WorldWideScience

Sample records for submersible pilots fights

  1. Fighting against spam: The ETIS anti-spam pilot project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulenhoff, P.J.; Kerkdijk, H.; Hut, D.H.; Waard, W.C. de

    2007-01-01

    Unsolicited e-mail, better known as spam, is considered to be one of the largest problems of todays Internet. Some sources claim that up to 90 percent of all e-mail is spam which is a large resource claim on e-mail infrastructures. In this paper we report the results of an anti-spam pilot held

  2. Pilot-scale submersed cultivation of R. microsporus var. oligosporus in thin stillage, a dry-grind corn-to-ethanol co-product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Daniel Thomas

    An innovative process to add value to a corn-to-ethanol co-product, Thin stillage, was studied for pilot-scale viability. A 1500L bioreactor was designed, operated, and optimized to cultivate Rhizopus microsporus var. oligosporus via submersed fermentation in Thin Stillage. The biomass was harvested and processed into a feed suitable for storage and ultimately for animal feeding trials. Characterization of the biomass and feed trials revealed that there is substantial potential as a nutrient dense feed supplement with 41.1% protein, 26.3% fat, and metabolizable energy on s dried basis. The amino acid profile is superior to that of DDGS, with most notably 1.7% Lys on dried basis. This process produces a significantly more nutrient dense product than DDGS, and could increase water-reclaimation in a dry-grind corn to ethanol plant. Industrially it would replace the energy intensive process of converting thin stillage into syrup that adds only $10-25/ton to DDG, while maintaining production of DDG. Using thin stillage as used a growth media for R. microsporus var. oligosporus, should not only lead to saving in energy costs, but also generate a high-value co-product which could lead to economic gains. Also there is still unexplored potential of enzymes, chitin, and co-culturing to further add value.

  3. Manned submersible „JAGO“

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Hissmann

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The manned submersible „JAGO“ is a human occupied underwater vehicle (HOV designed for personal exploration and research in all types of aquatic systems and habitats. The seafloor along the continental shelf and slopes within the ocean twilight zone is JAGO’s main target area. The DNV-GL classed 2-person submersible has a maximum operating depth of 400 m. The two occupants, the pilot and one observer, are seated at 1 Atmosphere in a steel pressure hull with two large acrylic windows. The submersible’s small size and lightweight construction (3 T allows worldwide operations from on board a wide variety of vessels as well as transport in a single standard 20-foot container together with all support equipment. Typical applications include personal observation of the sea bed and water column, video and photo documentation, selective non-intrusive sampling, placement of sensors and experiments, underwater inspection, as well as location and recovery of objects

  4. Submersion and acute respiratory failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Jang Su

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Submersion patients who are hypothermic on arrival of emergency department (ED are risky to respiratory failure and older, more hypothermic, longer hospital stay in suicidal submersion patients.

  5. Fight Club

    OpenAIRE

    Kukanakanthan, Janarthane; Boesen, Malthe Gejl; Frederiksen, Jonas Kaj Erik Rønnekilde; Jakobsen, Jonathan Nøhr; Knudsen, Mads Bruun; Staugaard, Malene Lund

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to study the book Fight Club by Chuck Palahniuk and the movie Fight Club directed by David Fincher, and to comparatively analyze the two works. The goal was to find and examine themes and theories within Fight Club with a comparative aspect in finding divergent parts of the works. What became evident throughout our study is society’s role in Fight Club being marginally larger than first expected, and thus this became our focal point. We then studied works by ...

  6. Riemannian submersions and related topics

    CERN Document Server

    Falcitelli, Maria; Pastore, Anna Maria

    2004-01-01

    This book provides the first-ever systematic introduction to thetheory of Riemannian submersions, which was initiated by BarrettO''Neill and Alfred Gray less than four decades ago. The authorsfocus their attention on classification theorems when the total spaceand the fibres have nice geometric properties.

  7. Submersible Generator for Marine Hydrokinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cinq-Mars, Robert S; Burke, Timothy; Irish, James; Gustafson, Brian; Kirtley, James; Alawa, Aiman

    2011-09-01

    A submersible generator was designed as a distinct and critical subassembly of marine hydrokinetics systems, specifically tidal and stream energy conversion. The generator is designed to work with both vertical and horizontal axis turbines. The final product is a high-pole-count, radial-flux, permanent magnet, rim mounted generator, initially rated at twenty kilowatts in a two-meter-per-second flow, and designed to leverage established and simple manufacturing processes. The generator was designed to work with a 3 meter by 7 meter Gorlov Helical Turbine or a marine hydrokinetic version of the FloDesign wind turbine. The team consisted of experienced motor/generator design engineers with cooperation from major US component suppliers (magnetics, coil winding and electrical steel laminations). Support for this effort was provided by Lucid Energy Technologies and FloDesign, Inc. The following tasks were completed: Identified the conditions and requirements for MHK generators. Defined a methodology for sizing and rating MHK systems. Selected an MHK generator topology and form factor. Completed electromechanical design of submersible generator capable of coupling to multiple turbine styles. Investigated MHK generator manufacturing requirements. Reviewed cost implications and financial viability. Completed final reporting and deliverables

  8. Fighting Windmills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Urs Steiner; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2004-01-01

    the environmentalists) demand changes in behaviour on moral grounds. In contrast, the Bootleggers (the producers of renewable energy), who profit from the very regulation, keep a low profile. The actual heavy subsidisation of renewable energy sources, such as wind energy, can be viewed as a successful policy outcome...... to be just as tough as fighting windmills and needs to be addressed in future and more rigorous empirical research. At the end of the day, transparent incentives of relevant stakeholders in the climate change issue are necessary preconditions for progress in the climate change negotiations....... of environmentalists and industrialists successfully lobbied the US Congress. More strict technology-based standards for new emitting sources than for existing sources was the resulting policy outcome serving the common interest of the coalition because it offered both a barrier to entry for new firms and improved...

  9. The Submersible Threat to Maritime Homeland Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    research would be how the HSE could possibly utilize small submersibles to enhance HS through such activities as using remotely operated subs to conduct...1 C. RESEARCH QUESTION AND METHODOLOGY ...................................4 D. SIGNIFICANCE TO THE FIELD...Technology ...................................................66 C. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH .............................68 D. CONCLUSION

  10. Cock-fighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lech, Marcel Lysgaard

    2018-01-01

    That Cock-fighting was extremely popular the ancient Greece, is clearly showed by the numerous depictions on vases and its symbolic and metaphorical range among the language of the Athenians. Greek comedy exploits and expands the metaphorical use of cock-fighting in both the linguistic and the pe...

  11. Fighting the Drug War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Journal of State Government, 1990

    1990-01-01

    All nine articles in this periodical issue focus on the theme of the war against illegal drug use, approaching the topic from a variety of perspectives. The articles are: "The Drug War: Meeting the Challenge" (Stanley E. Morris); "Ways to Fight Drug Abuse" (Bruce A. Feldman); "Treatment Key to Fighting Drugs" (Stan…

  12. Fighting Spam And Winning

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBose, Cornelius B.

    2004-01-01

    E-mail has become a significant means of communication between teachers, students, parents and administrators in many school systems. The increasing amount of SPAM e-mail threatens to overload school email systems. The experience of Lake Forest, IL School District #67 in fighting e-mail spam is described. Spam basics, spam fighting tools, and…

  13. Cooling devices and methods for use with electric submersible pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jankowski, Todd Andrew; Gamboa, Jose A

    2017-10-25

    Cooling devices for use with electric submersible pump motors include a refrigerator attached to the end of the electric submersible pump motor with the evaporator heat exchanger accepting all or a portion of the heat load from the motor. The cooling device can be a self-contained bolt-on unit, so that minimal design changes to existing motors are required.

  14. Cooling devices and methods for use with electric submersible pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowski, Todd A; Hill, Dallas D

    2014-12-02

    Cooling devices for use with electric submersible pump motors include a refrigerator attached to the end of the electric submersible pump motor with the evaporator heat exchanger accepting all or a portion of the heat load from the motor. The cooling device can be a self-contained bolt-on unit, so that minimal design changes to existing motors are required.

  15. Towards improved management of coastal submersion crises – CRISMA-WAVE solution as an example of CRISMA Framework application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlich Marc

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Coping with various types of natural or man-made hazards the FP7 SECURITY CRISMA project (http://www.crismaproject.eu has designed and developed an experimental software framework allowing building crisis management simulation application. One of the five pilot applications of CRISMA dealing with preparedness to the coastal submersions was developed and implemented using return of experience of the reference Xynthia storm surge event in the Charente Maritime County in France. The paper addresses the generic CRISMA Framework applicability to simulate mitigation effects of a coastal submersion through CRISMA-Wave implementation of a full modelling cycle. The CRISMA-Wave paradigm reflects user needs for simulation of “what-if” scenarios for short and long-term actions and the paper describes in particular its different components : *Simulation of submersion effects at a range of temporal and spatial scales, *Preparedness Planning, *Assessment of impacts depending on scenarios based on options for managing the inundation risks, *Cascading effects and *Evaluation of damages with comparison of submersion defence scenarios based on cost-benefit and multi criteria analysis.

  16. Drink Water, Fight Fat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_165714.html Drink Water, Fight Fat? When you have it in place ... HealthDay News) -- If you choose a glass of water instead of a beer or a sugar-sweetened ...

  17. Submersible purification system for radioactive water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Michael L.; Lewis, Donald R.

    1989-01-01

    A portable, submersible water purification system for use in a pool of water containing radioactive contamination includes a prefilter for filtering particulates from the water. A resin bed is then provided for removal of remaining dissolved, particulate, organic, and colloidal impurities from the prefiltered water. A sterilizer then sterilizes the water. The prefilter and resin bed are suitably contained and are submerged in the pool. The sterilizer is water tight and located at the surface of the pool. The water is circulated from the pool through the prefilter, resin bed, and sterilizer by suitable pump or the like. In the preferred embodiment, the resin bed is contained within a tank which stands on the bottom of the pool and to which a base mounting the prefilter and pump is attached. An inlet for the pump is provided adjacent the bottom of the pool, while the sterilizer and outlet for the system is located adjacent the top of the pool.

  18. Submersible pumping system with heat transfer mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Daniel Francis Alan; Prenger, F. Coyne; Hill, Dallas D; Jankowski, Todd Andrew

    2014-04-15

    A submersible pumping system for downhole use in extracting fluids containing hydrocarbons from a well. In one embodiment, the pumping system comprises a rotary induction motor, a motor casing, one or more pump stages, and a cooling system. The rotary induction motor rotates a shaft about a longitudinal axis of rotation. The motor casing houses the rotary induction motor such that the rotary induction motor is held in fluid isolation from the fluid being extracted. The pump stages are attached to the shaft outside of the motor casing, and are configured to impart fluid being extracted from the well with an increased pressure. The cooling system is disposed at least partially within the motor casing, and transfers heat generated by operation of the rotary induction motor out of the motor casing.

  19. Testing new submersible pumps for proper sizing and reduced costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Toole, W.P.; O' Brien, J.B.

    1989-02-01

    This paper describes an ongoing program to improve overall submersible pump performance by Thums Long Beach Co., acting as contractor for the City of Long Beach, operator of the Long Beach Unit. Thums Long Beach Co. currently operates 700 submersible pump installations located on four manmade islands and one landfill pier location. The program began with spot testing of submersible pumps for Thums' use. It has evolved to 100% pump testing and the stipulation that only pumps with newly manufactured parts are acceptable. The primary goals of this program are to increase well production and to lower lifting costs. Critical to these goals is increasing the average length of run by using accurate pump-performance data to design equipment and by rejecting defective pumps before they are run. Increased production is realized from better designs. Lower lifting costs result from using more efficient pumps and a reduced frequency of pulling submersible equipment.

  20. Testing new submersible pumps for proper sizing and reduced costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Toole, W.P.; O' Brien, J.B.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes an ongoing program to improve overall submersible pump performance by Thums Long Beach Company, acting as Contractor of the City of Long Beach, Operator of the Long Beach Unit. Thums Long Beach Company currently operates 700 submersible pump installations located on four man-made islands and one land fill pier location. The program began with spot testing of submersible pumps for Thums' use. It has evolved to 100 percent pump testing and the stipulation that only pumps with newly manufactured parts are acceptable. The primary goals of this program are to increase well production and lower lifting costs. Critical to these goals is increasing the average length of run by using accurate pump performance data to design equipment and by rejecting defective pumps before they are run. Increased production is realized from better designs. Lower lifting costs result from utilizing higher efficiency pumps and a reduced frequency of pulling submersible equipment.

  1. AWWA E102-17 submersible vertical turbine pumps

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This standard describes minimum requirements for submersible vertical turbine pumps utilizing a discharge column pipe assembly, 5 hp or larger, used in water service, including materials, design, manufacture, inspection, and testing.

  2. Flavonoids Fight Diseases

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 9; Issue 2. Flavonoids Fight Diseases. G Nagendrappa. Article-in-a-Box Volume 9 Issue 2 February 2004 pp 5-5. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/009/02/0005-0005. Author Affiliations.

  3. Fighting malaria without DDT

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Nancy Minogue

    The women are part of a successful Mexican initiative that is fighting malaria on many fronts. Through community involve- ment in control strategies, improved surveillance and treatment, and the use of new household spraying techniques, Mexico has dramatically reduced malaria transmission. In 2001 there were just 4,996 ...

  4. Use of sediment CO2 by submersed rooted plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkel, Anders; Borum, Jens

    2009-01-01

    freshwater plants with different morphology and growth characteristics (Lobelia dortmanna, Lilaeopsis macloviana, Ludwigia repens, Vallisneria americana and Hydrocotyle verticillata) are able to support photosynthesis supplied by uptake of CO2 from the sediment. Methods: Gross photosynthesis was measured......Background and Aims: Submersed plants have different strategies to overcome inorganic carbon limitation. It is generally assumed that only small rosette species (isoetids) are able to utilize the high sediment CO2 availability. The present study examined to what extent five species of submersed......, the shoot to root ratio on an areal basis was the single factor best explaining variability in the importance of sediment CO2. For Ludwigia, diffusion barriers limited uptake or transport from roots to stems and transport from stems to leaves. Conclusions: Submersed plants other than isoetids can utilize...

  5. Fighting status inequalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul; Landes, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    as a theoretical foil for this as compared to a liberal notion of non-interference. The article concludes that there is a prima facie case for incorporating non-dominance into our thinking about public health, but that it needs to go hand in hand with a more traditional liberal ideal of non-interference.......Status inequalities seem to play a fairly big role in creating inequalities in health. This article assumes that there can be good reasons to fight status inequalities in order to reduce inequalities in health. It examines whether the neorepublican ideal of non-dominance does a better job...

  6. Submersible telemetry system downhole unit model for the petroleum industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubtsova, O. O.; Trofimova, E. S.; Ishchenko, A. V.; Cherepanov, A. N.; Danilov, V. Yu.

    2017-09-01

    This article addresses the issue of increasing requirements for the oil industry: the need to develop new wells and control their profitability. The device under consideration (a submersible telemetry system that is capable of measuring well parameters and transferring them via the communication line to the ground based control system) will allow to avoid downtime when it is extracted for indicators check.

  7. Effects of cold stratification, sulphuric acid, submersion in hot and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-07-06

    Jul 6, 2009 ... This study was carried out to determine which pre-treatments should be preferred to overcome dormancy problems of Colutea armena seeds which were collected from three different provenances. Pre-treatments applied to the seeds were submersion in concentrated (98%) sulphuric acid for 30 min,.

  8. Effects of cold stratification, sulphuric acid, submersion in hot and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of cold stratification, sulphuric acid, submersion in hot and tap water pretreatments in the greenhouse and open field conditions on germination of bladder-Senna ... This study was carried out to determine which pre-treatments should be preferred to overcome dormancy problems of Colutea armena seeds which were ...

  9. Submersible microbial fuel cell for electricity production from sewage sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yifeng; Olias, Lola Gonzalez; Kongjan, Prawit

    2010-01-01

    A submersible microbial fuel cell (SMFC) was utilized to treatment of sewage sludge and simultaneous generate electricity. Stable power generation (145±5 mW/m2) was produced continuously from raw sewage sludge for 5.5 days. The corresponding total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) removal efficiency...

  10. Fighting for the family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Maj Hedegaard

    2016-01-01

    ‘relational spaces’ that allow them to preserve intimate relationships despite geographical distances. Besides dealing with the practical responsibilities of everyday life, soldiers’ partners also fight to maintain the sense of closeness associated with normative ideals about family relations and a ‘good......’ family life. The emergence of relational spaces enables soldiers and their families to take part in each other’s everyday lives. However, when the lives of soldiers abroad and family members at home become entangled, these relational spaces also result in the normalization and legitimization......The article explores how military deployment affects the everyday lives of Danish soldiers’ families. By approaching the challenges faced by soldiers and their partners from an anthropological perspective of the family, the article provides new insights into the social consequences of military...

  11. Fighting Asian soybean rust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caspar eLangenbach

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Phakopsora pachyrhizi is a biotrophic fungus provoking Asian soybean rust (SBR disease. SBR poses a major threat to global soybean production. Though several resistance genes provided soybean immunity to certain P. pachyrhizi races, the pathogen swiftly overcame this resistance. Therefore, fungicides are the only current means to control SBR. However, insensitivity to fungicides is soaring in P. pachyrhizi and, therefore, alternative measures are needed for SBR control. In this article, we discuss the different approaches for fighting SBR and their potential, disadvantages, and advantages over other measures. These encompass conventional breeding for SBR resistance, transgenic approaches, exploitation of transcription factors, secondary metabolites, and antimicrobial peptides, RNAi/HIGS, and biocontrol strategies. It seems that an integrating approach exploiting different measures is likely to provide the best possible means for the effective control of SBR.

  12. Issues in offshore platform research - Part 1: Semi-submersibles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, R.; Kim, Tae-Wan; Sha, O. P.; Misra, S. C.

    2010-09-01

    Availability of economic and efficient energy resources is crucial to a nation's development. Because of their low cost and advancement in drilling and exploration technologies, oil and gas based energy systems are the most widely used energy source throughout the world. The inexpensive oil and gas based energy systems are used for everything, i.e., from transportation of goods and people to the harvesting of crops for food. As the energy demand continues to rise, there is strong need for inexpensive energy solutions. An offshore platform is a large structure that is used to house workers and machinery needed to drill wells in the ocean bed, extract oil and/or natural gas, process the produced fluids, and ship or pipe them to shore. Depending on the circumstances, the offshore platform can be fixed (to the ocean floor) or can consist of an artificial island or can float. Semi-submersibles are used for various purposes in offshore and marine engineering, e.g. crane vessels, drilling vessels, tourist vessels, production platforms and accommodation facilities, etc. The challenges of deepwater drilling have further motivated the researchers to design optimum choices for semi-submersibles for a chosen operating depth. In our series of eight papers, we discuss the design and production aspects of all the types of offshore platforms. In the present part I, we present an introduction and critical analysis of semi-submersibles.

  13. Issues in offshore platform research - Part 1: Semi-submersibles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sharma

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Availability of economic and efficient energy resources is crucial to a nation's development. Because of their low cost and advancement in drilling and exploration technologies, oil and gas based energy systems are the most widely used energy source throughout the world. The inexpensive oil and gas based energy systems are used for everything, i.e., from transportation of goods and people to the harvesting of crops for food. As the energy demand continues to rise, there is strong need for inexpensive energy solutions. An offshore platform is a large structure that is used to house workers and machinery needed to drill wells in the ocean bed, extract oil and/or natural gas, process the produced fluids, and ship or pipe them to shore. Depending on the circumstances, the offshore platform can be fixed (to the ocean floor or can consist of an artificial island or can float. Semi-submersibles are used for various purposes in offshore and marine engineering, e.g. crane vessels, drilling vessels, tourist vessels, production platforms and accommodation facilities, etc. The challenges of deepwater drilling have further motivated the researchers to design optimum choices for semi-submersibles for a chosen operating depth. In our series of eight papers, we discuss the design and production aspects of all the types of offshore platforms. In the present part I, we present an introduction and critical analysis of semi-submersibles.

  14. Flood Fighting Products Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — A wave research basin at the ERDC Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory has been modified specifically for testing of temporary, barrier-type, flood fighting products....

  15. Use of sediment CO2 by submersed rooted plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkel, Anders; Borum, Jens

    2009-05-01

    Submersed plants have different strategies to overcome inorganic carbon limitation. It is generally assumed that only small rosette species (isoetids) are able to utilize the high sediment CO(2) availability. The present study examined to what extent five species of submersed freshwater plants with different morphology and growth characteristics (Lobelia dortmanna, Lilaeopsis macloviana, Ludwigia repens, Vallisneria americana and Hydrocotyle verticillata) are able to support photosynthesis supplied by uptake of CO(2) from the sediment. Gross photosynthesis was measured in two-compartment split chambers with low inorganic carbon availability in leaf compartments and variable CO(2) availability (0 to >8 mmol L(-1)) in root compartments. Photosynthetic rates based on root-supplied CO(2) were compared with maximum rates obtained at saturating leaf CO(2) availability, and (14)C experiments were conducted for two species to localize bottlenecks for utilization of sediment CO(2). All species except Hydrocotyle were able to use sediment CO(2), however, with variable efficiency, and with the isoetid, Lobelia, as clearly the most effective and the elodeid, Ludwigia, as the least efficient. At a water column CO(2) concentration in equilibrium with air, Lobelia, Lilaeopsis and Vallisneria covered >75% of their CO(2) requirements by sediment uptake, and sediment CO(2) contributed substantially to photosynthesis at water CO(2) concentrations up to 1000 micromol L(-1). For all species except Ludwigia, the shoot to root ratio on an areal basis was the single factor best explaining variability in the importance of sediment CO(2). For Ludwigia, diffusion barriers limited uptake or transport from roots to stems and transport from stems to leaves. Submersed plants other than isoetids can utilize sediment CO(2), and small and medium sized elodeids with high root to shoot area in particular may benefit substantially from uptake of sediment CO(2) in low alkaline lakes.

  16. Optimization of operating costs in managing electrical submersible pumping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, V. V.; Speranskaya, N. I.

    2017-10-01

    Using the methods of analysis, the task of minimizing the specific operating costs for oil production by submersible ESP units was formalized. The analysis of the multidimensional parameter space of the “ESP-well” system made it possible to isolate the vector of controlled parameters, determine the range of admissible parameters, and also to simplify the problem of finding an extremum up to the three-dimensional case. An application of the method of Lagrange multipliers to the solution of the problem is considered.

  17. Sodium dopants in helium clusters: Structure, equilibrium and submersion kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvo, F. [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire de Physique, Rue de La Piscine, Campus Saint Martin d’Hères, 38000 Grenoble (France)

    2015-12-31

    Alkali impurities bind to helium nanodroplets very differently depending on their size and charge state, large neutral or charged dopants being wetted by the droplet whereas small neutral impurities prefer to reside aside. Using various computational modeling tools such as quantum Monte Carlo and path-integral molecular dynamics simulations, we have revisited some aspects of the physical chemistry of helium droplets interacting with sodium impurities, including the onset of snowball formation in presence of many-body polarization forces, the transition from non-wetted to wetted behavior in larger sodium clusters, and the kinetics of submersion of small dopants after sudden ionization.

  18. Fighting the Last War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harmsen, Peter

    designed to bring about an early decision rather than being bogged down in a costly war of attrition. Among Chinese combatants, cultural references to World War I abounded. One officer described a period of relative peace as reminiscent of All Quiet on the Western Front. A young pilot found inspiration......Today the conflicts of the 1930s are generally seen as preludes to World War II, but for the contemporaries they were late echoes of the Great War. Few could have known that they lived not in the “postwar era” but the “interwar years”, and that an even bigger cataclysm was approaching. The battle...... between Chinese and Japanese forces for Shanghai from August to November 1937 is a case in point. It took place just 19 years after the end of World War I, reflected in a widespread tendency to look at the hostilities in China’s largest city through the prism of the global conflict two decades earlier...

  19. Fluid electrodes for submersible robotics based on dielectric elastomer actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christianson, Caleb; Goldberg, Nathaniel; Cai, Shengqiang; Tolley, Michael T.

    2017-04-01

    Recently, dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs) have gathered interest for soft robotics due to their low cost, light weight, large strain, low power consumption, and high energy density. However, developing reliable, compliant electrodes for DEAs remains an ongoing challenge due to issues with fabrication, uniformity of the conductive layer, and mechanical stiffening of the actuators caused by conductive materials with large Young's moduli. In this work, we present a method for preparing, patterning, and utilizing conductive fluid electrodes. Further, when we submerse the DEAs in a bath containing a conductive fluid connected to ground, the bath serves as a second electrode, obviating the need for depositing a conductive layer to serve as either of the electrodes required of most DEAs. When we apply a positive electrical potential to the conductive fluid in the actuator with respect to ground, the electric field across the dielectric membrane causes charge carriers in the solution to apply an electrostatic force on the membrane, which compresses the membrane and causes the actuator to deform. We have used this process to develop a tethered submersible robot that can swim in a tank of saltwater at a maximum measured speed of 9.2 mm/s. Since saltwater serves as the electrode, we overcome buoyancy issues that may be a challenge for pneumatically actuated soft robots and traditional, rigid robotics. This research opens the door to low-power underwater robots for search and rescue and environmental monitoring applications.

  20. Recent Progress on Submersions: A Survey and New Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Picavet

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a survey about recent progress on submersive morphisms of schemes combined with new results that we prove. They concern the class of quasicompact universally subtrusive morphisms that we introduced about 30 years ago. They are revisited in a recent paper by Rydh, with substantial complements and key results. We use them to show Artin-Tate-like results about the 14th problem of Hilbert, for a base scheme either Noetherian or the spectrum of a valuation domain. We look at faithfully flat morphisms and get “almost” Artin-Tate-like results by considering the Goldman (finite type points of a scheme. Bjorn Poonen recently proved that universally closed morphisms are quasicompact. By introducing incomparable morphisms of schemes, we are able to characterize universally closed surjective morphisms that are either integral or finite. Next we consider pure morphisms of schemes introduced by Mesablishvili. In the quasicompact case, they are universally schematically dominant morphisms. This leads us to a characterization of universally subtrusive morphisms by purity. Some results on the schematically dominant property are given. The paper ends with properties of monomorphisms and topological immersions, a dual notion of submersions.

  1. A Relentless Illness—Fighting Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Current Issue Past Issues A Relentless Illness— Fighting Diabetes Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of Contents For ... the fight to control and cure type 1 diabetes. As international chairman of the Juvenile Diabetes Research ...

  2. Ferocious fighting between male grasshoppers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate D L Umbers

    Full Text Available Contests among individuals over mating opportunities are common across diverse taxa, yet physical conflict is relatively rare. Due to the potentially fatal consequences of physical fighting, most animals employ mechanisms of conflict resolution involving signalling and ritualistic assessment. Here we provide the first evidence of ubiquitous escalated fighting in grasshoppers. The chameleon grasshopper (Kosciuscola tristis is an Australian alpine specialist, in which males engage in highly aggressive combat over ovipositing females. We describe discrete agonistic behaviours including mandible flaring, mounting, grappling, kicking and biting, and their use depending on the individual's role as challenger or defender. We show that male role predicts damage, with challengers being more heavily damaged than males defending females (defenders. Challengers also possess wider mandibles than defenders, but are similar in other metrics of body size. Our data suggest that fights escalate between males matched in body size and that mandibles are used as weapons in this species. This system represents an exciting opportunity for future research into the evolution of costly fighting behaviour in an otherwise placid group.

  3. Juanita Fights the School Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasquez, Gloria

    This book relates the fictional story of Juanita Chavez, a Mexican-American teenager who unjustly faces expulsion from school after fighting with a White student who was spreading rumors about her family. Juanita knows that if she is expelled this will greatly disappoint her parents and shatter her dream of becoming the first one in her family to…

  4. Positioning of semi-submersibles with roll and pitch damping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorensen, A.J. [ABB Industri AS, Oslo (Norway); Strand, J.P. [Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim (Norway). Dept. of Engineering Cybernetics

    1999-07-01

    Dynamic positioning and thruster assisted position mooring of ships and floating marine constructions include different control functions for automatic positioning in the horizontal plane. A three degrees of freedom multivariable controller with feedback signals from surge, sway and yaw, either of linear or nonlinear type, can be regarded as adequate for the control objective for most surface vessels. However, for certain marine constructions with discernible coupling characteristics in the dynamics between the horizontal plane (surge, sway and yaw) and vertical plane (heave, roll and pitch), undesirably large roll and pitch oscillations may be induced by the thruster actions. Especially for constructions with natural periods in roll and pitch within the bandwidth of the positioning controller, the thruster induced oscillations in roll and pitch may become limitable on the operation. In this paper a new multivariable control law accounting for both horizontal and vertical motions is proposed. Simulations with a semi-submersible demonstrate the effect of the proposed control strategy. (author)

  5. Performance evaluation of a transformerless multiphase electric submersible pump system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A. Hakeem

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Using of low-voltage variable-frequency drive followed by a step-up transformer is the most preferable way to feed an electrical submersible pump motor. The existence of long feeder between the motor and drive systems usually causes over-voltage problems because of the travelling wave phenomenon, which makes the employment of filter networks on the motor or inverter terminals mandatory. The so-called boost-inverter inherently can solve this problem with filter-less operation as it offers a direct sinusoidal output voltage. As boost inverters have voltage boosting capability, it can provide a transformer-less operation as well. This study investigates the performance of a five-phase modular winding induction machine fed from a boost-inverter through a long feeder. A simulation study using a 1000 Hp system and experimental investigation on a 1 Hp prototype machine are used to support the presented approach.

  6. Submersion Quenching of Undercooled Liquid Metals in an Electrostatic Levitator

    Science.gov (United States)

    SanSoucie, Michael P.; Rogers, Jan R.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) electrostatic levitation (ESL) laboratory has a long history of providing materials research and thermophysical property data. The laboratory has recently added a new capability, a rapid quench system. This system allows samples to be dropped into a quench vessel that can be filled with a low melting point material, such as a gallium or indium alloy. Thereby allowing rapid quenching of undercooled liquid metals and alloys. This is the first submersion quench system inside an electrostatic levitator. The system has been tested successfully with samples of zirconium, iron-cobalt alloys, titanium-zirconium-nickel alloys, and silicon-cobalt alloys. This rapid quench system will allow materials science studies of undercooled materials and new materials development, including studies of metastable phases and transient microstructures. In this presentation, the system is described and some initial results are presented.

  7. Video Games and Adolescent Fighting

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    Psychologists have found positive correlations between playing violent video games and violent and antisocial attitudes. However, these studies typically do not control for other covariates, particularly sex, that are known to be associated with both video game play and aggression. This study exploits the Youth Risk Behavior Survey, which includes questions on video game play and fighting as well as basic demographic information. With both parametric and nonparametric estimators, as there is ...

  8. Morfofunctional parameters in judo's fight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ítalo Sérgio Lopes Campos

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Considering the complexity of judo and the ample energy and neuromuscular demands, a whole process of competitive preparation must be directed to different physical capacities allowing the athlete to perform his combat actions with the best suitability possible. Mapping the  behaviour of a judo athlete from observations of behaviour units  in a real fighting situation would be a way of trying to identify the best topography or the best "aptitude" to achieve victory. The present investigation analysed the judo from the interactions of a real competition situation, aiming to verify, between winners and losers, possible differences or correlations between anthropometric parameters, motor performance and functional behaviours in a competitive situation. The results showed that: a the experience is decisive between winning or losing; b leg techniques are the most used between winners and losers, and losers use them more frequently; c there are different strategies between fights; d The energy cost in judo depends on the configuration of the fights. It is believed that such results can help coaches and athletes in guiding and rationalizing the training process in relation to performance determinants in judo.

  9. Submersible Data (Dive Trackpoints) for Operation Deep Scope 2007 - Office of Ocean Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data and information collected by the submersible Johnson Sea-Link II along its track during nineteen dives of the 2007 "Operation Deep Scope" expedition sponsored...

  10. Submersible Data (Dive Waypoints) for Bioluminescence 2009 - Office of Ocean Exploration and Research

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data and information collected by the submersible Johnson Sea-Link II at waypoints along its track during seventeen dives of the 2009 "Bioluminescence" expedition...

  11. Submersible Data (Dive Trackpoints) for Life on the Edge 2004 - Office of Ocean Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data and information collected by the submersible Johnson Sea-Link I along its track during twenty-five dives of the 2004 "Life on the Edge" expedition sponsored by...

  12. Submersible Data (Dive Waypoints) for Life on the Edge 2005 - Office of Ocean Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data and information collected by the submersible Johnson Sea-Link I at waypoints along its track during nineteen dives of the 2005 "Life on the Edge" expedition...

  13. Submersible Data (Dive Waypoints) for Investigating the Charleston Bump 2003 - Office of Ocean Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data and information collected by the submersible Johnson Sea-Link II at waypoints along its track during fourteen dives of the 2003 "Investigating the Charleston...

  14. Vomiting is not associated with poor outcomes in pediatric victims of unintentional submersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, Kimberley M; Camp, Elizabeth A; Yusuf, Shabana; Shenoi, Rohit P

    2015-05-01

    The outcome of submersion victims depends on submersion duration and the availability of timely and effective resuscitation. The prognostic implication of vomiting during resuscitation of submersion victims is unclear. The study sought to determine whether vomiting during resuscitation in children treated for unintentional submersion injuries adversely impacts outcome. This was a retrospective study of unintentional submersion victims under age 18 treated at an urban tertiary-care children's hospital from 2003-2009. Submersion and victim details were obtained from hospital, EMS, and fatality records. Outcomes studied were survival at 24 hours and condition (Favorable: good/mild impairment or Poor: death/severe disability) at hospital discharge. Descriptive comparisons between emesis groups (yes/no) and categorical covariates were analyzed. There were 281 victims. The median age was 3 years; 66% were males. Most incidents occurred at swimming pools (77%) and bathtubs (16%). Most were hospitalized (83%). The presence or absence of emesis was documented in 246 (88%). Victims with emesis were significantly less likely to have apnea or be intubated in the ED, have a low ED GCS or die. No patient who had emesis died at 24 hours or had a poor outcome at hospital discharge. Victims who had emesis post-resuscitation were significantly more likely to have received CPR or chest compressions than rescue breaths. Emesis in pediatric submersion victims is inversely associated with death at 24 hours or poor outcome at hospital discharge. The relationship between emesis and the adequacy of resuscitation of pediatric submersion victims needs to be further studied. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Air-gap effect on life boat arrangement for a semi-submersible FPU

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Mun-Sung; Park, Hong-Shik; Jung, Kwang-Hyo; Chun, Ho-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    In the offshore project such as semi-submersible FPU and FPSO, the free fall type life boat called TEMPSC (Totally Enclosed Motor Propelled Survival Craft) has been installed for the use of an emergency evacuation of POB (People on Board) from the topside platform. For the design of life boat arrangement for semi-submersible FPU in the initial design stage, the drop height and launch angle are required fulfill with the limitation of classification society rule and Company requirement, includi...

  16. Submersible Unmanned Aerial Vehicle: Configuration Design and Analysis Based on Computational Fluid Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Qinyang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Submersible aerial vehicle is capable of both flying in the air and submerging in the water. Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA outlined a challenging set of requirements for a submersible aircraft and solicited innovative research proposals on submersible aircraft since 2008. In this paper, a conceptual configuration design scheme of submersible unmanned aerial vehicle is proposed. This submersible UAV lands on the surface of water, then adjusts its own density to entry water. On the contrary, it emerges from water by adjusting its own density and then takes off from the surface of water. Wing of the UAV is whirling wing. It is set along aircraft’s fuselage while submerging for lift reduction. We analysis aerodynamic and hydrodynamic performance of this UAV by CFD method, especially compare the hydrodynamic performance of the whirling wing configuration and normal configuration. It turns out that whirling wing is beneficial for submerging. This result proves that the configuration design scheme proposed in this paper is feasible and suitable for a submersible unmanned aerial vehicle.

  17. Developing Fighting Technique Through Visualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Lajcik

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Visualization is a training technique that involves creating a detailed mental “movie” of successful performance. This article describes a type of visualization called “mental rehearsal” and explains how it can be used to reinforce the neuromuscular pattern of proper fighting technique. Drawing on his experience as a professional fighter and college coach, his studies in sport psychology as a college student, and his exposure to mental training techniques at the U.S. Olympic Training Center, the author reveals how to use mental imagery to facilitate the mastery of martial art technique.    

  18. The power supply system model of the process submersible device with AC power transmission over the cable-rope

    OpenAIRE

    Rulevskiy, V. M.; Bukreev, Viktor Grigorievich; Kuleshova, Elena Olegovna; Shandarova, Elena Borisovna; Shandarov, S.M.; Vasilyeva, Yu. Z.

    2017-01-01

    A practical problem of power supply system modeling for the process submersible device with AC power transmission over the cable-rope was considered. The problem is highly relevant in developing and operation of submersible centrifugal pumps and submersibles. The results of modeling a symmetrical three-phase power supply system and their compliance with the real data are given at the paper. The obtained results in the mathematical and simulation models were similar.

  19. Life extension of semi-submersible drilling unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadley, I.; Sinclair, C.I.K. [TWI, Cambridge (United Kingdom). Structural Integrity Dept.; Magne, E. [Schlumberger Sedco Forex, Montrouge (France)

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes the life extension of a semi-submersible drilling rig built in the early 1970`s. A nominal design life of 20 years was estimated at the time of building; however, in the interim period, numerous improvements have been made in fatigue life estimation ad life improvement techniques, raising the possibility that a further 20 years of operation could be considered. The life extension strategy made use of a number of aspects of offshore technology which were not available at the time of construction of the rig. Finite element studies and results from offshore research programs were used to gauge the effect of fatigue life improvement techniques. The program demonstrated the feasibility of extending the operation of the rig for a further 20 years, with the interval between in-service inspection increased to every five years. It also provided a valuable database of fracture toughness data for the rig materials, which may be used in future work to address reliability issues.

  20. Submersible Spectrofluorometer for Real-Time Sensing of Water Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puiu, Adriana; Fiorani, Luca; Menicucci, Ivano; Pistilli, Marco; Lai, Antonia

    2015-06-18

    In this work, we present a newly developed submersible spectrofluorometer (patent pending) applied to real-time sensing of water quality, suitable for monitoring some important indicators of the ecological status of natural waters such as chlorophyll-a, oil and protein-like material. For the optomechanical realization of the apparatus, a novel conceptual design has been adopted in order to avoid filters and pumps while maintaining a high signal-to-noise ratio. The elimination of filters and pumps has the advantage of greater system simplicity and especially of avoiding the risk of sample degradation. The use of light-emitting diodes as an excitation source instead of Xe lamps or laser diodes helped save on size, weight, power consumption and costs. For sensor calibration we performed measurements on water samples with added chlorophyll prepared in the laboratory. The sensor functionality was tested during field campaigns conducted at Albano Lake in Latium Region of Italy as well as in the Herzliya Harbor, a few kilometers North East of Tel Aviv in Israel. The obtained results are reported in the paper. The sensitivity achieved for chlorophyll-a detection was found to be at least 0.2 µg/L.

  1. Youth and Parental Attitudes toward Fighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Barry S.; Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Wright, Joseph; Cheng, Tina L.

    2008-01-01

    Certain parenting behaviors have been linked with youth aggression and violence, but less is known about whether parents' attitudes toward fighting are a risk factor for children's aggressive behavior problems and future injury risk. Social cognitive theory suggests that parents' beliefs about fighting and retaliation may influence their…

  2. Commercial Submersible Mixing Pump For SRS Tank Waste Removal - 15223

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubbard, Mike [Savannah River Remediation, LLC., Aiken, SC (United States); Herbert, James E. [Savannah River Remediation, LLC., Aiken, SC (United States); Scheele, Patrick W. [Savannah River Remediation, LLC., Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-01-12

    The Savannah River Site Tank Farms have 45 active underground waste tanks used to store and process nuclear waste materials. There are 4 different tank types, ranging in capacity from 2839 m3 to 4921 m3 (750,000 to 1,300,000 gallons). Eighteen of the tanks are older style and do not meet all current federal standards for secondary containment. The older style tanks are the initial focus of waste removal efforts for tank closure and are referred to as closure tanks. Of the original 51 underground waste tanks, six of the original 24 older style tanks have completed waste removal and are filled with grout. The insoluble waste fraction that resides within most waste tanks at SRS requires vigorous agitation to suspend the solids within the waste liquid in order to transfer this material for eventual processing into glass filled canisters at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). SRS suspends the solid waste by use of recirculating mixing pumps. Older style tanks generally have limited riser openings which will not support larger mixing pumps, since the riser access is typically 58.4 cm (23 inches) in diameter. Agitation for these tanks has been provided by four long shafted standard slurry pumps (SLP) powered by an above tank 112KW (150 HP) electric motor. The pump shaft is lubricated and cooled in a pressurized water column that is sealed from the surrounding waste in the tank. Closure of four waste tanks has been accomplished utilizing long shafted pump technology combined with heel removal using multiple technologies. Newer style waste tanks at SRS have larger riser openings, allowing the processing of waste solids to be accomplished with four large diameter SLPs equipped with 224KW (300 HP) motors. These tanks are used to process the waste from closure tanks for DWPF. In addition to the SLPs, a 224KW (300 HP) submersible mixer pump (SMP) has also been developed and deployed within older style tanks. The SMPs are product cooled and

  3. Fighting pollution in Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roodman, D M

    1999-01-01

    This article investigates the fighting solution strategies in Vietnam where complaints against factories violating national pollution standards are common. Based on history, the people in Vietnam have been suffering from pollution of all sorts including air, land, water and noise. Precisely, their interaction with one another has been affected by how they interact with the natural environment and community. This worsening situation in the country gave rise to public criticisms, a foot in a door that opens different forms of people participation in the decision-making of the government. Although factories were not so much affected with public criticisms, yet public pressure played a significant role in increasing the compliance of many companies. The strategy adopted in Vietnam may be a powerful force for protecting the Vietnamese against pollution.

  4. Art therapy in cancer fight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érica Rodrigues D'Alencar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Art therapy is the therapeutic use of artistic activity in the context of the professional relationship with people affected by disease, injury or by seeking personal development. This study aims to report the experience of art therapy activities with a group of patients and their caregivers in a university hospital. This is an experience report, in Fortaleza - CE, during September 2010 to February 2011. In the meetings, participated 49 people, who performed activities, using the methods of art therapy, like painting, cutting, drawing, collage, creative visualization and color therapy. In the assessments, after the groups, the participants demonstrated the effects of art therapy, which described that the intervention allowed speak from the process of facing life to cancer fight. It is concluded that the techniques of art therapy provided self-knowledge, self-esteem and redemption sense of well-being with relaxation, and promote happiness and reduce stress.

  5. Can biophysical properties of submersed macrophytes be determined by remote sensing?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malthus, T.J. [Univ. of Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Ciraolo, G.; La Loggia, G. [Univ. of Palermo, Sicily (Italy)] [and others

    1997-06-01

    This paper details the development of a computationally efficient Monte Carlo simulation program to model photon transport through submersed plant canopies, with emphasis on Seagrass communities. The model incorporates three components: the transmission of photons through a water column of varying depth and turbidity; the interaction of photons within a submersed plant canopy of varying biomass; and interactions with the bottom substrate. The three components of the model are discussed. Simulations were performed based on measured parameters for Posidonia oceanica and compared to measured subsurface reflectance spectra made over comparable seagrass communities in Sicilian coastal waters. It is shown that the output is realistic. Further simulations are undertaken to investigate the effect of depth and turbidity of the overlying water column. Both sets of results indicate the rapid loss of canopy signal as depth increases and water column phytoplankton concentrations increase. The implications for the development of algorithms for the estimation of submersed canopy biophysical parameters are briefly discussed.

  6. Fighting for shells: how private information about resource value changes hermit crab pre-fight displays and escalated fight behaviour

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gareth Arnott; Robert W Elwood

    2007-01-01

    Pre-fight displays typically provide honest, but sometimes dishonest, information about resource holding potential and may be influenced by assessment of resource value and hence motivation to acquire the resource...

  7. New Navigation Post-Processing Tools for Oceanographic Submersibles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsey, J. C.; Whitcomb, L. L.; Yoerger, D. R.; Howland, J. C.; Ferrini, V. L.; Hegrenas, O.

    2006-12-01

    We report the development of Navproc, a new set of software tools for post-processing oceanographic submersible navigation data that exploits previously reported improvements in navigation sensing and estimation (e.g. Eos Trans. AGU, 84(46), Fall Meet. Suppl., Abstract OS32A- 0225, 2003). The development of these tools is motivated by the need to have post-processing software that allows users to compensate for errors in vehicle navigation, recompute the vehicle position, and then save the results for use with quantitative science data (e.g. bathymetric sonar data) obtained during the mission. Navproc does not provide real-time navigation or display of data nor is it capable of high-resolution, three dimensional (3D) data display. Navproc supports the ASCII data formats employed by the vehicles of the National Deep Submergence Facility (NDSF) operated by the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI). Post-processing of navigation data with Navproc is comprised of three tasks. First, data is converted from the logged ASCII file to a binary Matlab file. When loaded into Matlab, each sensor has a data structure containing the time stamped data sampled at the native update rate of the sensor. An additional structure contains the real-time vehicle navigation data. Second, the data can be displayed using a Graphical User Interface (GUI), allowing users to visually inspect the quality of the data and graphically extract portions of the data. Third, users can compensate for errors in the real-time vehicle navigation. Corrections include: (i) manual filtering and median filtering of long baseline (LBL) ranges; (ii) estimation of the Doppler/gyro alignment using previously reported methodologies; and (iii) sound velocity, tide, and LBL transponder corrections. Using these corrections, the Doppler and LBL positions can be recomputed to provide improved estimates of the vehicle position compared to those computed in real-time. The data can be saved in either binary or ASCII

  8. New Cholesterol Fighting Meds Target Key Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_165942.html New Cholesterol Fighting Meds Target Key Gene Two trials show ... New gene-based therapies appear to significantly decrease cholesterol levels in people, and could even cut down ...

  9. Fighting detection using interaction energy force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wateosot, Chonthisa; Suvonvorn, Nikom

    2017-02-01

    Fighting detection is an important issue in security aimed to prevent criminal or undesirable events in public places. Many researches on computer vision techniques have studied to detect the specific event in crowded scenes. In this paper we focus on fighting detection using social-based Interaction Energy Force (IEF). The method uses low level features without object extraction and tracking. The interaction force is modeled using the magnitude and direction of optical flows. A fighting factor is developed under this model to detect fighting events using thresholding method. An energy map of interaction force is also presented to identify the corresponding events. The evaluation is performed using NUSHGA and BEHAVE datasets. The results show the efficiency with high accuracy regardless of various conditions.

  10. Celebrities Gather to Fight Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Celebrities Gather to Fight Heart Disease Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... Kit to offer community education programs on women's heart disease. Organize heart-health screening events and health fairs ...

  11. One World – One Fight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Kurelić

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the author analyses the theoretical-ideological substance of the “Joint Statement” of the International Student Movement, and argues that it is basically an overt return of egalitarian universalism which the modern theory has called the Enlightenment project. The request for emancipatory education in the context of a fight against the commercialisation of higher education returns, as a result of the influence of Konrad Paul Liessmann, to the liberal Bildung individualism, and the latter, in combination with the insistence on education as a human right, forms a foundation for “emancipatory education”. The author uses Popper's idea of piecemeal social engineering in order to link Liessmann's request for the rejection of radical reforms in higher education to Brian Barry's request for the extension of the liberal principles of justice to the global level. Barry advocates revolutionary changes in the redistribution of rights, opportunities and resources, but he deems that they should be carried out in the form of global social engineering. The author claims that the student demand is in its fundamental elements consistent with the egalitarian-liberal argument for global social justice.

  12. Creating Student Engagement Through Immersion: Exploring the MT6 Shipwreck in Puget Sound via Submersible, Using a Team Challenge Format

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarason, C. P.; Hartzler, R.; Anderson, A.

    2016-02-01

    Educational literature has many stories describing the "aha" moment that teachers are privileged to observe: a student who suddenly grasps a concept (ding!), dives into an activity (whee!) or works tirelessly to complete a complicated project (wow!). Designing moments like these for students can be one of the great joys of teaching. Experiencing such a moment can have a lasting impact on student engagement and motivation, and is the underlying rationale for the importance of creating a wide array of outreach efforts, from field work to telepresence activities.During the spring of 2015, OceanGate Foundation and Seattle Central College partnered on a pilot program to design a program that had this kind of impact and created the Open The Oceans Challenge. Student teams responded to our Request for Proposal (RFP), which was centered around the exploration of a shipwreck in 150 meters of water just off the Seattle waterfront, the MT-6. Students spent a significant amount of time crafting their proposals and reported that they enjoyed the process of writing the proposal as a team. The two winning teams accompanied us on a series of submersible dives performed by OceanGate, Inc. and worked up the results afterward. In addition to researching the MT-6 wreck and documenting what they found, students were able to do basic observational research on the wreck, providing sonar and photographic data that will help form the basis of future expeditions to this site.We report on lessons learned from this pilot — the impact for the small set of students involved in this project was profound, but how can we expand the reach of such activities? Results from this experience suggest that providing a highly engaging topic and expedition may not be enough to inspire an "aha" moment that creates lasting engagement; the scaffolding and mentorship that surrounds a rich experience is also critical.

  13. Geology of mud volcanos in the Eastern Mediterranean from combined sidescan and submersible surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zitter, T.A.C.; Huguen, C.; Woodside, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Submersible observations and seafloor mapping over areas of mud volcanism in the eastern Mediterranean Sea reveal an abundance of methane-rich fluid emissions, as well as specific seep-associated fauna (e.g. tubeworms, bivalves and chemosynthetic bacteria) and diagenetic deposits (i.e. carbonates

  14. Competition between two submersed aquatic macrophytes, Potamogeton pectinatus and Potamogeton gramineus, across a light gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Submersed aquatic macrophyte communities, are often limited by the availability of light. Thus, they offer a unique opportunity to evaluate competition when light is the limiting resource. Competitive abilities of Potamogeton pectinatus (L.) Börner and Potamogeton gramineus L. were estimated using a...

