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Sample records for submersed aquatic angiosperms

  1. The characterization of axenic culture systems suitable for plant propagation and experimental studies of the submersed aquatic angiosperm Potamogeton pectinatus (Sago pondweed)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ailstock, M.S.; Fleming, W.J.; Cooke, T.J.

    1991-01-01

    Clonal lines of the submersed aquatic angiosperm Potamogeton pectinatus were grown in three culture systems. The first, which used sucrose as a carbon source in a liquid medium, supported vigorous vegetative growth and can be used to propagate large numbers of plants in axenic conditions. In this culture system, plants were responsive to increasing photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) photon flux density (PFD) and were photosynthetically competent. However, their growth was heterotrophic and root development was poor. When these plants were transferred to a second nonaxenic culture system, which used 16-l buckets containing artificial sediments and tap water, growth was autotrophic and plants were morphologically identical to field-harvested P. pectinatus. The last culture system which consisted of a sand substrate and inorganic nutrient bathing solution aerated with 135 ml min-1 ambient air enhanced to 3.0% CO2 was axenic and supported autotrophic growth by plants that were also morphologically normal.

  2. The plastid genome of Najas flexilis: adaptation to submersed environments is accompanied by the complete loss of the NDH complex in an aquatic angiosperm.

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    Elena L Peredo

    Full Text Available The re-colonization of aquatic habitats by angiosperms has presented a difficult challenge to plants whose long evolutionary history primarily reflects adaptations to terrestrial conditions. Many aquatics must complete vital stages of their life cycle on the water surface by means of floating or emergent leaves and flowers. Only a few species, mainly within the order Alismatales, are able to complete all aspects of their life cycle including pollination, entirely underwater. Water-pollinated Alismatales include seagrasses and water nymphs (Najas, the latter being the only freshwater genus in the family Hydrocharitaceae with subsurface water-pollination. We have determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the plastid genome of Najas flexilis. The plastid genome of N. flexilis is a circular AT-rich DNA molecule of 156 kb, which displays a quadripartite structure with two inverted repeats (IR separating the large single copy (LSC from the small single copy (SSC regions. In N. flexilis, as in other Alismatales, the rps19 and trnH genes are localized in the LSC region instead of within the IR regions as in other monocots. However, the N. flexilis plastid genome presents some anomalous modifications. The size of the SSC region is only one third of that reported for closely related species. The number of genes in the plastid is considerably less. Both features are due to loss of the eleven ndh genes in the Najas flexilis plastid. In angiosperms, the absence of ndh genes has been related mainly to the loss of photosynthetic function in parasitic plants. The ndh genes encode the NAD(PH dehydrogenase complex, believed essential in terrestrial environments, where it increases photosynthetic efficiency in variable light intensities. The modified structure of the N. flexilis plastid genome suggests that adaptation to submersed environments, where light is scarce, has involved the loss of the NDH complex in at least some photosynthetic angiosperms.

  3. Montsechia, an ancient aquatic angiosperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Bernard; Daviero-Gomez, Véronique; Coiffard, Clément; Martín-Closas, Carles; Dilcher, David L

    2015-09-01

    The early diversification of angiosperms in diverse ecological niches is poorly understood. Some have proposed an origin in a darkened forest habitat and others an open aquatic or near aquatic habitat. The research presented here centers on Montsechia vidalii, first recovered from lithographic limestone deposits in the Pyrenees of Spain more than 100 y ago. This fossil material has been poorly understood and misinterpreted in the past. Now, based upon the study of more than 1,000 carefully prepared specimens, a detailed analysis of Montsechia is presented. The morphology and anatomy of the plant, including aspects of its reproduction, suggest that Montsechia is sister to Ceratophyllum (whenever cladistic analyses are made with or without a backbone). Montsechia was an aquatic angiosperm living and reproducing below the surface of the water, similar to Ceratophyllum. Montsechia is Barremian in age, raising questions about the very early divergence of the Ceratophyllum clade compared with its position as sister to eudicots in many cladistic analyses. Lower Cretaceous aquatic angiosperms, such as Archaefructus and Montsechia, open the possibility that aquatic plants were locally common at a very early stage of angiosperm evolution and that aquatic habitats may have played a major role in the diversification of some early angiosperm lineages.

  4. Competition between two submersed aquatic macrophytes, Potamogeton pectinatus and Potamogeton gramineus, across a light gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Submersed aquatic macrophyte communities, are often limited by the availability of light. Thus, they offer a unique opportunity to evaluate competition when light is the limiting resource. Competitive abilities of Potamogeton pectinatus (L.) Börner and Potamogeton gramineus L. were estimated using a...

  5. ISSUES IN DIGITAL IMAGE PROCESSING OF AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY FOR MAPPING SUBMERSED AQUATIC VEGETATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper discusses the numerous issues that needed to be addressed when developing a methodology for mapping Submersed Aquatic Vegetation (SAV) from digital aerial photography. Specifically, we discuss 1) choice of film; 2) consideration of tide and weather constraints; 3) in-s...

  6. Culture Methodology for Experimental Investigations Involving Rooted Submersed Aquatic Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-11-01

    Regrowth of hydrilla from axillary buds . J. Aquat. Plant Manage. 18:27-29. Langeland, K. A., Sutton, D. L. and Canfield, D. E., Jr. 1983. Growth response...Barko, Hardin, and Matthews 1982). Room temperatures (20 -25 C) are adequate for most species; however, some of the more subtropically occurring, exotic...species (e.g. H. verticillata) may benefit from higher temperatures (Van, Hailer, and Garrard 1978; Bowes, Holaday, and Hailer 1979; Barko and Smart

  7. Clonal variation in morphological and physiological responses to irradiance and photoperiod for the aquatic angiosperm Potamogeton pectinatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pilon, J.; Santamaria, L.

    2002-01-01

    Widely distributed plants are exposed to contrasting gradients in irradiance and photoperiod across latitude. We investigated the relative contribution of local specialization and phenotypic plasticity to variation in plant growth for three clones of the aquatic angiosperm Potamogeton pectinatus L.,

  8. Submersed aquatic vegetation in Chesapeake Bay: Sentinel species in a changing world

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    Orth, Robert J.; Dennison, William C.; Lefcheck, Jonathon S.; Gurbisz, Cassie; Hannam, Michael; Keisman, Jennifer; Landry, J. Brooke; Moore, Kenneth A.; Murphy, Rebecca R.; Patrick, Christopher J.; Testa, Jeremy; Weller, Donald E.; Wilcox, David J.

    2017-01-01

    Chesapeake Bay has undergone profound changes since European settlement. Increases in human and livestock populations, associated changes in land use, increases in nutrient loadings, shoreline armoring, and depletion of fish stocks have altered the important habitats within the Bay. Submersed aquatic vegetation (SAV) is a critical foundational habitat and provides numerous benefits and services to society. In Chesapeake Bay, SAV species are also indicators of environmental change because of their sensitivity to water quality and shoreline development. As such, SAV has been deeply integrated into regional regulations and annual assessments of management outcomes, restoration efforts, the scientific literature, and popular media coverage. Even so, SAV in Chesapeake Bay faces many historical and emerging challenges. The future of Chesapeake Bay is indicated by and contingent on the success of SAV. Its persistence will require continued action, coupled with new practices, to promote a healthy and sustainable ecosystem.

  9. Induction of Reduced Photorespiratory Activity in Submersed and Amphibious Aquatic Macrophytes 1

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    Salvucci, Michael E.; Bowes, George

    1981-01-01

    Incubation under water in a 30 C/14-hour or 12 C/10-hour photoperiod caused the CO2 compensation points of 10 aquatic macrophytes to decrease below 25 or increase above 50 microliters CO2 per liter, respectively. Submerged and aerial leaves of two amphibious angiosperms (Myriophyllum brasiliense and Proserpinaca palustris) maintained high compensation points when incubated in air but, when the submerged or aerial leaves of Proserpinaca were incubated under water, the compensation points dropped as low as 10. This suggests that, in addition to temperature and photoperiod, some factor associated with submergence regulates the compensation point of aquatic plants. In the high-compensation point plants, photorespiration, as a percentage of net photosynthesis, was equivalent to that in terrestrial C3 plants. For Hydrilla verticillata, the decreasing CO2 compensation points (110, 40, and 10) were associated with reduced photorespiration, as indicated by decreased O2 inhibition, decreased rates of CO2 evolution into CO2-free air, and increased net photosynthetic rates. The decrease in the CO2 compensation points of Hydrilla, Egeria densa, and Cabomba caroliniana was accompanied by an increase in the activity of phosphoenolpyruvate, but not of ribulose bisphosphate, carboxylase. In Hydrilla, several C4 enzymes also increased in activity to the following levels (micromoles per gram fresh weight per hour): pyruvate Pi dikinase (35), pyrophosphatase (716), adenylate kinase (525), NAD and NADP malate dehydrogenase (6565 and 30), NAD and NADP malic enzymes (239 and 44), and aspartate and alanine aminotransferases (357 and 85), whereas glycolate oxidase (6) and phosphoglycolate and phosphoglycerate phosphatases (76 and 32) showed no change. Glycolate dehydrogenase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase were undetectable. The reduced photorespiration in these plants may be due to increased CO2 fixation via a C4 acid pathway. However, for three Myriophyllum species, some other

  10. Induction of reduced photorespiratory activity in submersed and amphibious aquatic macrophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvucci, M E; Bowes, G

    1981-02-01

    Incubation under water in a 30 C/14-hour or 12 C/10-hour photoperiod caused the CO(2) compensation points of 10 aquatic macrophytes to decrease below 25 or increase above 50 microliters CO(2) per liter, respectively. Submerged and aerial leaves of two amphibious angiosperms (Myriophyllum brasiliense and Proserpinaca palustris) maintained high compensation points when incubated in air but, when the submerged or aerial leaves of Proserpinaca were incubated under water, the compensation points dropped as low as 10. This suggests that, in addition to temperature and photoperiod, some factor associated with submergence regulates the compensation point of aquatic plants. In the high-compensation point plants, photorespiration, as a percentage of net photosynthesis, was equivalent to that in terrestrial C(3) plants. For Hydrilla verticillata, the decreasing CO(2) compensation points (110, 40, and 10) were associated with reduced photorespiration, as indicated by decreased O(2) inhibition, decreased rates of CO(2) evolution into CO(2)-free air, and increased net photosynthetic rates.The decrease in the CO(2) compensation points of Hydrilla, Egeria densa, and Cabomba caroliniana was accompanied by an increase in the activity of phosphoenolpyruvate, but not of ribulose bisphosphate, carboxylase. In Hydrilla, several C(4) enzymes also increased in activity to the following levels (micromoles per gram fresh weight per hour): pyruvate Pi dikinase (35), pyrophosphatase (716), adenylate kinase (525), NAD and NADP malate dehydrogenase (6565 and 30), NAD and NADP malic enzymes (239 and 44), and aspartate and alanine aminotransferases (357 and 85), whereas glycolate oxidase (6) and phosphoglycolate and phosphoglycerate phosphatases (76 and 32) showed no change. Glycolate dehydrogenase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase were undetectable. The reduced photorespiration in these plants may be due to increased CO(2) fixation via a C(4) acid pathway. However, for three Myriophyllum

  11. Permanently open stomata of aquatic angiosperms display modified cellulose crystallinity patterns.

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    Shtein, Ilana; Popper, Zoë A; Harpaz-Saad, Smadar

    2017-07-03

    Most floating aquatic plants have stomata on their upper leaf surfaces, and usually their stomata are permanently open. We previously identified 3 distinct crystallinity patterns in stomatal cell walls, with angiosperm kidney-shaped stomata having the highest crystallinity in the polar end walls as well as the adjacent polar regions of the guard cells. A numerical bio-mechanical model suggested that the high crystallinity areas are localized to regions where the highest stress is imposed. Here, stomatal cell wall crystallinity was examined in 4 floating plants from 2 different taxa: basal angiosperms from the ANITA grade and monocots. It appears that the non-functional stomata of floating plants display reduced crystallinity in the polar regions as compared with high crystallinity of the ventral (inner) walls. Thus their guard cells are both less flexible and less stress resistant. Our findings suggest that the pattern of cellulose crystallinity in stomata of floating plants from different families was altered as a consequence of similar evolutionary pressures.

  12. Classification of submersed aquatic vegetation of the Venice lagoon using MIVIS airborne data

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    S. Pignatti

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In July 2001 an aerial survey with MIVIS (Multispectral Infrared and Visible Spectrometer hyperspectral sensor and an in situ survey campaign were performed on Venice lagoon to map benthic macro-algae and sea phanerogams distribution. On MIVIS VIS spectral range images, training areas for benthic macro-algae and sea phanerogams have been selected by using sea truth data collected by CNR-ISMAR from in situ campaign and periodic area surveys used in the lagoon by the local authorities. The derived spectral signature has been used to classify the area in order to produce the maps of the pure and mixture submersed vegetation population. The algorithm applied to the data is based on the Subpixel Spectral Analytical Process (SSAP method. The method assumes that the spectrum of a single pixel is composed of a fraction of the material of interest while the remainder of the observed spectra contains background materials. In terms of recognition processes the produced maps present a very good agreement with the sea truth data even though the fraction material expressed in the maps does not represent a quantitative estimation of the material of interest.

  13. Stress protein synthesis and peroxidase activity in a submersed aquatic macrophyte exposed to cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siesko, M.M.; Grossfeld, R.M. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Fleming, W.J. [National Biological Service, Raleigh, NC (United States). North Carolina Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit

    1997-08-01

    Sago pondweed (Potamogeton pectinatus L.) was exposed to CdCl{sub 2} to evaluate peroxidase (POD) activity and stress protein (SP) synthesis as potential biomarkers of contaminant stress in an aquatic plant. Peroxidase activity did not increase in sago pondweed incubated for 24 h in a liquid culture medium containing 0.5, 0.75, or 1 mM CdCl{sub 2}. By contrast, at each of these CdCl{sub 2} concentrations, SPs of 162, 142, 1122, 82, and 61 kDa were preferentially synthesized, and synthesis of a 66-kDa protein was reduced relative to controls. Peroxidase activity also did not change in sago pondweed rooted for 21 d in agar containing 1 mM CdCl{sub 2}, despite the lower growth rate, lower protein content, and brown discoloration of the plants. Only when the plants were grown 7 or 21 d on agar containing 10 mM CdCl{sub 2} were the growth retardation and phenotypic deterioration accompanied by significantly increased POD activity. In contrast, plants rooted for 7 d in agar containing 1 mM CdCl{sub 2} were not significantly discolored or retarded in growth, yet they preferentially synthesized SPs of 122, 82, and 50 kDa and synthesized proteins of 59 and 52 kDa at reduced rates relative to controls. Similar changes in protein synthesis were accompanied by signs of depressed growth after 21 d of incubation with 1 mM CdCl{sub 2} and with 7 or 21 d of exposure to 10 mM CdCl{sub 2}. These data indicate that changes in SP synthesis may precede detectable alterations in growth of aquatic plants and, therefore, may be a potentially useful early biomarker of contaminant stress. However, further studies will be required to determine whether the SP response is measurable during exposure to environmentally relevant contaminant levels.

  14. Paleomycology of the Princeton Chert II. Dark-septate fungi in the aquatic angiosperm Eorhiza arnoldii indicate a diverse assemblage of root-colonizing fungi during the Eocene.

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    Klymiuk, Ashley A; Taylor, Thomas N; Taylor, Edith L; Krings, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Tissues of the extinct aquatic or emergent angiosperm, Eorhiza arnoldii incertae sedis, were extensively colonized by microfungi, and in this study we report the presence of several types of sterile mycelia. In addition to inter- and intracellular proliferation of regular septate hyphae, the tissues contain monilioid hyphae with intercalary branching. These filamentous mycelia are spatially associated with two distinct morphotypes of intracellular microsclerotia. These quiescent structures are morphologically similar to loose and cerebriform microsclerotia found within the living tissues of some plants, which have been attributed to an informal assemblage of dematiaceous ascomycetes, the dark-septate endophytes. While there are significant challenges to interpreting the ecology of fossilized fungi, these specimens provide evidence for asymptomatic endophytic colonization of the rooting structures of a 48.7 million year old aquatic angiosperm.

  15. Spatial and temporal relationships between the invasive snail Bithynia tentaculata and submersed aquatic vegetation in Pool 8 of the Upper Mississippi River

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    Weeks, Alicia M.; DeJager, Nathan R.; Haro, Roger J.; Sandland, Greg J.

    2017-01-01

    Bithynia tentaculata is an invasive snail that was first reported in Lake Michigan in 1871 and has since spread throughout a number of freshwater systems of the USA. This invasion has been extremely problematic in the Upper Mississippi River as the snails serve as intermediate hosts for several trematode parasites that have been associated with waterfowl mortality in the region. This study was designed to assess the abundance and distribution of B. tentaculata relative to submersed aquatic vegetation as macrophytes provide important nesting and food resources for migrating waterfowl. Temporal changes in both vegetation and snail densities were compared between 2007 and 2015. Between these years, B. tentaculata densities have nearly quadrupled despite minor changes in vegetation abundance, distribution and composition. Understanding the spatial distribution of B. tentaculata in relation to other habitat features, including submersed vegetation, and quantifying any further changes in the abundance and distribution of B. tentaculata over time will be important for better identifying areas of risk for disease transmission to waterfowl.

  16. Effects of invasive species on plant communities: an example using submersed aquatic plants at the regional level

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    Submerged aquatic plants have a key role in maintaining functioning aquatic ecosystems through their effects in the hydrological regime, sedimentation, nutrient cycling and habitats of associated fauna. Modifications of aquatic plant communities, as for example through the introduction of invasive s...

  17. Effects of herbicides on two submersed aquatic macrophytes, Potamogeton pectinatus L. and Myriophyllum sibiricum Komarov, in a prairie wetland.

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    Forsyth, D J; Martin, P A; Shaw, G G

    1997-01-01

    Clopyralid, picloram, 2,4-D and a mixture of 2,4-D plus picloram, (Tordon 202C) were added to the water of 1 m square enclosures in a prairie wetland in Saskatchewan, Canada to produce concentrations of 0.01 and 0.1 mg active ingredient litre(-1). Effects on the submersed macrophytes, Potamogeton pectinatus and Myriophyllum sibiricum, were monitored by taking repeated measurements of plant weight, flower and tuber production and inspecting for injuries at 30 and 60 days after application. Clopyralid did not inhibit weight gain (growth) in either species, but stimulated growth and flowering by M. sibiricum at 0.01 mg litre(-1) and tuber production by P. pectinatus at both rates. The low rate of 2,4-D stimulated flowering by M. sibiricum and tuber production by P. pectinatus, whereas the high rate inhibited growth of M. sibiricum and injured both species. Picloram did not affect growth of either species, but injured M. sibiricum at both concentrations and inhibited flowering at 0.1 mg litre(-1). Tordon 202C at 0.1 mg litre(-1) caused reduced growth and flowering in M. sibiricum and injured both species; 0.01 mg litre(-1) also injured M. sibiricum. Mortality resulted only from Tordon 202C and 2,4-D. Field data are lacking to assess the extent to which submerged macrophytes in prairie ponds are exposed to harmful concentrations of herbicide from aerial spraying, drift from ground application, runoff or wind erosion of soil.

  18. Ammonium, microcystins, and hypoxia of blooms in eutrophic water cause oxidative stress and C-N imbalance in submersed and floating-leaved aquatic plants in Lake Taihu, China.

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    Zhang, Meng; Wang, Zhengqi; Xu, Jun; Liu, Yaqin; Ni, Leyi; Cao, Te; Xie, Ping

    2011-01-01

    The heavy bloom of cyanobacteria is a disastrous consequence of freshwater eutrophication, and the bloom is highly toxic due to its secondary metabolites called microcystins (MCs). The release of organic substances from dense blooms causes an increase in NH4+ and decrease in oxygen in lake water. In the present study, the dynamics of physio-biochemical responses of five aquatic macrophytes to MCs and NH4+ stresses in Meiliang Bay were evaluated. The bay is one of the most seriously eutrophized areas dominated by the toxic cyanobacteria of Lake Taihu, China. The results demonstrate that aquatic macrophytes in Meiliang Bay are subjected to successive external stresses. From January to May, they are subjected to high NH4+ stress (>0.56 mg L(-1)), whereas from June to September or during dense blooms, the macrophytes experience both MC proliferation and moderate NH4+ toxicity (>0.3 mg L(-1)). In August, high NH4+ stress occurs along with hypoxia stress, whereas from September to December, the macrophytes experience moderate NH4+ stress, causing a serious imbalance in C-N metabolism and oxidative stress. Between the two aquatic plant life forms, floating-leaved plants are more resistant to the stresses of eutrophication than are submersed plants. Elevated MCs in the water column can aggravate oxidative stress and suppress the soluble protein contents of aquatic plants. High NH4+ in the water causes severe C and N imbalance in submersed macrophytes because of considerable carbon consumption for free amino acid synthesis. The superoxide dismutase activities of submersed macrophytes are suppressed by low light penetrating the eutrophic water, which might impair the antioxidative function of the plants. The findings of this study provide mainly field evidence that reveals the physical, chemical, and biological stresses on aquatic plants in bloom-prevailed eutrophic lakes. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Manned submersible „JAGO“

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    Karen Hissmann

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The manned submersible „JAGO“ is a human occupied underwater vehicle (HOV designed for personal exploration and research in all types of aquatic systems and habitats. The seafloor along the continental shelf and slopes within the ocean twilight zone is JAGO’s main target area. The DNV-GL classed 2-person submersible has a maximum operating depth of 400 m. The two occupants, the pilot and one observer, are seated at 1 Atmosphere in a steel pressure hull with two large acrylic windows. The submersible’s small size and lightweight construction (3 T allows worldwide operations from on board a wide variety of vessels as well as transport in a single standard 20-foot container together with all support equipment. Typical applications include personal observation of the sea bed and water column, video and photo documentation, selective non-intrusive sampling, placement of sensors and experiments, underwater inspection, as well as location and recovery of objects

  20. Relationship of weed shiner and young-of-year bluegill and largemouth bass abundance to submersed aquatic vegetation in Navigation Pools 4, 8, and 13 of the Upper Mississippi River, 1998-2012

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    DeLain, Steven A.; Popp, Walter A.

    2014-01-01

    Aquatic vegetation provides food resources and shelter for many species of fish. This study found a significant relationship between increases in submersed aquatic vegetation (SAV) in four study reaches of the Upper Mississippi River (UMR) and increases in catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) of weed shiners (Notropis texanus) and age-0 bluegills (Lepomis macrochirus) and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) when all of the study reaches were treated collectively using Long Term Resource Monitoring Program (LTRMP) vegetation and fish data for 1998–2012. The selected fishes were more abundant in study reaches with higher SAV frequencies (Pool 8 and Lower Pool 4) and less abundant in reaches with lower SAV frequencies (Pool 13 and Upper Pool 4). When each study reach was examined independently, the relationship between SAV frequency and CPUE of the three species was not significant in most cases, the primary exception being weed shiners in Lower Pool 4. Results of this study indicate that the prevalence of SAV does affect relative abundance of these vegetation-associated fish species. However, the poor annual relationship between SAV frequency and age-0 relative abundance in individual study reaches indicates that several other factors also govern age-0 abundance. The data indicate that there may be a SAV frequency threshold in backwaters above which there is not a strong relationship with abundance of these fish species. This is indicated by the high annual CPUE variability of the three selected fishes in backwaters of Pool 8 and Lower Pool 4 when SAV exceeded certain frequencies.

  1. Submersion and acute respiratory failure

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    Yu-Jang Su

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Submersion patients who are hypothermic on arrival of emergency department (ED are risky to respiratory failure and older, more hypothermic, longer hospital stay in suicidal submersion patients.

  2. Eficiência de fluridone no controle de plantas aquáticas submersas no reservatório de Jupiá Fluridone efficacy for control of submersed aquatic weeds in the Jupiá reservoir

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    D.A.S. Marcondes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a eficiência do herbicida fluridone no controle de plantas aquáticas submersas (Egeria densa, Egeria najas e Ceratophyllum demersum que ocorrem no reservatório da Usina Hidrelétrica Eng. Souza Dias (Jupiá, região noroeste do Estado de São Paulo. A pesquisa, que consistiu de aplicações de fluridone, foi conduzida em lagoas marginais do rio Tietê, denominadas Flórida e Barrenta. As lagoas foram divididas em faixas, cada uma delas representando um tratamento. As faixas das lagoas receberam uma aplicação inicial de fluridone, procurando-se atingir a concentração de 20 ppb. As aplicações subseqüentes foram dimensionadas para recompor e/ou manter esta concentração, sendo realizadas sempre com o auxílio de uma barra de aplicação munida de três mangueiras, com pontas injetoras submersas na água, em três profundidades (0,2, 0,6 e 1,2 m. O volume de aplicação foi mantido próximo a 54 l ha-1 de calda. Foram feitas avaliações visuais dos sintomas de fitointoxicação nas três espécies estudadas, assim como avaliação da biomassa. Nas condições da pesquisa, o fluridone controlou as macrófitas submersas Egeria najas e Egeria densa; quando cessou o efeito do fluridone, aconteceu a reinfestação de Egeria densa e Egeria najas; e não houve controle de Ceratophyllum demersum nem das espécies não-alvo, como Salvinia auriculata, Ipomoea spp., Merremia sp., Typha latifolia e Cyperus spp.The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the herbicide fluridone on the control of submersed aquatic weeds (Egeria densa Planch., Egeria najas Planch. and Ceratophyllum demersum, the major aquatic weeds in the reservoir of Engº Souza Dias (Jupiá Hydroelecric Power Plant, Itapura, São Paulo. The experiment, consisted of fluridone applications and was carried out in bays of the Tietê River, called Flórida and Barrenta. The lakes were divided into zones, each considered a treatment. All

  3. Eficiência de fluridone no controle de plantas aquáticas submersas e efeitos sobre algumas características ambientais Fluridone efficacy in controling submersed aquatic weeds and its effects on some environmental characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.A.S. Marcondes

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a eficiência do herbicida fluridone no controle de plantas aquáticas submersas (Egeria densa, Egeria najas e Ceratophyllum demersum, assim como seus efeitos sobre algumas características ambientais. A pesquisa foi conduzida no reservatório da Usina Hidrelétrica Eng. Souza Dias (Jupiá, região noroeste do Estado de São Paulo, em uma reentrância denominada lagoa Vírgula. A lagoa foi dividida em nove faixas e seis delas receberam uma aplicação inicial de fluridone para se obter uma concentração de 20 ppb. As aplicações subseqüentes foram dimensionadas para recompor esta concentração. Para o estudo do carreamento do herbicida pelo fluxo de água, foi efetuado o monitoramento das suas concentrações nas nove faixas da lagoa (com e sem aplicação e em áreas a jusante e a montante. Foram analisados os efeitos do fluridone sobre características ambientais como: turbidez, temperatura da água, condutividade elétrica, concentração de oxigênio, pH e resíduos de fluridone. A eficácia do controle foi avaliada visualmente (pelos sintomas de fitointoxicação nas três espécies estudadas e pela amostragem de biomassa. Observou-se que o fluridone controlou de forma satisfatória E. najas e E. densa. Quando cessou o efeito do fluridone, aconteceu a reinfestação de E. densa e E. najas. Não houve controle de C. demersum. O fluridone não produziu efeitos adversos sobre as características de qualidade ambiental estudadas.This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of the herbicide fluridone to control submersed aquatic weeds (Egeria densa, Egeria najas and Ceratophyllum demersum, as well as its effects on some environmental characteristics. The research was carried out in the reservoir of Eng. Souza Dias (Jupiá Hydro-elecric plant power, Station in northwestern São Paulo, Brazil, in Lagoa Vírgula bay. The bay was divided in nine zones and six of them received an initial application of fluridone

  4. Hiding in plain sight: Koshicola spirodelophila gen. et sp. nov. (Chaetopeltidales, Chlorophyceae), a novel green alga associated with the aquatic angiosperm Spirodela polyrhiza.

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    Watanabe, Shin; Fučíková, Karolina; Lewis, Louise A; Lewis, Paul O

    2016-05-01

    Discovery and morphological characterization of a novel epiphytic aquatic green alga increases our understanding of Chaetopeltidales, a poorly known order in Chlorophyceae. Chloroplast genomic data from this taxon reveals an unusual architecture previously unknown in green algae. Using light and electron microscopy, we characterized the morphology and ultrastructure of a novel taxon of green algae. Bayesian phylogenetic analyses of nuclear and plastid genes were used to test the hypothesized membership of this taxon in order Chaetopeltidales. With next-generation sequence data, we assembled the plastid genome of this novel taxon and compared its gene content and architecture to that of related species to further investigate plastid genome traits. The morphology and ultrastructure of this alga are consistent with placement in Chaetopeltidales (Chlorophyceae), but a distinct trait combination supports recognition of this alga as a new genus and species-Koshicola spirodelophila gen. et sp. nov. Its placement in the phylogeny as a descendant of a deep division in the Chaetopeltidales is supported by analysis of molecular data sets. The chloroplast genome is among the largest reported in green algae and the genes are distributed on three large (rather than a single) chromosome, in contrast to other studied green algae. The discovery of Koshicola spirodelophila gen. et sp. nov. highlights the importance of investigating even commonplace habitats to explore new microalgal diversity. This work expands our understanding of the morphological and chloroplast genomic features of green algae, and in particular those of the poorly studied Chaetopeltidales. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  5. Riemannian submersions and related topics

    CERN Document Server

    Falcitelli, Maria; Pastore, Anna Maria

    2004-01-01

    This book provides the first-ever systematic introduction to thetheory of Riemannian submersions, which was initiated by BarrettO''Neill and Alfred Gray less than four decades ago. The authorsfocus their attention on classification theorems when the total spaceand the fibres have nice geometric properties.

  6. Angiosperm ovules: diversity, development, evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endress, Peter K

    2011-06-01

    Ovules as developmental precursors of seeds are organs of central importance in angiosperm flowers and can be traced back in evolution to the earliest seed plants. Angiosperm ovules are diverse in their position in the ovary, nucellus thickness, number and thickness of integuments, degree and direction of curvature, and histological differentiations. There is a large body of literature on this diversity, and various views on its evolution have been proposed over the course of time. Most recently evo-devo studies have been concentrated on molecular developmental genetics in ovules of model plants. The present review provides a synthetic treatment of several aspects of the sporophytic part of ovule diversity, development and evolution, based on extensive research on the vast original literature and on experience from my own comparative studies in a broad range of angiosperm clades. In angiosperms the presence of an outer integument appears to be instrumental for ovule curvature, as indicated from studies on ovule diversity through the major clades of angiosperms, molecular developmental genetics in model species, abnormal ovules in a broad range of angiosperms, and comparison with gymnosperms with curved ovules. Lobation of integuments is not an atavism indicating evolution from telomes, but simply a morphogenetic constraint from the necessity of closure of the micropyle. Ovule shape is partly dependent on locule architecture, which is especially indicated by the occurrence of orthotropous ovules. Some ovule features are even more conservative than earlier assumed and thus of special interest in angiosperm macrosystematics.

  7. Experimental insights into angiosperm origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomax, Barry; Lee, Alex; Smilie, Ian; Knight, Charles; Upchurch, Garland

    2017-04-01

    The angiosperms occupy almost every habitat type on Earth and comprise nearly 90% of extant plant species. Yet this ascendency is a relatively recent (geological) phenomenon. Palaeobotanical evidence indicates a likely first occurrence in the Early Cretaceous followed by a relatively rapid increase in diversity with their rise to dominance marking the onset of modern world. Understanding this diversification event has been a key research question since Darwin commented on this "abominable mystery", and it remains one of the most significant unanswered questions in plant biology. Sequencing work shows that the diversification and radiation was accompanied by successive whole genome duplication (WGD) events. Furthermore proxy data and predictions from long-term carbon cycle models indicate that the angiosperm diversification was accompanied by a decline in atmospheric CO2. These observation raise the intriguing possibility that declining atmospheric CO2 concentration and capacity to undergo polyploidy could have given angiosperms a competitive advantage when compared to other plant groups. Using comparative ecophysiology we set out to test the effects of declining atmospheric CO2 by growing a six species (Ranunculus acris and Polypodium vulgare, chosen to represent Cretaceous understorey angiosperms and pteridophytes respectively. Liquidambar styraciflua and Laurus nobilis represented canopy angiosperms and Ginkgo biloba and Metasequoia glyptostroboides canopy gymnosperms) in controlled conditions across a CO2 gradient (2000, 1200, 800 and 400 ppm) to simulate Cretaceous CO2decline. To test for WGDs we use the relationship between guard cell size and genome size to reconstruct angiosperm genome size as they radiated. Analysis of our fossil dataset shows that earliest angiosperms had a small genome size. Our experimental work shows that angiosperms have a greater capacity for acclimation suggesting that declining CO2 could have acted as a trigger for the angiosperm

  8. Submersible Generator for Marine Hydrokinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cinq-Mars, Robert S; Burke, Timothy; Irish, James; Gustafson, Brian; Kirtley, James; Alawa, Aiman

    2011-09-01

    A submersible generator was designed as a distinct and critical subassembly of marine hydrokinetics systems, specifically tidal and stream energy conversion. The generator is designed to work with both vertical and horizontal axis turbines. The final product is a high-pole-count, radial-flux, permanent magnet, rim mounted generator, initially rated at twenty kilowatts in a two-meter-per-second flow, and designed to leverage established and simple manufacturing processes. The generator was designed to work with a 3 meter by 7 meter Gorlov Helical Turbine or a marine hydrokinetic version of the FloDesign wind turbine. The team consisted of experienced motor/generator design engineers with cooperation from major US component suppliers (magnetics, coil winding and electrical steel laminations). Support for this effort was provided by Lucid Energy Technologies and FloDesign, Inc. The following tasks were completed: Identified the conditions and requirements for MHK generators. Defined a methodology for sizing and rating MHK systems. Selected an MHK generator topology and form factor. Completed electromechanical design of submersible generator capable of coupling to multiple turbine styles. Investigated MHK generator manufacturing requirements. Reviewed cost implications and financial viability. Completed final reporting and deliverables

  9. Characterization of the basal angiosperm Aristolochia fimbriata: a potential experimental system for genetic studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous studies in basal angiosperms have provided insight into the diversity within the angiosperm lineage and helped to polarize analyses of flowering plant evolution. However, there is still not an experimental system for genetic studies among basal angiosperms to facilitate comparative studies and functional investigation. It would be desirable to identify a basal angiosperm experimental system that possesses many of the features found in existing plant model systems (e.g., Arabidopsis and Oryza). Results We have considered all basal angiosperm families for general characteristics important for experimental systems, including availability to the scientific community, growth habit, and membership in a large basal angiosperm group that displays a wide spectrum of phenotypic diversity. Most basal angiosperms are woody or aquatic, thus are not well-suited for large scale cultivation, and were excluded. We further investigated members of Aristolochiaceae for ease of culture, life cycle, genome size, and chromosome number. We demonstrated self-compatibility for Aristolochia elegans and A. fimbriata, and transformation with a GFP reporter construct for Saruma henryi and A. fimbriata. Furthermore, A. fimbriata was easily cultivated with a life cycle of just three months, could be regenerated in a tissue culture system, and had one of the smallest genomes among basal angiosperms. An extensive multi-tissue EST dataset was produced for A. fimbriata that includes over 3.8 million 454 sequence reads. Conclusions Aristolochia fimbriata has numerous features that facilitate genetic studies and is suggested as a potential model system for use with a wide variety of technologies. Emerging genetic and genomic tools for A. fimbriata and closely related species can aid the investigation of floral biology, developmental genetics, biochemical pathways important in plant-insect interactions as well as human health, and various other features present in early angiosperms

  10. Flower diversity and angiosperm diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltis, Pamela S; Soltis, Douglas E

    2014-01-01

    The flower itself, which comprises most of the evolutionary innovations of flowering plants, bears special significance for understanding the origin and diversification of angiosperms. The sudden origin of angiosperms in the fossil record poses unanswered questions on both the origins of flowering plants and their rapid spread and diversification. Central to these questions is the role that the flower, and floral diversity, played. Recent clarifications of angiosperm phylogeny provide the foundation for investigating evolutionary transitions in floral features and the underlying genetic mechanisms of stasis and change. The general features of floral diversity can best be addressed by considering key patterns of variation: an undifferentiated versus a differentiated perianth; elaboration of perianth organs in size and color; merosity of the flower; and phyllotaxy of floral organs. Various models of gene expression now explain the regulation of floral organization and floral organ identity; the best understood are the ABC(E) model and its modifications, but other gene systems are important in specific clades and require further study. Furthermore, the propensity for gene and genome duplications in angiosperms provides abundant raw material for novel floral features--emphasizing the importance of understanding the conservation and diversification of gene lineages and functions in studies of macroevolution.

  11. The angiosperm radiation revisited, an ecological explanation for Darwin’s ‘abominable mystery’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berendse, Frank; Scheffer, Marten

    2009-01-01

    One of the greatest terrestrial radiations is the diversification of the flowering plants (Angiospermae) in the Cretaceous period. Early angiosperms appear to have been limited to disturbed, aquatic or extremely dry sites, suggesting that they were suppressed in most other places by the gymnosperms that still dominated the plant world. However, fossil evidence suggests that by the end of the Cretaceous the angiosperms had spectacularly taken over the dominant position from the gymnosperms around the globe. Here, we suggest an ecological explanation for their escape from their subordinate position relative to gymnosperms and ferns. We propose that angiosperms due to their higher growth rates profit more rapidly from increased nutrient supply than gymnosperms, whereas at the same time angiosperms promote soil nutrient release by producing litter that is more easily decomposed. This positive feedback may have resulted in a runaway process once angiosperms had reached a certain abundance. Evidence for the possibility of such a critical transition to angiosperm dominance comes from recent work on large scale vegetation shifts, linking long-term field observations, large scale experiments and the use of simulation models. PMID:19572916

  12. Aquatic plants for removal of mevinphos from the aquatic environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, B. C.

    1975-01-01

    Fragrant waterlily (Nymphaea odorata, Ait.), joint-grass (Paspalum distichum L.), and rush (Juncus repens, Michx.) were used to evaluate the effectiveness of vascular aquatic plants in removing the insecticide mevinphos (dimethyl-1-carbomethoxy-1propen-2-yl phosphate) from waters contaminated with this chemical. The emersed aquatic plants fragrant waterlily and joint-grass removed 87 and 93 ppm of mevinphos from water test systems in less than 2 weeks without apparent damage to the plants; whereas rush, a submersed plant, removed less insecticide than the water-soil controls. Water-soil control still contained toxic levels of this insecticide, as demonstrated by fish bioassay studies, after 35 days.

  13. Schmeissneria: A missing link to angiosperms?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Jinzhong

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The origin of angiosperms has been under debate since the time of Darwin. While there has been much speculation in past decades about pre-Cretaceous angiosperms, including Archaefructus, these reports are controversial. The earliest reliable fossil record of angiosperms remains restricted to the Cretaceous, even though recent molecular phylogenetic studies suggest an origin for angiosperms much earlier than the current fossil record. Results In this paper, after careful SEM and light microscopic work, we report fossils with angiospermous traits of the Jurassic age. The fossils were collected from the Haifanggou Formation (middle Jurassic in western Liaoning, northeast China. They include two female structures and an associated leaf on the same slab. One of the female structures is physically connected to the apex of a short shoot. The female organs are borne in pairs on short peduncles that are arranged along the axis of the female structure. Each of the female organs has a central unit that is surrounded by an envelope with characteristic longitudinal ribs. Each central unit has two locules completely separated by a vertical septum. The apex of the central unit is completely closed. The general morphology places these fossils into the scope of Schmeissneria, an early Jurassic genus that was previously attributed to Ginkgoales. Conclusion Because the closed carpel is a character only found in angiosperms, the closed apex of the central unit suggests the presence of angiospermy in Schmeissneria. This angiospermous trait implies either a Jurassic angiosperm or a new seed plant group parallel to angiosperms and other known seed plants. As an angiosperm, the Liassic age (earliest Jurassic of Schmeissneria microstachys would suggest an origin of angiosperms during the Triassic. Although still uncertain, this could have a great impact on our perspective of the history, diversity and systematics of seed plants and angiosperms.

