracy and training speed. Experimental studies have been conducted to verify the proposed algorithm with neural network compensation, which shows that 97% error of the AACMM can be eliminated after compensation. These experimental results have revealed the effectiveness of the proposed modeling and compensation method for AACMM.

  2. Cross-language differences of articulation rate and its transfer into Japanese as a second language. (United States)

    Amino, Kanae; Osanai, Takashi


    Recently, the articulation rate has been attracting attention in forensic speech investigation as an acoustic feature that varies across speakers, dialects, and languages. The present study investigates how cross-language differences in the articulation rate are transferred into Japanese as a second language. Participants were speakers of Japanese, Chinese, Korean, and Thai. They were recorded while they read a passage in their native language and in Japanese. Local and global articulation rates were calculated based on the number of syllables as well as the number of morae for Japanese speech. When we compared the articulation rate of the native languages, Japanese was the fastest, then Korean, Chinese, and Thai in that order. Also, a significant positive correlation was observed between the articulation rate of the native language and that of the second language. A gender difference was found in the articulation rate of some languages, with males speaking faster than females. The effect of age was limited to Thai speakers only. Accent discrimination and identification experiments were conducted and the results revealed that native and non-native accents could be correctly discriminated just by the articulation rate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Accurate recovery of articulator positions from acoustics: New conclusions based on human data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogden, J. [MS B265, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Lofqvist, A.; Gracco, V. [Haskins Laboratories, 270 Crown Street, New Haven, Connecticut 06511 (United States); Zlokarnik, I. [MS B265, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Rubin, P.; Saltzman, E. [Haskins Laboratories, 270 Crown Street, New Haven, Connecticut 06511 (United States)


    Vocal tract models are often used to study the problem of mapping from the acoustic transfer function to the vocal tract area function (inverse mapping). Unfortunately, results based on vocal tract models are strongly affected by the assumptions underlying the models. In this study, the mapping from acoustics (digitized speech samples) to articulation (measurements of the positions of receiver coils placed on the tongue, jaw, and lips) is examined using human data from a single speaker: Simultaneous acoustic and articulator measurements made for vowel-to-vowel transitions, /g/ closures, and transitions into and out of /g/ closures. Articulator positions were measured using an EMMA system to track coils placed on the lips, jaw, and tongue. Using these data, look-up tables were created that allow articulator positions to be estimated from acoustic signals. On a data set not used for making look-up tables, correlations between estimated and actual coil positions of around 94{percent} and root-mean-squared errors around 2 mm are common for coils on the tongue. An error source evaluation shows that estimating articulator positions from quantized acoustics gives root-mean-squared errors that are typically less than 1 mm greater than the errors that would be obtained from quantizing the articulator positions themselves. This study agrees with and extends previous studies of human data by showing that for the data studied, speech acoustics can be used to accurately recover articulator positions. {copyright} {ital 1996 Acoustical Society of America.}

  4. The perceived clarity of children's speech varies as a function of their default articulation rate. (United States)

    Redford, Melissa A


    The current study investigated whether variation in children's default articulation rate might reflect individual differences in the development of articulatory timing control, which predicts a positive correlation between rate and perceived clarity (motor skills hypothesis), or whether such variation is better attributed to speech external factors, which predicts that faster rates result in poorer target attainment (undershoot hypothesis). Two different speech samples were obtained from 54 typically developing children (5;2 - 7;11). Six utterances were extracted from each sample and measured for articulation rate and segmental duration. Fourteen adult listeners rated the utterances for clarity (enunciation). Acoustic correlates of perceived clarity, pitch, and vowel quality were also measured. The findings were that age-dependent and individual differences in children's default articulation rates were due to segmental articulation and not to suprasegmental changes. The rating data indicated that utterances produced at faster rates were perceived as more clearly articulated than those produced at slower rates, regardless of a child's age. Vowel quality measures predicted perceived clarity independently of articulation rate. Overall, the results support the motor skills hypothesis: Faster default articulation rates emerge from better articulatory timing control.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Suglobov


    Full Text Available Purpose. The study involves: 1 formation of an array of geometry, weight and variable data for the automated synthesis of articulated jib systems; 2 development of methodology of calculation and determination of rational design parameters of the articulated jib systems, depending on the main technical parameters of the portal crane (maximum and minimum working radius, cargo lift height, tail radius value, carrying capacity of crane; 3 conducting of the study of the methodology adequacy on computer portal crane models. Methodology. To determine the kinematic characteristics of each link of the articulated jib system (boom, arm, jib tie, counterweight, load we developed a dynamic and mathematical models that allow us to describe the movement of the articulated jib system when luffing. For the first time the technique of calculation and determination of rational design parameters of the articulated jib systems depending on the technical parameters of the portal crane. Findings. The conducted mathematical modeling allowed scientifically proving the usefulness of the proposed methodology for determining the design parameters of the articulated jib systems. The designed package of geometry, weight and variable data helps to simplify the process of preparatory calculations before the automated synthesis and to optimize the design of the articulated jib systems of portal cranes. Originality. For the first time the work proposes the technique for calculation of the parametric data that allow us to determine the rational design parameters of the articulated jib system. There are developed local programs for the integrated optimization synthesis that make it possible to select the best design option simultaneously by several quality criteria and functional constraints. Practical value. The proposed method of calculating the design parameters can be used in the design of new and modernization of existing portal cranes with the articulated jib systems, which

  6. Speech sound articulation abilities of preschool-age children who stutter. (United States)

    Clark, Chagit E; Conture, Edward G; Walden, Tedra A; Lambert, Warren E


    The purpose of this study was to assess the association between speech sound articulation and childhood stuttering in a relatively large sample of preschool-age children who do and do not stutter, using the Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation-2 (GFTA-2; Goldman & Fristoe, 2000). Participants included 277 preschool-age children who do (CWS; n=128, 101 males) and do not stutter (CWNS; n=149, 76 males). Generalized estimating equations (GEE) were performed to assess between-group (CWS versus CWNS) differences on the GFTA-2. Additionally, within-group correlations were performed to explore the relation between CWS' speech sound articulation abilities and their stuttering frequency and severity, as well as their sound prolongation index (SPI; Schwartz & Conture, 1988). No significant differences were found between the articulation scores of preschool-age CWS and CWNS. However, there was a small gender effect for the 5-year-old age group, with girls generally exhibiting better articulation scores than boys. Additional findings indicated no relation between CWS' speech sound articulation abilities and their stuttering frequency, severity, or SPI. Findings suggest no apparent association between speech sound articulation-as measured by one standardized assessment (GFTA-2)-and childhood stuttering for this sample of preschool-age children (N=277). After reading this article, the reader will be able to: (1) discuss salient issues in the articulation literature relative to children who stutter; (2) compare/contrast the present study's methodologies and main findings to those of previous studies that investigated the association between childhood stuttering and speech sound articulation; (3) identify future research needs relative to the association between childhood stuttering and speech sound development; (4) replicate the present study's methodology to expand this body of knowledge. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Use of articulators in the United Kingdom by consultant orthodontists in planning orthognathic surgery. (United States)

    O'Malley, A M; Milosevic, A


    This questionnaire survey aimed to investigate articulator use in orthognathic surgical planning by consultant specialists in the United Kingdom (UK). A total of 205 questionnaires was sent to all consultant orthodontists in the UK. One hundred thirty questionnaires were completed, representing a 63.4% response rate. Consultants had been in their post for a median of 10.5 years (range 0 to 30 years) with a mean of 11.3 (SD 8.4) surgical cases per year. When asked which cases had been planned on a semiadjustable articulator, two thirds of consultants (67.7%) planned maxillary single-jaw procedures, 45.4% planned mandibular single-jaw procedures, and 77.7% planned bimaxillary procedures. While 98.5% of consultants reported access to at least one type of articulator, 14.6% of maxillary single-jaw and 5.4% of bimaxillary surgery was not planned on any articulator. Twice as many consultants who had been in their post fewer than 11 years had been trained on a semiadjustable articulator, compared to those who had more than 11 years of experience. Semiadjustable articulators were the most popular for planning orthognathic surgery. Consultants with less than 11 years of experience completed more surgical cases each year and were more likely to have been trained on a semiadjustable articulator than consultants with more than 11 years of experience. However, no link exists between the age of the consultant and the type of articulator selected for planning; this suggests that more mature consultants have received further training on contemporary articulator systems since receiving their accreditation.

  8. Spatio-temporal elements of articulation work in the achievement of repeat prescribing safety in UK general practice. (United States)

    Grant, Suzanne; Mesman, Jessica; Guthrie, Bruce


    Prescribing is the most common healthcare intervention, and is both beneficial and risky. An important source of risk in UK general practice is the management of 'repeat prescriptions', which are typically requested from and issued by non-clinically trained reception staff with only intermittent reauthorisation by a clinical prescriber. This paper ethnographically examines the formal and informal work employed by GPs and receptionists to safely conduct repeat prescribing work in primary care using Strauss's (1985, 1988, 1993) concept of 'articulation work' across eight UK general practices. The analytical lens of articulation work provided an investigative framing to contextually map the informal, invisible resources of resilience and strength employed by practice team members in the achievement of repeat prescribing safety, where risk and vulnerability were continually relocated across space and time. In particular, the paper makes visible the micro-level competencies and collaborative practices that were routinely employed by both GPs and receptionists across different socio-cultural contexts, with informal, cross-hierarchical communication usually considered more effective than the formal structures of communication that existed (e.g. protocols). While GPs held formal prescribing authority, this paper also examines the key role of receptionists in both the initiation and safe coordination of the repeat prescribing routine. © 2015 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.

  9. Investigating pianists' individuality in the performance of five timbral nuances through patterns of articulation, touch, dynamics and pedalling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel eBernays


    Full Text Available Timbre is an essential expressive feature in piano performance. Concert pianists use a vast palette of timbral nuances to colour their performances at the microstructural level. Although timbre is generally envisioned in the pianistic community as an abstract concept carried through an imaged vocabulary, performers may share some common strategies of timbral expression in piano performance. Yet there may remain further leeway for idiosyncratic processes in the production of piano timbre nuances. In this study, we examined the patterns of timbral expression in performances by four expert pianists. Each pianist performed four short pieces, each with five different timbral intentions (bright, dark, dry, round, and velvety. The performances were recorded with the high-accuracy Bösendorfer CEUS system. Fine-grained performance features of dynamics, touch, articulation and pedalling were extracted. Reduced PCA performance spaces and descriptive performance portraits confirmed that pianists exhibited unique, specific profiles for different timbral intentions, derived from underlying traits of general individuality, while sharing some broad commonalities of dynamics and articulation for each timbral intention. These results confirm that pianists’ abstract notions of timbre correspond to reliable patterns of performance technique. Furthermore, these effects suggest that pianists can express individual styles while complying with specific timbral intentions.

  10. Performance of Children with Good and Poor Articulation on Tasks of Tongue Placement. (United States)

    Jordan, Linda Smith; And Others


    The study determined whether first grade children (nine with good and nine with poor articulation skills) could learn to replicate four positions of lingual-palatal contact with and without topical anesthesia that eliminated touch-pressure sensations. (Author)

  11. [Movement analysis of Gysi Simplex OU articulator. 1. Rotational point and lateral axis]. (United States)

    Koyano, K; Takesue, Y; Yoshida, K; Suetsugu, T


    Several researches have been reported on the mechanism and movement of Gysi Simplex OU articulator. And it was clarified logically by geometrical drawing method that the movement of the articulator followed the Gysi's axis theory. But no study reported about the movement of the articulator by measuring it. Therefore, the authors measured the movement of the articulator with Kyushu University 3-D movement analyzing system, and compared it with the results obtained from geometrical drawing method which we reported previously. The following results were obtained: 1. The rotational point exists actually at the same position where we analyzed by geometrical drawing method. 2. Lateral axis is constructed by joining the rotational points at various height. 3. The inclination of lateral axis changes by sagittal inclination of incisal guidance. As the results, we clarified that the movement of Gysi Simplex OU followed the Gysi's axis theory.

  12. Bioecology of an articulated coralline alga Amphiroa fragilissima from Anjuna, Goa, Central Western Coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ambiye, V.; Untawale, A.G.

    An articulated coralline alga Amphiroa fragilissima L. Lam. was found to exhibit spasmogenic and hypotensive activities due to the presence of a biogenic amine. This biologically active alga was studied for its bioecology. Its thallus is multiaxial...

  13. Perceptual, durational and tongue displacement measures following articulation therapy for rhotic sound errors. (United States)

    Bressmann, Tim; Harper, Susan; Zhylich, Irina; Kulkarni, Gajanan V


    Outcomes of articulation therapy for rhotic errors are usually assessed perceptually. However, our understanding of associated changes of tongue movement is limited. This study described perceptual, durational and tongue displacement changes over 10 sessions of articulation therapy for /ɹ/ in six children. Four of the participants also received ultrasound biofeedback of their tongue shape. Speech and tongue movement were recorded pre-therapy, after 5 sessions, in the final session and at a one month follow-up. Perceptually, listeners perceived improvement and classified more productions as /ɹ/ in the final and follow-up assessments. The durations of VɹV syllables at the midway point of the therapy were longer. Cumulative tongue displacement increased in the final session. The average standard deviation was significantly higher in the middle and final assessments. The duration and tongue displacement measures illustrated how articulation therapy affected tongue movement and may be useful for outcomes research about articulation therapy.

  14. Attribute Generality: The Development and Articulation of Attributes in Person Perception (United States)

    Wegner, Daniel M.


    This research focused on the development and articulation of the attributes given by individuals in describing others. Of special interest was the generality with which the individual uses an attribute to characterize stimulus persons. (Editor)

  15. A Facile Technique to Make Articulating Spacers for Infected Total Knee Arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ping Su


    Conclusion: Treating infected total knee arthroplasty with these self-made articulating spacers eradicates infection effectively, improves the life quality before reimplantation and provides good final results without significant complications.

  16. Configurations of an Articulated Arm and Singularities of Special Multi-Flags

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pelletier, Fernand


    .... The main results of this paper describe a decomposition of each ''EKR'' set of depth [...] in terms of RVT codes as well as characterize such a set in terms of configurations of an articulated arm...

  17. A new attachment for mock surgery in Hanau wide-vue arcon articulator

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kanhu Charan Sahoo; Roopa Sidde Gowda; N Raghunath; B M Shivlinga


    .... People have become more aware and concerned about maxillofacial deformations. Articulators are of interest to both orthodontic and maxillofacial team as they facilitate the planning of combined orthodontic treatment and orthognathic surgery...

  18. MyReDiary: Co-Designing for Collaborative Articulation in Physical Rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagalkot, Naveen L.; Sokoler, Tomas


    In this paper we present our exploration of co-designing for supporting a collaborative articulation of rehabilitation process. Based on our reading of key CSCW literature, we describe three facets of a collaboratively articulated rehab process: Interdependence, Distributed Process......, and Interoperability. We highlight Magic-Mirror- Spiral, the design ideal guiding the co-designing of MyReDiary that is aimed to support the three facets as an example in this regard. We offer the conceptual understanding of Collaborative Articulation, the Magic-Mirror-Spiral and MyReDiary as a ‘compositional Whole......’: an example manifestation providing an enhanced conceptual understanding that is built around our experiences of designing for collaborative articulation in specific design situations....

  19. A Simulation Model Articulation of the REA Ontology (United States)

    Laurier, Wim; Poels, Geert

    This paper demonstrates how the REA enterprise ontology can be used to construct simulation models for business processes, value chains and collaboration spaces in supply chains. These models support various high-level and operational management simulation applications, e.g. the analysis of enterprise sustainability and day-to-day planning. First, the basic constructs of the REA ontology and the ExSpect modelling language for simulation are introduced. Second, collaboration space, value chain and business process models and their conceptual dependencies are shown, using the ExSpect language. Third, an exhibit demonstrates the use of value chain models in predicting the financial performance of an enterprise.

  20. Production and perception of legato, portato and staccato articulation in saxophone playing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex eHofmann


    Full Text Available This paper investigates the production and perception of different articulation techniques on the saxophone. In a production experiment, two melodies were recorded that required different effectors to play the tones (tongue actions alone, finger actions alone, combined tongue and finger actions at three different tempi. A sensor saxophone reed was developed to monitor tongue-reed interactions during performance. At the slow tempo condition, combined tongue-finger actions showed improved timing, compared to the timing of the tongue alone. This observation supports the multiple timer hypothesis where the tongue's timekeeper benefits from a coupling to the timekeeper of the fingers. At the fast tempo condition, finger alone actions were less precise than the tongue alone and combined tongue-finger actions led to more variable timing. This suggests that the finger actions have a dominant influence on the overall timing of saxophone performance. In a listening experiment we investigated whether motor expertise in music performance influences the perception of articulation techniques in saxophone performance. Participants with different backgrounds in music making (saxophonists, musicians not playing the saxophone, and non-musicians attended an AB-X listening test. They had to discriminate between saxophone phrases played with different articulation techniques (legato, portato, staccato. Participants across all three groups discriminated the sound of staccato articulation well from the sound of portato articulation and legato articulation. Errors occurred across all groups of listeners when legato articulation (no tonguing and portato articulation (soft tonguing had to be discriminated. Saxophonists' results were superior compared to the results of the other two groups, suggesting that expertise in saxophone playing facilitated the discrimination task.

  1. The History of Articulators: The Contributions of Rudolph L. Hanau and His Company-Part II. (United States)

    Engelmeier, Robert L; Belles, Donald M; Starcke, Edgar N


    This article is an historical overview of the Hanau Engineering Company from the time of Rudolph Hanau's death in 1930 to the present. It explores the development of many articulators intended both for removable and fixed prosthodontic restorations. The article is divided into the eras of the company's corporate history, and it reviews articulator designs and major improvements made during each of those periods. © 2016 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  2. Digital Hardware Realization of Forward and Inverse Kinematics for a Five-Axis Articulated Robot Arm


    Bui Thi Hai Linh; Ying-Shieh Kung


    When robot arm performs a motion control, it needs to calculate a complicated algorithm of forward and inverse kinematics which consumes much CPU time and certainty slows down the motion speed of robot arm. Therefore, to solve this issue, the development of a hardware realization of forward and inverse kinematics for an articulated robot arm is investigated. In this paper, the formulation of the forward and inverse kinematics for a five-axis articulated robot arm is derived firstly. Then, the...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The main goal of this research is evaluation of the progress of articulation towards the particular group of voices of the preschool aged children with hearing impairment, which are included in rehabilitation treatment. The research explores the impact of the general factors (degree of the hearing impairment, age of the examinees, etiological factor of the hearing impairment, and duration of the treatment, which contributes in the progress of articulation.

  4. Articulating cultures: socio-cultural experiences of black female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Contests of space and place in South African „schoolscapes‟2 are now not so much about „race‟ as it is about nationalism and territoriality. While the politics of belonging unfolds and overtly manifests itself, a more covert, insidious and worrisome issue is that of the erosion of the social and cultural mores of Black3 ...

  5. A study of strategies for treating compensatory articulation in patients with cleft palate. (United States)

    Pamplona, Ma Carmen; Ysunza, Antonio; Chavelas, Katia; Arámburu, Esperanza; Patiño, Carmeluza; Martí, Fernanda; Morales, Santiago


    Patients with cleft palate (PCP) frequently show compensatory articulation disorder (CAD). Compensatory errors require a prolonged period of speech intervention. Scaffolding strategies are used for correcting placement and manner of articulation. To study whether some strategies commonly used in speech therapy for correcting compensatory articulation errors, can be more effective depending on severity of CAD in PCP. Fifty PCP were studied. All patients showed velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI) and CAD. Transcriptions of speech therapy sessions were revised in order to quantify positive changes in articulation. Correlation between effectiveness of each strategy and degree of severity of CAD was assessed. Also, different strategies were compared in order to determine whether some strategies were more appropriate for specific levels of severity of CAD. There was a significant relationship between the success of some strategies, as measured by the number of positive changes in articulation, and the degree of severity of CAD in PCP. There seems to be a relationship between effectiveness of some speech therapy strategies for correcting compensatory articulation errors and severity of CAD. Assessment of severity of CAD appears to be useful for planning speech intervention in PCP. Selected speech therapy strategies could be used according to severity of CAD.

  6. An illustration of speech articulation impairment in children with cerebral palsy tested by the Goldman-Fristoe method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ade Pungky Rusmarini


    Full Text Available Seventy percent of children with cerebral palsy were found to suffer from speech articulation impairment. The purpose of this research was to obtain an illustration of speech articulation impair­ment in children with cerebral palsy tested by the Goldman-Fristoe method at the SLB-D School for Dis­abled Children Bandung in 2007. This was a descriptive research. Sampling was carried out by purposive sampling. The speech articulation impairment test was carried out on the basis of the Goldman-Fristoe method, that is, an articulation test which places the consonant at the beginning, middle, and at the end of a word, to test speech articulation impairment in children with cerebral palsy. Research results indicated that speech articulation impairment in the bilabial consonants /p/,/b/, and /m/ is the average 85.51%. Speech articulation impairment of the labiodental consonants /f/ and /v/ is an average 89.13%. Speech articulation impairment of the alveolar or dental consonants /t/ and /d/ is an average of 80.43%. Speech articulation impairment in the palatal consonants /c/ is an average of 82.60%. Speech articulation impairment in velar consonants /k/ and glottal consonants /h/ is an average of 86.96%. Re­search results indicated that more than three-fourths of children with cerebral palsy at the SLB-D School for Disabled Children Bandung in 2007 suffered from speech articulation impairment.

  7. Native and thermally modified protein-polyphenol coassemblies: lactoferrin-based nanoparticles and submicrometer particles as protective vehicles for (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate. (United States)

    Yang, Wei; Xu, Chenqi; Liu, Fuguo; Yuan, Fang; Gao, Yanxiang


    The interactions between native, thermally modified lactoferrin (LF) and (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) at pH 3.5, 5.0, and 6.5 were investigated. Turbidity, particle size, and charge of LF-EGCG complexes were mainly dominated by pH value and secondary structure of protein. At pH 3.5 and 5.0, LF-EGCG complexes were nanoparticles which had high ζ-potential, small size, and soluble state. At pH 6.5, they were submicrometer particles which exhibited low ζ-potential, large size, and insoluble state. The infrared spectra of freeze-dried LF-EGCG complexes showed that they were different from LF and EGCG alone. Far-UV CD results indicated that heat denaturation might irreversibly alter the secondary structure of LF and EGCG induced a progressive increase in the proportion of α-helix structure at the cost of β-sheet and unordered coil structure of LF at pH 3.5, 5.0, and 6.5. EGCG exhibited a strong affinity for native LF but a weak affinity for thermally modified LF at pH 5.0 and 6.5. An inverse result was observed at pH 3.5. These results could have potential for the development of food formulations based on LF as a carrier of bioactive compounds.

  8. Cellular structure of the healthy and keratoconic human cornea imaged in-vivo with sub-micrometer axial resolution OCT(Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Bizheva, Kostadinka; Tan, Bingyao; Mason, Erik; Carter, Kirsten; Haines, Lacey; Sorbara, Luigina


    Keratoconus causes progressive morphological changes in the corneal epithelium (EPI), Bowman's membrane (BM) and anterior stroma. However, it is still not well understood if KC originates in the corneal epithelium and propagates to the anterior stroma through disruptions of the BM, or vice versa. In this study we used a sub-micrometer axial resolution OCT system to image in-vivo the cellular structure of the EPI layer and the fibrous structure of the BM and the anterior stroma in mild to advanced keratoconics, as well as healthy subjects. The imaging study was approved by the University of Waterloo Human Research Ethics Committee. The OCT system operates in the 800 nm spectral region at 34 kHz image acquisition rate and provides 0.95 um axial and < 2 um lateral resolution in corneal tissue, which is sufficient to visualize the cellular structure of the corneal epithelium and the fibrous structure of the BM. In some subjects, localized thinning and thickening of the EPI layer was observed, while there was no visible damage to the BM or anterior stroma. In other subjects, localized breakage of the stromal collagen fibrils was observed with no significant morphological changes of the corneal EPI.

  9. Articulating uncertainty as part of scientific argumentation during model-based exoplanet detection tasks (United States)

    Lee, Hee-Sun; Pallant, Amy; Pryputniewicz, Sarah


    Teaching scientific argumentation has emerged as an important goal for K-12 science education. In scientific argumentation, students are actively involved in coordinating evidence with theory based on their understanding of the scientific content and thinking critically about the strengths and weaknesses of the cited evidence in the context of the investigation. We developed a one-week-long online curriculum module called "Is there life in space?" where students conduct a series of four model-based tasks to learn how scientists detect extrasolar planets through the “wobble” and transit methods. The simulation model allows students to manipulate various parameters of an imaginary star and planet system such as planet size, orbit size, planet-orbiting-plane angle, and sensitivity of telescope equipment, and to adjust the display settings for graphs illustrating the relative velocity and light intensity of the star. Students can use model-based evidence to formulate an argument on whether particular signals in the graphs guarantee the presence of a planet. Students' argumentation is facilitated by the four-part prompts consisting of multiple-choice claim, open-ended explanation, Likert-scale uncertainty rating, and open-ended uncertainty rationale. We analyzed 1,013 scientific arguments formulated by 302 high school student groups taught by 7 teachers. We coded these arguments in terms of the accuracy of their claim, the sophistication of explanation connecting evidence to the established knowledge base, the uncertainty rating, and the scientific validity of uncertainty. We found that (1) only 18% of the students' uncertainty rationale involved critical reflection on limitations inherent in data and concepts, (2) 35% of students' uncertainty rationale reflected their assessment of personal ability and knowledge, rather than scientific sources of uncertainty related to the evidence, and (3) the nature of task such as the use of noisy data or the framing of

  10. In Vitro Evaluation of New Approach to Digital Dental Model Articulation (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Bing; Xia, James J.; Gateno, Jaime; Xiong, Zixiang; Teichgraeber, John F.; Lasky, Robert E.; Zhou, Xiaobo


    Purpose The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the accuracy of our newly developed approach to digital dental model articulation. Materials and Methods Twelve sets of stone dental models from patients with craniomaxillofacial deformities were used for validation. All the models had stable occlusion and no evidence of early contact. The stone models were hand articulated to the maximal intercuspation (MI) position and scanned using a 3-dimensional surface laser scanner. These digital dental models at the MI position served as the control group. To establish an experimental group, each mandibular dental model was disarticulated from its original MI position to 80 initial positions. Using a regular office personal computer, they were digitally articulated to the MI position using our newly developed approach. These rearticulated mandibular models served as the experimental group. Finally, the translational, rotational, and surface deviations in the mandibular position were calculated between the experimental and control groups, and statistical analyses were performed. Results All the digital dental models were successfully articulated. Between the control and experimental groups, the largest translational difference in mandibular position was within 0.2 mm ± 0.6 mm. The largest rotational difference was within 0.1° ± 1.1°. The averaged surface deviation was 0.08 ± 0.07. The results of the Bland and Altman method of assessing measurement agreement showed tight limits for the translational, rotational, and surface deviations. In addition, the final positions of the mandibular articulated from the 80 initial positions were absolutely agreed on. Conclusion The results of our study have demonstrated that using our approach, the digital dental models can be accurately and effectively articulated to the MI position. In addition, the 3-dimensional surface geometry of the mandibular teeth played a more important role in digital dental articulation than the

  11. Drawing Millions of Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Helle


    02.10.2017 Drawing Millions of Spaces Helle Brabrand, KADK, School of Architecture, Copenhagen My project Drawing Millions of Spaces takes up some recurring questions about drawing and perception, stating that kinesthetic perception alone is a decisive force in drawing architecture. The assertion...... is that awareness of produced sensuous effects is a core issue of drawing, framing the way we see and imagine. Affective tonality attaches to proprioceptive and kinesthetic experience, being the mode of experience that transverse the senses. Movement is always there; you have to make distinctions between kinds...... of movement and experimental dynamics, questioning what difference they may create. Drawing Millions of Spaces looks for ambiguous and resonant body-space articulations, preparing for a use of AR (augmented reality) as an additional creation approach. For instance, working with combined projections, using...

  12. [Phonological characteristics and rehabilitation training of abnormal velar in children with functional articulation disorders]. (United States)

    Lina, Xu; Feng, Li; Yanyun, Zhang; Nan, Gao; Mingfang, Hu


    To explore the phonological characteristics and rehabilitation training of abnormal velar in patients with functional articulation disorders (FAD). Eighty-seven patients with FAD were observed of the phonological characteristics of velar. Seventy-two patients with abnormal velar accepted speech training. The correlation and simple linear regression analysis were carried out on abnormal velar articulation and age. The articulation disorder of /g/ mainly showed replacement by /d/, /b/ or omission. /k/ mainly showed replacement by /d/, /t/, /g/, /p/, /b/. /h/ mainly showed replacement by /g/, /f/, /p/, /b/ or omission. The common erroneous articulation forms of /g/, /k/, /h/ were fronting of tongue and replacement by bilabial consonants. When velar combined with vowels contained /a/ and /e/, the main error was fronting of tongue. When velar combined with vowels contained /u/, the errors trended to be replacement by bilabial consonants. After 3 to 10 times of speech training, the number of erroneous words decreased to (6.24±2.61) from (40.28±6.08) before the speech training was established, the difference was statistically significant (Z=-7.379, P=0.000). The number of erroneous words was negatively correlated with age (r=-0.691, P=0.000). The result of simple linear regression analysis showed that the determination coefficient was 0.472. The articulation disorder of velar mainly shows replacement, varies with the vowels. The targeted rehabilitation training hereby established is significantly effective. Age plays an important role in the outcome of velar.

  13. In-Flight Position Calibration of the Cassini Articulated Reaction Wheel Assembly (United States)

    Brown, Todd S.


    NASA's long-lived Cassini-Huygens spacecraft is currently in its 14th year of flight and in the midst of its second, and final, extended mission. Cassini is a massive interplanetary spacecraft that is three axis stabilized and can maintain attitude control using either its reaction control system thrusters or using reaction wheel control. Cassini has four identical reaction wheels, of which three are mutually orthogonal and have a fixed orientation. The fourth reaction wheel has an articulation motor that allows this reaction wheel to be aligned with the momentum direction of any of the other three fixed reaction wheels. The articulation motor allows this reaction wheel to be used as a replacement for any of the other three wheels without any performance degradation. However, due to limitations in the design of this backup system, there are few telemetric indications of the orientation of this reaction wheel following an articulation. This investigation serves to outline the procedures that have been developed by the Cassini Attitude and Articulation Control Subsystem to calibrate the position of the articulated reaction wheel assembly in the event that the momentum direction of this reaction wheel must be reoriented.

  14. Broadband tunable bandpass filters using phase shifted vertical side wall grating in a submicrometer silicon-on-insulator waveguide. (United States)

    Prabhathan, P; Murukeshan, V M; Jing, Zhang; Ramana, Pamidighantam V


    We propose the silicon-on-insulator (SOI) based, phase shifted vertical side wall grating as a resonant transmission filter suitable for dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) communication channels with 100 GHz channel spacing. The gratings are designed and numerically simulated to obtain a minimum loss in the resonant cavity by adjusting the grating parameters so that a high transmittivity can be achieved for the resonant transmission. The resonant grating, which is designed to operate in the DWDM International Telecommunication Union (ITU) grid C band of optical communication, has a high free spectral range of 51.7 nm and a narrow band resonant transmission. The wavelength selectivity of the filter is improved through a coupled cavity configuration by applying two phase shifts to the gratings. The observed channel band width and channel isolation of the resonant transmission filter are good and in agreement with the ITU specifications.

  15. Development of a Wave Energy -Responsive Self-Actuated Blade Articulation Mechanism for an OWC Turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis A. Di Bella


    The Phase I SBIR effort completed the feasibility design, fabrication, and wind tunnel testing of a self-actuated blade articulation mechanism that uses a torsion bar and a lightweight airfoil to affect the articulation of the Wells airfoil. The articulation is affected only by the air stream incident on the airfoil. The self-actuating blade eliminates the complex and costly linkage mechanism that is now needed to perform this function on either a variable pitch Wells-type or Dennis-Auld air turbine. Using the results reported by independent researchers, the projected improvement in the Wells-type turbine efficiency is 20-40%, in addition to an increase in the operating air flow range by 50-100%, therefore enabling a smaller or slower single turbine to be used.

  16. Articulation proficiency and error pattern of cleft palate children with delayed hard palate closure. (United States)

    Wu, J; Chen, Y R; Noordhoff, M S


    Prior to 1982, children with cleft palate received delayed hard palate closure at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital. In this treatment, soft palate is usually repaired with Widmaier palatoplasty at about 18 months with surgery; hard palate is not closed until the age of 6 or 7. Our previous study indicated that the articulation skill of the cleft palate children before delayed hard palate closure is generally far inferior to the non-cleft children of the same age. Further investigation was carried out to look into the articulation proficiency and error patterns of the cleft palate children undergoing delayed hard palate closure. Data of 47 children (32 boys, 15 girls) were analyzed. Articulation proficiency was compared in four phoneme categories: nasals, plosives, fricatives and affricates. The results indicated that affricates are most difficult for Chinese cleft palate children to pronounce. At age 5, just before the hard palate closure, none of the phonemes is produced correctly except nasals.

