WorldWideScience

Sample records for submersible mixer pumps

  1. Submersible canned motor mixer pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guardiani, R.F.; Pollick, R.D.

    1997-01-01

    A mixer pump is described used in a waste tank for mobilizing high-level radioactive liquid waste having a column assembly containing power cables, a motor housing with electric motor means which includes a stator can of a stator assembly and a rotor can of a rotor assembly, and an impeller assembly with an impeller connected to a shaft of the rotor assembly. The column assembly locates the motor housing with the electric motor means adjacent to the impeller which creates an hydraulic head, and which forces the liquid waste into the motor housing to cool the electric motor means and to lubricate radial and thrust bearing assemblies. Hard-on-hard bearing surfaces of the bearing assemblies and a ring assembly between the impeller and electric motor means act to grind down large particles in the liquid waste flow. These larger particles are received in slots in the static bearing members of the radial bearing assemblies. Only solid waste particles smaller than the clearances in the system can pass there through, thereby resisting damage to and the interruption of the operation of the mixer pump. 10 figs

  2. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF KAOLIN/SAND SLURRY USED DURING SUBMERSIBLE MIXER PUMP TESTS AT TNX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HANSEN, ERICH

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this task is to characterize the physical properties of the kaolin/sand slurries used during the testing of a new submersible mixer pump (SMP) which had undergone performance testing at the TNX Waste Tank mockup facility from July 2004 through May 2005. During this time period, four identical SMPs were subjected to various water tests and four different tests using different batches of kaolin/sand slurries. The physical properties of the kaolin/sand slurries were measured for three of the four tests. In these tests, three different sample locations were used to pull samples, the SMP cooling water exit (CWE), the SMP fluid flow field (FFF), and SMP effective cleaning radius (ECR). The physical properties measured, though not for each sample, included rheology, weight percent total solids (wt% TS), density, kaolin/sand slurry particle size distribution (PSD), weight percent and particles size distribution of material greater than 45 microns

  3. Study on installation of the submersible mixer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, F; Shi, W D; He, X H; Xu, Y H; Jiang, H

    2013-01-01

    Study on installation of the submersible mixer for sewage treatment has been limited. In this article, large-scale computational fluid dynamics software FLUENT6.3 was adopted. ICEM software was used to build an unstructured grid of sewage treatment pool. After that, the sewage treatment pool was numerically simulated by dynamic coordinate system technology and RNG k-ε turbulent model and PIOS algorithm. Agitation pools on four different installation location cases were simulated respectively, and the external characteristic of the submersible mixer and the velocity cloud of the axial section were respectively comparatively analyzed. The best stirring effect can be reached by the installation location of case C, which is near the bottom of the pool 600 mm and blade distance the bottom at least for 200 mm wide and wide edge and narrow edge distance by 4:3. The conclusion can guide the engineering practice

  4. Study on velocity distribution in a pool by submersible mixers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, F; Shi, W D; Lu, X N; Chen, B; Jiang, H

    2012-01-01

    To study the distribution of submersible mixers and agitating effect in the sewage treatment pool, Pro/E software was utilized to build the three-dimensional model. Then, the large-scale computational fluid dynamics software FLUENT6.3 was used. ICEM software was used to build unstructured grid of sewage treatment pool. After that, the sewage treatment pool was numerically simulated by dynamic coordinate system technology and RNG k-ε turbulent model and PIOS algorithm. The macro fluid field and each section velocity flow field distribution were analyzed to observe the efficiency of each submersible mixer. The average velocity and mixing area in the sewage pool were studied simultaneously. Results show that: the preferred project B, two submersible mixers speed is 980 r/min, and setting angles are all 30°. Fluid mixing area in the pool has reached more than 95%. Under the action of two mixers, the fluid in the sewage pool form a continuous circulating water flow. The fluid is mixed adequately and average velocity of fluid in the pool is at around 0.241m/s, which agreed with the work requirements. Consequently it can provide a reference basis for practical engineering application of submersible mixers by using this method.

  5. Spare mitigation/retrieval mixer pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, S.

    1995-01-01

    This document presents the functional design criteria for design, analysis, fabrication, testing, and installation of a waste tank mixer pump. The mixer pump will be operated to eliminate the periodic releases of large quantities of flammable gas (e.g., hydrogen) from Hanford Site waste tanks and also to accommodate retrieval of tank waste

  6. Development of submersible axial pump for wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Jeong Eui [Kangwon Nat' l Univ., Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-02-15

    This study was performed to develop a high efficiency submersible axial pump for concentration wastewater treatment. To do this, we simulated the effect of some parameters such as the axial twist angle of a blade({beta}), the radial twist angle of a blade({alpha}) and the length of a blade ({iota}) on pump efficiency using commercial code, ANSYS CFX and BladeGen. The results showed that the axial twist angle of a blade({beta}) was the most sensible parameter on the pump efficiency. And the pump efficiency had a maximum at {beta}=20.deg, {alpha}=110.deg and {iota}=240mm.

  7. Work plan, AP-102 mixer pump removal and pump replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez, R.F.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this work plan is to plan the steps and estimate the costs required to remove the failed AP-102 mixer pump, and to plan and estimate the cost of the necessary design and specification work required to order a new, but modified, mixer pump including the pump and pump pit energy absorbing design. The main hardware required for the removal of the mixer is as follows: a flexible receiver and blast shield; a metal container for the pulled mixer pump; and a trailer and strongback to haul and manipulate the container. Additionally: a gamma scanning device will be needed to detect the radioactivity emanating from the mixer as it is pulled from the tank; a water spray system will be required to remove tank waste from the surface of the mixer as it is pulled from the AP-102 tank; and a lifting yoke to lift the mixer from the pump pit (the SY-101 Mixer Lifting Yoke will be used). A ''green house'' will have to be erected over the AP-102 pump pit and an experienced Hoisting and Rigging crew must be assembled and trained in mixer pump removal methods before the actual removal is undertaken

  8. Submersible canned motor transfer pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guardiani, R.F.; Pollick, R.D.; Nyilas, C.P.; Denmeade, T.J.

    1997-01-01

    A transfer pump is described which is used in a waste tank for transferring high-level radioactive liquid waste from a waste tank and having a column assembly, a canned electric motor means, and an impeller assembly with an upper impeller and a lower impeller connected to a shaft of a rotor assembly. The column assembly locates a motor housing with the electric motor means adjacent to the impeller assembly which creates an hydraulic head, and which forces the liquid waste, into the motor housing to cool the electric motor means and to cool and/or lubricate the radial and thrust bearing assemblies. Hard-on-hard bearing surfaces of the bearing assemblies and a ring assembly between the upper impeller and electric motor means grind large particles in the liquid waste flow. Slots in the static bearing member of the radial bearing assemblies further grind down the solid waste particles so that only particles smaller than the clearances in the system can pass there through, thereby resisting damage to and the interruption of the operation of the transfer pump. The column assembly is modular so that sections can be easily assembled, disassembled and/or removed. A second embodiment employs a stator jacket which provides an alternate means for cooling the electric motor means and lubricating and/or cooling the bearing assemblies, and a third embodiment employs a variable level suction device which allows liquid waste to be drawn into the transfer pump from varying and discrete levels in the waste tank. 17 figs

  9. Mixer pump test plan for double shell tank AZ-101

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    STAEHR, T.W.

    1999-01-01

    Mixer pump systems have been chosen as the method for retrieval of tank wastes contained in double shell tanks at Hanford. This document describes the plan for testing and demonstrating the ability of two 300 hp mixer pumps to mobilize waste in tank AZ-101. The mixer pumps, equipment and instrumentation to monitor the test were installed by Project W-151

  10. Cooling devices and methods for use with electric submersible pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowski, Todd A; Hill, Dallas D

    2014-12-02

    Cooling devices for use with electric submersible pump motors include a refrigerator attached to the end of the electric submersible pump motor with the evaporator heat exchanger accepting all or a portion of the heat load from the motor. The cooling device can be a self-contained bolt-on unit, so that minimal design changes to existing motors are required.

  11. Commercial Submersible Mixing Pump For SRS Tank Waste Removal - 15223

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbard, Mike; Herbert, James E.; Scheele, Patrick W.

    2015-01-01

    The Savannah River Site Tank Farms have 45 active underground waste tanks used to store and process nuclear waste materials. There are 4 different tank types, ranging in capacity from 2839 m 3 to 4921 m 3 (750,000 to 1,300,000 gallons). Eighteen of the tanks are older style and do not meet all current federal standards for secondary containment. The older style tanks are the initial focus of waste removal efforts for tank closure and are referred to as closure tanks. Of the original 51 underground waste tanks, six of the original 24 older style tanks have completed waste removal and are filled with grout. The insoluble waste fraction that resides within most waste tanks at SRS requires vigorous agitation to suspend the solids within the waste liquid in order to transfer this material for eventual processing into glass filled canisters at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). SRS suspends the solid waste by use of recirculating mixing pumps. Older style tanks generally have limited riser openings which will not support larger mixing pumps, since the riser access is typically 58.4 cm (23 inches) in diameter. Agitation for these tanks has been provided by four long shafted standard slurry pumps (SLP) powered by an above tank 112KW (150 HP) electric motor. The pump shaft is lubricated and cooled in a pressurized water column that is sealed from the surrounding waste in the tank. Closure of four waste tanks has been accomplished utilizing long shafted pump technology combined with heel removal using multiple technologies. Newer style waste tanks at SRS have larger riser openings, allowing the processing of waste solids to be accomplished with four large diameter SLPs equipped with 224KW (300 HP) motors. These tanks are used to process the waste from closure tanks for DWPF. In addition to the SLPs, a 224KW (300 HP) submersible mixer pump (SMP) has also been developed and deployed within older style tanks. The SMPs are product cooled and product lubricated canned

  12. Commercial Submersible Mixing Pump For SRS Tank Waste Removal - 15223

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubbard, Mike [Savannah River Remediation, LLC., Aiken, SC (United States); Herbert, James E. [Savannah River Remediation, LLC., Aiken, SC (United States); Scheele, Patrick W. [Savannah River Remediation, LLC., Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-01-12

    The Savannah River Site Tank Farms have 45 active underground waste tanks used to store and process nuclear waste materials. There are 4 different tank types, ranging in capacity from 2839 m3 to 4921 m3 (750,000 to 1,300,000 gallons). Eighteen of the tanks are older style and do not meet all current federal standards for secondary containment. The older style tanks are the initial focus of waste removal efforts for tank closure and are referred to as closure tanks. Of the original 51 underground waste tanks, six of the original 24 older style tanks have completed waste removal and are filled with grout. The insoluble waste fraction that resides within most waste tanks at SRS requires vigorous agitation to suspend the solids within the waste liquid in order to transfer this material for eventual processing into glass filled canisters at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). SRS suspends the solid waste by use of recirculating mixing pumps. Older style tanks generally have limited riser openings which will not support larger mixing pumps, since the riser access is typically 58.4 cm (23 inches) in diameter. Agitation for these tanks has been provided by four long shafted standard slurry pumps (SLP) powered by an above tank 112KW (150 HP) electric motor. The pump shaft is lubricated and cooled in a pressurized water column that is sealed from the surrounding waste in the tank. Closure of four waste tanks has been accomplished utilizing long shafted pump technology combined with heel removal using multiple technologies. Newer style waste tanks at SRS have larger riser openings, allowing the processing of waste solids to be accomplished with four large diameter SLPs equipped with 224KW (300 HP) motors. These tanks are used to process the waste from closure tanks for DWPF. In addition to the SLPs, a 224KW (300 HP) submersible mixer pump (SMP) has also been developed and deployed within older style tanks. The SMPs are product cooled and

  13. Submersible fans and pumps for cryogenic fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mark, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    Submersible electric motor driven fans of three sizes have been designed, built and operated at 21 0 K at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The largest is a 100-mm diameter, 2 stage vaneaxial fan with a nominal capacity of 6 L/s at 2 m head. It is driven by a 4 pole, 3 phase induction motor that runs at 1750 rpm. The next smaller one is an 85-mm diameter centrifugal pump. It pumps 3 L/s at a head of 5 m. The third is a 75-mm single stage vaneaxial fan with a nominal capacity is 3 L/s at a head of 2 m. The 85-mm pump and the 75-mm fan are driven by 2 pole, 3 phase induction motors running at 3550 rpm. The motors were modified to operate submerged in the cryogenic fluid. The pumps have been operated in liquid hydrogen, liquid deuterium, and pressurized helium gas at 21 0 K. They can also operate with denser fluids such as liquid nitrogen, but rotational speed, capacity, and head will be reduced. They have been operated while submerged in liquid helium

  14. AWWA E102-17 submersible vertical turbine pumps

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This standard describes minimum requirements for submersible vertical turbine pumps utilizing a discharge column pipe assembly, 5 hp or larger, used in water service, including materials, design, manufacture, inspection, and testing.

  15. Work plan for vibration cable re-route and water flush system modifications for 107-AN mixer pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leshikar, G.A.

    1995-01-01

    A mixer pump (75 horsepower Hazleton submersible) is to be installed in the central pump pit of Double-Shell Tank 241-AN-107 for the Caustic Addition Project. The mixer pump will be used as a platform to inject, mix, and entrain caustic with the waste, in order to bring the waste hydroxyl ion concentration into compliance with Tank Farm operating specifications. Testing of the mixer pump and caustic addition system revealed that the mixer pump's vibration cable picks up electromagnetic interference from the motor power cable during variable speed operation of the pump. Also, it was noted that the mixer pump's water flush system may not be as effective as desired. Ergo this work plan for improving the operation of these mixer pump subsystems. A new vibration cable shall be routed entirely outside the mixer pump support column pipe, up thru a new penetration in the pump mounting flange. The existing penetration in the side of the pipe is to be plugged. Increasing the distance between power and instrument cables may reduce or eliminate electromagnetic interference to the vibration monitor. The mixer pump water flush system shall be modified to allow pressure isolation of individual branches. A header is to be installed on the middle section of the support column. Each branch (there are three) shall contain a solenoid valve (normally open) to control flow into the branch. The solenoid cables shall be routed up thru three new penetrations in the pump mounting flange to a new electrical box mounted on the flange. The existing flush piping to the inlet screen will remain but the continuation of the flush piping to the pump discharge nozzles is to be removed and the tee plugged. New stainless steel tubing is to be run down to the pump discharge nozzles. Pressure isolation of individual branches will maximize the flush system's effectiveness at blasting potential sediment clogs out of the pump discharge nozzles

  16. 77 FR 65360 - Grant of Authority for Subzone Status (Centrifugal and Submersible Pumps); Auburn, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-26

    ... Status (Centrifugal and Submersible Pumps); Auburn, NY Pursuant to its authority under the Foreign-Trade... authority to establish a special-purpose subzone at the centrifugal and submersible pump manufacturing and... submersible pumps and related controllers at the Xylem Water Systems U.S.A., LLC, facilities located in Auburn...

  17. IMPACT OF SUBMERSIBLE PUMPS ON PB CONSTITUENTS IN RESIDENTIAL WELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissolved lead in 51 domestic wells screened from 18 m to 48 m in glacial tills and outwash deposits were examined, from archived samples collected during 2001-2004, in conjunction with respective submersible pump characteristics. Pb concentrations of these residential water supp...

  18. What can be done about corrosion in submersible pumps?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minett, S.

    2000-09-01

    Useful advice and a survey of materials and techniques which can help counter corrosion risks in submersible pumps are provided. The greatest risk of corrosion is caused by sea water, hydrochloric acid, certain types of solvents, hydrogen sulphide, liquids with a high copper content, bases with a high pH value and certain liquids containing a mixture of acids. Counteractive strategies suggested include using a corrosion resistant material such as stainless steel, or other resistant coatings and materials for particular components that are exposed to high corrosion risks. Most submersible pumps are made of cast iron which should present no corrosion problems in normal domestic use. In mining and construction applications aluminum submersibles are common, which is resistant to a pH value of about 8. The use of stainless steel is recommended as the main material in submersible pumps when used for pumping acidic liquids, and when purity of the liquid pumped is of prime consideration. Coatings and anodes on conventional cast iron pumps are a less expensive and more flexible alternative against salt water corrosion. Among coatings epoxy coating is the most widely used. Zinc anodes are used in conjunction with epoxy coatings, which by setting up a micro current by contact with the cast iron prevent corrosion of areas of the cast iron that may be exposed as a result of post-production scratching. By being sacrificially corroded, the zinc anodes thus significantly extend the life of a coated pump. Impressed current from an external power source, is an effective, but more expensive alternative to the implanted anode method. Using resistant materials such as nitrile rubber, fluoro-carbon rubber, corrosion resistant cemented carbide, or chlorinated rubber for various components (rotating shaft seals, rubber 'O' rings, cable sheathing, etc) are other alternatives that may be depending on the application and the degree of exposure.

  19. Special considerations for electric submersible pump applications in underpressured reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powers, M.L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of electric submersible pump performance tolerances and minor speed variations on the producing rate of wells completed in underpressured reservoirs, and presents ESP design considerations which are unique for this class of wells. These wells require considerable head to initiate flow and have relatively flat well-load curves. Pumps that operate near their maximum recommended rate have steep performance curves. it is shown that this minimizes the effect of an underperforming pump on producing rate. Equations are developed for calculating the effects of pump performance and speed. Application requires evaluating the slopes of the pump performance curve and well-load curve at design rate. Utility of these equations is demonstrated by practical examples. It is also demonstrated that flow-stall can easily occur in underpressured reservoir applications when pumps designed to operate near their minimum recommended rate are installed

  20. AZ-101 Mixer Pump Test Qualification Test Procedures (QTP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    THOMAS, W.K.

    2000-01-01

    Describes the Qualification test procedure for the AZ-101 Mixer Pump Data Acquisition System (DAS). The purpose of this Qualification Test Procedure (QTP) is to confirm that the AZ-101 Mixer Pump System has been properly programmed and hardware configured correctly. This QTP will test the software setpoints for the alarms and also check the wiring configuration from the SIMcart to the HMI. An Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP), similar to this QTP will be performed to test field devices and connections from the field

  1. Acceptance test report: Field test of mixer pump for 241-AN-107 caustic addition project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leshikar, G.A.

    1997-01-01

    The field acceptance test of a 75 HP mixer pump (Hazleton serial number N-20801) installed in Tank 241-AN-107 was conducted from October 1995 thru February 1996. The objectives defined in the acceptance test were successfully met, with two exceptions recorded. The acceptance test encompassed field verification of mixer pump turntable rotation set-up and operation, verification that the pump instrumentation functions within established limits, facilitation of baseline data collection from the mixer pump mounted ultrasonic instrumentation, verification of mixer pump water flush system operation and validation of a procedure for its operation, and several brief test runs (bump) of the mixer pump

  2. A new concept of submersed centrifugal pump protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Fabiano U.; Aguiar, Jose Luiz de M.; Hamdan, Adel C.; Doerwald, Bruno K.; Dutra, Diogenes; Ghiotto, Edson Carlos da S.; Meira, Marco Antonio A. de

    2000-01-01

    The present article is related to the development of one motor protection relay, which features include the electrical and mechanical device protection of machine. The main focus the purpose of this development, was the monitoring of the phenomena called 'Back Spin', which is common in oil production plant where 'Electrical Submersible Pump' (ESP) Technologies is used. The final results of this job is to present one equipment which is capable to completely protect the ESP Set, electrically and mechanically, and with additional functions of monitoring the mechanical set, with graphic interface to set all protection and monitoring functions using 'windows based' tools. (author)

  3. 241-SY-101 mixer pump lifetime expectancy. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, C.P.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of WHC-SD-WM-TI-726, Rev. 0 241-SY-101 Mixer Pump Lifetime Expectancy is to determine a best estimate of the mean lifetime of non-repairable (located in the waste) essential features of the hydrogen mitigation mixer pump presently installed in 101-SY. The estimated mean lifetime is 9.1 years. This report does not demonstrate operation of the entire pump assembly within the Tank Farm ''safety envelope''. It was recognized by the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) this test pump was not specifically designed for long term service in tank 101-SY. In June 95 the DNFSB visited Hanford and ask the question, ''how long will this test pump last and how will the essential features fail?'' During the 2 day meeting with the DNFSB it was discussed and defined within the meeting just exactly what essential features of the pump must operate. These essential features would allow the pump to operate for the purpose of extending the window for replacement. Operating with only essential features would definitely be outside the operating safety envelope and would require a waiver. There are three essential features: 1. The pump itself (i.e. the impeller and motor) must operate 2. Nozzles and discharges leg must remain unplugged 3. The pump can be re-aimed, new waste targeted, even if manually

  4. Performance evaluation of a transformerless multiphase electric submersible pump system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A. Hakeem

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Using of low-voltage variable-frequency drive followed by a step-up transformer is the most preferable way to feed an electrical submersible pump motor. The existence of long feeder between the motor and drive systems usually causes over-voltage problems because of the travelling wave phenomenon, which makes the employment of filter networks on the motor or inverter terminals mandatory. The so-called boost-inverter inherently can solve this problem with filter-less operation as it offers a direct sinusoidal output voltage. As boost inverters have voltage boosting capability, it can provide a transformer-less operation as well. This study investigates the performance of a five-phase modular winding induction machine fed from a boost-inverter through a long feeder. A simulation study using a 1000 Hp system and experimental investigation on a 1 Hp prototype machine are used to support the presented approach.

  5. Advanced Design Mixer Pump Tank 18 Design Modifications Summary Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adkins, B.J.

    2002-01-01

    The Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) is preparing to retrieve high level waste (HLW) from Tank 18 in early FY03 to provide feed for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) and to support tank closure in FY04. As part of the Tank 18 project, WSRC will install a single Advanced Design Mixer Pump (ADMP) in the center riser of Tank 18 to mobilize, suspend, and mix radioactive sludge in preparation for transfer to Tank 7. The use of a single ADMP is a change to the current baseline of four (4) standard slurry pumps used during previous waste retrieval campaigns. The ADMP was originally conceived by Hanford and supported by SRS to provide a more reliable and maintainable mixer pump for use throughout the DOE complex. The ADMP underwent an extensive test program at SRS between 1998 and 2002 to assess reliability and hydraulic performance. The ADMP ran for approximately 4,200 hours over the four-year period. A detailed tear down and inspection of the pump following the 4,2 00-hour run revealed that the gas mechanical seals and anti-friction bearings would need to be refurbished/replaced prior to deployment in Tank 18. Design modifications were also needed to meet current Authorization Basis safety requirements. This report documents the modifications made to the ADMP in support of Tank 18 deployment. This report meets the requirements of Tanks Focus Area (TFA) Milestone 3591.4-1, ''Issue Report on Modifications Made to the ADMP,'' contained in Technical Task Plan (TTP) SR16WT51, ''WSRC Retrieval and Closure.''

  6. Research and application of key technology of electric submersible plunger pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, K.; Sun, Y. N.; Zheng, S.; Du, W. S.; Li, J. N.; Pei, G. Z.; Gao, Y.; Wu, N.

    2018-06-01

    Electric submersible plunger pump is a new generation of rodless oil production equipment, whose improvements and upgrades of key technologies are conducive to its large-scale application and reduce the cost and improve the efficiency. In this paper, the operating mechanism of the unit in-depth study, aimed at the problems existing in oilfield production, to propose an optimization method creatively, including the optimal design of a linear motor for submersible oil, development of new double-acting load-relief pump, embedded flexible closed-loop control technology, research and development of low-cost power cables. 90 oil wells were used on field application, the average pump inspection cycle is 608 days, the longest pump check cycle has exceeded 1037 days, the average power saving rate is 45.6%. Application results show that the new technology of optimization and upgrading can further improve the reliability and adaptability of electric submersible plunger pump, reduce the cost of investment.

  7. Mixer pump test plan for double-shell tank AZ-101. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Symons, G.A.

    1996-02-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company has undertaken the task to develop and demonstrate a method of retrieval for double-shell tank waste. Mixer pumps were chosen as the planned method of retrieval for DSTs, based on engineering technology studies, past experience with hydraulic sluicing at the Hanford Site, and experience with mixer pumps at the Westinghouse Savannah River Site

  8. Mixer pump test plan for double-shell tank AZ-101. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Symons, G.A.

    1996-02-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company has undertaken the task to develop and demonstrate a method of retrieval for double-shell tank waste. Mixer pumps were chosen as the planned method of retrieval for DSTs, based on engineering technology studies, past experience with hydraulic sluicing at the Hanford Site, and experience with mixer pumps at the Westinghouse Savannah River Site.

  9. A discussion on the safety classification of the tank 241-SY-101 mixer pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Vleet, R.J.

    1997-01-01

    An analysis, consistent with the methodology used in the draft TWRS FSAR (HNF-SD-WM-SAR-067), is presented to show that the classification of the mixer pump in tank 241-SY-101 should be safety significant

  10. Tank 241-AZ-101 Mixer Pump Test Vapor Sampling and Analysis Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TEMPLETON, A.M.

    2000-01-01

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for vapor samples obtained during the operation of mixer pumps in tank 241-AZ-101. The primary purpose of the mixer pump test (MPT) is to demonstrate that the two 300 horsepower mixer pumps installed in tank 241-AZ-101 can mobilize the settled sludge so that it can be retrieved for treatment and vitrification. Sampling will be performed in accordance with Tank 241-AZ-101 Mixer Pump Test Data Quality Objective (Banning 1999) and Data Quality Objectives for Regulatory Requirements for Hazardous and Radioactive Air Emissions Sampling and Analysis (Mulkey 1999). The sampling will verify if current air emission estimates used in the permit application are correct and provide information for future air permit applications

  11. Continuous mixer, process and use in a pumping plant for a high viscosity fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cholet, H.

    1993-03-12

    The invention concerns a novel continuous mixer comprising a rotary shaft carrying two or more vanes for mixing two or more fluids of different viscosities supplied at the inlet of the mixer body and for providing, at the mixer body outlet, a mixture of viscosity lower than that of the more or most viscous fluid. Preferentially, the vane profile is such that, without fluid circulation, rotation of the vanes produces a reaction force parallel to the rotational axis and in the same direction as the resulting flow or does not produce a reaction force of significant magnitude parallel to the rotational axis. The mixer shaft is connected to a pump shaft which is rotated by hydraulic motor driven by pressurized fluid injection. The mixer is used especially for facilitating viscous crude oil pumping from directional wells including horizontal or inclined portions.

  12. Packaging design criteria, transfer and disposal of 102-AP mixer pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlstrom, R.F.

    1994-01-01

    A mixer pump installed in storage tank 241-AP-102 (102-AP) has failed. This pump is referred to as the 102-AP mixer pump (APMP). The APMP will be removed from 102-AP 1 and a new pump will be installed. The main purpose of the Packaging Design Criteria (PDC) is to establish criteria necessary to design and fabricate a shipping container for the transfer and storage of the APMP from 102-AP. The PDC will be used as a guide to develop a Safety Evaluation for Packaging (SEP)

  13. Safety basis for the 241-AN-107 mixer pump installation and caustic addition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Vleet, R.J.

    1994-01-01

    This safety Basis was prepared to determine whether or not the proposed activities of installing a 76 HP jet mixer pump and the addition of approximately 50,000 gallons of 19 M (50:50 wt %) aqueous caustic are within the safety envelope as described by Tank Farms (chapter six of WHC-SD-WM-ISB-001, Rev. 0). The safety basis covers the components, structures and systems for the caustic addition and mixer pump installation. These include: installation of the mixer pump and monitoring equipment; operation of the mixer pump, process monitoring equipment and caustic addition; the pump stand, caustic addition skid, the electrical skid, the video camera system and the two densitometers. Also covered is the removal and decontamination of the mixer pump and process monitoring system. Authority for this safety basis is WHC-IP-0842 (Waste Tank Administration). Section 15.9, Rev. 2 (Unreviewed Safety Questions) of WHC-IP-0842 requires that an evaluation be performed for all physical modifications

  14. Russian Pulsating Mixer Pump Deployment in the Gunite and Associated Tanks at ORNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatchell, Brian K.; Lewis, Ben; Johnson, Marshall A.; Randolph, J. G.

    2001-01-01

    In FY 1998, Pulsating Mixer Pump (PMP) technology, consisting of a jet mixer powered by a reciprocating air supply, was selected for deployment in one of the Gunite and Associated Tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to mobilize settled solids. The pulsating mixer pump technology was identified during FY 1996 and FY 1997 technical exchanges between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Tanks Focus Area Retrieval and Closure program, the DOE Environmental Management International Programs, and delegates from Russia as a promising technology that could be implemented in the DOE complex. During FY 1997, the pulsating mixer pump technology, provided by the Russian Integrated Mining Chemical Company, was tested at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to observe its ability to suspend settled solids. Based on the results of this demonstration, ORNL and DOE staff determined that a modified pulsating mixer pump would meet project needs for remote sludge mobilization of Gunite tank sludge and reduce the cost of operation and maintenance of more expensive mixing systems. The functions and requirements of the system were developed by combining the results and recommendations from the pulsating mixer pump demonstration at PNNL with the requirements identified by staff at ORNL involved with the remediation of the Gunite and Associated Tanks. The PMP is comprised of a pump chamber, check valve, a working gas supply pipe, a discharge manifold, and four jet nozzles. The pump uses two distinct cycles, fill and discharge, to perform its mixing action. During the fill cycle, vacuum is applied to the pump chamber by an eductor, which draws liquid into the pump. When the liquid level inside the chamber reaches a certain level, the chamber is pressurized with compressed air to discharge the liquid through the jet nozzles and back into the tank to mobilize sludge and settled solids.

  15. Mixer pump long term operations plan for Tank 241-SY-101 mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irwin, J.J.

    1994-01-01

    This document provides the general Operations Plan for performance of the mixer pump long term operations for Tank 241-SY-101 mitigation of gas retention and periodic release in Tank 101-SY. This operations plan will utilize a 112 kW (150 hp) mixing pump to agitate/suspend the particulates in the tank

  16. Algorithm to determine electrical submersible pump performance considering temperature changes for viscous crude oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valderrama, A. [Petroleos de Venezuela, S.A., Distrito Socialista Tecnologico (Venezuela); Valencia, F. [Petroleos de Venezuela, S.A., Instituto de Tecnologia Venezolana para el Petroleo (Venezuela)

    2011-07-01

    In the heavy oil industry, electrical submersible pumps (ESPs) are used to transfer energy to fluids through stages made up of one impeller and one diffuser. Since liquid temperature increases through the different stages, viscosity might change between the inlet and outlet of the pump, thus affecting performance. The aim of this research was to create an algorithm to determine ESPs' performance curves considering temperature changes through the stages. A computational algorithm was developed and then compared with data collected in a laboratory with a CG2900 ESP. Results confirmed that when the fluid's viscosity is affected by the temperature changes, the stages of multistage pump systems do not have the same performance. Thus the developed algorithm could help production engineers to take viscosity changes into account and optimize the ESP design. This study developed an algorithm to take into account the fluid viscosity changes through pump stages.

  17. INTENSITY SETTER FOR A DEVICE OF SMOOTH START OF SUBMERSIBLE PUMP ELECTRIC MOTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.I. Lobov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Development of an intensity setter, which in a rational law changes the opening thyristor the voltage regulator and effectively to changing power supply voltage stator windings of the electric pump deepening, ensuring a smooth start in a wide range. Methodology. Electric submersible pump belongs to the small inertia electric, since it is not significant total moment of inertia, not exceeding two moments of inertia of the motor and static moment on the shaft does not exceed forty percent of the nominal torque. For technical requirements that electric acceleration time should have no less than twenty seconds or more. Office starting modes of electric submersible pumps economically justified using thyristor voltage regulator by forming the dial changes the intensity of the necessary legislation in time voltage feeding the stator windings. This ensures a smooth start right rotor of the electric submersible pump. Results. A block diagram of the intensity setter that is: with control unit, two units that form the exponential voltage supply emitter follower and regulatory elements. The mathematical expressions for voltage at the stator windings of the motor, changing exponentially, opening the angle of thyristor power unit thyristor the voltage regulator, which is determined through the initial angle of opening. Provided formula for pick-up voltage and minimum voltage, time constants, which are determined from the basic equations of motion and mechanical characteristics of the electric motor. Analytical investigated by the voltage dependence violation by changing the time constant flowing and growing exhibitor supply voltage stator electric circuit deepening pump. Originality. Proposed in the initial time on the stator windings of the electric pick-up voltage is applied. Under the influence of this voltage, motor rotor begins to accelerate. At the same time, pick-up voltage decreases the minimum startup voltage varies exponentially in which

  18. Effects of Crust Ingestion on Mixer Pump Performance in Tank 241-SY-101: Workshop Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennen, C.E.; Stewart, C.W.; Meyer, P.A.

    1999-01-01

    In August 1999, a workshop was held at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to discuss the effects of crust ingestion on mixer pump performance in Hanford Waste Tank 241-SY-101. The main purpose of the workshop was to evaluate the potential for crust ingestion to degrade mixing and/or damage the mixer pump. The need for a previously determined 12-inch separation between the top of the mixer pump inlet and the crust base was evaluated. Participants included a representative from the pump manufacturer, an internationally known expert in centrifugal pump theory, Hanford scientists and engineers, and operational specialists representing relevant fields of expertise. The workshop focused on developing an understanding of the pump design, addressing the physics of entrainment of solids and gases into the pump, and assessing the effects of solids and gases on pump performance. The major conclusions are summarized as follows: (1) Entrainment of a moderate amount of solids or gas from the crust should not damage the pump or reduce its lifetime, though mixing effectiveness will be somewhat reduced. (2) Air binding should not damage the pump. Vibrations due to ingestion of gas, solids, and objects potentially could cause radial loads that might reduce the lifetime of bearings and seals. However, significant damage would require extreme conditions not associated with the small bubbles, fine solids, and chunks of relatively weak material typical of the crust. (3) The inlet duct extension opening, 235 inches from the tank bottom, should be considered the pump inlet, not the small gap at 262 inches. (4) A suction vortex exists at the inlet of all pumps. The characteristics of the inlet suction vortex in the mixer pump are very hard to predict, but its effects likely extend upward several feet. Because of this, the current 12-inch limit should be replaced with criteria based on actual monitored pump performance. The most obvious criterion (in addition to current operational

  19. Development for LMR coolant technology - Development of a submersible-in-pool electromagnetic pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Sang Hee; Kim, Hee Reyoung; Lee, Sang Don; Seo, Chun Ho [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Su Won [Kyungki University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-08-01

    The conceptual and detailed designs of an annular linear induction electromagnetic pump of small scale submersible-in-pool type are performed for the purpose of domestic development of the pumps used for the high-temperature natrium coolant transportation in liquid metal reactors. The pump drawings for and input power of 1,100 VA, an input frequency of 17 Hz, a maximum flowrate of 60 l/min and a maximum operation temperature of 600 deg C are obtained from the optimum design analyses by solving MHD and equivalent circuit equations. The characteristics of pump materials in the high temperature and neutron irradiation environment are reflected in designing the pump, and theoretical analyses for improving the pump performance and efficiency are tried through calculations of magnetic flux and temperature distributions inside the pump. The present project contributes to the further design of engineering proto-type electromagnetic pump with higher capacity and the development of liquid metal reactor with innovative simplicity. 44 refs., 4 tabs., 33 figs. (author)

  20. Development of LMR Coolant Technology - Development of a submersible-in-pool electromagnetic pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Sang Hi; Kim, Hee Reyoung; Lee, Sang Don; Seo, Joon Ho [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Su Won [Kyoungki University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-15

    A submersible-in-pool type annular linear induction pumps of 60 l/min and 200 l/min, and 600 deg C has been designed with optimum geometrical and operating values found from MHD and circuit analyses reflecting the high-temperature characteristics of pump materials. Through the characteristics analyses inside the narrow flow channel of electromagnetic pump, the distribution of the time-varying flow field is calculated, and magnetic flux and force density are evaluated by end effects of linear induction electromagnetic pump and the instability analyses are carried out introducing one-dimensional linear perturbation. Testing the pump with the flow rate of 60 l/min in the suitably manufactured loop system shows a flow rate of 58 l/min at an input power of 1,377 VA with 60Hz. The design of a scaled-up pump is further taken into account LMR coolant system requiring increased capacity, and a basic analysis is carried out on the pump of 40,000 l/min for KALIMER. The present project contributes to the further design of engineering prototype electromagnetic pumps with higher capacity and to the development of liquid metal reactor with innovative simplicity. 89 refs., 8 tabs., 45 figs. (author)

  1. Feasibility Study on Using Two Mixer Pumps for Tank 241-AY-102 Waste Mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, Yasuo; Wells, Beric E.

    2004-01-01

    The current waste retrieval plan at Hanford calls for using two mixer pumps to mix the waste stored in double-shell Tank 214-AY-102. The objective of this evaluation was to determine whether two rotating 300-hp mixer pumps placed 22 ft (6.7 m) off-center in the tank could adequately mix the AY-102 waste. The tank currently contains high-level waste that is 248 inches (6.3 m) deep, comprising 62 inches (1.58 m) of sludge and 186 inches (4.72 m) of supernatant liquid (Galbraith and others 2002). Based on the available data, AY-102 waste properties were determined, including the densities of liquid and agglomerated settled solids and crystals, the volume fraction of settled solids, the solid particle size distribution, the liquid and slurry viscosities, and the yield stress in shear (shear strength) of the settled solids layer. To evaluate the likely and bounding cases of AY-102 waste mixing, sludge erosion modeling was performed with a median value of 1,090 Pa (likely condition) and a conservative (more difficult to erode) 97.5 percentile value of 2,230 Pa for shear strength. According to model predictions, the two rotating mixer pumps would erode 89% of the sludge with shear strength of 1,090 Pa. They would erode sludge up to 41 ft (12.5 m) away from the mixer pumps but would not mobilize the bottom 2.5 inches (0.06-m) of sludge or sludge in the areas next to the tank wall, more than 26 ft (7.9 m) away. Once the sludge is mobilized, the solids were predicted to be uniformly suspended within the tank within a 1-vol% concentration variation except those in few inches at the bottom. With shear strength of 2,230 Pa, the two pumps would erode 85% of the sludge, slightly less than the 1,090-Pa shear strength case. In this case, the pump jets would mobilize the sludge up to 38 ft (11.6 m), except the bottom 2.5 inches of sludge. The mixer pumps would also leave the sludge at the tank wall, which is 20 ft or more from the pumps. Similar to the 1,090 Pa case, the solids were

  2. Structural analysis: Flexible receiver yoke brace for the 241SY101 mixer pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, K.M.

    1994-01-01

    This report documents the structural analysis of the flexible-receiver yoke brace that will be used to maintain the mixer pump lifting yoke in a vertical position during the removal of the mixer pump from waste tank 241SY101. During the removal process, the crane is connected to a lifting yoke which is attached to the lifting on the mounting flange of the mixer pump. The pump then can be lifted from the tank. At one point in the removal procedure, the crane will be disconnected from the lifting yoke. At this time, it is possible for the lifting yoke to rotate around the pinned connection between it and the pump if it is subjected to a horizontal load. To prevent the rotation of the lifting yoke, the yoke brace was designed to maintain the yoke in a vertical position while it is disconnected from the crane. This analysis addressed the adequacy of the yoke brace to provide support for the lifting yoke during high winds and a seismic event. The results of this analysis show that, when subjected to a combined design wind and seismic load, the yoke brace design is acceptable to maintain the lifting yoke in a vertical position when the yoke is disconnected from the crane

  3. Flexible receiver adapter and secondary bagger support frame analysis for 241AP102 mixer pump removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axup, M.D.; Egger, J.

    1995-01-01

    As part of the Grout Process startup, the 241AP102 Mixer Pump, failed in 1993, is scheduled to be removed. A structural analysis was performed on two components to be used in the bagging process for the failed pump. The loading criteria was based on a worst case accident of the entire pump weight (including a 50% impact load) being applied over a small localized area. The results show that the design of each structure is adequate to protect against failure, i.e., yield

  4. Submersible pumps: Energetic efficiency norm; Bombas sumergibles: norma de eficiencia energetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acosta Torres, R. A.; Buendia Dominguez, E. H. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    The Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), supporting the Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE), has prepared a preliminary project of the norm of energy efficiency for submersible pumps. This document has complied with the necessary formalities for the emission of the norm. This paper presents the results of the analysis of the submersible pumps, the energy savings, as well as the economic evaluation that sustains the norm project, additionally pointing out the environmental impact that will bring along the implantation of the same. [Espanol] El Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), apoyando a la Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE), ha elaborado el anteproyecto de norma de eficiencia energetica para bombas sumergibles. Dicho documento ha cumplido con los tramites necesarios para la emision de una norma. En el presente articulo se mencionan los resultados del analisis de las bombas sumergibles, los ahorros energeticos, asi como la evaluacion economica que sustenta el proyecto de norma, indicandose ademas el impacto ambiental que tendra la implantacion de la misma.

  5. Submersible pumps: Energetic efficiency norm; Bombas sumergibles: norma de eficiencia energetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acosta Torres, R A; Buendia Dominguez, E H [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    The Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), supporting the Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE), has prepared a preliminary project of the norm of energy efficiency for submersible pumps. This document has complied with the necessary formalities for the emission of the norm. This paper presents the results of the analysis of the submersible pumps, the energy savings, as well as the economic evaluation that sustains the norm project, additionally pointing out the environmental impact that will bring along the implantation of the same. [Espanol] El Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), apoyando a la Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE), ha elaborado el anteproyecto de norma de eficiencia energetica para bombas sumergibles. Dicho documento ha cumplido con los tramites necesarios para la emision de una norma. En el presente articulo se mencionan los resultados del analisis de las bombas sumergibles, los ahorros energeticos, asi como la evaluacion economica que sustenta el proyecto de norma, indicandose ademas el impacto ambiental que tendra la implantacion de la misma.

  6. Numerical simulation and performance prediction in multi-stage submersible centrifugal pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, W J; Li, G D; Wang, Y; Cui, Y R; Yin, G; Peng, S

    2013-01-01

    In order to study the inner flow field of multi-stage submersible centrifugal pump, the model named QD3-60/4-1.1 was selected. Steady turbulence characteristics of impellers, diffusers and return channel were calculated by Fluent software, the SIMPLEC algorithm and RNG κ-ε turbulence model with sliding mesh technology. Then, the distributions of pressure, velocity and Turbulence kinetic energy was obtained and the distributions of velocity field of a channel were analysed. The results show that the static pressure in impeller is increasing with the increasing of radius. The circumferential component of relative velocity is in the opposite direction of impeller rotating. At the same radius, the component value of pressure surface is larger than suction surface. With the increasing of flow rate, absolute velocity and relative velocity flow angle are becoming small, in opposite of the relative velocity and absolute velocity flow angle. The high turbulent zone of impeller is located in the gap of impellers and diffusers. Flow similarity and structure similarity of the multi-stage submersible pump are confirmed

  7. Long-term safety issues associated with mixer pump operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubic, W.L. Jr.

    1994-01-01

    In this report, we examine several long-term issues: the effect of pump operation on future gas release events (GREs), uncontrolled chemical reactions, chronic toxic gas releases, foaming, and erosion and corrosion. Heat load in excess of the design limit, uncontrolled chemical reactions, chronic toxic gas releases, foaming, and erosion and corrosion have been shown not to be safety concerns. The effect of pump operation on future GREs could not be quantified. The problem with evaluating the long-term effects of pump operation on GREs is a lack of knowledge and uncertainty. In particular, the phenomena governing gas retention, particle size distribution, and settling are not well understood, nor are the interactions among these factors understood. There is a possibility that changes in these factors could increase the size of future GREs. Bounding estimates of the potential increase in size of GREs are not possible because of a lack of engineering data. Proper management of the hazards can reduce, but not eliminate, the possibility of undesirable changes. Maintaining temperature within the historical limits can reduce the possibility of undesirable changes. A monitoring program to detect changes in the gas composition and crust thickness will help detect slowly occurring changes. Because pump operation has be shown to eliminate GREs, continued pump operation can eliminate the hazards associated with future GREs

  8. AZ-101 Mixer Pump Demonstration Data Acquisition System and Gamma Cart Data Acquisition Control System Software Configuration Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WHITE, D.A.

    1999-01-01

    This Software Configuration Management Plan (SCMP) provides the instructions for change control of the AZ1101 Mixer Pump Demonstration Data Acquisition System (DAS) and the Sludge Mobilization Cart (Gamma Cart) Data Acquisition and Control System (DACS)

  9. Safety Evaluation for Packaging 101-SY Hydrogen Mitigation Mixer Pump package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlstrom, R.F.

    1994-10-05

    This Safety Evaluation for Packaging (SEP) provides analysis and considered necessary to approve a one-time transfer of the 101-SY Hydrogen Mitigation Mixer Pump (HMMP). This SEP will demonstrate that the transfer of the HMMP in a new shipping container will provide an equivalent degree of safety as would be provided by packages meeting US Department of Transportation (DOT)/US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requirements. This fulfills onsite, transportation requirements implemented by WHC-CM-2-14.

  10. Safety Evaluation for Packaging 101-SY Hydrogen Mitigation Mixer Pump package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlstrom, R.F.

    1994-01-01

    This Safety Evaluation for Packaging (SEP) provides analysis and considered necessary to approve a one-time transfer of the 101-SY Hydrogen Mitigation Mixer Pump (HMMP). This SEP will demonstrate that the transfer of the HMMP in a new shipping container will provide an equivalent degree of safety as would be provided by packages meeting US Department of Transportation (DOT)/US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requirements. This fulfills onsite, transportation requirements implemented by WHC-CM-2-14

  11. Quarterly review of 241-SY-101 mixer pump data: January - March 1999; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CONNER, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    This report presents data obtained on 241-SY-101 pump performance. The period covered is January 1 through March 31, 1999. During the quarter: There were changes in pumping parameters. Both the pump volute pressure and amperage decreased during the quarter. It is not clear whether this was due to changes in waste properties (due to less solids or more entrained gas) or due to degradation of the pump. There was an indication of a 7.5-inch increase in the waste level at riser 1 A, and an average growth rate of 0.082 inches per day. There was an indication of a 5.7-inch increase in the waste level at riser 1C. This riser was flushed with water several times, which would lower the level of the crust at this location. Gases continued to be released at less than the pre-pump installation baseline rate, indicating a decrease in the gas generation rate, or an increase in gas retention, or both. The release rate was about 78 percent of the rate in the previous few quarters, and only 34 percent of the generation rate calculated prior to mixer pump installation in 1993. Key controls exist for waste temperature, gas concentration, pump parameters, and long-term waste behavior associated with the safe operation of the mixer pump that mitigates the buoyant displacement gas release event behavior of 241-SY-101. Table 1-1 compares the key controls and the current state of the waste as of March 3 1. 1999. The pump was run 28 times between January 1 and March 31, 1999. All of the pump runs were intended to be normal 25-minute, 1000-rpm excavation runs performed to mix the waste and release gas. Because of the pump oil often reached the high temperature alarm setpoint of 190 F, many of the runs were shortened (by as many as 8 minutes). This phenomenon was identified in November 1998, but got progressively worse over the quarter. The pump schedule was nominally three runs per week. However, core sampling activities interrupted the usual pump schedule several times during the quarter

  12. AZ-101 Mixer Pump Demonstration and Tests Data Management Analysis Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOUGLAS, D.G.

    2000-02-22

    This document provides a plan for the analysis of the data collected during the AZ-101 Mixer Pump Demonstration and Tests. This document was prepared after a review of the AZ-101 Mixer Pump Test Plan (Revision 4) [1] and other materials. The plan emphasizes a structured and well-ordered approach towards handling and examining the data. This plan presumes that the data will be collected and organized into a unified body of data, well annotated and bearing the date and time of each record. The analysis of this data will follow a methodical series of steps that are focused on well-defined objectives. Section 2 of this plan describes how the data analysis will proceed from the real-time monitoring of some of the key sensor data to the final analysis of the three-dimensional distribution of suspended solids. This section also identifies the various sensors or sensor systems and associates them with the various functions they serve during the test program. Section 3 provides an overview of the objectives of the AZ-101 test program and describes the data that will be analyzed to support that test. The objectives are: (1) to demonstrate that the mixer pumps can be operated within the operating requirements; (2) to demonstrate that the mixer pumps can mobilize the sludge in sufficient quantities to provide feed to the private contractor facility, and (3) to determine if the in-tank instrumentation is sufficient to monitor sludge mobilization and mixer pump operation. Section 3 also describes the interim analysis that organizes the data during the test, so the analysis can be more readily accomplished. Section 4 describes the spatial orientation of the various sensors in the tank. This section is useful in visualizing the relationship of the Sensors in terms of their location in the tank and how the data from these sensors may be related to the data from other sensors. Section 5 provides a summary of the various analyses that will be performed on the data during the test

  13. AZ-101 Mixer Pump Demonstration and Tests: Data Management (Analysis) Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DOUGLAS, D.G.

    2000-01-01

    This document provides a plan for the analysis of the data collected during the AZ-101 Mixer Pump Demonstration and Tests. This document was prepared after a review of the AZ-101 Mixer Pump Test Plan (Revision 4) [1] and other materials. The plan emphasizes a structured and well-ordered approach towards handling and examining the data. This plan presumes that the data will be collected and organized into a unified body of data, well annotated and bearing the date and time of each record. The analysis of this data will follow a methodical series of steps that are focused on well-defined objectives. Section 2 of this plan describes how the data analysis will proceed from the real-time monitoring of some of the key sensor data to the final analysis of the three-dimensional distribution of suspended solids. This section also identifies the various sensors or sensor systems and associates them with the various functions they serve during the test program. Section 3 provides an overview of the objectives of the AZ-101 test program and describes the data that will be analyzed to support that test. The objectives are: (1) to demonstrate that the mixer pumps can be operated within the operating requirements; (2) to demonstrate that the mixer pumps can mobilize the sludge in sufficient quantities to provide feed to the private contractor facility, and (3) to determine if the in-tank instrumentation is sufficient to monitor sludge mobilization and mixer pump operation. Section 3 also describes the interim analysis that organizes the data during the test, so the analysis can be more readily accomplished. Section 4 describes the spatial orientation of the various sensors in the tank. This section is useful in visualizing the relationship of the Sensors in terms of their location in the tank and how the data from these sensors may be related to the data from other sensors. Section 5 provides a summary of the various analyses that will be performed on the data during the test

  14. Double twist : Can-K's electric submersible twin screw pump is designed to handle the nastiest crudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byfield, M.

    2010-12-15

    This article described the Can-K Group of Companies' electric submersible twin screw pump (ESTSP) designed for pumping heavy crudes with high levels of asphaltenes, hydrogen sulphide, wax, and methane. The technology was awarded the 2010 winner of best production technology for a company with fewer than 100 employees. The ESTSP can pump at a greater depth than other lift technologies. The design challenges included making the pump small enough to fit inside the well casing while also able to generate the high pressures necessary for pumping heavy oil. The ESTSP can compete directly against other lift technologies, including electric submersible pumps (ESPs). In the design, two shafts are separated by a timing gear. Each shaft has short sections of interlocking screws that do not touch, which lessens tension and the need for torque, lowering electricity consumption. The ESTSP is more efficient than ESP systems, particularly in more viscous mediums with high gas-to-oil ratios. The positive displacement pump interprets only volume and does not distinguish between gas and oil, functioning with gas content up to 97 percent. ESTSP can also handle more sand than ESP because it does not rely on centrifugal force. A patented screw design also helps prevent pump seizure resulting from sand and other solids. The pump uses downhole electric motors from other manufacturers. The inherent efficiencies of twin screw pumps give the technology the potential to replace conventional ESPs. 2 figs.

  15. 77 FR 2957 - Application for Manufacturing Authority, Liberty Pumps, Inc. (Submersible and Water Pumps...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ... formally filed on January 12, 2012. The Liberty Pumps, Inc., facility (108 employees, 9.1 acres, production... from abroad (representing 30 to 40% of the value of the finished pumps) include: Plastic (polyamide) resins, plastic boxes/cases/tanks, articles of plastic, rubber gaskets/seals, labels, wood pallets...

  16. Dynamic Modeling and Simulation of Deep Geothermal Electric Submersible Pumping Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Kullick

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Deep geothermal energy systems employ electric submersible pumps (ESPs in order to lift geothermal fluid from the production well to the surface. However, rough downhole conditions and high flow rates impose heavy strain on the components, leading to frequent failures of the pump system. As downhole sensor data is limited and often unrealible, a detailed and dynamical model system will serve as basis for deeper understanding and analysis of the overall system behavior. Furthermore, it allows to design model-based condition monitoring and fault detection systems, and to improve controls leading to a more robust and efficient operation. In this paper, a detailed state-space model of the complete ESP system is derived, covering the electrical, mechanical and hydraulic subsystems. Based on the derived model, the start-up phase of an exemplary yet realistic ESP system in the Megawatt range—located at a setting depth of 950 m and producing geothermal fluid of 140 ∘ C temperature at a rate of 0.145 m 3 s − 1 —is simulated in MATLAB/Simulink. The simulation results show that the system reaches a stable operating point with realistic values. Furthermore, the effect of self-excitation between the filter capacitor and the motor inductor can clearly be observed. A full set of parameters is provided, allowing for direct model implementation and reproduction of the presented results.