  15. Management of Half Moon Lake, Wisconsin, for Improved Native Submersed Macrophyte Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    for aesthetic and recreational reasons. Eutrophication can negatively impact submersed macrophyte growth and community diversity by stimulating...sediments in the lake are high (range = 2.3 to 11.7 mg·m-2·d-1) and, thus, represent an important nutritional source to this species. During the July

  16. ISSUES IN DIGITAL IMAGE PROCESSING OF AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY FOR MAPPING SUBMERSED AQUATIC VEGETATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper discusses the numerous issues that needed to be addressed when developing a methodology for mapping Submersed Aquatic Vegetation (SAV) from digital aerial photography. Specifically, we discuss 1) choice of film; 2) consideration of tide and weather constraints; 3) in-s...

  17. 77 FR 2957 - Application for Manufacturing Authority, Liberty Pumps, Inc. (Submersible and Water Pumps...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Application for Manufacturing Authority, Liberty Pumps, Inc. (Submersible and... manufacturing authority on behalf of Liberty Pumps, Inc., located in Bergen, New York. The application was... regulations of the Board (15 CFR part 400). It was formally filed on January 12, 2012. The Liberty Pumps, Inc...

  18. Counteracting ammonia inhibition during anaerobic digestion by recovery using submersible microbial desalination cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yifeng; Angelidaki, Irini

    2015-01-01

    Ammonia inhibition is one of the most frequent and serious problems in biogas plants. In this study, a novel hybrid system consisting of a submersible microbial desalination cell (SMDC) and a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) was developed for counteracting ammonia inhibition during anaerobic...

  19. Submersion time, depth, substrate type and sampling method as variation sources of marine periphyton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richard, M.; Trottier, C.; Verdegem, M.C.J.; Hussenot, J.M.E.

    2009-01-01

    Periphyton is an additional food source in African and Asian brackish and freshwater fish ponds. The present study was a preliminary assessment of periphyton development on artificial substrates in temperate marine ponds. The effects of submersion time, substrate type, water depth, and total or

  20. Increased power generation from primary sludge by a submersible microbial fuel cell and optimum operational conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vologni, Valentina; Kakarla, Ramesh; Angelidaki, Irini

    2013-01-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have received attention as a promising renewable energy technology for waste treatment and energy recovery. We tested a submersible MFC with an innovative design capable of generating a stable voltage of 0.250 ± 0.008 V (with a fixed 470 Ω resistor) directly from prima...

  1. FIGHTING ECONOMIC CRIME IN THE EUROPEAN ARENA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anghel Cristian

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper tries to put together a modest study on the actions taken at EU level in order to fight economic crime. A series of measures have been implemented at national and European level to create a framework for fighting criminality. The European institutions and the national authorities are improving their cooperation in order to fight the increasing number of economic crimes committed both in the private and public sector, while Member States are approximating their legislation to the provisions of the Community acquis. We have divided these efforts into five categories corresponding to the five main areas of economic crime identified at EU level: fight against fraud, which affects the financial interests of the European Union and mainly comprises fraudulent practices in the use of EU funds and in taxation, fight against piracy and counterfeiting, public and private corruption, money laundering and organised crime. In order to combat the negative influence criminality exerts on the development of the economy and of the overall society, for each of the above mentioned areas legislative, institutional, technical and administrative measures have been adopted. We have presented these measures considering their efficiency in meeting the targets set out and the role played in their implementation by the European and national institutions.

  2. Remelting of Aluminium by Continuous Submersion of Rolled Scrap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farner, Snorre

    2000-12-01

    When remelting aluminium scrap, metal losses due to dross generation is a common problem. Reduction of these losses will give substantial economic and environmental benefits. Dross is generated when aluminium metal oxidizes and films of oxide envelope molten metal. When a cold metal object is immersed in a melt, the heat of the melt around this is transferred so rapidly into the object that a shell of melt often solidifies to the surface of the object. When scrap with low bulk density is charged to a melt, solidification of melt on the cold scrap prevents melt from entering the cavities in the bulk of the scrap, and the bulk density remains low. Thus the scrap tends to float on the melt surface. Submersion of this scrap is important to avoid oxidation and subsequent dross generation. One solution to this is to roll scrap to a strip and feed it into the melt. This system has been examined by studying feeding of a continuous, thin aluminium plate into molten aluminium. Also, the effect of lacquer was considered, as well as feeding the plate into a launder with melt flowing along the surface of the plate. An analytical, one-dimensional, steady-state model has been developed to describe the melting and the melting mechanisms. It is based on a shell solidifying on the plate surface and a gap introducing a thermal resistance 1/h{sub g} between the shell and the plate. The thermal resistance 1/h{sub l} of the boundary layer of the melt is included. Depending on these resistances, the initial temperature of the plate and the melt temperature, a shell will form, and the plate will penetrate a distance P into the melt before it melts away. An experimental apparatus was designed and constructed to feed aluminium plate from a coil into a melt bath at a specified velocity. The plate could be withdrawn rapidly to ''freeze'' the situation like it was below the melt surface. The penetration depth P of the plate could be measured and shell formation observed

  3. Relationship between number and intensity of fighting: evidence from cow fighting tournaments in Valdostana cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Sartori

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Cattle establish firm dominance relationships through ritualised fights. This study aimed at investigating behaviours involved in dominance relationships and effect of factors such as weight, age and repeated fighting experience in fighting dynamics. Subject of the study was the Valdostana breed, whose cows assess dominance relationships in traditional competitions. Tournaments consist in rounds in which cows interact in pairs to assess dominance. Only winners participate in subsequent rounds. An amount of 120 fights involving 145 cows was retained, and winners (51 cows were considered as focal individuals. An ethogram of agonistic interactions was established, including behaviours of different agonistic intensity as physical interactions (pushes, clashes, displays (threats, vocalisations, and non agonistic approaches. A transition diagram of behaviours showed a tendency to express firstly non agonistic approaches and lastly more aggressive clashes. A mixed linear model analysis on traits like competition intensity, duration, and type of behaviours expressed showed a significant effect of age difference on behaviours. However, the most important factor was the number of rounds performed: from the first to subsequent fights agonistic intensity and physical contacts increased, and displays reduced. This may be due either to the fact that more aggressive individuals were likely to be the winners, or that in higher rounds the opponents were more similar regarding fighting ability or aggressiveness and thus more intense fights occurred. The increased aggressiveness after repeated situations of competition suggests suggests that careful attention should be paid to welfare when animals are exposed to situations of high competition, like regrouping.

  4. vid119_0601d -- Line coverage of sediment types from video collected from the Delta submersible vehicle.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Delta submersible vehicle, outfitted with video equipment (and other devices), was deployed from the R/V Auriga during September 2001 to monitor seafloor...

  5. Submersible Data (Dive Waypoints) for Life on the Edge 2003: Exploring Deep Ocean Habitats - Office of Ocean Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data and information collected by the submersible Johnson Sea-Link II at waypoints along its track during two of the seventeen dives of the 2003 "Life on the Edge -...

  6. Submersible Data (Dive Waypoints) for Islands in the Stream 2002 - Pharmaceutical Discovery, Vision, and Bioluminescence - Office of Ocean Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data and information collected by the submersible Johnson Sea-Link II at waypoints along its track during one dive of the 2002 "Islands in the Stream -...

  7. vid119_0601c-- Point coverage of sediment types from video collected from the Delta submersible vehicle.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Delta submersible vehicle, outfitted with video equipment (and other devices), was deployed from the R/V Auriga during September 2001 to monitor seafloor...

  8. Characterization of clarified medium from submerse and semisolid cultivation of OF Aspergillus awamori NRRL3112 by size-exclusion chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MINAMI N.M.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a preparative size-exclusion chromatography of two different clarified media obtained from submerse and semisolid culture of the mold Aspergillus awamori was carried out. Characterization and comparison of the quantities of glucoamylase and contaminant proteins present in these media were possible. Glucoamylase is the protein with the higher molecular weight in both media analyzed, varying from 72 to 80kDa in the submerse culture and from 68 to 90kDa in the semisolid culture. Also, glucoamylase protein concentration is higher in the submerse culture than in the semisolid culture. The other proteins in the submerse culture presented molecular weights lower than 12kDa and in the semisolid culture their molecular weights varied from 21 to 37kDa and below 10kDa.

  9. vid113_0401p -- Point coverage of sediment types from video collected from the Delta submersible vehicle.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Delta submersible vehicle, outfitted with video equipment (and other devices), was deployed from theR/V Auriga during September 2001 to monitor seafloor...

  10. Child Soldiers: Children Associated with Fighting Forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Suzan J; de Jong, Joop

    2015-10-01

    Around the world, there are an estimated 300,000 to 500,000 children involved in armed conflict. Children can be abducted into a fighting force to fight or serve as sex slaves. Child soldiers have depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress symptoms; however, evidence is mixed because of methodologic limitations. Various mental health interventions have been tried, with promising results. Child and adolescent psychiatrists are uniquely trained in understanding and assisting youth to heal from such extraordinary experiences. A public health paradigm could include interventions that are based on a comprehensive assessment of interweaving developmental, biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Born to win? Testing the fighting hypothesis in realistic fights: left-handedness in the Ultimate Fighting Championship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pollet, T.V.; Stulp, G.; Groothuis, T.G.G.

    2013-01-01

    Given the heritability of human left-handedness and its purported associations with fitness-lowering traits, the persistence of the minority of left-handedness in human populations is an evolutionary puzzle. The fighting hypothesis proposes that these negative fitness costs are offset by fitness

  12. Born to win? Testing the fighting hypothesis in realistic fights : left-handedness in the Ultimate Fighting Championship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pollet, Thomas V.; Stulp, Gert; Groothuis, Ton G. G.

    2013-01-01

    Given the heritability of human left-handedness and its purported associations with fitness-lowering traits, the persistence of the minority of left-handedness in human populations is an evolutionary puzzle. The fighting hypothesis proposes that these negative fitness costs are offset by fitness

  13. Physical fighting, fighting-related injuries and family affluence among Canadian youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Djerboua

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical fighting is an assaultive behaviour that can lead to injury. Family affluence is a health determinant that can influence injury. This study examines the relationship between family affluence and two outcomes: physical fighting and fighting-related injury in Canadian adolescents. Three measurements were used to represent family affluence and assess whether these measures demonstrated different associations with these outcomes. Methods Canadian data from the 2009/2010 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Study were used. It consists of a nationally representative sample of 26,078 grade 6–10 students. A subset analysis of 10,429 grade 9–10 students was conducted to account for additional confounders. Modified Poisson regression was used to compare the risk of physical fighting and fighting-related injury in youth from different levels of family affluence. Three indicators were used to represent family affluence: self-perceived affluence, a family affluence scale (FAS, and area-level average household income. Results The overall prevalence was 35.6 % for physical fighting and 2.7 % for fighting-related injuries. Both outcomes were more frequent in males than females. An inverse gradient was present where risk for both outcomes increased with decreasing levels of affluence irrespective of the affluence measurement. The self-perceived affluence variable showed a significantly stronger gradient in girls than boys for both outcomes. For both outcomes, FAS showed a similar inverse gradient within females, but a threshold effect in males where there was a strong effect in the low FAS group, but a null effect in the moderate FAS group. The area-level income variable presented a significantly higher likelihood for physical fighting only in females (p = 0.001–0.075. For fighting-related injury, none of the area-level income models showed significant risk estimates with the exception of the bivariate association

  14. Influence of temperature and salinity on heavy metal uptake by submersed plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritioff, A. [Department of Botany, Stockholm University, S-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)]. E-mail: fritioff@botan.su.se; Kautsky, L. [Department of Botany, Stockholm University, S-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Greger, M. [Department of Botany, Stockholm University, S-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2005-01-01

    Submersed plants can be useful in reducing heavy metal concentrations in stormwater, since they can accumulate large amounts of heavy metals in their shoots. To investigate the effects of water temperature and salinity on the metal uptake of two submersed plant species, Elodea canadensis (Michx.) and Potamogeton natans (L.), these plants were grown in the presence of Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb at 5, 11, and 20 deg. C in combination with salinities of 0, 0.5, and 5%o. The metal concentrations in the plant tissue increased with increasing temperature in both species; the exception was the concentration of Pb in Elodea, which increased with decreasing salinity. Metal concentrations at high temperature or low salinity were up to twice those found at low temperature or high salinity. Plant biomass affected the metal uptake, with low biomass plants having higher metal concentrations than did high biomass plants. - Metal concentrations increase with increasing temperature and decreasing salinity in two aquatic plants.

  15. 14 CFR 61.413 - What are the privileges of my flight instructor certificate with a sport pilot rating?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... instructor certificate with a sport pilot rating? 61.413 Section 61.413 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Flight Instructors With a Sport Pilot Rating § 61.413 What are the privileges of my flight instructor certificate with a sport pilot rating? If you hold a fight flight...

  16. Submersible pumping, Long Beach Unit of East Wilmington Field: A 17-year review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allis, D.H.; Capps, W.M.

    1983-10-01

    The electric submersible pump was selected as the primary form of lift when Thums Long Beach Company initiated production operations in August 1965. Deviated wells with ever-increasing volumes resulting from water flooding required a flexibility offered by this method of lift. Numerous problems have been solved in 17 years of these operations to provide a respectable run life and continue on a sound economic operational basis.

  17. Submersible pumping--long beach unit of east wilmington field: A 17-year review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allis, D.H.; Capps, W.M.

    1984-08-01

    The electric submersible pump (ESP) was selected as the primary form of lift when Thums Long Beach Co. initiated production operations in Aug. 1965. Deviated wells with ever increasing volumes resulting from waterflooding required the flexibility offered by this lift method. Many problems have been solved in the 17 years of these operations to provide a respectable run life and a sound economic operational basis.

  18. Submersible pumping, Long Beach unit of East Wilmington field: a 17-year review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allis, D.H.; Capps, W.M.

    1983-01-01

    The electric submersible pump was selected as the primary form of lift when THUMS Long Beach Co. initiated production operations in Aug. 1965. Deviated wells with ever-increasing volumes resulting from waterflooding required a flexibility offered by this method of lift. Numerous problems have been solved in 17 yr of these operations to provide a respectable run life and continue on a sound economic operational basis.

  19. Development of a new submersible test to characterise the erosion of soils and sediments

    OpenAIRE

    NDOYE, Ousseynou; Chevalier, Christophe; Reiffsteck, Philippe; MINATCHY, Carlos; FANELLI, Sonia; Pham Van Bang, Damien

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the mechanism and behavior of the scour process is a most challenging subject. One part of this challenge is the in situ measurement of soil and sediment sensitivity to erosion (in undisturbed and submersible conditions). To improve this understanding, a new test, the Wheel Erosion Test (WET), was developed. It consists of a wheel rotating upon a layer of sediments located in an aquarium filled in with water. The rotating speed of the wheel and the distance to the sediment bed a...

  20. Parametric pitch instability investigation of Deep Draft Semi-submersible platform in irregular waves

    OpenAIRE

    Huan Mao; Hezhen Yang

    2016-01-01

    Parametric pitch instability of a Deep Draft Semi-submersible platform (DDS) is investigated in irregular waves. Parametric pitch is a form of parametric instability, which occurs when parameters of a system vary with time and the variation satisfies a certain condition. In previous studies, analyzing of parametric instability is mainly limited to regular waves, whereas the realistic sea conditions are irregular waves. Besides, parametric instability also occurs in irregular waves in some exp...

  1. Dynamic Modeling and Simulation of Deep Geothermal Electric Submersible Pumping Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Julian Kullick; Hackl, Christoph M.

    2017-01-01

    Deep geothermal energy systems employ electric submersible pumps (ESPs) in order to lift geothermal fluid from the production well to the surface. However, rough downhole conditions and high flow rates impose heavy strain on the components, leading to frequent failures of the pump system. As downhole sensor data is limited and often unrealible, a detailed and dynamical model system will serve as basis for deeper understanding and analysis of the overall system behavior. Furthermore, it allows...

  2. Fighting terrorism in Africa: Benchmarking policy harmonization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asongu, Simplice A.; Tchamyou, Vanessa S.; Minkoua N., Jules R.; Asongu, Ndemaze; Tchamyou, Nina P.

    2018-02-01

    This study assesses the feasibility of policy harmonization in the fight against terrorism in 53 African countries with data for the period 1980-2012. Four terrorism variables are used, namely: domestic, transnational, unclear and total terrorism dynamics. The empirical evidence is based on absolute beta catch-up and sigma convergence estimation techniques. There is substantial absence of catch-up. The lowest rate of convergence in terrorism is in landlocked countries for regressions pertaining to unclear terrorism (3.43% per annum for 174.9 years) while the highest rate of convergence is in upper-middle-income countries in domestic terrorism regressions (15.33% per annum for 39.13 years). After comparing results from the two estimation techniques, it is apparent that in the contemporary era, countries with low levels of terrorism are not catching-up their counterparts with high levels of terrorism. As a policy implication, whereas some common policies may be feasibly adopted for the fight against terrorism, the findings based on the last periodic phase (2004-2012) are indicative that country-specific policies would better pay-off in the fight against terrorism than blanket common policies. Some suggestions of measures in fighting transnational terrorism have been discussed in the light of an anticipated surge in cross-national terrorism incidences in the coming years.

  3. Fighting Juvenile Gun Violence. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, David; Grant, Heath; Rowe, Wendy; Jacobs, Nancy

    This bulletin describes the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention's efforts to fight juvenile gun violence. The Office awarded four community demonstration grants to implement "Partnerships To Reduce Juvenile Gun Violence." Partnership goals include increasing the effectiveness of existing strategies by enhancing and…

  4. Fighting power, targeting and cyber operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ducheine, P.A.L.; van Haaster, J.

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to contribute to the operationalisation of military cyber operations in general, and for targeting purposes (either in defence or offence) in particular. The position of cyber operations in military doctrine will be clarified, their contribution to fighting power conceptualised and

  5. Cancer Vaccines: The New Fight Against Cancer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cancer Vaccines: The New Fight Against Cancer. N S Vasanthi. General Article Volume 11 Issue 11 November 2006 pp 48-55. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/011/11/0048-0055. Keywords. Cancer; immunotherapy; therapeutic vaccine; prophylactic vaccine.

  6. Energy consumption behavior of submersible pumps using in the Barind area of Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, M. E.; Islam, M. R.; Masud, M. H.; Ferdous, J.; Haniu, H.

    2017-06-01

    In this work the ground water level and water pumping for irrigation and drinking purposes in Barind area of Bangladesh have been studied. The depth of ground water level remains under 30ft throughout the year that enforcing the use of submersible pumps in most parts of Barind zone. The Barind Multipurpose Development Authority (BMDA) and Rajshahi WASA are the major water supplying authority in the Northern Part of Bangladesh by using 14386 and 87 nos of submersible pumps, respectively. An investigation for the values of life cycle cost elements of submersible pumps has also been carried out. The performance of the pumps running in different sites in Barind area were investigated and compared with the lab test results of new pumps. Energy consumption cost is dominating the life cycle cost of the pumps using in Barind region and improper matching of pump standard running conditions and operation/system requirements are the main causes of lower efficiency. It is found that the efficiency of the running pumps is reduced by 20 - 40% than that of lab test results.

  7. Concept of a nuclear powered submersible research vessel and a compact reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusunoki, Tsuyoshi; Odano, Naoteru; Yoritsune, Tsutomu; Ishida, Toshihisa [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Takahashi, Teruo [Energis, Co., Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Nishimura, Hajime [Japan Marine Science and Technology Center, Yokosuka, Kanagawa (Japan); Tokunaga, Sango [Japan Deep Sea Technology Association, Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    A conceptual design study of a submersible research vessel navigating in 600 m depth and a compact nuclear reactor were carried out for the expansion of the nuclear power utilization. The mission of the vessel is the research of mechanism of the climate change to predict the global environment. Through conditions of the Arctic Ocean and the sea at high latitude have significant impacts on the global environmental change, it is difficult to investigate those areas by ordinary ships because of thick ice or storm. Therefore the research vessel is mainly utilized in the Arctic Ocean and the sea at high latitude. By taking account of the research mission, the basic specifications of the vessel are decided; the total weight is 500 t, the submersible depth is 600 m, the maximum speed is 12 knots (22.2 km/h), and the number of crews is 16. Nuclear power has an advantage in supplying large power of electricity in the sea for long period. Based on the requirements, it has been decided that two sets of submersible compact reactor, SCR, which is light-weighted and of enhanced safety characteristics of supply the total electricity of 500 kW. (author)

  8. Calculation of conversion coefficients using Chinese adult reference phantoms for air submersion and ground contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wei; Qiu, Rui; Wu, Zhen; Li, Chunyan; Yang, Bo; Liu, Huan; Ren, Li; Li, Junli

    2017-03-21

    The effective and organ equivalent dose coefficients have been widely used to provide assessment of doses received by adult members of the public and by workers exposed to environmental radiation from nuclear facilities under normal or accidental situations. Advancements in phantom types, weighting factors, decay data, etc, have led to the publication of newer results in this regard. This paper presents a new set of conversion coefficients for air submersion and ground contamination (with the use of Geant4) for photons from 15 keV to 10 MeV using the Chinese and International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) adult reference male and female phantoms. The radiation fields, except for energy spectrum at low energies, were validated by the data obtained from the Monte Carlo code YURI. The effective dose coefficients of monoenergetic photons, obtained for the ICRP adult reference phantoms, agree well with recently published data for air submersion and ground contamination with a plane source at a depth of 0.5 g cm-2 in soil, but an average difference of 36.5% is observed for ground surface contamination with the abovementioned radiation field. The average differences in organ equivalent dose coefficients between the Chinese and the ICRP adult reference phantoms are within 6% for most organs, but noticeable differences of up to 70% or even higher are found at photon energies below 30 keV under air submersion. The effective dose coefficients obtained with the Chinese adult reference phantoms are greater than those of the ICRP adult reference phantoms above 30 keV and 0.5 MeV for ground contamination and air submersion, respectively; the average differences from the Chinese adult reference phantoms are about 3.6% and 0.4% in the whole energy range with maximum differences of 31.8% and 27.6% at 15 keV for air submersion and ground contamination respectively. These differences are attributed to anatomical discrepancies in overlying tissue mass of an

  9. Altruity: Key to the Fight Against Poverty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Kourilsky

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the concept of altruity and illustrates its philosophical and practical importance in the fight against poverty. Altruity –a highly specific form of rational altruism– is the duty that comes with freedom. The individual duty of altruity is the necessary counterpart of the right to individual freedoms. It is, by its very nature, distinct from (though complementary to generosity, and devoid of any expectation of reciprocity (while not excluding it. The idea of altruity is the cornerstone of a theory of individual responsibility, and of a theory of justice, which provide a conceptual framework for the struggle against poverty. And because it is only meaningful if implemented with a pre-defined method, it also provides a framework for action, as the FACTS Initiative has shown. Altruity thus emerges as one of the keys to the fight against poverty.

  10. Consumerism and Identity inspired by Fight Club

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, Silas; Franck, Jannick; Mancini, Cecilia; Henriksen, Kine; Stæhr, Olivia; Misimovic, Elvin

    2013-01-01

    This project will investigate the relations between identity and consumerism. An analysis of the movie Fight Club has been used for further researching of terms like, identity, consumerism, society and advertising. This project contains a historical disposition by using theories of ‘Gemeinschaft’ and ‘Gesellschaft’ by Tönnies and examines the ‘Class Struggle’ by Marx. In explaining the rise of the postmodern society we have used theories by Anthony Giddens. Furthermore we have a theoretical d...

  11. Do Computers Help Police Fight Crime?

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Garicano; Paul Heaton

    2008-01-01

    Increased computerisation results in more effective crime-fighting - but only if police work is reorganised to take advantage of the presence of computers. That is the central conclusion of a study of the impact of information technology on the organisation and productivity of US police departments by Paul Heaton and Luis Garicano. The research finds that in cities like New York, computers plus an integrated information and management system for policing increased crime clearance rates.

  12. EU’s Role in Fighting Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Maftei

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available International terrorism, a phenomenon with constant development, is today acertainty and has dramatically marked the beginning of this century and millennium. Thisproblem has reached a global dimension and it represents a concern to the entire internationalcommunity. Over the time, numerous international and regional regulations have been framed, inorder to prevent and combat terrorism. The European Union condemns terrorist acts andrecognizes the central role of the United Nations, in fighting against terrorism and promotingsecurity, as well as the contribution of the new NATO in what concerns the defense and securitypromotion. Europe has to act more firmly in order to consolidate the defense against terrorismand the European Union’s borders. At the same time, the European Union considers that only aconcerted and firm action from all the states and the major actors on the international scenewould lead to the identification of the solutions which can contribute to the efficient fight againstterrorism and, by these means, provide for the international peace and security. The proportion ofthe danger terrorism represents has turned the fight against this phenomenon in an internationalcommunity’s desideratum.

  13. Analysis of Electric Propulsion Performance on Submersible with Motor DC, Supply Power 10260AH at Voltage 115VDC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indra Ranu Kusuma

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Electric propulsion is the ship system using propulsion motor to replace performance of main engine. The application of diesel engine as propulsion system have some problems and weaknesses such as diesel engine unability to operate when submersible vessel is operating under sea. To overcome that problems in submersible vessel, alternative solution of ship propulsion is required. DC Motor can be used as this alternative solution. Submersible vessel use electric propulsion system with DC Motor because DC Motor has advantages of easy rotation setting and does not cause noise when submersible vessel is diving. This bachelor thesis will study the application of DC Motor as an electric propulsion system on submersible vessel with length 59,57 m in series and parallel circuit by simulation using MATLAB software. The simulation data obtained are rotation and torque of DC Motor. From these simulation, it can be concluded that parallel circuit rotation is greater than series circuit rotation. It caused the greater speed and lower power in parallel circuit. 

  14. Donor cornea tissue in cases of drowning or water submersion: eye banks practice patterns and tissue outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, Nithya P; Parikh, Purak; Mian, Shahzad I; Tennant, Brad; Grossman, Gregory H; Albrecht, Bob; Niziol, Leslie M; Woodward, Maria A

    2017-10-25

    Surgical use of donor corneal tissue from victims of water submersion (drowning or submersion secondary to death) remains controversial due to limited evidence about the quality of these tissues. To assess the safety of donor corneal tissue from victims of water submersion, an investigation of eye banks' practice patterns and tissue outcomes was conducted. All 79 Eye Bank Association of America accredited eye banks were contacted for a phone interview of practices regarding tissue from victims of water submersion. A retrospective review of corneal tissues from 2014 to 2016 from a large eye bank network was performed to identify all donors submerged in water. Corneal epithelial integrity, endothelial cell density (ECD), rim cultures, and adverse events were analyzed for associations with water submersion characteristics. 49 eye banks (62% response) participated in the survey. 55% of these eye banks had specific, written protocol for tissue eligibility from donors submerged in water. With or without specific protocol, eye banks reported considering water type (84%) and length of time submerged (92%) to determine eligibility. 22% of eye banks reported medical director involvement when eligibility determination was unclear. 79 tissues from 40 donors who were submerged were identified in 2014-2016 eye bank data. No donor tissues had pre-processing corneal infiltrates, positive rim cultures, or adverse events post-keratoplasty. Corneal epithelial integrity and ECD were not associated with water type or length of time submerged. In conclusion, data from a large eye bank network showed no adverse events or outcomes, indicating these tissues may be safe.

  15. Fighting like a girl fighting like a guy: gender identity, ideology, and girls at early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lyn Mikel; Tappan, Mark B

    2008-01-01

    In this chapter we explore the phenomenon of "girls fighting like guys" by listening to adolescent girls' justification for physical fighting with other girls. We argue that physical girlfighting is a particular kind of gendered performance--a performance of identity that expresses, at least in part, an answer to the question, "Who am I?"--that both perpetuates and challenges the usual notions of masculinity and femininity and the differential power associated with these discourses. We present a sociocultural approach to identity that we believe not only holds promise for helping us to understand girl-fighting behavior but also highlights the clear interrelationship between social identity and personal identity. We conclude by highlighting several implications of this analysis for those who work with girls (and boys) in educational and clinical settings.

  16. Study on global performances and mooring-induced damping of a semi-submersible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Ling-zhi; Yang, Jian-min; Lv, Hai-ning; Zhao, Wen-hua; Kou, Yu-feng

    2016-10-01

    The harsh environmental conditions bring strong nonlinearities to the hydrodynamic performances of the offshore floating platforms, which challenge the reliable prediction of the platform coupled with the mooring system. The present study investigates a typical semi-submersible under both the operational and the survival conditions through numerical and experimental methods. The motion responses, the mooring line tensions, and the wave loads on the longitudinal mid-section are investigated by both the fully non-linearly coupled numerical simulation and the physical experiment. Particularly, in the physical model test, the wave loads distributed on the semi-submersible's mid-section were measured by dividing the model into two parts, namely the port and the starboard parts, which were rigidly connected by three six-component force transducers. It is concluded that both the numerical and physical model can have good prediction of the semi-submersible's global responses. In addition, an improved numerical approach is proposed for the estimation of the mooring-induced damping, and is validated by both the experimental and the published results. The characteristics of the mooring-induced damping are further summarized in various sea states, including the operational and the survival environments. In order to obtain the better prediction of the system response in deep water, the mooring-induced damping of the truncated mooring lines applied in the physical experiment are compensated by comparing with those in full length. Furthermore, the upstream taut and the downstream slack mooring lines are classified and investigated to obtain the different mooring line damping performances in the comparative study.

  17. INTENSITY SETTER FOR A DEVICE OF SMOOTH START OF SUBMERSIBLE PUMP ELECTRIC MOTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.I. Lobov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Development of an intensity setter, which in a rational law changes the opening thyristor the voltage regulator and effectively to changing power supply voltage stator windings of the electric pump deepening, ensuring a smooth start in a wide range. Methodology. Electric submersible pump belongs to the small inertia electric, since it is not significant total moment of inertia, not exceeding two moments of inertia of the motor and static moment on the shaft does not exceed forty percent of the nominal torque. For technical requirements that electric acceleration time should have no less than twenty seconds or more. Office starting modes of electric submersible pumps economically justified using thyristor voltage regulator by forming the dial changes the intensity of the necessary legislation in time voltage feeding the stator windings. This ensures a smooth start right rotor of the electric submersible pump. Results. A block diagram of the intensity setter that is: with control unit, two units that form the exponential voltage supply emitter follower and regulatory elements. The mathematical expressions for voltage at the stator windings of the motor, changing exponentially, opening the angle of thyristor power unit thyristor the voltage regulator, which is determined through the initial angle of opening. Provided formula for pick-up voltage and minimum voltage, time constants, which are determined from the basic equations of motion and mechanical characteristics of the electric motor. Analytical investigated by the voltage dependence violation by changing the time constant flowing and growing exhibitor supply voltage stator electric circuit deepening pump. Originality. Proposed in the initial time on the stator windings of the electric pick-up voltage is applied. Under the influence of this voltage, motor rotor begins to accelerate. At the same time, pick-up voltage decreases the minimum startup voltage varies exponentially in which

  18. Maintenance of submersible pumps in the septic tanks: ergonomic and biological risks to the worker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariño, Suzi; Figueiredo, Alex

    2012-01-01

    In this study was observed the maintenance task of submersible pumps septic tanks installed in industrial bathrooms. This maintenance activity operators are exposed to various biological and ergonomic risks. This type of activity requires its great physical performers who are also subject to contact with human waste in the form of liquids, gases and solids. Besides the problems mentioned, are still exposed to high temperatures that can cause diseases such as hyperthermia or heatstroke. These aspects were observed using the ergonomic assessment methodology in order to suggest improvements that are reflected in productivity and employee satisfaction.

  19. A study among the population of Sevilla of death due to submersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamero, J; Romero, J L; Arufe, M I; Vizcaya, M A; Balanza, E

    1997-03-01

    Death due to submersion is of great interest from the medical-legal point of view, given the increase in nautical activity among children and adults alike over the past number of years. However, the lack of reliable statistical data concerning the impact of this specific form of death in our country must be emphasized. These are the circumstances that have led us to study the incidence of this form of death in a specific area. The population analyzed lived in the city of Sevilla during the period 1967-1993.

  20. Experimental Problems of New Constructions of Portable Submersible Pumps for Mining with Electric Motor Cooled by Water Jacket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej KORCZAK

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a new construction of a submersible pumping engine where new original solutions in flowing system and control system where introduced It let obtain high efficiency and fulfill user’s expectations. The article also contains experiments of the new pumping engine and their results. The results of numerical analysis of the movement of liquid in flowing channel is described and the analytical characteristics are compared with ones measured in laboratory. The work also presents the problems with constructing, research and certification of new submersible pumping engine which construction fulfils ATEX requirements for machines working in explosive conditions areas

  1. Book Review of Fight Club Written by Chuck Palahniuk

    OpenAIRE

    Nugroho, Adityo Widhi

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this writing is to review Fight Club by Chuck Palahniuk. The writer will discuss the strengths and weaknesses of this novel . The writer decided to choose Fight Club as final project because it is his favorite novel. Fight Club is a very interesting novel although it is hard to understand and disturbing because by showing the consumerism behaviour in this novel, Chuck Palahniuk tries to convey the message that the consumerism behaviour of society nowadays has become worse ...

  2. Fighting poverty and exclusion through social investment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Jon

    The fight against poverty and social exclusion is at the heart of the Europe 2020 strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. With more than 120 million people in the EU at risk of poverty or social exclusion, EU leaders have pledged to bring at least 20 million people out of poverty...... and social exclusion by 2020. In the aftermath of the crisis welfare states are called to address multi-level social risks while securing their financial sustainability. This Review presents evidence from Framework Programme research projects with a view to address the challenges of poverty and social...

  3. [Stevia in the fight against dental caries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, M S; Blanksma, N G

    2015-01-01

    Stevia is a natural, non-caloric sweetener of plant origin. The sweetening power of stevia is several hundred times larger than that of table sugar (sucrose). On the basis of available research, the European Food Safety Authority concluded that stevia is safe for human consumption. Since then, stevia has been approved as a sweetener for the European market. As a substitute for sucrose, stevia can contribute to a reduced caloric intake and can play a role in the prevention and/or treatment of metabolic disorders. In addition, stevia is non-cariogenic and is, moreover, affordable. Promoting the consumption of stevia can therefore be a preventive means of fighting dental caries.

  4. Phytochemicals in the Fight Against Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Kristoffer T; Zhu, Ziwen; Fang, Yujiang

    2016-10-01

    Phytochemicals are chemical compounds from fruits, vegetables, or grains and they have been used to treat various diseases for thousands of years. More than one million people in the United States get cancer each year. Although recent advances in medicine have improved the outcomes for cancer patients, there is still a need for novel approaches in the fight against cancer. One such approach that has shown promise in recent years is the use of phytochemicals alone or as synergistic agents. In this review, we will discuss the use of phytochemicals as therapeutic agents against cancer with an emphasis on apple extract.

  5. Evaluation of station keeping systems for deepwater drilling semi-submersibles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, An-Ke; Sun, Li-Ping; Luo, Yong; Wang, Qiang

    2010-09-01

    This paper addresses the need for systematic evaluation of the station keeping systems of deepwater drilling semi-submersibles. Based on the selected drilling semi-submersible configuration, the mooring systems were analyzed and designed for a range of water depths using different mooring line materials. These were steel wire rope, polyester rope and HMPE (high modulus poly ethylene). The mooring analysis was carried out using the advanced fully coupled time domain analysis method in the computer software package HARP. Diffraction analysis was first applied to solve the hydrodynamic properties of the vessel and then the motion equations of the complete dynamic system including the drilling rig, the mooring lines and risers were developed and solved in the time domain. Applying the advanced analysis method, a matrix of mooring systems was developed for operating in water depths of 1 000 m, 1 500 m, and 2 000 m using various mooring materials. The development of mooring systems was conducted in accordance with the commonly adopted mooring design code, API RP 2SK and API RP 2SM. Fresh attempts were then made to comparatively evaluate the mooring system’s characteristics and global performance. Useful results have been obtained in terms of mooring materials, water depths, and key parameters of mooring configurations. The results provide in-depth insight for the design and operation of deepwater mooring systems in the South China Sea environment.

  6. Submersible pumps: Energetic efficiency norm; Bombas sumergibles: norma de eficiencia energetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acosta Torres, R. A.; Buendia Dominguez, E. H. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    The Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), supporting the Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE), has prepared a preliminary project of the norm of energy efficiency for submersible pumps. This document has complied with the necessary formalities for the emission of the norm. This paper presents the results of the analysis of the submersible pumps, the energy savings, as well as the economic evaluation that sustains the norm project, additionally pointing out the environmental impact that will bring along the implantation of the same. [Espanol] El Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), apoyando a la Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE), ha elaborado el anteproyecto de norma de eficiencia energetica para bombas sumergibles. Dicho documento ha cumplido con los tramites necesarios para la emision de una norma. En el presente articulo se mencionan los resultados del analisis de las bombas sumergibles, los ahorros energeticos, asi como la evaluacion economica que sustenta el proyecto de norma, indicandose ademas el impacto ambiental que tendra la implantacion de la misma.

  7. Study Of Calculation Of Degaussing System For Reducing Magnetic Field From Submersible Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sardono Sarwito

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of maritime technology in the world to make Indonesia are also increasingly taking the development of maritime technology, such as in a Submersible Vehicle one is degaussing system, this technology should be owned by the vessel so that the vessel can avoid dangerous explosive equipment contained in the sea. Degaussing system is a system that is in use on the metal parts or electronic devices that are at risk of a magnetic field. This system is used to prevent the vessel from dangerous equipment in the sea which can trigger an explosion and the damage that utilize magnetic fields as a metal-detection sensor when the boat was doing dives. To the authors will plan the design degaussing system, and calculating the system in order to reduce the magnetic properties of the Submersible Vehicle which were obtained by the use of Coil Degaussing along 214,5 meters, a diameter of 0,2, with 500.000 coil that will generate a current of 0,0157 Ampere's 0.0787 Tesla generates a magnetic field.

  8. A Hydraulic Motor-Alternator System for Ocean-Submersible Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aintablian, Harry O.; Valdez, Thomas I.; Jones, Jack A.

    2012-01-01

    An ocean-submersible vehicle has been developed at JPL that moves back and forth between sea level and a depth of a few hundred meters. A liquid volumetric change at a pressure of 70 bars is created by means of thermal phase change. During vehicle ascent, the phase-change material (PCM) is melted by the circulation of warm water and thus pressure is increased. During vehicle descent, the PCM is cooled resulting in reduced pressure. This pressure change is used to generate electric power by means of a hydraulic pump that drives a permanent magnet (PM) alternator. The output energy of the alternator is stored in a rechargeable battery that powers an on-board computer, instrumentation and other peripherals.The focus of this paper is the performance evaluation of a specific hydraulic motor-alternator system. Experimental and theoretical efficiency data of the hydraulic motor and the alternator are presented. The results are used to evaluate the optimization of the hydraulic motor-alternator system. The integrated submersible vehicle was successfully operated in the Pacific Ocean near Hawaii. A brief overview of the actual test results is presented.

  9. Electric power generation by a submersible microbial fuel cell equipped with a membrane electrode assembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Min, Booki; Poulsen, Finn Willy; Thygesen, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) were incorporated into the cathode chamber of a submersible microbial fuel cell (SMFC). A close contact of the electrodes could produce high power output from SMFC in which anode and cathode electrodes were connected in parallel. In polarization test, the maxi......Membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) were incorporated into the cathode chamber of a submersible microbial fuel cell (SMFC). A close contact of the electrodes could produce high power output from SMFC in which anode and cathode electrodes were connected in parallel. In polarization test......, the maximum power density was 631mW/m2 at current density of 1772mA/m2 at 82Ω. With 180-Ω external resistance, one set of the electrodes on the same side could generate more power density of 832±4mW/m2 with current generation of 1923±4mA/m2. The anode, inclusive a biofilm behaved ohmic, whereas a Tafel type...... behavior was observed for the oxygen reduction. The various impedance contributions from electrodes, electrolyte and membrane were analyzed and identified by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Air flow rate to the cathode chamber affected microbial voltage generation, and higher power generation...

  10. Microbial Biofilm Community Variation in Flowing Habitats: Potential Utility as Bioindicators of Postmortem Submersion Intervals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M. Lang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biofilms are a ubiquitous formation of microbial communities found on surfaces in aqueous environments. These structures have been investigated as biomonitoring indicators for stream heath, and here were used for the potential use in forensic sciences. Biofilm successional development has been proposed as a method to determine the postmortem submersion interval (PMSI of remains because there are no standard methods for estimating the PMSI and biofilms are ubiquitous in aquatic habitats. We sought to compare the development of epinecrotic (biofilms on Sus scrofa domesticus carcasses and epilithic (biofilms on unglazed ceramic tiles communities in two small streams using bacterial automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis. Epinecrotic communities were significantly different from epilithic communities even though environmental factors associated with each stream location also had a significant influence on biofilm structure. All communities at both locations exhibited significant succession suggesting that changing communities throughout time is a general characteristic of stream biofilm communities. The implications resulting from this work are that epinecrotic communities have distinctive shifts at the first and second weeks, and therefore the potential to be used in forensic applications by associating successional changes with submersion time to estimate a PMSI. The influence of environmental factors, however, indicates the lack of a successional pattern with the same organisms and a focus on functional diversity may be more applicable in a forensic context.

  11. Parametric pitch instability investigation of Deep Draft Semi-submersible platform in irregular waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Mao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Parametric pitch instability of a Deep Draft Semi-submersible platform (DDS is investigated in irregular waves. Parametric pitch is a form of parametric instability, which occurs when parameters of a system vary with time and the variation satisfies a certain condition. In previous studies, analyzing of parametric instability is mainly limited to regular waves, whereas the realistic sea conditions are irregular waves. Besides, parametric instability also occurs in irregular waves in some experiments. This study predicts parametric pitch of a Deep Draft Semi-submersible platform in irregular waves. Heave motion of DDS is simulated by wave spectrum and response amplitude operator (RAO. Then Hill equation for DDS pitch motion in irregular waves is derived based on linear-wave theory. By using Bubnov-Galerkin approach to solve Hill equation, the corresponding stability chart is obtained. The differences between regular-waves stability chart and irregular-waves stability chart are compared. Then the sensitivity of wave parameters on DDS parametric pitch in irregular waves is discussed. Based on the discussion, some suggestions for the DDS design are proposed to avoid parametric pitch by choosing appropriate parameters. The results indicate that it's important and necessary to predict DDS parametric pitch in irregular waves during design process.

  12. The evaluation of a rake method to quantify submersed vegetation in the Upper Mississippi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yao; Kreiling, Rebecca M.

    2011-01-01

    A long-handled, double-headed garden rake was used to collect submersed aquatic vegetation (SAV) and compared to in-boat visual inspection to record species presence at 67 individual sites. Six rake subsamples were taken at each site and a rake density rating was given to each species collected in the subsamples. Presence at the site, frequency of occurrence in the six rake samples, and additive density rating (the sum of the six rake density ratings) were quantified for each species at each site. The validity of the indices was tested against biomass data collected by clipping all remaining vegetation from the 67 sites. In the turbid water of the Mississippi River, visual inspection of SAV from boats was ineffective with only 27% of the species detected, while raking retrieved on average 70% of the total number of submersed species in the 67 sites. Presence of species at individual sites was correlated with biomass from Stuckenia pectinata, while frequency of occurrence and additive density rating were correlated with biomass for species with greater than 21 g of total biomass from all sites. The efficiency of the rake to collect biomass varied among species; only 18% of total biomass was captured via raking the site six times. Additive density rating as an index of abundance can be used to detect temporal changes in the same water body; however, cross-species comparison is not encouraged unless the efficiency of the rake has been determined for each species being compared.

  13. Numerical simulation and performance prediction in multi-stage submersible centrifugal pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W. J.; Li, G. D.; Wang, Y.; Cui, Y. R.; Yin, G.; Peng, S.

    2013-12-01

    In order to study the inner flow field of multi-stage submersible centrifugal pump, the model named QD3-60/4-1.1 was selected. Steady turbulence characteristics of impellers, diffusers and return channel were calculated by Fluent software, the SIMPLEC algorithm and RNG κ-ε turbulence model with sliding mesh technology. Then, the distributions of pressure, velocity and Turbulence kinetic energy was obtained and the distributions of velocity field of a channel were analysed. The results show that the static pressure in impeller is increasing with the increasing of radius. The circumferential component of relative velocity is in the opposite direction of impeller rotating. At the same radius, the component value of pressure surface is larger than suction surface. With the increasing of flow rate, absolute velocity and relative velocity flow angle are becoming small, in opposite of the relative velocity and absolute velocity flow angle. The high turbulent zone of impeller is located in the gap of impellers and diffusers. Flow similarity and structure similarity of the multi-stage submersible pump are confirmed.

  14. Phytotoxicity of atrazine, isoproturon, and diuron to submersed macrophytes in outdoor mesocosms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knauert, Stefanie, E-mail: stefanie.knauert@basf.co [University of Basel, Department of Environmental Sciences, Hebelstrasse 1, 4056 Basel (Switzerland); Singer, Heinz; Hollender, Juliane [Eawag: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Department of Environmental Chemistry, Uberlandstrasse 133, 8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Knauer, Katja [University of Basel, Program Sustainability Research, Klingelbergstr. 50, 4056 Basel (Switzerland)

    2010-01-15

    The submersed macrophytes Elodea canadensis, Myriophyllum spicatum and Potamogeton lucens were constantly exposed over a five-week period to environmentally relevant concentrations of atrazine, isoproturon, diuron, and their mixture in outdoor mesocosms. Effects were evaluated investigating photosynthetic efficiency (PE) of the three macrophytes and growth of M. spicatum and E. canadensis. Adverse effects on PE were observed on days 2 and 5 after application. M. spicatum was found to be the more sensitive macrophyte. E. canadensis and P. lucens were less sensitive to atrazine, diuron and the mixture and insensitive to isoproturon. PE of M. spicatum was similarly affected by the single herbicides and the mixture demonstrating concentration addition. Growth of E. canadensis and M. spicatum was not reduced indicating that herbicide exposure did not impair plant development. Although PE measurements turned out to be a sensitive method to monitor PSII herbicides, plant growth remains the more relevant ecological endpoint in risk assessment. - Short-term effects on photosynthesis did not result in growth reduction of submerse macrophytes exposed to PSII inhibitors.

  15. Passive Vibration Control of a Semi-Submersible Floating Offshore Wind Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Floating offshore wind turbines have the potential to commercially convert the vast wind resource in deep-water area. Compared with fixed-bottom wind turbines, motions of the floating foundation complicate vibrations and loads of the wind turbine in offshore environment. To alleviate the responses of the wind turbine, this study investigates the use of fore–aft tuned mass damper (TMD in nacelle/tower for passive control of a semi-submersible offshore wind turbine. A simplified structural model, considering the degree-of-freedom of platform pitch and surge, tower tilt and TMD translation, is proposed in the light of motion features of semi-submersible platform. After identifying ten unknown parameters, the correctness of the deterministic model is validated by pitch free decay responses. The mass, stiffness and damping of TMD are optimized using both method of exhaustion and genetic algorithm to avoid local minimum. Six optimized TMD devices are evaluated under three kinds of realistic environment conditions. The control effectiveness is assessed by the extreme and fatigue response reduction ratios. It is found that the high stiffness TMDs that directly dissipate the energy of tower oscillation exhibit an overall stable performance. Similar to the spar-type foundation, the TMDs in the nacelle/tower are capable of extending the service life of floating wind turbines.

  16. Deepwater marine litter densities and compsoition from submersible video-gransects around the ABC-islands, Dutch Caribbean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debrot, A.O.; Vinke, E.; Wende, van der G.; Hylkema, A.; Reed, J.K.

    2014-01-01

    Baseline data on anthropogenic seafloor debris contamination in the year 2000 is provided for 24 submersible video transects at depths of 80–900 m, off the Dutch ABC-islands (Aruba, Bonaire, Curaçao), in the southeastern Caribbean Sea. In total, 202 objects were documented from a combined 21,184 m

  17. Whistle blowing policy and the fight against corruption in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One of the major challenges in the fight against corruption is detecting and exposing corruption. Whistle blowing therefore becomes a veritable means to fight this cancerous crime. After all, criminal justice exists for the control and prevention of crime. However, in every crime control and prevention exercise, due process of ...

  18. High resolution numerical wave propagation in coastal area : benefits in assessment of the marine submersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorville, Jean-François; Cayol, Claude; Palany, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    Many numerical models based on equation of action conservation (N = E/σ) enables the simulation of sea states (WAM, WW3,...). They allow through parametric equations to define sources and sinks of wave energy (E(f,σ)) in spectral form. Statistics of the sea states can be predicted at medium or long term as the significant wave height, the wave pic direction, mean wave period, etc. Those predictions are better if initials and boundaries conditions together with 10m wind field are well defined. Basically the more homogeneous the marine area bathymetry is the more accurate the prediction will be. Météo-France for French West Indies and French Guiana (MF-DIRAG) is in charge of the safety of persons and goods tries to improve knowledge and capacity to evaluate the sea state at the coast and the marine submersion height using among other statistical methods (as return periods) and numerical simulations. The area of responsibility is large and includes different territory, type of coast and sea wave climate. Up today most part of the daily simulations were done for large areas and with large meshes (10km). The needs of more accurate values in the assessment of the marine submersion pushed to develop new strategies to estimate the level of the sea water on the coast line and therefore characterize the marine submersion hazard. Since 2013 new data are available to enhance the capacity to simulate the mechanical process at the coast. High resolution DEM Litto 3D for Guadeloupe and Martinique coasts with grid-spacing of 5m up to 5km of the coast are free of use. The study presents the methodology applied at MF-DIRAG in study mode to evaluate effects of wave breaking on coastline. The method is based on wave simulation downscaling form the Atlantic basin to the coastal area using MF-WAM to an sub kilometric unstructured WW3 or SWAN depending to the domain studied. At the final step a non-hydrostatic wave flow as SWASH is used on the coast completed by an analytical method

  19. Pilot Implementations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manikas, Maria Ie

    This PhD dissertation engages in the study of pilot (system) implementation. In the field of information systems, pilot implementations are commissioned as a way to learn from real use of a pilot system with real data, by real users during an information systems development (ISD) project and before...... objective. The prevalent understanding is that pilot implementations are an ISD technique that extends prototyping from the lab and into test during real use. Another perception is that pilot implementations are a project multiple of co-existing enactments of the pilot implementation. From this perspective...