  17. Error analysis of the articulated flexible arm CMM based on geometric method (United States)

    Wang, Xueying; Liu, Shugui; Zhang, Guoxiong; Wang, Bin


    In order to overcome the disadvantage of traditional CMM (Coordinate Measuring Machine), a new type of CMM with rotational joints and flexible arms named articulated arm flexible CMM is developed, in which linear measurements are substituted by angular ones. Firstly a quasi-spherical coordinate system is put forward, the ideal mathematical model of articulated arm flexible CMM is established. On the base of full analysis on the factors affecting the measurement accuracy, ideal mathematical model is modified to error model according to structural parameters and geometric errors. A geometric method is proposed to verify feasibility of error model, and the results convincingly show its validity. Position errors caused by different type of error sources are analyzed, and a theoretic base for introducing error compensation and improving the accuracy of articulated arm flexible CMM is established.

  18. Lip-Synching Using Speaker-Specific Articulation, Shape and Appearance Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breton Gaspard


    Full Text Available We describe here the control, shape and appearance models that are built using an original photogrammetric method to capture characteristics of speaker-specific facial articulation, anatomy, and texture. Two original contributions are put forward here: the trainable trajectory formation model that predicts articulatory trajectories of a talking face from phonetic input and the texture model that computes a texture for each 3D facial shape according to articulation. Using motion capture data from different speakers and module-specific evaluation procedures, we show here that this cloning system restores detailed idiosyncrasies and the global coherence of visible articulation. Results of a subjective evaluation of the global system with competing trajectory formation models are further presented and commented.

  19. Dynamics and Control of Articulated Anisotropic Timoshenko Beams (United States)

    Balakrishnan, A. V.


    The paper illustrates the use of continuum models in control design for stabilizing flexible structures. A 6-DOF anisotropic Timoshenko beam with discrete nodes where lumped masses or actuators are located provides a sufficiently rich model to be of interest for mathematical theory as well as practical application. We develop concepts and tools to help answer engineering questions without having to resort to ad hoc heuristic ("physical") arguments or faith. In this sense the paper is more mathematically oriented than engineering papers and vice versa at the same time. For instance we make precise time-domain solutions using the theory of semigroups of operators rather than formal "inverse Laplace transforms." We show that the modes arise as eigenvalues of the generator of the semigroup, which are then related to the eigenvalues of the stiffness operator. With the feedback control, the modes are no longer orthogonal and the question naturally arises as to whether there is still a modal expansion. Here we prove that the eigenfunctions yield a biorthogonal Riesz basis and indicate the corresponding expansion. We prove mathematically that the number of eigenvalues is nonfinite, based on the theory of zeros of entire functions. We make precise the notion of asymptotic modes and indicate how to calculate them. Although limited by space, we do consider the root locus problem and show for instance that the damping at first increases as the control gain increases but starts to decrease at a critical value, and goes to zero as the gain increases without bound. The undamped oscillatory modes remain oscillatory and the rigid-body modes go over into deadbeat modes. The Timoshenko model dynamics are translated into a canonical wave equation in a Hilbert space. The solution is shown to require the use of an "energy" norm which is no more than the total energy: potential plus kinetic. We show that, under an appropriate extension of the notion of controllability, rate feedback with

  20. Intraoperative molds to create an articulating spacer for the infected knee arthroplasty. (United States)

    Van Thiel, Geoffrey S; Berend, Keith R; Klein, Gregg R; Gordon, Alexander C; Lombardi, Adolph V; Della Valle, Craig J


    Chronic infections in TKA have been traditionally treated with a two-stage protocol incorporating a temporary antibiotic-loaded cement spacer. The use of a static as opposed to an articulating spacer is controversial. Some surgeons believe a static spacer results in a higher rate of infection eradication, whereas others believe an articulating spacer provides equivalent rates of infection control with improved function between stages and the potential for better eventual range of motion. We determined the rates of infection control and postoperative function for an articulating all-cement antibiotic spacer fashioned intraoperatively from prefabricated silicone molds. We retrospectively reviewed 60 patients with an infected TKA using the same cement-on-cement articulating spacer. A minimum of 4 g antibiotic per package of cement was used when making the spacer. Complications and pre- and postoperative knee flexion, extension, and Knee Society scores were recorded. Bone loss associated with the spacer was determined radiographically and by intraoperative inspection of the bony surfaces at the second stage. Minimum followup was 24 months (mean, 35 months; range, 24-51 months). Seven patients (12%) became reinfected, four with an organism different from that identified at the index resection arthroplasty. One spacer femoral component broke between stages but did not require any specific treatment. We identified no bone loss between stages and no complications related to the cement-on-cement articulation. The mean pretreatment Knee Society scores of 53 improved to 79. The mean preoperative flexion of 90.6º improved to 101.3º at final followup. An articulating antibiotic spacer was associated with control of a deep periprosthetic infection in 88% of patients while allowing range of motion between stages. Level IV, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  1. Kennedy Space Center - "America's Gateway to Space" (United States)

    Petro, Janet; Chevalier, Mary Ann; Hurst, Chery


    KSC fits into the overall NASA vision and mission by moving forward so that what we do and learn will benefit all here on Earth. In January of last year, KSC revised its Mission and Vision statements to articulate our identity as we align with this new direction the Agency is heading. Currently KSC is endeavoring to form partnerships with industry, , Government, and academia, utilizing institutional assets and technical capabilities to support current and future m!issions. With a goal of safe, low-cost, and readily available access to space, KSC seeks to leverage emerging industries to initiate development of a new space launch system, oversee the development of a multipurpose crew vehicle, and assist with the efficient and timely evolution of commercial crew transportation capabilities. At the same time, KSC is pursuing modernizing the Center's infrastructure and creating a multi-user launch complex with increased onsite processing and integration capabilities.

  2. Learning Spaces: Involving Faculty to Improve Pedagogy (United States)

    Lippincott, Joan K.


    If an institution desires more than a facelift or an iconic new building, it should clearly articulate its learning objectives and then place a high priority on including curriculum redesign in the planning process for new learning spaces. Faculty who are genuinely engaged in pedagogy, along with others who are concerned with the teaching and…

  3. Synergistic modes of vocal tract articulation for American English vowels. (United States)

    Story, Brad H


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the spatial similarity of vocal tract shaping patterns across speakers and the similarity of their acoustic effects. Vocal tract area functions for 11 American English vowels were obtained from six speakers, three female and three male, using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Each speaker's set of area functions was then decomposed into mean area vectors and representative modes (eigenvectors) using principal components analysis (PCA). Three modes accounted for more than 90% of the variance in the original data sets for each speaker. The general shapes of the first two modes were found to be highly correlated across all six speakers. To demonstrate the acoustic effects of each mode, both in isolation and combined, a mapping between the mode scaling coefficients and [F1, F2] pairs was generated for each speaker. The mappings were unique for all six speakers in terms of the exact shape of the [F1, F2] vowel space, but the general effect of the modes was the same in each case. The results support the idea that the modes provide a common system for perturbing a unique underlying neutral vocal tract shape.

  4. Improved digital transfer of the maxillary cast to a virtual articulator. (United States)

    Solaberrieta, Eneko; Otegi, Jose Ramon; Mínguez, Rikardo; Etxaniz, Olatz


    The clinical procedure described provides a quantifiable, repeatable, and reliable method of transferring the location of the maxillary dental arch from the patient directly to a virtual articulator (virtual facebow transfer) by means of reverse engineering devices to design a customized dental restoration. This procedure allows the dentist and the dental laboratory technician to work in a fully digital environment without having to mount stone casts on a mechanical articulator. In addition, specific suggestions are provided for designing the transfer device to enhance patient comfort during the data transfer process and reduce deviation. Copyright © 2014 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Design and Analysis of a Novel Articulated Drive Mechanism for Multifunctional NOTES Robot. (United States)

    Shen, Tao; Nelson, Carl A; Warburton, Kevin; Oleynikov, Dmitry


    This paper presents a novel articulated drive mechanism (ADM) for a multifunctional natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) robotic manipulator. It consists mainly of three major components including a snakelike linkage, motor housing, and an arm connector. The ADM can articulate into complex shapes for improved access to surgical targets. A connector provides an efficient and convenient modularity for insertion and removal of the robot. Four DC motors guide eight cables to steer the robot. The workspace, cable displacement and force transmission relationships are derived. Experimental results give preliminary validation of the feasibility and capability of the ADM system.

  6. Sensory integration dysfunction affects efficacy of speech therapy on children with functional articulation disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tung LC


    Full Text Available Li-Chen Tung,1,# Chin-Kai Lin,2,# Ching-Lin Hsieh,3,4 Ching-Chi Chen,1 Chin-Tsan Huang,1 Chun-Hou Wang5,6 1Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Chi Mei Medical Center, Tainan, 2Program of Early Intervention, Department of Early Childhood Education, National Taichung University of Education, Taichung, 3School of Occupational Therapy, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, 4Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, 5School of Physical Therapy, College of Medical Science and Technology, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, 6Physical Therapy Room, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan#These authors contributed equally Background: Articulation disorders in young children are due to defects occurring at a certain stage in sensory and motor development. Some children with functional articulation disorders may also have sensory integration dysfunction (SID. We hypothesized that speech therapy would be less efficacious in children with SID than in those without SID. Hence, the purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of speech therapy in two groups of children with functional articulation disorders: those without and those with SID.Method: A total of 30 young children with functional articulation disorders were divided into two groups, the no-SID group (15 children and the SID group (15 children. The number of pronunciation mistakes was evaluated before and after speech therapy.Results: There were no statistically significant differences in age, sex, sibling order, education of parents, and pretest number of mistakes in pronunciation between the two groups (P > 0.05. The mean and standard deviation in the pre- and posttest number of mistakes in pronunciation were 10.5 ± 3.2 and 3.3 ± 3.3 in the no-SID group, and 10.1 ± 2.9 and 6.9 ± 3.5 in the SID group, respectively. Results showed great changes after speech therapy treatment (F

  7. Tribology considerations for hip joint articulations in relation to the "new orthopaedic patient". (United States)

    Rieker, C B


    The purpose of this review is to examine alternative bearings used in total hip arthroplasty (THA) and discuss the specific tribologic needs of the "New Orthopaedic Patient". As orthopaedic patients today are younger and more active, there is a clear need for hip joint implants and articulations minimising the amount of wear and guarantying better stability. Recent modern developments in tribology with highly cross-linked polyethylenes and hard-on-hard bearings allow the safe and effective use of larger diameter articulations in THA.

  8. Sub-Micrometer Magnetic Nanocomposites: Insights into the Effect of Magnetic Nanoparticles Interactions on the Optimization of SAR and MRI Performance. (United States)

    Grillo, Renato; Gallo, Juan; Stroppa, Daniel G; Carbó-Argibay, Enrique; Lima, Renata; Fraceto, Leonardo F; Bañobre-López, Manuel


    There is increasing interest in the development of new magnetic polymeric carriers for biomedical applications such as trigger-controlled drug release, magnetic hyperthermia (MH) for the treatment of cancer, and as contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This work describes the synthesis of sub-micrometer and magnetic polymer nanocomposite capsules (MPNCs) by combining in one single platform the biodegradable polymer poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) and different concentrations of ∼8 nm oleic acid (OA)-functionalized magnetite nanoparticles (Fe3O4@OA), employing the oil-in-water emulsion/solvent evaporation method. The MPNCs showed a significant increase in particle size from ∼400 to ∼800 nm as the magnetic loading in the organic-inorganic hybrids increases from 1.0% to 10%. The MPNCs presented high incorporation efficiency of Fe3O4@OA nanoparticles, good colloidal stability, and super-paramagnetic properties. Interestingly, electron microscopy results showed that the Fe3O4@OA nanoparticles were preferentially located at the surface of the capsules. Evaluation of the magnetic properties showed that the saturation magnetization and the blocking temperature of the MPNCs samples increased as a function of the Fe3O4@OA loading. All the MPNCs exhibited heating when subjected to MH, and showed good specific absorption rates. Use of the formulations decreased the longitudinal (T1) and transverse (T2) relaxation times of water protons' nuclei, with excellent transverse relaxivity (r2) values, especially in the case of the formulation with lowest Fe3O4@OA loading. Furthermore, the MPNCs-cell interaction was studied, and MPNCs showed lower cellular toxicity to normal cells compared to cancer cells. These findings help in understanding the relationships between magnetic nanoparticles and polymeric capsules, opening perspectives for their potential clinical uses as simultaneous heating sources and imaging probes in MH and MRI, respectively.

  9. An integrated experimental-modeling approach to study the acid leaching behavior of lead from sub-micrometer lead silicate glass particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elteren, Johannes T. van, E-mail: [Analytical Chemistry Laboratory, National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Grilc, Miha [Laboratory of Catalysis and Chemical Reaction Engineering, National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Beeston, Michael P. [Analytical Chemistry Laboratory, National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); TSI GmbH, Neuköllner Str. 4, 52068 Aachen (Germany); Reig, Milagros Santacatalina [General Foundation, University of Alicante, E-03690 San Vicente del Raspeig (Alicante) (Spain); Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Alicante, P.O. Box 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain); Grgić, Irena [Analytical Chemistry Laboratory, National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)


    Highlights: • Generation of particles by laser ablation of lead silicate glass. • Collection of particles on filters and continuous acid leaching and ICP-MS monitoring. • Fitting of the lead leaching profile to a mathematical intraparticle diffusion model. • Extraction of individual leaching profiles for selected mono-dispersed size fractions. • Leaching kinetics is based on ion-exchange and correlated with particle size. -- Abstract: This work focuses on the development of a procedure to study the mechanism of leaching of lead from sub-micrometer lead glass particles using 0.3 mol l{sup −1} HNO{sub 3} as a leachant. Glass particles with an effective size distribution range from 0.05 to 1.4 μm were generated by laser ablation (213 nm Nd:YAG laser) and collected on an inline 0.2 μm syringe filter. Subsequently, the glass particles on the filter were subjected to online leaching and continuous monitoring of lead (Pb-208) in the leachate by quadrupole ICP-MS. The lead leaching profile, aided by the particle size distribution information from cascade impaction, was numerically fitted to a mathematical model based on the glass intraparticle diffusion, liquid film distribution and thermodynamic glass-leachant distribution equilibrium. The findings of the modeling show that the rate-limiting step of leaching is the migration of lead from the core to the surface of the glass particle by an ion-exchange mechanism, governed by the apparent intraparticle lead diffusivity in glass which was calculated to be 3.1 × 10{sup −18} m{sup 2} s{sup −1}. Lead leaching is illustrated in the form of graphs and animations of intraparticle lead release (in time and intraparticle position) from particles with sizes of 0.1 and 0.3 μm.

  10. Construction of Values in Online and Offline Dating Discourses: Comparing Presentational and Articulated Rhetorics of Relationship Seeking

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Manning, Jimmie


    This manuscript compares presentational rhetorics in online personal advertisements to articulated rhetorics generated through interviewing sessions to understand rhetorics of online dating. Online self...

  11. Multi-Sensor Based Online Attitude Estimation and Stability Measurement of Articulated Heavy Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingyuan Zhu


    Full Text Available Articulated wheel loaders used in the construction industry are heavy vehicles and have poor stability and a high rate of accidents because of the unpredictable changes of their body posture, mass and centroid position in complex operation environments. This paper presents a novel distributed multi-sensor system for real-time attitude estimation and stability measurement of articulated wheel loaders to improve their safety and stability. Four attitude and heading reference systems (AHRS are constructed using micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS sensors, and installed on the front body, rear body, rear axis and boom of an articulated wheel loader to detect its attitude. A complementary filtering algorithm is deployed for sensor data fusion in the system so that steady state margin angle (SSMA can be measured in real time and used as the judge index of rollover stability. Experiments are conducted on a prototype wheel loader, and results show that the proposed multi-sensor system is able to detect potential unstable states of an articulated wheel loader in real-time and with high accuracy.

  12. Cognitive Levels Regarding Articulation Marks among Violin Students in Department of Music Education in Gazi University (United States)

    Taninmis, Gamze Elif


    The purpose of this study is to determine violin students' cognitive levels about articulation marks in Department of Music Education, Fine Arts Education, Gazi Faculty of Education, Gazi University (GUGEF), and to identify the variables on which the cognitive levels vary. It is a descriptive research considering the study purpose, method and…

  13. Optical Fiber Sensors For Monitoring Joint Articulation And Chest Expansion Of A Human Body (United States)

    Muhs, Jeffrey D.; Allison, Stephen W.


    Fiber-optic sensors employing optical fibers of elastomeric material are incorporated in devices adapted to be worn by human beings in joint and chest regions for the purpose of monitoring and measuring the extent of joint articulation and chest expansion especially with respect to time.

  14. The Articulation of Secondary and Post-Secondary Vocational Education Programs. Workshop Products. (United States)

    Keene State Coll., NH.

    As a result of the cooperative efforts in articulation by secondary/postsecondary instructor teams, six packages representing the occupational areas of child care, culinary arts, electronics, health occupations, power mechanics, and industrial welding were developed. Each package contains the following three components: a series of job titles…

  15. Feasibility of an LPN to ADN Articulation Program at LSUA. Vocational Education Research. (United States)

    Louisiana State Univ., Alexandria.

    A feasibility study examined the need for and likelihood of success for a Licensed Practical Nurse (LPN) to Associate Degree in Nursing (ADN) articulation program for Louisiana State University (LSU) at Alexandria. Following a literature search on the theoretical establishment and implementation of such a program, three schools with successful…

  16. A further analysis for developmental apraxia of speech in children with defective articulation. (United States)

    Williams, R; Ingham, R J; Rosenthal, J


    This paper reports a further analysis of behaviors that might distinguish developmental apraxia of speech from "functional" defective articulation. Closely following a study of Yoss and Darley, 30 children with moderately-to-severely defective articulation but with normal hearing, intelligence, and language development and with no apparent organic etiology for their disability were matched with a normal-speaking control group. Both groups were given Yoss and Darley's battery of speech and nonspeech tasks. Yoss and Darley's analysis procedure was applied to the data. Their finding of significant differences between the control group and the defective articulation group across five nonspeech tasks proved to be true for ony two of the speech and nonspeech tasks in this study. Following division of the defective articulation group on the basis of isolated volitional oral and movement scores, Yoss and Darley had conducted discriminant function analyses of the data, resulting in combinations of speech and nonspeech variables that significantly differentiated the two subgroups. Neurologic ratings figured prominently as a distinguishing variable. A similar comparison in this study did not find a combination of variables which differentiated the two subgroups with any confidence. The implication of these findings and some possible reasons for the differences between the findings of the studies are discussed.

  17. Is It Necessary to Articulate a Research Methodology When Reporting on Theoretical Research? (United States)

    Smith, Juliana; Small, Rosalie


    In this paper the authors share their insights on whether it is necessary to articulate a research methodology when reporting on theoretical research. Initially the authors, one being a supervisor and the other, a PhD student and a colleague, were confronted with the question during supervision and writing of a thesis on theoretical research.…

  18. Development of the material selection practice - a study exploring articulation of material requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker; Hasling, Karen Marie


    This paper explores how the material selection matrix is used in a materials and sustainability course. The matrix encourages the students to articulate material selection requirements to become more competent in exploring new materials and selecting materials for a given design task. The study i...... students to use a fixed number of technical, experiential and sustainability oriented requirements....

  19. The Occurrence of Developmental Apraxia of Speech in a Mild Articulation Disorder: A Case Study. (United States)

    Hall, Penelope K.


    A case study is presented of a fourth-grade girl with a seemingly mild "r" articulation problem. During remediation, it was determined that the girl also presented characteristics consistent with developmental apraxia of speech. A motor-programing remedial model was initiated; following five semesters of remediation, acceptable…

  20. More than a Name: Spanish-Speaking Youth Articulating Bilingual Identities (United States)

    Mackinney, Erin


    This article explores how middle school Latina/o youth articulate their intersecting language identities as part of larger institutional and transnational experiences. Students navigated the multiple labels ascribed to them as members of the English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) program as they shaped perspectives of their bilingual…

  1. Bilingual Children’s Phonological Awareness: The Effect of Articulation Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pi-Yu Chiang


    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate whether unbalanced Chinese-English bilingual children’s phonological awareness skills are limited to language experience, and whether these skills are improved after a short period of articulation training with L2 (English tongue twisters. Sixty kindergarten children in Taipei whose English proficiency was lower than their mother tongue, Chinese, participated in a series of tests. They were divided into two age groups with an average age of 5;3 and 6;3 respectively. An English proficiency test was first administrated to understand these children’s command of English. Then, phonological awareness pre-tests in Chinese and English were used to tap these children’s phonological awareness in both languages. Tests include onset/ rhyme detection test, onset deletion test, and onset/ rhyme substitution tests. Based on the causal link between articulation and phonological awareness, an English articulation training was given to the experimental group of children after the pre-tests, to examine whether enhanced English phonological awareness skills transfer to Chinese. Results showed that phonological awareness acquired in L1 were also found in L2. A period of articulation training in English led to an improvement of these children’s performances in both English and Chinese, which implies a backward transfer from weaker L2 to stronger L1. Cross-language transfers in phonological awareness abilities also imply that an abstract underlying capacity facilitates language processing across languages.

  2. Effect of emotion and articulation of speech on the Uncanny Valley in virtual characters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tinwell, Angela; Grimshaw, Mark Nicholas; Abdel Nabi, Debbie


    with normal and exaggerated mouth movements. Measures were taken for perceived familiarity and human-likness. the results showed that: an increased intensity of articulation significantly reduced the uncanny for anger, yet increased perception of the uncanny for characters expressing happiness...

  3. Inservice Training for Regional Planning/Articulation of Vocational Education: A Resource Manual. (United States)

    Davis, Russell; And Others

    This guide is designed to serve as (1) instructional materials for training those assigned to provide technical assistance in the regional planning and articulation of vocational education and (2) a resource to familiarize and train the recipients of the planning processes. Addressed in the individual chapters of the manual are the following…

  4. Comparison of mechanical properties of silicone and PVC (polyvinylchloride) cosmetic gloves for articulating hand prostheses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, G.; Plettenburg, D.H.


    Current articulating electric and body-powered hands have a lower pinch force (15–34 N) than electric hands with stiff fingers (55–100 N). The cosmetic glove, which covers a hand prosthesis, negatively affects the mechanical efficiency of a prosthesis. The goal of this study is to mechanically

  5. Articulated Multimedia Physics, Lesson 14, Gases, The Gas Laws, and Absolute Temperature. (United States)

    New York Inst. of Tech., Old Westbury.

    As the fourteenth lesson of the Articulated Multimedia Physics Course, instructional materials are presented in this study guide with relation to gases, gas laws, and absolute temperature. The topics are concerned with the kinetic theory of gases, thermometric scales, Charles' law, ideal gases, Boyle's law, absolute zero, and gas pressures. The…

  6. Qualitative Network Analysis Tools for the Configurative Articulation of Cultural Value and Impact from Research (United States)

    Oancea, Alis; Florez Petour, Teresa; Atkinson, Jeanette


    This article introduces a methodological approach for articulating and communicating the impact and value of research: qualitative network analysis using collaborative configuration tracing and visualization. The approach was proposed initially in Oancea ("Interpretations and Practices of Research Impact across the Range of Disciplines…

  7. The Effects of Otitis Media on Articulation. Final Report for 1982-1983. (United States)

    Roberts, Joanne Erwick

    The study examined the relationship in 44 preschoolers (considered to have varying degrees of predicted risk for poor school performance) between otitis media (middle ear disease) during the first 3 years of life and speech production (articulation) during preschool and school age years. Speech production accuracy was assessed by the number of…

  8. Activating a Teaching Philosophy in Social Work Education: Articulation, Implementation, and Evaluation (United States)

    Owens, Larry W.; Miller, J. Jay; Grise-Owens, Erlene


    This article describes how to develop a comprehensive teaching philosophy from articulation through implementation to evaluation. Using literature and teaching-learning experiences, we discuss pragmatic steps for using a teaching philosophy to inform, engage, and evaluate teaching-learning. We promote an integrated teaching philosophy to ensure…

  9. Dreams Worth Pursuing: How College Students Develop and Articulate Their Purpose in Life (United States)

    Schluckebier, Michael Edward


    The purpose of this study was to describe the experiences undergraduate students cite as helping them develop and articulate their purpose in life. Purpose in life, as a construct, is associated with many positive attributes associated with life in general, and the college experience specifically; however, it is also closely related to other…

  10. Misspoken in Arizona: Latina/o Students Document the Articulations of Racism (United States)

    Cammarota, Julio


    This article reports on racism expressed by school personnel (administrators and teachers) and experienced by Latina/o students at a high school located in Tucson, Arizona. Students in a specialized social science research program, called the Social Justice Education Project (SJEP), documented personal encounters with racist articulations at their…

  11. Encouraging Student Reflection and Articulation Using a Learning Companion: A Commentary (United States)

    Goodman, Bradley; Linton, Frank; Gaimari, Robert


    Our 1998 paper "Encouraging Student Reflection and Articulation using a Learning Companion" (Goodman et al. 1998) was a stepping stone in the progression of learning companions for intelligent tutoring systems (ITS). A simulated learning companion, acting as a peer in an intelligent tutoring environment ensures the availability of a…

  12. An Articulation Model in Dental Assisting for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. A Continuation. (United States)

    Sylves, Jane M.; Boody, Sandra

    A curriculum development project was conducted to generate additional competency-based modules to be used within the articulation model for Pennsylvania dental assisting programs, established in 1988. Project activities included reviewing, modifying, and providing parallel competency-based structure for the courses at the A.W. Beattie Technical…

  13. Gender Equality in Media Content and Operations: Articulating Academic Studies and Policy--A Presentation (United States)

    Lourenço, Mirta Edith


    In this article, Mirta Lourenço explains the prospects when higher education studies interface with UNESCO for policy change. The baseline is that education institutions' articulation with media organizations, media professionals, policy-makers, and civil society groups is essential to achieve gender equality in and through media.

  14. Overall intelligibility, articulation, resonance, voice and language in a child with Nager syndrome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anke Luyten; H. Vermeersch; K. van Lierde; G. Mortier; K. Bettens; A. Tijskens


    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to provide a description of the language and speech (intelligibility, voice, resonance, articulation) in a 7-year-old Dutch speaking boy with Nager syndrome. To reveal these features comparison was made with an age and gender related child with a similar

  15. Investigation of the dynamic method of measuring points on articulated steering surfaces aerodynamic models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    П.В. Артамонов


    Full Text Available  This article described findings investigation of a dynamic method measurement articulate the moments of tensometriced rudders surfaces, located on model half-wing of the plane. Measurements were spent in a wind tunnel at continuous moving model on the corners of attack in the selected diapason.

  16. The Acoustic Properties of Vowels: A Tool for Improving Articulation and Comprehension of English (United States)

    McCombs, Candalene J.


    Correct pronunciation is often a later step in the process of teaching English as a second language. However, a focus on the correct articulation of vowels can significantly improve listening and comprehension skills as well as articulatory skills. Vowels and consonants differ in their acoustic properties. Unlike consonants, vowel sounds are…

  17. Informal work and formal plans: Articulating the active role of patients in cancer trajectories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsted, R.; Hølge-Hazelton, Bibi; Kousgaard, MB


    Formal pathways models outline that patients should receive information in order to experience a coherent journey but do not describe an active role for patients or their relatives. The aim of this is paper is to articulate and discuss the active role of patients during their cancer trajectories...

  18. Application of the Systematic Multiple Phonemic Approach to Articulation Therapy: A Case Study. (United States)

    Schissel, Richard J.; Doty, Marilyn H.


    Articulation test performance following nine testing sessions and 14 therapy sessions indicated mastery of all but two of the original error sounds. It was concluded that the technique of treating all production errors in each remediation session can be a rapid and effective procedure with children displaying multiple sound errors. (DLS)

  19. Phonological/Traditional Approaches to Articulation Therapy: A Retrospective Group Comparison. (United States)

    Klein, Edward S.


    A study of 36 children (ages 3-5) compared traditional and phonological treatment of 36 children with multiple articulation disorders. Results found that the response of children in the traditional therapy group was substantially inferior; the children in the phonological therapy group showed more improvement with fewer therapy sessions. (CR)

  20. Complications Related to Metal-on-Metal Articulation in Trapeziometacarpal Joint Total Joint Arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølich, Christina; Hansen, Torben Bæk


    Adverse reactions to metal-on-metal (MoM) prostheses are well known from total hip joint resurfacing arthroplasty with elevated serum chrome or cobalt, pain and pseudo tumor formation. It may, however, also be seen after total joint replacement of the trapeziometacarpal joint using MoM articulation...

  1. Being Nature: Interspecies Articulation as a Species-Specific Practice of Relating to Environment (United States)

    Rautio, Pauliina


    Rather than categorically teaching us ways to be less anthropocentric, environmental education could be about educating us of the ways in which we already are nature as human animals. In this paper, one species-specific practice of human relating to environment--interspecies articulation--is argued as one way of being nature. Interspecies…

  2. [The Articulator of Primary Health Care Program: an innovative proposal for qualification of Primary Health Care]. (United States)

    Doricci, Giovanna Cabral; Guanaes-Lorenzi, Carla; Pereira, Maria José Bistafa


    In 2009, the Secretary of State for Health of Sao Paulo created a Program with a view to qualify the primary care in the state. This proposal includes a new job function, namely the articulator of primary care. Due to the scarcity of information about the practice of these new professionals in the scientific literature, this article seeks to analyze how articulators interpret their function and how they describe their daily routines. Thirteen articulators were interviewed. The interviews were duly analyzed by qualitative delineation. The results describe three themes: 1)Roles of the articulator: technical communicator and political advisor; 2) Activities performed to comply with the expected roles, examples being diagnosis of the municipalities, negotiation of proposals, participation in meetings, visits to municipalities; and 3) Challenges of the role, which are configured as challenges to the health reform process, examples being the lack of physical and human resources, activities of professionals in the medical-centered model, among others. The conclusion drawn is that the Program has great potential to provide input for the development and enhancement of Primary Care. Nevertheless, there are a series of challenges to be overcome, namely challenges to the context per se.

  3. The Negotiation and Articulation of Identity, Position and Ethos in Joint Church Academies (United States)

    Green, Elizabeth


    This paper summarises the key findings of a research project into the identity, position and ethos of jointly sponsored church academies. The research sought to investigate how joint church academies are situated within the field, how they relate to existing academies and the maintained church school sector and how they articulate their vision and…

  4. 2+2 Statewide Articulation Policy, Student Persistence, and Success in Florida Universities (United States)

    Garcia Falconetti, Angela M.


    The reported study in this paper examined the continuing viability of Florida's 2+2 articulation agreement by comparing academic success and persistence among Florida public community college graduates (n = 1,738) and native (n = 874) juniors at three universities. Discriminant analysis yielded statistically significant differences. Transfer…

  5. Articulation of women and gender issues in drama and theatre from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Articulation of women and gender issues in drama and theatre from classical Greece to post independence Nigeria. R Ode, PA Tse. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

  6. Speech therapy for compensatory articulations and velopharyngeal function: a case report. (United States)

    Bispo, Nachale Helen Maciel; Whitaker, Melina Evangelista; Aferri, Homero Carneiro; Neves, Josiane Denardi Alves; Dutka, Jeniffer de Cássia Rillo; Pegoraro-Krook, Maria Inês


    The objective of this study was to describe the process of intensive speech therapy for a 6-year-old child using compensatory articulations while presenting with velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI) and a history of cleft lip and palate. The correction of VPI was temporarily done with a pharyngeal obturator since the child presented with very little movement of the pharyngeal walls during speech, compromising the outcome of a possible pharyngeal flap procedure (pharyngoplasty). The program of intensive speech therapy involved 3 phases, each for duration of 2 weeks incorporating 2 daily sessions of 50 minutes of therapy. A total of 60 sessions of intervention were done with the initial goal of eliminating the use of compensatory articulations. Evaluation before the program indicated the use of co-productions (coarticulations) of voiceless plosive and fricative sounds with glottal stops (simultaneous production of 2 places of productions), along with weak intraoral pressure and hypernasality, all compromising speech intelligibility. To address place of articulation, strategies to increase intraoral air pressure were used along with visual, auditory and tactile feedback, emphasizing the therapy target and the air pressure and airflow during plosive and fricative sound productions. After the first two phases of the program, oral place of articulation of the targets were achieved consistently. During the third phase, velopharyngeal closure during speech was systematically addressed using a bulb reduction program with the objective of achieving velopharyngeal closure during speech consistently. After the intensive speech therapy program involving the use of a pharyngeal obturator, we observed absence of hypernasality and compensatory articulation with improved speech intelligibility.