  17. Ocean Economy and Fault Diagnosis of Electric Submersible Pump applied in Floating platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panlong Zhang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Ocean economy plays a crucial role in the strengthening maritime safety industry and in the welfare of human beings. Electric Submersible Pumps (ESP have been widely used in floating platforms on the sea to provide oil for machines. However, the ESP fault may lead to ocean environment pollution, on the other hand, a timely fault diagnosis of ESP can improve the ocean economy. In order to meet the strict regulations of the ocean economy and environmental protection, the fault diagnosis of ESP system has become more and more popular in many countries. The vibration mechanical models of typical faults have been able to successfully diagnose the faults of ESP. And different types of sensors are used to monitor the vibration signal for the signal analysis and fault diagnosis in the ESP system. Meanwhile, physical sensors would increase the fault diagnosis challenge. Nowadays, the method of neural network for the fault diagnosis of ESP has been applied widely, which can diagnose the fault of an electric pump accurately based on the large database. To reduce the number of sensors and to avoid the large database, in this paper, algorithms are designed based on feature extraction to diagnose the fault of the ESP system. Simulation results show that the algorithms can achieve the prospective objectives superbly.

  18. Hanford high level waste (HLW) tank mixer pump safe operating envelope reliability assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, S.R.; Clark, J.

    1993-01-01

    The US Department of Energy and its contractor, Westinghouse Corp., are responsible for the management and safe storage of waste accumulated from processing defense reactor irradiated fuels for plutonium recovery at the Hanford Site. These wastes, which consist of liquids and precipitated solids, are stored in underground storage tanks pending final disposition. Currently, 23 waste tanks have been placed on a safety watch list because of their potential for generating, storing, and periodically releasing various quantities of hydrogen and other gases. Tank 101-SY in the Hanford SY Tank Farm has been found to release hydrogen concentrations greater than the lower flammable limit (LFL) during periodic gas release events. In the unlikely event that an ignition source is present during a hydrogen release, a hydrogen burn could occur with a potential to release nuclear waste materials. To mitigate the periodic gas releases occurring from Tank 101-SY, a large mixer pump currently is being installed in the tank to promote a sustained release of hydrogen gas to the tank dome space. An extensive safety analysis (SA) effort was undertaken and documented to ensure the safe operation of the mixer pump after it is installed in Tank 101-SY.1 The SA identified a need for detailed operating, alarm, and abort limits to ensure that analyzed safety limits were not exceeded during pump operations

  19. Nuclear waste inventory characterization for mixer pumps and long length equipment removed from Hanford waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troyer, G.L.

    1998-01-01

    The removal and disposition of contaminated equipment from Hanford high-level nuclear waste tanks presents many challenges. One of which is the characterization of radioactive contaminants on components after removal. A defensible assessment of the radionuclide inventory of the components is required for disposal packaging and classification. As examples of this process, this paper discusses two projects: the withdrawal of thermocouple instrument tubes from Tank 101-AZ, and preparation for eventual replacement of the hydrogen mitigation mixer pump in Tank 101-SY. Emphasis is on the shielding analysis that supported the design of radiation detection systems and the interpolation of data recorded during the equipment retrieval operations

  20. 241-AZ-101 Mixer Pump Demonstration Test Gamma Cart Acceptance Test Procedure and Quality Test Plan (ATP and QTP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WHITE, D.A.

    2000-01-01

    Shop test of the sludge mobilization cart system to be used in the AZ-101 Mixer Pump Demonstration Test Tests hardware and software. This procedure involves testing the Instrumentation involved with the Gamma Cart System, local and remote, including depth indicators, speed controls, interface to data acquisition software and the raising and lowering functions. This Procedure will be performed twice, once for each Gamma Cart System. This procedure does not test the accuracy of the data acquisition software

  1. 241-AZ-101 Mixer Pump Demonstration Test Gamma Cart Acceptance Test Procedure and Quality Test Plan (ATP and QTP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WHITE, D.A.

    2000-01-01

    Shop Test of the Gamma Cart System to be used in the AZ-101 Mixer Pump Demonstration Test. Tests hardware and software. This procedure involves testing the Instrumentation involved with the Gamma Cart System, local and remote, including: depth indicators, speed controls, interface to data acquisition software and the raising and lowering functions. This Procedure will be performed twice, once for each Gamma Cart System. This procedure does not test the accuracy of the data acquisition software

  2. An ultra-broadband distributed passive gate-pumped mixer in 0.18 μm CMOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Zhenxing; Feng Jun

    2013-01-01

    A broadband distributed passive gate-pumped mixer (DPGM) using standard 0.18 μm CMOS technology is presented. By employing distributed topology, the mixer can operate at a wide frequency range. In addition, a fourth-order low pass filter is applied to improve the port-to-port isolation. This paper also analyzes the impedance match and conversion loss of the mixer, which consumes zero dc power and exhibits a measured conversion loss of 9.4–17 dB from 3 to 40 GHz with a compact size of 0.78 mm 2 . The input referred 1 dB compression point is higher than 4 dBm at a fixed IF frequency of 500 MHz and RF frequency of 23 GHz, and the measured RF-to-LO, RF-to-IF and LO-to-IF isolations are better than 21, 38 and 45 dB, respectively. The mixer is suitable for WLAN, UWB, Wi-Max, automotive radar systems and other millimeter-wave radio applications. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  3. Structural analysis and evaluation of a mixer pump in a double-shell tank at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezvani, M.A.; Strehlow, J.P.; Baliga, R.

    1993-01-01

    The double-shell waste tank 241-SY-101 is a 1,000,000 gallon tank used to store radioactive waste at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. With time the waste has formed two layers of sludge, a convective and a nonconvective layer. In addition, a crust has formed over the surface of the waste, isolating the convective layer from the vapor space. Ongoing reactions in the waste cause a buildup of hydrogen molecules that become trapped within the nonconvective layer and under the crust. Over time, this hydrogen buildup increases pressure on the crust from beneath. Every 100 to 140 days, the pressure is released when the crust lifts upward in what is called a waste rollover. To prevent the release of a large volume of hydrogen to the vapor space, a mixer pump has been designed to be installed in the tank to circulate the waste and reduce or prevent the hydrogen buildup. The structural analysis and evaluation designed as part of the hydrogen mitigation test process and presented herein addresses the response of the mixer pump and the tank dome resulting from expected operational and design loads. The loads include deadweight, waste rollover, asymmetric thrust, and pump vibration, as well as seismic loads. The seismically induced loads take into consideration both the convective and the impulsive effects of the waste-filled tank. The structural evaluations were performed in accordance with applicable national codes and standards. The qualification of the mixer pump required the design of a unique mounting assembly to transfer the loads from the pump to the surrounding soil without overstressing the structural components such as the dome penetration riser. Also, special consideration was given to minimize the additional stresses in the already stressed concrete tank dome

  4. Test Procedure - pumping system for caustic addition project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leshikar, G.A.

    1994-01-01

    This test procedure provides the requirements for sub-system testing and integrated operational testing of the submersible mixer pump and caustic addition equipment by WHC and Kaiser personnel at the Rotating Equipment Shop run-in pit (Bldg. 272E)

  5. A methodology to predict the uniformity of double-shell waste slurries based on mixer pump operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liljegren, L.M.; Bamberger, J.A.

    1992-08-01

    Dimensional analysis is used to determine the similarity parameters that describe the uniformity of radioactive slurry wastes to be suspended by mixer pumps. The results of this analysis are applied to the design of scaled experiments that will determine the operating parameters that will ensure an adequately uniform feed stream during waste retrieval from Hanford double-shell tanks. Ten dimensionless parameters describing the slurry mixing process were identified. Of these, three describe purely geometric features, three describe slurry properties only, one is a dimensionless time scale, and three describe important dynamic factors. The three parameters describing the dynamic features are the Reynolds number, which describes the degree of turbulence in the tank; the Froude number, which describes the effects of stratification on the circulation patterns; and the gravitational settling number, which describes the balance between the work done by gravity to cause settling and the work done by the pump to resuspend particles

  6. Using Cable Suspended Submersible Pumps to Reduce Production Costs to Increase Ultimate Recovery in the Red Mountain Field of the San Juan Basin Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Don L. Hanosh

    2006-08-15

    A joint venture between Enerdyne LLC, a small independent oil and gas producer, and Pumping Solutions Inc., developer of a low volume electric submersible pump, suspended from a cable, both based in Albuquerque, New Mexico, has re-established marginal oil production from Red Mountain Oil Field, located in the San Juan Basin, New Mexico by working over 17 existing wells, installing cable suspended submersible pumps ( Phase I ) and operating the oil field for approximately one year ( Phase II ). Upon the completion of Phases I and II ( Budget Period I ), Enerdyne LLC commenced work on Phase III which required additional drilling in an attempt to improve field economics ( Budget Period II ). The project was funded through a cooperative 50% cost sharing agreement between Enerdyne LLC and the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), United States Department of Energy, executed on April 16, 2003. The total estimated cost for the two Budget Periods, of the Agreement, was $1,205,008.00 as detailed in Phase I, II & III Authorization for Expenditures (AFE). This report describes tasks performed and results experienced by Enerdyne LLC during the three phases of the cooperative agreement.

  7. Study of Stage-wise Pressure Pulsation in an Electric Submersible Pump under Variable Frequency Operation at Shut-off Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanasekaran, A.; Kumaraswamy, S.

    2018-01-01

    Pressure pulsation causes vibration in the Electric Submersible Pump (ESP) and affects the life and performance of its system. ESP systems are installed at depths ranging from a few meters to several hundred meters. Unlike pumps used on the surface, once they are installed they become inaccessible for maintenance or for any kind of diagnostic measurement that might be taken directly on them. Therefore a detailed knowledge of mean and fluctuating pressures is required to achieve an optimal pressure distribution inside the ESP. This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation of the stage-wise pulsating pressure in ESP at shut-off condition at different speeds. Experiments were conducted on a pump having five stages. A variable frequency drive was used to operate the pump at five different speeds. Piezoresistive transducers were mounted at each stage of ESP to capture the unsteady pressure signals. Fast Fourier Transformation was carried out on the pressure signals to convert into frequency domain and the spectra of pressure pulsation signals were analyzed. The obtained results indicated the existence of fundamental frequency corresponding to the speed of rotation times the number of impeller blades and of the whole series of harmonics of higher frequencies.

  8. Extended Cold Testing of a Russian Pulsating Mixer Pump at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, BE

    2002-12-23

    The effectiveness of a mixer is dependent on the size of the tank to be mixed, the characteristics of the waste, and the operating conditions. Waste tanks throughout the U.S. Department of Energy Complex require mixing and mobilization systems capable of (1) breaking up and suspending materials that are difficult to mix and pump, without introducing additional liquids into the tank; (2) complementing and augmenting the performance of other remotely operated and/or robotic waste retrieval systems; and (3) operating in tanks with various quantities of waste. The Oak Ridge Russian pulsating mixer pump (PMP) system was designed with the flexibility to permit deployment in a variety of cylindrical tanks. The PMP was installed at the Tanks Technology Cold Test Facility at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to assess the performance of the system over an extended range of operating conditions, including supply pressures up to 175 psig. Previously conducted cold tests proved the applicability of the PMP for deployment in ORNL gunite tank TH-4. The previous testing and hot demonstrations had been limited to operating at air supply pressures of <100 psig. The extended cold testing of the Russian PMP system showed that the system was capable of mobilizing waste simulants in tanks in excess of 20-ft diam. The waste simulant used in these tests was medium-grain quartz sand. The system was successfully installed, checked out, and operated for 406 pulse discharge cycles. Only minor problems (i.e., a sticking air distributor valve and a few system lockups) were noted. Some improvements to the design of the air distributor valve may be needed to improve reliability. The air supply requirements of the PMP during the discharge cycle necessitated the operation of the system in single pulse discharge cycles to allow time for the air supply reservoir to recharge to the required pressure. During the test program, the system was operated with sand depths of 2, 4, and 4.5 in.; at

  9. Extended Cold Testing of a Russian Pulsating Mixer Pump at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, BE

    2002-01-01

    The effectiveness of a mixer is dependent on the size of the tank to be mixed, the characteristics of the waste, and the operating conditions. Waste tanks throughout the U.S. Department of Energy Complex require mixing and mobilization systems capable of (1) breaking up and suspending materials that are difficult to mix and pump, without introducing additional liquids into the tank; (2) complementing and augmenting the performance of other remotely operated and/or robotic waste retrieval systems; and (3) operating in tanks with various quantities of waste. The Oak Ridge Russian pulsating mixer pump (PMP) system was designed with the flexibility to permit deployment in a variety of cylindrical tanks. The PMP was installed at the Tanks Technology Cold Test Facility at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to assess the performance of the system over an extended range of operating conditions, including supply pressures up to 175 psig. Previously conducted cold tests proved the applicability of the PMP for deployment in ORNL gunite tank TH-4. The previous testing and hot demonstrations had been limited to operating at air supply pressures of <100 psig. The extended cold testing of the Russian PMP system showed that the system was capable of mobilizing waste simulants in tanks in excess of 20-ft diam. The waste simulant used in these tests was medium-grain quartz sand. The system was successfully installed, checked out, and operated for 406 pulse discharge cycles. Only minor problems (i.e., a sticking air distributor valve and a few system lockups) were noted. Some improvements to the design of the air distributor valve may be needed to improve reliability. The air supply requirements of the PMP during the discharge cycle necessitated the operation of the system in single pulse discharge cycles to allow time for the air supply reservoir to recharge to the required pressure. During the test program, the system was operated with sand depths of 2, 4, and 4.5 in.; at

  10. Hydrodynamic studies in a mixer of mixer settler system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shenoy, K T; Ghosh, S K; Keni, V S [Chemical Engineering Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    1994-06-01

    Pump-mix mixer settlers, with high throughput, are widely used in hydrometallurgical processing for recovery of uranium, copper etc. by solvent extraction. Detailed knowledge of hydrometallurgic behaviour in the mixer and settler is necessary for design. The paper presents the experimental study carried out on mixer hydrodynamics. The work was carried out on 40 litre, cubical, continuous flow mixer with bottom inlet and top discharge. The impeller was top shrouded turbine and working medium was water. Parameters such as impeller diameter, impeller clearance, inlet orifice size, impeller speed and flow rate were studied for effect on pumping head developed and power consumed by the mixer. Data are presented in the terms of dimensionless groups. Importance of the design variables is discussed. (author). 2 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Hydrodynamic studies in a mixer of mixer settler system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shenoy, K.T.; Ghosh, S.K.; Keni, V.S.

    1994-01-01

    Pump-mix mixer settlers, with high throughput, are widely used in hydrometallurgical processing for recovery of uranium, copper etc. by solvent extraction. Detailed knowledge of hydrometallurgic behaviour in the mixer and settler is necessary for design. The paper presents the experimental study carried out on mixer hydrodynamics. The work was carried out on 40 litre, cubical, continuous flow mixer with bottom inlet and top discharge. The impeller was top shrouded turbine and working medium was water. Parameters such as impeller diameter, impeller clearance, inlet orifice size, impeller speed and flow rate were studied for effect on pumping head developed and power consumed by the mixer. Data are presented in the terms of dimensionless groups. Importance of the design variables is discussed. (author)

  12. Vibration mixer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alekhin, S.A.; Chernov, V.S.; Denisenko, V.V.; Gorodnyanskiy, I.F.; Prokopov, L.I.; Tikhonov, Yu.P.

    1983-01-01

    The vibration mixer is proposed which contains a housing, vibration drive with rod installed in the upper part of the mixing mechanism made in the form of a hollow shaft with blades. In order to improve intensity of mixing and dispersion of the mud, the shaft with the blades is arranged on the rod of the vibrator and is equipped with a cam coupling whose drive disc is attached to the vibration rod. The rod is made helical, while the drive disc of the cam coupling is attached to the helical surface of the rod. In addition, the vibration mixer is equipped with perforated discs installed on the ends of the rods.

  13. Submersion and acute respiratory failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Jang Su

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Submersion patients who are hypothermic on arrival of emergency department (ED are risky to respiratory failure and older, more hypothermic, longer hospital stay in suicidal submersion patients.

  14. Utilization of computational simulator for comparison of correlations in multiphase flow in ESP (Electrical Submersible Pumping) systems; Utilizacao de simulador computacional para a comparacao das correlacoes de escoamento multifasico em sistemas BCS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anjos, Roselaine M. dos; Maitelli, Carla Wilza S.P.; Maitelli, Andre L. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil); Costa, Rutacio O. [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Electrical Submersible Pumping (ESP) is an artificial lifting method which can be used both onshore and offshore for the production of high flow rates of liquid. By using the computational simulator for systems ESP developed by the AUTOPOC/LAUT - UFRN, this work aimed to evaluate empirical correlations for calculation of multiphase flow in tubing typical of artificial lifting systems operating by ESP. The parameters used for evaluating the correlations are some of the dynamic variables of the system such as head that indicates the lifting capacity of the system, the flow rate of fluid in the pump and the discharge pressure at the pump. Five (5) correlations were evaluated, from which only one considered slipping between phases, but does not take into account flow patterns and, four others considering slipping between the phases as well the flow patterns. The simulation results obtained for all these correlations were compared to results from a commercial computational simulator, extensively used in the oil industry. For both simulators, input values and simulation time, were virtually the same. The results showed that the simulator used in this work showed satisfactory performance, since no significant differences from those obtained with the commercial simulator. (author)

  15. Submersible energy storage apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mccartney, J.F.; Rowe, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    A submersible energy storage apparatus for an electrical power source is provided which includes an electrolysis unit feed water gas collection assembly and a fuel cell. The electrolysis unit feed water gas collection assembly includes a hydrogen container and an oxygen container wherein each container has a gas outlet and is capable of containing feed water as well as hydrogen and oxygen gases respectively. An electrolysis cell is provided which has a hydrogen outlet, an oxygen outlet and a feed water inlet. The hydrogen outlet is located in the hydrogen container, the oxygen outlet is located in the oxygen container, and the feed water inlet is located in one of the containers. Each of the containers has an opening to the submersible environment so as to be pressure responsive thereto. A barrier device is provided in association with the opening in each container for isolating the feed water in the container from water in the submersible environment. The fuel cell is operatively connected to the hydrogen and oxygen containers, and the electrical power source is operatively connected to the electrolysis cell. With this arrangement the electrolysis cell is capable of utilizing power from the power source during low electrical energy demand, and the fuel cell is capable of utilizing the hydrogen and oxygen gases for generating electricity during high demand periods

  16. Terahertz radiation mixer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanke, Michael C [Albuquerque, NM; Allen, S James [Santa Barbara, CA; Lee, Mark [Albuquerque, NM

    2008-05-20

    A terahertz radiation mixer comprises a heterodyned field-effect transistor (FET) having a high electron mobility heterostructure that provides a gatable two-dimensional electron gas in the channel region of the FET. The mixer can operate in either a broadband pinch-off mode or a narrowband resonant plasmon mode by changing a grating gate bias of the FET. The mixer can beat an RF signal frequency against a local oscillator frequency to generate an intermediate frequency difference signal in the microwave region. The mixer can have a low local oscillator power requirement and a large intermediate frequency bandwidth. The terahertz radiation mixer is particularly useful for terahertz applications requiring high resolution.

  17. Quantum limited quasiparticle mixers at 100 GHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mears, C.A; Hu, Qing; Richards, P.L.; Worsham, A.H.; Prober, D.E.; Raeisaenen, A.V.

    1990-09-01

    We have made accurate measurements of the noise and gain of superconducting-insulating-superconducting (SIS) mixers employing small area (1μm 2 ) Ta/Ta 2 O 5 /Pb 0.9 Bi 0.1 tunnel junctions. We have measured an added mixer noise of 0.61 +/- 0.31 quanta at 95.0 GHz, which is within 25 percent of the quantum limit of 0.5 quanta. We have carried out a detailed comparison between theoretical predictions of the quantum theory of mixing and experimentally measured noise and gain. We used the shapes of I-V curves pumped at the upper and lower sideband frequencies to deduce values of the embedding admittances at these frequencies. Using these admittances, the mixer noise and gain predicted by quantum theory are in excellent agreement with experiment. 21 refs., 9 figs

  18. Submersible purification system for radioactive water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Michael L.; Lewis, Donald R.

    1989-01-01

    A portable, submersible water purification system for use in a pool of water containing radioactive contamination includes a prefilter for filtering particulates from the water. A resin bed is then provided for removal of remaining dissolved, particulate, organic, and colloidal impurities from the prefiltered water. A sterilizer then sterilizes the water. The prefilter and resin bed are suitably contained and are submerged in the pool. The sterilizer is water tight and located at the surface of the pool. The water is circulated from the pool through the prefilter, resin bed, and sterilizer by suitable pump or the like. In the preferred embodiment, the resin bed is contained within a tank which stands on the bottom of the pool and to which a base mounting the prefilter and pump is attached. An inlet for the pump is provided adjacent the bottom of the pool, while the sterilizer and outlet for the system is located adjacent the top of the pool.

  19. Micro-mixer/combustor

    KAUST Repository

    Badra, Jihad Ahmad; Masri, Assaad Rachid

    2014-01-01

    A micro-mixer/combustor to mix fuel and oxidant streams into combustible mixtures where flames resulting from combustion of the mixture can be sustained inside its combustion chamber is provided. The present design is particularly suitable

  20. A niobiumnitride mixer with niobium tuning circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plathner, B.; Schicke, M.; Lehnert, T.; Gundlach, K.H.; Rothermel, H.; Aoyagi, M.; Takada, S.

    1996-01-01

    This letter reports a low noise submillimeter-wave mixer using NbN tunnel junctions integrated in Nb matching circuits. The double side band receiver noise temperature was 245 K at 345 GHz. Plasma conditions for NbN film deposition on quartz substrates at room temperature are created by using a second Nb target as a selective nitrogen pump. Electrodes for tunnel junctions with critical temperatures above 15 K and normal state resistivities in the range from 130 to 160 μΩcm were obtained. This permits integrating NbN junctions into normal metal or non-NbN superconducting matching circuits, which is of great interest for THz mixers. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  1. Microwave mixer technology and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Henderson, Bert

    2013-01-01

    Although microwave mixers play a critical role in wireless communication and other microwave applications employing frequency conversion circuits, engineers find that most books on this subject emphasize theoretical aspects, rather than practical applications. That's about to change with the forthcoming release of Microwave Mixer Technology and Applications. Based on a review of over one thousand patents on mixers and frequency conversion, authors Bert Henderson and Edmar Camargo have written a comprehensive book for mixer designers who want solid ideas for solving their own design challenges.

  2. PUMPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, J.D.

    1959-03-24

    A pump is described for conveving liquids, particure it is not advisable he apparatus. The to be submerged in the liquid to be pumped, a conduit extending from the high-velocity nozzle of the injector,and means for applying a pulsating prcesure to the surface of the liquid in the conduit, whereby the surface oscillates between positions in the conduit. During the positive half- cycle of an applied pulse liquid is forced through the high velocity nozzle or jet of the injector and operates in the manner of the well known water injector and pumps liquid from the main intake to the outlet of the injector. During the negative half-cycle of the pulse liquid flows in reverse through the jet but no reverse pumping action takes place.

  3. Topology optimization of microfluidic mixers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Casper Schousboe; Gersborg, Allan Roulund; Sigmund, Ole

    2009-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the application of the topology optimization method as a general and systematic approach for microfluidic mixer design. The mixing process is modeled as convection dominated transport in low Reynolds number incompressible flow. The mixer performance is maximized by altering...

  4. The Media Mixer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Vitus; Mortensen, Christian Hviid

    In recent years many museums have experimented with different approaches to involving users through digital media. We explore how remixing and content sharing can be used as a means for user participation. Remix culture is seen as a culture that allows and encourages the production of derivative...... works; works that are based on already existing works. This cultural practice thrives throughout the Internet, most notably on web2.0 sites like YouTube. The Media Museum has embraced the remix paradigm with the development of an interactive media experience centre called the Media Mixer. Here...... the museum users can produce, deconstruct, reconstruct and finally publish and share digital media content. The media content is created by the user in the museums physical environment, but it can be mixed with material from local or global archives. In that way the gap between the analogue and the digital...

  5. The Media Mixer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Vitus; Mortensen, Christian Hviid

    2011-01-01

    content. The media content is created by the user in the museum's physical environment, but it can be mixed with material from web archives. It is the intention that the users learn about media through participatory and creative processes with media where the borders between producing, playing......We explore how remixing and content sharing can be used as a means for user participation in a digital museum age. Remix culture is seen as a culture that allows and encourages the production of derivative works; works that are based on already existing works. This cultural practice thrives...... throughout the Internet, most notably on web 2.0 sites like YouTube. The Media Museum has embraced the remix paradigm with the development of an interactive media experience centre called the Media Mixer. Here the museum users can produce, deconstruct, reconstruct and finally publish and share digital media...

  6. Pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mole, C.J.

    1983-01-01

    An electromagnetic pump for circulating liquid -metal coolant through a nuclear reactor wherein opposite walls of a pump duct serve as electrodes to transmit current radially through the liquid-metal in the ducts. A circumferential electric field is supplied to the liquid-metal by a toroidal electromagnet which has core sections interposed between the ducts. The windings of the electromagnet are composed of metal which is superconductive at low temperatures and the electromagnet is maintained at a temperature at which it is superconductive by liquid helium which is fed through the conductors which supply the excitation for the electromagnet. The walls of the ducts joining the electrodes include metal plates insulated from the electrodes backed up by insulators so that they are capable of withstanding the pressure of the liquid-metal. These composite wall structures may also be of thin metal strips of low electrical conductivity backed up by sturdy insulators. (author)

  7. MM wave quasioptical SIS mixers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Qing; Mears, C.A.; Richards, P.L.; Lloyd, F.L.

    1988-08-01

    We have tested the performance of planar SIS mixers with log-periodic antennas at near millimeter and submillimeter wave frequencies from 90 to 360 GHz. The large ωR/sub N/C product (/approximately/10 at 90 GHz) of our Nb/NbO/sub x//Pb-In-Au junctions requires an integrated inductive tuning element to resonate the junction capacitance at the operating frequencies. We have used two types of integrated tuning element, which were designed with the aid of measurements using a Fourier transform spectrometer. Preliminary results indicate that the tuning elements can give very good mixer performance up to at least 200 GHz. An inductive wire in parallel with a 5-junction array gives a minimum mixer noise temperature of 115K (DSB) at 90 GHz with a FWHM bandwidth of 8 GHz. An open-ended microstrip stub in parallel with a single junction, gives minimum mixer noise temperatures of 150 and 200K (DSB) near 90 and 180 GHz with FWHM bandwidths of 4 and 3 GHz, respectively. The relatively high mixer noise temperatures compared to those of waveguide SIS mixers in a similar frequency range are attributed mainly to the losses in our optical system, which is being improved. 13 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  8. Micro-mixer/combustor

    KAUST Repository

    Badra, Jihad Ahmad

    2014-09-18

    A micro-mixer/combustor to mix fuel and oxidant streams into combustible mixtures where flames resulting from combustion of the mixture can be sustained inside its combustion chamber is provided. The present design is particularly suitable for diffusion flames. In various aspects the present design mixes the fuel and oxidant streams prior to entering a combustion chamber. The combustion chamber is designed to prevent excess pressure to build up within the combustion chamber, which build up can cause instabilities in the flame. A restriction in the inlet to the combustion chamber from the mixing chamber forces the incoming streams to converge while introducing minor pressure drop. In one or more aspects, heat from combustion products exhausted from the combustion chamber may be used to provide heat to at least one of fuel passing through the fuel inlet channel, oxidant passing through the oxidant inlet channel, the mixing chamber, or the combustion chamber. In one or more aspects, an ignition strip may be positioned in the combustion chamber to sustain a flame without preheating.

  9. Submersible Generator for Marine Hydrokinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cinq-Mars, Robert S; Burke, Timothy; Irish, James; Gustafson, Brian; Kirtley, James; Alawa, Aiman

    2011-09-01

    A submersible generator was designed as a distinct and critical subassembly of marine hydrokinetics systems, specifically tidal and stream energy conversion. The generator is designed to work with both vertical and horizontal axis turbines. The final product is a high-pole-count, radial-flux, permanent magnet, rim mounted generator, initially rated at twenty kilowatts in a two-meter-per-second flow, and designed to leverage established and simple manufacturing processes. The generator was designed to work with a 3 meter by 7 meter Gorlov Helical Turbine or a marine hydrokinetic version of the FloDesign wind turbine. The team consisted of experienced motor/generator design engineers with cooperation from major US component suppliers (magnetics, coil winding and electrical steel laminations). Support for this effort was provided by Lucid Energy Technologies and FloDesign, Inc. The following tasks were completed: Identified the conditions and requirements for MHK generators. Defined a methodology for sizing and rating MHK systems. Selected an MHK generator topology and form factor. Completed electromechanical design of submersible generator capable of coupling to multiple turbine styles. Investigated MHK generator manufacturing requirements. Reviewed cost implications and financial viability. Completed final reporting and deliverables

  10. Mixer Assembly for a Gas Turbine Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zhongtao (Inventor); Cohen, Jeffrey M. (Inventor); Fotache, Catalin G. (Inventor); Smith, Lance L. (Inventor); Hautman, Donald J. (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    A mixer assembly for a gas turbine engine is provided, including a main mixer with fuel injection holes located between at least one radial swirler and at least one axial swirler, wherein the fuel injected into the main mixer is atomized and dispersed by the air flowing through the radial swirler and the axial swirler.

  11. The Submersible Threat to Maritime Homeland Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    successfully utilized both semi-submersible and fully-submersible vessels during naval engagements. David boats were cigar -shaped, steam driven, wooden vessels...Capabilities: Maximum diving depth of 40 feet. Features an Auto-Hover system, built-in SONAR, Fly-By-Wire Joystick, Electronic Buoyancy Control...Features include a Fly-By-Wire Joystick, Electronic Buoyancy Control, and Electrical Systems Monitor. Cost: $ 59,000 (USD) (International VentureCraft Corp

  12. Superconducting Electric Boost Pump for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A submersible, superconducting electric boost pump sized to meet the needs of future Nuclear Thermal Propulsion systems in the 25,000 lbf thrust range is proposed....

  13. 670-GHz Schottky Diode-Based Subharmonic Mixer with CPW Circuits and 70-GHz IF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Schlecht, Erich T.; Lee, Choonsup; Lin, Robert H.; Gill, John J.; Mehdi, Imran; Sin, Seth; Deal, William; Loi, Kwok K.; Nam, Peta; hide

    2012-01-01

    GaAs-based, sub-harmonically pumped Schottky diode mixers offer a number of advantages for array implementation in a heterodyne receiver system. Since the radio frequency (RF) and local oscillator (LO) signals are far apart, system design becomes much simpler. A proprietary planar GaAs Schottky diode process was developed that results in very low parasitic anodes that have cutoff frequencies in the tens of terahertz. This technology enables robust implementation of monolithic mixer and frequency multiplier circuits well into the terahertz frequency range. Using optical and e-beam lithography, and conventional epitaxial layer design with innovative usage of GaAs membranes and metal beam leads, high-performance terahertz circuits can be designed with high fidelity. All of these mixers use metal waveguide structures for housing. Metal machined structures for RF and LO coupling hamper these mixers to be integrated in multi-pixel heterodyne array receivers for spectroscopic and imaging applications. Moreover, the recent developments of terahertz transistors on InP substrate provide an opportunity, for the first time, to have integrated amplifiers followed by Schottky diode mixers in a heterodyne receiver at these frequencies. Since the amplifiers are developed on a planar architecture to facilitate multi-pixel array implementation, it is quite important to find alternative architecture to waveguide-based mixers.

  14. Realization of THz Band Mixer Using Graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ghasemi Mizuji

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article a new method for creating mixer component in infrared and THz is suggested. Since the nonlinear property of admittance creates frequency components that do not exist in the input signal and the electrical conductivity is associated with admittance, in our work we have proven and simulated that the nonlinear property of graphene admittance can produce mixer component. The simulation results show that the mixer component is larger than other components, therefore the mixer works properly. Because of nano scale of graphene structure, this method paves the road to achieve super compact circuits.

  15. Numerical simulation of experimental data from planar SIS mixers with integrated tuning elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mears, C.A.; Hu, Qing; Richards, P.L.

    1988-08-01

    We have used the full Tucker theory including the quantum susceptance to fit data from planar lithographed mm-wave mixers with bow tie antennas and integrated RF coupling elements. Essentially perfect fits to pumped IV curves have been obtained. The deduced imbedding admittances agree well with those independently calculated from the geometry of the antenna and matching structures. We find that the quantum susceptance is essential to the fit and thus to predictions of the mixer performance. For junctions with moderately sharp gap structures, the quantum susceptance is especially important in the production of steps with low and/or negative dynamic conductance. 15 refs., 4 figs

  16. Flashback resistant pre-mixer assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laster, Walter R [Oviedo, FL; Gambacorta, Domenico [Oviedo, FL

    2012-02-14

    A pre-mixer assembly associated with a fuel supply system for mixing of air and fuel upstream from a main combustion zone in a gas turbine engine. The pre-mixer assembly includes a swirler assembly disposed about a fuel injector of the fuel supply system and a pre-mixer transition member. The swirler assembly includes a forward end defining an air inlet and an opposed aft end. The pre-mixer transition member has a forward end affixed to the aft end of the swirler assembly and an opposed aft end defining an outlet of the pre-mixer assembly. The aft end of the pre-mixer transition member is spaced from a base plate such that a gap is formed between the aft end of the pre-mixer transition member and the base plate for permitting a flow of purge air therethrough to increase a velocity of the air/fuel mixture exiting the pre-mixer assembly.

  17. Study on hydrodynamics and mass transfer of the critically safe multistage mixer-settler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Weibo; Jiao Rongzhou; Liu Bingren

    1992-08-01

    The study on structure of critically safe multistage mixer-settler for the extraction process of high enriched uranium and plutonium has been completed. The mixer-settler has simple structure, good critical safety, flexibility in operation (O/A from 0.5 to 5) and high extraction efficiency (E x > 90%). These performances have been proved in the hydrodynamics and mass transfer experiments at a three stages cascade mixer-settler. Based on the others experience, a trapezoidal impeller combined with half-open turbine is developed which has stronger pumping and well mixing function at low rotating speed. The optimal rotating speed is 250 to 280 r/min obtained by experiments

  18. 78 FR 58273 - Approval for Manufacturing (Production) Authority, Foreign-Trade Zone 284, Liberty Pumps, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ... (Production) Authority, Foreign-Trade Zone 284, Liberty Pumps, Inc. (Submersible and Water Pumps), Bergen, New... (production) authority on behalf of Liberty Pumps, Inc., within FTZ 284 in Bergen, New York (FTZ Docket 5-2012... manufacturing (production) authority under zone procedures within FTZ 284 on behalf of Liberty Pumps, Inc., as...

  19. Twin Screw Mixer/Fine Grind Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The 40-mm Twin-Screw Mixer/Extruder (TSE) pilot plant is a continuous, remotely operated, flexible facility that can significantly enhance safety and environmental...

  20. Introduction and utilization of mixer-settler for uranium purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tri-Murni

    2002-01-01

    A mixer settler made by Amersham was designed to separate U from the waste arising from 9 9 M o production using enriched U > 93 % 2 35 U as the raw material to be fissioned. The separation is based on liquid-liquid extraction, organic and aqueous phase, with counter current, the solution continuously flows while the two phases are mixed and settled. This equipment consists of two cycles, the first one for separation U from fission products while the second cycle for separating U from Pu. Each cycle consists of 10 extraction stages, 6 scrubbing stages, 12 stripping stages, 1 stages for solvent washing and another 1 stage for solvent conditioning. From the first cycle to the second one is equipped with solvent washing unit so that the solvent can be used continuously. It is also equipped with micro pumps to regulate the suction and emission of the waste and feed thanks of feed and solvent, as well as burette containing the reagent. Ever since the commissioning this mixer settler has been utilized. This equipment can be utilized for U purification from heavy metals using the product of U processing as the feed material by studying the appropriate solution and applicable solvent. The same also will do for U separation from impurities is the waste of fuel production and other wastes solvent. The same also will do for U separation from impurities in the waste of fuel production and other wastes containing U generated from research activities. The centers within BATAN that can utilize this mixer settler are P2BGGN, P2TBDU, P2PLR, P3TkN and P3TM

  1. A submersible physics laboratory experiment. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stehling, K.R.

    1979-01-01

    Since 1972, NOAA (OOE and MUSandT) and the University of Washington Physics Department, have been associated in the underwater detection and analysis of cosmic radiation flux. The purpose of experiments described in this paper has been to take advantage of the nuclear cosmic-ray related qualities of the ocean water mass by allowing the experimenter(s) to work in situ on the sea floor, rather than attempting to try an impractical alternative: lowering a prepared photoemulsion detector to the bottom from a surface vessel, a method that would yield an unacceptably surface-radiation-cluttered emulsion. This report describes briefly the four elements that motivated or comprised the subject experiment: basic physics which motivated the mission; applied physics, including particle detection, emulsion chemistry, calibration, and scanning; engineering, including design and fabrication of supporting apparatus, use of a submersible (JSL was modified slightly to permit lock-on to the bottom chamber), and a bottom lockout chamber; and operations, including submersible dives, ship support, emulsion preparation, deployment, recovery, and development

  2. Formal design review report project W-151 mixer pump procurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crass, D.W.

    1997-01-21

    A formal design review for WHC-S-0040 was held on January 21, 1993. The review was completed January 29, 1993. No outstanding action items existed. Comments were recorded on Record Comment Record (RCR) forms and incorporated into the specification. The specification was considered acceptable, approved and issued as WHC-S-0040, Rev. 0 on March 4, 1993.

  3. Apparatus for controlled mixing in a high intensity mixer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crocker, Z.; Gupta, V.P.

    1982-01-01

    An apparatus and a process is disclosed for controlled mixing of a mixable material in a high intensity mixer. The system enables instantaneous, precise and continual monitoring of a batch in a high intensity mixer which heretofore could not be achieved. The process comprises the steps of feeding a batch of material into a high intensity mixer, agitating the batch in the mixer, monitoring batch temperature separately from mixer temperature and discharging the batch from the mixer when the batch temperature reaches a final predetermined level. The apparatus includes means for monitoring batch temperature in a high intensity mixer separately from mixer temperature, and means responsive to the batch temperature to discharge the batch when the batch temperature reaches a final predetermined level

  4. Sodium pumping: pump problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guer, M.; Guiton, P.

    Information on sodium pumps for LMFBR type reactors is presented concerning ring pump design, pool reactor pump design, secondary pumps, sodium bearings, swivel joints of the oscillating annulus, and thermal shock loads

  5. 21 CFR 888.4210 - Cement mixer for clinical use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cement mixer for clinical use. 888.4210 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 888.4210 Cement mixer for clinical use. (a) Identification. A cement mixer for clinical use is a device consisting of a container intended for use in mixing...

  6. A Formal Model of Identity Mixer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Camenisch, Jan; Mödersheim, Sebastian Alexander; Sommer, Dieter

    2010-01-01

    Identity Mixer is an anonymous credential system developed at IBM that allows users for instance to prove that they are over 18 years old without revealing their name or birthdate. This privacy-friendly tech- nology is realized using zero-knowledge proofs. We describe a formal model of Identity...

  7. A general numerical analysis of the superconducting quasiparticle mixer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, R. G.; Feldman, M. J.; Kerr, A. R.

    1985-01-01

    For very low noise millimeter-wave receivers, the superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) quasiparticle mixer is now competitive with conventional Schottky mixers. Tucker (1979, 1980) has developed a quantum theory of mixing which has provided a basis for the rapid improvement in SIS mixer performance. The present paper is concerned with a general method of numerical analysis for SIS mixers which allows arbitrary terminating impedances for all the harmonic frequencies. This analysis provides an approach for an examination of the range of validity of the three-frequency results of the quantum mixer theory. The new method has been implemented with the aid of a Fortran computer program.

  8. Submersion of alkali clusters in helium nano droplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An der Lan, L.

    2011-01-01

    The interaction of helium nano droplets (HND) with dopants has been an extensively studied Field, both experimentally and theoretically. First papers concerning this topic date back to the late 1960's. Still, on both sides (theory and experiment) were and are loose ends. One of such is the submersion behavior of alkali metals in HND. Although a theory of submersion was developed by Ancilotto et al., which can explain a lot of interesting features in this Field, this particular question (among others) remained unresolved. In 2010, a semiclassi- cal theory was developed by Kresin and Stark, which specifically addressed this problem and gave exact numbers for the critical submersion size. The scope of this doctoral thesis is to continuously build up towards this topic until Finally our results, confirming some of the theoretical Findings, are presented. Especially the critical submersion size for sodium and potassium clusters, 21 and 78, respectively, are confirmed by our experiments. (author) [de

  9. Effects of cold stratification, sulphuric acid, submersion in hot and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of cold stratification, sulphuric acid, submersion in hot and tap water pretreatments in the greenhouse and open field conditions on germination of bladder-Senna ( Colutea armena Boiss. and Huet.) seeds.

  10. Pre-design mixer-settler based on phase inversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widiatmo, Djarot S.W

    1998-01-01

    The mixer settler was designed to extract uranium from organic phase by n-Dodecane and to separate heavy metal from liquid waste. The mixer settler was designed to save solvent without reducing the extraction efficiency. Extraction efficiency depend on : two phase dispersion on mixing, the type of droplet formation and completeness phase separation. The mixer settler has three main part i.e. mixer chamber, droplet formation device and phase inversion column. Mixer chamber was operated in laminar mixing, the total flow rate 200 ml.second -1 . The mixer chamber dimensions was 5 cm diameter and 7 cm height. It was completed with paddle mixer 3 cm diameter, 1 cm height and the speed rotation was 300 rpm. The droplet formation device was perforated plate 5 cm diameter with 1 mm holes. Phase Inversion column dimensions was 5 cm diameter and 50 cm height. (author)

  11. Test report for run-in acceptance testing of Project W-151 300 HP mixing pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berglin, B.G.

    1998-01-01

    This report documents the results of a performance demonstration and operational checkout of three 300 HP mixer pumps in accordance with WHC-SD-WI51-TS-001 ''Mixer Pump Test Specification for Project W-151'' and Statement of Work 8K520-EMN-95-004 ''Mixer Pump Performance Demonstration at MASF'' in the 400 Area Maintenance and Storage Facility (MASF) building. Testing of the pumps was performed by Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) Engineering and funded by the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Project W-151. Testing began with the first pump on 04-01-95 and ended with the third pump on 11-01-96. Prior to testing, the MASF was modified and prepared to meet the pump testing requirements set forth by the Test Specification and the Statement of Work

  12. Technical Information to Support Double Shell Tank (DST) Emergency Annulus Pumping [SEC 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    REBERGER, D.W.

    2000-09-14

    This document provides the design calculations for the DST Annulus Emergency Pumping Project. This document also contains essential information relative to DST annulus emergency pumping that may not be found in other documents. This information consists of the following: Index drawing for annulus pumping; References to the Acceptance Test Report, DST Emergency Pumping Guide, Time Deployment study, etc.; Statements of work; and Reference CEIS and RMIS numbers. A Vendor Information document, VI-50121, is not included in this document, but a copy can be obtained by contacting Document Control Services. This document contains various information regarding the Hydrostar pumps, such as the air motor, cylinder size, pump installation and operation manual. It also contains information regarding the Flygt BS2060 submersible pump, such as parts list, pump handling, preventative maintenance, overhaul and repair. In addition, this document also has information on 3-way PM ball valves, electrical skid components and the alternate Gurman-Rupp stainless steel submersible pump.

  13. Matlab GUI for a Fluid Mixer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Enrique

    2005-01-01

    The Test and Engineering Directorate at NASA John C. Stennis Space Center developed an interest to study the modeling, evaluation, and control of a liquid hydrogen (LH2) and gas hydrogen (GH2) mixer subsystem of a ground test facility. This facility carries out comprehensive ground-based testing and certification of liquid rocket engines including the Space Shuttle Main engine. A software simulation environment developed in MATLAB/SIMULINK (M/S) will allow NASA engineers to test rocket engine systems at relatively no cost. In the progress report submitted in February 2004, we described the development of two foundation programs, a reverse look-up application using various interpolation algorithms, a variety of search and return methods, and self-checking methods to reduce the error in returned search results to increase the functionality of the program. The results showed that these efforts were successful. To transfer this technology to engineers who are not familiar with the M/S environment, a four-module GUI was implemented allowing the user to evaluate the mixer model under open-loop and closed-loop conditions. The progress report was based on an udergraduate Honors Thesis by Ms. Jamie Granger Austin in the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science at Tulane University, during January-May 2003, and her continued efforts during August-December 2003. In collaboration with Dr. Hanz Richter and Dr. Fernando Figueroa we published these results in a NASA Tech Brief due to appear this year. Although the original proposal in 2003 did not address other components of the test facility, we decided in the last few months to extend our research and consider a related pressurization tank component as well. This report summarizes the results obtained towards a Graphical User Interface (GUI) for the evaluation and control of the hydrogen mixer subsystem model and for the pressurization tank each taken individually. Further research would combine the two

  14. A Hydraulic Motor-Alternator System for Ocean-Submersible Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aintablian, Harry O.; Valdez, Thomas I.; Jones, Jack A.

    2012-01-01

    An ocean-submersible vehicle has been developed at JPL that moves back and forth between sea level and a depth of a few hundred meters. A liquid volumetric change at a pressure of 70 bars is created by means of thermal phase change. During vehicle ascent, the phase-change material (PCM) is melted by the circulation of warm water and thus pressure is increased. During vehicle descent, the PCM is cooled resulting in reduced pressure. This pressure change is used to generate electric power by means of a hydraulic pump that drives a permanent magnet (PM) alternator. The output energy of the alternator is stored in a rechargeable battery that powers an on-board computer, instrumentation and other peripherals.The focus of this paper is the performance evaluation of a specific hydraulic motor-alternator system. Experimental and theoretical efficiency data of the hydraulic motor and the alternator are presented. The results are used to evaluate the optimization of the hydraulic motor-alternator system. The integrated submersible vehicle was successfully operated in the Pacific Ocean near Hawaii. A brief overview of the actual test results is presented.

  15. Fabrication and characterization of 8.87 THz schottky barrier mixer diodes for mixer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenjie; Li, Qian; An, Ning; Tong, Xiaodong; Zeng, Jianping

    2018-04-01

    In this paper we report on the fabrication and characterization of GaAs-based THz schottky barrier mixer diodes. Considering the analyzed results as well as fabrication cost and complexity, a group of trade-off parameters was determined. Electron-beam lithography and air-bridge technique have been used to obtain schottky diodes with a cut off frequency of 8.87 THz. Equivalent values of series resistance, ideal factor and junction capacitance of 10.2 (1) Ω, 1.14 (0.03) and 1.76(0.03) respectively have been measured for 0.7um diameter anode devices by DC and RF measurements. The schottky barrier diodes fabrication process is fully planar and very suitable for integration in THz frequency multiplier and mixer circuits. THz Schottky barrier diodes based on such technology with 2 μm diameter anodes have been tested at 1.6 THz in a sub-harmonic mixer.

  16. The Robust Control Mixer Module Method for Control Reconfiguration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Z.; Blanke, M.

    1999-01-01

    into a LTI dynamical system, and furthermore multiple dynamical control mixer modules can be employed in our consideration. The H_{\\infty} control theory is used for the analysis and design of the robust control mixer modules. Finally, one practical robot arm system as benchmark is used to test the proposed......The control mixer concept is efficient in improving an ordinary control system into a fault tolerant one, especially for these control systems of which the real-time and on-line redesign of the control laws is very difficult. In order to consider the stability, performance and robustness...... of the reconfigurated system simultaneously, and to deal with a more general controller reconfiguration than the static feedback mechanism by using the control mixer approach, the robust control mixer module method is proposed in this paper. The form of the control mixer module extends from a static gain matrix...

  17. Low Voltage Current Mode Switched-Current-Mirror Mixer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhua Wang

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A new CMOS active mixer topology can operate at 1 V supply voltage by use of SCM (switched currentmirror. Such current-mode mixer requires less voltage headroom with good linearization. Mixing is achieved with four improved current mirrors, which are alternatively activated. For ideal switching, the operation is equivalent to a conventional active mixer. This paper analyzes the performance of the SCM mixer, in comparison with the conventional mixer, demonstrating competitive performance at a lower supply voltage. Moreover, the new mixer’s die, without any passive components, is very small, and the conversion gain is easy to adjust. An experimental prototype was designed and simulated in standard chartered 0.18μm RF CMOS Process with Spectre in Cadence Design Systems. Experimental results show satisfactory mixer performance at 2.4 GHz.

  18. Pump station for radioactive waste water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitton, John P.; Klos, Dean M.; Carrara, Danny T.; Minno, John J.

    2003-11-18

    A pump station for transferring radioactive particle containing waste water, includes: (a.) an enclosed sump having a vertically elongated right frusto conical wall surface and a bottom surface and (b.) a submersible volute centrifugal pump having a horizontally rotating impeller and a volute exterior surface. The sump interior surface, the bottom surface and the volute exterior surface are made of stainless steel having a 30 Ra or finer surface finish. A 15 Ra finish has been found to be most cost effective. The pump station is used for transferring waste water, without accumulation of radioactive fines.

  19. Transitory powder flow dynamics during emptying of a continuous mixer

    OpenAIRE

    Ammarcha , Chawki; Gatumel , Cendrine; Dirion , Jean-Louis; Cabassud , Michel; Mizonov , Vadim; Berthiaux , Henri

    2013-01-01

    International audience; This article investigates the emptying process of a continuous powder mixer, from both experimental and modelling points of view. The apparatus used in this work is a pilot scale commercial mixer Gericke GCM500, for which a specific experimental protocol has been developed to determine the hold up in the mixer and the real outflow. We demonstrate that the dynamics of the process is governed by the rotational speed of the stirrer, as it fixes characteristic values of th...

  20. Double-shell tank annulus pumping alternative evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RIESENWEBER, S.D.

    1999-01-01

    This engineering evaluation compares five alternative schemes for maintaining emergency annulus pumping equipment in a reliable condition. The five schemes are: (1) continue status quo; (2) periodic pump removal and run-in; (3) periodic in-place limited maintenance; (4) uninstalled ready spares; and (5) expanded mission of Single-Shell Tank Emergency Pumping Trailer. Each alternative is described, the pros and cons identified, and rough order of magnitude life-cycle costs computed. The alternatives are compared using weighted evaluation criteria. The evaluation concludes that staging adjustable length submersible pumps in the Single-Shell Tank Emergency Pumping Trailer has the best cost-benefit characteristics

  1. Scale-up of a mixer-settler extractor using a unit operations approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindholm, D.C.; Bautista, R.G.

    1976-01-01

    The results of scale-up studies on a continuous, multistage horizontal mixer-settler extractor are presented. The chemical and mechanical system involves the separation of lanthanum from a mixture of rare earth chlorides using di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid as the solvent and dilute HCl as a scrub solution in a bench scale extractor. Each stage has a hold-up of 2.6 l. A single stage unit is utilized for scale-up studies. Results are obtained on four sizes of geometrically similar units, the largest being six times the volume of the original bench size. A unit operations technique is chosen so that mixing and settling can be examined independently. Variables examined include type of continuous phase, flow rate of inlet streams, and power input to the mixer. Inlet flow-rate ratios are kept constant for all tests. Two potential methods of unbaffled pump-mixer scale-up are explored; the maintenance of constant impeller tip speed and constant power input. For the settler, the previously successful method of basing design on constant flow-rate per unit cross-sectional area is used

  2. Submersed macrophytes as indicators of the nutrient burden of Lake Constance (Untersee)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmieder, K.

    1992-01-01

    Most of the submersed species react sensitively to changes in the site conditions during the investigation period; this shows the high value of submersed macrophytes as biological indicators of water pollution. (orig./EF) [de

  3. Use of sediment CO2 by submersed rooted plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkel, Anders; Borum, Jens

    2009-01-01

    freshwater plants with different morphology and growth characteristics (Lobelia dortmanna, Lilaeopsis macloviana, Ludwigia repens, Vallisneria americana and Hydrocotyle verticillata) are able to support photosynthesis supplied by uptake of CO2 from the sediment. Methods: Gross photosynthesis was measured......Background and Aims: Submersed plants have different strategies to overcome inorganic carbon limitation. It is generally assumed that only small rosette species (isoetids) are able to utilize the high sediment CO2 availability. The present study examined to what extent five species of submersed......, the shoot to root ratio on an areal basis was the single factor best explaining variability in the importance of sediment CO2. For Ludwigia, diffusion barriers limited uptake or transport from roots to stems and transport from stems to leaves. Conclusions: Submersed plants other than isoetids can utilize...

  4. Evaluation of Flygt Propeller Mixers for Double-Shell Tank (DST) High Level Waste Auxiliary Solids Mobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PACQUET, E.A.