  20. The fighting hypothesis in combat : How well does the fighting hypothesis explain human left-handed minorities?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groothuis, Ton G.G.; McManus, I.C.; Schaafsma, Sara M.; Geuze, Reint H.; McGrew, WC; Schiefenhovel, W; Marchant, LF

    The strong population bias in hand preference in favor of right-handedness seems to be a typical human trait. An elegant evolutionary hypothesis explaining this trait is the so-called fighting hypothesis that postulates that left-handedness is under frequency-dependent selection. The fighting

  1. Lightweight composite fighting cover prototype development program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wrenn, G.E. Jr.; Frame, B.J.; Gwaltney, R.C.; Akerman, M.A.

    1996-07-01

    The U.S. Army Field Assistance Science and Technology Program requested Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to demonstrate the use of lightweight composite materials in construction of overhead covers for reinforced infantry fighting positions. In recent years, ORNL researchers have designed and tested several concepts for lightweight ballistic protection structures, and they have developed numerous prototype composite structures for military and civilian applications. In the current program, composite panel designs and materials are tested and optimized to meet anticipated static and dynamic load conditions for the overhead cover structure. Ten prototype composite covers were built at ORNL for use in Army field tests. Each composite cover has a nominal surface area of 12 ft[sup 2] and a nominal weight of 8 lb. Four of the prototypes are made with folding sections to improve their handling characteristics. The composite covers exhibit equivalent performance in Army field tests to covers made with conventional materials that weigh four times as much.

  2. Building an Intelligent Hospital to Fight Contagion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bataille, Jérôme; Brouqui, Philippe

    2017-08-15

    The idea of building hospitals to fight contagion was born with the lazarettos. At the time when the microorganisms were not yet known, the mechanisms of transmission of contagion were already well apprehended. Based on the same knowledge but thanks to new technologies, such hospitals have now been built downtown, next to the most highly performing technological plateau. Regrouping patient care, diagnostics, research, and development, the University Hospital Institute Méditerranée Infection building offers a wonderful tool to contain and understand contagion, in a well-designed setting, creating excellent working conditions that are attractive for interested scientists. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Zika virus: Can India win the fight?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulika Singh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus is an emerging arbovirus of public health importance transmitted by Aedes mosquito which also transmits dengue, chikungunya and yellow fever. The disease has been spreading at an alarming rate in Africa, Pacific Islands, and the Americas. Given the expansion of environments where mosquitoes can live and breed, facilitated by urbanization and globalization, there is potential for major urban epidemics of Zika virus disease to occur globally. World Health Organization (WHO has declared Zika virus disease to be a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC. Our failed attempts to control dengue epidemics in the past call for concern and we need to be to prepared to fight Zika virus before it arrives at our doors.

  4. Evaluation of temporary flood-fighting structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wibowo Johannes L.

    2016-01-01

    The evaluation included time, ease, and cost of construction, performance under hydrostatic and wave loading, overtopping, debris impact, possible repair, reuse, environmental impact, and cost. The results of the evaluation showed that the RDFW performed well but is more expensive than the other structures and also not easy to dis-assemble. The Portadam was efficient under hydraulic loading but did not test well in the debris impact tests. The Hesco levee performed well except for the amount of seepage that was observed. The Hesco levee was later retested after the company improved the product, and much less seepage was observed during the retest. The sandbag levee failed during the overtopping test. These results provide the flood-fighting community with results that will assist in the selection of the product that best fits their need.

  5. Research on water-exit and take-off process for Morphing Unmanned Submersible Aerial Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jun-hua; Xu, Bao-wei; Feng, Jin-fu; Qi, Duo; Yang, Jian; Wang, Cong

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents a theoretic implementation method of Morphing Unmanned Submersible Aerial Vehicle (MUSAV), which can both submerge in the water and fly in the air. Two different shapes are put forward so that the vehicle can suit both submergence and flight, considering the tremendous differences between hydrodynamic configuration and aerodynamic configuration of a vehicle. The transition of the two shapes can be achieved by using morphing technology. The water-to-air process, including water-exit, morphing, take-off and steady flight, is analyzed. The hydrodynamic and aerodynamic model of the vehicle exiting the water surface obliquely and then taking off into the air has been founded. The control strategy after morphing is analyzed and the control method is given. Numerical method is used to validate the motion model of the water-exit process. Results of simulations show the validity of the proposed model and the feasibility of MUSAV in theory.

  6. Algorithm to determine electrical submersible pump performance considering temperature changes for viscous crude oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valderrama, A. [Petroleos de Venezuela, S.A., Distrito Socialista Tecnologico (Venezuela); Valencia, F. [Petroleos de Venezuela, S.A., Instituto de Tecnologia Venezolana para el Petroleo (Venezuela)

    2011-07-01

    In the heavy oil industry, electrical submersible pumps (ESPs) are used to transfer energy to fluids through stages made up of one impeller and one diffuser. Since liquid temperature increases through the different stages, viscosity might change between the inlet and outlet of the pump, thus affecting performance. The aim of this research was to create an algorithm to determine ESPs' performance curves considering temperature changes through the stages. A computational algorithm was developed and then compared with data collected in a laboratory with a CG2900 ESP. Results confirmed that when the fluid's viscosity is affected by the temperature changes, the stages of multistage pump systems do not have the same performance. Thus the developed algorithm could help production engineers to take viscosity changes into account and optimize the ESP design. This study developed an algorithm to take into account the fluid viscosity changes through pump stages.

  7. Predicting the postmortem submersion interval for human remains recovered from U.K. waterways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaton, Vivienne; Lagden, Abigail; Moffatt, Colin; Simmons, Tal

    2010-03-01

    This article aims to increase accuracy in estimating the postmortem submersion interval (PMSI) for bodies recovered from rivers in the United Kingdom. Data were collected from closed case files, crime scene reports, and autopsy files concerning bodies recovered over a 15-year period from the River Clyde, Scotland, and the River Mersey and canals in northwest England. One hundred and eighty-seven cases met the study criteria and were scored by quantifying the overall amount of decomposition observed in each case. Statistical analysis showed that the duration of a body's submergence in water and the temperatures to which it was exposed, as measured in accumulated degree days (ADD), had a significant effect on the decay process. Further analysis indicated that there were no significant differences in decomposition between the waterways. By combining the data from all study samples, it was possible to produce a single linear regression model for predicting ADD from observed decomposition.

  8. Examination of histological samples from submerged carrion to aid in the determination of postmortem submersion interval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Michael Keith; Panacek, Edward; Green, William; Albers, Elizabeth

    2013-03-01

    The use of histology in the as a tool for estimating postmortem intervals has rarely been explored but it has the potential for offering medical examiners an additional means for estimating the postmortem submersion interval (PMSI) during a death investigation. This study used perinatal piglets as human analogs which were submerged in freshwater for various time intervals. Each piglet was extracted from the water and underwent a necropsy examination during which histological samples were collected. The samples revealed that the necrotic tissue decomposed relatively predictably over time and that this decompositional progression may have the potential to be used via a scoring system to determine or aid in determining the PMSI. This method for calculating PMSI allows for normalization between piglets of various mass and body types. It also prevents any contamination of the remains via algae growth and animal activity that may exacerbate and possibly exaggerate PMSI calculation.

  9. Submersed aquatic vegetation in Chesapeake Bay: Sentinel species in a changing world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Robert J.; Dennison, William C.; Lefcheck, Jonathon S.; Gurbisz, Cassie; Hannam, Michael; Keisman, Jennifer; Landry, J. Brooke; Moore, Kenneth A.; Murphy, Rebecca R.; Patrick, Christopher J.; Testa, Jeremy; Weller, Donald E.; Wilcox, David J.

    2017-01-01

    Chesapeake Bay has undergone profound changes since European settlement. Increases in human and livestock populations, associated changes in land use, increases in nutrient loadings, shoreline armoring, and depletion of fish stocks have altered the important habitats within the Bay. Submersed aquatic vegetation (SAV) is a critical foundational habitat and provides numerous benefits and services to society. In Chesapeake Bay, SAV species are also indicators of environmental change because of their sensitivity to water quality and shoreline development. As such, SAV has been deeply integrated into regional regulations and annual assessments of management outcomes, restoration efforts, the scientific literature, and popular media coverage. Even so, SAV in Chesapeake Bay faces many historical and emerging challenges. The future of Chesapeake Bay is indicated by and contingent on the success of SAV. Its persistence will require continued action, coupled with new practices, to promote a healthy and sustainable ecosystem.

  10. [Social aspects in fighting against tuberculosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguin, H G

    1982-01-01

    In 1884 Robert Koch postulated in his essay on "The Etiology of Tuberculosis" favouring moments for the settling of tubercle bacilli to explain the predisposition and diversified course of tuberculosis in grown-up persons. Under the conception "disposition" he also subsumised exogen factors beside the internal conditions and proclaimed that all steps undertaken against tuberculosis should take into account the social conditions. Only to effect the treatment in a sanatorium for such patients, it is also necessary to care for their families and for the patients themselves after they left the sanatorium. Complex fighting programmes developed according to the thorough analysis of the social surroundings, including the influences of occupation, income, expenses for food, housing and clothing, the legislation with regard to the health law and education to health duty as well as the level of medical science. Briefly, there was stated that the tuberculosis mortality depends on the standard of life. From the war-epidemiology of tuberculosis at least 3 parallel curves resulted, decisively influencing the mortality, the curves of infection and charging with work as well as the curve of nourishment. So the tuberculosis was characterised as a social disease. No wonder that social appearances--and war is one of them--stamp the special picture. As a model of applied knowledge, the strategy of fighting tuberculosis in the GDR and its outstanding results are discussed. After the antituberculosis chemotherapy was introduced, which shortens the duration of the disease and removes its chronic relapsing course, the significance of the social factors, however, decreased, but concerning the situation in the Third World, their knowledge is of great importance and not only of historical interest.

  11. Effects of high nitrogen concentrations on the growth of submersed macrophytes at moderate phosphorus concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qing; Wang, Hong-Zhu; Li, Yan; Shao, Jian-Chun; Liang, Xiao-Min; Jeppesen, Erik; Wang, Hai-Jun

    2015-10-15

    Eutrophication of lakes leading to loss of submersed macrophytes and higher turbidity is a worldwide phenomenon, attributed to excessive loading of phosphorus (P). However, recently, the role of nitrogen (N) for macrophyte recession has received increasing attention. Due to the close relationship between N and P loading, disentanglement of the specific effects of these two nutrients is often difficult, and some controversy still exists as to the effects of N. We studied the effects of N on submersed macrophytes represented by Vallisneria natans (Lour.) Hara in pots positioned at three depths (0.4 m, 0.8 m, and 1.2 m to form a gradient of underwater light conditions) in 10 large ponds having moderate concentrations of P (TP 0.03 ± 0.04 mg L(-1)) and five targeted concentrations of total nitrogen (TN) (0.5, 2, 10, 20, and 100 mg L(-1)), there were two ponds for each treatment. To study the potential shading effects of other primary producers, we also measured the biomass of phytoplankton (ChlaPhyt) and periphyton (ChlaPeri) expressed as chlorophyll a. We found that leaf length, leaf mass, and root length of macrophytes declined with increasing concentrations of TN and ammonium, while shoot number and root mass did not. All the measured growth indices of macrophytes declined significantly with ChlaPhyt, while none were significantly related to ChlaPeri. Neither ChlaPhyt nor ChlaPeri were, however, significantly negatively related to the various N concentrations. Our results indicate that shading by phytoplankton unrelated to the variation in N loading and perhaps toxic stress exerted by high nitrogen were responsible for the decline in macrophyte growth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Fire Fighting Organization and Its Efficacy Problem in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer YAVUZ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fire fighting which used to be performed by volunteers thanks to the efforts of citizens in the Ottoman Empire has been organized in various ways from the beginning of the 18th century onwards, when the first fire fighting organization was established. Fire fighting services offered by local and central governments across the world is de-centralized in Turkey, in other words conducted by local administrations. An effective fire fighting service directly affecting the safety of those who make use of this service aims to minimize the loss of lives. On the other hand, a small mistake made by fire fighters and victims jeopardizes their lives. The present study is primarily intended to investigate, in terms of “effectiveness problems”, the organization of fire fighting services over time and current methods by which fire fighting services are put into action. It also aims to study the ways related services are offered within the context of the relationship between local and central governments. “The urgent need to reform emergency response institutions” marks the basic suggestion of the study, in which several other suggestions are made to solve the problems concerning fire fighting services.

  13. Physical strength, fighting ability, and aggressiveness in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Reyes, José Antonio; Gil-Burmann, Carlos; Fink, Bernhard; Turiegano, Enrique

    2012-01-01

    Recent research suggests that evolutionary selection pressures have shaped mental mechanisms to be able to assess one's own and other's physical strength, fighting ability, and aggressiveness. According to the recalibrational theory, anger may be linked to fighting ability and serve as a bargaining mechanism to improve welfare obtained in social conflict. We hypothesized that late adolescent men (but not mid-adolescent men or women) use this mechanism, as it would be particularly adaptive for them to avoid potential costs from direct conflict in male competition. The present study investigated the relationship between fighting ability (estimated from handgrip strength [HGS], a measure of upper body strength, and self-reported fighting ability) and aggressiveness (physical and nonphysical) in 288 Spanish adolescents aged 14-18 years. Our results indicated a positive relationship between self-perceived fighting ability and HGS in both sexes during adolescence. There was no association between fighting ability and aggressiveness in late adolescent women (17-18 years). For men, there was a positive relationship between fighting ability and physical aggression, but the strength of this relationship decreased with age. Additionally, for men, there was a positive relationship between fighting ability and anger but only in late adolescence, and thus arguing that for adolescent men aggression strategies shift from physical to nonphysical as they age. With reference to the recalibrational theory of anger, our results suggest that the sex- and age-dependent associations between fighting ability and physical and nonphysical aggression indicate divergent adaptive skills between sexes, which are driven by intrasexual competition. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Crisis management with applicability on fire fighting plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panaitescu, M.; Panaitescu, F. V.; Voicu, I.; Dumitrescu, L. G.

    2017-08-01

    The paper presents a case study for a crisis management analysis which address to fire fighting plants. The procedures include the steps of FTA (Failure tree analysis). The purpose of the present paper is to describe this crisis management plan with tools of FTA. The crisis management procedures have applicability on anticipated and emergency situations and help to describe and planning a worst-case scenario plan. For this issue must calculate the probabilities in different situations for fire fighting plants. In the conclusions of paper is analised the block diagram with components of fire fighting plant and are presented the solutions for each possible risk situations.

  15. stil113_0401p -- Still frame locations of sediment extracted from video imagery collected by Delta submersible in September 2001.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Delta submersible vehicle, outfitted with video equipment (and other devices), was deployed from the R/V Auriga during September 2001 to monitor seafloor...

  16. Submersible Data (Dive Waypoints) for Islands in the Stream 2002 - Exploration of Outer Shelf and Slope Habitats off the Coast of North Carolina - Office of Ocean Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data and information collected by the submersible Johnson Sea-Link II at waypoints along its track during one dive of the 2002 "Islands in the Stream - Outer Shelf...

  17. Functionality of the plastron in adults of Neochetina eichhorniae Warner (Coleoptera, Curculionidae): aspects of the integument coating and submersion laboratory experiments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wesley Oliveira de Sousa; Germano Henrique Rosado-Neto; Marinêz Isaac Marques

    2012-01-01

    The plastron theory was tested in adults of Neochetina eichhorniae Warner, 1970, through the analysis of the structure that coats these insects' integument and also through submersion laboratorial experiments...

  18. Phytoplankton cell counts from a moored submersible flow cytometer at Martha's Vineyard Coastal Observatory, Massachusetts, May - September 2004 (NODC Accession 0002722)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Phytoplankton cell counts were collected from using a moored submersible flow cytometer from the Martha's Vineyard Coastal Observatory in the Northwest Atlantic...

  19. Submersible Data (Dive Waypoints) for Estuary to the Abyss 2004: Exploring Along the Latitude 31-30 Transect - Office of Ocean Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data and information collected by the submersible Johnson Sea-Link II at waypoints along its track during thirteen of the fourteen dives of the 2004 "Estuary to the...

  20. Sebastian Pinnacles, Oculina Banks Clelia Dive 619 Narrative 2001 - Videotape and Visual Observations from Submersible Dives to the Oculina Banks Deep Sea Coral Reefs (NODC Accession 0047190)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are from one of fourteen 2001 submersible "Clelia" dives. Narratives including habitat descriptions and estimates of megafaunal species abundance were...

  1. Jeff's Reef, Oculina Banks Clelia Dive 606 Narrative 2001 - Videotape and Visual Observations from Submersible Dives to the Oculina Banks Deep Sea Coral Reefs (NODC Accession 0047190)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These are data from one of fourteen 2001 submersible "Clelia" dives. Narratives including habitat descriptions and estimates of megafaunal species abundance were...

  2. Sebastian Pinnacles, Oculina Banks Clelia Dive 615 Narrative 2001 - Videotape and Visual Observations from Submersible Dives to the Oculina Banks Deep Sea Coral Reefs (NODC Accession 0047190)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are from one of fourteen 2001 submersible "Clelia" dives. Narratives including habitat descriptions and estimates of megafaunal species abundance were...

  3. Eau Gallie, Oculina Banks Clelia Dive 609 Narrative 2001 - Videotape and Visual Observations from Submersible Dives to the Oculina Banks Deep Sea Coral Reefs (NODC Accession 0047190)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are from one of fourteen 2001 submersible "Clelia" dives. Narratives including habitat descriptions and estimates of megafaunal species abundance were...

  4. Sebastian Pinnacles, Oculina Banks Clelia Dive 614 Narrative 2001 - Videotape and Visual Observations from Submersible Dives to the Oculina Banks Deep Sea Coral Reefs (NODC Accession 0047190)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are from one of fourteen 2001 submersible "Clelia" dives. Narratives including habitat descriptions and estimates of megafaunal species abundance were...

  5. Chapman's Reef, Oculina Banks Clelia Dive 620 Narrative 2001 - Videotape and Visual Observations from Submersible Dives to the Oculina Banks Deep Sea Coral Reefs (NODC Accession 0047190)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are from one of fourteen 2001 submersible "Clelia" dives. Narratives including habitat descriptions and estimates of megafaunal species abundance were...

  6. Cocoa Beach, Oculina Banks Clelia Dive 617 Narrative 2001 - Videotape and Visual Observations from Submersible Dives to the Oculina Banks Deep Sea Coral Reefs (NODC Accession 0047190)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are from one of from fourteen 2001 submersible "Clelia" dives. Narratives including habitat descriptions and estimates of megafaunal species abundance...

  7. Cape Canaveral, Oculina Banks Clelia Dive 616 Narrative 2001 - Videotape and Visual Observations from Submersible Dives to the Oculina Banks Deep Sea Coral Reefs (NODC Accession 0047190)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These are data from one of fourteen 2001 submersible "Clelia" dives. Narratives including habitat descriptions and estimates of megafaunal species abundance were...

  8. Eau Gallie, Oculina Banks Clelia Dive 608 Narrative 2001 - Videotape and Visual Observations from Submersible Dives to the Oculina Banks Deep Sea Coral Reefs (NODC Accession 0047190)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are from one of fourteen 2001 submersible "Clelia" dives. Narratives including habitat descriptions and estimates of megafaunal species abundance were...

  9. Sebastian Pinnacles, Oculina Banks Clelia Dive 618 Narrative 2001 - Videotape and Visual Observations from Submersible Dives to the Oculina Banks Deep Sea Coral Reefs (NODC Accession 0047190)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are from one of fourteen 2001 submersible "Clelia" dives. Narratives including habitat descriptions and estimates of megafaunal species abundance were...

  10. Chapman's Reef, Oculina Banks Clelia Dive 621 Narrative 2001 - Videotape and Visual Observations from Submersible Dives to the Oculina Banks Deep Sea Coral Reefs (NODC Accession 0047190)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are from one of fourteen 2001 submersible "Clelia" dives. Narratives including habitat descriptions and estimates of megafaunal species abundance were...

  11. Jeff's Reef Oculina Banks Clelia Dive 607 Narrative 2001 - Videotape and Visual Observations from Submersible Dives to the Oculina Banks Deep Sea Coral Reefs (NODC Accession 0047190)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These are data from one of fourteen 2001 submersible "Clelia" dives. Narratives including habitat descriptions and estimates of megafaunal species abundance were...

  12. Phytoplankton cell counts from a moored submersible flow cytometer at Martha's Vineyard (Massachusetts) Coastal Observatory, May 10 - December 15, 2003 (NODC Accession 0002299)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Phytoplankton cell counts data were collected using a moored submersible flow cytometer from a Coastal Observatory at the Martha's Vineyard in Masschutsetts from 10...

  13. Phytoplankton cell counts from a moored submersible flow cytometer at Martha's Vineyard (Massachusetts) Coastal Observatory, May - December 2006 (NODC Accession 0036656)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Phytoplankton cell counts were collected from using a moored submersible flow cytometer from the Martha's Vineyard Coastal Observatory in the Northwest Atlantic...

  14. Laurentide: The Crime Fighting Geologist, A Comic-Book Curriculum Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGillis, A.; Gilbert, L. A.; Enright, K. P.

    2014-12-01

    When the police are just too ill informed on matters of earth science to solve the case it is up to Laurentide and her crew of geologists to bring justice to evildoers. Using every tool available, from a rock hammer to LiDAR, Laurentide fights crime while teaching her apprentice Esker about how geologists uncover mysteries everyday. This is the first of what will be a series of free teaching materials targeted at grades 5-8 based around the National Science Education Standards. Students will get the chance to practice problem solving and data analysis in order to solve mysteries with a combination of comic book style story telling and hands-on worksheets. The pilot story, "The Caper of the Ridiculously Cheap Condominiums" will cover 4 of the 9 Earth Science Literacy Principles 'Big Ideas'. Material will explore earthquakes, the hazards and risks they present, and the tools geologists use to map faults and estimate reoccurrence intervals.

  15. "As a native nation, we must fight diabetes…"

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Diabetes Stories "As a native nation, we must fight diabetes…" Past Issues / ... Springs, Az. Type 2 I didn't know a thing about diabetes when I was diagnosed, but ...

  16. Drug Helps Fight Breast Tumors Tied to 'Cancer Genes'

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drug Helps Fight Breast Tumors Tied to 'Cancer Genes' Lynparza may offer a new treatment for women ... with breast cancer linked to BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene mutations, according to the study. Olaparib delayed cancer ...

  17. Community Intervention May Aid Fight Against Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html Community Intervention May Aid Fight Against Childhood Obesity Harvard study finds small successes in two Massachusetts- ... take a community to achieve modest reductions in obesity rates among U.S. children. The study authors tested ...

  18. Using community conversation in the fight against HIV and AIDS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using community conversation in the fight against HIV and AIDS. ... However, the overwhelming number of participants, some facilitators' limited skills in moderating discussions, the absence of relevant stakeholders, ... Key Words: Community Conversation, Participatory Communication, Alternative Media, HIV and AIDS ...

  19. Male Weaponry in a Fighting Cricket: e3980

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kevin A Judge; Vanessa L Bonanno

    2008-01-01

      Sexually selected male weaponry is widespread in nature. Despite being model systems for the study of male aggression in Western science and for cricket fights in Chinese culture, field crickets...

  20. Promising Results for Drug to Fight Arthritis Linked to Psoriasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Results for Drug to Fight Arthritis Linked to Psoriasis Psoriatic arthritis causes painful joint swelling, but new ... of a form of arthritis often linked to psoriasis. According to Stanford University researchers, psoriatic arthritis is ...

  1. Development of a Semi-submersible Barge for the installation of a TLP floating substructure. TLPWIND® case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amate, Juan; Sánchez, Gustavo D.; González, Gonzalo

    2016-09-01

    One of the biggest challenges to introduce Tension Leg Platform (TLP) technology into the Offshore Wind market are the Transport & Installation (T&I) stages, since most of TLPs are not self-stable as semisubmersible or SPAR platforms, and consequently requires additional means to perform these operations. This paper addresses this problem that has been overcome through the development of a Semi-submersible “Transport & Installation” Barge (SSB) for Iberdrola's TLPWIND® floating support structure. The Semi-submersible Barge has been designed both through the use of numerical models and an extensive basin testing campaign carried out at the University of Strathclyde facilities. This paper also includes an estimation of the duration in time to carry out the installation process of a Floating Offshore Wind Farm, comprising 100x5MW TLPWIND® units in different scenarios.

  2. Your help is appreciated to fight Spam

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Mail Service

    2004-01-01

    Spam problem constantly increases its severity: currently about 90% of e-mails received daily by CERN Mail servers are unsolicited messages - called ‘Spam' - and spammers are doing their best to bypass anti-spam filters. In these conditions, users' feedback is priceless. It allows the CERN Mail Service to improve Spam fighting performance, and of course reduce the number of received unsolicited mails. Outlook users should note the existence of ‘anti-Spam buttons': ‘Check Spam classification of an e-mail', ‘Update personal whitelist' and ‘Report Spam'. The ‘Report Spam' button is very important: it removes the selected Spam from your Inbox, and sends a copy to the CERN Mail Service. Those reports are used to build new filters nearly in real time; a new Spam might be blocked in less than 15 minutes! Therefore, every Outlook user is warmly encouraged to get rid of the Spam messages received in the Inbox folder by using the ‘Report Spam' button and not b...

  3. Social Security and Fighting Poverty in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasna Khemili

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine the role of social security in fighting poverty in Metlaoui, Tunisia, using survey data collected between July 2012 and January 2014, covering 200 poor households. We used questionnaire data, which gave a thorough analysis of the reactions, behavior, and strategies adopted by poor households as a result of various forms of risk. Social security has an effect on a number of different areas, including health, education, housing, and income. Our methodology explored both complete and partial risk-sharing, to investigate the impact of social security schemes on the strategies adopted by households to cope with economic shocks. The estimation results of different models showed that social security could help social security-covered households choose less costly strategies to cope with risks. However, the role of social security remains insufficient, given that covered households had less confidence in its services and they adopted strategies of self-insurance or income smoothing. Overall, the results showed that social security plays an important role in Metlaoui, but it remains insufficient, especially for households that are not covered by social security and are suffering from heavy health expenditures.

  4. Fighting 'personhood' initiatives in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Lee Rubin; Crockin, Susan L

    2012-06-01

    'Personhood' initiatives filed in many states within the United States threaten to impose potentially significant restrictions on infertility treatment, embryo disposition, pre-natal care, abortion, contraception, and stem-cell research, all through attempts to redefine a 'person' or 'human being' as existing from the moment of fertilization or conception, and endowed with the full legal and Constitutional rights of personhood. Virginia's recent, unsuccessful attempt to pass such legislation provides both a dramatic example of these efforts and valuable lessons in the fight against them by infertility advocates and others. Arguments over loss of infertility treatment seemed more persuasive to legislatures than did restrictions on abortion or stem cell research. Indeed, persuading legislators or voters that they could be 'pro-life' and still anti-personhood initiatives was a key strategy, and consumer efforts and media attention were instrumental. The most central lessons, however, may be the degree of intensity and coordinated strategy to shift public perception that lie behind these numerous state efforts, regardless of whether the actual initiatives are won or lost. Copyright © 2012 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Metabolomics in the fight against malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Jorge L; Kissinger, Jessica C; Jones, Dean P; Galinski, Mary R

    2014-08-01

    Metabolomics uses high-resolution mass spectrometry to provide a chemical fingerprint of thousands of metabolites present in cells, tissues or body fluids. Such metabolic phenotyping has been successfully used to study various biologic processes and disease states. High-resolution metabolomics can shed new light on the intricacies of host-parasite interactions in each stage of the Plasmodium life cycle and the downstream ramifications on the host's metabolism, pathogenesis and disease. Such data can become integrated with other large datasets generated using top-down systems biology approaches and be utilised by computational biologists to develop and enhance models of malaria pathogenesis relevant for identifying new drug targets or intervention strategies. Here, we focus on the promise of metabolomics to complement systems biology approaches in the quest for novel interventions in the fight against malaria. We introduce the Malaria Host-Pathogen Interaction Center (MaHPIC), a new systems biology research coalition. A primary goal of the MaHPIC is to generate systems biology datasets relating to human and non-human primate (NHP) malaria parasites and their hosts making these openly available from an online relational database. Metabolomic data from NHP infections and clinical malaria infections from around the world will comprise a unique global resource.

  6. Metabolomics in the fight against malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge L Salinas

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Metabolomics uses high-resolution mass spectrometry to provide a chemical fingerprint of thousands of metabolites present in cells, tissues or body fluids. Such metabolic phenotyping has been successfully used to study various biologic processes and disease states. High-resolution metabolomics can shed new light on the intricacies of host-parasite interactions in each stage of the Plasmodium life cycle and the downstream ramifications on the host’s metabolism, pathogenesis and disease. Such data can become integrated with other large datasets generated using top-down systems biology approaches and be utilised by computational biologists to develop and enhance models of malaria pathogenesis relevant for identifying new drug targets or intervention strategies. Here, we focus on the promise of metabolomics to complement systems biology approaches in the quest for novel interventions in the fight against malaria. We introduce the Malaria Host-Pathogen Interaction Center (MaHPIC, a new systems biology research coalition. A primary goal of the MaHPIC is to generate systems biology datasets relating to human and non-human primate (NHP malaria parasites and their hosts making these openly available from an online relational database. Metabolomic data from NHP infections and clinical malaria infections from around the world will comprise a unique global resource.

  7. Crayfish recognize the faces of fight opponents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Van der Velden

    Full Text Available The capacity to associate stimuli underlies many cognitive abilities, including recognition, in humans and other animals. Vertebrates process different categories of information separately and then reassemble the distilled information for unique identification, storage and recall. Invertebrates have fewer neural networks and fewer neural processing options so study of their behavior may reveal underlying mechanisms still not fully understood for any animal. Some invertebrates form complex social colonies and are capable of visual memory-bees and wasps, for example. This ability would not be predicted in species that interact in random pairs without strong social cohesion; for example, crayfish. They have chemical memory but the extent to which they remember visual features is unknown. Here we demonstrate that the crayfish Cherax destructor is capable of visual recognition of individuals. The simplicity of their interactions allowed us to examine the behavior and some characteristics of the visual features involved. We showed that facial features are learned during face-to-face fights, that highly variable cues are used, that the type of variability is important, and that the learning is context-dependent. We also tested whether it is possible to engineer false identifications and for animals to distinguish between twin opponents.

  8. Studi Pengaruh Gerak Semi-submersible Drilling Rig dengan Variasi Pre-tension Mooring Line terhadap Keamanan Drilling Riser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arda Arda

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Analisis terhadap sistem tambat pada anjungan pengeboran semi-submersible drilling rig perlu dilakukan sebelum dilakukannya operasi di lapangan untuk mengetahui perencanaan sistem tambat yang tepat dan aman. Dalam penelitian ini dilakukan analisa perilaku gerak semi-submersible dengan variasi pre-tension mooring line untuk mengetahui berapa besar pre-tension minimal yang harus digunakan agar operasi pengeboran di lingkungan laut Natuna dapat berjalan dengan aman. Variasi pre-tension yang digunakan adalah sebesar 400kN-2000kN dengan penambahan sebesar 400kN. Karakteristik gerakan semi-submersible diprediksi dengan menghitung RAO free floating dengan pemodelan numerik dalam domain frekuensi. Kemudian dilakukan analisa simulasi sistem lengkap (platform, mooring dan drilling riser dengan pemodelan numerik dalam domain waktu. Hasil yang didapat yakni nilai maksimum tegangan mooring line memenuhi batas kriteria API-RP2SK untuk semua variasi pre-tension dengan safety factor terkecil 2.44. Sudut flex joint drilling riser yang terjadi melewati batas kriteria API-RP16Q pada pre-tension 400kN-800kN yang mencapai 6.20 untuk sudut maksimum dan 4.80 untuk sudut rata-rata. Tegangan von Mises yang terjadi pada drilling riser melebihi kriteria API-RP16Q pada pre-tension 400kN-1200kN karena nilainya mencapai 369 MPa (0.82 yield stress.

  9. Numerical Investigation of a Tuned Heave Plate Energy-Harvesting System of a Semi-Submersible Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel tuned heave plate energy-harvesting system (THPEH is presented for the motion suppressing and energy harvesting of a semi-submersible platform. This THPEH system is designed based on the principle of a tuned mass damper (TMD and is composed of spring supports, a power take-off system (PTO and four movable heave plates. The permanent magnet linear generators (PMLG are used as the PTO system in this design. A semi-submersible platform operating in the South China Sea is selected as the research subject for investigating the effects of the THPEH system on motion reduction and harvesting energy through numerical simulations. The numerical model of the platform and the THPEH system, which was established based on hydrodynamic analysis, is modified and validated by the results of the flume test of a 1:70 scale model. The effects of the parameters, including the size, the frequency ratio and the damping ratio of the THPEH system, are systematically investigated. The results show that this THPEH system, with proper parameters, could significantly reduce the motions of the semi-submersible platform and generate considerable power under different wave conditions.

  10. Linking carbon and nitrogen metabolism to depth distribution of submersed macrophytes using high ammonium dosing tests and a lake survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Guixiang; Cao, Te; Fu, Hui; Ni, Leyi; Zhang, Xiaolin; Li, Wei; Song, Xin; Xie, Ping; Jeppesen, Erik

    2013-12-01

    Strategies of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) utilisation are among the factors determining plant distribution. It has been argued that submersed macrophytes adapted to lower light environments are more efficient in maintaining C metabolic homeostasis due to their conservative C strategy and ability to balance C shortage. We studied how depth distributions of 12 submersed macrophytes in Lake Erhai, China, were linked to their C-N metabolic strategies when facing acute [Formula: see text] dosing.[Formula: see text] dosing changed C-N metabolism significantly by decreasing the soluble carbohydrate (SC) content and increasing the [Formula: see text]-N and free amino acid (FAA) content of plant tissues.The proportional changes in SC contents in the leaves and FAA contents in the stems induced by [Formula: see text] dosing were closely correlated (positive for SC and negative for FAA) with the colonising water depths of the plants in Lake Erhai, the plants adapted to lower light regimes being more efficient in maintaining SC and FAA homeostasis.These results indicate that conservative carbohydrate metabolism of submersed macrophytes allowed the plants to colonise greater water depths in eutrophic lakes, where low light availability in the water column diminishes carbohydrate production by the plants.

  11. Ocean Economy and Fault Diagnosis of Electric Submersible Pump applied in Floating platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panlong Zhang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Ocean economy plays a crucial role in the strengthening maritime safety industry and in the welfare of human beings. Electric Submersible Pumps (ESP have been widely used in floating platforms on the sea to provide oil for machines. However, the ESP fault may lead to ocean environment pollution, on the other hand, a timely fault diagnosis of ESP can improve the ocean economy. In order to meet the strict regulations of the ocean economy and environmental protection, the fault diagnosis of ESP system has become more and more popular in many countries. The vibration mechanical models of typical faults have been able to successfully diagnose the faults of ESP. And different types of sensors are used to monitor the vibration signal for the signal analysis and fault diagnosis in the ESP system. Meanwhile, physical sensors would increase the fault diagnosis challenge. Nowadays, the method of neural network for the fault diagnosis of ESP has been applied widely, which can diagnose the fault of an electric pump accurately based on the large database. To reduce the number of sensors and to avoid the large database, in this paper, algorithms are designed based on feature extraction to diagnose the fault of the ESP system. Simulation results show that the algorithms can achieve the prospective objectives superbly.

  12. Counteracting ammonia inhibition during anaerobic digestion by recovery using submersible microbial desalination cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yifeng; Angelidaki, Irini

    2015-07-01

    Ammonia inhibition is one of the most frequent and serious problems in biogas plants. In this study, a novel hybrid system consisting of a submersible microbial desalination cell (SMDC) and a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) was developed for counteracting ammonia inhibition during anaerobic digestion (AD) with simultaneous in situ ammonia recovery and electricity production. The SMDC was powered by acetate in a buffer solution, while synthetic ammonia-rich wastewater was used as the feeding of the CSTR. Under continuous operation, ammonia recovery rate of 86 g-N/m(2) /day and current density of 4.33 A/m(2) were achieved at steady-state condition. As a result, 112% extra biogas was produced due to ammonia recovery by the SMDC. High-throughput sequencing showed that ammonia recovery had an impact on the microbial community structures in the SMDC and CSTR. Considering the additional economic benefits of biogas enhancement and possible wastewater treatment, the SMDC may represent a cost-effective and environmentally friendly method for waste resources recovery and biomethanation of ammonia-rich residues. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. A Review of Experiments and Modeling of Gas-Liquid Flow in Electrical Submersible Pumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun Zhu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available As the second most widely used artificial lift method in petroleum production (and first in produced amount, electrical submersible pump (ESP maintains or increases flow rate by converting kinetic energy to hydraulic pressure of hydrocarbon fluids. To facilitate its optimal working conditions, an ESP has to be operated within a narrow application window. Issues like gas involvement, changing production rate and high oil viscosity, greatly impede ESP boosting pressure. Previous experimental studies showed that the presence of gas would cause ESP hydraulic head degradation. The flow behaviors inside ESPs under gassy conditions, such as pressure surging and gas pockets, further deteriorate ESP pressure boosting ability. Therefore, it is important to know what parameters govern the gas-liquid flow structure inside a rotating ESP and how it can be modeled. This paper presents a comprehensive review on the key factors that affect ESP performance under gassy flow conditions. Furthermore, the empirical and mechanistic models for predicting ESP pressure increment are discussed. The computational fluid dynamics (CFD-based modeling approach for studying the multiphase flow in a rotating ESP is explained as well. The closure relationships that are critical to both mechanistic and numerical models are reviewed, which are helpful for further development of more accurate models for predicting ESP gas-liquid flow behaviors.

  14. Classification of submersed aquatic vegetation of the Venice lagoon using MIVIS airborne data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pignatti

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In July 2001 an aerial survey with MIVIS (Multispectral Infrared and Visible Spectrometer hyperspectral sensor and an in situ survey campaign were performed on Venice lagoon to map benthic macro-algae and sea phanerogams distribution. On MIVIS VIS spectral range images, training areas for benthic macro-algae and sea phanerogams have been selected by using sea truth data collected by CNR-ISMAR from in situ campaign and periodic area surveys used in the lagoon by the local authorities. The derived spectral signature has been used to classify the area in order to produce the maps of the pure and mixture submersed vegetation population. The algorithm applied to the data is based on the Subpixel Spectral Analytical Process (SSAP method. The method assumes that the spectrum of a single pixel is composed of a fraction of the material of interest while the remainder of the observed spectra contains background materials. In terms of recognition processes the produced maps present a very good agreement with the sea truth data even though the fraction material expressed in the maps does not represent a quantitative estimation of the material of interest.

  15. Critical surface roughness for wall bounded flow of viscous fluids in an electric submersible pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Dhairyasheel; Siddique, Md Hamid; Kenyery, Frank; Samad, Abdus

    2017-11-01

    Surface roughness plays a vital role in the performance of an electric submersible pump (ESP). A 3-D numerical analysis has been carried out to find the roughness effect on ESP. The performance of pump for steady wall bounded turbulent flows is evaluated at different roughness values and compared with smooth surface considering a non-dimensional roughness factor K. The k- ω SST turbulence model with fine mesh at near wall region captures the rough wall effects accurately. Computational results are validated with experimental results of water (1 cP), at a design speed (3000 RPM). Maximum head is observed for a hydraulically smooth surface (K=0). When roughness factor is increased, the head decreases till critical roughness factor (K=0.1) due to frictional loss. Further increase in roughness factor (K>0.1) increases the head due to near wall turbulence. The performance of ESP is analyzed for turbulent kinetic energy and eddy viscosity at different roughness values. The wall disturbance over the rough surface affects the pressure distribution and velocity field. The roughness effect is predominant for high viscosity oil (43cP) as compared to water. Moreover, the study at off-design conditions showed that Reynolds number influences the overall roughness effect.

  16. Development of LMR Coolant Technology - Development of a submersible-in-pool electromagnetic pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Sang Hi; Kim, Hee Reyoung; Lee, Sang Don; Seo, Joon Ho [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Su Won [Kyoungki University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-15

    A submersible-in-pool type annular linear induction pumps of 60 l/min and 200 l/min, and 600 deg C has been designed with optimum geometrical and operating values found from MHD and circuit analyses reflecting the high-temperature characteristics of pump materials. Through the characteristics analyses inside the narrow flow channel of electromagnetic pump, the distribution of the time-varying flow field is calculated, and magnetic flux and force density are evaluated by end effects of linear induction electromagnetic pump and the instability analyses are carried out introducing one-dimensional linear perturbation. Testing the pump with the flow rate of 60 l/min in the suitably manufactured loop system shows a flow rate of 58 l/min at an input power of 1,377 VA with 60Hz. The design of a scaled-up pump is further taken into account LMR coolant system requiring increased capacity, and a basic analysis is carried out on the pump of 40,000 l/min for KALIMER. The present project contributes to the further design of engineering prototype electromagnetic pumps with higher capacity and to the development of liquid metal reactor with innovative simplicity. 89 refs., 8 tabs., 45 figs. (author)

  17. Electrically heated pipe in pipe combined with electrical submersible pumps for deepwater development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Sidnei Guerreiro da; Euphemio, Mauro Luiz Lopes [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The general trend of deep water and ultra deep water field development is the requirement of highly insulated flow lines, as flow assurance has become one of the major considerations in designing and operating the sub sea system. If not adequately considered in the design phase, it can have significant and unexpected effects to the operational costs, increasing production lost time, decreasing efficiency. In this scenario, the use of pipe in pipe flow lines, with high passive insulation and/ or active heating (called the Electrically Heated Pipe in Pipe - EHPIP), emerges as an attractive method to prevent deposition, especially of waxes and hydrates, by actively maintaining or leading the temperature of the flow line above a critical limit. Besides, the recent heavy oil discoveries in Brazil have encouraged PETROBRAS to move a step forward in the artificial lift design and operation, by the use of Electrical Submersible Pumps (ESP) installed in deep water wells. The combination of EHPIP and ESP are particularly suitable for deep water, high viscosity and long tie back systems, but also can improve oil recovery and production efficiency by allowing the operator to drop down production losses associated Flow Assurance problems. (author)

  18. Innovative self-powered submersible microbial electrolysis cell (SMEC) for biohydrogen production from anaerobic reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yifeng; Angelidaki, Irini

    2012-01-01

    A self-powered submersible microbial electrolysis cell (SMEC), in which a specially designed anode chamber and external electricity supply were not needed, was developed for in situ biohydrogen production from anaerobic reactors. In batch experiments, the hydrogen production rate reached 17.8 m......L/L/d at the initial acetate concentration of 410 mg/L (5 mM), while the cathodic hydrogen recovery (RH2) and overall systemic coulombic efficiency (CEos) were 93% and 28%, respectively, and the systemic hydrogen yield (YH2) peaked at 1.27 mol-H2/mol-acetate. The hydrogen production increased along with acetate...... and buffer concentration. The highest hydrogen production rate of 32.2 mL/L/d and YH2 of 1.43 mol-H2/mol-acetate were achieved at 1640 mg/L (20 mM) acetate and 100 mM phosphate buffer. Further evaluation of the reactor under single electricity-generating or hydrogen-producing mode indicated that further...

  19. Dynamic Modeling and Simulation of Deep Geothermal Electric Submersible Pumping Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Kullick

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Deep geothermal energy systems employ electric submersible pumps (ESPs in order to lift geothermal fluid from the production well to the surface. However, rough downhole conditions and high flow rates impose heavy strain on the components, leading to frequent failures of the pump system. As downhole sensor data is limited and often unrealible, a detailed and dynamical model system will serve as basis for deeper understanding and analysis of the overall system behavior. Furthermore, it allows to design model-based condition monitoring and fault detection systems, and to improve controls leading to a more robust and efficient operation. In this paper, a detailed state-space model of the complete ESP system is derived, covering the electrical, mechanical and hydraulic subsystems. Based on the derived model, the start-up phase of an exemplary yet realistic ESP system in the Megawatt range—located at a setting depth of 950 m and producing geothermal fluid of 140 ∘ C temperature at a rate of 0.145 m 3 s − 1 —is simulated in MATLAB/Simulink. The simulation results show that the system reaches a stable operating point with realistic values. Furthermore, the effect of self-excitation between the filter capacitor and the motor inductor can clearly be observed. A full set of parameters is provided, allowing for direct model implementation and reproduction of the presented results.

  20. ESP [electric submersible pump] performance in sand-laden fluids in the Bellshill Lake field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowhaniuk, W. (Petro-Canada Resources, Killam, AB (Canada))

    1992-06-01

    Electric submersible pumps (ESPs) used by Petro-Canada in the Bellshill Lake basal quartz pool, were first used as a means of high volume lift in 1976. Traditionally used in areas of the reservoir with limited sand production, ESPs were run in the more permeable and porous areas of the reservoir consisting mainly of unconsolidated sandstones in 1987. Reservoir inflow and sand production was prolific, and ESPs in these wells typically ran for 2-3 days before catastrophic failure occurred, due to the high concentration of abrasives in the produced fluids. As a result of the failures a study was carried out to identify the problems associated with ESPs and abrasives and to determine economic solutions. As a result of the study, the following measures were implemented to improve the service lives of ESPs in the field. All wells that are converted to ESPs are reperforated at 39 shots/m to reduce the pressure drop across the perforations and thus reduce the inflow of sand. New and rebuilt ESPs are assembled without the conventional brass sleeves, instead using Ni-resist parts to avoid hydrogen sulfide attack and degradation. Rubber bearing radially stabilized design counteracts the effect of sand-laden fluid, and drawdown is limited for the first 2-4 weeks of production. Current ESP run-times range up to 2.5 years, and no rubber bearing ESPs have failed due to sand production. 8 refs., 10 figs.

  1. Towards Chip-Based Salinity Measurements for Small Submersibles and Biologgers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Jonsson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Water’s salinity plays an important role in the environment. It can be determined by measuring conductivity, temperature, and depth (CTD. The corresponding sensor systems are commonly large and cumbersome. Here, a 7.5 × 3.5 mm chip, containing microstructured CTD sensor elements, has been developed. On this, 1.5 mm2 gold finger electrodes are used to measure the impedance, and thereby the conductivity of water, in the MHz frequency range. Operation at these frequencies resulted in higher sensitivities than those at sub-MHz frequencies. Up to 14 kΩ per parts per thousand salt concentration was obtained repeatedly for freshwater concentrations. This was three orders of magnitude higher than that obtained for concentrations in and above the brackish range. A platinum electrode is used to determine a set ambient temperature with an accuracy of 0.005°C. Membranes with Nichrome strain gauges responded to a pressure change of 1 bar with a change in resistance of up to 0.21 Ω. A linear fit to data over 7 bars gave a sensitivity of 0.1185 Ω/bar with an R2 of 0.9964. This indicates that the described device can be used in size-limited applications, like miniaturized submersibles, or as a bio-logger on marine animals.

  2. Manual fire fighting tactics at Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jee, Moon Hak; Moon, Chan Kook [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    The general requirements of fire protection at nuclear power plant (NPP) are fire protection program, fire hazard analysis, and fire prevention features. In addition, specific fire protection requirements such as water supplies, fire detection, fire protection of safe related equipment, and safe shutdown capabilities must be provided. Particularly, manual fire fighting is required as specific requirements with the provisions to secure manual fire suppression, fire brigade and its training, and administrative controls for manual fire fighting. If a fire is alarmed and confirmed to be a real fire, the fire brigade must take manual fire fighting activities as requested at fire protection program. According to the present requirements in itself, there is not any specific manual fire fighting ways or practical strategies. In general, fire zones or compartments at NPPs are built in a confined condition. In theory, the fire condition will change from a combustible-controlled fire to a ventilation-governing fire with the time duration. In case of pool fire with the abundant oxygen and flammable liquid, it can take just a few minutes for the flash-over to occur. For the well-confined fire zone, it will change from a flame fire to a smoldering state before the entrance door is opened by the fire brigade. In this context, the manual fire fighting activities must be based on a quantitative analysis and a fire risk evaluation. At this paper, it was suggested that the fire zones at NPPs should be grouped on the inherent functions and fire characteristics. Based on the fire risk characteristics and the fire zone grouping, the manual fire fighting tactics are suggested as an advanced fire fighting solution

  3. Pilot implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Bansler, Jørgen P.; Havn, Erling C.

    2012-01-01

    implementation, and provide three empirical illustrations of our model. We conclude that pilot implementation has much merit as an ISD technique when system performance is contingent on context. But we also warn developers that, despite their seductive conceptual simplicity, pilot implementations can...

  4. Pilot implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Bansler, Jørgen P.; Havn, Erling C.

    2012-01-01

    implementation and provide three empirical illustrations of our model. We conclude that pilot implementation has much merit as an ISD technique when system performance is contingent on context. But we also warn developers that, despite their seductive conceptual simplicity, pilot implementations can be difficult...