  7. Speech therapy for compensatory articulations and velopharyngeal function: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nachale Helen Maciel Bispo


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to describe the process of intensive speech therapy for a 6-year-old child using compensatory articulations while presenting with velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI and a history of cleft lip and palate. The correction of VPI was temporarily done with a pharyngeal obturator since the child presented with very little movement of the pharyngeal walls during speech, compromising the outcome of a possible pharyngeal flap procedure (pharyngoplasty. The program of intensive speech therapy involved 3 phases, each for duration of 2 weeks incorporating 2 daily sessions of 50 minutes of therapy. A total of 60 sessions of intervention were done with the initial goal of eliminating the use of compensatory articulations. Evaluation before the program indicated the use of co-productions (coarticulations of voiceless plosive and fricative sounds with glottal stops (simultaneous production of 2 places of productions, along with weak intraoral pressure and hypernasality, all compromising speech intelligibility. To address place of articulation, strategies to increase intraoral air pressure were used along with visual, auditory and tactile feedback, emphasizing the therapy target and the air pressure and airflow during plosive and fricative sound productions. After the first two phases of the program, oral place of articulation of the targets were achieved consistently. During the third phase, velopharyngeal closure during speech was systematically addressed using a bulb reduction program with the objective of achieving velopharyngeal closure during speech consistently. After the intensive speech therapy program involving the use of a pharyngeal obturator, we observed absence of hypernasality and compensatory articulation with improved speech intelligibility.

  8. Three-dimensional visualisation and articulating instrumentation: Impact on simulated laparoscopic tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bittner James


    Full Text Available Laparoscopy requires the development of technical skills distinct from those used in open procedures. Several factors extending the learning curve of laparoscopy include ergonomic and technical difficulties, such as the fulcrum effect and limited degrees of freedom. This study aimed to establish the impact of four variables on performance of two simulated laparoscopic tasks. Methods: Six subjects including novice (n=2, intermediate (n=2 and expert surgeons completed two tasks: 1 four running sutures, 2 simple suture followed by surgeon′s knot plus four square knots. Task variables were suturing angle (left/right, needle holder type (standard/articulating and visualisation (2D/3D. Each task with a given set of variables was completed twice in random order. The endpoints included suturing task completion time, average and maximum distance from marks and knot tying task completion time. Results: Suturing task completion time was prolonged by 45-degree right angle suturing, articulating needle holder use and lower skill levels (all P < 0.0001. Accuracy also decreased with articulating needle holder use (both P < 0.0001. 3D vision affected only maximum distance ( P =0.0108. For the knot tying task, completion time was greater with 45-degree right angle suturing ( P =0.0015, articulating needle holder use ( P < 0.0001, 3D vision ( P =0.0014 and novice skill level ( P =0.0003. Participants felt that 3D visualisation offered subjective advantages during training. Conclusions: Results suggest construct validity. A 3D personal head display and articulating needle holder do not immediately improve task completion times or accuracy and may increase the training burden of laparoscopic suturing and knot tying.

  9. Speech therapy for compensatory articulations and velopharyngeal function: a case report (United States)

    BISPO, Nachale Helen Maciel; WHITAKER, Melina Evangelista; AFERRI, Homero Carneiro; NEVES, Josiane Denardi Alves; DUTKA, Jeniffer de Cássia Rillo; PEGORARO-KROOK, Maria Inês


    The objective of this study was to describe the process of intensive speech therapy for a 6-year-old child using compensatory articulations while presenting with velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI) and a history of cleft lip and palate. The correction of VPI was temporarily done with a pharyngeal obturator since the child presented with very little movement of the pharyngeal walls during speech, compromising the outcome of a possible pharyngeal flap procedure (pharyngoplasty). The program of intensive speech therapy involved 3 phases, each for duration of 2 weeks incorporating 2 daily sessions of 50 minutes of therapy. A total of 60 sessions of intervention were done with the initial goal of eliminating the use of compensatory articulations. Evaluation before the program indicated the use of co-productions (coarticulations) of voiceless plosive and fricative sounds with glottal stops (simultaneous production of 2 places of productions), along with weak intraoral pressure and hypernasality, all compromising speech intelligibility. To address place of articulation, strategies to increase intraoral air pressure were used along with visual, auditory and tactile feedback, emphasizing the therapy target and the air pressure and airflow during plosive and fricative sound productions. After the first two phases of the program, oral place of articulation of the targets were achieved consistently. During the third phase, velopharyngeal closure during speech was systematically addressed using a bulb reduction program with the objective of achieving velopharyngeal closure during speech consistently. After the intensive speech therapy program involving the use of a pharyngeal obturator, we observed absence of hypernasality and compensatory articulation with improved speech intelligibility. PMID:22231007

  10. Tech Prep Articulation from Alabama's Public Schools to Alabama's Two-Year Colleges: Perceptions of Administrators, Counselors, and Technical Teachers (United States)

    Cain, H. Jason


    Although dual enrollment and other programs that allow high school students to earn college credit are viable and beneficial, articulation is not being extensively utilized. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the articulation policy and its implementation between Alabama's high schools and two-year colleges. It was expected that…

  11. 75 FR 5343 - In the Matter of Certain Articulated Coordinate Measuring Arms and Components Thereof; Notice of... (United States)


    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Articulated Coordinate Measuring Arms and Components Thereof; Notice of a... importation, sale for importation, and sale within the United States after importation of certain articulated coordinate measuring arms or components thereof by reason of infringement of certain claims of U.S. Patent No...

  12. Analysis Method of Articulated Torque of Heavy-Duty Six-Legged Robot under Its Quadrangular Gait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Chao Zhuang


    Full Text Available The articulated torque is an important base for developing heavy-duty multi-legged robots. To quickly obtain accurate articulated torques, a method is presented for an electrically driven heavy-duty six-legged robot under its quadrangular gait. First, the typical walking ways and the working conditions of support phase are analyzed. The static articulated torques are solved though Matrix Laboratory (MATLAB software. The variable tendency charts of torques are acquired with the changes in the joint angles. The static simulation of robot is carried out by Automatic Dynamic Analysis of Mechanical Systems (ADAMS software. A comparative analysis of the maximum static articulated torques shows that the theoretical calculation values are smaller than the static simulation values. The maximum error value is about 5%. Finally, a prototype of the electrically driven heavy-duty six-legged robot is developed. Its climbing experiments prove that the proposed method can be applied to quickly determine accurate articulated torques.

  13. Physical properties of the sub-micrometer aerosol over the Amazon rain forest during the wet-to-dry season transition - comparison of modeled and measured CCN concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Rissler


    Full Text Available Sub-micrometer atmospheric aerosol particles were studied in the Amazon region, 125 km northeast of Manaus, Brazil (-1°55.2'S, 59°28.1'W. The measurements were performed during the wet-to-dry transition period, 4-28 July 2001 as part of the LBA (Large-Scale Biosphere Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia CLAIRE-2001 (Cooperative LBA Airborne Regional Experiment experiment. The number size distribution was measured with two parallel differential mobility analyzers, the hygroscopic growth at 90% RH with a Hygroscopic Tandem Mobility Analyzer (H-TDMA and the concentrations of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN with a cloud condensation nuclei counter. A model was developed that uses the H-TDMA data to predict the number of soluble molecules or ions in the individual particles and the corresponding minimum particle diameter for activation into a cloud droplet at a certain supersaturation. Integrating the number size distribution above this diameter, CCN concentrations were predicted with a time resolution of 10 min and compared to the measured concentrations. During the study period, three different air masses were identified and compared: clean background, air influenced by aged biomass burning, and moderately polluted air from recent local biomass burning. For the clean period 2001, similar number size distributions and hygroscopic behavior were observed as during the wet season at the same site in 1998, with mostly internally mixed particles of low diameter growth factor (~1.3 taken from dry to 90% RH. During the periods influenced by biomass burning the hygroscopic growth changed slightly, but the largest difference was seen in the number size distribution. The CCN model was found to be successful in predicting the measured CCN concentrations, typically within 25%. A sensitivity study showed relatively small dependence on the assumption of which model salt that was used to predict CCN concentrations from H-TDMA data. One strength of using H-TDMA data


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Getting closer to the articulation segment of SLI is important for diagnosis of children in early school age. Phonologic and articulation status of this population is specific, and acknowledging it, will secure adequate rehabilitation.The theory offers wide analysis of physiology of all speech-language aspects of the developmental period, as well as its pathology. The emphasis is put on the articulation segment in children with SLI.The goal of this study was to establish direct relation between speech-language development delay and the process of sound forming in children with SLI, and in the same time comparing it with the normal speech-language development.In this study a group of 35 children with SLI, and a group of 35 children without this problem were included.The examination was performed with four relevant tests: Global articulation test, Test for examining articulation, Articulation test for analytic estimation of phonologic and articulation disorders and Test for understanding speech.For processing data from empiric frequencies for specific categories in both tested groups, c2 test was used. In the same time, establishing correlation level between groups of different characteristics in examinees, quotient of contingency was included. Since the necessary confirmation of results correlation among different test results scored in both groups, Pearson test of correlation was also used. The results showed some important characteristics of phonologic-articulation disorders. Children suffering from SLI have approximately 20 well pronounced sounds. The biggest problem is pronunciation of sounds from fricative and affricate group, medial position of sound in a word, and the most frequent sound disorder is substitution. Detailed analysis resulted with dominant problem with the place of sound production, except in cases of sound mispronunciation of vowels and nasals.When estimating sound quality in word and sentence order, deviation of

  15. Controlling Cyclic Epidemics on the Crops of the Agroecosystems: Articulate all the Dimensions in the Formalisation, but Look for a Local Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Bousset


    Full Text Available In agroecosystems, crop yield is reduced by epidemics. At the field scale, epidemiology succeeded knowledge percolation across theory, empirical studies, and recommendations to actors. Achieving similar success at the landscape level requires understanding of ecosystems. The aim of this manuscript is to formalize cyclic epidemics, in which development depends on interaction in space and in time between host plants, pathogens, environment, and human actions. In agroecosystems, human actions exacerbate homogeneities alternating with sharp discontinuities on scales of time and space. The dynamics of cyclic epidemics takes discontinuities into account. This allows decomposing control at the field and at the landscape scales into goals to reach, corresponding to the components of the pluriannual dynamics of epidemics. Articulating disciplinary concepts open the prospect of optimization by identification of one’s potential contributions. Finally, we propose that cyclic epidemics could be controlled by looking for a local solution, in a decentralized manner.

  16. Note sur les articulations de la linéarité phrastique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rostislav Kocourek


    Full Text Available The term structuring is here used as an equivalent of various meanings of terms sentence perspective or sentence articulation found in terms Functional Sentence Perspective (FSP, or Actual Sentence Articulation, or in phrases used in the present paper as l’articulation ordinaire or l’articulation poétique.The introductory sections of the paper deal with the typological and diachronic aspects of word order, and with the proposal to use permutation as a promising procedure preparing to obtain a complete list of meaningful sequences to be further explored. There is also a brief note on contextuality, on the spoken and written norms of language and on the poetic and specialized languages/styles, all as related to word order.The FSP is seen as one type of structuring sentence linearity. As such, the FSP is considered to be an important, more recent parallel to the contemporary varieties of what is here called ordinary structuring (articulation, i.e. types of grammatical subject-predicate structuring (articulation. In contrast to ‘ordinary’ approaches, the FSP structuring is supported by communicatively oriented pragma-psycho-linguistic foundations, i.e. using key terms like situation of communication, addresser intention, addressee response, etc. That is why the next step is to compare the two conceptions (FSP and ordinary structuring. The main result of the comparison is the parallel nature of the two : They share texts to analyze and, to do so, they use different principles and terminologies (see the table of terms in section 8. The successful contemporary development of FSP, as well as its pioneerig steps in the pre-1945 period, have been made mainly by Prague linguists, who, together with a number of interested scholars from abroad, work out its theory trying to make of it a standard component of syntactic research. The problem of a certain tension between the original Praguian functional-structural and later communicative approach

  17. Development and evaluation of an articulated registration algorithm for human skeleton registration (United States)

    Yip, Stephen; Perk, Timothy; Jeraj, Robert


    Accurate registration over multiple scans is necessary to assess treatment response of bone diseases (e.g. metastatic bone lesions). This study aimed to develop and evaluate an articulated registration algorithm for the whole-body skeleton registration in human patients. In articulated registration, whole-body skeletons are registered by auto-segmenting into individual bones using atlas-based segmentation, and then rigidly aligning them. Sixteen patients (weight = 80-117 kg, height = 168-191 cm) with advanced prostate cancer underwent the pre- and mid-treatment PET/CT scans over a course of cancer therapy. Skeletons were extracted from the CT images by thresholding (HU>150). Skeletons were registered using the articulated, rigid, and deformable registration algorithms to account for position and postural variability between scans. The inter-observers agreement in the atlas creation, the agreement between the manually and atlas-based segmented bones, and the registration performances of all three registration algorithms were all assessed using the Dice similarity index—DSIobserved, DSIatlas, and DSIregister. Hausdorff distance (dHausdorff) of the registered skeletons was also used for registration evaluation. Nearly negligible inter-observers variability was found in the bone atlases creation as the DSIobserver was 96 ± 2%. Atlas-based and manual segmented bones were in excellent agreement with DSIatlas of 90 ± 3%. Articulated (DSIregsiter = 75 ± 2%, dHausdorff = 0.37 ± 0.08 cm) and deformable registration algorithms (DSIregister = 77 ± 3%, dHausdorff = 0.34 ± 0.08 cm) considerably outperformed the rigid registration algorithm (DSIregsiter = 59 ± 9%, dHausdorff = 0.69 ± 0.20 cm) in the skeleton registration as the rigid registration algorithm failed to capture the skeleton flexibility in the joints. Despite superior skeleton registration performance, deformable registration algorithm failed to preserve the local rigidity of bones as over 60% of the

  18. Presence Experiences - the eventalisation of urban space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pløger, John


    ’ and Hans Martin Gumbrecht on ‘presence-events’, I focus on subcultural and subpolitical groups trying to capture urban commercial spaces and to reverse or reveal their symbolic meaning. Using the oppositional youth group Pirate Parties, I argue that it is exactly the eventalisation and the presence quality......Cultural events are, as part of an urban development strategy, about (symbolic) representations, but for the human beings participating in the event it may include acts of in/visibility (anonymity versus expressivity) and different articulations of meaning or subjectivity in space. A particular...... and virtual qualities of presence-event spaces and the eventalisation of urban space...

  19. Comparative Review of Endoscopic Devices Articulations Technologies Developed for Minimally Invasive Medical Procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Catherine


    Full Text Available This study introduces a comparative performance analysis of the technological solutions that have been used to build distal active articulations for minimally invasive medical procedures. The aim is to provide a practical and concise database and classification tool for anyone that wants to learn more about the technologies involved in minimally invasive medical devices, or for any designer interested in further improving these devices. A review of the different articulations developed in this field is therefore performed and organized by both actuation technology and structural architecture. Details are presented concerning the mechanical structures as well as the actuation and the mechanical transmission technologies available. The solutions are evaluated keeping as a reference some chosen required performances and characteristics for minimally invasive surgical procedures. Finally, a quantified comparison chart of these devices is given regarding selected criteria of interest for minimally invasive surgical application.

  20. [Geometrical investigation on mechanism and movement of Gysi Simplex OU articulator]. (United States)

    Suetsugu, T; Koyano, K; Takesue, Y; Nakashima, S


    Gysi Simplex OU articulator was constructed by modifying Gysi Simplex 1914, and has been used for students' practice of complete denture construction at 18 Japanese dental schools. Therefore, the mechanism and movement of the articulator should be explained and understood clearly from the educational standpoint of view. In this study, the movement was analyzed by geometrical drawing after Ishiwara-Suetsugu's simplified method. The following results were obtained: 1. Sagittal inclination of incisal guidance acted as an important role for location and inclination of lateral axis. 2. Accessory working condylar guide, which is located behind the condyle post, is another important mechanism as one of determinants of the movement. 3. The lateral wall of balancing condylar guide should be forced to touch always the balancing condyle. 4. It was clarified that the movement of Gysi Simplex OU followed the Gysi's axis theory.

  1. Comparative analysis of articulated and behavioural social networks in a social news sharing website (United States)

    Kaltenbrunner, Andreas; Gonzalez, Gustavo; Ruiz De Querol, Ricard; Volkovich, Yana


    This study analyses and contrasts the explicit (articulated) and implicit (behavioural) social networks on the Spanish Digg-like social news website The explicit network is given in the form of declared but not necessarily bidirectional friendship links; the behavioural network is extracted from conversations through comments to the shared links. These two directed social networks and their intersection are analysed and described in detail, which leads to some important conclusions about user behaviour on link sharing websites and online conversation habits in general. We find that reply interactions are more likely to occur between non-friends and that these interactions are (if bidirectional) also more balanced in the case of non-friends. A k-core decomposition of the networks reveals a fundamental difference in the practice of establishing behavioural and articulated links.

  2. 3D-printing and mechanics of bio-inspired articulated and multi-material structures. (United States)

    Porter, Michael M; Ravikumar, Nakul; Barthelat, Francois; Martini, Roberto


    3D-printing technologies allow researchers to build simplified physical models of complex biological systems to more easily investigate their mechanics. In recent years, a number of 3D-printed structures inspired by the dermal armors of various fishes have been developed to study their multiple mechanical functionalities, including flexible protection, improved hydrodynamics, body support, or tail prehensility. Natural fish armors are generally classified according to their shape, material and structural properties as elasmoid scales, ganoid scales, placoid scales, carapace scutes, or bony plates. Each type of dermal armor forms distinct articulation patterns that facilitate different functional advantages. In this paper, we highlight recent studies that developed 3D-printed structures not only to inform the design and application of some articulated and multi-material structures, but also to explain the mechanics of the natural biological systems they mimic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Competence articulation: Alignment of competences and responsibilities in synchronous telemedical collaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Simon Bo; Bardram, Jakob Eyvind


    Many studies and concepts within CSCW deal with the temporal, spatial, social, and computational aspects of supporting collaborative work. In this paper we want to pay attention to another central aspect to the achievement of collaborative work, namely the competence of the people involved. In pa...... communication options for competence articulation, which again improve collaboration and thus the quality of the treatment.......Many studies and concepts within CSCW deal with the temporal, spatial, social, and computational aspects of supporting collaborative work. In this paper we want to pay attention to another central aspect to the achievement of collaborative work, namely the competence of the people involved....... In particular, we want to look at the dynamic quality of competences, and investigate how competence is mutually developed in coordinated work. We have termed this process competence articulation, a concept which tries to emphasize competence as well as social development of competence as part of cooperation...

  4. Performance of articulation-disordered children on language and perception measures. (United States)

    Smit, A B; Bernthal, J E


    Five-year-old articulation-disordered children were classified as syllable reducers or as substituters. They were compared to each other and to normal controls on measures of expressive and receptive language and on preception of word-initial and word-final voicing contrasts. There were significant differences among the groups on several imitative expressive language measures, with the syllable reducers making both deletion and substitution errors and the substituters making substitution errors for functors. There were no significant differences on a receptive language measure, nor in perception of final voicing contrasts, but the articulation-disordered groups performed more poorly than the controls in perception of initial voicing contrasts. Children's familiarity with the stimulus words of the perception task was related to their performance on language measures. Word familiarity appeared to interact with the intrinsic difficulty of stimulus pairs in the case of word-final voicing contrasts.

  5. The history of articulators: the wonderful world of "grinders," Part 2. (United States)

    Starcke, Edgar N; Engelmeier, Robert L


    This is the second article in a three-part series on the history of denture grinding devices. The first article reviewed the earliest attempts to mechanically grind the occlusion of artificial teeth from the manipulation of simple articulators to very elaborate and complex machines powered by hand cranks. This article explores motor-driven grinders, most driven by way of a belt-driven pulley powered by an external source. A few were self-contained; that is, the motor was mounted on the grinder base. There were basically two types of grinders: those with cast holders for mounting processed dentures and those with provisions for using articulators for that purpose. © 2012 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  6. Reprogramming the articulated robotic arm for glass handling by using Arduino microcontroller (United States)

    Razali, Zol Bahri; Kader, Mohamed Mydin M. Abdul; Kadir, Mohd Asmadi Akmal; Daud, Mohd Hisam


    The application of articulated robotic arm in industries is raised due to the expansion of using robot to replace human task, especially for the harmful tasks. However a few problems happen with the program use to schedule the arm, Thus the purpose of this project is to design, fabricate and integrate an articulated robotic arm by using Arduino microcontroller for handling glass sorting system. This project was designed to segregate glass and non-glass waste which would be pioneer step for recycling. This robotic arm has four servo motors to operate as a whole; three for the body and one for holding mechanism. This intelligent system is controlled by Arduino microcontroller and build with optical sensor to provide the distinguish objects that will be handled. Solidworks model was used to produce the detail design of the robotic arm and make the mechanical properties analysis by using a CAD software.

  7. Prevention of violence against women: challenges in the articulation of an intersetorial network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Krieger Grossi


    Full Text Available This article has the objective of highlighting the importance of sectoriality action in the prevention of violence against women through the articulation of different social actors concerned and committed to the reduction of the violence against women rates, and consequently with a more fair and equal society. These challenges in the articulation of the network of protection services for women in domestic violence are illustrated by the managers of the social welfare policies, coordinators of women´s policies and professionals that work in Reference Centers for Women, Reference Centers of Social Welfare (CRAS and Specialized Reference Center of Social Welfare (CREAS in municipalities of the State of Rio Grande do Sul.

  8. High Re-Operation Rates Using Conserve Metal-On-Metal Total Hip Articulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, S L; Jakobsen, Thomas; Christoffersen, Hardy


    INTRODUCTION: Metal-on-metal hip articulations have been intensely debated after reports of adverse reactions and high failure rates. The aim of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the implant of a metal-on.metal total hip articulation (MOM THA) from a single manufacture in a two...... of 53 months. 4 pseudotumors were diagnosed at time of follow up but no substantiated link was made between adverse reactions and re-operations. CONCLUSION: The high re-operation rates found in this study raised concern about the usage of the MOM THA and subsequently lead to the termination......-center study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 108 CONSERVE(®) MOM THA were implanted in 92 patients between November 2005 and December 2010. Patients had at time of retrospective evaluation their journals reviewed for re-operations and adverse reactions. RESULTS: 20 hips were re-operated (18.4%) at a mean follow up...

  9. Articulated neoliberalism: the specificity of patronage, kleptocracy, and violence in Cambodia’s neoliberalization


    Simon Springer


    An exclusive focus on external forces risks the production of an overgeneralized account of a ubiquitous neoliberalism, which insufficiently accounts for the profusion of local variations that currently comprise the neoliberal project as a series of articulations with existing political economic circumstances. Although the international financial institutions initially promoted neoliberal economics in the global South, powerful elites were happy to oblige. Neoliberalism frequently reveals opp...

  10. Articulating current service development practices: a qualitative analysis of eleven mental health projects


    Jun, Gyuchan Thomas; Morrison, Cecily; Clarkson, P John


    Background The utilisation of good design practices in the development of complex health services is essential to improving quality. Healthcare organisations, however, are often seriously out of step with modern design thinking and practice. As a starting point to encourage the uptake of good design practices, it is important to understand the context of their intended use. This study aims to do that by articulating current health service development practices. Methods Eleven service developm...

  11. Material participation and the smart grid: Exploring different modes of articulation


    Throndsen, William; Ryghaug, Marianne


    Many experts are concerned about the would-be character of smart grid users—specifically, that they will not engage with smart grid technologies out of disinterest or a lack of knowledge. This has been considered problematic because users are considered key to unlocking the full potential of the smart grid. This paper studied smart grid users from the Norwegian demo Steinkjer pilot and, through focus group interviews, collected articulations of everyday smart grid enactments. Eliciting little...

  12. Comments on Abrahamsen's (2004) "Linguistic humor comprehension in children with articulation impairments". (United States)

    Spector, Cecile Cyrul


    This commentary expresses concerns about the validity of the results of Abrahamsen's study of "Linguistic humor comprehension in children with articulation impairments" (2004). Some of the problems noted included overlapping of lexical and phonological humor categories, the nature and placement of several of the stimulus items, lack of demonstrated equivalent difficulty of the stimuli presented to each group, and limited analysis of other factors that may have affected children's responses.

  13. Connections of Grasping and Horizontal Hand Movements with Articulation in Czech Speakers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tiainen, M.; Lukavský, Jiří; Tiippana, K.; Vainio, M.; Šimko, J.; Felisberti, F.; Vainio, L.


    Roč. 8, duben (2017), s. 1-10, č. článku 516. ISSN 1664-1078 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) StrategieAV21/14 Program:StrategieAV Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : articulation * motor actions * language * grasping * manual gestures * speech * manual actions Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 2.323, year: 2016

  14. Limb articulation in caridoid crustaceans revisited - new evidence from Euphausiacea (Malacostraca). (United States)

    Haupt, Christian; Richter, Stefan


    The propodial articulation of thoracopods in Malacostraca is revisited. Two major joints at the base of the limb, a thorax-coxa joint and a coxa-basis joint permit promotion-remotion and abduction-adduction, respectively. In representatives of Decapoda, Anaspidacea and Euphausiacea, the coxa forms proximally a dicondylic articulation with the thorax, permitting promotion-remotion, and distally another dicondylic joint with the basis, permitting abduction-adduction. In Lophogastrida and Mysida, the thorax-coxa hinge line is antero-posteriorly oriented, as is the coxa-basis hinge line. Promotion-remotion in Mysida and Lophogastrida is possible because of the presence of an intrabasal joint which is also present in Euphausiacea and Anaspidacea. In Mysida, Lophogastrida and Euphausiacea, the intrabasal joint is only present anteriorly, just distally of the anterior coxa-basis joint between a small, triangular proximal part of the basis and a larger distal part. In Anaspidacea, the intrabasal joint is also present posteriorly and permits abduction-adduction. Homology with the intrabasal joint of the other taxa seems doubtful. Limb articulation in Anaspidacea shows, nevertheless, correspondences with that in Euphausiacea, Lophogastrida and Mysida: the coxa is posteriorly invaginated and has an open ring-like structure very different from the solid coxa in decapods. Despite the high level of structural correspondence between the intrabasal joint in Euphausiacea and that in Lophogastrida and Mysida, their different functional roles make homology implausible. In Lophogastrida and Mysida the intrabasal joint is thought to replace the promotion-remotion movement of the thorax-coxa articulation, which in these taxa permits abduction-adduction only, probably in connection with the evolution of the marsupium. In Euphausiacea, the intrabasal joint might play a role in feeding mechanisms. Neither the feeding basket nor a marsupium can reasonably be suggested for any common

  15. Design of articulated mechanisms with a degree of freedom constraint using global optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kawamoto, Atsushi; Stolpe, Mathias


    This paper deals with design of articulated mechanisms using a truss ground structure representation. The considered mechanism design problem is to maximize the output displacement for a given input force by choosing a prescribed number of truss elements out of all the available elements, so that...... displacements. The problem is formulated as a non-convex mixed integer problem and solved using a convergent deterministic global optimization method based on branch and bound with convex relaxations....

  16. Speech summer camp for treating articulation disorders in cleft palate patients. (United States)

    Pamplona, Carmen; Ysunza, Antonio; Patiño, Carmeluza; Ramírez, Elena; Drucker, Mónica; Mazón, Juán J


    Compensatory articulation disorder (CAD) severely affects speech intelligibility of cleft palate children. CAD must be treated with speech therapy. Children can manage articulation better when they use language in event contexts such as every day routines. The purpose of this paper is to study and compare two modalities of speech intervention in cleft palate children with associated CAD. The first modality is a conventional approach providing speech therapy in 1-h sessions, twice a week. The second modality is a speech summer camp in which children received therapy 4h per day, 5 days a week for a period of 3 weeks. We were aimed to determine if a speech summer camp could significantly enhance articulation in CP children with CAD. Forty-five children with repaired cleft palates who exhibited CAD were studied. A matched control group of 45 children with repaired cleft palate who also exhibited CAD were identified. The patients included in the first group attended a speech summer camp for 3 weeks. The matched control subjects included in the second group received speech therapy aimed to correct CAD twice per-week in 1-h sessions. At the onset of either the summer camp or the speech therapy period, the severity of CAD was evenly distributed with non-significant differences across both groups of patients (p > 0.05). After the summer camp (3 weeks) or 12 months of speech therapy sessions at a frequency of twice per-week, both groups of patients showed a significant decrease in the severity of their CAD (p speech therapy period, non-significant differences were found between both groups of patients (p > 0.05). A speech summer camp is a valid and efficient method for providing speech therapy in cleft palate children with compensatory articulation disorder.

  17. A New Articulated Elbow External Fixation Technique for Difficult Elbow Trauma


    von Knoch, Fabian; Marsh, J Lawrence; Steyers, Curtis; McKinley, Todd; O?Rourke, Michael; Bottlang, Michael


    Articulated external fixation of the elbow allows aggressive elbow range of motion while protecting the joint and periarticular structures from excessive forces. A technique for aligning a monolateral hinged fixator to the rotational axis of the elbow without the use of an invasive axis pin has been developed. Thirteen patients with acute and chronic post-traumatic elbow problems were treated over a four year period with this technique. An average arc of motion of 84 degrees was achieved in t...

  18. Speech therapy for compensatory articulations and velopharyngeal function: a case report


    Nachale Helen Maciel Bispo; Melina Evangelista Whitaker; Homero Carneiro Aferri; Josiane Denardi Alves Neves; Jeniffer de Cássia Rillo Dutka; Maria Inês Pegoraro-Krook


    The objective of this study was to describe the process of intensive speech therapy for a 6-year-old child using compensatory articulations while presenting with velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI) and a history of cleft lip and palate. The correction of VPI was temporarily done with a pharyngeal obturator since the child presented with very little movement of the pharyngeal walls during speech, compromising the outcome of a possible pharyngeal flap procedure (pharyngoplasty). The program of i...

  19. Articulated rods – a novel class of molecular rods based on oligospiroketals (OSK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Wessig


    Full Text Available We developed a new type of molecular rods consisting of two (or more rigid units linked by a flexible joint. Consequently we called these constructs articulated rods (ARs. The syntheses of ARs were carried out by a flexible and modular approach providing access to a number of compounds with various functionalizations in terminal positions. First applications were presented with pyrene, cinnamoyl and anthracenyl labelled ARs.

  20. Is phraseology the third articulation of language? Fresh insights into a theoretical conundrum


    Colson, Jean-Pierre


    Is phraseology the third articulation of language? Fresh insights into a theoretical conundrum Jean-Pierre Colson University of Louvain (Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium) Although the notion of phraseology is now used across a wide range of linguistic disciplines, its definition and the classification of phraseological units remain a subject of intense debate. It is generally agreed that phraseology implies polylexicality, but this term is problematic as well, because it brings us back to...

  1. Writing the occupation: the articulation of women's subjectivities, France 1940-1944


    Palmer, Sally


    The key objective of this study has been to contribute new evidence of the articulation of women’s subjectivities during the Occupation in France 1940–1944, by using contemporaneous journals as traces of lived experience. A further objective was to address the omission of the extent and riches of such primary source material in both French and British historiography of the period.\\ud \\ud The methodological approach employed was to consider four such journals as primary sources to interrogate ...

  2. Physiological effects of monocular display augmented, articulated arm-based laser digitizing (United States)

    Littell, William Neil

    The process of capturing solid geometry as 3 dimensional data requires the use of laser based reverse engineering hardware, known as a digitizer. Many digitizers exist as articulated coordinate measuring machines augmented with a laser, which forces the operator into many postures that are not ergonomically sound, particularly in the operator's upper body. This study analyzes the traditional method of laser digitizing using modern methods and technologies. An alternative user interface using an occluded head-mounted monocular display is hypothesized and evaluated.

  3. A kinematic parameter calibration method for articulated arm coordinate measuring machine (United States)

    Zhao, Shuang; Zhu, Lianqing; Chen, Qingshan; Pan, Zhikang; Guo, Yangkuan


    A method is introduced for calibrating the kinematic parameters of articulated arm coordinate measurement machines (AACMM) to improve its accuracy. The kinematic model of AACMM is firstly built according to Denavit-Hartenberg method. Then specific kinematic parameters and the errors of which are analyzed. A nonlinear programming genetic algorithm is adopted to seek the global optimal solution of the kinematic parameters. Computation result indicates that the method can be used to implement the calibration precisely and quickly.

  4. Physical model of facial tissue and muscle articulation derived from computer tomography data (United States)

    Waters, Keith


    A facial tissue model, articulated by synthetic muscles, provides a tool for observing, analyzing, and predicting soft tissue mobility on the face. A geometric model of facial tissue extracted from CT data improves the skin tissue simulation by using accurate skin tissue depths. This paper suggests that the ability to control the model resolution, muscle placement and activity requires an integrated modeling and animation system.