    2000-01-01

    The River Protection Project (RPP) is planning to retrieve radioactive waste from the single-shell tanks (SST) and double-shell tanks (DST) underground at the Hanford Site. This waste will then be transferred to a waste treatment plant to be immobilized (vitrified) in a stable glass form. Over the years, the waste solids in many of the tanks have settled to form a layer of sludge at the bottom. The thickness of the sludge layer varies from tank to tank, from no sludge or a few inches of sludge to about 15 ft of sludge. The purpose of this technology and engineering case study is to evaluate the Flygt(trademark) submersible propeller mixer as a potential technology for auxiliary mobilization of DST HLW solids. Considering the usage and development to date by other sites in the development of this technology, this study also has the objective of expanding the knowledge base of the Flygt(trademark) mixer concept with the broader perspective of Hanford Site tank waste retrieval. More specifically, the objectives of this study delineated from the work plan are described

  5. CERN Entrepreneur Mixer | 21 June | Pas perdus

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

      CERN Knowledge Transfer group is hosting an Entrepreneur Mixer, an event dedicated to building bridges between CERN innovative entrepreneurs. This will be a unique opportunity to discover business projects initiated by former CERN people, and to see how CERN technology is being exploited by start-up companies. The deadline for registration is Friday, 17 June. For more information, please visit the Indico page of the event: https://indico.cern.ch/event/537167/

  6. Design and Fabrication of a Foundry Sand Mixer Using Locally ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most small foundry shops mix their sand manually which is not efficient since homogenous mix cannot be guaranteed and even when foundry mixer are available most of them are imported costing the nation huge foriegn exchange. A foundry sand mixer capable of mixing foundry sand has been designed and fabricated ...

  7. CONTINUOUS PRODUCTION OF HYDROXYPROPYL STARCH IN A STATIC MIXER REACTOR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LAMMERS, G; STAMHUIS, EJ; BEENACKERS, AACM

    A novel type of reactor for the chemical derivatization of starch pastes is presented. The design is based on the application of static mixers. The reactor shows excellent plug flow behaviour with a Peclet number of about 100. The viscosity behaviour of concentrated starch pastes in the static mixer

  8. Criticality calculation method for mixer-settlers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonda, Kozo; Aoyagi, Haruki; Nakano, Ko; Kamikawa, Hiroshi.

    1980-01-01

    A new criticality calculation code MACPEX has been developed to evaluate and manage the criticality of the process in the extractor of mixer-settler type. MACPEX can perform the combined calculation with the PUREX process calculation code MIXSET, to get the neutron flux and the effective multiplication constant in the mixer-settlers. MACPEX solves one-dimensional diffusion equation by the explicit difference method and the standard source-iteration technique. The characteristics of MACPEX are as follows. 1) Group constants of 4 energy groups for the 239 Pu-H 2 O solution, water, polyethylene and SUS 28 are provided. 2) The group constants of the 239 Pu-H 2 O solution are given by the functional formulae of the plutonium concentration, which is less than 50 g/l. 3) Two boundary conditions of the vacuum condition and the reflective condition are available in this code. 4) The geometrical bucklings can be calculated for a certain energy group and/or region by using the three dimentional neutron flux profiles obtained by CITATION. 5) The buckling correction search can be carried out in order to get a desired k sub(eff). (author)

  9. Machine Visual Guidance For An Autonomous Undersea Submersible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hoa G.; Kaomea, Peter K.; Heckman, Paul J.

    1988-12-01

    Optical imaging is the preferred sensory modality for underwater robotic activities requiring high resolution at close range, such as station keeping, docking, control of manipulator, and object retrieval. Machine vision will play a vital part in the design of next generation autonomous underwater submersibles. This paper describes an effort to demonstrate that real-time vision-based guidance and control of autonomous underwater submersibles is possible with compact, low-power, and vehicle-imbeddable hardware. The Naval Ocean Systems Center's EAVE-WEST (Experimental Autonomous Vehicle-West) submersible is being used as the testbed. The vision hardware consists of a PC-bus video frame grabber and an IBM-PC/AT compatible single-board computer, both residing in the artificial intelligence/vision electronics bottle of the submersible. The specific application chosen involves the tracking of underwater buoy cables. Image recognition is performed in two steps. Feature points are identified in the underwater video images using a technique which detects one-dimensional local brightness minima and maxima. Hough transformation is then used to detect the straight line among these feature points. A hierarchical coarse-to-fine processing method is employed which terminates when enough feature points have been identified to allow a reliable fit. The location of the cable identified is then reported to the vehicle controller computer for automatic steering control. The process currently operates successfully with a throughput of approximately 2 frames per second.

  10. Submersible microbial fuel cell for electricity production from sewage sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yifeng; Olias, Lola Gonzalez; Kongjan, Prawit

    2010-01-01

    A submersible microbial fuel cell (SMFC) was utilized to treatment of sewage sludge and simultaneous generate electricity. Stable power generation (145±5 mW/m2) was produced continuously from raw sewage sludge for 5.5 days. The corresponding total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) removal efficiency...... of an effective system to treatment of sewage sludge and simultaneous recover energy....

  11. Scale-up of the mixer of a mixer-settler model used in a uranium solvent extraction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santana, A.O. de; Dantas, C.C.

    1995-01-01

    Scale-up relations were obtained for the mixer of a box type mixer-settler used in an uranium extraction process from chloridric leaches. Three box type mixers of different sizes and with the same geometry were used for batch and continuous-flow experiments. The correlations between the extraction rate and he specific power input, D/T ratio(=turbine diameter/mixer width) and residence time were experimentally determined. The results showed that the extraction rate increases with the power input at a constant D/T ratio equal to 1/3, remaining however, independent from the mixer size for a specific value of the power input. This behaviour was observed for power input values ranging from 100 to 750 W/m 3 . (author) 8 refs.; 8 figs.; 4 tabs

  12. Preventative maintenance plan for emergency pumping trailers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiggins, D.D.

    1994-09-01

    The purpose/goal of this document is to identify the maintenance requirements and resources available to properly maintain the readiness and condition of the Emergency Pumping Equipment controlled by the Tank Waste Remediation System Tank Farms Plant Engineering and Tank Stabilization Operations. This equipment is intended to pump a single-shell tank (SST) that has been identified as an assumed leaking tank. The goal is to commence pumping (submersible or jet) as soon as safely possible after identifying a SST as an assumed leaking tank. Important information pertaining to the Emergency Pumping Equipment, Over-Ground Piping installation, and procedures is found in WHC-SD-WM-AP-005, ''Single Shell Tank Leak Emergency Pumping Guide.''

  13. Mechatronic thermostatic water mixer for building automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Mauro

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of sanitary water is a main aspect of comfort and healthiness within a house or a public environment as gyms or beauty farms. At the same time, water waste should be limited to a minimum in order to preserve both water and the energy required to warm it. To obtain these results, it is necessary to rule quickly and in a precise way the temperature. It is also necessary to check the presence of possible contemporary flow requested by different users in order to optimize distribution in the house network. This work describes a mechatronic water mixer that was developed to ensure fast and precise control of flow and temperature of delivered water. The flow control is based on modulating digital valves driven in pulse code modulation and on a microcontroller board. The electronic unit is designed to interface with a domotic network for remote control and total consumption monitoring and optimization.

  14. Diffusion-Cooled Tantalum Hot-Electron Bolometer Mixers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalare, Anders; McGrath, William; Bumble, Bruce; LeDuc, Henry

    2004-01-01

    A batch of experimental diffusion-cooled hot-electron bolometers (HEBs), suitable for use as mixers having input frequencies in the terahertz range and output frequencies up to about a gigahertz, exploit the superconducting/normal-conducting transition in a thin strip of tantalum. The design and operation of these HEB mixers are based on mostly the same principles as those of a prior HEB mixer that exploited the superconducting/normal- conducting transition in a thin strip of niobium and that was described elsewhere.

  15. Methodology for calculating power consumption of planetary mixers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antsiferov, S. I.; Voronov, V. P.; Evtushenko, E. I.; Yakovlev, E. A.

    2018-03-01

    The paper presents the methodology and equations for calculating the power consumption necessary to overcome the resistance of a dry mixture caused by the movement of cylindrical rods in the body of a planetary mixer, as well as the calculation of the power consumed by idling mixers of this type. The equations take into account the size and physico-mechanical properties of mixing material, the size and shape of the mixer's working elements and the kinematics of its movement. The dependence of the power consumption on the angle of rotation in the plane perpendicular to the axis of rotation of the working member is presented.

  16. Two-phase LMMHD mixer-development experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabris, G.; Dunn, P.F.; Chow, J.C.F.

    1978-01-01

    The results of a series of experiments conducted to evaluate the fluid mechanical performance of various two-phase LMMHD mixer designs are presented. The results from both flow visualization studies of the local two-phase flows downstream from various mixer-element configurations and local measurements performed to characterize these flows are presented. A conceptual LMMHD mixer design is described that insures the generation of small bubbles, prevents the formation of gas slugs and separated regions, and favors the stabilization of a homogeneous foam flow

  17. Submersible microbial fuel cell for electricity production from sewage sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yifeng; Olias, Lola Gonzalez; Kongjan, Prawit

    2011-01-01

    A submersible microbial fuel cell (SMFC) was utilized to treat sewage sludge and simultaneously generate electricity. Stable power generation (145± 5 mW/m2, 470 Ω) was produced continuously from raw sewage sludge for 5.5 days. The maximum power density reached 190±5 mW/m2. The corresponding total...... system to treat sewage sludge and simultaneously recover energy....

  18. The development of terahertz superconducting hot-electron bolometric mixers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semenov, Alexei; Richter, Heiko; Smirnov, Konstantin; Voronov, Boris; Gol'tsman, Gregory; Huebers, Heinz-Wilhelm

    2004-01-01

    We present recent advances in the development of NbN hot-electron bolometric (HEB) mixers for flying terahertz heterodyne receivers. Three important issues have been addressed: the quality of the source NbN films, the effect of the bolometer size on the spectral properties of different planar feed antennas, and the local oscillator (LO) power required for optimal operation of the mixer. Studies of the NbN films with an atomic force microscope indicated a surface structure that may affect the performance of the smallest mixers. Measured spectral gain and noise temperature suggest that at frequencies above 2.5 THz the spiral feed provides better overall performance than the double-slot feed. Direct measurements of the optimal LO power support earlier estimates made in the framework of the uniform mixer model

  19. Development of air pulsed ejector mixer settlers of different capacities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajagopalan, C V; Periasamy, K; Koganti, S B [Reprocessing Programme, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India)

    1994-06-01

    Nuclear industry has made significant contributions in the development of liquid-liquid contactors, for the separation of one or more solutes from feed solutions wherein they provide a more economical alternative compared to other unit operations. The various equipment that are used can be broadly classified into three categories: (1) mixer settlers (2) liquid pulsed sieve plate columns (3) centrifugal contactors. Each one has its own merits and demerits. Mixer settlers score over the other contactors in their simple design and reliable operation over a wide range of process conditions. Air pulsed mixer settlers of different designs are in use in the fuel reprocessing industry. The present paper describes the development of a new type of mixer settler based on ejector as the mixing device. (author). 7 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Scale-up of mixer-settler for uranium extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santana, A.O. de.

    1990-05-01

    The aim of this work was to obtain scale-up relations for a box type mixer-settler used in uranium extraction process for chloridric leaches. Three box type units with different sizes and with the same geometry were used for scale-up of the mixer. The correlation between extraction rate and specific power input, D/T ratio (stirrer diameter/mixer length) and residence time were experimentally obtained. The results showed that the extraction increases with power input for a constant value of D/T equal to 1/3, remaining however independent from mixer sizes for a specific value of power input. This behavior was observed for power input values ranging from 100 to 750 w/m 9 . (author). 23 refs, 22 figs, 23 tabs

  1. Issues in offshore platform research - Part 1: Semi-submersibles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, R.; Kim, Tae-Wan; Sha, O. P.; Misra, S. C.

    2010-09-01

    Availability of economic and efficient energy resources is crucial to a nation's development. Because of their low cost and advancement in drilling and exploration technologies, oil and gas based energy systems are the most widely used energy source throughout the world. The inexpensive oil and gas based energy systems are used for everything, i.e., from transportation of goods and people to the harvesting of crops for food. As the energy demand continues to rise, there is strong need for inexpensive energy solutions. An offshore platform is a large structure that is used to house workers and machinery needed to drill wells in the ocean bed, extract oil and/or natural gas, process the produced fluids, and ship or pipe them to shore. Depending on the circumstances, the offshore platform can be fixed (to the ocean floor) or can consist of an artificial island or can float. Semi-submersibles are used for various purposes in offshore and marine engineering, e.g. crane vessels, drilling vessels, tourist vessels, production platforms and accommodation facilities, etc. The challenges of deepwater drilling have further motivated the researchers to design optimum choices for semi-submersibles for a chosen operating depth. In our series of eight papers, we discuss the design and production aspects of all the types of offshore platforms. In the present part I, we present an introduction and critical analysis of semi-submersibles.

  2. Issues in offshore platform research - Part 1: Semi-submersibles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sharma

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Availability of economic and efficient energy resources is crucial to a nation's development. Because of their low cost and advancement in drilling and exploration technologies, oil and gas based energy systems are the most widely used energy source throughout the world. The inexpensive oil and gas based energy systems are used for everything, i.e., from transportation of goods and people to the harvesting of crops for food. As the energy demand continues to rise, there is strong need for inexpensive energy solutions. An offshore platform is a large structure that is used to house workers and machinery needed to drill wells in the ocean bed, extract oil and/or natural gas, process the produced fluids, and ship or pipe them to shore. Depending on the circumstances, the offshore platform can be fixed (to the ocean floor or can consist of an artificial island or can float. Semi-submersibles are used for various purposes in offshore and marine engineering, e.g. crane vessels, drilling vessels, tourist vessels, production platforms and accommodation facilities, etc. The challenges of deepwater drilling have further motivated the researchers to design optimum choices for semi-submersibles for a chosen operating depth. In our series of eight papers, we discuss the design and production aspects of all the types of offshore platforms. In the present part I, we present an introduction and critical analysis of semi-submersibles.

  3. WTEC panel report on research submersibles and undersea technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymore, Richard J.; Blidberg, D. Richard; Brancart, Claude P.; Gentry, Larry L.; Kalvaitis, Algis N.; Lee, Michael J.; Mooney, Brad; Walsh, Don

    1994-06-01

    This report covers research submersibles and related subsea technologies in Finland, France, Russia, Ukraine and the United Kingdom. Manned, teleoperated, and autonomous submersibles were of interest. The panel found that, in contrast to the United States, Europe is making substantial progress in cooperative and coordinated research in subsea technology, including the development of standards. France is a leader in autonomous vehicle technology. Because much less was known a priori about the technologies in Russia and Ukraine, there were more new findings in those countries than in those Western European nations visited. However, Russia and Ukraine have a sizeable (and currently underutilized) infrastructure in this field, including a highly educated and experienced manpower pool, impressive (in some cases unique) facilities for physical testing, extensive fleets of seagoing research vessels capable of long voyages, and state-of-the-art facilities for conducting oceanographic investigations. The panel visited newly-formed commercial companies associated with long-standing submersible R&D and production centers in Russia and Ukraine. So far, these new efforts are undercapitalized, and as such represent opportunities at very low cost for Western nations, as detailed in the site reports.

  4. Mixer-settler performance evaluation in actinide extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camilo, R.L.; Goncalves, M.A.; Carvalho, E.I.; Nakazone, A.K.; Araujo, B.F. de; Araujo, J.A.

    1988-07-01

    This paper deals with four conceptions of mixer-settlers used for actinide purification and recovery. By means of the uranium concentration profiles in the organic and aqueous phases, the evaluation of each mixer-settler was made. The main purpose of this work is the data acquisition, for adapting the different contactor types to actinide recovery by liquid-liquid extraction, in the nuclear fuel cycle. (autor) [pt

  5. Spectrometric Analysis for Pulse Jet Mixer Testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ZEIGLER, KRISTINE

    2004-01-01

    The Analytical Development Section (ADS) was tasked with providing support for a Hanford River Protection Program-Waste Treatment Program (RPP-WTP) project test involving absorption analysis for non-Newtonian pulse jet mixer testing for small scale (PJM) and prototype (CRV) tanks with sparging. Tanks filled with clay were mixed with various amounts of powdered dye as a tracer. The objective of the entire project was to determine the best mixing protocol (nozzle velocity, number of spargers used, total air flow, etc.) by determining the percent mixed volume through the use of an ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrometer. The dye concentration within the sample could be correlated to the volume fraction mixed in the tank. Samples were received in vials, a series of dilutions were generated from the clay, allowed to equilibrate, then centrifuged and siphoned for the supernate liquid to analyze by absorption spectroscopy. Equilibration of the samples and thorough mixing of the samples were a continuous issue with dilution curves being difficult to obtain. Despite these technical issues, useful data was obtained for evaluation of various mix conditions

  6. A Matlab-Based Graphical User Interface for Simulation and Control Design of a Hydrogen Mixer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Hanz; Figueroa, Fernando

    2003-01-01

    A Graphical User Interface (GUI) that facilitates prediction and control design tasks for a propellant mixer is described. The Hydrogen mixer is used in rocket test stand operations at the NASA John C. Stennis Space Center. The mixer injects gaseous hydrogen (GH2) into a stream of liquid hydrogen (LH2) to obtain a combined flow with desired thermodynamic properties. The flows of GH2 and LH2 into the mixer are regulated by two control valves, and a third control valve is installed at the exit of the mixer to regulate the combined flow. The three valves may be simultaneously operated in order to achieve any desired combination of total flow, exit temperature and mixer pressure within the range of operation. The mixer, thus, constitutes a three-input, three-output system. A mathematical model of the mixer has been obtained and validated with experimental data. The GUI presented here uses the model to predict mixer response under diverse conditions.

  7. Improving the Efficiency of 3-D Hydrogeological Mixers: Dilution Enhancement Via Coupled Engineering-Induced Transient Flows and Spatial Heterogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Dato, Mariaines; de Barros, Felipe P. J.; Fiori, Aldo; Bellin, Alberto

    2018-03-01

    Natural attenuation and in situ oxidation are commonly considered as low-cost alternatives to ex situ remediation. The efficiency of such remediation techniques is hindered by difficulties in obtaining good dilution and mixing of the contaminant, in particular if the plume deformation is physically constrained by an array of wells, which serves as a containment system. In that case, dilution may be enhanced by inducing an engineered sequence of injections and extractions from such pumping system, which also works as a hydraulic barrier. This way, the aquifer acts as a natural mixer, in a manner similar to the industrialized engineered mixers. Improving the efficiency of hydrogeological mixers is a challenging task, owing to the need to use a 3-D setup while relieving the computational burden. Analytical solutions, though approximated, are a suitable and efficient tool to seek the optimum solution among all possible flow configurations. Here we develop a novel physically based model to demonstrate how the combined spatiotemporal fluctuations of the water fluxes control solute trajectories and residence time distributions and therefore, the effectiveness of contaminant plume dilution and mixing. Our results show how external forcing configurations are capable of inducing distinct time-varying groundwater flow patterns which will yield different solute dilution rates.

  8. Research of UHPC properties prepared with industrial mixer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šerelis, E.; Vaitkevičius, V.; Kerševičius, V.

    2017-09-01

    Ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC) mixture with advanced mechanical and durability properties was created using decent Zyklos ZZ50HE mixer. Zyklos ZZ50HE rotating pan mixer is similar to mixer which has common concrete plants. In experiment UHPC was prepared with Zyklos ZZ50HE mixer and thereafter best composition was selected and prepared with industrial HPGM 1125 mixer. Experiment results revealed that UHPC with W/C=0.29 and advanced mechanical and durability properties can be prepared. In experiment tremendous amount of micro steel fibres (up to 147 kg/m3) were incorporated in UHPC. Concrete with excellent salt scaling resistance and great mechanical properties was obtained. Compressive strength was increased about 30 % from 116 MPa to 150 MPa and flexural strength was increased about 5 times from 6.7 to 36.2 MPa. Salt-scaling resistance at 40 cycles in 3 % NaCl solution varied from 0.006 kg/m2 to 0.197 kg/m2. There were a few attempts to create UHPC and UHPFRC with decent technology, however, unsuccessfully till now. In the world practice this new material is currently used in the construction of bridges and viaducts.

  9. Penis Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your appointment might be less involved. Choosing a penis pump Some penis pumps are available without a ... it doesn't get caught in the ring. Penis pumps for penis enlargement Many advertisements in magazines ...

  10. 36 CFR 3.19 - May I operate a submersible within park waters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May I operate a submersible within park waters? 3.19 Section 3.19 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... waters? The use of manned or unmanned submersibles may only occur in accordance with a permit issued by...

  11. Planar Submillimeter-Wave Mixer Technology with Integrated Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Gautam; Mehdi, Imran; Gill, John J.; Lee, Choonsup; lombart, Muria L.; Thomas, Betrand

    2010-01-01

    High-performance mixers at terahertz frequencies require good matching between the coupling circuits such as antennas and local oscillators and the diode embedding impedance. With the availability of amplifiers at submillimeter wavelengths and the need to have multi-pixel imagers and cameras, planar mixer architecture is required to have an integrated system. An integrated mixer with planar antenna provides a compact and optimized design at terahertz frequencies. Moreover, it leads to a planar architecture that enables efficient interconnect with submillimeter-wave amplifiers. In this architecture, a planar slot antenna is designed on a thin gallium arsenide (GaAs) membrane in such a way that the beam on either side of the membrane is symmetric and has good beam profile with high coupling efficiency. A coplanar waveguide (CPW) coupled Schottky diode mixer is designed and integrated with the antenna. In this architecture, the local oscillator (LO) is coupled through one side of the antenna and the RF from the other side, without requiring any beam sp litters or diplexers. The intermediate frequency (IF) comes out on a 50-ohm CPW line at the edge of the mixer chip, which can be wire-bonded to external circuits. This unique terahertz mixer has an integrated single planar antenna for coupling both the radio frequency (RF) input and LO injection without any diplexer or beamsplitters. The design utilizes novel planar slot antenna architecture on a 3- mthick GaAs membrane. This work is required to enable future multi-pixel terahertz receivers for astrophysics missions, and lightweight and compact receivers for planetary missions to the outer planets in our solar system. Also, this technology can be used in tera hertz radar imaging applications as well as for testing of quantum cascade lasers (QCLs).

  12. Antenna-coupled 30 THz hot electron bolometer mixers

    OpenAIRE

    Shcherbatenko, M.; Lobanov, Y.; Benderov, O.; Shurakov, A.; Ignatov, A.; Titova, N.; Finkel, M.; Maslennikov, S.; Kaurova, N.; Voronov, B.M.; Rodin, A.; Klapwijk, T.M.; Gol'tsman, G.N.

    2015-01-01

    We report on design and characterization of a superconducting Hot Electron Bolometer Mixer integrated with a logarithmic spiral antenna for mid-IR range observations. The antenna parameters have been adjusted to achieve the ultimate performance at 10 ?m (30 THz) range where O3, NH3, CO2, CH4, N2O, …. lines in the Earth’s atmosphere, in planetary atmospheres and in the interstellar space can be observed. The HEB mixer is made of a thin NbN film deposited onto a GaAs substrate. To couple the ra...

  13. Quantum noise in a terahertz hot electron bolometer mixer

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, W.; Khosropanah, P.; Gao, J. R.; Kollberg, E. L.; Yngvesson, K. S.; Bansal, T.; Barends, R.; Klapwijk, T. M.

    2010-01-01

    We have measured the noise temperature of a single, sensitive superconducting NbN hot electron bolometer (HEB) mixer in a frequency range from 1.6 to 5.3 THz, using a setup with all the key components in vacuum. By analyzing the measured receiver noise temperature using a quantum noise (QN) model for HEB mixers, we confirm the effect of QN. The QN is found to be responsible for about half of the receiver noise at the highest frequency in our measurements. The ?-factor (the quantum efficiency ...

  14. Substrate Effects in Wideband SiGe HBT Mixer Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Tom Keinicke; Vidkjær, Jens; Krozer, Viktor

    2005-01-01

    are also applied to predict short distance substrate coupling effects. Simulation results using extracted equivalent circuit models and substrate coupling networks are compared with experimental results obtained on a wideband mixer circuit implemented in a 0.35 μm, 60 GHz ft SiGe HBT BiCMOS process.......In this paper, the influence from substrate effects on the performance of wideband SiGe HBT mixer circuits is investigated. Equivalent circuit models including substrate networks are extracted from on-wafer test structures and compared with electromagnetic simulations. Electromagnetic simulations...

  15. 7 CFR 58.228 - Dump hoppers, screens, mixers and conveyors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.228 Dump hoppers, screens, mixers and conveyors. The product contact surfaces of dump hoppers, screens, mixers and conveyors which are used in the process of transferring dry... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dump hoppers, screens, mixers and conveyors. 58.228...

  16. A flicker noise/IM3 cancellation technique for active mixer using negative impedance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, W.; Annema, Anne J.; Wienk, Gerhardus J.M.; Nauta, Bram

    2013-01-01

    Abstract—This paper presents an approach to simultaneously cancel flicker noise and IM3 in Gilbert-type mixers, utilizing negative impedances. For proof of concept, two prototype double-balanced mixers in 0.16- m CMOS are fabricated. The first demonstration mixer chip was optimized for full IM3

  17. Centrifugal pumps

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, HH

    1981-01-01

    Centrifugal Pumps describes the whole range of the centrifugal pump (mixed flow and axial flow pumps are dealt with more briefly), with emphasis on the development of the boiler feed pump. Organized into 46 chapters, this book discusses the general hydrodynamic principles, performance, dimensions, type number, flow, and efficiency of centrifugal pumps. This text also explains the pumps performance; entry conditions and cavitation; speed and dimensions for a given duty; and losses. Some chapters further describe centrifugal pump mechanical design, installation, monitoring, and maintenance. The

  18. A survey of RFD pumping systems used in nuclear industry by INET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Cong

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, power fluidic technology was investigated extensively in INET, Tsinghua University, including RFD pumping system, vortex diode pumping system, pulsed jet mixer (gas ballast), pulsed jet sampling system, and fluidic flowmeter. Due to potential applications most attentions were paid to the RFD pumping system consisting of three key components: jet pump pair (JPP), level control/measurement system inside displacement vessel, and reverse flow diverter (RFD). Some important results by INET were summarized in this paper, relating to RFD geometrical con- figurations and optimal dimensions, dimensionless performances and RFD design guidelines, CFD simulation, and demonstrations of RFD pumping systems. (author)

  19. Numerical study of fluid motion in bioreactor with two mixers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheleva, I., E-mail: izheleva@uni-ruse.bg [Department of Heat Technology, Hydraulics and Ecology, Angel Kanchev University of Rousse, 8 Studentska str., 7017 Rousse (Bulgaria); Lecheva, A., E-mail: alecheva@uni-ruse.bg [Department of Mathematics, Angel Kanchev University of Rousse, 8 Studentska str., 7017 Rousse (Bulgaria)

    2015-10-28

    Numerical study of hydrodynamic laminar behavior of a viscous fluid in bioreactor with multiple mixers is provided in the present paper. The reactor is equipped with two disk impellers. The fluid motion is studied in stream function-vorticity formulation. The calculations are made by a computer program, written in MATLAB. The fluid structure is described and numerical results are graphically presented and commented.

  20. A Multidisciplinary Approach to Mixer-Ejector Analysis and Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Eric, S.; Seidel, Jonathan, A.

    2012-01-01

    The design of an engine for a civil supersonic aircraft presents a difficult multidisciplinary problem to propulsion system engineers. There are numerous competing requirements for the engine, such as to be efficient during cruise while yet quiet enough at takeoff to meet airport noise regulations. The use of mixer-ejector nozzles presents one possible solution to this challenge. However, designing a mixer-ejector which will successfully address both of these concerns is a difficult proposition. Presented in this paper is an integrated multidisciplinary approach to the analysis and design of these systems. A process that uses several low-fidelity tools to evaluate both the performance and acoustics of mixer-ejectors nozzles is described. This process is further expanded to include system-level modeling of engines and aircraft to determine the effects on mission performance and noise near airports. The overall process is developed in the OpenMDAO framework currently being developed by NASA. From the developed process, sample results are given for a notional mixer-ejector design, thereby demonstrating the capabilities of the method.

  1. A Sideband-Separating Mixer Upgrade for ALMA Band 9

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesper, R.; Gerlofsma, G.; Mena, P.; Spaans, M.; Baryshev, A.

    2009-01-01

    The ALMA band 9 (600-720 GHz) receiver cartridge, as currently being produced, features two single-ended (dual sideband) SIS mixers in orthogonal polarisations. In the case of spectral line observations in the presence of atmospheric backgound, the integration time to reach a certain desired signal

  2. Sideband Separating Mixer for 600-720 GHz

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khudchenko, Andrey; Hesper, Ronald; Barychev, Andrey; Gerlofma, Gerrit; Mena, Patricio; Zijlstra, Tony; Klapwijk, Teun; Spaans, Marco; Kooi, Jacob W.; Zhang, C; Zhang, XC; Siegel, PH; He, L; Shi, SC

    2010-01-01

    The ALMA Band 9 receiver cartridge (600-720 GHz) based on Dual Sideband (DSB) superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) mixer is currently in full production. In the case of spectral line observations, the integration time to reach a certain signal-to-noise level can be reduced by about a factor

  3. Quantum noise in a terahertz hot electron bolometer mixer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, W.; Khosropanah, P.; Gao, J. R.; Kollberg, E. L.; Yngvesson, K. S.; Bansal, T.; Barends, R.; Klapwijk, T. M.

    2010-01-01

    We have measured the noise temperature of a single, sensitive superconducting NbN hot electron bolometer (HEB) mixer in a frequency range from 1.6 to 5.3 THz, using a setup with all the key components in vacuum. By analyzing the measured receiver noise temperature using a quantum noise (QN) model

  4. Numerical study of agglomerate abrasion in a tumbling mixer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thanh Nguyen, [No Value; Willemsz, Tofan; Frijlink, Henderik; Maarschalk, Kees van der Voort

    2014-01-01

    A numerical simulation using the Discrete Element Method (DEM) was performed to investigate the phenomena concerning the abrasion and breakage of agglomerates in a diffusion powder mixer. Agglomerates were created by defining a single structure of particles with bonds of different strengths using

  5. EFFECT OF THE CRITICAL IRRADIANCE ON PHOTOVOLTAIC WATER PUMP DISCHARGE UNDER EGYPTIAN CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamdouh Abbas HELMY

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation aimed to study the effect of critical irradiance due to changing tilt angle of PV panel and tracking sun on submersible pump discharge. The authors used solar tracker and suitable tilt angle for the panel to increase the time interval during which the water pump operates. For the same irradiance collected by the PV, all systems pump the same amount of water, although they occur at different periods of the day. The pump itself 'does not know whether the electric power comes from any processes, as long as it has the same intensity.

  6. PEMISAHAN Zr – Hf SECARA SINAMBUNG MENGGUNAKAN MIXER SETTLER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Biyantoro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK PEMISAHAN Zr – Hf SECARA SINAMBUNG MENGGUNAKANMIXER SETTLER. Telah dilakukan pemisahanZr – Hf secara sinambung menggunakan pengaduk pengenap (mixer settler 16 stage. Larutan umpan adalah zirkon nitrat dengan kadar Zr = 30786 ppm dan Hf = 499 ppm. Ekstraktan dipakai adalah solven 60 % TBP dalam kerosen dan larutan scrubbingyang dipakai adalah asam nitrat 1 M. Umpan masuk pada stageke 5 dikontakkan secara berlawanan arah dengan solven masuk pada stage ke 16 dan larutan scrubbing masuk pada stage ke 1. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah memisahkan unsur Zr dan Hf dari hasil olah pasir zirkon menggunakan solven TBP dengan alat mixer settler16 stage. Analisis umpan dan hasil proses pemisahan untuk zirkonium (Zr dilakukan dengan menggunakan alat pendar sinar-X, sedangkananalisis unsur hafnium (Hf menggunakan Analisis Pengaktifan Neutron (APN. Parameter penelitian dilakukan dengan variasi keasaman asam nitrat dalam umpan dan variasi waktu pada berbagai laju pengadukan. Hasil penelitian pemisahan unsur Zr dengan Hf diperolehkondisi optimum pada keasaman umpan 4 N HNO3, keseimbangan dicapai setelah 3jam dan laju pengadukan 3300 rpm. Hasil ekstrak  unsur zirkon (Zr diperoleh kadar sebesar 28577 ppm dengan efisiensi 92,76 % serta kadar pengotor hafnium (Hf sebesar 95 ppm. Kata Kunci: pemisahan Zr, Hf, ekstraksi, mixer settler, alat pendar sinar-X, APN. ABSTRACT SEPARATION of Zr - Hf CONTINUOUSLY USE THE MIXER SETTLER. Separation of Zr - Hf continuously using mixer settler 16 stage has been done. The feed solution is zircon nitrate concentration of Zr = 30786 ppm  and Hf = 499 ppm. As the solvent used extractant 60 % TBP in 40 % kerosene. Nitric acid solution used srubbing 1 M. The feed entered into stage to 5 is contacted with solvents direction on the stage to 16 and the scrubbing solution enter the stage to 1. The purpose of this study is to separate Zr and Hf of the results from the process of zircon sand using solvent TBP using 16 stage

  7. Size effect related to damping caused by water submersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, R.G.

    1981-01-01

    An important effect of water submersion on the dynamic response of a structure is the increase in effective damping. The dynamic response of submerged structures is of interest in the nuclear power industry for reasons of operational safety during seismic and other dynamic excitations. In this paper, the added damping contribution that results from the viscosity of water and the dependence of the contribution on structural size are examined. Other factors considered are the applicable range of viscous damping with respect to displacement amplitude and, as far as damping is concerned, how far neighboring members must be from each other to respond as if in open water. An expression is derived for relating the damping value to structural size. Estimated added-damping values for representative fuel elements, fuel bundles, and main steam-pressure-relief-valve lines are given based on our derived expression for added damping

  8. Anchoring submersible ultrasonic receivers in river channels with stable substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettoli, Phillip William; Scholten, G.D.; Hubbs, D.

    2010-01-01

    We developed an anchoring system for submersible ultrasonic receivers (SURs) that we placed on the bottom of the riverine reaches of three main-stem reservoirs in the upper Tennessee River. Each anchor consisted of a steel tube (8.9 x 35.6 cm) welded vertically to a round plate of steel (5.1 x 40.6 cm). All seven SURs and their 57-kg anchors were successfully deployed and retrieved three times over 547 d by a dive team employing surface air-breathing equipment and a davit-equipped boat. All of the anchors and their SURs remained stationary over two consecutive winters on the hard-bottom, thalweg sites where they were deployed. The SUR and its anchor at the most downriver site experienced flows that exceeded 2,100 m(3)/s and mean water column velocities of about 0.9 m/s.

  9. Using Multispectral Sentinel-2 Data to Monitor Submerse Macrophytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Patrick; Roessler, Sebastian; Schneider, Thomas; Melzer, Arnulf

    2012-04-01

    Due to climate change and the involved temperatures of Bavarian freshwater lakes, the invasive submerse macrophytes Elodea nuttallii and Najas marina exhibit a massive expansion. To map these processes, a monitoring system based on remote sensing methods is under development. The main part of the monitoring system is a coupled reflection-/growth-model, which derives biometrical parameters for the EU water framework directive (WFD) by inversion of the reflectance spectra. For operational monitoring tasks a high revisiting time is necessary. Hence, the Sentinel-2 sensor might be very promising, as filling the gap between RapidEye and WorldView2 and between hyperspectral an aerial images. This paper outlines principles, methods and first results of the project.

  10. Submersion Quenching of Undercooled Liquid Metals in an Electrostatic Levitator

    Science.gov (United States)

    SanSoucie, Michael P.; Rogers, Jan R.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) electrostatic levitation (ESL) laboratory has a long history of providing materials research and thermophysical property data. The laboratory has recently added a new capability, a rapid quench system. This system allows samples to be dropped into a quench vessel that can be filled with a low melting point material, such as a gallium or indium alloy. Thereby allowing rapid quenching of undercooled liquid metals and alloys. This is the first submersion quench system inside an electrostatic levitator. The system has been tested successfully with samples of zirconium, iron-cobalt alloys, titanium-zirconium-nickel alloys, and silicon-cobalt alloys. This rapid quench system will allow materials science studies of undercooled materials and new materials development, including studies of metastable phases and transient microstructures. In this presentation, the system is described and some initial results are presented.

  11. RF Performance of a 600-720 GHz Sideband Separating Mixer with All-Copper Micromachined Waveguide Mixer Block

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mena, F. P.; Kooi, J.; Baryshev, A. M.; Lodewijk, C. F. J.; Klapwijk, T. M.; Wild, W.; Desmaris, V.; Meledin, D.; Pavolotsky, A.; Belitsky, V.; Wild, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    Here we report on the RF performance of a 2SB mixer (600-720 GHz) fabricated in a new method that combines traditional micromachining with waveguide components fabricated by photolithography and electroplating. The latter allows reaching, in a reproducible way, the stringent accuracies necessary for

  12. Heat pumps

    CERN Document Server

    Macmichael, DBA

    1988-01-01

    A fully revised and extended account of the design, manufacture and use of heat pumps in both industrial and domestic applications. Topics covered include a detailed description of the various heat pump cycles, the components of a heat pump system - drive, compressor, heat exchangers etc., and the more practical considerations to be taken into account in their selection.

  13. Submersible Data (Dive Trackpoints) for Life on the Edge 2004 - Office of Ocean Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data and information collected by the submersible Johnson Sea-Link I along its track during twenty-five dives of the 2004 "Life on the Edge" expedition sponsored by...

  14. Submersible Data (Dive Waypoints) for Investigating the Charleston Bump 2003 - Office of Ocean Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data and information collected by the submersible Johnson Sea-Link II at waypoints along its track during fourteen dives of the 2003 "Investigating the Charleston...

  15. Submersible Data (Dive Trackpoints) for Operation Deep Scope 2005 - Office of Ocean Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data and information collected by the submersible Johnson Sea-Link I along its track during thirteen dives of the 2005 "Operation Deep Scope" expedition sponsored by...

  16. Submersible Data (Dive Waypoints) for Bioluminescence 2009 - Office of Ocean Exploration and Research

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data and information collected by the submersible Johnson Sea-Link II at waypoints along its track during seventeen dives of the 2009 "Bioluminescence" expedition...

  17. Submersion criticality safety of tungsten-rhenium urania cermet fuel for space propulsion and power applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craft, A.E., E-mail: aaron.craft@inl.gov [Center for Space Nuclear Research (CSNR), INL, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); O’Brien, R.C., E-mail: Robert.OBrien@inl.gov [Center for Space Nuclear Research (CSNR), INL, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Howe, S.D., E-mail: Steven.Howe@inl.gov [Center for Space Nuclear Research (CSNR), INL, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); King, J.C., E-mail: kingjc@mines.edu [Nuclear Science and Engineering Program, Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Department, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO 80401 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • Criticality safety studies consider a generic space nuclear reactor in reentry scenarios. • Describes the submersion criticality behavior for a reactor fueled with a tungsten cermet fuel. • Study considers effects of varying fuel content, geometry, and other conditions. - Abstract: Nuclear thermal rockets are the preferred propulsion technology for a manned mission to Mars, and tungsten–uranium oxide cermet fuels could provide significant performance and cost advantages for nuclear thermal rockets. A nuclear reactor intended for use in space must remain subcritical before and during launch, and must remain subcritical in launch abort scenarios where the reactor falls back to Earth and becomes submerged in terrestrial materials (including seawater, wet sand, or dry sand). Submersion increases reflection of neutrons and also thermalizes the neutron spectrum, which typically increases the reactivity of the core. This effect is typically very significant for compact, fast-spectrum reactors. This paper provides a submersion criticality safety analysis for a representative tungsten/uranium oxide fueled reactor with a range of fuel compositions. Each submersion case considers both the rhenium content in the matrix alloy and the uranium oxide volume fraction in the cermet. The inclusion of rhenium significantly improves the submersion criticality safety of the reactor. While increased uranium oxide content increases the reactivity of the core, it does not significantly affect the submersion behavior of the reactor. There is no significant difference in submersion behavior between reactors with rhenium distributed within the cermet matrix and reactors with a rhenium clad in the coolant channels. The combination of the flooding of the coolant channels in submersion scenarios and the presence of a significant amount of spectral shift absorbers (i.e. high rhenium concentration) further decreases reactivity for short reactor cores compared to longer cores.

  18. Heat pumps

    CERN Document Server

    Brodowicz, Kazimierz; Wyszynski, M L; Wyszynski

    2013-01-01

    Heat pumps and related technology are in widespread use in industrial processes and installations. This book presents a unified, comprehensive and systematic treatment of the design and operation of both compression and sorption heat pumps. Heat pump thermodynamics, the choice of working fluid and the characteristics of low temperature heat sources and their application to heat pumps are covered in detail.Economic aspects are discussed and the extensive use of the exergy concept in evaluating performance of heat pumps is a unique feature of the book. The thermodynamic and chemical properties o

  19. Numerical simulation and PEPT measurements of a 3D conical helical-bla de mixer: A high potential solids mixer for solid-state fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutyser, M.A.I.; Schutyser, M.A.I.; Briels, Willem J.; Rinzema, A.; Boom, R.M.; Boom, R.M.

    2003-01-01

    Helical-blade solids mixers have a large potential as bioreactors for solid-state fermentation (SSF). Fundamental knowledge of the flow and mixing behavior is required for robust operation of these mixers. In this study predictions of a discrete particle model were compared to experiments with

  20. Numerical simulation and PEPT measurements of a 3D conical helical-blade mixer: a high potential solids mixer for solid-state fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutyser, M.A.I.; Briels, W.J.; Rinzema, A.; Boom, R.M.

    2003-01-01

    Helical-blade solids mixers have a large potential as bioreactors for solid-state fermentation (SSF). Fundamental knowledge of the flow and mixing behavior is required for robust operation of these mixers. In this study predictions of a discrete particle model were compared to experiments with

  1. Self-pumping effects and radiation linewidth of Josephson flux-flow oscillators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koshelets, V.P.; Shitov, S.V.; Shchukin, A.V.

    1997-01-01

    Flux-flow oscillators (FFO's) are being developed for integration with a SIS mixer for use in submillimeter wave receivers, The present work contains a detailed experimental study of the dc, microwave, and noise properties of Nb-AlOx-Nb FFO's, A model based on the Josephson self-pumping effect...

  2. Test report for run-in acceptance testing of hydrogen mitigation test pump-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewer, A.K.; Kolowith, R.

    1995-01-01

    This document provides the results of the run-in test of the replacement mixer pump for the Tank 241-SY-101. The test was conducted at the 400 Area MASF facility between August 12 and September 29, 1994. The report includes findings, analysis, recommendations, and corrective actions taken

  3. Influence of melt mixer on injection molding of thermoset elastomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochman, Arif; Zahra, Keith

    2016-10-01

    One of the drawbacks in injection molding is that the plasticizing screw is short such that polymers having high concentrations of additives, such as thermoset elastomers, might not mix homogeneously within the short period of time during the plasticizing stage. In this study, various melt mixers inside the nozzle chamber, together forming a mixing nozzle, were developed. Three different materials were investigated, namely nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR), ethylene propylene-diene monomer (EPDM) and fluorocarbon (FKM). The use of these melt mixers resulted in better homogeneity and properties of the molded parts despite a curing time reduction of 10 s. This was due to the increase in mixing and shearing introduced a higher rate of crosslinking formation in the molded parts.

  4. Review of mixer design for low voltage - low power applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurulain, D.; Musa, F. A. S.; Isa, M. Mohamad; Ahmad, N.; Kasjoo, S. R.

    2017-09-01

    A mixer is used in almost all radio frequency (RF) or microwave systems for frequency translation. Nowadays, the increase market demand encouraged the industry to deliver circuit designs to create proficient and convenient equipment with very low power (LP) consumption and low voltage (LV) supply in both digital and analogue circuits. This paper focused on different Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) design topologies for LV and LP mixer design. Floating Gate Metal Oxide Semiconductor (FGMOS) is an alternative technology to replace CMOS due to their high ability for LV and LP applications. FGMOS only required a few transistors per gate and can have a shift in threshold voltage (VTH) to increase the LP and LV performances as compared to CMOS, which makes an attractive option to replace CMOS.

  5. Submersion-Subcritical Safe Space (S4) reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, Jeffrey C.; El-Genk, Mohamed S.

    2006-01-01

    The Submersion-Subcritical Safe Space (S 4 ) reactor, developed for future space power applications and avoidance of single point failures, is presented. The S 4 reactor has a Mo-14% Re solid core, loaded with uranium nitride fuel, cooled by He-30% Xe and sized to provide 550 kWth for 7 years of equivalent full power operation. The beryllium oxide reflector of the S 4 reactor is designed to completely disassemble upon impact on water or soil. The potential of using Spectral Shift Absorber (SSA) materials in different forms to ensure that the reactor remains subcritical in the worst-case submersion accident is investigated. Nine potential SSAs are considered in terms of their effect on the thickness of the radial reflector and on the combined mass of the reactor and the radiation shadow shield. The SSA materials are incorporated as a thin (0.1 mm) coating on the outside surface of the reactor core and as core additions in three possible forms: 2.0 mm diameter pins in the interstices of the core block, 0.25 mm thick sleeves around the fuel stacks and/or additions to the uranium nitride fuel. Results show that with a boron carbide coating and 0.25 mm iridium sleeves around the fuel stacks the S 4 reactor has a reflector outer diameter of 43.5 cm with a combined reactor and shadow shield mass of 935.1 kg. The S 4 reactor with 12.5 at.% gadolinium-155 added to the fuel, 2.0 mm diameter gadolinium-155 sesquioxide interstitial pins, and a 0.1 mm thick gadolinium-155 sesquioxide coating has a slightly smaller reflector outer diameter of 43.0 cm, resulting in a smaller total reactor and shield mass of 901.7 kg. With 8.0 at.% europium-151 added to the fuel, along with europium-151 sesquioxide for the pins and coating, the reflector's outer diameter and the total reactor and shield mass are further reduced to 41.5 cm and 869.2 kg, respectively

  6. Terahertz hot electron bolometer waveguide mixers for GREAT

    OpenAIRE

    Pütz, P.; Honingh, C. E.; Jacobs, K.; Justen, M.; Schultz, M.; Stutzki, J.

    2012-01-01

    Supplementing the publications based on the first-light observations with the German Receiver for Astronomy at Terahertz frequencies (GREAT) on SOFIA, we present background information on the underlying heterodyne detector technology. We describe the superconducting hot electron bolometer (HEB) detectors that are used as frequency mixers in the L1 (1400 GHz), L2 (1900 GHz), and M (2500 GHz) channels of GREAT. Measured performance of the detectors is presented and background information on the...

  7. Superconducting terahertz mixer using a transition-edge microbolometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prober, D. E.

    1993-01-01

    We present a new device concept for a mixer element for THz frequencies. This uses a superconducting transition-edge microbridge biased at the center of its superconducting transition near 4.2 K. It is fed from an antenna or waveguide structure. Power from a local oscillator and an RF signal produce a temperature and resulting resistance variation at the difference frequency. The new aspect is the use of a very short bridge in which rapid (less than 0.1 ns) outdiffusion of hot electrons occurs. This gives large intermediate frequency (IF) response. The mixer offers about 4 GHz IF bandwidth, about 80 ohm RF resistive impedance, good match to the IF amplifier, and requires only 1-20 nW of local oscillator power. The upper RF frequency is determined by antenna or waveguide properties. Predicted mixer conversion efficiency is 1/8, and predicted double-sideband receiver noise temperatures are 260 and 90 K for transition widths of 0.1 and 0.5 Tc, respectively.

  8. A general numerical analysis program for the superconducting quasiparticle mixer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, R. G.; Feldman, M. J.; Kerr, A. R.

    1986-01-01

    A user-oriented computer program SISCAP (SIS Computer Analysis Program) for analyzing SIS mixers is described. The program allows arbitrary impedance terminations to be specified at all LO harmonics and sideband frequencies. It is therefore able to treat a much more general class of SIS mixers than the widely used three-frequency analysis, for which the harmonics are assumed to be short-circuited. An additional program, GETCHI, provides the necessary input data to program SISCAP. The SISCAP program performs a nonlinear analysis to determine the SIS junction voltage waveform produced by the local oscillator. The quantum theory of mixing is used in its most general form, treating the large signal properties of the mixer in the time domain. A small signal linear analysis is then used to find the conversion loss and port impedances. The noise analysis includes thermal noise from the termination resistances and shot noise from the periodic LO current. Quantum noise is not considered. Many aspects of the program have been adequately verified and found accurate.

  9. Life extension of semi-submersible drilling unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadley, I.; Sinclair, C.I.K. [TWI, Cambridge (United Kingdom). Structural Integrity Dept.; Magne, E. [Schlumberger Sedco Forex, Montrouge (France)

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes the life extension of a semi-submersible drilling rig built in the early 1970`s. A nominal design life of 20 years was estimated at the time of building; however, in the interim period, numerous improvements have been made in fatigue life estimation ad life improvement techniques, raising the possibility that a further 20 years of operation could be considered. The life extension strategy made use of a number of aspects of offshore technology which were not available at the time of construction of the rig. Finite element studies and results from offshore research programs were used to gauge the effect of fatigue life improvement techniques. The program demonstrated the feasibility of extending the operation of the rig for a further 20 years, with the interval between in-service inspection increased to every five years. It also provided a valuable database of fracture toughness data for the rig materials, which may be used in future work to address reliability issues.

  10. VAPOR MIXER FOR GELATINIZATION OF STARCH IN LIQUEFYING STATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Ananskikh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Starch hydrolysis is main technological process in production of starch sweeteners. Acid hydrolysis of starch using hydrochloric acid is carried out very fast but it does not allow to carry out full hydrolysis and to produce products with given carbohydrate composition. Bioconversion of starch allows to eliminate these limitations. At production of starch sweeteners from starch using enzymes starch hydrolysis is carried out in two stages At first starch – starch liquefaction the rapid increase of viscosity takes place which requires intensive mixing. Liquefying station consists of jet-cooker, holder, pressure regulator and evaporator. Jet-cooker of starch is its main part, starch is quickly turns into soluble (gelatinized state and it is partially liquefied by injection of starch suspension by flow of water vapor under pressure not less than 0,8 MPa. Heat and hydraulic calculation were carried out in order to determine constructive sizes of mixer for cooking of starch. The main hydraulic definable parameters are pressure drop in mixer, vapor pressure at mixer inlet, daily capacity of station by glucose syrup M, product consumption (starch suspension, diameter of inlet section of vapor nozzle. The goal of calculation was to determine vapor consumption M1, diameter d2 of outlet section of confuser injector, length l2 of gelatinization section. For heat calculation there was used Shukhov’s formula along with heat balance equation for gelatinization process. The numerical solution obtained with adopted assumptions given in applied mathematical package MATHCAD, for M = 50 t/day gives required daily vapor consumption M1 = 14,446 т. At hydraulic calculation of pressure drop in mixer there was used Bernoulli’s theorem. Solving obtained equations using MATHCAD found diameter of outlet section of consufer d2 = 0,023 м, vapor pressure inside of mixer p2 = 3,966·105 Па, l2 = 0,128 м. Developed method of calculation is used to determine

  11. Research on Mixer Parametric Modeling System Based on Redevelopment of ANSYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the mixer parametric modeling system software was developed by using VB which was taken as the foreground development program, and the paper combined with ANSYS software to create the finite element model of mixer blade and cylinder for the following numerical simulation of the flow field and parameter optimization of mixer. The software user interface was developed by VB and the pre-process model was created by invoking APDL of ANSYS in background. Therefore, the operation of modeling, meshing, component-building of mixer blade and cylinder were completed by using APDL and the graphic and text were outputted and displayed on the mixer parametric modeling system user interface which was developed by VB. Practice proved that it is convenient to modify the mixer solid model created by the parametric design language of ANSYS due to the similar structure.

  12. Testing of In-Line Slurry Monitors and Pulsair Mixers with Radioactive Slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hylton, T.D.; Bayne, C.K.

    1999-08-01

    Three in-line slurry monitoring instruments were demonstrated, tested, and evaluated for their capability to determine the transport properties of radioactive slurries. The instruments included the Endress + Hauser Promass 63M Coriolis meter for measuring density, the Lasentec M600P for measuring particle size distribution, and a prototype ultrasonic monitor that was developed by Argonne National Laboratory for measuring suspended solids concentration. In addition, the power consumption of the recirculation pump was monitored to determine whether this parameter could be used as a tool for in-line slurry monitoring. The Promass 63M and the M600P were also evaluated as potential indicators of suspended solids concentration. In order to use the Promass 63M as a suspended solids monitor, the densities of the fluid phase and the dry solid particle phase must be known. In addition, the fluid phase density and the dry solids density must remain constant, as any change will affect the correlation between the slurry density and the suspended solids concentration. For the M600P, the particle size distribution would need to remain relatively constant. These instruments were demonstrated and tested at the Gunite and Associated Tanks Remediation Project at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The testing of the instruments was conducted in parallel with the testing of a Pulsair mixing system, which was used to mix the contents of the selected tank. A total of six tests were performed. A submersible pump was positioned at two depths, while the Pulsair system was operated at three mixing rates.