  5. Epidemiology of Muay Thai fight-related injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strotmeyer, Stephen; Coben, Jeffrey H; Fabio, Anthony; Songer, Thomas; Brooks, Maria

    2016-12-01

    Muay Thai is a combat sport of Thailand that uses stand-up striking along with various clinching techniques. Currently, little is known about the injuries and risk factors for injuries among Muay Thai fighters. Gaining more insight into the nature and frequency of injury in this sport provides part of the overall sports injury picture, within the larger burden of injury as a public health issue. Generating this information is a critical first step toward the broader goal of improving the health and safety of Muay Thai fighters engaged in competition. This study is based upon a survey of 195 Muay Thai fighters. Participants were asked to complete a retrospective web survey on fight-related injuries. Regression analyses were conducted to determine whether injuries during sanctioned fights were related to factors such as fight experience, use of protective equipment, and injury history. Participants were aged 18 to 47 years old (median 26), predominantly male (85.9%), and white (72.3%). Respondents were professional (n = 96, 49.2%) and amateur (n = 99, 50.8%). Fighters reported a mean fight experience of 15.8 fights. Of the 195 respondents, 108 (55.4%) reported sustaining an injury during the most recent fight. The primary body region injured was the extremities (58%) versus the head, with a lower amount of self-reported concussions (5.4%). Nearly 2/3 (66.7%) of all injured fighters reported that the injury did not interfere with the bout outcome. Nearly 25% reported they missed no training time as a result of the injury. Injuries were related to professional fighter status (OR = 2.5, 95% CI = 1.4-4.5), fight experience (OR = 2.7, 95% CI = 1.5-4.9), weight class (OR = 0.923 heavy versus light, 95% CI = .86-.99), age (OR = 0.90 > 26 versus ≤26, 95% CI = .85-.95), use of protective equipment (OR = .46, 95% CI = .26-.82) and previous injury (OR = 1.81, 95% CI = .98-3.3). Lighter, younger, and more experienced

  6. Inclusion of people with disabilities through fights and martial arts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Carvalho da Silva Mocarzel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aimed at investigating how the fights / martial arts were adapted for inclusion of people with disabilities in the social sphere as well as for rehabilitation and sports-competition. The analysis was initially made at the global level and later specific attention was paid to the Brazilian reality, through a narrative review of literature. The following fights / martial arts were considered: fencing, judo, karate, kung fu, boxing, taekwondo and capoeira. It was concluded that the fights / martial arts can contribute to combating social exclusion, contributing to the promotion of health, beauty and leisure and new talents in parasports can be discovered too. Further studies on the subject are needed.

  7. Contrasting sediment records of marine submersion events related to wave exposure, Southwest France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, J.; Chaumillon, E.; Schneider, J.-L.; Jorissen, F.; Sauriau, P.-G.; Richard, P.; Bonnin, J.; Schmidt, S.

    2017-05-01

    Sediment records of two contrasting backshore coastal marshes, extremely vulnerable to recent and historical marine flooding events, located on the SW coast of France, have been investigated using a multiproxy approach. The studied marshes are 30 km apart and have been flooded by similar storm events (7 marine floods in the last 250 years). One is located in a wave-exposed coast but isolated from the sea by a sediment barrier, whereas the other is located in a sheltered estuarine environment and isolated from the sea by a dike. One core was collected in each marsh and information on grain-size, foraminifera, shell contents and stable carbon isotopes was obtained along with an age model using 210Pb, 137Cs and 14C. Core data combined with historical maps give evidence of a typical estuarine backfilling, part of the Holocene regressive parasequence, including an intertidal mudflat at the base and a backshore environment at the top. Despite the absence of grain size anomalies, marine flood-related sedimentation in the backshore area of both marshes is identified by a mixture of marine and terrestrial features, including marine fauna, vegetation debris and variation in the δ13C signature of the organic fraction. Very low sedimentation rates between flood events and/or bioturbation prevents the identification of individual episodic marine floods in the sediment succession. Comparison of the two sedimentary successions shows that the foraminifera deposited by marine submersions are of two different types. Foraminifera are monospecific and originate from the upper tidal mudflat in the sheltered marsh; whereas in the backshore marsh located in a wave-exposed environment, they show higher diversity and originate from both shallow and deeper water marine environments. This study shows that wave exposure can control the faunal content of marine flood sediment records in coastal marshes.

  8. Integrated System Design for a Large Wind Turbine Supported on a Moored Semi-Submersible Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinsong Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few decades, wind energy has emerged as an alternative to conventional power generation that is economical, environmentally friendly and, importantly, renewable. Specifically, offshore wind energy is being considered by a number of countries to harness the stronger and more consistent wind resource compared to that over land. To meet the projected “20% energy from wind by 2030” scenario that was announced in 2006, 54 GW of added wind energy capacity need to come from offshore according to a National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL study. In this study, we discuss the development of a semi-submersible floating offshore platform with a catenary mooring system to support a very large 13.2-MW wind turbine with 100-m blades. An iterative design process is applied to baseline models with Froude scaling in order to achieve preliminary static stability. Structural dynamic analyses are performed to investigate the performance of the new model using a finite element method approach for the tower and a boundary integral equation (panel method for the platform. The steady-state response of the system under uniform wind and regular waves is first studied to evaluate the performance of the integrated system. Response amplitude operators (RAOs are computed in the time domain using white-noise wave excitation; this serves to highlight nonlinear, as well as dynamic characteristics of the system. Finally, selected design load cases (DLCs and the stochastic dynamic response of the system are studied to assess the global performance for sea states defined by wind fields with turbulence and long-crested irregular waves.

  9. DORADO/DOLPHIN: A Unique Semi-submersible Autonomous Vehicle for Ocean Field Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, D.

    2016-02-01

    The Ocean Science and Technology research group (CERC.OCEAN) at Dalhousie University focuses on new approaches to the design and development of autonomous platforms to study biogeochemical and ecological changes in the world's oceans. Mesoscale "patch" experiments involving tracers are used to test hypotheses (e.g. iron fertilization) and examine near-surface processes and air-sea exchange. Such experiments typically require mapping of rapidly-evolving properties on scales of 10's to 100's of kilometers. These experiments typically employ a research vessel to monitor patch movement and to support process studies: however allocation of expensive vessel time between these uses can be problematic. We present a class of autonomous vehicle with unique potential for mesoscale mapping and experimental science at sea. The Dorado/Dolphin semi-submersibles, manufactured by International Submarine Engineering Ltd., travel just below the sea surface. A surface-piercing, "snorkel" mast allows use of a diesel engine allowing speeds of up to 16 knots and sufficient power for support of complex payloads. A tow-body can profile to 200m. The mast allows air sampling with near-zero atmospheric disturbance as well as remote sensing of the sea surface. The characteristics of this type of vehicle will be compared with those of other available platforms. We will report on our adaptation of the vehicle for measurement of gases and purposeful tracers (e.g. SF5CF3) as well as properties such as T, S, pCO2, O2, fluorescence, etc. and present and solicit ideas for the vehicles' further application/use for ocean science.

  10. Innovative self-powered submersible microbial electrolysis cell (SMEC) for biohydrogen production from anaerobic reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yifeng; Angelidaki, Irini

    2012-05-15

    A self-powered submersible microbial electrolysis cell (SMEC), in which a specially designed anode chamber and external electricity supply were not needed, was developed for in situ biohydrogen production from anaerobic reactors. In batch experiments, the hydrogen production rate reached 17.8 mL/L/d at the initial acetate concentration of 410 mg/L (5 mM), while the cathodic hydrogen recovery ( [Formula: see text] ) and overall systemic coulombic efficiency (CE(os)) were 93% and 28%, respectively, and the systemic hydrogen yield ( [Formula: see text] ) peaked at 1.27 mol-H(2)/mol-acetate. The hydrogen production increased along with acetate and buffer concentration. The highest hydrogen production rate of 32.2 mL/L/d and [Formula: see text] of 1.43 mol-H(2)/mol-acetate were achieved at 1640 mg/L (20 mM) acetate and 100 mM phosphate buffer. Further evaluation of the reactor under single electricity-generating or hydrogen-producing mode indicated that further improvement of voltage output and reduction of electron losses were essential for efficient hydrogen generation. In addition, alternate exchanging the electricity-assisting and hydrogen-producing function between the two cell units of the SMEC was found to be an effective approach to inhibit methanogens. Furthermore, 16S rRNA genes analysis showed that this special operation strategy resulted same microbial community structures in the anodic biofilms of the two cell units. The simple, compact and in situ applicable SMEC offers new opportunities for reactor design for a microbial electricity-assisted biohydrogen production system. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A mismatch between the perceived fighting signal and fighting ability reveals survival and physiological costs for bearers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac González-Santoyo

    Full Text Available Signals of fighting indicate an animal's intention to attack and so they serve to prevent costly aggressive encounters. However, according to theory, a signal that is different in design (i.e. a novel signal but that fails to inform fighting intentions will result in negative fitness consequences for the bearer. In the present study we used males of the territorial damselfly Hetaerina americana, which have a red wing spot during territory defense that has evolved as a signal of fighting ability. By producing a novel signal (covering the red spot with blue ink in territory owners, we investigated: a the behavioral responses by conspecific males; b survival cost and c three physiological mediators of impaired survival: muscular fat reserves, muscle mass and immune ability. We predicted that males with the novel signal would be attacked more often by conspecifics as the former would fail to convey fighting ability and intentions adequately. This will result in lower survival and physiological condition for the novel signal bearers. We found that, compared to control males (males whose red spot was not changed, experimental males had reduced survival, were less able to hold a territory, and had a reduced muscle mass. It seems that spot modified males were not able to effectively communicate their territory tenancy, which may explain why they lost their defended sites. Our results provide support for theoretical models that a novel signal that fails to informing fighting ability may lead to a fitness cost for bearers.

  12. The fighting hypothesis in combat: how well does the fighting hypothesis explain human left-handed minorities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groothuis, Ton G G; McManus, I C; Schaafsma, Sara M; Geuze, Reint H

    2013-06-01

    The strong population bias in hand preference in favor of right-handedness seems to be a typical human trait. An elegant evolutionary hypothesis explaining this trait is the so-called fighting hypothesis that postulates that left-handedness is under frequency-dependent selection. The fighting hypothesis assumes that left-handers, being in the minority because of health issues, are still maintained in the population since they would have a greater chance of winning in fights than right-handers due to a surprise effect. This review critically evaluates the assumptions and evidence for this hypothesis and concludes that some evidence, although consistent with the fighting hypothesis, does not directly support it and may also be interpreted differently. Other supportive data are ambiguous or open for both statistical and theoretical criticism. We conclude that, presently, evidence for the fighting hypothesis is not particularly strong, but that there is little evidence to reject it either. The hypothesis thus remains an intuitively plausible explanation for the persistent left-hand preference in the population. We suggest alternative explanations and several ways forward for obtaining more crucial data for testing this frequently cited hypothesis. © 2013 New York Academy of Sciences.

  13. Adolescent Physical Fighting in Ghana, Their Demographic and Social Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel O. Acquah

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Physical fighting is an important behavioral concern of public health importance among adolescents worldwide. The present study examines the patterns and correlates of physical fighting among a school-based population in a low-income country setting. Data on 6235 adolescents aged 11–16 years were derived from the Republic of Ghana contributions to the Global School-based Health Survey. Three thresholds of participation in a physical fight during a 12-month recall period were compared against several independent sociodemographic variables. Bivariate analyses were used to screen for statistically significant associations and multinomial logistic regression was used to examine significant relationships while adjusting for covariates. Within the recall period, 32% of adolescents had reported being involved in two or more physical fights. Those involved in a physical fight during three or more days during the recall period were more likely to have been bullied (relative risk ratios (RRR = 1.86; 99% confidence intervals (CI: 1.38–2.52, have had a troubled experience with alcohol (RRR = 2.202; CI = 1.55–2.64, and miss days of school (RRR = 2.02; CI = 1.39–2.92. When adjusted only for age and sex, having understanding parents was protective (RRR = 0.64; CI = 0.53–0.78 as was having a positive school environment (RRR = 0.73; CI = 0.55–0.97. Our findings suggest that school-based programming which simultaneously targets multiple risk behaviors and conflict resolution may be helpful in interventions to reduce rates of physical fighting.

  14. Fight Club: Identity and Religion in Postmodern America

    OpenAIRE

    Wachenfeldt, Kjell Richard von

    2002-01-01

    Summary This study explores how the novel Fight Club by Chuck Palahniuk, published in 1996, filmed by David Fincher in 1999, treats the themes of identity and religion in an American postmodern cultural context. Fight Club dives into important questions of identity, truth, and higher purpose, and offer original views on what is wrong in contemporary society and suggestions on how to deal with it. On a basis of postmodern theory I argue how Joe (also known as Jack) as a response to postmod...

  15. Submersible microbial desalination cell for simultaneous ammonia recovery and electricity production from anaerobic reactors containing high levels of ammonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yifeng; Angelidaki, Irini

    2015-01-01

    High ammonia concentration in anaerobic reactors can seriously inhibit the anaerobic digestion process. In this study, a submersible microbial desalination cell (SMDC) was developed as an innovative method to lower the ammonia level in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) by in situ ammonia...... and free NH3 diffusion were identified as the mechanisms responsible for the ammonia transportation. With an increase in initial ammonia concentration and a decrease in external resistance, the SMDC performance was enhanced. In addition, the coexistence of other cations in CSTR or cathode had no negative...

  16. High-Volume Airborne Fluids Handling Technologies to Fight Wildfires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, Mark; Cox, Timothy; Hale, Cliff; Hatton, Rick

    2010-01-01

    NASA recently partnered with the U.S. Forest Service (USFS) on a project to examine mission suitability and recommend policies and procedures for the use of very large aerial firefighting aircraft such as the Boeing 747 and DC-10 aerial retardant delivery aircraft. The aircraft under study included a 10Tanker DC-10 and an Evergreen B-747. NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center and Ames Research Center worked with the USFS to help determine the safe flight envelope for these Very Large Air Tanker (VLAT) aircraft for the USFS and the Department of the Interior (DOI). This new generation of supertankers includes aircraft like these that have as much as four times the delivery capacity of the previous generation of aerial firefighting aircraft. Dryden performed operational test and evaluation assessments and reported findings and recommendations on these aircraft in cooperation with Ames. The team developed, implemented, and directed an evaluation test plan for use in flight test and in simulation. Ames provided support using pilot-in-the-loop simulations and coordinated simulator models, flight profiles, and data analysis with Dryden. The test plan was designed to evaluate the suitability of VLAT aircraft as a function of mission environment. Based on this analysis, NASA generated interim flight envelope limitations to enhance safety and operational utility in the fire-retardant delivery mission. These recommended flight limitations were adopted by the USFS. The 10Tanker DC-10 has been in use for several years with the California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection(Cal-Fire), but until NASA took on the challenge of reviewing VLAT capabilities and limitations, the USFS was hesitant to add them to the federal wildfire arsenal. The DC-10 delivery system is based on an externally mounted set of tanks and a bomb-bay style set of clamshell doors that are opened in precisely calibrated ways to deliver the amounts and concentrations of retardant called for by the

  17. Fighting poverty in developing countries: Should the focus be on ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-02-23

    Feb 23, 2011 ... Recent research into decision-making in households has produced some relevant — and surprising — findings with respect to the fight against poverty. Studies show that in developing countries such as Burkina Faso, Bangladesh and South Africa, the greater a woman contributes to household income, the ...

  18. University Mathematics Education, Competencies and the Fighting of Syllabusitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højgaard, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    Syllabusitis is a name for a disease that consists of identifying the mastering of a subject with proficiency related to a syllabus. In this paper I argue that using a set of mathematical competencies as the hub of mathematics education can be a means to fight syllabusitis. The introduction and t...

  19. Fighting female genital mutilation in Africa with information | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-04-01

    Apr 1, 2011 ... The project is unique: the researchers are looking at how modern communication tools such as mobile phones, the Internet, and community radio can be enlisted in the fight against FGM in three French-speaking, West-African countries — Mali, Burkina Faso, and Senegal. This is the first time that these ...

  20. Book Review: What’s worth fighting for in education?

    OpenAIRE

    Fatma Kayan

    2008-01-01

    The review discusses “What’s worth fighting for in education?” by Andy Hargreaves and Michael Fullan. While the book is now 10 years old, the problems of determining the important issues in school (and higher) education and fostering collaborative links between schools and the communities which they serve are as critical now as they have ever been.

  1. Estimation of Forest Fire-fighting Budgets Using Climate Indexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, Z.; Kooten, van G.C.

    2012-01-01

    Given the complexity and relative short length of current predicting system for fire behavior, it is inappropriate to be referred for planning fire-fighting budgets of BC government due to the severe uncertainty of fire behavior across fire seasons. Therefore, a simple weather derived index for

  2. Space and the Joint Fight (Strategic Forum, Number 275)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    what is needed for the joint fight, and is not necessarily a space system.1 Some satellites enable terres - trial capabilities; some are integral...satellites were “gold plated ” with the fact that “we have never flown capability that was not needed.” 4 Amrom H. Katz, “Preliminary Thoughts on

  3. Latex allergy: 'Plight, rights and fights' | Potter | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Medical Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 103, No 6 (2013) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Latex allergy: 'Plight, rights and fights'. PC Potter. Abstract. No Abstract.

  4. Evaluation of Theft, Lying, and Fighting in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keltikangas-Jarvinen, Liisa; Lindeman, Marjaana

    1997-01-01

    Age and gender differences in evaluating three immoral behaviors (theft, lying, and fighting) were studied with 2,594 Finnish preadolescents, midadolescents, and late adolescents. Boys accepted all immoral acts better than girls, and acceptance of these behaviors was highest in middle adolescence. There was flexible use of different rationales for…

  5. Overestimating resource value and its effects on fighting decisions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Alan Dugatkin

    Full Text Available Much work in behavioral ecology has shown that animals fight over resources such as food, and that they make strategic decisions about when to engage in such fights. Here, we examine the evolution of one, heretofore unexamined, component of that strategic decision about whether to fight for a resource. We present the results of a computer simulation that examined the evolution of over- or underestimating the value of a resource (food as a function of an individual's current hunger level. In our model, animals fought for food when they perceived their current food level to be below the mean for the environment. We considered seven strategies for estimating food value: 1 always underestimate food value, 2 always overestimate food value, 3 never over- or underestimate food value, 4 overestimate food value when hungry, 5 underestimate food value when hungry, 6 overestimate food value when relatively satiated, and 7 underestimate food value when relatively satiated. We first competed all seven strategies against each other when they began at approximately equal frequencies. In such a competition, two strategies--"always overestimate food value," and "overestimate food value when hungry"--were very successful. We next competed each of these strategies against the default strategy of "never over- or underestimate," when the default strategy was set at 99% of the population. Again, the strategies of "always overestimate food value" and "overestimate food value when hungry" fared well. Our results suggest that overestimating food value when deciding whether to fight should be favored by natural selection.

  6. Fighting child sexual abuse in Zanzibar through provision and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fighting child sexual abuse in Zanzibar through provision and sharing of child protection information. Abbas Mohamed Omar, Haji Ali Haji, Masoud Hemed Nassor. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online.

  7. Fighting Illiteracy--The Role of Library Technicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Sheila

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the need for adult literacy programs and ways in which public libraries may commit their resources to fighting illiteracy. Increased use of library technicians to act as liaison between students, tutors, and the library is advocated as a means of personalizing and enhancing programs. (CLB)

  8. Fighting Spam on the Sender Side: A Lightweight Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Wouter Willem; Moreira Moura, Giovane; Pras, Aiko; Aagesen, Finn Arve; Knapskog, Svein Johan

    2010-01-01

    Spam comprises approximately 90 to 95 percent of all e-mail traffic on the Internet nowadays, and it is a problem far from being solved. The losses caused by spam are estimated to reach up to \\$87 billion yearly. When fighting spam, most of the proposals focus on the receiver-side and are usually

  9. The Media and the Contradictions in Commitments to the Fight ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses the media and contradictions in the fight against climate change. It notes that there is widespread agreement on human-induced climate change (anthropogenic climate change) in addition to natural causes. Using results of empirical studies, the paper argues however that the media are succumbing, ...

  10. constitutional immunity clause and the fight against corruption in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAYAN_

    THE FIGHT AGAINST CORRUPTION IN NIGERIA. Sesan Fabamise*. ABSTRACT. One of the most pressing debates in Nigeria today is on the continued retention, or removal, of the immunity clause enshrined in section 308 of the 1999. Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria. Some scholars canvass for the removal ...

  11. Serious physical fighting and gambling-related attitudes and behaviors in adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, Melissa; Pilver, Corey E.; Hoff, Rani A.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Steinberg, Marvin A.; Rugle, Loreen; Potenza, Marc N.

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims: Physical fighting and gambling are common risk behaviors among adolescents. Prior studies have found associations among these behaviors in adolescents but have not examined systematically the health and gambling correlates of problem-gambling severity amongst youth stratified by fight involvement. Methods: Survey data were used from 2,276 Connecticut high school adolescents regarding their physical fight involvement, gambling behaviors and perceptions, and health and functioning. Gambling perceptions and correlates of problem-gambling severity were examined in fighting and non-fighting adolescents. Results: Gambling perceptions were more permissive and at-risk/problem gambling was more frequent amongst adolescents reporting serious fights versus those denying serious fights. A stronger relationship between problem-gambling severity and regular smoking was observed for adolescents involved in fights. Discussion and conclusions: The more permissive gambling attitudes and heavier gambling associated with serious fights in high school students suggest that youth who engage in physical fights warrant enhanced prevention efforts related to gambling. The stronger relationship between tobacco smoking and problem-gambling severity amongst youth engaging in serious fights suggest that fighting youth who smoke might warrant particular screening for gambling problems and subsequent interventions. PMID:24294502

  12. Neuromuscular Responses to Simulated Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu Fights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrêa da Silva Bruno Victor

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the neuromuscular performance responses following successive Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu (BJJ fights. Twenty-three BJJ athletes (age: 26.3 ± 6.3 years; body mass: 79.4 ± 9.7 kg; body height: 1.80 ± 0.1 m undertook 3 simulated BJJ fights (10 min duration each separated by 15 min of rest. Neuromuscular performance was measured by the bench press throw (BPT and vertical counter movement jump (VCMJ tests, assessed before the 1st fight (Pre and after the last one (Post. Blood lactate (LA was measured at Pre, 1 min Post, and 15 min Post fights. Paired t-tests were employed in order to compare the BPT and VCMJ results. One-way ANOVA with Bonferroni post hoc tests were utilized to compare LA responses. The results revealed a significant (p < 0.05 increase in VCMJ performance (40.8 ± 5.5 cm Pre vs. 42.0 ± 5.8 cm Post, but no significant changes in the BPT (814 ± 167 W Pre vs. 835 ± 213 W Post were observed. LA concentration increased significantly (p < 0.05 at Post, both in the 1st min and the 15th min of recovery. We concluded that successive simulated BJJ fights demanded considerable anaerobic contribution of ATP supply, reinforcing the high-intensity intermittent nature of the sport. Nevertheless, no negative impact on acute neuromuscular performance (power was observed.

  13. Structural analyses of very large semi-submersibles in waves; Choogata hansensuishiki futai no harochu kozo oto kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iijima, K.; Yoshida, K.; Suzuki, H. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-08-01

    An analysis method in which the technique of a vehicle obtained when a three-dimensional singular point distribution method and Kagemoto`s mutual interaction theory are combined was expanded for the fluid area was proposed as the structural analysis of very large semi-submersibles in waves. A partial structure method is used for the structure. In a fluid area, the number of unknown quantities appearing in a final expression could be largely reduced by introducing the new concept of a group body. In this process, both hydro-elasticity and hydrodynamic mutual interaction are considered. As a result, floating bodies that could not be previously calculated can be modeled as a three-dimensional frame structure and the response analysis in waves can be carried out without damaging the accuracy. The calculation result is used as the input data required for analyzing the structural fatigue locally during structural design of very large semi-submersibles in the 3,000 (m) class. This study can present a series of procedures between the response analysis of very large floating bodies in waves and the structural design. 11 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Hydrodynamic comparison of a semi-submersible, TLP, and Spar: Numerical study in the South China Sea environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Binbin; Liu, Kun; Yan, Gongwei; Ou, Jinping

    2011-09-01

    The South China Sea contains tremendous oil and gas resources in deepwater areas. However, one of the keys for deepwater exploration, the investigation of deepwater floating platforms, is very inadequate. In this paper, the authors studied and compared the hydrodynamics and global motion behaviors of typical deepwater platforms in the South China Sea environment. The hydrodynamic models of three main types of floating platforms, e.g. the Semi-submersible, tension leg platform (TLP), and Truss Spar, which could potentially be utilized in the South China Sea, were established by using the 3-D potential theory. Additionally, some important considerations which significantly influence the hydrodynamics were given. The RAOs in frequency domains as well as global motions in time domains under time-varying wind, random waves, and current in 100-y, 10-y, and 1-y return period environment conditions were predicted, compared, and analyzed. The results indicate that the heave and especially the pitch motion of the TLP are favorable. The heave response of the Truss Spar is perfect and comparable with that of the TLP when the peak period of random waves is low. However, the pitch motion of Truss Spar is extraordinarily larger than that of Semi-submersible and TLP.

  15. WHTSubmersible: a simulator for estimating transient circulation temperature in offshore wells with the semi-submersible platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xun-cheng; Liu, Yong-wang; Guan, Zhi-chuan

    2015-10-01

    Offshore wellbore temperature field is significant to drilling fluids program, equipment selection, evaluations on potential risks caused by casing thermal stress, etc. This paper mainly describes the theoretical basis, module structure and field verification of the simulator WHTSubmersible. This computer program is a useful tool for estimating transient temperature distribution of circulating drilling fluid on semi-submersible platform. WHTSubmersible is based on a mathematical model which is developed to consider radial and axial two-dimensional heat exchange of the inner drill pipe, the annulus, the drill pipe wall, the sea water and the formation in the process of drilling fluid circulation. The solution of the discrete equations is based on finite volume method with an implicit scheme. This scheme serves to demonstrate the numerical solution procedure. Besides, the simulator also considers the heating generated by drilling fluid circulation friction, drill bit penetrating rocks, friction between the drill column and the borehole wall, and the temperature effect on thermal physical properties and rheology of the drilling fluid. These measures ensure more accurate results. The simulator has been programmed as a dynamic link library using Visual C++, the routine interface is simple, which can be connected with other computer programs conveniently. The simulator is validated with an actual well temperature filed developed on a semi-submersible platform in South China, and the error is less than 5 %.

  16. How does environment influence fighting? The effects of tidal flow on resource value and fighting costs in sea anemones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaoro, Alexandre V; Velasque, Mariana; Santos, Sandro; Briffa, Mark

    2017-05-01

    An animal's decision to enter into a fight depends on the interaction between perceived resource value (V) and fighting costs (C). Both could be altered by predictable environmental fluctuations. For intertidal marine animals, such as the sea anemone Actinia equina, exposure to high flow during the tidal cycle may increase V by bringing more food. It may also increase C via energy expenditure needed to attach to the substrate. We asked whether simulated tidal cycles would alter decisions in fighting A. equina We exposed some individuals to still water and others to simulated tidal cycles. To gain insights into V, we measured their startle responses before and after exposure to the treatments, before staging dyadic fights. Individuals exposed to flow present shorter startle responses, suggesting that flowing water indicates high V compared with still water. A higher probability of winning against no-flow individuals and longer contests between flow individuals suggests that increased V increases persistence. However, encounters between flow individuals were less likely to escalate, suggesting that C is not directly related to V. Therefore, predictable environmental cycles alter V and C, but in complex ways. © 2017 The Author(s).

  17. Fighting Human Trafficking in the European Union: A master’s thesis on the ability of EU law to fight trafficking in women for sexual exploitation

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Stine Piilgaard Porner

    2011-01-01

    Human trafficking is considered to be modern day slavery. The EU continuously seeks to strengthen its fight against this crime, latest with the Directive on Prevention, Combat and Protection adopted in April 2011. But to what extent is the EU able to fight human trafficking through law? Human trafficking is a complex problem which can be assessed from different perspectives. The EU primarily addresses the fight against human trafficking through criminal law, and this thesis ...

  18. Submersible microbial fuel cell sensor for monitoring microbial activity and BOD in groundwater: Focusing on impact of anodic biofilm on sensor applicability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yifeng; Angelidaki, Irini

    2011-01-01

    A sensor, based on a submersible microbial fuel cell (SUMFC), was developed for in situ monitoring of microbial activity and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) in groundwater. Presence or absence of a biofilm on the anode was a decisive factor for the applicability of the sensor. Fresh anode was req...

  19. Perceived aggressiveness predicts fighting performance in mixed-martial-arts fighters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trebicky, Vít; Havlícek, Jan; Roberts, S Craig; Little, Anthony C; Kleisner, Karel

    2013-09-01

    Accurate assessment of competitive ability is a critical component of contest behavior in animals, and it could be just as important in human competition, particularly in human ancestral populations. Here, we tested the role that facial perception plays in this assessment by investigating the association between both perceived aggressiveness and perceived fighting ability in fighters' faces and their actual fighting success. Perceived aggressiveness was positively associated with the proportion of fights won, after we controlled for the effect of weight, which also independently predicted perceived aggression. In contrast, perception of fighting ability was confounded by weight, and an association between perceived fighting ability and actual fighting success was restricted to heavyweight fighters. Shape regressions revealed that aggressive-looking faces are generally wider and have a broader chin, more prominent eyebrows, and a larger nose than less aggressive-looking faces. Our results indicate that perception of aggressiveness and fighting ability might cue different aspects of success in male-male physical confrontation.

  20. A short note on how tied fights affect cortisol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Edwin L; Ngo, Kathy T

    2013-09-01

    Previous work exploring the interrelationships between sex steroids (e.g. androgens, testosterones and 11-ketotestosterones) and social behavior in teleosts suggest that mirror-elicited aggression in cichlid fish may not trigger a hormonal response. Using the Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) to analyze immune responses as a result of social stress, we measured levels of cortisol and melatonin using Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) assays. In this work, we demonstrated that cortisol concentrations are significantly lower yet the levels of melatonin remain unchanged in tilapia that are fighting their mirror image. Our results suggested that in tied fights, certain hormone levels remain unchanged (e.g. androgens) due to the lack of melatonin induction. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd, ISZS and IOZ/CAS.

  1. Onset of fights and mutual assessment in ant founding queens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthelot, Kévin; Portugal, Felipe Ramon; Jeanson, Raphaël

    2017-03-01

    In animals, the progress and outcome of contests can be influenced by an individual's own condition, their opponent's condition or a combination of the two. The use of chemical information to assess the quality of rivals has been underestimated despite its central role in the regulation of social interactions in many taxa. Here, we studied pairwise contests between founding queens of the ant Lasius niger to investigate whether the decision to engage in agonistic interactions relies on self-assessment or mutual assessment. Queens modulated their aggressive behaviours depending on both their own status and their opponent's status. We found no influence of lipid stores or size on the onset of fights. However, differences in cuticular chemical signatures linked to fertility status accurately predicted the probability of behaving aggressively in pairs. Our study thus suggests that ant queens could rely on mutual assessment via chemical cues to make informed decisions about fight initiation. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. A new Spam fighting rule: Reverse SMTP Connect

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Mail Service Team

    2004-01-01

    The CERN Mail Service is constantly improving Spam Fighting rules to minimize the number of Spams (unsolicited mails) delivered to the Inbox. On Wednesday 6th October, a new rule will be activated, the "Reverse SMTP Connect": if we cannot connect to the sender's mail server, we will not accept the mail (see http://cern.ch/mmms/Help/?kbid=171030 for details). According to intensive tests, we expect to reject 25% of mails that we currently accept, without generating false positives. Currently, around 90% of the mails received by CERN Mail gateways are Spams, 85% of these Spams are automatically rejected, using basic rules. As usual, statistics on Spam fighting, Mail traffic and Help pages can be found on the Mail Service site: http://cern.ch/mmm, and don't hesitate to report any problem that could be related to this new rule to Helpdesk@cern.ch (phone 78888). CERN Mail Service Team

  3. Pilot Greenhouse

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    This pilot greenhouse was built in collaboration with the "Association des Maraichers" of Geneva in the frame of the study for making use of the heat rejected as warm water by CERN accelerators and experiments. Among other improvements, more automated and precise regulation systems for heating and ventilation were developed. See also 8305598X.

  4. Consumption culture and body in cinema context: Fight Club

    OpenAIRE

    Özlem Aydoğmuş Ördem

    2016-01-01

    Studies on consumption culture and body have been examined considerably in sociology in recent years. Analysis of culture industry through cinema can be viewed as an important practice in understanding sociological theories and concepts. This study examined the movie Fight Club through content analysis within the framework of consumption culture and body. The present study found that the movie contained the concepts of desire, ambivalence, chronic health problems, and transition from the worl...

  5. Targeting a metabolic pathway to fight the flu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boergeling, Yvonne; Ludwig, Stephan

    2017-01-01

    Our antiviral arsenal to fight influenza viruses is limited and we need novel anti-flu drugs. Recently, cellular drug targets came into focus and omics analysis were instrumental to suggest candidate factors. In this issue of The FEBS Journal, Kainov and colleagues used transcriptome data to investigate virus-induced changes in tryptophan metabolism that may serve as immunomodulatory approach against viruses. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  6. Fighting software piracy: which governance tools matter in Africa?

    OpenAIRE

    Simplice A. Asongu; Andrés, Antonio R.

    2012-01-01

    This article integrates previously missing components of government quality into the governance-piracy nexus in exploring governance mechanisms by which global obligations for the treatment of IPRs are effectively transmitted from international to the national level in the battle against piracy. It assesses the best governance tools in the fight against piracy and upholding of Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs). The instrumentality of IPR laws (treaties) in tackling piracy through good gover...

  7. Strategies for Fighting Pandemic Flu in Developing Countries

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-03-04

    Countries throughout the world are preparing for the next influenza pandemic. Developing countries face special challenges because they don't have antiviral drugs or vaccines that more developed countries have. In this podcast, CDC's Dr. Dan Jernigan discusses new and innovative approaches that may help developing countries fight pandemic flu when it emerges.  Created: 3/4/2009 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 3/4/2009.

  8. The private sector and the fight against poverty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecile Renouard

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The fight against poverty is inextricably bound up with ecological issues. There is no shortage of global threats, from the environmental and social effects of climate warming to the decline in available freshwater per person or the growing scarcity of natural resources (fossil energy reserves, of course, but also rare earths and metals. Not everybody on this planet can, or will ever be able to, live their lives according to the American or European model. For example, strategic minerals lik...

  9. Endosymbionts of arthropods and nematodes: allies to fight infectious diseases?

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Arthropods and nematodes are important protagonists in human health because either they act as vectors of pathogens (bacteria, protozoa, viruses or fungus), or are themselves parasites. Fighting infectious diseases is based essentially on vaccination (prevention) or chemotherapeutic (curative) approaches in human, but one can envisage as an alternative to reduce the number of vectors or limit their ability to spread pathogens. Such strategies controling dissemination will undoubtedly benefit ...

  10. Kampklubb : en kommentert oversettelse av Fight club av Chuck Palahniuk

    OpenAIRE

    Gottschalk, Morten Peter

    2006-01-01

    Oppgaven er en kommentert oversettelse av romanen Fight Club av Chuck Palahniuk. Den inneholder en oversettelse av de sju første kapitlene i romanen. Kommentardelen tar for seg oversetterproblemer, og diskuterer disse i detalj. Det dreier seg om stil, syntaks, oversettelse av navn med betydning og problemer der kulturelle forskjeller mellom USA og Norge skaper oversetterproblemer. Som bakgrunnsmateriale brukes Gideon Tourys begreper om adekvate og akseptable oversettelser, og hvordan kildekul...

  11. Elements of Transcendentalism in Chuck Palahniuk's Fight Club

    OpenAIRE

    FILIPOVÁ, Tereza

    2016-01-01

    Transcendentalism, a literary and philosophical movement prominent in the 19th century in the United States of America, significantly influenced some of the subsequent literary movements. Some of the main tenets of Transcendentalism, like the belief in the power of an individual and rejection of authorities and materialism, are prominent in Chuck Palahniuk's novel Fight Club. The aim of this thesis is to investigate the portrayal of these social phenomena in selected Transcendentalist works a...

  12. Dirty Fighting: How to Counter Total Warfare Mentality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-12

    Sands to the United Kingdom (UK) Parliament. This led to Sinn Fein being formed, and the PIRA commencing the path to trading dirty fighting for...significant violence against Tamil rebels during their deployment. It was also during this period that the LTTE gained strength as the main Tamil...Prabhakaran, launched his career as a rebel leader by personally publicly assassinating an unarmed mayor in Jaffna. He then led the development of the

  13. Dynamics modeling of a semi-submersible autonomous underwater vehicle with a towfish towed by a cable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinmo Park

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we employ a dynamics modeling method for investigating a multi-body dynamics system of semi-submersible autonomous underwater vehicles consisting of a towing vehicle operated near the water surface, a tow cable, and a towfish. The towfish, which is towed by a marine cable for the purposes of exploration or mine hunting, is modeled with a Six-Degree-of-Freedom (6-DOF equation of motion that reflects its hydrodynamics characteristics. The towing cable, which can experience large displacements and deformations, is modeled using an absolute nodal coordinate formulation. To reflect the hydrodynamic characteristics of the cable during motion, the hydrodynamic force due to added mass and the drag force are imposed. To verify the completeness of the modeling, a few simple numerical simulations were conducted, and the results confirm the physical plausibility of the model.

  14. Stochastic dynamic response analysis of a floating vertical-axis wind turbine with a semi-submersible floater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Kai; Moan, Torgeir; Hansen, Martin Otto Laver

    2016-01-01

    Floating vertical-axis wind turbines (FVAWTs) provide the potential for utilizing offshore wind resources in moderate and deep water because of their economical installation and maintenance. Therefore, it is important to assess the performance of the FVAWT concept. This paper presents a stochastic...... dynamic response analysis of a 5MW FVAWT based on fully coupled nonlinear time domain simulations. The studied FVAWT, which is composed of a Darrieus rotor and a semi-submersible floater, is subjected to various wind and wave conditions. The global motion, structural response and mooring line tension...... on the response is demonstrated by comparing the floating wind turbine with the equivalent land-based wind turbine. Additionally, by comparing the behaviour of FVAWTs with flexible and rigid rotors, the effect of rotor flexibility is evaluated. Furthermore, the FVAWT is also investigated in the parked condition...

  15. Crew size affects fire fighting efficiency: A progress report on time studies of the fire fighting job.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald N. Matthews

    1940-01-01

    Fire fighting is still largely a hand-work job in the heavy cover and fuel conditions and rugged topography of the Douglas fir region, in spite of recent advances that have been made in %he use of machinery. Controlling a fire in this region requires immense amounts of work per unit of fire perimeter, so that large numbers of men are required to attack all but the...

  16. THE CONTRIBUTION OF PLAY FIGHTING TO THE EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan TRIFA

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Play fighting is a form of behavior in which partners compete with each other to gain an advantage. Behavior during play fighting largely resembles the behavior in a real fight, where partners encounter, push and pull down onto the ground, trying to get into a position whereby to control or to dominate the opponent. In the play, unlike the fight, movements are exaggerated and performed at a lower intensity, muscles being somewhat less tensed, and certain actions that can cause injury to the partner are inhibited or modified, while offensive-defensive roles will be reversed quite frequently. Play fighting can be considered a type of evolutionary adaptation designed to facilitate those experiences that will shape the cognitive and emotional development necessary for living in social communities. Research undertaken on different mammal species shows that play fighting offers many opportunities for expression and decoding emotions, improves emotional regulation and contributes to the development of coping mechanisms.

  17. Central Experimental Oculina Research Reserve, Oculina Banks Clelia Dive 612 Narrative 2001 - Videotape and Visual Observations from Submersible Dives to the Oculina Banks Deep Sea Coral Reefs (NODC Accession 0047190)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are from one of fourteen 2001 submersible "Clelia" dives. Narratives including habitat descriptions and estimates of megafaunal species abundance were...

  18. Serious physical fighting and gambling-related attitudes and behaviors in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Slavin, Melissa; Pilver, Corey E.; HOFF, RANI A.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Steinberg, Marvin A.; Rugle, Loreen; Potenza, Marc N.

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims: Physical fighting and gambling are common risk behaviors among adolescents. Prior studies have found associations among these behaviors in adolescents but have not examined systematically the health and gambling correlates of problem-gambling severity amongst youth stratified by fight involvement. Methods: Survey data were used from 2,276 Connecticut high school adolescents regarding their physical fight involvement, gambling behaviors and perceptions, and health and func...

  19. The fight against trafficking in human beings in EU: promoting legal cooperation and victims' protection [booklet

    OpenAIRE

    Equipo de trabajo del Proyecto THB:COOPtoFight

    2014-01-01

    With the financial support from the Prevention of and Fight against Crime Programme of the European Union | European Commission - Directorate-General Home Affairs. CooptoFight: Research Context and Objectives | Brief Glossary on THB | The Legal Key-stages of THB Fighting and Victims’ Protection | Brief Conclusions | Links to access to the International and European Legal Framework and so-me important Institutional Recommendations on THB | References

  20. Turning to Turnitin to Fight Plagiarism among University Students

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tshepo Batane

    2010-01-01

      This paper reports on a pilot project of the Turnitin plagiarism detection software, which was implemented to determine the impact of the software on the level of plagiarism among University of Botswana (UB) students...

  1. Phosphorylation of the ryanodine receptor mediates the cardiac fight or flight response in mice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shan, Jian; Kushnir, Alexander; Betzenhauser, Matthew J; Reiken, Steven; Li, Jingdong; Lehnart, Stephan E; Lindegger, Nicolas; Mongillo, Marco; Mohler, Peter J; Marks, Andrew R

    2010-01-01

    During the classic "fight-or-flight" stress response, sympathetic nervous system activation leads to catecholamine release, which increases heart rate and contractility, resulting in enhanced cardiac output...

  2. The role of skill in animal contests: a neglected component of fighting ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briffa, Mark; Lane, Sarah M

    2017-09-27

    What attributes make some individuals more likely to win a fight than others? A range of morphological and physiological traits have been studied intensely but far less focus has been placed on the actual agonistic behaviours used. Current studies of agonistic behaviour focus on contest duration and the vigour of fighting. It also seems obvious that individuals that fight more skilfully should have a greater chance of winning a fight. Here, we discuss the meaning of skill in animal fights. As the activities of each opponent can be disrupted by the behaviour of their rival, we differentiate among ability, technique and skill itself. In addition to efficient, accurate and sometimes precise movement, skilful fighting also requires rapid decision-making, so that appropriate tactics and strategies are selected. We consider how these different components of skill could be acquired, through genes, experiences of play-fighting and of real fights. Skilful fighting can enhance resource holding potential (RHP) by allowing for sustained vigour, by inflicting greater costs on opponents and by minimizing the chance of damage. Therefore, we argue that skill is a neglected but important component of RHP that could be readily studied to provide new insights into the evolution of agonistic behaviour. © 2017 The Author(s).

  3. OSCE’s Consolidated Framework for the Fight against Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinhard Uhrig

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In December 2012, participating States of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE, the world’s largest security organization, adopted the OSCE Consolidated Framework for the Fight against Terrorism. This Consolidated Framework builds on previously adopted decisions, commitments and mandates over the past ten years. The document constitutes an important milestone for the Organization. OSCE has contributed considerably to efforts of the international community aimed at effectively countering terrorism while adhering to the rule of law and upholding human rights standards.

  4. Honour and Fighting Social Advancement in the Early Modern Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gassmann Jürg

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the importance of military service in social advancement, here understood as filling the role of “prince” in feudal law and thus participating in the government of an estate, in the transition from the Late Middle Ages to the Renaissance or Early Modern Age. In the context of a city burgher or a petty noble or knight advancing into a government role, did honour require that the individual have experience in fighting – in war, military organisation and leadership? How did mercenaries figure? What role, if any, did Fechtmeister, Fechtbücher, Fechtschulen or Kriegsbücher play?

  5. Gender and Poverty Fight: the Family Donation Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Aparecida Mariano

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian social assistance policy is guided by the perspective of poverty fight efforts, which prioritize the conditioned income transfer. These programs privilege the income transfer to women and involve them in a net of obligations and conditions, as it is done in the Family Donation Program. The practice within Family Donation Program highlights some contradictions between the State actions and the feminist demands, especially those concerning the motherhood problem. This is thus a core question for the dialogue between the feminism and the social policies sponsored by the State.

  6. Tolerable environmentally inverse constrained functional metabolism: Key to fight obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Runthala

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Health risk of obesity is a heavily growing concern for societies across the globe, as it is the root cause of several lethal diseases, for which the cure is highly expensive. I tried an innovative approach with some formulations and calculations, and it has shown excellent results.The work is intended to explore the efficacy of the judiciously practiced weight loss measure for an interested obese person. The manuscript explains the concept with the formulated enhanced impact of this methodology and thus presents an exploratory logical hypothesis. It is proven to be a reliable tool to fight obesity without medication treatments.

  7. [Philanthropy, government, and the fight against leprosy (1920-1945)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Vicente Saul Moreira Dos

    2011-12-01

    The 1920s creation of Sociedades de Assistência aos Lázaros e Defesa Contra a Lepra under Brazil's First Republic (1889-1930) represented a milestone in relations between assistance organizations and the government. Although these organizations were at first autonomous decision-makers, their guidelines changed after they established closer relations with the government, which enacted reforms in policies to fight leprosy following the 1930 creation of the Ministry of Education and Public Health, especially during the long tenure of Minister Gustavo Capanema (1934-1945).

  8. Propolis: a potential natural product to fight Candida species infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobaldini-Valerio, Flávia K; Bonfim-Mendonça, Patricia S; Rosseto, Helen C; Bruschi, Marcos L; Henriques, Mariana; Negri, Melyssa; Silva, Sonia; Svidzinski, Terezinha Ie

    2016-08-01

    To evaluate the effect of propolis against Candida species planktonic cells and its counterpart's biofilms. The MIC values, time-kill curves and filamentation form inhibition were determined in Candida planktonic cells. The effect of propolis on Candida biofilms was assessed through quantification of CFUs. MIC values, ranging from 220 to 880 µg/ml, demonstrated higher efficiency on C. albicans and C. parapsilosis than on C. tropicalis cells. In addition, propolis was able to prevent Candida species biofilm's formation and eradicate their mature biofilms, coupled with a significant reduction on C. tropicalis and C. albicans filamentation. Propolis is an inhibitor of Candida virulence factors and represents an innovative alternative to fight candidiasis.

  9. Medicine and science in the fight against doping in sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catlin, D H; Fitch, K D; Ljungqvist, A

    2008-08-01

    The fight against doping in sports commenced as a result of the death of a Danish cyclist during the Rome Olympic Games in 1960. The International Olympic Committee (IOC) established a Medical Commission (IOC-MC) which had the task of designing a strategy to combat the misuse of drugs in Olympic Sport. Some International Sport Federations (IF) and National Sports Federations followed suit, but progress was modest until the world's best male sprinter was found doped with anabolic steroids at the Olympic Games in Seoul in 1988. Further progress was made following the cessation of the cold war in 1989 and in 1999 public authorities around the world joined the Olympic Movement in a unique partnership by creating WADA--the 'World Anti-Doping Agency'. The troubled history of the anti-doping fight from the 1960s until today is reviewed. In particular, the development of detection methods for an ever increasing number of drugs that can be used to dope is described, as are the measures that have been taken to protect the health of the athletes, including those who may need banned substances for medical reasons.

  10. Rumble: Prevalence and Correlates of Group Fighting among Adolescents in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt DeLisi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Group fighting is portrayed as a piece of Americana among delinquent youth, but the behavior produces significant multifaceted negative consequences. The current study examines the heterogeneity and correlates of group fighting using national-level data. Method. Employing data from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health between 2002 and 2013 (n = 216,852, we examine links between group fighting and temperamental, parental, and academic factors as well as other externalizing behaviors (i.e., violence, crime, substance use. Results. The prevalence of group fighting in the United States is 14.8% with 11.33% reporting 1–2 group fights and 3.46% reporting 3+ group fights. A clear severity gradient in school functioning and academic performance, sensation seeking, parental disengagement, violence and delinquency, and substance use disorders is seen in the normative, episodic, and repeat offender groups. Conclusions. Youths who participate in 3+ group fights display the exceptionality and severity of other serious/chronic/habitual antisocial youth which suggests that group fighting should be considered a significant indicator of developing criminality.

  11. 14 CFR 91.815 - Agricultural and fire fighting airplanes: Noise operating limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agricultural and fire fighting airplanes... RULES Operating Noise Limits § 91.815 Agricultural and fire fighting airplanes: Noise operating limitations. (a) This section applies to propeller-driven, small airplanes having standard airworthiness...

  12. The effect of a 10-week Zulu stick fighting intervention programme ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article is based on the study that investigated the influence that traditional martial arts of Zulu stick fighting has on body composition of prepubescent males. A sample of fortyfive children were divided into an experimental group (n=22) which underwent a ten week stick fighting intervention programme facilitated by two ...

  13. Fighting Eviction : Tribal Land Rights and Research-in-Action | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Fighting Eviction : Tribal Land Rights and Research-in-Action. Couverture du livre Fighting Eviction. Auteur(s) : Daniel Buckles et Rajeev Khedkar. Directeur(s) : Bansi Ghevde et Dnyaneshwar Patil. Maison(s) d'édition : Cambridge University Press India. 3 octobre 2012. ISBN : 9789382264538. 258 pages. L'Inde compte ...

  14. Do female Siamese fighting fish copy the mate choice of others?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durey, Maëlle; Dabelsteen, Torben; Matessi, Giuliano

    mollies and guppies. Female Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens) have been reported to eavesdrop and exploit social information in aggressive interactions and may therefore also use information contained in other’s mate choice. In this experiment, we aimed at establishing if female fighting fish copy...

  15. "It's Murder Out Today": Middle School Girls Speak Out about Girl Fighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letendre, Joan; Smith, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Girl fighting and its relational context is a problem that is receiving extensive attention in popular and academic circles. This article reports on a project that gathered the opinions from focus groups of seventh- and eighth-grade girls, organized to understand the perspectives of young adolescent girls in middle school on girl fighting. Both…

  16. Private Satisfactions and Public Disorders: "Fight Club," Patriarchy, and the Politics of Masculine Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giroux, Henry A.