  14. Influence of temperature and salinity on heavy metal uptake by submersed plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritioff, A. [Department of Botany, Stockholm University, S-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)]. E-mail: fritioff@botan.su.se; Kautsky, L. [Department of Botany, Stockholm University, S-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Greger, M. [Department of Botany, Stockholm University, S-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2005-01-01

    Submersed plants can be useful in reducing heavy metal concentrations in stormwater, since they can accumulate large amounts of heavy metals in their shoots. To investigate the effects of water temperature and salinity on the metal uptake of two submersed plant species, Elodea canadensis (Michx.) and Potamogeton natans (L.), these plants were grown in the presence of Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb at 5, 11, and 20 deg. C in combination with salinities of 0, 0.5, and 5%o. The metal concentrations in the plant tissue increased with increasing temperature in both species; the exception was the concentration of Pb in Elodea, which increased with decreasing salinity. Metal concentrations at high temperature or low salinity were up to twice those found at low temperature or high salinity. Plant biomass affected the metal uptake, with low biomass plants having higher metal concentrations than did high biomass plants. - Metal concentrations increase with increasing temperature and decreasing salinity in two aquatic plants.

  15. The Submersible Threat to Maritime Homeland Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    research would be how the HSE could possibly utilize small submersibles to enhance HS through such activities as using remotely operated subs to conduct...1 C. RESEARCH QUESTION AND METHODOLOGY ...................................4 D. SIGNIFICANCE TO THE FIELD...Technology ...................................................66 C. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH .............................68 D. CONCLUSION

  16. Indigenous Angiosperm biodiversity of Olabisi Onabanjo University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The conservation of the genetic variability of the indigenous angiosperm community is a sine qua non. A survey of indigenous angiosperm biodiversity of the Olabisi Onabanjo University permanent site was undertaken. Plants collected were dried, poisoned and mounted on herbarium sheets, proper identification and ...

  17. A combinatorial morphospace for angiosperm pollen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mander, Luke

    2016-04-01

    The morphology of angiosperm (flowering plant) pollen is extraordinarily diverse. This diversity results from variations in the morphology of discrete anatomical components. These components include the overall shape of a pollen grain, the stratification of the exine, the number and form of any apertures, the type of dispersal unit, and the nature of any surface ornamentation. Different angiosperm pollen morphotypes reflect different combinations of these discrete components. In this talk, I ask the following question: given the anatomical components of angiosperm pollen that are known to exist in the plant kingdom, how many unique biologically plausible combinations of these components are there? I explore this question from the perspective of enumerative combinatorics using an algorithm I have written in the Python programming language. This algorithm (1) calculates the number of combinations of these components; (2) enumerates those combinations; and (3) graphically displays those combinations. The result is a combinatorial morphospace that reflects an underlying notion that the process of morphogenesis in angiosperm pollen can be thought of as an n choose k counting problem. I compare the morphology of extant and fossil angiosperm pollen grains to this morphospace, and suggest that from a combinatorial point of view angiosperm pollen is not as diverse as it could be, which may be a result of developmental constraints.

  18. Angiosperm phylogeny: 17 genes, 640 taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltis, Douglas E; Smith, Stephen A; Cellinese, Nico; Wurdack, Kenneth J; Tank, David C; Brockington, Samuel F; Refulio-Rodriguez, Nancy F; Walker, Jay B; Moore, Michael J; Carlsward, Barbara S; Bell, Charles D; Latvis, Maribeth; Crawley, Sunny; Black, Chelsea; Diouf, Diaga; Xi, Zhenxiang; Rushworth, Catherine A; Gitzendanner, Matthew A; Sytsma, Kenneth J; Qiu, Yin-Long; Hilu, Khidir W; Davis, Charles C; Sanderson, Michael J; Beaman, Reed S; Olmstead, Richard G; Judd, Walter S; Donoghue, Michael J; Soltis, Pamela S

    2011-04-01

    Recent analyses employing up to five genes have provided numerous insights into angiosperm phylogeny, but many relationships have remained unresolved or poorly supported. In the hope of improving our understanding of angiosperm phylogeny, we expanded sampling of taxa and genes beyond previous analyses. We conducted two primary analyses based on 640 species representing 330 families. The first included 25260 aligned base pairs (bp) from 17 genes (representing all three plant genomes, i.e., nucleus, plastid, and mitochondrion). The second included 19846 aligned bp from 13 genes (representing only the nucleus and plastid). Many important questions of deep-level relationships in the nonmonocot angiosperms have now been resolved with strong support. Amborellaceae, Nymphaeales, and Austrobaileyales are successive sisters to the remaining angiosperms (Mesangiospermae), which are resolved into Chloranthales + Magnoliidae as sister to Monocotyledoneae + [Ceratophyllaceae + Eudicotyledoneae]. Eudicotyledoneae contains a basal grade subtending Gunneridae. Within Gunneridae, Gunnerales are sister to the remainder (Pentapetalae), which comprises (1) Superrosidae, consisting of Rosidae (including Vitaceae) and Saxifragales; and (2) Superasteridae, comprising Berberidopsidales, Santalales, Caryophyllales, Asteridae, and, based on this study, Dilleniaceae (although other recent analyses disagree with this placement). Within the major subclades of Pentapetalae, most deep-level relationships are resolved with strong support. Our analyses confirm that with large amounts of sequence data, most deep-level relationships within the angiosperms can be resolved. We anticipate that this well-resolved angiosperm tree will be of broad utility for many areas of biology, including physiology, ecology, paleobiology, and genomics.

  19. Ferns diversified in the shadow of angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Harald; Schuettpelz, Eric; Pryer, Kathleen M; Cranfill, Raymond; Magallón, Susana; Lupia, Richard

    2004-04-01

    The rise of angiosperms during the Cretaceous period is often portrayed as coincident with a dramatic drop in the diversity and abundance of many seed-free vascular plant lineages, including ferns. This has led to the widespread belief that ferns, once a principal component of terrestrial ecosystems, succumbed to the ecological predominance of angiosperms and are mostly evolutionary holdovers from the late Palaeozoic/early Mesozoic era. The first appearance of many modern fern genera in the early Tertiary fossil record implies another evolutionary scenario; that is, that the majority of living ferns resulted from a more recent diversification. But a full understanding of trends in fern diversification and evolution using only palaeobotanical evidence is hindered by the poor taxonomic resolution of the fern fossil record in the Cretaceous. Here we report divergence time estimates for ferns and angiosperms based on molecular data, with constraints from a reassessment of the fossil record. We show that polypod ferns (> 80% of living fern species) diversified in the Cretaceous, after angiosperms, suggesting perhaps an ecological opportunistic response to the diversification of angiosperms, as angiosperms came to dominate terrestrial ecosystems.

  20. Epigenetic Modifications during Angiosperm Gametogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migicovsky, Zoë; Kovalchuk, Igor

    2012-01-01

    Angiosperms do not contain a distinct germline, but rather develop gametes from gametophyte initials that undergo cell division. These gametes contain cells that give rise to an endosperm and the embryo. DNA methylation is decreased in the vegetative nucleus (VN) and central cell nuclei (CCN) resulting in expression of transposable elements (TEs). It is thought that the siRNAs produced in response to TE expression are able to travel to the sperm cells and egg cells (EC) from VN and CCN, respectively, in order to enforce silencing there. Demethylation during gametogenesis helps ensure that even newly integrated TEs are expressed and therefore silenced by the resulting siRNA production. A final form of epigenetic control is modification of histones, which includes accumulation of the H3 variant HTR10 in mature sperm that is then completely replaced following fertilization. In females, the histone isoforms present in the EC and CCN differ, potentially helping to differentiate the two components during gametogenesis. PMID:22645573

  1. Cooling devices and methods for use with electric submersible pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jankowski, Todd Andrew; Gamboa, Jose A

    2017-10-25

    Cooling devices for use with electric submersible pump motors include a refrigerator attached to the end of the electric submersible pump motor with the evaporator heat exchanger accepting all or a portion of the heat load from the motor. The cooling device can be a self-contained bolt-on unit, so that minimal design changes to existing motors are required.

  2. Cooling devices and methods for use with electric submersible pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowski, Todd A; Hill, Dallas D

    2014-12-02

    Cooling devices for use with electric submersible pump motors include a refrigerator attached to the end of the electric submersible pump motor with the evaporator heat exchanger accepting all or a portion of the heat load from the motor. The cooling device can be a self-contained bolt-on unit, so that minimal design changes to existing motors are required.

  3. A combinatorial approach to angiosperm pollen morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mander, Luke

    2016-11-30

    Angiosperms (flowering plants) are strikingly diverse. This is clearly expressed in the morphology of their pollen grains, which are characterized by enormous variety in their shape and patterning. In this paper, I approach angiosperm pollen morphology from the perspective of enumerative combinatorics. This involves generating angiosperm pollen morphotypes by algorithmically combining character states and enumerating the results of these combinations. I use this approach to generate 3 643 200 pollen morphotypes, which I visualize using a parallel-coordinates plot. This represents a raw morphospace. To compare real-world and theoretical morphologies, I map the pollen of 1008 species of Neotropical angiosperms growing on Barro Colorado Island (BCI), Panama, onto this raw morphospace. This highlights that, in addition to their well-documented taxonomic diversity, Neotropical rainforests also represent an enormous reservoir of morphological diversity. Angiosperm pollen morphospace at BCI has been filled mostly by pollen morphotypes that are unique to single plant species. Repetition of pollen morphotypes among higher taxa at BCI reflects both constraint and convergence. This combinatorial approach to morphology addresses the complexity that results from large numbers of discrete character combinations and could be employed in any situation where organismal form can be captured by discrete morphological characters. © 2016 The Author(s).

  4. Morphological rates of angiosperm seed size evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Hallie J

    2013-05-01

    The evolution of seed size among angiosperms reflects their ecological diversification in a complex fitness landscape of life-history strategies. The lineages that have evolved seeds beyond the upper and lower boundaries that defined nonflowering seed plants since the Paleozoic are more dispersed across the angiosperm phylogeny than would be expected under a neutral model of phenotypic evolution. Morphological rates of seed size evolution estimated for 40 clades based on 17,375 species ranged from 0.001 (Garryales) to 0.207 (Malvales). Comparative phylogenetic analysis indicated that morphological rates are not associated with the clade's seed size but are negatively correlated with the clade's position in the overall distribution of angiosperm seed sizes; clades with seed sizes closer to the angiosperm mean had significantly higher morphological rates than clades with extremely small or extremely large seeds. Likewise, per-clade taxonomic diversification rates are not associated with the seed size of the clade but with where the clade falls within the angiosperm seed size distribution. These results suggest that evolutionary rates (morphological and taxonomic) are elevated in densely occupied regions of the seed morphospace relative to lineages whose ecophenotypic innovations have moved them toward the edges. © 2013 The Author(s). Evolution © 2013 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  5. Anatomical aspects of angiosperm root evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seago, James L; Fernando, Danilo D

    2013-07-01

    Anatomy had been one of the foundations in our understanding of plant evolutionary trends and, although recent evo-devo concepts are mostly based on molecular genetics, classical structural information remains useful as ever. Of the various plant organs, the roots have been the least studied, primarily because of the difficulty in obtaining materials, particularly from large woody species. Therefore, this review aims to provide an overview of the information that has accumulated on the anatomy of angiosperm roots and to present possible evolutionary trends between representatives of the major angiosperm clades. This review covers an overview of the various aspects of the evolutionary origin of the root. The results and discussion focus on angiosperm root anatomy and evolution covering representatives from basal angiosperms, magnoliids, monocots and eudicots. We use information from the literature as well as new data from our own research. The organization of the root apical meristem (RAM) of Nymphaeales allows for the ground meristem and protoderm to be derived from the same group of initials, similar to those of the monocots, whereas in Amborellales, magnoliids and eudicots, it is their protoderm and lateral rootcap which are derived from the same group of initials. Most members of Nymphaeales are similar to monocots in having ephemeral primary roots and so adventitious roots predominate, whereas Amborellales, Austrobaileyales, magnoliids and eudicots are generally characterized by having primary roots that give rise to a taproot system. Nymphaeales and monocots often have polyarch (heptarch or more) steles, whereas the rest of the basal angiosperms, magnoliids and eudicots usually have diarch to hexarch steles. Angiosperms exhibit highly varied structural patterns in RAM organization; cortex, epidermis and rootcap origins; and stele patterns. Generally, however, Amborellales, magnoliids and, possibly, Austrobaileyales are more similar to eudicots, and the

  6. The Early Flowers and Angiosperm Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Else Marie; Crane, P.R.; Pedersen, Kaj Raunsgaard

    The recent discovery of diverse fossil flowers and floral organs in Cretaceous strata has revealed astonishing details about the structural and systematic diversity of early angiosperms. Exploring the rich fossil record that has accumulated over the last three decades, this is a unique study...... based on research into Early and Late Cretaceous fossil floras from Europe and North America, the authors draw on direct palaeontological evidence of the pattern of angiosperm evolution through time. Synthesising palaeobotanical data with information from living plants, this unique book explores...

  7. Submersible purification system for radioactive water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Michael L.; Lewis, Donald R.

    1989-01-01

    A portable, submersible water purification system for use in a pool of water containing radioactive contamination includes a prefilter for filtering particulates from the water. A resin bed is then provided for removal of remaining dissolved, particulate, organic, and colloidal impurities from the prefiltered water. A sterilizer then sterilizes the water. The prefilter and resin bed are suitably contained and are submerged in the pool. The sterilizer is water tight and located at the surface of the pool. The water is circulated from the pool through the prefilter, resin bed, and sterilizer by suitable pump or the like. In the preferred embodiment, the resin bed is contained within a tank which stands on the bottom of the pool and to which a base mounting the prefilter and pump is attached. An inlet for the pump is provided adjacent the bottom of the pool, while the sterilizer and outlet for the system is located adjacent the top of the pool.

  8. Submersible pumping system with heat transfer mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Daniel Francis Alan; Prenger, F. Coyne; Hill, Dallas D; Jankowski, Todd Andrew

    2014-04-15

    A submersible pumping system for downhole use in extracting fluids containing hydrocarbons from a well. In one embodiment, the pumping system comprises a rotary induction motor, a motor casing, one or more pump stages, and a cooling system. The rotary induction motor rotates a shaft about a longitudinal axis of rotation. The motor casing houses the rotary induction motor such that the rotary induction motor is held in fluid isolation from the fluid being extracted. The pump stages are attached to the shaft outside of the motor casing, and are configured to impart fluid being extracted from the well with an increased pressure. The cooling system is disposed at least partially within the motor casing, and transfers heat generated by operation of the rotary induction motor out of the motor casing.

  9. Testing new submersible pumps for proper sizing and reduced costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Toole, W.P.; O' Brien, J.B.

    1989-02-01

    This paper describes an ongoing program to improve overall submersible pump performance by Thums Long Beach Co., acting as contractor for the City of Long Beach, operator of the Long Beach Unit. Thums Long Beach Co. currently operates 700 submersible pump installations located on four manmade islands and one landfill pier location. The program began with spot testing of submersible pumps for Thums' use. It has evolved to 100% pump testing and the stipulation that only pumps with newly manufactured parts are acceptable. The primary goals of this program are to increase well production and to lower lifting costs. Critical to these goals is increasing the average length of run by using accurate pump-performance data to design equipment and by rejecting defective pumps before they are run. Increased production is realized from better designs. Lower lifting costs result from using more efficient pumps and a reduced frequency of pulling submersible equipment.

  10. Testing new submersible pumps for proper sizing and reduced costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Toole, W.P.; O' Brien, J.B.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes an ongoing program to improve overall submersible pump performance by Thums Long Beach Company, acting as Contractor of the City of Long Beach, Operator of the Long Beach Unit. Thums Long Beach Company currently operates 700 submersible pump installations located on four man-made islands and one land fill pier location. The program began with spot testing of submersible pumps for Thums' use. It has evolved to 100 percent pump testing and the stipulation that only pumps with newly manufactured parts are acceptable. The primary goals of this program are to increase well production and lower lifting costs. Critical to these goals is increasing the average length of run by using accurate pump performance data to design equipment and by rejecting defective pumps before they are run. Increased production is realized from better designs. Lower lifting costs result from utilizing higher efficiency pumps and a reduced frequency of pulling submersible equipment.

  11. AWWA E102-17 submersible vertical turbine pumps

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This standard describes minimum requirements for submersible vertical turbine pumps utilizing a discharge column pipe assembly, 5 hp or larger, used in water service, including materials, design, manufacture, inspection, and testing.

  12. Fossil evidence for Cretaceous escalation in angiosperm leaf vein evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feild, Taylor S; Brodribb, Timothy J; Iglesias, Ari; Chatelet, David S; Baresch, Andres; Upchurch, Garland R; Gomez, Bernard; Mohr, Barbara A R; Coiffard, Clement; Kvacek, Jiri; Jaramillo, Carlos

    2011-05-17

    The flowering plants that dominate modern vegetation possess leaf gas exchange potentials that far exceed those of all other living or extinct plants. The great divide in maximal ability to exchange CO(2) for water between leaves of nonangiosperms and angiosperms forms the mechanistic foundation for speculation about how angiosperms drove sweeping ecological and biogeochemical change during the Cretaceous. However, there is no empirical evidence that angiosperms evolved highly photosynthetically active leaves during the Cretaceous. Using vein density (D(V)) measurements of fossil angiosperm leaves, we show that the leaf hydraulic capacities of angiosperms escalated several-fold during the Cretaceous. During the first 30 million years of angiosperm leaf evolution, angiosperm leaves exhibited uniformly low vein D(V) that overlapped the D(V) range of dominant Early Cretaceous ferns and gymnosperms. Fossil angiosperm vein densities reveal a subsequent biphasic increase in D(V). During the first mid-Cretaceous surge, angiosperm D(V) first surpassed the upper bound of D(V) limits for nonangiosperms. However, the upper limits of D(V) typical of modern megathermal rainforest trees first appear during a second wave of increased D(V) during the Cretaceous-Tertiary transition. Thus, our findings provide fossil evidence for the hypothesis that significant ecosystem change brought about by angiosperms lagged behind the Early Cretaceous taxonomic diversification of angiosperms.

  13. Microbial Biofilm Community Variation in Flowing Habitats: Potential Utility as Bioindicators of Postmortem Submersion Intervals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M. Lang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biofilms are a ubiquitous formation of microbial communities found on surfaces in aqueous environments. These structures have been investigated as biomonitoring indicators for stream heath, and here were used for the potential use in forensic sciences. Biofilm successional development has been proposed as a method to determine the postmortem submersion interval (PMSI of remains because there are no standard methods for estimating the PMSI and biofilms are ubiquitous in aquatic habitats. We sought to compare the development of epinecrotic (biofilms on Sus scrofa domesticus carcasses and epilithic (biofilms on unglazed ceramic tiles communities in two small streams using bacterial automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis. Epinecrotic communities were significantly different from epilithic communities even though environmental factors associated with each stream location also had a significant influence on biofilm structure. All communities at both locations exhibited significant succession suggesting that changing communities throughout time is a general characteristic of stream biofilm communities. The implications resulting from this work are that epinecrotic communities have distinctive shifts at the first and second weeks, and therefore the potential to be used in forensic applications by associating successional changes with submersion time to estimate a PMSI. The influence of environmental factors, however, indicates the lack of a successional pattern with the same organisms and a focus on functional diversity may be more applicable in a forensic context.

  14. The evaluation of a rake method to quantify submersed vegetation in the Upper Mississippi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yao; Kreiling, Rebecca M.

    2011-01-01

    A long-handled, double-headed garden rake was used to collect submersed aquatic vegetation (SAV) and compared to in-boat visual inspection to record species presence at 67 individual sites. Six rake subsamples were taken at each site and a rake density rating was given to each species collected in the subsamples. Presence at the site, frequency of occurrence in the six rake samples, and additive density rating (the sum of the six rake density ratings) were quantified for each species at each site. The validity of the indices was tested against biomass data collected by clipping all remaining vegetation from the 67 sites. In the turbid water of the Mississippi River, visual inspection of SAV from boats was ineffective with only 27% of the species detected, while raking retrieved on average 70% of the total number of submersed species in the 67 sites. Presence of species at individual sites was correlated with biomass from Stuckenia pectinata, while frequency of occurrence and additive density rating were correlated with biomass for species with greater than 21 g of total biomass from all sites. The efficiency of the rake to collect biomass varied among species; only 18% of total biomass was captured via raking the site six times. Additive density rating as an index of abundance can be used to detect temporal changes in the same water body; however, cross-species comparison is not encouraged unless the efficiency of the rake has been determined for each species being compared.

  15. Pollination biology of basal angiosperms (ANITA Grade)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard B. Thien; Peter Bernhardt; Margaret S. Devall; Zhi-Duan Chen; Yi-bo Luo; Jian-Hua Fan; Liang-Chen Yuan; Joseph H. Williams

    2009-01-01

    The fi rst three branches of the angiosperm phylogenetic tree consist of eight families with ~201 species of plants (the ANITA grade). The oldest fl ower fossil for the group is dated to the Early Cretaceous (115 – 125 Mya) and identifi ed to the Nymphaeales. The fl owers of extant plants in the ANITA grade are small, and pollen is the edible reward (rarely nectar or...

  16. Use of sediment CO2 by submersed rooted plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkel, Anders; Borum, Jens

    2009-01-01

    freshwater plants with different morphology and growth characteristics (Lobelia dortmanna, Lilaeopsis macloviana, Ludwigia repens, Vallisneria americana and Hydrocotyle verticillata) are able to support photosynthesis supplied by uptake of CO2 from the sediment. Methods: Gross photosynthesis was measured......Background and Aims: Submersed plants have different strategies to overcome inorganic carbon limitation. It is generally assumed that only small rosette species (isoetids) are able to utilize the high sediment CO2 availability. The present study examined to what extent five species of submersed......, the shoot to root ratio on an areal basis was the single factor best explaining variability in the importance of sediment CO2. For Ludwigia, diffusion barriers limited uptake or transport from roots to stems and transport from stems to leaves. Conclusions: Submersed plants other than isoetids can utilize...

  17. Peptide signalling during angiosperm seed development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Gwyneth; Gutierrez-Marcos, Jose

    2015-08-01

    Cell-cell communication is pivotal for the coordination of various features of plant development. Recent studies in plants have revealed that, as in animals, secreted signal peptides play critical roles during reproduction. However, the precise signalling mechanisms in plants are not well understood. In this review, we discuss the known and putative roles of secreted peptides present in the seeds of angiosperms as key signalling factors involved in coordinating different aspects of seed development. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. The evolution of scarab beetles tracks the sequential rise of angiosperms and mammals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ahrens, Dirk; Schwarzer, Julia; Vogler, Alfried P

    2014-01-01

    Extant terrestrial biodiversity arguably is driven by the evolutionary success of angiosperm plants, but the evolutionary mechanisms and timescales of angiosperm-dependent radiations remain poorly understood...

  19. Teaching Angiosperm Reproduction by Means of the Learning Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharmann, Lawrence C.

    1991-01-01

    Discussed is an alternative teaching strategy to uncover and assess a common misconception in the life sciences and to articulate its use in teaching a unit on angiosperm reproduction. The learning cycle is described, and a concept map on reproduction on angiosperms is included. (KR)

  20. Aquatic plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, T. V.; Sand-Jensen, K.

    2006-01-01

    Aquatic fl owering plants form a relatively young plant group on an evolutionary timescale. The group has developed over the past 80 million years from terrestrial fl owering plants that re-colonised the aquatic environment after 60-100 million years on land. The exchange of species between...... terrestrial and aquatic environments continues today and is very intensive along stream banks. In this chapter we describe the physical and chemical barriers to the exchange of plants between land and water....

  1. A new angiosperm from the Crato Formation (Araripe Basin, Brazil) and comments on the Early Cretaceous monocotyledons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lima, Flaviana J; Saraiva, Antônio A F; Da Silva, Maria A P; Bantim, Renan A M; Sayão, Juliana M

    2014-12-01

    The Crato Formation paleoflora is one of the few equatorial floras of the Early Cretaceous. It is diverse, with many angiosperms, especially representatives of the clades magnoliids, monocotyledons and eudicots, which confirms the assumption that angiosperm diversity during the last part of the Early Cretaceous was reasonably high. The morphology of a new fossil monocot is studied and compared to all other Smilacaceae genus, especially in the venation. Cratosmilax jacksoni gen. et sp. nov. can be related to the Smilacaceae family, becoming the oldest record of the family so far. Cratosmilax jacksoni is a single mesophilic leaf with entire margins, ovate shape, with acute apex and base, four venation orders and main acrodromous veins. It is the first terrestrial monocot described for the Crato Formation, monocots were previously described for the same formation, and are considered aquatics. Cratosmilax jacksoni is the first fossil record of Smilacaceae in Brazil, and the oldest record of this family.

  2. The ancestral flower of angiosperms and its early diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauquet, Hervé; von Balthazar, Maria; Magallón, Susana; Doyle, James A; Endress, Peter K; Bailes, Emily J; Barroso de Morais, Erica; Bull-Hereñu, Kester; Carrive, Laetitia; Chartier, Marion; Chomicki, Guillaume; Coiro, Mario; Cornette, Raphaël; El Ottra, Juliana H L; Epicoco, Cyril; Foster, Charles S P; Jabbour, Florian; Haevermans, Agathe; Haevermans, Thomas; Hernández, Rebeca; Little, Stefan A; Löfstrand, Stefan; Luna, Javier A; Massoni, Julien; Nadot, Sophie; Pamperl, Susanne; Prieu, Charlotte; Reyes, Elisabeth; Dos Santos, Patrícia; Schoonderwoerd, Kristel M; Sontag, Susanne; Soulebeau, Anaëlle; Staedler, Yannick; Tschan, Georg F; Wing-Sze Leung, Amy; Schönenberger, Jürg

    2017-08-01

    Recent advances in molecular phylogenetics and a series of important palaeobotanical discoveries have revolutionized our understanding of angiosperm diversification. Yet, the origin and early evolution of their most characteristic feature, the flower, remains poorly understood. In particular, the structure of the ancestral flower of all living angiosperms is still uncertain. Here we report model-based reconstructions for ancestral flowers at the deepest nodes in the phylogeny of angiosperms, using the largest data set of floral traits ever assembled. We reconstruct the ancestral angiosperm flower as bisexual and radially symmetric, with more than two whorls of three separate perianth organs each (undifferentiated tepals), more than two whorls of three separate stamens each, and more than five spirally arranged separate carpels. Although uncertainty remains for some of the characters, our reconstruction allows us to propose a new plausible scenario for the early diversification of flowers, leading to new testable hypotheses for future research on angiosperms.

  3. Submersible telemetry system downhole unit model for the petroleum industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubtsova, O. O.; Trofimova, E. S.; Ishchenko, A. V.; Cherepanov, A. N.; Danilov, V. Yu.

    2017-09-01

    This article addresses the issue of increasing requirements for the oil industry: the need to develop new wells and control their profitability. The device under consideration (a submersible telemetry system that is capable of measuring well parameters and transferring them via the communication line to the ground based control system) will allow to avoid downtime when it is extracted for indicators check.

  4. Effects of cold stratification, sulphuric acid, submersion in hot and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-07-06

    Jul 6, 2009 ... This study was carried out to determine which pre-treatments should be preferred to overcome dormancy problems of Colutea armena seeds which were collected from three different provenances. Pre-treatments applied to the seeds were submersion in concentrated (98%) sulphuric acid for 30 min,.

  5. Effects of cold stratification, sulphuric acid, submersion in hot and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of cold stratification, sulphuric acid, submersion in hot and tap water pretreatments in the greenhouse and open field conditions on germination of bladder-Senna ... This study was carried out to determine which pre-treatments should be preferred to overcome dormancy problems of Colutea armena seeds which were ...

  6. Submersible microbial fuel cell for electricity production from sewage sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yifeng; Olias, Lola Gonzalez; Kongjan, Prawit

    2010-01-01

    A submersible microbial fuel cell (SMFC) was utilized to treatment of sewage sludge and simultaneous generate electricity. Stable power generation (145±5 mW/m2) was produced continuously from raw sewage sludge for 5.5 days. The corresponding total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) removal efficiency...

  7. B CHROMOSOMES IN ANGIOSPERM--A REVIEW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, A K; Mandal, A; Das, D; Gupta, S; Saha, A; Paul, R; Sengupta, S

    2016-01-01

    A review article on B chromosomes (Bs) in angiosperms is documented considering occurrence, morphology, polymorphic B forms, divisional phase heterogeneity, chromatin organization and gene content, sequence composition, origin, evolutionary aspects and significant role on host with an objective to foresee the evolutionary perspectives as it still remains an enigma. Irrespective of the origin of Bs, it seems that they have attained the following modifications, namely, insertion of centromeric and telomeric sequences, structural reorganization and procuring mitotic and meiotic drives but shows genetic inertness and present in the host as selfish DNA. In the context, few questions are raised. Further, scientific quest may unravel the unexplored information about Bs to ascertain its evolutionary perspectives, if any.

  8. Evolutionarily conserved phenylpropanoid pattern on angiosperm pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellenberg, Christin; Vogt, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    The male gametophyte of higher plants appears as a solid box containing the essentials to transmit genetic material to the next generation. These consist of haploid generative cells that are required for reproduction, and an invasive vegetative cell producing the pollen tube, both mechanically protected by a rigid polymer, the pollen wall, and surrounded by a hydrophobic pollen coat. This coat mediates the direct contact to the biotic and abiotic environments. It contains a mixture of compounds required not only for fertilization but also for protection against biotic and abiotic stressors. Among its metabolites, the structural characteristics of two types of phenylpropanoids, hydroxycinnamic acid amides and flavonol glycosides, are highly conserved in Angiosperm pollen. Structural and functional aspects of these compounds will be discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Macroevolutionary patterns of salt tolerance in angiosperms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromham, Lindell

    2015-01-01

    Background Halophytes are rare, with only 0·25 % of angiosperm species able to complete their life cycle in saline conditions. This could be interpreted as evidence that salt tolerance is difficult to evolve. However, consideration of the phylogenetic distribution of halophytes paints a different picture: salt tolerance has evolved independently in many different lineages, and halophytes are widely distributed across angiosperm families. In this Viewpoint, I will consider what phylogenetic analysis of halophytes can tell us about the macroevolution of salt tolerance. Hypothesis Phylogenetic analyses of salt tolerance have shown contrasting patterns in different families. In some families, such as chenopods, salt tolerance evolved early in the lineage and has been retained in many lineages. But in other families, including grasses, there have been a surprisingly large number of independent origins of salt tolerance, most of which are relatively recent and result in only one or a few salt-tolerant species. This pattern of many recent origins implies either a high transition rate (salt tolerance is gained and lost often) or a high extinction rate (salt-tolerant lineages do not tend to persist over macroevolutionary timescales). While salt tolerance can evolve in a wide range of genetic backgrounds, some lineages are more likely to produce halophytes than others. This may be due to enabling traits that act as stepping stones to developing salt tolerance. The ability to tolerate environmental salt may increase tolerance of other stresses or vice versa. Conclusions Phylogenetic analyses suggest that enabling traits and cross-tolerances may make some lineages more likely to adapt to increasing salinization, a finding that may prove useful in assessing the probable impact of rapid environmental change on vegetation communities, and in selecting taxa to develop for use in landscape rehabilitation and agriculture. PMID:25452251

  10. Issues in offshore platform research - Part 1: Semi-submersibles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, R.; Kim, Tae-Wan; Sha, O. P.; Misra, S. C.

    2010-09-01

    Availability of economic and efficient energy resources is crucial to a nation's development. Because of their low cost and advancement in drilling and exploration technologies, oil and gas based energy systems are the most widely used energy source throughout the world. The inexpensive oil and gas based energy systems are used for everything, i.e., from transportation of goods and people to the harvesting of crops for food. As the energy demand continues to rise, there is strong need for inexpensive energy solutions. An offshore platform is a large structure that is used to house workers and machinery needed to drill wells in the ocean bed, extract oil and/or natural gas, process the produced fluids, and ship or pipe them to shore. Depending on the circumstances, the offshore platform can be fixed (to the ocean floor) or can consist of an artificial island or can float. Semi-submersibles are used for various purposes in offshore and marine engineering, e.g. crane vessels, drilling vessels, tourist vessels, production platforms and accommodation facilities, etc. The challenges of deepwater drilling have further motivated the researchers to design optimum choices for semi-submersibles for a chosen operating depth. In our series of eight papers, we discuss the design and production aspects of all the types of offshore platforms. In the present part I, we present an introduction and critical analysis of semi-submersibles.

  11. Issues in offshore platform research - Part 1: Semi-submersibles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sharma

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Availability of economic and efficient energy resources is crucial to a nation's development. Because of their low cost and advancement in drilling and exploration technologies, oil and gas based energy systems are the most widely used energy source throughout the world. The inexpensive oil and gas based energy systems are used for everything, i.e., from transportation of goods and people to the harvesting of crops for food. As the energy demand continues to rise, there is strong need for inexpensive energy solutions. An offshore platform is a large structure that is used to house workers and machinery needed to drill wells in the ocean bed, extract oil and/or natural gas, process the produced fluids, and ship or pipe them to shore. Depending on the circumstances, the offshore platform can be fixed (to the ocean floor or can consist of an artificial island or can float. Semi-submersibles are used for various purposes in offshore and marine engineering, e.g. crane vessels, drilling vessels, tourist vessels, production platforms and accommodation facilities, etc. The challenges of deepwater drilling have further motivated the researchers to design optimum choices for semi-submersibles for a chosen operating depth. In our series of eight papers, we discuss the design and production aspects of all the types of offshore platforms. In the present part I, we present an introduction and critical analysis of semi-submersibles.

  12. Early to mid Cretaceous vegetation of northern Gondwana - the onset of angiosperm radiation and climatic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coiffard, Clément; Mohr, Barbara

    2014-05-01

    Early Cretaceous Northern Gondwana seems to be the cradle of many early flowering plants, especially mesangiosperms that include magnoliids and monocots and basal eudicots. So far our knowledge was based mostly on dispersed pollen and small flowering structures. New fossil finds from Brazil include more complete plants with attached roots, leaves and flowers. Taxonomic studies show that these fossils belonged to clades which are, based on macroscopic characters and molecular data, also considered to be rather basal, such as several members of Nymphaeales, Piperales, Laurales, Magnoliales, monocots (Araliaceae) and Ranunculales. Various parameters can be used in order to understand the physiology and habitat of these plants. Adaptations to climate and habitat are partly mirrored in their root anatomy (evidence of tap roots), leaf size and shape, leaf anatomy including presence of glands, and distribution of stomata. An important ecophysiolocical parameter is vein density as an indicator for the plants' cabability to pump water, and the stomatal pore index, representing the proportion of stomatal pore area on the leaf surface, which is related to the water vapor resistance of the leaf epidermis. During the mid-Cretaceous leaf vein density started to surpass that of gymnosperms, one factor that made angiosperms very successful in conquering many kinds of new environments. Using data on these parameters we deduce that during the late Early to mid Cretaceous angiosperms were already diverse, being represented as both herbs, with aquatic members, such as Nymphaeles, helophytes (e.g. some monocots) and plants that may have grown in shady locations. Other life forms included shrubs and perhaps already small trees (e.g. Magnoliales). These flowering plants occupied various habitats, ranging from xeric (e.g. some Magnoliales) to mesic and shady (e.g. Piperales) or aquatic (e.g. Araceae, Nymphaeales). Overall, it seems that several of these plants clearly exhibited some

  13. Evolution of angiosperm seed disperser mutualisms: the timing of origins and their consequences for coevolutionary interactions between angiosperms and frugivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Ove

    2016-02-01

    The origins of interactions between angiosperms and fruit-eating seed dispersers have attracted much attention following a seminal paper on this topic by Tiffney (1984). This review synthesizes evidence pertaining to key events during the evolution of angiosperm-frugivore interactions and suggests some implications of this evidence for interpretations of angiosperm-frugivore coevolution. The most important conclusions are: (i) the diversification of angiosperm seed size and fleshy fruits commenced around 80 million years ago (Mya). The diversity of seed sizes, fruit sizes and fruit types peaked in the Eocene around 55 to 50 Mya. During this first phase of the interaction, angiosperms and animals evolving frugivory expanded into niche space not previously utilized by these groups, as frugivores and previously not existing fruit traits appeared. From the Eocene until the present, angiosperm-frugivore interactions have occurred within a broad frame of existing niche space, as defined by fruit traits and frugivory, motivating a separation of the angiosperm-frugivore interactions into two phases, before and after the peak in the early Eocene. (ii) The extinct multituberculates were probably the most important frugivores during the early radiation phase of angiosperm seeds and fleshy fruits. Primates and rodents are likely to have been important in the latter part of this first phase. (iii) Flying frugivores, birds and bats, evolved during the second phase, mainly during the Oligocene and Miocene, thus exploiting an existing diversity of fleshy fruits. (iv) A drastic climate shift around the Eocene-Oligocene boundary (around 34 Mya) resulted in more semi-open woodland vegetation, creating patchily occurring food resources for frugivores. This promoted evolution of a 'flying frugivore niche' exploited by birds and bats. In particular, passerines became a dominant frugivore group worldwide. (v) Fleshy fruits evolved at numerous occasions in many angiosperm families

  14. Pollination biology of basal angiosperms (ANITA grade).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thien, Leonard B; Bernhardt, Peter; Devall, Margaret S; Chen, Zhi-Duan; Luo, Yi-Bo; Fan, Jian-Hua; Yuan, Liang-Chen; Williams, Joseph H

    2009-01-01

    The first three branches of the angiosperm phylogenetic tree consist of eight families with ∼201 species of plants (the ANITA grade). The oldest flower fossil for the group is dated to the Early Cretaceous (115-125 Mya) and identified to the Nymphaeales. The flowers of extant plants in the ANITA grade are small, and pollen is the edible reward (rarely nectar or starch bodies). Unlike many gymnosperms that secrete "pollination drops," ANITA-grade members examined thus far have a dry-type stigma. Copious secretions of stigmatic fluid are restricted to the Nymphaeales, but this is not nectar. Floral odors, floral thermogenesis (a resource), and colored tepals attract insects in deceit-based pollination syndromes throughout the first three branches of the phylogenetic tree. Self-incompatibility and an extragynoecial compitum occur in some species in the Austrobaileyales. Flies are primary pollinators in six families (10 genera). Beetles are pollinators in five families varying in importance as primary (exclusive) to secondary vectors of pollen. Bees are major pollinators only in the Nymphaeaceae. It is hypothesized that large flowers in Nymphaeaceae are the result of the interaction of heat, floral odors, and colored tepals to trap insects to increase fitness.