  13. Turbulent measurements in the lobe mixer of a turbofan engine. Turbofan engine lobe mixer nagare no ranryu keisoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Makoto; Ogawa, Yuji; Arakawa, Chuichi; Tagori, Tetsuo [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries, Co., Ltd., Tokyo, (Japan) Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo, (Japan) The Univ. of Tokyo, Tokyo, (Japan). Faculty of Engineering The Univ. of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, (Japan)

    1990-01-25

    In order to examine the flow generated by the lobe mixer of a turbofan engine precisely, after measuring a three dimensional turbulent flow by a hot-wire anemometer, the mixing process of a bypass flow and a core flow with cross-sectional vortexes, and factors generating the vortex were clarified experimentally using the scale model of an exhaust duct with the lobe mixer. As a result, the mixing process was strongly affected by a lobe tip figure and a lobe figure near a center-body, and affected by the minimum gap between the lobe and center-body. The subsequent mixing process was scarcely affected by the ratio of a core flow velocity to a bypass flow one, although strongly affected by flow conditions on a lobe surface. Since the lobe mixer promoted the mixing around a center axis shifting a fast core flow outwards, it was unfavorable to mixing, however, it was expected to be useful for reducing engine jet noise. 3 refs., 7 figs.

  14. Calculation of lobe mixer flow with reynolds stress model. Oryoku hoteishiki model ni yoru lobe mixer ryu no suchi keisan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Makoto; Arakawa, Chuichi; Tagori, Tetsuo [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries, Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan) Univ. of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering Univ. of Tsukuba, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1990-02-25

    It is considered that exhaust gas energy of turbofan engine is partly collected to realize the improvement of propulsion efficiency together with the reduction of noise appeared by the change in velocity distribution of exhaust gas flow. Then Lobe mixer was studied and its effectiveness was widely recognized, however the development of more realistic prediction method of exhaust nozzle system including Lobe mixer, is not completed yet. The stress equation model with low Reynolds Number which is easily used by the expansion of Launder Reece Rodi model in three dimension coordinate system was newly constructed. Applicability of the stress equation in more complicated flow field was greatly improved. While the above model was applied to Lobe mixer system, then the qualitative reproduction of mixing process accompanied with flow around Lobe and longitudinal eddy of core or bi-pass flow, was realized. There is room for improvement of pressure strain correlation term and behavior of Reynolds stress very close by wall surface in this model. 16 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Centrifugal pumps

    CERN Document Server

    Gülich, Johann Friedrich

    2014-01-01

    This book gives an unparalleled, up-to-date, in-depth treatment of all kinds of flow phenomena encountered in centrifugal pumps including the complex interactions of fluid flow with vibrations and wear of materials. The scope includes all aspects of hydraulic design, 3D-flow phenomena and partload operation, cavitation, numerical flow calculations, hydraulic forces, pressure pulsations, noise, pump vibrations (notably bearing housing vibration diagnostics and remedies), pipe vibrations, pump characteristics and pump operation, design of intake structures, the effects of highly viscous flows, pumping of gas-liquid mixtures, hydraulic transport of solids, fatigue damage to impellers or diffusers, material selection under the aspects of fatigue, corrosion, erosion-corrosion or hydro-abrasive wear, pump selection, and hydraulic quality criteria. As a novelty, the 3rd ed. brings a fully analytical design method for radial impellers, which eliminates the arbitrary choices inherent to former design procedures. The d...

  16. MICROFLUIDIC MIXERS FOR THE INVESTIGATION OF PROTEIN FOLDING USING SYNCHROTRON RADIATION CIRCULAR DICHROISM SPECTROSCOPY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kane, A; Hertzog, D; Baumgartel, P; Lengefeld, J; Horsley, D; Schuler, B; Bakajin, O

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to design, fabricate and optimize microfluidic mixers to investigate the kinetics of protein secondary structure formation with Synchrotron Radiation Circular Dichroism (SRCD) spectroscopy. The mixers are designed to rapidly initiate protein folding reaction through the dilution of denaturant. The devices are fabricated out of fused silica, so that they are transparent in the UV. We present characterization of mixing in the fabricated devices, as well as the initial SRCD data on proteins inside the mixers

  17. Far-ir heterodyne radiometric measurements with quasioptical Schottky diode mixers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fetterman, H.R.; Tannenwald, P.E.; Clifton, B.J.; Parker, C.D.; Fitzgerald, W.D.; Erickson, N.R.

    1978-01-01

    We have made heterodyne radiometric measurements with GaAs Schottky diode mixers, mounted in a corner-reflector configuration, over the spectral range 170 μm to 1 mm. At 400 μm, system noise temperatures of 9700 K DSB (NEP=1.4 x 10 - 19 W/Hz) and mixer noise temperatures of 5900 K have been achieved. This same quasioptical mixer has also been used to generate 10 - 7 W of tunable radiation suitable for spectroscopic applications

  18. Pumping life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sitsel, Oleg; Dach, Ingrid; Hoffmann, Robert Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The name PUMPKIN may suggest a research centre focused on American Halloween traditions or the investigation of the growth of vegetables – however this would be misleading. Researchers at PUMPKIN, short for Centre for Membrane Pumps in Cells and Disease, are in fact interested in a large family o......’. Here we illustrate that the pumping of ions means nothing less than the pumping of life....

  19. Design and Fabrication of an Industrial Poultry Feed Tumble Mixer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osokam Shadrach ONYEGU

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and fabrication of a poultry feed industrial tumble mixer. The design computations to handle a 50Kg mass of feed was done in the MS Excel environment for proper machine design approach. The machine was designed using AUTOCAD 2D/3D design software and proper material selection was done before the assembling and fabrication of parts. The efficiency of the machine, its associated cost of production and the product obtained after few minutes of mixing were outstanding, thereby, making the design acceptable and cost effective.

  20. High-Tc superconducting Josephson mixers for terahertz heterodyne detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malnou, M.; Feuillet-Palma, C.; Olanier, L.; Lesueur, J.; Bergeal, N.; Ulysse, C.; Faini, G.; Febvre, P.; Sirena, M.

    2014-01-01

    We report on an experimental and theoretical study of the high-frequency mixing properties of ion-irradiated YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 Josephson junctions embedded in THz antennas. We investigated the influence of the local oscillator power and frequency on the device performances. The experimental data are compared with theoretical predictions of the general three-port model for mixers in which the junction is described by the resistively shunted junction model. A good agreement is obtained for the conversion efficiency in different frequency ranges, spanning above and below the characteristic frequencies f c of the junctions

  1. Modeling emulsification processes in rotary-disk mixers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laponov, S. V.; Shulaev, N. S.; Ivanov, S. P.; Bondar', K. E.; Suleimanov, D. F.

    2017-10-01

    This article presents the experimental studies results of emulsification processes in liquid-liquid systems in rotary-disk mixers, allowing regulating the distribution of dispersed particles by changing the process conditions and the ratio of the dispersed phase. It is shown that with the increase of mixer’s revolutions per minute (RPM), both the size of dispersed particles and the deviation of dispersed particles sizes from the average decrease. The increase of the dispersed particles part results in the increase of particles average sizes at the current energy consumption. Discovered relationships can be used in the design of industrial equipment and laboratory research.

  2. The modeling of continuous mixers. Part I: The corotating twin-screw extruder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, H.E.H.; Elemans, P.H.M.

    1988-01-01

    In many operations in polymer processing, such as polymer blending, devolatilization, or incorporation of fillers in a polymeric matrix, continuous mixers are used; e.g., corotating twin-screw extruders (ZSK), Buss Cokneaders and Farrel Continuous Mixers. Theoretical analysis of these machines tends

  3. Side-band-separating heterodyne mixer for band 9 of ALMA.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mena, F. P.; Baryshev, A. M.; Kooi, J.; Lodewijk, C. F. J.; Gerlofsma, G.; Hesper, R.; Wild, W.; Shen, XC; Lu, W; Zhang, J; Dou, WB

    2006-01-01

    Here we present the realization of a side-band-separating (2SB) heterodyne mixer for the frequency range from 602 to 720 GHz (corresponding to ALMA band 9). The mixer, in brief, consists of a quadrature hybrid, two LO injectors, two SIS junctions, and three dumping loads. All the parts were modeled

  4. First Results of the Sideband-Separating Mixer for ALMA Band 9 Upgrade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khudchenko, Andrey; Hesper, Ronald; Baryshev, Andrey; Mena, F. Patricio; Gerlofma, Gerrit; Zijlstra, Tony; Klapwijk, Teun M.; Kooi, Jacob W.; Spaans, Marco

    2011-01-01

    Last year, the design and implementation details of a new modular sideband-separating mixer block, intended as an upgrade for the current single-ended ALMA Band 9 mixers, were presented at this conference. In high-frequency observation bands like ALMA Band 9 (600-720 GHz), which is strongly

  5. Conversion Matrix Analysis of SiGe HBT Gilbert Cell Mixers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Tom Keinicke; Vidkjær, Jens; Krozer, Viktor

    2004-01-01

    The frequency response of SiGe HBT active mixers based on the Gilbert cell topology is analyzed theoretically. The time-varying operation of the Gilbert cell mixer is taken into account by applying conversion matrix analysis. The main bandwidth limiting mechanisms experienced in SiGe HBT Gilbert ...

  6. An X-band Schottky diode mixer in SiGe technology with tunable Marchand balun

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michaelsen, Rasmus Schandorph; Johansen, Tom Keinicke; Tamborg, Kjeld M.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a double balanced mixer with a tunable Marchand balun. The circuit is designed in a SiGe BiCMOS process using Schottky diodes. The tunability of the Marchand balun is used to enhance critical parameters for double balanced mixers. The local oscillator-IF isolation can...

  7. A Passive X-Band Double Balanced Mixer Utilizing Diode Connected SiGe HBTs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michaelsen, Rasmus Schandorph; Johansen, Tom Keinicke; Tamborg, Kjeld

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a passive double balanced mixer in SiGe HBT technology is presented. Due to lack of suitable passive mixing elements in the technology, the mixing elements are formed by diode connected HBTs. The mixer is optimized for use in doppler radars and is highly linear with 1 dB compressio...

  8. Conversion Matrix Analysis of GaAs HEMT Active Gilbert Cell Mixers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Chenhui; Johansen, Tom Keinicke; Krozer, Viktor

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the nonlinear model of the GaAs HEMT active Gilbert cell mixer is investigated. Based on the model, the conversion gain expression of active Gilbert cell mixers is derived theoretically by using conversion matrix analysis method. The expression is verified by harmonic balance simul...

  9. MOSFET-Only Mixer/IIR Filter with Gain using Parametric Amplification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Custódio, José R.; Oliveira, J.; Oliveira, L. B.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the design of a discrete-time passive Mixer/IIR filter. The use of an improved MOS Parametric Amplification leads to a moderate gain in the signal path and improved noise performance, instead of the conversion loss inherent to passive mixers. Simulation results demonstrate th...

  10. Heat transfer and the continuous production of hydroxypropyl starch in a static mixer reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammers, Gerard; Beenackers, Antonie A. C. M.

    1994-01-01

    A novel continuous reactor for the chemical derivation of aqueous starch solutions based on static mixers is proposed. Both the experimentally observed axial and radial temperature gradients in the static mixer could be accurately described by a pseudohomogeneous two-dimensional heat transfer (PTHT)

  11. Deviations from mass transfer equilibrium and mathematical modeling of mixer-settler contactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyerlein, A.L.; Geldard, J.F.; Chung, H.F.; Bennett, J.E.

    1980-01-01

    This paper presents the mathematical basis for the computer model PUBG of mixer-settler contactors which accounts for deviations from mass transfer equilibrium. This is accomplished by formulating the mass balance equations for the mixers such that the mass transfer rate of nuclear materials between the aqueous and organic phases is accounted for. 19 refs

  12. Low noise Nb-SIS mixers at far above the gap frequency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, [No Value; vandeStadt, H; Jegers, JBM; Kovtonyuk, S; Hulshoff, W; Whyborn, ND; Klapwijk, TM; deGraauw, T; Liao, FJ; Liu, JY

    1996-01-01

    There are great interests in developing Nb SIS mixers because of the extremely low noise temperatures and because of the need of low local oscillator (LO) power. Several groups have demonstrated experimentally that Nb SIS mixers with integrated tuning elements can perform near the quantum noise

  13. Airfoil-shaped micro-mixers for reducing fouling on membrane surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Clifford K; Altman, Susan J; Clem, Paul G; Hibbs, Michael; Cook, Adam W

    2012-10-23

    An array of airfoil-shaped micro-mixers that enhances fluid mixing within permeable membrane channels, such as used in reverse-osmosis filtration units, while minimizing additional pressure drop. The enhanced mixing reduces fouling of the membrane surfaces. The airfoil-shaped micro-mixer can also be coated with or comprised of biofouling-resistant (biocidal/germicidal) ingredients.

  14. Granular flow in static mixers by coupled DEM/CFD approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pezo Lato

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The mixing process greatly influence the mixing efficiency, as well as the quality and the price of the intermediate and/or the final product. Static mixer is used for premixing action before the main mixing process, for significant reduction of mixing time and energy consumption. This type of premixing action is not investigated in detail in the open literature. In this article, the novel numerical approach called Discrete Element Method is used for modelling of granular flow in multiple static mixer applications (1 - 3 Komax or Ross mixing elements were utilized, while the Computational Fluid Dynamic method was chosen for fluid flow modelling, using the Eulerian multiphase model. The main aim of this article is to predict the behaviour of granules being gravitationally transported in different mixer configuration and to choose the best configuration of the mixer taking into account the total particle path, the number of mixing elements and the quality of the obtained mixture. The results of the numerical simulations in the static mixers were compared to experimental results, the mixing quality is examined by RSD (relative standard deviation criterion, and the effects on the mixer type and the number of mixing elements on mixing process were studied. The effects of the mixer type and the number of mixing elements on mixing process were studied using analysis of variance (ANOVA. Mathematical modelling is used for optimization of number of Ross and Komax segments in mixer in order to gain desirable mixing results. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31055

  15. New Navigation Post-Processing Tools for Oceanographic Submersibles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsey, J. C.; Whitcomb, L. L.; Yoerger, D. R.; Howland, J. C.; Ferrini, V. L.; Hegrenas, O.

    2006-12-01

    We report the development of Navproc, a new set of software tools for post-processing oceanographic submersible navigation data that exploits previously reported improvements in navigation sensing and estimation (e.g. Eos Trans. AGU, 84(46), Fall Meet. Suppl., Abstract OS32A- 0225, 2003). The development of these tools is motivated by the need to have post-processing software that allows users to compensate for errors in vehicle navigation, recompute the vehicle position, and then save the results for use with quantitative science data (e.g. bathymetric sonar data) obtained during the mission. Navproc does not provide real-time navigation or display of data nor is it capable of high-resolution, three dimensional (3D) data display. Navproc supports the ASCII data formats employed by the vehicles of the National Deep Submergence Facility (NDSF) operated by the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI). Post-processing of navigation data with Navproc is comprised of three tasks. First, data is converted from the logged ASCII file to a binary Matlab file. When loaded into Matlab, each sensor has a data structure containing the time stamped data sampled at the native update rate of the sensor. An additional structure contains the real-time vehicle navigation data. Second, the data can be displayed using a Graphical User Interface (GUI), allowing users to visually inspect the quality of the data and graphically extract portions of the data. Third, users can compensate for errors in the real-time vehicle navigation. Corrections include: (i) manual filtering and median filtering of long baseline (LBL) ranges; (ii) estimation of the Doppler/gyro alignment using previously reported methodologies; and (iii) sound velocity, tide, and LBL transponder corrections. Using these corrections, the Doppler and LBL positions can be recomputed to provide improved estimates of the vehicle position compared to those computed in real-time. The data can be saved in either binary or ASCII

  16. Design of Ka-band antipodal finline mixer and detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Changfei; Xu Jinping; Chen Mo

    2009-01-01

    This paper mainly discusses the analysis and design of a finline single-ended mixer and detector. In the circuit, for the purpose of eliminating high-order resonant modes and improving transition loss, metallic via holes are implemented along the mounting edge of the substrate embedded in the split-block of the WG-finline-microstrip transition. Meanwhile, a Ka band slow-wave and bandstop filter, which represents a reactive termination, is designed for the utilization of idle frequencies and operation frequencies energy. Full-wave analysis is carried out to optimize the input matching network of the mixer and the detector circuit using lumped elements to model the nonlinear diode. The exported S-matrix of the optimized circuit is used for conversion loss and voltage sensitivity analysis. The lowest measured conversion loss is 3.52 dB at 32.2 GHz; the conversion loss is flat and less than 5.68 dB in the frequency band of 29-34 GHz. The highest measured zero-bias voltage sensitivity is 1450 mV/mW at 38.6 GHz, and the sensitivity is better than 1000 mV/mW in the frequency band of 38-40 GHz.

  17. Open source laboratory sample rotator mixer and shaker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karankumar C. Dhankani

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available An open-source 3-D printable laboratory sample rotator mixer is developed here in two variants that allow users to opt for the level of functionality, cost saving and associated complexity needed in their laboratories. First, a laboratory sample rotator is designed and demonstrated that can be used for tumbling as well as gentle mixing of samples in a variety of tube sizes by mixing them horizontally, vertically, or any position in between. Changing the mixing angle is fast and convenient and requires no tools. This device is battery powered and can be easily transported to operate in various locations in a lab including desktops, benches, clean hoods, chemical hoods, cold rooms, glove boxes, incubators or biological hoods. Second, an on-board Arduino-based microcontroller is incorporated that adds the functionality of a laboratory sample shaker. These devices can be customized both mechanically and functionally as the user can simply select the operation mode on the switch or alter the code to perform custom experiments. The open source laboratory sample rotator mixer can be built by non-specialists for under US$30 and adding shaking functionality can be done for under $20 more. Thus, these open source devices are technically superior to the proprietary commercial equipment available on the market while saving over 90% of the costs.

  18. A planar microfluidic mixer based on logarithmic spirals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scherr, Thomas; Nandakumar, Krishnaswamy; Quitadamo, Christian; Tesvich, Preston; Park, Daniel Sang-Won; Hayes, Daniel; Monroe, W Todd; Tiersch, Terrence; Choi, Jin-Woo

    2012-01-01

    A passive, planar micromixer design based on logarithmic spirals is presented. The device was fabricated using polydimethylsiloxane soft photolithography techniques, and mixing performance was characterized via numerical simulation and fluorescent microscopy. Mixing efficiency initially declined as the Reynolds number increased, and this trend continued until a Reynolds number of 15 where a minimum was reached at 53%. Mixing efficiency then began to increase reaching a maximum mixing efficiency of 86% at Re = 67. Three-dimensional (3D) simulations of fluid mixing in this design were compared to other planar geometries such as the Archimedes spiral and Meandering-S mixers. The implementation of logarithmic curvature offers several unique advantages that enhance mixing, namely a variable cross-sectional area and a logarithmically varying radius of curvature that creates 3D Dean vortices. These flow phenomena were observed in simulations with multilayered fluid folding and validated with confocal microscopy. This design provides improved mixing performance over a broader range of Reynolds numbers than other reported planar mixers, all while avoiding external force fields, more complicated fabrication processes and the introduction of flow obstructions or cavities that may unintentionally affect sensitive or particulate-containing samples. Due to the planar design requiring only single-step lithographic features, this compact geometry could be easily implemented into existing micro-total analysis systems requiring effective rapid mixing. (paper)

  19. Liquid metals pumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Frere, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    Pumps used to pump liquid metals depend on the liquid metal and on the type of application concerned. One deals more particularly with electromagnetic pumps, the main pumps used with mechanical pumps. To pump sodium in the nuclear field, these two types of pumps are used; the pumps of different circuits of Super Phenix are presented and described [fr

  20. Electromagnetic pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Koji; Suetake, Norio; Aizawa, Toshie; Nakasaki, Masayoshi

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides an electromagnetic pump suitable to a recycling pump for liquid sodium as coolants of an FBR type reactor. Namely, a stator module of the electromagnetic pump of the present invention comprises a plurality of outer laminate iron core units and outer stator modules stacked alternately in the axial direction. With such a constitution, even a long electromagnetic pump having a large number of outer stator coils can be manufactured without damaging electric insulation of the outer stator coils. In addition, the inner circumferential surface of the outer laminate iron cores is urged and brought into contact with the outer circumferential surface of the outer duct by an elastic material. With such a constitution, Joule loss heat generated in the outer stator coils and internal heat generated in the outer laminate iron cores can be released to an electroconductive fluid flowing the inner circumference of the outer duct by way of the outer duct. (I.S.)

  1. Electrokinetic pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Kamlesh D.

    2007-11-20

    A method for altering the surface properties of a particle bed. In application, the method pertains particularly to an electrokinetic pump configuration where nanoparticles are bonded to the surface of the stationary phase to alter the surface properties of the stationary phase including the surface area and/or the zeta potential and thus improve the efficiency and operating range of these pumps. By functionalizing the nanoparticles to change the zeta potential the electrokinetic pump is rendered capable of operating with working fluids having pH values that can range from 2-10 generally and acidic working fluids in particular. For applications in which the pump is intended to handle highly acidic solutions latex nanoparticles that are quaternary amine functionalized can be used.

  2. 26 CFR 48.4061-1 - Temporary regulations with respect to floor stock refunds or credits on cement mixers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... stock refunds or credits on cement mixers. 48.4061-1 Section 48.4061-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... § 48.4061-1 Temporary regulations with respect to floor stock refunds or credits on cement mixers. (a... of tax on motor vehicles) on the sale of a cement mixer after June 30, 1968, and before January 1...

  3. Problems of bentonite rebonding of synthetic system sands in turbine mixers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fedoryszyn

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Turbine (rotor mixers are widely used in foundries for bentonite rebonding of synthetic system sands. They form basic equipment in modern sand processing plants. Their major advantage is the short time of the rebond mixing cycle.Until now, no complete theoretical description of the process of mixing in turbine mixers has been offered. Neither does it seem reasonable to try to adapt the theoretical backgrounds of the mixing process carried out in mixers of other types, for example, rooler mixers [1], to the description of operation of the turbine mixers. Truly one can risk the statement that the individual fundamental operations of mixing in rooler mixers, like kneading, grinding, mixing and thinning, are also performed in turbine mixers. Yet, even if so, in turbine mixers these processes are proceeding at a rate and intensity different than in the roller mixers. The fact should also be recalled that the theoretical backgrounds usually relate to the preparation of sand mixtures from new components, and this considerably restricts the field of application of these descriptions when referred to rebond mixing of the system sand. The fundamentals of the process of the synthetic sand rebonding with bentonite require determination and description of operations, like disaggregation, even distribution of binder and water within the entire volume of the rebonded sand batch, sand grains coating, binder activation and aeration.This study presents the scope of research on the sand rebonding process carried out in turbine mixers. The aim has been to determine the range and specific values of the designing and operating parameters to get optimum properties of the rebonded sand as well as energy input in the process.

  4. Pumps and pump facilities. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohl, W.; Bauerfeind, H.; Gutmann, G.; Leuschner, G.; Matthias, H.B.; Mengele, R.; Neumaier, R.; Vetter, G.; Wagner, W.

    1981-01-01

    This book deals with the common fundamental aspects of liquid pumps and gives an exemplary choice of the most important kinds of pumps. The scientific matter is dealt with by means of practical mathematical examples among other ways of presenting the matter. Survey of contents: Division on main operational data of pumps - pipe characteristics - pump characteristics - suction behaviour of the pumps - projecting and operation of rotary pumps - boiler feed pumps - reactor feed pumps - oscillating positive-displacement pumps - eccentric spiral pumps. (orig./GL) [de

  5. Self-Propelled Semi-Submersibles: The Next Great Threat to Regional Security and Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    December.27 The FARC is also coordinating with Chinese gangs in the tri-border area of Argentina, Paraguay and Brazil .28 These gangs could... mangrove swamps in Western Colombia you can be ten feet away from where somebody‘s building a semi-submersible and never see it.‖63 D. INSPECTION OF

  6. Effects of four fungicides on nine non-target submersed macrophytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belgers, J.D.M.; Aalderink, G.H.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2009-01-01

    We tested the sensitivity of nine submersed macrophyte species to the fungicides chlorothalonil, pentachlorophenol, fluazinam, and carbendazim. Endpoints determined 3 weeks after the start of the treatment were based on shoot and root growth in water. Carbendazim proved not or only moderately toxic

  7. Competition between two submersed aquatic macrophytes, Potamogeton pectinatus and Potamogeton gramineus, across a light gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Submersed aquatic macrophyte communities, are often limited by the availability of light. Thus, they offer a unique opportunity to evaluate competition when light is the limiting resource. Competitive abilities of Potamogeton pectinatus (L.) Börner and Potamogeton gramineus L. were estimated using a...

  8. Geology of mud volcanos in the Eastern Mediterranean from combined sidescan and submersible surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zitter, T.A.C.; Huguen, C.; Woodside, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Submersible observations and seafloor mapping over areas of mud volcanism in the eastern Mediterranean Sea reveal an abundance of methane-rich fluid emissions, as well as specific seep-associated fauna (e.g. tubeworms, bivalves and chemosynthetic bacteria) and diagenetic deposits (i.e. carbonates

  9. Sandwich-format 3D printed microfluidic mixers: a flexible platform for multi-probe analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kise, Drew P; Reddish, Michael J; Brian Dyer, R

    2015-01-01

    We report on a microfluidic mixer fabrication platform that increases the versatility and flexibility of mixers for biomolecular applications. A sandwich-format design allows the application of multiple spectroscopic probes to the same mixer. A polymer spacer is ‘sandwiched’ between two transparent windows, creating a closed microfluidic system. The channels of the mixer are defined by regions in the polymer spacer that lack material and therefore the polymer need not be transparent in the spectral region of interest. Suitable window materials such as CaF 2 make the device accessible to a wide range of optical probe wavelengths, from the deep UV to the mid-IR. In this study, we use a commercially available 3D printer to print the polymer spacers to apply three different channel designs into the passive, continuous-flow mixer, and integrated them with three different spectroscopic probes. All three spectroscopic probes are applicable to each mixer without further changes. The sandwich-format mixer coupled with cost-effective 3D printed fabrication techniques could increase the applicability and accessibility of microfluidic mixing to intricate kinetic schemes and monitoring chemical synthesis in cases where only one probe technique proves insufficient. (paper)

  10. Development of maleated starches using an internal mixer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, Fernanda T.G.; Andrade, Cristina T.

    2009-01-01

    Novel maleated starches (MSt) were prepared by chemical modification of cornstarch with maleic anhydride (MA), using an internal mixer as a reactor. Benzoyl peroxide (BPO) was chosen as initiator. Physico-chemical parameters were determined for the process carried out at different MA contents, under the same reaction conditions. Processing was carried out at 50 deg C, 30 rpm for 8 min.Torque developed during processing was given by the digital display of the rheometer, and the total specific mechanical energy (SME) input was estimated. FTIR measurements confirmed the successful incorporation of MA into the starch backbone. In addition, WAXS diffraction analyses revealed disruption of the crystalline structure of native starch for the products. Such reactions promoted by MA reduced the crystallinity of the products. The results indicated that the MA content had a significant effect on the characteristics of the processed starch samples. (author)

  11. Photonics-Based Microwave Image-Reject Mixer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Zhu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in photonics-based microwave image-reject mixers (IRMs are reviewed with an emphasis on the pre-filtering method, which applies an optical or electrical filter to remove the undesired image, and the phase cancellation method, which is realized by introducing an additional phase to the converted image and cancelling it through coherent combination without phase shift. Applications of photonics-based microwave IRM in electronic warfare, radar systems and satellite payloads are described. The inherent challenges of implementing photonics-based microwave IRM to meet specific requirements of the radio frequency (RF system are discussed. Developmental trends of the photonics-based microwave IRM are also discussed.

  12. Phase separation in an experimental mixer-settler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckert, N.L.; Gormely, L.S.

    1989-01-01

    An experimental investigation was undertaken to study the factors affecting phase separation in a laboratory scale mixer-settler using a laboratory-prepared commercial oxime-copper system, and a system obtained from the Key Lake uranium extraction circuit. Besides being dependent on specific settler flow, the dispersion band thickness was found to be a function of the phase ratio and dispersion introduction level (uranium system only), and temperature. Drop size was found to be independent of dispersion throughout, a weak function of impeller speed, and a relatively strong function of the phase ratio. Microscopic examination of the uranium dispersion revealed the existence of drops within drops. With the exception of the organic continuous copper system, it was possible to distinguish two horizontal sublayers within the dispersion band. This structure conforms to the model provided by Barnea and Mizrahi. (author)

  13. Design Mixers to Minimize Effects of Erosion and Corrosion Erosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Fasano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A thorough review of the major parameters that affect solid-liquid slurry wear on impellers and techniques for minimizing wear is presented. These major parameters include (i chemical environment, (ii hardness of solids, (iii density of solids, (iv percent solids, (v shape of solids, (vi fluid regime (turbulent, transitional, or laminar, (vii hardness of the mixer's wetted parts, (viii hydraulic efficiency of the impeller (kinetic energy dissipation rates near the impeller blades, (ix impact velocity, and (x impact frequency. Techniques for minimizing the wear on impellers cover the choice of impeller, size and speed of the impeller, alloy selection, and surface coating or coverings. An example is provided as well as an assessment of the approximate life improvement.

  14. Numerical investigation of the effects of geometric parameters on transverse motion with slanted-groove micro-mixers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baik, Seung Joo; Cho, Jae Yong; Choi, Se Bin; Lee, Joon Sang [School of Mechanical Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    We investigated hydrodynamic phenomena inside several passive microfluidic mixers using a Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) based on particle mesoscopic kinetic equations. Mixing processes were simulated in a Slanted grooved micro-mixer (SGM), a Staggered herringbone grooved micro-mixer (SHM), and a Bi-layered staggered herringbone grooved micro-mixer (BSHM). Then, the effects of six geometric mixer parameters (i.e., groove height to channel height ratio, groove width to groove pitch length ratio, groove pitch to groove height ratio, groove intersection angle, herringbone groove asymmetric ratio and bi-layered groove asymmetric ratio) on mixing were investigated using computed cross-flow velocity and helicity density distributions in the flow cross-section. We demonstrated that helicity density provides sufficient information to analyze micro helical motion within a micro-mixer, allowing for micro-mixer design optimization.

  15. Fluidic pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priestman, G.H.

    1990-01-01

    A fluidic pump has primary and secondary vessels connected by a pipe, a displacement vessel having liquid to be delivered through a pipe via a rectifier provided with a feed tank. A drive unit delivers pressure fluid to a line to raise liquid and compress trapped gas or liquid in the space, including the pipe between the liquids in the two vessels and thus drive liquid out of the displacement vessel. The driving gas is therefore separated by the barrier liquid and the trapped gas or liquid from the liquid to be pumped which liquid could be e.g. radioactive. (author)

  16. Pumped storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauss, P.L.

    1991-01-01

    The privately financed 1,000 MW Rocky Point Pumped Storage Project located in central Colorado, USA, will be one of the world's highest head, 2,350 feet reversible pump/turbine projects. The project will offer an economical supply of peaking power and spinning reserve power to Colorado and other southwestern states. This paper describes how the project will be made compatible with the environmental conditions in the project area and the type of terrestrial mitigation measures that are being proposed for those situations where the project impacts the environment, either temporarily or permanently

  17. Design and Characterization of 1.8-3.2 THz Schottky-based Harmonic Mixers

    OpenAIRE

    Bulcha, BT; Hesler, JL; Drakinskiy, V; Stake, J; Valavanis, A; Dean, P; Li, LH; Barker, NS

    2016-01-01

    A room-temperature Schottky diode-based WM-86 (WR-0.34) harmonic mixer was developed to build high-resolution spectrometers, and multi-pixel receivers in the THz region for applications such as radio astronomy, plasma diagnostics, and remote sensing. The mixer consists of a quartz-based Local Oscillator (LO), Intermediate-Frequency (IF) circuits, and a GaAs-based beam-lead THz circuit with an integrated diode. Measurements of the harmonic mixer were performed using a 2 THz solid-state source ...

  18. Alternate paddle configuration for improved wear resistance in the saltstone mixer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reigel, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Fowley, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2013-09-23

    The Saltstone Production Facility has a 10-inch Readco-Kurimoto continuous mixer that mixes the premix dry feeds and low-level waste salt solution to make fresh (uncured) saltstone. Inspection of the mixer in January 2013 showed significant wear on the third, fourth and fifth paddle pairs after the conveying augers. A 2-inch Readco-Kurimoto continuous mixer was used to test alternate paddle configurations for use in the 10-inch mixer to decrease the wear rate on the paddles. Two wear tests were conducted to investigate a method of reducing wear on the mixer paddles. The first test (wear test 2a) had a paddle configuration similar to the currently installed 10-inch mixer in the SPF. This test established baseline wear. The second test (wear test 2b) had a reconfigured paddle arrangement that replaced the flat paddles with helical paddles for paddle pairs 2 - 6 and aligned paddle pair 1 with the augers. The intent of the reconfiguration was to more effectively convey the partially wetted dry feeds through the transition region and into the liquid feed where paddle wear is reduced due to dry feeds and salt solution being mixed at the intended water to premix ratio. The design of the helical paddles provides conveyance through the transition region to the liquid feed inlet. The alignment with the auger is aimed to provide a smoother transition (minimizing the discontinuity between the auger and paddle pair 1) into the downstream paddles. A soft metal with low wear resistance (6000 series aluminum) was used for the wear testing paddles to determine wear patterns while minimizing run time and maximizing wear rate. For the two paddle configurations tested using the scaled 2-inch Readco-Kurimoto continuous mixer, with the first six paddles after the augers replaced by the wear paddles and the remaining paddles were stainless steel. Since the 10-inch SPF mixer is designed with the liquid inlet centered over paddle pairs 5 and 6, the scaled 2-inch mixer was configured the

  19. Remelting of Aluminium by Continuous Submersion of Rolled Scrap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farner, Snorre

    2000-12-01

    When remelting aluminium scrap, metal losses due to dross generation is a common problem. Reduction of these losses will give substantial economic and environmental benefits. Dross is generated when aluminium metal oxidizes and films of oxide envelope molten metal. When a cold metal object is immersed in a melt, the heat of the melt around this is transferred so rapidly into the object that a shell of melt often solidifies to the surface of the object. When scrap with low bulk density is charged to a melt, solidification of melt on the cold scrap prevents melt from entering the cavities in the bulk of the scrap, and the bulk density remains low. Thus the scrap tends to float on the melt surface. Submersion of this scrap is important to avoid oxidation and subsequent dross generation. One solution to this is to roll scrap to a strip and feed it into the melt. This system has been examined by studying feeding of a continuous, thin aluminium plate into molten aluminium. Also, the effect of lacquer was considered, as well as feeding the plate into a launder with melt flowing along the surface of the plate. An analytical, one-dimensional, steady-state model has been developed to describe the melting and the melting mechanisms. It is based on a shell solidifying on the plate surface and a gap introducing a thermal resistance 1/h{sub g} between the shell and the plate. The thermal resistance 1/h{sub l} of the boundary layer of the melt is included. Depending on these resistances, the initial temperature of the plate and the melt temperature, a shell will form, and the plate will penetrate a distance P into the melt before it melts away. An experimental apparatus was designed and constructed to feed aluminium plate from a coil into a melt bath at a specified velocity. The plate could be withdrawn rapidly to ''freeze'' the situation like it was below the melt surface. The penetration depth P of the plate could be measured and shell formation observed

  20. Quasi-optical antenna-mixer-array design for terahertz frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yong; Potter, Kent A.; Rutledge, David B.

    1992-01-01

    A new quasi-optical antenna-mixer-array design for terahertz frequencies is presented. In the design, antenna and mixer are combined into an entity, based on the technology in which millimeter-wave horn antenna arrays have been fabricated in silicon wafers. It consists of a set of forward- and backward-looking horns made with a set of silicon wafers. The front side is used to receive incoming signal, and the back side is used to feed local oscillator signal. Intermediate frequency is led out from the side of the array. Signal received by the horn array is picked up by antenna probes suspended on thin silicon-oxynitride membranes inside the horns. Mixer diodes will be located on the membranes inside the horns. Modeling of such an antenna-mixer-array design is done on a scaled model at microwave frequencies. The impedance matching, RF and LO isolation, and patterns of the array have been tested and analyzed.

  1. Fabrication of High-T(sub c) Hot-Electron Bolometric Mixers for Terahertz Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, M. J.; Kleinsasser, A. W.; Delin, K. A.; Vasquez, R. P.; Karasik, B. S.; McGrath, W. R.; Gaidis, M. C.

    1996-01-01

    Superocnducting hot-electron bolometers (HEB) represent a promising candidate for heterodyne mixing at frequencies exceeding 1 THz. Nb HEB mixers offer performance competitive with tunnel junctions without the frequency limit imposed by the superconducting energy gap.

  2. FDC Mentor-Mentee Mixer Breaks the Ice Between Investigators and Trainees | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Frederick Diversity Committee’s mentor-mentee mixer gave research trainees, senior investigators, scientists, and administrative staff a chance to meet and mingle over refreshments and games following the Spring Research Festival.

  3. Fuel Continuous Mixer ? an Approach Solution to Use Straight Vegetable Oil for Marine Diesel Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đặng Van Uy

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The vegetable oil is well known as green fuel for diesel engines due to its low sunphur content and renewable stock. However, there are some problems raising when vegetable oil is used as fuel for diesel engines such as highly effected by cold weather, lower general efficiency, separation in layer if mixed with diesel oil and so on. To overcome that disadvantiges, the authors propose a new idea that to use a continuous fuel mixer to blend vegetable oil with diesel oil to make so called a mixed fuel supplying to diesel engines inline. In order to ensure a quality of the mixed fuel created by continuous mixer, a homogeneous testing was introduced with believable results. Then, the continuous mixer has been installed into fuel supply system of diesel engine 6LU32 at a lab of Vietnam Maritime University in terms of checking a real operation of the fuel continuous mixer with diesel engine.

  4. On-line separation of iodine species in reactor water using mixer-settlers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malmbeck, R.; Skarnemark, G.

    1995-01-01

    A method for separation of iodine species from water has been developed. It is based on liquid-liquid extraction and separation is achieved in four extraction steps. A system based on this method for continuous separation of iodine species using mixer-settlers has been developed. It consists of four mixer-settler batteries with 4,4,6 and 6 mixer-settler stages each. As organic phase an aliphatic kerosene is used and the separation is improved if the organic solvent has been pretreated with iodine carrier, stripped and washed. With an aqueous feed flowrate of 10 ml/min and mixer-settler battery phase flowratios of approximately 0.1 except for the elementary iodine strip battery with a phase flowratio of 1, the system separation performance is 92% for methyl iodide, 97% for iodate and elementary iodine and 99% for iodide. (orig.)

  5. Extraction of indium from sulphate solutions with D2EHPA solutions using static mixers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nacevski, N.; Poposka, F.; Nikov, B.

    1995-01-01

    The possible use of static mixers as a reactor for the extraction of indium from sulphate solutions was investigated. The experimental work was focused on ''Kenics'' type static mixers, since these were found simplest and cheapest among a variety of models, and yet yielded acceptable preliminary results with low pressure drop along the reactor. A series of experiments was carried out in a stirred continuous flow reactor to compare the results. It was found that under certain (different) conditions both reactors perform satisfactorily. The energy consumption of a static mixer is of the same order of magnitude as that of a stirred vessel. The most significant achievement of the experimental work is establishing that the residence time in a static mixer is about two orders of magnitude less than that in a stirred reactor. (orig.)

  6. Autonomous Optofluidic Chemical Analyzers for Marine Applications: Insights from the Submersible Autonomous Moored Instruments (SAMI for pH and pCO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Ze Lai

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The commercial availability of inexpensive fiber optics and small volume pumps in the early 1990's provided the components necessary for the successful development of low power, low reagent consumption, autonomous optofluidic analyzers for marine applications. It was evident that to achieve calibration-free performance, reagent-based sensors would require frequent renewal of the reagent by pumping the reagent from an impermeable, inert reservoir to the sensing interface. Pumping also enabled measurement of a spectral blank further enhancing accuracy and stability. The first instrument that was developed based on this strategy, the Submersible Autonomous Moored Instrument for CO2 (SAMI-CO2, uses a pH indicator for measurement of the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2. Because the pH indicator gives an optical response, the instrument requires an optofluidic design where the indicator is pumped into a gas permeable membrane and then to an optical cell for analysis. The pH indicator is periodically flushed from the optical cell by using a valve to switch from the pH indicator to a blank solution. Because of the small volume and low power light source, over 8,500 measurements can be obtained with a ~500 mL reagent bag and 8 alkaline D-cell battery pack. The primary drawback is that the design is more complex compared to the single-ended electrode or optode that is envisioned as the ideal sensor. The SAMI technology has subsequently been used for the successful development of autonomous pH and total alkalinity analyzers. In this manuscript, we will discuss the pros and cons of the SAMI pCO2 and pH optofluidic technology and highlight some past data sets and applications for studying the carbon cycle in aquatic ecosystems.

  7. Connection of superaccident feed pumps, especially for PWR or WWER power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sykora, D.

    1983-01-01

    The design is described of a superaccident feed pump for emergency water supply from storage tanks to the steam generator. Between the pump and the steam generator in the connecting pipe is installed an injector mixer, possibly complete with a heat exchanger. The output of the injector mixer is connected to the secondary side of the steam generator, the input of the forced or drawn medium is connected either to the steam space or to the water space of the secondary side of the steam generator. The said connection will considerably reduce the heat impact which threatens the integrity of the construction material of the steam generator during transition to superaccident feeding. (M.D.)

  8. Multi-Temperature Heat Pump with Cascade Compressor Connection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sit M.L.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The object of the study is a multifunctional heat pump with several evaporators and condensers designed for simultaneous provision of technological processes with heat and cold. The aim of the work is the development and study of the scheme for this type of heat pumps, which ensures minimum irreversibility in the "compressor-gas coolers" chain, without the use of adjustable ejectors installed after evaporators and used as flow mixers. The obtained technical solution ensures the stabilization of the heat pump coefficient of performance (COP and prescribed thermal regimes of heat exchangers at a variable flow rate of the refrigerant. The novelty of the elaboration is inclusion a compressor of the first stage with a serially connected intermediate heat exchanger and a control valve that are located before the compressor inlet of the second stage of the heat pump, which allows to establish a rational pressure after the first stage of the compressors. A scheme is proposed for regulating the temperature at the inlet of the first stage compressors by regulating the flow through the primary circuits of the recuperative heat exchangers. The first stage compressor control system allows providing the required modes of operation of the heat pump. It is established, because of the exergetic analysis of the sections of the hydraulic circuit of heat pump located between the evaporators and gas coolers that the reduction of irreversible losses in the heat pump is ensured due to the optimal choice of the superheat value of the gas after the evaporators.

  9. Submersible Data (Dive Waypoints) for Islands in the Stream 2002 - Deep Reef Habitat - Office of Ocean Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data and information collected by the submersible Johnson Sea-Link II at waypoints along its track during one dive of the 2002 "Islands in the Stream - Deep Reef...

  10. vid113_0401p -- Point coverage of sediment types from video collected from the Delta submersible vehicle.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Delta submersible vehicle, outfitted with video equipment (and other devices), was deployed from theR/V Auriga during September 2001 to monitor seafloor...

  11. vid119_0601d -- Line coverage of sediment types from video collected from the Delta submersible vehicle.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Delta submersible vehicle, outfitted with video equipment (and other devices), was deployed from the R/V Auriga during September 2001 to monitor seafloor...

  12. vid119_0601c-- Point coverage of sediment types from video collected from the Delta submersible vehicle.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Delta submersible vehicle, outfitted with video equipment (and other devices), was deployed from the R/V Auriga during September 2001 to monitor seafloor...

  13. Modeling the Impacts of Suspended Sediment Concentration and Current Velocity on Submersed Vegetation in an Illinois River Pool, USA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Best, Elly

    2004-01-01

    This technical note uses a modeling approach to examine the impacts of suspended sediment concentrations and current velocity on the persistence of submersed macrophytes in a shallow aquatic system...

  14. Submersible Data (Dive Waypoints) for Life on the Edge 2003: Exploring Deep Ocean Habitats - Office of Ocean Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data and information collected by the submersible Johnson Sea-Link II at waypoints along its track during two of the seventeen dives of the 2003 "Life on the Edge -...

  15. Submersible Data (Dive Waypoints) for Islands in the Stream 2002 - Pharmaceutical Discovery, Vision, and Bioluminescence - Office of Ocean Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data and information collected by the submersible Johnson Sea-Link II at waypoints along its track during one dive of the 2002 "Islands in the Stream -...

  16. Development of novel micro swirl mixer for producing fine metal oxide nanoparticles by continuous supercritical hydrothermal method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Shin-ichiro; Sue, Kiwamu; Ookawara, Ryuto; Wakashima, Yuichiro; Suzuki, Akira

    2010-01-01

    Novel micro swirl mixers were developed to synthesize nanoparticles, and the effect of their mixing performance on the characteristics of the synthesized nanoparticles was determined. The results were compared with those obtained using simple T-shaped mixers under the same reaction conditions. The synthesis of NiO, whose characteristics depend on the mixing performance of the mixer, was chosen as a model reaction. Initial investigations highlighted that the average particle size decreased from 32 to 23 to 20 nm as the inner diameter of the swirl mixers was decreased from 3.2 mm (Swirl mixer, SM-3.2) to 0.8 mm (Micro swirl mixer, MSM-0.8) to 0.5 mm (Micro swirl mixer, MSM-0.5), respectively. On the other hand, a similar decrease in the average particle size from 34 to 20 nm was observed with a decrease in the inner diameter of the T-shaped mixers from 1.3 mm (Tee union, T-1.3) to 0.3 mm (Micro tee union, T-0.3), respectively. Further, narrow particle size distributions were observed with a decrease in the inner diameter of each mixer. Furthermore, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation indicated an excellent mixing mechanism, which contributed to the improvement in the heating rate and the formation of nanoparticles of smaller size with a narrow particle size distribution. The result presented here indicates that the micro swirl mixers produce high-quality metal oxide nanoparticles. The size of the obtained particles with improved size distributions was comparable to that of the particles obtained using the T-shaped mixers, although the inner diameter of the swirl mixers was larger. Therefore, preliminary evidence suggests that the swirl flow mixers have the ability to produce rapid and homogeneous fluid mixing, thus controlling the particle size.

  17. Design of the ME-I powder mixer. Report of the design and construction of the powder mixer, according to the safety requisites of the pellets fabrication process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariano H, E.

    1991-03-01

    In order to fulfill the requirements of preparation of powder of UO 2 ; according to procedure P-M-PP-01, rev. 0, for the process of production of pellets, it was designed and manufactured a powders mixer to incorporate the lubricant one (zinc stearate) to the powder of UO 2 . This equipment allows to mix the powder of UO 2 evenly with the one zinc stearate, without forming considerable quantities of fine of UO 2 , besides a sure control for the operators of the process and an easy access to the mixer to inspect the mixture. (Author)

  18. Hot-electron bolometer terahertz mixers for the Herschel Space Observatory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherednichenko, Sergey; Drakinskiy, Vladimir; Berg, Therese; Khosropanah, Pourya; Kollberg, Erik

    2008-03-01

    We report on low noise terahertz mixers (1.4-1.9 THz) developed for the heterodyne spectrometer onboard the Herschel Space Observatory. The mixers employ double slot antenna integrated superconducting hot-electron bolometers (HEBs) made of thin NbN films. The mixer performance was characterized in terms of detection sensitivity across the entire rf band by using a Fourier transform spectrometer (from 0.5 to 2.5 THz, with 30 GHz resolution) and also by measuring the mixer noise temperature at a limited number of discrete frequencies. The lowest mixer noise temperature recorded was 750 K [double sideband (DSB)] at 1.6 THz and 950 K DSB at 1.9 THz local oscillator (LO) frequencies. Averaged across the intermediate frequency band of 2.4-4.8 GHz, the mixer noise temperature was 1100 K DSB at 1.6 THz and 1450 K DSB at 1.9 THz LO frequencies. The HEB heterodyne receiver stability has been analyzed and compared to the HEB stability in the direct detection mode. The optimal local oscillator power was determined and found to be in a 200-500 nW range.

  19. Numerical Investigation on Aerodynamic and Combustion Performance of Chevron Mixer Inside an Afterburner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Shan; JingZhou, Zhang; Yameng, Wang

    2014-11-01

    To improve the performance of the afterburner for the turbofan engine, an innovative type of mixer, namely, the chevron mixer, was considered to enhance the mixture between the core flow and the bypass flow. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations investigated the aerodynamic performances and combustion characteristics of the chevron mixer inside a typical afterburner. Three types of mixer, namely, CC (chevrons tilted into core flow), CB (chevrons tilted into bypass flow), and CA (chevrons tilted into core flow and bypass flow alternately), respectively, were studied on the aerodynamic performances of mixing process. The chevrons arrangement has significant effect on the mixing characteristics and the CA mode seems to be advantageous for the generation of the stronger streamwise vortices with lower aerodynamic loss. Further investigations on combustion characteristics for CA mode were performed. Calculation results reveal that the local temperature distribution at the leading edge section of flame holder is improved under the action of streamwise vortices shedding from chevron mixers. Consequently, the combustion efficiency increased by 3.5% compared with confluent mixer under the same fuel supply scheme.

  20. The effects of arbitrary injection angle and flow conditions on venturi-jet mixer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundararaj S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the effect of jet injection angle, cross flow Reynolds number and velocity ratio on entrainment and mixing of jet with incompressible cross flow in venturi-jet mixer. Five different jet injection angles 45o, 60o, 90o, 125o, 135o are tested to evaluate the entrainment of jet and mixing performances of the mixer. Tracer concentration along the downstream of the jet injection, cross flow velocity, jet velocity and pressure drop across the mixer are determined experimentally to characterize the mixing performance of the mixer. The experiments show that the performance of a venturi-jet-mixer substantially improves at high injection angle and can be augmented still by increasing velocity ratio. The jet deflects much and penetrates less in the cross flow as the cross flow Reynolds number is increased. The effect could contribute substantially to the better mixing index with moderate pressure drop. Normalized jet profile, concentration decay, jet velocity profile are computed from equations of conservation of mass, momentum and concentration written in natural co-ordinate systems. The comparison between the experimental and numerical results confirms the accuracy of the simulations. Correlations for jet trajectory and entrainment ratio of the mixer are obtained by multivariate-linear regression analysis using power law.

  1. Flow regimes in a T-mixer operating with a binary mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camarri, Simone; Siconolfi, Lorenzo; Galletti, Chiara; Salvetti, Maria Vittoria

    2015-11-01

    Efficient mixing in small volumes is a key target in many processes. Among the most common micro-devices, passive T-shaped micro-mixers are widely used. For this reason, T-mixers have been studied in the literature and its working flow regimes have been identified. However, in most of the available theoretical studies it is assumed that only one working fluid is used, i.e. that the same fluid at the same thermodynamic conditions is entering the two inlet conduits of the mixer. Conversely, the practical use of micro-devices often involves the mixing of two different fluids or of the same fluid at different thermodynamic conditions. In this case flow regimes significantly different than those observed for a single working fluid may occur. The present work aims at investigating the flow regimes in a T-mixers when water at two different temperatures, i.e. having different viscosity and density, is entering the mixer. The effect of the temperature difference on the flow regimes in a 3D T-mixer is investigated by DNS and stability analysis and the results are compared to the case in which a single working fluid is employed.

  2. Design of mixer settler extraction cycles II for recovery uranium from phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Jami; Hafni Lissa Nuri

    2013-01-01

    Mixer settler is technically designed for extraction and separation process of uranium from phosphoric acid solution. Design calculation results shows that: the mixer settler consists of two parts: part of extraction process in the mixer tank and part of separation process in settler tank. The mixer tank type of box with 4 baffles, the size of mixer tank, 0.8 m width, 0.8 m length, 1 m high of liquid, 1.05 m high of mixer tank, stirrer type of disk 6 blade, and power of mixing 4 hp and the settler tank type of rectangular with size of settler tank, 0.8 m width 5 m length, 1 m high of liquid, 1.05 m high of settler tank. For uranium recovery efficiency up to 91%, extraction process is done in 3 stage counter current flow using a solvent Organic (O) DEHPA-TOPO in Kerosene at a phase of ratio A/O of 2:1. The aqueous enter through stage 3 and the organic solvent enter through stage 1. The process of settling occurred with the value of settling velocity is 0.000694 m/s, dispersion factor Ψ = 0.3638 and the light fraction as the dispersed phase and value of Reynolds number (NRE) = 3,438. Because of the Reynolds number is lower than 5,000, it indicates that the quality of the separation is very good. (author)

  3. The development of mixer machine for organic animal feed production: Proposed study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leman, A. M.; Wahab, R. Abdul; Zakaria, Supaat; Feriyanto, Dafit; Nor, M. I. F. Che Mohd; Muzarpar, Syafiq

    2017-09-01

    Mixer machine plays a major role in producing homogenous composition of animal feed. Long time production, inhomogeneous and minor agglomeration has been observed by existing mixer. Therefore, this paper proposed continuous mixer to enhance mixing efficiency with shorter time of mixing process in order to abbreviate the whole process in animal feed production. Through calculation of torque, torsion, bending, power and energy consumption will perform in mixer machine process. Proposed mixer machine is designed by two layer buckets with purpose for continuity of mixing process. Mixing process was performed by 4 blades which consists of various arm length such as 50, 100,150 and 225 mm in 60 rpm velocity clockwise rotation. Therefore by using this machine will produce the homogenous composition of animal feed through nutrition analysis and short operation time of mixing process approximately of 5 minutes. Therefore, the production of animal feed will suitable for various animals including poultry and aquatic fish. This mixer will available for various organic material in animal feed production. Therefore, this paper will highlights some areas such as continues animal feed supply chain and bio-based animal feed.