  5. Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) Study of an Articulating Turbine Blade Cascade (United States)


    the fluid -structure interaction in the engine and the mechanical behavior of the shape memory alloy actuator. A simple computational fluid dynamic (CFD...optimal fluid -flow behavior is maintained.2 Fig. 1 Cutaway image of typical rotorcraft engine2 There are several candidate mechanisms and materials...ARL-TR-7871 ● NOV 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) Study of an Articulating Turbine Blade

  6. Sometimes it does hurt to ask: The constructive role of articulating impressions


    White, L. C.; Pothos, E. M.; Busemeyer, J. R.


    Decisions can sometimes have a constructive role, so that the act of, for example, choosing one option over another creates a preference for that option (e.g., Ariely and Norton, 2008, Payne et al., 1993, Sharot et al., 2010 and Sherman, 1980). In this work we explore the constructive role of just articulating an impression, for a presented visual stimulus, as opposed to making a choice (specifically, the judgments we employ are affective evaluations). Using quantum probability theory, we out...

  7. The nature of articulation errors in Egyptian Arabic-speaking children with velopharyngeal insufficiency due to cleft palate. (United States)

    Abou-Elsaad, Tamer; Baz, Hemmat; Afsah, Omayma; Mansy, Alzahraa


    Even with early surgical repair, the majority of cleft palate children demonstrate articulation errors and have typical cleft palate speech. Was to determine the nature of articulation errors of Arabic consonants in Egyptian Arabic-speaking children with velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI). Thirty Egyptian Arabic-speaking children with VPI due to cleft palate (whether primary repaired or secondary repaired) were studied. Auditory perceptual assessment (APA) of children speech was conducted. Nasopharyngoscopy was done to assess the velopharyngeal port (VPP) movements while the child was repeating speech tasks. Mansoura Arabic Articulation test (MAAT) was performed to analyze the consonants articulation of these children. The most frequent type of articulatory errors observed was substitution, more specifically, backing. Pharyngealization of anterior fricatives was the most frequent substitution, especially for the /s/ sound. The most frequent substituting sounds for other sounds were /ʔ/ followed by /k/ and /n/ sounds. Significant correlations were found between the degrees of the open nasality and VPP closure and the articulation errors. On the other hand, the sounds (/ʔ/,/ħ/,/ʕ/,/n/,/w/,/j/) were normally articulated in all studied group. The determination of articulation errors in VPI children could guide the therapists for designing appropriate speech therapy programs for these cases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. [The curative effect of task-oriented approach in combination with articulation approach on spastic dysarthria]. (United States)

    Zhu, Shou-Juan; Qu, Yun; Liu, Ke


    To assess the effectiveness of task-oriented approach in treating patients with spastic dysarthria. A randomized control trial was undertaken in 44 inpatients diagnosed with spastic dysarthria at the Department of Rehabilitation Medicine in West China Hospital. All of the participants received basic medical therapy, occupational therapy, physical therapy, and an articulation approach for speech therapy by a professional speech therapist over a one month period. A task-oriented approach was added to the speech therapy regime of the test group of participants by another professional speech therapist over the same period of time. The outcomes of speech therapy were measured by the Frenchay dysarthria assessment (FDA). Significant improvements were found in the test group in relation to 15 FDA items, such as dribbling, lips spread, and palate maintenance (P0. 05) except for the three items in relation to cough, lips at rest and jaw in speech. Task-oriented approach for speech therapy is effective in treating patients with spastic dysarthria. A task-oriented approach in combination with an articulation approach can produce better patient outcomes compared with the articulation approach alone. Further studies are warranted.

  9. A Motion Analysis Protocol for Kinematic Assessment of Poly-Articulated Prosthetic Hands With Cosmetic Gloves. (United States)

    Cutti, Andrea Giovanni; Cordella, Francesca; D'Amico, Giulia; Sacchetti, Rinaldo; Davalli, Angelo; Guglielmelli, Eugenio; Zollo, Loredana


    To provide upper-limb amputees with devices that best fit their needs and to test innovative solutions, it is necessary to quantitatively appraise a device performance with rigorous measurement methods. The aim of this work was to define an optimal motion analysis protocol, suitable for optoelectronic systems, to measure the kinematics of poly-articulated hands even when covered by a cosmetic glove. This is a fundamental aspect, because gloves can decrease device speed and range of motion and, ultimately, patients' acceptance of the artificial limb. In this work, different mathematical models of the joints and marker-sets for motion analysis were conceived. A regression model to choose a reduced marker-set for studying the hand performance with different cosmetic glove models was developed. The proposed approaches for finger motion analysis were experimentally tested on the index finger of the i-Limb, a commercial myoelectric poly-articulated prosthetic hand, but the results can be easily extended to the whole hand and to other poly-articulated prosthetic hands. The methods proposed for the performance analysis of prosthetic hands points out that the cosmetic gloves imply a reduction of the finger flexion/extension (F/E) angles and of the motion velocity. This draws attention to the need for performing independent cyclic tests on commercial products with various cosmetic solutions to better guide component selection. © 2017 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Sound expression is the first impression of speech and language. Whatever its origin, false pronunciation is the first sign. In the early school years of developmental speech – if a language disorder appears, it is often followed by the disruption of the phonological – articulation segment.This research aims to establish and compare frequency, type, and every articulate and acoustic characteristics of the disordered sound in both children with Dyslalia, as well as those with SLI.This micro investigation was done using 71 examinees ages 6 to 8. Thirty-five examinees were with Dyslalia and 36 had SLI. Their achievements are underlined using comparative analysis, tested with two relevant tests.Some of the more important conclusions are:Children with Dyslalia mostly showed distorted sounds, while those with SLI mostly substituted the disordered sound. In Dyslalia, fricatives were most affected, but in the case of SLI, all sound groups were disordered usually. In both tested groups, the type of disorder was due to the misplacement of sound formation. All children having articulation disorders while also having sound discrimination have not only phonetic contrasts, but were also being influenced by the rest of the linguistic aspects.

  11. Lexical and sublexical knowledge influences the encoding, storage, and articulation of nonwords. (United States)

    Jones, Gary; Witherstone, Hannah L


    Nonword repetition (NWR) has been used extensively in the study of child language. Although lexical and sublexical knowledge is known to influence NWR performance, there has been little examination of the NWR processes (e.g., encoding, storage, and articulation) that may be affected by lexical and sublexical knowledge. We administered two- and three-syllable spoken nonword recognition and nonword repetition tests on two independent groups of 31 children (mean age = 5 years 7 months). Spoken nonword recognition primarily involves encoding and storage, whereas NWR involves an additional articulation process. The influence of lexical and sublexical knowledge was determined by examining the number of lexical errors produced. There was clear involvement of long-term lexical and sublexical knowledge in both spoken nonword recognition and NWR. In spoken nonword recognition, twice as many errors involved selecting a foil that contained a lexical item (e.g., 'yashukup') as involved selecting a foil that contained only nonsense syllables (e.g., 'yashunup'). In repetition, over 30% of errors changed a nonsense syllable to a lexical item. Our results show that long-term lexical and sublexical knowledge is pervasive in NWR. Any explanation of NWR performance must therefore consider the influence of lexical and sublexical knowledge throughout the whole repetition process, from the encoding to the articulation of nonwords.

  12. Conceptual design main progress of EAST Articulated Maintenance Arm (EAMA) system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Shanshuang, E-mail: [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Laboratory of Intelligent Machines, Lappeenranta University of Technology (Finland); Song, Yuntao; Cheng, Yong [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Villedieu, Eric; Bruno, Vincent [CEA-IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Feng, Hansheng [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Wu, Huapeng [Laboratory of Intelligent Machines, Lappeenranta University of Technology (Finland); Wang, Peng [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Hao, Zhiwei; Li, Yang; Wang, Kun; Pan, Hongtao [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)


    Highlights: • EAST Articulated Maintenance Arm (EAMA) system is being collaboratively developed by ASIPP and CEA-IRFM. • Conceptual design for a 3-DOF wrist end effector with gripper has been finished. • Kinematic design can reach 90% of the workspace inside EAST tokamak vessel. • A prototype of EAMA arm segment has been built to validate the design. - Abstract: EAST articulated maintenance arm (EAMA) system is being collaboratively developed by ASIPP and CEA-IRFM for the purpose of remote inspection and simple maintenance operations in EAST vacuum vessel during physical experiments without breaking the ultra-high vacuum condition. The EAMA system design is based on a similar articulated inspection arm robot successfully demonstrated in Tore Supra in 2008. In order to better meet EAST configurations and maintenance requirements, optimized mechanisms and dimensions are considered for EAMA robot as upgrades. Besides, the segmented arm is equipped with a 3-DOF wrist end effector and gripper for gripping operation as well as inspection. Some calculations and simulations on statics, kinematics and workspace of EAMA have been presented to validate the feasibility. This paper introduces the overall design of the EAMA robot and presents implementation progress.

  13. Dynamically adapted context-specific hyper-articulation: Feedback from interlocutors affects speakers’ subsequent pronunciations (United States)

    Buz, Esteban; Tanenhaus, Michael K.; Jaeger, T. Florian


    We ask whether speakers can adapt their productions when feedback from their interlocutors suggests that previous productions were perceptually confusable. To address this question, we use a novel web-based task-oriented paradigm for speech recording, in which participants produce instructions towards a (simulated) partner with naturalistic response times. We manipulate (1) whether a target word with a voiceless plosive (e.g., pill) occurs in the presence of a voiced competitor (bill) or an unrelated word (food) and (2) whether or not the simulated partner occasionally misunderstands the target word. Speakers hyper-articulated the target word when a voiced competitor was present. Moreover, the size of the hyper-articulation effect was nearly doubled when partners occasionally misunderstood the instruction. A novel type of distributional analysis further suggests that hyper-articulation did not change the target of production, but rather reduced the probability of perceptually ambiguous or confusable productions. These results were obtained in the absence of explicit clarification requests, and persisted across words and over trials. Our findings suggest that speakers adapt their pronunciations based on the perceived communicative success of their previous productions in the current environment. We discuss why speakers make adaptive changes to their speech and what mechanisms might underlie speakers’ ability to do so. PMID:27375344

  14. Dynamically adapted context-specific hyper-articulation: Feedback from interlocutors affects speakers' subsequent pronunciations. (United States)

    Buz, Esteban; Tanenhaus, Michael K; Jaeger, T Florian


    We ask whether speakers can adapt their productions when feedback from their interlocutors suggests that previous productions were perceptually confusable. To address this question, we use a novel web-based task-oriented paradigm for speech recording, in which participants produce instructions towards a (simulated) partner with naturalistic response times. We manipulate (1) whether a target word with a voiceless plosive (e.g., pill) occurs in the presence of a voiced competitor (bill) or an unrelated word (food) and (2) whether or not the simulated partner occasionally misunderstands the target word. Speakers hyper-articulated the target word when a voiced competitor was present. Moreover, the size of the hyper-articulation effect was nearly doubled when partners occasionally misunderstood the instruction. A novel type of distributional analysis further suggests that hyper-articulation did not change the target of production, but rather reduced the probability of perceptually ambiguous or confusable productions. These results were obtained in the absence of explicit clarification requests, and persisted across words and over trials. Our findings suggest that speakers adapt their pronunciations based on the perceived communicative success of their previous productions in the current environment. We discuss why speakers make adaptive changes to their speech and what mechanisms might underlie speakers' ability to do so.

  15. Digital Hardware Realization of Forward and Inverse Kinematics for a Five-Axis Articulated Robot Arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bui Thi Hai Linh


    Full Text Available When robot arm performs a motion control, it needs to calculate a complicated algorithm of forward and inverse kinematics which consumes much CPU time and certainty slows down the motion speed of robot arm. Therefore, to solve this issue, the development of a hardware realization of forward and inverse kinematics for an articulated robot arm is investigated. In this paper, the formulation of the forward and inverse kinematics for a five-axis articulated robot arm is derived firstly. Then, the computations algorithm and its hardware implementation are described. Further, very high speed integrated circuits hardware description language (VHDL is applied to describe the overall hardware behavior of forward and inverse kinematics. Additionally, finite state machine (FSM is applied for reducing the hardware resource usage. Finally, for verifying the correctness of forward and inverse kinematics for the five-axis articulated robot arm, a cosimulation work is constructed by ModelSim and Simulink. The hardware of the forward and inverse kinematics is run by ModelSim and a test bench which generates stimulus to ModelSim and displays the output response is taken in Simulink. Under this design, the forward and inverse kinematics algorithms can be completed within one microsecond.

  16. Standard conforming involute gear metrology using an articulated arm coordinate measuring system (United States)

    Härtig, Frank; Lin, Hu; Kniel, Karin; Shi, Zhaoyao


    Standard conforming involute gear measurements were taken by a manually operating articulated arm system and the respective task-specific measurement uncertainties were estimated. User-friendly templates were developed to provide almost unambiguous and repeatable measurement results. They allow the metrologist to easily detect and gather the single measurement points according to existing guidelines and standards commonly used in gear metrology. The research activities were carried out at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Germany in the Department of Coordinate Metrology. Measurements were taken on a robust and highly accurate large gear measurement standard of PTB, in the following called the gear standard. This gear standard materializes a left-hand and a right-hand gear as well as a spur gear. The 1 m outside diameter of the gear standard is similar to the gears used in wind power plants. A commercial articulated arm coordinate measuring system was used for the measurements. A high temperature stability of ±0.2 °C was provided to minimize thermal influences. The results of profile and helix measurements will be presented. This worldwide first investigation, on the basis of a calibrated involute gear standard, gives users of the articulating arm system quantitative information on a task-specific performance of a representative gear measurement.

  17. Measurement of Paraphotons in the Double Chooz Experiment Using Articulated Arm Calibration Methods (United States)

    Damon, Edward Angus

    This thesis details the design, development, and use of a novel calibration system for the Double Chooz experiment, the Articulated Arm. The Articulated Arm is capable of making radioactive source deployments throughout the volume of the Double Chooz Neutrino Target with a precision of Articulated Arm is a powerful asset, able to validate detector response through direct comparison of on-axis and off-axis points. T. his thesis also details a search for paraphoton signals in the Double Chooz 3rd publication dataset. The paraphoton is a light, electrically neutral, axion-like particle, generated from adding a new U(1) symmetry of Baryon number - Lepton Number. We search for decays of these particles inside the Double Chooz Far Detector using a rate-based method. We observed no events in excess of background, giving a new laboratory limit on the photon-paraphoton mixing angle chi at the 95% confidence level for paraphoton masses between 26 and 30 keV. Our limiting value was chi > 4.23 x 10 -3 for 26 keV paraphotons.

  18. Mandibular condyle position: comparison of articulator mountings and magnetic resonance imaging. (United States)

    Alexander, S R; Moore, R N; DuBois, L M


    This study evaluated the reliability of jaw positions, the existence of distinct jaw positions, and condyle-disk-fossa relationships in a symptom-free population by using articulator mountings and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The subjects examined included 28 men, 22 to 35 years of age, all having Angle Class I molar relationships and no discernible TMJ dysfunction. Records taken included the following: an axiographic face-bow to locate retruded hinge axis position, an interocclusal registration of retruded position (RE), a series of interocclusal registrations for centric occlusion (CO), a leaf gauge-generated centric relation (CR), a series of interocclusal registrations for CR, and MRI. The mandibular position indicator of the SAM articulator (Great Lakes Orthodontics, Ltd., Tonawanda, N.Y.) was used to determine reliability and existence of distinct jaw positions. Magnetic resonance imaging also evaluated jaw positions and anatomic relationships. The results indicate: (1) The articulator analysis of CO and CR is statistically replicable. (2) A distinct jaw position could be demonstrated for CO that was separate from RE and CR. It was not possible to discriminate between RE and CR. (3) Condylar concentricity was observed in half of the sample and remained consistent in RE, CO, and CR. (4) Of the sample 13% demonstrated anteriorly displaced disks that were not influenced by posterior condyle placement. (5) The clinical concept of treating to CR as a preventive measure to improve disk-to-condyle relationships was not supported by this study.

  19. Comparison of three facebow/semi-adjustable articulator systems for planning orthognathic surgery. (United States)

    O'Malley, A M; Milosevic, A


    Our aim was to measure the steepness of the occlusal plane produced by three different semi-adjustable articulators: the Dentatus Type ARL, Denar MkII, and the Whipmix Quickmount 8800, and to assess the influence of possible systematic errors in positioning of study casts on articulators that are used to plan orthognathic surgery. Twenty patients (10 skeletal class II, and 10 skeletal class III) who were having pre-surgical orthodontics at Liverpool University Dental Hospital were studied. The measurement of the steepness of the occlusal plane was taken as the angle between the facebow bite-fork and the horizontal arm of the articulator. This was compared with the angle of the maxillary occlusal plane to the Frankfort plane as measured on lateral cephalometry (the gold standard). The Whipmix was closest to the gold standard as it flattened the occlusal plane by only 2 degrees (P<0.05). The results of the Denar and Dentatus differed significantly from those of the cephalogram as they flattened the occlusal plane by 5 degrees and 6. 5 degrees (P<0.01), respectively. Clinicians are encouraged to verify the steepness of the occlusal plane on mounted study casts before the technician makes the model. Copyright 2000 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons.

  20. Effect of visual biofeedback of posterior tongue movement on articulation rehabilitation in dysarthria patients. (United States)

    Yano, J; Shirahige, C; Oki, K; Oisaka, N; Kumakura, I; Tsubahara, A; Minagi, S


    Articulation is driven by various combinations of movements of the lip, tongue, soft palate, pharynx and larynx, where the tongue plays an especially important role. In patients with cerebrovascular disorder, lingual motor function is often affected, causing dysarthria. We aimed to evaluate the effect of visual biofeedback of posterior tongue movement on articulation rehabilitation in dysarthria patients with cerebrovascular disorder. Fifteen dysarthria patients (10 men and 5 women; mean age, 70.7 ± 10.3 years) agreed to participate in this study. A device for measuring the movement of the posterior part of the tongue was used for the visual biofeedback. Subjects were instructed to produce repetitive articulation of [ka] as fast and steadily as possible between a lungful with/without visual biofeedback. For both the unaffected and affected sides, the range of ascending and descending movement of the posterior tongue with visual biofeedback was significantly larger than that without visual biofeedback. The coefficient of variation for these movements with visual biofeedback was significantly smaller than that without visual biofeedback. With visual biofeedback, the range of ascent exhibited a significant and strong correlation with that of descent for both the unaffected and affected sides. The results of this study revealed that the use of visual biofeedback leads to prompt and preferable change in the movement of the posterior part of the tongue. From the standpoint of pursuing necessary rehabilitation for patients with attention and memory disorders, visualization of tongue movement would be of marked clinical benefit. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. A Novel Dynamic Measurement System for Evaluating the Braking Coordination of Articulated Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Li


    Full Text Available The braking coordination between tractor and semitrailer is vital to the safety of articulated vehicles. Traditional evaluation about braking coordination is based on the pressure measurement along air braking pipeline, which needs to change original braking structure to install gauges and cannot directly reflect the final braking coordination of different wheels. To overcome these limitations, this paper proposes a novel dynamic measurement system for evaluating the braking coordination of articulated vehicles. During the brake test, all wheel velocities of the whole articulated vehicle are synchronously obtained through a specially designed distributed acquisition platform. To effectively eliminate gross errors and noises in wheel angular velocity data, a 3-order autoregressive (AR model and an improved-thresholding wavelet filtering algorithm are developed. Further, a novel direct evaluation method about braking coordination is proposed according to the differences in angular velocity dropping time of all wheels. Finally, the overall system is assessed through real field tests. The results validate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed system.

  2. Rapid prototyping of anatomically shaped, tissue-engineered implants for restoring congruent articulating surfaces in small joints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woodfield, T.B.F.; Guggenheim, M.; von Rechenberg, B.; Riesle, J.U.; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; Wedler, V.


    Background: Preliminary studies investigated advanced scaffold design and tissue engineering approaches towards restoring congruent articulating surfaces in small joints. - Materials and methods: Anatomical femoral and tibial cartilage constructs, fabricated by three-dimensional fibre deposition

  3. Datafication and empowerment: How the open data movement re-articulates notions of democracy, participation, and journalism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baack, Stefan


    This article shows how activists in the open data movement re-articulate notions of democracy, participation, and journalism by applying practices and values from open source culture to the creation and use of data...

  4. Factors affecting articulation skills in children with velocardiofacial syndrome and children with cleft palate or velopharyngeal dysfunction: A preliminary report (United States)

    Baylis, Adriane L.; Munson, Benjamin; Moller, Karlind T.


    Objective To examine the influence of speech perception, cognition, and implicit phonological learning on articulation skills of children with Velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS) and children with cleft palate or velopharyngeal dysfunction (VPD). Design Cross-sectional group experimental design. Participants 8 children with VCFS and 5 children with non-syndromic cleft palate or VPD. Methods and Measures All children participated in a phonetic inventory task, speech perception task, implicit priming nonword repetition task, conversational sample, nonverbal intelligence test, and hearing screening. Speech tasks were scored for percentage of phonemes correctly produced. Group differences and relations among measures were examined using nonparametric statistics. Results Children in the VCFS group demonstrated significantly poorer articulation skills and lower standard scores of nonverbal intelligence compared to the children with cleft palate or VPD. There were no significant group differences in speech perception skills. For the implicit priming task, both groups of children were more accurate in producing primed nonwords than unprimed nonwords. Nonverbal intelligence and severity of velopharyngeal inadequacy for speech were correlated with articulation skills. Conclusions In this study, children with VCFS had poorer articulation skills compared to children with cleft palate or VPD. Articulation difficulties seen in the children with VCFS did not appear to be associated with speech perception skills or the ability to learn new phonological representations. Future research should continue to examine relationships between articulation, cognition, and velopharyngeal dysfunction in a larger sample of children with cleft palate and VCFS. PMID:18333642

  5. Beyond the functional matrix hypothesis: a network null model of human skull growth for the formation of bone articulations. (United States)

    Esteve-Altava, Borja; Rasskin-Gutman, Diego


    Craniofacial sutures and synchondroses form the boundaries among bones in the human skull, providing functional, developmental and evolutionary information. Bone articulations in the skull arise due to interactions between genetic regulatory mechanisms and epigenetic factors such as functional matrices (soft tissues and cranial cavities), which mediate bone growth. These matrices are largely acknowledged for their influence on shaping the bones of the skull; however, it is not fully understood to what extent functional matrices mediate the formation of bone articulations. Aiming to identify whether or not functional matrices are key developmental factors guiding the formation of bone articulations, we have built a network null model of the skull that simulates unconstrained bone growth. This null model predicts bone articulations that arise due to a process of bone growth that is uniform in rate, direction and timing. By comparing predicted articulations with the actual bone articulations of the human skull, we have identified which boundaries specifically need the presence of functional matrices for their formation. We show that functional matrices are necessary to connect facial bones, whereas an unconstrained bone growth is sufficient to connect non-facial bones. This finding challenges the role of the brain in the formation of boundaries between bones in the braincase without neglecting its effect on skull shape. Ultimately, our null model suggests where to look for modified developmental mechanisms promoting changes in bone growth patterns that could affect the development and evolution of the head skeleton. © 2014 Anatomical Society.

  6. 41°18’50”N 72°56’4”W: Searching for the threshold of articulability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavi Meraud


    Full Text Available This piece is an exercise I consider a failure, but, as such, a meaningful artifact. On the one hand, I have been becoming increasingly frustrated by writing; on the other, I have been trying to resolve a piece whose first iteration took form in late July this year. There were a few different key components, including a sculptural/architectural structure, reminiscent of a temporary shelter, intended for one body; and the core of this work was a performance, which took place without much preemptive announcement and similarly remained not excessively documented. I was interested in the seemingly ephemeral formal nature of the work and yet the potential, due to its content, to be quite the opposite and to linger and even fester. The performance component of this piece was my setting a timer and speaking without any preparation at all for 1 hour 20 minutes about trauma. The specific topic isn’t so important, although I enjoy something like the lyricism that the ostensible content densifies the ideas of articulation, especially spontaneous articulation and all the otherwise hidden tics and convulsions that become manifest in extemporaneity. I am still processing that experience and still very much in the midst of trying to resolve this piece. One of the important components of this aforementioned piece is its unrepeatability; this seems to best fit the formal logic that the work suggests for itself. A hurdle, then, in pursuing further investigation. Hence the idea to try a variation of it in which I improvise sensory deprivation as well as disorientation and talk, again without preparation, this time about the space of a studio and trying to transfer that space in some way to another place. To furthermore remove the locus or formal/physical center of the work, there was no separate architecture and instead the whole of my studio became the “temporary shelter” and the voice became material in lieu of wood, plastic, metal etc. And the tangibility

  7. Natural Enemies: Articulations of Racism in Right-Wing Populism in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edma Ajanovic


    Full Text Available The article investigates different articulations of racism in right-wing populist discourses in Austria. The paper is based on four case studies focusing on the Austrian Freedom Party (FPÖ, its youth organisation (RFJ, the new-right Identitarian Movement Austria (IBÖ and a number of NGOs campaigning against (the building of mosques or Islamic centres. We employed critical frame analysis of texts published online by these four organisations, done in the framework of two projects co-funded by the EU. In this paper we focus on argumentative strategies and patterns of meaning-making relating to frames based on ‘othering’, ethnicisation, and racism, which account for about half of the main frames in the right-wing populist discourses analysed. A closer reading of these discursive strategies shows three distinct modes of racist articulation: forms of anti-Muslim racism, ethnopluralism and xeno-racism. These forms of racist articulations differ not only with regard to the groups that are stigmatised as ‘others’, but also with regard to the racist logic applied and to the functions they are meant to perform within right-wing populist discourses. While anti-Muslim racism is above all a means of creating a positive self-image, ethnopluralism presents a coherent ideology. Xeno-racism on the other hand works mainly as a means of naturalising privileges of natives and strengthening right-wing populists’ discursive hegemony. These empirical findings can be related to theoretical debates on racism and support claims for inclusion of ‘new’, ‘differentialist’ forms in its definition as an analytical concept.

  8. Technical feasibility of personalized articulating knee joint distraction for treatment of tibiofemoral osteoarthritis. (United States)

    Struik, T; Jaspers, J E N; Besselink, N J; van Roermund, P M; Plomp, S; Rudert, M J; Lafeber, F P J G; Mastbergen, S C


    Knee osteoarthritis is a highly prevalent degenerative joint disorder characterized by joint tissue damage and pain. Knee joint distraction has been introduced as a joint preserving surgical procedure to postpone knee arthroplasty. An often used standard externally fixation device for distraction poses a burden to patients due to the absence of joint flexion during the 6weeks treatment. Therefore, a personalized articulating distraction device was developed. The aim of this study was to test technical feasibility of this device. Based on an often applied rigid device, using equal bone pin positions and connectors, a hinge mechanism was developed consisting of a cam-following system for reproducing the complex joint-specific knee kinematics. In support, a device was developed for capturing the joint-specific sagittal plane articulation. The obtained kinematic data were translated into joint-specific cam shapes that were installed bilaterally in the hinge mechanism of the distraction device, as such providing personalized knee motion. Distraction of 5mm was performed within a range of motion of 30deg. joint flexion. Pre-clinical evaluation of the working principle was performed on human cadaveric legs and system stiffness characteristics were biomechanically evaluated. The desired range of motion was obtained and distraction was maintained under physiologically representative loading. Moreover, the joint-specific approach demonstrated tolerance of deviations from anatomical and alignment origin during initial placement of the developed distraction device. Articulation during knee distraction is considered technically feasible and has potential to decrease burden and improve acceptance of distraction therapy. Testing of clinical feasibility is warranted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Major upgrade of the articulated inspection arm control system to fulfill daily operation requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastor, P., E-mail: [CEA, IRFM, Institut de Recherche sur la Fusion par confinement Magnétique (France); Villedieu, E.; Allegretti, L.; Vincent, B.; Barbuti, A.; Bruno, V.; Coquillat, P.; Dechelle, C.; Gargiulo, L.; Le, R.; Malard, P.; Martinez, A.; Nouailletas, R. [CEA, IRFM, Institut de Recherche sur la Fusion par confinement Magnétique (France); Yuntao, Song; Yong, Cheng; Chen, Liu; Hansheng, Feng; Shanshuang, Shi [ASIPP, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui (China)


    Highlights: • We propose an overview of the work which has been done to upgrade the control system of the AIA robot (articulated inspection arm) to fulfill daily operation requirements for tokamak inspection. • The control system is based on the use of new position sensors, new electronics design and new supervisor software. • Final tests are ongoing in the EAST scale 1 tokamak mock-up. Routine operation of the robot at EAST will start in the beginning of 2015. - Abstract: An articulated inspection arm (AIA) has been developed by CEA for visual inspection between pulses inside the Tore Supra tokamak vacuum vessel without breaking temperature and vacuum conditions. The eight meters length robot is composed of a shuttle and six articulated segments with a video camera at its end. A demonstration prototype has been achieved in 2008 at Tore Supra (Gargiulo, 2007; Houry, 2008; Perrot, 2003). A project to upgrade the AIA into a fully operational robot has been undertaken by IRFM and ASIPP in an Associated Laboratory. It will be in operation first in the EAST machine and afterwards in Tore Supra in its WEST (W/Tungsten Environment in Steady-state Tokamak) configuration where it is of paramount importance to survey possible degradation of W component surface. The control system of the robot has been extensively upgraded. The effort has been focused on three areas: (1) improvement of the arm position accuracy, (2) increase of the operational robustness, (3) use of a powerful graphical user interface including simulation of trajectories and robot deployment capabilities in a 3D viewer environment. The aim of this paper is to detail the architecture of the AIA control system.

  10. Impact of arbitrary and mean transfer of dental casts to the articulator on centric occlusal errors. (United States)

    Morneburg, Thomas R; Pröschel, Peter A


    When fabricating dental restorations, casts are usually transferred to the articulator based on arbitrary hinge axes or mean values instead of true hinge axis points. Using arbitrary hinge axis points or mean values can lead to occlusal errors if the vertical relation is changed in the articulator (e.g., when a centric record is used). This study predicted the probability of occlusal errors occurring in a group of subjects when casts are mounted based on arbitrary hinge axis points or mean values. In 57 healthy volunteers, true hinge axis points, arbitrary hinge axis points, right infraorbital point, maxillary incisal point, and the palatal cusps of the second molars were determined. Mean hinge axis points were established based on Balkwill angles between 17° and 25°. Occlusal errors evoked by cast mounting in relation to arbitrary or mean axes compared to true hinge axes were calculated. Errors were determined for vertical relation settings of 2 and 4 mm. With 2 mm vertical relation, occlusal errors ≥340 µm occurred with a 10% probability with arbitrary hinge axis mounting. At the same probability level, the error increased moderately to ≥440 µm with mean value mounting and a Balkwill angle of 17°. With a Balkwill angle of 25° occlusal errors ≥1,120 µm occurred with 10% probability. Occlusal errors increased considerably with a vertical relation setting of 4 mm. If vertical relation shall be altered, a transfer of the casts according to arbitrary hinge axes is recommended. If casts are transferred according to mean values, errors are bigger depending on the articulator used.

  11. The physics of articulated toys—a jumping and rotating kangaroo (United States)

    Güémez, J.; Fiolhais, M.


    We describe the physics of an articulated toy with an internal source of energy provided by a spiral spring. The toy is a funny low cost kangaroo which jumps and rotates. The study consists of mechanical and thermodynamical analyses that make use of the Newton and centre of mass equations, the rotational equations and the first law of thermodynamics. This amazing toy provides a nice demonstrative example of how new physics insights can be brought about when links with thermodynamics are established in the study of mechanical systems.

  12. Higher order wave loads on and response of an articulated tower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Utne, N.; Fause, S.; Toerum, A. [Norwegian Inst. of Tech., Trondheim (Norway)


    A theoretical and experimental study has been carried out on the higher order wave load phenomena frequently called ringing. It has been shown that a significant mechanism for the ringing effect is impulse type wave loading around the still water line area on an articulated tower. In this paper the authors report on an experimental and theoretical study undertaken to explore the mechanism for the ringing. Several avenues were followed to explore the phenomenon of ringing like higher order wave theory effects and special wave loads effects in the surf zone. Both regular and irregular waves were used during the tests.

  13. Use of low power EM radar sensors for speech articulator measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holzrichter, J.F.; Burnett, G.C.


    Very low power electromagnetic (EM) wave sensors are being used to measure speech articulator motions such as the vocal fold oscillations, jaw, tongue, and the soft palate. Data on vocal fold motions, that correlate well with established laboratory techniques, as well as data on the jaw, tongue, and soft palate are shown. The vocal fold measurements together with a volume air flow model are being used to perform pitch synchronous estimates of the voiced transfer functions using ARMA (autoregressive moving average) techniques. 6 refs., 5 figs.