  15. Plant Sterol Diversity in Pollen from Angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villette, Claire; Berna, Anne; Compagnon, Vincent; Schaller, Hubert

    2015-08-01

    Here we have examined the composition of free sterols and steryl esters of pollen from selected angiosperm species, as a first step towards a comprehensive analysis of sterol biogenesis in the male gametophyte. We detected four major sterol structural groups: cycloartenol derivatives bearing a 9β,19-cyclopropyl group, sterols with a double bond at C-7(8), sterols with a double bond at C-5(6), and stanols. All these groups were unequally distributed among species. However, the distribution of sterols as free sterols or as steryl esters in pollen grains indicated that free sterols were mostly Δ(5)-sterols and that steryl esters were predominantly 9β,19-cyclopropyl sterols. In order to link the sterol composition of a pollen grain at anthesis with the requirement for membrane lipid constituents of the pollen tube, we germinated pollen grains from Nicotiana tabacum, a model plant in reproductive biology. In the presence of radiolabelled mevalonic acid and in a time course series of measurements, we showed that cycloeucalenol was identified as the major neosynthesized sterol. Furthermore, the inhibition of cycloeucalenol neosynthesis by squalestatin was in full agreement with a de novo biogenesis and an apparent truncated pathway in the pollen tube.

  16. Leaf hydraulic evolution led a surge in leaf photosynthetic capacity during early angiosperm diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodribb, Tim J; Feild, Taylor S

    2010-02-01

    Angiosperm evolution transformed global ecology, and much of this impact derives from the unrivalled vegetative productivity of dominant angiosperm clades. However, the origins of high photosynthetic capacity in angiosperms remain unknown. In this study, we describe the steep trajectory of leaf vein density (D(v)) evolution in angiosperms, and predict that this leaf plumbing innovation enabled a major shift in the capacity of leaves to assimilate CO(2). Reconstructing leaf vein evolution from an examination of 504 angiosperm species we found a rapid three- to fourfold increase in D(v) occurred during the early evolution of angiosperms. We demonstrate how this major shift in leaf vein architecture potentially allowed the maximum photosynthetic capacity in angiosperms to rise above competing groups 140-100 Ma. Our data suggest that early terrestrial angiosperms produced leaves with low photosynthetic rates, but that subsequent angiosperm success is linked to a surge in photosynthetic capacity during their early diversification.

  17. Herbaceous Angiosperms Are Not More Vulnerable to Drought-Induced Embolism Than Angiosperm Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lens, Frederic; Picon-Cochard, Catherine; Delmas, Chloé E L; Signarbieux, Constant; Buttler, Alexandre; Cochard, Hervé; Jansen, Steven; Chauvin, Thibaud; Doria, Larissa Chacon; Del Arco, Marcelino; Delzon, Sylvain

    2016-10-01

    The water transport pipeline in herbs is assumed to be more vulnerable to drought than in trees due to the formation of frequent embolisms (gas bubbles), which could be removed by the occurrence of root pressure, especially in grasses. Here, we studied hydraulic failure in herbaceous angiosperms by measuring the pressure inducing 50% loss of hydraulic conductance (P50) in stems of 26 species, mainly European grasses (Poaceae). Our measurements show a large range in P50 from -0.5 to -7.5 MPa, which overlaps with 94% of the woody angiosperm species in a worldwide, published data set and which strongly correlates with an aridity index. Moreover, the P50 values obtained were substantially more negative than the midday water potentials for five grass species monitored throughout the entire growing season, suggesting that embolism formation and repair are not routine and mainly occur under water deficits. These results show that both herbs and trees share the ability to withstand very negative water potentials without considerable embolism formation in their xylem conduits during drought stress. In addition, structure-function trade-offs in grass stems reveal that more resistant species are more lignified, which was confirmed for herbaceous and closely related woody species of the daisy group (Asteraceae). Our findings could imply that herbs with more lignified stems will become more abundant in future grasslands under more frequent and severe droughts, potentially resulting in lower forage digestibility. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Rise to dominance of angiosperm pioneers in European Cretaceous environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coiffard, Clément; Gomez, Bernard; Daviero-Gomez, Véronique; Dilcher, David L

    2012-12-18

    The majority of environments are dominated by flowering plants today, but it is uncertain how this dominance originated. This increase in angiosperm diversity happened during the Cretaceous period (ca. 145-65 Ma) and led to replacement and often extinction of gymnosperms and ferns. We propose a scenario for the rise to dominance of the angiosperms from the Barremian (ca. 130 Ma) to the Campanian (ca. 84 Ma) based on the European megafossil plant record. These megafossil data demonstrate that angiosperms migrated into new environments in three phases: (i) Barremian (ca. 130-125 Ma) freshwater lake-related wetlands; (ii) Aptian-Albian (ca. 125-100 Ma) understory floodplains (excluding levees and back swamps); and (iii) Cenomanian-Campanian (ca. 100-84 Ma) natural levees, back swamps, and coastal swamps. This scenario allows for the measured evolution of angiosperms in time and space synthesizing changes in the physical environment with concomitant changes in the biological environment. This view of angiosperm radiation in three phases reconciles previous scenarios based on the North American record. The Cretaceous plant record that can be observed in Europe is exceptional in many ways. (i) Angiosperms are well preserved from the Barremian to the Maastrichtian (ca. 65 Ma). (ii) Deposits are well constrained and dated stratigraphically. (iii) They encompass a full range of environments. (iv) European paleobotany provides many detailed studies of Cretaceous floras for analysis. These factors make a robust dataset for the study of angiosperm evolution from the Barremian to the Campanian that can be traced through various ecosystems and related to other plant groups occupying the same niches.

  19. A Simulation Model for Growth of the Submersed Aquatic Macrophyte Sago Pondweed (Potamogeton pectinatus L.)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Best, Elly

    2003-01-01

    .... The characteristics of community and site can be easily modified by the user. POTAM incorporates insight into the processes affecting the dynamics of a sago pondweed community in relatively shallow, hard water (0.1-to 6-m depth...

  20. Sediment bioassay with sago pondweed (Potamogeton pectinatus), a submersed aquatic macrophyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, W.J. [NBS, Raleigh, NC (United States); Siesko, M.M. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Ailstock, M.S. [Anne Arundel Community College, Arnold, MD (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Sago pondweed explants produced in tissue culture were grown for 6 weeks in sediments from Baltimore Harbor, MD. Although sediments contained up to 9,800 ppm Al, 7.5 ppm Cd, 3,090 ppm Cr, 397 ppm Pb, 530 Cu, 1,320 Sn, 2,040 ppm Zn, and 82,900 ppm oil and grease (all expressed as dry wt.) stepwise linear regression of log transformed contaminant data showed no linkage of reduced plant growth to the contaminants measured. Plant growth was negatively correlated with particle size and particle size was negatively correlated with most contaminant concentrations. In a second study, 17 estuarine sediments, representing a range of low to very high toxicity in Microtox and Hyalella azteca bioassays, were selected for study. Selected sediments contained up to 10 ppm Cd, 135 ppm Cr, 21 ppm Cu, 105 ppm Pb, 15 ppm Ni, and 190 ppm Zn (all expressed as dry wt.). Sago pondweed explants were planted into these sediments and grown for 4 weeks. Biomass production differed significantly among sediments tested. Phytotoxicity of sediments did not correlate well with the toxicity results of the Microtox and Hyalella azteca bioassays nor the metal content of sediments.

  1. Comparison of Three Biomass Sampling Techniques on Submersed Aquatic Plants in a Northern Tier Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    milfoil (M. sibiricum Komarov, p= 0.8393), najas ( Najas spp.,p=0.1068), broadleaf pondweed (Potamogeton amplifolius Tuck, p=0.8779), curlyleaf pondweed...0.6490), Eurasian milfoil (p=0.1462), northern milfoil (p= 0.6053), najas (p=0.4793), broadleaf pondweed (p=0.6053), curlyleaf pondweed (p=0.0732...collected by the PVC-core sampler. These included coontail (p=0.000), chara (p=0.0219), American elodea (p=0.0061), forked duckweed (p=0.0000), najas (p

  2. Carbon-Flow-Based Modeling of Ecophysiological Processes and Biomass Dynamics of Submersed Aquatic Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    Publications. Voss, E. 1972. Michigan Flora. Part I – Gymnosperms and monocots. Bloomfield Hills, Michigan: Cranbrook Institute of Science, 488 pp...SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON a. REPORT UNCLASSIFIED b. ABSTRACT

  3. Use of sediment CO2 by submersed rooted plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkel, Anders; Borum, Jens

    2009-05-01

    Submersed plants have different strategies to overcome inorganic carbon limitation. It is generally assumed that only small rosette species (isoetids) are able to utilize the high sediment CO(2) availability. The present study examined to what extent five species of submersed freshwater plants with different morphology and growth characteristics (Lobelia dortmanna, Lilaeopsis macloviana, Ludwigia repens, Vallisneria americana and Hydrocotyle verticillata) are able to support photosynthesis supplied by uptake of CO(2) from the sediment. Gross photosynthesis was measured in two-compartment split chambers with low inorganic carbon availability in leaf compartments and variable CO(2) availability (0 to >8 mmol L(-1)) in root compartments. Photosynthetic rates based on root-supplied CO(2) were compared with maximum rates obtained at saturating leaf CO(2) availability, and (14)C experiments were conducted for two species to localize bottlenecks for utilization of sediment CO(2). All species except Hydrocotyle were able to use sediment CO(2), however, with variable efficiency, and with the isoetid, Lobelia, as clearly the most effective and the elodeid, Ludwigia, as the least efficient. At a water column CO(2) concentration in equilibrium with air, Lobelia, Lilaeopsis and Vallisneria covered >75% of their CO(2) requirements by sediment uptake, and sediment CO(2) contributed substantially to photosynthesis at water CO(2) concentrations up to 1000 micromol L(-1). For all species except Ludwigia, the shoot to root ratio on an areal basis was the single factor best explaining variability in the importance of sediment CO(2). For Ludwigia, diffusion barriers limited uptake or transport from roots to stems and transport from stems to leaves. Submersed plants other than isoetids can utilize sediment CO(2), and small and medium sized elodeids with high root to shoot area in particular may benefit substantially from uptake of sediment CO(2) in low alkaline lakes.

  4. Female gamete competition in an ancient angiosperm lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachelier, Julien B; Friedman, William E

    2011-07-26

    In Trimenia moorei, an extant member of the ancient angiosperm clade Austrobaileyales, we found a remarkable pattern of female gametophyte (egg-producing structure) development that strikingly resembles that of pollen tubes and their intrasexual competition within the maternal pollen tube transmitting tissues of most flowers. In contrast with most other flowering plants, in Trimenia, multiple female gametophytes are initiated at the base (chalazal end) of each ovule. Female gametophytes grow from their tips and compete over hundreds of micrometers to reach the apex of the nucellus and the site of fertilization. Here, the successful female gametophyte will mate with a pollen tube to produce an embryo and an endosperm. Moreover, the central tissue within the ovules of Trimenia, through which the embryo sacs grow, contains starch and other carbohydrates similar to the pollen tube transmitting tissues in the styles of most flowers. The pattern of female gametophyte development found in Trimenia is rare but by no means unique in angiosperms. Importantly, it seems that multiple female gametophytes are occasionally or frequently initiated in members of other ancient angiosperm lineages. The intensification of pollen tube (male gametophyte) competition and enhanced maternal selection among competing pollen tubes are considered to have been major contributors to the rise of angiosperms. Based on insights from Trimenia, we posit that prefertilization female gametophyte (egg) competition within individual ovules in addition to male gametophyte (sperm) competition and maternal mate choice may have been key features of the earliest angiosperms.

  5. Optimization of operating costs in managing electrical submersible pumping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, V. V.; Speranskaya, N. I.

    2017-10-01

    Using the methods of analysis, the task of minimizing the specific operating costs for oil production by submersible ESP units was formalized. The analysis of the multidimensional parameter space of the “ESP-well” system made it possible to isolate the vector of controlled parameters, determine the range of admissible parameters, and also to simplify the problem of finding an extremum up to the three-dimensional case. An application of the method of Lagrange multipliers to the solution of the problem is considered.

  6. Sodium dopants in helium clusters: Structure, equilibrium and submersion kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvo, F. [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire de Physique, Rue de La Piscine, Campus Saint Martin d’Hères, 38000 Grenoble (France)

    2015-12-31

    Alkali impurities bind to helium nanodroplets very differently depending on their size and charge state, large neutral or charged dopants being wetted by the droplet whereas small neutral impurities prefer to reside aside. Using various computational modeling tools such as quantum Monte Carlo and path-integral molecular dynamics simulations, we have revisited some aspects of the physical chemistry of helium droplets interacting with sodium impurities, including the onset of snowball formation in presence of many-body polarization forces, the transition from non-wetted to wetted behavior in larger sodium clusters, and the kinetics of submersion of small dopants after sudden ionization.

  7. Toward a new synthesis: Major evolutionary trends in the angiosperm fossil record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilcher, David

    2000-01-01

    Angiosperm paleobotany has widened its horizons, incorporated new techniques, developed new databases, and accepted new questions that can now focus on the evolution of the group. The fossil record of early flowering plants is now playing an active role in addressing questions of angiosperm phylogeny, angiosperm origins, and angiosperm radiations. Three basic nodes of angiosperm radiations are identified: (i) the closed carpel and showy radially symmetrical flower, (ii) the bilateral flower, and (iii) fleshy fruits and nutritious nuts and seeds. These are all coevolutionary events and spread out through time during angiosperm evolution. The proposal is made that the genetics of the angiosperms pressured the evolution of the group toward reproductive systems that favored outcrossing. This resulted in the strongest selection in the angiosperms being directed toward the flower, fruits, and seeds. That is why these organs often provide the best systematic characters for the group. PMID:10860967

  8. Early Angiosperm Ecology: Evidence from the Albian-Cenomanian of Europe

    OpenAIRE

    COIFFARD, C.; GOMEZ, B.; KVAČEK, J.; THEVENARD, F.

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims The mid-Cretaceous is a period of sudden turnover from gymnosperm to angiosperm-dominated floras. The aim was to investigate the fossil plant ecology in order to follow the spread of angiosperm taxa.

  9. A critical transition in leaf evolution facilitated the Cretaceous angiosperm revolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, H.J. de; Eppinga, M.B.; Wassen, M.J.; Dekker, S.C.

    2012-01-01

    The revolutionary rise of broad-leaved (flowering) angiosperm plant species during the Cretaceous initiated a global ecological transformation towards modern biodiversity. Still, the mechanisms involved in this angiosperm radiation remain enigmatic. Here we show that the period of rapid

  10. Carbonic anhydrase levels and internal lacunar CO/sub 2/ concentrations in aquatic macrophytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, C.I.

    1979-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrase levels were examined in a variety of aquatic macrophytes from different habitats. In general, carbonic anhydrase levels increased across the habitat gradient such that activities were low in submersed aquatic macrophytes and high in emergent macrophytes with floating-leaved and free-floating plants exhibiting intermediate activities. Internal lacunar CO/sub 2/ concentrations were analyzed in relation to carbonic anhydrase activities. There was no correlation between these two parameters. Internal CO/sub 2/ concentrations ranged from low to high in submersed macrophytes, but were low in floating-leaved and emergent macrophytes. The observed internal CO/sub 2/ concentrations are discussed in relation to the individual morphologies of the plants and the environments in which they occurred.

  11. Cell size, genome size and the dominance of Angiosperms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonin, K. A.; Roddy, A. B.

    2016-12-01

    Angiosperms are capable of maintaining the highest rates of photosynthetic gas exchange of all land plants. High rates of photosynthesis depends mechanistically both on efficiently transporting water to the sites of evaporation in the leaf and on regulating the loss of that water to the atmosphere as CO2 diffuses into the leaf. Angiosperm leaves are unique in their ability to sustain high fluxes of liquid and vapor phase water transport due to high vein densities and numerous, small stomata. Despite the ubiquity of studies characterizing the anatomical and physiological adaptations that enable angiosperms to maintain high rates of photosynthesis, the underlying mechanism explaining why they have been able to develop such high leaf vein densities, and such small and abundant stomata, is still incomplete. Here we ask whether the scaling of genome size and cell size places a fundamental constraint on the photosynthetic metabolism of land plants, and whether genome downsizing among the angiosperms directly contributed to their greater potential and realized primary productivity relative to the other major groups of terrestrial plants. Using previously published data we show that a single relationship can predict guard cell size from genome size across the major groups of terrestrial land plants (e.g. angiosperms, conifers, cycads and ferns). Similarly, a strong positive correlation exists between genome size and both stomatal density and vein density that together ultimately constrains maximum potential (gs, max) and operational stomatal conductance (gs, op). Further the difference in the slopes describing the covariation between genome size and both gs, max and gs, op suggests that genome downsizing brings gs, op closer to gs, max. Taken together the data presented here suggests that the smaller genomes of angiosperms allow their final cell sizes to vary more widely and respond more directly to environmental conditions and in doing so bring operational photosynthetic

  12. Fluid electrodes for submersible robotics based on dielectric elastomer actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christianson, Caleb; Goldberg, Nathaniel; Cai, Shengqiang; Tolley, Michael T.

    2017-04-01

    Recently, dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs) have gathered interest for soft robotics due to their low cost, light weight, large strain, low power consumption, and high energy density. However, developing reliable, compliant electrodes for DEAs remains an ongoing challenge due to issues with fabrication, uniformity of the conductive layer, and mechanical stiffening of the actuators caused by conductive materials with large Young's moduli. In this work, we present a method for preparing, patterning, and utilizing conductive fluid electrodes. Further, when we submerse the DEAs in a bath containing a conductive fluid connected to ground, the bath serves as a second electrode, obviating the need for depositing a conductive layer to serve as either of the electrodes required of most DEAs. When we apply a positive electrical potential to the conductive fluid in the actuator with respect to ground, the electric field across the dielectric membrane causes charge carriers in the solution to apply an electrostatic force on the membrane, which compresses the membrane and causes the actuator to deform. We have used this process to develop a tethered submersible robot that can swim in a tank of saltwater at a maximum measured speed of 9.2 mm/s. Since saltwater serves as the electrode, we overcome buoyancy issues that may be a challenge for pneumatically actuated soft robots and traditional, rigid robotics. This research opens the door to low-power underwater robots for search and rescue and environmental monitoring applications.

  13. Recent Progress on Submersions: A Survey and New Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Picavet

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a survey about recent progress on submersive morphisms of schemes combined with new results that we prove. They concern the class of quasicompact universally subtrusive morphisms that we introduced about 30 years ago. They are revisited in a recent paper by Rydh, with substantial complements and key results. We use them to show Artin-Tate-like results about the 14th problem of Hilbert, for a base scheme either Noetherian or the spectrum of a valuation domain. We look at faithfully flat morphisms and get “almost” Artin-Tate-like results by considering the Goldman (finite type points of a scheme. Bjorn Poonen recently proved that universally closed morphisms are quasicompact. By introducing incomparable morphisms of schemes, we are able to characterize universally closed surjective morphisms that are either integral or finite. Next we consider pure morphisms of schemes introduced by Mesablishvili. In the quasicompact case, they are universally schematically dominant morphisms. This leads us to a characterization of universally subtrusive morphisms by purity. Some results on the schematically dominant property are given. The paper ends with properties of monomorphisms and topological immersions, a dual notion of submersions.

  14. Proceedings of Annual Meeting (26th) Aquatic Plant Control Research Program, Held in Dallas, Texas on 18-22 November, 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-01

    com- uniconazole . and paclobutrazol were applied pound be usceptible to nonphotodegradative at I ppm a.i. The water was sanmpled over a processes...26 Effects of Aquatic Plants on Water Quality in Pond Ecosystems by David Honnell, John D. Madsen, and R. Michael Smart ................... 30...Flowing Water by David Sisneros .......... .................................. 97 Controlling Submersed Plants with Herbicides in Flowing Water Systems by

  15. Effects of Convective Hydraulic Circulation on Phosphorus Transport in Aquatic Macrophyte Beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-02-01

    transect was established in the vegetated region of the northwest bay, along the slope of the basin, using posts driven into the sediment at 10-m...volume, but also because of the presence of vegetation . Submersed aquatic macrophytes contribute significantly to the development of thermal...temperate reservoir," Hydro- biologia 215,231-241. James, W. F., and Barko, J. W. (1991). "Estimation of phosphorus exchange between Oittoral and pelagic

  16. Evolutionary aspects of life forms in angiosperm families

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kremer, P; VanAndel, J

    1995-01-01

    The distribution patterns of life forms among extant families, subclasses and classes are described with the aim of detecting evolutionary trends. The explosive diversification of angiosperms constrains the possibilities for detecting such trends. Moreover, the extant groups of seed plants are only

  17. Angiosperm phylogeny based on matK sequence information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilu, K.W.; Borsch, T.; Müller, K.; Soltis, D.E.; Savolainen, V.; Chase, M.W.; Powell, M.; Alice, L.A.; Evans, R.; Sauquet, H.; Neinhuis, C.; Slotta, T.A.B.; Rohwer, J.G.; Campbell, C.; Chatrou, L.W.

    2003-01-01

    Plastid matK gene sequences for 374 genera representing all angiosperm orders and 12 genera of gymnosperms were analyzed using parsimony (MP) and Bayesian inference (BI) approaches. Traditionally, slowly evolving genomic regions have been preferred for deep-level phylogenetic inference in

  18. Evolutionary patterns and biogeochemical significance of angiosperm root traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Based on a synthesis of recent progress in belowground ecology, we advance and discuss a hypothesis that relates root trait evolution to the increased dominance of angiosperms into dry upland habitats and the decline of atmospheric CO2 concentration that began in the Cretaceous. Our hypothesis is bu...

  19. Cabomba as a model for studies of early angiosperm evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vialette-Guiraud, Aurelie C. M.; Alaux, Michael; Legeai, Fabrice; Finet, Cedric; Chambrier, Pierre; Brown, Spencer C.; Chauvet, Aurelie; Magdalena, Carlos; Rudall, Paula J.; Scutt, Charles P.

    2011-01-01

    Background The angiosperms, or flowering plants, diversified in the Cretaceous to dominate almost all terrestrial environments. Molecular phylogenetic studies indicate that the orders Amborellales, Nymphaeales and Austrobaileyales, collectively termed the ANA grade, diverged as separate lineages from a remaining angiosperm clade at a very early stage in flowering plant evolution. By comparing these early diverging lineages, it is possible to infer the possible morphology and ecology of the last common ancestor of the extant angiosperms, and this analysis can now be extended to try to deduce the developmental mechanisms that were present in early flowering plants. However, not all species in the ANA grade form convenient molecular-genetic models. Scope The present study reviews the genus Cabomba (Nymphaeales), which shows a range of features that make it potentially useful as a genetic model. We focus on characters that have probably been conserved since the last common ancestor of the extant flowering plants. To facilitate the use of Cabomba as a molecular model, we describe methods for its cultivation to flowering in the laboratory, a novel Cabomba flower expressed sequence tag database, a well-adapted in situ hybridization protocol and a measurement of the nuclear genome size of C. caroliniana. We discuss the features required for species to become tractable models, and discuss the relative merits of Cabomba and other ANA-grade angiosperms in molecular-genetic studies aimed at understanding the origin of the flowering plants. PMID:21486926

  20. Understanding angiosperm diversification using small and large phylogenetic trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephen A; Beaulieu, Jeremy M; Stamatakis, Alexandros; Donoghue, Michael J

    2011-03-01

    How will the emerging possibility of inferring ultra-large phylogenies influence our ability to identify shifts in diversification rate? For several large angiosperm clades (Angiospermae, Monocotyledonae, Orchidaceae, Poaceae, Eudicotyledonae, Fabaceae, and Asteraceae), we explore this issue by contrasting two approaches: (1) using small backbone trees with an inferred number of extant species assigned to each terminal clade and (2) using a mega-phylogeny of 55473 seed plant species represented in GenBank. The mega-phylogeny approach assumes that the sample of species in GenBank is at least roughly proportional to the actual species diversity of different lineages, as appears to be the case for many major angiosperm lineages. Using both approaches, we found that diversification rate shifts are not directly associated with the major named clades examined here, with the sole exception of Fabaceae in the GenBank mega-phylogeny. These agreements are encouraging and may support a generality about angiosperm evolution: major shifts in diversification may not be directly associated with major named clades, but rather with clades that are nested not far within these groups. An alternative explanation is that there have been increased extinction rates in early-diverging lineages within these clades. Based on our mega-phylogeny, the shifts in diversification appear to be distributed quite evenly throughout the angiosperms. Mega-phylogenetic studies of diversification hold great promise for revealing new patterns, but we will need to focus more attention on properly specifying null expectation.

  1. The water holding capacity of bark in Danish angiosperm trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Hanne Marie Ellegård; Rasmussen, Hanne Nina; Nord-Larsen, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The water holding capacity of bark in seven Danish angiosperm trees was examined. The aim of the study was (1) to examine height trends and (2) bark thickness trends in relation to the water holding capacity and (3) to determine interspecific differences. The wet-weight and dry-weight of a total...

  2. Drivers of apoplastic freezing in gymnosperm and angiosperm branches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lintunen, Anna; Mayr, Stefan; Salmon, Yann; Cochard, Hervé; Hölttä, Teemu

    2018-01-01

    It is not well understood what determines the degree of supercooling of apoplastic sap in trees, although it determines the number and duration of annual freeze-thaw cycles in a given environment. We studied the linkage between apoplastic ice nucleation temperature, tree water status, and conduit size. We used branches of 10 gymnosperms and 16 angiosperms collected from an arboretum in Helsinki (Finland) in winter and spring. Branches with lower relative water content froze at lower temperatures, and branch water content was lower in winter than in spring. A bench drying experiment with Picea abies confirmed that decreasing branch water potential decreases apoplastic ice nucleation temperature. The studied angiosperms froze on average 2.0 and 1.8°C closer to zero Celsius than the studied gymnosperms during winter and spring, respectively. This was caused by higher relative water content in angiosperms; when branches were saturated with water, apoplastic ice nucleation temperature of gymnosperms increased to slightly higher temperature than that of angiosperms. Apoplastic ice nucleation temperature in sampled branches was positively correlated with xylem conduit diameter as shown before, but saturating the branches removed the correlation. Decrease in ice nucleation temperature decreased the duration of freezing, which could have an effect on winter embolism formation via the time available for gas escape during ice propagation. The apoplastic ice nucleation temperature varied not only between branches but also within a branch between consecutive freeze-thaw cycles demonstrating the stochastic nature of ice nucleation.

  3. Distribution of orbicules in Annonaceae mirrors evolutionary trend in angiosperms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huysmans, S.; Verstraete, B.; Smets, E.; Chatrou, L.W.

    2010-01-01

    Background and aims - Orbicules or Ubisch bodies have been recorded in many angiosperm families and although the first observations date back to 1865, their function in the anther remains enigmatic. In flowering plants a general evolutionary trend is observed from common occurrence of orbicules in

  4. Positioning of semi-submersibles with roll and pitch damping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorensen, A.J. [ABB Industri AS, Oslo (Norway); Strand, J.P. [Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim (Norway). Dept. of Engineering Cybernetics

    1999-07-01

    Dynamic positioning and thruster assisted position mooring of ships and floating marine constructions include different control functions for automatic positioning in the horizontal plane. A three degrees of freedom multivariable controller with feedback signals from surge, sway and yaw, either of linear or nonlinear type, can be regarded as adequate for the control objective for most surface vessels. However, for certain marine constructions with discernible coupling characteristics in the dynamics between the horizontal plane (surge, sway and yaw) and vertical plane (heave, roll and pitch), undesirably large roll and pitch oscillations may be induced by the thruster actions. Especially for constructions with natural periods in roll and pitch within the bandwidth of the positioning controller, the thruster induced oscillations in roll and pitch may become limitable on the operation. In this paper a new multivariable control law accounting for both horizontal and vertical motions is proposed. Simulations with a semi-submersible demonstrate the effect of the proposed control strategy. (author)

  5. Performance evaluation of a transformerless multiphase electric submersible pump system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A. Hakeem

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Using of low-voltage variable-frequency drive followed by a step-up transformer is the most preferable way to feed an electrical submersible pump motor. The existence of long feeder between the motor and drive systems usually causes over-voltage problems because of the travelling wave phenomenon, which makes the employment of filter networks on the motor or inverter terminals mandatory. The so-called boost-inverter inherently can solve this problem with filter-less operation as it offers a direct sinusoidal output voltage. As boost inverters have voltage boosting capability, it can provide a transformer-less operation as well. This study investigates the performance of a five-phase modular winding induction machine fed from a boost-inverter through a long feeder. A simulation study using a 1000 Hp system and experimental investigation on a 1 Hp prototype machine are used to support the presented approach.

  6. Submersion Quenching of Undercooled Liquid Metals in an Electrostatic Levitator

    Science.gov (United States)

    SanSoucie, Michael P.; Rogers, Jan R.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) electrostatic levitation (ESL) laboratory has a long history of providing materials research and thermophysical property data. The laboratory has recently added a new capability, a rapid quench system. This system allows samples to be dropped into a quench vessel that can be filled with a low melting point material, such as a gallium or indium alloy. Thereby allowing rapid quenching of undercooled liquid metals and alloys. This is the first submersion quench system inside an electrostatic levitator. The system has been tested successfully with samples of zirconium, iron-cobalt alloys, titanium-zirconium-nickel alloys, and silicon-cobalt alloys. This rapid quench system will allow materials science studies of undercooled materials and new materials development, including studies of metastable phases and transient microstructures. In this presentation, the system is described and some initial results are presented.

  7. North Carolina Seagrass Submersed Rooted Vasculars 1990 Biotic

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A GIS data set of polygon data interpreted from aerial photography taken by NOAA/NOS Photogrammetry Branch depicting areas of Aquatic Beds of Rooted Vascular Plants...

  8. North Carolina Seagrass Submersed Rooted Vasculars 1990 Geoform

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A GIS data set of polygon data interpreted from aerial photography taken by NOAA/NOS Photogrammetry Branch depicting areas of Aquatic Beds of Rooted Vascular Plants...

  9. North Carolina Seagrass Submersed Rooted Vasculars 1990 Substrate

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A GIS data set of polygon data interpreted from aerial photography taken by NOAA/NOS Photogrammetry Branch depicting areas of Aquatic Beds of Rooted Vascular Plants...

  10. North Carolina Seagrass Submersed Rooted Vasculars 1990 Geodatabase

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A GIS data set of polygon data interpreted from aerial photography taken by NOAA/NOS Photogrammetry Branch depicting areas of Aquatic Beds of Rooted Vascular Plants...

  11. Submersible Data (Dive Trackpoints) for Operation Deep Scope 2007 - Office of Ocean Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data and information collected by the submersible Johnson Sea-Link II along its track during nineteen dives of the 2007 "Operation Deep Scope" expedition sponsored...

  12. Submersible Data (Dive Waypoints) for Bioluminescence 2009 - Office of Ocean Exploration and Research

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data and information collected by the submersible Johnson Sea-Link II at waypoints along its track during seventeen dives of the 2009 "Bioluminescence" expedition...

  13. Submersible Data (Dive Trackpoints) for Life on the Edge 2004 - Office of Ocean Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data and information collected by the submersible Johnson Sea-Link I along its track during twenty-five dives of the 2004 "Life on the Edge" expedition sponsored by...

  14. Submersible Data (Dive Waypoints) for Life on the Edge 2005 - Office of Ocean Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data and information collected by the submersible Johnson Sea-Link I at waypoints along its track during nineteen dives of the 2005 "Life on the Edge" expedition...

  15. Submersible Data (Dive Waypoints) for Investigating the Charleston Bump 2003 - Office of Ocean Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data and information collected by the submersible Johnson Sea-Link II at waypoints along its track during fourteen dives of the 2003 "Investigating the Charleston...

  16. Vomiting is not associated with poor outcomes in pediatric victims of unintentional submersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, Kimberley M; Camp, Elizabeth A; Yusuf, Shabana; Shenoi, Rohit P

    2015-05-01

    The outcome of submersion victims depends on submersion duration and the availability of timely and effective resuscitation. The prognostic implication of vomiting during resuscitation of submersion victims is unclear. The study sought to determine whether vomiting during resuscitation in children treated for unintentional submersion injuries adversely impacts outcome. This was a retrospective study of unintentional submersion victims under age 18 treated at an urban tertiary-care children's hospital from 2003-2009. Submersion and victim details were obtained from hospital, EMS, and fatality records. Outcomes studied were survival at 24 hours and condition (Favorable: good/mild impairment or Poor: death/severe disability) at hospital discharge. Descriptive comparisons between emesis groups (yes/no) and categorical covariates were analyzed. There were 281 victims. The median age was 3 years; 66% were males. Most incidents occurred at swimming pools (77%) and bathtubs (16%). Most were hospitalized (83%). The presence or absence of emesis was documented in 246 (88%). Victims with emesis were significantly less likely to have apnea or be intubated in the ED, have a low ED GCS or die. No patient who had emesis died at 24 hours or had a poor outcome at hospital discharge. Victims who had emesis post-resuscitation were significantly more likely to have received CPR or chest compressions than rescue breaths. Emesis in pediatric submersion victims is inversely associated with death at 24 hours or poor outcome at hospital discharge. The relationship between emesis and the adequacy of resuscitation of pediatric submersion victims needs to be further studied. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Air-gap effect on life boat arrangement for a semi-submersible FPU

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Mun-Sung; Park, Hong-Shik; Jung, Kwang-Hyo; Chun, Ho-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    In the offshore project such as semi-submersible FPU and FPSO, the free fall type life boat called TEMPSC (Totally Enclosed Motor Propelled Survival Craft) has been installed for the use of an emergency evacuation of POB (People on Board) from the topside platform. For the design of life boat arrangement for semi-submersible FPU in the initial design stage, the drop height and launch angle are required fulfill with the limitation of classification society rule and Company requirement, includi...

  18. Leaf energy balance modelling as a tool to infer habitat preference in the early angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Alexandra P; Upchurch, Garland; Murchie, Erik H; Lomax, Barry H

    2015-03-22

    Despite more than a century of research, some key aspects of habitat preference and ecology of the earliest angiosperms remain poorly constrained. Proposed growth ecology has varied from opportunistic weedy species growing in full sun to slow-growing species limited to the shaded understorey of gymnosperm forests. Evidence suggests that the earliest angiosperms possessed low transpiration rates: gas exchange rates for extant basal angiosperms are low, as are the reconstructed gas exchange rates for the oldest known angiosperm leaf fossils. Leaves with low transpirational capacity are vulnerable to overheating in full sun, favouring the hypothesis that early angiosperms were limited to the shaded understorey. Here, modelled leaf temperatures are used to examine the thermal tolerance of some of the earliest angiosperms. Our results indicate that small leaf size could have mitigated the low transpirational cooling capacity of many early angiosperms, enabling many species to survive in full sun. We propose that during the earliest phases of the angiosperm leaf record, angiosperms may not have been limited to the understorey, and that some species were able to compete with ferns and gymnosperms in both shaded and sunny habitats, especially in the absence of competition from more rapidly growing and transpiring advanced lineages of angiosperms.

  19. Submersible Unmanned Aerial Vehicle: Configuration Design and Analysis Based on Computational Fluid Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Qinyang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Submersible aerial vehicle is capable of both flying in the air and submerging in the water. Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA outlined a challenging set of requirements for a submersible aircraft and solicited innovative research proposals on submersible aircraft since 2008. In this paper, a conceptual configuration design scheme of submersible unmanned aerial vehicle is proposed. This submersible UAV lands on the surface of water, then adjusts its own density to entry water. On the contrary, it emerges from water by adjusting its own density and then takes off from the surface of water. Wing of the UAV is whirling wing. It is set along aircraft’s fuselage while submerging for lift reduction. We analysis aerodynamic and hydrodynamic performance of this UAV by CFD method, especially compare the hydrodynamic performance of the whirling wing configuration and normal configuration. It turns out that whirling wing is beneficial for submerging. This result proves that the configuration design scheme proposed in this paper is feasible and suitable for a submersible unmanned aerial vehicle.

  20. Aliphatic and aromatic triterpenoid hydrocarbons in a Tertiary angiospermous lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stout, S.A. (Unocal Science and Technology Division, Brea, CA (USA))

    1992-01-01

    The hydrocarbon biomarker assemblage of a liptinite-rich, early Tertiary angiospermous lignite has been characterized. The biomarker distribution for the lignite confirms the low maturity and previous paleobotanic interpretations. The aliphatic hydrocarbon fraction consists predominantly of n-alkanes showing a strong odd-carbon predominance, and numerous de-A-triterpenoids and triterpenoids derived from higher plants. Bacterially-derived triterpenoids were represented primarily by homohopanes and hopenes. The aromatic hydrocarbon fraction contains a series of mono-, di-, and triaromatic de-A-triterpenoids and mono-, tri- and tetraaromatic triterpenoids derived from higher plants. The concentration and abundance of monoaromatic triterpenoids containing one to three additional degrees of unsaturation have not been previously observed in a single deposit. As such, a diagenetic scheme for angiosperm-derived triterpenoids is presented which confirms and extends previous hypotheses. 45 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Development and function of central cell in angiosperm female gametophyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Yan, Zhiqiang; Chen, Ni; Di, Xiaotang; Huang, Junjun; Guo, Guangqin

    2010-08-01

    The central cell characterizes the angiosperm female gametophyte (embryo sac or megagametophyte) in that it directly participates in "double fertilization" to initiate endosperm development, a feature distinguishing angiosperm from all other plant taxa. Polygonum-type central cell is a binucleate cell that, upon fertilization with one of the two sperm cells, forms triploid endosperm to nourish embryo development. Although the formation and the structure of central cell have well been elucidated, the molecular mechanisms for its specification and development remain largely unknown. The central cell plays a critical role in pollen tube guidance during pollination and in endosperm initiation after fertilization. Recently, a group of mutants affecting specific steps of central cell development and function have been identified, providing some clues in understanding these questions. This review summarizes our current knowledge about central cell development and function, and presents overview about hypotheses for its evolution. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Epiphytic leafy liverworts diversified in angiosperm-dominated forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldberg, Kathrin; Schneider, Harald; Stadler, Tanja; Schäfer-Verwimp, Alfons; Schmidt, Alexander R.; Heinrichs, Jochen

    2014-08-01

    Recent studies have provided evidence for pulses in the diversification of angiosperms, ferns, gymnosperms, and mosses as well as various groups of animals during the Cretaceous revolution of terrestrial ecosystems. However, evidence for such pulses has not been reported so far for liverworts. Here we provide new insight into liverwort evolution by integrating a comprehensive molecular dataset with a set of 20 fossil age constraints. We found evidence for a relative constant diversification rate of generalistic liverworts (Jungermanniales) since the Palaeozoic, whereas epiphytic liverworts (Porellales) show a sudden increase of lineage accumulation in the Cretaceous. This difference is likely caused by the pronounced response of Porellales to the ecological opportunities provided by humid, megathermal forests, which were increasingly available as a result of the rise of the angiosperms.