  4. Study of a new static mixer for two-phase and single-phase flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foucrier, Michel

    1996-01-01

    The subject of this work is the study of OptimiX, a new static mixer, which is fully designed using an inverse method taking the final product features as input and based on the physical properties of the fluid to mix. The work began with the construction of an experimental loop which allowed us to qualify the mixer in two-phase and single-phase flow conditions. Next, a chemical method using a new test reaction and a micro-mixing model have been used to further characterise the mixer. This test reaction and the micro-mixing model have been developed by the 'Laboratoire des Sciences du Genie Chimique' of Nancy. The mixer OptimiX has proved to be an excellent device for both macro- and micro-mixing. The capability of this mixer to foster rapid reactions was also demonstrated. The well organised flow pattern of OptimiX, which results from its design, provides it with the unusual feature of being fully calculable. This work emphasizes the internal hydrodynamics of this mixer, justifies the universality of the design procedures, which validation is supported by the completed qualification work. (author) [fr

  5. Solar Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pique, Charles

    1987-01-01

    Proposed pump moves liquid by action of bubbles formed by heat of sun. Tube of liquid having boiling point of 100 to 200 degrees F placed at focal axis of cylindrical reflector. Concentrated sunlight boils liquid at focus, and bubbles of vapor rise in tube, carrying liquid along with them. Pressure difference in hot tube sufficient to produce flow in large loop. Used with conventional flat solar heating panel in completely solar-powered heat-storage system.

  6. Influence of temperature and salinity on heavy metal uptake by submersed plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritioff, A. [Department of Botany, Stockholm University, S-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)]. E-mail: fritioff@botan.su.se; Kautsky, L. [Department of Botany, Stockholm University, S-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Greger, M. [Department of Botany, Stockholm University, S-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2005-01-01

    Submersed plants can be useful in reducing heavy metal concentrations in stormwater, since they can accumulate large amounts of heavy metals in their shoots. To investigate the effects of water temperature and salinity on the metal uptake of two submersed plant species, Elodea canadensis (Michx.) and Potamogeton natans (L.), these plants were grown in the presence of Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb at 5, 11, and 20 deg. C in combination with salinities of 0, 0.5, and 5%o. The metal concentrations in the plant tissue increased with increasing temperature in both species; the exception was the concentration of Pb in Elodea, which increased with decreasing salinity. Metal concentrations at high temperature or low salinity were up to twice those found at low temperature or high salinity. Plant biomass affected the metal uptake, with low biomass plants having higher metal concentrations than did high biomass plants. - Metal concentrations increase with increasing temperature and decreasing salinity in two aquatic plants.

  7. Influence of temperature and salinity on heavy metal uptake by submersed plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritioff, A.; Kautsky, L.; Greger, M.

    2005-01-01

    Submersed plants can be useful in reducing heavy metal concentrations in stormwater, since they can accumulate large amounts of heavy metals in their shoots. To investigate the effects of water temperature and salinity on the metal uptake of two submersed plant species, Elodea canadensis (Michx.) and Potamogeton natans (L.), these plants were grown in the presence of Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb at 5, 11, and 20 deg. C in combination with salinities of 0, 0.5, and 5%o. The metal concentrations in the plant tissue increased with increasing temperature in both species; the exception was the concentration of Pb in Elodea, which increased with decreasing salinity. Metal concentrations at high temperature or low salinity were up to twice those found at low temperature or high salinity. Plant biomass affected the metal uptake, with low biomass plants having higher metal concentrations than did high biomass plants. - Metal concentrations increase with increasing temperature and decreasing salinity in two aquatic plants

  8. Interfacial effects in a multistage mixer-settler operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiinshiung Horng; Daluh Lu; Yingchu Hoh

    1988-01-01

    A pilot-scale mixer-settler with twenty-one stages was used to investigate the interfacial tension change during extraction cycle for the complicated system: NdCl 3 -SmCl 3 -EuCl 3 -GdCl 3 -TbCl 3 -DyCl 3 -HCl- 1 M D2EHPA-kerosene. Interfacial tension, total rare earth (TRE) concentrations in both phases, aqueous acidities, and organic entrainment in the raffinate, etc., were measured for each stage. Murphree stage efficiencies based on organic phase were calculated and related to the interfacial tension profiles. In general, the lower the interfacial tension, the higher the stage efficiency observed. For the extraction section, the stage efficiency ranged from 80% - 100%, but for stripping (including scrubbing) section, it varied from 100% - 15%. For high acidic stripping agent, 5 M HCl, the relatively lower stage efficiency might be due to the protonation of the acidic extractant, therefore the interfacial resistance increased significantly. From the information of stage efficiency, mass transfer direction, and interfacial tension versus solute concentration etc., the Marangoni effect could be used to explain the interfacial phenomena of this complicated extraction system. The results of real stream tests in this investigation will be useful in future plant design. (author)

  9. Can fractal objects operate as efficient inline mixers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laizet, Sylvain; Vassilicos, John; Turbulence, Mixing; Flow Control Group Team

    2011-11-01

    Recently, Hurst & Vassilicos, PoF 2007, Seoud & Vassilicos, PoF 2007, Mazellier & Vassilicos, PoF, 2010 used different multiscale grids to generate turbulence in a wind tunnel and have shown that complex multiscale boundary/initial conditions can drastically influence the behaviour of a turbulent flow, but that the detailled specific nature of the multiscale geometry matters too. Multiscale (fractal) objects can be designed to be immersed in any fluid flow where there is a need to control and design the turbulence generated by the object. Different types of multiscale objects can be designed as different types of energy-efficient mixers with varying degrees of high turbulent intensities, small pressure drop and downstream distance from the grid where the turbulence is most vigorous. Here, we present a 3D DNS study of the stirring and mixing of a passive scalar by turbulence generated with either a fractal square grid or a regular grid in the presence of a mean scalar gradient. The results show that: (1) there is a linear increase for the passive scalar variance for both grids, (2) the passive scalar variance is ten times bigger for the fractal grid, (3) the passive scalar flux is constant after the production region for both grids, (4) the passive scalar flux is enhanced by an order of magnitude for the fractal grid. We acknowledge support from EPSRC, UK.

  10. Comparison of SX of uranium using mixer settler and columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grinbaum, B.; Kotze, M.; Buchalter, E.

    2010-01-01

    Two types of equipment are used in the industry for solvent extraction (SX) of U: mixer-settlers (MS) and columns. Currently the only published type of columns applied in U SX is the Bateman Pulsed Columns (BPC). These columns have been applied for extraction of U for more than 13 years in Olympic Dam plant in Australia and in recent years were also introduced to additional plants in Australia and South Africa. Other plants are using MS of various types. The columns are currently used in the extraction battery only. For stripping and scrubbing only MS are currently used. Although pilot tests prove that the pH gradient required in the stripping may be successfully obtained in the BPC, they have not yet been applied in the industry. The paper compares the extraction and stripping in both types of equipment, regarding the capital cost, operating costs and operating conditions. The capital cost of the BPC is lower by 33-40%, depending on the size of the plant and the quality of the ore. The operating costs with the BPC are slightly lower, due to smaller losses of solvent. From operating point of view the BPC has the ability to recover from phase inversion and precipitation of yellow cake without the need to shut down the plant, if the problem is addressed within a few minutes. (author)

  11. Automatic Control of the Concrete Mixture Homogeneity in Cycling Mixers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anatoly Fedorovich, Tikhonov; Drozdov, Anatoly

    2018-03-01

    The article describes the factors affecting the concrete mixture quality related to the moisture content of aggregates, since the effectiveness of the concrete mixture production is largely determined by the availability of quality management tools at all stages of the technological process. It is established that the unaccounted moisture of aggregates adversely affects the concrete mixture homogeneity and, accordingly, the strength of building structures. A new control method and the automatic control system of the concrete mixture homogeneity in the technological process of mixing components have been proposed, since the tasks of providing a concrete mixture are performed by the automatic control system of processing kneading-and-mixing machinery with operational automatic control of homogeneity. Theoretical underpinnings of the control of the mixture homogeneity are presented, which are related to a change in the frequency of vibrodynamic vibrations of the mixer body. The structure of the technical means of the automatic control system for regulating the supply of water is determined depending on the change in the concrete mixture homogeneity during the continuous mixing of components. The following technical means for establishing automatic control have been chosen: vibro-acoustic sensors, remote terminal units, electropneumatic control actuators, etc. To identify the quality indicator of automatic control, the system offers a structure flowchart with transfer functions that determine the ACS operation in transient dynamic mode.

  12. Performance analysis of vortex based mixers for confined flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschhagen, Timo

    The hybrid rocket is still sparsely employed within major space or defense projects due to their relatively poor combustion efficiency and low fuel grain regression rate. Although hybrid rockets can claim advantages in safety, environmental and performance aspects against established solid and liquid propellant systems, the boundary layer combustion process and the diffusion based mixing within a hybrid rocket grain port leaves the core flow unmixed and limits the system performance. One principle used to enhance the mixing of gaseous flows is to induce streamwise vorticity. The counter-rotating vortex pair (CVP) mixer utilizes this principle and introduces two vortices into a confined flow, generating a stirring motion in order to transport near wall media towards the core and vice versa. Recent studies investigated the velocity field introduced by this type of swirler. The current work is evaluating the mixing performance of the CVP concept, by using an experimental setup to simulate an axial primary pipe flow with a radially entering secondary flow. Hereby the primary flow is altered by the CVP swirler unit. The resulting setup therefore emulates a hybrid rocket motor with a cylindrical single port grain. In order to evaluate the mixing performance the secondary flow concentration at the pipe assembly exit is measured, utilizing a pressure-sensitive paint based procedure.

  13. Concept of a nuclear powered submersible research vessel and a compact reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusunoki, Tsuyoshi; Odano, Naoteru; Yoritsune, Tsutomu; Ishida, Toshihisa; Nishimura, Hajime; Tokunaga, Sango

    2001-07-01

    A conceptual design study of a submersible research vessel navigating in 600 m depth and a compact nuclear reactor were carried out for the expansion of the nuclear power utilization. The mission of the vessel is the research of mechanism of the climate change to predict the global environment. Through conditions of the Arctic Ocean and the sea at high latitude have significant impacts on the global environmental change, it is difficult to investigate those areas by ordinary ships because of thick ice or storm. Therefore the research vessel is mainly utilized in the Arctic Ocean and the sea at high latitude. By taking account of the research mission, the basic specifications of the vessel are decided; the total weight is 500 t, the submersible depth is 600 m, the maximum speed is 12 knots (22.2 km/h), and the number of crews is 16. Nuclear power has an advantage in supplying large power of electricity in the sea for long period. Based on the requirements, it has been decided that two sets of submersible compact reactor, SCR, which is light-weighted and of enhanced safety characteristics of supply the total electricity of 500 kW. (author)

  14. Ground water lifting in the remote and arid areas of Egypt using solar photovoltaic pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Younes, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    An experimental study has been carried out at Mechanical and Electrical Research Institute, Qenater (300 N, 310 E), Egypt on a 2000 WP solar photovoltaic (PV) water pump. The main objective is to investigate the feasibility of utilizing solar energy in ground water lifting. A solar PV pumping system has been constructed as a prototype for a large-scale photovoltaic project in south of Egypt. Solar potential at the remote and arid areas of Egypt is discussed. Installation and operation factors as a function of environmental conditions are presented. Performance of the water pump has been evaluated. The water discharge and system efficiency has been estimated and presented. The changes in water discharge and system efficiency with change in solar radiation has been measured and presented. Preliminary results show that there is a huge potential and real-ability for solar PV submersible water pumping in the remote and arid areas of Egypt

  15. Pumping behavior of sputter ion pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, T.S.; McCafferty, D.

    The ultrahigh vacuum requirements of ISABELLE is obtained by distributed pumping stations. Each pumping station consists of 1000 l/s titanium sublimation pump for active gases (N 2 , H 2 , O 2 , CO, etc.), and a 20 l/s sputter ion pump for inert gases (methane, noble gases like He, etc.). The combination of the alarming production rate of methane from titanium sublimation pumps (TSP) and the decreasing pumping speed of sputter ion pumps (SIP) in the ultrahigh vacuum region (UHV) leads us to investigate this problem. In this paper, we first describe the essential physics and chemistry of the SIP in a very clean condition, followed by a discussion of our measuring techniques. Finally measured methane, argon and helium pumping speeds are presented for three different ion pumps in the range of 10 -6 to 10 -11 Torr. The virtues of the best pump are also discussed

  16. Calculation of conversion coefficients using Chinese adult reference phantoms for air submersion and ground contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wei; Qiu, Rui; Wu, Zhen; Li, Chunyan; Yang, Bo; Liu, Huan; Ren, Li; Li, Junli

    2017-03-21

    The effective and organ equivalent dose coefficients have been widely used to provide assessment of doses received by adult members of the public and by workers exposed to environmental radiation from nuclear facilities under normal or accidental situations. Advancements in phantom types, weighting factors, decay data, etc, have led to the publication of newer results in this regard. This paper presents a new set of conversion coefficients for air submersion and ground contamination (with the use of Geant4) for photons from 15 keV to 10 MeV using the Chinese and International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) adult reference male and female phantoms. The radiation fields, except for energy spectrum at low energies, were validated by the data obtained from the Monte Carlo code YURI. The effective dose coefficients of monoenergetic photons, obtained for the ICRP adult reference phantoms, agree well with recently published data for air submersion and ground contamination with a plane source at a depth of 0.5 g cm -2 in soil, but an average difference of 36.5% is observed for ground surface contamination with the abovementioned radiation field. The average differences in organ equivalent dose coefficients between the Chinese and the ICRP adult reference phantoms are within 6% for most organs, but noticeable differences of up to 70% or even higher are found at photon energies below 30 keV under air submersion. The effective dose coefficients obtained with the Chinese adult reference phantoms are greater than those of the ICRP adult reference phantoms above 30 keV and 0.5 MeV for ground contamination and air submersion, respectively; the average differences from the Chinese adult reference phantoms are about 3.6% and 0.4% in the whole energy range with maximum differences of 31.8% and 27.6% at 15 keV for air submersion and ground contamination respectively. These differences are attributed to anatomical discrepancies in overlying tissue mass of an

  17. Miscellaneous component design for Tank 241SY101 pump removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, F.H.

    1995-01-01

    A mixer pump has been used to mitigate the hydrogen build-up in tank 241SY101 (SY101), located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. New equipment is being prepared for the removal, transport, storage, and disposal of the test pump. The disposal equipment for the test pump now in tank SY101 includes a shipping container, a strong back, a lifting beam, a test weight, container support stands, a modified mock-up pump, a flexible receiver blast shield, a lifting yoke, and a yoke brace. The structural evaluations of container and strong back are detailed in another supporting document (WHC 1994a), the engineering analyses of flexible receiver blast shield/lifting yoke and yoke brace are given in other supporting documents (WHC 1994b, WHC 1994c), respectively. Engineering tasks that were contracted to Advanced Engineering Consultants (AEC) include the design and analysis of the following. Two spreader-beam lifting devices. a Container test weight. Container support saddles. Mock-up pump modification. This report documents the work description, design basis, assumptions, and design calculations provided by AEC for the above components. All AEC documents appear in Appendix A. Additional work conducted by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) on the modified container test weight, modification to the mock-up pump, the removable support for the transport assembly, and saddle modification for air pallets also are included in this document

  18. TNX/HLW Long Shaft Pumps 1995-2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VanPelt, B.

    2002-01-01

    Problems with long shaft pumps are becoming clearer due to increased use, better instrumentation, more analysis, and increased testing activity. The problems are with reliability and not with hydraulic performance. The root cause of reliability problems is usually excessive vibration caused by design. The outlook for satisfactory pumps is improved as understanding of problems increases. Promising developments are emerging such as the tilt pad bearing. Alternative configurations, such as gas filled columns and submerged motor pumps, will require development. Continued development, in general, should be expected due to changing technology and industry changes. This report describes thirteen distinct pump programs starting with leakage of original mixer pumps in the 1980s and ending with the testing of tilt pad bearings now in progress. Eight of the programs occurred from 1996 to 2000. All involve long shaft pumps; all involve testing at TNX; and all involve a problem of some kind. The co mmon technical issue among the activities is vibration and shaft (or rotor) instability due to journal bearings. In every case, excessive shaft vibration is a reasonable and probable explanation for some or all of the problems

  19. Selection of Sampling Pumps Used for Groundwater Monitoring at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schalla, Ronald; Webber, William D.; Smith, Ronald M.

    2001-11-05

    The variable frequency drive centrifugal submersible pump, Redi-Flo2a made by Grundfosa, was selected for universal application for Hanford Site groundwater monitoring. Specifications for the selected pump and five other pumps were evaluated against current and future Hanford groundwater monitoring performance requirements, and the Redi-Flo2 was selected as the most versatile and applicable for the range of monitoring conditions. The Redi-Flo2 pump distinguished itself from the other pumps considered because of its wide range in output flow rate and its comparatively moderate maintenance and low capital costs. The Redi-Flo2 pump is able to purge a well at a high flow rate and then supply water for sampling at a low flow rate. Groundwater sampling using a low-volume-purging technique (e.g., low flow, minimal purge, no purge, or micropurgea) is planned in the future, eliminating the need for the pump to supply a high-output flow rate. Under those conditions, the Well Wizard bladder pump, manufactured by QED Environmental Systems, Inc., may be the preferred pump because of the lower capital cost.

  20. Spectral linewidth preservation in parametric frequency combs seeded by dual pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Zhi; Wiberg, Andreas O J; Myslivets, Evgeny; Kuo, Bill P P; Alic, Nikola; Radic, Stojan

    2012-07-30

    We demonstrate new technique for generation of programmable-pitch, wideband frequency combs with low phase noise. The comb generation was achieved using cavity-less, multistage mixer driven by two tunable continuous-wave pump seeds. The approach relies on phase-correlated continuous-wave pumps in order to cancel spectral linewidth broadening inherent to parametric comb generation. Parametric combs with over 200-nm bandwidth were obtained and characterized with respect to phase noise scaling to demonstrate linewidth preservation over 100 generated tones.

  1. Pump characteristics and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Volk, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Providing a wealth of information on pumps and pump systems, Pump Characteristics and Applications, Third Edition details how pump equipment is selected, sized, operated, maintained, and repaired. The book identifies the key components of pumps and pump accessories, introduces the basics of pump and system hydraulics as well as more advanced hydraulic topics, and details various pump types, as well as special materials on seals, motors, variable frequency drives, and other pump-related subjects. It uses example problems throughout the text, reinforcing the practical application of the formulae

  2. The Strength Analysis of Differential Planetary Gears of Gearbox for Concrete Mixer Truck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, M. H.; Bae, T. Y.; Kim, D. J.

    2018-03-01

    The power train of mixer gearbox for concrete mixer truck includes differential planetary gears to get large reduction ratio for operating mixer a drum and simple structure. The planetary gears are very important part of a mixer gearbox where strength problems namely gear bending stress, gear compressive stress and scoring failure are the main concern. In the present study, calculating specifications of the differential planetary gears and analyzing the gear bending and compressive stresses as well as scoring factor of the differential planetary gears gearbox for an optimal design of the mixer gearbox in respect to cost and reliability are investigated. The analyses of actual gear bending and compressive stresses of the differential planetary gears using Lewes & Hertz equation and verifications of the calculated specifications of the differential planetary gears evaluate the results with the data of allowable bending and compressive stress from the Stress-No. of cycles curves of gears. In addition, we also analyze actual gear scoring factor as well as evaluate the possibility of scoring failure of the differential planetary gear.

  3. Numerical and Experimental Study on Mixing Performances of Simple and Vortex Micro T-Mixers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mubashshir Ahmad Ansari

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Vortex flow increases the interface area of fluid streams by stretching along with providing continuous stirring action to the fluids in micromixers. In this study, experimental and numerical analyses on a design of micromixer that creates vortex flow were carried out, and the mixing performance was compared with a simple micro T-mixer. In the vortex micro T-mixer, the height of the inlet channels is half of the height of the main mixing channel. The inlet channel connects to the main mixing channel (micromixer at the one end at an offset position in a fashion that creates vortex flow. In the simple micro T-mixer, the height of the inlet channels is equal to the height of the channel after connection (main mixing channel. Mixing of fluids and flow field have been analyzed for Reynolds numbers in a range from 1–80. The study has been further extended to planar serpentine microchannels, which were combined with a simple and a vortex T-junction, to evaluate and verify their mixing performances. The mixing performance of the vortex T-mixer is higher than the simple T-mixer and significantly increases with the Reynolds number. The design is promising for efficiently increasing mixing simply at the T-junction and can be applied to all micromixers.

  4. Submillisecond mixing in a continuous-flow, microfluidic mixer utilizing mid-infrared hyperspectral imaging detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kise, Drew P; Magana, Donny; Reddish, Michael J; Dyer, R Brian

    2014-02-07

    We report a continuous-flow, microfluidic mixer utilizing mid-infrared hyperspectral imaging detection, with an experimentally determined, submillisecond mixing time. The simple and robust mixer design has the microfluidic channels cut through a polymer spacer that is sandwiched between two IR transparent windows. The mixer hydrodynamically focuses the sample stream with two side flow channels, squeezing it into a thin jet and initiating mixing through diffusion and advection. The detection system generates a mid-infrared hyperspectral absorbance image of the microfluidic sample stream. Calibration of the hyperspectral image yields the mid-IR absorbance spectrum of the sample versus time. A mixing time of 269 μs was measured for a pD jump from 3.2 to above 4.5 in a D2O sample solution of adenosine monophosphate (AMP), which acts as an infrared pD indicator. The mixer was further characterized by comparing experimental results with a simulation of the mixing of an H2O sample stream with a D2O sheath flow, showing good agreement between the two. The IR microfluidic mixer eliminates the need for fluorescence labeling of proteins with bulky, interfering dyes, because it uses the intrinsic IR absorbance of the molecules of interest, and the structural specificity of IR spectroscopy to follow specific chemical changes such as the protonation state of AMP.

  5. Internal pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kushima, Jun; Hayashi, Youjiro; Ueda, Masayuki.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention relates to an internal pump. A water hole allowing communication between internal and external circumferences of a stretch tube is provided at the portion of the stretch tube corresponding to a position where an end face of a nozzle portion of a motor case and an end face of a diffuser are joined with each other so that hot filtered water inside a pressure container which has entered from where the end face of the nozzle portion of the motor case and the end face of the diffuser are joined with each other is combined with the purged water so that it can be sent back to the pressure container again. (author) figs

  6. Flow-induced vibration characteristics of the BWR/5-201 jet pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaCroix, L.V.

    1982-09-01

    A General Electric boiling water reactor BWR/5-201 jet pump was tested for flow-induced vibration (FIV) characteristics in the Large Steam Water Test Facility at Moss Landing, CA, during the period June-July 1978. High level periodic FIV were observed at reactor operating conditions (1027 psia, 532 0 F and prototypical flow rates) for the specific single jet pump assembly tested. High level FIV of similar amplitude and character have been shown capable of damaging jet pump components and associated support hardware if allowed to continue unchecked. High level FIV were effectively suppressed in two special cases tested: (1) lateral load (>500 lb) at the mixer to diffuser slip joint; and (2) a labyrinth seal (5 small, circumferential grooves) on the mixer at the slip joint. Stability criteria for the particular jet pump tested were developed from test data. A cause-effect relationship between the dynamic pressure within the slip joint and the jet pump vibration was established

  7. Breastfeeding FAQs: Pumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of pump is best? You can buy or rent a breast pump from lactation consultants, hospitals, retail ... place to do it. Many companies offer their employees pumping and nursing areas. If yours doesn't, ...

  8. Analysis of Electric Propulsion Performance on Submersible with Motor DC, Supply Power 10260AH at Voltage 115VDC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indra Ranu Kusuma

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Electric propulsion is the ship system using propulsion motor to replace performance of main engine. The application of diesel engine as propulsion system have some problems and weaknesses such as diesel engine unability to operate when submersible vessel is operating under sea. To overcome that problems in submersible vessel, alternative solution of ship propulsion is required. DC Motor can be used as this alternative solution. Submersible vessel use electric propulsion system with DC Motor because DC Motor has advantages of easy rotation setting and does not cause noise when submersible vessel is diving. This bachelor thesis will study the application of DC Motor as an electric propulsion system on submersible vessel with length 59,57 m in series and parallel circuit by simulation using MATLAB software. The simulation data obtained are rotation and torque of DC Motor. From these simulation, it can be concluded that parallel circuit rotation is greater than series circuit rotation. It caused the greater speed and lower power in parallel circuit. 

  9. Flux intensification during microfiltration of distillery stillage using a kenics static mixer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasić Vesna M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work studies the effect of operating parameters (pH, feed flow rate, and transmembrane pressure on microfiltration of distillery stillage. Experiments were conducted in the presence of a Kenics static mixer as a turbulence promoter, and its influence on the flux improvement and specific energy consumption was examined. Response surface methodology was used to investigate the effect of selected factors on microfiltration performances. The results showed that response surface methodology is an appropriate model for mathematical presentation of the process. It was found that the use of a static mixer is justified at the feed flow rates higher than 100 L/h. In contrast, the use of a static mixer at low values of feed flow rate and transmembrane pressure has no justification from an economic point of view. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. TR 31002

  10. Compact terahertz passive spectrometer with wideband superconductor-insulator-superconductor mixer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, K; Kohjiro, S; Yamada, T; Shimizu, N; Wakatsuki, A

    2012-02-01

    We developed a compact terahertz (THz) spectrometer with a superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) mixer, aiming to realize a portable and highly sensitive spectrometer to detect dangerous gases at disaster sites. The receiver cryostat which incorporates the SIS mixer and a small cryocooler except for a helium compressor has a weight of 27 kg and dimensions of 200 mm × 270 mm × 690 mm. In spite of the small cooling capacity of the cryocooler, the SIS mixer is successfully cooled lower than 4 K, and the temperature variation is suppressed for the sensitive measurement. By adopting a frequency sweeping system using photonic local oscillator, we demonstrated a spectroscopic measurement of CH(3)CN gas in 0.2-0.5 THz range.

  11. Drug residues recovered in feed after various feedlot mixer truck cleanout procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Donkersgoed, Joyce; Sit, Dan; Gibbons, Nicole; Ramogida, Caterina; Hendrick, Steve

    2010-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of two methods of equipment cleanout, sequencing or flushing, for reducing drug carryover in feedlot mixer trucks. Feed samples were collected from total mixed rations before and after various feed mixer equipment cleanout procedures. Medicated rations contained either 11 ppm of tylosin or 166 or 331 ppm of chlortetracycline. There were no differences between sequencing and flushing or between flushing with dry barley and flushing with barley silage in the median proportion of drug recovered in the next ration. A larger drug reduction was achieved using flush material at a volume of 10 versus 5% of the mixer capacity and mixing the flush material for 3 versus 4 min. Regardless of the drug or prescription concentrations in the total mixed rations or the equipment cleanout procedure used, concentrations of chlortetracycline and tylosin recovered were very low.

  12. Complete Procedure for Fabrication of a Fused Silica Ultrarapid Microfluidic Mixer Used in Biophysical Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dena Izadi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a method to fabricate a fused silica microfluidic device by employing low viscosity KMPR photoresists. The resulting device is a continuous-flow microfluidic mixer based on hydrodynamic focusing. The advantages of this new fabrication method compared to the traditional approach using a poly-silicon mask are simplification, and time and cost reduction, while still preserving the quality and the performance of the mixers. This process results in devices in which the focusing channel has an aspect ratio of 10:1. The newly-fabricated mixer is successfully used to observe the folding of the Pin1 WW domain at the microsecond time scale.

  13. Development of a multi-channel horn mixer array for microwave imaging plasma diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Naoki; Kuwahara, Daisuke; Nagayama, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    Microwave to millimeter-wave diagnostics techniques, such as interferometry, reflectometry, scattering, and radiometry, have been powerful tools for diagnosing magnetically confined plasmas. The resultant measurements have clarified several physics issues, including instability, wave phenomena, and fluctuation-induced transport. Electron cyclotron emission imaging has been an important tool in the investigation of temperature fluctuations, while reflectometry has been employed to measure plasma density profiles and their fluctuations. We have developed a horn-antenna mixer array (HMA), a 50 - 110 GHz 1D antenna array, which can be easily stacked as a 2D array. This article describes an upgrade to the horn mixer array that combines well-characterized mixers, waveguide-to-microstrip line transitions, intermediate frequency amplifiers, and internal local oscillator modules using a monolithic microwave integrated circuit technology to improve system performance. We also report on the use of a multi-channel HMA system. (author)

  14. Hydrodynamic study of the rotating cylinder mixer of a laboratory centrifugal extractor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philipponeau, Yannick.

    1979-08-01

    As part of a research programme on solvent extraction kinetics the Fontenay-aux-Roses Nuclear Research Centre has undertaken to build a new centrifugal extractor prototype. The work was centred on a hydrodynamic study of the rotating cylinder mixer of the extractor, using a test apparatus specially designed for this purpose. This apparatus was used to determine the flow conditions of a liquid alone in the annular space of the mixer as a function of the working specifications. The existence of several types of flow was established. The stability region of which was determined as a function of different parameters for a number of liquid-liquid systems. The experiments showed in addition that two kinds of dispersion can be obtained, differing by the nature of the continuous phase. This was determined for various parameters of certain liquid-liquid systems. From this research the hydrodynamic behavior of the CEA centrifugal extractor prototype mixer is thus known [fr

  15. The Robust Control Mixer Method for Reconfigurable Control Design By Using Model Matching Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Z.; Blanke, Mogens; Verhagen, M.

    2001-01-01

    This paper proposes a robust reconfigurable control synthesis method based on the combination of the control mixer method and robust H1 con- trol techniques through the model-matching strategy. The control mixer modules are extended from the conventional matrix-form into the LTI sys- tem form....... By regarding the nominal control system as the desired model, an augmented control system is constructed through the model-matching formulation, such that the current robust control techniques can be usedto synthesize these dynamical modules. One extension of this method with respect to the performance...... recovery besides the functionality recovery is also discussed under this framework. Comparing with the conventional control mixer method, the proposed method considers the recon gured system's stability, performance and robustness simultaneously. Finally, the proposed method is illustrated by a case study...

  16. LMFBR with booster pump in pumping loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubinstein, H.J.

    1975-01-01

    A loop coolant circulation system is described for a liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) utilizing a low head, high specific speed booster pump in the hot leg of the coolant loop with the main pump located in the cold leg of the loop, thereby providing the advantages of operating the main pump in the hot leg with the reliability of cold leg pump operation

  17. Liquid metal pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennell, William E.

    1982-01-01

    The liquid metal pump comprises floating seal rings and attachment of the pump diffuser to the pump bowl for isolating structural deflections from the pump shaft bearings. The seal rings also eliminate precision machining on large assemblies by eliminating the need for a close tolerance fit between the mounting surfaces of the pump and the seals. The liquid metal pump also comprises a shaft support structure that is isolated from the pump housing for better preservation of alignment of shaft bearings. The shaft support structure also allows for complete removal of pump internals for inspection and repair.

  18. Liquid metal pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennell, W.E.

    1982-01-01

    The liquid metal pump comprises floating seal rings and attachment of the pump diffuser to the pump bowl for isolating structural deflections from the pump shaft bearings. The seal rings also eliminate precision machining on large assemblies by eliminating the need for a close tolerance fit between the mounting surfaces of the pump and the seals. The liquid metal pump also comprises a shaft support structure that is isolated from the pump housing for better preservation of alignment of shaft bearings. The shaft support structure also allows for complete removal of pump internals for inspection and repair

  19. Heat pump technology

    CERN Document Server

    Von Cube, Hans Ludwig; Goodall, E G A

    2013-01-01

    Heat Pump Technology discusses the history, underlying concepts, usage, and advancements in the use of heat pumps. The book covers topics such as the applications and types of heat pumps; thermodynamic principles involved in heat pumps such as internal energy, enthalpy, and exergy; and natural heat sources and energy storage. Also discussed are topics such as the importance of the heat pump in the energy industry; heat pump designs and systems; the development of heat pumps over time; and examples of practical everyday uses of heat pumps. The text is recommended for those who would like to kno

  20. SULEU NTP Core with Passive Reactivity Control and Enhanced Submersion Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venneri, Paolo; Kim, Yong Hee [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Eades, Michael J [The Ohio State University, Ohio (United States)

    2016-05-15

    In this summary, SULEU has been adapted to implement some of the latest developments of LEUNTP design efforts. These include the implementation of a rapid depletion burnable absorber to flatten the reactivity profile during operation and the addition of a lower axial reflector to help minimize the reactivity increase during the full submersion criticality accident. The purpose of this study is to show the state of current LEU-NTP designs in terms of resolving key issues such as minimizing control drum usage and resolving the full submersion criticality accident. Future work will include integrating the rapid depletion poison with other passive reactivity control devices (such as hydrogen density in the tie-tubes) and developing additional systems for mitigating the full submersion criticality accident. It is widely acknowledged that nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) is an enabling technology for manned missions to Mars and other locations beyond low-Earth orbit. Without nuclear thermal propulsion, manned space travel will be severely limited by the propellant requirements of chemical propulsion and significantly longer travel times of electric propulsion. While the performance superiority of NTP is clear, its implementation has been to date unsuccessful due to the significant costs of development, implementation, and regulations associated with the heritage NTP designs. These new systems take heritage designs and experimental results and adapt them to use LEU fuel with minimum impact on the heritage system. This is done in order to ensure their continued relevance with existing NTP research efforts and enable their rapid implementation into existing NASA efforts for human Mars mission planning. Of the current baseline NTP designs being studied, this paper concerns itself with the improvement of the Superb Use of Low Enriched (SULEU) core.

  1. Thermal effects of whole head submersion in cold water on nonshivering humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretorius, Thea; Bristow, Gerald K; Steinman, Alan M; Giesbrecht, Gordon G

    2006-08-01

    This study isolated the effect of whole head submersion in cold water, on surface heat loss and body core cooling, when the confounding effect of shivering heat production was pharmacologically eliminated. Eight healthy male subjects were studied in 17 degrees C water under four conditions: the body was either insulated or uninsulated, with the head either above the water or completely submersed in each body-insulation subcondition. Shivering was abolished with buspirone (30 mg) and meperidine (2.5 mg/kg), and subjects breathed compressed air throughout all trials. Over the first 30 min of immersion, exposure of the head increased core cooling both in the body-insulated conditions (head out: 0.47 +/- 0.2 degrees C, head in: 0.77 +/- 0.2 degrees C; P body-exposed conditions (head out: 0.84 +/- 0.2 degrees C and head in: 1.17 +/- 0.5 degrees C; P body surface area) in the body-exposed conditions increased total heat loss by only 10%. In both body-exposed and body-insulated conditions, head submersion increased core cooling rate much more (average of 42%) than it increased total heat loss. This may be explained by a redistribution of blood flow in response to stimulation of thermosensitive and/or trigeminal receptors in the scalp, neck and face, where a given amount of heat loss would have a greater cooling effect on a smaller perfused body mass. In 17 degrees C water, the head does not contribute relatively more than the rest of the body to surface heat loss; however, a cold-induced reduction of perfused body mass may allow this small increase in heat loss to cause a relatively larger cooling of the body core.

  2. Study on global performances and mooring-induced damping of a semi-submersible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Ling-zhi; Yang, Jian-min; Lv, Hai-ning; Zhao, Wen-hua; Kou, Yu-feng

    2016-10-01

    The harsh environmental conditions bring strong nonlinearities to the hydrodynamic performances of the offshore floating platforms, which challenge the reliable prediction of the platform coupled with the mooring system. The present study investigates a typical semi-submersible under both the operational and the survival conditions through numerical and experimental methods. The motion responses, the mooring line tensions, and the wave loads on the longitudinal mid-section are investigated by both the fully non-linearly coupled numerical simulation and the physical experiment. Particularly, in the physical model test, the wave loads distributed on the semi-submersible's mid-section were measured by dividing the model into two parts, namely the port and the starboard parts, which were rigidly connected by three six-component force transducers. It is concluded that both the numerical and physical model can have good prediction of the semi-submersible's global responses. In addition, an improved numerical approach is proposed for the estimation of the mooring-induced damping, and is validated by both the experimental and the published results. The characteristics of the mooring-induced damping are further summarized in various sea states, including the operational and the survival environments. In order to obtain the better prediction of the system response in deep water, the mooring-induced damping of the truncated mooring lines applied in the physical experiment are compensated by comparing with those in full length. Furthermore, the upstream taut and the downstream slack mooring lines are classified and investigated to obtain the different mooring line damping performances in the comparative study.

  3. Effect of mixing time and speed on experimental baking and dough testing with a 200g pin-mixer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under mixing or over mixing the dough results in varied experimental loaf volumes. Bread preparation requires a trained baker to evaluate dough development and determine stop points of mixer. Instrumentation and electronic control of the dough mixer would allow for automatic mixing. This study us...

  4. Investigation of LO-leakage cancellation and DC-offset influence on flicker-noise in X-band mixers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michaelsen, Rasmus; Johansen, Tom; Tamborg, Kjeld

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an investigation on the influences in 1/f noise of LO-leakage and DC-offset cancellation for X-band mixers. Conditions for LO-leakage cancellation and zero DC-offset is derived. Measurements on a double balanced diode mixer shows an improvement in noise figure from 14.3dB to ...

  5. A high conversion-gain Q-band InP DHBT subharmonic mixer using LO frequency doubler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Tom Keinicke; Vidkjær, Jens; Krozer, Viktor

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents analysis and design of a Q-band subharmonic mixer (SHM) with high conversion gain. The SHM consists of a local oscillator (LO) frequency doubler, RF pre-amplifier, and single-ended mixer. The SHM has been fabricated in a high-speed InP double heterojunction bipolar transistor (...

  6. Rational ore deposit drilling pattern with construction of cluster pumping wells in the artesian flow conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matunov, A.; Pershin, M.

    2014-01-01

    Drilling pattern and quantity of technological (injection and production) wells in the uranium in-situ leaching is determined by the projection of ore deposit to the daylight surface, structure and hydrogeological characteristics of ore-bearing deposits and given well field productivity. The difference between the structure of production and injection wells lies in that the upper part of production well has a submersible pump which, compared to injection wells, requires installation in its the upper part of the casing string with larger diameter pipes to allow for the pump installation. As a result, the production wells can be operated in pumping and injection mode and injection wells only in injection mode. The essence of the new scheme is as follows: • All wells on the block are constructed as injection wells, i.e. without a larger diameter pipe being installed in the upper part of the string. • The wells selected for operation as production wells, are leak-proof connected with “cluster” pumping wells by plastic pipelines. • “Cluster” pumping wells up to 100 m deep equipped with dead-end string with no screen are constructed near the power sources. Submersible pumps are installed in such wells with the total capacity to be determined by the design flow rate of the block and to ensure the steady, directional flow from injection to production wells. The minimum number of such ''cluster'' pumping wells is one per a well field, which well can be piped to up to seven wells designed for production. As a result, the expenses on procurement of cable products and submersible pumps are reduced and funds for well drilling and their piping are saved. The proposed scheme of well field development used under the artesian flow conditions allows not only for the cost reduction on operating block piping but also for the use of injection wells as production wells at different stages of block development by selecting any necessary combinations of technological wells

  7. Increased power generation from primary sludge by a submersible microbial fuel cell and optimum operational conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vologni, Valentina; Kakarla, Ramesh; Angelidaki, Irini

    2013-01-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have received attention as a promising renewable energy technology for waste treatment and energy recovery. We tested a submersible MFC with an innovative design capable of generating a stable voltage of 0.250 ± 0.008 V (with a fixed 470 Ω resistor) directly from prima...... prolonged the current generation and increased the power density by 7 and 1.5 times, respectively, in comparison with raw primary sludge. These findings suggest that energy recovery from primary sludge can be maximized using an advanced MFC system with optimum conditions....

  8. Innovative self-powered submersible microbial electrolysis cell (SMEC) for biohydrogen production from anaerobic reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yifeng; Angelidaki, Irini

    2012-01-01

    A self-powered submersible microbial electrolysis cell (SMEC), in which a specially designed anode chamber and external electricity supply were not needed, was developed for in situ biohydrogen production from anaerobic reactors. In batch experiments, the hydrogen production rate reached 17.8 m...... improvement of voltage output and reduction of electron losses were essential for efficient hydrogen generation. In addition, alternate exchanging the electricity-assisting and hydrogen-producing function between the two cell units of the SMEC was found to be an effective approach to inhibit methanogens...

  9. A Wideband Balun LNA I/Q-Mixer combination in 65nm CMOS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaakmeer, S.C.; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Leenaerts, D.M.W.; Nauta, Bram

    2008-01-01

    An inductor-less LNA-mixer topology merges an I/Q current-commutating mixer with a noise-canceling balun/LNA. The topology achieves >18dB conversion gain, a flat NF<5.5dB, IIP2=+20dBm and IIP3=-3dBm from 500MHz to 7GHz. The core circuit consumes 16mW and occupies less than 0.01mm2 in 65nm CMOS.

  10. High linearity current communicating passive mixer employing a simple resistor bias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Rongjiang; Guo Guiliang; Yan Yuepeng

    2013-01-01

    A high linearity current communicating passive mixer including the mixing cell and transimpedance amplifier (TIA) is introduced. It employs the resistor in the TIA to reduce the source voltage and the gate voltage of the mixing cell. The optimum linearity and the maximum symmetric switching operation are obtained at the same time. The mixer is implemented in a 0.25 μm CMOS process. The test shows that it achieves an input third-order intercept point of 13.32 dBm, conversion gain of 5.52 dB, and a single sideband noise figure of 20 dB. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  11. Design of an Efficient Turbulent Micro-Mixer for Protein Folding Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inguva, Venkatesh; Perot, Blair

    2015-11-01

    Protein folding studies require the development of micro-mixers that require less sample, mix at faster rates, and still provide a high signal to noise ratio. Chaotic to marginally turbulent micro-mixers are promising candidates for this application. In this study, various turbulence and unsteadiness generation concepts are explored that avoid cavitation. The mixing enhancements include flow turning regions, flow splitters, and vortex shedding. The relative effectiveness of these different approaches for rapid micro-mixing is discussed. Simulations found that flow turning regions provided the best mixing profile. Experimental validation of the optimal design is verified through laser confocal microscopy experiments. This work is support by the National Science Foundation.

  12. The status of simulation codes for extraction process using mixer-settler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byeon, Kee Hoh; Lee, Eil Hee; Kwon, Seong Gil; Kim, Kwang Wook; Yang, Han Beom; Chung, Dong Yong; Lim, Jae Kwan; Shin, Hyun Kyoo; Kim, Soo Ho

    1999-10-01

    We have studied and analyzed the mixer-settler simulation codes such as three kinds of SEPHIS series, PUBG, and EXTRA.M, which is the most recently developed code. All of these are sufficiently satisfactory codes in the fields of process/device modeling, but it is necessary to formulate the accurate distribution data and chemical reaction mechanism for the aspect of accuracy and reliability. In the aspect of application to be the group separation process, the mixer-settler model of these codes have no problems, but the accumulation and formulation of partitioning and reaction equilibrium data of chemical elements used in group separation process is very important. (author)

  13. Robust Control Mixer Method for Reconfigurable Control Design Using Model Matching Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhenyu; Blanke, Mogens; Verhagen, Michel

    2007-01-01

    A novel control mixer method for recon¯gurable control designs is developed. The proposed method extends the matrix-form of the conventional control mixer concept into a LTI dynamic system-form. The H_inf control technique is employed for these dynamic module designs after an augmented control...... system is constructed through a model-matching strategy. The stability, performance and robustness of the reconfigured system can be guaranteed when some conditions are satisfied. To illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method, a robot system subjected to failures is used to demonstrate...

  14. Fabrication of microfluidic mixers with varying topography in glass using the powder-blasting process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayah, Abdeljalil; Thivolle, Pierre-Antoine; Parashar, Virendra K; Gijs, Martin A M

    2009-01-01

    The powder-blasting method is used to fabricate structures with a three-dimensional topography in glass using elastomeric masks. The relation between the mask opening width and the erosion depth is exploited to fabricate microstructures with varying depth in a single micropatterning step. As an application, planar three-dimensional micro-mixers were fabricated, which consist of a repeating convergent microfluidic nozzle structure. Three different designs of the micro-mixers were considered. The mixing of co-flowing laminar streams results from the generation of multiple vortices at the exit of the different convergent nozzles

  15. Making effective use of rod pumping systems in coalbed methane applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crivello, A. [eProduction Solutions Inc., Kingwood, TX (United States)

    2003-07-01

    The advantages of optimizing coalbed methane (CBM) operations are increased production, reduced expenses, improved efficiency, and better inventory. The author discussed the CBM production cycle and the possible artificial lift options, including electric submersible pump (ESP), plunger lift, primary coolant pump (PCP), and reciprocating rod lift. The presentation focused on the rod lift, as it represents a low to moderate capital expenditure, has good system efficiency, an excellent fluid volume range, an excellent salvage value, excellent familiarity with equipment, and has readily available parts and service. The major disadvantage of the rod lift is that the fixed operating range does not adapt to changing reservoir characteristics. A comparison between the rod pump controller and the variable speed drive was presented. The well can be operated at or near the pumped off condition with variable speed drives with rod pumping intelligence. The author provided a closer examination of the variable frequency drive and the vector flux drive. The presentation also included a discussion of prime movers, drive and inclinometer, gearbox loading, rod load limiter, and dynamometer cards. Three case studies were presented: CSW1, CSW2, and CSW3. It was concluded that wells must be kept pumping, and that a Flux Vector Drive should be used along with an NEMA B motor and properly sized pumping unit and pump. tabs., figs.

  16. Dry vacuum pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sibuet, R

    2008-01-01

    For decades and for ultimate pressure below 1 mbar, oil-sealed Rotary Vane Pumps have been the most popular solution for a wide range of vacuum applications. In the late 80ies, Semiconductor Industry has initiated the development of the first dry roughing pumps. Today SC applications are only using dry pumps and dry pumping packages. Since that time, pumps manufacturers have developed dry vacuum pumps technologies in order to make them attractive for other applications. The trend to replace lubricated pumps by dry pumps is now spreading over many other market segments. For the Semiconductor Industry, it has been quite easy to understand the benefits of dry pumps, in terms of Cost of Ownership, process contamination and up-time. In this paper, Technology of Dry pumps, its application in R and D/industries, merits over conventional pumps and future growth scope will be discussed

  17. Mitigation of Tank 241-SY-101 by pump mixing: Results of testing phases A and B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allemann, R.T.; Antoniak, Z.I.; Chvala, W.D.; Friley, J.R.; Gregory, W.B.; Hudson, J.D.; Michener, T.E.; Panisko, F.E.; Stewart, C.W.; Wise, B.M. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Efferding, L.E.; Fadeff, J.G.; Irwin, J.J.; Kirch, N.W. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-03-01

    A spare mixing pump from the Hanford Grout Program was installed in Hanford double-shell waste Tank 241-SY-101 on July 3, 1993, after being modified to take advantage of waste stratification. It was anticipated that pump mixing would prevent large episodic flammable gas releases that had been occurring about every 100-150 days. A cautious initial test plan, called Phase A, was run to find how the pump and tank would behave in response to very brief and gentle pump operation. No large gas releases were triggered, and the pump performed well except for two incidents of nozzle plugging. On October 21, 1993, the next test series, Phase B, began, and the pump was applied more aggressively to mix the tank contents and mitigate uncontrolled gas releases. Orienting the pump in new directions released large volumes of gas and reduced the waste level to a near-record low. Results of the entire period from pump installation to the end of Phase B on December 17, 1993, are presented in detail in this document. Though long-term effects require further evaluation, we conclude from these data that the jet mixer pump is an effective means of controlling flammable gas release and that it has met the success criteria for mitigation in this tank.

  18. Inspection, maintenance, and repair of large pumps and piping systems using advanced robotic tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, R.K.; Radigan, T.M.

    1998-01-01

    Operating and maintaining large pumps and piping systems can be an expensive proposition. Proper inspections and monitoring can reduce costs. This was difficult in the past, since detailed pump inspections could only be performed by disassembly and many portions of piping systems are buried or covered with insulation. Once these components were disassembled, a majority of the cost was already incurred. At that point, expensive part replacement usually took place whether it was needed or not. With the completion of the Pipe Walkertrademark/LIP System and the planned development of the Submersible Walkertrademark, this situation is due to change. The specifications for these inspection and maintenance robots will ensure that. Their ability to traverse both horizontal and vertical, forward and backward, make them unique tools. They will open the door for some innovative approaches to inspection and maintenance of large pumps and piping systems

  19. Pump Jet Mixing and Pipeline Transfer Assessment for High-Activity Radioactive Wastes in Hanford Tank 241-AZ-102

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y Onishi; KP Recknagle; BE Wells

    2000-08-09

    The authors evaluated how well two 300-hp mixer pumps would mix solid and liquid radioactive wastes stored in Hanford double-shell Tank 241-AZ-102 (AZ-102) and confirmed the adequacy of a three-inch (7.6-cm) pipeline system to transfer the resulting mixed waste slurry to the AP Tank Farm and a planned waste treatment (vitrification) plant on the Hanford Site. Tank AZ-102 contains 854,000 gallons (3,230 m{sup 3}) of supernatant liquid and 95,000 gallons (360 m{sup 3}) of sludge made up of aging waste (or neutralized current acid waste). The study comprises three assessments: waste chemistry, pump jet mixing, and pipeline transfer. The waste chemical modeling assessment indicates that the sludge, consisting of the solids and interstitial solution, and the supernatant liquid are basically in an equilibrium condition. Thus, pump jet mixing would not cause much solids precipitation and dissolution, only 1.5% or less of the total AZ-102 sludge. The pump jet mixing modeling indicates that two 300-hp mixer pumps would mobilize up to about 23 ft (7.0 m) of the sludge nearest the pump but would not erode the waste within seven inches (0.18 m) of the tank bottom. This results in about half of the sludge being uniformly mixed in the tank and the other half being unmixed (not eroded) at the tank bottom.

  20. Pump Jet Mixing and Pipeline Transfer Assessment for High-Activity Radioactive Wastes in Hanford Tank 241-AZ-102

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, Y.; Recknagle, K.P.; Wells, B.E.

    2000-01-01

    The authors evaluated how well two 300-hp mixer pumps would mix solid and liquid radioactive wastes stored in Hanford double-shell Tank 241-AZ-102 (AZ-102) and confirmed the adequacy of a three-inch (7.6-cm) pipeline system to transfer the resulting mixed waste slurry to the AP Tank Farm and a planned waste treatment (vitrification) plant on the Hanford Site. Tank AZ-102 contains 854,000 gallons (3,230 m 3 ) of supernatant liquid and 95,000 gallons (360 m 3 ) of sludge made up of aging waste (or neutralized current acid waste). The study comprises three assessments: waste chemistry, pump jet mixing, and pipeline transfer. The waste chemical modeling assessment indicates that the sludge, consisting of the solids and interstitial solution, and the supernatant liquid are basically in an equilibrium condition. Thus, pump jet mixing would not cause much solids precipitation and dissolution, only 1.5% or less of the total AZ-102 sludge. The pump jet mixing modeling indicates that two 300-hp mixer pumps would mobilize up to about 23 ft (7.0 m) of the sludge nearest the pump but would not erode the waste within seven inches (0.18 m) of the tank bottom. This results in about half of the sludge being uniformly mixed in the tank and the other half being unmixed (not eroded) at the tank bottom

  1. Solar Pumping : The Basics

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2018-01-01

    Solar photovoltaic water pumping (SWP) uses energy from solar photovoltaic (PV) panels to power an electric water pump. The entire process, from sunlight to stored energy, is elegant and simple. Over last seven years, the technology and price of solar pumping have evolved dramatically and hence the opportunities it presents. Solar pumping is most competitive in regions with high solar inso...

  2. Multiple pump housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoho, II, Michael R.; Elliott; Christopher M.

    2010-03-23

    A fluid delivery system includes a first pump having a first drive assembly, a second pump having a second drive assembly, and a pump housing. At least a portion of each of the first and second pumps are located in the housing.