  14. A USPL functional system with articulated mirror arm for in-vivo applications in dentistry (United States)

    Schelle, Florian; Meister, Jörg; Dehn, Claudia; Oehme, Bernd; Bourauel, Christoph; Frentzen, Mathias

    Ultra-short pulsed laser (USPL) systems for dental application have overcome many of their initial disadvantages. However, a problem that has not yet been addressed and solved is the beam delivery into the oral cavity. The functional system that is introduced in this study includes an articulated mirror arm, a scanning system as well as a handpiece, allowing for freehand preparations with ultra-short laser pulses. As laser source an Nd:YVO4 laser is employed, emitting pulses with a duration of tp Laser sources with higher average output powers might be needed in order to reach sufficient preparation speeds.

  15. Provisions of Quran Tajweed Ontology (Articulations Points of the Letters, UN Vowel Noon and Tanween)


    Ibrahim, EAA; Ataelfadiel, MAM; Atwell, ES


    The Holy Quran has rules that the reader must learn so that he can read the Qur'an correctly (Tajweed).The objective of this research is to design an ontology for some of Tajweed (Articulations Points of the Letters, Un Vowel Noon and Tanween) to support the learning of this part of Tajweed and to facilitate the sharing of knowledge with the other Holy Quran applications. In order to achieve this goal, the researchers adopted the applied approach using protégé framework with OWL to the provis...

  16. Detecting self-produced speech errors before and after articulation: An ERP investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Michael Trewartha


    Full Text Available It has been argued that speech production errors are monitored by the same neural system involved in monitoring other types of action errors. Behavioral evidence has shown that speech errors can be detected and corrected prior to articulation, yet the neural basis for such pre-articulatory speech error monitoring is poorly understood. The current study investigated speech error monitoring using a phoneme-substitution task known to elicit speech errors. Stimulus-locked event-related potential (ERP analyses comparing correct and incorrect utterances were used to assess pre-articulatory error monitoring and response-locked ERP analyses were used to assess post-articulatory monitoring. Our novel finding in the stimulus-locked analysis revealed that words that ultimately led to a speech error were associated with a larger P2 component at midline sites (FCz, Cz, and CPz. This early positivity may reflect the detection of an error in speech formulation, or a predictive mechanism to signal the potential for an upcoming speech error. The data also revealed that general conflict monitoring mechanisms are involved during this task as both correct and incorrect responses elicited an anterior N2 component typically associated with conflict monitoring. The response-locked analyses corroborated previous observations that self-produced speech errors led to a fronto-central ERN. These results demonstrate that speech errors can be detected prior to articulation, and that speech error monitoring relies on a central error monitoring mechanism.

  17. The lightweight Delft Cylinder Hand: first multi-articulating hand that meets the basic user requirements. (United States)

    Smit, Gerwin; Plettenburg, Dick H; van der Helm, Frans C T


    Rejection rates of upper limb prostheses are high (23%-45%). Amputees indicate that the highest design priority should be reduction of the mass of the prosthetic device. Despite all efforts, the mass of the new prosthetic hands is 35%-73% higher than that of older hands. Furthermore, current hands are thicker than a human hand, they operate slower and do not provide proprioceptive force and position feedback. This study presents the Delft Cylinder Hand, a body powered prosthetic hand which mass is 55%-68% lower than that of the lightest current prosthetic hands, operates faster, has an anthropomorphic shape, and provides proprioceptive force and position feedback. The hand has articulating fingers, actuated by miniature hydraulic cylinders. The articulating fingers adapt to the shape of the grasped object. Its functional scores are similar to that of current prosthetic devices. The hand has a higher mechanical performance than current body-powered hands. It requires 49%-162% less energy from the user and it can deliver a higher maximum pinch force (30-60 N).

  18. Morphometric Differences of Vocal Tract Articulators in Different Loudness Conditions in Singing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Echternach

    Full Text Available Dynamic MRI analysis of phonation has gathered interest in voice and speech physiology. However, there are limited data addressing the extent to which articulation is dependent on loudness.12 professional singer subjects of different voice classifications were analysed concerning the vocal tract profiles recorded with dynamic real-time MRI with 25fps in different pitch and loudness conditions. The subjects were asked to sing ascending scales on the vowel /a/ in three loudness conditions (comfortable=mf, very soft=pp, very loud=ff, respectively. Furthermore, fundamental frequency and sound pressure level were analysed from the simultaneously recorded optical audio signal after noise cancellation.The data show articulatory differences with respect to changes of both pitch and loudness. Here, lip opening and pharynx width were increased. While the vertical larynx position was rising with pitch it was lower for greater loudness. Especially, the lip opening and pharynx width were more strongly correlated with the sound pressure level than with pitch.For the vowel /a/ loudness has an effect on articulation during singing which should be considered when articulatory vocal tract data are interpreted.

  19. The effect of skeletal pattern on determining articulator settings for prosthodontic rehabilitation: an in vivo study. (United States)

    Canning, Tom; O'Connell, Brian C; Houston, Frank; O'Sullivan, Michael


    During extensive prosthodontic treatment, the use of an accurately adjusted articulator is recommended to simulate mandibular movements. This clinical study was undertaken to assess any possible effect of the underlying skeletal pattern on programming articulator settings. Subjects (n = 73, mean age: 22.8 ± 6.8 years) were recruited from a dental school and two regional specialist orthodontic units. Subjects were allocated into groups based on their underlying sagittal (I, II, or III) and vertical (reduced, average, or increased) skeletal patterns by three orthodontists and three prosthodontists who examined their profile photographs. Electronic pantographic recordings were made of each subject using the Cadiax Compact system to record the sagittal condylar inclination (SCI), progressive mandibular lateral translation (PMLT), and immediate mandibular lateral translation (IMLT). Agreement between assessors for sagittal skeletal pattern classification was excellent (97% for total or good agreement); agreement for vertical skeletal pattern was high, but at a lower level than that for sagittal relationships (70% for total or good agreement). SCI settings for sagittal II subjects were significantly higher than those for sagittal I (P skeletal pattern had SCI values lower than those with a reduced vertical skeletal pattern (P = .058) and an increased vertical skeletal pattern (P patterns could be determined for PMLT or IMLT between the study groups. During prosthodontic treatment of patients with a noticeable skeletal discrepancy, appropriate consideration should be given to customizing SCI values.

  20. Desi Films: Articulating Images of South Asian Identity in a Global Communication Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rekha Sharma


    Full Text Available Although India itself has been an important source of information about the Indian identity for Western audiences, a specialized genre of desi media have also garnered more recognition in recent years. Desi films—movies created by and/or for South Asian immigrants—are capable of reaching large numbers of people regardless of their educational level, economic status, or linguistic proficiency. Most are produced in English or with English subtitles and are easily accessible in most areas, either in theatres, video rental stores, libraries, or via Internet movie sites. This paper examines Indian diasporic films as a vehicle for cultural articulation and debate. First, it provides a theoretical foundation of hegemony and resistance with regard to notions of ethnicity and immigrants’ articulations of identity in interstitial zones. Second, it discusses sources of hegemony from Indian and Western media. Third, it explores the creation of a hybrid identity as reflected in Indian diasporic films, pointing out some of the themes and conventions of this emerging genre.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Dimova


    Full Text Available Aim: To be analyzed common features of occlusal relationships in patients with bruxism and bruxomania at maximum intercuspation (MIP and eccentric jaw movements. Materials and Methods: 30 patients (22 women and 8 men, mean aged of 42,8 ± 13,3 with bruxism and/or bruxomania are examined with the system T-Scan III. Sequence of records is - at maximum intercuspation (MIP; in manual leading to central relation and in eccentric jaw movements. In the same sequence is investigated control group - 30 people (15 women and 15 men aged between 21 and 45 who didn’t have bruxism and/or bruxomania and dentition is preserved. Results: In the control group 85% of cases there is a balance of forces in both halves of the dental arch. In patients with bruxism is established uneven distribution of forces in MIP and articulation blockages (95%. There are three major reasons that impede spontaneous bilateral closing - force outliers (93% of cases; low force outliers (82% and presence of interceptive contacts and sliding occurring in the beginning of occlusion time until MIP (in all patients. Conclusions: In order to achieve a balanced occlusion in patients with bruxism and/or bruxomania required are correct diagnosis, registration and removal of preliminary contacts, articulation blockages and infraocclusion. Occlusal analysis is objective and an indicator of subsequent treatment only when it is a combination of clinical, instrumental and computerized occlusal analysis.

  2. Articulation-based sound perception in verbal repetition: A functional NIRS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sejin eYoo


    Full Text Available Verbal repetition is a fundamental language capacity where listening and speaking are inextricably coupled with each other. We have recently reported that the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG harbors articulation-based codes, as evidenced by activation during repetition of meaningless speech sounds, i.e., pseudowords. In this study, we aimed at confirming this finding and further investigating the possibility that sound perception as well as articulation is subserved by neural circuits in this region. Using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS, we monitored changes of hemoglobin (Hb concentration at IFG bilaterally, while subjects verbally repeated pseudowords and words. The results revealed that the proportion of oxygenated hemoglobin (O2Hb over total Hb was significantly higher at the left IFG during repetition of pseudowords than that of words, replicating the observation by functional MRI and indicating that the region processes articulatory codes for verbal repetition. More importantly for this study, hemodynamic modulations were observed at both IFG during passive listening without repetition to various sounds, including natural environmental sounds, animal vocalizations, and human nonspeech sounds. Furthermore, the O2Hb concentration increased at the left IFG but decreased at the right IFG for both speech and non-speech sounds. These findings suggest that both speech and non-speech sounds may be processed and maintained by a neural mechanism for sensorimotor integration using articulatory codes at the left IFG.

  3. Multiple effects of consonant manner of articulation and intonation type on F0 in English (United States)

    Xu, Yi; Wallace, Andrew


    In this study we examine how consonant manner of articulation interacts with intonation type in shaping the F0 contours in English. Native speakers of American English read aloud words differing in vowel length, consonant manner of articulation and consonant position in word. They produced each word in either a statement or question carrier. F0 contours of their speech were extracted by measuring every complete vocal period. Preliminary results based on graphic analysis of three speakers' data suggest that there are three distinct consonantal effects: F0 interruption due to devoicing, a large but brief (10-40 ms) F0 raising at the onset of voicing, and a smaller but longer-lasting F0 raising throughout a large proportion of the preceding and following vowels. These effects appear to be imposed on a continuously changing F0 curve that is either rising-falling or falling-rising, depending on whether the carrier sentence is a statement or a question. Further analysis will test the hypothesis that these continuous curves result from local pitch targets that are assigned to individual syllables and implemented with them in synchrony regardless of their segmental composition. [Work supported by NIDCD Grant No. R01 DC03902.

  4. The articulation of neoliberalism: narratives of experience of chronic illness management in Bulgaria and the UK. (United States)

    Vassilev, Ivaylo; Rogers, Anne; Todorova, Elka; Kennedy, Anne; Roukova, Poli


    The shift from social democratic to a neoliberal consensus in modern welfare capitalist states is characterised by an emphasis on individual responsibility, consumer choice, market rationality and growing social inequalities. There has been little exploration of how neoliberalism has shaped the environment within which chronic illness is experienced and managed. This article explores the different articulations of neoliberalism manifest in the arena of personal illness management in Bulgaria and the UK. People with type 2 diabetes discussed their experiences in terms of struggling with diet, diabetes as a personal failure, integrating illness management and valued activities, and the trustworthiness of the healthcare system. The UK narratives were framed within an individual responsibility discourse while in Bulgaria lack of resources dominated discussions, which were framed as structurally generated and unrelated to individual capabilities and choices. Respondents faced personal management challenges related to consumer and healthcare market failures in both countries. Differences in market regulation and emerging stakeholder and interest coalitions influenced users' expectations and their navigation and adaption to market failures in managing their everyday illnesses. The UK and Bulgarian articulations of neoliberalism can be described differently: the first as a logic of managed choice and the second as a logic of unmanaged consumerism. © 2016 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.

  5. Silent witness, articulate collective: DNA evidence and the inference of visible traits. (United States)

    M'charek, Amade


    DNA profiling is a well-established technology for use in the criminal justice system, both in courtrooms and elsewhere. The fact that DNA profiles are based on non-coding DNA and do not reveal details about the physical appearance of an individual has contributed to the acceptability of this type of evidence. Its success in criminal investigation, combined with major innovations in the field of genetics, have contributed to a change of role for this type of evidence. Nowadays DNA evidence is not merely about identification, where trace evidence is compared to a sample taken from a suspect. An ever-growing role is anticipated for DNA profiling as an investigative tool, a technique aimed at generating a suspect where there is none. One of these applications is the inference of visible traits. As this article will show, racial classifications are at the heart of this application. The Netherlands and its legal regulation of 'externally visible traits' will serve as an example. It will be shown that, to make this technology work, a large number of actors has to be enrolled and their articulations invited. This indicates that instead of a 'silent witness', a DNA profile should rather be seen as an 'articulate collective'. Based on two cases, I argue that the normativity of visible traits is context-dependent. Taking into account the practices in which technology is put to use alerts us to novel ethical questions raised by their application.

  6. Lexical frequency effects on articulation: a comparison of picture naming and reading aloud. (United States)

    Mousikou, Petroula; Rastle, Kathleen


    The present study investigated whether lexical frequency, a variable that is known to affect the time taken to utter a verbal response, may also influence articulation. Pairs of words that differed in terms of their relative frequency, but were matched on their onset, vowel, and number of phonemes (e.g., map vs. mat, where the former is more frequent than the latter) were used in a picture naming and a reading aloud task. Low-frequency items yielded slower response latencies than high-frequency items in both tasks, with the frequency effect being significantly larger in picture naming compared to reading aloud. Also, initial-phoneme durations were longer for low-frequency items than for high-frequency items. The frequency effect on initial-phoneme durations was slightly more prominent in picture naming than in reading aloud, yet its size was very small, thus preventing us from concluding that lexical frequency exerts an influence on articulation. Additionally, initial-phoneme and whole-word durations were significantly longer in reading aloud compared to picture naming. We discuss our findings in the context of current theories of reading aloud and speech production, and the approaches they adopt in relation to the nature of information flow (staged vs. cascaded) between cognitive and articulatory levels of processing.

  7. Metaphoric language and the articulation of emotions by people affected by motor neurone disease. (United States)

    Locock, Louise; Mazanderani, Fadhila; Powell, John


    To explore the use of metaphoric language to convey emotion in interviews with people affected by motor neurone disease, a progressive neurological condition that sits between chronic and terminal illness. Secondary analysis of 46 interviews with people affected by motor neurone disease in the United Kingdom (35 individuals with the condition, 11 carers). Metaphor and figurative language was used to communicate the intensely emotional experiences of being diagnosed with and living with motor neurone disease. We focus on three pervasive themes that were threaded throughout the interviews: battling and fighting; the self under attack and journeying through a physical and emotional landscape. This secondary analysis of qualitative research interviews enriches our understanding of the articulation of emotion in motor neurone disease and adds to the literature on metaphor in chronic illness. Of particular interest is how the metaphors used contrasted with other conditions in the relative absence of metaphors of 'fighting' the disease. Furthermore, we analyse the ways in which participants used metaphors to give voice to emotions that are extremely difficult to articulate in 'literal' language, and how, in doing so, they blurred the distinction between 'physical' symptoms and 'emotional' states. Sensitivity to metaphors may help professionals communicate with people affected by motor neurone disease.

  8. Visualization feedback for musical ensemble practice: a case study on phrase articulation and dynamics (United States)

    Knight, Trevor; Boulliot, Nicolas; Cooperstock, Jeremy R.


    We consider the possible advantages of visualization in supporting musical interpretation. Specifically, we investigate the use of visualizations in making a subjective judgement of a student's performance compared to reference "expert" performance for particular aspects of musical performance-articulation and dynamics. Our assessment criteria for the effectiveness of the feedback are based on the consistency of judgements made by the participants using each modality, that is to say, in determining how well the student musician matches the reference musician, the time taken to evaluate each pair of samples, and subjective opinion of perceived utility of the feedback. For articulation, differences in the mean scores assigned by the participants to the reference versus the student performance were not statistically significant for each modality. This suggests that while the visualization strategy did not offer any advantage over presentation of the samples by audio playback alone, visualization nevertheless provided sufficient information to make similar ratings. For dynamics, four of our six participants categorized the visualizations as helpful. The means of their ratings for the visualization-only and both-together conditions were not statistically different but were statistically different from the audio-only treatment, indicating a dominance of the visualizations when presented together with audio. Moreover, the ratings of dynamics under the visualization-only condition were significantly more consistent than the other conditions.

  9. Morphometric Differences of Vocal Tract Articulators in Different Loudness Conditions in Singing (United States)

    Echternach, Matthias; Burk, Fabian; Burdumy, Michael; Traser, Louisa; Richter, Bernhard


    Introduction Dynamic MRI analysis of phonation has gathered interest in voice and speech physiology. However, there are limited data addressing the extent to which articulation is dependent on loudness. Material and Methods 12 professional singer subjects of different voice classifications were analysed concerning the vocal tract profiles recorded with dynamic real-time MRI with 25fps in different pitch and loudness conditions. The subjects were asked to sing ascending scales on the vowel /a/ in three loudness conditions (comfortable = mf, very soft = pp, very loud = ff, respectively). Furthermore, fundamental frequency and sound pressure level were analysed from the simultaneously recorded optical audio signal after noise cancellation. Results The data show articulatory differences with respect to changes of both pitch and loudness. Here, lip opening and pharynx width were increased. While the vertical larynx position was rising with pitch it was lower for greater loudness. Especially, the lip opening and pharynx width were more strongly correlated with the sound pressure level than with pitch. Conclusion For the vowel /a/ loudness has an effect on articulation during singing which should be considered when articulatory vocal tract data are interpreted. PMID:27096935

  10. Investigating articulated heavy-vehicle crashes in Western Australia using a spatial approach. (United States)

    Gudes, Ori; Varhol, Richard; Sun, Qian Chayn; Meuleners, Lynn


    Recent developments in Western Australia's economy including widespread traffic congestion as well as road safety issues are increasingly becoming prominent. Previous studies relied on traditional statistical methods to investigate patterns and characteristics of motor vehicle crashes. Although useful, statistical analysis alone is incapable of providing a spatial context and is therefore unable to associate existing crash characteristics with a spatial distribution. To identify concentrations or "hotspots" of articulated heavy vehicle crashes in WA between the years 2001-2013, by using a spatial analysis approach. Spatial modelling and spatio-temporal analytical methods such as Emerging Hotspots were used to identify emerging hotspots on specific roads in Western Australia using the Integrated Road Information System (IRIS). The results suggest that the majority of articulated heavy vehicles crashes occurred in the vicinity or within the Perth metropolitan area. Based on spatial-temporal trend analyses, our findings highlight some regions that are emerging as areas of interest. This study was one of the first attempts to adopt a spatial analysis approach in studying heavy-vehicle crashes in Western Australia. Applying spatial methodologies to road safety data has the potential of obtaining previously undiscovered insights, which can be extended further, and provide future avenues to research in this field. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. To the Moon, Mars, and Beyond: Culture, Law, and Ethics in Space-Faring Societies (United States)

    Billings, Linda


    The U.S. civilian space program is focused on planning for a new round of human missions to the Moon and, later, perhaps, to Mars. These plans are intended to realize a "vision" for exploration articulated by President George W. Bush. It is important to examine this "vision" in the broader context of 21st-century space exploration, which is a…

  12. Assessing the effect of physical differences in the articulation of consonants and vowels on audiovisual temporal perception (United States)

    Vatakis, Argiro; Maragos, Petros; Rodomagoulakis, Isidoros; Spence, Charles


    We investigated how the physical differences associated with the articulation of speech affect the temporal aspects of audiovisual speech perception. Video clips of consonants and vowels uttered by three different speakers were presented. The video clips were analyzed using an auditory-visual signal saliency model in order to compare signal saliency and behavioral data. Participants made temporal order judgments (TOJs) regarding which speech-stream (auditory or visual) had been presented first. The sensitivity of participants' TOJs and the point of subjective simultaneity (PSS) were analyzed as a function of the place, manner of articulation, and voicing for consonants, and the height/backness of the tongue and lip-roundedness for vowels. We expected that in the case of the place of articulation and roundedness, where the visual-speech signal is more salient, temporal perception of speech would be modulated by the visual-speech signal. No such effect was expected for the manner of articulation or height. The results demonstrate that for place and manner of articulation, participants' temporal percept was affected (although not always significantly) by highly-salient speech-signals with the visual-signals requiring smaller visual-leads at the PSS. This was not the case when height was evaluated. These findings suggest that in the case of audiovisual speech perception, a highly salient visual-speech signal may lead to higher probabilities regarding the identity of the auditory-signal that modulate the temporal window of multisensory integration of the speech-stimulus. PMID:23060756

  13. Assessing the effect of physical differences in the articulation of consonants and vowels on audiovisual temporal perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argiro eVatakis


    Full Text Available We investigated how the physical differences associated with the articulation of speech affect the temporal aspects of audiovisual speech perception. Video clips of consonants and vowels uttered by three different speakers were presented. The video clips were analysed using an auditory-visual signal saliency model in order to compare signal saliency and behavioural data. Participants made temporal order judgments (TOJs regarding which speech-stream (auditory or visual had been presented first. The sensitivity of participants’ TOJs and the point of subjective simultaneity (PSS were analyzed as a function of the place, manner of articulation, and voicing for consonants, and the height/backness of the tongue and lip-roundedness for vowels. We expected that in the case of the place of articulation and roundedness, where the visual-speech signal is more salient, temporal perception of speech would be modulated by the visual-speech signal. No such effect was expected for the manner of articulation or height. The results demonstrate that for place and manner of articulation, participants’ temporal percept was affected (although not always significantly by highly-salient speech-signals with the visual-signals requiring smaller visual-leads at the PSS. This was not the case when height was evaluated. These findings suggest that in the case of audiovisual speech perception, a highly salient visual-speech signal may lead to higher probabilities regarding the identity of the auditory-signal that modulate the temporal window of multisensory integration of the speech-stream.

  14. Patients with metal-on-metal articulation in trapeziometacarpal total joint arthroplasty may have elevated serum chrome and cobalt. (United States)

    Hansen, T B; Dremstrup, L; Stilling, M


    Serum chrome and cobalt was measured in 50 patients with trapeziometacarpal total joint replacement with metal-on-metal articulation and compared with serum chrome and cobalt values in 23 patients with trapeziometacarpal total joint replacement with metal-on-polyethylene articulation. In 10 of 50 (20%) patients with metal-on-metal articulation, slightly elevated serum chrome or cobalt values were found compared with only one in 23 (4%) patients with metal-on-polyethylene articulation. All metal values were lower than accepted 'normal values' for metal-on-metal hip arthroplasty and so considered not to be a general health risk. However, the mean disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand (DASH) score was 24 in patients with elevated serum chrome or cobalt compared with 10 in patients with normal metal values (p chrome or cobalt values. We recommend that patients with trapeziometacarpal total joint replacement with metal-on-metal articulation are followed with DASH score and radiological examination every 3-5 years and serum chrome and cobalt should be analysed in symptomatic cases to learn more about possible local complications leading to, or arising from, metal debris.

  15. Methodical features of physical rehabilitation of sportsmen with intra articulate injuries of ankle joint at the out-patient stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef Charbel


    Full Text Available Purpose: the analysis of modern approaches to application of means and forms of physical rehabilitation of sportsmen with intra articulate injuries of ankle joint at the out-patient stage. Material & Methods: the analysis of urgent special references on the problem of treatment and rehabilitation at intra articulate injuries of ankle joint. Results: it is defined that together with the broad application of traditional complex techniques of medical physical culture, classical massage and physical therapy, the percent of use of nonconventional methods of non-drug therapy grows objectively and significantly in the last decade in physical rehabilitation. Conclusions: the connected application of east bath and special techniques of east massage for rehabilitation of sportsmen with intra articulate injuries of ankle joint at the out-patient stage in special literature is described not enough that in turn demands the additional practical researches among methods of non-drug therapy.

  16. Is It Necessary to Articulate a Research Methodology When Reporting on Theoretical Research?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Smith


    Full Text Available In this paper the authors share their insights on whether it is necessary to articulate a research methodology when reporting on theoretical research. Initially the authors, one being a supervisor and the other, a PhD student and a colleague, were confronted with the question during supervision and writing of a thesis on theoretical research. Reflection on the external examiners’ reports about whether a research methodology for theoretical research is necessary prompted the writing of this paper. In order to answer the question, the characteristics of theoretical research are clarified and contrasting views regarding the necessity or not of including a research methodology section in such a thesis, are examined. The paper also highlights the justification for including a research methodology in a thesis that reports on theoretical research, investigates the soundness of such justification and finally draws conclusions on the matter.

  17. "A memorable consultation": writing reflective accounts articulates students' learning in general practice. (United States)

    Svenberg, Kristian; Wahlqvist, Mats; Mattsson, Bengt


    To explore and analyse students' learning experiences of a memorable consultation during a final-year attachment in general practice. After a two-week primary care attachment in the undergraduate curriculum, students were invited to write a reflective account of a memorable consultation. A total of 52 reflective accounts were read and processed according to qualitative content analysis. Credibility of the analysis was validated by two co-authors reading the descriptions separately and trustworthiness was tested at local seminars. Three main themes emerged. In "The person beyond symptoms" the students recognize the individual properties of a consultation. "Facing complexity" mirrors awareness of changing tracks in problem-solving and strategies of handling unclear conditions. "In search of a professional role" reflects the interest in role modelling and the relation to the supervisor. Involving students in writing reflective accounts appears to stimulate them to articulate practice experiences of the consultation.

  18. Articulation of young adult readers in a digitalized and medialized landscape of texts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henkel, Ayoe Qvist

    The digital turn does not bring about changes in young adultliterature considered as aesthetic artifacts and literary works but it changes the perception and reception of the reader. Digital young adult literature is increasingly multimodal, including interactivity and the integration of elements...... of game aesthetics. The way the young person is articulated within such texts must be presumed to be new, and the pivotal point of this paper will be to explore how the young adult reader is thematized in content, form, and medium in digital young adult literature.......The digital turn does not bring about changes in young adultliterature considered as aesthetic artifacts and literary works but it changes the perception and reception of the reader. Digital young adult literature is increasingly multimodal, including interactivity and the integration of elements...

  19. Study on Roll Instability Mechanism and Stability Index of Articulated Steering Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuefei Li


    Full Text Available This study examines the roll instability mechanism and stability index of articulated steering vehicles (ASVs by taking wheel loaders as the research object. A seven-degree-of-freedom nonlinear dynamics model of the ASVs is built on the basis of multibody dynamics. A physical prototype model of an ASV is designed and manufactured to validate the dynamic model. Test results reasonably agree with the simulation results, which indicates that the established dynamic model can reasonably describe ASV movements. Detailed analysis of the rollover stability of the wheel loader is performed with the use of the established dynamic model. Analysis results show that rollover will occur when the roll angular velocity exceeds a critical threshold, which is affected by lateral acceleration and slope angle. On this basis, a dynamic stability index applicable to the ASVs is presented.

  20. Mental health articulation and solidary economy: report of a social inclusion project

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    Ariadne Pereira Pedroza


    Full Text Available The Psychiatric Reform has as one of the main devices the potentialization of work as a social inclusion instrument. This study has sought to describe the experience lived and the activities developed of the Training Extension Project of Users of the Center of Psychosocial Attention of Cajazeiras – PB (CAPS for the Production of Handicraft Artifacts. It is a report of experience whose developed activities were described thoroughly. It has been perceived that the difficulties found were overcome, favoring like this, in a shy and incipient way, the income production and the improvement in the life quality of each one. It becomes urgent the necessity of the implementation of municipal public policies which promotes the articulation between mental health and solidary economy, contributing to reflections about health care to people in psychic suffering.

  1. Adapting a Low-Cost Selective Compliant Articulated Robotic Arm for Spillage Avoidance. (United States)

    McMorran, Darren; Chung, Dwayne Chung Kim; Li, Jonathan; Muradoglu, Murat; Liew, Oi Wah; Ng, Tuck Wah


    Flexible automation systems provide the needed adaptability to serve shorter-term projects and specialty applications in biochemical analysis. A low-cost selective compliant articulated robotic arm designed for liquid spillage avoidance is developed here. In the vertical-plane robotic arm movement test, the signals from an inertial measurement unit (IMU) and accelerometer were able to sense collisions. In the horizontal movement test, however, only the signals from the IMU enabled collision to be detected. Using a calculation method developed, it was possible to chart the regions where the obstacle was likely to be located when a collision occurred. The low cost of the IMU and its easy incorporation into the robotic arm offer the potential to meet the pressures of lowering operating costs, apply laboratory automation in resource-limited venues, and obviate human intervention in response to sudden disease outbreaks. © 2016 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  2. Modélisation de la liaison os-ligament dans l'articulation du genou


    SUBIT, D


    Cette thèse est une contribution à l'amélioration de la connaissance des comportements mécaniques des tissus biologiques, en particulier dans le contexte accidentologique. L'objectif de cette étude biomécanique est de faire le lien entre les notions de lésions utilisées en clinique et celles d'endommagement et de rupture utilisées en mécanique. Elle porte sur la modélisation du comportement des ligaments dans l'articulation du genou humain, et s'intéresse plus particulièrement à l'insertion d...

  3. Kinematic modeling and verification of an articulated arm coordinate measuring machine (United States)

    Zhang, Huaishan; Gao, Guanbin; Wang, Wen; Na, Jing; Wu, Xing


    The articulated arm coordinate measuring machine (AACMM) is a new type of non-orthogonal coordinate measuring machine (CMM). Unlike the traditional orthogonal CMM which has three linear guides the AACMM is composed of a series of linkages connected by rotating joints. Firstly, the coordinate systems of the AACMM are established according to D-H method, the homogeneous transformation matrixes from the probe to the base of the AACMM are derived. And the graphic simulation system of the AACMM is built in Matlab, which verify the magnitude and direction of the joint angles qualitatively. Then, the data acquisition software of the AACMM is compiled by Visual C++, and there is a statistical analysis on the calculated measuring coordinates and actual coordinates, which indicates that the kinematic model of the AACMM is correct. The kinematic model provides a basis for measurement, calibration and error compensation of the AACMM.

  4. Design and Development of an Automatic Tool Changer for an Articulated Robot Arm (United States)

    Ambrosio, H.; Karamanoglu, M.


    In the creative industries, the length of time between the ideation stage and the making of physical objects is decreasing due to the use of CAD/CAM systems and adicitive manufacturing. Natural anisotropic materials, such as solid wood can also be transformed using CAD/CAM systems, but only with subtractive processes such as machining with CNC routers. Whilst some 3 axis CNC routing machines are affordable to buy and widely available, more flexible 5 axis routing machines still present themselves as a too big investment for small companies. Small refurbished articulated robots can be a cheaper alternative but they require a light end-effector. This paper presents a new lightweight tool changer that converts a small 3kg payload 6 DOF robot into a robot apprentice able to machine wood and similar soft materials.

  5. Measurement accuracy of articulated arm CMMs with circular grating eccentricity errors (United States)

    Zheng, Dateng; Yin, Sanfeng; Luo, Zhiyang; Zhang, Jing; Zhou, Taiping


    The 6 circular grating eccentricity errors model attempts to improve the measurement accuracy of an articulated arm coordinate measuring machine (AACMM) without increasing the corresponding hardware cost. We analyzed the AACMM’s circular grating eccentricity and obtained the 6 joints’ circular grating eccentricity error model parameters by conducting circular grating eccentricity error experiments. We completed the calibration operations for the measurement models by using home-made standard bar components. Our results show that the measurement errors from the AACMM’s measurement model without and with circular grating eccentricity errors are 0.0834 mm and 0.0462 mm, respectively. Significantly, we determined that measurement accuracy increased by about 44.6% when the circular grating eccentricity errors were corrected. This study is significant because it promotes wider applications of AACMMs both in theory and in practice.

  6. Configurations of an Articulated Arm and Singularities of Special Multi-Flags (United States)

    Pelletier, Fernand; Slayman, Mayada


    P. Mormul has classified the singularities of special multi-flags in terms of "EKR class" encoded by sequences j_1,dots, j_k of integers (see [Singularity Theory Seminar, Warsaw University of Technology, Vol. 8, 2003, 87-100] and [Banach Center Publ., Vol. 65, Polish Acad. Sci., Warsaw, 2004, 157-178]). However, A.L. Castro and R. Montgomery have proposed in I>Israel J. Math. 192 (2012), 381-427] a codification of singularities of multi-flags by RC and RVT codes. The main results of this paper describe a decomposition of each ''EKR'' set of depth 1 in terms of RVT codes as well as characterize such a set in terms of configurations of an articulated arm. Indeed, an analogue description for some ''EKR'' sets of depth 2 is provided. All these results give rise to a complete characterization of all ''EKR'' sets for 1≤ k≤ 4.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Cavalcanti da Silva


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The article discusses the practical actions of a team of the Family Health Program-PSF in a city of the Northeastern Brazilian region and, it reveals the lack of integration/articulation of those actions with the educational dimension. The disarticulation of the team members’ knowledge of health on the theoretical, methodological and philosophical principles of PSF is pointed as one of the determinant of the little involvement of the team work with the educational area. the analysis of the collected data was accomplished through the technique of the critical Analysis of the speeches that led to the empiric category: contradiction theoretical x practice in the actions of the health teams of the Family Health Program. KEY WORDS: Health Education, Family Health Program; Public Health Nursing.