  3. Phylogenetic analysis of the angiosperm-floricolous insect-yeast association: have yeast and angiosperm lineages co-diversified?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, Beatriz; Lachance, Marc-André; Herrera, Carlos M

    2013-08-01

    Metschnikowia (Saccharomycetales, Metschnikowiaceae/Metschnikowia clade) is an ascomycetous yeast genus whose species are associated mostly with angiosperms and their insect pollinators over all continents. The wide distribution of the genus, its association with angiosperm flowers, and the fact that it includes some of the best-studied yeasts in terms of biogeography and ecology make Metschnikowia an excellent group to investigate a possible co-radiation with angiosperm lineages. We performed phylogenetic analyses implementing Bayesian inference and likelihood methods, using a concatenated matrix (≈2.6 Kbp) of nuclear DNA (ACT1, 1st and 2nd codon positions of EF2, Mcm7, and RPB2) sequences. We included 77 species representing approximately 90% of the species in the family. Bayesian and parsimony methods were used to perform ancestral character reconstructions within Metschnikowia in three key morphological characters. Patterns of evolution of yeast habitats and divergence times were explored in the Metschnikowia clade lineages with the purpose of inferring the time of origin of angiosperm-associated habitats within Metschnikowiaceae. This paper presents the first phylogenetic hypothesis to include nearly all known species in the family. The polyphyletic nature of Clavispora was confirmed and Metschnikowia species (and their anamorphs) were shown to form two groups: one that includes mostly floricolous, insect-associated species distributed in mostly tropical areas (the large-spored Metschnikowia clade and relatives) and another that comprises more heterogeneous species in terms of habitat and geographical distribution. Reconstruction of character evolution suggests that sexual characters (ascospore length, number of ascospores, and ascus formation) evolved multiple times within Metschnikowia. Complex and dynamic habitat transitions seem to have punctuated the course of evolution of the Metschnikowiaceae with repeated and independent origins of angiosperm

  4. Unique responsiveness of angiosperm stomata to elevated CO2 explained by calcium signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodribb, Timothy J; McAdam, Scott A M

    2013-01-01

    Angiosperm and conifer tree species respond differently when exposed to elevated CO2, with angiosperms found to dynamically reduce water loss while conifers appear insensitive. Such distinct responses are likely to affect competition between these tree groups as atmospheric CO2 concentration rises. Seeking the mechanism behind this globally important phenomenon we targeted the Ca(2+)-dependent signalling pathway, a mediator of stomatal closure in response to elevated CO2, as a possible explanation for the differentiation of stomatal behaviours. Sampling across the diversity of vascular plants including lycophytes, ferns, gymnosperms and angiosperms we show that only angiosperms possess the stomatal behaviour and prerequisite genetic coding, linked to Ca(2+)-dependent stomatal signalling. We conclude that the evolution of Ca(2+)-dependent stomatal signalling gives angiosperms adaptive benefits in terms of highly efficient water use, but that stomatal sensitivity to high CO2 may penalise angiosperm productivity relative to other plant groups in the current era of soaring atmospheric CO2.

  5. The power supply system model of the process submersible device with AC power transmission over the cable-rope

    OpenAIRE

    Rulevskiy, V. M.; Bukreev, Viktor Grigorievich; Kuleshova, Elena Olegovna; Shandarova, Elena Borisovna; Shandarov, S.M.; Vasilyeva, Yu. Z.

    2017-01-01

    A practical problem of power supply system modeling for the process submersible device with AC power transmission over the cable-rope was considered. The problem is highly relevant in developing and operation of submersible centrifugal pumps and submersibles. The results of modeling a symmetrical three-phase power supply system and their compliance with the real data are given at the paper. The obtained results in the mathematical and simulation models were similar.

  6. Life extension of semi-submersible drilling unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadley, I.; Sinclair, C.I.K. [TWI, Cambridge (United Kingdom). Structural Integrity Dept.; Magne, E. [Schlumberger Sedco Forex, Montrouge (France)

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes the life extension of a semi-submersible drilling rig built in the early 1970`s. A nominal design life of 20 years was estimated at the time of building; however, in the interim period, numerous improvements have been made in fatigue life estimation ad life improvement techniques, raising the possibility that a further 20 years of operation could be considered. The life extension strategy made use of a number of aspects of offshore technology which were not available at the time of construction of the rig. Finite element studies and results from offshore research programs were used to gauge the effect of fatigue life improvement techniques. The program demonstrated the feasibility of extending the operation of the rig for a further 20 years, with the interval between in-service inspection increased to every five years. It also provided a valuable database of fracture toughness data for the rig materials, which may be used in future work to address reliability issues.

  7. Submersible Spectrofluorometer for Real-Time Sensing of Water Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puiu, Adriana; Fiorani, Luca; Menicucci, Ivano; Pistilli, Marco; Lai, Antonia

    2015-06-18

    In this work, we present a newly developed submersible spectrofluorometer (patent pending) applied to real-time sensing of water quality, suitable for monitoring some important indicators of the ecological status of natural waters such as chlorophyll-a, oil and protein-like material. For the optomechanical realization of the apparatus, a novel conceptual design has been adopted in order to avoid filters and pumps while maintaining a high signal-to-noise ratio. The elimination of filters and pumps has the advantage of greater system simplicity and especially of avoiding the risk of sample degradation. The use of light-emitting diodes as an excitation source instead of Xe lamps or laser diodes helped save on size, weight, power consumption and costs. For sensor calibration we performed measurements on water samples with added chlorophyll prepared in the laboratory. The sensor functionality was tested during field campaigns conducted at Albano Lake in Latium Region of Italy as well as in the Herzliya Harbor, a few kilometers North East of Tel Aviv in Israel. The obtained results are reported in the paper. The sensitivity achieved for chlorophyll-a detection was found to be at least 0.2 µg/L.

  8. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and dark septate fungi in plants associated with aquatic environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josy Fraccaro de Marins

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT There have been several reports of symbionts in the roots of plants that live in aquatic environments. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF are the most common microsymbionts and possibly recolonized the aquatic environment together with plants; however, their functions and the extent of their benefits are unclear. Furthermore, the presence of other groups of fungi, such as dark septate fungi (DSF, with functions supposedly analogous to those of mycorrhizal fungi, has also been reported. The present work provides a compilation of data regarding the presence of arbuscular mycorrhizae in plants from, or under the influence of, aquatic environments, and co-colonization by AMF and DSF. Forty species of non-vascular plants, ferns, fern allies, and gymnosperms from 15 families, and 659 species of angiosperms from 87 families were investigated. From the first group (non-flowering plants 57 % of the species showed arbuscular mycorrhizal structures in their tissues or roots, whereas among the second group (flowering plants 71% had such structures. Among the mycorrhizal angiosperms, 52 % showed arbuscules in their roots. DSF were found in 1% of non-flowering plants and 5 % of angiosperms. All of these are discussed in this review.

  9. Trends of superoxide dismutase and soluble protein of aquatic plants in lakes of different trophic levels in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ai-Ping; Cao, Te; Wu, Shi-Kai; Ni, Le-Yi; Xie, Ping

    2009-04-01

    A limnological study was carried out to determine the responses of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities and soluble protein (SP) contents of 11 common aquatic plants to eutrophication stress. Field investigation in 12 lakes in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River was carried out from March to September 2004. Our results indicated that non-submersed (emergent and floating-leafed) plants and submersed plants showed different responses to eutrophication stress. Both SOD activities of the non-submersed and submersed plants were negatively correlated with their SP contents (P plants were significantly correlated with all nitrogen variables in the water (P plants were only significantly correlated with carbon variables as well as ammonium and Secchi depth (SD) in water (P plants were decreased with decline of SD in water (P plants were mainly caused by light limitation, this showed a coincidence with the decline of macrophytes in eutrophic lakes, which might imply that the antioxidant system of the submersed plants were impaired under eutrophication stress.

  10. Late cretaceous aquatic plant world in Patagonia, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cúneo, N Rubén; Gandolfo, María A; Zamaloa, María C; Hermsen, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    In this contribution, we describe latest Cretaceous aquatic plant communities from the La Colonia Formation, Patagonia, Argentina, based on their taxonomic components and paleoecological attributes. The La Colonia Formation is a geological unit deposited during a Maastrichtian-Danian transgressive episode of the South Atlantic Ocean. This event resulted in the deposition of a series of fine-grained sediments associated with lagoon systems occurring along irregular coastal plains in northern Patagonia. These deposits preserved a diverse biota, including aquatic and terrestrial plants and animals. The aquatic macrophytes can be broadly divided into two groups: free-floating and rooted, the latter with emergent or floating leaves. Free-floating macrophytes include ferns in Salviniaceae (Azolla and Paleoazolla) and a monocot (Araceae). Floating microphytes include green algae (Botryoccocus, Pediastrum and Zygnemataceae). Among the rooted components, marsileaceous water ferns (including Regnellidium and an extinct form) and the eudicot angiosperm Nelumbo (Nelumbonaceae) are the dominant groups. Terrestrial plants occurring in the vegetation surrounding the lagoons include monocots (palms and Typhaceae), ferns with affinities to Dicksoniaceae, conifers, and dicots. A reconstruction of the aquatic plant paleocommuniy is provided based on the distribution of the fossils along a freshwater horizon within the La Colonia Formation. This contribution constitutes the first reconstruction of a Cretaceous aquatic habitat for southern South America.

  11. Late cretaceous aquatic plant world in Patagonia, Argentina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Rubén Cúneo

    Full Text Available In this contribution, we describe latest Cretaceous aquatic plant communities from the La Colonia Formation, Patagonia, Argentina, based on their taxonomic components and paleoecological attributes. The La Colonia Formation is a geological unit deposited during a Maastrichtian-Danian transgressive episode of the South Atlantic Ocean. This event resulted in the deposition of a series of fine-grained sediments associated with lagoon systems occurring along irregular coastal plains in northern Patagonia. These deposits preserved a diverse biota, including aquatic and terrestrial plants and animals. The aquatic macrophytes can be broadly divided into two groups: free-floating and rooted, the latter with emergent or floating leaves. Free-floating macrophytes include ferns in Salviniaceae (Azolla and Paleoazolla and a monocot (Araceae. Floating microphytes include green algae (Botryoccocus, Pediastrum and Zygnemataceae. Among the rooted components, marsileaceous water ferns (including Regnellidium and an extinct form and the eudicot angiosperm Nelumbo (Nelumbonaceae are the dominant groups. Terrestrial plants occurring in the vegetation surrounding the lagoons include monocots (palms and Typhaceae, ferns with affinities to Dicksoniaceae, conifers, and dicots. A reconstruction of the aquatic plant paleocommuniy is provided based on the distribution of the fossils along a freshwater horizon within the La Colonia Formation. This contribution constitutes the first reconstruction of a Cretaceous aquatic habitat for southern South America.

  12. Commercial Submersible Mixing Pump For SRS Tank Waste Removal - 15223

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubbard, Mike [Savannah River Remediation, LLC., Aiken, SC (United States); Herbert, James E. [Savannah River Remediation, LLC., Aiken, SC (United States); Scheele, Patrick W. [Savannah River Remediation, LLC., Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-01-12

    The Savannah River Site Tank Farms have 45 active underground waste tanks used to store and process nuclear waste materials. There are 4 different tank types, ranging in capacity from 2839 m3 to 4921 m3 (750,000 to 1,300,000 gallons). Eighteen of the tanks are older style and do not meet all current federal standards for secondary containment. The older style tanks are the initial focus of waste removal efforts for tank closure and are referred to as closure tanks. Of the original 51 underground waste tanks, six of the original 24 older style tanks have completed waste removal and are filled with grout. The insoluble waste fraction that resides within most waste tanks at SRS requires vigorous agitation to suspend the solids within the waste liquid in order to transfer this material for eventual processing into glass filled canisters at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). SRS suspends the solid waste by use of recirculating mixing pumps. Older style tanks generally have limited riser openings which will not support larger mixing pumps, since the riser access is typically 58.4 cm (23 inches) in diameter. Agitation for these tanks has been provided by four long shafted standard slurry pumps (SLP) powered by an above tank 112KW (150 HP) electric motor. The pump shaft is lubricated and cooled in a pressurized water column that is sealed from the surrounding waste in the tank. Closure of four waste tanks has been accomplished utilizing long shafted pump technology combined with heel removal using multiple technologies. Newer style waste tanks at SRS have larger riser openings, allowing the processing of waste solids to be accomplished with four large diameter SLPs equipped with 224KW (300 HP) motors. These tanks are used to process the waste from closure tanks for DWPF. In addition to the SLPs, a 224KW (300 HP) submersible mixer pump (SMP) has also been developed and deployed within older style tanks. The SMPs are product cooled and

  13. Conservation and functional element discovery in 20 angiosperm plant genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hupalo, Daniel; Kern, Andrew D

    2013-07-01

    Here, we describe the construction of a phylogenetically deep, whole-genome alignment of 20 flowering plants, along with an analysis of plant genome conservation. Each included angiosperm genome was aligned to a reference genome, Arabidopsis thaliana, using the LASTZ/MULTIZ paradigm and tools from the University of California-Santa Cruz Genome Browser source code. In addition to the multiple alignment, we created a local genome browser displaying multiple tracks of newly generated genome annotation, as well as annotation sourced from published data of other research groups. An investigation into A. thaliana gene features present in the aligned A. lyrata genome revealed better conservation of start codons, stop codons, and splice sites within our alignments (51% of features from A. thaliana conserved without interruption in A. lyrata) when compared with previous publicly available plant pairwise alignments (34% of features conserved). The detailed view of conservation across angiosperms revealed not only high coding-sequence conservation but also a large set of previously uncharacterized intergenic conservation. From this, we annotated the collection of conserved features, revealing dozens of putative noncoding RNAs, including some with recorded small RNA expression. Comparing conservation between kingdoms revealed a faster decay of vertebrate genome features when compared with angiosperm genomes. Finally, conserved sequences were searched for folding RNA features, including but not limited to noncoding RNA (ncRNA) genes. Among these, we highlight a double hairpin in the 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) of the PRIN2 gene and a putative ncRNA with homology targeting the LAF3 protein.

  14. Fire-adapted Gondwanan Angiosperm floras evolved in the Cretaceous.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamont, Byron B; He, Tianhua

    2012-11-22

    Fires have been widespread over the last 250 million years, peaking 60-125 million years ago (Ma), and might therefore have played a key role in the evolution of Angiosperms. Yet it is commonly believed that fireprone communities existed only after the global climate became more arid and seasonal 15 Ma. Recent molecular-based studies point to much earlier origins of fireprone Angiosperm floras in Australia and South Africa (to 60 Ma, Paleocene) but even these were constrained by the ages of the clades examined. Using a molecular-dated phylogeny for the great Gondwanan family Proteaceae, with a 113-million-year evolutionary history, we show that the ancestors of many of its characteristic sclerophyll genera, such as Protea, Conospermum, Leucadendron, Petrophile, Adenanthos and Leucospermum (all subfamily Proteoideae), occurred in fireprone habitats from 88 Ma (83-94, 95% HPD, Mid-Upper Cretaceous). This coincided with the highest atmospheric oxygen (combustibility) levels experienced over the past 150 million years. Migration from non-fireprone (essentially rainforest-climate-type) environments was accompanied by the evolution of highly speciose clades with a range of seed storage traits and fire-cued seed release or germination mechanisms that was diagnostic for each clade by 71 Ma, though the ant-dispersed lineage (as a soil seed-storage subclade) was delayed until 45 Ma. Focusing on the widespread 113-million-year-old family Proteaceae, fireproneness among Gondwanan Angiosperm floras can now be traced back almost 90 million years into the fiery Cretaceous. The associated evolution of on-plant (serotiny) and soil seed storage, and later ant dispersal, affirms them as ancient adaptations to fire among flowering plants.

  15. Can biophysical properties of submersed macrophytes be determined by remote sensing?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malthus, T.J. [Univ. of Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Ciraolo, G.; La Loggia, G. [Univ. of Palermo, Sicily (Italy)] [and others

    1997-06-01

    This paper details the development of a computationally efficient Monte Carlo simulation program to model photon transport through submersed plant canopies, with emphasis on Seagrass communities. The model incorporates three components: the transmission of photons through a water column of varying depth and turbidity; the interaction of photons within a submersed plant canopy of varying biomass; and interactions with the bottom substrate. The three components of the model are discussed. Simulations were performed based on measured parameters for Posidonia oceanica and compared to measured subsurface reflectance spectra made over comparable seagrass communities in Sicilian coastal waters. It is shown that the output is realistic. Further simulations are undertaken to investigate the effect of depth and turbidity of the overlying water column. Both sets of results indicate the rapid loss of canopy signal as depth increases and water column phytoplankton concentrations increase. The implications for the development of algorithms for the estimation of submersed canopy biophysical parameters are briefly discussed.

  16. Aquatic Therapy for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucher, Greta; Moore, Kelsey; Rodia, Rachel; Moser, Christy Szczech

    2015-01-01

    Aquatic therapy has long been highlighted in the literature as a potentially powerful therapeutic intervention. This review will highlight basic definitions of aquatic therapy, review salient research, and identify specific diagnoses that may benefit from aquatic therapy. Online resources, blogs, and books that occupational therapists may find…

  17. The evolution of floral biology in basal angiosperms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endress, Peter K.

    2010-01-01

    In basal angiosperms (including ANITA grade, magnoliids, Choranthaceae, Ceratophyllaceae) almost all bisexual flowers are dichogamous (with male and female functions more or less separated in time), and nearly 100 per cent of those are protogynous (with female function before male function). Movements of floral parts and differential early abscission of stamens in the male phase are variously associated with protogyny. Evolution of synchronous dichogamy based on the day/night rhythm and anthesis lasting 2 days is common. In a few clades in Magnoliales and Laurales heterodichogamy has also evolved. Beetles, flies and thrips are the major pollinators, with various degrees of specialization up to large beetles and special flies in some large-flowered Nymphaeaceae, Magnoliaceae, Annonaceae and Aristolochiaceae. Unusual structural specializations are involved in floral biological adaptations (calyptras, inner staminodes, synandria and food bodies, and secretory structures on tepals, stamens and staminodes). Numerous specializations that are common in monocots and eudicots are absent in basal angiosperms. Several families are poorly known in their floral biology. PMID:20047868

  18. Mammal disparity decreases during the Cretaceous angiosperm radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossnickle, David M; Polly, P David

    2013-11-22

    Fossil discoveries over the past 30 years have radically transformed traditional views of Mesozoic mammal evolution. In addition, recent research provides a more detailed account of the Cretaceous diversification of flowering plants. Here, we examine patterns of morphological disparity and functional morphology associated with diet in early mammals. Two analyses were performed: (i) an examination of diversity based on functional dental type rather than higher-level taxonomy, and (ii) a morphometric analysis of jaws, which made use of modern analogues, to assess changes in mammalian morphological and dietary disparity. Results demonstrate a decline in diversity of molar types during the mid-Cretaceous as abundances of triconodonts, symmetrodonts, docodonts and eupantotherians diminished. Multituberculates experience a turnover in functional molar types during the mid-Cretaceous and a shift towards plant-dominated diets during the late Late Cretaceous. Although therians undergo a taxonomic expansion coinciding with the angiosperm radiation, they display small body sizes and a low level of morphological disparity, suggesting an evolutionary shift favouring small insectivores. It is concluded that during the mid-Cretaceous, the period of rapid angiosperm radiation, mammals experienced both a decrease in morphological disparity and a functional shift in dietary morphology that were probably related to changing ecosystems.

  19. Endophytic bacterial community of a Mediterranean marine angiosperm (Posidonia oceanica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neus eGarcias-Bonet

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial endophytes are crucial for the survival of many terrestrial plants, but little is known about the presence and importance of bacterial endophytes of marine plants. We conducted a survey of the endophytic bacterial community of the long-living Mediterranean marine angiosperm Posidonia oceanica in surface-sterilized tissues (roots, rhizomes and leaves by DGGE. A total of 26 Posidonia oceanica meadows around the Balearic Islands were sampled, and the band patterns obtained for each meadow were compared for the three sampled tissues. Endophytic bacterial sequences were detected in most of the samples analyzed. A total of 34 OTUs (Operational Taxonomic Units were detected. The main OTUs of endophytic bacteria present in P. oceanica tissues belonged primarily to Proteobacteria (α, γ and δ subclasses and Bacteroidetes. The OTUs found in roots significantly differed from those of rhizomes and leaves. Moreover, some OTUs were found to be associated to each type of tissue. Bipartite network analysis revealed differences in the bacterial endophyte communities present on different islands. The results of this study provide a pioneering step toward the characterization of the endophytic bacterial community associated with tissues of a marine angiosperm and reveal the presence of bacterial endophytes that differed among locations and tissue types.

  20. A critical transition in leaf evolution facilitated the Cretaceous angiosperm revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Hugo Jan; Eppinga, Maarten B; Wassen, Martin J; Dekker, Stefan C

    2012-01-01

    The revolutionary rise of broad-leaved (flowering) angiosperm plant species during the Cretaceous initiated a global ecological transformation towards modern biodiversity. Still, the mechanisms involved in this angiosperm radiation remain enigmatic. Here we show that the period of rapid angiosperm evolution initiated after the leaf interior (post venous) transport path length for water was reduced beyond the leaf interior transport path length for CO2 at a critical leaf vein density of 2.5-5 mm mm(-2). Data and our modelling approaches indicate that surpassing this critical vein density was a pivotal moment in leaf evolution that enabled evolving angiosperms to profit from developing leaves with more and smaller stomata in terms of higher carbon returns from equal water loss. Surpassing the critical vein density may therefore have facilitated evolving angiosperms to develop leaves with higher gas exchange capacities required to adapt to the Cretaceous CO2 decline and outcompete previously dominant coniferous species in the upper canopy.

  1. New Navigation Post-Processing Tools for Oceanographic Submersibles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsey, J. C.; Whitcomb, L. L.; Yoerger, D. R.; Howland, J. C.; Ferrini, V. L.; Hegrenas, O.

    2006-12-01

    We report the development of Navproc, a new set of software tools for post-processing oceanographic submersible navigation data that exploits previously reported improvements in navigation sensing and estimation (e.g. Eos Trans. AGU, 84(46), Fall Meet. Suppl., Abstract OS32A- 0225, 2003). The development of these tools is motivated by the need to have post-processing software that allows users to compensate for errors in vehicle navigation, recompute the vehicle position, and then save the results for use with quantitative science data (e.g. bathymetric sonar data) obtained during the mission. Navproc does not provide real-time navigation or display of data nor is it capable of high-resolution, three dimensional (3D) data display. Navproc supports the ASCII data formats employed by the vehicles of the National Deep Submergence Facility (NDSF) operated by the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI). Post-processing of navigation data with Navproc is comprised of three tasks. First, data is converted from the logged ASCII file to a binary Matlab file. When loaded into Matlab, each sensor has a data structure containing the time stamped data sampled at the native update rate of the sensor. An additional structure contains the real-time vehicle navigation data. Second, the data can be displayed using a Graphical User Interface (GUI), allowing users to visually inspect the quality of the data and graphically extract portions of the data. Third, users can compensate for errors in the real-time vehicle navigation. Corrections include: (i) manual filtering and median filtering of long baseline (LBL) ranges; (ii) estimation of the Doppler/gyro alignment using previously reported methodologies; and (iii) sound velocity, tide, and LBL transponder corrections. Using these corrections, the Doppler and LBL positions can be recomputed to provide improved estimates of the vehicle position compared to those computed in real-time. The data can be saved in either binary or ASCII

  2. Floral gene resources from basal angiosperms for comparative genomics research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xiaohong

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Floral Genome Project was initiated to bridge the genomic gap between the most broadly studied plant model systems. Arabidopsis and rice, although now completely sequenced and under intensive comparative genomic investigation, are separated by at least 125 million years of evolutionary time, and cannot in isolation provide a comprehensive perspective on structural and functional aspects of flowering plant genome dynamics. Here we discuss new genomic resources available to the scientific community, comprising cDNA libraries and Expressed Sequence Tag (EST sequences for a suite of phylogenetically basal angiosperms specifically selected to bridge the evolutionary gaps between model plants and provide insights into gene content and genome structure in the earliest flowering plants. Results Random sequencing of cDNAs from representatives of phylogenetically important eudicot, non-grass monocot, and gymnosperm lineages has so far (as of 12/1/04 generated 70,514 ESTs and 48,170 assembled unigenes. Efficient sorting of EST sequences into putative gene families based on whole Arabidopsis/rice proteome comparison has permitted ready identification of cDNA clones for finished sequencing. Preliminarily, (i proportions of functional categories among sequenced floral genes seem representative of the entire Arabidopsis transcriptome, (ii many known floral gene homologues have been captured, and (iii phylogenetic analyses of ESTs are providing new insights into the process of gene family evolution in relation to the origin and diversification of the angiosperms. Conclusion Initial comparisons illustrate the utility of the EST data sets toward discovery of the basic floral transcriptome. These first findings also afford the opportunity to address a number of conspicuous evolutionary genomic questions, including reproductive organ transcriptome overlap between angiosperms and gymnosperms, genome-wide duplication history, lineage

  3. Rapid and accurate pyrosequencing of angiosperm plastid genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farmerie William G

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plastid genome sequence information is vital to several disciplines in plant biology, including phylogenetics and molecular biology. The past five years have witnessed a dramatic increase in the number of completely sequenced plastid genomes, fuelled largely by advances in conventional Sanger sequencing technology. Here we report a further significant reduction in time and cost for plastid genome sequencing through the successful use of a newly available pyrosequencing platform, the Genome Sequencer 20 (GS 20 System (454 Life Sciences Corporation, to rapidly and accurately sequence the whole plastid genomes of the basal eudicot angiosperms Nandina domestica (Berberidaceae and Platanus occidentalis (Platanaceae. Results More than 99.75% of each plastid genome was simultaneously obtained during two GS 20 sequence runs, to an average depth of coverage of 24.6× in Nandina and 17.3× in Platanus. The Nandina and Platanus plastid genomes shared essentially identical gene complements and possessed the typical angiosperm plastid structure and gene arrangement. To assess the accuracy of the GS 20 sequence, over 45 kilobases of sequence were generated for each genome using conventional sequencing. Overall error rates of 0.043% and 0.031% were observed in GS 20 sequence for Nandina and Platanus, respectively. More than 97% of all observed errors were associated with homopolymer runs, with ~60% of all errors associated with homopolymer runs of 5 or more nucleotides and ~50% of all errors associated with regions of extensive homopolymer runs. No substitution errors were present in either genome. Error rates were generally higher in the single-copy and noncoding regions of both plastid genomes relative to the inverted repeat and coding regions. Conclusion Highly accurate and essentially complete sequence information was obtained for the Nandina and Platanus plastid genomes using the GS 20 System. More importantly, the high accuracy

  4. Geology of mud volcanos in the Eastern Mediterranean from combined sidescan and submersible surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zitter, T.A.C.; Huguen, C.; Woodside, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Submersible observations and seafloor mapping over areas of mud volcanism in the eastern Mediterranean Sea reveal an abundance of methane-rich fluid emissions, as well as specific seep-associated fauna (e.g. tubeworms, bivalves and chemosynthetic bacteria) and diagenetic deposits (i.e. carbonates

  5. Management of Half Moon Lake, Wisconsin, for Improved Native Submersed Macrophyte Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    for aesthetic and recreational reasons. Eutrophication can negatively impact submersed macrophyte growth and community diversity by stimulating...sediments in the lake are high (range = 2.3 to 11.7 mg·m-2·d-1) and, thus, represent an important nutritional source to this species. During the July

  6. 77 FR 2957 - Application for Manufacturing Authority, Liberty Pumps, Inc. (Submersible and Water Pumps...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Application for Manufacturing Authority, Liberty Pumps, Inc. (Submersible and... manufacturing authority on behalf of Liberty Pumps, Inc., located in Bergen, New York. The application was... regulations of the Board (15 CFR part 400). It was formally filed on January 12, 2012. The Liberty Pumps, Inc...

  7. Counteracting ammonia inhibition during anaerobic digestion by recovery using submersible microbial desalination cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yifeng; Angelidaki, Irini

    2015-01-01

    Ammonia inhibition is one of the most frequent and serious problems in biogas plants. In this study, a novel hybrid system consisting of a submersible microbial desalination cell (SMDC) and a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) was developed for counteracting ammonia inhibition during anaerobic...

  8. Submersion time, depth, substrate type and sampling method as variation sources of marine periphyton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richard, M.; Trottier, C.; Verdegem, M.C.J.; Hussenot, J.M.E.

    2009-01-01

    Periphyton is an additional food source in African and Asian brackish and freshwater fish ponds. The present study was a preliminary assessment of periphyton development on artificial substrates in temperate marine ponds. The effects of submersion time, substrate type, water depth, and total or

  9. Increased power generation from primary sludge by a submersible microbial fuel cell and optimum operational conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vologni, Valentina; Kakarla, Ramesh; Angelidaki, Irini

    2013-01-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have received attention as a promising renewable energy technology for waste treatment and energy recovery. We tested a submersible MFC with an innovative design capable of generating a stable voltage of 0.250 ± 0.008 V (with a fixed 470 Ω resistor) directly from prima...

  10. Mechanical Harvesting of Aquatic Plants. Report 2. Evaluation of Selected Handling Functions of Mechanical Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    Test site locations 12 0 a ’-4 0 C𔃾 13 rI a. Topped out hydrilla north of Bonnet Lake (August 1977) b. Topped out hydrilla north of Highway 48 bridge...Towing test in submersed aquatics 25 cut in Bonnet Lake (see Figure 9). The pushing rake mounted on a flat-bottom boat was used in the tests (Figure 11...Laboratory Technical Publications, a facsimile catalog card in Library of Congress MARC format is reproduced below. Smith, Perry A Mechanical harvesting of

  11. Angiosperm Plant Desiccation Tolerance: Hints from Transcriptomics and Genome Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giarola, Valentino; Hou, Quancan; Bartels, Dorothea

    2017-08-01

    Desiccation tolerance (DT) in angiosperms is present in the small group of resurrection plants and in seeds. DT requires the presence of protective proteins, specific carbohydrates, restructuring of membrane lipids, and regulatory mechanisms directing a dedicated gene expression program. Many components are common to resurrection plants and seeds; however, some are specific for resurrection plants. Understanding how each component contributes to DT is challenging. Recent transcriptome analyses and genome sequencing indicate that increased expression is essential of genes encoding protective components, recently evolved, species-specific genes and non-protein-coding RNAs. Modification and reshuffling of existing cis-regulatory promoter elements seems to play a role in the rewiring of regulatory networks required for increased expression of DT-related genes in resurrection species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. New angiosperm genera from cretaceous sections of northern Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseev, P. I.; Herman, A. B.; Shchepetov, S. V.

    2014-11-01

    The Cretaceous floras of northern Asia represented by the Antibes flora of the Chulym-Yenisei area of West Siberia, Kaivayam flora of northwestern Kamchatka, and Grebenka flora of the Anadyr River basin in Chukotka are reviewed. These floras characterize the Late Cretaceous Siberian-Canadian Paleofloristic Region, where they developed in humid warm temperate climatic environments. Two new angiosperm genera are described: genus Chachlovia P. Alekseev et Herman with species C. kiyensis P. Alekseev, sp. nov. and C. dombeyopsoida (Herman) Herman, comb. nov. and genus Soninia Herman et Shczepetov with species S. asiatica P. Alekseev, sp. nov. and S. integerrima Herman et Shczepetov, sp. nov. The species Chachlovia kiyensis and Soninia asiatica were characteristic components of the Antibes flora. Chachlovia dombeyopsoida and Soninia integerrima were constituents of the Kaivayam and Grebenka floras, respectively.

  13. Pollen clumping and wind dispersal in an invasive angiosperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Michael D; Chamecki, Marcelo; Brush, Grace S; Meneveau, Charles; Parlange, Marc B

    2009-09-01

    Pollen dispersal is a fundamental aspect of plant reproductive biology that maintains connectivity between spatially separated populations. Pollen clumping, a characteristic feature of insect-pollinated plants, is generally assumed to be a detriment to wind pollination because clumps disperse shorter distances than do solitary pollen grains. Yet pollen clumps have been observed in dispersion studies of some widely distributed wind-pollinated species. We used Ambrosia artemisiifolia (common ragweed; Asteraceae), a successful invasive angiosperm, to investigate the effect of clumping on wind dispersal of pollen under natural conditions in a large field. Results of simultaneous measurements of clump size both in pollen shedding from male flowers and airborne pollen being dispersed in the atmosphere are combined with a transport model to show that rather than being detrimental, clumps may actually be advantageous for wind pollination. Initial clumps can pollinate the parent population, while smaller clumps that arise from breakup of larger clumps can cross-pollinate distant populations.

  14. Early Cretaceous Archaeamphora is not a carnivorous angiosperm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Oki Wong

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Archaeamphora longicervia H.Q.Li was described as an herbaceous, Sarraceniaceae-like pitcher plant from the mid Early Cretaceous Yixian Formation of Liaoning Province, northeastern China. Here, a re-investigation of A. longicervia specimens from the Yixian Formation provides new insights into its identity and the morphology of pitcher plants claimed by Li. We demonstrate that putative pitchers of Archaeamphora are insect-induced leaf galls that consist of three components: (1 an innermost larval chamber with a distinctive outer wall; (2 an intermediate zone of nutritive tissue; and (3 an outermost zone of sclerenchyma. Archaeamphora is not a carnivorous, Sarraceniaceae-like angiosperm, but represents insect-galled leaves of the formerly reported gymnosperm Liaoningocladus boii G.Sun et al. from the Yixian Formation.

  15. Three keys to the radiation of angiosperms into freezing environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanne, Amy E; Tank, David C; Cornwell, William K; Eastman, Jonathan M; Smith, Stephen A; FitzJohn, Richard G; McGlinn, Daniel J; O'Meara, Brian C; Moles, Angela T; Reich, Peter B; Royer, Dana L; Soltis, Douglas E; Stevens, Peter F; Westoby, Mark; Wright, Ian J; Aarssen, Lonnie; Bertin, Robert I; Calaminus, Andre; Govaerts, Rafaël; Hemmings, Frank; Leishman, Michelle R; Oleksyn, Jacek; Soltis, Pamela S; Swenson, Nathan G; Warman, Laura; Beaulieu, Jeremy M

    2014-02-06

    Early flowering plants are thought to have been woody species restricted to warm habitats. This lineage has since radiated into almost every climate, with manifold growth forms. As angiosperms spread and climate changed, they evolved mechanisms to cope with episodic freezing. To explore the evolution of traits underpinning the ability to persist in freezing conditions, we assembled a large species-level database of growth habit (woody or herbaceous; 49,064 species), as well as leaf phenology (evergreen or deciduous), diameter of hydraulic conduits (that is, xylem vessels and tracheids) and climate occupancies (exposure to freezing). To model the evolution of species' traits and climate occupancies, we combined these data with an unparalleled dated molecular phylogeny (32,223 species) for land plants. Here we show that woody clades successfully moved into freezing-prone environments by either possessing transport networks of small safe conduits and/or shutting down hydraulic function by dropping leaves during freezing. Herbaceous species largely avoided freezing periods by senescing cheaply constructed aboveground tissue. Growth habit has long been considered labile, but we find that growth habit was less labile than climate occupancy. Additionally, freezing environments were largely filled by lineages that had already become herbs or, when remaining woody, already had small conduits (that is, the trait evolved before the climate occupancy). By contrast, most deciduous woody lineages had an evolutionary shift to seasonally shedding their leaves only after exposure to freezing (that is, the climate occupancy evolved before the trait). For angiosperms to inhabit novel cold environments they had to gain new structural and functional trait solutions; our results suggest that many of these solutions were probably acquired before their foray into the cold.

  16. Effects of eutrophication and temperature on submersed rooted plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raun, Ane-Marie Løvendahl

    , especially at high temperatures. Results also showed that growth of Z. marina plants at higher temperatures will be reduced at gradually lower oxygen concentrations. The tropical seagrasses were surprisingly tolerant to oxygen depletion in the water column and none of them showed reduced growth within the 72......Aquatic macrophytes have during the last decades faced a massive decline of coverage and repeated die‐off events have been detected for freshwater (Sand‐Jensen et al., 2000) and marine plants (Waycott et al., 2009). Increased nutrient loading has been suggested to play a central role, because high...... and degradation of dying alga blooms accelerate the microbial activity and thereby intensify oxygen consumption in sediment and water column. This oxygen consumption may accelerate further by increasing temperature caused by warmer climate. This thesis examines how low sediment and water column oxygen levels...

  17. Lake Bathymetric Aquatic Vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Aquatic vegetation represented as polygon features, coded with vegetation type (emergent, submergent, etc.) and field survey date. Polygons were digitized from...

  18. Assessment of the dye removal capability of submersed aquatic plants in a laboratory-scale wetland system using anova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Keskinkan

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The textile dye (Basic Blue 41(BB41 removal capability of a laboratory-scale wetland system was presented in this study. Twenty glass aquaria were used to establish the wetland. Myriophyllum spicatum and Ceratophyllum demersum were planted in the aquaria and acclimated. After establishing flow conditions, the aquaria were fed with synthetic wastewaters containing BB41. The concentration of the dye was adjusted to 11.0 mg/L in the synthetic wastewater. Hydraulic retention times (HRTs ranged between 3 and 18 days. Effective HRTs were 9 and 18 days. The highest dye removal rates were 94.8 and 94.1% for M. spicatum and C. demersum aquaria respectively. The statistical ANOVA method was used to assess the dye removal capability of the wetland system. In all cases the ANOVA method revealed that plants in the wetland system and HRT were important factors and the wetland system was able to remove the dye from influent wastewater.

  19. Universal multiplexable matK primers for DNA barcoding of angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckenhauer, Jacqueline; Barfuss, Michael H J; Samuel, Rosabelle

    2016-06-01

    PCR amplification of the matK barcoding region is often difficult when dealing with multiple angiosperm families. We developed a primer cocktail to amplify this region efficiently across angiosperm diversity. We developed 14 matK primers (seven forward, seven reverse) for multiplex PCR, using sequences available in GenBank for 178 taxa belonging to 123 genera in 41 families and 18 orders. Universality of these new multiplexed primers was tested with 53 specimens from 44 representative angiosperm families in 23 different orders. Our primers showed high PCR amplification and sequencing success. These results show that our newly developed primers are highly effective for multiplex PCR and can be employed in future barcode projects involving taxonomically diverse samples across angiosperms. Using multiplex primers for barcoding will reduce the cost and time needed for PCR amplification.

  20. Resolution of deep angiosperm phylogeny using conserved nuclear genes and estimates of early divergence times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Liping; Zhang, Qiang; Sun, Renran; Kong, Hongzhi; Zhang, Ning; Ma, Hong

    2014-09-24

    Angiosperms are the most successful plants and support human livelihood and ecosystems. Angiosperm phylogeny is the foundation of studies of gene function and phenotypic evolution, divergence time estimation and biogeography. The relationship of the five divergent groups of the Mesangiospermae (~99.95% of extant angiosperms) remains uncertain, with multiple hypotheses reported in the literature. Here transcriptome data sets are obtained from 26 species lacking sequenced genomes, representing each of the five groups: eudicots, monocots, magnoliids, Chloranthaceae and Ceratophyllaceae. Phylogenetic analyses using 59 carefully selected low-copy nuclear genes resulted in highly supported relationships: sisterhood of eudicots and a clade containing Chloranthaceae and Ceratophyllaceae, with magnoliids being the next sister group, followed by monocots. Our topology allows a re-examination of the evolutionary patterns of 110 morphological characters. The molecular clock estimates of Mesangiospermae diversification during the late to middle Jurassic correspond well to the origins of some insects, which may have been a factor facilitating early angiosperm radiation.