  3. Mitigating with macrophytes: submersed plants reduce the toxicity of pesticide-contaminated water to zooplankton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogan, William R; Relyea, Rick A

    2013-03-01

    In ecotoxicology, appreciation is growing for the influence that ecological interactions have on the toxicity of contaminants, such as insecticides, to sensitive species. Most previous studies, however, have focused on factors that exacerbate insecticide effects on species, while factors that may mitigate these effects have been relatively ignored. In aquatic habitats, a small number of studies have shown that submersed macrophytes can remove some insecticides from the water column via sorption. Although examining sorption dynamics is important for understanding the environmental fate of insecticides, whether and to what extent macrophytes actually mitigate insecticide effects on aquatic species remains unknown. In the present study, the authors examined how much and how quickly several realistic densities of the macrophyte Elodea canadensis decreased the toxicity of the insecticide malathion to Daphnia magna, a keystone aquatic herbivore. To do this, the authors quantified Daphnia survival in outdoor test systems (0.95 L) exposed to a factorial combination of five Elodea densities crossed with five malathion concentrations. The authors discovered that malathion's lethality to Daphnia decreased with increasing Elodea density. Furthermore, the rate at which Elodea reduced malathion's toxicity in the water column increased with macrophyte density. These results provide strong evidence that submersed macrophytes can mitigate the ecological impacts of a popular insecticide and further support that ecological interactions can strongly influence contaminant environmental effects. Copyright © 2013 SETAC.

  4. In Situ Detection of Macronutrients and Chloride in Seawater by Submersible Electrochemical Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuartero, Maria; Crespo, Gaston; Cherubini, Thomas; Pankratova, Nadezda; Confalonieri, Fabio; Massa, Francesco; Tercier-Waeber, Mary-Lou; Abdou, Melina; Schäfer, Jörg; Bakker, Eric

    2018-04-03

    A new submersible probe for the in situ detection of nitrate, nitrite, and chloride in seawater is presented. Inline coupling of a desalination unit, an acidification unit, and a sensing flow cell containing all-solid-state membrane electrodes allows for the potentiometric detection of nitrate and nitrite after removal of the key interfering ions in seawater, chloride and hydroxide. Thus, the electrodes exhibited attractive analytical performances for the potentiometric detection of nitrate and nitrite in desalinated and acidified seawater: fast response time ( t 95 macronutrient levels with salinity cycles, which is of special interest in recessed coastal water bodies. The system is capable of autonomous operation during deployment, with routines for repetitive measurements (every 2 h), data storage and management, and computer visualization of the data in real time. In situ temporal profiles observed in the Arcachon Bay (France) showed valuable environmental information concerning tide-dependent cycles of nitrate and chloride levels in the lagoon, which are here observed for the first time using direct in situ measurements. The submersible probe based on membrane electrodes presented herein may facilitate the study of biogeochemical processes occurring in marine ecosystems by the direct monitoring of nitrate and nitrite levels, which are key chemical targets in coastal waters.

  5. Microbial Biofilm Community Variation in Flowing Habitats: Potential Utility as Bioindicators of Postmortem Submersion Intervals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M. Lang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biofilms are a ubiquitous formation of microbial communities found on surfaces in aqueous environments. These structures have been investigated as biomonitoring indicators for stream heath, and here were used for the potential use in forensic sciences. Biofilm successional development has been proposed as a method to determine the postmortem submersion interval (PMSI of remains because there are no standard methods for estimating the PMSI and biofilms are ubiquitous in aquatic habitats. We sought to compare the development of epinecrotic (biofilms on Sus scrofa domesticus carcasses and epilithic (biofilms on unglazed ceramic tiles communities in two small streams using bacterial automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis. Epinecrotic communities were significantly different from epilithic communities even though environmental factors associated with each stream location also had a significant influence on biofilm structure. All communities at both locations exhibited significant succession suggesting that changing communities throughout time is a general characteristic of stream biofilm communities. The implications resulting from this work are that epinecrotic communities have distinctive shifts at the first and second weeks, and therefore the potential to be used in forensic applications by associating successional changes with submersion time to estimate a PMSI. The influence of environmental factors, however, indicates the lack of a successional pattern with the same organisms and a focus on functional diversity may be more applicable in a forensic context.

  6. Phytotoxicity of atrazine, isoproturon, and diuron to submersed macrophytes in outdoor mesocosms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knauert, Stefanie; Singer, Heinz; Hollender, Juliane; Knauer, Katja

    2010-01-01

    The submersed macrophytes Elodea canadensis, Myriophyllum spicatum and Potamogeton lucens were constantly exposed over a five-week period to environmentally relevant concentrations of atrazine, isoproturon, diuron, and their mixture in outdoor mesocosms. Effects were evaluated investigating photosynthetic efficiency (PE) of the three macrophytes and growth of M. spicatum and E. canadensis. Adverse effects on PE were observed on days 2 and 5 after application. M. spicatum was found to be the more sensitive macrophyte. E. canadensis and P. lucens were less sensitive to atrazine, diuron and the mixture and insensitive to isoproturon. PE of M. spicatum was similarly affected by the single herbicides and the mixture demonstrating concentration addition. Growth of E. canadensis and M. spicatum was not reduced indicating that herbicide exposure did not impair plant development. Although PE measurements turned out to be a sensitive method to monitor PSII herbicides, plant growth remains the more relevant ecological endpoint in risk assessment. - Short-term effects on photosynthesis did not result in growth reduction of submerse macrophytes exposed to PSII inhibitors.

  7. Phytotoxicity of atrazine, isoproturon, and diuron to submersed macrophytes in outdoor mesocosms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knauert, Stefanie, E-mail: stefanie.knauert@basf.co [University of Basel, Department of Environmental Sciences, Hebelstrasse 1, 4056 Basel (Switzerland); Singer, Heinz; Hollender, Juliane [Eawag: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Department of Environmental Chemistry, Uberlandstrasse 133, 8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Knauer, Katja [University of Basel, Program Sustainability Research, Klingelbergstr. 50, 4056 Basel (Switzerland)

    2010-01-15

    The submersed macrophytes Elodea canadensis, Myriophyllum spicatum and Potamogeton lucens were constantly exposed over a five-week period to environmentally relevant concentrations of atrazine, isoproturon, diuron, and their mixture in outdoor mesocosms. Effects were evaluated investigating photosynthetic efficiency (PE) of the three macrophytes and growth of M. spicatum and E. canadensis. Adverse effects on PE were observed on days 2 and 5 after application. M. spicatum was found to be the more sensitive macrophyte. E. canadensis and P. lucens were less sensitive to atrazine, diuron and the mixture and insensitive to isoproturon. PE of M. spicatum was similarly affected by the single herbicides and the mixture demonstrating concentration addition. Growth of E. canadensis and M. spicatum was not reduced indicating that herbicide exposure did not impair plant development. Although PE measurements turned out to be a sensitive method to monitor PSII herbicides, plant growth remains the more relevant ecological endpoint in risk assessment. - Short-term effects on photosynthesis did not result in growth reduction of submerse macrophytes exposed to PSII inhibitors.

  8. Study Of Calculation Of Degaussing System For Reducing Magnetic Field From Submersible Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sardono Sarwito

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of maritime technology in the world to make Indonesia are also increasingly taking the development of maritime technology, such as in a Submersible Vehicle one is degaussing system, this technology should be owned by the vessel so that the vessel can avoid dangerous explosive equipment contained in the sea. Degaussing system is a system that is in use on the metal parts or electronic devices that are at risk of a magnetic field. This system is used to prevent the vessel from dangerous equipment in the sea which can trigger an explosion and the damage that utilize magnetic fields as a metal-detection sensor when the boat was doing dives. To the authors will plan the design degaussing system, and calculating the system in order to reduce the magnetic properties of the Submersible Vehicle which were obtained by the use of Coil Degaussing along 214,5 meters, a diameter of 0,2, with 500.000 coil that will generate a current of 0,0157 Ampere's 0.0787 Tesla generates a magnetic field.

  9. Centrifugal pump handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Pumps, Sulzer

    2010-01-01

    This long-awaited new edition is the complete reference for engineers and designers working on pump design and development or using centrifugal pumps in the field. This authoritative guide has been developed with access to the technical expertise of the leading centrifugal pump developer, Sulzer Pumps. In addition to providing the most comprehensive centrifugal pump theory and design reference with detailed material on cavitation, erosion, selection of materials, rotor vibration behavior and forces acting on pumps, the handbook also covers key pumping applications topics and operational

  10. Complex modeling of technological processes in pneumatic mixers for production of dry construction mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orekhova, T. N.; Nosov, O. A.; Prokopenko, V. S.; Kachaev, A. E.

    2018-03-01

    The improvement of the design of the pneumatic mixers aimed at the possibility of obtaining homogeneous disperse systems, while the resource and energy saving issues play an important role in the conditions of enterprises that use this type of equipment in their technological chain, is described in the article.

  11. Unified Frequency-Domain Analysis of Switched-Series-RC Passive Mixers and Samplers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soer, M.C.M.; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; de Boer, Pieter-Tjerk; van Vliet, Frank Edward; Nauta, Bram

    2010-01-01

    Abstract—A wide variety of voltage mixers and samplers are implemented with similar circuits employing switches, resistors, and capacitors. Restrictions on duty cycle, bandwidth, or output frequency are commonly used to obtain an analytical expression for the response of these circuits. This paper

  12. Experiments on Josephson mixers for heterodyne reception at 0.3 mm wavelength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaney, T.G.; Knight, D.J.E.

    1974-01-01

    A point contact Josephson junction was investigated as a heterodyne mixer at 337 μm. The conversion efficiency reached about -32 dB using a laser local oscillator and about -42 dB using 9th or 12th harmonic mixing with a klystron

  13. Analysis of a High-Tc Hot-Electron Superconducting Mixer for Terahertz Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasik, B. S.; McGrath, W. R.; Gaidis, M. C.

    1996-01-01

    The prospects of a YBa2Cu3O7(delta)(YBCO) hot-electron bolometer (HEB) mixer for a THz heterodyne receiver is discussed. The modeled device is a submicron bridge made from a 10 nm thick film on a high thermal conductance substrate.

  14. Design of a side-band-separating heterodyne mixer for band 9 of ALMA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baryshev, AM; Kooi, J; Mena, FR; Lodewijk, CRJ; Wild, W

    2005-01-01

    A side-band-separating (SBS) heterodyne mixer has been designed for the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) 602-720 GHz band, as it will present a great improvement over the current double-side-band configuration under development at the moment. Here we present design details and the results of

  15. A simple image-reject mixer based on two parallel phase modulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Dapeng; Zhao, Shanghong; Zhu, Zihang; Li, Xuan; Qu, Kun; Lin, Tao; Zhang, Kun

    2018-02-01

    A simple photonic microwave image-reject mixer (IRM) using two parallel phase modulators is proposed. First, a photonic microwave mixer with phase shift ability is achieved using two parallel phase modulators (PMs), an optical bandpass filter, three polarization controllers, three polarization beam splitters and two balanced photodetectors. At the output of the mixer, two frequency downconverted signals with tunable frequency difference can be obtained. By adjusting the phase difference as 90° and utilizing an electrical 90° hybrid, the useless components can be eliminated, and the image reject operation is realized. The key advantage of the proposed scheme is the usage of PM, which avoid the DC bias shifting problem and make the system simple and stable. A simulation is performed to verify the proposed scheme, a relative - 90° or 90° phase shift can be obtained between the two output ports of the photonic microwave mixer, at the output of the IRM, 60 dB image-reject ratio is obtained.

  16. Quantitative characterization of magnetic separators: Comparison of systems with and without integrated microfluidic mixers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Olesen, Torsten; Bruus, Henrik; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt

    2006-01-01

    micrographs, and simulations and analytical models of bead trajectories, capture efficiencies, and capture distributions. We show that the efficiencies of both systems compare favorably to those in the literature. For the studied geometries, the mixer is demonstrated to increase the bead capture...

  17. A “twisted” microfluidic mixer suitable for a wide range of flow rate applications

    KAUST Repository

    Sivashankar, Shilpa

    2016-06-27

    This paper proposes a new “twisted” 3D microfluidic mixer fabricated by a laser writing/microfabrication technique. Effective and efficient mixing using the twisted micromixers can be obtained by combining two general chaotic mixing mechanisms: splitting/recombining and chaotic advection. The lamination of mixer units provides the splitting and recombination mechanism when the quadrant of circles is arranged in a two-layered serial arrangement of mixing units. The overall 3D path of the microchannel introduces the advection. An experimental investigation using chemical solutions revealed that these novel 3D passive microfluidic mixers were stable and could be operated at a wide range of flow rates. This micromixer finds application in the manipulation of tiny volumes of liquids that are crucial in diagnostics. The mixing performance was evaluated by dye visualization, and using a pH test that determined the chemical reaction of the solutions. A comparison of the tornado-mixer with this twisted micromixer was made to evaluate the efficiency of mixing. The efficiency of mixing was calculated within the channel by acquiring intensities using ImageJ software. Results suggested that efficient mixing can be obtained when more than 3 units were consecutively placed. The geometry of the device, which has a length of 30 mm, enables the device to be integrated with micro total analysis systems and other lab-on-chip devices.

  18. The presence and growth of Legionella species in thermostatic shower mixer taps: an exploratory field study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joost van Hoof; P.W.J.J. van der Wielen; E. van der Blom; O.W.W. Nuijten; L. Hornstra

    2014-01-01

    Legislation in the Netherlands requires routine analysis of drinking water samples for cultivable Legionella species from high-priority installations. A field study was conducted to investigate the presence of Legionella species in thermostatic shower mixer taps. Water samples and the interior of

  19. Turbofan forced mixer lobe flow modeling. 1: Experimental and analytical assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, T.; Paterson, R. W.; Skebe, S. A.

    1988-01-01

    A joint analytical and experimental investigation of three-dimensional flowfield development within the lobe region of turbofan forced mixer nozzles is described. The objective was to develop a method for predicting the lobe exit flowfield. In the analytical approach, a linearized inviscid aerodynamical theory was used for representing the axial and secondary flows within the three-dimensional convoluted mixer lobes and three-dimensional boundary layer analysis was applied thereafter to account for viscous effects. The experimental phase of the program employed three planar mixer lobe models having different waveform shapes and lobe heights for which detailed measurements were made of the three-dimensional velocity field and total pressure field at the lobe exit plane. Velocity data was obtained using Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) and total pressure probing and hot wire anemometry were employed to define exit plane total pressure and boundary layer development. Comparison of data and analysis was performed to assess analytical model prediction accuracy. As a result of this study a planar mixed geometry analysis was developed. A principal conclusion is that the global mixer lobe flowfield is inviscid and can be predicted from an inviscid analysis and Kutta condition.

  20. design and fabrication of a fou fabrication of a foundry sand mixer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    favourably with the the imported existing one which urably with the the imported existing one which foundry shops will eliminate the use manual effort save the the country of huge save the the country of huge foreign exchange used i foreign exchange used i. Keywords: Keywords:foundry,sand mixer,fabrication,design,bla.

  1. The BLIXER, a Wideband Balun-LNA-I/Q-Mixer Topology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaakmeer, S.C.; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Leenaerts, Domine M.W.; Nauta, Bram

    2008-01-01

    Abstract—This paper proposes to merge an I/Q current-commutating mixer with a noise-canceling balun-LNA. To realize a high bandwidth, the real part of the impedance of all RF nodes is kept low, and the voltage gain is not created at RF but in baseband where capacitive loading is no problem. Thus a

  2. An InP HBT sub-harmonic mixer for E-band wireless communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Tom Keinicke; Krozer, Viktor

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on a novel balanced HBT subharmonic mixer (SHM) for E-band wireless communication. An LO spiral type Marchand balun is integrated with the SHM. The SHM has been fabricated in a InP double heterojunction bipolar transistor (DHBT) circuit-oriented technology with fT /fmax = 180GHz...

  3. A “twisted” microfluidic mixer suitable for a wide range of flow rate applications

    KAUST Repository

    Sivashankar, Shilpa; Agambayev, Sumeyra; Mashraei, Yousof; Li, Erqiang; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T; Salama, Khaled N.

    2016-01-01

    in the manipulation of tiny volumes of liquids that are crucial in diagnostics. The mixing performance was evaluated by dye visualization, and using a pH test that determined the chemical reaction of the solutions. A comparison of the tornado-mixer with this twisted

  4. Development of a micro-mixer-settler for nuclear solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shekhar Kumar; Bijendra Kumar; Sampath, M.; Sivakumar, D.; Kamachi Mudali, U.; Natarajan, R.

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear solvent extraction was traditionally performed with packed columns, pulse columns, mixer-settlers and centrifugal extractors. However for rapid separations at micro-flow level, micro mixer-settlers were desired and in the past, few of them were actually designed and operated in nuclear solvent extraction research. In the current era of micro-reactor and microchannel devices, there is a renewed interest for micro-mixer-settlers for costly solvents and specialty solutes where small flow-rate is not an issue. In this article, development of a simple but effective micro-mixer-settler for nuclear solvent extraction is reported. The developed unit was tested with 30% TBP/n-dodecane/nitric acid system and in both the regimes of mass transfer c → d (mass transfer from continuous phase to dispersed phase, also written as c → d) and d → c (mass transfer from dispersed phase to continuous phase, also written as d → c) nearly 100% efficiency was observed in extraction as well as stripping modes of operation. (author)

  5. AlGaAs/GaAs quasi-bulk effect mixers: Analysis and experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yngvesson, K. S.; Yang, J.-X.; Agahi, F.; Dai, D.; Musante, C.; Grammer, W.; Lau, K. M.

    1992-01-01

    The lowest noise temperature for any receiver in the 0.5 to 1 THz range has been achieved with the bulk InSb hot electron mixer, which unfortunately suffers from the problem of having a very narrow bandwidth (1-2 MHz). We have demonstrated a three order of magnitude improvement in the bandwidth of hot electron mixers, by using the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) medium at the hetero-interface between AlGaAs and GaAs. We have tested both inhouse MOCVD-grown material, and MBE materials, with similar results. The conversion loss (L(sub c)) at 94 GHz is presently 18 dB for a mixer operating at 20 K, and calculations indicate that L(sub c) can be decreased to about 10 dB in future devices. Calculated and measured curves of L(sub c), versus PLO and IDC, respectively, agree well. We argue that there are several different configurations of hot electron mixers, which will also show wide bandwidth, and that these devices are likely to become important as low-noise THz receivers in the future.

  6. Double Modulation Scheme for Switching Mixers Controlled by Sigma-Delta Modulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Asbeck; Fallesen, Carsten

    1998-01-01

    . This modification can be carried out on a large variety of mixers including the above mentioned. Although the principle was meant to be used to down convert analog signals, the principle is general and can be used in digital circuits too. This paper verifies the new mixing scheme and compares it to the traditional...

  7. Influence of gas inlet angle on the mixing process in a Venturi mixer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romańczyk Mathias

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper numerical analysis were performed to investigate the influence of gas inlet angle on mixing process in a Venturi mixer. Performance of an industrial gas engine depends significantly on the quality of mixing air and fuel; therefore, on the homogeneity of the mixture. In addition, there must be a suitable, adapted to the current load of fuel, air ratio. Responsible for this fact, among others, is the mixer located before entering the combustion chamber of the engine. Incorrect mixture proportion can lead to unstable operation of the engine, as well as higher emissions going beyond current environmental standards in the European Union. To validate the simulation the Air-Fuel Ratio (AFR was mathematically calculated for the air-fuel mixture of lean combustion gas engine. In this study, an open source three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD modelling software OpenFOAM has been used, to investigate and analyse the influence of different gas inlet angles on mixer characteristics and their performances. Attention was focused on the air-fuel ratio changes, pressure loss, as well as improvement of the mixing quality in the Venturi mixer.

  8. Comparative evaluation of a two stroke compressed natural gas mixer design using simulation and experimental techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramasamy, D.; Bakar, R.A.; Rahim, M.F.; Noor, M.M. [Malaysia Pahang Univ., Pahang (Malaysia). Automotive Focus Group

    2008-07-01

    A study was conducted in which a two-stroke engine was converted for use with bi-fuel, notably compressed natural gas and gasoline. The excessive by-products generated by two-stroke engine combustion can be attributed to the inefficient combustion process. This prototype uniflow-type single-cylinder engine was equipped with a bi-fuel conversion system. A dedicated mixer was also developed to meter the gaseous fuel through the engine intake system. It was designed to meet air and fuel requirement similar to its gasoline counterpart. The mixer was modeled to obtain optimum orifice diameter using three different sizes of 14, 16 and 18 mm respectively. A standard computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software package was used to simulate the flow. A pressure reading was obtained during the prototype test. The drop in pressure across the venturi was shown to be an important parameter as it determined the actual fuel-air ratio in the actual engine. A good agreement of CFD outputs with that of the experimental outputs was recorded. The experimental technique validated the pressure distribution predicted by CFD means on the effects of the three insert rings in the CNG mixer. The simulation exercise can be used to predict the amount of CNG consumed by the engine. It was concluded that the 14 mm throat ring was best suited for the CNG mixer because it provided the best suction. Once the mixer is tested on a real engine, it will clear any doubts as to whether the throat can function at high engine speeds. 5 refs., 3 tabs., 8 figs.

  9. Performance of a 10 kilowatt wind-electric water pumping system for irrigating crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vick, B.D.; Clark, R.N. [Conservation and Production Research Lab., Bushland, TX (United States); Molla, S. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1997-12-31

    A 10 kW wind-electric water pumping system was tested for field crop irrigation at pumping depths from 50 to 120 m. The wind turbine for this system used a permanent magnet alternator that powered off-the-shelf submersible motors and pumps without the use of an inverter. Pumping performance was determined at the USDA-Agricultural Research Service (ARS), Wind Energy Laboratory in Bushland, TX for the 10 kW wind turbine using a pressure valve and a pressure tank to simulate different pumping depths. Pumping performance was measured for two 10 kW wind turbines of the same type at farms near the cities of Garden City, TX and Stiles, TX. The pumping performance data collected at these actual wells compared favorably with the data collected at the USDA-ARS, Wind Energy Laboratory. If utility generated electricity was accessible, payback on the wind turbine depended on the cost of utility generated electricity and the transmission line extension cost.

  10. Pumping mechanisms in sputter-ion pumps low pressure operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, K.M.

    1991-01-01

    It is shown that significant H 2 pumping occurs in the walls of triode pumps. Also, H 2 is pumped in the anode cells of sputter-ion pumps. This pumping occurs in a manner similar to that by which the inert gases are pumped. That is, H 2 pumped in the walls of the anode cells by high energy neutral burial. Hydrogen in the pump walls and anodes limits the base pressure of the pump. 13 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  11. Pumping mechanisms in sputter-ion pumps low pressure operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, K.M.

    1991-01-01

    It is shown that significant H 2 pumping occurs in the walls of triode pumps. Also, H 2 is pumped in the anode cells of sputter-ion pumps. This pumping occurs in a manner similar to that by which the inert gases are pumped. That is, H 2 is pumped in the walls of the anode cells by high energy neutral burial. Hydrogen in the pump walls and anodes limits the base pressure of the pump

  12. Adsorption pump for helium pumping out

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donde, A.L.; Semenenko, Yu.E.

    1981-01-01

    Adsorption pump with adsorbent cooling by liquid helium is described. Shuttered shield protecting adsorbent against radiation is cooled with evaporating helium passing along the coil positioned on the shield. The pump is also equipped with primed cylindrical shield, cooled with liquid nitrogen. The nitrogen shield has in the lower part the shuttered shield, on the pump casing there is a valve used for pump pre-burning, and valves for connection to recipient as well. Pumping- out rates are presented at different pressures and temperatures of adsorbent. The pumping-out rate according to air at absorbent cooling with liquid nitrogen constituted 5x10 -4 Pa-3000 l/s, at 2x10 -2 Pa-630 l/s. During the absorbent cooling with liquid hydrogen the pumping-out rate according to air was at 4x10 -4 Pa-580 l/s, at 2x10 -3 Pa-680 l/s, according to hydrogen - at 8x10 -5 Pa-2500 l/s, at 5x10 -3 Pa-4200 l/s. During adsorbent cooling with liquid helium the rate of pumping-out according to hydrogen at 3x10 5 Pa-2400% l/s, at 6x10 3 Pa-1200 l/s, and according to helium at 3.5x10 -5 Pa-2800 l/s, at 4x10 -3 Pa-1150 l/s. The limit vacuum is equal to 1x10 -7 Pa. The volume of the vessel with liquid helium is equal to 3.5 l. Helium consumption is 80 cm 3 /h. Consumption of liquid nitrogen from the shield is 400 cm 3 /h. The limit pressure in the pump is obtained after forevacuum pumping-out (adsorbent regeneration) at 300 K temperature. The pump is made of copper. The pump height together with primed tubes is 800 mm diameter-380 mm [ru

  13. Continuously pumping and reactivating gas pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batzer, T.H.; Call, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    Apparatus for continuous pumping using cycling cyropumping panels. A plurality of liquid helium cooled panels are surrounded by movable nitrogen cooled panels the alternatively expose or shield the helium cooled panels from the space being pumped. Gases condense on exposed helium cooled panels until the nitrogen cooled panels are positioned to isolate the helium cooled panels. The helium cooled panels are incrementally warmed, causing captured gases to accumulate at the base of the panels, where an independent pump removes the gases. After the helium cooled panels are substantially cleaned of condensate, the nitrogen cooled panels are positioned to expose the helium cooled panels to the space being pumped

  14. Continuously pumping and reactivating gas pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batzer, Thomas H.; Call, Wayne R.

    1984-01-01

    Apparatus for continuous pumping using cycling cyropumping panels. A plurality of liquid helium cooled panels are surrounded by movable nitrogen cooled panels the alternatively expose or shield the helium cooled panels from the space being pumped. Gases condense on exposed helium cooled panels until the nitrogen cooled panels are positioned to isolate the helium cooled panels. The helium cooled panels are incrementally warmed, causing captured gases to accumulate at the base of the panels, where an independent pump removes the gases. After the helium cooled panels are substantially cleaned of condensate, the nitrogen cooled panels are positioned to expose the helium cooled panels to the space being pumped.

  15. Deepwater marine litter densities and compsoition from submersible video-gransects around the ABC-islands, Dutch Caribbean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debrot, A.O.; Vinke, E.; Wende, van der G.; Hylkema, A.; Reed, J.K.

    2014-01-01

    Baseline data on anthropogenic seafloor debris contamination in the year 2000 is provided for 24 submersible video transects at depths of 80–900 m, off the Dutch ABC-islands (Aruba, Bonaire, Curaçao), in the southeastern Caribbean Sea. In total, 202 objects were documented from a combined 21,184 m

  16. Towards improved management of coastal submersion crises – CRISMA-WAVE solution as an example of CRISMA Framework application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlich Marc

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Coping with various types of natural or man-made hazards the FP7 SECURITY CRISMA project (http://www.crismaproject.eu has designed and developed an experimental software framework allowing building crisis management simulation application. One of the five pilot applications of CRISMA dealing with preparedness to the coastal submersions was developed and implemented using return of experience of the reference Xynthia storm surge event in the Charente Maritime County in France. The paper addresses the generic CRISMA Framework applicability to simulate mitigation effects of a coastal submersion through CRISMA-Wave implementation of a full modelling cycle. The CRISMA-Wave paradigm reflects user needs for simulation of “what-if” scenarios for short and long-term actions and the paper describes in particular its different components : *Simulation of submersion effects at a range of temporal and spatial scales, *Preparedness Planning, *Assessment of impacts depending on scenarios based on options for managing the inundation risks, *Cascading effects and *Evaluation of damages with comparison of submersion defence scenarios based on cost-benefit and multi criteria analysis.

  17. Optimum water depth ranges of dominant submersed macrophytes in a natural freshwater lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Bibi; Chu, Zhaosheng; Wu, Aiping; Hou, Zeying; Wang, Shengrui

    2018-01-01

    Macrophytes show a zonal distribution along the lake littoral zone because of their specific preferred water depths while the optimum growth water depths of dominant submersed macrophytes in natural lakes are not well known. We studied the seasonal biomass and frequency patterns of dominant and companion submersed macrophytes along the water depth gradient in Lake Erhai in 2013. The results showed that the species richness and community biomass showed hump-back shaped patterns along the water depth gradient both in polydominant and monodominant communities. Biomass percentage of Potamogenton maackianus showed a hump-back pattern while biomass percentages of Ceratophyllum demersum and Vallisneria natans appeared U-shaped patterns across the water depth gradient in polydominant communities whereas biomass percentage of V. natans increased with the water depth in monodominant communities. Dominant species demonstrated a broader distribution range of water depth than companion species. Frequency and biomass of companion species declined drastically with the water depth whereas those of dominant species showed non-linear patterns across the water depth gradient. Namely, along the water depth gradient, biomass of P. maackianus and V. natans showed hump-back patterns and biomasses of C. demersum displayed a U-shaped pattern in the polydominant communities but biomass of V. natans demonstrated a hump-back pattern in the monodominant communities; frequency of P. maackianus showed a hump-back pattern and C. demersum and V. natans maintained high frequencies in the two types of communities. We can speculate that in Lake Erhai the optimum growth water depths of P. maackianus and C. demersum in the polydominant communities are 2.5-4.5 m and 1-2 m or 5-6 m, respectively and that of V. natans is 3-5 m in the polydominant communities and 2.5-5 m in the monodominant communities. This is the first report that the optimum water depth ranges in the horizontal direction of three

  18. Epidemiology of non-submersion injuries in aquatic sporting and recreational activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, David; Morrison, Luke

    2003-01-01

    Although the issues of drowning and near-drowning in aquatic sporting and recreational activities receive considerable attention in the epidemiological literature, there is not a recognised literature on non-submersion injuries occurring in these activities. This review draws together the epidemiological literature on non-submersion injuries and describes the incidence, nature and causes of these injuries, common risk factors, and strategies for prevention. Activities covered by the review include swimming, diving, boating, surf sports, fishing, water polo and water sliding. For most activities there is a dearth of good quality descriptive studies, with most involving cases-series designs and few providing estimates of incidence. Inconsistencies in inclusion criteria and the reporting of incidence rates makes comparisons within and between activities difficult. Incidence rates were identified for most activities and in general the incidence of injury was low, especially for more serious injury. However, some activities were associated with severely disabling injury, such as spinal cord injury (diving) and amputation (from propeller strikes in water skiing and swimming). Only three studies reporting the significance of postulated risk factors were identified. Lack of knowledge about the water being entered and alcohol consumption are significant risk factors in recreational diving; increased blood alcohol concentrations were reported to increase the risk of death in boating; and obesity and tandem riding were reported to increase the risk of injury on public water slides. Few evaluations of preventive measures were identified. Two studies reported reductions in the incidence of water slide injuries following the introduction of design changes and supervision, but neither had a non-intervention comparison group. Improvements in swimming and diving skills were reported in three studies, but these were not designed to measure changes in the risk of injury.This review

  19. Design of 340 GHz 2× and 4× Sub-Harmonic Mixers Using Schottky Barrier Diodes in Silicon-Based Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Liu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design of terahertz 2× and 4× sub-harmonic down-mixers using Schottky Barrier Diodes fabricated in standard 0.13 μm SiGe BiCMOS technology. The 340 GHz sub-harmonic mixers (SHMs are designed based on anti-parallel-diode-pairs (APDPs. With the 2nd and 4th harmonic, local oscillator (LO frequencies of 170 GHz and 85 GHz are used to pump the two 340 GHz SHMs. With LO power of 7 dBm, the 2× SHM exhibits a conversion loss of 34.5–37 dB in the lower band (320–340 GHz and 35.5–41 dB in the upper band (340–360 GHz; with LO power of 9 dBm, the 4× SHM exhibits a conversion loss of 39–43 dB in the lower band (320–340 GHz and 40–48 dB in the upper band (340–360 GHz. The measured input 1-dB conversion gain compression point for the 2× and 4× SHMs are −8 dBm and −10 dBm at 325 GHz, respectively. The simulated LO-IF (intermediate frequency isolation of the 2× SHM is 21.5 dB, and the measured LO-IF isolation of the 4× SHM is 32 dB. The chip areas of the 2× and 4× SHMs are 330 μm × 580 μm and 550 μm × 610 μm, respectively, including the testing pads.

  20. Submersed aquatic vegetation in Chesapeake Bay: Sentinel species in a changing world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Robert J.; Dennison, William C.; Lefcheck, Jonathon S.; Gurbisz, Cassie; Hannam, Michael; Keisman, Jennifer; Landry, J. Brooke; Moore, Kenneth A.; Murphy, Rebecca R.; Patrick, Christopher J.; Testa, Jeremy; Weller, Donald E.; Wilcox, David J.

    2017-01-01

    Chesapeake Bay has undergone profound changes since European settlement. Increases in human and livestock populations, associated changes in land use, increases in nutrient loadings, shoreline armoring, and depletion of fish stocks have altered the important habitats within the Bay. Submersed aquatic vegetation (SAV) is a critical foundational habitat and provides numerous benefits and services to society. In Chesapeake Bay, SAV species are also indicators of environmental change because of their sensitivity to water quality and shoreline development. As such, SAV has been deeply integrated into regional regulations and annual assessments of management outcomes, restoration efforts, the scientific literature, and popular media coverage. Even so, SAV in Chesapeake Bay faces many historical and emerging challenges. The future of Chesapeake Bay is indicated by and contingent on the success of SAV. Its persistence will require continued action, coupled with new practices, to promote a healthy and sustainable ecosystem.

  1. The Need Of A Phenological Spectral Library Of Submersed Macrophytes For Lake Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Patrick; Robler, Sebastian; Schneider, Thomas; Melzer, Arnulf

    2013-12-01

    Submersed macrophytes are bio-indicators for water quality. For plant monitoring by remote sensing, in-situ reflectance measurements are necessary. Hence, systematic measurements were carried out at Lake Starnberg and Lake Tegernsee (Germany) in the year 2011. Besides two wide-spread species (Chara spp. and Potamogeton perfoliatus), the invasive species Elodea nuttallii and Najas marina were investigated. Remote sensing reflectances were calculated from downwelling irradiance and upwelling radiance. Those were collected with RAMSES spectroradiometers (320nm-950nm, 3.3nm step). As data collection took place several times, changes in the spectral responses within the growing season were detected and could be linked to population density, growing height, biomass and pigmentation. Additionally, a stable sampling method and a processing chain for the in-situ reflectance measurements were developed. Part of the processing was a water column correction, including WASI (water colour simulator). Principal component analysis showed separability of sediment from vegetation and species differentiation.

  2. Counteracting ammonia inhibition during anaerobic digestion by recovery using submersible microbial desalination cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yifeng; Angelidaki, Irini

    2015-01-01

    Ammonia inhibition is one of the most frequent and serious problems in biogas plants. In this study, a novel hybrid system consisting of a submersible microbial desalination cell (SMDC) and a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) was developed for counteracting ammonia inhibition during anaerobic...... digestion (AD) with simultaneous in situ ammonia recovery and electricity production. The SMDC was powered by acetate in a buffer solution, while synthetic ammonia-rich wastewater was used as the feeding of the CSTR. Under continuous operation, ammonia recovery rate of 86 g-N/m2 /day and current density...... of 4.33 A/m2 were achieved at steady-state condition. As a result, 112% extra biogas was produced due to ammonia recovery by the SMDC. High-throughput sequencing showed that ammonia recovery had an impact on the microbial community structures in the SMDC and CSTR. Considering the additional economic...

  3. Sensitivity of submersed freshwater macrophytes and endpoints in laboratory toxicity tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arts, Gertie H.P.; Belgers, J. Dick M.; Hoekzema, Conny H.; Thissen, Jac T.N.M.

    2008-01-01

    The toxicological sensitivity and variability of a range of macrophyte endpoints were statistically tested with data from chronic, non-axenic, macrophyte toxicity tests. Five submersed freshwater macrophytes, four pesticides/biocides and 13 endpoints were included in the statistical analyses. Root endpoints, reflecting root growth, were most sensitive in the toxicity tests, while endpoints relating to biomass, growth and shoot length were less sensitive. The endpoints with the lowest coefficients of variation were not necessarily the endpoints, which were toxicologically most sensitive. Differences in sensitivity were in the range of 10-1000 for different macrophyte-specific endpoints. No macrophyte species was consistently the most sensitive. Criteria to select endpoints in macrophyte toxicity tests should include toxicological sensitivity, variance and ecological relevance. Hence, macrophyte toxicity tests should comprise an array of endpoints, including very sensitive endpoints like those relating to root growth. - A range of endpoints is more representative of macrophyte fitness than biomass and growth only

  4. Catamaran or semi-submersible for floating platform - selection of a better design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qasim, Idrees; Gao, Liangtian; Peng, Duojin; Liu, Bo

    2018-02-01

    With nonstop advancement in marine engineering, more and more new structures are being designed and explored for tidal current energy. There are three different kinds of support structures for tidal current power station mostly in use, which are sea-bed mounted/gravity based system, pile mounted system and floating moored platform. Comparing all of them, the floating mooring system is most suitable for deep water systems and the application of this arrangement is widely usable. In this paper, a semi-submersible and a catamaran as floating platforms for tidal current power stations are studied are compared on the basis of its economics, efficiency of turbine and stability of the station. Based on basic ship theory and using software MAXSURF, the stability of Catamaran tidal current power station is also calculated. It is found that the catamaran design is optimal choice.

  5. Phytotoxicity of atrazine, isoproturon, and diuron to submersed macrophytes in outdoor mesocosms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knauert, Stefanie; Singer, Heinz; Hollender, Juliane; Knauer, Katja

    2010-01-01

    The submersed macrophytes Elodea canadensis, Myriophyllum spicatum and Potamogeton lucens were constantly exposed over a five-week period to environmentally relevant concentrations of atrazine, isoproturon, diuron, and their mixture in outdoor mesocosms. Effects were evaluated investigating photosynthetic efficiency (PE) of the three macrophytes and growth of M. spicatum and E. canadensis. Adverse effects on PE were observed on days 2 and 5 after application. M. spicatum was found to be the more sensitive macrophyte. E. canadensis and P. lucens were less sensitive to atrazine, diuron and the mixture and insensitive to isoproturon. PE of M. spicatum was similarly affected by the single herbicides and the mixture demonstrating concentration addition. Growth of E. canadensis and M. spicatum was not reduced indicating that herbicide exposure did not impair plant development. Although PE measurements turned out to be a sensitive method to monitor PSII herbicides, plant growth remains the more relevant ecological endpoint in risk assessment.

  6. Effects of high nitrogen concentrations on the growth of submersed macrophytes at moderate phosphorus concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qing; Wang, Hong-Zhu; Li, Yan; Shao, Jian-Chun; Liang, Xiao-Min; Jeppesen, Erik; Wang, Hai-Jun

    2015-10-15

    Eutrophication of lakes leading to loss of submersed macrophytes and higher turbidity is a worldwide phenomenon, attributed to excessive loading of phosphorus (P). However, recently, the role of nitrogen (N) for macrophyte recession has received increasing attention. Due to the close relationship between N and P loading, disentanglement of the specific effects of these two nutrients is often difficult, and some controversy still exists as to the effects of N. We studied the effects of N on submersed macrophytes represented by Vallisneria natans (Lour.) Hara in pots positioned at three depths (0.4 m, 0.8 m, and 1.2 m to form a gradient of underwater light conditions) in 10 large ponds having moderate concentrations of P (TP 0.03 ± 0.04 mg L(-1)) and five targeted concentrations of total nitrogen (TN) (0.5, 2, 10, 20, and 100 mg L(-1)), there were two ponds for each treatment. To study the potential shading effects of other primary producers, we also measured the biomass of phytoplankton (ChlaPhyt) and periphyton (ChlaPeri) expressed as chlorophyll a. We found that leaf length, leaf mass, and root length of macrophytes declined with increasing concentrations of TN and ammonium, while shoot number and root mass did not. All the measured growth indices of macrophytes declined significantly with ChlaPhyt, while none were significantly related to ChlaPeri. Neither ChlaPhyt nor ChlaPeri were, however, significantly negatively related to the various N concentrations. Our results indicate that shading by phytoplankton unrelated to the variation in N loading and perhaps toxic stress exerted by high nitrogen were responsible for the decline in macrophyte growth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Conductive heat flow at the TAG Active Hydrothermal Mound: Results from 1993-1995 submersible surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, K.; Von Herzen, R.; Kirklin, J.; Evans, R.; Kadko, D.; Kinoshita, M.; Matsubayashi, O.; Mills, R.; Schultz, A.; Rona, P.

    We report 70 measurements of conductive heat flow at the 50-m-high, 200-m-diameter TAG active hydrothermal mound, made during submersible surveys with Alvin in 1993 and 1995 and Shinkai 6500 in 1994. The stations were all measured with 5-thermistor, 0.6- or 1-m-long Alvin heat flow probes, which are capable of determining both gradient and thermal conductivity, and were transponder-navigated to an estimated accuracy of ±5-10 m relative to the 10-m-diameter central complex of black smokers. Within 20 m of this complex, conductive heat flow values are extremely variable (0.1- > 100 W/m²), which can only be due to local spatial and possible temporal variability in the immediate vicinity of the vigorous discharge sites. A similar local variability is suggested in the “Kremlin” area of white smokers to the southeast of the black smoker complex. On the south and southeast side of the mound, there is very high heat flow (3.7- > 25 W/m²) on the sedimented terraces that slope down from the Kremlin area. Heat flow is also high (0.3-3 W/m²) in the pelagic carbonate sediments on the surrounding seafloor within a few tens of meters of the southwest, northwest, and northeast sides of the mound. On the west side of the sulfide rubble plateau that surrounds the central black smoker peak, there is a coherent belt of very low heat flow (smokers, suggestive of local, shallow recharge of bottom water. The three submersible surveys spanned nearly two years, but showed no indication of any temporal variability in conductive heat flow over this time scale, whether natural or induced by ODP drilling in 1994.

  8. Failure Mode and Effect Analysis of Subsea Multiphase Pump Equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwatoyin Shobowale Kafayat

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Finding oil and gas reserves in deep/harsh environment with challenging reservoir and field conditions, subsea multiphase pumping benefits has found its way to provide solutions to these issues. Challenges such as failure issues that are still surging the industry and with the current practice of information hiding, this issues becomes even more difficult to tackle. Although, there are some joint industry projects which are only accessible to its members, still there is a need to have a clear understanding of these equipment groups so as to know which issues to focus attention on. A failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA is a potential first aid in understanding this equipment groups. A survey questionnaire/interview was conducted with the oil and gas operating company and equipment manufacturer based on the literature review. The results indicates that these equipment’s group are similar with its onshore counterpart, but the difference is the robustness built into the equipment internal subsystems for subsea applications. The results from the manufacturer perspectives indicates that Helico-axial multiphase pump have a mean time to failure of more than 10 years, twin-screw and electrical submersible pumps are still struggling with a mean time to failure of less than 5 years.

  9. Pumps in mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    This article looks at the pump industry as a whole, its historical links with the mining industry, their parallel develop ment, and at the individual manufacturers and pumps, services and auxillary products they have to offer.

  10. Design of a mixer for the thrust-vectoring system on the high-alpha research vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahle, Joseph W.; Bundick, W. Thomas; Yeager, Jessie C.; Beissner, Fred L., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    One of the advanced control concepts being investigated on the High-Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) is multi-axis thrust vectoring using an experimental thrust-vectoring (TV) system consisting of three hydraulically actuated vanes per engine. A mixer is used to translate the pitch-, roll-, and yaw-TV commands into the appropriate TV-vane commands for distribution to the vane actuators. A computer-aided optimization process was developed to perform the inversion of the thrust-vectoring effectiveness data for use by the mixer in performing this command translation. Using this process a new mixer was designed for the HARV and evaluated in simulation and flight. An important element of the Mixer is the priority logic, which determines priority among the pitch-, roll-, and yaw-TV commands.

  11. Noise and conversion performance of a high-Tc superconducting Josephson junction mixer at 0.6 THz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiang; Du, Jia; Zhang, Ting; Guo, Yingjie Jay

    2017-11-01

    This letter presents both theoretical and experimental investigations on the noise and conversion performance of a high-Tc superconducting (HTS) step-edge Josephson-junction mixer at the frequency of 0.6 THz and operating temperatures of 20-40 K. Based on the Y-factor and U-factor methods, a double-sideband noise temperature of around 1000 K and a conversion gain of -3.5 dB were experimentally obtained at 20 K. At the temperature of 40 K, the measured mixer noise and conversion efficiency are around 2100 K and -10 dB, respectively. The experimental data are in good agreement with the numerical analysis results using the three-port model. A detailed performance comparison with other reported HTS terahertz mixers has confirmed the superior performance of our presented mixer device.

  12. Photovoltaic pump systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klockgether, J.; Kiessling, K. P.

    1983-09-01

    Solar pump systems for the irrigation of fields and for water supply in regions with much sunshine are discussed. For surface water and sources with a hoisting depth of 12 m, a system with immersion pumps is used. For deep sources with larger hoisting depths, an underwater motor pump was developed. Both types of pump system meet the requirements of simple installation and manipulation, safe operation, maintenance free, and high efficiency reducing the number of solar cells needed.

  13. Rotary magnetic heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirol, L.D.

    1987-02-11

    A rotary magnetic heat pump constructed without flow seals or segmented rotor accomplishes recuperation and regeneration by using split flow paths. Heat exchange fluid pumped through heat exchangers and returned to the heat pump splits into two flow components: one flowing counter to the rotor rotation and one flowing with the rotation. 5 figs.

  14. Vertical pump assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dohnal, M.; Rosel, J.; Skarka, V.

    1988-01-01

    The mounting is described of the drive assembly of a vertical pump for nuclear power plants in areas with seismic risk. The assembly is attached to the building floor using flexible and damping elements. The design allows producing seismically resistant pumps without major design changes in the existing types of vertical pumps. (E.S.). 1 fig

  15. Handling support for mixer-settlers in hot cells with biological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobao, Afonso dos Santos Tome; Forbicini, Sergio; Camilo, Ruth Luqueze

    1996-01-01

    The solvent extraction research facilities of IPEN/CNEN-SP carries out researching work in irradiated materials separation. This installation is provided with two cells with five operating windows, being that, each once of then has a pair of manipulators (master-slave type-MA-11 La Calhene). Solvent extraction research are carried out in acrylic mixer-settlers inside of the shielded cells. These equipment undergo an intense chemical attack which product failures in the acrylic material, so it is necessary to replace them periodically. The developed equipment is able to change the mixer-settlers without its rigidness,, level and the adjustment of the determined coordinates of the mechanical assemblage inside the cell. The definitive implantation of the equipment depends on the final tests on the cells where the fine adjustments will be made. (author)

  16. Modeling and Optimization of a High-Tc Hot-Electron Superconducting Mixer for Terahertz Applicaitons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasik, B. S.; McGrath, W. R.; Gaidis, M. C.; Burns, M. J.; Kleinsasser, A. W.; Delin, K. A.; Vasquez, R. P.

    1996-01-01

    The development of a YBa(sub 2)Cu(sub 3)O(sub 7-(kronecker delta))(YBCO) hot-electron bolometer (HEB) quasioptical mixer for a 2.5 heterodyne receiver is discussed. The modeled device is a submicron bridge made from a 10 nm thick film on a high thermal conductance substrate. The mixer performance expected for this device is analyzed in the framework of a two-temperature model which includes heating both of the electrons and the lattice. Also, the contribution of heat diffusion from the film through the substrate and from the film to the normal metal contacts is evaluated....a single sideband temperature of less than 2000k is predicted.

  17. Numerical Investigation of the Performance of Kenics Static Mixers for the Agitation of Shear Thinning Fluids

    OpenAIRE

    A. Mahammedi; H. Ameur; A. Ariss

    2017-01-01

    The laminar flow of non-Newtonian fluids through a Kenics static mixer is investigated by using the CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) tool. The working fluids have a shear thinning behavior modeled by the Ostwald De Waele law. We focus on the effect of Reynolds number, fluid properties, twist angle and blade pitch on the flow characteristics and energy cost. The pressure drop information obtained from the simulations was compared to several experimental correlations and data available in the...

  18. Predicting bulk powder flow dynamics in a continuous mixer operating in transitory regimes

    OpenAIRE

    Ammarcha , Chawki; Gatumel , Cendrine; Dirion , Jean-Louis; Cabassud , Michel; Mizonov , Vadim; Berthiaux , Henri

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Over recent years there has been increasing interest in continuous powder mixing processes, due mainly to the development of on-line measurement techniques. However, our understanding of these processes remains limited, particularly with regard to their flow and mixing dynamics. In the present work, we study the behaviour of a pilot-scale continuous mixer during transitory regimes, in terms of hold-up weight and outflow changes. We present and discuss experimental resu...

  19. Granular flow in static mixers by coupled DEM/CFD approach

    OpenAIRE

    Pezo Lato; Pezo Milada; Jovanović Aca; Kosanić Nenad; Petrović Aleksandar; Lević Ljubinko

    2016-01-01

    The mixing process greatly influence the mixing efficiency, as well as the quality and the price of the intermediate and/or the final product. Static mixer is used for premixing action before the main mixing process, for significant reduction of mixing time and energy consumption. This type of premixing action is not investigated in detail in the open literature. In this article, the novel numerical approach called Discrete Element Method is used for modell...

  20. An experimentally validated DEM study of powder mixing in a paddle blade mixer

    OpenAIRE

    Pantaleev, Stefan; Yordanova, Slavina; Janda, Alvaro; Marigo, Michele; Ooi, Jin

    2017-01-01

    An investigation on the predictive capabilities of Discrete Element Method simulations of a powder mixing process in a laboratory scale paddle blade mixer is presented. The visco-elasto-plastic frictional adhesive DEM contactmodel of Thakur et al. (2014) was used to represent the cohesive behaviour of an aluminosilicate powder in which the model parameters were determined using experimental flow energy measurements from the FT4powder rheometer. DEM simulations of the mixing process using the ...

  1. Groundwater heat pump performance improvement with pre-coolers and pump modification: Final report for the 1985-86 SOMED (School of Mines and Energy Development) project year

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kavanaugh, S.

    1986-09-30

    Improved performance of groundwater heat pumps can be realized with a more effective and efficient utilization of the thermal properties of shallow groundwater. These systems circulate water from aquifers through water source heat pumps to achieved high efficiencies and capacities. This project concludes that a 10 to 15 percent cooling performance improvement can be realized by pre-cooling the room air with the 55/sup 0/ to 67/sup 0/F groundwater available in large portions of the Southeast. Proper design of these pre-coolers eliminates unnecessary auxiliary energy requirements. The efficiency of the overall system can be further improved with modifications to current methods of water circulation system design. Pressure requirements are minimized by maintaining a low unit inlet pressure (8 psig maximum), removing unnecessary loop restrictions and injection below the water table. Standard submersible water pumps exceed the resulting required size for residential groundwater heat pumps. Simple modifications can be made by the manufacturer to correct this problem. The result is an overall 15 to 40 percent performance improvement over high efficiency air source heat pumps with a simple payback of between 0 to 10 years in most cases.

  2. Tank 241-AZ-101 criticality assessment resulting from pump jet mixing: Sludge mixing simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onishi, Y.; Recknagle, K.

    1997-04-01

    Tank 241-AZ-101 (AZ-101) is one of 28 double-shell tanks located in the AZ farm in the Hanford Site`s 200 East Area. The tank contains a significant quantity of fissile materials, including an estimated 9.782 kg of plutonium. Before beginning jet pump mixing for mitigative purposes, the operations must be evaluated to demonstrate that they will be subcritical under both normal and credible abnormal conditions. The main objective of this study was to address a concern about whether two 300-hp pumps with four rotating 18.3-m/s (60-ft/s) jets can concentrate plutonium in their pump housings during mixer pump operation and cause a criticality. The three-dimensional simulation was performed with the time-varying TEMPEST code to determine how much the pump jet mixing of Tank AZ-101 will concentrate plutonium in the pump housing. The AZ-101 model predicted that the total amount of plutonium within the pump housing peaks at 75 g at 10 simulation seconds and decreases to less than 10 g at four minutes. The plutonium concentration in the entire pump housing peaks at 0.60 g/L at 10 simulation seconds and is reduced to below 0.1 g/L after four minutes. Since the minimum critical concentration of plutonium is 2.6 g/L, and the minimum critical plutonium mass under idealized plutonium-water conditions is 520 g, these predicted maximums in the pump housing are much lower than the minimum plutonium conditions needed to reach a criticality level. The initial plutonium maximum of 1.88 g/L still results in safety factor of 4.3 in the pump housing during the pump jet mixing operation.

  3. Tank 241-AZ-101 criticality assessment resulting from pump jet mixing: Sludge mixing simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, Y.; Recknagle, K.