    2001-01-01

    Analyzes the narrative structure of the film "Fight Club," addressing its critique of consumerism and its celebration of masculinity. Addresses the representational politics that structure the movie, especially its deeply conventional views of violence, gender relations, and masculinity. Considers the role that "Fight Club" and other cultural…

  17. Chasing Moby Dick Across Every Sea and Ocean? Contextual Choices in Fighting Corruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mungiu-Pippidi, Alina; Jensen, Mette Frisk

    2011-01-01

    Draft report commissioned by Norad, c/o ANKOR (the Anti-corruption Project) in cooperation with the Evaluation Department ("Contextual Choices for Results in Fighting Corruption", Referende number 1001232)......Draft report commissioned by Norad, c/o ANKOR (the Anti-corruption Project) in cooperation with the Evaluation Department ("Contextual Choices for Results in Fighting Corruption", Referende number 1001232)...

  18. Modelling the dynamics of traits involved in fighting-predators–prey system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooi, B.W.

    2015-01-01

    We study the dynamics of a predator–prey system where predators fight for captured prey besides searching for and handling (and digestion) of the prey. Fighting for prey is modelled by a continuous time hawk–dove game dynamics where the gain depends on the amount of disputed prey while the costs for

  19. A Submersible, Off-Axis Holographic Microscope for Detection of Microbial Motility and Morphology in Aqueous and Icy Environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian A Lindensmith

    Full Text Available Sea ice is an analog environment for several of astrobiology's near-term targets: Mars, Europa, Enceladus, and perhaps other Jovian or Saturnian moons. Microorganisms, both eukaryotic and prokaryotic, remain active within brine channels inside the ice, making it unnecessary to penetrate through to liquid water below in order to detect life. We have developed a submersible digital holographic microscope (DHM that is capable of resolving individual bacterial cells, and demonstrated its utility for immediately imaging samples taken directly from sea ice at several locations near Nuuk, Greenland. In all samples, the appearance and motility of eukaryotes were conclusive signs of life. The appearance of prokaryotic cells alone was not sufficient to confirm life, but when prokaryotic motility occurred, it was rapid and conclusive. Warming the samples to above-freezing temperatures or supplementing with serine increased the number of motile cells and the speed of motility; supplementing with serine also stimulated chemotaxis. These results show that DHM is a useful technique for detection of active organisms in extreme environments, and that motility may be used as a biosignature in the liquid brines that persist in ice. These findings have important implications for the design of missions to icy environments and suggest ways in which DHM imaging may be integrated with chemical life-detection suites in order to create more conclusive life detection packages.

  20. Effects of herbicides on two submersed aquatic macrophytes, Potamogeton pectinatus L. and Myriophyllum sibiricum Komarov, in a prairie wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, D J; Martin, P A; Shaw, G G

    1997-01-01

    Clopyralid, picloram, 2,4-D and a mixture of 2,4-D plus picloram, (Tordon 202C) were added to the water of 1 m square enclosures in a prairie wetland in Saskatchewan, Canada to produce concentrations of 0.01 and 0.1 mg active ingredient litre(-1). Effects on the submersed macrophytes, Potamogeton pectinatus and Myriophyllum sibiricum, were monitored by taking repeated measurements of plant weight, flower and tuber production and inspecting for injuries at 30 and 60 days after application. Clopyralid did not inhibit weight gain (growth) in either species, but stimulated growth and flowering by M. sibiricum at 0.01 mg litre(-1) and tuber production by P. pectinatus at both rates. The low rate of 2,4-D stimulated flowering by M. sibiricum and tuber production by P. pectinatus, whereas the high rate inhibited growth of M. sibiricum and injured both species. Picloram did not affect growth of either species, but injured M. sibiricum at both concentrations and inhibited flowering at 0.1 mg litre(-1). Tordon 202C at 0.1 mg litre(-1) caused reduced growth and flowering in M. sibiricum and injured both species; 0.01 mg litre(-1) also injured M. sibiricum. Mortality resulted only from Tordon 202C and 2,4-D. Field data are lacking to assess the extent to which submerged macrophytes in prairie ponds are exposed to harmful concentrations of herbicide from aerial spraying, drift from ground application, runoff or wind erosion of soil.

  1. Taxonomic research on deep-sea macrofauna in the South China Sea using the Chinese deep-sea submersible Jiaolong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinzheng

    2017-07-01

    This paper reviews the taxonomic and biodiversity studies of deep-sea invertebrates in the South China Sea based on the samples collected by the Chinese manned deep-sea submersible Jiaolong. To date, 6 new species have been described, including the sponges Lophophysema eversa, Saccocalyx microhexactin and Semperella jiaolongae as well as the crustaceans Uroptychus jiaolongae, Uroptychus spinulosus and Globospongicola jiaolongi; some newly recorded species from the South China Sea have also been reported. The Bathymodiolus platifrons-Shinkaia crosnieri deep-sea cold seep community has been reported by Li (2015), as has the mitochondrial genome of the glass sponge L. eversa by Zhang et al. (2016). The population structures of two dominant species, the shrimp Shinkaia crosnieri and the mussel Bathymodiolus platifrons, from the cold seep Bathymodiolus platifrons-Shinkaia crosnieri community in the South China Sea and the hydrothermal vents in the Okinawa Trough, were compared using molecular analysis. The systematic position of the shrimp genus Globospongicola was discussed based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. © 2017 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  2. Heart rate and lactate responses to taekwondo fight in elite women performers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Cardinale

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine heart rate (HR and blood lactate (LA concentration before, during and after a competitive Tae kwon do (TKD fight performed by elite women performers. Specifically, we were interested to see weather HR and LA responses to competitive fight were greater than to TKD or karate exercises published in scientific literature. Seven international-standard women TKD fighters participated in the study. HR was recorded continuously throughout the fight using Polar Vantage telemetric HR monitors. LA samples were taken before and 3 min after the fight and analysed using an Accusport portable lactate analyzer. At the beginning of the fight, HR significantly increased (p<0.01 from pre-fight values of 91.6±9.9 beats min-1 to 144.1±13.6 beats min-1. During the whole fight the HRmean was 186.6±2.5 beats min-1 and remained significantly elevated (p<0.01 at 3 min into recovery. HR values expressed as a percentage of HRmax averaged during the whole fight at 91.7±2.6% respectively. LA concentration significantly increased (p<0.01 3 min after the fight and averaged 82% of LApeak values measured after the VO2max test. Results of the present study indicate that physiological demands of competitive TKD fight in women, measured by HR and LA responses, are considerably higher than the physiological demands of TKD or karate training exercises. The observed HR and LA responses suggest to us that conditioning for TKD should generally emphasise high-intensity anaerobic exercise.

  3. The mitochondrial uniporter controls fight or flight heart rate increases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuejin; Rasmussen, Tyler P; Koval, Olha M; Joiner, Mei-Ling A; Hall, Duane D; Chen, Biyi; Luczak, Elizabeth D; Wang, Qiongling; Rokita, Adam G; Wehrens, Xander H T; Song, Long-Sheng; Anderson, Mark E

    2015-01-20

    Heart rate increases are a fundamental adaptation to physiological stress, while inappropriate heart rate increases are resistant to current therapies. However, the metabolic mechanisms driving heart rate acceleration in cardiac pacemaker cells remain incompletely understood. The mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) facilitates calcium entry into the mitochondrial matrix to stimulate metabolism. We developed mice with myocardial MCU inhibition by transgenic expression of a dominant-negative (DN) MCU. Here, we show that DN-MCU mice had normal resting heart rates but were incapable of physiological fight or flight heart rate acceleration. We found that MCU function was essential for rapidly increasing mitochondrial calcium in pacemaker cells and that MCU-enhanced oxidative phoshorylation was required to accelerate reloading of an intracellular calcium compartment before each heartbeat. Our findings show that MCU is necessary for complete physiological heart rate acceleration and suggest that MCU inhibition could reduce inappropriate heart rate increases without affecting resting heart rate.

  4. Embodying 'health citizenship' in health knowledge to fight health inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Groleau

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper wishes to contribute to the debate around citizen participation in health system decision-making that has been present internationally for the last 30 years. I argue that if we aim to change health inequalities, health professionals and planners need to understand the illness and health service experience of citizens. The concept of 'health citizenship' introduced here refers to health knowledge that integrates the lay knowledge of patients and that this integration is translated into health actions such as clinical communication and the planning of health care, programs, and policy. We illustrate our argument with the two cases: health literacy and the promotion of breastfeeding in a Canadian population living in context of poverty. This paper then concludes by addressing the leadership role, Brazilian graduate nursing schools can play in promoting 'health citizenship' and by doing so, contribute to fight health inequalities.

  5. THE ROLE OF ACCOUNTANTS AND AUDITORS IN FIGHTING ORGANISED CRIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana B. Petrevska

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Criminal activities and organised crime became the main generators of social and state instability in the recent years, much more that the wars. They generate significant illegal money and need to launder this money so that they can be integrated into the legitimate financial system. Economic and financial crimes that called white collar crimes, typically has diffuse costs to society and concentrated benefits for the perpetrators. The social expectations are that the auditors should play an effective role in reducing, if not eliminating, these crimes.New auditing standards require auditors to take a proactive approach to assessing whether management has in place appropriate systems and controls to manage the risk of fraud.This paper shed light on nature, impacts and types of economic and financial crimes, and then the role of auditing profession in fighting against them.

  6. Human Trafficking: Fighting the Illicit Economy with the Legitimate Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Shelley

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of research on human trafficking, there has been attention paid to the challenges surrounding the illicit economy. In creating new strategies and initiatives on combatting human trafficking, there needs to be more discussion surrounding the legitimate economy and how the business sector can make an impact in the fight against trafficking. Currently, there is a growing movement of businesses that are looking to address human trafficking through training, education, and leadership initiatives; codes of conduct; supply chain management; and financial analysis. This paper will examine the latest in these strategies and approaches by businesses in the global war against human trafficking, in addition to a discussion of a new initiative engaging the private sector co-led by Dr. Louise Shelley and Christina Bain through the World Economic Forum’s Global Agenda Council Network.

  7. [Endosymbionts of arthropods and nematodes: allies to fight infectious diseases?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavre, Fabrice; Mavingui, Patrick

    2011-11-01

    Arthropods and nematodes are important protagonists in human health because either they act as vectors of pathogens (bacteria, protozoa, viruses or fungus), or are themselves parasites. Fighting infectious diseases is based essentially on vaccination (prevention) or chemotherapeutic (curative) approaches in human, but one can envisage as an alternative to reduce the number of vectors or limit their ability to spread pathogens. Such strategies controlling dissemination will undoubtedly benefit from the knowledge accumulated by recent works on powerful mechanisms developed by symbiotic insect bacteria such as Wolbachia to popagate in arthropods and nematods. This review summarizes these recent data, and indicate how these mechanisms can be manipulated to reduce the dissemination of insect vectors propagating human diseases. © 2011 médecine/sciences – Inserm / SRMS.

  8. Is emotional intelligence relevant to a fighting force?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daffey-Moore, Emma K

    2015-12-01

    Over the past decade, the expectations of what the fighting force are tasked to deal with has changed significantly. The high-risk, high-tempo operational environments in which personnel have deployed in recent years have been complex and diverse, creating a spectrum of conflict where having EI would be an essential attribute. EI could be beneficial for the organisation and the individuals involved, and historically, there has been a distinct lack of EI. For it to be better used within the military, the entire concept needs to be explored, accepted and integrated into training throughout the rank structure; from the recruitment process to throughout the career development with support from senior commanders. This article discusses the relevance of emotional intelligence (EI) to the British Armed Forces. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  9. From the art of war to fight with art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lars

    2015-01-01

    outside. This is the fight with art, where the predominant selfdescriptions in western societies are questioned on their selflimitations and insufficient strategies of deparadoxation. In Martins art, the paradox of the structural coupling of body, mind and society as both distinct from each other...... systems theory with art. Martin Nore through his visual art develops and activistic form of system theory, where therapeutic intervention turns into societal self-therapy for broken meaning horizons and unintended consequences of the current massage of the form peace/war. The activistic systems...... theoretical art, the "artivistic" perspective developed from the broken minds of war experiences, diagnosed with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Traumatic Brain Injury. Since then, it has broadened the perspective to demonstrate its capacity to work with the distinction between civil society and its...

  10. Masculinity and violence in David Fincher’s "Fight Club"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leire Ituarte Pérez

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we address a hermeneutic approach to David Fincher’s Fight Club. Inspired by some of the methodological principles of Psychoanalysis and Queer Theory the study tries to thresh the details of the representation of Masculinity in the film. Departing from the hypothesis that such representation in the film is closely linked to the masculine castration anxiety, the essay traces the recurrent and more or less parodic, more or less subliminal allusions to emasculation as well as the fetishistic compensatory strategies displayed. The analysis concludes that the overwhelming mise en scène of the masculine Oedipal scenario in the film pursues to underpin an hegemonic discourse of Masculinity threatened by the taboo of Homosexuality. Hence, the prominent erotisization of masculine masochism reveals itself, in all its ambivalence, as a performative strategy to institutionalise a heteronormative sexual regime.

  11. The Parry: An Essential Free-Fighting Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Hobart

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In the arena of free-fighting, traditional blocking techniques and grappling entries often don’t work as well as the simple parry. The parry—a refinement of the “slap away” motion that most combatants employ instinctively when confronted with an attack—is a critical tool in the martial artist’s armamentarium, yet it has received surprisingly little scrutiny in the research and writing of the arts. Having been students and teachers of various striking and grappling arts for over twenty years, Robert Wolfe and Peter Hobart have pooled their experience to develop a step-by-step approach to understanding and applying the parry in a variety of ways. Part One focuses on the use of the parry primarily in striking engagements; Part Two in the context of grappling.

  12. Aerial wildfire fighting: history, current situation, problems and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Bryukhanov

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays aviation is among the most effective ways of early detection and suppression of wildfires. At the moment for the aerial wildfire fighting a few dozen models of aircraft are used worldwide, which are regularly modernized and renewed. In this article, authors give information about the history of fighting wildfires from the air, as well as analyze the current state of the issue with the use of aircraft and helicopter airtankers for firefighting, both at international level and in the territory of the Russian Federation. It is revealed that the most popular in the world still are the ground-based firefighting aircraft (regardless of the class of the carrying capacity. Amphibious firefighting aircraft now exist only in light (carrying capacity up to 5 tons and in medium type (capacity up to 15 tons. Among the helicopter aviation, heavy firefighting helicopters are mostly widely spread, as well as medium multipurpose helicopters, which are, apart from suppression, involved into delivery of people and goods to forest fire sites. The article is devoted to the main directions, according to which the development of aircraft tanker equipment abroad and in Russia occurs. The attention is directed to the most promising developments, and specific recommendations on how to increase the effectiveness of the fire aviation usage in Russia are given. Based on the studies carried out, a conclusion is drawn that for different countries there can be promising different types of firefighting aircraft, considering their landing field infrastructure, characteristics of forests and hydro systems, as well as the total area of the forest fund.

  13. Turning to Turnitin to Fight Plagiarism among University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batane, Tshepo

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on a pilot project of the Turnitin plagiarism detection software, which was implemented to determine the impact of the software on the level of plagiarism among University of Botswana (UB) students. Students' assignments were first submitted to the software without their knowledge so as to gauge their level of plagiarism. The…

  14. A simple and rapid method for monitoring dissolved oxygen in water with a submersible microbial fuel cell (SBMFC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yifeng; Angelidaki, Irini

    2012-01-01

    A submersible microbial fuel cell (SBMFC) was developed as a biosensor for in situ and real time monitoring of dissolved oxygen (DO) in environmental waters. Domestic wastewater was utilized as a sole fuel for powering the sensor. The sensor performance was firstly examined with tap water at varying DO levels. With an external resistance of 1000Ω, the current density produced by the sensor (5.6 ± 0.5-462.2 ± 0.5 mA/m(2)) increased linearly with DO level up to 8.8 ± 0.3mg/L (regression coefficient, R(2)=0.9912), while the maximum response time for each measurement was less than 4 min. The current density showed different response to DO levels when different external resistances were applied, but a linear relationship was always observed. Investigation of the sensor performance at different substrate concentrations indicates that the organic matter contained in the domestic wastewater was sufficient to power the sensing activities. The sensor ability was further explored under different environmental conditions (e.g. pH, temperature, conductivity, and alternative electron acceptor), and the results indicated that a calibration would be required before field application. Lastly, the sensor was tested with different environmental waters and the results showed no significant difference (p>0.05) with that measured by DO meter. The simple, compact SBMFC sensor showed promising potential for direct, inexpensive and rapid DO monitoring in various environmental waters. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Profiles in medical courage: Thomas Kummet and the courage to fight burearcracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Thomas Kummet was an oncologist wrongly accused in his mind of delivering substandard care. His fight for correcting what he believed to be a mistake illustrates the difficulty physicians face when challenging the current peer review system. In an attempt to defend his reputation he filed suit which was eventually dismissed by a Federal Court. His frustration over the futility of his fight is illustrative of the difficulties many physicians have faced in fighting a large bureaucracy and an unsympathetic justice system.

  16. Perfection of technical and tactical preparation of sportsmen of hand-to-hand fight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serebryak V.V.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Essence of innovative hike is considered to upgrading preparation of sportsmen of hand-to-hand fight. 58 sportsmen of section of hand-to-hand fight took part in research. Age of sportsmen are from 17 to 22 years. Developed and approved the most effective technical and tactical charts of construction of duel with the opponents of different styles of single combats. It is well-proven that offered approach instrumental in development of operative thought and adaptation to sparring of hand-to-hand fight.

  17. Pilot Boarding Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Pilot boarding areas are locations at sea where pilots familiar with local waters board incoming vessels to navigate their passage to a destination port. Pilotage is...

  18. Correlation of aggressiveness and anxiety in fighting sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiric-Campara, Merita; Tupkovic, Emir; Mazalovic, Edin; Karalic, Emir; Biscevic, Mirza; Djelilovic-Vranic, Jasminka; Alajbegovic, Azra

    2012-01-01

    in fighting sports there are many opened issues related with levels of aggression and anxiety. Our study is performed with healthy young athletes: kick boxers, karate fighters, and boxers. Examined group consisted of 55 members (45 male) with average age of 20.2 +/- 3.8 years. In analysis of level of aggression Questionnaire A-87 is used. Its purpose is assessment of aggressive behaviour in provoked situations, or measurement of impulsive aggression. Questionnaire A-87 consists of 15 items of different situations with five possible responses. The possible responses or reactions are the five most frequent forms of aggressive responses: a) verbal manifest aggression (VM); b) physical manifest aggression (PHM); c) indirect aggression (IND); d) verbal latent aggression (VL), and e) physical latent aggression (PHL). In the analysis of anxiety is used Beck Anxiety Inventory, BAI. Average training period was 7.8 +/- 3.6 years. Even 37 athletes during sporting carriers were injured, and most of examiners (precisely 13) experienced 3 injuries. Average value of BAI was 12.7 +/- 8.7. Average value of total aggression was 152.2 +/- 40.9; highest levels were observed in VM (33.9) and VL (30.1). Significant positive correlations of all components of aggression with level of anxiety is observed (p aggression (r = 0.4822; p = 0.0002). Slightly significant positive correlation of total aggression with age of examiners is also observed (r = 0.2668, p = 0.0489). Positive correlation VM (r = 0.4928; p = 0.0001), PHL (r = 0.2761; p = 0.0413), and total aggression (r = 0.347; p = 0.0094) is observed with number of injuries of examined athletes. Also, positive correlation (r = 0.2927, p = 0.0301) is observed with level of anxiety and number of injuries. Higher level of aggression and anxiety might change attitude of some sports authorities (especially coaches), and additional psychological training of fight sports might be necessary. Assessment of basically levels of aggression and

  19. Priming effect and pre-exposure aggression in Siamese fighting fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertucci, Frédéric; Matos, Ricardo Jorge Santa Clara; Dabelsteen, Torben

    Interactions and communication between individuals occur in a complex social environment in which senders and receivers are able to adjust their behaviour according to the context. Watching fights between others acts on a bystander’s motivation to engage in a fight and may make it behave more...... in subsequent interactions when pre-exposed to an aggressive conspecific that was engaged in a fight whatever the level of aggression this fight reached. However, bystanders’ behaviour after pre-exposure was not correlated to the previously witnessed level of aggressiveness. These results suggest...... that individuals alter their behaviour in an aggressive social environment and indicate that priming effect follows a step function where aggression is triggered by an aggressive context. We discuss our results and the effect of pre-exposure on agonistic interactions in a communication network perspective....

  20. The Angolan Proxy War: A Study of Foreign Intervention and Its Impact on War Fighting

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bissonnette, Brian

    2008-01-01

    .... This study examines the influence of foreign intervention on war fighting during the Angolan Civil War and analyzes how the various levels of support impacted the successes and failures of the internal warring factions...

  1. The Mind-Body Connection - How to Fight Stress and Ward Off Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues The Mind-Body Connection How to Fight Stress and Ward ... take more seriously the popular notions of the mind-body connection," says Esther M. Sternberg, M.D., ...

  2. Entrepreneurship and Innovation in the Fight Against Human Trafficking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Bain

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available There has been much discussed and written on the benefits of entrepreneurship education, as well as the importance of early access to this type of learning. But how can entrepreneurship education train and inspire the next generation of anti-trafficking leaders? How can entrepreneurship also be a driver for prevention and a source of economic stability for those at-risk and survivors of human trafficking? At present, there are entrepreneurs and entrepreneurs-in-training at multiple age levels coming from a variety of backgrounds, incomes, and circumstances who will develop groundbreaking strategies and solutions in the fight against trafficking. These current and future entrepreneurs can also provide fresh perspectives to those in government and business while building more effective tri-sector coalitions and partnerships that address human trafficking. This article explores how and why entrepreneurship can be a key vehicle for social change and innovations in combating human trafficking, along with providing a multi-ingredient recipe of prosperity for those most vulnerable.

  3. The Fight against Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated Fishing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Stanciu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The international community have been of aware of IUU fishing for over a decade. As a result, the FAO adopted anInternational Plan of Action in 2001 which called upon all its members to take actions against these illegal practices.The EC adopted a Regulation to prevent, deter and eliminate IUU fishing on 29 September 2008. It will enter intoforce on 1 January 2010 and is inspired by the FAOs International Plan of Action to prevent, deter and eliminate IUUfishing (2001. The Proposal for a Regulation to fight IUU fishing was a result from a public consultation held inJanuary 2007. It constitutes one of the most serious threats to the sustainable exploitation of living aquatic resourcesand marine biodiversity, causes depletion of fish stocks and future stock growth, damages the marine environment byover fishing and irresponsible fishing practices and techniques. The depletion of fish stocks reduces the size ofcatches which in turn contributes to lower turnover and eventually job losses. It contributes to unfair competitionamong those operators who abide by the rules and those who do not and it causes serious overall consequences forcoastal communities and in particular those in developing countries who rely to a large extent on fisheries

  4. Fighting Child Pornography: A Review of Legal and Technological Developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmine Eggestein

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In our digitally connected world, the law is arguably behind the technological developments of the Internet age.  While this causes many issues for law enforcement, it is of particular concern in the area of child pornography in the United States.  With the wide availability of technologies such as digital cameras, peer-to-peer file sharing, strong encryption, Internet anonymizers and cloud computing, the creation and distribution of child pornography has become more widespread. Simultaneously, fighting the growth of this crime has become more difficult.  This paper explores the development of both the legal and technological environments surrounding digital child pornography.  In doing so, we cover the complications that court decisions have given law enforcement who are trying to investigate and prosecute child pornographers.  We then provide a review of the technologies used in this crime and the forensic challenges that cloud computing creates for law enforcement.  We note that both legal and technological developments since the 1990s seem to be working to the advantage of users and sellers of child pornography.  Before concluding, we provide a discussion and offer observations regarding this subject.

  5. How to fight terrorism? Political and strategic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vad, Erich

    2017-10-26

    "Fighting terrorism is like eating soup with a fork" (Shimon Peres). Peres's quote symbolically captures the key problem of countering terrorism. 9/11 proved to be a hallmark in the global perception of modern terrorism. The following questions form the framework of the present essay: What is the essence of modern terrorism? How did it develop during the past two decades? Who are the key players within the terror framework? What are the root causes for global terrorism? How are we to deal appropriately with the global phenomenon of terrorism? Are there any solutions (short-, medium-, long-term) to terrorism? If yes, where do we have to look for them? The underlying essay provides a strategic overview of antiterrorism policy that is based on the author's years-long experience as a high-level expert and advisor within the security policy framework. For this reason, citations are expressly not included. The key target audience comprises laypersons interested in the phenomenon of global terrorism and its social interplay.

  6. Even good bots fight: The case of Wikipedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsvetkova, Milena; García-Gavilanes, Ruth; Floridi, Luciano; Yasseri, Taha

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a huge increase in the number of bots online, varying from Web crawlers for search engines, to chatbots for online customer service, spambots on social media, and content-editing bots in online collaboration communities. The online world has turned into an ecosystem of bots. However, our knowledge of how these automated agents are interacting with each other is rather poor. Bots are predictable automatons that do not have the capacity for emotions, meaning-making, creativity, and sociality and it is hence natural to expect interactions between bots to be relatively predictable and uneventful. In this article, we analyze the interactions between bots that edit articles on Wikipedia. We track the extent to which bots undid each other's edits over the period 2001-2010, model how pairs of bots interact over time, and identify different types of interaction trajectories. We find that, although Wikipedia bots are intended to support the encyclopedia, they often undo each other's edits and these sterile "fights" may sometimes continue for years. Unlike humans on Wikipedia, bots' interactions tend to occur over longer periods of time and to be more reciprocated. Yet, just like humans, bots in different cultural environments may behave differently. Our research suggests that even relatively "dumb" bots may give rise to complex interactions, and this carries important implications for Artificial Intelligence research. Understanding what affects bot-bot interactions is crucial for managing social media well, providing adequate cyber-security, and designing well functioning autonomous vehicles.

  7. Adaptive magnetorheological seat suspension for the expeditionary fighting vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiemenz, G J [Techno-Sciences, Inc., 11750 Beltsville Dr. Ste. 300, Beltsville, MD 20705 (United States); Hu, W; Wereley, N M [Aerospace Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20712 (United States)], E-mail: greg@technosci.com, E-mail: wereley@umd.edu

    2009-02-01

    The Expeditionary Fighting Vehicle (EFV) is an amphibious vehicle designed to operate through harsh conditions and at much higher speeds than its predecessors. These unique capabilities and broadly varying operational conditions lead to a complex design and human factors scenario for the forward seating positions that cannot be solved using conventional passive seat suspension systems. Injurious shock loads transmitted to the occupants when traversing over water in high sea states and/or at high speeds, as well as harmful shock and vibration transmitted to the occupants when the vehicle is travelling over land, pose a threat to occupant health and significantly limit mission duration. In this study, a semi-active magnetorheological (MR) seat suspension is developed which adapts to broadly varying operational conditions, as well as occupant weight, to provide optimal protection of EFV occupants. It is shown that this MR seat suspension system will reduce the shock and vibration transmitted to the occupant by up to 33% and 65%, respectively, as compared to the existing passive suspension.

  8. Organizing for Emergencies - Issues in Wildfire Fighting in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Fabac

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Croatia's accession to the European Union implies inevitable changes in the national emergency management system. New requirements for adjustment in accordance with the EU standards and practices also apply to the fire-services organization. Harmonious functioning of a large number of relatively autonomous organizations related to the National Protection and Rescue Directorate necessitates clear decision-making authority and coordination mechanisms as well as a high level of interoperability and core competencies development. This paper gives an overview of the Croatian fire protection organization along with its accompanying legislation, followed by an analysis of identified problems, especially those concerning fighting of wildfire. In our research a survey questionnaire comprised of Likert-scale items was used to assess the attitudes and experiences of trained fire department members. The respondents reported a relatively low evaluation of effectiveness and appropriateness of the following key fire service attributes: organizational structure, legislation and firefighting logistics support. From the obtained results guidelines can be drawn for possible redesign of the emergency management organization, especially those concerning the fire protection service.

  9. FIJI: Fighting Implicit Jamming in 802.11 WLANs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broustis, Ioannis; Pelechrinis, Konstantinos; Syrivelis, Dimitris; Krishnamurthy, Srikanth V.; Tassiulas, Leandros

    The IEEE 802.11 protocol inherently provides the same long-term throughput to all the clients associated with a given access point (AP). In this paper, we first identify a clever, low-power jamming attack that can take advantage of this behavioral trait: the placement of a low-power jammer in a way that it affects a single legitimate client can cause starvation to all the other clients. In other words, the total throughput provided by the corresponding AP is drastically degraded. To fight against this attack, we design FIJI, a cross-layer anti-jamming system that detects such intelligent jammers and mitigates their impact on network performance. FIJI looks for anomalies in the AP load distribution to efficiently perform jammer detection. It then makes decisions with regards to optimally shaping the traffic such that: (a) the clients that are not explicitly jammed are shielded from experiencing starvation and, (b) the jammed clients receive the maximum possible throughput under the given conditions. We implement FIJI in real hardware; we evaluate its efficacy through experiments on a large-scale indoor testbed, under different traffic scenarios, network densities and jammer locations. Our measurements suggest that FIJI detects such jammers in real-time and alleviates their impact by allocating the available bandwidth in a fair and efficient way.

  10. Child soldiers and children associated with the fighting forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppard, Sarah

    2003-01-01

    Experience has shown that the breakdown of protective structures such as families and communities, particularly in times of conflict, leaves children vulnerable to recruitment into armed groups. These children are subject to gross violations of their human rights, such as the right to protection from harm, violence and abuse. At least 300,000 children are currently being used to fight in armed conflicts in over 30 countries across the world. Girls and boys are abducted, coerced or persuaded to join armed forces, often in brutal circumstances. These children are usually involved in internal conflicts, where poverty and exclusion leave very few other viable options--becoming soldiers may appear to be their only means of survival. Many, however, sustain physical injuries and permanent disabilities as a result of combat and it is impossible to know how many are killed. A large number encounter health problems such as sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV/AIDS. Lack of data on the health of child soldiers means that appropriate medical care and treatment may be inadequate or inaccessible, even during a planned demobilization. There is an urgent need for systematic research and data collection in order to better understand and provide for the healthcare of all children leaving armed groups.

  11. Children and fighting forces: 10 years on from Cape Town.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Lindsay; Boothby, Neil; Ager, Alastair

    2009-10-01

    It is 10 years since the adoption of the Cape Town Principles and Best Practices on the Prevention of Recruitment of Children into the Armed Forces and on Demobilization and Social Reintegration of Child Soldiers in Africa. The field of programming for the reintegration of children associated with armed forces and armed groups has made significant strides in this period. However, important gaps in the knowledge base remain. This paper examines empirical evidence that supports lessons learned from work with children formerly connected with fighting forces. It evaluates what is known, where promising practice exists, and lacunae in five programming areas: psychosocial support and care; community acceptance; education, training and livelihoods; inclusive programming for all war-affected children; and follow-up and monitoring. While the 2007 Paris Commitments to Protect Children from Unlawful Recruitment or Use by Armed Forces or Groups mark an emerging consensus on many issues, there is still a critical need for more systematic studies to develop the evidence base supporting intervention in this area.

  12. Even good bots fight: The case of Wikipedia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Tsvetkova

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been a huge increase in the number of bots online, varying from Web crawlers for search engines, to chatbots for online customer service, spambots on social media, and content-editing bots in online collaboration communities. The online world has turned into an ecosystem of bots. However, our knowledge of how these automated agents are interacting with each other is rather poor. Bots are predictable automatons that do not have the capacity for emotions, meaning-making, creativity, and sociality and it is hence natural to expect interactions between bots to be relatively predictable and uneventful. In this article, we analyze the interactions between bots that edit articles on Wikipedia. We track the extent to which bots undid each other's edits over the period 2001-2010, model how pairs of bots interact over time, and identify different types of interaction trajectories. We find that, although Wikipedia bots are intended to support the encyclopedia, they often undo each other's edits and these sterile "fights" may sometimes continue for years. Unlike humans on Wikipedia, bots' interactions tend to occur over longer periods of time and to be more reciprocated. Yet, just like humans, bots in different cultural environments may behave differently. Our research suggests that even relatively "dumb" bots may give rise to complex interactions, and this carries important implications for Artificial Intelligence research. Understanding what affects bot-bot interactions is crucial for managing social media well, providing adequate cyber-security, and designing well functioning autonomous vehicles.

  13. Fighting parasites and predators: How to deal with multiple threats?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesse Olivia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although inducible defences have been studied extensively, only little is known about how the presence of parasites might interfere with these anti-predator adaptations. Both parasites and predators are important factors shaping community structure and species composition of ecosystems. Here, we simultaneously exposed Daphnia magna to predator cues (released by the tadpole shrimp, Triops, or by a fish and spores of the yeast parasite Metschnikowia sp. to determine how life history and morphological inducible defences against these two contrasting types of predators are affected by infection. Results The parasite suppressed some Triops-induced defences: Daphnia lost the ability to produce a greater number of larger offspring, a life-history adaptation to Triops predation. In contrast, the parasite did not suppress inducible defences against fish: induction (resulting in smaller body length of the mothers as well as of their offspring and infection acted additively on the measured traits. Thus, fish-induced defences may be less costly than inducible defences against small invertebrate predators like Triops; the latter defences could no longer be expressed when the host had already invested in fighting off the parasite. Conclusions In summary, our study suggests that as specific inducible defences differ in their costs, some might be suppressed if a target prey is additionally infected. Therefore, adding parasite pressure to predator–prey systems can help to elucidate the costs of inducible defences.

  14. PVO / NGO initiatives, Africa. Women Fighting AIDS in Kenya (WOFAK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Women Fighting AIDS in Kenya (WOFAK) was founded in order to improve the effectiveness of existing AIDS services delivered to women in Kenya. Founded by both seropositive and seronegative women, WOFAK is unique in that it is the only AIDS support organization (ASO) in Kenya run by and for women. WOFAK contributes to the empowerment of HIV positive women and girls by assisting them in gaining control over their own health and serostatus, to live positively with the infection, and to protect their families and communities from becoming infected. WOFAK founders feel that existing ASOs address women's issues as only a small part of their programs and that most existing programs aimed at women focus on commercial sex workers. Whenever possible, WOFAK provides psychological and material support for women affected by HIV/AIDS. They conduct training in home-based care techniques and visit hospitalized members to offer counseling and support. WOFAK conducts HIV/AIDS education and outreach in schools, churches, commercial centers, and rural areas. All activities center around a network of positive women from all parts of society responding to the community and advocating for stronger responses by the government and other agencies providing HIV/AIDS prevention and care services. They stress the basic human rights of HIV positive women such as their right to marriage and reproduction, proper medical care, housing, and jobs. For more information, please contact Dorothy Odhiambo, WOFAK, PO Box 58428, Nairobi, Kenya; tel: +1 254 2 217039; fax: +1 254 2 243164. full text

  15. Ebolavirus Vaccines: Progress in the Fight Against Ebola Virus Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiao-Xin; Yao, Hang-Ping; Wu, Nan-Ping; Gao, Hai-Nv; Wu, Hai-Bo; Jin, Chang-Zhong; Lu, Xiang-Yun; Xie, Tian-Shen; Li, Lan-Juan

    2015-01-01

    Ebolaviruses are highly infectious pathogens that cause lethal Ebola virus disease (EVD) in humans and non-human primates (NHPs). Due to their high pathogenicity and transmissibility, as well as the potential to be misused as a bioterrorism agent, ebolaviruses would threaten the health of global populations if not controlled. In this review, we describe the origin and structure of ebolaviruses and the development of vaccines from the beginning of the 1980s, including conventional ebolavirus vaccines, DNA vaccines, Ebola virus-like particles (VLPs), vaccinia virus-based vaccines, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV)-like replicon particles, Kunjin virus-based vaccine, recombinant Zaire Ebolavirusx2206;VP30, recombinant cytomegalovirus (CMV)-based vaccines, recombinant rabies virus (RABV)-based vaccines, recombinant paramyxovirus-based vaccines, adenovirus-based vaccines and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-based vaccines. No licensed vaccine or specific treatment is currently available to counteract ebolavirus infection, although DNA plasmids and several viral vector approaches have been evaluated as promising vaccine platforms. These vaccine candidates have been confirmed to be successful in protecting NHPs against lethal infection. Moreover, these vaccine candidates were successfully advanced to clinical trials. The present review provides an update of the current research on Ebola vaccines, with the aim of providing an overview on current prospects in the fight against EVD. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Fighting African Capital Flight: Empirics on Benchmarking Policy Harmonization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simplice A. Asongu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available With earthshaking and heartbreaking trends in African capital flight provided by a new database, this paper complements existing literature by answering some key policy questions on the feasibility of and timeframe for policy harmonization in the battle against the economic scourge. The goal of the paper is to study beta-convergence of capital flight across a set of 37 African countries in the period 1980-2010 and to discuss the policy implications. Three main findings are established. (1 African countries with low capital flight rates are catching-up their counterparts with higher rates, implying the feasibility ofpolicy harmonization towards fighting capital flight. (2 Petroleum-exporting and conflict-affected countries significantly play out in absolute and conditional convergences respectively. (3 Regardless of fundamental characteristics, a genuine timeframe for harmonizing policies is within a horizon of 6 to 13 years. Inother words, full (100% convergence within the specifiedhorizon is an indication that policies and regulations can be enforced without distinction of nationality or locality.

  17. Fighting the Good Fight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waco, Alice

    1982-01-01

    Describes the development and implementation of a week-long "Women's History Week" program in a California high school. Using extracurricular workshops and traditional classroom activities, the program was designed to raise student and faculty awareness of sexism. The author describes ways they overcame logistical problems and administrative…

  18. Winning Before the Fight: An Armed Suasion Approach to Countering Near Peer Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-25

    Winning Before the Fight: An Armed Suasion Approach to Countering Near Peer Competition A Monograph by Ms. Caroline M. Byorick Defense...Fight: An Armed Suasion Approach to Countering Near Peer Competition 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...AUTHOR(S) Ms. Caroline Byorick 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) U.S

  19. Fighting corruption in Africa: do existing corruption-control levels matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Simplice A, Asongu

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – Are there different determinants in the fight against corruption across African countries? Why are some countries more effective at battling corruption than others? To assess these concerns we examine the determinants of corruption-control throughout the conditional distribution of the fight against corruption using panel data from 46 African countries for the period 2002-2010. Design/methodology/approach – The panel quantile regression technique enables us to investigate if ...

  20. Globalization, (fighting) corruption and development: how are these phenomena linearly and nonlinearly related in wealth effects?

    OpenAIRE

    Simplice A, Asongu

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – Is globalization instrumental in fighting corruption? Do wealth effects matter in this fight? Are findings valid when linearity assumptions are dropped? This paper assesses the Lalountas et al. (2011) hypotheses (conclusions) in the African context. Design/methodology/approach – Though not in form, yet in substance the intuition and motivation are compatible with those of Lalountas et al. (2011). Four hypotheses are tested from different methodological and contextual standpoints. In...

  1. The Decision to Fight or Flee – Insights into Underlying Mechanism in Crickets

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Anthony eStevenson; Jan eRillich

    2012-01-01

    Ritualized fighting between conspecifics is an inherently dangerous behavioral strategy, optimized to secure limited resources at minimal cost and risk. To be adaptive, potential rewards, and costs of aggression must be assessed to decide when it would be more opportune to fight or flee. We summarize insights into the proximate mechanisms underlying this decision-making process in field crickets. As in other animals, cricket aggression is enhanced dramatically by motor activity, winning, and ...

  2. The decision to fight or flee - insights into underlying mechanism in crickets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Anthony eStevenson

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Ritualized fighting between conspecifics is an inherently dangerous behavioral strategy, optimized to secure limited resources at minimal cost and risk. To be adaptive, potential rewards and costs of aggression must be assessed to decide when it would be more opportune to fight or flee. We summarize insights into the proximate mechanisms underlying this decision-making process in field crickets. As in other animals, cricket aggression is enhanced dramatically by motor activity, winning and the possession of resources. Pharmacological manipulations provide evidence that these cases of experience-dependent enhancement of aggression are each mediated by octopamine, the invertebrate counterpart to adrenaline/noradrenaline. The data suggest that both physical exertion and rewarding aspects of experiences can activate the octopaminergic system, which increases the propensity to fight. Octopamine thus represents the motivational component of aggression in insects. For the decision to flee, animals are thought to assess information from agonistic signals exchanged during fighting. Cricket fights conform to the cumulative assessment model, in that they persist in fighting until the sum of their opponent’s actions accumulates to some threshold at which they withdraw. We discuss evidence that serotonin, nitric oxide and some neuropeptides may promote an insect’s tendency to flee. We propose that the decision to fight or flee in crickets is controlled simply by relative behavioral thresholds. Rewarding experiences increase the propensity to fight to a level determined by the modulatory action of octopamine. The animal will then flee only when the accumulated sum of the opponent’s actions surpasses this level; serotonin and nitric oxide may be involved in this process. This concept is in line with the roles proposed for noradrenaline, serotonin and nitric oxide in mammals and suggests that basic mechanisms of aggressive modulation may be conserved in

  3. The decision to fight or flee - insights into underlying mechanism in crickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Paul A; Rillich, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Ritualized fighting between conspecifics is an inherently dangerous behavioral strategy, optimized to secure limited resources at minimal cost and risk. To be adaptive, potential rewards, and costs of aggression must be assessed to decide when it would be more opportune to fight or flee. We summarize insights into the proximate mechanisms underlying this decision-making process in field crickets. As in other animals, cricket aggression is enhanced dramatically by motor activity, winning, and the possession of resources. Pharmacological manipulations provide evidence that these cases of experience dependent enhancement of aggression are each mediated by octopamine, the invertebrate counterpart to adrenaline/noradrenaline. The data suggest that both physical exertion and rewarding aspects of experiences can activate the octopaminergic system, which increases the propensity to fight. Octopamine thus represents the motivational component of aggression in insects. For the decision to flee, animals are thought to assess information from agonistic signals exchanged during fighting. Cricket fights conform to the cumulative assessment model, in that they persist in fighting until the sum of their opponent's actions accumulates to some threshold at which they withdraw. We discuss evidence that serotonin, nitric oxide, and some neuropeptides may promote an insect's tendency to flee. We propose that the decision to fight or flee in crickets is controlled simply by relative behavioral thresholds. Rewarding experiences increase the propensity to fight to a level determined by the modulatory action of octopamine. The animal will then flee only when the accumulated sum of the opponent's actions surpasses this level; serotonin and nitric oxide may be involved in this process. This concept is in line with the roles proposed for noradrenaline, serotonin, and nitric oxide in mammals and suggests that basic mechanisms of aggressive modulation may be conserved in phylogeny.

  4. The Decision to Fight or Flee – Insights into Underlying Mechanism in Crickets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Paul A.; Rillich, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Ritualized fighting between conspecifics is an inherently dangerous behavioral strategy, optimized to secure limited resources at minimal cost and risk. To be adaptive, potential rewards, and costs of aggression must be assessed to decide when it would be more opportune to fight or flee. We summarize insights into the proximate mechanisms underlying this decision-making process in field crickets. As in other animals, cricket aggression is enhanced dramatically by motor activity, winning, and the possession of resources. Pharmacological manipulations provide evidence that these cases of experience dependent enhancement of aggression are each mediated by octopamine, the invertebrate counterpart to adrenaline/noradrenaline. The data suggest that both physical exertion and rewarding aspects of experiences can activate the octopaminergic system, which increases the propensity to fight. Octopamine thus represents the motivational component of aggression in insects. For the decision to flee, animals are thought to assess information from agonistic signals exchanged during fighting. Cricket fights conform to the cumulative assessment model, in that they persist in fighting until the sum of their opponent’s actions accumulates to some threshold at which they withdraw. We discuss evidence that serotonin, nitric oxide, and some neuropeptides may promote an insect’s tendency to flee. We propose that the decision to fight or flee in crickets is controlled simply by relative behavioral thresholds. Rewarding experiences increase the propensity to fight to a level determined by the modulatory action of octopamine. The animal will then flee only when the accumulated sum of the opponent’s actions surpasses this level; serotonin and nitric oxide may be involved in this process. This concept is in line with the roles proposed for noradrenaline, serotonin, and nitric oxide in mammals and suggests that basic mechanisms of aggressive modulation may be conserved in phylogeny. PMID

  5. Change We Can Fight Over: The Relationship between Arable Land Supply and Substate Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Change We Can Fight Over: The Relationship between Arable Land Supply and Substate Conflict Nathan Black Introduction...valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 2010 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Change We Can Fight...as discussed in the conclusion, but we can safely state that both humans and nature play a role. This article only argues that if arable land

  6. Structural Fire Fighting Ensembles: Accumulation and Off-gassing of Combustion Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Katherine M; Logan, Michael B

    2015-01-01

    Firefighters may be exposed to toxic combustion products not only during fire fighting operations and training, but also afterwards as a result of contact with contaminated structural fire fighting ensembles. This study characterized the deposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) onto structural fire fighting ensembles and off-gassing of combustion products from ensembles after multiple exposures to hostile structural attack fire environments. A variety of PAHs were deposited onto the outer layer of structural fire fighting ensembles, with no variation in deposition flux between new ensembles and already contaminated ensembles. Contaminants released from ensembles after use included volatile organic compounds, carbonyl compounds, low molecular weight PAHs, and hydrogen cyanide. Air samples collected in a similar manner after laundering of ensembles according to manufacturer specifications indicated that laundering returns off-gassing concentrations of most of the investigated compounds to pre-exposure levels. These findings suggest that contamination of firefighter protective clothing increases with use, and that storage of unlaundered structural fire fighting ensembles in small, unventilated spaces immediately after use may create a source of future exposure to toxic combustion products for fire fighting personnel.

  7. Trends and socioeconomic correlates of adolescent physical fighting in 30 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, William; Molcho, Michal; Elgar, Frank J; Brooks, Fiona; de Looze, Margaretha; Rathmann, Katharina; ter Bogt, Tom F M; Nic Gabhainn, Saoirse; Sigmundová, Dagmar; Gaspar de Matos, Margarida; Craig, Wendy; Walsh, Sophie D; Harel-Fisch, Yossi; Currie, Candace

    2013-01-01

    No recent international studies provide evidence about its prevalence, trends, or social determinants of physical fighting in adolescents. We studied cross-national epidemiologic trends over time in the occurrence of frequent physical fighting, demographic variations in reported trends, and national wealth and income inequality as correlates. Cross-sectional surveys were administered in school settings in 2002, 2006, and 2010. Participants (N = 493874) included eligible and consenting students aged 11, 13, and 15 years in sampled schools from 30 mainly European and North American countries. Individual measures included engagement in frequent physical fighting, age, gender, participation in multiple risk behaviors, victimization by bullying, and family affluence. Contextual measures included national income inequality, absolute wealth and homicide rates. Temporal measure was survey cycle (year). Frequent physical fighting declined over time in 19 (63%) of 30 countries (from descriptive then multiple Poisson regression analyses). Contextual measures of absolute wealth (relative risk 0.96, 95% confidence interval 0.93-0.99 per 1 SD increase in gross domestic product per capita) but not income inequality (relative risk 1.01, 95% confidence interval 0.98-1.05 per 1 SD increase) related to lower levels of engagement in fighting. Other risk factors identified were male gender, younger age (11 years), multiple risk behaviors, victimization by bullying, and national homicide rates. Between 2002 and 2010, adolescent physical fighting declined in most countries. Specific groups of adolescents require targeted violence reduction programs. Possible determinants responsible for the observed declines are discussed.

  8. Virtual environment debriefing room for naval fighter pilots: phase I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Mark; Alexander, Joanna R.; Downes-Martin, Stephen; Morrison, John; Katz, Warren; Short, Elisabeth

    1992-06-01

    Current methods for debriefing Navy Fighter Pilots after real and simulated missions are insufficient for handling the speed and complexity of modern air combat. The state of the art in tactical air combat debriefing is essentially a two-dimensional plus time view of a problem whose dimensionality consists of three spatial dimensions plus time plus other non-spatial parameters. The David Sarnoff Research Center (Sarnoff) is developing an advanced debriefing system for Navy fighter jet training, combat development, and research. Called CyberView, the system consists of an advanced interactive data visualization system displaying multi-dimensional abstract and concrete combat data in three-dimensions plus time, an interactive data analysis system for rapid data manipulation and studies, and a faster than real-tie predictive simulation based on the branch wargaming paradigm of military planning for 'what if?' analysis. In our research and development of CyberView, we are attempting to give pilots and battle planners greater awareness of the complex situations which occur during air operations, and the ability to look into the future at the effects of decisions on battle outcomes. Our envisioned system when complete will be capable of intuitively displaying combat errors to pilots, permitting the pilots to re-fight the same battles with better awareness of their situation, giving battle planners the ability to perform tradeoff studies on tactical decisions in order to optimize battle outcomes, and providing an analytical testbed for automated forces paradigms, algorithms, and effectiveness.

  9. Saturday night's alright for fighting: antisocial traits, fighting, and weapons carrying in a large sample of youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Christopher J; Cricket Meehan, D

    2010-12-01

    The current study examines risk and protective factors for youth antisocial personality and behavior from a multivariate format. It is hoped that this research will elucidate those risk and protective factors most important for focus of future prevention and intervention efforts. The current study examines multiple factors associated with youth antisocial traits and behavior in a sample of 8,256 youth (mean age 14), with the goal of identifying the strongest and most consistent risk or protective factors. Data was collected from the Ohio version of the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System's (YRBSS) school-based Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) developed by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC). Hierarchical multiple regression analyses identified peer delinquency, drug use and negative community influences as predictive of antisocial traits. Schools and families functioned as protective factors. Youth who fought frequently tended to be male, antisocial, dug using, depressed, and associated with delinquent peers. Weapons carrying was most common among drug using, antisocial males. Television and video game use were not predictive of antisocial, fighting or weapons carrying outcomes. Developmental patterns across age ranges regarding the relative importance of specific risk factors were also examined. Strategies for intervention and prevention of youth violence that focus on peers, neighborhoods, depression, and families may be particularly likely to bear fruit.