  1. Remelting of Aluminium by Continuous Submersion of Rolled Scrap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farner, Snorre

    2000-12-01

    When remelting aluminium scrap, metal losses due to dross generation is a common problem. Reduction of these losses will give substantial economic and environmental benefits. Dross is generated when aluminium metal oxidizes and films of oxide envelope molten metal. When a cold metal object is immersed in a melt, the heat of the melt around this is transferred so rapidly into the object that a shell of melt often solidifies to the surface of the object. When scrap with low bulk density is charged to a melt, solidification of melt on the cold scrap prevents melt from entering the cavities in the bulk of the scrap, and the bulk density remains low. Thus the scrap tends to float on the melt surface. Submersion of this scrap is important to avoid oxidation and subsequent dross generation. One solution to this is to roll scrap to a strip and feed it into the melt. This system has been examined by studying feeding of a continuous, thin aluminium plate into molten aluminium. Also, the effect of lacquer was considered, as well as feeding the plate into a launder with melt flowing along the surface of the plate. An analytical, one-dimensional, steady-state model has been developed to describe the melting and the melting mechanisms. It is based on a shell solidifying on the plate surface and a gap introducing a thermal resistance 1/h{sub g} between the shell and the plate. The thermal resistance 1/h{sub l} of the boundary layer of the melt is included. Depending on these resistances, the initial temperature of the plate and the melt temperature, a shell will form, and the plate will penetrate a distance P into the melt before it melts away. An experimental apparatus was designed and constructed to feed aluminium plate from a coil into a melt bath at a specified velocity. The plate could be withdrawn rapidly to ''freeze'' the situation like it was below the melt surface. The penetration depth P of the plate could be measured and shell formation observed

  2. vid119_0601d -- Line coverage of sediment types from video collected from the Delta submersible vehicle.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Delta submersible vehicle, outfitted with video equipment (and other devices), was deployed from the R/V Auriga during September 2001 to monitor seafloor...

  3. Submersible Data (Dive Waypoints) for Life on the Edge 2003: Exploring Deep Ocean Habitats - Office of Ocean Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data and information collected by the submersible Johnson Sea-Link II at waypoints along its track during two of the seventeen dives of the 2003 "Life on the Edge -...

  4. Submersible Data (Dive Waypoints) for Islands in the Stream 2002 - Pharmaceutical Discovery, Vision, and Bioluminescence - Office of Ocean Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data and information collected by the submersible Johnson Sea-Link II at waypoints along its track during one dive of the 2002 "Islands in the Stream -...

  5. vid119_0601c-- Point coverage of sediment types from video collected from the Delta submersible vehicle.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Delta submersible vehicle, outfitted with video equipment (and other devices), was deployed from the R/V Auriga during September 2001 to monitor seafloor...

  6. Characterization of clarified medium from submerse and semisolid cultivation of OF Aspergillus awamori NRRL3112 by size-exclusion chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MINAMI N.M.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a preparative size-exclusion chromatography of two different clarified media obtained from submerse and semisolid culture of the mold Aspergillus awamori was carried out. Characterization and comparison of the quantities of glucoamylase and contaminant proteins present in these media were possible. Glucoamylase is the protein with the higher molecular weight in both media analyzed, varying from 72 to 80kDa in the submerse culture and from 68 to 90kDa in the semisolid culture. Also, glucoamylase protein concentration is higher in the submerse culture than in the semisolid culture. The other proteins in the submerse culture presented molecular weights lower than 12kDa and in the semisolid culture their molecular weights varied from 21 to 37kDa and below 10kDa.

  7. vid113_0401p -- Point coverage of sediment types from video collected from the Delta submersible vehicle.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Delta submersible vehicle, outfitted with video equipment (and other devices), was deployed from theR/V Auriga during September 2001 to monitor seafloor...

  8. Leaf evolution in Southern Hemisphere conifers tracks the angiosperm ecological radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biffin, Ed; Brodribb, Timothy J; Hill, Robert S; Thomas, Philip; Lowe, Andrew J

    2012-01-22

    The angiosperm radiation has been linked to sharp declines in gymnosperm diversity and the virtual elimination of conifers from the tropics. The conifer family Podocarpaceae stands as an exception with highest species diversity in wet equatorial forests. It has been hypothesized that efficient light harvesting by the highly flattened leaves of several podocarp genera facilitates persistence with canopy-forming angiosperms, and the angiosperm ecological radiation may have preferentially favoured the diversification of these lineages. To test these ideas, we develop a molecular phylogeny for Podocarpaceae using Bayesian-relaxed clock methods incorporating fossil time constraints. We find several independent origins of flattened foliage types, and that these lineages have diversified predominantly through the Cenozoic and therefore among canopy-forming angiosperms. The onset of sustained foliage flattening podocarp diversification is coincident with a declining diversification rate of scale/needle-leaved lineages and also with ecological and climatic transformations linked to angiosperm foliar evolution. We demonstrate that climatic range evolution is contingent on the underlying state for leaf morphology. Taken together, our findings imply that as angiosperms came to dominate most terrestrial ecosystems, competitive interactions at the foliar level have profoundly shaped podocarp geography and as a consequence, rates of lineage diversification.

  9. Unique responsiveness of angiosperm stomata to elevated CO2 explained by calcium signalling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J Brodribb

    Full Text Available Angiosperm and conifer tree species respond differently when exposed to elevated CO2, with angiosperms found to dynamically reduce water loss while conifers appear insensitive. Such distinct responses are likely to affect competition between these tree groups as atmospheric CO2 concentration rises. Seeking the mechanism behind this globally important phenomenon we targeted the Ca(2+-dependent signalling pathway, a mediator of stomatal closure in response to elevated CO2, as a possible explanation for the differentiation of stomatal behaviours. Sampling across the diversity of vascular plants including lycophytes, ferns, gymnosperms and angiosperms we show that only angiosperms possess the stomatal behaviour and prerequisite genetic coding, linked to Ca(2+-dependent stomatal signalling. We conclude that the evolution of Ca(2+-dependent stomatal signalling gives angiosperms adaptive benefits in terms of highly efficient water use, but that stomatal sensitivity to high CO2 may penalise angiosperm productivity relative to other plant groups in the current era of soaring atmospheric CO2.

  10. Cenozoic extinctions account for the low diversity of extant gymnosperms compared with angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisp, Michael D; Cook, Lyn G

    2011-12-01

    We test the widely held notion that living gymnosperms are 'ancient' and 'living fossils' by comparing them with their sister group, the angiosperms. This perception derives partly from the lack of gross morphological differences between some Mesozoic gymnosperm fossils and their living relatives (e.g. Ginkgo, cycads and dawn redwood), suggesting that the rate of evolution of gymnosperms has been slow. We estimated the ages and diversification rates of gymnosperm lineages using Bayesian relaxed molecular clock dating calibrated with 21 fossils, based on the phylogenetic analysis of alignments of matK chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) and 26S nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA) sequences, and compared these with published estimates for angiosperms. Gymnosperm crown groups of Cenozoic age are significantly younger than their angiosperm counterparts (median age: 32 Ma vs 50 Ma) and have long unbranched stems, indicating major extinctions in the Cenozoic, in contrast with angiosperms. Surviving gymnosperm genera have diversified more slowly than angiosperms during the Neogene as a result of their higher extinction rate. Compared with angiosperms, living gymnosperm groups are not ancient. The fossil record also indicates that gymnosperms suffered major extinctions when climate changed in the Oligocene and Miocene. Extant gymnosperm groups occupy diverse habitats and some probably survived after making adaptive shifts. © 2011 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2011 New Phytologist Trust.

  11. Darwin-Wallace Demons: survival of the fastest in populations of duckweeds and the evolutionary history of an enigmatic group of angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutschera, U; Niklas, K J

    2015-01-01

    In evolutionary biology, the term 'Darwinian fitness' refers to the lifetime reproductive success of an individual within a population of conspecifics. The idea of a 'Darwinian Demon' emerged from this concept and is defined here as an organism that commences reproduction almost immediately after birth, has a maximum fitness, and lives forever. It has been argued that duckweeds (sub-family Lemnoideae, order Alismatales), a group containing five genera and 34 species of small aquatic monocotyledonous plants with a reduced body plan, can be interpreted as examples of 'Darwinian Demons'. Here we focus on the species Spirodela polyrhiza (Great duckweed) and show that these miniaturised aquatic angiosperms display features that fit the definition of the hypothetical organism that we will call a 'Darwin-Wallace Demon' in recognition of the duel proponents of evolution by natural selection. A quantitative analysis (log-log bivariate plot of annual growth in dry biomass versus standing dry body mass of various green algae and land plants) revealed that duckweeds are thus far the most rapidly growing angiosperms in proportion to their body mass. In light of this finding, we discuss the disposable soma and metabolic optimising theories, summarise evidence for and against the proposition that the Lemnoideae (family Araceae) reflect an example of reductive evolution, and argue that, under real-world conditions (environmental constraints and other limitations), 'Darwin-Wallace Demons' cannot exist, although the concept remains useful in much the same way that the Hardy-Weinberg law does. © 2014 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  12. How the climate limits the wood density of angiosperms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jin Woo; Kim, Ho-Young

    2017-11-01

    Flowering trees have various types of wood structure to perform multiple functions under their environmental conditions. In addition to transporting water from the roots to the canopy and providing mechanical support, the structure should provide resistance to embolism to maintain soil-plant-atmosphere continuum. By investigating existing data of the resistivity to embolism and wood density of 165 angiosperm species, here we show that the climate can limit the intrinsic properties of trees. Trees living in the dry environments require a high wood density to slow down the pressure decrease as it loses water relatively fast by evaporation. However, building too much tissues will result in the decrease of hydraulic conductivity and moisture concentration around mesophyll cells. To rationalize the biologically observed lower bound of the wood density, we construct a mechanical model to predict the wood density as a function of the vulnerability to embolism and the time for the recovery. Also, we build an artificial system using hydrogel microchannels that can test the probability of embolism as a function of conduit distributions. Our theoretical prediction is shown to be consistent with the results obtained from the artificial system and the biological data.

  13. Model Adequacy and the Macroevolution of Angiosperm Functional Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennell, Matthew W; FitzJohn, Richard G; Cornwell, William K; Harmon, Luke J

    2015-08-01

    Making meaningful inferences from phylogenetic comparative data requires a meaningful model of trait evolution. It is thus important to determine whether the model is appropriate for the data and the question being addressed. One way to assess this is to ask whether the model provides a good statistical explanation for the variation in the data. To date, researchers have focused primarily on the explanatory power of a model relative to alternative models. Methods have been developed to assess the adequacy, or absolute explanatory power, of phylogenetic trait models, but these have been restricted to specific models or questions. Here we present a general statistical framework for assessing the adequacy of phylogenetic trait models. We use our approach to evaluate the statistical performance of commonly used trait models on 337 comparative data sets covering three key angiosperm functional traits. In general, the models we tested often provided poor statistical explanations for the evolution of these traits. This was true for many different groups and at many different scales. Whether such statistical inadequacy will qualitatively alter inferences drawn from comparative data sets will depend on the context. Regardless, assessing model adequacy can provide interesting biological insights-how and why a model fails to describe variation in a data set give us clues about what evolutionary processes may have driven trait evolution across time.

  14. Deep phylogenetic incongruence in the angiosperm clade Rosidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Miao; Soltis, Douglas E; Soltis, Pamela S; Zhu, Xinyu; Burleigh, J Gordon; Chen, Zhiduan

    2015-02-01

    Analysis of large data sets can help resolve difficult nodes in the tree of life and also reveal complex evolutionary histories. The placement of the Celastrales-Oxalidales-Malpighiales (COM) clade within Rosidae remains one of the most confounding phylogenetic questions in angiosperms, with previous analyses placing it with either Fabidae or Malvidae. To elucidate the position of COM, we assembled multi-gene matrices of chloroplast, mitochondrial, and nuclear sequences, as well as large single- and multi-copy nuclear gene data sets. Analyses of multi-gene data sets demonstrate conflict between the chloroplast and both nuclear and mitochondrial data sets, and the results are robust to various character-coding and data-exclusion treatments. Analyses of single- and multi-copy nuclear loci indicate that most loci support the placement of COM with Malvidae, fewer loci support COM with Fabidae, and almost no loci support COM outside a clade of Fabidae and Malvidae. Although incomplete lineage sorting and ancient introgressive hybridization remain as plausible explanations for the conflict among loci, more complete sampling is necessary to evaluate these hypotheses fully. Our results emphasize the importance of genomic data sets for revealing deep incongruence and complex patterns of evolution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Predicting extinction risk of Brazilian Atlantic forest angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leão, Tarciso C C; Fonseca, Carlos R; Peres, Carlos A; Tabarelli, Marcelo

    2014-10-01

    Understanding how plant life history affects species vulnerability to anthropogenic disturbances and environmental change is a major ecological challenge. We examined how vegetation type, growth form, and geographic range size relate to extinction risk throughout the Brazilian Atlantic Forest domain. We used a database containing species-level information of 6,929 angiosperms within 112 families and a molecular-based working phylogeny. We used decision trees, standard regression, and phylogenetic regression to explore the relationships between species attributes and extinction risk. We found a significant phylogenetic signal in extinction risk. Vegetation type, growth form, and geographic range size were related to species extinction risk, but the effect of growth form was not evident after phylogeny was controlled for. Species restricted to either rocky outcrops or scrub vegetation on sandy coastal plains exhibited the highest extinction risk among vegetation types, a finding that supports the hypothesis that species adapted to resource-limited environments are more vulnerable to extinction. Among growth forms, epiphytes were associated with the highest extinction risk in non-phylogenetic regression models, followed by trees, whereas shrubs and climbers were associated with lower extinction risk. However, the higher extinction risk of epiphytes was not significant after correcting for phylogenetic relatedness. Our findings provide new indicators of extinction risk and insights into the mechanisms governing plant vulnerability to extinction in a highly diverse flora where human disturbances are both frequent and widespread. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  16. Submersible pumping, Long Beach Unit of East Wilmington Field: A 17-year review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allis, D.H.; Capps, W.M.

    1983-10-01

    The electric submersible pump was selected as the primary form of lift when Thums Long Beach Company initiated production operations in August 1965. Deviated wells with ever-increasing volumes resulting from water flooding required a flexibility offered by this method of lift. Numerous problems have been solved in 17 years of these operations to provide a respectable run life and continue on a sound economic operational basis.

  17. Submersible pumping--long beach unit of east wilmington field: A 17-year review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allis, D.H.; Capps, W.M.

    1984-08-01

    The electric submersible pump (ESP) was selected as the primary form of lift when Thums Long Beach Co. initiated production operations in Aug. 1965. Deviated wells with ever increasing volumes resulting from waterflooding required the flexibility offered by this lift method. Many problems have been solved in the 17 years of these operations to provide a respectable run life and a sound economic operational basis.

  18. Submersible pumping, Long Beach unit of East Wilmington field: a 17-year review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allis, D.H.; Capps, W.M.

    1983-01-01

    The electric submersible pump was selected as the primary form of lift when THUMS Long Beach Co. initiated production operations in Aug. 1965. Deviated wells with ever-increasing volumes resulting from waterflooding required a flexibility offered by this method of lift. Numerous problems have been solved in 17 yr of these operations to provide a respectable run life and continue on a sound economic operational basis.

  19. Development of a new submersible test to characterise the erosion of soils and sediments

    OpenAIRE

    NDOYE, Ousseynou; Chevalier, Christophe; Reiffsteck, Philippe; MINATCHY, Carlos; FANELLI, Sonia; Pham Van Bang, Damien

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the mechanism and behavior of the scour process is a most challenging subject. One part of this challenge is the in situ measurement of soil and sediment sensitivity to erosion (in undisturbed and submersible conditions). To improve this understanding, a new test, the Wheel Erosion Test (WET), was developed. It consists of a wheel rotating upon a layer of sediments located in an aquarium filled in with water. The rotating speed of the wheel and the distance to the sediment bed a...

  20. Parametric pitch instability investigation of Deep Draft Semi-submersible platform in irregular waves

    OpenAIRE

    Huan Mao; Hezhen Yang

    2016-01-01

    Parametric pitch instability of a Deep Draft Semi-submersible platform (DDS) is investigated in irregular waves. Parametric pitch is a form of parametric instability, which occurs when parameters of a system vary with time and the variation satisfies a certain condition. In previous studies, analyzing of parametric instability is mainly limited to regular waves, whereas the realistic sea conditions are irregular waves. Besides, parametric instability also occurs in irregular waves in some exp...

  1. Dynamic Modeling and Simulation of Deep Geothermal Electric Submersible Pumping Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Julian Kullick; Hackl, Christoph M.

    2017-01-01

    Deep geothermal energy systems employ electric submersible pumps (ESPs) in order to lift geothermal fluid from the production well to the surface. However, rough downhole conditions and high flow rates impose heavy strain on the components, leading to frequent failures of the pump system. As downhole sensor data is limited and often unrealible, a detailed and dynamical model system will serve as basis for deeper understanding and analysis of the overall system behavior. Furthermore, it allows...

  2. Energy consumption behavior of submersible pumps using in the Barind area of Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, M. E.; Islam, M. R.; Masud, M. H.; Ferdous, J.; Haniu, H.

    2017-06-01

    In this work the ground water level and water pumping for irrigation and drinking purposes in Barind area of Bangladesh have been studied. The depth of ground water level remains under 30ft throughout the year that enforcing the use of submersible pumps in most parts of Barind zone. The Barind Multipurpose Development Authority (BMDA) and Rajshahi WASA are the major water supplying authority in the Northern Part of Bangladesh by using 14386 and 87 nos of submersible pumps, respectively. An investigation for the values of life cycle cost elements of submersible pumps has also been carried out. The performance of the pumps running in different sites in Barind area were investigated and compared with the lab test results of new pumps. Energy consumption cost is dominating the life cycle cost of the pumps using in Barind region and improper matching of pump standard running conditions and operation/system requirements are the main causes of lower efficiency. It is found that the efficiency of the running pumps is reduced by 20 - 40% than that of lab test results.

  3. Concept of a nuclear powered submersible research vessel and a compact reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusunoki, Tsuyoshi; Odano, Naoteru; Yoritsune, Tsutomu; Ishida, Toshihisa [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Takahashi, Teruo [Energis, Co., Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Nishimura, Hajime [Japan Marine Science and Technology Center, Yokosuka, Kanagawa (Japan); Tokunaga, Sango [Japan Deep Sea Technology Association, Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    A conceptual design study of a submersible research vessel navigating in 600 m depth and a compact nuclear reactor were carried out for the expansion of the nuclear power utilization. The mission of the vessel is the research of mechanism of the climate change to predict the global environment. Through conditions of the Arctic Ocean and the sea at high latitude have significant impacts on the global environmental change, it is difficult to investigate those areas by ordinary ships because of thick ice or storm. Therefore the research vessel is mainly utilized in the Arctic Ocean and the sea at high latitude. By taking account of the research mission, the basic specifications of the vessel are decided; the total weight is 500 t, the submersible depth is 600 m, the maximum speed is 12 knots (22.2 km/h), and the number of crews is 16. Nuclear power has an advantage in supplying large power of electricity in the sea for long period. Based on the requirements, it has been decided that two sets of submersible compact reactor, SCR, which is light-weighted and of enhanced safety characteristics of supply the total electricity of 500 kW. (author)

  4. Utility of the Amborella trichopoda expansin superfamily in elucidating the history of angiosperm expansins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seader, Victoria H; Thornsberry, Jennifer M; Carey, Robert E

    2016-03-01

    Expansins form a superfamily of plant proteins that assist in cell wall loosening during growth and development. The superfamily is divided into four families: EXPA, EXPB, EXLA, and EXLB (Sampedro and Cosgrove in Genome Biol 6:242, 2005. doi: 10.1186/gb-2005-6-12-242 ). Previous studies on Arabidopsis, rice, and Populus trichocarpa have clarified the evolutionary history of expansins in angiosperms (Sampedro et al. in Plant J 44:409-419, 2005. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-313X.2005.02540.x ). Amborella trichopoda is a flowering plant that diverged very early. Thus, it is a sister lineage to all other extant angiosperms (Amborella Genome Project in 342:1241089, 2013. doi: 10.1126/science.1241089 ). Because of this relationship, comparing the A. trichopoda expansin superfamily with those of other flowering plants may indicate which expansin genes were present in the last common ancestor of all angiosperms. The A. trichopoda expansin superfamily was assembled using BLAST searches with angiosperm expansin queries. The search results were analyzed and annotated to isolate the complete A. trichopoda expansin superfamily. This superfamily is similar to other angiosperm expansin superfamilies, but is somewhat smaller. This is likely because of a lack of genome duplication events (Amborella Genome Project 2013). Phylogenetic and syntenic analyses of A. trichopoda expansins have improved our understanding of the evolutionary history of expansins in angiosperms. Nearly all of the A. trichopoda expansins were placed into an existing Arabidopsis-rice expansin clade. Based on the results of phylogenetic and syntenic analyses, we estimate there were 12-13 EXPA genes, 2 EXPB genes, 1 EXLA gene, and 2 EXLB genes in the last common ancestor of all angiosperms.

  5. Calculation of conversion coefficients using Chinese adult reference phantoms for air submersion and ground contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wei; Qiu, Rui; Wu, Zhen; Li, Chunyan; Yang, Bo; Liu, Huan; Ren, Li; Li, Junli

    2017-03-21

    The effective and organ equivalent dose coefficients have been widely used to provide assessment of doses received by adult members of the public and by workers exposed to environmental radiation from nuclear facilities under normal or accidental situations. Advancements in phantom types, weighting factors, decay data, etc, have led to the publication of newer results in this regard. This paper presents a new set of conversion coefficients for air submersion and ground contamination (with the use of Geant4) for photons from 15 keV to 10 MeV using the Chinese and International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) adult reference male and female phantoms. The radiation fields, except for energy spectrum at low energies, were validated by the data obtained from the Monte Carlo code YURI. The effective dose coefficients of monoenergetic photons, obtained for the ICRP adult reference phantoms, agree well with recently published data for air submersion and ground contamination with a plane source at a depth of 0.5 g cm-2 in soil, but an average difference of 36.5% is observed for ground surface contamination with the abovementioned radiation field. The average differences in organ equivalent dose coefficients between the Chinese and the ICRP adult reference phantoms are within 6% for most organs, but noticeable differences of up to 70% or even higher are found at photon energies below 30 keV under air submersion. The effective dose coefficients obtained with the Chinese adult reference phantoms are greater than those of the ICRP adult reference phantoms above 30 keV and 0.5 MeV for ground contamination and air submersion, respectively; the average differences from the Chinese adult reference phantoms are about 3.6% and 0.4% in the whole energy range with maximum differences of 31.8% and 27.6% at 15 keV for air submersion and ground contamination respectively. These differences are attributed to anatomical discrepancies in overlying tissue mass of an

  6. Aquatic Life Benchmarks

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Aquatic Life Benchmarks is an EPA-developed set of criteria for freshwater species. These benchmarks are based on toxicity values reviewed by EPA and used in the...

  7. Aquatic Life Criteria - Copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Documents pertain to Aquatic Life Ambient Water Quality criteria for Copper (2007 Freshwater, 2016 Estuarine/marine). These documents contain the safe levels of Copper in water that should protect to the majority of species.

  8. Aquatic Research Laboratory (ARL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Columbia River and groundwater well water sources are delivered to the Aquatic Research Laboratory (ARL), where these resources are used to conduct research on fish...

  9. Aquatic Life Criterion - Selenium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Documents pertaining to the 2016 Acute and Chronic Ambient Aquatic Life Water Quality Criteria for Selenium (Freshwater). These documents include what the safe levels of Selenium are in water for the majority of species.

  10. Molecular ecology of aquatic microbes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    Abstracts of reports are presented from a meeting on Molecular Ecology of Aquatic Microbes. Topics included: opportunities offered to aquatic ecology by molecular biology; the role of aquatic microbes in biogeochemical cycles; characterization of the microbial community; the effect of the environment on aquatic microbes; and the targeting of specific biological processes.

  11. Formin homology 2 domains occur in multiple contexts in angiosperms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pícková Denisa

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Involvement of conservative molecular modules and cellular mechanisms in the widely diversified processes of eukaryotic cell morphogenesis leads to the intriguing question: how do similar proteins contribute to dissimilar morphogenetic outputs. Formins (FH2 proteins play a central part in the control of actin organization and dynamics, providing a good example of evolutionarily versatile use of a conserved protein domain in the context of a variety of lineage-specific structural and signalling interactions. Results In order to identify possible plant-specific sequence features within the FH2 protein family, we performed a detailed analysis of angiosperm formin-related sequences available in public databases, with particular focus on the complete Arabidopsis genome and the nearly finished rice genome sequence. This has led to revision of the current annotation of half of the 22 Arabidopsis formin-related genes. Comparative analysis of the two plant genomes revealed a good conservation of the previously described two subfamilies of plant formins (Class I and Class II, as well as several subfamilies within them that appear to predate the separation of monocot and dicot plants. Moreover, a number of plant Class II formins share an additional conserved domain, related to the protein phosphatase/tensin/auxilin fold. However, considerable inter-species variability sets limits to generalization of any functional conclusions reached on a single species such as Arabidopsis. Conclusions The plant-specific domain context of the conserved FH2 domain, as well as plant-specific features of the domain itself, may reflect distinct functional requirements in plant cells. The variability of formin structures found in plants far exceeds that known from both fungi and metazoans, suggesting a possible contribution of FH2 proteins in the evolution of the plant type of multicellularity.

  12. In situ particle characterization and evidence of ubiquitous particle orientation in the ocean using a submersible holographic imaging system (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Aditya R.; McFarland, Malcolm N.; Stockley, Nicole D.; Twardowski, Michael S.; Sullivan, James M.

    2017-05-01

    Field experiments with the goal of characterizing aquatic particle properties, including size distributions and orientations in their natural environment, were conducted using a submersible holographic imaging system (HOLOCAM). Digital holography is a non-intrusive technique that allows particle fields to be mapped within a 3-D sampling volume at high resolution. The HOLOCAM was deployed at East Sound, a fjord in the US Pacific Northwest, and Lake Erie over three separate deployments from 2013 to 2015. A database of more than a million particles in the 100-10000 µm size range of varying shape and orientation was created after processing holograms. Furthermore, simultaneous, co-located acoustic Doppler velocimeter measurements of small-scale shear and turbulence structure were used to study the effects of the ambient flow field on particle orientation. Several interesting features presented themselves, with a Microcystis bloom dominating the surface layer of Lake Erie, while `thin layers' of high particle concentrations dominated by colonial diatoms were seen in East Sound. Particle size distribution (PSD) slopes in the 50-250 µm size range were 1.7-1.9, while for particles optics as random particle orientation is inherently assumed in theory and models. Preferential alignment can increase/decrease optical properties such as backscattering and attenuation relative to random distributions.

  13. Comprehensive analysis of tandem amino acid repeats from ten angiosperm genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuan; Liu, Jing; Han, Lei; Li, Zhi-Gang; Zhang, Ziding

    2011-12-23

    The presence of tandem amino acid repeats (AARs) is one of the signatures of eukaryotic proteins. AARs were thought to be frequently involved in bio-molecular interactions. Comprehensive studies that primarily focused on metazoan AARs have suggested that AARs are evolving rapidly and are highly variable among species. However, there is still controversy over causal factors of this inter-species variation. In this work, we attempted to investigate this topic mainly by comparing AARs in orthologous proteins from ten angiosperm genomes. Angiosperm AAR content is positively correlated with the GC content of the protein coding sequence. However, based on observations from fungal AARs and insect AARs, we argue that the applicability of this kind of correlation is limited by AAR residue composition and species' life history traits. Angiosperm AARs also tend to be fast evolving and structurally disordered, supporting the results of comprehensive analyses of metazoans. The functions of conserved long AARs are summarized. Finally, we propose that the rapid mRNA decay rate, alternative splicing and tissue specificity are regulatory processes that are associated with angiosperm proteins harboring AARs. Our investigation suggests that GC content is a predictor of AAR content in the protein coding sequence under certain conditions. Although angiosperm AARs lack conservation and 3D structure, a fraction of the proteins that contain AARs may be functionally important and are under extensive regulation in plant cells.

  14. Yuhania: a unique angiosperm from the Middle Jurassic of Inner Mongolia, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhong-Jian; Wang, Xin

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Despite increasing claims of pre-Cretaceous angiosperms, whether there really are angiosperms in the Jurassic is apparently still an open question for many people before further evidence is available. This question can only be answered by studying more Jurassic plant fossils. Here we report a fossil angiosperm, Yuhania daohugouensis gen. et sp. nov, from the Middle Jurassic of Inner Mongolia, China. The plant includes connected stem, leaves, flowers, aggregate fruits, fruitlets, and seeds within fruitlets. The leaves are helically arranged along the curving stem, linear in shape, with 5–6 parallel veins. The aggregate fruit is pedicellate, composed of over 20 carpels/fruitlets helically arranged. Each fruitlet encloses a seed. The reproductive organs in various stages are found in the same plant, allowing us to understand the development of Yuhania. The occurrence of Yuhania in the Middle Jurassic re-confirms the Jurassic history for angiosperms that has been suggested by other independent research and adds to the on-going study on the early evolution of angiosperms. PMID:28392623

  15. Hydraulic tuning of vein cell microstructure in the evolution of angiosperm venation networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feild, Taylor S; Brodribb, Timothy J

    2013-08-01

    High vein density (D(V)) evolution in angiosperms represented a key functional transition. Yet, a mechanistic account on how this hydraulic transformation evolved remains lacking. We demonstrate that a consequence of producing high D(V is that veins must become very small to fit inside the leaf, and that angiosperms are the only clade that evolved the specific type of vessel required to yield sufficiently conductive miniature leaf veins. From 111 species spanning key divergences in vascular plant evolution, we show, using analyses of vein conduit evolution in relation to vein packing, that a key xylem innovation associated with high D(V) evolution is a strong reduction in vein thickness and simplification of the perforation plates of primary xylem vessels. Simple perforation plates in the leaf xylem occurred only in derived angiosperm clades exhibiting high D(V) (> 12 mm mm(-2)). Perforation plates in the vessels of other species, including extant basal angiosperms, consisted of resistive scalariform types that were associated with thicker veins and much lower D(V). We conclude that a reduction in within-vein conduit resistance allowed vein size to decrease. We suggest that this adaptation may have been a critical evolutionary step that enabled dramatic D(V) elaboration in angiosperms. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  16. Ecological determinants of mean family age of angiosperm trees in forest communities in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Hong; Chen, Shengbin

    2016-06-01

    Species assemblage in a local community is determined by the interplay of evolutionary and ecological processes. The Tropical Niche Conservatism hypothesis proposes mechanisms underlying patterns of biodiversity in biological communities along environmental gradients. This hypothesis predicts that, among other things, clades in areas with warm or wet environments are, on average, older than those in areas with cold or dry environments. Focusing on angiosperm trees in forests, this study tested the age-related prediction of the Tropical Niche Conservatism hypothesis. We related the mean family age of angiosperm trees in 57 local forests from across China with 23 current and paleo-environmental variables, which included all major temperature- and precipitation-related variables. Our study shows that the mean family age of angiosperm trees in local forests was positively correlated with temperature and precipitation. This finding is consistent with the age-related prediction of the Tropical Niche Conservatism hypothesis. Approximately 85% of the variance in the mean family age of angiosperm trees was explained by temperature-related variables, and 81% of the variance in the mean family age of angiosperm trees was explained by precipitation-related variables. Climatic conditions at the Last Glacial Maximum did not explain additional variation in mean family age after accounting for current environmental conditions.

  17. Evolutionary Analysis of MIKCc-Type MADS-Box Genes in Gymnosperms and Angiosperms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Chen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available MIKCc-type MADS-box genes encode transcription factors that control floral organ morphogenesis and flowering time in flowering plants. Here, in order to determine when the subfamilies of MIKCc originated and their early evolutionary trajectory, we sampled and analyzed the genomes and large-scale transcriptomes representing all the orders of gymnosperms and basal angiosperms. Through phylogenetic inference, the MIKCc-type MADS-box genes were subdivided into 14 monophyletic clades. Among them, the gymnosperm orthologs of AGL6, SEP, AP1, GMADS, SOC1, AGL32, AP3/PI, SVP, AGL15, ANR1, and AG were identified. We identified and characterized the origin of a novel subfamily GMADS within gymnosperms but lost orthologs in monocots and Brassicaceae. ABCE model prototype genes were relatively conserved in terms of gene number in gymnosperms, but expanded in angiosperms, whereas SVP, SOC1, and GMADS had dramatic expansions in gymnosperms but conserved in angiosperms. Our results provided the most detailed evolutionary history of all MIKCc gene clades in gymnosperms and angiosperms. We proposed that although the near complete set of MIKCc genes had evolved in gymnosperms, the duplication and expressional transition of ABCE model MIKCc genes in the ancestor of angiosperms triggered the first flower.

  18. Evolutionary Analysis of MIKCc-Type MADS-Box Genes in Gymnosperms and Angiosperms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fei; Zhang, Xingtan; Liu, Xing; Zhang, Liangsheng

    2017-01-01

    MIKCc-type MADS-box genes encode transcription factors that control floral organ morphogenesis and flowering time in flowering plants. Here, in order to determine when the subfamilies of MIKCc originated and their early evolutionary trajectory, we sampled and analyzed the genomes and large-scale transcriptomes representing all the orders of gymnosperms and basal angiosperms. Through phylogenetic inference, the MIKCc-type MADS-box genes were subdivided into 14 monophyletic clades. Among them, the gymnosperm orthologs of AGL6, SEP, AP1, GMADS, SOC1, AGL32, AP3/PI, SVP, AGL15, ANR1, and AG were identified. We identified and characterized the origin of a novel subfamily GMADS within gymnosperms but lost orthologs in monocots and Brassicaceae. ABCE model prototype genes were relatively conserved in terms of gene number in gymnosperms, but expanded in angiosperms, whereas SVP, SOC1, and GMADS had dramatic expansions in gymnosperms but conserved in angiosperms. Our results provided the most detailed evolutionary history of all MIKCc gene clades in gymnosperms and angiosperms. We proposed that although the near complete set of MIKCc genes had evolved in gymnosperms, the duplication and expressional transition of ABCE model MIKCc genes in the ancestor of angiosperms triggered the first flower. PMID:28611810

  19. Submersible UV-Vis spectroscopy for quantifying streamwater organic carbon dynamics: implementation and challenges before and after forest harvest in a headwater stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jollymore, Ashlee; Johnson, Mark S; Hawthorne, Iain

    2012-01-01

    Organic material, including total and dissolved organic carbon (DOC), is ubiquitous within aquatic ecosystems, playing a variety of important and diverse biogeochemical and ecological roles. Determining how land-use changes affect DOC concentrations and bioavailability within aquatic ecosystems is an important means of evaluating the effects on ecological productivity and biogeochemical cycling. This paper presents a methodology case study looking at the deployment of a submersible UV-Vis absorbance spectrophotometer (UV-Vis spectro::lyzer model, s::can, Vienna, Austria) to determine stream organic carbon dynamics within a headwater catchment located near Campbell River (British Columbia, Canada). Field-based absorbance measurements of DOC were made before and after forest harvest, highlighting the advantages of high temporal resolution compared to traditional grab sampling and laboratory measurements. Details of remote deployment are described. High-frequency DOC data is explored by resampling the 30 min time series with a range of resampling time intervals (from daily to weekly time steps). DOC export was calculated for three months from the post-harvest data and resampled time series, showing that sampling frequency has a profound effect on total DOC export. DOC exports derived from weekly measurements were found to underestimate export by as much as 30% compared to DOC export calculated from high-frequency data. Additionally, the importance of the ability to remotely monitor the system through a recently deployed wireless connection is emphasized by examining causes of prior data losses, and how such losses may be prevented through the ability to react when environmental or power disturbances cause system interruption and data loss.

  20. Submersible UV-Vis Spectroscopy for Quantifying Streamwater Organic Carbon Dynamics: Implementation and Challenges before and after Forest Harvest in a Headwater Stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iain Hawthorne

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Organic material, including total and dissolved organic carbon (DOC, is ubiquitous within aquatic ecosystems, playing a variety of important and diverse biogeochemical and ecological roles. Determining how land-use changes affect DOC concentrations and bioavailability within aquatic ecosystems is an important means of evaluating the effects on ecological productivity and biogeochemical cycling. This paper presents a methodology case study looking at the deployment of a submersible UV-Vis absorbance spectrophotometer (UV-Vis spectro::lyzer model, s::can, Vienna, Austria to determine stream organic carbon dynamics within a headwater catchment located near Campbell River (British Columbia, Canada. Field-based absorbance measurements of DOC were made before and after forest harvest, highlighting the advantages of high temporal resolution compared to traditional grab sampling and laboratory measurements. Details of remote deployment are described. High-frequency DOC data is explored by resampling the 30 min time series with a range of resampling time intervals (from daily to weekly time steps. DOC export was calculated for three months from the post-harvest data and resampled time series, showing that sampling frequency has a profound effect on total DOC export. DOC exports derived from weekly measurements were found to underestimate export by as much as 30% compared to DOC export calculated from high-frequency data. Additionally, the importance of the ability to remotely monitor the system through a recently deployed wireless connection is emphasized by examining causes of prior data losses, and how such losses may be prevented through the ability to react when environmental or power disturbances cause system interruption and data loss.

  1. Analysis of Electric Propulsion Performance on Submersible with Motor DC, Supply Power 10260AH at Voltage 115VDC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indra Ranu Kusuma

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Electric propulsion is the ship system using propulsion motor to replace performance of main engine. The application of diesel engine as propulsion system have some problems and weaknesses such as diesel engine unability to operate when submersible vessel is operating under sea. To overcome that problems in submersible vessel, alternative solution of ship propulsion is required. DC Motor can be used as this alternative solution. Submersible vessel use electric propulsion system with DC Motor because DC Motor has advantages of easy rotation setting and does not cause noise when submersible vessel is diving. This bachelor thesis will study the application of DC Motor as an electric propulsion system on submersible vessel with length 59,57 m in series and parallel circuit by simulation using MATLAB software. The simulation data obtained are rotation and torque of DC Motor. From these simulation, it can be concluded that parallel circuit rotation is greater than series circuit rotation. It caused the greater speed and lower power in parallel circuit. 

  2. Donor cornea tissue in cases of drowning or water submersion: eye banks practice patterns and tissue outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, Nithya P; Parikh, Purak; Mian, Shahzad I; Tennant, Brad; Grossman, Gregory H; Albrecht, Bob; Niziol, Leslie M; Woodward, Maria A

    2017-10-25

    Surgical use of donor corneal tissue from victims of water submersion (drowning or submersion secondary to death) remains controversial due to limited evidence about the quality of these tissues. To assess the safety of donor corneal tissue from victims of water submersion, an investigation of eye banks' practice patterns and tissue outcomes was conducted. All 79 Eye Bank Association of America accredited eye banks were contacted for a phone interview of practices regarding tissue from victims of water submersion. A retrospective review of corneal tissues from 2014 to 2016 from a large eye bank network was performed to identify all donors submerged in water. Corneal epithelial integrity, endothelial cell density (ECD), rim cultures, and adverse events were analyzed for associations with water submersion characteristics. 49 eye banks (62% response) participated in the survey. 55% of these eye banks had specific, written protocol for tissue eligibility from donors submerged in water. With or without specific protocol, eye banks reported considering water type (84%) and length of time submerged (92%) to determine eligibility. 22% of eye banks reported medical director involvement when eligibility determination was unclear. 79 tissues from 40 donors who were submerged were identified in 2014-2016 eye bank data. No donor tissues had pre-processing corneal infiltrates, positive rim cultures, or adverse events post-keratoplasty. Corneal epithelial integrity and ECD were not associated with water type or length of time submerged. In conclusion, data from a large eye bank network showed no adverse events or outcomes, indicating these tissues may be safe.