    1997-04-01

    Tank 241-AZ-101 (AZ-101) is one of 28 double-shell tanks located in the AZ farm in the Hanford Site's 200 East Area. The tank contains a significant quantity of fissile materials, including an estimated 9.782 kg of plutonium. Before beginning jet pump mixing for mitigative purposes, the operations must be evaluated to demonstrate that they will be subcritical under both normal and credible abnormal conditions. The main objective of this study was to address a concern about whether two 300-hp pumps with four rotating 18.3-m/s (60-ft/s) jets can concentrate plutonium in their pump housings during mixer pump operation and cause a criticality. The three-dimensional simulation was performed with the time-varying TEMPEST code to determine how much the pump jet mixing of Tank AZ-101 will concentrate plutonium in the pump housing. The AZ-101 model predicted that the total amount of plutonium within the pump housing peaks at 75 g at 10 simulation seconds and decreases to less than 10 g at four minutes. The plutonium concentration in the entire pump housing peaks at 0.60 g/L at 10 simulation seconds and is reduced to below 0.1 g/L after four minutes. Since the minimum critical concentration of plutonium is 2.6 g/L, and the minimum critical plutonium mass under idealized plutonium-water conditions is 520 g, these predicted maximums in the pump housing are much lower than the minimum plutonium conditions needed to reach a criticality level. The initial plutonium maximum of 1.88 g/L still results in safety factor of 4.3 in the pump housing during the pump jet mixing operation

  4. Detection of pump degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casada, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    There are a variety of stressors that can affect the operation of centrifugal pumps. These can generally be classified as: Mechanical; Hydraulic; Tribological; Chemical; and Other (including those associated with the pump driver). Although these general stressors are active in essentially all centrifugal pumps, the stressor level and the extent of wear and degradation can vary greatly. Parameters that affect the extent of stressor activity are manifold. In order to assure the long-term operational readiness of a pump, it is important to both understand the nature and magnitude of the specific degradation mechanisms and to monitor the performance of the pump

  5. Liquid metal pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennell, W.E.

    1981-01-01

    A liquid metal pump comprising a shaft support structure which is isolated from the pump housing for better preservation of alignment of shaft bearings. The shaft carries an impeller and the support structure carries an impeller cage which is slidably disposed in a diffuser so as to allow complete removal of pump internals for inspection and repair. The diffuser is concentrically supported in the pump housing which also takes up all reaction forces generated by the discharge of the liquid metal from the diffuser, with floating seals arranged between impeller cage and the diffuser. The space between the diffuser and the pump housing permits the incoming liquid to essentially surround the diffuser. (author)

  6. Jet pump assisted artery

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    A procedure for priming an arterial heat pump is reported; the procedure also has a means for maintaining the pump in a primed state. This concept utilizes a capillary driven jet pump to create the necessary suction to fill the artery. Basically, the jet pump consists of a venturi or nozzle-diffuser type constriction in the vapor passage. The throat of this venturi is connected to the artery. Thus vapor, gas, liquid, or a combination of the above is pumped continuously out of the artery. As a result, the artery is always filled with liquid and an adequate supply of working fluid is provided to the evaporator of the heat pipe.

  7. Analysis of a high-Tc hot-electron superconducting mixer for terahertz applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karasik, B.S.; McGrath, W.R.; Gaidis, M.C.

    1997-01-01

    The prospects of a YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ hot-electron bolometer mixer for a THz heterodyne receiver are discussed. The modeled device is a submicron bridge made from a 10-nm-thick film on a high thermal conductance substrate. The mixer performance expected for this device is analyzed in the framework of a two-temperature model which includes heating both of the electrons and the lattice. Also, the contribution of phonon diffusion from the film through the substrate and from the film to the normal metal contacts is evaluated. The intrinsic conversion efficiency and the noise temperature have been calculated as functions of the device size, local oscillator (LO) power, and ambient temperature. Assuming thermal fluctuations and Johnson noise to be the main sources of noise, a minimum single sideband mixer noise temperature of congruent 2000 K is predicted. For our modeled device the intrinsic conversion loss at an intermediate frequency of 2.5 GHz is less than 10 dB and the required LO power is ∼1 endash 10 μW. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  8. A compact D-band monolithic APDP-based sub-harmonic mixer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shengzhou; Sun, Lingling; Wang, Xiang; Wen, Jincai; Liu, Jun

    2017-11-01

    The paper presents a compact D-band monolithic sub-harmonic mixer (SHM) with 3 μm planar hyperabrupt schottky-varactor diodes offered by 70 nm GaAs mHEMT technology. According to empirical equivalent-circuit models, a wide-band large signal equivalent circuit model of the diode is proposed. Based on the extracted model, the mixer is implemented and optimized with a shunt-mounted anti-parallel diode pair (APDP) to fulfill the sub-harmonic mixing mechanism. Furthermore, a modified asymmetric three-transmission-line coupler is devised to achieve high-level coupling and minimize the chip size. The measured results show that the conversion gain varies between -13.9 dB and -17.5 dB from 110 GHz to 145 GHz, with a local oscillator (LO) power level of 14 dBm and an intermediate frequency (IF) of 1 GHz. The total chip size including probe GSG pads is 0.57 × 0.68mm2. In conclusion, the mixer exhibits outstanding figure-of-merits.

  9. High-k Scattering Receiver Mixer Performance for NSTX-U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barchfeld, Robert; Riemenschneider, Paul; Domier, Calvin; Luhmann, Neville; Ren, Yang; Kaita, Robert

    2016-10-01

    The High-k Scattering system detects primarily electron-scale turbulence k θ spectra for studying electron thermal transport in NSTX-U. A 100 mW, 693 GHz probe beam passes through plasma, and scattered power is detected by a 4-pixel quasi optical, mixer array. Remotely controlled receiving optics allows the scattering volume to be located from core to edge with a k θ span of 7 to 40 cm-1. The receiver array features 4 RF diagonal input horns, where the electric field polarization is aligned along the diagonal of a square cross section horn, at 30 mm channel spacing. The local oscillator is provided by a 14.4 GHz source followed by a x48 multiplier chain, giving an intermediate frequency of 1 GHz. The receiver optics receive 4 discreet scattering angles simultaneously, and then focus the signals as 4 parallel signals to their respective horns. A combination of a steerable probe beam, and translating receiver, allows for upward or downward scattering which together can provide information about 2D turbulence wavenumber spectrum. IF signals are digitized and stored for later computer analysis. The performance of the receiver mixers is discussed, along with optical design features to enhance the tuning and performance of the mixers. Work supported in part by U.S. DOE Grant DE-FG02-99ER54518 and DE-AC02-09CH1146.

  10. Low-Noise Wide Bandwith, Hot Electron Bolometer Mixers for Submillimeter Wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, W. R.

    1995-01-01

    Recently a novel superconductive hot-electron micro-bolometer has been proposed which is both fast and sensitive (D. E. Prober, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2119, 1993). This device has several important properties which make it useful as a heterodyne sensor for radioastronomy applications at frequencies above 1 THz. The thermal response time of the device is fast enough, several 10's of picoseconds, to allow for IF's of several GHz. This bolometer mixer should operate well up to at least 10 THz. There is no energy gap limitation as in an SIS mixer, since the mixing process relies on heating of the electron gas. In fact, rf power is absorbed more uniformly above the gap frequency. The mixer noise should be near quantum-limited, and the local oscillator (LO) power requirement is very low: / 10 nW for a Nb device. One of the unique features of this device is that it employs rapid electron diffusion into a normal metal, rather than phonon emission, as the thermal conductance that cools the heated electrons. In order for diffusion to dominate over phonon emission, the device must be short, less than 0.5.

  11. Flow optimisation of a biomass mixer; Stroemungstechnische Optimierung eines Biomasse-Ruehrwerks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casartelli, E.; Waser, R. [Hochschule fuer Technik und Architektur Luzern (HTA), Horw (Switzerland); Fankhauser, H. [Fankhauser Maschinenfabrik, Malters (Switzerland)

    2007-03-15

    This illustrated final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reports on the optimisation of a mixing system used in biomass reactors. Aim of this work was to improve the fluid dynamic qualities of the mixer in order to increase its efficiency while, at the same time, maintaining robustness and low price. Investigative work performed with CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) is reported on. CFD is quoted by the authors as being very effective in solving such optimisation problems as it is suited to flows that are not easily accessible for analysis. Experiments were performed on a fermenter / mixer model in order to confirm the computational findings. The results obtained with two and three-dimensional simulations are presented and discussed, as are those resulting from the tests with the 1:10 scale model of a digester. Initial tests with the newly developed mixer-propellers in a real-life biogas installation are reported on and further tests to be made are listed.

  12. Field measurement of mixing degree in coal mixer by later activable tracer method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokooji, Makoto; Uemura, Katsumi; Adachi, Syoichi

    1975-01-01

    Mixing effectiveness in a rotary drum mixer for coke production was examined. Though the method to use the dispersion of characteristic values such as ash content or volatile components is common for measuring the mixing effectiveness, here the later activable tracer method with radioisotopes was employed, because the former method includes the dispersion of the characteristic values for raw materials themselves, and is poor in detectability. In a preliminary test, the expression for mixing degree was determined, and the tracer nuclide was selected. Coal mixture was irradiated in the TRIGA II reactor of St. Paul University for 4 hours at 100 kW. then further preliminary test was performed for La and Mn which were selected among the typical usable elements listed up by reviewing their γ-spectra. Finally, Mn was adopted by comparing both elements regarding their time required for activation analysis and economy. Manganese concentration originally contained in the coal mixture was 38 ppm. Mixing degree after passing through the coal mixer was 99.8%. The results of the regular test are shown in a table, and indicate that the mixer fully attained its aim. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  13. Cocoa Beach, Oculina Banks Clelia Dive 617 Narrative 2001 - Videotape and Visual Observations from Submersible Dives to the Oculina Banks Deep Sea Coral Reefs (NODC Accession 0047190)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are from one of from fourteen 2001 submersible "Clelia" dives. Narratives including habitat descriptions and estimates of megafaunal species abundance...

  14. Sebastian Pinnacles, Oculina Banks Clelia Dive 618 Narrative 2001 - Videotape and Visual Observations from Submersible Dives to the Oculina Banks Deep Sea Coral Reefs (NODC Accession 0047190)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are from one of fourteen 2001 submersible "Clelia" dives. Narratives including habitat descriptions and estimates of megafaunal species abundance were...

  15. Sebastian Pinnacles, Oculina Banks Clelia Dive 614 Narrative 2001 - Videotape and Visual Observations from Submersible Dives to the Oculina Banks Deep Sea Coral Reefs (NODC Accession 0047190)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are from one of fourteen 2001 submersible "Clelia" dives. Narratives including habitat descriptions and estimates of megafaunal species abundance were...

  16. Sebastian Pinnacles, Oculina Banks Clelia Dive 615 Narrative 2001 - Videotape and Visual Observations from Submersible Dives to the Oculina Banks Deep Sea Coral Reefs (NODC Accession 0047190)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are from one of fourteen 2001 submersible "Clelia" dives. Narratives including habitat descriptions and estimates of megafaunal species abundance were...

  17. Sebastian Pinnacles, Oculina Banks Clelia Dive 619 Narrative 2001 - Videotape and Visual Observations from Submersible Dives to the Oculina Banks Deep Sea Coral Reefs (NODC Accession 0047190)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are from one of fourteen 2001 submersible "Clelia" dives. Narratives including habitat descriptions and estimates of megafaunal species abundance were...

  18. Jeff's Reef, Oculina Banks Clelia Dive 606 Narrative 2001 - Videotape and Visual Observations from Submersible Dives to the Oculina Banks Deep Sea Coral Reefs (NODC Accession 0047190)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These are data from one of fourteen 2001 submersible "Clelia" dives. Narratives including habitat descriptions and estimates of megafaunal species abundance were...

  19. Chapman's Reef, Oculina Banks Clelia Dive 620 Narrative 2001 - Videotape and Visual Observations from Submersible Dives to the Oculina Banks Deep Sea Coral Reefs (NODC Accession 0047190)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are from one of fourteen 2001 submersible "Clelia" dives. Narratives including habitat descriptions and estimates of megafaunal species abundance were...

  20. stil113_0401p -- Still frame locations of sediment extracted from video imagery collected by Delta submersible in September 2001.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Delta submersible vehicle, outfitted with video equipment (and other devices), was deployed from the R/V Auriga during September 2001 to monitor seafloor...

  1. Jeff's Reef Oculina Banks Clelia Dive 607 Narrative 2001 - Videotape and Visual Observations from Submersible Dives to the Oculina Banks Deep Sea Coral Reefs (NODC Accession 0047190)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These are data from one of fourteen 2001 submersible "Clelia" dives. Narratives including habitat descriptions and estimates of megafaunal species abundance were...

  2. Submersible Data (Dive Waypoints) for Islands in the Stream 2002 - Exploration of Outer Shelf and Slope Habitats off the Coast of North Carolina - Office of Ocean Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data and information collected by the submersible Johnson Sea-Link II at waypoints along its track during one dive of the 2002 "Islands in the Stream - Outer Shelf...

  3. Phytoplankton cell counts from a moored submersible flow cytometer at Martha's Vineyard (Massachusetts) Coastal Observatory, May 10 - December 15, 2003 (NODC Accession 0002299)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Phytoplankton cell counts data were collected using a moored submersible flow cytometer from a Coastal Observatory at the Martha's Vineyard in Masschutsetts from 10...

  4. Phytoplankton cell counts from a moored submersible flow cytometer at Martha's Vineyard (Massachusetts) Coastal Observatory, May - December 2006 (NODC Accession 0036656)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Phytoplankton cell counts were collected from using a moored submersible flow cytometer from the Martha's Vineyard Coastal Observatory in the Northwest Atlantic...

  5. Phytoplankton cell counts from a moored submersible flow cytometer at Martha's Vineyard Coastal Observatory, Massachusetts, May - September 2004 (NODC Accession 0002722)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Phytoplankton cell counts were collected from using a moored submersible flow cytometer from the Martha's Vineyard Coastal Observatory in the Northwest Atlantic...

  6. Pumps for nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The guide describes how the Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) controls pumps and their motors at nuclear power plants and other nuclear facilities. The scope of the control is determined by the Safety Class of the pump in question. The various phases of the control are: (1) review of construction plan, (2) control of manufacturing, and construction inspection, (3) commissioning inspection, and (4) control during operation. STUK controls Safety Class 1, 2 and 3 pumps at nuclear facilities as described in this guide. STUK inspects Class EYT (non-nuclear) pumps separately or in connection with the commissioning inspections of the systems. This guide gives the control procedure and related requirements primarily for centrifugal pumps. However, it is also applied to the control of piston pumps and other pump types not mentioned in this guide

  7. Internal pump monitoring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurosaki, Toshikazu.

    1996-01-01

    In the present invention, a thermometer is disposed at the upper end of an internal pump casing of a coolant recycling system in a BWR type reactor to detect leakage of reactor water thereby ensuring the improvement of reliability of the internal pump. Namely, a thermometer is disposed, which can detect temperature elevation occurred when water in the internal pump leaked from a reactor pressure vessel passes through the gap between a stretch tube and an upper end of the pump casing. Signals from the thermometer are transmitted to a signal processing device by an instrumentation cable. The signal processing device generates an alarm when the temperature signal exceeds a predetermined value and announces that leakage of reactor water occurs in the internal pump. Since the present invention can detect the leakage of the reactor water in the pump casing in an early stage, it can contribute to the improvement of the safety and reliability of the internal pump. (I.S.)

  8. Pump element for a tube pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The invention relates to a tube pump comprising a tube and a pump element inserted in the tube, where the pump element comprises a rod element and a first and a second non-return valve member positioned a distance apart on the rod element. The valve members are oriented in the same direction...... relative to the rod element so as to allow for a fluid flow in the tube through the first valve member, along the rod element, and through the second valve member. The tube comprises an at least partly flexible tube portion between the valve members such that a repeated deformation of the flexible tube...... portion acts to alternately close and open the valve members thereby generating a fluid flow through the tube. The invention further relates to a pump element comprising at least two non-return valve members connected by a rod element, and for insertion in an at least partly flexible tube in such tube...

  9. Pumping behavior of sputtering ion pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, T.S.; Bittner, J.; Schuchman, J.

    1991-12-31

    To optimize the design of a distributed ion pump (DIP) for the Superconducting X-Ray Lithography Source (SXLS) the stability of the rotating electron cloud at very high magnetic field beyond transition, must be re-examined. In this work the pumping speed and frequency spectrum of a DIP at various voltages (1 to 10 KV) and various magnetic fields (0.1 to 4 Tesla) are measured. Three cell diameters 10 mm, 5 mm and 2.5 mm, each 8 mm long, and with 3 or 4 mm gaps between anode and cathode are investigated. In this study both the titanium cathodes and the stainless steel anode plates are perforated with holes comparable in size to the anode cell diameters. Only the partially saturated pumping behavior is under investigation. The ultimate pressure and conditioning of the pump will be investigated at a later date when the stability criterion for the electron cloud is better understood.

  10. Pumping behavior of sputtering ion pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, T.S.; Bittner, J.; Schuchman, J.

    1991-01-01

    To optimize the design of a distributed ion pump (DIP) for the Superconducting X-Ray Lithography Source (SXLS) the stability of the rotating electron cloud at very high magnetic field beyond transition, must be re-examined. In this work the pumping speed and frequency spectrum of a DIP at various voltages (1 to 10 KV) and various magnetic fields (0.1 to 4 Tesla) are measured. Three cell diameters 10 mm, 5 mm and 2.5 mm, each 8 mm long, and with 3 or 4 mm gaps between anode and cathode are investigated. In this study both the titanium cathodes and the stainless steel anode plates are perforated with holes comparable in size to the anode cell diameters. Only the partially saturated pumping behavior is under investigation. The ultimate pressure and conditioning of the pump will be investigated at a later date when the stability criterion for the electron cloud is better understood.

  11. Design of a ×4 subharmonic sub-millimeter wave diode mixer, based on an analytic expression for small-signal conversion admittance parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michaelsen, Rasmus Schandorph; Johansen, Tom Keinicke; Krozer, Viktor

    2013-01-01

    Instead of using frequency multipliers before a fundamental mixer, subharmonic mixers can be used. In order to develop novel subharmonic mixer architectures it is necessary to know the exact signal phase at the nonlinear element. The purpose of this paper is to generalize the description of the s....... With an RF frequency of 640 GHz, this design achieves a conversion gain of −13.5 dB with a LO-power of only −2.5 dBm....

  12. Flicker noise comparison of direct conversion mixers using Schottky and HBT dioderings in SiGe:C BiCMOS technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michaelsen, Rasmus Schandorph; Johansen, Tom Keinicke; Tamborg, Kjeld

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present flicker noise measurements of two X-band direct conversion mixers implemented in a SiGe:C BiCMOS technology. Both mixers use a ring structure with either Schottky diodes or diode-connected HBTs for double balanced operation. The mixers are packaged in a metal casing on a...... circuit demonstrates a 1/f noise corner frequency around 10 kHz....

  13. Test report for the run-in acceptance testing of the hydrogen mitigation retrieval Pump-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berglin, B.G.; Nash, Ch.R.

    1997-01-01

    This report will provide the findings of the demonstration test conducted on the Double-Shell Tank (DST) 241-SY-101 HMR Pump-3 in accordance with WHC-SDWM-TP-434 ''Test plan for run-in acceptance testing of hydrogen mitigation/retrieval pump-3'' at the 400 Area Maintenance and Storage Facility (MASF) building from 7 June 1996 through 30 July 1996 per work package 4A-96-92/W. The DST 241-SY-101 hydrogen mitigation retrieval Pump-3 is a 200-HP submersible electric driven pump that has been modified for use in the DST 241-SY-101 containing mixed waste located in the 200W area. The pump has a motor driven rotation mechanism that allows the pump column to rotate through 355 degree. Prior to operation, pre-operational checks were performed which included loop calibration grooming and alignment of instruments, learning how plumb HMR-3 assembly hung in a vertical position and bump test of the motor to determine rotation direction. The pump was tested in the MASF Large Diameter Cleaning Vessel (LDCV) with process water at controlled temperatures and levels. In addition, the water temperature of the cooling water to the motor oil heat exchanger was recorded during testing. A 480-volt source powered a Variable Frequency Drive (VFD). The VFD powered the pump at various frequencies and voltages to control speed and power output of the pump. A second VFD powered the oil cooling pump. A third VFD was not available to operate the rotational drive motor during the 72 hour test, so it was demonstrated as operational before and after the test. A Mini Acquisition and Control System (Mini-DACS) controls pump functions and monitoring of the pump parameters. The Mini-DACS consists of three computers, software and some Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC). Startup and shutdown of either the pump motor or the oil cooling pump can be accomplished by the Mini-DACS. When the pump was in operation, the Mini-DACS monitors automatically collects data electronically. However, some required data

  14. Numerical Investigation of a Tuned Heave Plate Energy-Harvesting System of a Semi-Submersible Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel tuned heave plate energy-harvesting system (THPEH is presented for the motion suppressing and energy harvesting of a semi-submersible platform. This THPEH system is designed based on the principle of a tuned mass damper (TMD and is composed of spring supports, a power take-off system (PTO and four movable heave plates. The permanent magnet linear generators (PMLG are used as the PTO system in this design. A semi-submersible platform operating in the South China Sea is selected as the research subject for investigating the effects of the THPEH system on motion reduction and harvesting energy through numerical simulations. The numerical model of the platform and the THPEH system, which was established based on hydrodynamic analysis, is modified and validated by the results of the flume test of a 1:70 scale model. The effects of the parameters, including the size, the frequency ratio and the damping ratio of the THPEH system, are systematically investigated. The results show that this THPEH system, with proper parameters, could significantly reduce the motions of the semi-submersible platform and generate considerable power under different wave conditions.

  15. Linking carbon and nitrogen metabolism to depth distribution of submersed macrophytes using high ammonium dosing tests and a lake survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Guixiang; Cao, Te; Fu, Hui; Ni, Leyi; Zhang, Xiaolin; Li, Wei; Song, Xin; Xie, Ping; Jeppesen, Erik

    2013-12-01

    Strategies of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) utilisation are among the factors determining plant distribution. It has been argued that submersed macrophytes adapted to lower light environments are more efficient in maintaining C metabolic homeostasis due to their conservative C strategy and ability to balance C shortage. We studied how depth distributions of 12 submersed macrophytes in Lake Erhai, China, were linked to their C-N metabolic strategies when facing acute [Formula: see text] dosing.[Formula: see text] dosing changed C-N metabolism significantly by decreasing the soluble carbohydrate (SC) content and increasing the [Formula: see text]-N and free amino acid (FAA) content of plant tissues.The proportional changes in SC contents in the leaves and FAA contents in the stems induced by [Formula: see text] dosing were closely correlated (positive for SC and negative for FAA) with the colonising water depths of the plants in Lake Erhai, the plants adapted to lower light regimes being more efficient in maintaining SC and FAA homeostasis.These results indicate that conservative carbohydrate metabolism of submersed macrophytes allowed the plants to colonise greater water depths in eutrophic lakes, where low light availability in the water column diminishes carbohydrate production by the plants.

  16. Studi Pengaruh Gerak Semi-submersible Drilling Rig dengan Variasi Pre-tension Mooring Line terhadap Keamanan Drilling Riser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arda Arda

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Analisis terhadap sistem tambat pada anjungan pengeboran semi-submersible drilling rig perlu dilakukan sebelum dilakukannya operasi di lapangan untuk mengetahui perencanaan sistem tambat yang tepat dan aman. Dalam penelitian ini dilakukan analisa perilaku gerak semi-submersible dengan variasi pre-tension mooring line untuk mengetahui berapa besar pre-tension minimal yang harus digunakan agar operasi pengeboran di lingkungan laut Natuna dapat berjalan dengan aman. Variasi pre-tension yang digunakan adalah sebesar 400kN-2000kN dengan penambahan sebesar 400kN. Karakteristik gerakan semi-submersible diprediksi dengan menghitung RAO free floating dengan pemodelan numerik dalam domain frekuensi. Kemudian dilakukan analisa simulasi sistem lengkap (platform, mooring dan drilling riser dengan pemodelan numerik dalam domain waktu. Hasil yang didapat yakni nilai maksimum tegangan mooring line memenuhi batas kriteria API-RP2SK untuk semua variasi pre-tension dengan safety factor terkecil 2.44. Sudut flex joint drilling riser yang terjadi melewati batas kriteria API-RP16Q pada pre-tension 400kN-800kN yang mencapai 6.20 untuk sudut maksimum dan 4.80 untuk sudut rata-rata. Tegangan von Mises yang terjadi pada drilling riser melebihi kriteria API-RP16Q pada pre-tension 400kN-1200kN karena nilainya mencapai 369 MPa (0.82 yield stress.

  17. Electrokinetic pumps and actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillip M. Paul

    2000-01-01

    Flow and ionic transport in porous media are central to electrokinetic pumping as well as to a host of other microfluidic devices. Electrokinetic pumping provides the ability to create high pressures (to over 10,000 psi) and high flow rates (over 1 mL/min) with a device having no moving parts and all liquid seals. The electrokinetic pump (EKP) is ideally suited for applications ranging from a high pressure integrated pump for chip-scale HPLC to a high flow rate integrated pump for forced liquid convection cooling of high-power electronics. Relations for flow rate and current fluxes in porous media are derived that provide a basis for analysis of complex microfluidic systems as well as for optimization of electrokinetic pumps

  18. Electrokinetic pumps and actuators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillip M. Paul

    2000-03-01

    Flow and ionic transport in porous media are central to electrokinetic pumping as well as to a host of other microfluidic devices. Electrokinetic pumping provides the ability to create high pressures (to over 10,000 psi) and high flow rates (over 1 mL/min) with a device having no moving parts and all liquid seals. The electrokinetic pump (EKP) is ideally suited for applications ranging from a high pressure integrated pump for chip-scale HPLC to a high flow rate integrated pump for forced liquid convection cooling of high-power electronics. Relations for flow rate and current fluxes in porous media are derived that provide a basis for analysis of complex microfluidic systems as well as for optimization of electrokinetic pumps.

  19. Detection of pump degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, R.H.; Casada, D.A.; Ayers, C.W.

    1995-08-01

    This Phase II Nuclear Plant Aging Research study examines the methods of detecting pump degradation that are currently employed in domestic and overseas nuclear facilities. This report evaluates the criteria mandated by required pump testing at U.S. nuclear power plants and compares them to those features characteristic of state-of-the-art diagnostic programs and practices currently implemented by other major industries. Since the working condition of the pump driver is crucial to pump operability, a brief review of new applications of motor diagnostics is provided that highlights recent developments in this technology. The routine collection and analysis of spectral data is superior to all other technologies in its ability to accurately detect numerous types and causes of pump degradation. Existing ASME Code testing criteria do not require the evaluation of pump vibration spectra but instead overall vibration amplitude. The mechanical information discernible from vibration amplitude analysis is limited, and several cases of pump failure were not detected in their early stages by vibration monitoring. Since spectral analysis can provide a wealth of pertinent information concerning the mechanical condition of rotating machinery, its incorporation into ASME testing criteria could merit a relaxation in the monthly-to-quarterly testing schedules that seek to verify and assure pump operability. Pump drivers are not included in the current battery of testing. Operational problems thought to be caused by pump degradation were found to be the result of motor degradation. Recent advances in nonintrusive monitoring techniques have made motor diagnostics a viable technology for assessing motor operability. Motor current/power analysis can detect rotor bar degradation and ascertain ranges of hydraulically unstable operation for a particular pump and motor set. The concept of using motor current or power fluctuations as an indicator of pump hydraulic load stability is presented

  20. Detection of pump degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, R.H.; Casada, D.A.; Ayers, C.W. [and others

    1995-08-01

    This Phase II Nuclear Plant Aging Research study examines the methods of detecting pump degradation that are currently employed in domestic and overseas nuclear facilities. This report evaluates the criteria mandated by required pump testing at U.S. nuclear power plants and compares them to those features characteristic of state-of-the-art diagnostic programs and practices currently implemented by other major industries. Since the working condition of the pump driver is crucial to pump operability, a brief review of new applications of motor diagnostics is provided that highlights recent developments in this technology. The routine collection and analysis of spectral data is superior to all other technologies in its ability to accurately detect numerous types and causes of pump degradation. Existing ASME Code testing criteria do not require the evaluation of pump vibration spectra but instead overall vibration amplitude. The mechanical information discernible from vibration amplitude analysis is limited, and several cases of pump failure were not detected in their early stages by vibration monitoring. Since spectral analysis can provide a wealth of pertinent information concerning the mechanical condition of rotating machinery, its incorporation into ASME testing criteria could merit a relaxation in the monthly-to-quarterly testing schedules that seek to verify and assure pump operability. Pump drivers are not included in the current battery of testing. Operational problems thought to be caused by pump degradation were found to be the result of motor degradation. Recent advances in nonintrusive monitoring techniques have made motor diagnostics a viable technology for assessing motor operability. Motor current/power analysis can detect rotor bar degradation and ascertain ranges of hydraulically unstable operation for a particular pump and motor set. The concept of using motor current or power fluctuations as an indicator of pump hydraulic load stability is presented.

  1. Thermomechanical piston pump development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabelman, E. E.

    1971-01-01

    A thermally powered reciprocating pump has been devised to replace or augment an electric pump for the transport of temperature-control fluid on the Thermoelectric Outer Planet Spacecraft (TOPS). The thermally powered pump operates cyclically by extracting heat energy from the fluid by means of a vapor-pressure expansion system and by using the heat to perform the mechanical work of pumping. A feasibility test unit has been constructed to provide an output of 7 cu in during a 10- to 100-second cycle. It operates with a fluid input temperature of 200 to 300 F and a heat sink temperature of 0 to 30 F.

  2. Pumps for nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanguy, L.

    1978-01-01

    In order to meet the requirements of nuclear industry for the transfer of corrosive, toxic, humidity sensitive or very pure gases, different types of pumps were developped and commercialized. Their main characteristics are to prevent pollution of the transfered fluid by avoiding any contact between this fluid and the lubricated parts of the machine, and to prevent a contamination of the atmosphere or of the fluid by a total tightness. Patellar pumps have been particularly developped because the metallic bellows are quite reliable and resistant in this configuration. Two types are described: patellar pumps without friction and barrel pumps whose pistons are provided with rings sliding in the cylinders without lubrication [fr

  3. Pump safety device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timmermans, Francis; Vandervorst, Jean.

    1981-01-01

    Safety device for longitudinally leak proofing the shaft of a pump in the event of the fracture of the dynamic seal separating the pump fluid high pressure chamber from the low pressure chamber. It is designed for fitting to the primary pumps of nuclear reactors. It includes a hollow cyclindrical piston located coaxially around the pump shaft and normally housed in a chamber provided for this purpose in the fixed housing of the dynamic seal, and means for moving this piston coaxially so as to compress a safety O ring between the shaft and the piston in the event of the dynamic seal failing [fr

  4. Optically pumped atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Happer, William; Walker, Thad

    2010-01-01

    Covering the most important knowledge on optical pumping of atoms, this ready reference is backed by numerous examples of modelling computation for optical pumped systems. The authors show for the first time that modern scientific computing software makes it practical to analyze the full, multilevel system of optically pumped atoms. To make the discussion less abstract, the authors have illustrated key points with sections of MATLAB codes. To make most effective use of contemporary mathematical software, it is especially useful to analyze optical pumping situations in the Liouville spa

  5. Detection of pump degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casada, D.

    1995-01-01

    There are a variety of stressors that can affect the operation of centrifugal pumps. Although these general stressors are active in essentially all centrifugal pumps, the stressor level and the extent of wear and degradation can vary greatly. Parameters that affect the extent of stressor activity are manifold. In order to assure the long-term operational readiness of a pump, it is important to both understand the nature and magnitude of the specific degradation mechanisms and to monitor the performance of the pump. The most commonly applied method of monitoring the condition of not only pumps, but rotating machinery in general, is vibration analysis. Periodic or continuous special vibration analysis is a cornerstone of most pump monitoring programs. In the nuclear industry, non-spectral vibration monitoring of safety-related pumps is performed in accordance with the ASME code. Pump head and flow rate are also monitored, per code requirements. Although vibration analysis has dominated the condition monitoring field for many years, there are other measures that have been historically used to help understand pump condition; advances in historically applied technologies and developing technologies offer improved monitoring capabilities. The capabilities of several technologies (including vibration analysis, dynamic pressure analysis, and motor power analysis) to detect the presence and magnitude of both stressors and resultant degradation are discussed

  6. Champagne Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A.

    2004-01-01

    The term champagne heat pump denotes a developmental heat pump that exploits a cycle of absorption and desorption of carbon dioxide in an alcohol or other organic liquid. Whereas most heat pumps in common use in the United States are energized by mechanical compression, the champagne heat pump is energized by heating. The concept of heat pumps based on other absorption cycles energized by heat has been understood for years, but some of these heat pumps are outlawed in many areas because of the potential hazards posed by leakage of working fluids. For example, in the case of the water/ammonia cycle, there are potential hazards of toxicity and flammability. The organic-liquid/carbon dioxide absorption/desorption cycle of the champagne heat pump is similar to the water/ammonia cycle, but carbon dioxide is nontoxic and environmentally benign, and one can choose an alcohol or other organic liquid that is also relatively nontoxic and environmentally benign. Two candidate nonalcohol organic liquids are isobutyl acetate and amyl acetate. Although alcohols and many other organic liquids are flammable, they present little or no flammability hazard in the champagne heat pump because only the nonflammable carbon dioxide component of the refrigerant mixture is circulated to the evaporator and condenser heat exchangers, which are the only components of the heat pump in direct contact with air in habitable spaces.

  7. Mitigation of tank 241-SY-101 by pump mixing: Results of full-scale testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, C.W.; Hudson, J.D.; Friley, J.R.; Panisko, F.E.; Antoniak, Z.I.; Irwin, J.J.; Fadeff, J.G.; Efferding, L.F.; Michener, T.E.; Kirch, N.W.

    1994-06-01

    The Full-Scale Mixer Pump Test Program was performed in Hanford Tank 241-SY-101 from February 4 to April 13, 1994, to confirm the long-term operational strategy for flammable gas mitigation and to demonstrate that mixing can control the gas release and waste level. Since its installation on July 3, 1993, the current pump, operating only a few hours per week, has proved capable of mixing the waste sufficiently to release gas continuously instead of in large episodic events. The results of Full-Scale Testing demonstrated that the pump can control gas release and waste level for long-term mitigation, and the four test sequences formed the basis for the long-term operating schedule. The last test sequence, jet penetration tests, showed that the current pump jet creates flow near the tank wall and that it can excavate portions of the bottom sludge layer if run at maximum power. Pump mixing has altered the open-quote normal close-quote configuration of the waste; most of the original nonconvective sludge has been mixed with the supernatant liquid into a mobile convective slurry that has since been maintained by gentle pump operation and does not readily return to sludge

  8. An analytical model for prediction of two-phase (noncondensable) flow pump performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuya, O.

    1985-01-01

    During operational transients or a hypothetical LOCA (loss of coolant accident) condition, the recirculating coolant of PWR (pressurized water reactor) may flash into steam due to a loss of line pressure. Under such two-phase flow conditions, it is well known that the recirculation pump becomes unable to generate the same head as that of the single-phase flow case. Similar situations also exist in oil well submersible pumps where a fair amount of gas is contained in oil. Based on the one dimensional control volume method, an analytical method has been developed to determine the performance of pumps operating under two-phase flow conditions. The analytical method has incorporated pump geometry, void fraction, flow slippage and flow regime into the basic formula, but neglected the compressibility and condensation effects. During the course of model development, it has been found that the head degradation is mainly caused by higher acceleration on liquid phase and deceleration on gas phase than in the case of single-phase flows. The numerical results for head degradations and torques obtained with the model favorably compared with the air/water two-phase flow test data of Babcock and Wilcox (1/3 scale) and Creare (1/20 scale) pumps

  9. Counteracting ammonia inhibition during anaerobic digestion by recovery using submersible microbial desalination cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yifeng; Angelidaki, Irini

    2015-07-01

    Ammonia inhibition is one of the most frequent and serious problems in biogas plants. In this study, a novel hybrid system consisting of a submersible microbial desalination cell (SMDC) and a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) was developed for counteracting ammonia inhibition during anaerobic digestion (AD) with simultaneous in situ ammonia recovery and electricity production. The SMDC was powered by acetate in a buffer solution, while synthetic ammonia-rich wastewater was used as the feeding of the CSTR. Under continuous operation, ammonia recovery rate of 86 g-N/m(2) /day and current density of 4.33 A/m(2) were achieved at steady-state condition. As a result, 112% extra biogas was produced due to ammonia recovery by the SMDC. High-throughput sequencing showed that ammonia recovery had an impact on the microbial community structures in the SMDC and CSTR. Considering the additional economic benefits of biogas enhancement and possible wastewater treatment, the SMDC may represent a cost-effective and environmentally friendly method for waste resources recovery and biomethanation of ammonia-rich residues. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Classification of submersed aquatic vegetation of the Venice lagoon using MIVIS airborne data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pignatti

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In July 2001 an aerial survey with MIVIS (Multispectral Infrared and Visible Spectrometer hyperspectral sensor and an in situ survey campaign were performed on Venice lagoon to map benthic macro-algae and sea phanerogams distribution. On MIVIS VIS spectral range images, training areas for benthic macro-algae and sea phanerogams have been selected by using sea truth data collected by CNR-ISMAR from in situ campaign and periodic area surveys used in the lagoon by the local authorities. The derived spectral signature has been used to classify the area in order to produce the maps of the pure and mixture submersed vegetation population. The algorithm applied to the data is based on the Subpixel Spectral Analytical Process (SSAP method. The method assumes that the spectrum of a single pixel is composed of a fraction of the material of interest while the remainder of the observed spectra contains background materials. In terms of recognition processes the produced maps present a very good agreement with the sea truth data even though the fraction material expressed in the maps does not represent a quantitative estimation of the material of interest.

  11. Carbon dioxide and submersed macrophytes in lakes: linking functional ecology to community composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titus, John E; Pagano, Angela M

    2017-12-01

    Evaluating plant community response to atmospheric CO 2 rise is critical to predicting ecosystem level change. Freshwater lakes offer a model system for examining CO 2 effects as submersed macrophyte species differ greatly in their growth responses to CO 2 enrichment, and free CO 2 concentrations among these habitats show a wide range of natural, spatial variation. We determined free CO 2 concentrations in the water column and sediment porewater in littoral zones with pH macrophyte communities coupled with greenhouse-derived growth responses to CO 2 enrichment of constituent species to test two hypotheses: (1) CCRI, which is higher for communities dominated by species with greater growth responses to CO 2 enrichment, is positively correlated to free [CO 2 ] in the water column, and (2) in natural communities, the percent of sediment CO 2 -using species, which are relatively unresponsive to CO 2 enrichment, is negatively correlated to free [CO 2 ]. A significant positive correlation (P = 0.003) between our physiologically based CCRI and the concentration of free CO 2 in the water column supported our primary hypothesis that sites with higher levels of free CO 2 are dominated by species with greater growth responses to CO 2 enrichment. Our CCRI is also highly significantly correlated (P macrophyte community composition. Further, we demonstrate the utility of a physiologically-based index of community composition, our CCRI, as an ecologically valid measure of community response to CO 2 . © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  12. FUZZY LOGIC BASED OPTIMIZATION OF CAPACITOR VALUE FOR SINGLE PHASE OPEN WELL SUBMERSIBLE INDUCTION MOTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Subramanian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – The aim of this paper is to optimize the capacitor value of a single phase open well submersible motor operating under extreme voltage conditions using fuzzy logic optimization technique and compared with no-load volt-ampere method. This is done by keeping the displacement angle (a between main winding and auxiliary winding near 90o, phase angle (f between the supply voltage and line current near 0o. The optimization work is carried out by using Fuzzy Logic Toolbox software built on the MATLAB technical computing environment with Simulink software. Findings – The optimum capacitor value obtained is used with a motor and tested for different supply voltage conditions. The vector diagrams obtained from the experimental test results indicates that the performance is improved from the existing value. Originality/value – This method will be highly useful for the practicing design engineers in selecting the optimum capacitance value for single phase induction motors to achieve the best performance for operating at extreme supply voltage conditions.

  13. Mixing monoclonal antibody formulations using bottom-mounted mixers: impact of mechanism and design on drug product quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gikanga, Benson; Chen, Yufei; Stauch, Oliver B; Maa, Yuh-Fun

    2015-01-01

    Using bottom-mounted mixers, particularly those that are magnetically driven, is becoming increasingly common during the mixing process in pharmaceutical and biotechnology manufacturing because of their associated low risk of contamination, ease of use, and ability to accommodate low minimum mixing volumes. Despite these benefits, the impact of bottom-mounted mixers on biologic drug product is not yet fully understood and is scarcely reported. This study evaluated four bottom-mounted mixers to assess their impact on monoclonal antibody formulations. Changes in product quality (size variants, particles, and turbidity) and impact on process performance (sterile filtration) were evaluated after mixing. The results suggested that mixers that are designed to function with no contact between the impeller and the drive unit are the most favorable and gentle to monoclonal antibody molecules. Designs with contact or a narrow clearance tended to shear and grind the protein and resulted in high particle count in the liquid, which would subsequently foul a filter membrane during sterile filtration using a 0.22 μm pore size filter. Despite particle formation, increases in turbidity of the protein solution and protein aggregation/fragmentation were not detected. Further particle analysis indicated particles in the range of 0.2-2 μm are responsible for filter fouling. A small-scale screening model was developed using two types of magnetic stir bars mimicking the presence or absence of contact between the impeller and drive unit in the bottom-mounted mixers. The model is capable of differentiating the sensitivity of monoclonal antibody formulations to bottom-mounted mixers with a small sample size. This study fills an important gap in understanding a critical bioprocess unit operation. Mixing is an important unit operation in drug product manufacturing for compounding (dilution, pooling, homogenization, etc.). The current trend in adopting disposable bottom-mounted mixers has

  14. A Low Power 2.4 GHz CMOS Mixer Using Forward Body Bias Technique for Wireless Sensor Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, C. J.; Murad, S. A. Z.; Harun, A.; Ramli, M. M.; Zulkifli, T. Z. A.; Karim, J.

    2018-03-01

    Wireless sensor network (WSN) is a highly-demanded application since the evolution of wireless generation which is often used in recent communication technology. A radio frequency (RF) transceiver in WSN should have a low power consumption to support long operating times of mobile devices. A down-conversion mixer is responsible for frequency translation in a receiver. By operating a down-conversion mixer at a low supply voltage, the power consumed by WSN receiver can be greatly reduced. This paper presents a development of low power CMOS mixer using forward body bias technique for wireless sensor network. The proposed mixer is implemented using CMOS 0.13 μm Silterra technology. The forward body bias technique is adopted to obtain low power consumption. The simulation results indicate that a low power consumption of 0.91 mW is achieved at 1.6 V supply voltage. Moreover, the conversion gain (CG) of 21.83 dB, the noise figure (NF) of 16.51 dB and the input-referred third-order intercept point (IIP3) of 8.0 dB at 2.4 GHz are obtained. The proposed mixer is suitable for wireless sensor network.

  15. Computational Fluid Dynamics and Experimental Studies of a New Mixing Element in a Static Mixer as a Heat Exchanger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konopacki Maciej

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this work is to study the thermal efficiency of a new type of a static mixer and to analyse the flow and temperature patterns and heat transfer efficiency. The measurements were carried out for the static mixer equipped with a new mixing insert. The heat transfer enhancement was determined by measuring the temperature profiles on each side of the heating pipe as well as the temperature field inside the static mixer. All experiments were carried out with varying operating parameters for four liquids: water, glycerol, transformer oil and an aqueous solution of molasses. Numerical CFD simulations were carried out using the two-equation turbulence k-ω model, provided by ANSYS Workbench 14.5 software. The proposed CFD model was validated by comparing the predicted numerical results against experimental thermal database obtained from the investigations. Local and global convective heat transfer coefficients and Nusselt numbers were detrmined. The relationship between heat transfer process and hydrodynamics in the static mixer was also presented. Moreover, a comparison of the thermal performance between the tested static mixer and a conventional empty tube was carried out. The relative enhancement of heat transfer was characterised by the rate of relative heat transfer intensification.

  16. Performance of Wind Pump Prototype

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mulu

    Mekelle University, Mekelle, Ethiopia (*mul_at@yahoo.com). ABSTRACT. A wind ... balanced rotor power and reciprocating pump, hence did not consider the effect of pump size. ... Keywords: Wind pump, Windmill, Performance testing, Pump efficiency, Pump discharge, ... Unfortunately, in rural places, where the houses are.

  17. The role of capacitance in a wind-electric water pumping system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ling, Shitao [West Texas A& M Univ., Canyon, TX (United States); Clark, R.N. [Conservation and Production Research Lab., Bushland, TX (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The development of controllers for wind-electric water pumping systems to enable the use of variable voltage, variable frequency electricity to operate standard AC submersible pump motors has provided a more efficient and flexible water pumping system to replace mechanical windmills. A fixed capacitance added in parallel with the induction motor improves the power factor and starting ability of the pump motor at the lower cut-in frequency. The wind-electric water pumping system developed by USDA-Agricultural Research Service, Bushland, TX, operated well at moderate wind speeds (5-12 m/s), but tended to lose synchronization in winds above 12 m/s, especially if they were gusty. Furling generally did not occur until synchronization had been lost and the winds had to subside before synchronization could be reestablished. The frequency needed to reestablish synchronization was much lower (60-65 Hz) than the frequency where synchronization was lost (70-80 Hz). As a result, the load (motor and pump) stayed off an excessive amount of time thus causing less water to be pumped and producing a low system efficiency. The controller described in this paper dynamically connects additional capacitance of the proper amount at the appropriate time to keep the system synchronized (running at 55 to 60 Hz) and pumping water even when the wind speed exceeds 15 m/s. The system efficiency was improved by reducing the system off-line time and an additional benefit was reducing the noise caused by the high speed blade rotation when the load was off line in high winds.

  18. An unsteady microfluidic T-form mixer perturbed by hydrodynamic pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Yanbao; Sun, Chien-Pin; Fields, Michael; Ho, Chih-Ming; Li Yang; Haake, David A; Churchill, Bernard M

    2008-01-01

    An unsteady microfluidic T-form mixer driven by pressure disturbances was designed and investigated. The performance of the mixer was examined both through numerical simulation and experimentation. Linear Stokes equations were used for these low Reynolds number flows. Unsteady mixing in a micro-channel of two aqueous solutions differing in concentrations of chemical species was described using a convection-dominated diffusion equation. The task was greatly simplified by employing linear superimposition of a velocity field for solving a scalar species concentration equation. Low-order-based numerical codes were found not to be suitable for simulation of a convection-dominated mixing process due to erroneous computational dissipation. The convection-dominated diffusion problem was addressed by designing a numerical algorithm with high numerical accuracy and computational-cost effectiveness. This numerical scheme was validated by examining a test case prior to being applied to the mixing simulation. Parametric analysis was performed using this newly developed numerical algorithm to determine the best mixing conditions. Numerical simulation identified the best mixing condition to have a Strouhal number (St) of 0.42. For a T-junction mixer (with channel width = 196 µm), about 75% mixing can be finished within a mixing distance of less than 3 mm (i.e. 15 channel width) at St = 0.42 for flow with a Reynolds number less than 0.24. Numerical results were validated experimentally by mixing two aqueous solutions containing yellow and blue dyes. Visualization of the flow field under the microscope revealed a high level of agreement between numerical simulation and experimental results

  19. Effects of molecular confinement and crowding on horseradish peroxidase kinetics using a nanofluidic gradient mixer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichert, William R A; Han, Donghoon; Bohn, Paul W

    2016-03-07

    The effects of molecular confinement and crowding on enzyme kinetics were studied at length scales and under conditions similar to those found in biological cells. These experiments were carried out using a nanofluidic network of channels constituting a nanofluidic gradient mixer, providing the basis for measuring multiple experimental conditions simultaneously. The 100 nm × 40 μm nanochannels were wet etched directly into borosilicate glass, then annealed and characterized with fluorescein emission prior to kinetic measurements. The nanofluidic gradient mixer was then used to measure the kinetics of the conversion of the horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-catalyzed conversion of non-fluorescent Amplex Red (AR) to the fluorescent product resorufin in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The design of the gradient mixer allows reaction kinetics to be studied under multiple (five) unique solution compositions in a single experiment. To characterize the efficiency of the device the effects of confinement on HRP-catalyzed AR conversion kinetics were studied by varying the starting ratio of AR : H2O2. Equimolar concentrations of Amplex Red and H2O2 yielded the highest reaction rates followed by 2 : 1, 1 : 2, 5 : 1, and finally 1 : 5 [AR] : [H2O2]. Under all conditions, initial reaction velocities were decreased by excess H2O2. Crowding effects on kinetics were studied by increasing solution viscosity in the nanochannels in the range 1.0-1.6 cP with sucrose. Increasing the solution viscosities in these confined geometries decreases the initial reaction velocity at the highest concentration from 3.79 μM min(-1) at 1.00 cP to 0.192 μM min(-1) at 1.59 cP. Variations in reaction velocity are interpreted in the context of models for HRP catalysis and for molecular crowding.

  20. Design and implementation of a rapid-mixer flow cell for time-resolved infrared microspectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinkovic, Nebojsa S.; Adzic, Aleksandar R.; Sullivan, Michael; Kovacs, Kevin; Miller, Lisa M.; Rousseau, Denis L.; Yeh, Syun-Ru; Chance, Mark R.

    2000-01-01

    A rapid mixer for the analysis of reactions in the millisecond and submillisecond time domains by Fourier-transform infrared microspectroscopy has been constructed. The cell was tested by examination of cytochrome-c folding kinetics. The device allows collection of full infrared spectral data on millisecond and faster time scales subsequent to chemical jump reaction initiation. The data quality is sufficiently good such that spectral fitting techniques could be applied to analysis of the data. Thus, this method provides an advantage over kinetic measurements at single wavelengths using infrared laser or diode sources, particularly where band overlap exists

  1. Metallurgical investigation of 2 austenitic stainless steel sodium mixers cracked in service by thermal fatigue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donati, J.R.; Keroulas, F.de; Masse, J.

    1979-01-01

    Two sodium mixers in the sodium heated steam generator test circuit at the EDF Renardieres centre developed leaks after approximately 7,000 hours operation under power. In both cases the investigation found cracking due to plastic fatigue caused by stresses of thermal origin. In one case the damage is explained solely by the size of the temperature oscillations; in the other case, unfavourable geometry reduced the duration of the initiation phase. Different types of cracking characteristic of thermal fatigue in sodium are presented. (author)

  2. Development of horn antenna mixer array with internal local oscillator module for microwave imaging diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuwahara, D., E-mail: dkuwahar@cc.tuat.ac.jp [Department of Mechanical Systems Engineering, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan); Ito, N. [Department of Intelligent System Engineering, Ube National College of Technology, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8555 (Japan); Nagayama, Y. [Department of Helical Plasma Research, National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Yoshinaga, T. [Department of Applied Physics, National Defense Academy, Yokosuka, Kanagawa 239-0811 (Japan); Yamaguchi, S. [Department of Pure and Applied Physics, Kansai University, Suita, Osaka 564-8680 (Japan); Yoshikawa, M.; Kohagura, J. [Graduate School of Pure and Applied Science, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Sugito, S. [Equipment Development Center, Institute for Molecular Science, Okazaki, Aichi 444-8585 (Japan); Kogi, Y. [Department of Information Electronics, Fukuoka Institute of Technology, Fukuoka, Fukuoka 811-0295 (Japan); Mase, A. [Art, Science and Technology Center for Cooperative Research, Kyusyu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan)

    2014-11-15

    A new antenna array is proposed in order to improve the sensitivity and complexity of microwave imaging diagnostics systems such as a microwave imaging reflectometry, a microwave imaging interferometer, and an electron cyclotron emission imaging. The antenna array consists of five elements: a horn antenna, a waveguide-to-microstrip line transition, a mixer, a local oscillation (LO) module, and an intermediate frequency amplifier. By using an LO module, the LO optics can be removed, and the supplied LO power to each element can be equalized. We report details of the antenna array and characteristics of a prototype antenna array.

  3. Interphase transfer kinetics of uranium using the drop method, Lewis cell, and Kenics mixer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horner, D.E.; Mailen, J.C.; Thiel, S.W.; Scott, T.C.; Yates, R.G.

    1979-05-01

    The rate constants for the interphase transfer of uranium between 3.5 M HNO 3 and tributyl phosphate (TBP) - normal hydrocarbon diluent solutions have been measured using the single drop method, Lewis cell method, and a Kenics mixer - centrifugal separator. Rate constants obtained by all methods were the same within experimental error. The variables studied that affect the rate constants include the TBP concentration, the acidity and total neutral nitrate concentrations of the aqueous phase, and temperature. Results of these tests indicate that the rate controlling mechanism is chemical reaction at the interface

  4. 3D printed microfluidic mixer for point-of-care diagnosis of anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plevniak, Kimberly; Campbell, Matthew; Mei He

    2016-08-01

    3D printing has been an emerging fabrication tool in prototyping and manufacturing. We demonstrated a 3D microfluidic simulation guided computer design and 3D printer prototyping for quick turnaround development of microfluidic 3D mixers, which allows fast self-mixing of reagents with blood through capillary force. Combined with smartphone, the point-of-care diagnosis of anemia from finger-prick blood has been successfully implemented and showed consistent results with clinical measurements. Capable of 3D fabrication flexibility and smartphone compatibility, this work presents a novel diagnostic strategy for advancing personalized medicine and mobile healthcare.