  10. Spatial and temporal relationships between the invasive snail Bithynia tentaculata and submersed aquatic vegetation in Pool 8 of the Upper Mississippi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Alicia M.; DeJager, Nathan R.; Haro, Roger J.; Sandland, Greg J.

    2017-01-01

    Bithynia tentaculata is an invasive snail that was first reported in Lake Michigan in 1871 and has since spread throughout a number of freshwater systems of the USA. This invasion has been extremely problematic in the Upper Mississippi River as the snails serve as intermediate hosts for several trematode parasites that have been associated with waterfowl mortality in the region. This study was designed to assess the abundance and distribution of B. tentaculata relative to submersed aquatic vegetation as macrophytes provide important nesting and food resources for migrating waterfowl. Temporal changes in both vegetation and snail densities were compared between 2007 and 2015. Between these years, B. tentaculata densities have nearly quadrupled despite minor changes in vegetation abundance, distribution and composition. Understanding the spatial distribution of B. tentaculata in relation to other habitat features, including submersed vegetation, and quantifying any further changes in the abundance and distribution of B. tentaculata over time will be important for better identifying areas of risk for disease transmission to waterfowl.

  11. Functionality of the plastron in adults of Neochetina eichhorniae Warner (Coleoptera, Curculionidae: aspects of the integument coating and submersion laboratory experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley Oliveira de Sousa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The plastron theory was tested in adults of Neochetina eichhorniae Warner, 1970, through the analysis of the structure that coats these insects' integument and also through submersion laboratorial experiments. The tegument processes were recognized in three types: agglutinated scales with large perforations, plumose scales of varied sizes and shapes, and hairs. The experiments were carried out on 264 adult individuals which were kept submerged at different time intervals (n = 11 and in two types of treatment, natural non-aerated water and previously boiled water, with four repetitions for each treatment. The tests showed a maximum mortality after 24 hours of immersion in the previously boiled water treatment. The survival of the adults was negative and significantly correlated with the types of treatment employed and within the different time intervals. The values of oxygen dissolved in water (mg/l differed significantly within the types of treatment employed. They were positively correlated with the survival of the adults in the two types of treatment, although more markedly in the treatment with previously boiled water. The mortality of adults after 24 hours of submersion in the treatment with previously boiled water may be associated with the physical-chemical conditions of the non-tested water in this study, such as low surface tension and concentration of solutes. These results suggest plastron functionality in the adults of this species.

  12. Software-In-the-Loop based Modeling and Simulation of Unmanned Semi-submersible Vehicle for Performance Verification of Autonomous Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwangkook; Jeong, Mijin; Kim, Dong Hun

    2017-12-01

    Since an unmanned semi-submersible is mainly used for the purpose of carrying out dangerous missions in the sea, it is possible to work in a region where it is difficult to access due to safety reasons. In this study, an USV hull design was determined using Myring hull profile, and reinforcement work was performed by designing and implementing inner stiffener member for 3D printing. In order to simulate a sea state 5.0 or more at sea, which is difficult to implement in practice, a regular and irregular wave equation was implemented in Matlab / Simulink. We performed modeling and simulation of semi - submersible simulation based on DMWorks considering the rolling motion in wave. To verify and improve unpredicted errors, we implemented a numeric and physical simulation model of the USV based on software-in-the-loop (SIL) method. This simulation allows shipbuilders to participate in new value-added markets such as engineering, procurement, construction, installation, commissioning, operation, and maintenance for the USV.

  13. The fight against terrorism. The lists and the gaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imelda Tappeiner

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Although not a new issue, the fight against terrorism did not rise to the top of the agenda of the European Union (EU and its Member States until after September 11. Interesting in this context is the phenomenon of blacklisting. Persons, organizations and ‘entities’ were put on several international lists for the main purpose of freezing their financial assets and prosecuting them. At the start of the chain are the lists compiled by the Security Council of the United Nations (UN which are followed by those of the European Union. The Member States have an obligation to comply with these UN and EU measures at national level and to implement them against the persons listed. The position of individuals who are so unfortunate as to have been named and therefore marked as terrorists is weak, especially when they appear on EU lists. Weak, in the first place, due to a lack of delisting procedures which could lead to the removal of one’s name from the list in case it becomes clear that an error has been made. Weak, in the second place, due to the particular system of division of competences between the first, second and third pillar laid down in the legislative instruments used by the EU Council. And weak, finally, due to the mechanisms of judicial protection, both at national and European level, which seem to fail whenever individuals in some way challenge measures adopted against them as a result of the appearance of their name on a list or because of being named in the first place.

  14. Using Gunshot Detection Systems to Fight Explosive Fishing Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showen, R. L.; Dunson, J. C.; Woodman, G.; Christopher, S.; Wilson, S.

    2015-12-01

    Blast fishing (using explosives to catch fish) causes extensive damage to coral reefs, especially in the Coral Triangle in Southeast Asia. Subsistence fishermen and larger consortiums, often with criminal links, throw an explosive into a school of fish, killing all sea life within range. This unsustainable practice is becoming more prevalent, and threatens the protein supply of as many as a billion people. Ending blast fishing will require combined technical and societal methods aimed at both deterring the practice, and catching those responsible. Our work aims to significantly improve enforcement. We are re-purposing SST's ShotSpotter gunshot detection system, (trusted and valued by police around the world), substituting hydrophones for the present microphones. Using multilateration and trained human reviewers, the system can give prompt blast alerts, location data, and acoustic waveforms to law enforcement officials. We hope to establish a prototype system in Malaysia in 2015, and have already secured governmental approvals for installation and tests with local law enforcement. The Scubazoo media firm in Malaysia is working with resorts, dive operations, and celebrity sponsors, and is planning to produce videos to illustrate the severity of the problem to both governments and the public. Because there is little hard data concerning the prevalence of blast fishing in either marine protected areas or open waters, the system can also indicate to the world the actual blast rates and patterns of use. The Teng Hoi environmental NGO in Hong Kong showed in 2004 that acoustic waves from typical bombs propagate on the order of 20 km, so an underwater locator system with a small number of sensors can feasibly cover a sizable coral region. Our present plans are to mount sensors on piers, buoys, and boats, but if possible we would also like to integrate with other existing acoustic arrays to strengthen the fight against blast fishing.

  15. Fighting stigma of mental illness in midsize European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beldie, Alina; den Boer, Johan A; Brain, Cecilia; Constant, Eric; Figueira, Maria Luisa; Filipcic, Igor; Gillain, Benoît; Jakovljevic, Miro; Jarema, Marek; Jelenova, Daniela; Karamustafalioglu, Oguz; Kores Plesnicar, Blanka; Kovacsova, Andrea; Latalova, Klara; Marksteiner, Josef; Palha, Filipa; Pecenak, Jan; Prasko, Jan; Prelipceanu, Dan; Ringen, Petter Andreas; Sartorius, Norman; Seifritz, Erich; Svestka, Jaromir; Tyszkowska, Magdalena; Wancata, Johannes

    2012-04-01

    Stigma is the most powerful obstacle to the development of mental health care. Numerous activities aiming to reduce the stigma of mental illness and the consequent negative discrimination of the mentally ill and their families have been conducted in Europe. Descriptions of many of these activities are not easily available, either because there are no publications that describe them, or because descriptions exist only in local languages. This supplement aims to help in overcoming this imbalance by providing a description of anti-stigma activities in 14 countries in Europe regardless of the language in which they were published and regardless whether they were previously published. The review was undertaken by experts who were invited to describe anti-stigma activities in the countries in which they reside. It was suggested that they use all the available evidence and that they consult others in their country to obtain a description of anti-stigma activities that is as complete as possible. The anti-stigma activities undertaken in the countries involved are presented in a tabular form. The texts contributed by the authors focus on their perception of the stigma of mental illness and of activities undertaken to combat it in their country. Although much has been done against the stigmatization and discrimination of the mentally ill, fighting stigma remains an essential task for mental health programs and for society. The descriptions summarized in this volume might serve as an inspiration for anti-stigma work and as an indication of potential collaborators in anti-stigma programs.

  16. Fight or flight: the ethics of emergency physician disaster response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iserson, Kenneth V; Heine, Carlton E; Larkin, Gregory Luke; Moskop, John C; Baruch, Jay; Aswegan, Andrew L

    2008-04-01

    Most disaster plans depend on using emergency physicians, nurses, emergency department support staff, and out-of-hospital personnel to maintain the health care system's front line during crises that involve personal risk to themselves or their families. Planners automatically assume that emergency health care workers will respond. However, we need to ask: Should they, and will they, work rather than flee? The answer involves basic moral and personal issues. This article identifies and examines the factors that influence health care workers' decisions in these situations. After reviewing physicians' response to past disasters and epidemics, we evaluate how much danger they actually faced. Next, we examine guidelines from medical professional organizations about physicians' duty to provide care despite personal risks, although we acknowledge that individuals will interpret and apply professional expectations and norms according to their own situation and values. The article goes on to articulate moral arguments for a duty to treat during disasters and social crises, as well as moral reasons that may limit or override such a duty. How fear influences behavior is examined, as are the institutional and social measures that can be taken to control fear and to encourage health professionals to provide treatment in crisis situations. Finally, the article emphasizes the importance of effective risk communication in enabling health care professionals and the public to make informed and defensible decisions during disasters. We conclude that the decision to stay or leave will ultimately depend on individuals' risk assessment and their value systems. Preparations for the next pandemic or disaster should include policies that encourage emergency physicians, who are inevitably among those at highest risk, to "stay and fight."

  17. Multi-stream face recognition for crime-fighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jassim, Sabah A.; Sellahewa, Harin

    2007-04-01

    Automatic face recognition (AFR) is a challenging task that is increasingly becoming the preferred biometric trait for identification and has the potential of becoming an essential tool in the fight against crime and terrorism. Closed-circuit television (CCTV) cameras have increasingly been used over the last few years for surveillance in public places such as airports, train stations and shopping centers. They are used to detect and prevent crime, shoplifting, public disorder and terrorism. The work of law-enforcing and intelligence agencies is becoming more reliant on the use of databases of biometric data for large section of the population. Face is one of the most natural biometric traits that can be used for identification and surveillance. However, variations in lighting conditions, facial expressions, face size and pose are a great obstacle to AFR. This paper is concerned with using waveletbased face recognition schemes in the presence of variations of expressions and illumination. In particular, we will investigate the use of a combination of wavelet frequency channels for a multi-stream face recognition using various wavelet subbands as different face signal streams. The proposed schemes extend our recently developed face veri.cation scheme for implementation on mobile devices. We shall present experimental results on the performance of our proposed schemes for a number of face databases including a new AV database recorded on a PDA. By analyzing the various experimental data, we shall demonstrate that the multi-stream approach is robust against variations in illumination and facial expressions than the previous single-stream approach.

  18. Law Enforcement Against Fighting Group By Native In West Papua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irna Indira Ratih

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The fundamental research conducted by looking at the phenomenon of group fights and how ethnocentrism and conflict influence each other indigenous ethnic groups in West Papua. This study used descriptive qualitative method, through field studies (in-depth interviews and literature study. The results showed that with a low level of understanding of the history of the conflict supported ever experienced by the perpetrators of communication, there is a trend of negative information transformation process to be effective. So as to absorb the negative information, aspects of ethnocentrism group members appear. The emergence of these aspects lead to the awareness and solidarity groups to join forces in-group. Other findings also showed that the factors causing conflict among indigenous ethnic groups in West Papua can be summarized in two points, namely; The first tendency puts another group at a level lower social interaction, and the second is the attempt appointment of existence itself by an ethnic group seeking recognition coupled behavior (respect from inside and outside the group by scapegoating other groups. In the indigenous ethnic group communication, attitude and behavior aspects play a role in the formation of a negative message, based on the main factors. The tendency of formation of the group because of its frequency along the occurring hereditary. Related conflict and ethnocentrism, can be drawn that the results of the analysis found the substance also major causal relationship. Where, a communal conflict can result from the manifestation of ethnocentrism aspects into forms of behavior conflict. In contrast with the presence of conflict can also strengthen or weaken ethnocentrism.

  19. Fighting crime by fighting misconceptions and blind spots in policy theories: an evidence-based evaluation of interventions and assumed causal mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Noije, L.; Wittebrood, K.

    2010-01-01

    How effective are policy interventions to fight crime and how valid is the policy theory that underlies them? This is the twofold research question addressed in this article, which presents an evidence-based evaluation of Dutch social safety policy. By bridging the gap between actual effects and

  20. Review of performance, medical, and operational data on pilot aging issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoklosa, J. H.

    1992-01-01

    An extensive review of the literature and studies relating to performance, medical, operational, and legal data regarding pilot aging issues was performed in order to determine what evidence there is, if any, to support mandatory pilot retirement. Popular misconceptions about aging, including the failure to distinguish between the normal aging process and disease processes that occur more frequently in older individuals, continue to contribute to much of the misunderstanding and controversy that surround this issue. Results: Review of medical data related to the pilot aging issue indicate that recent improvement in medical diagnostics and treatment technology have made it possible to identify to a high degree individuals who are at risk for developing sudden incapacitating illness and for treating those with disqualifying medical conditions. Performance studies revealed that after controlling for the presence of disease states, older pilots are able to perform as well as younger pilots on many performance tasks. Review of accident data showed that older, healthy pilots do not have higher accident rates than younger pilots, and indeeed, evidence suggests that older pilots have an advantage in the cockpit due to higher experience levels. The Man-Machine-Mission-Environment interface of factors can be managed through structured, supervised, and enhanced operations, maintenance, flight reviews, and safety procedures in order to ensure safe and productive operations by reducing the margin of error and by increasing the margin of safety. Conclusions: There is no evidence indicating any specific age as an arbitrary cut-off point for pilots to perform their fight duties. A combination of regular medical screening, performance evaluation, enhanced operational maintenance, and safety procedures can most effectively ensure a safe pilot population than can a mandatory retirement policy based on arbitrary age restrictions.

  1. Submersible Packaging Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-01

    E Acetylene E,B Barium Sulfide B,E Acetylene Tetrabromide V,E Beer B Aerozine 50 E Benzaldehyde E Air (below 3000F) E,B Benzene V,F,K Air (above...per square inch per minute. 4.7.3.3 Test criterio . During the test, boots shall be observed for evidence of water leakage into the test enclosure or for

  2. Fighting corruption when existing corruption-control levels count: what do wealth-effects tell us in Africa?

    OpenAIRE

    Simplice A, Asongu

    2012-01-01

    Why are some nations more effective at battling corruption than others? Are there different determinants in the fight against corruption across developing nations? Do income-levels matter in the fight against corruption when existing corruption-control levels also matter? In other words, how does the wealth of nations matter in the fight against corruption when corruption is assessed throughout the conditional distribution of corruption-control from countries with low initial levels of corrup...

  3. Study on operation conditions and an operation system of a nuclear powered submersible research vessel, 'report of working group on application of a very small nuclear reactor to an ocean research'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ura, Tamaki [Tokyo Univ., Tokyo (Japan); Takamasa, Tomoji [Tokyo Univ. of Mercantile Marine, Tokyo (Japan); Nishimura, Hajime [Japan Marine Science and Technology Center, Yokosuka, Kanagawa (JP)] [and others

    2001-07-01

    JAERI has studied on design of a nuclear powered submersible research vessel, which will navigate under sea mainly in the Arctic Ocean, as a part of the design activity of advanced marine reactors. This report describes operation conditions and an operating system of the vessel, which were discussed by the specialists of hull design, sound positioning, ship motions and oceanography, etc. The design conditions on ship motions for submersible vessels were surveyed considering regulations in our country, and ship motions were evaluated in the cases of underwater and surface navigations taking account of observation activities in the Arctic Ocean. The effect of ship motions on the compact nuclear reactor SCR was assessed. A submarine transponder system and an on-ice communication buoy system were examined as a positioning and communication system, supposing the activity under ice. The interval between transponders or communication buoys was recommended as 130 km. Procedures to secure safety of nuclear powered submersible research vessel were discussed according to accidents on the hull or the nuclear reactor. These results were reflected to the concept of the nuclear powered submersible research vessel, and subjects to be settled in the next step were clarified. (author)

  4. Prevalence and associated factors of physical fighting among school-going adolescents in Namibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudatsikira, Emmanuel; Siziya, Seter; Kazembe, Lawrence N; Muula, Adamson S

    2007-07-24

    Interpersonal physical violence is an important global public health concern that has received limited attention in the developing world. There is in particular a paucity of data regarding physical violence and its socio-demographic correlates among in-school adolescents in Namibia. We analysed cross-sectional data from the Namibia Global School-Based Health Survey (GSHS) conducted in 2004. We aimed to estimate the prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of physical fighting within the last 12 months. We obtained frequencies of socio-demographic attributes. We also assessed the association between self-reported history of having engaging in a physical fight and a selected list of independent variables using logistic regression analysis. Of the 6283 respondents, 50.6% (55.2% males and 46.2% females) reported having been in a physical fight in the past 12 months. Males were more likely to have been in a physical fight than females (OR = 1.71, 95% CI (1.44, 2.05)). Smoking, drinking alcohol, using drugs and bullying victimization were positively associated with fighting (OR = 1.91, 95% CI (1.49, 2.45); OR = 1.48, 95% CI (1.21, 1.81); OR = 1.55, 95% CI (1.22, 1.81); and OR = 3.12, 95% CI (2.62, 3.72), respectively). Parental supervision was negatively associated with physical fighting (OR = 0.82, 95% CI (0.69, 0.98)). Both male and female substance users (cigarette smoking, alcohol and drug use) were more likely to engage in physical fighting than non-substance users (OR = 3.53, 95% CI (2.60, 4.81) for males and OR = 11.01, 95% CI (7.25, 16.73) for females). Parental supervision was negatively associated with physical fighting (OR = 0.85, 95% CI (0.72, 0.99)). Prevalence of physical fighting within the last 12 months was comparable to estimates obtained in European countries. We also found clustering of problem behaviours or experiences among adolescents who reported having engaged in physical violence in the past 12 months. There is a need to bring adolescent

  5. Prevalence and associated factors of physical fighting among school-going adolescents in Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazembe Lawrence N

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interpersonal physical violence is an important global public health concern that has received limited attention in the developing world. There is in particular a paucity of data regarding physical violence and its socio-demographic correlates among in-school adolescents in Namibia. Methods We analysed cross-sectional data from the Namibia Global School-Based Health Survey (GSHS conducted in 2004. We aimed to estimate the prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of physical fighting within the last 12 months. We obtained frequencies of socio-demographic attributes. We also assessed the association between self-reported history of having engaging in a physical fight and a selected list of independent variables using logistic regression analysis. Results Of the 6283 respondents, 50.6% (55.2% males and 46.2% females reported having been in a physical fight in the past 12 months. Males were more likely to have been in a physical fight than females (OR = 1.71, 95% CI (1.44, 2.05. Smoking, drinking alcohol, using drugs and bullying victimization were positively associated with fighting (OR = 1.91, 95% CI (1.49, 2.45; OR = 1.48, 95% CI (1.21, 1.81; OR = 1.55, 95% CI (1.22, 1.81; and OR = 3.12, 95% CI (2.62, 3.72, respectively. Parental supervision was negatively associated with physical fighting (OR = 0.82, 95% CI (0.69, 0.98. Both male and female substance users (cigarette smoking, alcohol and drug use were more likely to engage in physical fighting than non-substance users (OR = 3.53, 95% CI (2.60, 4.81 for males and OR = 11.01, 95% CI (7.25, 16.73 for females. Parental supervision was negatively associated with physical fighting (OR = 0.85, 95% CI (0.72, 0.99. Conclusion Prevalence of physical fighting within the last 12 months was comparable to estimates obtained in European countries. We also found clustering of problem behaviours or experiences among adolescents who reported having engaged in physical violence in the past

  6. Explosive Formulation Pilot Plant

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Pilot Plant for Explosive Formulation supports the development of new explosives that are comprised of several components. This system is particularly beneficial...

  7. Modeling Pilot Pulse Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachelder, Edward; Hess, Ronald; Godfroy-Cooper, Martine; Aponso, Bimal

    2017-01-01

    In this study, behavioral models are developed that closely reproduced pulsive control response of two pilots from the experimental pool using markedly different control techniques (styles) while conducting a tracking task. An intriguing find was that the pilots appeared to: 1) produce a continuous, internally-generated stick signal that they integrated in time; 2) integrate the actual stick position; and 3) compare the two integrations to issue and cease pulse commands. This suggests that the pilots utilized kinesthetic feedback in order to perceive and integrate stick position, supporting the hypothesis that pilots can access and employ the proprioceptive inner feedback loop proposed by Hess' pilot Structural Model. The Pulse Models used in conjunction with the pilot Structural Model closely recreated the pilot data both in the frequency and time domains during closed-loop simulation. This indicates that for the range of tasks and control styles encountered, the models captured the fundamental mechanisms governing pulsive and control processes. The pilot Pulse Models give important insight for the amount of remnant (stick output uncorrelated with the forcing function) that arises from nonlinear pilot technique, and for the remaining remnant arising from different sources unrelated to tracking control (i.e. neuromuscular tremor, reallocation of cognitive resources, etc.).

  8. The use of platensimycin and platencin to fight antibiotic resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allahverdiyev AM

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Adil M Allahverdiyev,1 Melahat Bagirova,1 Emrah Sefik Abamor,1 Sezen Canim Ates,1 Rabia Cakir Koc,2 Meral Miraloglu,3 Serhat Elcicek,4 Serkan Yaman,1 Gokce Unal1 1Department of Bioengineering, Yildiz Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey; 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, Yeni Yuzyil University, Istanbul, Turkey; 3Vocational School of Health Services, Cukurova University, Adana, Turkey; 4Department of Bioengineering, Firat University, Elazig, Turkey Abstract: Infectious diseases are known as one of the most life-threatening disabilities worldwide. Approximately 13 million deaths related to infectious diseases are reported each year. The only way to combat infectious diseases is by chemotherapy using antimicrobial agents and antibiotics. However, due to uncontrolled and unnecessary use of antibiotics in particular, surviving bacteria have evolved resistance against several antibiotics. Emergence of multidrug resistance in bacteria over the past several decades has resulted in one of the most important clinical health problems in modern medicine. For instance, approximately 440,000 new cases of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis are reported every year leading to the deaths of 150,000 people worldwide. Management of multidrug resistance requires understanding its molecular basis and the evolution and dissemination of resistance; development of new antibiotic compounds in place of traditional antibiotics; and innovative strategies for extending the life of antibiotic molecules. Researchers have begun to develop new antimicrobials for overcoming this important problem. Recently, platensimycin – isolated from extracts of Streptomyces platensis – and its analog platencin have been defined as promising agents for fighting multidrug resistance. In vitro and in vivo studies have shown that these new antimicrobials have great potential to inhibit methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant enterococci, and penicillin

  9. The development of "roughness" in the play fighting of rats: a Laban Movement Analysis perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foroud, Afra; Pellis, Sergio M

    2003-01-01

    With increasing age, rats, when play fighting, become rougher. In part, this change can be accounted for by the increasing likelihood of using adult-typical fighting tactics. However, even when using the same tactics, adults appear rougher than juveniles in their play. In this study, videotaped sequences of play fighting in rats from the juvenile (30 days) to the post-pubertal (70 days) period were analyzed using Laban Movement Analysis (LMA). Movement qualities called Effort Factors in LMA captured the character of some of this change. Juveniles tended to use Indulging Efforts, whereas older rats tended to use Condensing Efforts. The latter are related to performing movements that are more controlled. This greater level of control was also evident in the way older rats maintained postural support during play fights. When standing over supine partners, juveniles are more likely to stand on the partner with all four paws, reducing their postural stability, and hence ability to control their partner's movements. Older rats are more likely to place their hind paws on the ground, thus providing a firmer anchor for movements with their upper bodies and forepaws. These age-related changes in behavior were found for both males and females. The findings lend support to a growing body of evidence that play fighting in the juvenile phase of rats is not just a more frequently occurring version of that present in adults, but rather, has unique organizational properties. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Psychophysiological states and special performance of boxers with different styles of fight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Aksutin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : The style of the fight is one of the important factors that affect the quality of the arts in boxing. Particularly important factor in the modern boxing are the mental processes that are involved in forecasting and analyzing the situation that arises in the ring and are associated with cognitive functions. Purpose - to examine the psychophysiological state and a special performance for skilled boxers with different styles of input match. Material : 22 highly qualification boxer aged 18-23 years were studies. The absolute and the relative strength of serial and single strikes were studied. Definition of special performance and power strokes performed on a special simulator. Recorded the absolute and relative strength of serial and single strikes. Results : The results show that the attacking style of the fight in boxing is accompanied by the presence of a high level of efficiency, reduction of fatigue, anxiety, and depending on the condition of vegetative functions. Showed a reduction in the growth of autonomy and heteronomy in the structure of psycho-physiological state of boxers with the attacking style of the fight, which indicates the presence of compromise and avoidance of external failures. Conclusions : Boxers with attacking style of fight characterized by high values of the left side impact forces and reduce the values of the right direct strike force, compared with boxers protective style of fight.

  11. Winning fights induces hyperaggression via the action of the biogenic amine octopamine in crickets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Rillich

    Full Text Available Winning an agonistic interaction against a conspecific is known to heighten aggressiveness, but the underlying events and mechanism are poorly understood. We quantified the effect of experiencing successive wins on aggression in adult male crickets (Gryllus bimaculatus by staging knockout tournaments and investigated its dependence on biogenic amines by treatment with amine receptor antagonists. For an inter-fight interval of 5 min, fights between winners escalated to higher levels of aggression and lasted significantly longer than the preceding round. This winner effect is transient, and no longer evident for an inter-fight interval of 20 min, indicating that it does not result from selecting individuals that were hyper-aggressive from the outset. A winner effect was also evident in crickets that experienced wins without physical exertion, or that engaged in fights that were interrupted before a win was experienced. Finally, the winner effect was abolished by prior treatment with epinastine, a highly selective octopamine receptor blocker, but not by propranolol, a ß-adrenergic receptor antagonist, nor by yohimbine, an insect tyramine receptor blocker nor by fluphenazine an insect dopamine-receptor blocker. Taken together our study in the cricket indicates that the physical exertion of fighting, together with some rewarding aspect of the actual winning experience, leads to a transient increase in aggressive motivation via activation of the octopaminergic system, the invertebrate equivalent to the adrenergic system of vertebrates.

  12. Internal Structure of the West Submarine Flanks of Mauna Loa and Hualalai, Hawaii Island: investigation of ROV KAIKO and Manned Submersible SHINKAI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokose, H.

    2003-12-01

    Submersible-based exploration of basaltic rocks west flank of the Hawaii Island, mostly at 2000 to 5000 m depths, was a focus of Japan USA joint research during two cruises by the JAMSTEC in 2001-02. The observations from submersibles and samples recovered are summarized, based on the twelve recent submersible dives and numerous newly obtained samples from deep submarine flanks of Hualalai and Mauna Loa Topographic nature of the studied area are categorized using high-resolution bathymetric data obtained during the cruses and are very effective for deciphering the sequence of landslides. Because the west of Hawaii Island is lee side having a little rain, topographic characteristics of landslide deposits are preserved without buried by material of the later subaerial erosion process. Submarine geological map of the west flank of Hawaii Island has been revised on the basis of these investigations. Major difference between maps proposed previously and this work is twofold. The first is the submarine flank of this area consists mainly of pillow lavas. This is contrastive to the Nuuanu landslide and Hilina slump regions in which hyaloclastite and fragmental debris are dominated. The debris avalanche deposits are prevailing only in the lower submarine slope. The second is the sequence of landslide events. Base on the topographic and geologic investigations major landslide events can be redefined in the sequence from early to late: South Kona Slide 1(South Kona slump and Ka Lae west debris-avalanche), South Kona Slide 2 (South Kona slide), North Kona Slump (North Kona slide + Alika 1 debris-avalanche), Ka Lae slump (newly defined), Ka Lae debris-avalanche (Ka Lae East debris-avalanche), Alika debris-avalanche (Alika 2 debris-avalanche). It is concluded that these slope failures were probably result in the rift propagation rather than instability of the slope itself which made of unstable fragmental lavas. Therefore, the pillow lava model is more suitable for present case

  13. The modulation of play fighting in rats: role of the motor cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamitakahara, Holly; Monfils, Marie-H; Forgie, Margaret L; Kolb, Bryan; Pellis, Sergio M

    2007-02-01

    The cortex is not necessary for rats to engage in play fighting, but it is necessary for them to modify their pattern of play fighting in different contexts. Two experiments were conducted to determine the role of the motor cortex (MC). Rats with bilateral ablations of the MC performed on Postnatal Day 10 failed to show the normally present age-related modulation in defense but were able to modulate defense with different social partners. This latter finding was confirmed in rats given ablations as adults, in which responses to social status could be monitored before and after brain damage. It appears that different forms of cortical modulation of play fighting involve different cortical circuits. Copyright (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. 'Fighting for care': parents' perspectives of children's palliative care in South Tyrol, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbyshire, Philip; Mischo-Kelling, Maria; Lochner, Lukas; Messerschmidt-Grandi, Caterina

    2015-11-01

    Children's palliative care in Italy develops comparatively slowly. Recent legislation is enabling, but foundational research exploring parental experiences and perceptions is lacking. To investigate the experiences and perceptions of parents in South Tyrol, Italy regarding caring for a child with a life-threatening or life-limiting illness. A mixed qualitative design incorporated both an online survey and parent interviews. Using purposive sampling, 13 parents undertook 9 interviews and 7 parents completed the survey. The authors highlight a major parental theme describing difficult relationships with health services requiring them to 'fight the system' for services. The authors raise a disturbing possibility that such 'fighting the system' is now so widely recognised worldwide that it cannot be considered to be accidental. The authors recommend the establishment of a specialist, dedicated paediatric palliative care service in South Tyrol with the international recognised values and operating standards that would render such parental 'fighting' unnecessary.

  15. Association between the Rating Perceived Exertion, Heart Rate and Blood Lactate in Successive Judo Fights (Randori)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, Braulio H.M.; Massuça, Luis M.; Andreato, Leonardo V.; Marinho, Bruno F.; Miarka, Bianca; Monteiro, Luis; Franchini, Emerson

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This study aims to investigate the association between the rating of perceived exertion (RPE), heart rate (HR) and the blood lactate concentration ([La]) in successive judo fight simulations (randori). Methods Ten athletes participated in the study (age: 25.6±2.1 years; stature: 1.75±0.07 m; body mass: 75.6±14.9kg; %BF: 11.5±7.8%; practice: 14.5±6.2 years) and completed 4 judo fight simulations (T1 to T4) with duration of 5 min separated by 5 min passive recovery periods. Before each randori, [La] and HR were collected, and after each randori, the same measures and the RPE (CR-10 scale) were collected. Results Significant correlations were observed between: (1) CR-10 and HR (T2: r =0.70; T3: r =0.64; both, Pjudo fight simulations (Pjudo, should be done with caution. PMID:23802054

  16. Effect of Difference-frequency Forces on the Dynamics of a Semi-submersible Type FVAWT in Misaligned Wave-wind Condition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Kai; Cheng, Zhengshun; Moan, Torgeir

    2015-01-01

    With increasing interests in the development of offshore floating vertical axis wind turbines (FVAWTs), a large amount of studies on the FVAWTs have been conducted. This paper focuses on evaluating the effect of second-order difference-frequency force on the dynamics of a 5 MW FVAWT in misaligned......-induced. And the second order differencefrequency force can contribute to a slightly larger mean value. The standard deviations and maximum values of the global responses are slightly more sensitive to the wave-wind misalignment and the second order difference-frequency force, especially at high significant wave height...... wave-wind condition. The studied FVAWT is composed of a 5 MW Darrieus rotor, a semi-submersible floater and a catenary mooring system. Fully coupled nonlinear time domain simulations were conducted using the state-of-art code Simo- Riflex-DMS. Several misaligned wave-wind conditions were selected...

  17. The characterization of axenic culture systems suitable for plant propagation and experimental studies of the submersed aquatic angiosperm Potamogeton pectinatus (Sago pondweed)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ailstock, M.S.; Fleming, W.J.; Cooke, T.J.

    1991-01-01

    Clonal lines of the submersed aquatic angiosperm Potamogeton pectinatus were grown in three culture systems. The first, which used sucrose as a carbon source in a liquid medium, supported vigorous vegetative growth and can be used to propagate large numbers of plants in axenic conditions. In this culture system, plants were responsive to increasing photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) photon flux density (PFD) and were photosynthetically competent. However, their growth was heterotrophic and root development was poor. When these plants were transferred to a second nonaxenic culture system, which used 16-l buckets containing artificial sediments and tap water, growth was autotrophic and plants were morphologically identical to field-harvested P. pectinatus. The last culture system which consisted of a sand substrate and inorganic nutrient bathing solution aerated with 135 ml min-1 ambient air enhanced to 3.0% CO2 was axenic and supported autotrophic growth by plants that were also morphologically normal.

  18. Electricity generation and microbial community in response to short-term changes in stack connection of self-stacked submersible microbial fuel cell powered by glycerol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Nannan; Angelidaki, Irini; Zhang, Yifeng

    2017-01-01

    Stack connection (i.e., in series or parallel) of microbial fuel cell (MFC) is an efficient way to boost the power output for practical application. However, there is little information available on short-term changes in stack connection and its effect on the electricity generation and microbial...... community. In this study, a self-stacked submersible microbial fuel cell (SSMFC) powered by glycerol was tested to elucidate this important issue. In series connection, the maximum voltage output reached to 1.15 V, while maximum current density was 5.73 mA in parallel. In both connections, the maximum power...... density increased with the initial glycerol concentration. However, the glycerol degradation was even faster in parallel connection. When the SSMFC was shifted from series to parallel connection, the reactor reached to a stable power output without any lag phase. Meanwhile, the anodic microbial community...

  19. Effect of Difference-frequency Forces on the Dynamics of a Semi-submersible Type FVAWT in Misaligned Wave-wind Condition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Kai; Cheng, Zhengshun; Moan, Torgeir

    2015-01-01

    With increasing interests in the development of offshore floating vertical axis wind turbines (FVAWTs), a large amount of studies on the FVAWTs have been conducted. This paper focuses on evaluating the effect of second-order difference-frequency force on the dynamics of a 5 MW FVAWT in misaligned...... wave-wind condition. The studied FVAWT is composed of a 5 MW Darrieus rotor, a semi-submersible floater and a catenary mooring system. Fully coupled nonlinear time domain simulations were conducted using the state-of-art code Simo- Riflex-DMS. Several misaligned wave-wind conditions were selected...... to investigate the global dynamic responses of the FVAWT, such as the platform motions, structural responses and mooring line tensions. It has been found that the wave-wind misalignment does not significantly affect the mean values of the global responses since the global responses are primarily wind...

  20. Weapon carrying, physical fighting and gang membership among youth in Washington state military families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Sarah C; Bell, Janice F; Edwards, Todd C

    2014-10-01

    To examine associations between parental military service and school-based weapon carrying, school-based physical fighting and gang membership among youth. We used cross-sectional data from the 2008 Washington State Healthy Youth Survey collected in 8th, 10th, and 12th grades of public schools (n = 9,987). Parental military service was categorized as none (reference group), without combat zone deployment, or deployed to a combat zone. Multivariable logistic regression was used to test associations between parental military service and three outcomes: school-based weapon carrying, school-based physical fighting and gang membership. Standard errors were adjusted for the complex survey design. In 8th grade, parental deployment was associated with higher odds of reporting gang membership (OR = 1.8) among girls, and higher odds of physical fighting (OR = 1.6), and gang membership (OR = 1.9) among boys. In 10th/12th grade, parental deployment was associated with higher odds of reporting physical fighting (OR = 2.0) and gang membership (OR = 2.2) among girls, and physical fighting (OR = 2.0), carrying a weapon (OR = 2.3) among boys. Parental military deployment is associated with increased odds of reporting engagement in school-based physical fighting, school-based weapon carrying, and gang membership, particularly among older youth. Military, school, and public health professionals have a unique, collaborative opportunity to develop school- and community-based interventions to prevent violence-related behaviors among youth and, ultimately, improve the health and safety of youth in military families. Ideally, such programs would target families and youth before they enter eighth grade.

  1. RESEARCHES RELATED TO THE CHEMICAL FIGHT OF THE COLORADO BUG LEPTINOTARSA DECEMLINEATA SAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I OLTEAN

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Between 1999-2002, Colorado bug fight experiences were annually organized in Cimpenesti. Experimental fields were organized on the land of certain cultivators of the area. The best results in fighting the Colorado bug were obtained with the following products: 290 FS Prestige – 0.8 l/ton; 480 SC Calypso – 80 ml/ha; SC 200 Confidor – 160 ml/ha; EC 10 Rimon – 0.25 l/ha; SC 150 Nomolt – 0.15 l/ha; D 50/500 Nurelle – 0.5 l/ha; SP 20 Mospilan – 0.06 l/ha.

  2. Report of the Implementation of Fight for Peace in East London 2007- 08

    OpenAIRE

    Madgin, Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    This study reports on the findings from the implementation of Fight for Peace in East\\ud London between October 2007 and March 2008. Fight for Peace (FFP) aimed to offer ‘real alternatives for children and youth to crime, drug trafficking and violence via social inclusion through sports, education, access to the formal work market, the promotion of a culture of peace and building youth leaders’. The project’s methodology was based on a holistic 5 pillar approach: 1. Boxing and Martial arts; 2...

  3. Hip-Hop Fight Club: Radical Theory, Education, and Practice in and beyond the Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared A. Ball

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Hip-hop remains a viable method for the teaching of radical theory, emancipatory journalism and Africana Media Theory.  Fight Club is an emergent model that builds from existing hip-hop traditions of freetyle battling where critical thought and intellectual challenges of hueristic norms are upended.  This article argues in favor of bringing the Fight Club model into the classroom which allows for heightened student engagement and the inclusion of radical theoretical approaches to the study of mass media, communication and journalism.

  4. Fight-fitness in the program of student's physical education in higher educational institutions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muntian V.S.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available It is introduced the new author 's program / new area of physical, technical, tactical, moral and volitional and aesthetic development - Fight-fitness. It is singled out the basic components: martial arts / self-defence, physical training, kick- boxing aerobics, special moral and volitional / psychological training. Justified by the positive influence of employment Fight-fitness on the organism involved, the effectiveness of the impact on the development of physical and intellectual qualities (using suggestive method of teaching and special sports terminology in English, the need for education of practical skills / practical skills.

  5. Brazil's fight against AIDS and its implications for global health governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wogart, J P; Calcagnotto, G

    2006-01-01

    The paper traces Brazil's efforts to fight AIDS in the last 20 years. The analysis concentrates on the efforts to combat and prevent the deadly infectious disease through ingenious efforts of private citizens, government agencies, national and international NGOs, which challenged multinational companies, international organizations and foreign governments. While the investigation led to a positive evaluation of the joint efforts in managing the threat, it is made clear that the fight against the HIV/AIDS virus is far from over in Brazil and will have to be strengthened on the local, national and international level.

  6. Skizofrenia Tokoh Utama Dalam Novel Fight Club Karya Chuck Palahniuk (Sebuah Analisis Psikologis)

    OpenAIRE

    Yunus, Robert Andrew

    2015-01-01

    This study entitled “Schizophrenia of the Main Character in the Novel Fight Club by Chuck Palahniuk. A Psichological Approach.” The objective of this research is to identify, classify and to analyze the mental dissorder namely ‘Schizophrenia' of the main character in the novel entitled Fight Club by Chuck Palahniuk. The study is based on Psikological approach generally, and specifically on ‘Schizophrenia'. ‘Schizophrenia' of the main character then will be classified and categorized by its sy...

  7. Fighting the stigma: a unique approach to marketing mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, G D; Barbaro, M B

    1985-01-01

    Although stigma is a problem, there is a definite solution. As this material suggests, an impact can be made by targeting various markets. Since these markets have either positive, negative or neutral impressions of their local mental health organizations and related services, knowing the rating of the organization and related services helps to identify the most likely targets. Advertising can directly affect the strength of that rating in a positive direction. The extent of that effect, whether it's a change in attitude or level of recognition, will depend on the continuity of the message, the channels of communication, and synchronization of distribution. In addition, the degree of impact is contingent on how amenable the target audience is to the message. In the case of mental health, the lower level of acceptability presents an even greater challenge. The FTS project takes on the challenge with a marketing plan that is necessary because our publics say it's necessary. And it can work because, again, our publics say it works. The supporting evidence is more than just an increase in name recall and favorability factors. The supporting evidence results from any project which has been planned and implemented with the consumer in mind. Finally, the supporting evidence is clear in the interest and contributions of each participant in the FTS pilot as well as the 27 mental health organizations in 17 U.S. markets which have participated in FTS 11.

  8. Diffusion measures indicate fight exposure-related damage to cerebral white matter in boxers and mixed martial arts fighters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, W; Mahmoud, S Y; Sakaie, K; Banks, S J; Lowe, M J; Phillips, M; Modic, M T; Bernick, C

    2014-02-01

    Traumatic brain injury is common in fighting athletes such as boxers, given the frequency of blows to the head. Because DTI is sensitive to microstructural changes in white matter, this technique is often used to investigate white matter integrity in patients with traumatic brain injury. We hypothesized that previous fight exposure would predict DTI abnormalities in fighting athletes after controlling for individual variation. A total of 74 boxers and 81 mixed martial arts fighters were included in the analysis and scanned by use of DTI. Individual information and data on fight exposures, including number of fights and knockouts, were collected. A multiple hierarchical linear regression model was used in region-of-interest analysis to test the hypothesis that fight-related exposure could predict DTI values separately in boxers and mixed martial arts fighters. Age, weight, and years of education were controlled to ensure that these factors would not account for the hypothesized effects. We found that the number of knockouts among boxers predicted increased longitudinal diffusivity and transversal diffusivity in white matter and subcortical gray matter regions, including corpus callosum, isthmus cingulate, pericalcarine, precuneus, and amygdala, leading to increased mean diffusivity and decreased fractional anisotropy in the corresponding regions. The mixed martial arts fighters had increased transversal diffusivity in the posterior cingulate. The number of fights did not predict any DTI measures in either group. These findings suggest that the history of fight exposure in a fighter population can be used to predict microstructural brain damage.

  9. Fighting Against Disuse of the Masticatory System in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: A Pilot Study Using Chewing Gum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggen, H.W. van; Engel-Hoek, L. van den; Steenks, M.H.; Bilt, A. van der; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Creugers, N.H.J.; Groot, I.J.M. de; Kalaykova, S.I.

    2015-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients report masticatory problems. The aim was to determine the efficacy of mastication training in Duchenne muscular dystrophy using chewing gum for 4 weeks. In all, 17 patients and 17 healthy age-matched males participated. The masticatory performance was assessed

  10. Fighting against disuse of the masticatory system in duchenne muscular dystrophy : A pilot study using chewing gum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Bruggen, H. Willemijn; Van Den Engel-Hoek, Lenie; Steenks, Michel H.; Van Der Bilt, Andries; Bronkhorst, Ewald M.; Creugers, Nico H J; De Groot, Imelda J M; Kalaykova, Stanimira I.

    2015-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients report masticatory problems. The aim was to determine the efficacy of mastication training in Duchenne muscular dystrophy using chewing gum for 4 weeks. In all, 17 patients and 17 healthy age-matched males participated. The masticatory performance was assessed

  11. Fighting Against Disuse of the Masticatory System in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: A Pilot Study Using Chewing Gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bruggen, H Willemijn; van den Engel-Hoek, Lenie; Steenks, Michel H; van der Bilt, Andries; Bronkhorst, Ewald M; Creugers, Nico H J; de Groot, Imelda J M; Kalaykova, Stanimira I

    2015-10-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients report masticatory problems. The aim was to determine the efficacy of mastication training in Duchenne muscular dystrophy using chewing gum for 4 weeks. In all, 17 patients and 17 healthy age-matched males participated. The masticatory performance was assessed using a mixing ability test and measuring anterior bite force before, shortly after and 1 month after the training. In the patient group the masticatory performance improved and remained after 1-month follow-up, no significant changes in anterior maximum bite force was observed after mastication training. In the healthy subject the bite force increased and remained at the 1-month follow-up; no significant differences in masticatory performance were observed. Mastication training by using sugar-free chewing gum in Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients improved their masticatory performance. Since bite force did not improve, the working mechanism of the improvement in chewing may relate to changes of the neuromuscular function and coordination, resulting in improvement of skills in performing mastication. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Responding to Terrorist Incidents in Your Community: Flammable-Liquid Fire Fighting Techniques for Municipal and Rural Firefighters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denise Baclawski

    2010-03-08

    The University of Nevada, Reno Fire Science Academy (FSA) applied for grant funding to develop and deliver programs for municipal, rural, and volunteer firefighters. The FSA specializes in preparing responders for a variety of emergency events, including flammable liquid fires resulting from accidents, intentional acts, or natural disasters. Live fire training on full scale burnable props is the hallmark of FSA training, allowing responders to practice critical skills in a realistic, yet safe environment. Unfortunately, flammable liquid live fire training is often not accessible to municipal, rural, or volunteer firefighters due to limited department training budgets, even though most department personnel will be exposed to flammable liquid fire incidents during the course of their careers. In response to this training need, the FSA developed a course during the first year of the grant (Year One), Responding to Terrorist Incidents in Your Community: Flammable-Liquid Fire Fighting Techniques for Municipal and Rural Firefighters. During the three years of the grant, a total of 2,029 emergency responders received this training. In Year Three, two new courses, a train-the-trainer for Responding to Terrorist Incidents in Your Community and Management of Large-Scale Disasters for Public Officials were developed and pilot tested during the Real-World Disaster Management Conference held at the FSA in June of 2007. Two research projects were conducted during Years Two and Three. The first, conducted over a two year period, evaluated student surveys regarding the value of the flammable liquids training received. The second was a needs assessment conducted for rural Nevada. Both projects provided important feedback and a basis for curricula development and improvements.

  13. Fighting trafficking of falsified and substandard medicinal products in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayzrakhmanov, N F

    2015-01-01

    The trafficking of falsified and substandard medicinal products is a global socio-economic problem, which poses a serious threat to economy and health of populations of most countries, including the Russian Federation. To identify the main achievements and challenges in the fight against trafficking of falsified and substandard medicinal products in the Russian Federation, to formulate possible solutions to these problems. The study of criminal cases and statistical information about the level of crime in the Russian Federation; legal analysis of regulatory legal acts in the sphere of criminal law and turnover of medicinal products; review of scientific and practical publications. The problem of trafficking of falsified and substandard medicinal products in the Russian Federation was publicly discussed in the late 1990s - early 2000-ies, first in the media and special editions, later this phenomenon was the subject of extensive discussions at international conferences, in public authorities and public circles. However, the most significant results in tackling this problem were achieved only in the last 5 years.Thus, in 2010, the Russian Federation first joined the annual international police operation under the code name Pangaea, held since 2008 on the initiative of Interpol and the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency of the World Health Organization (MHRA WHO). From year to year, the special operation Pangea unites the efforts of many countries from different continents and aims to eliminate transnational criminal groups operating through a global network the Internet. In 2010, as a result of large-scale international inspections 1 200 Internet sites were revealed, through which the fake medicines were spread and 10,000 boxes of medicines were seized, making more than a million falsified tablets in the amount of 2.6 million USA dollars. In 2011, in a special operation Pangea IV was attended by 165 different organizations from 81 countries

  14. Functionality of the plastron in adults of Neochetina eichhorniae Warner (Coleoptera, Curculionidae): aspects of the integument coating and submersion laboratory experiments Funcionalidade do plastrão em adultos de Neochetina eichhorniae Warner (Coleoptera, Curculionidae): aspectos do revestimento tegumentar e experimentos laboratoriais de submersão

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wesley Oliveira de Sousa; Germano Henrique Rosado-Neto; Marinêz Isaac Marques

    2012-01-01

    The plastron theory was tested in adults of Neochetina eichhorniae Warner, 1970, through the analysis of the structure that coats these insects' integument and also through submersion laboratorial experiments...

  15. The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria: Background and Current Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-24

    13 1 Directly Observed Treatment, Short - Course . 2 Global Fund, Progress Report. January 21, 2005, at [http...automobiles to deliver DOTS tuberculosis therapy to patients. Supporters of the Global Fund maintained that the large initial disbursement to Ethiopia ...Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis , and Malaria: Background and Current Issues Updated March 24, 2005 Raymond W. Copson and Tiaji Salaam Foreign Affairs

  16. Patriarchy and the "Fighting Sioux": A Gendered Look at Racial College Sports Nicknames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Dana M.

    2006-01-01

    The use of Native American nicknames and symbols by US college athletics is a long-standing practice that embodies various forms of authoritarian oppression. One type of authoritarianism is that of patriarchy and it has been present in the struggle over the nickname at the University of North Dakota, the "Fighting Sioux". This article…

  17. The making of a nation-wide campaign fighting the nursing caries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanden-Stoelinga, van M.S.E.; Koelen, M.A.; Hielkema-de Meij, J.E.

    2003-01-01

    Although, in the Netherlands, the fight against tooth decay has been successful over the past decades, in 1994, the incidence of nursing caries made the Ivory Cross*, the Dutch National Association for the Promotion of Oral Hygiene, decide to develop and implement a campaign to address the

  18. Linguistic challenges in the fight again HIV and AIDS: an analysisi of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The language question has received little attention in the fight against HIV and AIDS in Kenya, yet language has a very fundamental role to play if progress is to be made in ... This has implications for the efficacy of the entire communication process and limits or prevents access to effective treatment for health issues.