  3. GC content evolution in coding regions of angiosperm genomes: a unifying hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glémin, Sylvain; Clément, Yves; David, Jacques; Ressayre, Adrienne

    2014-07-01

    In angiosperms (as in other species), GC content varies along and between genes, within a genome, and between genomes of different species, but the reason for this distribution is still an open question. Grass genomes are particularly intriguing because they exhibit a strong bimodal distribution of genic GC content and a sharp 5'-3' decreasing GC content gradient along most genes. Here, we propose a unifying model to explain the main patterns of GC content variation at the gene and genome scale. We argue that GC content patterns could be mainly determined by the interactions between gene structure, recombination patterns, and GC-biased gene conversion. Recent studies on fine-scale recombination maps in angiosperms support this hypothesis and previous results also fit this model. We propose that our model could be used as a null hypothesis to search for additional forces that affect GC content in angiosperms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Evolution of Lower Brachyceran Flies (Diptera and Their Adaptive Radiation with Angiosperms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Wang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The Diptera (true flies is one of the most species-abundant orders of Insecta, and it is also among the most important flower-visiting insects. Dipteran fossils are abundant in the Mesozoic, especially in the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous. Here, we review the fossil record and early evolution of some Mesozoic lower brachyceran flies together with new records in Burmese amber, including Tabanidae, Nemestrinidae, Bombyliidae, Eremochaetidae, and Zhangsolvidae. The fossil records reveal that some flower-visiting groups had diversified during the mid-Cretaceous, consistent with the rise of angiosperms to widespread floristic dominance. These brachyceran groups played an important role in the origin of co-evolutionary relationships with basal angiosperms. Moreover, the rise of angiosperms not only improved the diversity of flower-visiting flies, but also advanced the turnover and evolution of other specialized flies.

  5. History of plastid DNA insertions reveals weak deletion and at mutation biases in angiosperm mitochondrial genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, Daniel B; Wu, Zhiqiang

    2014-11-21

    Angiosperm mitochondrial genomes exhibit many unusual properties, including heterogeneous nucleotide composition and exceptionally large and variable genome sizes. Determining the role of nonadaptive mechanisms such as mutation bias in shaping the molecular evolution of these unique genomes has proven challenging because their dynamic structures generally prevent identification of homologous intergenic sequences for comparative analyses. Here, we report an analysis of angiosperm mitochondrial DNA sequences that are derived from inserted plastid DNA (mtpts). The availability of numerous completely sequenced plastid genomes allows us to infer the evolutionary history of these insertions, including the specific nucleotide substitutions and indels that have occurred because their incorporation into the mitochondrial genome. Our analysis confirmed that many mtpts have a complex history, including frequent gene conversion and multiple examples of horizontal transfer between divergent angiosperm lineages. Nevertheless, it is clear that the majority of extant mtpt sequence in angiosperms is the product of recent transfer (or gene conversion) and is subject to rapid loss/deterioration, suggesting that most mtpts are evolving relatively free from functional constraint. The evolution of mtpt sequences reveals a pattern of biased mutational input in angiosperm mitochondrial genomes, including an excess of small deletions over insertions and a skew toward nucleotide substitutions that increase AT content. However, these mutation biases are far weaker than have been observed in many other cellular genomes, providing insight into some of the notable features of angiosperm mitochondrial architecture, including the retention of large intergenic regions and the relatively neutral GC content found in these regions. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  6. Uncorrelated evolution of leaf and petal venation patterns across the angiosperm phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roddy, Adam B; Guilliams, C Matt; Lilittham, Terapan; Farmer, Jessica; Wormser, Vanessa; Pham, Trang; Fine, Paul V A; Feild, Taylor S; Dawson, Todd E

    2013-10-01

    Early angiosperm evolution, beginning approximately 140 million years ago, saw many innovations that enabled flowering plants to alter ecosystems globally. These included the development of novel, flower-based pollinator attraction mechanisms and the development of increased water transport capacity in stems and leaves. Vein length per area (VLA) of leaves increased nearly threefold in the first 30-40 million years of angiosperm evolution, increasing the capacity for transpiration and photosynthesis. In contrast to leaves, high water transport capacities in flowers may not be an advantage because flowers do not typically contribute to plant carbon gain. Although flowers of extant basal angiosperms are hydrated by the xylem, flowers of more recently derived lineages may be hydrated predominantly by the phloem. In the present study, we measured leaf and flower VLA for a phylogenetically diverse sample of 132 species from 52 angiosperm families to ask (i) whether flowers have lower VLA than leaves, (ii) whether flowers of basal angiosperm lineages have higher VLA than more recently derived lineages because of differences between xylem and phloem hydration, and (iii) whether flower and leaf VLA evolved independently. It was found that floral structures had lower VLA than leaves, but basal angiosperm flowers did not have higher VLA than more derived lineages. Furthermore, the independent evolution of leaf and petal VLA suggested that these organs may be developmentally modular. Unlike leaves, which have experienced strong selection for increased water transport capacity, flowers may have been shielded from such selective pressures by different developmental processes controlling VLA throughout the plant bauplan.

  7. Evolutionary origins of pectin methylesterase genes associated with novel aspects of angiosperm pollen tube walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Simon; Williams, Joseph H

    2017-06-03

    The early evolution of angiosperms was marked by a number of innovations of the reproductive cycle including an accelerated fertilization process involving faster transport of sperm to the egg via a pollen tube. Fast pollen tube growth rates in angiosperms are accompanied by a hard shank-soft tip pollen tube morphology. A critical actor in that morphology is the wall-embedded enzyme pectin methylesterase (PME), which in type II PMEs is accompanied by a co-transcribed inhibitor, PMEI. PMEs convert the esterified pectic tip wall to a stiffer state in the subapical flank by pectin de-esterification. It is hypothesized that rapid and precise targeting of PME activity was gained with the origin of type II genes, which are derived and have only expanded since the origin of vascular plants. Pollen-active PMEs have yet to be reported in early-divergent angiosperms or gymnosperms. Gene expression studies in Nymphaea odorata found transcripts from four type II VGD1-like and 16 type I AtPPME1-like homologs that were more abundant in pollen and pollen tubes than in vegetative tissues. The near full-length coding sequence of one type II PME (NoPMEII-1) included at least one PMEI domain. The identification of possible VGD1 homologs in an early-diverging angiosperm suggests that the refined control of PMEs that mediate de-esterification of pectins near pollen tube tips is a conserved feature across angiosperms. The recruitment of type II PMEs into a pollen tube elongation role in angiosperms may represent a key evolutionary step in the development of faster growing pollen tubes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. False Blister Beetles and the Expansion of Gymnosperm-Insect Pollination Modes before Angiosperm Dominance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peris, David; Pérez-de la Fuente, Ricardo; Peñalver, Enrique; Delclòs, Xavier; Barrón, Eduardo; Labandeira, Conrad C

    2017-03-20

    During the mid-Cretaceous, angiosperms diversified from several nondiverse lineages to their current global domination [1], replacing earlier gymnosperm lineages [2]. Several hypotheses explain this extensive radiation [3], one of which involves proliferation of insect pollinator associations in the transition from gymnosperm to angiosperm dominance. However, most evidence supports gymnosperm-insect pollinator associations, buttressed by direct evidence of pollen on insect bodies, currently established for four groups: Thysanoptera (thrips), Neuroptera (lacewings), Diptera (flies), and now Coleoptera (beetles). Each group represents a distinctive pollination mode linked to a unique mouthpart type and feeding guild [4-9]. Extensive indirect evidence, based on specialized head and mouthpart morphology, is present for one of these pollinator types, the long-proboscid pollination mode [10], representing minimally ten family-level lineages of Neuroptera, Mecoptera (scorpionflies), and Diptera [8, 10, 11]. A recurring feature uniting these pollinator modes is host associations with ginkgoalean, cycad, conifer, and bennettitalean gymnosperms. Pollinator lineages bearing these pollination modes were categorized into four evolutionary cohorts during the 35-million-year-long angiosperm radiation, each defined by its host-plant associations (gymnosperm or angiosperm) and evolutionary pattern (extinction, continuation, or origination) during this interval [12]. Here, we provide the first direct evidence for one cohort, exemplified by the beetle Darwinylus marcosi, family Oedemeridae (false blister beetles), that had an earlier gymnosperm (most likely cycad) host association, later transitioning onto angiosperms [13]. This association constitutes one of four patterns explaining the plateau of family-level plant lineages generally and pollinating insects specifically during the mid-Cretaceous angiosperm radiation [12]. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Do quantitative vessel and pit characters account for ion-mediated changes in the hydraulic conductance of angiosperm xylem?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, S.; Gortan, E.; Lens, F.; Assunta Lo Gullo, M.; Salleo, S.; Scholtz, A.; Stein, A.; Trifilò, P.; Nardini, A.

    2011-01-01

    • The hydraulic conductance of angiosperm xylem has been suggested to vary with changes in sap solute concentrations because of intervessel pit properties. • The magnitude of the ‘ionic effect’ was linked with vessel and pit dimensions in 20 angiosperm species covering 13 families including six

  10. Study on global performances and mooring-induced damping of a semi-submersible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Ling-zhi; Yang, Jian-min; Lv, Hai-ning; Zhao, Wen-hua; Kou, Yu-feng

    2016-10-01

    The harsh environmental conditions bring strong nonlinearities to the hydrodynamic performances of the offshore floating platforms, which challenge the reliable prediction of the platform coupled with the mooring system. The present study investigates a typical semi-submersible under both the operational and the survival conditions through numerical and experimental methods. The motion responses, the mooring line tensions, and the wave loads on the longitudinal mid-section are investigated by both the fully non-linearly coupled numerical simulation and the physical experiment. Particularly, in the physical model test, the wave loads distributed on the semi-submersible's mid-section were measured by dividing the model into two parts, namely the port and the starboard parts, which were rigidly connected by three six-component force transducers. It is concluded that both the numerical and physical model can have good prediction of the semi-submersible's global responses. In addition, an improved numerical approach is proposed for the estimation of the mooring-induced damping, and is validated by both the experimental and the published results. The characteristics of the mooring-induced damping are further summarized in various sea states, including the operational and the survival environments. In order to obtain the better prediction of the system response in deep water, the mooring-induced damping of the truncated mooring lines applied in the physical experiment are compensated by comparing with those in full length. Furthermore, the upstream taut and the downstream slack mooring lines are classified and investigated to obtain the different mooring line damping performances in the comparative study.

  11. An angiosperm-wide analysis of the gynodioecy-dioecy pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufay, M; Champelovier, P; Käfer, J; Henry, J P; Mousset, S; Marais, G A B

    2014-09-01

    About 6 % of an estimated total of 240 000 species of angiosperms are dioecious. The main precursors of this sexual system are thought to be monoecy and gynodioecy. A previous angiosperm-wide study revealed that many dioecious species have evolved through the monoecy pathway; some case studies and a large body of theoretical research also provide evidence in support of the gynodioecy pathway. If plants have evolved through the gynodioecy pathway, gynodioecious and dioecious species should co-occur in the same genera. However, to date, no large-scale analysis has been conducted to determine the prevalence of the gynodioecy pathway in angiosperms. In this study, this gap in knowledge was addressed by performing an angiosperm-wide survey in order to test for co-occurrence as evidence of the gynodioecy pathway. Data from different sources were compiled to obtain (to our knowledge) the largest dataset on gynodioecy available, with 275 genera that include at least one gynodioecious species. This dataset was combined with a dioecy dataset from the literature, and a study was made of how often dioecious and gynodioecious species could be found in the same genera using a contingency table framework. It was found that, overall, angiosperm genera with both gynodioecious and dioecious species occur more frequently than expected, in agreement with the gynodioecy pathway. Importantly, this trend holds when studying different classes separately (or sub-classes, orders and families), suggesting that the gynodioecy pathway is not restricted to a few taxa but may instead be widespread in angiosperms. This work complements that previously carried out on the monoecy pathway and suggests that gynodioecy is also a common pathway in angiosperms. The results also identify angiosperm families where some (or all) dioecious species may have evolved from gynodioecious precursors. These families could be the targets of future small-scale studies on transitions to dioecy taking phylogeny

  12. Salt tolerance is evolutionarily labile in a diverse set of angiosperm families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moray, Camile; Hua, Xia; Bromham, Lindell

    2015-05-19

    Salt tolerance in plants is rare, yet it is found across a diverse set of taxonomic groups. This suggests that, although salt tolerance often involves a set of complex traits, it has evolved many times independently in different angiosperm lineages. However, the pattern of evolution of salt tolerance can vary dramatically between families. A recent phylogenetic study of the Chenopodiaceae (goosefoot family) concluded that salt tolerance has a conserved evolutionary pattern, being gained early in the evolution of the lineage then retained by most species in the family. Conversely, a phylogenetic study of the Poaceae (grass family) suggested over 70 independent gains of salt tolerance, most giving rise to only one or a few salt tolerant species. Here, we use a phylogenetic approach to explore the macroevolutionary patterns of salt tolerance in a sample of angiosperm families, in order to ask whether either of these two patterns - deep and conserved or shallow and labile - represents a common mode of salt tolerance evolution. We analyze the distribution of halophyte species across the angiosperms and identify families with more or less halophytes than expected under a random model. Then, we explore the phylogenetic distribution of halophytes in 22 families using phylogenetic comparative methods. We find that salt tolerance species have been reported from over one-third of angiosperm families, but that salt tolerant species are not distributed evenly across angiosperm families. We find that salt tolerance has been gained hundreds of times over the history of the angiosperms. In a few families, we find deep and conserved gains of salt tolerance, but in the majority of families analyzed, we find that the pattern of salt tolerant species is best explained by multiple independent gains that occur near the tips of the phylogeny and often give rise to only one or a few halophytes. Our results suggest that the pattern of many independent gains of salt tolerance near the tips

  13. INTENSITY SETTER FOR A DEVICE OF SMOOTH START OF SUBMERSIBLE PUMP ELECTRIC MOTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.I. Lobov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Development of an intensity setter, which in a rational law changes the opening thyristor the voltage regulator and effectively to changing power supply voltage stator windings of the electric pump deepening, ensuring a smooth start in a wide range. Methodology. Electric submersible pump belongs to the small inertia electric, since it is not significant total moment of inertia, not exceeding two moments of inertia of the motor and static moment on the shaft does not exceed forty percent of the nominal torque. For technical requirements that electric acceleration time should have no less than twenty seconds or more. Office starting modes of electric submersible pumps economically justified using thyristor voltage regulator by forming the dial changes the intensity of the necessary legislation in time voltage feeding the stator windings. This ensures a smooth start right rotor of the electric submersible pump. Results. A block diagram of the intensity setter that is: with control unit, two units that form the exponential voltage supply emitter follower and regulatory elements. The mathematical expressions for voltage at the stator windings of the motor, changing exponentially, opening the angle of thyristor power unit thyristor the voltage regulator, which is determined through the initial angle of opening. Provided formula for pick-up voltage and minimum voltage, time constants, which are determined from the basic equations of motion and mechanical characteristics of the electric motor. Analytical investigated by the voltage dependence violation by changing the time constant flowing and growing exhibitor supply voltage stator electric circuit deepening pump. Originality. Proposed in the initial time on the stator windings of the electric pick-up voltage is applied. Under the influence of this voltage, motor rotor begins to accelerate. At the same time, pick-up voltage decreases the minimum startup voltage varies exponentially in which

  14. Maintenance of submersible pumps in the septic tanks: ergonomic and biological risks to the worker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariño, Suzi; Figueiredo, Alex

    2012-01-01

    In this study was observed the maintenance task of submersible pumps septic tanks installed in industrial bathrooms. This maintenance activity operators are exposed to various biological and ergonomic risks. This type of activity requires its great physical performers who are also subject to contact with human waste in the form of liquids, gases and solids. Besides the problems mentioned, are still exposed to high temperatures that can cause diseases such as hyperthermia or heatstroke. These aspects were observed using the ergonomic assessment methodology in order to suggest improvements that are reflected in productivity and employee satisfaction.

  15. A study among the population of Sevilla of death due to submersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamero, J; Romero, J L; Arufe, M I; Vizcaya, M A; Balanza, E

    1997-03-01

    Death due to submersion is of great interest from the medical-legal point of view, given the increase in nautical activity among children and adults alike over the past number of years. However, the lack of reliable statistical data concerning the impact of this specific form of death in our country must be emphasized. These are the circumstances that have led us to study the incidence of this form of death in a specific area. The population analyzed lived in the city of Sevilla during the period 1967-1993.

  16. Generic phylogeny, historical biogeography and character evolution of the cosmopolitan aquatic plant family Hydrocharitaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ling-Yun; Chen, Jin-Ming; Gituru, Robert Wahiti; Wang, Qing-Feng

    2012-03-10

    Hydrocharitaceae is a fully aquatic monocot family, consists of 18 genera with approximately 120 species. The family includes both fresh and marine aquatics and exhibits great diversity in form and habit including annual and perennial life histories; submersed, partially submersed and floating leaf habits and linear to orbicular leaf shapes. The family has a cosmopolitan distribution and is well represented in the Tertiary fossil record in Europe. At present, the historical biogeography of the family is not well understood and the generic relationships remain controversial. In this study we investigated the phylogeny and biogeography of Hydrocharitaceae by integrating fossils and DNA sequences from eight genes. We also conducted ancestral state reconstruction for three morphological characters. Phylogenetic analyses produced a phylogeny with most branches strongly supported by bootstrap values greater than 95 and Bayesian posterior probability values of 1.0. Stratiotes is the first diverging lineage with the remaining genera in two clades, one clade consists of Lagarosiphon, Ottelia, Blyxa, Apalanthe, Elodea and Egeria; and the other consists of Hydrocharis-Limnobium, Thalassia, Enhalus, Halophila, Najas, Hydrilla, Vallisneria, Nechamandra and Maidenia. Biogeographic analyses (DIVA, Mesquite) and divergence time estimates (BEAST) resolved the most recent common ancestor of Hydrocharitaceae as being in Asia during the Late Cretaceous and Palaeocene (54.7-72.6 Ma). Dispersals (including long-distance dispersal and migrations through Tethys seaway and land bridges) probably played major roles in the intercontinental distribution of this family. Ancestral state reconstruction suggested that in Hydrocharitaceae evolution of dioecy is bidirectional, viz., from dioecy to hermaphroditism, and from hermaphroditism to dioecy, and that the aerial-submerged leaf habit and short-linear leaf shape are the ancestral states. Our study has shed light on the previously controversial

  17. Ferns are less dependent on passive dilution by cell expansion to coordinate leaf vein and stomatal spacing than angiosperms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeline R Carins Murphy

    Full Text Available Producing leaves with closely spaced veins is a key innovation linked to high rates of photosynthesis in angiosperms. A close geometric link between veins and stomata in angiosperms ensures that investment in enhanced venous water transport provides the strongest net carbon return to the plant. This link is underpinned by "passive dilution" via expansion of surrounding cells. However, it is not known whether this 'passive dilution' mechanism is present in plant lineages other than angiosperms and is another key feature of the angiosperms' evolutionary success. Consequently, we sought to determine whether the 'passive dilution' mechanism is; (i exclusive to the angiosperms, (ii a conserved mechanism that evolved in the common ancestor of ferns and angiosperms, or (iii has evolved continuously over time. To do this we first we assessed the plasticity of vein and stomatal density and epidermal cell size in ferns in response to light environment. We then compared the relationships between these traits found among ferns with modelled relationships that assume vein and stomatal density respond passively to epidermal cell expansion, and with those previously observed in angiosperms. Vein density, stomatal density and epidermal cell size were linked in ferns with remarkably similar relationships to those observed in angiosperms, except that fern leaves had fewer veins per stomata. However, plasticity was limited in ferns and stomatal spacing was dependent on active stomatal differentiation as well as passive cell expansion. Thus, ferns (like angiosperms appear to coordinate vein and stomatal density with epidermal cell expansion to some extent to maintain a constant ratio between veins and stomata in the leaf. The different general relationships between vein density and stomatal density in ferns and angiosperms suggests the groups have different optimum balances between the production of vein tissue dedicated to water supply and stomatal tissue for gas

  18. Experimental Problems of New Constructions of Portable Submersible Pumps for Mining with Electric Motor Cooled by Water Jacket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej KORCZAK

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a new construction of a submersible pumping engine where new original solutions in flowing system and control system where introduced It let obtain high efficiency and fulfill user’s expectations. The article also contains experiments of the new pumping engine and their results. The results of numerical analysis of the movement of liquid in flowing channel is described and the analytical characteristics are compared with ones measured in laboratory. The work also presents the problems with constructing, research and certification of new submersible pumping engine which construction fulfils ATEX requirements for machines working in explosive conditions areas

  19. Phylogeny and expression analyses reveal important roles for plant PKS III family during the conquest of land by plants and angiosperm diversification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lulu Xie

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractPolyketide synthases (PKSs utilize the products of primary metabolism to synthesize a wide array of secondary metabolites in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. PKSs can be grouped into three distinct classes, type I, II, and III, based on enzyme structure, substrate specificity, and catalytic mechanisms. The type III PKS enzymes function as homodimers, and are the only class of PKS that do not require acyl carrier protein. Plant type III PKS enzymes, also known as chalcone synthase (CHS-like enzymes, are of particular interest due to their functional diversity. In this study, we mined type III PKS gene sequences from the genomes of six aquatic algae and twenty-five land plants (one bryophyte, one lycophyte, two basal angiosperms, sixteen core eudicots, and five monocots. PKS III sequences were found relatively conserved in all embryophytes, but not exist in algae. We also examined gene expression patterns by analyzing available transcriptome data, and identified potential cis regulatory elements in upstream sequences. Phylogenetic trees of dicots angiosperms showed that plant type III PKS proteins fall into three clades. Clade A contains CHS/STS-type enzymes coding genes with diverse transcriptional expression patterns and enzymatic functions, while clade B is further divided into subclades b1 and b2, which consist of anther-specific CHS-like enzymes. Differentiation regions, such as amino acids 196-207 between clades A and B, and predicted positive selected sites within α-helixes in late appeared branches of clade A, account for the major diversification in substrate choice and catalytic reaction. The integrity and location of conserved cis-elements containing MYB and bHLH binding sites can affect transcription levels. Potential binding sites for transcription factors such as WRKY, SPL or AP2/EREBP may contribute to tissue- or taxon-specific differences in gene expression. Our data shows that gene duplications and functional

  20. Aquatic Environment 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, L. M.; Bijl, L. van der; Boutrup, S.

    The report summarizes the results of the Danish Aquatic Monitoring and Assessment Programme 1998-2003. Danish Environmental Protection Agency 2000: NOVA-2003. Programbeskrivelse for det nationale program for overvågning af vandmiljøet 1998-2003. 397 pp. - Redegørelse fra Miljøstyrelsen nr. 1 (in...

  1. Investigating Aquatic Dead Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, Jeremy; Gurbisz, Cassie; Murray, Laura; Gray, William; Bosch, Jennifer; Burrell, Chris; Kemp, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This article features two engaging high school activities that include current scientific information, data, and authentic case studies. The activities address the physical, biological, and chemical processes that are associated with oxygen-depleted areas, or "dead zones," in aquatic systems. Students can explore these dead zones through both…

  2. Aquatic Equipment Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sova, Ruth

    Equipment usually used in water exercise programs is designed for variety, intensity, and program necessity. This guide discusses aquatic equipment under the following headings: (1) equipment design; (2) equipment principles; (3) precautions and contraindications; (4) population contraindications; and (5) choosing equipment. Equipment is used…

  3. Evaluation of station keeping systems for deepwater drilling semi-submersibles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, An-Ke; Sun, Li-Ping; Luo, Yong; Wang, Qiang

    2010-09-01

    This paper addresses the need for systematic evaluation of the station keeping systems of deepwater drilling semi-submersibles. Based on the selected drilling semi-submersible configuration, the mooring systems were analyzed and designed for a range of water depths using different mooring line materials. These were steel wire rope, polyester rope and HMPE (high modulus poly ethylene). The mooring analysis was carried out using the advanced fully coupled time domain analysis method in the computer software package HARP. Diffraction analysis was first applied to solve the hydrodynamic properties of the vessel and then the motion equations of the complete dynamic system including the drilling rig, the mooring lines and risers were developed and solved in the time domain. Applying the advanced analysis method, a matrix of mooring systems was developed for operating in water depths of 1 000 m, 1 500 m, and 2 000 m using various mooring materials. The development of mooring systems was conducted in accordance with the commonly adopted mooring design code, API RP 2SK and API RP 2SM. Fresh attempts were then made to comparatively evaluate the mooring system’s characteristics and global performance. Useful results have been obtained in terms of mooring materials, water depths, and key parameters of mooring configurations. The results provide in-depth insight for the design and operation of deepwater mooring systems in the South China Sea environment.

  4. Submersible pumps: Energetic efficiency norm; Bombas sumergibles: norma de eficiencia energetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acosta Torres, R. A.; Buendia Dominguez, E. H. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    The Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), supporting the Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE), has prepared a preliminary project of the norm of energy efficiency for submersible pumps. This document has complied with the necessary formalities for the emission of the norm. This paper presents the results of the analysis of the submersible pumps, the energy savings, as well as the economic evaluation that sustains the norm project, additionally pointing out the environmental impact that will bring along the implantation of the same. [Espanol] El Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), apoyando a la Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE), ha elaborado el anteproyecto de norma de eficiencia energetica para bombas sumergibles. Dicho documento ha cumplido con los tramites necesarios para la emision de una norma. En el presente articulo se mencionan los resultados del analisis de las bombas sumergibles, los ahorros energeticos, asi como la evaluacion economica que sustenta el proyecto de norma, indicandose ademas el impacto ambiental que tendra la implantacion de la misma.

  5. Study Of Calculation Of Degaussing System For Reducing Magnetic Field From Submersible Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sardono Sarwito

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of maritime technology in the world to make Indonesia are also increasingly taking the development of maritime technology, such as in a Submersible Vehicle one is degaussing system, this technology should be owned by the vessel so that the vessel can avoid dangerous explosive equipment contained in the sea. Degaussing system is a system that is in use on the metal parts or electronic devices that are at risk of a magnetic field. This system is used to prevent the vessel from dangerous equipment in the sea which can trigger an explosion and the damage that utilize magnetic fields as a metal-detection sensor when the boat was doing dives. To the authors will plan the design degaussing system, and calculating the system in order to reduce the magnetic properties of the Submersible Vehicle which were obtained by the use of Coil Degaussing along 214,5 meters, a diameter of 0,2, with 500.000 coil that will generate a current of 0,0157 Ampere's 0.0787 Tesla generates a magnetic field.

  6. A Hydraulic Motor-Alternator System for Ocean-Submersible Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aintablian, Harry O.; Valdez, Thomas I.; Jones, Jack A.

    2012-01-01

    An ocean-submersible vehicle has been developed at JPL that moves back and forth between sea level and a depth of a few hundred meters. A liquid volumetric change at a pressure of 70 bars is created by means of thermal phase change. During vehicle ascent, the phase-change material (PCM) is melted by the circulation of warm water and thus pressure is increased. During vehicle descent, the PCM is cooled resulting in reduced pressure. This pressure change is used to generate electric power by means of a hydraulic pump that drives a permanent magnet (PM) alternator. The output energy of the alternator is stored in a rechargeable battery that powers an on-board computer, instrumentation and other peripherals.The focus of this paper is the performance evaluation of a specific hydraulic motor-alternator system. Experimental and theoretical efficiency data of the hydraulic motor and the alternator are presented. The results are used to evaluate the optimization of the hydraulic motor-alternator system. The integrated submersible vehicle was successfully operated in the Pacific Ocean near Hawaii. A brief overview of the actual test results is presented.

  7. Electric power generation by a submersible microbial fuel cell equipped with a membrane electrode assembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Min, Booki; Poulsen, Finn Willy; Thygesen, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) were incorporated into the cathode chamber of a submersible microbial fuel cell (SMFC). A close contact of the electrodes could produce high power output from SMFC in which anode and cathode electrodes were connected in parallel. In polarization test, the maxi......Membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) were incorporated into the cathode chamber of a submersible microbial fuel cell (SMFC). A close contact of the electrodes could produce high power output from SMFC in which anode and cathode electrodes were connected in parallel. In polarization test......, the maximum power density was 631mW/m2 at current density of 1772mA/m2 at 82Ω. With 180-Ω external resistance, one set of the electrodes on the same side could generate more power density of 832±4mW/m2 with current generation of 1923±4mA/m2. The anode, inclusive a biofilm behaved ohmic, whereas a Tafel type...... behavior was observed for the oxygen reduction. The various impedance contributions from electrodes, electrolyte and membrane were analyzed and identified by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Air flow rate to the cathode chamber affected microbial voltage generation, and higher power generation...

  8. Parametric pitch instability investigation of Deep Draft Semi-submersible platform in irregular waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Mao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Parametric pitch instability of a Deep Draft Semi-submersible platform (DDS is investigated in irregular waves. Parametric pitch is a form of parametric instability, which occurs when parameters of a system vary with time and the variation satisfies a certain condition. In previous studies, analyzing of parametric instability is mainly limited to regular waves, whereas the realistic sea conditions are irregular waves. Besides, parametric instability also occurs in irregular waves in some experiments. This study predicts parametric pitch of a Deep Draft Semi-submersible platform in irregular waves. Heave motion of DDS is simulated by wave spectrum and response amplitude operator (RAO. Then Hill equation for DDS pitch motion in irregular waves is derived based on linear-wave theory. By using Bubnov-Galerkin approach to solve Hill equation, the corresponding stability chart is obtained. The differences between regular-waves stability chart and irregular-waves stability chart are compared. Then the sensitivity of wave parameters on DDS parametric pitch in irregular waves is discussed. Based on the discussion, some suggestions for the DDS design are proposed to avoid parametric pitch by choosing appropriate parameters. The results indicate that it's important and necessary to predict DDS parametric pitch in irregular waves during design process.

  9. Numerical simulation and performance prediction in multi-stage submersible centrifugal pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W. J.; Li, G. D.; Wang, Y.; Cui, Y. R.; Yin, G.; Peng, S.

    2013-12-01

    In order to study the inner flow field of multi-stage submersible centrifugal pump, the model named QD3-60/4-1.1 was selected. Steady turbulence characteristics of impellers, diffusers and return channel were calculated by Fluent software, the SIMPLEC algorithm and RNG κ-ε turbulence model with sliding mesh technology. Then, the distributions of pressure, velocity and Turbulence kinetic energy was obtained and the distributions of velocity field of a channel were analysed. The results show that the static pressure in impeller is increasing with the increasing of radius. The circumferential component of relative velocity is in the opposite direction of impeller rotating. At the same radius, the component value of pressure surface is larger than suction surface. With the increasing of flow rate, absolute velocity and relative velocity flow angle are becoming small, in opposite of the relative velocity and absolute velocity flow angle. The high turbulent zone of impeller is located in the gap of impellers and diffusers. Flow similarity and structure similarity of the multi-stage submersible pump are confirmed.

  10. Phytotoxicity of atrazine, isoproturon, and diuron to submersed macrophytes in outdoor mesocosms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knauert, Stefanie, E-mail: stefanie.knauert@basf.co [University of Basel, Department of Environmental Sciences, Hebelstrasse 1, 4056 Basel (Switzerland); Singer, Heinz; Hollender, Juliane [Eawag: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Department of Environmental Chemistry, Uberlandstrasse 133, 8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Knauer, Katja [University of Basel, Program Sustainability Research, Klingelbergstr. 50, 4056 Basel (Switzerland)

    2010-01-15

    The submersed macrophytes Elodea canadensis, Myriophyllum spicatum and Potamogeton lucens were constantly exposed over a five-week period to environmentally relevant concentrations of atrazine, isoproturon, diuron, and their mixture in outdoor mesocosms. Effects were evaluated investigating photosynthetic efficiency (PE) of the three macrophytes and growth of M. spicatum and E. canadensis. Adverse effects on PE were observed on days 2 and 5 after application. M. spicatum was found to be the more sensitive macrophyte. E. canadensis and P. lucens were less sensitive to atrazine, diuron and the mixture and insensitive to isoproturon. PE of M. spicatum was similarly affected by the single herbicides and the mixture demonstrating concentration addition. Growth of E. canadensis and M. spicatum was not reduced indicating that herbicide exposure did not impair plant development. Although PE measurements turned out to be a sensitive method to monitor PSII herbicides, plant growth remains the more relevant ecological endpoint in risk assessment. - Short-term effects on photosynthesis did not result in growth reduction of submerse macrophytes exposed to PSII inhibitors.

  11. Passive Vibration Control of a Semi-Submersible Floating Offshore Wind Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Floating offshore wind turbines have the potential to commercially convert the vast wind resource in deep-water area. Compared with fixed-bottom wind turbines, motions of the floating foundation complicate vibrations and loads of the wind turbine in offshore environment. To alleviate the responses of the wind turbine, this study investigates the use of fore–aft tuned mass damper (TMD in nacelle/tower for passive control of a semi-submersible offshore wind turbine. A simplified structural model, considering the degree-of-freedom of platform pitch and surge, tower tilt and TMD translation, is proposed in the light of motion features of semi-submersible platform. After identifying ten unknown parameters, the correctness of the deterministic model is validated by pitch free decay responses. The mass, stiffness and damping of TMD are optimized using both method of exhaustion and genetic algorithm to avoid local minimum. Six optimized TMD devices are evaluated under three kinds of realistic environment conditions. The control effectiveness is assessed by the extreme and fatigue response reduction ratios. It is found that the high stiffness TMDs that directly dissipate the energy of tower oscillation exhibit an overall stable performance. Similar to the spar-type foundation, the TMDs in the nacelle/tower are capable of extending the service life of floating wind turbines.

  12. Aquatic Plants and their Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michigan State Dept. of Natural Resources, Lansing.

    Aquatic plants can be divided into two types: algae and macrophytes. The goal of aquatic plant management is to maintain a proper balance of plants within a lake and still retain the lake's recreational and economic importance. Aquatic plant management programs have two phases: long-term management (nutrient control), and short-term management…

  13. Introduced aquatic plants and algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Non-native aquatic plants such as waterhyacinth and hydrilla severely impair the uses of aquatic resources including recreational faculties (lakes, reservoirs, rivers) as well as timely delivery of irrigation water for agriculture. Costs associated with impacts and management of all types of aquatic...

  14. Journal of Aquatic Sciences: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acceptable topics include aquatic biology, aquatic resources management, aquatic ecotoxicology and pollution, fish physiology, nutrition, health, breeding, population dynamics, fish processing and preservation. Categories of articles include the following: v Full research papers must not exceed 18 manuscript pages ...

  15. Invertebrate herbivory during the regeneration phase: experiments with a freshwater angiosperm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elger, A.F.; De Boer, T.; Hanley, M.E.

    2007-01-01

    1 Invertebrate grazing during the regeneration phase is well known to exert a strong structuring effect in terrestrial plant communities. However, very few studies have investigated the effect of invertebrate herbivores on regenerating freshwater angiosperms, despite the obvious benefits for the

  16. Stomatal vs. genome size in angiosperms: the somatic tail wagging the genomic dog?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hodgson, J.G.; Sharafi, M.; Jalili, A.; Diaz, S.; Montserrat-Marti, G.; Palmer, C.; Cerabolini, B.; Pierce, S.; Hamzehee, B.; Asri, Y.; Jamzad, Z.; Wilson, P.; Zarrinkamar, F.; Raven, J.; Band, S.R.; Basconcelo, S.; Bogard, A.; Carter, G.; Charles, M.; Castro-Diez, P.; Cornelissen, J.H.C.; Funes, G.; Jones, M.; Khoshnevis, M.; Perez-Harguindeguy, N.; Perez-Rontome, M.C.; Shirvany, F.A.; Vendramini, F.; Yazdani, S.; Abbas-Azimi, R.; Boustani, S.; Dehghan, M.; Hynd, F.A.; Kowsary, E.; Kazemi-Saeed, F.; Siavash, B.; Villar-Salvador, P.; Cragie, R.; Naqinezhad, A.; Romo-Diez, A.; De Torres Espuny, L.; Simmons, E.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Genome size is a function, and the product, of cell volume. As such it is contingent on ecological circumstance. The nature of 'this ecological circumstance' is, however, hotly debated. Here, we investigate for angiosperms whether stomatal size may be this 'missing link': the

  17. Phylogenetic analyses of basal angiosperms based on nine plastid, mitochondrial, and nuclear genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qiu, Y.L.; Dombrovska, O.; Lee, J.; Li, L.; Whitlock, B.A.; Bernasconi-Quadroni, F.; Rest, J.S.; Davis, C.C.; Borsch, T.; Hilu, K.W.; Renner, S.S.; Soltis, D.E.; Soltis, P.E.; Zanis, M.J.; Cannone, J.J.; Powell, M.; Savolainen, V.; Chatrou, L.W.; Chase, M.W.

    2005-01-01

    DNA sequences of nine genes (plastid: atpB, matK, and rbcL; mitochondrial: atp1, matR, mtSSU, and mtLSU; nuclear: 18S and 26S rDNAs) from 100 species of basal angiosperms and gymnosperms were analyzed using parsimony, Bayesian, and maximum likelihood methods. All of these analyses support the

  18. The evolution of desiccation-tolerance in angiosperm plants, a rare yet common phenomenon!

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a minute proportion of angiosperm species, rehydrating foliage can revive from airdryness or even from equilibration with air of ~0% relative humidity. Such desiccation tolerance is known from vegetative cells of some species of algae and of major groups close to the evolutionary path of the angi...

  19. Seed size and its rate of evolution correlate with species diversification across angiosperms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Igea

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Species diversity varies greatly across the different taxonomic groups that comprise the Tree of Life (ToL. This imbalance is particularly conspicuous within angiosperms, but is largely unexplained. Seed mass is one trait that may help clarify why some lineages diversify more than others because it confers adaptation to different environments, which can subsequently influence speciation and extinction. The rate at which seed mass changes across the angiosperm phylogeny may also be linked to diversification by increasing reproductive isolation and allowing access to novel ecological niches. However, the magnitude and direction of the association between seed mass and diversification has not been assessed across the angiosperm phylogeny. Here, we show that absolute seed size and the rate of change in seed size are both associated with variation in diversification rates. Based on the largest available angiosperm phylogenetic tree, we found that smaller-seeded plants had higher rates of diversification, possibly due to improved colonisation potential. The rate of phenotypic change in seed size was also strongly positively correlated with speciation rates, providing rare, large-scale evidence that rapid morphological change is associated with species divergence. Our study now reveals that variation in morphological traits and, importantly, the rate at which they evolve can contribute to explaining the extremely uneven distribution of diversity across the ToL.

  20. Interactions between tectonics, climate and vegetation during the Cretaceous. A context for the diversification of Angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulchre, Pierre; Chaboureau, Anne-Claire; Donnadieu, Yannick; Franc, Alain; Ladant, Jean-Baptiste

    2017-04-01

    It has long been thought that the Angiosperms diversification occurred within a context of warmer-than-present and equable climate during the Cretaceous. However, during the last decade, the view of a uniformely warm Cretaceous climate has been challenged both by paleoclimate proxies and numerical simulations. Among the processes likely affecting climate during this time, atmospheric pCO2 and tectonics appear to be pivotal to drive temperature and precipitation changes, while the feedbacks from vegetation cover changes on the hydrological cycles remain to be explored. Here we attempt to provide a review of the main studies exploring climate-vegetation interactions during the Cretaceous. Then we present climate simulations aiming at quantifying the impact of landmasses redistribution on climate and vegetation distribution from 225 Ma to 70 Ma. In our simulations, the Pangea breakup triggers the decrease of arid belts from the Triassic to the Cretaceous and a subsequent onset of humid conditions during the late Cretaceous. Positioning angiosperm-bearing fossil sites on our paleo-bioclimatic maps confirm that the rise of flowering plants occured within a context of changing climate. With additional simulations in which we modified physiological parameterizations of the vegetation, we explore the combined impact of paleogeography and shift to angiosperms-dominated land surfaces on climate at the regional and global scales. This gives us the opportunity to test earlier ideas that the angiosperms takeover could have benefited from a positive feedback induced by their particular transpiration capacities.