  8. Prevalence and types of articulation errors in Saudi Arabic-speaking children with repaired cleft lip and palate. (United States)

    Albustanji, Yusuf M; Albustanji, Mahmoud M; Hegazi, Mohamed M; Amayreh, Mousa M


    The purpose of this study was to assess prevalence and types of consonant production errors and phonological processes in Saudi Arabic-speaking children with repaired cleft lip and palate, and to determine the relationship between frequency of errors on one hand and the type of the cleft. Possible relationship between age, gender and frequency of errors was also investigated. Eighty Saudi children with repaired cleft lip and palate aged 6-15 years (mean 6.7 years), underwent speech, language, and hearing evaluation. The diagnosis of articulation deficits was based on the results of an Arabic articulation test. Phonological processes were reported based on the productivity scale of a minimum 20% of occurrence. Diagnosis of nasality was based on a 5-point scale that reflects severity from 0 through 4. All participants underwent intraoral examination, informal language assessment, and hearing evaluation to assess their speech and language abilities. The Chi-Square test for independence was used to analyze the results of consonant production as a function of type of CLP and age. Out of 80 participants with CLP, 21 participants had normal articulation and resonance, 59 of participants (74%) showed speech abnormalities. Twenty-one of these 59 participants showed only articulation errors; 17 showed only hypernasality; and 21 showed both articulation and resonance deficits. CAs were observed in 20 participant. The productive phonological processes were consonant backing, final consonant deletion, gliding, and stopping. At age 6 and older, 37% of participants had persisting hearing loss. Despite early age at time of surgery (mean 6.7 months) for the studied CLP participants in this study, a substantial number of them demonstrated articulation errors and hypernasality. The results showed desirable findings for diverse languages. It is especially interesting to consider the prevalence of glottal stops and pharyngeal fricatives in a population for whom these sound are phonemic

  9. Simulating Dynamics of the System of Articulated Rigid Bodies with Joint Friction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Michaylyuk


    Full Text Available The subject of the work is to simulate dynamics of the system of articulated rigid bodies in the virtual environment complexes. The work aim is to develop algorithms and methods to simulate the multi-body system dynamics with joint friction to ensure all calculations in real time in line with visual realistic behavior of objects in a scene.The paper describes the multibody system based on a maximal set of coordinates, and to simulate the joint friction is used a Coulomb's law of dry friction. Joints are described using the holonomic constraints and their derivatives that specify the constraints on velocities of joined bodies. Based on The Coulomb’s law a correlation for the friction impulse values has been derived as an inequality. If the friction impulse performs a constraint that is a lack of relative motion of two joint-joined bodies, there is a static friction in the joint. Otherwise, there is a dynamic friction in the joint. Using a semi-implicit Euler method allows us to describe dynamics of articulated rigid bodies with joint friction as a system of linear algebraic equations and inequalities for the unknown velocities and impulse values.To solve the obtained system of equations and inequalities is used an iterative method of sequential impulses, which sequentially processes constraints for each joint with impulse calculation and its application to the joined bodies rather than considers the entire system. To improve the method convergence, at each iteration the calculated impulses are accumulated for their further using as an initial approximation at the next step of simulation.The proposed algorithms and methods have been implemented in the training complex dynamics subsystem, developed in SRISA RAS. Evaluation of these methods and algorithms has demonstrated their full adequacy to requirements for virtual environment systems and training complexes.

  10. Articulation disorders and duration, severity and L-dopa dosage in idiopathic Parkinson's disease. (United States)

    Pawlukowska, Wioletta; Gołąb-Janowska, Monika; Safranow, Krzysztof; Rotter, Iwona; Amernik, Katarzyna; Honczarenko, Krystyna; Nowacki, Przemysław


    Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most common diseases of the central nervous system (CNS). It is frequently heralded by speech disturbances, which are one of its first symptoms. The aim of this paper is to share our own experience concerning the correlation between the severity of speech disorders and the PD duration, its severity and the intake of L-dopa. The research included 93 patients with idiopathic PD, aged 26-86 years (mean age 65.1 years). Participants were examined neurologically according to the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) and the Hoehn and Yahr Scale. They were also assessed by Frenchay Dysarthria Assessment. Considerable and severe disorders were concurrent with impairments in the mobility of the tongue, lips, the jaw as well as the pitch and loudness of the voice. The strongest correlation but at a moderate level was found to exist between the severity of labial impairment, voice loudness and the length of the disease. There was also a positive correlation between lip movement while the motions were being diversified, lip arrangement while speaking and the intake of L-dopa. As PD progresses a significant decline in vocal articulation can be observed, which is due to reduced mobility within the lips and the jaw. Exacerbation of articulation disorders resulting from progression of the disease does not materially influence the UPDRSS scores. L-dopa has been found to positively affect the mobility of the lips while the patient is speaking and their arrangement at rest. Copyright © 2015 Polish Neurological Society. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  11. Overall intelligibility, articulation, resonance, voice and language in a child with Nager syndrome. (United States)

    Van Lierde, Kristiane M; Luyten, Anke; Mortier, Geert; Tijskens, Anouk; Bettens, Kim; Vermeersch, Hubert


    The purpose of this study was to provide a description of the language and speech (intelligibility, voice, resonance, articulation) in a 7-year-old Dutch speaking boy with Nager syndrome. To reveal these features comparison was made with an age and gender related child with a similar palatal or hearing problem. Language was tested with an age appropriate language test namely the Dutch version of the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals. Regarding articulation a phonetic inventory, phonetic analysis and phonological process analysis was performed. A nominal scale with four categories was used to judge the overall speech intelligibility. A voice and resonance assessment included a videolaryngostroboscopy, a perceptual evaluation, acoustic analysis and nasometry. The most striking communication problems in this child were expressive and receptive language delay, moderately impaired speech intelligibility, the presence of phonetic and phonological disorders, resonance disorders and a high-pitched voice. The explanation for this pattern of communication is not completely straightforward. The language and the phonological impairment, only present in the child with the Nager syndrome, are not part of a more general developmental delay. The resonance disorders can be related to the cleft palate, but were not present in the child with the isolated cleft palate. One might assume that the cul-de-sac resonance and the much decreased mandibular movement and the restricted tongue lifting are caused by the restricted jaw mobility and micrognathia. To what extent the suggested mandibular distraction osteogenesis in early childhood allows increased mandibular movement and better speech outcome with increased oral resonance is subject for further research. According to the results of this study the speech and language management must be focused on receptive and expressive language skills and linguistic conceptualization, correct phonetic placement and the modification of

  12. Articulating current service development practices: a qualitative analysis of eleven mental health projects. (United States)

    Jun, Gyuchan Thomas; Morrison, Cecily; Clarkson, P John


    The utilisation of good design practices in the development of complex health services is essential to improving quality. Healthcare organisations, however, are often seriously out of step with modern design thinking and practice. As a starting point to encourage the uptake of good design practices, it is important to understand the context of their intended use. This study aims to do that by articulating current health service development practices. Eleven service development projects carried out in a large mental health service were investigated through in-depth interviews with six operation managers. The critical decision method in conjunction with diagrammatic elicitation was used to capture descriptions of these projects. Stage-gate design models were then formed to visually articulate, classify and characterise different service development practices. Projects were grouped into three categories according to design process patterns: new service introduction and service integration; service improvement; service closure. Three common design stages: problem exploration, idea generation and solution evaluation - were then compared across the design process patterns. Consistent across projects were a top-down, policy-driven approach to exploration, underexploited idea generation and implementation-based evaluation. This study provides insight into where and how good design practices can contribute to the improvement of current service development practices. Specifically, the following suggestions for future service development practices are made: genuine user needs analysis for exploration; divergent thinking and innovative culture for idea generation; and fail-safe evaluation prior to implementation. Better training for managers through partnership working with design experts and researchers could be beneficial.

  13. Engaging youth in rural Uganda in articulating health priorities through Photovoice. (United States)

    Esau, Daniel; Ho, Pak To; Blair, Geoffrey K; Duffy, Damian; O'Hara, Nathan N; Kapoor, Videsh; Ajiko, Margaret


    Youth living in rural Uganda represent over 20% of the country's population. Despite the size of this demographic segment of the population, there is a paucity of data on their health priorities. Engaging people in understanding their own health status has proven to be an effective mechanism for health promotion. The objective of this study was to use Photovoice, a community-based, participatory action research methodology, to understand the current health priorities of youth living in rural Uganda. Thirty-two students between the ages of 13 and 17 were recruited from four schools within the region of Soroti, Uganda. Participants were given a disposable camera and were asked to photograph situations that contributed or detracted from their health status. The cameras were then returned to the investigators and each photo taken by the participant was reviewed with the investigators during a semi-structured interview. Codes were applied to the photographs and organized into overarching themes. Each participant chose one to two photos that were most representative of their health priorities for a secondary analysis. Participants provided 499 photos that met the eligibility criteria. The most common themes presented in the photographs were 'hygiene' ( n = 73, 12.4%), 'nutrition' ( n = 69, 11.7%), and 'cleanliness' ( n = 48, 8%). 'Hygiene' ( n = 6, 14.6%) and 'exercise' ( n = 6, 14.6%) were the most common priorities articulated in the representative photographs. Photovoice proved to be an effective method to assess and express the health concerns of youth in rural Uganda. Study participants were able to articulate their health concerns and priorities through photographs and reflect on opportunities for health promotion through subsequent interviews.

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging study of alteration of tibiofemoral joint articulation after posterior cruciate ligament injury. (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, Sivashankar; Scarvell, Jennifer M; Buirski, Graham; Woods, Kevin R; Smith, Paul N


    Cadaveric studies have shown that the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) is an important constraint to posterior translation of the tibia. Arthroscopic studies have shown that chronic PCL injuries predispose to articular cartilage lesions in the medial compartment and the patellofemoral joint. The aim of the present study was to investigate sagittal plane articulation of the tibiofemoral joint of subjects with an isolated PCL injury. Magnetic resonance was used to generate sagittal images of 10 healthy knees and 10 knees with isolated PCL injuries. The subjects performed a supine leg press against a 150N load. Images were generated at 15° intervals as the knee flexed from 0 to 90°. The tibiofemoral contact and the flexion facet centre (FFC) were measured from the posterior tibial cortex. The contact pattern and FFC was significantly more anterior in the injured knee from 45 to 90° of knee flexion in the medial compartment compared to the healthy knee. The greatest difference between the mean TFC points of both groups occurred at 75 and 90°, the difference being 4mm and 5mm respectively. The greatest difference between the mean FFC of both groups occurred at 75° of flexion, which was 3mm. There was no significant difference in the contact pattern and FFC between the injured and healthy knees in the lateral compartment. Our findings show that there is a significant difference in the medial compartment sagittal plane articulation of the tibiofemoral joint in subjects with an isolated PCL injury. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The Personal Health Technology Design Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardram, Jakob Eyvind; Frost, Mads


    . To enable designers to make informed and well-articulated design decision, the authors propose a design space for personal health technologies. This space consists of 10 dimensions related to the design of data sampling strategies, visualization and feedback approaches, treatment models, and regulatory......Interest is increasing in personal health technologies that utilize mobile platforms for improved health and well-being. However, although a wide variety of these systems exist, each is designed quite differently and materializes many different and more or less explicit design assumptions...

  16. Sub-micrometer 20MeV protons or 45MeV lithium spot irradiation enhances yields of dicentric chromosomes due to clustering of DNA double-strand breaks. (United States)

    Schmid, T E; Friedland, W; Greubel, C; Girst, S; Reindl, J; Siebenwirth, C; Ilicic, K; Schmid, E; Multhoff, G; Schmitt, E; Kundrát, P; Dollinger, G


    In conventional experiments on biological effects of radiation types of diverse quality, micrometer-scale double-strand break (DSB) clustering is inherently interlinked with clustering of energy deposition events on nanometer scale relevant for DSB induction. Due to this limitation, the role of the micrometer and nanometer scales in diverse biological endpoints cannot be fully separated. To address this issue, hybrid human-hamster AL cells have been irradiated with 45MeV (60keV/μm) lithium ions or 20MeV (2.6keV/μm) protons quasi-homogeneously distributed or focused to 0.5×1μm(2) spots on regular matrix patterns (point distances up to 10.6×10.6μm), with pre-defined particle numbers per spot to provide the same mean dose of 1.7Gy. The yields of dicentrics and their distribution among cells have been scored. In parallel, track-structure based simulations of DSB induction and chromosome aberration formation with PARTRAC have been performed. The results show that the sub-micrometer beam focusing does not enhance DSB yields, but significantly affects the DSB distribution within the nucleus and increases the chance to form DSB pairs in close proximity, which may lead to increased yields of chromosome aberrations. Indeed, the experiments show that focusing 20 lithium ions or 451 protons per spot on a 10.6μm grid induces two or three times more dicentrics, respectively, than a quasi-homogenous irradiation. The simulations reproduce the data in part, but in part suggest more complex behavior such as saturation or overkill not seen in the experiments. The direct experimental demonstration that sub-micrometer clustering of DSB plays a critical role in the induction of dicentrics improves the knowledge on the mechanisms by which these lethal lesions arise, and indicates how the assumptions of the biophysical model could be improved. It also provides a better understanding of the increased biological effectiveness of high-LET radiation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All

  17. [Comparative analysis of edentulous patients treated traditionally and with the use of a face-bow and Quick Master articulator]. (United States)

    Kubrak, J


    Correct determination of the occlusal plane is one of the most difficult stages of treatment. After determining the correct occlusal plane its reproduction is possible thanks to the use of articulators. These instruments simulate movements of the jaw in three planes. One of the most optimal articulators is a semi-adjustable type. These instruments are not complicated and give good treatment results. A modern semiadjustable type of articulator is Quick Master. The face-bow which comes together with this instrument is used for recording and transferring the occlusal relation to the articulator. This allows to mount models in an adequate three dimensional position in relation to the temporo-mandibular joint. The use of these instruments leads to many questions and doubts due to difficulties in their use. Therefore the aim of my study was to elaborate a simple method of occlusal recording. I have also compared the treatment results of edentulous patients treated with the use of an articulator and the use of a traditional method. Prosthetic restorations were prepared among 60 patients. The study material was divided into two groups of 30 patients each. In the control group for preparing complete dentures the Gysi method was employed as the most common. In the study group a face-bow and articulator were used. After preparing complete dentures detailed clinical control examinations were carried out and were repeated 24-48 hours after fitting the dentures and also after 3 and 6 months of their use. Working with the face-bow I have employed my own modification of recording the occlusion. The upper wax rim was placed on a slightly warmed bite fork and drawing pins were placed in the recording block to act as a type of key. The lower rim was warmed and brought to occlusal contact a couple of times. Next the face-bow was inserted. The recorded occlusion was transferred and mounted in the articulator. Teeth in both cases were set up similarly to the Gysi method. Lower teeth

  18. Malocclusion and articulation disorders in mouth breathing children from public schools in Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Toniolo da Silva


    Full Text Available Objective: To verify the occurrence and types of malocclusion and articulation disorders in mouth breathing children at public schools.Methods: An evaluation was made of 219 children of both genders, between 5 and 12 years of age, attending two public schools in the city of Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil; with 121 mouth breather children being selected for this study. Orthodontic and phonoaudiological evaluation were made to verify the breathing mode and presence or absence of malocclusion and articulation disorders.Results: It was observed that 100% of the mouth breather children presented malocclusion, 49.60% being Angle’s Class II, 48.76% ClassI and 1.65% Class III. It was also verified that 18.2% of the mouth breather children presented articulation disturbance. Conclusion: All mouth breathing children presented some type of malocclusion, the majority being Angle’s Class II, followed by Class I. The articulation disorders most frequently observed was anterior lisping.

  19. Articulations on form properties and action-function couplings of maker technologies in children’s education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kasper Skov; Iversen, Ole Sejer


    In this paper, we present a framework to expand the design language used to articulate form properties and types of feedback that happen between children’s actions and the intended functionality of maker technologies. Based on field observations in Danish schools we analyze children’s (aged 11-14...

  20. Differentiation to improve the articulation between levels : In the teaching of English in primary and secondary education in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.P. de Kraay


    In 1986, English became a compulsory subject in primary education in The Netherlands1. While secondary schools have, by law, been required to offer English since 1863 (Wilhelm, 2005) the articulation between Dutch primary and secondary education levels of English language teaching has always been

  1. Social Studies and Motivation: High School Students' Perceptions of the Articulation of Social Studies to Work, Family, and Community (United States)

    Farman, Greg; And Others


    Describes a model to evaluate the extent to which students perceive that coursework will be helpful to some future aspect of their lives. Social studies was not perceived as highly articulated with future careers, marriage, or family life, but students who expected community work to be important to their future happiness were more likely to…

  2. Datafication and empowerment : How the open data movement re-articulates notions of democracy, participation, and journalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baack, Stefan


    This article shows how activists in the open data movement re-articulate notions of democracy, participation, and journalism by applying practices and values from open source culture to the creation and use of data. Focusing on the Open Knowledge Foundation Germany and drawing from a combination of

  3. Preschool Speech Error Patterns Predict Articulation and Phonological Awareness Outcomes in Children with Histories of Speech Sound Disorders (United States)

    Preston, Jonathan L.; Hull, Margaret; Edwards, Mary Louise


    Purpose: To determine if speech error patterns in preschoolers with speech sound disorders (SSDs) predict articulation and phonological awareness (PA) outcomes almost 4 years later. Method: Twenty-five children with histories of preschool SSDs (and normal receptive language) were tested at an average age of 4;6 (years;months) and were followed up…

  4. Discovering and Articulating What Is Not yet Known: Using Action Learning and Grounded Theory as a Knowledge Management Strategy (United States)

    Pauleen, David J.; Corbitt, Brian; Yoong, Pak


    Purpose: To provide a conceptual model for the discovery and articulation of emergent organizational knowledge, particularly knowledge that develops when people work with new technologies. Design/methodology/approach: The model is based on two widely accepted research methods--action learning and grounded theory--and is illustrated using a case…

  5. Implications of Articulating Machinery on Operator Line of Sight and Efficacy of Camera Based Proximity Detection Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Schwabe


    Full Text Available The underground mining industry, and some above ground operations, rely on the use of heavy equipment that articulates to navigate corners in the tight confines of the tunnels. Poor line of sight (LOS has been identified as a problem for safe operation of this machinery. Proximity detection systems, such as a video system designed to provide a 360 degree view around the machine have been implemented to improve the available LOS for the operator. A four-camera system was modeled in a computer environment to assess LOS on a 3D cad model of a typical, articulated machine. When positioned without any articulation, the system is excellent at removing blind spots for a machine driving straight forward or backward in a straight tunnel. Further analysis reveals that when the machine articulates in a simulated corner section, some camera locations are no longer useful for improving LOS into the corner. In some cases, the operator has a superior view into the corner, when compared to the best available view from the camera. The work points to the need to integrate proximity detection systems at the design, build, and manufacture stage, and to consider proper policy and procedures that would address the gains and limits of the systems prior to implementation.

  6. Testing Orofacial Abilities of Children Who Stutter: The Movement, Articulation, Mandibular and Sensory Awareness (MAMS) Assessment Procedure (United States)

    Cook, Susanne; Rieger, Martina; Donlan, Chris; Howell, Peter


    Objective: The purpose of this article is to introduce a new assessment designed to measure the orofacial abilities of children who stutter (CWS), the Movement, Articulation, Mandibular and Sensory Awareness (MAMS) Orofacial Assessment. The new instrument was developed and validated to measure orofacial abilities in a comprehensive manner. Design:…

  7. Re-Articulating Social Justice as Equity in Schooling Policy: The Effects of Testing and Data Infrastructures (United States)

    Lingard, Bob; Sellar, Sam; Savage, Glenn C.


    This paper examines the re-articulation of social justice as equity in schooling policy through national and global testing and data infrastructures. It focuses on the Australian National Assessment Program--Literacy and Numeracy (NAPLAN) and the OECD's Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). We analyse the discursive reconstitution…

  8. Implications of Shared Interactive Displays for Work at a Surgery Ward: Coordination, Articulation Work and Context-awareness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossen, Claus; Jensen, Lis Witte Kjær


    context-awareness of collaborating physicians, nurses and surgery technicians. We focus on the implication of the systems for work and describe the changes in coordination, articulation work and context-awareness that occurred. This implied creating a fit between technology and work, attributing...

  9. Boundaries to the articulation of possible selves through social networking sites: the case of Facebook profilers' social connectedness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwier, S.; Araujo, T.; Boukes, M.; Willemsen, L.


    This study aims to contribute to an emerging literature that seeks to understand how identity markers on social networking sites (SNSs) shape interpersonal impressions, and particularly the boundaries that SNSs present for articulating unconstrained 'hoped-for possible selves.' An experiment

  10. Informal work and formal plans: articulating the active role of patients in cancer trajectories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rikke Juul Dalsted


    Full Text Available Introduction: Formal pathways models outline that patients should receive information in order to experience a coherent journey but do not describe an active role for patients or their relatives. The aim of this is paper is to articulate and discuss the active role of patients during their cancer trajectories.   Methods and theory: An in-depth case study of patient trajectories at a Danish hospital and surrounding municipality using individual interviews with patients. Theory about trajectory and work by Strauss was included.   Results: Patients continuously took initiatives to organize their treatment and care. They initiated processes in the trajectories, and acquired information, which they used to form their trajectories.  Patients presented problems to the healthcare professionals in order to get proper help when needed.   Discussion: Work done by patients was invisible and not perceived as work. The patients' requests were not sufficiently supported in the professional organisation of work or formal planning. Patients' insertion and use of information in their trajectories challenged professional views and working processes. And the design of the formal pathway models limits the patients´ active participation. When looking at integrated care from the perspective of patients, the development of a more holistic and personalized approach is needed. Introduction: Formal pathway models outline that patients should receive information in order to experience a coherent journey but do not describe an active role for patients or their relatives. The aim of this is paper is to articulate and discuss the active role of patients during their cancer trajectories. Methods and theory: An in-depth case study of patient trajectories at a Danish hospital and surrounding municipality using individual interviews with patients. Theory about trajectory and work by Strauss was included. Results: Patients continuously took initiatives to organize their

  11. Informal work and formal plans: articulating the active role of patients in cancer trajectories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rikke Juul Dalsted


    Full Text Available Introduction: Formal pathways models outline that patients should receive information in order to experience a coherent journey but do not describe an active role for patients or their relatives. The aim of this is paper is to articulate and discuss the active role of patients during their cancer trajectories.  Methods and theory: An in-depth case study of patient trajectories at a Danish hospital and surrounding municipality using individual interviews with patients. Theory about trajectory and work by Strauss was included.  Results: Patients continuously took initiatives to organize their treatment and care. They initiated processes in the trajectories, and acquired information, which they used to form their trajectories.  Patients presented problems to the healthcare professionals in order to get proper help when needed.  Discussion: Work done by patients was invisible and not perceived as work. The patients' requests were not sufficiently supported in the professional organisation of work or formal planning. Patients' insertion and use of information in their trajectories challenged professional views and working processes. And the design of the formal pathway models limits the patients´ active participation. When looking at integrated care from the perspective of patients, the development of a more holistic and personalized approach is needed. Introduction: Formal pathway models outline that patients should receive information in order to experience a coherent journey but do not describe an active role for patients or their relatives. The aim of this is paper is to articulate and discuss the active role of patients during their cancer trajectories. Methods and theory: An in-depth case study of patient trajectories at a Danish hospital and surrounding municipality using individual interviews with patients. Theory about trajectory and work by Strauss was included. Results: Patients continuously took initiatives to organize their

  12. Detailed investigation of submicrometer-sized grains of chemically sprayed (Sn{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}, O{sub 2}) (0 {<=} x {<=} 0.085) thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benhaliliba, M., E-mail: [Physics Department, Science Faculty, Oran University of Sciences and Technology, USTOMB, BP1505 Oran (Algeria); Benouis, C.E., E-mail: [Physics Department, Science Faculty, Oran University of Sciences and Technology, USTOMB, BP1505 Oran (Algeria); Yakuphanoglu, F. [Firat University, Physics Department, Faculty of Sciences and Arts, 23119 Elazig (Turkey); Tiburcio-Silver, A. [ITT-DIEE, Apdo, Postal 20, Metepec 3, 52176 Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Aydin, C. [Firat University, Physics Department, Faculty of Sciences and Arts, 23119 Elazig (Turkey); Hamzaoui, S. [Laboratoire de Microscope Electronique et Sciences des Materiaux, USTOMB, BP1505 Oran (Algeria); Mouffak, Z. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, California State University, Fresno, CA (United States)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The pure and Al doped SnO{sub 2} nanostructures are chemically sprayed from (SnCl{sub 4}{center_dot}5H{sub 2}O) as starting material and aluminum (3+) chloride (AlCl{sub 3}) as doping source. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The X-rays of these nanostructures were analyzed and largely investigated. Further more details were obtained. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Al doped SnO{sub 2} nanostructures can be prepared by spray pyrolysis for advanced technological applications such as sensors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pictures and parameters of AFM analysis were described, several results for advanced and applied physics and technology were revealed. - Abstract: In this study, the submicrometer-sized grains of chemically sprayed tin oxide, SnO{sub 2}, were largely investigated. The films (Sn{sub 1-x}O{sub 2}, Al{sub x}), with x = 0-0.085 were grown by spray pyrolysis onto glass at a fixed temperature of 300 Degree-Sign C. Structural, optical, electrical and morphological properties were studied. These films are polycrystalline in nature with a tetragonal crystalline structure, and exhibited a preferred orientation along the (2 0 0) planes. Atomic force microscope (AFM) analysis demonstrated a nano-grain structure. Our nanostructured films revealed high transparency in the visible and infra-red spectra and an electrical resistivity that ranged from 1 to1000 {Omega} cm.

  13. Career Preparedness and School Achievement of Portuguese Children: Longitudinal Trend Articulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Céu Taveira


    Full Text Available Social Cognitive Career Theory suggests that students' preparedness for the school-to-work transition is a developmental process. Middle school children explore various careers, obtain feedback about their academic progress, and develop career self-efficacy and outcome expectations. These processes advance provisional educational/occupational goals. The literature has suggested articulations between career and academic development and how both vary across demographic characteristics, but longitudinal studies linking these processes are scarce. This study tested articulations between career preparedness and academic achievement during middle school years and employed gender and geographical location as potential moderators affecting the linkage between career and school domains. Participants included 429 children (47.8% girls from northern (69.5% and central Portugal (30.5% followed across four occasions of measurement (MageWave1 = 10.23, SD = 0.50. Data was collected with school records, the Multidimensional Scales of Perceived Self-Efficacy, Career Exploratory Outcome Expectations Scale, Childhood Career Exploration Inventory and Childhood Career Development Scale. Average and orthnormalized linear, quadratic and cubic trends were computed. Pearson correlation coefficients suggested positive and statistically significant associations between career exploratory outcome expectations and academic achievement average trends. Career planning and self-efficacy expectations were negatively associated with academic achievement quadratic trends. Multiple linear regression models suggested that career exploratory outcome expectations and career planning were respectively statistically significant predictors of the average and quadratic trends of academic achievement. Gender moderated the association between the career variables and academic achievement linear trends as well as the relation of career planning and self-efficacy with academic achievement

  14. Career Preparedness and School Achievement of Portuguese Children: Longitudinal Trend Articulations (United States)

    Oliveira, Íris M.; Taveira, Maria do Céu; Porfeli, Erik J.


    Social Cognitive Career Theory suggests that students' preparedness for the school-to-work transition is a developmental process. Middle school children explore various careers, obtain feedback about their academic progress, and develop career self-efficacy and outcome expectations. These processes advance provisional educational/occupational goals. The literature has suggested articulations between career and academic development and how both vary across demographic characteristics, but longitudinal studies linking these processes are scarce. This study tested articulations between career preparedness and academic achievement during middle school years and employed gender and geographical location as potential moderators affecting the linkage between career and school domains. Participants included 429 children (47.8% girls) from northern (69.5%) and central Portugal (30.5%) followed across four occasions of measurement (MageWave1 = 10.23, SD = 0.50). Data was collected with school records, the Multidimensional Scales of Perceived Self-Efficacy, Career Exploratory Outcome Expectations Scale, Childhood Career Exploration Inventory and Childhood Career Development Scale. Average and orthnormalized linear, quadratic and cubic trends were computed. Pearson correlation coefficients suggested positive and statistically significant associations between career exploratory outcome expectations and academic achievement average trends. Career planning and self-efficacy expectations were negatively associated with academic achievement quadratic trends. Multiple linear regression models suggested that career exploratory outcome expectations and career planning were respectively statistically significant predictors of the average and quadratic trends of academic achievement. Gender moderated the association between the career variables and academic achievement linear trends as well as the relation of career planning and self-efficacy with academic achievement cubic trends

  15. Preschool speech articulation and nonword repetition abilities may help predict eventual recovery or persistence of stuttering. (United States)

    Spencer, Caroline; Weber-Fox, Christine


    In preschool children, we investigated whether expressive and receptive language, phonological, articulatory, and/or verbal working memory proficiencies aid in predicting eventual recovery or persistence of stuttering. Participants included 65 children, including 25 children who do not stutter (CWNS) and 40 who stutter (CWS) recruited at age 3;9-5;8. At initial testing, participants were administered the Test of Auditory Comprehension of Language, 3rd edition (TACL-3), Structured Photographic Expressive Language Test, 3rd edition (SPELT-3), Bankson-Bernthal Test of Phonology-Consonant Inventory subtest (BBTOP-CI), Nonword Repetition Test (NRT; Dollaghan & Campbell, 1998), and Test of Auditory Perceptual Skills-Revised (TAPS-R) auditory number memory and auditory word memory subtests. Stuttering behaviors of CWS were assessed in subsequent years, forming groups whose stuttering eventually persisted (CWS-Per; n=19) or recovered (CWS-Rec; n=21). Proficiency scores in morphosyntactic skills, consonant production, verbal working memory for known words, and phonological working memory and speech production for novel nonwords obtained at the initial testing were analyzed for each group. CWS-Per were less proficient than CWNS and CWS-Rec in measures of consonant production (BBTOP-CI) and repetition of novel phonological sequences (NRT). In contrast, receptive language, expressive language, and verbal working memory abilities did not distinguish CWS-Rec from CWS-Per. Binary logistic regression analysis indicated that preschool BBTOP-CI scores and overall NRT proficiency significantly predicted future recovery status. Results suggest that phonological and speech articulation abilities in the preschool years should be considered with other predictive factors as part of a comprehensive risk assessment for the development of chronic stuttering. At the end of this activity the reader will be able to: (1) describe the current status of nonlinguistic and linguistic predictors for

  16. Speech characteristics after articulation therapy in children with cleft palate and velopharyngeal dysfunction - A single case experimental design. (United States)

    Derakhshandeh, Fatemeh; Nikmaram, Mohammadreza; Hosseinabad, Hedieh Hashemi; Memarzadeh, Mehrdad; Taheri, Masoud; Omrani, Mohammadreza; Jalaie, Shohreh; Bijankhan, Mahmood; Sell, Debbie


    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of an intensive 10-week course of articulation therapy on articulation errors in cleft lip and palate patients who have Velopharyngeal Insufficiency (VPI), non-oral and passive cleft speech characteristics. Five children with cleft palate (+/-cleft lip) with VPI and non-oral and passive cleft speech characteristics underwent 40 intensive articulation therapies over 10 weeks in a single case experimental design. The percentage of non-oral CSCs (NCSCs), passive CSCs (PCSCs), stimulable consonants (SC), correct consonants in word imitation (CCI), and correct consonants in picture naming (CCN) were captured at baseline, during intervention and in follow up phases. Visual analysis and two effect size indexes of Percentage of Nonoverlapping Data and Percentage of Improvement Rate Difference were analyzed. Articulation therapy resulted in visible decrease in NCSCs for all 5 participants across the intervention phases. Intervention was effective in changing percentage of passive CSCs in two different ways; it reduced the PCSCs in three cases and resulted in an increase in PCSCs in the other two cases. This was interpreted as intervention having changed the non-oral CSCs to consonants produced within the oral cavity but with passive characteristics affecting manner of production including weakness, nasalized plosives and nasal realizations of plosives and fricatives. Percent SC increased throughout the intervention period in all five patients. All participants demonstrated an increase in percentage of CCI and CCN suggesting an increase in the consonant inventory. Follow-up data showed that all the subjects were able to maintain their ability to articulate learned phonemes correctly even after a 4-week break from intervention. This single case experimental study supports the hypothesis that speech intervention in patients with VPI can result in an improvement in oral placements and passive CSCs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier

  17. The Articulation of Occupational Education Programs between Secondary Schools and Community Colleges/Technical Institutes Project, 1 September 1974-31 Jul 1978. Final Report. (United States)

    Woelfer, Carlyle

    The purpose of this project was to develop a comprehensive model plan for the articulation of public high school vocational education programs with the occupational education programs of the community colleges/technical institutes in Duplin County, North Carolina. Such a plan would serve also as a guide for articulation efforts throughout the…

  18. What's in and what's out in branding? A novel articulation effect for brand names. (United States)

    Topolinski, Sascha; Zürn, Michael; Schneider, Iris K


    The present approach exploits the biomechanical connection between articulation and ingestion-related mouth movements to introduce a novel psychological principle of brand name design. We constructed brand names for diverse products with consonantal stricture spots either from the front to the rear of the mouth, thus inwards (e.g., BODIKA), or from the rear to the front, thus outwards (e.g., KODIBA). These muscle dynamics resemble the oral kinematics during either ingestion (inwards), which feels positive, or expectoration (outwards), which feels negative. In 7 experiments (total N = 1261), participants liked products with inward names more than products with outward names (Experiment 1), reported higher purchase intentions (Experiment 2), and higher willingness-to-pay (Experiments 3a-3c, 4, 5), with the price gain amounting to 4-13% of the average estimated product value. These effects occurred across English and German language, under silent reading, for both edible and non-edible products, and even in the presence of a much stronger price determinant, namely fair-trade production (Experiment 5).