  19. Effects of a youth substance use prevention program on stealing, fighting, and weapon use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieri, Tanya; Apkarian, Jacob; Kulis, Stephen; Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco

    2015-02-01

    Using a sample of sixth graders in 11 public schools in a large Southwestern city, this longitudinal study examined how a model substance use prevention program, keepin' it REAL, that was implemented in 7th grade, influenced three other problem behaviors (fighting, weapon use, stealing), measured in 8th grade. Using a non-equivalent control group design, we compared 259 students in the intervention to 322 students in a treatment-as-usual condition. At baseline, 37% of the sample reported fighting in the last 30 days; 31% reported stealing in the last 30 days, and 16% reported using a weapon in the last 30 days. Regression analyses adjusted for students nested in schools through multi-level modeling and for missing data through multiple imputation. We found that at posttest the rates of all three behaviors were lower in the intervention group than the control group at posttest: 35 versus 37% got into a fight in the last 30 days; 24 versus 31% stole something in the last 30 days; and 16 versus 25% used a weapon in the last 30 days. The program impact for fighting and stealing was not statistically significant and involved minimal effect sizes. The program impact for weapon use was not statistically significant but had an effect size comparable to that for other problem behavior interventions. Promoting positive development via life skills may be a key to broadening program impact.

  20. Hey! Bankers! Leave Those Kids Alone: The Fight to Save Islington Green School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Ken

    2008-01-01

    The author traces the history of the campaign to stop Islington Green School being closed and turned into an academy specialising in business and financial services. Although the campaign, after a number of successes now looks as if it might fail in its immediate objective, the author argues that the battle was still worth fighting because of the…

  1. Do territorial butterflies show a macroecological fighting pattern in response to environmental stability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixoto, Paulo Enrique Cardoso; Medina, Anderson Matos; Mendoza-Cuenca, Luis

    2014-11-01

    The territorial defense of mating sites by males should be favored when female monopolization is possible. Such monopolization should occur in species in which females emerge asynchronously, since males may have time to copulate with one female before the arrival of other. However, regions with smaller reproductive windows should promote higher synchronicity of female emergence, generating a predictable macroecological pattern associated to the rewards from territorial defense. In this study we evaluated the hypothesis that territorial male butterflies should invest more in fighting in species that occur in areas with stable climatic conditions that should present longer reproductive windows. We compiled studies reporting mean butterfly fighting times, mean trait differences among winners and losers and local Köppen climatic classification (a surrogate for climatic stability). We found that males from butterfly species located in areas with stable climatic conditions fight for longer times. However, although winners were stronger than intruders only in areas with intermediate climatic conditions, there was a marked variation among winner-loser comparisons in species in areas with stable climatic conditions. We conclude that males from butterfly species that occur in areas with stable climatic regimes invest more in fighting due to the higher payoffs accrued with territorial defense, but that such investment does not change the effect of trait asymmetries in settling territorial conflicts. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Special Issue:Neotropical Behaviour. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. It’s War Out There: Fighting for life with xenobiotic degrading enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    It’s War Out There: Fighting for life with xenobiotic degrading enzymes Beta-lactamase enzymes are well studied because of their tremendous impact on medicine. Their prominent role is in resistance to beta-lactam (four membered lactam ring) antibiotics including the first and most famous fungally d...

  3. The European fight against terrorism financing: Professional fields and new governing practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesseling, M.

    2013-01-01

    Combating the financing of terrorism has been a core component of the global War on Terror that began after the 9/11 terrorist attacks. This book shows how the fight against terrorism financing has taken shape and become important in Europe. An examination of two case studies - the EU’s Third

  4. The role of research in molecular entomology in the fight against malaria vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    della Torre, A; Arca, B; Favia, G; Petrarca, V; Coluzzi, M

    2008-06-01

    The text summarizes the principal current fields of investigation and the recent achievements of the research groups presently contributing to the Molecular Entomology Cluster of the Italian Malaria Network. Particular emphasis is given to the researches with a more direct impact on the fight against malaria vectors.

  5. 'Fight or Flight' Response Greater in Combat Vets with PTSD: Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or Flight' Response Greater in Combat Vets With PTSD: Study This heightened stress could increase their risk ... May 15, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Combat veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have a stepped-up "fight or flight" ...

  6. 14 CFR 36.1583 - Noncomplying agricultural and fire fighting airplanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... airplanes. 36.1583 Section 36.1583 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Limitations and Information § 36.1583 Noncomplying agricultural and fire fighting airplanes. (a) This section applies to propeller-driven, small airplanes that— (1) Are designed for “agricultural aircraft operations...

  7. Good versus bad medical stoppages in boxing: Stopping a fight in time

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This raises the important question of when should a fight be stopped on medical grounds. Conclusion: Standardising medical stoppage decisions in boxing will help to protect a boxer's health and safety in the ring. Good practice guidelines for medical stoppage due to suspected TBI are suggested. It is recommended that ...

  8. Fighting for the Rain Forest: war, youth and resources in Sierra Leone.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richards, P.

    1996-01-01

    A study of the methods of warfare, the youths involved and the aspirations for schools and jobs that motivates them to fight. The author argues that the war can only be understood in the context of old traditions of social and technical management of the forest.

  9. 75 FR 221 - Airworthiness Directives; Fire Fighting Enterprises Limited Portable Halon 1211 Fire...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ...-01-03] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Fire Fighting Enterprises Limited Portable Halon 1211 Fire Extinguishers as Installed on Various Transport Airplanes, Small Airplanes, and Rotorcraft AGENCY... the required specification, have been supplied to the aviation industry for use in fire extinguishing...

  10. Drones, information technology, and distance: mapping the moral epistemology of remote fighting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coeckelbergh, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Ethical reflection on drone fighting suggests that this practice does not only create physical distance, but also moral distance: far removed from one’s opponent, it becomes easier to kill. This paper discusses this thesis, frames it as a moral-epistemological problem, and explores the role of

  11. Adult play fighting and potential role of tail signals in ringtailed lemurs (Lemur catta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palagi, Elisabetta

    2009-02-01

    Adult strepsirrhines have been completely neglected in the study of animal play. I focused on adult play fighting and the role of tail-play as a signal in ringtailed lemurs (Lemur catta). Tail-play is performed during play fighting, when lemurs anoint or, more rarely, wave their tails toward the playmate. During the prereproductive period, male and female lemurs engaged in play fighting with comparable frequencies, as was expected to occur in monomorphic species such as L. catta. The dyads showing low aggression rates engaged most frequently in play fighting, and polyadic play was frequently performed. Signals seem to be important in avoiding escalation to real aggression, especially when the playfulness of performers can be misunderstood by recipients. Tail-play was most frequent (a) in the dyads with low grooming rates (low familiarity degree) and (b) during the most risky play sessions (polyadic ones). Thus, tail-play can be considered as a useful tool for play communication in ringtailed lemurs. Copyright 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Effects of manipulated aggressive 'interactions' on bystanding male fighting fish, Betta splendens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peake, Thomas More; Matos, Ricardo Jorge; McGregor, Peter Kenneth

    2006-01-01

    occurring differences between observed interactants and have therefore lacked this degree of control. We allowed bystanding male fighting fish to observe two male conspecifics that appeared to be interacting, but in reality the two males were displaying to mirrors. The apparent interactions were manipulated...

  13. Fighting Domestic and International Fraud in the Admissions and Registrar's Offices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Ann M.; Devlin, Edward

    2012-01-01

    The education sector is no stranger to fraud, unfortunately. This article provides best practice guidance in recognizing and dealing with fraud, with emphasis on domestic and international academic credential fraud. It includes practical approaches to academic document review and verification. Success in fighting fraud requires becoming informed,…

  14. The influence of the Ratel infantry fighting vehicle on mobile warfare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article traces the story of how the author and a number of daring young commanders and soldiers had cast aside military textbooks in developing their own military doctrine for mobile warfare, South African style. It is clear that the Ratel infantry fighting vehicle had wielded huge influence on the development and ...

  15. The metabolic costs of fighting and host exploitation in a seed-drilling parasitic wasp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisseau, Romain P; Woods, H Arthur; Goubault, Marlène

    2017-11-01

    Oviposition sites may be challenging and energetically costly to access for females in the presence of competitors contesting that resource. Additionally, oviposition sites may be difficult to reach, and penetrating a hard substrate can raise energy costs. In the seed-drilling parasitic wasp Eupelmus vuilleti, females actively fight with conspecific competitors over access to hosts. They are often observed laying eggs on already parasitized hosts (superparasitism) living inside cowpea seeds despite the resulting larval competition. Using flow-through respirometry, we quantified the metabolic costs of fighting and of drilling through the seed to access the host, to understand the wasp's fighting strategies and the occurrence of superparasitism. Agonistic interactions such as kicks or pushes generated very small instantaneous costs, but the females that won their contests had higher pre-contest metabolic rates, suggesting a potential long-term cost associated with dominance. We also found that drilling holes through the seed accounted for approximately 15% of a wasp's estimated daily energy budget, and that females can reduce these drilling costs by reusing existing holes. Because exploiting new seeds incurs both drilling costs and the risk of fights, it appears cost effective in some situations for females to avoid confrontations and lay eggs in existing holes, on already parasitized hosts. Our study helps explain the evolution of superparasitism in this system. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  16. Ultraviolet nuptial colour determines fight success in male European green lizards (Lacerta viridis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajer, Katalin; Molnár, Orsolya; Török, János; Herczeg, Gábor

    2011-12-23

    Animal communication through colour signals is a central theme in sexual selection. Structural colours can be just as costly and honest signals as pigment-based colours. Ultraviolet (UV) is a structural colour that can be important both in intrasexual competition and mate choice. However, it is still unknown if a UV signal alone can determine the outcome of male-male fights. European green lizard (Lacerta viridis) males develop a nuptial throat coloration with a strong UV component. Among males differing only in their manipulated UV colour, females prefer males with higher UV. Here, we experimentally decreased the UV coloration of randomly chosen males from otherwise similar male pairs to test the hypothesis that a difference in UV colour alone can affect fight success during male-male competition. Our results fully supported the hypotheses: in almost 90 per cent of the contests the male with reduced UV lost the fight. Our results show that UV can be an important signal, affecting both female mate choice and determining male fight success.

  17. Broken lives: Fights, fractures, and motor vehicle accidents among heroin users entering detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Michael D; Anderson, Bradley J; Bailey, Genie L

    2017-08-01

    The lives of persons who use illicit substances are filled with physical adversities and negative outcomes. The purpose of this study was to determine: 1) the frequency of substance-related fights, fractures, and driving accidents in the past year among heroin users entering an inpatient detoxification program, and 2) to determine demographic and recent substance use factors associated with the most common of these physical traumas. Between May 2015 and December 2015, we surveyed 433 persons entering a short-term inpatient detoxification program that reported heroin use in the last month and recorded their experiences of physical traumas in the last year. Among participants (72% male; 74% heroin injectors), more than a quarter (28.6%) reported a substance-related fight in the past year. Multivariate modeling revealed cocaine use, hazardous alcohol use, and younger age were significantly associated with fighting, but gender was not. Forty-five (10.4%) persons reported a fracture in the past year, with 64% of fractures related to a substance-related fall or fight. Additionally, 9.0% reported being a driver in a car accident after drinking or using drugs in the past year. Trauma rates were not significantly different from a contemporaneous cohort seeking alcohol detoxification at the same facility. Heroin users, both men and women, lead physically traumatic lives, interrupted by interpersonal violence, falls, fractures, and motor vehicle accidents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Educational Targeting in the Fight against Poverty: Limits, Omissions and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarabini, Aina

    2008-01-01

    Educational targeting has become one of the hegemonic mechanisms in the fight against poverty. Both international organisms and developing countries support targeting as one of the best strategies in order to simultaneously guarantee poverty reduction and economic growth, and consequently to tackle the challenges generated by globalisation. The…

  19. Fighting for Life in the Academy: Solutions to Gender Relationships from a Historical View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Dennis L.

    Misunderstandings across communication situations frequently occur due to gender differences in communication styles, differences in either meanings or values attached to the linguistic symbols used to convey a message. An analysis of communication in the classroom based on Walter J. Ong's educational history, "Fighting for Life Contest,…

  20. Conflict, Provocation and Fights among Boys in a South African High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlall, Vijay; Morrell, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Boys are commonly associated with disruptive behaviour and physical fighting at school. Explanations for this behaviour range from naturalistic "boys will be boys" approaches to analyses which focus on the social construction of masculinity and emphasise the gendered nature of boys' behaviour. Whichever view holds sway, it is often…

  1. 14 CFR 121.106 - ETOPS Alternate Airport: Rescue and fire fighting service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... available at each airport listed as an ETOPS Alternate Airport in a dispatch or flight release. (1) For... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false ETOPS Alternate Airport: Rescue and fire... and Flag Operations § 121.106 ETOPS Alternate Airport: Rescue and fire fighting service. (a) Except as...

  2. Keeping Children Active: What You Can Do to Fight Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pica, Rae

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about childhood obesity and explores ways to fight this condition. The author shares some activities to get children moving to positively impact childhood obesity. These include: "Stand Up/Sit Down;" "Quick Clean-Up;" and "Get Ready Spaghetti."

  3. Wanted : Partners The Challenges of Pioneering a Novel Approach to Fighting Human Trafficking in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenleer, M.L.P.; De Jong, J.

    2013-01-01

    The Dutch Public Prosecution Service has embarked on a journey to find better ways to fight trafficking in human beings. This case follows special prosecutors Gert Veurink and Warner ten Kate as they develop and implement an unorthodox approach focused on weakening the ‘enablers’ of sexual

  4. Responding to inequities: gorillas try to maintain their competitive advantage during play fights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, E.J.C.; Zimmerman, E.; Davila Ross, M.

    2010-01-01

    Humans respond to unfair situations in various ways. Experimental research has revealed that non-human species also respond to unequal situations in the form of inequity aversions when they have the disadvantage. The current study focused on play fights in gorillas to explore for the first time, to

  5. Involvement of school students in fights with weapons: prevalence and associated factors in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Cristina Medeiros Melo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Violence, as well as other behaviors, is often intensified during adolescence and early adulthood. The objective of this study is estimate the prevalence of Brazilian school students involvement in fights with weapons and to analyze the associated factors. Methods This is a cross-sectional study using data from the National School Student Health Survey conducted in 2012 with 9th grade elementary school students attending 2842 schools in all 27 Brazilian Federative Units. The outcome studied was involvement in fights with firearms and/or cold weapons in the 30 days prior to the interview. Poisson regression was used to estimate the prevalence ratios and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI. The analyses were stratified by sex. Results Fifty seven thousand and eighty nine female students and 52,015 male students were included; the prevalence of their involvement in fights with weapons was 7.2 (95 % CI 6.9–7.5 and 13.8 (95 % CI 13.4–14.3, respectively. In the adjusted analysis the factors associated with male student involvement in fights with weapons were: being older, working, having smoked a cigarette, consumed alcoholic beverages and illicit drugs recently, insomnia, not having any close friends, skipping classes without parental supervision, having suffered aggression from a family member, reporting feeling unsafe on the way to or from school and/or at school. The same associated factors were found among female students in addition to not living with their father and/or mother and having suffered bullying. There was no association with type of school in either sex. Conclusion Involvement in fights with weapons was greater among older male students. Health-risk behaviors, mental health characteristics, parental supervision and context of violence also showed association with the outcomes.

  6. Agile Web Pilot Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lang, Mark

    1997-01-01

    ... in an increasingly competitive global marketplace. The pilot program allowed 18 small and medium sized enterprises to experiment with new agile business practices in competitive manufacturing environments by forming virtual organizations within...

  7. Age and pilot performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyraud, M Y; Borowsky, M S

    1985-06-01

    In military and civilian aviation, pilot age is a major factor which determines if the individual is allowed to continue flying. Many factors, including legal considerations, escalating personnel and training costs, and higher skill levels necessitated by increasing equipment complexity, have generated considerable interest in the development of "age free" criteria to determine continued suitability for aviation duty. Central to this issue is a demonstration that older pilots are not necessarily unsafe pilots. Naval Safety Center data relating mishap rates and causal factors to pilot age are presented and policy implications discussed. Results indicate that there are significant differences in mishap rates and mishap causal factors as a function of age, but these differences are not those which might be expected based on a knowledge of the aging literature.

  8. CERN pilot greenhouse

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    This pilot installation was situated near Bld. BA6 opposite to the main entrance of the Meyrin site, with respect to Route de Meyrin. See Weekly Bulletin 3/83, and also photo 8305594X, 8505898X, 8302200.

  9. Pilot Weather Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aviation weather reports relayed from pilots to FAA air traffic controllers or National Weather Service personnel. Elements include sky cover, turbulence, wind...

  10. Former Dryden pilot and NASA astronaut Neil Armstrong

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Famed astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, the first man to set foot on the moon during the historic Apollo 11 space mission in July 1969, served for seven years as a research pilot at the NACA-NASA High-Speed Flight Station, now the Dryden Flight Research Center, at Edwards, California, before he entered the space program. Armstrong joined the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) at the Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory (later NASA's Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio, and today the Glenn Research Center) in 1955. Later that year, he transferred to the High-Speed Flight Station at Edwards as an aeronautical research scientist and then as a pilot, a position he held until becoming an astronaut in 1962. He was one of nine NASA astronauts in the second class to be chosen. As a research pilot Armstrong served as project pilot on the F-100A and F-100C aircraft, F-101, and the F-104A. He also flew the X-1B, X-5, F-105, F-106, B-47, KC-135, and Paresev. He left Dryden with a total of over 2450 flying hours. He was a member of the USAF-NASA Dyna-Soar Pilot Consultant Group before the Dyna-Soar project was cancelled, and studied X-20 Dyna-Soar approaches and abort maneuvers through use of the F-102A and F5D jet aircraft. Armstrong was actively engaged in both piloting and engineering aspects of the X-15 program from its inception. He completed the first flight in the aircraft equipped with a new flow-direction sensor (ball nose) and the initial flight in an X-15 equipped with a self-adaptive flight control system. He worked closely with designers and engineers in development of the adaptive system, and made seven flights in the rocket plane from December 1960 until July 1962. During those fights he reached a peak altitude of 207,500 feet in the X-15-3, and a speed of 3,989 mph (Mach 5.74) in the X-15-1. Armstrong has a total of 8 days and 14 hours in space, including 2 hours and 48 minutes walking on the Moon. In March 1966 he was commander of the Gemini 8

  11. Editorial: Rich geo- and bio-diversities exist in the South West Atlantic deep-sea: The first human-occupied submersible Shinkai 6500 dive cruise (Iatá-piúna)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitazato, Hiroshi; Fujikura, Katsunori; Sumida, Paulo G. Y.; Pellizari, Vivian H.; Perez, Jose Angel

    2017-12-01

    The deep sea comprises a series of extreme environments, characterized by low temperatures, high hydraulic pressure, the virtual absence of sunlight, and the scarcity of organic nutrients. High hydraulic pressure prevents human access to these environments without using human-occupied submersibles (HOVs), landers or other instruments. Unlike the extreme outer space environments, visited by hundreds of astronauts, only three humans have accessed to the deepest point of the planet.

  12. Bullying victimization and physical fighting among Venezuelan adolescents in Barinas: results from the Global School-Based Health Survey 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herring Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Violence among adolescents has untoward psycho-social and physical health effects among this age group. Most of the literature on this topic has been from high-income nations, and little information has come from middle- and low-income nations. This study was done to assess the relationship between physical fighting and bullying victimization among Venezuelan school-going adolescents in Barinas. Method We used data from the 2003 Global School-Based Health Survey conducted among in-school adolescents in Barinas, Venezuela. We estimated the prevalence of bullying victimization and physical fighting. We also conducted Logistic regression analysis to assess the association between a selected list of explanatory variables and physical fighting. We hypothesized that there would be a dose-response relationship between physical fighting and number of times the adolescent reported being a bullied in the past 30 days. Results A total of 2,249 adolescent students participated in the survey. However data on sex (gender were available for only 2,229 respondents, of whom 31.2 (47.4% males and 17.0% females reported having been involved in a physical fight in the last 12 months. Some 31.5% (37.0% males and 27.0% females reported having been bullied in the past 30 days. There was a dose-response relationship between bullying victimization and physical fighting (p-trend < 0.001. Compared to subjects who were not bullied, those who reported being bullied were more likely to engage in physical fighting after controlling for age, sex, substance use (smoking, alcohol drinking or drug use, and parental supervision. Conclusion Physical fighting and bullying victimization experience is common among in-school adolescents in Barinas, Venezuela. The fact that victims of bullying were more likely to have engaged in physical fighting may be evidence supporting the notion that "violence begets more violence".

  13. DIRAC universal pilots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagni, F.; McNab, A.; Luzzi, C.; Krzemien, W.; consortium, DIRAC

    2017-10-01

    In the last few years, new types of computing models, such as IAAS (Infrastructure as a Service) and IAAC (Infrastructure as a Client), gained popularity. New resources may come as part of pledged resources, while others are in the form of opportunistic ones. Most but not all of these new infrastructures are based on virtualization techniques. In addition, some of them, present opportunities for multi-processor computing slots to the users. Virtual Organizations are therefore facing heterogeneity of the available resources and the use of an Interware software like DIRAC to provide the transparent, uniform interface has become essential. The transparent access to the underlying resources is realized by implementing the pilot model. DIRAC’s newest generation of generic pilots (the so-called Pilots 2.0) are the “pilots for all the skies”, and have been successfully released in production more than a year ago. They use a plugin mechanism that makes them easily adaptable. Pilots 2.0 have been used for fetching and running jobs on every type of resource, being it a Worker Node (WN) behind a CREAM/ARC/HTCondor/DIRAC Computing element, a Virtual Machine running on IaaC infrastructures like Vac or BOINC, on IaaS cloud resources managed by Vcycle, the LHCb High Level Trigger farm nodes, and any type of opportunistic computing resource. Make a machine a “Pilot Machine”, and all diversities between them will disappear. This contribution describes how pilots are made suitable for different resources, and the recent steps taken towards a fully unified framework, including monitoring. Also, the cases of multi-processor computing slots either on real or virtual machines, with the whole node or a partition of it, is discussed.

  14. PULSE Pilot Certification Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Pape-Lindstrom

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The pilot certification process is an ambitious, nationwide endeavor designed to motivate important changes in life sciences education that are in line with the recommendations of the 2011 Vision and Change Report: A Call to Action (American Association for the Advancement of Science [AAAS], 2011.  It is the goal of the certification process to acknowledge departments that have progressed towards full implementation of the tenets of Vision and Change and to motivate departments that have not begun to adopt the recommendations to consider doing so.  More than 70 life science departments applied to be part of the pilot certification process, funded by a National Science Foundation grant, and eight were selected based on initial evidence of transformed and innovative educational practices.  The programs chosen represent a wide variety of schools, including two-year colleges, liberal-arts institutions, regional comprehensive colleges, research universities and minority serving institutions.  Outcomes from this pilot were released June 1, 2015 (www.pulsecommunity.org, with all eight programs being recognized as having progressed along a continuum of change.  Five levels of achievement were defined as PULSE Pilot Progression Levels.  Of the eight departments in the pilot, one achieved “PULSE Progression Level III: Accomplished”.  Six departments achieved “PULSE Progression Level II: Developing” and one pilot department achieved “PULSE Progression Level I: Beginning”.  All of the schools have made significant movement towards the recommendations of Vision and Change relative to a traditional life sciences curriculum.  Overall, the response from the eight pilot schools has been positive. 

  15. NSTAR Smart Grid Pilot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabari, Anil [NSTAR Electric, Manchester, NH (United States); Fadipe, Oloruntomi [NSTAR Electric, Manchester, NH (United States)

    2014-03-31

    NSTAR Electric & Gas Corporation (“the Company”, or “NSTAR”) developed and implemented a Smart Grid pilot program beginning in 2010 to demonstrate the viability of leveraging existing automated meter reading (“AMR”) deployments to provide much of the Smart Grid functionality of advanced metering infrastructure (“AMI”), but without the large capital investment that AMI rollouts typically entail. In particular, a central objective of the Smart Energy Pilot was to enable residential dynamic pricing (time-of-use “TOU” and critical peak rates and rebates) and two-way direct load control (“DLC”) by continually capturing AMR meter data transmissions and communicating through customer-sited broadband connections in conjunction with a standardsbased home area network (“HAN”). The pilot was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (“DOE”) through the Smart Grid Demonstration program. NSTAR was very pleased to not only receive the funding support from DOE, but the guidance and support of the DOE throughout the pilot. NSTAR is also pleased to report to the DOE that it was able to execute and deliver a successful pilot on time and on budget. NSTAR looks for future opportunities to work with the DOE and others in future smart grid projects.

  16. Optimation Pressure Loss to Oil Production System with Electrical Submersible Pump (ESP) at the Well A SW Field Bojonegoro, East Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilmah, A. M.; Hendrajaya, L.

    2017-07-01

    Study about oil and gas well A and SW fields have been conducted in Bojonegoro area, East Java Province. From the research, it is known that one of the constrain in oil and gas production process is a pressure drop, so that is necessary to set Electrical Submersible Pump (ESP) as an artificial lift pump at low pressure wells. It is needed to analyze the production well pressure as an effort to optimize the fluid production. It is in describe to relations between IPR (Inflow Performance Relationship ) curve with TPR (Tubing Performance Relationship), are getting down point cut TPR curve with IPR curve, fluid rate its optimal, so need tubing’s diameter variation and the number of stage pump ESP variation to can the most optimal fluid rate. Produced that to tubing variation are 2,441 ID is 876,729 bpd, 2,991 is 961,197 bpd, 3,476 id is 996, 26 Bpd, while on the number of stage pump esp variation The most high is stage 400 with fluid rate 961,197 by comparison stage 338 it has value fluid rate 921,165 bpd, stage 200 it has fluid rate 827,889 bpd, and stage 169 has fluid rate 774,646 bpd. Of some variation tubing and stage pumps that has the most influence to fluid rate optimalize is the change number of stage pump.

  17. Limiting values of radionuclide intake and air concentration and dose conversion factors for inhalation, submersion, and ingestion: Federal guidance report No. 11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckerman, K.F.; Wolbarst, A.B.; Richardson, A.C.B.

    1988-09-01

    Radiation protection programs for workers are based, in the United States, on a hierarchy of limitations stemming from Federal guidance approved by the President. This guidance, which consists of principles, policies, and numerical primary guides, is used by Federal agencies as the basis for developing and implementing their own regulatory standards. The primary guides are usually expressed in terms of limiting doses to workers. The protection of workers against taking radioactive materials into the body, however, is accomplished largely through the use of regulations based on derived guides expressed in terms of quantities or concentrations of radionuclides. The values of these derived guides are chosen so as to assure that workers in work environments that conform to them are unlikely to receive radiation doses that exceed the primary guides. The purpose of the present report is to set forth derived guides that are consistent with current Federal radiation protection guidance. They are intended to serve as the basis for regulations setting upper bounds on the inhalation and ingestion of, and submersion in, radioactive materials in the workplace. The report also includes tables of exposure-to-dose conversion factors, for general use in assessing average individual committed doses in any population that is adequately characterized by Reference Man. 38 refs.

  18. Electricity generation and microbial community in response to short-term changes in stack connection of self-stacked submersible microbial fuel cell powered by glycerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Nannan; Angelidaki, Irini; Zhang, Yifeng

    2017-02-01

    Stack connection (i.e., in series or parallel) of microbial fuel cell (MFC) is an efficient way to boost the power output for practical application. However, there is little information available on short-term changes in stack connection and its effect on the electricity generation and microbial community. In this study, a self-stacked submersible microbial fuel cell (SSMFC) powered by glycerol was tested to elucidate this important issue. In series connection, the maximum voltage output reached to 1.15 V, while maximum current density was 5.73 mA in parallel. In both connections, the maximum power density increased with the initial glycerol concentration. However, the glycerol degradation was even faster in parallel connection. When the SSMFC was shifted from series to parallel connection, the reactor reached to a stable power output without any lag phase. Meanwhile, the anodic microbial community compositions were nearly stable. Comparatively, after changing parallel to series connection, there was a lag period for the system to get stable again and the microbial community compositions became greatly different. This study is the first attempt to elucidate the influence of short-term changes in connection on the performance of MFC stack, and could provide insight to the practical utilization of MFC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. In situ particle characterization and evidence of ubiquitous particle orientation in the ocean using a submersible holographic imaging system (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Aditya R.; McFarland, Malcolm N.; Stockley, Nicole D.; Twardowski, Michael S.; Sullivan, James M.

    2017-05-01

    Field experiments with the goal of characterizing aquatic particle properties, including size distributions and orientations in their natural environment, were conducted using a submersible holographic imaging system (HOLOCAM). Digital holography is a non-intrusive technique that allows particle fields to be mapped within a 3-D sampling volume at high resolution. The HOLOCAM was deployed at East Sound, a fjord in the US Pacific Northwest, and Lake Erie over three separate deployments from 2013 to 2015. A database of more than a million particles in the 100-10000 µm size range of varying shape and orientation was created after processing holograms. Furthermore, simultaneous, co-located acoustic Doppler velocimeter measurements of small-scale shear and turbulence structure were used to study the effects of the ambient flow field on particle orientation. Several interesting features presented themselves, with a Microcystis bloom dominating the surface layer of Lake Erie, while `thin layers' of high particle concentrations dominated by colonial diatoms were seen in East Sound. Particle size distribution (PSD) slopes in the 50-250 µm size range were 1.7-1.9, while for particles optics as random particle orientation is inherently assumed in theory and models. Preferential alignment can increase/decrease optical properties such as backscattering and attenuation relative to random distributions.

  20. Directionality Effects of Aligned Wind and Wave Loads on a Y-Shape Semi-Submersible Floating Wind Turbine under Rated Operational Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengtao Zhou

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Y-shape (triangular semi-submersible foundation has been adopted by most of the built full-scale floating wind turbines, such as Windfloat, Fukushima Mirai and Shimpuu. Considering the non-fully-symmetrical shape and met-ocean condition, the foundation laying angle relative to wind/wave directions will not only influence the downtime and power efficiency of the floating turbine, but also the strength and fatigue safety of the whole structure. However, the dynamic responses induced by various aligned wind and wave load directions have scarcely been investigated comparatively before. In our study, the directionality effects are investigated by means of combined wind and wave tests and coupled multi-body simulations. By comparing the measured data in three load directions, it is found that the differences of platform motions are mainly derived from the wave loads and larger pitch motion can always be observed in one of the directions. To make certain the mechanism underlying the observed phenomena, a coupled multi-body dynamic model of the floating wind turbine is established and validated. The numerical results demonstrate that the second-order hydrodynamic forces contribute greatly to the directionality distinctions for surge and pitch, and the first-order hydrodynamic forces determine the variations of tower base bending moments and nacelle accelerations. These findings indicate the directionality effects should be predetermined comprehensively before installation at sea, which is important for the operation and maintenance of the Y-shape floating wind turbines.

  1. Commercial Pilot Knowledge Test Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    The FAA has available hundreds of computer testing centers nationwide. These testing centers offer the full range of airman knowledge tests including military competence, instrument foreign pilot, and pilot examiner predesignated tests. Refer to appe...

  2. Service Catalog Pilot Project Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the ServCat pilot project and offers recommendations for the full-scale implementation of the database. During the pilot project a total of...

  3. The Impact of Transcriptomics on the Fight against Tuberculosis: Focus on Biomarkers, BCG Vaccination, and Immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Rodrigo Zárate-Bladés

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1882 Robert Koch identified Mycobacterium tuberculosis as the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB, a disease as ancient as humanity. Although there has been more than 125 years of scientific effort aimed at understanding the disease, serious problems in TB persist that contribute to the estimated 1/3 of the world population infected with this pathogen. Nonetheless, during the first decade of the 21st century, there were new advances in the fight against TB. The development of high-throughput technologies is one of the major contributors to this advance, because it allows for a global vision of the biological phenomenon. This paper analyzes how transcriptomics are supporting the translation of basic research into therapies by resolving three key issues in the fight against TB: (a the discovery of biomarkers, (b the explanation of the variability of protection conferred by BCG vaccination, and (c the development of new immunotherapeutic strategies to treat TB.

  4. Male fighting and ``territoriality'' within colonies of the ant Cardiocondyla venustula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frohschammer, Sabine; Heinze, Jürgen

    2009-01-01

    The ant genus Cardiocondyla is characterized by a bizarre male polymorphism with wingless fighter males and winged disperser males. Winged males have been lost convergently in several clades, and in at least one of them, wingless males have evolved mutual tolerance. To better understand the evolutionary pathways of reproductive tactics, we investigated Cardiocondyla venustula, a species, which in a phylogenetic analysis clusters with species with fighting and species with mutually tolerant, wingless males. Wingless males of C. venustula use their strong mandibles to kill freshly eclosed rival males and also engage in short fights with other adult males, but in addition show a novel behavior hitherto not reported from social insect males: they spread out in the natal nest and defend “territories” against other males. Ant males therefore show a much larger variety of reproductive tactics than previously assumed.

  5. Male fighting and "territoriality" within colonies of the ant Cardiocondyla venustula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frohschammer, Sabine; Heinze, Jürgen

    2009-01-01

    The ant genus Cardiocondyla is characterized by a bizarre male polymorphism with wingless fighter males and winged disperser males. Winged males have been lost convergently in several clades, and in at least one of them, wingless males have evolved mutual tolerance. To better understand the evolutionary pathways of reproductive tactics, we investigated Cardiocondyla venustula, a species, which in a phylogenetic analysis clusters with species with fighting and species with mutually tolerant, wingless males. Wingless males of C. venustula use their strong mandibles to kill freshly eclosed rival males and also engage in short fights with other adult males, but in addition show a novel behavior hitherto not reported from social insect males: they spread out in the natal nest and defend "territories" against other males. Ant males therefore show a much larger variety of reproductive tactics than previously assumed.

  6. Obesity and national defense: will America be too heavy to fight?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Matthew; Stephens, Mark B

    2015-04-01

    Obesity has been a topic of intense interest in the United States for several years. Rising rates of obesity have led some to question whether or not America will be able to readily sustain a fit fighting force into the future. This study seeks to describe at what point, projecting current trends in obesity and military accession, there would no longer be a sufficient number of qualified applicants to support an effective military fighting force. By analyzing trends in national obesity data and military accession records, the authors were unable to determine a realistic time projection of a year in which the United States would no longer be able to find enough qualified military applicants as a result of increasing obesity rates. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  7. Feminine dimension in the play fighting of rats (Rattus norvegicus) and its defeminization neonatally by androgens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellis, S M; Pellis, V C; McKenna, M M

    1994-03-01

    In rats (Rattus norvegicus), juvenile males engage in more play fighting (a male-typical behavior) than do juvenile females, and this difference is based on perinatal influences of androgens. We show that there are qualitative and quantitative differences between the sexes in the type of defensive responses and their manner of execution. In defensive responses rats try to avoid having their napes contacted by the partner's snout. The sex differences arise from females' greater response distance; that is, females responded to an approach when the partner's snout was further from the nape. This permits females to use different defensive responses and to use them more successfully. This greater response distance is defeminized by the neonatal administration of testosterone propionate. Our findings suggest that play fighting in rats has both male- and female-typical features and that these are, at least in part, influenced perinatally by androgens.

  8. Fighting in women’s clothes The pictorial evidence of Walpurgis in Ms. I.33

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gräf Julia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Ms. I.33 is not only the oldest of the known fencing treatises in European context, it is also the only one showing a woman fighting equally with contemporary men. The author presents her research about the garments this female fencer wears, including her shirt, dress and overdress, hairstyle and footwear. Special consideration is given to the questions whether Walpurgis wears a belt, the length and hem circumference of her garments as well as the methods of draping them in the way depicted. The results of the analysis are compared with contemporary pictorial and archaeological sources of the early 14th century. Some personal insights gathered by the author while fighting in this kind of clothes shed light on the possibilities of moving without being disturbed by them. The clothes and hairstyle worn by Walpurgis, give clues about her social status and thus help to understand the context and dating of the whole manuscript.

  9. The Fight Against Emissaries across the Black Sea Coastline Area (1834–1847 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir B. Karataev

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article on the basis of archival sources examines the work of foreign emissaries on the Black Sea coastline in 1834-1847 years. The significant part of sources is introduced into scientific circulation for the first time. The importance is given to the activities of foreign agents, their life among the hillmen, and methods of fighting of the Russian administration with foreign agents. The author comes to the conclusion that in the period of 1834-1847 years, on the Black Sea coastline the emissaries were carried out the diverse activities aimed against the Russian Empire. This activity was shown at the instigation of the hillmen for the war against Russia, the spread of false information, work as instructors, as well as to the personal involvement of emissaries in fighting.

  10. Fighting alcoholism among railway workers in the light of early 20th Century Polish-language temperance publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Krasińska

    2016-12-01

    Discussion and conclusions: The Polish-language temperance periodicals provide, among other things, valuable information referring to as yet unknown though essential problem of fighting alcoholism among railway workers in Europe, USA and the Polish territories of the Three Partitions.

  11. Item and order information in semantic memory: students’ retention of the “CU fight song” lyrics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Overstreet, Michael F; Healy, Alice F

    2011-01-01

    University of Colorado (CU) students were tested on memory for the “CU Fight Song” in order to examine serial position effects in semantic memory while controlling for familiarity across positions...

  12. Tactical and technological scheme of fire fighting in goaf left after longwall mining under conditions of methane combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanchuk, A.L.; Zrelyi, N.D.; Privalov, N.I.; Aleinikova, G.M.

    1981-07-01

    Presents recommendations on fire fighting in underground black coal mines. Situation when fire center is located in the goaf area left after longwall mining is analyzed. Fire fighting operations are divided into three stages: 1. fire fighting in the initial stage (installation of additional methane degassing means such as pipelines and pumps, pumping water, fire extinguishing foams or powders into fire center, ventilation, determining composition of the air in fire center), 2. intensification of fire fighting (increasing efficiency of degassing and fire extinguishing, improving ventilation of zone affected by the fire), 3. stage three occurs when fire extinguishing operations have been successful and consists in complete separation of the fire zone from the rest of the mine and from the ventilation system (changes in composition of fire gases and air are determined by automated instruments, injection of carbon dioxide or other inert gases, continuous deatatssing of the separated fire zone). Recommendations are listed in a detailed table. (In Russian)

  13. Fighting blind: why US Army Divisions Need a Dedicated Reconnaissance and Security Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-25

    AUTHOR(S) MAJ Daniel Ludwig 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) U.S...18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON MAJ Daniel Ludwig a. REPORT b. ABSTRACT c. THIS PAGE 19b. PHONE NUMBER (include area code...permissible. iii Abstract Fighting Blind: Why US Army Divisions Need a Dedicated Reconnaissance and Security Force, by MAJ Daniel R. Ludwig, US Army

  14. Calmodulin kinase II is required for fight or flight sinoatrial node physiology

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Yuejin; Gao, Zhan; Chen, Biyi; Koval, Olha M.; Singh, Madhu V.; Guan, Xiaoqun; Hund, Thomas J.; Kutschke, William; Sarma, Satyam; Grumbach, Isabella M.; Wehrens, Xander H. T.; Mohler, Peter J.; Song, Long-Sheng; Anderson, Mark E.

    2009-01-01

    The best understood “fight or flight” mechanism for increasing heart rate (HR) involves activation of a cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channel (HCN4) by β-adrenergic receptor (βAR) agonist stimulation. HCN4 conducts an inward “pacemaker” current (If) that increases the sinoatrial nodal (SAN) cell membrane diastolic depolarization rate (DDR), leading to faster SAN action potential generation. Surprisingly, HCN4 knockout mice were recently shown to retain physiological HR increases with isoprotere...

  15. An individual-oriented model on the emergence of support in fights, its reciprocation and exchange.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte K Hemelrijk

    Full Text Available Complex social behaviour of primates has usually been attributed to the operation of complex cognition. Recently, models have shown that constraints imposed by the socio-spatial structuring of individuals in a group may result in an unexpectedly high number of patterns of complex social behaviour, resembling the dominance styles of egalitarian and despotic species of macaques and the differences between them. This includes affiliative patterns, such as reciprocation of grooming, grooming up the hierarchy, and reconciliation. In the present study, we show that the distribution of support in fights, which is the social behaviour that is potentially most sophisticated in terms of cognitive processes, may emerge in the same way. The model represents the spatial grouping of individuals and their social behaviour, such as their avoidance of risks during attacks, the self-reinforcing effects of winning and losing their fights, their tendency to join in fights of others that are close by (social facilitation, their tendency to groom when they are anxious, the reduction of their anxiety by grooming, and the increase of anxiety when involved in aggression. Further, we represent the difference in intensity of aggression apparent in egalitarian and despotic macaques. The model reproduces many aspects of support in fights, such as its different types, namely, conservative, bridging and revolutionary, patterns of choice of coalition partners attributed to triadic awareness, those of reciprocation of support and 'spiteful acts' and of exchange between support and grooming. This work is important because it suggests that behaviour that seems to result from sophisticated cognition may be a side-effect of spatial structure and dominance interactions and it shows that partial correlations fail to completely omit these effects of spatial structure. Further, the model is falsifiable, since it results in many patterns that can easily be tested in real primates by

  16. EU legal framework of fight against child pornography on the Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Pisarić Milana

    2012-01-01

    Sexual abuse and exploitation of children is a serious violation of the basic rights of a child and child pornography on the Internet represents specific harmful content, whose existence and expansion can not be possibly about the freedom of opinion and expression. The fight against child pornography on Internet includes criminalization of certain harmful behaviors, identification of children who are the victims, detection of the perpetrators of these crimes and their prosecution, termination...

  17. Morphological Structures of Elite Karateka and Their Impact on Technical and Fighting Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Katić, Ratko; Blažević, Stipe; Krstulović, Saša; Mulić, Rosanda

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the study was to identify the morphological structures that determine achievement of top results in karate. The study included a sample of 85 karateka competing as senior category athletes within the Croatian Karate Society, aged 18–29 years. Sixteen morphological parameters were used; technical efficiency was assessed using 8 variables, i.e. evaluation of particular karate techniques, whereas fighting efficiency was estimated on the basis of results achieved at a number of contest...

  18. Which foundations for the fight against poverty? Knowledge and motivation for Rawls and Wresinski

    OpenAIRE

    Wodon, Quentin

    1998-01-01

    Rawls and Wresinski are both concerned about the poor, but their approaches regarding what is needed to achieve social justice are very different. This paper focuses on the issue of the knowledge and motivation necessary to fight poverty. We suggest that the Wresinski approach advocating an in-depth knowledge of the poor and of the obstacles that they face in their daily lives represents a challenge to the veil of ignorance conceptual framework advocated by Rawls. In terms of motivation, whil...

  19. Agency versus structure in the fight against corruption in Guatemala : a case study of CICIG.

    OpenAIRE

    Navas Estrada, Daniela Maria Adriana

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is a case study of the International Commission against Impunity in Guatemala (CICIG). From a qualitative point of view, the purpose of this investigation is to gain in-depth understanding about CICIG’s role within the Guatemalan political context. The significance of this investigation is that it provides insight into a unique case. It is because of the uniqueness of its mandate, and its great contribution to the fight against corruption and impunity in Guatemala, the reason why ...

  20. John Dewey and the Question of Race: The Fight for Odell Waller

    OpenAIRE

    Stack, Sam F., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    John Dewey and the Question of Race: The Fight for Odell Waller Abstract: In an attempt to better understand the complexity of American racism and democracy, this paper explores racism through the plight of an African American sharecropper, Odell Waller, and the reaction and involvement of John Dewey, America’s most liberal democratic philosopher of the 20th century. This exploration delves into the nature of American justice in one of the most difficult struggles in our history, the late yea...

  1. [Efficacy observation of nonspecific low back pain treated with the dragon-tiger fighting needling method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Feng; Cao, Dong-bo; Yuan, Yi-qin; Luo, Jian; Wen, Yan-yun; Wang, Yue; Yu, Jie

    2012-06-01

    To compare the difference in the clinical efficacy on nonspecific low back pain (NLBP) treated with the dragon-tiger fighting needling method, the uniform reinforcing-reducing method and the intermediate frequency physiotherapy. Ninety cases of NLBP were randomly divided into a dragon-tiger fighting needling group (group A), an uniform reinforcing-reducing needling group (group B) and an intermediate frequency physiotherapy group (group C), 30 cases in each one. In the group A, the dragon-tiger fighting needling method was used. In the group B, the uniform reinforcing-reducing method was applied. Two groups of acupoints were prescribed. One group included Shenshu (BL 23), Dachangshu (BL 25), Weizhong (BL 40) and Ashi points. The other group included Qihaishu (BL 24), Guanyuanshu (BL 26), Kunlun (BL 60), Yaoyangguan (GV 3). These two groups of acupoints were used alternatively in the above two groups. In the group C, the intermediate frequency physiotherapy was adopted in the pain area of the lumbar region. The treatment was given once per day in each group. Six treatments made one session. Totally, 2 sessions were required. The Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), the Oswestry Disability Index (ODD and the clinical efficacy were observed in each group. The scores of VAS and ODI were reduced obviously after treatment in each group (P dragon-tiger fighting needling method achieves the much better efficacy on NLBP compared with either the uniform reinforcing-reducing method or the intermediate frequency physiotherapy. It is one of the more effective needling method for analgesia.

  2. Improving situational awareness in the counter-IED fight with the utilization of unmanned sensor systems

    OpenAIRE

    Whiteman, Shannon J.

    2009-01-01

    An organized and thorough systems design framework is necessary to successfully address large-scale, complex problems, such as the utilization of unmanned sensor technologies to provide situational awareness (SA) in the counter-improvised explosive device (C-IED) fight. An appropriate systems engineering design process was used to develop such a framework, as the completion of the first two phases - problem definition and solution design - provides a basis for analysis of alternatives and a d...

  3. An economic perspective on crime, its costs, crime fighting and rehabilitation efforts

    OpenAIRE

    Strohmeier, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This study will examine the economic issues surrounding crime and reintegration measures aimed at prisoners, particularly but not exclusively in Germany. To do so it will be necessary to give an overview about the crime and crime-fighting situation in Germany. The focus is on violent and street crime. White collar crime will be mentioned only briefly. The starting point will be to examine the cost of crime and the problems concerning its measurement. These include for example the econom...

  4. The American Volunteer Soldier: Will He Fight. (A Provisional Attitudinal Analysis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-06-02

    NUMBER 4. TITLE (end Subtitlm) THE AMERICAN VOLUNTEER SOLDIER: WILL HE FIGHT? (A PROVISIONAL ATTITUDINAL ANALYSIS) 5. TYPE OF REPORT A PERIOD... Psychologycal Solutions to Social Problems; An Introduction to Social Technology. New York: Academic Press, 1971. Walton, George, COL, USA (Ret...QUESTIONNAIRE. There are several types of questions in this questionnaire. EXAMPLES of the types you will encounter are listed below: FILL IN: [EXAMPLE

  5. Creating Memorable Experiences: How hotels can fight back against Airbnb and other sharing economy providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makarand Mody

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available No one can deny that the hotel industry has a fight on its hands when it comes to the peer-to-peer accommodation market. Following a series of acquisitions, Airbnb is the undoubtedly the hotel industry's biggest competitor. While much of the discussion that follows uses Airbnb as an example, the underlying logic applies to the broader concept of the sharing economy and its implications for the hotel industry.

  6. The Role of Alcohol and Drug Consumption in Determining Physical Fights and Weapon Carrying by Teenagers

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Markowitz

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the question of whether alcohol or drug use causes teenagers to engage in violent behaviors as measured by physical fighting, carrying a gun, or carrying other types of weapons. Simple OLS estimation of the effects of drug and alcohol consumption on violence may be biased because of the possibility that both behaviors are determined by unmeasured individual traits. Two-stage least squares estimates are employed to establish causality. This method first ...

  7. Microbial field pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, R.M.; McInerney, M.J.; Menzie, D.E.; Coates, J.D.; Chisholm, J.L.

    1993-05-01

    A multi-well microbially enhanced oil recovery field pilot has been performed in the Southeast Vassar Vertz Sand Unit in Payne County, Oklahoma. The primary emphasis of the experiment was preferential plugging of high permeability zones for the purpose of improving waterflood sweep efficiency. Studies were performed to determine reservoir chemistry, ecology, and indigenous bacteria populations. Growth experiments were used to select a nutrient system compatible with the reservoir that encouraged growth of a group of indigenous nitrate-using bacteria and inhibit growth of sulfate-reducing bacteria. A specific field pilot area behind an active line drive waterflood was selected. Surface facilities were designed and installed. Injection protocols of bulk nutrient materials were prepared to facilitate uniform distribution of nutrients within the pilot area. By the end of December, 1991, 82.5 tons (75.0 tonnes) of nutrients had been injected in the field. A tracer test identified significant heterogeneity in the SEVVSU and made it necessary to monitor additional production wells in the field. The tracer tests and changes in production behavior indicate the additional production wells monitored during the field trial were also affected. Eighty two and one half barrels (13.1 m[sup 3]) of tertiary oil have been recovered. Microbial activity has increased CO[sub 2] content as indicated by increased alkalinity. A temporary rise in sulfide concentration was experienced. These indicate an active microbial community was generated in the field by the nutrient injection. Pilot area interwell pressure interference test results showed that significant permeability reduction occurred. The interwell permeabilities in the pilot area between the injector and the three pilot production wells were made more uniform which indicates a successful preferential plugging enhanced oil recovery project.

  8. Strategies to Fight Stigma toward People with Mental Disorders: Perspectives from Different Stakeholders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Corbière

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to provide a more complete and exhaustive perspective on the whole range of potential strategies to fight stigma by considering the perspectives of different stakeholders. Delegates to a Canadian conference were invited to participate in a survey that focused on stigma, from which the responses to the following question were analyzed: tell us briefly what you do to reduce prejudice and stigma toward people with a diagnosis of mental disorder? From 253 participants, 15 categories of strategies to fight stigma were identified from the verbatim (e.g., sharing/encouraging disclosure. These categories fell under six main themes: education, contact, protestation, person centered, working on recovery and social inclusion, and reflexive consciousness. The occurrence of these themes was different among stakeholders (clinical, organizational, and experiential knowledge. For example, people with mental disorders (experiential knowledge often mentioned contact and person centered strategies, while mental health professionals (clinical knowledge preferred education and working on recovery and social inclusion strategies. The results from this study highlight the need to pay more attention to the concept of disclosure of mental disorders in the process for de-stigmatization. Future studies are needed to assess the impact of the emerging strategies to fight stigma in the community.