  1. Comparative in silico analysis of EST-SSRs in angiosperm and gymnosperm tree genera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranade, Sonali Sachin; Lin, Yao-Cheng; Zuccolo, Andrea; Van de Peer, Yves; García-Gil, María del Rosario

    2014-08-21

    Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs) derived from Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) belong to the expressed fraction of the genome and are important for gene regulation, recombination, DNA replication, cell cycle and mismatch repair. Here, we present a comparative analysis of the SSR motif distribution in the 5'UTR, ORF and 3'UTR fractions of ESTs across selected genera of woody trees representing gymnosperms (17 species from seven genera) and angiosperms (40 species from eight genera). Our analysis supports a modest contribution of EST-SSR length to genome size in gymnosperms, while EST-SSR density was not associated with genome size in neither angiosperms nor gymnosperms. Multiple factors seem to have contributed to the lower abundance of EST-SSRs in gymnosperms that has resulted in a non-linear relationship with genome size diversity. The AG/CT motif was found to be the most abundant in SSRs of both angiosperms and gymnosperms, with a relative increase in AT/AT in the latter. Our data also reveals a higher abundance of hexamers across the gymnosperm genera. Our analysis provides the foundation for future comparative studies at the species level to unravel the evolutionary processes that control the SSR genesis and divergence between angiosperm and gymnosperm tree species.

  2. Nested radiations and the pulse of angiosperm diversification: increased diversification rates often follow whole genome duplications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tank, David C; Eastman, Jonathan M; Pennell, Matthew W; Soltis, Pamela S; Soltis, Douglas E; Hinchliff, Cody E; Brown, Joseph W; Sessa, Emily B; Harmon, Luke J

    2015-07-01

    Our growing understanding of the plant tree of life provides a novel opportunity to uncover the major drivers of angiosperm diversity. Using a time-calibrated phylogeny, we characterized hot and cold spots of lineage diversification across the angiosperm tree of life by modeling evolutionary diversification using stepwise AIC (MEDUSA). We also tested the whole-genome duplication (WGD) radiation lag-time model, which postulates that increases in diversification tend to lag behind established WGD events. Diversification rates have been incredibly heterogeneous throughout the evolutionary history of angiosperms and reveal a pattern of 'nested radiations' - increases in net diversification nested within other radiations. This pattern in turn generates a negative relationship between clade age and diversity across both families and orders. We suggest that stochastically changing diversification rates across the phylogeny explain these patterns. Finally, we demonstrate significant statistical support for the WGD radiation lag-time model. Across angiosperms, nested shifts in diversification led to an overall increasing rate of net diversification and declining relative extinction rates through time. These diversification shifts are only rarely perfectly associated with WGD events, but commonly follow them after a lag period. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  3. A comparative ultrastructural study of pit membranes with plasmodesmata associated thickenings in four angiosperm species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rabaey, D.; Lens, F.; Huysmans, S.; Smets, E.; Jansen, S.

    2008-01-01

    Recent micromorphological observations of angiosperm pit membranes have extended the number and range of taxa with pseudo-tori in tracheary elements. This study investigates at ultrastructural level (TEM) the development of pseudo-tori in the unrelated Malus yunnanensis, Ligustrum vulgare,

  4. Effects of plant diversity on primary production and species interactions in brackish water angiosperm communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salo, Tiina; Gustafsson, Camilla; Boström, Christoffer

    2009-01-01

    plant productivity in brackish water angiosperm communities, a 14 wk field experiment was conducted. Using a replacement design with a standardized initial aboveground biomass, shoots of Zostera marina, Potamogeton filiformis and P. perfoliatus were planted on a shallow, sandy bottom in replicated...

  5. The transition from somatic to germline identity shows conserved and specialized features during angiosperm evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lora, Jorge; Herrero, María; Tucker, Matthew R; Hormaza, José I

    2017-10-01

    How and why specific plant cells adopt germline identity during ovule development has proved challenging to address, and the pathways that are active in the ovules of basal/early-divergent angiosperms possessing a multilayered nucellus are still unclear. Here, we compare megasporogenesis between two early-divergent angiosperms (Annona cherimola and Persea americana) and the evolutionarily derived Arabidopsis thaliana, studying the three-dimensional spatial position of the megaspore mother cell (MMC), the compositional details of the MMC wall and the location of PIN1 expression. Specific wall polymers distinguished the central position of the MMC and its meiotic products from surrounding tissues in early-divergent angiosperms, whereas, in A. thaliana, only callose (in mature MMCs) and arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) (in megaspores) distinguished the germline. However, PIN1 expression, which regulates polar auxin transport, was observed around the MMC in the single-layer nucellus of A. thaliana and in the multilayered nucellus of A. cherimola, or close to the MMC in P. americana. The data reveal a similar microenvironment in relation to auxin during megasporogenesis in all three species. However, the different wall polymers that mark MMC fate in early-divergent angiosperms may reflect a specific response to mechanical stress during differentiation, or the specific recruitment of polymers to sustain MMC growth. © 2016 CSIC. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  6. The morphophysiological dormancy in Amborella trichopoda seeds is a pleisiomorphic trait in angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogliani, Bruno; Gâteblé, Gildas; Villegente, Matthieu; Fabre, Isabelle; Klein, Nicolas; Anger, Nicolas; Baskin, Carol C; Scutt, Charlie P

    2017-03-01

    Recent parsimony-based reconstructions suggest that seeds of early angiosperms had either morphophysiological or physiological dormancy, with the former considered as more probable. The aim of this study was to determine the class of seed dormancy present in Amborella trichopoda , the sole living representative of the most basal angiosperm lineage Amborellales, with a view to resolving fully the class of dormancy present at the base of the angiosperm clade. Drupes of A. trichopoda without fleshy parts were germinated and dissected to observe their structure and embryo growth. Pre-treatments including acid scarification, gibberellin treatment and seed excision were tested to determine their influence on dormancy breakage and germination. Character-state mapping by maximum parsimony, incorporating data from the present work and published sources, was then used to determine the likely class of dormancy present in early angiosperms. Germination in A. trichopoda requires a warm stratification period of at least approx. 90 d, which is followed by endosperm swelling, causing the water-permeable pericarp-mesocarp envelope to split open. The embryo then grows rapidly within the seed, to radicle emergence some 17 d later and cotyledon emergence after an additional 24 d. Gibberellin treatment, acid scarification and excision of seeds from the surrounding drupe tissues all promoted germination by shortening the initial phase of dormancy, prior to embryo growth. Seeds of A. trichopoda have non-deep simple morphophysiological dormancy, in which mechanical resistance of the pericarp-mesocarp envelope plays a key role in the initial physiological phase. Maximum parsimony analyses, including data obtained in the present work, indicate that morphophysiological dormancy is likely to be a pleisiomorphic trait in flowering plants. The significance of this conclusion for studies of early angiosperm evolution is discussed.

  7. Evaluating the Impact of Genomic Data and Priors on Bayesian Estimates of the Angiosperm Evolutionary Timescale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Charles S P; Sauquet, Hervê; van der Merwe, Marlien; McPherson, Hannah; Rossetto, Maurizio; Ho, Simon Y W

    2017-05-01

    The evolutionary timescale of angiosperms has long been a key question in biology. Molecular estimates of this timescale have shown considerable variation, being influenced by differences in taxon sampling, gene sampling, fossil calibrations, evolutionary models, and choices of priors. Here, we analyze a data set comprising 76 protein-coding genes from the chloroplast genomes of 195 taxa spanning 86 families, including novel genome sequences for 11 taxa, to evaluate the impact of models, priors, and gene sampling on Bayesian estimates of the angiosperm evolutionary timescale. Using a Bayesian relaxed molecular-clock method, with a core set of 35 minimum and two maximum fossil constraints, we estimated that crown angiosperms arose 221 (251-192) Ma during the Triassic. Based on a range of additional sensitivity and subsampling analyses, we found that our date estimates were generally robust to large changes in the parameters of the birth-death tree prior and of the model of rate variation across branches. We found an exception to this when we implemented fossil calibrations in the form of highly informative gamma priors rather than as uniform priors on node ages. Under all other calibration schemes, including trials of seven maximum age constraints, we consistently found that the earliest divergences of angiosperm clades substantially predate the oldest fossils that can be assigned unequivocally to their crown group. Overall, our results and experiments with genome-scale data suggest that reliable estimates of the angiosperm crown age will require increased taxon sampling, significant methodological changes, and new information from the fossil record. [Angiospermae, chloroplast, genome, molecular dating, Triassic.]. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Society of Systematic Biologists. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Insights from ANA-grade angiosperms into the early evolution of CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vialette-Guiraud, Aurélie C. M.; Adam, Hélène; Finet, Cédric; Jasinski, Sophie; Jouannic, Stefan; Scutt, Charles P.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims The closely related NAC family genes NO APICAL MERISTEM (NAM) and CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON3 (CUC3) regulate the formation of boundaries within and between plant organs. NAM is post-transcriptionally regulated by miR164, whereas CUC3 is not. To gain insight into the evolution of NAM and CUC3 in the angiosperms, we analysed orthologous genes in early-diverging ANA-grade angiosperms and gymnosperms. Methods We obtained NAM- and CUC3-like sequences from diverse angiosperms and gymnosperms by a combination of reverse transcriptase PCR, cDNA library screening and database searching, and then investigated their phylogenetic relationships by performing maximum-likelihood reconstructions. We also studied the spatial expression patterns of NAM, CUC3 and MIR164 orthologues in female reproductive tissues of Amborella trichopoda, the probable sister to all other flowering plants. Key Results Separate NAM and CUC3 orthologues were found in early-diverging angiosperms, but not in gymnosperms, which contained putative orthologues of the entire NAM + CUC3 clade that possessed sites of regulation by miR164. Multiple paralogues of NAM or CUC3 genes were noted in certain taxa, including Brassicaceae. Expression of NAM, CUC3 and MIR164 orthologues from Am. trichopoda was found to co-localize in ovules at the developmental boundary between the chalaza and nucellus. Conclusions The NAM and CUC3 lineages were generated by duplication, and CUC3 was subsequently lost regulation by miR164, prior to the last common ancestor of the extant angiosperms. However, the paralogous NAM clade genes CUC1 and CUC2 were generated by a more recent duplication, near the base of Brassicaceae. The function of NAM and CUC3 in defining a developmental boundary in the ovule appears to have been conserved since the last common ancestor of the flowering plants, as does the post-transcriptional regulation in ovule tissues of NAM by miR164. PMID:21320879

  9. Insights from ANA-grade angiosperms into the early evolution of CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vialette-Guiraud, Aurélie C M; Adam, Hélène; Finet, Cédric; Jasinski, Sophie; Jouannic, Stefan; Scutt, Charles P

    2011-06-01

    The closely related NAC family genes NO APICAL MERISTEM (NAM) and CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON3 (CUC3) regulate the formation of boundaries within and between plant organs. NAM is post-transcriptionally regulated by miR164, whereas CUC3 is not. To gain insight into the evolution of NAM and CUC3 in the angiosperms, we analysed orthologous genes in early-diverging ANA-grade angiosperms and gymnosperms. We obtained NAM- and CUC3-like sequences from diverse angiosperms and gymnosperms by a combination of reverse transcriptase PCR, cDNA library screening and database searching, and then investigated their phylogenetic relationships by performing maximum-likelihood reconstructions. We also studied the spatial expression patterns of NAM, CUC3 and MIR164 orthologues in female reproductive tissues of Amborella trichopoda, the probable sister to all other flowering plants. Separate NAM and CUC3 orthologues were found in early-diverging angiosperms, but not in gymnosperms, which contained putative orthologues of the entire NAM + CUC3 clade that possessed sites of regulation by miR164. Multiple paralogues of NAM or CUC3 genes were noted in certain taxa, including Brassicaceae. Expression of NAM, CUC3 and MIR164 orthologues from Am. trichopoda was found to co-localize in ovules at the developmental boundary between the chalaza and nucellus. The NAM and CUC3 lineages were generated by duplication, and CUC3 was subsequently lost regulation by miR164, prior to the last common ancestor of the extant angiosperms. However, the paralogous NAM clade genes CUC1 and CUC2 were generated by a more recent duplication, near the base of Brassicaceae. The function of NAM and CUC3 in defining a developmental boundary in the ovule appears to have been conserved since the last common ancestor of the flowering plants, as does the post-transcriptional regulation in ovule tissues of NAM by miR164.

  10. Ontogenetic shifts in plant-plant interactions in a rare cycad within angiosperm communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Yépiz, Juan C; Búrquez, Alberto; Dovčiak, Martin

    2014-06-01

    Gymnosperms and angiosperms can co-occur within the same habitats but key plant traits are thought to give angiosperms an evolutionary competitive advantage in many ecological settings. We studied ontogenetic changes in competitive and facilitative interactions between a rare gymnosperm (Dioon sonorense, our target species) and different plant and abiotic neighbours (conspecific-cycads, heterospecific-angiosperms, or abiotic-rocks) from 2007 to 2010 in an arid environment of northwestern Mexico. We monitored survival and growth of seedlings, juveniles, and adults of the cycad Dioon sonorense to evaluate how cycad survival and relative height growth rate (RHGR) responded to intra- and interspecific competition, canopy openness, and nearest neighbour. We tested spatial associations among D. sonorense life stages and angiosperm species and measured ontogenetic shifts in cycad shade tolerance. Canopy openness decreased cycad survival while intraspecific competition decreased survival and RHGR during early ontogeny. Seedling survival was higher in association with rocks and heterospecific neighbours where intraspecific competition was lower. Shade tolerance decreased with cycad ontogeny reflecting the spatial association of advanced stages with more open canopies. Interspecific facilitation during early ontogeny of our target species may promote its persistence in spite of increasing interspecific competition in later stages. We provide empirical support to the long-standing assumption that marginal rocky habitats serve as refugia from angiosperm competition for slow-growing gymnosperms such as cycads. The lack of knowledge of plant-plant interactions in rare or endangered species may hinder developing efficient conservation strategies (e.g. managing for sustained canopy cover), especially under the ongoing land use and climatic changes.

  11. Evidence for a Cenozoic radiation of ferns in an angiosperm-dominated canopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuettpelz, Eric; Pryer, Kathleen M

    2009-07-07

    In today's angiosperm-dominated terrestrial ecosystems, leptosporangiate ferns are truly exceptional--accounting for 80% of the approximately 11,000 nonflowering vascular plant species. Recent studies have shown that this remarkable diversity is mostly the result of a major leptosporangiate radiation beginning in the Cretaceous, following the rise of angiosperms. This pattern is suggestive of an ecological opportunistic response, with the proliferation of flowering plants across the landscape resulting in the formation of many new niches--both on forest floors and within forest canopies--into which leptosporangiate ferns could diversify. At present, one-third of leptosporangiate species grow as epiphytes in the canopies of angiosperm-dominated tropical rain forests. However, we know too little about the evolutionary history of epiphytic ferns to assess whether or not their diversification was in fact linked to the establishment of these forests, as would be predicted by the ecological opportunistic response hypothesis. Here we provide new insight into leptosporangiate diversification and the evolution of epiphytism by integrating a 400-taxon molecular dataset with an expanded set of fossil age constraints. We find evidence for a burst of fern diversification in the Cenozoic, apparently driven by the evolution of epiphytism. Whether this explosive radiation was triggered simply by the establishment of modern angiosperm-dominated tropical rain forest canopies, or spurred on by some other large-scale extrinsic factor (e.g., climate change) remains to be determined. In either case, it is clear that in both the Cretaceous and Cenozoic, leptosporangiate ferns were adept at exploiting newly created niches in angiosperm-dominated ecosystems.

  12. The case of Darwinylus marcosi (Insecta: Coleoptera: Oedemeridae): A Cretaceous shift from a gymnosperm to an angiosperm pollinator mutualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peris, David; Labandeira, Conrad C.; Peñalver, Enrique; Delclòs, Xavier; Barrón, Eduardo; Pérez-de la Fuente, Ricardo

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Abundant gymnosperm pollen grains associated with the oedemerid beetle Darwinylus marcosi Peris, 2016 were found in Early Cretaceous amber from Spain. This discovery provides confirmatory evidence for a pollination mutualism during the mid Mesozoic for the family Oedemeridae (Coleoptera), which today is known to pollinate only angiosperms. As a result, this new record documents a lateral host-plant transfer from an earlier gymnosperm to a later angiosperm, indicating that pollination of the latter is a derived condition within Oedemeridae. This new fossil record exemplifies one of the 4 ecological-evolutionary pollinator cohorts now known to have existed during the global shift from a gymnosperm to an angiosperm dominated global flora. Currently, all direct evidence for pollination during the 35 million-year interval of the mid Cretaceous gymnosperm-to-angiosperm transition entails recognition of gymnosperm pollen grains on insect mouthparts and other body contact surfaces, while analogous records involving angiosperms are lacking. The gathering evidence indicates that angiosperm pollination was preceded by at least 4 gymnosperm pollination modes that served as a functional and ecological prelude to the rise and expansion of angiosperms.

  13. Deepwater marine litter densities and compsoition from submersible video-gransects around the ABC-islands, Dutch Caribbean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debrot, A.O.; Vinke, E.; Wende, van der G.; Hylkema, A.; Reed, J.K.

    2014-01-01

    Baseline data on anthropogenic seafloor debris contamination in the year 2000 is provided for 24 submersible video transects at depths of 80–900 m, off the Dutch ABC-islands (Aruba, Bonaire, Curaçao), in the southeastern Caribbean Sea. In total, 202 objects were documented from a combined 21,184 m

  14. Towards improved management of coastal submersion crises – CRISMA-WAVE solution as an example of CRISMA Framework application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlich Marc

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Coping with various types of natural or man-made hazards the FP7 SECURITY CRISMA project (http://www.crismaproject.eu has designed and developed an experimental software framework allowing building crisis management simulation application. One of the five pilot applications of CRISMA dealing with preparedness to the coastal submersions was developed and implemented using return of experience of the reference Xynthia storm surge event in the Charente Maritime County in France. The paper addresses the generic CRISMA Framework applicability to simulate mitigation effects of a coastal submersion through CRISMA-Wave implementation of a full modelling cycle. The CRISMA-Wave paradigm reflects user needs for simulation of “what-if” scenarios for short and long-term actions and the paper describes in particular its different components : *Simulation of submersion effects at a range of temporal and spatial scales, *Preparedness Planning, *Assessment of impacts depending on scenarios based on options for managing the inundation risks, *Cascading effects and *Evaluation of damages with comparison of submersion defence scenarios based on cost-benefit and multi criteria analysis.

  15. Aquatic Nuisance Species Locator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data in this map has been collected by the United States Geological Survey's Nonindigenous Aquatic Species program located in Gainesville, Florida (http://nas.er.usgs.gov/default.aspx). This dataset may have some inaccuracies and is only current to June 15, 2012. The species identified in this dataset are not inclusive of all aquatic nuisance species, but rather a subset identified to be at risk for transport by recreational activities such as boating and angling. Additionally, the locations where organisims have been identified are also not inclusive and should be treated as a guide. Organisms are limited to the following: American bullfrog, Asian clam, Asian shore crab, Asian tunicate, Australian spotted jellyfish, Chinese mitten crab, New Zealand mudsnail, Colonial sea squirt, Alewife, Bighead carp, Black carp, Flathead catfish, Grass carp, Green crab, Lionfish, Northern snakehead, Quagga mussel, Round Goby, Ruffe, Rusty crayfish, Sea lamprey, Silver carp, Spiny water flea, Veined rapa whelk, Zebra mussel

  16. High resolution numerical wave propagation in coastal area : benefits in assessment of the marine submersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorville, Jean-François; Cayol, Claude; Palany, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    Many numerical models based on equation of action conservation (N = E/σ) enables the simulation of sea states (WAM, WW3,...). They allow through parametric equations to define sources and sinks of wave energy (E(f,σ)) in spectral form. Statistics of the sea states can be predicted at medium or long term as the significant wave height, the wave pic direction, mean wave period, etc. Those predictions are better if initials and boundaries conditions together with 10m wind field are well defined. Basically the more homogeneous the marine area bathymetry is the more accurate the prediction will be. Météo-France for French West Indies and French Guiana (MF-DIRAG) is in charge of the safety of persons and goods tries to improve knowledge and capacity to evaluate the sea state at the coast and the marine submersion height using among other statistical methods (as return periods) and numerical simulations. The area of responsibility is large and includes different territory, type of coast and sea wave climate. Up today most part of the daily simulations were done for large areas and with large meshes (10km). The needs of more accurate values in the assessment of the marine submersion pushed to develop new strategies to estimate the level of the sea water on the coast line and therefore characterize the marine submersion hazard. Since 2013 new data are available to enhance the capacity to simulate the mechanical process at the coast. High resolution DEM Litto 3D for Guadeloupe and Martinique coasts with grid-spacing of 5m up to 5km of the coast are free of use. The study presents the methodology applied at MF-DIRAG in study mode to evaluate effects of wave breaking on coastline. The method is based on wave simulation downscaling form the Atlantic basin to the coastal area using MF-WAM to an sub kilometric unstructured WW3 or SWAN depending to the domain studied. At the final step a non-hydrostatic wave flow as SWASH is used on the coast completed by an analytical method

  17. Microplastic in Aquatic Ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivleva, Natalia P; Wiesheu, Alexandra C; Niessner, Reinhard

    2017-02-06

    The contamination of marine and freshwater ecosystems with plastic, and especially with microplastic (MP), is a global ecological problem of increasing scientific concern. This has stimulated a great deal of research on the occurrence of MP, interaction of MP with chemical pollutants, the uptake of MP by aquatic organisms, and the resulting (negative) impact of MP. Herein, we review the major issues of MP in aquatic environments, with the principal aims 1) to characterize the methods applied for MP analysis (including sampling, processing, identification and quantification), indicate the most reliable techniques, and discuss the required further improvements; 2) to estimate the abundance of MP in marine/freshwater ecosystems and clarify the problems that hamper the comparability of such results; and 3) to summarize the existing literature on the uptake of MP by living organisms. Finally, we identify knowledge gaps, suggest possible strategies to assess environmental risks arising from MP, and discuss prospects to minimize MP abundance in aquatic ecosystems. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. A quantitative and qualitative comparison of aquatic and terrestrial plant lignin phenols: Critical information for paleoecological reconstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, E. K.; Gao, L.; Huang, Y.

    2009-12-01

    Currently, lignin phenols are used in marine and lacustrine ecosystems as proxies for terrestrial vegetation inputs. Lignins are found in all vascular plants, where they play a crucial role in conduction of water, nutrients and photosynthates through the vascular system, and where they provide structural support. Furthermore, different types of lignin phenols are found in specific types of vegetation (e.g., both syringyl and vanillyl phenols are in angiosperm wood, but only vanillyl phenols are in gymnosperm wood). The ratio of lignin phenols (e.g. syringyl:vanillyl) is indicative of the type of plant from which the lignin phenols were derived. Studies that examine lignin phenols in sedimentary archives assume that lignin phenols are derived solely from terrestrial plants, and changes in the types of lignin phenols are therefore assumed to mark changes in terrestrial vegetation. These assumptions may be flawed, however, because many aquatic plants, including those that are submerged, are vascular, yet little is known about the type and concentration of lignin phenols present in aquatic vascular plants. This knowledge is imperative to the success of paleoecological studies that utilize lignin phenols as a geochemical proxy for terrestrial vegetation. Furthermore, lignin phenols may be important targets for compound-specific radiocarbon dating, which is useful when suitable macrofossils are unavailable. Knowing the origin of the molecules used for radiocarbon dating, however, (i.e. whether they are terrestrial or aquatic) is critical to obtaining meaningful chronologies. We isolated and analyzed lignin phenol monomers from different types of aquatic vascular plants. All plants analyzed are angiosperms, but they occupy different niches in aquatic plant communities: floating, emergent and submergent. We also analyzed different parts of aquatic plants (i.e., stems and leaves). We found lignin phenols in all aquatic species that we analyzed, which highlights the need for

  19. Exploring Early Angiosperm Fire Feedbacks using Coupled Experiments and Modelling Approaches to Estimate Cretaceous Palaeofire Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcher, Claire; Hudpsith, Victoria

    2016-04-01

    Using the fossil record we are typically limited to exploring linkages between palaeoecological changes and palaeofire activity by assessing the abundance of charcoals preserved in sediments. However, it is the behaviour of fires that primarily governs their ecological effects. Therefore, the ability to estimate variations in aspects of palaeofire behaviour such as palaeofire intensity and rate of spread would be of key benefit toward understanding the coupled evolutionary history of ecosystems and fire. The Cretaceous Period saw major diversification in land plants. Previously, conifers (gymnosperms) and ferns (pteridophytes) dominated Earth's ecosystems until flowering plants (angiosperms) appear in the fossil record of the Early Cretaceous (~135Ma). We have created surface fire behaviour estimates for a variety of angiosperm invasion scenarios and explored the influence of Cretaceous superambient atmospheric oxygen levels on the fire behaviour occurring in these new Cretaceous ecosystems. These estimates are then used to explore the hypothesis that the early spread of the angiosperms was promoted by the novel fire regimes that they created. In order to achieve this we tested the flammability of Mesozoic analogue fuel types in controlled laboratory experiments using an iCone calorimeter, which measured the ignitability as well as the effective heat of combustion of the fuels. We then used the BehavePlus fire behaviour modelling system to scale up our laboratory results to the ecosystem scale. Our results suggest that fire-angiosperm feedbacks may have occurred in two phases: The first phase being a result of weedy angiosperms providing an additional easily ignitable fuel that enhanced both the seasonality and frequency of surface fires. In the second phase, the addition of shrubby understory fuels likely expanded the number of ecosystems experiencing more intense surface fires, resulting in enhanced mortality and suppressed post-fire recruitment of gymnosperms

  20. Long branch attraction, taxon sampling, and the earliest angiosperms: Amborella or monocots?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rice Danny W

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous studies, using in aggregate some 28 genes, have achieved a consensus in recognizing three groups of plants, including Amborella, as comprising the basal-most grade of all other angiosperms. A major exception is the recent study by Goremykin et al. (2003; Mol. Biol. Evol. 20:1499–1505, whose analyses of 61 genes from 13 sequenced chloroplast genomes of land plants nearly always found 100% support for monocots as the deepest angiosperms relative to Amborella, Calycanthus, and eudicots. We hypothesized that this conflict reflects a misrooting of angiosperms resulting from inadequate taxon sampling, inappropriate phylogenetic methodology, and rapid evolution in the grass lineage used to represent monocots. Results We used two main approaches to test this hypothesis. First, we sequenced a large number of chloroplast genes from the monocot Acorus and added these plus previously sequenced Acorus genes to the Goremykin et al. (2003 dataset in order to explore the effects of altered monocot sampling under the same analytical conditions used in their study. With Acorus alone representing monocots, strongly supported Amborella-sister trees were obtained in all maximum likelihood and parsimony analyses, and in some distance-based analyses. Trees with both Acorus and grasses gave either a well-supported Amborella-sister topology or else a highly unlikely topology with 100% support for grasses-sister and paraphyly of monocots (i.e., Acorus sister to "dicots" rather than to grasses. Second, we reanalyzed the Goremykin et al. (2003 dataset focusing on methods designed to account for rate heterogeneity. These analyses supported an Amborella-sister hypothesis, with bootstrap support values often conflicting strongly with cognate analyses performed without allowing for rate heterogeneity. In addition, we carried out a limited set of analyses that included the chloroplast genome of Nymphaea, whose position as a basal angiosperm was

  1. Phylogeny and molecular evolution analysis of PIN-FORMED 1 in angiosperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pengkai; Cheng, Tielong; Wu, Shuang; Zhao, Fangfang; Wang, Guangping; Yang, Liming; Lu, Mengzhu; Chen, Jinhui; Shi, Jisen

    2014-01-01

    PIN-FORMED 1 (PIN1) is an important secondary transporter and determines the direction of intercellular auxin flow. As PIN1 performs the conserved function of auxin transport, it is expected that the sequence and structure of PIN1 is conserved. Therefore, we hypothesized that PIN1 evolve under pervasive purifying selection in the protein-coding sequences in angiosperm. To test this hypothesis, we performed detailed evolutionary analyses of 67 PIN1 sequences from 35 angiosperm species. We found that the PIN1 sequences are highly conserved within their transmembrane regions, part of their hydrophilic regions. We also found that there are two or more PIN1 copies in some of these angiosperm species. PIN1 sequences from Poaceae and Brassicaceae are representative of the modern clade. We identified 12 highly conserved motifs and a significant number of family-specific sites within these motifs. One family-specific site within Motif 11 shows a different residue between monocots and dicots, and is functionally critical for the polarity of PIN1. Likewise, the function of PIN1 appears to be different between monocots and dicots since the phenotype associated with PIN1 overexpression is opposite between Arabidopsis and rice. The evolution of angiosperm PIN1 protein-coding sequences appears to have been primarily driven by purifying selection, but traces of positive selection associated with sequences from certain families also seem to be present. We verified this observation by calculating the numbers of non-synonymous and synonymous changes on each branch of a phylogenetic tree. Our results indicate that the evolution of angiosperm PIN1 sequences involve strong purifying selection. In addition, our results suggest that the conserved sequences of PIN1 derive from a combination of the family-specific site variations and conserved motifs during their unique evolutionary processes, which is critical for the functional integrity and stability of these auxin transporters

  2. Research on water-exit and take-off process for Morphing Unmanned Submersible Aerial Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jun-hua; Xu, Bao-wei; Feng, Jin-fu; Qi, Duo; Yang, Jian; Wang, Cong

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents a theoretic implementation method of Morphing Unmanned Submersible Aerial Vehicle (MUSAV), which can both submerge in the water and fly in the air. Two different shapes are put forward so that the vehicle can suit both submergence and flight, considering the tremendous differences between hydrodynamic configuration and aerodynamic configuration of a vehicle. The transition of the two shapes can be achieved by using morphing technology. The water-to-air process, including water-exit, morphing, take-off and steady flight, is analyzed. The hydrodynamic and aerodynamic model of the vehicle exiting the water surface obliquely and then taking off into the air has been founded. The control strategy after morphing is analyzed and the control method is given. Numerical method is used to validate the motion model of the water-exit process. Results of simulations show the validity of the proposed model and the feasibility of MUSAV in theory.

  3. Algorithm to determine electrical submersible pump performance considering temperature changes for viscous crude oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valderrama, A. [Petroleos de Venezuela, S.A., Distrito Socialista Tecnologico (Venezuela); Valencia, F. [Petroleos de Venezuela, S.A., Instituto de Tecnologia Venezolana para el Petroleo (Venezuela)

    2011-07-01

    In the heavy oil industry, electrical submersible pumps (ESPs) are used to transfer energy to fluids through stages made up of one impeller and one diffuser. Since liquid temperature increases through the different stages, viscosity might change between the inlet and outlet of the pump, thus affecting performance. The aim of this research was to create an algorithm to determine ESPs' performance curves considering temperature changes through the stages. A computational algorithm was developed and then compared with data collected in a laboratory with a CG2900 ESP. Results confirmed that when the fluid's viscosity is affected by the temperature changes, the stages of multistage pump systems do not have the same performance. Thus the developed algorithm could help production engineers to take viscosity changes into account and optimize the ESP design. This study developed an algorithm to take into account the fluid viscosity changes through pump stages.

  4. Predicting the postmortem submersion interval for human remains recovered from U.K. waterways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaton, Vivienne; Lagden, Abigail; Moffatt, Colin; Simmons, Tal

    2010-03-01

    This article aims to increase accuracy in estimating the postmortem submersion interval (PMSI) for bodies recovered from rivers in the United Kingdom. Data were collected from closed case files, crime scene reports, and autopsy files concerning bodies recovered over a 15-year period from the River Clyde, Scotland, and the River Mersey and canals in northwest England. One hundred and eighty-seven cases met the study criteria and were scored by quantifying the overall amount of decomposition observed in each case. Statistical analysis showed that the duration of a body's submergence in water and the temperatures to which it was exposed, as measured in accumulated degree days (ADD), had a significant effect on the decay process. Further analysis indicated that there were no significant differences in decomposition between the waterways. By combining the data from all study samples, it was possible to produce a single linear regression model for predicting ADD from observed decomposition.

  5. Examination of histological samples from submerged carrion to aid in the determination of postmortem submersion interval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Michael Keith; Panacek, Edward; Green, William; Albers, Elizabeth

    2013-03-01

    The use of histology in the as a tool for estimating postmortem intervals has rarely been explored but it has the potential for offering medical examiners an additional means for estimating the postmortem submersion interval (PMSI) during a death investigation. This study used perinatal piglets as human analogs which were submerged in freshwater for various time intervals. Each piglet was extracted from the water and underwent a necropsy examination during which histological samples were collected. The samples revealed that the necrotic tissue decomposed relatively predictably over time and that this decompositional progression may have the potential to be used via a scoring system to determine or aid in determining the PMSI. This method for calculating PMSI allows for normalization between piglets of various mass and body types. It also prevents any contamination of the remains via algae growth and animal activity that may exacerbate and possibly exaggerate PMSI calculation.

  6. Effects of high nitrogen concentrations on the growth of submersed macrophytes at moderate phosphorus concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qing; Wang, Hong-Zhu; Li, Yan; Shao, Jian-Chun; Liang, Xiao-Min; Jeppesen, Erik; Wang, Hai-Jun

    2015-10-15

    Eutrophication of lakes leading to loss of submersed macrophytes and higher turbidity is a worldwide phenomenon, attributed to excessive loading of phosphorus (P). However, recently, the role of nitrogen (N) for macrophyte recession has received increasing attention. Due to the close relationship between N and P loading, disentanglement of the specific effects of these two nutrients is often difficult, and some controversy still exists as to the effects of N. We studied the effects of N on submersed macrophytes represented by Vallisneria natans (Lour.) Hara in pots positioned at three depths (0.4 m, 0.8 m, and 1.2 m to form a gradient of underwater light conditions) in 10 large ponds having moderate concentrations of P (TP 0.03 ± 0.04 mg L(-1)) and five targeted concentrations of total nitrogen (TN) (0.5, 2, 10, 20, and 100 mg L(-1)), there were two ponds for each treatment. To study the potential shading effects of other primary producers, we also measured the biomass of phytoplankton (ChlaPhyt) and periphyton (ChlaPeri) expressed as chlorophyll a. We found that leaf length, leaf mass, and root length of macrophytes declined with increasing concentrations of TN and ammonium, while shoot number and root mass did not. All the measured growth indices of macrophytes declined significantly with ChlaPhyt, while none were significantly related to ChlaPeri. Neither ChlaPhyt nor ChlaPeri were, however, significantly negatively related to the various N concentrations. Our results indicate that shading by phytoplankton unrelated to the variation in N loading and perhaps toxic stress exerted by high nitrogen were responsible for the decline in macrophyte growth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Gymnosperms have increased capacity for electron leakage to oxygen (Mehler and PTOX reactions) in photosynthesis compared with angiosperms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shirao, Masayoshi; Kuroki, Shu; Kaneko, Kaoru; Kinjo, Yuriko; Tsuyama, Michito; Förster, Britta; Takahashi, Shunichi; Badger, Murray R

    2013-01-01

    ...) mediated by the plastid terminal oxidase (PTOX). In this study, we show, using 101 plant species, that there is a difference in the potential for photosynthetic electron flow to O2 between angiosperms and gymnosperms...

  8. Additions of angiosperms to the Flora of Peru from the Andean-Amazonian forests of southern Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isau Huamantupa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We present 25 new records of angiosperms for the Peruvian flora, as a result of different botanical explorations conducted in southern Peru, mainly in the areas of the departments of Cusco, Apurimac and Madre de Dios.

  9. Aquatic Insects Associated with Submerged Macrophytes with Different Morphological Complexities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas F Peiró

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to analyze the diversity and community structure of aquatic insects associated with species of submersed macrophytes with different morphological complexity in relation to leaf structure. Sampling occurred in raining and dry periods at Ribeirão das Anhumas, Américo Brasiliense/SP. Four macrophytes were analyzed: Vallisneria sp., Eleocharis sp., Egeria najas and Ottelia sp. The entomological community was identified up to the family level, and at tribe level for Chironomidae. The community structure was analyzed using diversity indices of Simpson, Equitability evenness, relative participation of functional category and taxa dominance. The dispersion of faunal composition between the different collection periods was analyzed using a n-MDS with Morisita index. The structure of the insect community associated with macrophytes with different structural morphologies was analyzed using structural similarity calculated by the Bray-Curtis index. Seventeen families were identified from five orders, a total of 1642 specimens. The family Hydropsychidae (Trichoptera presented eudominance (52.6%, followed by the tribe Pentaneurini (Chironomidae (13.8% and family Trichoryithidae (Ephemeroptera (10%. The results showed that there were no large diversity variations in the analyzed macrophyte species and the sampling periods. The predator and collector functional groups were predominant. The n-MDS analysis indicated the absence of seasonal variation and, the similarity analysis indicated that macrophyte E. najas and Otellia sp., presented similar fauna structure, differing from other analyzed species. The results demonstrated that the morphological structure of macrophytes may have different structures of aquatic insect communities.

  10. Testing the recent theories for the origin of the hermaphrodite flower by comparison of the transcriptomes of gymnosperms and angiosperms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavares Raquel

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Different theories for the origin of the angiosperm hermaphrodite flower make different predictions concerning the overlap between the genes expressed in the male and female cones of gymnosperms and the genes expressed in the hermaphrodite flower of angiosperms. The Mostly Male (MM theory predicts that, of genes expressed primarily in male versus female gymnosperm cones, an excess of male orthologs will be expressed in flowers, excluding ovules, while Out Of Male (OOM and Out Of Female (OOF theories predict no such excess. Results In this paper, we tested these predictions by comparing the transcriptomes of three gymnosperms (Ginkgo biloba, Welwitschia mirabilis and Zamia fisheri and two angiosperms (Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa, using EST data. We found that the proportion of orthologous genes expressed in the reproductive organs of the gymnosperms and in the angiosperms flower is significantly higher than the proportion of orthologous genes expressed in the reproductive organs of the gymnosperms and in the angiosperms vegetative tissues, which shows that the approach is correct. However, we detected no significant differences between the proportion of gymnosperm orthologous genes expressed in the male cone and in the angiosperms flower and the proportion of gymnosperm orthologous genes expressed in the female cone and in the angiosperms flower. Conclusions These results do not support the MM theory prediction of an excess of male gymnosperm genes expressed in the hermaphrodite flower of the angiosperms and seem to support the OOM/OOF theories. However, other explanations can be given for the 1:1 ratio that we found. More abundant and more specific (namely carpel and ovule expression data should be produced in order to further test these theories.