  5. Simulation Modeling of Non-Homogeneous Mixture in the Horizontal Drum Mixer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Vladimirovich Ostroukh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a simulation model of the diffusion mixing of solids, based on the theory of probability and stochastic diffusion model of imperfect processes of solid particles. It is assumed that the particles have different sizes and density. Model of the program implemented in the AnyLogic SoftWare. Developed a simulation model to evaluate the differences between the intense mixing processes in time and assess their impact on the course of other processes in a horizontal drum mixer.

  6. NMR parallel Q-meter with double-balanced-mixer detection for polarized target experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boissevain, J.; Tippens, W.B.

    1983-01-01

    A constant-voltage, parallel-tuned nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) circuit, patterned after a Liverpool design, has been developed for polarized target experiments. Measuring the admittance of the resonance circuit allows advantageous use of double-balanced mixer detection. The resonant circuit is tolerant of stray capacitance between the NMR coil and the target cavity, thus easing target-cell-design constraints. The reference leg of the circuit includes a voltage-controlled attenuator and phase shifter for ease of tuning. The NMR output features a flat background and has good linearity and stability

  7. A multi-purpose ultrasonic streaming mixer for integrated magnetic bead ELISAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandhoff, Lukas; Lang, Walter; Vellekoop, Michael J; Zirath, Helene; Peham, Johannes; Wiesinger-Mayr, Herbert; Salas, Mariugenia; Haller, Anna; Spittler, Andreas; Schnetz, Guntram

    2015-01-01

    We present an ultrasonic streaming mixer for disposable and on-chip magnetic bead ELISAs. The ultrasonic transducer is placed at system-level to keep cost per chip as low as possible, and is coupled to the chip by means of a solid ultrasonic horn. The system provides mixing of liquids, as well as dispersion of the superparamagnetic beads in the ELISA. Additionally it can be used clean the chamber surface from nonspecifically bound proteins during the washing steps in the ELISA protocol. Using our system the time for the ELISA protocol has been greatly reduced down to 30 min. (paper)

  8. High-T{sub c} superconducting Josephson mixers for terahertz heterodyne detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malnou, M.; Feuillet-Palma, C.; Olanier, L.; Lesueur, J.; Bergeal, N. [Laboratoire de Physique et d' Etude des Matériaux—UMR8213-CNRS-ESPCI ParisTech-UPMC-PSL university, 10 Rue Vauquelin—75005 Paris (France); Ulysse, C.; Faini, G. [Laboratoire de Photonique et de Nanostructures LPN-CNRS, Route de Nozay, 91460 Marcoussis (France); Febvre, P. [IMEP-LAHC—UMR 5130 CNRS, Université de Savoie, 73376 Le Bourget du Lac cedex (France); Sirena, M. [Centro Atómico Bariloche, Instituto Balseiro—CNEA and Univ. Nac. de Cuyo, Av. Bustillo 9500, 8400 Bariloche, Rio Negro (Argentina)

    2014-08-21

    We report on an experimental and theoretical study of the high-frequency mixing properties of ion-irradiated YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} Josephson junctions embedded in THz antennas. We investigated the influence of the local oscillator power and frequency on the device performances. The experimental data are compared with theoretical predictions of the general three-port model for mixers in which the junction is described by the resistively shunted junction model. A good agreement is obtained for the conversion efficiency in different frequency ranges, spanning above and below the characteristic frequencies f{sub c} of the junctions.

  9. Fuel Continuous Mixer ? an Approach Solution to Use Straight Vegetable Oil for Marine Diesel Engines

    OpenAIRE

    Đặng Van Uy; Tran The Nam

    2018-01-01

    The vegetable oil is well known as green fuel for diesel engines due to its low sunphur content and renewable stock. However, there are some problems raising when vegetable oil is used as fuel for diesel engines such as highly effected by cold weather, lower general efficiency, separation in layer if mixed with diesel oil and so on. To overcome that disadvantiges, the authors propose a new idea that to use a continuous fuel mixer to blend vegetable oil with diesel oil to make so called a mixe...

  10. Numerical Simulation of the Oscillations in a Mixer: An Internal Aeroacoustic Feedback System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgenson, Philip C. E.; Loh, Ching Y.

    2004-01-01

    The space-time conservation element and solution element method is employed to numerically study the acoustic feedback system in a high temperature, high speed wind tunnel mixer. The computation captures the self-sustained feedback loop between reflecting Mach waves and the shear layer. This feedback loop results in violent instabilities that are suspected of causing damage to some tunnel components. The computed frequency is in good agreement with the available experimental data. The physical phenomena are explained based on the numerical results.

  11. Detection of pump degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casada, D.

    1994-01-01

    There are a variety of stressors that can affect the operation of centrifugal pumps. Although these general stressors are active in essentially all centrifugal pumps, the stressor level and the extent of wear and degradation can vary greatly. Parameters that affect the extent of stressor activity are manifold. In order to assure the long-term operational readiness of a pump, it is important to both understand the nature and magnitude of the specific degradation mechanisms and to monitor the performance of the pump. The most commonly applied method of monitoring the condition of not only pumps, but rotating machinery in general, is vibration analysis. Periodic or continuous spectral vibration analysis is a cornerstone of most pump monitoring programs. In the nuclear industry, non-spectral vibration monitoring of safety-related pumps is performed in accordance with the ASME code. Although vibration analysis has dominated the condition monitoring field for many years, there are other measures that have been historically used to help understand pump condition: advances in historically applied technologies and developing technologies offer improved monitoring capabilities. The capabilities of several technologies (including vibration analysis, dynamic pressure analysis, and motor power analysis) to detect the presence and magnitude of both stressors and resultant degradation are discussed

  12. Normetex Pump Alternatives Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, Elliot A.

    2013-01-01

    A mainstay pump for tritium systems, the Normetex scroll pump, is currently unavailable because the Normetex company went out of business. This pump was an all-metal scroll pump that served tritium processing facilities very well. Current tritium system operators are evaluating replacement pumps for the Normetex pump and for general used in tritium service. An all-metal equivalent alternative to the Normetex pump has not yet been identified. 1. The ideal replacement tritium pump would be hermetically sealed and contain no polymer components or oils. Polymers and oils degrade over time when they contact ionizing radiation. 2. Halogenated polymers (containing fluorine, chlorine, or both) and oils are commonly found in pumps. These materials have many properties that surpass those of hydrocarbon-based polymers and oils, including thermal stability (higher operating temperature) and better chemical resistance. Unfortunately, they are less resistant to degradation from ionizing radiation than hydrocarbon-based materials (in general). 3. Polymers and oils can form gaseous, condensable (HF, TF), liquid, and solid species when exposed to ionizing radiation. For example, halogenated polymers form HF and HCl, which are extremely corrosive upon reaction with water. If a pump containing polymers or oils must be used in a tritium system, the system must be designed to be able to process the unwanted by-products. Design features to mitigate degradation products include filters and chemical or physical traps (eg. cold traps, oil traps). 4. Polymer components can work in tritium systems, but must be replaced regularly. Polymer components performance should be monitored or be regularly tested, and regular replacement of components should be viewed as an expected normal event. A radioactive waste stream must be established to dispose of used polymer components and oil with an approved disposal plan developed based on the facility location and its regulators. Polymers have varying

  13. Circulation pump mounting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skalicky, A.

    1976-01-01

    The suspension is described of nuclear reactor circulating pumps enabling their dilatation with a minimum reverse force consisting of spacing rods supported with one end in the anchor joints and provided with springs and screw joints engaging the circulating pump shoes. The spacing rods are equipped with side vibration dampers anchored in the shaft side wall and on the body of the circulating pump drive body. The negative reverse force F of the spacing rods is given by the relation F=Q/l.y, where Q is the weight of the circulating pump, l is the spatial distance between the shoe joints and anchor joints, and y is the deflection of the circulating pump vertical axis from the mean equilibrium position. The described suspension is advantageous in that that the reverse force for the deflection from the mean equilibrium position is minimal, dynamic behaviour is better, and construction costs are lower compared to suspension design used so far. (J.B.)

  14. BWR series pump recirculation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dillmann, C.W.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a recirculation system for driving reactor coolant water contained in an annular downcomer defined between a boiling water reactor vessel and a reactor core spaced radially inwardly therefrom. It comprises a plurality of circumferentially spaced second pumps disposed in the downcomer, each including an inlet for receiving from the downcomer a portion of the coolant water as pump inlet flow, and an outlet for discharging the pump inlet flow pressurized in the second pump as pump outlet flow; and means for increasing pressure of the pump inlet flow at the pump inlet including a first pump disposed in series flow with the second pump for first receiving the pump inlet flow from the downcomer and discharging to the second pump inlet flow pressurized in the first pump

  15. High pressure liquid gas pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acres, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    Design and development of two types of pumps for handling liquefied gases are discussed. One pump uses mechanical valve shift and other uses pneumatic valve shift. Illustrations of pumps are provided and detailed description of operation is included.

  16. Development of miniaturized submersible fluorometers for the detection of aromatic hydrocarbons in marine waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedetti, Marc; Bachet, Caroline; Joffre, Pascal; Ferretto, Nicolas; Guigue, Catherine; Goutx, Madeleine

    2014-05-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are among the most widespread organic contaminants in aquatic environments. Due to their physico-chemical properties, PAHs are persistent and mobile, can strongly bioaccumulate in food chains and are harmful to living organisms. They are thus recognized by various international organizations as priority contaminants and are included in the list of 45 priority regulated substances by the European Union. Because of their aromatic structure, PAHs are "optically active" and have inherent fluorescence properties in the ultraviolet (UV) spectral domain (200-400 nm). Therefore, UV fluorescence spectroscopy has been successfully used to develop PAH sensors (i.e. UV fluorometers). Currently, five UV submersible fluorometers are commercially available for in situ measurements of PAHs: EnviroFlu-HC (TriOS Optical Sensors, Germany), Hydrocarbon Fluorometer (Sea & Sun Technology, Germany), HydroC ™ / PAH (CONTROS, Germany), UviLux AquaTracka (Chelsea Technology Group, UK) and Cyclops-7 (Turner Designs, US). These UV fluorometers are all dedicated to the measurement of phenanthrene (λEx /λEm: 255/360 nm), one of the most abundant and fluorescent PAHs found in the aquatic environment. In this study, we developed original, miniaturized submersible fluorometers based on deep UV light-emitting diodes (LEDs) for simultaneous measurements of two PAHs of interest: the MiniFluo-UV 1 for the detection of phenanthrene (PHE, at λEx /λEm: 255/360 nm) and naphthalene (NAP, at λEx /λEm: 270/340 nm), and the MiniFluo-UV 2 for the detection of fluorene (FLU, at λEx /λEm: 255/315 nm) and pyrene (PYR, at λEx /λEm: 270/380 nm). The MiniFluo-UV sensors have several features: measurements of two PAHs at the same time, small size (puck format, 80 x 60 mm), very low energy consumption (500 mW at 12V), LED monitoring, analog and numerical communication modes. The two MiniFluo-UV sensors were first tested in the laboratory: 1) on standard solutions of

  17. DORADO/DOLPHIN: A Unique Semi-submersible Autonomous Vehicle for Ocean Field Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, D.

    2016-02-01

    The Ocean Science and Technology research group (CERC.OCEAN) at Dalhousie University focuses on new approaches to the design and development of autonomous platforms to study biogeochemical and ecological changes in the world's oceans. Mesoscale "patch" experiments involving tracers are used to test hypotheses (e.g. iron fertilization) and examine near-surface processes and air-sea exchange. Such experiments typically require mapping of rapidly-evolving properties on scales of 10's to 100's of kilometers. These experiments typically employ a research vessel to monitor patch movement and to support process studies: however allocation of expensive vessel time between these uses can be problematic. We present a class of autonomous vehicle with unique potential for mesoscale mapping and experimental science at sea. The Dorado/Dolphin semi-submersibles, manufactured by International Submarine Engineering Ltd., travel just below the sea surface. A surface-piercing, "snorkel" mast allows use of a diesel engine allowing speeds of up to 16 knots and sufficient power for support of complex payloads. A tow-body can profile to 200m. The mast allows air sampling with near-zero atmospheric disturbance as well as remote sensing of the sea surface. The characteristics of this type of vehicle will be compared with those of other available platforms. We will report on our adaptation of the vehicle for measurement of gases and purposeful tracers (e.g. SF5CF3) as well as properties such as T, S, pCO2, O2, fluorescence, etc. and present and solicit ideas for the vehicles' further application/use for ocean science.

  18. Lightweight submersed 'Walking' NDE manipulators for PWR and BWR vessel weld inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saernmark, Ivan; Lenz, Herbert

    2008-01-01

    Three new manipulators developed by WesDyne TRC in Sweden have under the year 2007 performed three very successful inspections in the PWR reactor Ringhals 3 and the BWR reactors Ringhals 1 and Oskarshamn 1. The manipulator systems can be used to perform inspection of circumferential and vertical welds on the reactor pressure vessel, the core shroud, core shroud support in BWR reactors or vessel and core barrel welds in PWR reactors. Most other flat or curved surfaces can be inspected using the new concept through relatively simple mechanical reconfigurations of system modules. The first inspection was performed on the R3 PWR core barrel in June 2007 with a very good result. This Manipulator is designed for access in very narrow gaps and for the type of core barrels with a shield covering the whole area of the perimeter. The manipulator is attached to the inspection area by means of a new unique suction cup system. The current manipulators consist of a curved horizontal beam, with radius similar to the reactor vessel, and a straight vertical beam, forming a T-shaped structure. By alternating the application of suction cup pairs on the horizontal beam and the vertical beam and by driving the scanning motors, the manipulator performs an incremental translational movement upwards/downwards or from side to side. The principles of this system give a well defined and stable platform for global and local positioning accuracy. A combination of advanced sensor solutions provides accurate position information in the absence of other physical reference objects. The system is controlled by the new WesDyne TRC Motor Control Panel and software, the MCP is specifically designed for remote control of submersed manipulators using techniques for cable reduction

  19. Lightweight submersed 'Walking' NDE manipulators for PWR and BWR vessel weld inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saernmark, Ivan; Lenz, Herbert [WesDyne TRC AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2008-04-15

    Three new manipulators developed by WesDyne TRC in Sweden have under the year 2007 performed three very successful inspections in the PWR reactor Ringhals 3 and the BWR reactors Ringhals 1 and Oskarshamn 1. The manipulator systems can be used to perform inspection of circumferential and vertical welds on the reactor pressure vessel, the core shroud, core shroud support in BWR reactors or vessel and core barrel welds in PWR reactors. Most other flat or curved surfaces can be inspected using the new concept through relatively simple mechanical reconfigurations of system modules. The first inspection was performed on the R3 PWR core barrel in June 2007 with a very good result. This Manipulator is designed for access in very narrow gaps and for the type of core barrels with a shield covering the whole area of the perimeter. The manipulator is attached to the inspection area by means of a new unique suction cup system. The current manipulators consist of a curved horizontal beam, with radius similar to the reactor vessel, and a straight vertical beam, forming a T-shaped structure. By alternating the application of suction cup pairs on the horizontal beam and the vertical beam and by driving the scanning motors, the manipulator performs an incremental translational movement upwards/downwards or from side to side. The principles of this system give a well defined and stable platform for global and local positioning accuracy. A combination of advanced sensor solutions provides accurate position information in the absence of other physical reference objects. The system is controlled by the new WesDyne TRC Motor Control Panel and software, the MCP is specifically designed for remote control of submersed manipulators using techniques for cable reduction.

  20. Application of a newly built semi-submersible vessel for transportation of a tension leg platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dagang; Sun, Weiying; Fan, Zhixia

    2012-09-01

    Transportation of tension leg platform (TLP) structures for a long distance has always been associated with the use of a heavy semi-transport vessel. The requirements of this type of vessel are always special, and their availability is limited. To prepare for the future development of South China Sea deepwater projects, the China Offshore Oil Engineering Corporation has recently built a heavy lift transport vessel-Hai Yang Shi You 278. This semi-submersible vessel has a displacement capacity of 50k DWT, and a breath of 42 meters. Understanding the vessel's applicability and preparing it for use in future deepwater projects are becoming imminent needs. This paper reviews the current critical issues associated with TLP transportation and performs detailed analysis of the designed TLP during load-out and transportation. The newly built COOEC transportation vessel HYSY 278 was applied to dry transport of the TLP structure from the COOEC fabrication yard in Qingdao to an oil field in South China Sea. The entire process included the load-out of the TLP structure from the landsite of the fabrication yard, the offloading and float-on of the platform from the vessel, the dry transport of the TLP over a long distance, and the final offloading of the platform. Both hydrodynamic and structure analysis were performed to evaluate the behavior of the transport vessel and TLP structure. Special attention was paid to critical areas associated with the use of this new vessel, along with any potential limitations. The results demonstrate that HYSY 278 can effectively be used for transporting the structure with proper arrangement and well-prepared operation. The procedure and details were presented on the basis of the study results. Special attention was also given to discussion on future use based on the results from the analysis.

  1. CubeSub - A CubeSat Based Submersible Testbed for Space Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slettebo, Christian

    2016-01-01

    This report is a Master's Thesis in Aerospace Engineering, performed at the NASA Ames Research Center. It describes the development of the CubeSub, a submersible testbed compatible with the CubeSat form factor. The CubeSub will be used to mature technology and operational procedures to be used in space exploration, and possibly also as a tool for exploration of Earthly environments. CubeSats are carried as payloads, either containing technology to be tested or experiments and sensors for scientific use. The CubeSub is designed to be built up by modules, which can be assembled in different configurations to fulfill different needs. Each module is powered individually and intermodular communication is wireless, reducing the need for wiring. The inside of the hull is flooded with ambient water to simplify the interaction between payloads and surrounding environment. The overall shape is similar to that of a conventional AUV, slender and smooth. This is to make for a low drag, reduce the risk of snagging on surrounding objects and make it possible to deploy through an ice sheet via a narrow borehole. Rapid prototyping is utilized to a large extent, with full-scale prototypes being constructed through 3D-printing and with COTS (Commercial Off-The-Shelf) components. Arduino boards are used for control and internal communication. Modules required for basic operation have been designed, manufactured and tested. Each module is described with regards to its function, design and manufacturability. By performing tests in a pool it was found that the basic concept is sound and that future improvements include better controllability, course stability and waterproofing of electrical components. Further development is needed to make the CubeSub usable for its intended purposes. The largest gains are expected to be found by developing the software and improving controllability.

  2. New Submersed Chamber for Calibration of Relative Humidity Instruments at HMI/FSB-LPM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sestan, D.; Zvizdic, D.; Sariri, K.

    2018-02-01

    This paper gives a detailed description of a new chamber designed for calibration of relative humidity (RH) instruments at Laboratory for Process Measurement (HMI/FSB-LPM). To the present time, the calibrations of RH instruments at the HMI/FSB-LPM were done by comparison method using a climatic chamber of large volume and calibrated dew point hygrometer with an additional thermometer. Since 2010, HMI/FSB-LPM in cooperation with Centre for Metrology and Accreditation in Finland (MIKES) developed the two primary dew point generators which cover the dew point temperature range between - 70 {°}C and 60 {°}C. In order to utilize these facilities for calibrations of the RH instruments, the new chamber was designed, manufactured and installed in the existing system, aiming to extend its range and reduce the related calibration uncertainties. The chamber construction allows its use in a thermostatic bath of larger volume as well as in the climatic chambers. In the scope of this paper, performances of the new chamber were tested while it was submersed in a thermostated bath. The chamber can simultaneously accommodate up to three RH sensors. In order to keep the design of the chamber simple, only cylindrical RH sensors detachable from display units can be calibrated. Possible optimizations are also discussed, and improvements in the design proposed. By using the new chamber, HMI/FSB-LPM reduced the expanded calibration uncertainties (level of confidence 95 %, coverage factor k=2) from 0.6 %rh to 0.25 %rh at 30 %rh (23 {°}C), and from 0.8 %rh to 0.53 %rh at 70 %rh (23 {°}C).

  3. Integrated System Design for a Large Wind Turbine Supported on a Moored Semi-Submersible Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinsong Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few decades, wind energy has emerged as an alternative to conventional power generation that is economical, environmentally friendly and, importantly, renewable. Specifically, offshore wind energy is being considered by a number of countries to harness the stronger and more consistent wind resource compared to that over land. To meet the projected “20% energy from wind by 2030” scenario that was announced in 2006, 54 GW of added wind energy capacity need to come from offshore according to a National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL study. In this study, we discuss the development of a semi-submersible floating offshore platform with a catenary mooring system to support a very large 13.2-MW wind turbine with 100-m blades. An iterative design process is applied to baseline models with Froude scaling in order to achieve preliminary static stability. Structural dynamic analyses are performed to investigate the performance of the new model using a finite element method approach for the tower and a boundary integral equation (panel method for the platform. The steady-state response of the system under uniform wind and regular waves is first studied to evaluate the performance of the integrated system. Response amplitude operators (RAOs are computed in the time domain using white-noise wave excitation; this serves to highlight nonlinear, as well as dynamic characteristics of the system. Finally, selected design load cases (DLCs and the stochastic dynamic response of the system are studied to assess the global performance for sea states defined by wind fields with turbulence and long-crested irregular waves.

  4. Terahertz Heterodyne Receiver with an Electron-Heating Mixer and a Heterodyne Based on the Quantum-Cascade Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seliverstov, S. V.; Anfertyev, V. A.; Tretyakov, I. V.; Ozheredov, I. A.; Solyankin, P. M.; Revin, L. S.; Vaks, V. L.; Rusova, A. A.; Goltsman, G. N.; Shkurinov, A. P.

    2017-12-01

    We study characteristics of the laboratory prototype of a terahertz heterodyne receiver with an electron-heating mixer and a heterodyne based on the quantum-cascade laser. The results obtained demonstrate the possibility to use this receiver as a basis for creation of a high-sensitivity terahertz spectrometer, which can be used in many basic and practical applications. A significant advantage of this receiver will be the possibility of placing the mixer and heterodyne in the same cryostat, which will reduce the device dimensions considerably. The obtained experimental results are analyzed, and methods of optimizing the parameters of the receiver are proposed.

  5. Phase-locking of a terahertz solid-state source using a superconducting hot-electron bolometer mixer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miao, W; Zhang, W; Zhou, K M; Li, S L; Zhang, K; Duan, W Y; Yao, Q J; Shi, S C

    2013-01-01

    We report on a scheme whereby the local-oscillator (LO) of a THz heterodyne receiver can be phase-locked by the mixer of the heterodyne receiver. This scheme is demonstrated for the phase-locking of an 847.6 GHz Gunn oscillator and multiplier chain combined source with a superconducting hot-electron bolometer (HEB) mixer. We show that with this technique the phase-locked beat signal can reach a signal-to-noise ratio higher than 70 dB in a resolution bandwidth (RBW) of 1 Hz. This phase-locking scheme should find good use in THz heterodyne spectrometers. (paper)

  6. A SiGe High Gain and Highly Linear F-Band Single-Balanced Subharmonic Mixer

    OpenAIRE

    Seyedhosseinzadeh, Neda; Nabavi, Abdolreza; Carpenter, Sona; He, Zhongxia Simon; Bao, Mingquan; Zirath, Herbert

    2017-01-01

    A compact, broadband, high gain, second-order active down-converter subharmonic mixer is demonstrated using a 130-nm SiGe BiCMOS technology. The mixer adopts a bottom-LO Gilbert topology, on-chip RF and LO baluns and two emitter-follower buffers to realize a high gain wideband operation in both RF and IF frequencies. The measured performance exhibits a flat conversion gain (CG) of about 11 dB from 90 to 130 GHz with an average LO power of +3 dBm and high 2LO-RF isolation better than 60 dB. Th...

  7. Design and characterization of downconversion mixers and the on-chip calibration techniques for monolithic direct conversion radio receivers

    OpenAIRE

    Kivekäs, Kalle

    2002-01-01

    This thesis consists of eight publications and an overview of the research topic, which is also a summary of the work. The research described in this thesis is focused on the design of downconversion mixers and direct conversion radio receivers for UTRA/FDD WCDMA and GSM standards. The main interest of the work is in the 1-3 GHz frequency range and in the Silicon and Silicon-Germanium BiCMOS technologies. The RF front-end, and especially the mixer, limits the performance of direct conversion ...

  8. Pumping machinery theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Badr, Hassan M

    2014-01-01

    Pumping Machinery Theory and Practice comprehensively covers the theoretical foundation and applications of pumping machinery. Key features: Covers characteristics of centrifugal pumps, axial flow pumps and displacement pumpsConsiders pumping machinery performance and operational-type problemsCovers advanced topics in pumping machinery including multiphase flow principles, and two and three-phase flow pumping systemsCovers different methods of flow rate control and relevance to machine efficiency and energy consumptionCovers different methods of flow rate control and relevance to machine effi

  9. Method for qualification of cementation processes and its application to a vibration mixer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicente, R.; Rzyski, B.M.; Suarez, A.A.

    1987-01-01

    In this paper the definition of homogeneneity is discussed and methods to measure the 'degree of heterogeneity' of waste forms are proposed. These measurements are important as aids for mixing process qualification, and as tools in quality assurance procedures and in the development of waste management standards. Homogeneity is a basic quality requirement for waste forms to be accepted in final sites. It do not depend on the matrix immmobilization, rather it is one mean for qualification of the immobilization process. The proposed methods were applied to a vibration assisted mixing process and has proved to an useful mean to judge process improvements. There are many conceivable methods to evaluate homogeneity of waste forms. Some were selected as screening tests aiming at quickly reaching a promising set of process variables. Others were selected to evaluate the degree of excellence of the process in respect to product quality. These envisaged methods were: visual inspection, the use of cement dye as tracer, scanning of radioactive tracers, and measurements of variations of density, water absorption, porosity and mechanical strength across the waste form sample. The process variables were: waste-cement and water-cement ratios, mixer geometry, mixing time and vibration intensity. Some of the apparatus details were change during the experimental work in order to improve product quality. Experimental methods and results statistically analysed and compared with data obtained from samples prepared with a planetary paddle mixer, which were adopted as the homogeneity standard. (Author) [pt

  10. Study of Crud Formation Using One Stage Mixer Settler for U-Th Extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busron-Masduki; Mashudi; Didiek-Herhady, R; Endang-Susiantini

    2000-01-01

    It was carried out solvent extraction of used fuel simulation solution ofU-Th using one stage of mixer settler. The ratio of U/Th was 1/9. Thesolution of U- Th and extractant of 30% TBP diluted in the diluent ofn-dodecane filled in the mixer chamber with the ratio of 1/1 then stirred.The first experiment determined equilibrium time and optimum rpm and thensearched the influenced parameter of crud formation of thorium, zirconium(fission product), phosphate acid, butanol, bentonite powder (represent offines solid), ferrum, silicium according to the TBP degradation of DBP.Zirconium and thorium are significant parameter of crud formation. Theequilibrium time was 1.5 hour, optimum rpm was 1800. The weightest crud wasobtained related to the cumulative parameter which result of 250 gram crud.According to this result and for radiation dose of 1 watt, the extractantmust be regenerated before exceed 48 days to hold the crud formation whichdisturbance the extraction process. (author)

  11. Foaming/antifoaming in WTP Tanks Equipped with Pulse Jet Mixer and Air Spargers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HASSAN, NEGUIB

    2004-01-01

    The River Protection Project-Waste Treatment Plant (RPP-WTP) requested Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to conduct small-scale foaming and antifoam testing using actual Hanford waste and simulants subjected to air sparging. The foaminess of Hanford tank waste solutions was previously demonstrated in SRNL during WTP evaporator foaming and ultrafiltration studies and commercial antifoam DOW Q2-3183A was recommended to mitigate the foam in the evaporators. Currently, WTP is planning to use air spargers in the HLW Lag Storage Vessels, HLW Concentrate Receipt Vessel, and the Ultrafiltration Vessels to assist the performance of the Jet Pulse Mixers (JPM). Sparging of air into WTP tanks will induce a foam layer within the process vessels. The air dispersion in the waste slurries and generated foams could present problems during plant operation. Foam in the tanks could also adversely impact hydrogen removal and mitigation. Antifoam (DOW Q2-3183A) will be used to control foaming in Hanford sparged waste processing tanks. These tanks will be mixed by a combination of pulse-jet mixers and air spargers. The percent allowable foaminess or freeboard in WTP tanks are shown in tables

  12. A high linearity current mode second IF CMOS mixer for a DRM/DAB receiver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Jian; Zhou Zheng; Wu Yiqiang; Wang Zhigong; Chen Jianping

    2015-01-01

    A passive current switch mixer was designed for the second IF down-conversion in a DRM/DAB receiver. The circuit consists of an input transconductance stage, a passive current switching stage, and a current amplifier stage. The input transconductance stage employs a self-biasing current reusing technique, with a resistor shunt feedback to increase the gain and output impedance. A dynamic bias technique is used in the switching stage to ensure the stability of the overdrive voltage versus the PVT variations. A current shunt feedback is introduced to the conventional low-voltage second-generation fully balanced multi-output current converter (FBMOCCII), which provides very low input impedance and high output impedance. With the circuit working in current mode, the linearity is effectively improved with low supply voltages. Especially, the transimpedance stage can be removed, which simplifies the design considerably. The design is verified with a SMIC 0.18 μm RF CMOS process. The measurement results show that the voltage conversation gain is 1.407 dB, the NF is 16.22 dB, and the IIP3 is 4.5 dBm, respectively. The current consumption is 9.30 mA with a supply voltage of 1.8 V. This exhibits a good compromise among the gain, noise, and linearity for the second IF mixer in DRM/DAB receivers. (paper)

  13. Self Oscillating Mixer with Dielectric Resonator for Low Noise Block Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endon Bharata

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the development of a self oscillating mixer (SOM as part of a low noise block (LNB for a satellite television receiver is investigated numerically and experimentally. In contrast to other mixers, the developed SOM requires no separate local oscillator as it generates own local oscillator signal. The SOM is developed using a monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC comprised of two bipolar transistors coupled as a Darlington pair and a dielectric resonator to establish a local oscillator signal. The SOM is designed to oscillate at 3.62GHz driven from 50W signal generator. The prototype of SOM is fabricated on a dielectric substrate of glass-reinforced hydrocarbon/ceramic lamination (RO4350B board which has a thickness of 0.762mm and relative permittivity of 3.66. The prototype is then characterized experimentally and exhibits a conversion gain of 8dB with the input and output voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR less than 2 across the 2520MHz to 2670MHz operating frequency band.

  14. Multi frequency excited MEMS cantilever beam resonator for Mixer-Filter applications

    KAUST Repository

    Chandran, Akhil A.; Younis, Mohammad I.

    2016-01-01

    Wireless communication uses Radio Frequency waves to transfer information from one point to another. The modern RF front end devices are implementing MEMS in their designs so as to exploit the inherent properties of MEMS devices, such as its low mass, low power consumption, and small size. Among the components in the RF transceivers, band pass filters and mixers play a vital role in achieving the optimum RF performance. And this paper aims at utilizing an electrostatically actuated micro cantilever beam resonator's nonlinear frequency mixing property to realize a Mixer-Filter configuration through multi-frequency excitation. The paper studies about the statics and dynamics of the device. Simulations are carried out to study the added benefits of multi frequency excitation. The modelling of the cantilever beam has been done using a Reduced Order Model of the Euler-Bernoulli's beam equation by implementing the Galerkin discretization. The device is shown to be able to down-convert signals from 960 MHz of frequency to an intermediate frequency around 50 MHz and 70 MHz in Phase 1 and 2, respectively. The simulation showed promising results to take the project to the next level. © 2016 IEEE.

  15. Optimization of a Continuous Hybrid Impeller Mixer via Computational Fluid Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Othman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the preliminary steps required for conducting experiments to obtain the optimal operating conditions of a hybrid impeller mixer and to determine the residence time distribution (RTD using computational fluid dynamics (CFD. In this paper, impeller speed and clearance parameters are examined. The hybrid impeller mixer consists of a single Rushton turbine mounted above a single pitched blade turbine (PBT. Four impeller speeds, 50, 100, 150, and 200 rpm, and four impeller clearances, 25, 50, 75, and 100 mm, were the operation variables used in this study. CFD was utilized to initially screen the parameter ranges to reduce the number of actual experiments needed. Afterward, the residence time distribution (RTD was determined using the respective parameters. Finally, the Fluent-predicted RTD and the experimentally measured RTD were compared. The CFD investigations revealed that an impeller speed of 50 rpm and an impeller clearance of 25 mm were not viable for experimental investigations and were thus eliminated from further analyses. The determination of RTD using a k-ε turbulence model was performed using CFD techniques. The multiple reference frame (MRF was implemented and a steady state was initially achieved followed by a transient condition for RTD determination.

  16. Optimization of a continuous hybrid impeller mixer via computational fluid dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, N; Kamarudin, S K; Takriff, M S; Rosli, M I; Engku Chik, E M F; Meor Adnan, M A K

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the preliminary steps required for conducting experiments to obtain the optimal operating conditions of a hybrid impeller mixer and to determine the residence time distribution (RTD) using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). In this paper, impeller speed and clearance parameters are examined. The hybrid impeller mixer consists of a single Rushton turbine mounted above a single pitched blade turbine (PBT). Four impeller speeds, 50, 100, 150, and 200 rpm, and four impeller clearances, 25, 50, 75, and 100 mm, were the operation variables used in this study. CFD was utilized to initially screen the parameter ranges to reduce the number of actual experiments needed. Afterward, the residence time distribution (RTD) was determined using the respective parameters. Finally, the Fluent-predicted RTD and the experimentally measured RTD were compared. The CFD investigations revealed that an impeller speed of 50 rpm and an impeller clearance of 25 mm were not viable for experimental investigations and were thus eliminated from further analyses. The determination of RTD using a k-ε turbulence model was performed using CFD techniques. The multiple reference frame (MRF) was implemented and a steady state was initially achieved followed by a transient condition for RTD determination.

  17. Multi frequency excited MEMS cantilever beam resonator for Mixer-Filter applications

    KAUST Repository

    Chandran, Akhil A.

    2016-09-15

    Wireless communication uses Radio Frequency waves to transfer information from one point to another. The modern RF front end devices are implementing MEMS in their designs so as to exploit the inherent properties of MEMS devices, such as its low mass, low power consumption, and small size. Among the components in the RF transceivers, band pass filters and mixers play a vital role in achieving the optimum RF performance. And this paper aims at utilizing an electrostatically actuated micro cantilever beam resonator\\'s nonlinear frequency mixing property to realize a Mixer-Filter configuration through multi-frequency excitation. The paper studies about the statics and dynamics of the device. Simulations are carried out to study the added benefits of multi frequency excitation. The modelling of the cantilever beam has been done using a Reduced Order Model of the Euler-Bernoulli\\'s beam equation by implementing the Galerkin discretization. The device is shown to be able to down-convert signals from 960 MHz of frequency to an intermediate frequency around 50 MHz and 70 MHz in Phase 1 and 2, respectively. The simulation showed promising results to take the project to the next level. © 2016 IEEE.

  18. Cross-Stream PIV Measurements of Jets With Internal Lobed Mixers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, James; Wernet, Mark P.

    2004-01-01

    With emphasis being placed on enhanced mixing of jet plumes for noise reduction and on predictions of jet noise based upon turbulent kinetic energy, unsteady measurements of jet plumes are a very important part of jet noise studies. Given that hot flows are of most practical interest, optical techniques such as Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) are applicable. When the flow has strong azimuthal features, such as those generated by chevrons or lobed mixers, traditional PIV, which aligns the measurement plane parallel to the dominant flow direction is very inefficient, requiring many planes of data to be acquired and stacked up to produce the desired flow cross-sections. This paper presents PIV data acquired in a plane normal to the jet axis, directly measuring the cross-stream gradients and features of an internally mixed nozzle operating at aircraft engine flow conditions. These nozzle systems included variations in lobed mixer penetration, lobe count, lobe scalloping, and nozzle length. Several cases validating the accuracy of the PIV data are examined along with examples of its use in answering questions about the jet noise generation processes in these nozzles. Of most interest is the relationship of low frequency aft-directed noise with turbulence kinetic energy and mean velocity.

  19. Electromagnetic pump technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabhakar, R.

    1994-01-01

    Fast Breeder Reactors have an important role to play in our nuclear power programme. Liquid metal sodium is used as the coolant for removing fission heat generated in fast reactors and a distinctive physical property of sodium is its high electrical conductivity. This enables application of electromagnetic (EM) pumps, working on same principle as electric motors, for pumping liquid sodium. Due to its lower efficiency as compared to centrifugal pumps, use of EM pumps has been restricted to reactor auxiliary circuits and experimental facilities. As part of our efforts to manufacture fast reactor components indigenously, work on the development of two types of EM pumps namely flat linear induction pump (FLIP) and annular linear induction pump (ALIP) has been undertaken. Design procedures based on an equivalent circuit approach have been established and results from testing a 5.6 x 10E-3 Cum/s (20 Cum/h) FLIP in a sodium loop were used to validate the procedure. (author). 7 refs., 6 figs

  20. Application of computational fluid dynamics and surrogate-coupled evolutionary computing to enhance centrifugal-pump performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Ahmed Imran Bellary

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To reduce the total design and optimization time, numerical analysis with surrogate-based approaches is being used in turbomachinery optimization. In this work, multiple surrogates are coupled with an evolutionary genetic algorithm to find the Pareto optimal fronts (PoFs of two centrifugal pumps with different specifications in order to enhance their performance. The two pumps were used a centrifugal pump commonly used in industry (Case I and an electrical submersible pump used in the petroleum industry (Case II. The objectives are to enhance head and efficiency of the pumps at specific flow rates. Surrogates such as response surface approximation (RSA, Kriging (KRG, neural networks and weighted-average surrogates (WASs were used to determine the PoFs. To obtain the objective functions’ values and to understand the flow physics, Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations were solved. It is found that the WAS performs better for both the objectives than any other individual surrogate. The best individual surrogates or the best predicted error sum of squares (PRESS surrogate (BPS obtained from cross-validation (CV error estimations produced better PoFs but was still unable to compete with the WAS. The high CV error-producing surrogate produced the worst PoFs. The performance improvement in this study is due to the change in flow pattern in the passage of the impeller of the pumps.

  1. PROTOTIPE ALAT PENGEKSTRAK PATI SAGU TIPE MIXER ROTARY BLADE BERTENAGA MOTOR BAKAR Prototype of Mixer Rotary Blade of Sago Starch Extractor Powered by Internal Combustion Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darma Darma

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Papua and West Papua Province have a large potential of sago. Approximately 994,000 hectares, mostly natural sago forest was existed in this area. Sago starch has long been an important source of nutrition troughout Papua. Product of sago palm is not only starch as source of carbohydrate for food stuff, but also for basic material of industries such as paper, plywood, hardboard, and food indutries. Traditional methods are used for starch extraction in almost all part of Papu, which is not efficient and production capacity is very low. The effort to increase sago starch production could be carry out by introducing mechanical equipment (traditional to mechanized processing. The objective of this research was to design mixer rotary blade of sago starch extraction powered by internal combustion engine. The result was prototype of mechanical sago starch extractor. The prototype has high performance with extraction capacity 160 kg of disintegrated pith per hour or equal to 33 kg of wet starch per hour, extractable starch more than 99 % while starch losses in hampas less lhan 1 %. Hopefully, application of this machine to the sago farmer will transform agricultural system from subsistence to commercial. It means that increasing of economic income. In conclusion, technically and economically this prototype was feasible. ABSTRAK Provinsi Papua dan Papua Barat memiliki potensi sagu yang sangat besar. Sekitar 994.000 hektar yang sebagian besar merupakan hutan sagu alam terdapat di kedua provinsi ini. Pati sagu telah lama digunakan sebagai sumber nutrisi bagi penduduk asli papua. Pati sagu tidak hanya digunakan sebagai sumber karbohidrat, namun juga digunakan seba- gai bahan dasar industri kertas, plywood, hardbord, dan pangan. Pengolahan sagu secara tradisional yang dilakukan oleh masyarakat tidak efisien dan kapasitas produksinya sangat rendah. Peningkatan produksi dapat dilakukan dengan mengintroduksi peralatan pengolahan mekanis untuk merubah metode

  2. Simplified theory of gas-jet pumps and experimental verification; Theorie simplifiee des trompes a gaz et verification experimentale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costes, D [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    With a view to using the gas-jet pump in the fuel-study loops of gas reactors, a theory is developed for an unidimensional mixer, applicable to the case of low compression ratios in the induced current. This theory makes it possible to optimize the diameter of the mixer if the pressure-drop coefficient {alpha} of the mixer is known with respect to the induced current. An experimental study has made it possible to define the geometry suitable for such pumps, and to provide a remarkably constant value of {alpha} for the economically advantageous designs; this makes it possible to define simply the geometry of the optimized pump as a function of the geometry of the circuit in use, and independently of the flow-rate conditions. (author) [French] Dans le but d'utiliser la pompe a jet (ou trompe) dans des boucles d'etude de combustible des piles a gaz, on etablit une theorie du melangeur unidimensionnel, applicable dans la cas des faibles rapports de compression dans le courant induit. Cette theorie permet l'optimisation du diametre de melangeur, moyennant la connaissance du coefficient {alpha} de pertes de charge de celui-ci, relativement au courant induit. Une recherche experimentale a permis de preciser la geometrie a adopter dans de telles pompes, et fourni pour {alpha} une valeur remarquablement constante dans les configurations economiquement interessantes, ce qui permet de definir simplement la geometrie de la pompe optimisee en fonction de la geometrie du circuit d'utilisation et independamment des conditions de debit. (auteur)

  3. Gravitational and submersible offshore platform, and construction method. Nedsenkbar fralandsplattform av gravitasjonstypen og fremgangsmaate for fremstilling av samme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berge, T.; Olsen, O.

    1985-06-17

    The invention concerns a submersible offshore platform of the gravitational type designed for great depths. The platform is made of concrete or the like comprising a sea-bed foundation, and a number of at least 3 cantilevered pillars connected to the prop section carrying the load-bearing structure and the platform deck. In addition, the platform consists of a cellular floating section, and the central part of it is lengthened upwards. The central column supports the prop section. There is a considerable space between the floating section and the bed foundation. The various steps of the construction methods are presented. 11 drawings.

  4. Absorption heat pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Formigoni, C.

    1998-01-01

    A brief description of the difference between a compression and an absorption heat pump is made, and the reasons why absorption systems have spread lately are given. Studies and projects recently started in the field of absorption heat pumps, as well as criteria usually followed in project development are described. An outline (performance targets, basic components) of a project on a water/air absorption heat pump, running on natural gas or LPG, is given. The project was developed by the Robur Group as an evolution of a water absorption refrigerator operating with a water/ammonia solution, which has been on the market for a long time and recently innovated. Finally, a list of the main energy and cost advantages deriving from the use of absorption heat pumps is made [it

  5. Nuclear-pumped lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Prelas, Mark

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on Nuclear-Pumped Laser (NPL) technology and provides the reader with a fundamental understanding of NPLs, a review of research in the field, and exploration of large scale NPL system design and applications. Early chapters look at the fundamental properties of lasers, nuclear-pumping and nuclear reactions that may be used as drivers for nuclear-pumped lasers. The book goes on to explore the efficient transport of energy from the ionizing radiation to the laser medium and then the operational characteristics of existing nuclear-pumped lasers. Models based on Mathematica, explanations and a tutorial all assist the reader’s understanding of this technology. Later chapters consider the integration of the various systems involved in NPLs and the ways in which they can be used, including beyond the military agenda. As readers will discover, there are significant humanitarian applications for high energy/power lasers, such as deflecting asteroids, space propulsion, power transmission and mining....

  6. Gas fired heat pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifert, M.

    2006-01-01

    The condensing gas boiler is now state of the art and there is no more room for improvement in performance, technically speaking. The next logical step to improve the overall efficiency is to exploit ambient heat in combination with the primary source of energy, natural gas. That means using natural-gas driven heat pumps and gas-fired heat pumps. Based on this, the Swiss Gas Industry decided to set up a practical test programme enjoying a high priority. The aim of the project 'Gas-fired heat pump practical test' is to assess by field tests the characteristics and performance of the foreign serial heat pumps currently on the market and to prepare and promote the introduction on the market place of this sustainable natural-gas technology. (author)

  7. Absorption heat pump system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, G.

    1982-06-16

    The efficiency of an absorption heat pump system is improved by conducting liquid from a second stage evaporator thereof to an auxiliary heat exchanger positioned downstream of a primary heat exchanger in the desorber of the system.

  8. Regenerative Hydride Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A.

    1992-01-01

    Hydride heat pump features regenerative heating and single circulation loop. Counterflow heat exchangers accommodate different temperatures of FeTi and LaNi4.7Al0.3 subloops. Heating scheme increases efficiency.

  9. Pressurized Vessel Slurry Pumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pound, C.R.

    2001-01-01

    This report summarizes testing of an alternate ''pressurized vessel slurry pumping'' apparatus. The principle is similar to rural domestic water systems and ''acid eggs'' used in chemical laboratories in that material is extruded by displacement with compressed air

  10. Mechanical vaccum pumps

    CERN Document Server

    Chew, A D

    2007-01-01

    This presentation gives an overview of the technology of contemporary primary and secondary mechanical vacuum pumps. For reference a brief history of vacuum and a summary of important and basic vacuum concepts are first presented.

  11. High Voltage Charge Pump

    KAUST Repository

    Emira, Ahmed A.; Abdelghany, Mohamed A.; Elsayed, Mohannad Yomn; Elshurafa, Amro M; Salama, Khaled N.

    2014-01-01

    Various embodiments of a high voltage charge pump are described. One embodiment is a charge pump circuit that comprises a plurality of switching stages each including a clock input, a clock input inverse, a clock output, and a clock output inverse. The circuit further comprises a plurality of pumping capacitors, wherein one or more pumping capacitors are coupled to a corresponding switching stage. The circuit also comprises a maximum selection circuit coupled to a last switching stage among the plurality of switching stages, the maximum selection circuit configured to filter noise on the output clock and the output clock inverse of the last switching stage, the maximum selection circuit further configured to generate a DC output voltage based on the output clock and the output clock inverse of the last switching stage.

  12. High Voltage Charge Pump

    KAUST Repository

    Emira, Ahmed A.

    2014-10-09

    Various embodiments of a high voltage charge pump are described. One embodiment is a charge pump circuit that comprises a plurality of switching stages each including a clock input, a clock input inverse, a clock output, and a clock output inverse. The circuit further comprises a plurality of pumping capacitors, wherein one or more pumping capacitors are coupled to a corresponding switching stage. The circuit also comprises a maximum selection circuit coupled to a last switching stage among the plurality of switching stages, the maximum selection circuit configured to filter noise on the output clock and the output clock inverse of the last switching stage, the maximum selection circuit further configured to generate a DC output voltage based on the output clock and the output clock inverse of the last switching stage.

  13. GAS METERING PUMP

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, C.M.

    1957-12-31

    A liquid piston gas pump is described, capable of pumping minute amounts of gas in accurately measurable quantities. The pump consists of a flanged cylindrical regulating chamber and a mercury filled bellows. Sealed to the ABSTRACTS regulating chamber is a value and having a gas inlet and outlet, the inlet being connected by a helical channel to the bellows. A gravity check valve is in the gas outlet, so the gas passes through the inlet and the helical channel to the bellows where the pumping action as well as the metering is accomplished by the actuation of the mercury filled bellows. The gas then flows through the check valve and outlet to any associated apparatus.

  14. JET pump limiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonnenberg, K.; Deksnis, E.; Shaw, R.; Reiter, D.

    1988-01-01

    JET plans to install two pump limiter modules which can be used for belt-limiter, inner-wall and X-point discharges and, also, for 1-2s as the main limiter. A design is presented which is compatible with two diagnostic systems, and which allows partial removal of the pump limiter to provide access for remote-handling operations. The high heat-flux components are initially cooled during a pulse. Heat is removed between discharges by radiation and pressure contacts to a water-cooled support structure. The pumping edge will be made of annealed pyrolytic graphite. Exhaust efficiency has been estimated, for a 1-d edge model, using a Monte-Carlo calculation of neutral gas transport. When the pump limiter is operated together with other wall components we expect an efficiency of ≅ 5% (2.5 x 10 21 part/s). As a main limiter the efficiency increases to about 10%. (author)

  15. Types of Breast Pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... called a bicycle horn pump, consists of a hollow rubber ball attached to a breast-shield. Some ... and Drug Administration 10903 New Hampshire Avenue Silver Spring, MD 20993 1-888-INFO-FDA (1-888- ...

  16. Optically pumped laser systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeMaria, A.J.; Mack, M.E.

    1975-01-01

    Laser systems which are pumped by an electric discharge formed in a gas are disclosed. The discharge is in the form of a vortex stabilized electric arc which is triggered with an auxiliary energy source. At high enough repetition rates residual ionization between successive pulses contributes to the pulse stabilization. The arc and the gain medium are positioned inside an optical pumping cavity where light from the arc is coupled directly into the gain medium

  17. Lunar Base Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, D.; Fischbach, D.; Tetreault, R.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this project was to investigate the feasibility of constructing a heat pump suitable for use as a heat rejection device in applications such as a lunar base. In this situation, direct heat rejection through the use of radiators is not possible at a temperature suitable for lde support systems. Initial analysis of a heat pump of this type called for a temperature lift of approximately 378 deg. K, which is considerably higher than is commonly called for in HVAC and refrigeration applications where heat pumps are most often employed. Also because of the variation of the rejection temperature (from 100 to 381 deg. K), extreme flexibility in the configuration and operation of the heat pump is required. A three-stage compression cycle using a refrigerant such as CFC-11 or HCFC-123 was formulated with operation possible with one, two or three stages of compression. Also, to meet the redundancy requirements, compression was divided up over multiple compressors in each stage. A control scheme was devised that allowed these multiple compressors to be operated as required so that the heat pump could perform with variable heat loads and rejection conditions. A prototype heat pump was designed and constructed to investigate the key elements of the high-lift heat pump concept. Control software was written and implemented in the prototype to allow fully automatic operation. The heat pump was capable of operation over a wide range of rejection temperatures and cooling loads, while maintaining cooling water temperature well within the required specification of 40 deg. C +/- 1.7 deg. C. This performance was verified through testing.

  18. Resorption heat pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasiliev, L.L.; Mishkinis, D.A.; Antukh, A.A.; Kulakov, A.G.; Vasiliev, L.L.

    2004-01-01

    Resorption processes are based on at least two solid-sorption reactors application. The most favorable situation for the resorption heat pumps is the case, when the presence of a liquid phase is impossible. From simple case--two reactors with two salts to complicated system with two salts + active carbon fiber (fabric) and two branch of the heat pump acting out of phase to produce heat and cold simultaneously, this is the topic of this research program

  19. Portable photovoltaic irrigation pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furber, J. D.

    1980-07-01

    Experiences in developing a solar-powered irrigation pump to meet the needs of poor farmers in developing nations are summarized. The design which evolved is small and portable, employing a high-efficiency electric pump, powered by photovoltaic panels. Particular emphasis is placed on how the system works, and on early field problems experienced with the first prototypes. The resolution of these problems and the performance of actual systems in various countries is presented and user responses are noted.

  20. Tokamak pump limiters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conn, R.W.

    1984-05-01

    Recent experiments with a scoop limiter without active internal pumping have been carried out in the PDX tokamak with up to 6MW of auxiliary neutral beam heating. Experiments have also been done with a rotating head pump limiter in the PLT tokamak in conjunction with RF plasma heating. Extensive experiments have been done in the ISX-B tokamak and first experiments have been completed with the ALT-I limiter in TEXTOR. The pump limiter modules in these latter two machines have internal getter pumping. Experiments in ISX-B are with ohmic and auxiliary neutral beam heating. The results in ISX-B and TEXTOR show that active density control and particle removal is achieved with pump limiters. In ISX-B, the boundary layer (or scape-off layer) plasma partially screens the core plasma from gas injection. In both ISX-B and TEXTOR, the pressure internal to the module scales linearly with plasma density but in ISX-B, with neutral beam injection, a nonlinear increase is observed at the highest densities studied. Plasma plugging is the suspected cause. Results from PDX suggest that a region may exist in which core plasma energy confinement improves using a pump limiter during neutral beam injection. Asymmetric radial profiles and an increased edge electron temperature are observed in discharges with improved confinement. The injection of small amounts of neon into ISX-B has more clearly shown an improved electron core energy confinement during neutral beam injection. While carried out with a regular limiter, this Z-mode of operation is ideal for use with pump limiters and should be a way to achieve energy confinement times similar to values for H-mode tokamak plasmas. The implication of all these results for the design of a reactor pump limiter is described