  19. The Nature and Articulation of Ethical Codes on Tailings Management in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobius Thobile Poswa


    Full Text Available It is well recognized that the mining industry in South Africa is highly rated for its substantial contribution to the country’s economic growth, including employment and infrastructural development. It is also known that mining and ore processing activities potentially pose a severe threat to public health and environmental well-being, in the way operations are carried out, mine wastes are disposed of (in dumps, local communities are relocated, mine management and the mining community, in general, perceive established environmental standards and etiquette. This paper examines ethical practices and norms in the South African mining industry, with particular reference to the management of tailings dams. We analyse the modes of articulation of the country’s regulatory instruments for tailings management, and review the corporate social responsibility (CSR approach of leading mining companies. Despite decades of research and resulting recommendations on tailings management, it is concluded that the current legislations are largely ineffective, that the level of adherence by mine management and the mining community is low, and that the mechanisms for compliance monitoring is weak. New perspectives on legislative issues for unsolved problems in tailings handling are put forward, and directions for future research, indicated.

  20. Inverse kinematics research using obstacle avoidance geometry method for EAST Articulated Maintenance Arm (EAMA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Kun, E-mail: [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China); Lappeenranta University of Technology, Lappeenranta (Finland); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei (China); Song, Yuntao [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei (China); Wu, Huapeng [Lappeenranta University of Technology, Lappeenranta (Finland); Wei, Xiaoyang; Khan, Shahab Ud-Din; Cheng, Yong [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China)


    Highlights: • An Obstacle Topology Partition Projection (OTPP) method of tokamak-like vessel for collision detection. • Median values preferentially of depth-first search algorithm for solving redundant inverse kinematics based on OTPP. • Application of RIK in grasping target objects. - Abstract: This paper proposed a new method for solving inverse kinematics (IK) of a redundant manipulator called EAST Articulated Maintenance Arm (EAMA), which is applied in the fusion reactor EAST (Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak) and used to complete some maintenance tasks in the complex areas. However, it is difficult to realize remote control due to its redundancy, coupling structure and the complex operational environment. The IK research of the robot played a vital role to the manipulator’s motion control algorithm of remote handling (RH) technology. An Obstacle Topology Partition Projection (OTPP) approach integrated with Modified Inverse Depth First Search (MIDFS) method was presented. This is a kind of new geometric algorithm in order to solve the problem of IK for a high-redundancy manipulator. It can also be used to find a solution satisfying collision avoidance with optimal safety distance between the manipulator and obstacles. Simulations and experiments were conducted to demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed method.

  1. Audio-visual identification of place of articulation and voicing in white and babble noise. (United States)

    Alm, Magnus; Behne, Dawn M; Wang, Yue; Eg, Ragnhild


    Research shows that noise and phonetic attributes influence the degree to which auditory and visual modalities are used in audio-visual speech perception (AVSP). Research has, however, mainly focused on white noise and single phonetic attributes, thus neglecting the more common babble noise and possible interactions between phonetic attributes. This study explores whether white and babble noise differentially influence AVSP and whether these differences depend on phonetic attributes. White and babble noise of 0 and -12 dB signal-to-noise ratio were added to congruent and incongruent audio-visual stop consonant-vowel stimuli. The audio (A) and video (V) of incongruent stimuli differed either in place of articulation (POA) or voicing. Responses from 15 young adults show that, compared to white noise, babble resulted in more audio responses for POA stimuli, and fewer for voicing stimuli. Voiced syllables received more audio responses than voiceless syllables. Results can be attributed to discrepancies in the acoustic spectra of both the noise and speech target. Voiced consonants may be more auditorily salient than voiceless consonants which are more spectrally similar to white noise. Visual cues contribute to identification of voicing, but only if the POA is visually salient and auditorily susceptible to the noise type.

  2. Design and characterization of a multi-articulated robotic bat wing. (United States)

    Bahlman, Joseph W; Swartz, Sharon M; Breuer, Kenneth S


    There are many challenges to measuring power input and force output from a flapping vertebrate. Animals can vary a multitude of kinematic parameters simultaneously, and methods for measuring power and force are either not possible in a flying vertebrate or are very time and equipment intensive. To circumvent these challenges, we constructed a robotic, multi-articulated bat wing that allows us to measure power input and force output simultaneously, across a range of kinematic parameters. The robot is modeled after the lesser dog-faced fruit bat, Cynopterus brachyotis, and contains seven joints powered by three servo motors. Collectively, this joint and motor arrangement allows the robot to vary wingbeat frequency, wingbeat amplitude, stroke plane, downstroke ratio, and wing folding. We describe the design, construction, programing, instrumentation, characterization, and analysis of the robot. We show that the kinematics, inputs, and outputs demonstrate good repeatability both within and among trials. Finally, we describe lessons about the structure of living bats learned from trying to mimic their flight in a robotic wing.

  3. Adaptive Filter Design Using Type-2 Fuzzy Cerebellar Model Articulation Controller. (United States)

    Lin, Chih-Min; Yang, Ming-Shu; Chao, Fei; Hu, Xiao-Min; Zhang, Jun


    This paper aims to propose an efficient network and applies it as an adaptive filter for the signal processing problems. An adaptive filter is proposed using a novel interval type-2 fuzzy cerebellar model articulation controller (T2FCMAC). The T2FCMAC realizes an interval type-2 fuzzy logic system based on the structure of the CMAC. Due to the better ability of handling uncertainties, type-2 fuzzy sets can solve some complicated problems with outstanding effectiveness than type-1 fuzzy sets. In addition, the Lyapunov function is utilized to derive the conditions of the adaptive learning rates, so that the convergence of the filtering error can be guaranteed. In order to demonstrate the performance of the proposed adaptive T2FCMAC filter, it is tested in signal processing applications, including a nonlinear channel equalization system, a time-varying channel equalization system, and an adaptive noise cancellation system. The advantages of the proposed filter over the other adaptive filters are verified through simulations.

  4. Sometimes it does hurt to ask: the constructive role of articulating impressions. (United States)

    White, Lee C; Pothos, Emmanuel M; Busemeyer, Jerome R


    Decisions can sometimes have a constructive role, so that the act of, for example, choosing one option over another creates a preference for that option (e.g., Ariely & Norton, 2008; Payne, Bettman, & Johnson, 1993; Sharot, Velasquez, & Dolan, 2010; Sherman, 1980). In this work we explore the constructive role of just articulating an impression, for a presented visual stimulus, as opposed to making a choice (specifically, the judgments we employ are affective evaluations). Using quantum probability theory, we outline a cognitive model formalizing such a constructive process. We predict a simple interaction, in relation to how a second image is evaluated, following the presentation of a first image, depending on whether there is a rating for the first image or not. The interaction predicted by the quantum model was confirmed across three experiments and a variety of control manipulations. The advantages of using quantum probability theory to model the present results, compared with existing models of sequence order effects in judgment (e.g., Hogarth & Einhorn, 1992) or other theories of constructive processes when a choice is made (e.g., Festinger, 1957; Sharot et al., 2010) are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Articulating reproductive justice through reparative justice: case studies of abortion in Great Britain and South Africa. (United States)

    Macleod, Catriona Ida; Beynon-Jones, Siân; Toerien, Merran


    Public health and rights-based approaches to abortion advocacy are well established. Feminists are, however, increasingly using a broader framework of 'reproductive justice', which considers the intersecting conditions that serve to enhance or hinder women's reproductive freedoms, including their capacities to decide about the outcome of their pregnancies. Nonetheless, reproductive justice approaches to abortion are, conceptually, relatively under-developed. We introduce a reparative justice approach as a method of further articulating the concept of reproductive justice. We first explain how this approach can be used to conceptualise safe, accessible and supportive abortion as a key element of reproductive justice in relation to the injustice of unwanted or unsupportable pregnancies. Using Ernesto Verdeja's critical theory of reparative justice and case studies of two countries (South Africa and Great Britain) where abortion is legal, we show how such an approach enables an analysis of reproductive justice within the specificities of particular contexts. We argue that both the rights-based legal framework adopted in South Africa and the medicalised approach of British law have, in practice, limited reparative justice in these contexts. We discuss the implications of reparative justice for abortion advocacy.

  6. Aeroelastic Stability of a Four-Bladed Semi-Articulated Soft-Inplane Tiltrotor Model (United States)

    Nixon, Mark W.; Langston, Chester W.; Singleton, Jeffrey D.; Piatak, David J.; Kvaternik, Raymond G.; Corso, Lawrence M.; Brown, Ross K.


    A new four-bladed, semi-articulated, soft-inplane rotor system, designed as a candidate for future heavy-lift rotorcraft, was tested at model scale on the Wing and Rotor Aeroelastic Testing System (WRATS), a 1/5-size aeroelastic wind-tunnel model based on the V-22. The experimental investigation included a hover test with the model in helicopter mode subject to ground resonance conditions, and a forward flight test with the model in airplane mode subject to whirl-flutter conditions. An active control system designed to augment system damping was also tested as part of this investigation. Results of this study indicate that the new four-bladed, soft-inplane rotor system in hover has adequate damping characteristics and is stable throughout its rotor-speed envelope. However, in airplane mode it produces very low damping in the key wing beam-bending mode, and has a low whirl-flutter stability boundary with respect to airspeed. The active control system was successful in augmenting the damping of the fundamental system modes, and was found to be robust with respect to changes in rotor speed and airspeed. Finally, conversion-mode dynamic loads were measured on the rotor and these were found to be signi.cantly lower for the new soft-inplane hub than for the previous baseline stiff - inplane hub.

  7. Global Knowledge Futures: Articulating the Emergence of a New Meta-level Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M. Gidley


    Full Text Available In this paper I articulate a new meta-level field of studies that I call global knowledge futures—a field through which other emerging transdisciplinary fields can be integrated to cohere knowledge at a higher level. I contrast this with the current dominant knowledge paradigm of the global knowledge economy with its fragmentation, commodification and instrumentalism based on neoliberal knowledge capitalism. I take a big-picture, macrohistorical lens to the new thinking and new knowledge patterns that are emerging within the evolution of consciousness discourse. I explore three discourses: postformal studies, integral studies and planetary studies—using a fourth discourse, futures studies, to provide a macro-temporal framing. By extending the meta-fields of postformal, integral and planetary studies into a prospective future dimension, I locate areas of development where these leading-edge discourses can be brought into closer dialogue with each other. In this meeting point of four boundary-spanning discourses I identify the new meta-level field of global knowledge futures, grounded in human thinking capacities, such as creativity, imagination, dialogue and collaboration.

  8. Calibration of a flexible measurement system based on industrial articulated robot and structured light sensor (United States)

    Mu, Nan; Wang, Kun; Xie, Zexiao; Ren, Ping


    To realize online rapid measurement for complex workpieces, a flexible measurement system based on an articulated industrial robot with a structured light sensor mounted on the end-effector is developed. A method for calibrating the system parameters is proposed in which the hand-eye transformation parameters and the robot kinematic parameters are synthesized in the calibration process. An initial hand-eye calibration is first performed using a standard sphere as the calibration target. By applying the modified complete and parametrically continuous method, we establish a synthesized kinematic model that combines the initial hand-eye transformation and distal link parameters as a whole with the sensor coordinate system as the tool frame. According to the synthesized kinematic model, an error model is constructed based on spheres' center-to-center distance errors. Consequently, the error model parameters can be identified in a calibration experiment using a three-standard-sphere target. Furthermore, the redundancy of error model parameters is eliminated to ensure the accuracy and robustness of the parameter identification. Calibration and measurement experiments are carried out based on an ER3A-C60 robot. The experimental results show that the proposed calibration method enjoys high measurement accuracy, and this efficient and flexible system is suitable for online measurement in industrial scenes.

  9. Computer vision system R&D for EAST Articulated Maintenance Arm robot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Linglong, E-mail:; Song, Yuntao, E-mail:; Yang, Yang, E-mail:; Feng, Hansheng, E-mail:; Cheng, Yong, E-mail:; Pan, Hongtao, E-mail:


    Highlights: • We discussed the image preprocessing, object detection and pose estimation algorithms under poor light condition of inner vessel of EAST tokamak. • The main pipeline, including contours detection, contours filter, MER extracted, object location and pose estimation, was carried out in detail. • The technical issues encountered during the research were discussed. - Abstract: Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) is the first full superconducting tokamak device which was constructed at Institute of Plasma Physics Chinese Academy of Sciences (ASIPP). The EAST Articulated Maintenance Arm (EAMA) robot provides the means of the in-vessel maintenance such as inspection and picking up the fragments of first wall. This paper presents a method to identify and locate the fragments semi-automatically by using the computer vision. The use of computer vision in identification and location faces some difficult challenges such as shadows, poor contrast, low illumination level, less texture and so on. The method developed in this paper enables credible identification of objects with shadows through invariant image and edge detection. The proposed algorithms are validated through our ASIPP robotics and computer vision platform (ARVP). The results show that the method can provide a 3D pose with reference to robot base so that objects with different shapes and size can be picked up successfully.

  10. Methodology for the assessment of measuring uncertainties of articulated arm coordinate measuring machines (United States)

    Romdhani, Fekria; Hennebelle, François; Ge, Min; Juillion, Patrick; Coquet, Richard; François Fontaine, Jean


    Articulated Arm Coordinate Measuring Machines (AACMMs) have gradually evolved and are increasingly used in mechanical industry. At present, measurement uncertainties relating to the use of these devices are not yet well quantified. The work carried out consists of determining the measurement uncertainties of a mechanical part by an AACMM. The studies aiming to develop a model of measurement uncertainty are based on the Monte Carlo method developed in Supplement 1 of the Guide to Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement [1] but also identifying and characterizing the main sources of uncertainty. A multi-level Monte Carlo approach principle has been developed which allows for characterizing the possible evolution of the AACMM during the measurement and quantifying in a second level the uncertainty on the considered measurand. The first Monte Carlo level is the most complex and is thus divided into three sub-levels, namely characterization on the positioning error of a point, estimation of calibration errors and evaluation of fluctuations of the ‘localization point’. The global method is thus presented and results of the first sub-level are particularly developed. The main sources of uncertainty, including AACMM deformations, are exposed.

  11. Optical mount modifications for increased articulation at the Navy Prototype Optical Interferometer (United States)

    Clark, James H., III; Walton, Joshua P.; Penado, F. Ernesto; Smith, Denver


    Reconfigurations of the original optical mounts are required to facilitate the expanding capabilities and diverse science programs at the Navy Prototype Optical Interferometer. The mounts of current interest are tangent-arm gimbaled mounts located in vacuum chambers, remotely controlled, and precisely aligned through a narrow range of motion. In order to achieve the desired large changes in pathway reflections, the articulated range of the mount was increased from 4 to 45 degrees in elevation and from 4 to 90 degrees in azimuth. This increase was achieved on the elevation axis by fashioning and attaching a worm gear device, and a direct-drive type mechanism was used on the azimuth axis. The original alignment resolution and stability were preserved by retaining the high precision tangent-arm actuators. In this paper, we present the design modifications that achieved the form, fit, and function required for remote-controlled reconfiguration and alignment. The mechanical modifications, modes of operation, test results, and reconfigurations are described in detail.

  12. No evidence of somatotopic place of articulation feature mapping in motor cortex during passive speech perception. (United States)

    Arsenault, Jessica S; Buchsbaum, Bradley R


    The motor theory of speech perception has experienced a recent revival due to a number of studies implicating the motor system during speech perception. In a key study, Pulvermüller et al. (2006) showed that premotor/motor cortex differentially responds to the passive auditory perception of lip and tongue speech sounds. However, no study has yet attempted to replicate this important finding from nearly a decade ago. The objective of the current study was to replicate the principal finding of Pulvermüller et al. (2006) and generalize it to a larger set of speech tokens while applying a more powerful statistical approach using multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA). Participants performed an articulatory localizer as well as a speech perception task where they passively listened to a set of eight syllables while undergoing fMRI. Both univariate and multivariate analyses failed to find evidence for somatotopic coding in motor or premotor cortex during speech perception. Positive evidence for the null hypothesis was further confirmed by Bayesian analyses. Results consistently show that while the lip and tongue areas of the motor cortex are sensitive to movements of the articulators, they do not appear to preferentially respond to labial and alveolar speech sounds during passive speech perception.

  13. Developing and articulating intersectorial networks for integral care of drug users in vulnerable contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Nazareth Rodrigues Malcher de Oliveira Silva


    Full Text Available This manuscript presents an experience report with some activities that the Reference Center on Drugs and Associated Vulnerabilities - CRR, ‘Faculdade Ceilândia’/University of Brasilia - UNB implemented and developed in 2013. This account allows us to reflect on the process of building partnerships based on social networks and the notion of territory for people with problems related to drugs and their associated vulnerability. The experience follows the current national framework, in which the social network has become a central paradigm of public practices and policies (e.g. Law 10.216/2001. These changes occur in the model of care for people with mental disorders, including the integral health policy for users and dependents of alcohol and other drugs. The CRR team mapped local social networks, i.e. several public institutions in different sectors, in four municipalities: one in the Federal District (Brazlândia and three in the state of Goiás (Valparaiso, Luziânia, Águas Lindas. After the mapping, the CRR team sought to articulate and establish an agenda to discuss alcohol and drug use and its associated vulnerabilities among these different institutions, sectors and professionals, e.g. nurses, physicians, occupational therapists, social workers, and police officers. This strategy enabled several actors to develop and qualify their local intersectorial network, which consequently qualifies the integral care actions, as recommended by several national policies.

  14. How theory is used and articulated in qualitative research: development of a new typology. (United States)

    Bradbury-Jones, Caroline; Taylor, Julie; Herber, Oliver


    There is a long tradition within qualitative research of theory being central and of critical importance. Qualitative research theory often equates with the methodologies used but this is a complex relationship, plagued by lack of consensus among scholars regarding how theory and methodology are related. This article furthers the debates on how theories are used in qualitative research, how they might influence a study and how they are articulated in publications. The aim is to provide a framework through which the relationship between theory and qualitative research can be understood. We propose a five-point typology on the levels of theoretical visibility, testing this against a range of published research from five key international health, medicine and social science journals. The typology captures a range of visibility--from seemingly absent through to highly visible and applied throughout. There was a clear gradient in this assessment--only a minority appeared to use theory consistently throughout a study. We outline several challenges to consistently applying theory in qualitative research and suggest potential solutions. This article is based on the argument that lack of theory in qualitative research undermines its quality. The typology is offered to assist researchers in applying theory in their own research and critiquing its use in the work of others. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The challenge of to be psychotherapist: articulations between inspiration heideggerian and winnicottian clinical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celina Maria Aragão Ximenes


    Full Text Available The welcoming in the clinical psychology appeared as one of the greatest clashes in contemporary times. This paper intends to reflect the be psychotherapist a perspective approaching ourselves even more of experience of to lean front to suffering of another in a welcoming attitude Inspired by the central concepts of "care" in daseinsanalytic clinic and "holding" in Winnicott's thinking, we will search for elucidate the theme, detaching  the ethical commitment this professional in the context of psychological clinic. To this, we will make a brief outline of the guiding characteristics of Daseinsanalyse and of the clinic in Winnicott's perspective, specifically highlighting the figure of the psychotherapist and its implications in relation to the other; We will propose to make possible bind off between these different looks, safeguarding the immediate experience of what for us representing your practice. In a last moment, we will point out that such articulations lead us to think beyond a psychological clinic to service of an adaptation to the social context.

  16. Chrome nitride coating reduces wear of small, spherical CrCoMo metal-on-metal articulations in a joint simulator. (United States)

    Thorkildsen, R; Reigstad, O; Røkkum, M


    Metal-on-metal articulations have fallen out of favour in larger joint replacements, but are still used in smaller joints. Coating the articulation has been suggested as one way of reducing wear. We compared a standard 6 mm CrCoMo articulation designed for the carpometacarpal joint of the thumb with a chromium nitride-coated version after 512,000 cycles in a joint simulator. A total of 6 articulations in each group were tested with a unidirectional load of 5 kg in Ringer's solution. We found a statistically significant reduction in weight loss, amount of metallic wear produced and volumetric wear for the chromium nitride-coated articulation. Our findings support the use of chromium nitride coating in order to minimize the amount of metallic wear produced.

  17. Single-incision laparoscopic colectomy without using special articulating instruments: an initial experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trakarnsanga Atthaphorn


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single-incision laparoscopic colectomy (SILC was introduced as a novel minimally invasive technique. The benefits of this technique include reducing number of the incision and cosmetic improvement. Unlike the conventional laparoscopic colectomy, majority of previously reported SILC need to be performed using special curved or articulated instruments. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate our initial experience of SILC, which could be performed using the standard laparoscopic instruments. Material and methods Retrospective review of 14 patients who underwent SILC at Siriraj Hospital from May to December 2010, patient's demographic data, perioperative outcomes, early postoperative complications and pathological data were collected and analyzed. Results The mean age of all patients was 60 years. The most common operation with SILC was sigmoidectomy (n = 9, followed by right hemicolectomy (n = 2, left hemicolectomy (n = 1, anterior resection (n = 1, and total colectomy (n = 1. The trocar insertion techniques were multi-fascial incision using regular port (n = 11 and GelPOINT® (n = 3. The mean operative time was 155 minutes (range 90-280 and the mean estimate blood loss was 32.1 mL (range 10-100. All patients were successfully operated without conversion. The mean length of hospital stay was 9 days (range 5-20. There was no mortality. The pathological results revealed colorectal cancer (n = 12, neoplastic polyp (n = 1 and Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP (n = 1. The mean number of lymph nodes retrieval was 16.6 (range 3-34. Conclusion SILC can successfully and safely be performed with standard laparoscopic instruments. This technique might be an alternative procedure to conventional laparoscopic colectomy with better cosmetic result.

  18. Between Casual Commitment and Cross-Media Articulation: The Faith of the Napkin (United States)

    Bødker, Susanne; Petersen, Anja Bechmann

    Since the mid-1990s, newspaper companies have faced dramatic challenges due to stagnation or decline in the consumption of traditional media (12), new types of production technology, and new types of products. At present, media companies worldwide struggle with a new challenge called cross-media production: the integrated production of news stories to multiple media platforms (paper, TV, radio, etc.) (13). Digital materials make it possible to produce content for several different media platforms, and the different strengths of the media further support new forms of news coverage that cross these platforms. The very recent explosion of blogs and video podcasting are new examples adding to the family of products and ideally, the reporters become storytellers who choose the most suitable media for their story. The reality, however, is far more complicated: The Danish media company Nordjyske Medier was a local newspaper that has now diversified and produces daily news for radio, TV, web, a daily newspaper, and several additional products. All production is gathered in one location, where reporters produce news stories to be distributed in the various media. The editorial staff of all media is placed literally in the middle of this location. We carried out an empirical study of cooperation and planning at the media company (1; 5). The company used a production planning system in place, called the Napkin. The Napkin was not used very much, it was heavily criticized by reporters and it was at the point of being replaced by a different planning system, which was better integrated with the production system (11). This system, too, was later abandoned. This has motivated us to understand better the processes of planning and articulating the cross-media production and how information technology supported such cross-media production.

  19. Production of pre-basic potato seed by polyvinyl chloride PVC: articulate gutters hydroponic system

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    Jonny Everson Scherwinski-Pereira


    Full Text Available The development of more efficient and productive systems for pre-basic seed potato production would improve the quality of the propagative material used by the potato growers, directly affecting the crop yields. A two-year experiment was carried out to evaluate the potato pre-basic seed production by two types of hydroponic systems (fibrocement tiles and articulated PVC gutters, two cultivars (`Baronesa` and `Eliza` and two types of propagative material (plants coming from in vitro culture and minitubers. The PVC gutters system was highly efficient. When using minitubers, this system reached multiplication rates up to 74 tubers per plant. Minitubers were more productive than in vitro plants, independent of cultivar and hydroponic system utilized.Um experimento realizado por dois anos consecutivos avaliou a produção de sementes pré-básicas de batata por meio de sistemas de cultivo hidropônico. O trabalho testou a combinação de dois sistemas de cultivo (telha de fibrocimento e calhas de PVC articuladas, duas cultivares (Baronesa e Eliza e dois tipos de material propagativo (plântulas oriundas do cultivo in vitro e minitubérculos. O sistema de calhas de PVC foi altamente eficiente. Quando foi utilizado minitubérculos, este sistema alcançou taxas de multiplicação de até 74 tubérculos por planta. De modo geral, o uso de minitubérculos como material propagativo apresentou os melhores resultados de produtividade quando comparada ao material in vitro, independentemente da cultivar e sistemas hidropônicos utilizados.

  20. From Nature to iNature. Articulating a Sami Christian Identity Online

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    Torjer Olsen


    Full Text Available The article discusses the activities of both indigenous people and religion online, and introduces the pair of concepts indigeneity-online/online-indigeneity as a means of analysing this activity. This concept is new, and leans heavily on the pair of concepts religion-online/online-religion that is used in religious studies. The second part of the article consists of an analysis of the website, a site for the Christian education of Sami children and youth. I treat this as an expression of, or a medium for, the contemporary formation of Sami identity, and argue that it can be seen as an indigenous website. The Church of Norway, as an institution with a strong history of colonization  and  Norwegianization, has  developed  into an  institution  that  seeks  to integrate, implement and strengthen the Sami voices and traditions to such extent thatSami  Christians  use  it  as platform  for  the  communication  of  a Sami  kind of Christianity. is an example of a certain articulation of Sami identity. What seems  to  be  the  preferred  or idealized  Saminess  is  related  to nature and  a particular past, and is distant to modernity, urban culture and Norwegian culture.

  1. Discourse, Subject, and Agency. Linking Discourse Analysis and Biographical Research with the Help of the Concept of Articulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Spies


    Full Text Available For a significant period of time biographical research did not focus on the influence of discourses on biographical narratives. In contrast, discourse analysis often disregarded the subject-constituting impact of discourses. This article deals with the theoretical question of how to work with both: discourse and subject. Therefore, I will introduce Stuart HALL's concept of articulation. Since the early 1990's HALL has been working on questions of (cultural identity. In this context he developed an understanding of subjects that enables them not only to be seen as effects of discourses, but also allows focusing on discourses in subject conceptions. Neither biographical research nor discourse analysis In German speaking countries have embraced the work of HALL. But his concept of articulation could link biographical research and discourse analysis, and could also be used for further empirical work. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0902369

  2. Movement imagery for speech in healthy women: influences on articulation accuracy and fluidity, imagery times, and expectations of success. (United States)

    Mantie-Kozlowski, Alana; Netsell, Ronald; Daniel, Todd


    The use of movement imagery in speech performance has received less attention than it has in many other professional disciplines. 30 healthy monolingual native English speakers participated in this within-subjects study. Participants' speech accuracy and fluidity was compared when they used movement imagery and when they did not. The timing of imagery and articulation were compared using a chronometric paradigm. Participants' expectations of improvement when using movement imagery for speech were compared to their actual performance. The results from this study support the use of movement imagery for speech with a single imaging event for the purpose of improving speech fluidity, but not for improving articulation accuracy. The chronometric system as a tool for monitoring adherence to the movement imagery protocol for speech proved valuable. Finally, while estimation inflation has been reported by some using movement imagery techniques, this was not the case for the participants of this study.

  3. Imaging that is different on two sides of the atlas/dens axis articulations in lateral flexion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamieth, H.


    If lateral flexion results in narrowing of one of the two atlas/dens axis articulations, then this is exclusively due to a (facultative) rotation of the atlas. In this case the massa lateralis atlantis of that side displays the usual pattern associated with rotation. Narrowing of the articular cavity is entirely due to projection and definitely not pathological. Rotation of the dens axis, being obligatory in lateral flexion, does not affect the width of the articular cavities of the atlas/dens axis articulations. Both facts can be verified without leaving any doubt, by X-ray film. Ventral or dorsal 'tipping' of the dens axis or lateral 'tipping' of the atlas is anatomically impossible. In our daily routine diagnosis of lateral flexion X-ray films we never found any sign pointing to such movement.

  4. Malocclusion and articulation disorders in mouth breathing children from public schools in Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul


    Ana Maria Toniolo da Silva; Angela Ruviaro Busanello; Clarissa Flores Oliveira


    Objective: To verify the occurrence and types of malocclusion and articulation disorders in mouth breathing children at public schools.Methods: An evaluation was made of 219 children of both genders, between 5 and 12 years of age, attending two public schools in the city of Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil; with 121 mouth breather children being selected for this study. Orthodontic and phonoaudiological evaluation were made to verify the breathing mode and presence or absence of maloccl...

  5. Articulation of Native Cartilage Against Different Femoral Component Materials. Oxidized Zirconium Damages Cartilage Less Than Cobalt-Chrome. (United States)

    Vanlommel, Jan; De Corte, Ronny; Luyckx, Jean Philippe; Anderson, Melissa; Labey, Luc; Bellemans, Johan


    Oxidized zirconium (OxZr) is produced by thermally driven oxidization creating an oxidized surface with the properties of a ceramic at the top of the Zr metal substrate. OxZr is much harder and has a lower coefficient of friction than cobalt-chrome (CoCr), both leading to better wear characteristics. We evaluated and compared damage to the cartilage of porcine patella plugs, articulating against OxZr vs CoCr. Our hypothesis was that, owing to its better wear properties, OxZr would damage cartilage less than CoCr. If this is true, OxZr might be a better material for the femoral component during total knee arthroplasty if the patella is not resurfaced. Twenty-one plugs from porcine patellae were prepared and tested in a reciprocating pin-on-disk machine while lubricated with bovine serum and under a constant load. Three different configurations were tested: cartilage-cartilage as the control group, cartilage-OxZr, and cartilage-CoCr. Macroscopic appearance, cartilage thickness, and the modified Mankin score were evaluated after 400,000 wear cycles. The control group showed statistically significant less damage than plugs articulating against both other materials. Cartilage plugs articulating against OxZr were statistically significantly less damaged than those articulating against CoCr. Although replacing cartilage by an implant always leads to deterioration of the cartilage counterface, OxZr results in less damage than CoCr. The use of OxZr might thus be preferable to CoCr in case of total knee arthroplasty without patella resurfacing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Datafication and empowerment: How the open data movement re-articulates notions of democracy, participation, and journalism


    Stefan Baack


    This article shows how activists in the open data movement re-articulate notions of democracy, participation, and journalism by applying practices and values from open source culture to the creation and use of data. Focusing on the Open Knowledge Foundation Germany and drawing from a combination of interviews and content analysis, it argues that this process leads activists to develop new rationalities around datafication that can support the agency of datafied publics. Three modulations of o...

  7. Modelling and Calibration Technique of Laser Triangulation Sensors for Integration in Robot Arms and Articulated Arm Coordinate Measuring Machines


    Aguilar, Juan J.; Albajez, José A.; Carlos Cajal; David Guillomía; Jorge Santolaria


    A technique for intrinsic and extrinsic calibration of a laser triangulation sensor (LTS) integrated in an articulated arm coordinate measuring machine (AACMM) is presented in this paper. After applying a novel approach to the AACMM kinematic parameter identification problem, by means of a single calibration gauge object, a one-step calibration method to obtain both intrinsic―laser plane, CCD sensor and camera geometry―and extrinsic parameters related to the AACMM main frame has been develope...