  9. The concept of cellular "fight-or-flight" reaction to stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goligorsky, M S

    2001-04-01

    As animals respond to environmental stress with a set of default reactions described as the "fight-or-flight" response, so do epithelial and endothelial cells when they are confronting stressors in their microenvironment. This review will summarize a growing body of data suggesting the existence of a set of stereotypical cellular reactions to stress, provide some examples of diseases that are characterized by excessive flight reactions, describe the cellular mechanisms whereby the fight-or-flight reaction is accomplished, as well as cellular mechanisms triggering either fight or flight. It is proposed that cell-matrix adhesion is a sensitive indicator of the severity of stress. This indicator is interfaced with several default programs for cellular survival or death, thus dictating the fate of the cell. Some diagnostic and therapeutic applications of the concept, presently used and potentially useful, are outlined. The essential feature of this concept is its ability to categorize cellular events in terms of either type of default reaction, predict the details of each, and potentially exploit them clinically.

  10. Integrated method development of general and special students stamina involved in the fight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A. Alekseev

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : testing the effectiveness of methods of development of general and special endurance cadets wrestlers. Material : the experiment was attended by 20 students aged 18-20 years (10-12 years experience of employment, qualifications - candidates for the master of sports and master of sports. Classes are held 10 times a week, lasting for 120 minutes. Results : the developed methodology based on the application of a special set of exercises. Technique promotes rapid increase endurance level students. The directions of increasing endurance and performance of students. As an exercise for the development of general endurance recommended: motocross race, gymnastics, sports (rugby, soccer. As an exercise for the development of special endurance recommended: Attempted partner with high intensity (8-9 shots in 10 seconds Perform five series, consisting of 5 spurts (the maximum number of shots in 10 seconds And run shots at a moderate pace (4 -5 throws for 10 seconds ; training and educational training bout, fight quadruples (fight lasts until the transition to the fight lying down or throw up. Conclusions : the increase in special endurance cadets should be in parallel with the improvement of overall fitness.

  11. Morphological structures of elite Karateka and their impact on technical and fighting efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katić, Ratko; Blazević, Stipe; Krstulović, Sasa; Mulić, Rosanda

    2005-06-01

    The aim of the study was to identify the morphological structures that determine achievement of top results in karate. The study included a sample of 85 karateka competing as senior category athletes within the Croatian Karate Society, aged 18-29 years. Sixteen morphological parameters were used; technical efficiency was assessed using 8 variables, i.e. evaluation of particular karate techniques, whereas fighting efficiency was estimated on the basis of results achieved at a number of contests. Factorial analysis of morphological space revealed the presence of four major factors: factor of muscle mass, followed by skeleton transverse dimensionality, factor of skeleton longitudinal dimensionality, factor of subcutaneous adipose tissue, and factor of shoulder width determining optimal trunk proportions (athlete type) in karateka. Regression analysis showed the isolated group of morphological factors to significantly determine both technical and fighting efficiency of karate athletes. Generally, skeleton longitudinality and muscle mass, followed by skeleton transverse dimensionality were found to exert favorable effects, and adipose tissue unfavorable effects according to both criteria. Also, each individual morphological factor influenced the performance of every karate technique applied. Adipose tissue had greatest unfavorable impact, whereas shoulder width and muscle mass had favorable impact on the performance of arm techniques (kicking). Considering performance of leg techniques, skeleton longitudinality had highest favorable impact, and adipose tissue greatest unfavorable impact. Of the techniques applied, combined karate kicks, i.e. jaku zuki-mawashi geri and kizame zuki-jaku zuki were found to be the best predictors of fighting efficiency.

  12. Influence of the Fight BAC! food safety campaign on an urban Latino population in Connecticut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharod, Jigna Morarji; Perez-Escamilla, Rafael; Bermudez-Millan, Angela; Segura-Perez, Sofia; Damio, Grace

    2004-01-01

    To assess the coverage and consumer satisfaction with the Fight BAC! campaign and to evaluate the influence of the campaign on food safety knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors among a predominantly Latino population living in inner-city Hartford, Connecticut. A cross-sectional pre- and post-survey was administered to 500 Latino consumers in either English or Spanish. It included 30 food safety-related questions and information on the socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of participants. Respondents were selected from Latino households, with at least one child 12 years old or under, located in 5 predominantly Latino neighborhoods in inner-city Hartford. Fight BAC! media campaign. Seventy-three percent of respondents were exposed to at least one campaign media item and were highly satisfied with it. Recognition of the Fight BAC! logo increased from 10% to 42% between surveys (P Social marketing campaigns that take advantage of multiple culturally relevant media channels are likely to improve food safety awareness and bring about changes in food safety knowledge and attitudes among Latino consumers.

  13. The 300th Infantry Division in Mius-Front Fights in February-March of 1943

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medvedev Maksim Valeryevich

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available After the encirclement of the German troops and their allies near Stalingrad at the end of November, 1942, the Red army was able to develop large-scale offensive to the west. In January and in the beginning of February of 1943 the forces of the Southern front struck blow on the Rostov direction. This article is devoted to military operations of the 300th infantry division of the 13th Guard infantry corps of the 2nd Guards army at the beginning of 1943. Mentions of them are practically absent in a historiography. Meanwhile, in fights of February – the first decade of March, when the division has suffered huge losses and has been taken away in a reserve, are of great historic importance. In the Soviet historiography in days of the Great Patriotic War not enough attention was paid to destiny of separate fighting connections, the principal value was attached to actions of large expeditions and strategic military associations. It concerns also the 300th infantry division operating to Mius-fronte in February-March, 1943. Meanwhile, the appeal to its fighting way allows to understand better the reasons of failures of the Soviet approach, to find out in what conditions it passed. The approach of this division failed and brought big losses to staff and military equipment. Being guided by the declassified documents of the Central archive of the Ministry of Defence, the author discovers one of the little-known pages of the Mius-front history.

  14. Attacking the Body in Mixed Martial Arts: Perspectives, Opinions and Perceptions of the Full Contact Combat Sport of Ultimate Fighting

    OpenAIRE

    Magnus Tobias Stenius

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the sensuous experience of full contact fighting through ethnographic research in mixed martial arts clubs. Presenting its first card in 1993 in Denver, Colorado, the Ultimate Fighting Championship (UFC) stunned martial artists while thrilling and frightening spectators. Mixed martial arts (MMA) is an evolving combat sport pitting elite athletes trained in a variety of combat arts against each other in the “Octagon”. Contestants are permitted to kick, punch, elbow and kn...

  15. User Participation in Pilot Implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torkilsheyggi, Arnvør Martinsdóttir á; Hertzum, Morten

    2014-01-01

    Pilot implementations provide users with real-work experiences of how a system will affect their daily work before the design of the system is finalized. On the basis of a pilot implementation of a system for coordinating the transport of patients by hospital porters, we investigate pilot...... implementation as a method for participatory design. We find that to foster participation and learning about user needs a pilot implementation must create a space for reflecting on use, in addition to the space for using the pilot system. The space for reflection must also exist during the activities preparing...

  16. Pilot project as enabler?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neisig, Margit; Glimø, Helle; Holm, Catrine Granzow

    This article deals with a systemic perspective on transition. The field of study addressed is a pilot project as enabler of transition in a highly complex polycentric context. From a Luhmannian systemic approach, a framework is created to understand and address barriers of change occurred using...

  17. Evaluatie pilot Endogene Factoren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viet AL; Fiolet D; Voortman JK; Rover C de; Hanning C; Uitenbroek D; Loon AJM van; PZO; GGD Achterhoek; GGD Midden Holland; GG&GD Amsterdam

    2004-01-01

    As a part of the project on the Local and National Monitor for Public Health several pilot studies were carried out in three Municipal Health Centres (GGDs). The first aim was to investigate the feasibility of a physical examination at the health centre in combination with a health interview (or

  18. The plastid genome of Najas flexilis: adaptation to submersed environments is accompanied by the complete loss of the NDH complex in an aquatic angiosperm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena L Peredo

    Full Text Available The re-colonization of aquatic habitats by angiosperms has presented a difficult challenge to plants whose long evolutionary history primarily reflects adaptations to terrestrial conditions. Many aquatics must complete vital stages of their life cycle on the water surface by means of floating or emergent leaves and flowers. Only a few species, mainly within the order Alismatales, are able to complete all aspects of their life cycle including pollination, entirely underwater. Water-pollinated Alismatales include seagrasses and water nymphs (Najas, the latter being the only freshwater genus in the family Hydrocharitaceae with subsurface water-pollination. We have determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the plastid genome of Najas flexilis. The plastid genome of N. flexilis is a circular AT-rich DNA molecule of 156 kb, which displays a quadripartite structure with two inverted repeats (IR separating the large single copy (LSC from the small single copy (SSC regions. In N. flexilis, as in other Alismatales, the rps19 and trnH genes are localized in the LSC region instead of within the IR regions as in other monocots. However, the N. flexilis plastid genome presents some anomalous modifications. The size of the SSC region is only one third of that reported for closely related species. The number of genes in the plastid is considerably less. Both features are due to loss of the eleven ndh genes in the Najas flexilis plastid. In angiosperms, the absence of ndh genes has been related mainly to the loss of photosynthetic function in parasitic plants. The ndh genes encode the NAD(PH dehydrogenase complex, believed essential in terrestrial environments, where it increases photosynthetic efficiency in variable light intensities. The modified structure of the N. flexilis plastid genome suggests that adaptation to submersed environments, where light is scarce, has involved the loss of the NDH complex in at least some photosynthetic angiosperms.

  19. Submersible UV-Vis spectroscopy for quantifying streamwater organic carbon dynamics: implementation and challenges before and after forest harvest in a headwater stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jollymore, Ashlee; Johnson, Mark S; Hawthorne, Iain

    2012-01-01

    Organic material, including total and dissolved organic carbon (DOC), is ubiquitous within aquatic ecosystems, playing a variety of important and diverse biogeochemical and ecological roles. Determining how land-use changes affect DOC concentrations and bioavailability within aquatic ecosystems is an important means of evaluating the effects on ecological productivity and biogeochemical cycling. This paper presents a methodology case study looking at the deployment of a submersible UV-Vis absorbance spectrophotometer (UV-Vis spectro::lyzer model, s::can, Vienna, Austria) to determine stream organic carbon dynamics within a headwater catchment located near Campbell River (British Columbia, Canada). Field-based absorbance measurements of DOC were made before and after forest harvest, highlighting the advantages of high temporal resolution compared to traditional grab sampling and laboratory measurements. Details of remote deployment are described. High-frequency DOC data is explored by resampling the 30 min time series with a range of resampling time intervals (from daily to weekly time steps). DOC export was calculated for three months from the post-harvest data and resampled time series, showing that sampling frequency has a profound effect on total DOC export. DOC exports derived from weekly measurements were found to underestimate export by as much as 30% compared to DOC export calculated from high-frequency data. Additionally, the importance of the ability to remotely monitor the system through a recently deployed wireless connection is emphasized by examining causes of prior data losses, and how such losses may be prevented through the ability to react when environmental or power disturbances cause system interruption and data loss.

  20. Submersible UV-Vis Spectroscopy for Quantifying Streamwater Organic Carbon Dynamics: Implementation and Challenges before and after Forest Harvest in a Headwater Stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iain Hawthorne

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Organic material, including total and dissolved organic carbon (DOC, is ubiquitous within aquatic ecosystems, playing a variety of important and diverse biogeochemical and ecological roles. Determining how land-use changes affect DOC concentrations and bioavailability within aquatic ecosystems is an important means of evaluating the effects on ecological productivity and biogeochemical cycling. This paper presents a methodology case study looking at the deployment of a submersible UV-Vis absorbance spectrophotometer (UV-Vis spectro::lyzer model, s::can, Vienna, Austria to determine stream organic carbon dynamics within a headwater catchment located near Campbell River (British Columbia, Canada. Field-based absorbance measurements of DOC were made before and after forest harvest, highlighting the advantages of high temporal resolution compared to traditional grab sampling and laboratory measurements. Details of remote deployment are described. High-frequency DOC data is explored by resampling the 30 min time series with a range of resampling time intervals (from daily to weekly time steps. DOC export was calculated for three months from the post-harvest data and resampled time series, showing that sampling frequency has a profound effect on total DOC export. DOC exports derived from weekly measurements were found to underestimate export by as much as 30% compared to DOC export calculated from high-frequency data. Additionally, the importance of the ability to remotely monitor the system through a recently deployed wireless connection is emphasized by examining causes of prior data losses, and how such losses may be prevented through the ability to react when environmental or power disturbances cause system interruption and data loss.

  1. Calibration Transfer Between a Bench Scanning and a Submersible Diode Array Spectrophotometer for In Situ Wastewater Quality Monitoring in Sewer Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Rita S; Pinheiro, Helena M; Ferreira, Filipa; Matos, José S; Pinheiro, Alexandre; Lourenço, Nídia D

    2016-03-01

    Online monitoring programs based on spectroscopy have a high application potential for the detection of hazardous wastewater discharges in sewer systems. Wastewater hydraulics poses a challenge for in situ spectroscopy, especially when the system includes storm water connections leading to rapid changes in water depth, velocity, and in the water quality matrix. Thus, there is a need to optimize and fix the location of in situ instruments, limiting their availability for calibration. In this context, the development of calibration models on bench spectrophotometers to estimate wastewater quality parameters from spectra acquired with in situ instruments could be very useful. However, spectra contain information not only from the samples, but also from the spectrophotometer generally invalidating this approach. The use of calibration transfer methods is a promising solution to this problem. In this study, calibration models were developed using interval partial least squares (iPLS), for the estimation of total suspended solids (TSS) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) in sewage from Ultraviolet-visible spectra acquired in a bench scanning spectrophotometer. The feasibility of calibration transfer to a submersible, diode array equipment, to be subsequently operated in situ, was assessed using three procedures: slope and bias correction (SBC); single wavelength standardization (SWS) on mean spectra; and local centering (LC). The results showed that SBC was the most adequate for the available data, adding insignificant error to the base model estimates. Single wavelength standardization was a close second best, potentially more robust, and independent of the base iPLS model. Local centering was shown to be inadequate for the samples and instruments used. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. Ammonium, microcystins, and hypoxia of blooms in eutrophic water cause oxidative stress and C-N imbalance in submersed and floating-leaved aquatic plants in Lake Taihu, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meng; Wang, Zhengqi; Xu, Jun; Liu, Yaqin; Ni, Leyi; Cao, Te; Xie, Ping

    2011-01-01

    The heavy bloom of cyanobacteria is a disastrous consequence of freshwater eutrophication, and the bloom is highly toxic due to its secondary metabolites called microcystins (MCs). The release of organic substances from dense blooms causes an increase in NH4+ and decrease in oxygen in lake water. In the present study, the dynamics of physio-biochemical responses of five aquatic macrophytes to MCs and NH4+ stresses in Meiliang Bay were evaluated. The bay is one of the most seriously eutrophized areas dominated by the toxic cyanobacteria of Lake Taihu, China. The results demonstrate that aquatic macrophytes in Meiliang Bay are subjected to successive external stresses. From January to May, they are subjected to high NH4+ stress (>0.56 mg L(-1)), whereas from June to September or during dense blooms, the macrophytes experience both MC proliferation and moderate NH4+ toxicity (>0.3 mg L(-1)). In August, high NH4+ stress occurs along with hypoxia stress, whereas from September to December, the macrophytes experience moderate NH4+ stress, causing a serious imbalance in C-N metabolism and oxidative stress. Between the two aquatic plant life forms, floating-leaved plants are more resistant to the stresses of eutrophication than are submersed plants. Elevated MCs in the water column can aggravate oxidative stress and suppress the soluble protein contents of aquatic plants. High NH4+ in the water causes severe C and N imbalance in submersed macrophytes because of considerable carbon consumption for free amino acid synthesis. The superoxide dismutase activities of submersed macrophytes are suppressed by low light penetrating the eutrophic water, which might impair the antioxidative function of the plants. The findings of this study provide mainly field evidence that reveals the physical, chemical, and biological stresses on aquatic plants in bloom-prevailed eutrophic lakes. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. 14 CFR 61.51 - Pilot logbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., recreational, private, commercial, or airline transport pilot may log pilot in command flight time for flights... duties of pilot in command holds a commercial or airline transport pilot certificate and aircraft rating... commercial pilot certificate and flight instructor certificate, and aircraft rating that is appropriate to...

  4. Calmodulin kinase II is required for fight or flight sinoatrial node physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuejin; Gao, Zhan; Chen, Biyi; Koval, Olha M; Singh, Madhu V; Guan, Xiaoqun; Hund, Thomas J; Kutschke, William; Sarma, Satyam; Grumbach, Isabella M; Wehrens, Xander H T; Mohler, Peter J; Song, Long-Sheng; Anderson, Mark E

    2009-04-07

    The best understood "fight or flight" mechanism for increasing heart rate (HR) involves activation of a cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channel (HCN4) by beta-adrenergic receptor (betaAR) agonist stimulation. HCN4 conducts an inward "pacemaker" current (I(f)) that increases the sinoatrial nodal (SAN) cell membrane diastolic depolarization rate (DDR), leading to faster SAN action potential generation. Surprisingly, HCN4 knockout mice were recently shown to retain physiological HR increases with isoproterenol (ISO), suggesting that other I(f)-independent pathways are critical to SAN fight or flight responses. The multifunctional Ca(2+) and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is a downstream signal in the betaAR pathway that activates Ca(2+) homeostatic proteins in ventricular myocardium. Mice with genetic, myocardial and SAN cell CaMKII inhibition have significantly slower HRs than controls during stress, leading us to hypothesize that CaMKII actions on SAN Ca(2+) homeostasis are critical for betaAR agonist responses in SAN. Here we show that CaMKII mediates ISO HR increases by targeting SAN cell Ca(2+) homeostasis. CaMKII inhibition prevents ISO effects on SAN Ca(2+) uptake and release from intracellular sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) stores that are necessary for increasing DDR. CaMKII inhibition has no effect on the ISO response in SAN cells when SR Ca(2+) release is disabled and CaMKII inhibition is only effective at slowing HRs during betaAR stimulation. These studies show the tightly coupled, but previously unanticipated, relationship of CaMKII to the betaAR pathway in fight or flight physiology and establish CaMKII as a critical signaling molecule for physiological HR responses to catecholamines.

  5. Analysis of the Ocular Refractive State in Fighting Bulls: Astigmatism Prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan M. Bueno

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to describe the ocular refractive state (ORS of fighting bulls. The study consisted of 90 ophthalmological healthy animals (85 in post-mortem and 5 in living conditions, resp.. The ORS of the eyes (2 per animal was determined using streak retinoscopy. In vivo animals were assessed at a fighting bull farm facility. Post-mortem measurements were carried out at a local arena. The ORS along the horizontal meridian ranged between −1.00 and +2.50 diopters (D, with a mean of +0.66±0.85 D in post-mortem animals. Values for in vivo conditions were similar (+0.75±0.46 D. Left and right eyes were highly correlated in both sets (p<0.001. A fairly good correlation was also observed when comparing living and post-mortem eyes in the same animals. Anisometropia ≥ 1.00 D was diagnosed in 3 animals. Astigmatism (≥+0.5 D was detected in 93% of the eyes. To our knowledge, the ORS of the fighting bull has been reported for the first time. Although values vary among individuals, all eyes presented a marked astigmatism. Whereas the horizontal meridian was slightly hyperopic, the vertical meridian was always closer to emmetropia. These results represent a starting point to understand the ocular optics of this kind of animals, which might benefit the selection of animals at the farm before being sent to the bullfighting arena.

  6. New technological developments in oil well fire fighting equipment and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, B.; Matthews, R.T.

    1995-12-31

    Since Drake`s first oil well in 1859, well fires have been frequent and disastrous. Hardly a year has passed in over a century without a well fire somewhere in the world. In the 1920`s the classic method of fire fighting using explosives to starve the fire of oxygen was developed and it has been used extensively ever since. While explosives are still one of the most frequently used methods today, several other methods are used to supplement it where special conditions exist. Tunneling at an angle from a safe distance is used in some cases, especially where the fire is too hot for a close approach on the ground surface. Pumping drilling muds into a well to plug it is another method that has been used successfully for some time. Diverter wells are occasionally used, and sometimes simply pumping enough water on a well fire is sufficient to extinguish it. Of course, prevention is always the best solution. Many advances in blow-out prevention devices have been developed in the last 50 years and the number of fires has been substantially reduced compared to the number of wells drilled. However, very little in new technology has been applied to oil well fire fighting in the 1960s, 1970s, or 1980s. Overall technological progress has accelerated tremendously in this period, of course, but new materials and equipment were not applied to this field for some reason. Saddam Hussein`s environmental holocaust in Kuwait changed that by causing many people throughout the world to focus their creative energy on more efficient oil well fire fighting methods.

  7. RETRACTED: Bridging the Gap Between Theory and Practice With Film: How to Use Fight Club to Teach Existential Counseling Theory and Techniques

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peoples, Kat; Helsel, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    ... concepts could operate in a therapeutic practice. By providing a detailed explanation of Fight Club, educators assist students in grasping the philosophical underpinnings of existential counseling theory concretely...

  8. Pilots 2.0: DIRAC pilots for all the skies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagni, F.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; McNab, A.; Luzzi, C.

    2015-12-01

    In the last few years, new types of computing infrastructures, such as IAAS (Infrastructure as a Service) and IAAC (Infrastructure as a Client), gained popularity. New resources may come as part of pledged resources, while others are opportunistic. Most of these new infrastructures are based on virtualization techniques. Meanwhile, some concepts, such as distributed queues, lost appeal, while still supporting a vast amount of resources. Virtual Organizations are therefore facing heterogeneity of the available resources and the use of an Interware software like DIRAC to hide the diversity of underlying resources has become essential. The DIRAC WMS is based on the concept of pilot jobs that was introduced back in 2004. A pilot is what creates the possibility to run jobs on a worker node. Within DIRAC, we developed a new generation of pilot jobs, that we dubbed Pilots 2.0. Pilots 2.0 are not tied to a specific infrastructure; rather they are generic, fully configurable and extendible pilots. A Pilot 2.0 can be sent, as a script to be run, or it can be fetched from a remote location. A pilot 2.0 can run on every computing resource, e.g.: on CREAM Computing elements, on DIRAC Computing elements, on Virtual Machines as part of the contextualization script, or IAAC resources, provided that these machines are properly configured, hiding all the details of the Worker Nodes (WNs) infrastructure. Pilots 2.0 can be generated server and client side. Pilots 2.0 are the “pilots to fly in all the skies”, aiming at easy use of computing power, in whatever form it is presented. Another aim is the unification and simplification of the monitoring infrastructure for all kinds of computing resources, by using pilots as a network of distributed sensors coordinated by a central resource monitoring system. Pilots 2.0 have been developed using the command pattern. VOs using DIRAC can tune pilots 2.0 as they need, and extend or replace each and every pilot command in an easy way. In this

  9. Dispelling the 'bitter fog': fighting chemical defoliation in the American West.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Amy M

    2012-12-01

    Little doubt remains about the influence of Rachel Carson's Silent Spring in changing the consciousness of not just Americans, but citizens around the world, regarding the relationship between human beings and the natural world. Less has been done about the specific ways Carson's book inspired individual activists to continue challenging pesticide policy within the United States in the decades after the book's publication. The stories of three western women fighting the use of Agent Orange herbicides - the phenoxy herbicides 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T - illustrate the influence and mixed success of environmental activism after Silent Spring. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Fighting discrimination: W. Arthur Lewis and the dual economy of Manchester in the 1950s

    OpenAIRE

    Mosley, P.; Ingham, B.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract We document, for the first time, the institution-building activities of the development economist W. Arthur Lewis (1919-1991) as founder of Community House and the South Hulme Evening Centre, two further education centres which sought to fight discrimination among the Afro-Caribbean communities of Manchester in the 1950s. We depict the struggle by Afro-Caribbeans to achieve a decent standard of living (and to escape from the ‘subsistence economy’ which provides the basis for Lewis’ m...

  11. Farming and feasting in the Neolithic of Greece: the ecological context of fighting with food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Halstead

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Fine Neolithic ceramics from Greece are widely interpreted in terms of ceremonial eating and drinking, while the spatial organisation of settlement suggests that such commensality played a significant role in shaping social relationships. Faunal evidence implies consumption of many domestic animals inlarge-scale commensality and supports the view that this promoted competition as well as solidarity. This paper explores the ecological context of such 'fighting with food'. Feasting, and ceremonial consumption of livestock, was enabled by and helped to reinforce domestic strategies of surplus production and labour mobilisation that were driven as much by 'economic' as 'political' imperatives.

  12. Fight Against Trafficking from/to Afghanistan within the Eco Member States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afsah, Ebrahim

    This report evaluates the existing international, regional, and national legal landscape in order to identify possible legal initiatives furthering deeper regional cooperation the fight against organised crime, especially that involved in narcotics trafficking. During four extended trips to Tehran...... intensive consultations were held with the Unit’s staff, supplemented by interviews with a great number of stakeholders in Tehran, Islamabad, Lahore, Kabul, Brussels and Vienna, listed at the end of this report. The original terms of reference started from the premise that the relatively modest degree...

  13. Malware Analyst's Cookbook and DVD Tools and Techniques for Fighting Malicious Code

    CERN Document Server

    Ligh, Michael; Hartstein, Blake

    2010-01-01

    A computer forensics "how-to" for fighting malicious code and analyzing incidents. With our ever-increasing reliance on computers comes an ever-growing risk of malware. Security professionals will find plenty of solutions in this book to the problems posed by viruses, Trojan horses, worms, spyware, rootkits, adware, and other invasive software. Written by well-known malware experts, this guide reveals solutions to numerous problems and includes a DVD of custom programs and tools that illustrate the concepts, enhancing your skills.: Security professionals face a constant battle agains

  14. Engaging Patrons: Fight Back on the 2011–2012 Toronto Budget and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maureen O'Reilly

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Libraries and librarianship everywhere are under attack, but popular resistance has been strong. The Toronto Public Library Workers Union (TPLWU Local 4948 (CUPE led a successful community fight back campaign to the Ford administration’s 2011–2012 austerity budget. That campaign not only stopped further crippling cuts to the TPL, it garnered support for the library workers during a difficult round of collective bargaining which followed, and it has begun to change the conversation about the library from “cuts” to “investment”.

  15. BANK PALMAS CASE FROM BRAZIL AS A WAY TO FIGHT WITH LOCAL CRISIS THE XXI CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Geruzel-Dudzińska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the activities of the Bank Palmas from Brazil who, acting on the principles of democratic participation and by using its own currency achieved great success. In these times, where most countries are coping with a smaller or larger economic crisis, the bank's experience in Brazil, using concepts of solidarity economy, may be an important clue for crisis Countries. The aim of the author was to show how the solidarity economy which assumes the integration of producers and consumers, in which circulates money can contribute to the fight against unemployment and to increase incomes and living standards of the local community.

  16. Film som forteller: Fight Club som litterær adapsjon

    OpenAIRE

    Hustad, Jonas Langset

    2014-01-01

    På papiret virker Fight Club [1999] som et sikkert stikk. En litterær adapsjon utført av en kjent regissør (David Fincher) med solide stjernenavn på plakaten(Brad Pitt, Edward Norton). Men Chuck Palahniuks debutroman fra 1996 er et vanskelig verk, preget av mørk satire, flere lag med ironi og radikal subjektivitet. For å oversette en slik fortelling til film trengs ikke bare dristigheten til å fortelle om kontroversielle tema, men også oppfinnsomheten til å oversette en utpreget psykologisk r...

  17. Fighting Smoldering Fires in Silos – A Cautionary Note on Using Carbon Dioxide to Inert

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedlund, Frank Huess

    2017-01-01

    This communication seeks to draw attention to the hazards of releasing liquid carbon dioxide into environments where an ignitable atmosphere may exist. Static discharges have sufficient energy to ignite flammable vapors and an internal explosion may result when fighting smoldering fires using...... this approach. A recent article in Biomass and Bioenergy examines an explosion in a Norwegian wood pellet silo when attempting to suppress a smoldering fire with CO₂. The article argues that the electrostatic hazard of CO₂ is widely under-appreciated and incidents like this are avoidable....

  18. Agricultural Pilot's Audiological Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foltz, Lucas

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The agricultural airplane pilot are daily exposed to intense noises, being susceptible to the noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL and its auditory and extra auditory effects. Objective: To analyze the audiological profile of this population, verifying the work's influence on its hearing. Method: It was realized a retrospective, individual, observational, and cross-sectional study through the data obtained by means of a questionnaire and audiometric thresholds of 41 agricultural pilots. To the statistical analysis were utilized the chi-square, Spearman, and Wilcoxon tests with significance level of 5%. Results: It was verified that 95,1% of the pilots use PPE ( personal protective equipment during flight and 58,5% have contact with pesticides. More than half of individuals referred to feel auditory and extra auditory symptoms, being the buzz the more frequent (29,1%. It has the occurrence of 29,3% of NIHL suggestive hearing loss and 68,3% of normality, taking this presence of unilateral notch in 24,4% and bilateral notch in 31,7%. It was found correlation statistically significant in the associations between time of service and the average of the acute frequencies in the right ear (p=0038, and in the left ear (p=0,010. It has a statistical tendency in the association between audiometric configuration and contact with pesticides (p=0,088. Conclusion: The hearing loss prevalence in this study was showed high. More than half of the sample has normal audiometric thresholds with notch configuration. Such data lead to the conclusion that the agricultural pilots, even with PPE use, they still suffer with the damages caused by noise, needing best proposals of hearing loss prevention.

  19. PULSE Pilot Certification Results

    OpenAIRE

    Pamela Pape-Lindstrom; Tom Jack; Kathy Miller; Karen Aguirre; Judy Awong-Taylor; Teri Balser; Loretta Brancaccio-Taras; Kate Marley; Marcy Osgood; Marcy Peteroy-Kelly; Sandra Romano

    2015-01-01

    The pilot certification process is an ambitious, nationwide endeavor designed to motivate important changes in life sciences education that are in line with the recommendations of the 2011 Vision and Change Report: A Call to Action (American Association for the Advancement of Science [AAAS], 2011).  It is the goal of the certification process to acknowledge departments that have progressed towards full implementation of the tenets of Vision and Change and to motivate departments that have not...

  20. Fighting Pirates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lucas, Edward

    From the British Royal Navy’s initial efforts to destroy pirate fleets in the South China Sea in the 1840s, to the United States Navy’s counter-piracy patrols off the Horn of Africa today, powerful maritime states have intervened militarily to suppress piracy on a number of occasions over the past...... two centuries. Despite the considerable scholarly interest in examining how powerful states go about suppressing piracy, however, there has been little in-depth examination of why these states are willing expend resources combating piracy in the first place. When this question is addressed, counter-piracy...... efforts are usually portrayed as the provision of the global public goods of secure sea lanes and universal access to the global maritime commons. As a result, counter-piracy is presented as a quintessential example of hegemonic power at work in international system. Through a comparative historical...

  1. Dog Fights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Kelley R.

    2010-01-01

    Bringing service animals into schools raises serious questions about how to meet one student's special needs while ensuring the educational well-being of all. This article discusses how schools grapple with the practical and legal questions involved in allowing service dogs on campus. The author cites a case in 2009 called "Kalbfleisch v. Columbia…

  2. Fighting Divisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1945-12-01

    Zekes and Bettys sprayed the beach. 29 The dunes were raked by enemy mortar, machine-gun and small-arms fire. But the 24th landed and kept moving. The...from January to May 1945, that observing its progress was a good deal like watching a lively tennis match. Reaching the European Theater in November...counteroffensive. When Patton rushed over to help the First Army repel the onslaught, the 87th was one of the divi- sions he took with him to smash the drive

  3. Further evidence for links between facial width-to-height ratio and fighting success: Commentary on Zilioli et al. (2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Třebický, Vít; Fialová, Jitka; Kleisner, Karel; Roberts, S Craig; Little, Anthony C; Havlíček, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has reported an association between facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR) and both fighting performance and judgments of formidability in a sample of mixed martial arts (MMA) combatants. The results provide evidence of fWHR being associated with sporting performance and aggression in men. However, it has been argued that the effect of fWHR might be a by-product of associations between body size and behavioral measures. Here we tested whether fWHR is associated with perceived aggressiveness, fighting ability and success in physical confrontation, while controlling for body size, also in a sample of MMA fighters. We found that perceived fighting ability was predicted by weight but not by fWHR. In contrast, both fWHR and body weight independently predicted perceived aggressiveness. Furthermore, we found positive associations between fWHR and fighting performance which appear to be independent of body size. Our findings provide further support for the proposal that fWHR is associated with fighting ability and perceived aggression, and that these effects are independent of body size. Therefore, fWHR might be considered as a viable and reliable marker for inference of success in male intra-sexual competition. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. LANCELOT pilot report, June 2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levinsen, Karin; Meyer, Bente

    The aim of the Lancelot pilot evaluation process was to understand how teachers learn to teach and to relate to the online environment through the specific context of the Lancelot live online course. Following the Action Research in the autumn of 2006 the LANCELOT live online language course...... was revised for the piloting in the spring of 2007. A second aim of the pilot evaluation has therefore been to assess the revision of the course following the Action Research....

  5. Review of Street-Fighting Mathematics: The Art of Educated Guessing and Opportunistic Problem Solving by Sanjoy Mahajan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J. Pfaff

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Mahajan, Sanjoy. Street-Fighting Mathematics: The Art of Educated Guessing and Opportunistic Problem Solving (The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 2010. 152 pp. ISBN 978--0--262--51429--3 Street-Fighting Mathematics is an engaging collection of problem-solving techniques. The book is not for a general audience, as it requires a significant level of mathematical and scientific background knowledge. In particular, most of the book requires knowledge of Calculus I and there are examples that will require knowledge of Physics. At the same time, there are parts of the book that don't require this much background. While the title of the book may be misleading, as it is really street-fighting mathematics for people with a fair amount of training in the subject, there is a lot to be gained from reading this book, and calculus teachers may find it to be a useful resource.

  6. Comparative estimation of efficiency of playing method at perfection of technique of fight for the capture of young judoists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musakhanov A.K.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The questions of efficiency of mastering of technique of fight are considered for a capture for young judoists. Directions are selected the use of methods of the strictly regulated exercise and playing methods. In research 28 judoists took part in age 8-10 years. Duration of experiment two weeks. In one group of youths conducted game on snatching out of ribbons (clothes-pins and bandages, fastened on the kimono of opponent. In the second group work of taking of basic captures and educational meetings was conducted on a task on taking of capture. The training program contained playing methods and methods of the strictly regulated exercise. Comparison of the trainings programs defined specificity of their affecting development of different indexes of technique of fight for a capture. Recommended in training on the technique of fight for a capture the combined use of methods of the strictly regulated exercise and playing methods.

  7. Fight or flight, forbearance and fortitude: the spectrum of actions of the catecholamines and their cousins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arun, C P

    2004-06-01

    Catecholamines are recognized to play an important part in the fight-or-flight response to impending stress. Catecholamine and other phase-reactant levels are raised in the first 24 h following acute stress, but the bigger picture of their action on the organism is unavailable. In this article, we examine their actions in light of the theory of phase transitions borrowed from the numerate sciences. Phase transitions involve changes in the state of matter or an organism with a common example of what is termed a first-order phase transition (sudden change) being provided by the popular expression "the straw that broke the camel's back." We propose that the response to catecholamines follows a triphasic response: a Phase I response is the fight-or-flight response to impending stress that protects the animal. With mild to intermediate stress, the Phase II or forbearance response allows it to tolerate the physiological upset. With severe stress, however, severe vital organ vasoconstriction leads to a quick death. The present theory has value in understanding the clinical picture in acute stress. Phase II or Forbearance Phase corresponds to Classes I, II, and III of hemorrhagic shock, and Phase III or Fortitude Phase to Class IV. Thus, a Phase III or fortitude response is to the animal what apoptosis is to the individual cell and has social implications. The present framework provides a fresh perspective on the action of the catecholamines and their cousins.

  8. Contesting heteronormativity: the fight for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender recognition in India and Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Paul; Rydstrøm, Helle; Tonini, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Recent public debates about sexuality in India and Vietnam have brought the rights of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people sharply into focus. Drawing on legal documents, secondary sources and ethnographic fieldwork conducted in the urban centres of Delhi and Hanoi, this article shows how the efforts of civil society organisations dedicated to the fight for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender rights have had different consequences in these two Asian contexts. The paper considers how these organisations navigated government regulations about their formation and activities, as well as the funding priorities of national and international agencies. The HIV epidemic has had devastating consequences for gay men and other men who have sex with men, and has been highly stigmatising. As a sad irony, the epidemic has provided at the same time a strategic entry point for organisations to struggle for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender recognition. This paper examines how the fight for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender recognition has been doubly framed through health-based and rights-based approaches and how the struggle for recognition has positioned lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people in India and Vietnam differently.

  9. Knowing your audience affects male-male interactions in Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertucci, Frédéric; Matos, Ricardo J; Dabelsteen, Torben

    2014-03-01

    Aggressive interactions between animals often occur in the presence of third parties. By observing aggressive signalling interactions, bystanders may eavesdrop and gain relevant information about conspecifics without the costs of interacting. On the other hand, interactants may also adjust their behaviour when an audience is present. This study aimed to test how knowledge about fighting ability of an audience affects aggressive interactions in male Siamese fighting fish. Subjects were positioned between two dyads of non-interacting males and allowed to observe both dyads shortly before the view to one of the dyads was blocked, and the dyads were allowed to interact. Subjects were subsequently exposed to an unknown opponent in the presence of either the winner or the loser of the seen or unseen interaction. The results suggest a complex role of the characteristic of an audience in the agonistic behaviours of a subject engaged in an interaction. The presence of a seen audience elicited more aggressive displays towards the opponent if the audience was a loser. This response was different in the presence of an unseen audience. Subjects then directed a higher aggressiveness against their opponent if the audience was a winner. These results also suggest a potentially more complex and interesting process allowing individuals to gain information about the quality and threat level of an unknown audience while it is interacting with a third party. The importance of information acquisition for an individual to adapt its behaviour and the role of communication networks in shaping social interactions are discussed.

  10. Restricting carbohydrates to fight head and neck cancer-is this realistic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klement, Rainer J

    2014-09-01

    Head and neck cancers (HNCs) are aggressive tumors that typically demonstrate a high glycolytic rate, which results in resistance to cytotoxic therapy and poor prognosis. Due to their location these tumors specifically impair food intake and quality of life, so that prevention of weight loss through nutrition support becomes an important treatment goal. Dietary restriction of carbohydrates (CHOs) and their replacement with fat, mostly in form of a ketogenic diet (KD), have been suggested to accommodate for both the altered tumor cell metabolism and cancer-associated weight loss. In this review, I present three specific rationales for CHO restriction and nutritional ketosis as supportive treatment options for the HNC patient. These are (1) targeting the origin and specific aspects of tumor glycolysis; (2) protecting normal tissue from but sensitizing tumor tissue to radiation- and chemotherapy induced cell kill; (3) supporting body and muscle mass maintenance. While most of these benefits of CHO restriction apply to cancer in general, specific aspects of implementation are discussed in relation to HNC patients. While CHO restriction seems feasible in HNC patients the available evidence indicates that its role may extend beyond fighting malnutrition to fighting HNC itself.

  11. Restricting carbohydrates to fight head and neck cancer—is this realistic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klement, Rainer J.

    2014-01-01

    Head and neck cancers (HNCs) are aggressive tumors that typically demonstrate a high glycolytic rate, which results in resistance to cytotoxic therapy and poor prognosis. Due to their location these tumors specifically impair food intake and quality of life, so that prevention of weight loss through nutrition support becomes an important treatment goal. Dietary restriction of carbohydrates (CHOs) and their replacement with fat, mostly in form of a ketogenic diet (KD), have been suggested to accommodate for both the altered tumor cell metabolism and cancer-associated weight loss. In this review, I present three specific rationales for CHO restriction and nutritional ketosis as supportive treatment options for the HNC patient. These are (1) targeting the origin and specific aspects of tumor glycolysis; (2) protecting normal tissue from but sensitizing tumor tissue to radiation- and chemotherapy induced cell kill; (3) supporting body and muscle mass maintenance. While most of these benefits of CHO restriction apply to cancer in general, specific aspects of implementation are discussed in relation to HNC patients. While CHO restriction seems feasible in HNC patients the available evidence indicates that its role may extend beyond fighting malnutrition to fighting HNC itself. PMID:25364576

  12. Early-Life Risperidone Administration Alters Maternal-Offspring Interactions and Juvenile Play Fighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannon, Matthew A.; Brown, Clifford J.; Stevens, Rachel M.; Griffith, Molly S.; Marczinski, Cecile A.; Bardgett, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    Risperidone is an antipsychotic drug that is approved for use in childhood psychiatric disorders such as autism. One concern regarding the use of this drug in pediatric populations is that it may interfere with social interactions that serve to nurture brain development. This study used rats to assess the impact of risperidone administration on maternal-offspring interactions and juvenile play fighting between cage mates. Mixed-sex litters received daily subcutaneous injections of vehicle or 1.0 or 3.0 mg/kg of risperidone between postnatal days (PNDs) 14-42. Rats were weaned and housed three per cage on PND 21. In observations made between PNDs 14-17, risperidone significantly suppressed several aspects of maternal-offspring interactions at one-hour post-injection. At 23 hours post-injection, pups administered risperidone had lower activity scores and made fewer non-nursing contacts with their moms. In observations of play-fighting behavior made once a week between PNDs 22-42, risperidone profoundly decreased many forms of social interaction at one hour post-injection. At 23 hours post-injection, rats administered risperidone made more non-social contacts with their cage mates, but engaged in less social grooming. Risperidone administration to rats at ages analogous to early childhood through adolescence in humans produces a pattern of abnormal social interactions across the day that could impact how such interactions influence brain development. PMID:25600754

  13. Molecular mechanisms and new strategies to fight stresses in egg-producing birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Shatskikh

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Commercial egg production is associated with various stresses decreasing productive and reproductive performance of layers. A growing body of evidence indicates that most of stresses in poultry production at the cellular level are associated with oxidative stress due to excess of free radical production or inadequate antioxidant protection. Recently, a concept of the cellular antioxidant defence has been revised with a special attention paid to cell signalling. Indeed, in animals, redox signalling pathways use reactive oxygen species (ROS to transfer signals from different sources to the nucleus to regulate a number of various functions including growth, differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis. The vitagene concept of fighting stresses emerged as a new direction in a nutritional research. Indeed, by improving the adaptive ability of animals to stress it is possible tosubstantially decrease negative consequences of various stresses in poultry and farm animal production. The analysis of recently published data clearly showed that the anti-stress composition developed on the vitagene concept and supplied with drinking water is an effective means in fighting stresses in poultry production.

  14. Fighting for the web: competition between female feather-legged spiders (Uloborus plumipes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joel, Anna-Christin; Habedank, Anne; Hausen, Jonas; Mey, Jörg

    2017-04-01

    Most spider species are solitary, and among the few social interactions among them, resource competition between females has received little attention. We discovered that females of the feather-legged spider Uloborus plumipes invade the orb webs of conspecifics and compete for webs. Following observations in the wild, intruder-defender interactions were studied in a terrarium and in controlled laboratory experiments. We found that contests for orb webs occurred spontaneously between adult females. Competitive interactions in U. plumipes were characterized by an escalation of ritualized behaviors. In 27% of the contests the winner was determined by interactions at a distance, which involved behaviors that caused vibratory signaling on the web. The remaining interactions escalated to physical contact, and in 78% of these a fight occurred between the contestants. Using multivariate logistic regression we determined the factors that predicted the outcome of the contests: (i) Web ownership did not give the defender a competitive advantage. (ii) The difference in physical size between the competing spiders was the most important predictor for the outcome of web contests. (iii) Independent of body size, the display of certain behaviors, specifically the ability to reach the hub before the contestant and the frequency of attacks, increased the probability of winning. (iv) Winning or losing a fight did not affect the chances of winning subsequent contests. The interactions reported here provide a promising approach to investigate communication in spiders and to test theoretical models of intraspecific competition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Challenges and threats to implementing the fight against doping in sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorak, Jiri; Saugy, Martial; Pitsiladis, Yannis P

    2014-05-01

    Prominent doping cases in certain sports have recently raised public awareness of doping and reinforced the perception that doping is widespread. Efforts to deal with doping in sport have intensified in recent years, yet the general public believes that the 'cheaters' are ahead of the testers. Therefore, there is an urgent need to change the antidoping strategy. For example, the increase in the number of individual drug tests conducted between 2005 and 2012 was approximately 90 000 and equivalent to an increase of about 50%, yet the number of adverse analytical findings remained broadly the same. There is also a strikingly different prevalence of doping substances and methods in sports such as a 0.03% prevalence of anabolic steroids in football compared to 0.4% in the overall WADA statistics. Future efforts in the fight against doping should therefore be more heavily based on preventative strategies such as education and on the analysis of data and forensic intelligence and also on the experiences of relevant stakeholders such as the national antidoping organisations, the laboratories, athletes or team physicians and related biomedical support staff. This strategy is essential to instigate the change needed to more effectively fight doping in sport.

  16. Survival Rate and Growth of Fighting Fish Larvae (Betta splendens Regan Fed on Various Live Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Budiardi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Larval of fighting fish (Betta splendens Regan requires precise live foods for its growth and survival. In this experiment, fish larvae were fed on either Paramecium + Artemia, Paramecium + Artemia + Tubifex, Paramecium + Moina, or Paramecium + Moina + Tubifex. The fish were fed Paramecium from day-2 till day-7 after hatching. There after, the live food was changed according to the treatments till day-28.  Results showed that fish fed on Paramecium + Artemia significantly had the highest total length (12.63 mm than other treatments (11.86 mm. On the other hand, survival rate of fish had no significant affected by the treatments. Keywords: fighting fish, Betta splendens, Paramecium, Moina, Artemia, Tubifex, larvae   ABSTRAK Larva ikan betta (Betta splendens Regan membutuhkan jenis pakan alami yang tepat bagi kelangsungan hidup dan pertumbuhannya. Pada penelitian ini, larva ikan diberi pakan berupa Paramecium + Artemia, Paramecium + Artemia + Tubifex, Paramecium + Moina, atau Paramecium + Moina + Tubifex.  Ikan diberi pakan pakan berupa Paramecium dari hari ke-2 hingga hari ke-7. Setelah itu, pemberian pakan alami diubah berdasarkan masing-masing perlakuan hingga hari ke-28.  Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa ikan yang diberi pakan Paramecium + Artemia memiliki tubuh secara signifikan lebih panjang (12,63 mm dibandingkan perlakuan lainnya (11,86 mm.  Sementara itu, kelangsungan hidup tidak dipengatuhi oleh perlakuan. Kata kunci: ikan betta, Betta splendens, Paramecium, Moina, Artemia, Tubifex, larva

  17. Study of special capacity in boxers with different styles of fight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Aksutin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : the determination of tendency in boxer to a certain style of fight is important at all stages. Material : The special capacity in boxers with different styles of fight were studied. The special capacity and the impact force were studied by special training equipment among 23 boxers of higher qualification. The absolute and the relative strength of serial and single strikes were studied. Results : the results indicated that the absolutely impact force, the total tonnage and the relative strength of his right hand of strikes in boxers-“strongman” are more higher than in boxers with different styles. In boxers-“player” the power-hitting left-handed is more increasing for different styles. This fact indicates the presence among boxers-“player” the left-handed persons. Conclusions : the presented data are indicated about more higher of special endurance in boxers-“fastest”. This group of boxers differs from other of more higher development speed endurance

  18. EU legal framework of fight against child pornography on the Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pisarić Milana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sexual abuse and exploitation of children is a serious violation of the basic rights of a child and child pornography on the Internet represents specific harmful content, whose existence and expansion can not be possibly about the freedom of opinion and expression. The fight against child pornography on Internet includes criminalization of certain harmful behaviors, identification of children who are the victims, detection of the perpetrators of these crimes and their prosecution, termination of criminal networks, removal of pornographic content from the Internet or disable of access to the sites where these content are to be found. Although Internet is almost unlimited space for distribution of child pornographic material, the state's response is territorially limited, due to the fact that even if the state sets control over content on Internet sites located within its territory, users can find material on the Internet sites that are located outside the reach of the authorities of that country. For this reason, the fight against online child pornography sets requirement for the harmonization of national legislation and the establishment of effective international cooperation.

  19. Altruistic Behavior among Twins Willingness to Fight and Self-Sacrifice for their Closest Relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornero, Encarnación; Sánchez-Romera, Juan F; Morosoli, José J; Vázquez, Alexandra; Gómez, Ángel; Ordoñana, Juan R

    2017-10-28

    According to kin selection theory, indirect reproductive advantages may induce individuals to care for others with whom they share genes by common descent, and the amount of care, including self-sacrifice, will increase with the proportion of genes shared. Twins represent a natural situation in which this hypothesis can be tested. Twin pairs experience the same early environment because they were born and raised at the same time and in the same family but their genetic relatedness differs depending on zygosity. We compared the degree of willingness to fight and sacrifice for the co-twin among monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) pairs in a sample of 1443 same-sex and opposite-sex twins. We also analyzed the effect of the subject's gender and that of the co-twin on those altruistic behaviors. Results partly supported the postulated explanation. MZ twins (who share nearly their entire genome) were significantly more likely than DZ twins (who on average share half of their segregating genes) to self-sacrifice for their co-twins, but zygosity did not affect willingness to fight for him/her. The genders of the subject and of the co-twin, not genetic relatedness, were the best predictors of aggressive altruistic intentions.

  20. 75 FR 56857 - Pilot, Flight Instructor, and Pilot School Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ... Administration 14 CFR Part 141 RIN 2120-AI86 Pilot, Flight Instructor, and Pilot School Certification AGENCY... Register on August 21, 2009. That final rule revised the training, qualification, certification, and... Certification and Training Branch, AFS-810, General Aviation and Commercial Division, Flight Standards Service...