  8. Application of a Force Sensor to Improve the Reliability of Measurement with Articulated Arm Coordinate Measuring Machines


    Joaquín Barreiro; Ana Isabel Fernandez-Abia; Eduardo Cuesta; Daniel González-Madruga


    A study of the operator contact force influence on the performance of Articulated Arm Coordinate Measuring Machines (AACMMs) is presented in this paper. After developing a sensor capable of measuring the contact force applied by an operator, a ring gauge has been used to analyse the relationship between the contact force and diameter and form errors measured with the AACMM. As a result, contact force has been proved as one of the main factors influencing the AACMM performance. A probe deflect...

  9. Boundaries to the articulation of possible selves through social networking sites: the case of Facebook profilers' social connectedness


    Zwier, S.; T. Araujo; Boukes, M.; Willemsen, L.


    This study aims to contribute to an emerging literature that seeks to understand how identity markers on social networking sites (SNSs) shape interpersonal impressions, and particularly the boundaries that SNSs present for articulating unconstrained 'hoped-for possible selves.' An experiment employing mock-up Facebook profiles was conducted, showing that appearing with friends on a Facebook profile picture as well as increasingly higher number of Facebook friends strengthened perceptions of a...

  10. Comparative study of sub-micrometer polymeric structures: Dot-arrays, linear and crossed gratings generated by UV laser based two-beam interference, as surfaces for SPR and AFM based bio-sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Csete, M. [Department of Optics and Quantum Electronics, University of Szeged, H-6720 Szeged, Dom ter 9 (Hungary)], E-mail:; Sipos, A.; Kohazi-Kis, A.; Szalai, A.; Szekeres, G.; Mathesz, A.; Csako, T.; Osvay, K.; Bor, Zs. [Department of Optics and Quantum Electronics, University of Szeged, H-6720 Szeged, Dom ter 9 (Hungary); Penke, B. [Department of Medical Chemistry, University of Szeged, H-6720 Szeged, Dom ter 9 (Hungary); Deli, M.A.; Veszelka, Sz. [Laboratory of Molecular Neurobiology, Institute of Biophysics, Biological Research Centre of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-6726 Szeged, Temesvari Krt. 62 (Hungary); Schmatulla, A.; Marti, O. [Department of Experimental Physics, University of Ulm, D-89069 Ulm, Albert Einstein Allee 12 (Germany)


    Two-dimensional gratings are generated on poly-carbonate films spin-coated onto thin gold-silver bimetallic layers by two-beam interference method. Sub-micrometer periodic polymer dots and stripes are produced illuminating the poly-carbonate surface by p- and s-polarized beams of a frequency quadrupled Nd:YAG laser, and crossed gratings are generated by rotating the substrates between two sequential treatments. It is shown by pulsed force mode atomic force microscopy that the mean value of the adhesion is enhanced on the dot-arrays and on the crossed gratings. The grating-coupling on the two-dimensional structures results in double peaks on the angle dependent resonance curves of the surface plasmons excited by frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser. The comparison of the resonance curves proves that a surface profile ensuring minimal undirected scattering is required to optimize the grating-coupling, in addition to the minimal modulation amplitude, and to the optimal azimuthal orientation. The secondary minima are the narrowest in presence of linear gratings on multi-layers having optimized composition, and on crossed structures consisting of appropriately oriented polymer stripes. The large coupling efficiency and adhesion result in high detection sensitivity on the crossed gratings. Bio-sensing is realized by monitoring the rotated-crossed grating-coupled surface plasmon resonance curves, and detecting the chemical heterogeneity by tapping-mode atomic force microscopy. The interaction of Amyloid-{beta} peptide, a pathogenetic factor in Alzheimer disease, with therapeutical molecules is demonstrated.

  11. Analysis of causes and consequences of the lesions on the articulation of knees in athletes of collective sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Roberto Adriano Prati


    Full Text Available The present study was characterized as a descriptive research whose aim was to analyze the causes and consequences of lesions on the articulation of knees in athletes of collective sports. Specifically, this study aimed at: identifying the lesions on the knee articulation and causes; verifying the physiological and anatomical consequences. The sample studied was composed by forty-eight athletes of basketball, volleyball, soccer and handball, who presented a number of lesions on knee articulation which happened during sports practice. As a measuring instrument questionnaires were used. The data collecting was done at physiotherapeutic and orthopedic clinics of Maringá (Ortofísio, Fisiomed, Ortotrauma and during the 1994 Parana Open Games. The results showed the following conclusions: the lesions with greater incidence on knees were the ligaments lesions and the meniscus lesions. The lower incidence was found on the tendons lesions. The main causes were of traumatic origin (47% and overburden causes (34%. As consequences of these traumas it was verified that 42% of the athletes presented limitations on their movements and 48% had undergone surgical treatment.

  12. CubeSat Power Management Controller and Solar Array Articulation System Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The CubeSat platform represents a valuable architecture from which to develop satellite capabilities, payloads and technologies. However, CubeSat spacecraft must be...

  13. The Difference Safe Spaces Make

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendric Coleman


    Full Text Available In the last decade, lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT students have become very visible at Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs, but this visibility is not reflected in some colleges’ student programs and activities. Only a few notable HBCUs, such as Howard University and Spelman College, have made a concerted effort. Acknowledging that the LGBT community is significant and exists, and fostering such support, comes up against a steep wall of religious tradition and doctrines, and conservative administrations. It is imperative that HBCUs address LGBT issues and create and support a safe space for students to articulate their identity. Meanwhile, many LGBT students on these campuses find voice and understanding in Black scholars and writers such as Audre Lorde’s Zami: A New Spelling of My Name and Charles Michael Smith’s Fighting Words: Personal Essays by Black Gay Men.

  14. The Parameters of Common Information Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossen, Claus


    The paper proposes a refinement of the concept of 'Common Information Spaces' (CIS), which has been proposed as a conceptual framework for the CWCW field in order to provide analyses of cooperative work. The refinement is developed through an introductory discussion of previous analyses of CIS...... and on the basis of a thorough description of the CIS of a hospital ward based on ethnographic fieldwork. The initially definition is refined by the introduction of 7 parameters: (i) the degree of distribution of work; (ii) the multiplicity of webs of significance; (iii) the level of required articulation work...

  15. Orbit lifetime characteristics for Space Station (United States)

    Deryder, L.; Kelly, G. M.; Heck, M.

    The factors that influence the orbital lifetime characteristics of the NASA Space Station are discussed. These include altitude, attitude, launch date, ballistic coefficient, and the presence of large articulating solar arrays. Examples from previous program systems studies are presented that illustrate how each factor affects Station orbit lifetime. The effect of atmospheric density models on orbit lifetime predictions is addressed along with the uncertainty of these predictions using current trajectory analysis of the Long Duration Exposure Facility spacecraft. Finally, nominal reboost altitude profiles and fuel requirement considerations are presented for implementing a reboost strategy based on planned Shuttle Orbiter rendezvous strategy and contingency considerations.

  16. Comparison of metal ion concentrations and implant survival after total hip arthroplasty with metal-on-metal versus metal-on-polyethylene articulations


    Dahlstrand, Henrik; Stark, André; Wick, Marius C; Anissian, Lucas; Hailer, Nils P; Weiss, Rüdiger J


    Background and purpose Large metal-on-metal (MoM) articulations are associated with metal wear and corrosion, leading to increased metal ion concentrations and unacceptable revision rates. There are few comparative studies of 28-mm MoM articulations with conventional metal-on-polyethylene (MoP) couplings. We present a long-term follow-up of a randomized controlled trial comparing MoM versus MoP 28-mm articulations, focused on metal ions and implant survival. Patients and methods 85 patients w...

  17. Learning landscapes in higher education: clearing pathways, making spaces, involving academics in the leadership, governance and management of academic spaces in higher education


    Neary, Mike; Harrison, Andrew; Crelin, Giles; Parekh, Nayan; Saunders, Gary; Duggan, Fiona; Williams, Sam; Austin, Simon


    Learning Landscapes in Higher Education is a UK-wide research project, looking at the ways in which academics work with colleagues in estates and other key stakeholders to develop and manage innovative teaching and learning spaces in higher education. The purpose of the project has been to suggest ways in which the academic voice can be more fully articulated within the decision making processes at all levels of the design and development of teaching and learning spaces. The project has been ...

  18. [Mechanisms of articulation between the informal and the formal urban sectors]. (United States)

    Lomnitz, L


    This article utilizes field data from Mexico City squatter settlements and personal interviews with employers to analyze some aspects of social relations between the informal sector and the formal urban sector, and compares the results with findings of other anthropologists in Mexico and elsewhere to derive a series of theoretical generalizations concerning mechanisms of articulation between the marginal sector and the formal economic and political institutions of the society. The formal sector is postulated to consist of the 3 subsectors of power, capital, and labor, which are in permanent conflict among themselves but all of which enjoy labor security and an assured minimal level of income. The marginal or informal sector lacks employment security, a minimal income level, and bargaining power. It is characterized by a small scale economy utilizing intensive familial labor. The informal sector is marginal to the dominant industrial system of production and the state apparatus, although it fulfills functions in terms of the national economy. 2 types of relationships may be distinguished in the social organization of the marginal sector: reciprocal relations between equals which form a network for the exchange of goods and services, or patron/client relations which are used, for example, in the case of petty entrepreneurs utilizing their relatives and acquaintances to create units of production. The functions of reciprocal relations are affected by social, physical, economic, and psychosocial distance or proximity and may result in exchanges of information, labor assistance, loans, services, or moral support. Patron/client relations may be direct, or the "patron" may be an intermediary. Some reciprocal networks display a pattern of incipient asymmetry leading to formation of true patron/client ties and some petty entrepreneurs or intermediaries manage to develop true patron/client networks; case histories are used to illustrate both phenomena. Intermediaries

  19. An examination of curriculum articulation in Wisconsin high school and post-secondary introductory biology courses (United States)

    Biessman, Jeffrey B.

    This study examined survey responses and interviews from introductory biology instructors from Wisconsin Public Schools and the University of Wisconsin System campuses about their enacted curriculum. The study contributes to the research literature on articulation by providing an analysis of what content is taught and what the similarities and differences are between content and cognitive load in Wisconsin public high schools and University of Wisconsin System introductory biology courses. This study used a version of the Survey of Enacted Curriculum developed by Porter and Smithson (2001). The Survey of Enacted Curriculum is a multiple-choice survey that examines whether an instructor teaches a given topic, how much time they spend on the topic, and the cognitive load demanded of the student while studying the topic (Porter and Smithson, 2001). The instrument allowed for the development of curriculum content "maps" which provided graphic representation of the level of curriculum alignment high school and University of Wisconsin System Introductory Biology classes. Although the survey and interview data were too small to allow for conclusions that could be generalized to the entire state of Wisconsin, this study does suggests that the curricula of the Introductory Biology classes is very similar between the Wisconsin public high school and the University of Wisconsin System Introductory Biology classes. This similarity of curriculum seems to be maintained without a significant amount of contact between university instructors and high school teachers. This study suggests that the curricular alignment is maintained through the use of textbooks and through the mechanism of "you teach what you are taught". Ironically this alignment and its maintenance may not be what is truly desirable. The university faculty interviews suggest that more emphasis may be needed in the areas of critical thinking skills. If this it true it may mean that all instructors along with textbook

  20. An electromyographic and kinematic comparison between an extendable conveyor system and an articulating belt conveyor used for truck loading and unloading tasks. (United States)

    Lavender, Steven A; Nagavarapu, Shasank; Allread, W Gary


    Many retail distribution centers (DCs) manually load and unload boxes into or out of trailers and shipping containers. This study investigated whether an articulating belt conveyor with a height adjustable platform, positioned at the end of an extendable conveyor, significantly reduces shoulder and back muscle loading and the spine kinematics associated with these tasks. Electromyographic and kinematic data were collected from eight volunteer employees as trailers at a shoe DC were unloaded and from nine volunteer employees as trailers at an apparel DC were loaded. Participants in this repeated measures study handled boxes with a conventional powered extendable conveyor system and with the articulating belt conveyor positioned at the end of the extendable conveyor. Bilaterally the normalized activation levels of the erector spinae and anterior deltoid muscles were reduced when loading and unloading boxes with the articulating belt conveyor. Spine movement speeds were also reduced with the articulating conveyor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. How can urban mobilities design imaginaries articulate ‘matters of concern’?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lanng, Ditte Bendix; Wind, Simon; Nielsen, Hannah Dræby

    areas. The studio locks horns with this contested situation. It relates to a debate about how larger infrastructural projects can perform as more than mono-functional spaces and imagines a bridge structure that enables a series of spaces and functions. The densification of the inner city and the demand...... for better mobilities in the regional and local scale create the potential for a state-of-the-art project that offers attractive urban environment where public and ecosystem services, culture, mobility and housing are included in long-term sustainable solutions for the city. This studio is used as a case...

  2. Sacred Space. (United States)

    Adelstein, Pamela


    A space can be sacred, providing those who inhabit a particular space with sense of transcendence-being connected to something greater than oneself. The sacredness may be inherent in the space, as for a religious institution or a serene place outdoors. Alternatively, a space may be made sacred by the people within it and events that occur there. As medical providers, we have the opportunity to create sacred space in our examination rooms and with our patient interactions. This sacred space can be healing to our patients and can bring us providers opportunities for increased connection, joy, and gratitude in our daily work.

  3. Open Spaces, Public Spaces, Publics, Open-minded Places

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Bravo


    Full Text Available In 1993 a double issue of the international architectural review (published in Italy “Casabella” was dedicated to “The design of open spaces”. Different positions and scholars and diverse point of views explored this complex theme, trying to explain the reasons, the modes and the possibilities of a new strategy in design research and practice. The starting point was the very term “open space”, which doesn’t belong to the classical vocabulary of architectural theory, with no reference to modern town planning manuals.Nowadays the difference between “open space”, as indicated in regulations of urban city spaces, and “public space” has found new declensions related to public life of groups or individuals, taking place in consolidated environments as well as in peripheral areas or in residual spaces up to edge cities, able to give values and functions to neglected or abandoned places. Next to public meeting spaces, such as large congress hall, fair precincts, political or cultural events, shopping centers, and to waiting spaces, such as offices, public institutions, underground stations, airports, many public spaces do not have an architectural connotation: life can be found at the corner of two suburban roads, where spontaneous conversation or some kind of special event slowly starts to layer, indicating a kind of rituality, or in anonymous suburban places where minority ethnic or immigrant groups gather, becoming places of solidarity and sharing. All these expressions, as already Vittorio Gregotti pointed out in his introductory essay on Casabella, articulate in a new way the demands for public space and for its architectural definition.

  4. The articulation of Mexico into the dynamics of competition of the North American natural gas market; L'articulation du Mexique dans la dynamique concurrentielle du marche nord-americain du gaz naturel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elizalde Baltierra, A


    Deregulation is at the origin of the new dynamics of competition in the natural gas industry. The United States and Canada were the pioneer countries to suffer these changes. In fact, their natural gas markets today function in a very similar way: i) the private sector takes a place as large as possible, and ii)competition is developed within the three segments of the gas value, especially at the upstream level (emergence of hubs, spot and financial markets,...). In Mexico, its downstream gas activities (transportation, storage and distribution) were liberalized in 1995 in order to attract private investments and to develop the gas sector that has historically been operated under State control. Gas upstream operations remain reserved by the Constitution to the national oil company Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX). This thesis develops an evaluation framework of the articulation of Mexico into the dynamics of competition of the North American natural gas market, based on the structure-conduct-performance paradigm. In the first part, all North American's natural gas industries base conditions are analyzed. We examine in the second part, the deregulation and articulation of the dynamics of competition of the American and Canadian gas industries. Finally, in the third part we analyze the main elements of the articulation of Mexico into the dynamics of competition of United States and Canada's gas industries. Furthermore, we evaluate the impact of three of these elements (the economic growth, the electric power generation sector and eventually opening to private investments of gas upstream activities) on the adjustment of gas supply and demand in Mexico to the year 2020. (author)

  5. Syllabic tone articulation influences the identification and use of words during Chinese sentence reading: Evidence from ERP and eye movement recordings. (United States)

    Luo, Yingyi; Yan, Ming; Yan, Shaorong; Zhou, Xiaolin; Inhoff, Albrecht W


    In two experiments, we examined the contribution of articulation-specific features to visual word recognition during the reading of Chinese. In spoken Standard Chinese, a syllable with a full tone can be tone-neutralized through sound weakening and pitch contour change, and there are two types of two-character compound words with respect to their articulation variation. One type requires articulation of a full tone for each constituent character, and the other requires a full- and a neutral-tone articulation for the first and second characters, respectively. Words of these two types with identical first characters were selected and embedded in sentences. Native speakers of Standard Chinese were recruited to read the sentences. In Experiment 1, the individual words of a sentence were presented serially at a fixed pace while event-related potentials were recorded. This resulted in less-negative N100 and anterior N250 amplitudes and in more-negative N400 amplitudes when targets contained a neutral tone. Complete sentences were visible in Experiment 2, and eye movements were recorded while participants read. Analyses of oculomotor activity revealed shorter viewing durations and fewer refixations on-and fewer regressive saccades to-target words when their second syllable was articulated with a neutral rather than a full tone. Together, the results indicate that readers represent articulation-specific word properties, that these representations are routinely activated early during the silent reading of Chinese sentences, and that the representations are also used during later stages of word processing.

  6. Space Curves

    CERN Document Server

    Peskine, Christian; Sernesi, Edoardo


    The main topics of the conference on "Curves in Projective Space" were good and bad families of projective curves, postulation of projective space curves and classical problems in enumerative geometry.

  7. Space Microbiology


    Horneck, Gerda; Klaus, David M.; Mancinelli, Rocco L


    Summary: The responses of microorganisms (viruses, bacterial cells, bacterial and fungal spores, and lichens) to selected factors of space (microgravity, galactic cosmic radiation, solar UV radiation, and space vacuum) were determined in space and laboratory simulation experiments. In general, microorganisms tend to thrive in the space flight environment in terms of enhanced growth parameters and a demonstrated ability to proliferate in the presence of normally inhibitory levels of antibiotic...

  8. The Bakayat SpokenText Tradition The Articulation of Religious Value and Social Discourse of Sasak Community in Lombok

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Made Suyasa


    Full Text Available This study explored the bakayat spoken-text tradition of the Sasak people in Lombok. The tradition was used as media for preaching on Islamic day, customs and ceremonies, as well as appreciating the folk literature. Malay literary texts that contained religious values were articulated continuously in various social discourses by the community that owned this tradition. The impact of the globalization and the inclusion of various Islamic doctrines in Lombok have threatened the existence of the bakayat tradition and now most Sasak people especially the younger ones are not interested in this tradition. The background explained above has become the main reason why this study was conducted. Moreover, there were still a few studies which had investigated the bakayat tradition in-depth. This present study was focused on the history, structure, function, meaning, and articulation of the religious values and social discourse of the bakayat tradition bySasak people. This research used the descriptive analytical method. The data were analyzed using the interpretive qualitative method. The theories used in this study were the theory narratology proposed by Gerard Genette (1986, the theory of articulation proposed by Stuart Hall (1986, the theory of functions, and the theory of semiotics. The results of this study showed that the historical development ofthe Sasakbakayat tradition was characterized by the emergence of Islam in Lombok. It significantly contributed to the existence of bakayat. It was followed by the Islamic Malay literature which was used as the reading material in the bakayat tradition and the media for learning Islam. The historical development of the bakayat Sasak was explained in various aspects such as religious, cultural, political, and social aspects. The structure of the bakayat text was a form of the articulation in spoken style which involved the characteristics of the

  9. Koszul spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berglund, Alexander


    We prove that a nilpotent space is both formal and coformal if and only if it is rationally homotopy equivalent to the derived spatial realization of a graded commutative Koszul algebra. We call such spaces Koszul spaces and show that the rational homotopy groups and the rational homology of iter...

  10. Space administration


    Worthington, Scott; Worthington, Scott


    My dissertation consists of two parts. The larger portion is an hour-long piece for double bass, electronics, and projected text called Space Administration. The second portion, this essay, discusses my musical background leading up to Space Administration, details of the composition itself, and what new directions I see in my work that in part stem from creating the piece Space Administration

  11. Ocean Literacy from kindergarten to secondary school: a vertically articulated curriculum on marine micro-plastics (United States)

    Realdon, Giulia; Candussio, Giuliana; Manià, Marinella; Palamin, Serenella


    Marine micro-plastics are a relatively recent issue in research (Thompson et al. 2004), in the media and in education and, due to novelty and relevance, they are a suitable topic for addressing Ocean Literacy within science teaching to different age groups. In fact marine micro-plastics can be used to introduce Ocean Literacy and environmental science, but also traditional science subjects like biology, chemistry and Earth science, with a system approach focused on "understanding the Ocean's influence on humans and human influence on the Ocean". Inspired by the growing public interest for marine micro-plastics and by the lack of specific teaching activities in our country (Italy), we developed a vertically articulated curriculum on micro-plastics for students aged 5-15 years. Our proposal is based on a number of practical activities realized with different language and communication styles to be suitable for different age groups. For younger students (age 5-7) we use drama to address micro-plastics bioaccumulation in marine food chains: children act as fish of different trophic levels who pretend to "eat" micro-plastics models (built from plastic bottles) until the biggest fish is captured and ends up as a "meal" shared by other pupils. Teachers guide the performance and stimulate observations and remarks about the origin of micro-plastics and the correct management of plastic objects. The performance has been documented in a video and presented in a national teacher workshop (3 Giorni per la Scuola, Napoli 2015). For students aged 8-13 we propose observation and manipulation of common household plastic objects, followed by physical/chemical testing of different polymers to understand plastics characteristics that make these materials valuable but troublesome at the same time. Students then observe sand samples, taken from a local beach, containing natural components and man-made fragments (including micro-plastics), so they can directly experience the fate of

  12. Effect of a single-channel wide dynamic range compression circuit on perception of stop consonant place of articulation. (United States)

    Hedrick, M S; Rice, T


    Previous studies have shown that altering the amplitude of a consonant in a specific frequency region relative to an adjacent vowel's amplitude in the same frequency region will affect listeners' perception of the consonant place of articulation. Hearing aids with single-channel, fast-acting wide dynamic range compression (WDRC) alter the overall consonant-vowel (CV) intensity ratio by increasing consonant energy. Perhaps one reason WDRC has had limited success in improving speech recognition performance is that the natural amplitude balances between consonant and vowel are altered in crucial frequency regions, thus disturbing the aforementioned amplitude cue for determining place of articulation. The current study investigated the effect of a WDRC circuit on listeners' perception of place of articulation when the relative amplitude of consonant and vowel was manipulated. The stimuli were a continuum of synthetic CV syllables stripped of all place cues except relative consonant amplitudes. Acoustic analysis of the CVs before and after hearing aid processing showed a predictable increase in high-frequency energy, particularly for the burst of the consonant. Alveolar bursts had more high-frequency energy than labial bursts. Twenty-five listeners with normal hearing and 5 listeners with sensorineural hearing loss labeled the consonant sound of the CV syllables in unaided form and after the syllables were recorded through a hearing aid with single-channel WDRC. There were significantly more listeners who were unable to produce a category boundary when labeling the aided stimuli. Of those listeners who did yield a category boundary for both aided and unaided stimuli, there were significantly more alveolar responses for the aided condition. These results can be explained by the acoustic analyses of the aided stimuli.

  13. On Interlayer Stability and High-Cycle Simulator Performance of Diamond-Like Carbon Layers for Articulating Joint Replacements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Thorwarth


    Full Text Available Diamond like carbon (DLC coatings have been proven to be an excellent choice for wear reduction in many technical applications. However, for successful adaption to the orthopaedic field, layer performance, stability and adhesion in physiologically relevant setups are crucial and not consistently investigated. In vitro wear testing as well as adequate corrosion tests of interfaces and interlayers are of great importance to verify the long term stability of DLC coated load bearing implants in the human body. DLC coatings were deposited on articulating lumbar spinal disks made of CoCr28Mo6 biomedical implant alloy using a plasma-activated chemical vapor deposition (PACVD process. As an adhesion promoting interlayer, tantalum films were deposited by magnetron sputtering. Wear tests of coated and uncoated implants were performed in physiological solution up to a maximum of 101 million articulation cycles with an amplitude of ±2° and −3/+6° in successive intervals at a preload of 1200 N. The implants were characterized by gravimetry, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES and cross section scanning electron microscopy (SEM analysis. It is shown that DLC coated surfaces with uncontaminated tantalum interlayers perform very well and no corrosive or mechanical failure could be observed. This also holds true in tests featuring overload and third-body wear by cortical bone chips present in the bearing pairs. Regarding the interlayer tolerance towards interlayer contamination (oxygen, limits for initiation of potential failure modes were established. It was found that mechanical failure is the most critical aspect and this mode is hypothetically linked to the α-β tantalum phase switch induced by increasing oxygen levels as observed by X-ray diffraction (XRD. It is concluded that DLC coatings are a feasible candidate for near zero wear articulations on implants, potentially even surpassing the performance of ceramic vs

  14. On interlayer stability and high-cycle simulator performance of diamond-like carbon layers for articulating joint replacements. (United States)

    Thorwarth, Kerstin; Thorwarth, Götz; Figi, Renato; Weisse, Bernhard; Stiefel, Michael; Hauert, Roland


    Diamond like carbon (DLC) coatings have been proven to be an excellent choice for wear reduction in many technical applications. However, for successful adaption to the orthopaedic field, layer performance, stability and adhesion in physiologically relevant setups are crucial and not consistently investigated. In vitro wear testing as well as adequate corrosion tests of interfaces and interlayers are of great importance to verify the long term stability of DLC coated load bearing implants in the human body. DLC coatings were deposited on articulating lumbar spinal disks made of CoCr28Mo6 biomedical implant alloy using a plasma-activated chemical vapor deposition (PACVD) process. As an adhesion promoting interlayer, tantalum films were deposited by magnetron sputtering. Wear tests of coated and uncoated implants were performed in physiological solution up to a maximum of 101 million articulation cycles with an amplitude of ±2° and -3/+6° in successive intervals at a preload of 1200 N. The implants were characterized by gravimetry, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and cross section scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. It is shown that DLC coated surfaces with uncontaminated tantalum interlayers perform very well and no corrosive or mechanical failure could be observed. This also holds true in tests featuring overload and third-body wear by cortical bone chips present in the bearing pairs. Regarding the interlayer tolerance towards interlayer contamination (oxygen), limits for initiation of potential failure modes were established. It was found that mechanical failure is the most critical aspect and this mode is hypothetically linked to the α-β tantalum phase switch induced by increasing oxygen levels as observed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). It is concluded that DLC coatings are a feasible candidate for near zero wear articulations on implants, potentially even surpassing the performance of ceramic vs. ceramic.

  15. Articulating the history and major departure points evident in post-apartheid South African national water policy and law (United States)

    Chikozho, C.; Danga, L.; Saruchera, D.


    Governance of the water sector in South Africa has reflected the political changes taking place in society. For instance, due to apartheid policies of segregation, inequality of access to water resources marks South Africa's history in a very profound way and redistribution of rights to water to redress the results of past discrimination became an explicit purpose of the post-apartheid water governance policy and legislative regime. In this paper, we articulate the history and major departure points evident in post-apartheid South African national water policy and law. This includes documenting and reflecting on most of the available information that shows how the new water policy and law were developed. Findings from the study show that the key players active in the water law review process deliberately took into account the political goals and dynamics of power asymmetry within which the law was being articulated. Therefore, the water law as it stands today and in the past must be understood within the context of the socio-economic and political landscape that has prevailed in South Africa at different historical junctures. We contend that a detailed examination and articulation of the history and major departure points evident in post-apartheid South African national water policy and law enables practitioners and scholars to better understand the main motivations behind the water sector reforms and the then prevailing thinking behind the policy and legislation eventually promulgated. The present water law must be understood in the context of these reforms and the objectives they sought to achieve.

  16. Reduction of genu recurvatum through adjustment of plantarflexion resistance of an articulated ankle-foot orthosis in individuals post stroke (United States)

    Kobayashi, Toshiki; Orendurff, Michael S.; Singer, Madeline L.; Gao, Fan; Daly, Wayne K.; Foreman, K. Bo


    Background Genu recurvatum (knee hyperextension) is a common issue for individuals post stroke. Ankle-foot orthoses are used to improve genu recurvatum, but evidence is limited concerning their effectiveness. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of changing the plantarflexion resistance of an articulated ankle-foot orthosis on genu recurvatum in patients post stroke. Methods Gait analysis was performed on 6 individuals post stroke with genu recurvatum using an articulated ankle-foot orthosis whose plantarflexion resistance was adjustable at four levels. Gait data were collected using a Bertec split-belt instrumented treadmill in a 3-dimensional motion analysis laboratory. Gait parameters were extracted and plotted for each subject under the four plantarflexion resistance conditions of the ankle-foot orthosis. Gait parameters included: a) peak ankle plantarflexion angle, b) peak ankle dorsiflexion moment, c) peak knee extension angle and d) peak knee flexion moment. A non-parametric Friedman test was performed followed by a post-hoc Wilcoxon Signed-Rank test for statistical analyses. Findings All the gait parameters demonstrated statistically significant differences among the four resistance conditions of the AFO. Increasing the amount of plantarflexion resistance of the ankle-foot orthosis generally reduced genu recurvatum in all subjects. However, individual analyses showed that the responses to the changes in the plantarflexion resistance of the AFO were not necessarily linear, and appear unique to each subject. Interpretations The plantarflexion resistance of an articulated AFO should be adjusted to improve genu recurvatum in patients post stroke. Future studies should investigate what clinical factors would influence the individual differences. PMID:27136122

  17. On the Power of Music: Using 'Cosmos' and 'Anthropos' to Articulate a Holistic Approach to Discussing the Power of Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian R. Cates


    Full Text Available Music is an experience that is universal to all of mankind, no matter one’s race, gender, culture, or socioeconomic status. Whether it’s beholding one of Mahler’s symphonies in Carnegie Hall or listening to the “No. 1 Top Single” on iTunes using headphones, one truth is evident: music moves. The statement “music moves” inherently possesses an implication of the 'cosmic' and the 'anthropic’ nature of music – a holistic union of both mystery and humanity. This one truth has been the subject of an ongoing 2,000 year-old discussion that attempts to articulate the powerful reaction that results from experiencing music in all forms, beginning with the ancient Greeks of antiquity who possessed a cosmologically-grounded explanation to the power of music. However, as time moved forward, this cosmological, mysterious paradigm of the power of music slowly began to incorporate explainable and tangible anthropological articulations of the power of the music with respect to the human emotions, senses, and thoughts. This incorporation of anthropos reached a climax in the Renaissance era with the ushering in of humanism, which stripped away the mysterious and replaced the cosmologically-grounded explanation of music with the anthropologically-grounded view of naturalism. Since this profound departure from cosmos, society seems to be at a loss in articulating accurate reactions to music. This paper offers two proposals with respect to musical thought, one for society at large and one for the individual. I assert in this paper that society, in general, needs to return to an appreciation of the cosmos, the answerable, and the mysterious in nature, and that the individual needs to commence thinking holistically with respect to music—incorporating both cosmic and anthropic thought. I have reached my conclusions, assertions, and propositions based on this thesis by critically analyzing both primary and secondary resources in the form of the

  18. A miniature specimen mechanical testing technique scaled to articulating surface of polyethylene components for total joint arthroplasty. (United States)

    Kurtz, S M; Jewett, C W; Foulds, J R; Edidin, A A


    The small punch test was developed to investigate the mechanical behavior of polyethylene using miniature specimens (small punch test when applied to clinically relevant polyethylenes. Mechanical behavior was characterized during 66 tests performed on GUR4150HP and GUR4120 specimens following alternate sterilization methods and 4 weeks of accelerated aging at 80 degrees C. The small punch test was found to be highly reproducible with regard to characterizing the ductility, ultimate strength, and fracture resistance of sterilized and aged polyethylene. In the future, the small punch test can be used to directly measure mechanical properties near the articulating surface of retrieved components.

  19. The articulation of voices in two film projects about violence – The Act of Killing and Gzim Rewind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth; Bjerregaard, Mette


    This paper explores two experimental documentary films that present memories of acts of mass violence: The Act of Killing (Denmark, 2012, director Joshua Oppenheimer) about the Indonesian anti-Communist purge in the 1960s and Gzim Rewind (Sweden, 2011, director Knutte Wester) about the fate...... of a boy who fled from Kosovo in the 1990s. Using dialogic theory (Bakhtin, 1981; Phillips, 2011), we analyse the voices that are articulated about past violent events in the films. The focus is on how different voices interrelate in the filmic presentation of mass violence, including victims and killers...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Claudiu ANTAL


    Full Text Available In this project we aimed at the remanufacturing process of a teaching robot with an articulated arm and five degrees of freedom. The ultimate goal of the project is to develop a functional didactic model, programmable and easy to use and understand by other students. In the pursuit of this goal, we will present to you here the first meetings with the industry representatives from Romania and suppliers for various components. The stated purposes of the project show the necessity of: planning a rigorous stage of disassembly and recovery of components, the experience gained outside the normal academic program, rigorous planning for risk, rigorous timetable planning.