  11. Was the ANITA rooting of the angiosperm phylogeny affected by long-branch attraction? Amborella, Nymphaeales, Illiciales, Trimeniaceae, and Austrobaileya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Y L; Lee, J; Whitlock, B A; Bernasconi-Quadroni, F; Dombrovska, O

    2001-09-01

    Five groups of basal angiosperms, Amborella, Nymphaeales, Illiciales, Trimeniaceae, and Austrobaileya (ANITA), were identified in several recent studies as representing a series of the earliest-diverging lineages of the angiosperm phylogeny. All of these studies except one employed a multigene analysis approach and used gymnosperms as the outgroup to determine the ingroup topology. The high level of divergence between gymnosperms and angiosperms, however, has long been implicated in the difficulty of reconstructing relationships at the base of angiosperm phylogeny using DNA sequences, for fear of long-branch attraction (LBA). In this study, we replaced the gymnosperm sequences from the five-gene matrix (mitochondrial atp1 and matR, plastid atpB and rbcL, and nuclear 18S rDNA) used in our earlier study with four categories of divergent sequences--random sequences with equal base frequencies or equally AT- and GC-rich contents, homopolymers and heteropolymers, misaligned gymnosperm sequences, and aligned lycopod and bryophyte sequences--to evaluate whether the gymnosperms were an appropriate outgroup to angiosperms in our earlier study that identified the ANITA rooting. All 24 analyses performed rooted the angiosperm phylogeny at either Acorus or Alisma (or Alisma-Triglochin-Potamogeton in one case due to use of a slightly different alignment) and placed the monocots as a basal grade, producing genuine LBA results. These analyses demonstrate that the identification of ANITA as the basalmost extant angiosperms was based on historical signals preserved in the gymnosperm sequences and that the gymnosperms were an appropriate outgroup with which to root the angiosperm phylogeny in the multigene sequence analysis. This strategy of evaluating the appropriateness of an outgroup using artificial sequences and a series of outgroups with increments of divergence levels can be applied to investigations of phylogenetic patterns at the bases of other major clades, such as land

  12. Testing the recent theories for the origin of the hermaphrodite flower by comparison of the transcriptomes of gymnosperms and angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Raquel; Cagnon, Mathilde; Negrutiu, Ioan; Mouchiroud, Dominque

    2010-08-03

    Different theories for the origin of the angiosperm hermaphrodite flower make different predictions concerning the overlap between the genes expressed in the male and female cones of gymnosperms and the genes expressed in the hermaphrodite flower of angiosperms. The Mostly Male (MM) theory predicts that, of genes expressed primarily in male versus female gymnosperm cones, an excess of male orthologs will be expressed in flowers, excluding ovules, while Out Of Male (OOM) and Out Of Female (OOF) theories predict no such excess. In this paper, we tested these predictions by comparing the transcriptomes of three gymnosperms (Ginkgo biloba, Welwitschia mirabilis and Zamia fisheri) and two angiosperms (Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa), using EST data. We found that the proportion of orthologous genes expressed in the reproductive organs of the gymnosperms and in the angiosperms flower is significantly higher than the proportion of orthologous genes expressed in the reproductive organs of the gymnosperms and in the angiosperms vegetative tissues, which shows that the approach is correct. However, we detected no significant differences between the proportion of gymnosperm orthologous genes expressed in the male cone and in the angiosperms flower and the proportion of gymnosperm orthologous genes expressed in the female cone and in the angiosperms flower. These results do not support the MM theory prediction of an excess of male gymnosperm genes expressed in the hermaphrodite flower of the angiosperms and seem to support the OOM/OOF theories. However, other explanations can be given for the 1:1 ratio that we found. More abundant and more specific (namely carpel and ovule) expression data should be produced in order to further test these theories.

  13. Conservation and canalization of gene expression during angiosperm diversification accompany the origin and evolution of the flower

    OpenAIRE

    Chanderbali, André S.; Yoo, Mi-Jeong; Zahn, Laura M; Brockington, Samuel F.; Wall, P Kerr; Gitzendanner, Matthew A.; Albert, Victor A; Leebens-Mack, James; Altman, Naomi S.; Ma, Hong; dePamphilis, Claude W; Soltis, Douglas E.; Pamela S Soltis

    2010-01-01

    The origin and rapid diversification of the angiosperms (Darwin's “Abominable Mystery”) has engaged generations of researchers. Here, we examine the floral genetic programs of phylogenetically pivotal angiosperms (water lily, avocado, California poppy, and Arabidopsis) and a nonflowering seed plant (a cycad) to obtain insight into the origin and subsequent evolution of the flower. Transcriptional cascades with broadly overlapping spatial domains, resembling the hypothesized ancestral gymnospe...

  14. The case of Darwinylus marcosi (Insecta: Coleoptera: Oedemeridae): A Cretaceous shift from a gymnosperm to an angiosperm pollinator mutualism

    OpenAIRE

    Peris, David; Labandeira, Conrad C.; Pe?alver, Enrique; Delcl?s, Xavier; Barr?n, Eduardo; P?rez-de la Fuente, Ricardo

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Abundant gymnosperm pollen grains associated with the oedemerid beetle Darwinylus marcosi Peris, 2016 were found in Early Cretaceous amber from Spain. This discovery provides confirmatory evidence for a pollination mutualism during the mid Mesozoic for the family Oedemeridae (Coleoptera), which today is known to pollinate only angiosperms. As a result, this new record documents a lateral host-plant transfer from an earlier gymnosperm to a later angiosperm, indicating that pollination...

  15. Genome size diversity in angiosperms and its influence on gene space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodsworth, Steven; Leitch, Andrew R; Leitch, Ilia J

    2015-12-01

    Genome size varies c. 2400-fold in angiosperms (flowering plants), although the range of genome size is skewed towards small genomes, with a mean genome size of 1C=5.7Gb. One of the most crucial factors governing genome size in angiosperms is the relative amount and activity of repetitive elements. Recently, there have been new insights into how these repeats, previously discarded as 'junk' DNA, can have a significant impact on gene space (i.e. the part of the genome comprising all the genes and gene-related DNA). Here we review these new findings and explore in what ways genome size itself plays a role in influencing how repeats impact genome dynamics and gene space, including gene expression. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Cretaceous flowers of Nymphaeaceae and implications for complex insect entrapment pollination mechanisms in early angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandolfo, M A; Nixon, K C; Crepet, W L

    2004-05-25

    Based on recent molecular systematics studies, the water lily lineage (Nymphaeales) provides an important key to understanding ancestral angiosperm morphology and is of considerable interest in the context of angiosperm origins. Therefore, the fossil record of Nymphaeales potentially provides evidence on both the timing and nature of diversification of one of the earliest clades of flowering plants. Recent fossil evidence of Turonian age (approximately 90 million years B.P.) includes fossil flowers with characters that, upon rigorous analysis, firmly place them within Nymphaeaceae. Unequivocally the oldest floral record of the Nymphaeales, these fossils are closely related to the modern Nymphaealean genera Victoria (the giant Amazon water lily) and Euryale. Although the fossils are much smaller than their modern relatives, the precise and dramatic correspondence between the fossil floral morphology and that of modern Victoria flowers suggests that beetle entrapment pollination was present in the earliest part of the Late Cretaceous.

  17. Immunolocalization of arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) in reproductive structures of an early-divergent angiosperm, Trithuria (Hydatellaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Mário; Pereira, Ana Marta; Rudall, Paula J; Coimbra, Sílvia

    2013-02-01

    Trithuria is the sole genus of Hydatellaceae, a family of the early-divergent angiosperm lineage Nymphaeales (water-lilies). In this study different arabinogalactan protein (AGP) epitopes in T. submersa were evaluated in order to understand the diversity of these proteins and their functions in flowering plants. Immunolabelling of different AGPs and pectin epitopes in reproductive structures of T. submersa at the stage of early seed development was achieved by immunofluorescence of specific antibodies. AGPs in Trithuria pistil tissues could be important as structural proteins and also as possible signalling molecules. Intense labelling was obtained with anti-AGP antibodies both in the anthers and in the intine wall, the latter associated with pollen tube emergence. AGPs could play a significant role in Trithuria reproduction, due to their specific presence in the pollen tube pathway. The results agree with labellings obtained for Arabidopsis and confirms the importance of AGPs in angiosperm reproductive structures as essential structural components and probably important signalling molecules.

  18. A probable pollination mode before angiosperms: Eurasian, long-proboscid scorpionflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Dong; Labandeira, Conrad C; Santiago-Blay, Jorge A; Rasnitsyn, Alexandr; Shih, ChungKun; Bashkuev, Alexei; Logan, M Amelia V; Hotton, Carol L; Dilcher, David

    2009-11-06

    The head and mouthpart structures of 11 species of Eurasian scorpionflies represent three extinct and closely related families during a 62-million-year interval from the late Middle Jurassic to the late Early Cretaceous. These taxa had elongate, siphonate (tubular) proboscides and fed on ovular secretions of extinct gymnosperms. Five potential ovulate host-plant taxa co-occur with these insects: a seed fern, conifer, ginkgoopsid, pentoxylalean, and gnetalean. The presence of scorpionfly taxa suggests that siphonate proboscides fed on gymnosperm pollination drops and likely engaged in pollination mutualisms with gymnosperms during the mid-Mesozoic, long before the similar and independent coevolution of nectar-feeding flies, moths, and beetles on angiosperms. All three scorpionfly families became extinct during the later Early Cretaceous, coincident with global gymnosperm-to-angiosperm turnover.

  19. Comparative chloroplast genomics: Analyses including new sequencesfrom the angiosperms Nuphar advena and Ranunculus macranthus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raubeso, Linda A.; Peery, Rhiannon; Chumley, Timothy W.; Dziubek,Chris; Fourcade, H. Matthew; Boore, Jeffrey L.; Jansen, Robert K.

    2007-03-01

    The number of completely sequenced plastid genomes available is growing rapidly. This new array of sequences presents new opportunities to perform comparative analyses. In comparative studies, it is most useful to compare across wide phylogenetic spans and, within angiosperms, to include representatives from basally diverging lineages such as the new genomes reported here: Nuphar advena (from a basal-most lineage) and Ranunculus macranthus (from the basal group of eudicots). We report these two new plastid genome sequences and make comparisons (within angiosperms, seed plants, or all photosynthetic lineages) to evaluate features such as the status of ycf15 and ycf68 as protein coding genes, the distribution of simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and longer dispersed repeats (SDR), and patterns of nucleotide composition.

  20. Aquatic sports and safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Володимир Миколайович Зюзь

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic sports or boating, has become a mass sport and recreation. It is as delightful a holiday as one might wish for, gaining strength around the world and especially in Ukraine. More and more people are eager to see the beauty of the underwater world, enjoy exciting sailing races, long journeys along beautiful rivers and unexplored areas, as well as smooth sailing at the height of the season. The article analyzes the modern aquatic (water tourism hazards that can lie in wait for a person in the water during camping trips and various boating competitions. This kind of sports is dangerous in principle, as aqueous medium is always perilous whether water is rough or calm. Accidents are always possible and tourists may find themselves in water, hypothermia, impossibility to breathe, impactions against different objects in the water resulting. Ships, food and equipment may also be damaged or lost, that is the consequences may be extremely negative. This article includes description of boating types, extreme forms of boating, the design features of the swimming facilities used in boating, practical skills and the ability to apply the facilities; characteristics of waves and currents; types of rivers; forms and methods of transportation and rescue of the drowning people; rendering assistance and first aid to the victims; promotion of safety rules on the water during the boating. The main goals and objectives in preparing aquatic tourism professionals whose main duty is safety, training topics, theoretical and practical materials for training the basics of safety that makes it possible to get acquainted with all the requirements have been discussed. The first attempt to develop general educational standards in training professionals in water sports and safety basing on the new priorities and the principles of modern vocational education has been made in the articles

  1. Pollen structure and development in Nymphaeales: insights into character evolution in an ancient angiosperm lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Mackenzie L; Cooper, Ranessa L; Schneider, Edward L; Osborn, Jeffrey M

    2015-10-01

    A knowledge of pollen characters in early-diverging angiosperm lineages is essential for understanding pollen evolution and the role of pollen in angiosperm diversification. In this paper, we report and synthesize data on mature pollen and pollen ontogeny from all genera of Nymphaeales within a comparative, phylogenetic context and consider pollen evolution in this early-diverging angiosperm lineage. We describe mature pollen characters for Euryale, Barclaya, and Nymphaea ondinea, taxa for which little to no structural data exist. We studied mature pollen for all nymphaealean genera using light, scanning electron, and transmission electron microscopy. We reviewed published reports of nymphaealean pollen to provide a comprehensive discussion of pollen characters in water lilies. Nymphaeales exhibit diversity in key pollen characters, including dispersal unit size, ornamentation, aperture morphology, and tapetum type. All Nymphaeales pollen are tectate-columellate, exhibiting one of two distinct patterns of infratectal ultrastructure-a thick infratectal space with robust columellae or a thin infratectal space with thin columellae. All genera have pollen with a lamellate endexine that becomes compressed in the proximal, but not distal wall. This endexine ultrastructure supports the operculate hypothesis for aperture origin. Nymphaeaceae pollen exhibit a membranous granular layer, which is a synapomorphy of the family. Variation in pollen characters indicates that significant potential for lability in pollen development was present in Nymphaeales at the time of its divergence from the rest of angiosperms. Structural and ontogenetic data are essential for interpreting pollen characters, such as infratectum and endexine ultrastructure in Nymphaeales. © 2015 Botanical Society of America.

  2. Seedlings of temperate rainforest conifer and angiosperm trees differ in leaf area display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusk, Christopher H; Pérez-Millaqueo, Manuel M; Saldaña, Alfredo; Burns, Bruce R; Laughlin, Daniel C; Falster, Daniel S

    2012-07-01

    The contemporary relegation of conifers mainly to cold or infertile sites has been ascribed to low competitive ability, as a result of the hydraulic inefficiency of tracheids and their seedlings' initial dependence on small foliage areas. Here it is hypothesized that, in temperate rainforests, the larger leaves of angiosperms also reduce self-shading and thus enable display of larger effective foliage areas than the numerous small leaves of conifers. This hypothesis was tested using 3-D modelling of plant architecture and structural equation modelling to compare self-shading and light interception potential of seedlings of six conifers and 12 angiosperm trees from temperate rainforests. The ratio of displayed leaf area to plant mass (LAR(d)) was used to indicate plant light interception potential: LAR(d) is the product of specific leaf area, leaf mass fraction, self-shading and leaf angle. Angiosperm seedlings self-shaded less than conifers, mainly because of differences in leaf number (more than leaf size), and on average their LAR(d) was about twice that of conifers. Although specific leaf area was the most pervasive influence on LAR(d), differences in self-shading also significantly influenced LAR(d) of large seedlings. The ability to deploy foliage in relatively few, large leaves is advantageous in minimizing self-shading and enhancing seedling light interception potential per unit of plant biomass. This study adds significantly to evidence that vegetative traits may be at least as important as reproductive innovations in explaining the success of angiosperms in productive environments where vegetation is structured by light competition.

  3. Invasions but not extinctions change phylogenetic diversity of angiosperm assemblage on southeastern Pacific Oceanic islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvallo, Gastón O; Castro, Sergio A

    2017-01-01

    We assessed changes in phylogenetic diversity of angiosperm flora on six oceanic islands located in the southeastern Pacific Ocean, by comparing flora from two periods: the pre-European colonization of islands and current times. We hypothesize that, in the time between these periods, extinction of local plant species and addition of exotic plants modified phylogenetic-α-diversity at different levels (deeper and terminal phylogeny) and increased phylo-β-diversity among islands. Based on floristic studies, we assembled a phylogenetic tree from occurrence data that includes 921 species, of which 165 and 756 were native or exotic in origin, respectively. Then, we studied change in the phylo-α-diversity and phylo-β-diversity (1 -Phylosor) by comparing pre-European and current times. Despite extinction of 18 native angiosperm species, an increase in species richness and phylo-α-diversity was observed for all islands studied, attributed to introduction of exotic plants (between 6 to 477 species per island). We did not observe significant variation of mean phylogenetic distance (MPD), a measure of the 'deeper' phylogenetic diversity of assemblages (e.g., orders, families), suggesting that neither extinctions nor introductions altered phylogenetic structure of the angiosperms of these islands. In regard to phylo-β-diversity, we detected temporal turnover (variation in phylogenetic composition) between periods to flora (0.38 ± 0.11). However, when analyses were performed only considering native plants, we did not observe significant temporal turnover between periods (0.07 ± 0.06). These results indicate that introduction of exotic angiosperms has contributed more notably than extinctions to the configuration of plant assemblages and phylogenetic diversity on the studied islands. Because phylogenetic diversity is closely related to functional diversity (species trait variations and roles performed by organisms), our results suggests that the introduction of exotic

  4. [Correlations between gynoecium morphology and ovary position in angiosperm flowers: roles of developmental and terminological constraints].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokoloff, D D

    2015-01-01

    Angiosperm gynoecium consists of elementary units, called carpels. These can be free (apocarpy) or united (coenocarpy, or syncarpy in a wide sense). One of the most complicate problems of evolutionary morphology of angiosperms is distinguishing monomerous and pseudomonomerous gynoecia. The former are assumed to be derived by reduction of carpel number in apocarpous gynoecia, the latter by reduction of gynoecia with united carpels. Pseudomonomerous gynoecia have one fertile carpel and more or less prominent traces of sterile carpel(s). In extreme cases of reduction, pseudomonomerous gynoecia are very similar to monomerous, even though the two types have completely different evolutionary histories. G.B. Kedrov (1969) proposed a new approach to resolving the issue. Using the fact of absence of polymerous free-carpellate gynoecia with inferior ovaries, he suggested that there is a constraint against epigyny in plants with free carpels. Therefore, in taxa with disputable morphological interpretations, the gynoecium should be treated as pseudomonomerous (and not monomerous) if the ovary is inferior. A critical review of the concept of G.B. Kedrov showed that his ideas would suggest re-interpretation of widely accepted views on gynoecium morphology in several key families of basal angiosperms. An alternative view is proposed, that for most important types of epigyny in angiosperms, a "constraint" for a combination of inferior ovary and apocarpy is due to definition of the term "apocarpy" only. There is no biological sense in this "constraint". Existence of two other morphogenetic constraints is proposed: (1) against development of a typical inferior ovary in monomerous gynoecia with conduplicate carpel and (2) against a radial (sectorial) fusion of individual carpels with stamens or perianth members without fusion of these groups into an entire structure. Possible biological nature of these constraints is discussed.

  5. Taxonomy and Biogeography of Apomixis in Angiosperms and Associated Biodiversity Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojsgaard, Diego; Klatt, Simone; Baier, Roland; Carman, John G; Hörandl, Elvira

    2014-09-03

    Apomixis in angiosperms is asexual reproduction from seed. Its importance to angiospermous evolution and biodiversity has been difficult to assess mainly because of insufficient taxonomic documentation. Thus, we assembled literature reporting apomixis occurrences among angiosperms and transferred the information to an internet database (http://www.apomixis.uni-goettingen.de). We then searched for correlations between apomixis occurrences and well-established measures of taxonomic diversity and biogeography. Apomixis was found to be taxonomically widespread with no clear tendency to specific groups and to occur with sexuality at all taxonomic levels. Adventitious embryony was the most frequent form (148 genera) followed by apospory (110) and diplospory (68). All three forms are phylogenetically scattered, but this scattering is strongly associated with measures of biodiversity. Across apomictic-containing orders and families, numbers of apomict-containing genera were positively correlated with total numbers of genera. In general, apomict-containing orders, families, and subfamilies of Asteraceae, Poaceae, and Orchidaceae were larger, i.e., they possessed more families or genera, than non-apomict-containing orders, families or subfamilies. Furthermore, many apomict-containing genera were found to be highly cosmopolitan. In this respect, 62% occupy multiple geographic zones. Numbers of genera containing sporophytic or gametophytic apomicts decreased from the tropics to the arctic, a trend that parallels general biodiversity. While angiosperms appear to be predisposed to shift from sex to apomixis, there is also evidence of reversions to sexuality. Such reversions may result from genetic or epigenetic destabilization events accompanying hybridization, polyploidy, or other cytogenetic alterations. Because of increased within-plant genetic and genomic heterogeneity, range expansions and diversifications at the species and genus levels may occur more rapidly upon

  6. Chemical ecology of marine angiosperms: opportunities at the interface of marine and terrestrial systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieg, R Drew; Kubanek, Julia

    2013-06-01

    This review examines the state of the field for chemically mediated interactions involving marine angiosperms (seagrasses, mangroves, and salt marsh angiosperms). Small-scale interactions among these plants and their herbivores, pathogens, fouling organisms, and competitors are explored, as are community-level effects of plant secondary metabolites. At larger spatial scales, secondary metabolites from marine angiosperms function as reliable cues for larval settlement, molting, or habitat selection by fish and invertebrates, and can influence community structure and ecosystem function. Several recent studies illustrate the importance of chemical defenses from these plants that deter feeding by herbivores and infection by pathogens, but the extent to which allelopathic compounds kill or inhibit the growth of competitors is less clear. While some phenolic compounds such as ferulic acid and caffeic acid act as critical defenses against herbivores and pathogens, we find that a high total concentration of phenolic compounds within bulk plant tissues is not a strong predictor of defense. Residual chemical defenses prevent shredding or degradation of plant detritus by detritivores and microbes, delaying the time before plant matter can enter the microbial loop. Mangroves, marsh plants, and seagrasses remain plentiful sources of new natural products, but ecological functions are known for only a small proportion of these compounds. As new analytical techniques are incorporated into ecological studies, opportunities are emerging for chemical ecologists to test how subtle environmental cues affect the production and release of marine angiosperm chemical defenses or signaling molecules. Throughout this review, we point to areas for future study, highlighting opportunities for new directions in chemical ecology that will advance our understanding of ecological interactions in these valuable ecosystems.

  7. The progamic phase of an early-divergent angiosperm, Annona cherimola (Annonaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lora, J; Hormaza, J I; Herrero, M

    2010-02-01

    Recent studies of reproductive biology in ancient angiosperm lineages are beginning to shed light on the early evolution of flowering plants, but comparative studies are restricted by fragmented and meagre species representation in these angiosperm clades. In the present study, the progamic phase, from pollination to fertilization, is characterized in Annona cherimola, which is a member of the Annonaceae, the largest extant family among early-divergent angiosperms. Beside interest due to its phylogenetic position, this species is also an ancient crop with a clear niche for expansion in subtropical climates. The kinetics of the reproductive process was established following controlled pollinations and sequential fixation. Gynoecium anatomy, pollen tube pathway, embryo sac and early post-fertilization events were characterized histochemically. A plesiomorphic gynoecium with a semi-open carpel shows a continuous secretory papillar surface along the carpel margins, which run from the stigma down to the obturator in the ovary. The pollen grains germinate in the stigma and compete in the stigma-style interface to reach the narrow secretory area that lines the margins of the semi-open stylar canal and is able to host just one to three pollen tubes. The embryo sac has eight nuclei and is well provisioned with large starch grains that are used during early cellular endosperm development. A plesiomorphic simple gynoecium hosts a simple pollen-pistil interaction, based on a support-control system of pollen tube growth. Support is provided through basipetal secretory activity in the cells that line the pollen tube pathway. Spatial constraints, favouring pollen tube competition, are mediated by a dramatic reduction in the secretory surface available for pollen tube growth at the stigma-style interface. This extramural pollen tube competition contrasts with the intrastylar competition predominant in more recently derived lineages of angiosperms.

  8. The progamic phase of an early-divergent angiosperm, Annona cherimola (Annonaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lora, J.; Hormaza, J. I.; Herrero, M.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Recent studies of reproductive biology in ancient angiosperm lineages are beginning to shed light on the early evolution of flowering plants, but comparative studies are restricted by fragmented and meagre species representation in these angiosperm clades. In the present study, the progamic phase, from pollination to fertilization, is characterized in Annona cherimola, which is a member of the Annonaceae, the largest extant family among early-divergent angiosperms. Beside interest due to its phylogenetic position, this species is also an ancient crop with a clear niche for expansion in subtropical climates. Methods The kinetics of the reproductive process was established following controlled pollinations and sequential fixation. Gynoecium anatomy, pollen tube pathway, embryo sac and early post-fertilization events were characterized histochemically. Key Results A plesiomorphic gynoecium with a semi-open carpel shows a continuous secretory papillar surface along the carpel margins, which run from the stigma down to the obturator in the ovary. The pollen grains germinate in the stigma and compete in the stigma-style interface to reach the narrow secretory area that lines the margins of the semi-open stylar canal and is able to host just one to three pollen tubes. The embryo sac has eight nuclei and is well provisioned with large starch grains that are used during early cellular endosperm development. Conclusions A plesiomorphic simple gynoecium hosts a simple pollen–pistil interaction, based on a support–control system of pollen tube growth. Support is provided through basipetal secretory activity in the cells that line the pollen tube pathway. Spatial constraints, favouring pollen tube competition, are mediated by a dramatic reduction in the secretory surface available for pollen tube growth at the stigma–style interface. This extramural pollen tube competition contrasts with the intrastylar competition predominant in more recently derived

  9. Angiosperm phylogeny inferred from multiple genes as a tool for comparative biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltis, P S; Soltis, D E; Chase, M W

    1999-11-25

    Comparative biology requires a firm phylogenetic foundation to uncover and understand patterns of diversification and evaluate hypotheses of the processes responsible for these patterns. In the angiosperms, studies of diversification in floral form, stamen organization, reproductive biology, photosynthetic pathway, nitrogen-fixing symbioses and life histories have relied on either explicit or implied phylogenetic trees. Furthermore, to understand the evolution of specific genes and gene families, evaluate the extent of conservation of plant genomes and make proper sense of the huge volume of molecular genetic data available for model organisms such as Arabidopsis, Antirrhinum, maize, rice and wheat, a phylogenetic perspective is necessary. Here we report the results of parsimony analyses of DNA sequences of the plastid genes rbcL and atpB and the nuclear 18S rDNA for 560 species of angiosperms and seven non-flowering seed plants and show a well-resolved and well-supported phylogenetic tree for the angiosperms for use in comparative biology.

  10. Evaluating the role of genome downsizing and size thresholds from genome size distributions in angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenil-Ferguson, Rosana; Ponciano, José M; Burleigh, J Gordon

    2016-07-01

    Whole-genome duplications (WGDs) can rapidly increase genome size in angiosperms. Yet their mean genome size is not correlated with ploidy. We compared three hypotheses to explain the constancy of genome size means across ploidies. The genome downsizing hypothesis suggests that genome size will decrease by a given percentage after a WGD. The genome size threshold hypothesis assumes that taxa with large genomes or large monoploid numbers will fail to undergo or survive WGDs. Finally, the genome downsizing and threshold hypothesis suggests that both genome downsizing and thresholds affect the relationship between genome size means and ploidy. We performed nonparametric bootstrap simulations to compare observed angiosperm genome size means among species or genera against simulated genome sizes under the three different hypotheses. We evaluated the hypotheses using a decision theory approach and estimated the expected percentage of genome downsizing. The threshold hypothesis improves the approximations between mean genome size and simulated genome size. At the species level, the genome downsizing with thresholds hypothesis best explains the genome size means with a 15% genome downsizing percentage. In the genus level simulations, the monoploid number threshold hypothesis best explains the data. Thresholds of genome size and monoploid number added to genome downsizing at species level simulations explain the observed means of angiosperm genome sizes, and monoploid number is important for determining the genome size mean at the genus level. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  11. Divergence of RNA polymerase α subunits in angiosperm plastid genomes is mediated by genomic rearrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazier, J Chris; Ruhlman, Tracey A; Weng, Mao-Lun; Rehman, Sumaiyah K; Sabir, Jamal S M; Jansen, Robert K

    2016-04-18

    Genes for the plastid-encoded RNA polymerase (PEP) persist in the plastid genomes of all photosynthetic angiosperms. However, three unrelated lineages (Annonaceae, Passifloraceae and Geraniaceae) have been identified with unusually divergent open reading frames (ORFs) in the conserved region of rpoA, the gene encoding the PEP α subunit. We used sequence-based approaches to evaluate whether these genes retain function. Both gene sequences and complete plastid genome sequences were assembled and analyzed from each of the three angiosperm families. Multiple lines of evidence indicated that the rpoA sequences are likely functional despite retaining as low as 30% nucleotide sequence identity with rpoA genes from outgroups in the same angiosperm order. The ratio of non-synonymous to synonymous substitutions indicated that these genes are under purifying selection, and bioinformatic prediction of conserved domains indicated that functional domains are preserved. One of the lineages (Pelargonium, Geraniaceae) contains species with multiple rpoA-like ORFs that show evidence of ongoing inter-paralog gene conversion. The plastid genomes containing these divergent rpoA genes have experienced extensive structural rearrangement, including large expansions of the inverted repeat. We propose that illegitimate recombination, not positive selection, has driven the divergence of rpoA.

  12. The rise of angiosperm-dominated herbaceous floras: Insights from Ranunculaceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Lin, Li; Xiang, Xiao-Guo; Ortiz, Rosa del C.; Liu, Yang; Xiang, Kun-Li; Yu, Sheng-Xiang; Xing, Yao-Wu; Chen, Zhi-Duan

    2016-01-01

    The rise of angiosperms has been regarded as a trigger for the Cretaceous revolution of terrestrial ecosystems. However, the timeframe of the rise angiosperm-dominated herbaceous floras (ADHFs) is lacking. Here, we used the buttercup family (Ranunculaceae) as a proxy to provide insights into the rise of ADHFs. An integration of phylogenetic, molecular dating, ancestral state inferring, and diversification analytical methods was used to infer the early evolutionary history of Ranunculaceae. We found that Ranunculaceae became differentiated in forests between about 108–90 Ma. Diversification rates markedly elevated during the Campanian, mainly resulted from the rapid divergence of the non-forest lineages, but did not change across the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary. Our data for Ranunculaceae indicate that forest-dwelling ADHFs may have appeared almost simultaneously with angiosperm-dominated forests during the mid-Cretaceous, whereas non-forest ADHFs arose later, by the end of the Cretaceous terrestrial revolution. Furthermore, ADHFs were relatively unaffected by the Cretaceous-Paleogene mass extinction. PMID:27251635

  13. Strategies for Partitioning Clock Models in Phylogenomic Dating: Application to the Angiosperm Evolutionary Timescale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Simon Y.W.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Evolutionary timescales can be inferred from molecular sequence data using a Bayesian phylogenetic approach. In these methods, the molecular clock is often calibrated using fossil data. The uncertainty in these fossil calibrations is important because it determines the limiting posterior distribution for divergence-time estimates as the sequence length tends to infinity. Here, we investigate how the accuracy and precision of Bayesian divergence-time estimates improve with the increased clock-partitioning of genome-scale data into clock-subsets. We focus on a data set comprising plastome-scale sequences of 52 angiosperm taxa. There was little difference among the Bayesian date estimates whether we chose clock-subsets based on patterns of among-lineage rate heterogeneity or relative rates across genes, or by random assignment. Increasing the degree of clock-partitioning usually led to an improvement in the precision of divergence-time estimates, but this increase was asymptotic to a limit presumably imposed by fossil calibrations. Our clock-partitioning approaches yielded highly precise age estimates for several key nodes in the angiosperm phylogeny. For example, when partitioning the data into 20 clock-subsets based on patterns of among-lineage rate heterogeneity, we inferred crown angiosperms to have arisen 198–178 Ma. This demonstrates that judicious clock-partitioning can improve the precision of molecular dating based on phylogenomic data, but the meaning of this increased precision should be considered critically. PMID:29036288

  14. Phylogenetic comparative analysis of microsporogenesis in angiosperms with a focus on monocots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadot, Sophie; Furness, Carol A; Sannier, Julie; Penet, Laurent; Triki-Teurtroy, Sarah; Albert, Beatrice; Ressayre, Adrienne

    2008-11-01

    This paper presents the first broad overview of three main features of microsporogenesis (male meiosis) in angiosperms: cytokinesis (cell division), intersporal wall formation, and tetrad form. A phylogenetic comparative approach was used to test for correlated evolution among these characters and to make hypotheses about evolutionary trends in microsporogenesis. The link between features of microsporogenesis and pollen aperture type was examined. We show that the pathway associated with successive cytokinesis (cytoplasm is partitioned after each meiotic division) is restricted to wall formation mediated by centrifugally developing cell plates, and tetragonal (or decussate, T-shaped, linear) tetrads. Conversely, much more flexibility is observed when cytokinesis is simultaneous (two meiotic divisions completed before cytoplasmic partitioning). We suggest that the ancestral type of microsporogenesis for angiosperms, and perhaps for all seed plants, associated simultaneous cytokinesis with centripetal wall formation, resulting in a large diversity in tetrad forms, ranging from regular tetrahedral to tetragonal tetrads, including rhomboidal tetrads. From this ancestral pathway, switches toward successive cytokinesis occurred among basal angiosperms and monocots, generally associated with a switch toward centrifugal intersporal wall formation, whereas eudicots evolved toward an almost exclusive production of regular tetrahedral tetrads. No straightforward link is found between the type of microsporogenesis and pollen aperture type.

  15. A targeted enrichment strategy for massively parallel sequencing of angiosperm plastid genomes1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stull, Gregory W.; Moore, Michael J.; Mandala, Venkata S.; Douglas, Norman A.; Kates, Heather-Rose; Qi, Xinshuai; Brockington, Samuel F.; Soltis, Pamela S.; Soltis, Douglas E.; Gitzendanner, Matthew A.

    2013-01-01

    • Premise of the study: We explored a targeted enrichment strategy to facilitate rapid and low-cost next-generation sequencing (NGS) of numerous complete plastid genomes from across the phylogenetic breadth of angiosperms. • Methods and Results: A custom RNA probe set including the complete sequences of 22 previously sequenced eudicot plastomes was designed to facilitate hybridization-based targeted enrichment of eudicot plastid genomes. Using this probe set and an Agilent SureSelect targeted enrichment kit, we conducted an enrichment experiment including 24 angiosperms (22 eudicots, two monocots), which were subsequently sequenced on a single lane of the Illumina GAIIx with single-end, 100-bp reads. This approach yielded nearly complete to complete plastid genomes with exceptionally high coverage (mean coverage: 717×), even for the two monocots. • Conclusions: Our enrichment experiment was highly successful even though many aspects of the capture process employed were suboptimal. Hence, significant improvements to this methodology are feasible. With this general approach and probe set, it should be possible to sequence more than 300 essentially complete plastid genomes in a single Illumina GAIIx lane (achieving ∼50× mean coverage). However, given the complications of pooling numerous samples for multiplex sequencing and the limited number of barcodes (e.g., 96) available in commercial kits, we recommend 96 samples as a current practical maximum for multiplex plastome sequencing. This high-throughput approach should facilitate large-scale plastid genome sequencing at any level of phylogenetic diversity in angiosperms. PMID:25202518

  16. Angiosperm flora on the páramos of northwestern Colombia: diversity and affinities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Alzate-Guarín

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Páramos are high-elevation isolated ecosystems in the Andes characterized by specific flora. This flora includes a number of endemic species and some taxa phylogenetically related to temperate lineages (van der Hammen and Cleef 1986. There are six páramo units or complexes in the Department of Antioquia, located in northwestern Colombia. For five years, we conducted botanic explorations in order to quantify the richness of angiosperm flora in these units. We estimate the richness of angiosperms in these páramos at 693 species, 277 genera, and 86 families, which represent almost 10% of the floral diversity in Antioquia, but contained in only 0.7% of its area. We found that Frontino-Urrao is the most species-rich páramo with 465 species from 225 genera. Our results show that the most diverse angiosperm families of the páramos of Antioquia are Asteraceae, Orchidaceae, Melastomataceae, and Poaceae, which together represent 245 species. Groupings between páramos by Sørensen’s similarity index show that the complexes of the Central Andes Cordillera form a cluster of greater affinity than Páramos from other regions. Of the species found, 80 have a CITES or IUCN diagnosis. The expeditions allowed the identification of 21 species not previously registered in Antioquia and a considerable number of endemisms (35 species, further proof of the high plant diversity in these ecosystems.

  17. Angiosperm flora on the páramos of northwestern Colombia: diversity and affinities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzate-Guarín, Fernando; Murillo-Serna, Jhon Steven

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Páramos are high-elevation isolated ecosystems in the Andes characterized by specific flora. This flora includes a number of endemic species and some taxa phylogenetically related to temperate lineages (van der Hammen and Cleef 1986). There are six páramo units or complexes in the Department of Antioquia, located in northwestern Colombia. For five years, we conducted botanic explorations in order to quantify the richness of angiosperm flora in these units. We estimate the richness of angiosperms in these páramos at 693 species, 277 genera, and 86 families, which represent almost 10% of the floral diversity in Antioquia, but contained in only 0.7% of its area. We found that Frontino-Urrao is the most species-rich páramo with 465 species from 225 genera. Our results show that the most diverse angiosperm families of the páramos of Antioquia are Asteraceae, Orchidaceae, Melastomataceae, and Poaceae, which together represent 245 species. Groupings between páramos by Sørensen’s similarity index show that the complexes of the Central Andes Cordillera form a cluster of greater affinity than Páramos from other regions. Of the species found, 80 have a CITES or IUCN diagnosis. The expeditions allowed the identification of 21 species not previously registered in Antioquia and a considerable number of endemisms (35 species), further proof of the high plant diversity in these ecosystems. PMID:27829798

  18. stil113_0401p -- Still frame locations of sediment extracted from video imagery collected by Delta submersible in September 2001.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Delta submersible vehicle, outfitted with video equipment (and other devices), was deployed from the R/V Auriga during September 2001 to monitor seafloor...

  19. Submersible Data (Dive Waypoints) for Islands in the Stream 2002 - Exploration of Outer Shelf and Slope Habitats off the Coast of North Carolina - Office of Ocean Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data and information collected by the submersible Johnson Sea-Link II at waypoints along its track during one dive of the 2002 "Islands in the Stream - Outer Shelf...

  20. Functionality of the plastron in adults of Neochetina eichhorniae Warner (Coleoptera, Curculionidae): aspects of the integument coating and submersion laboratory experiments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wesley Oliveira de Sousa; Germano Henrique Rosado-Neto; Marinêz Isaac Marques

    2012-01-01

    The plastron theory was tested in adults of Neochetina eichhorniae Warner, 1970, through the analysis of the structure that coats these insects' integument and also through submersion laboratorial experiments...

  1. Phytoplankton cell counts from a moored submersible flow cytometer at Martha's Vineyard Coastal Observatory, Massachusetts, May - September 2004 (NODC Accession 0002722)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Phytoplankton cell counts were collected from using a moored submersible flow cytometer from the Martha's Vineyard Coastal Observatory in the Northwest Atlantic...

  2. Submersible Data (Dive Waypoints) for Estuary to the Abyss 2004: Exploring Along the Latitude 31-30 Transect - Office of Ocean Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data and information collected by the submersible Johnson Sea-Link II at waypoints along its track during thirteen of the fourteen dives of the 2004 "Estuary to the...

  3. Sebastian Pinnacles, Oculina Banks Clelia Dive 619 Narrative 2001 - Videotape and Visual Observations from Submersible Dives to the Oculina Banks Deep Sea Coral Reefs (NODC Accession 0047190)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are from one of fourteen 2001 submersible "Clelia" dives. Narratives including habitat descriptions and estimates of megafaunal species abundance were...

  4. Jeff's Reef, Oculina Banks Clelia Dive 606 Narrative 2001 - Videotape and Visual Observations from Submersible Dives to the Oculina Banks Deep Sea Coral Reefs (NODC Accession 0047190)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These are data from one of fourteen 2001 submersible "Clelia" dives. Narratives including habitat descriptions and estimates of megafaunal species abundance were...

  5. Sebastian Pinnacles, Oculina Banks Clelia Dive 615 Narrative 2001 - Videotape and Visual Observations from Submersible Dives to the Oculina Banks Deep Sea Coral Reefs (NODC Accession 0047190)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are from one of fourteen 2001 submersible "Clelia" dives. Narratives including habitat descriptions and estimates of megafaunal species abundance were...

  6. Eau Gallie, Oculina Banks Clelia Dive 609 Narrative 2001 - Videotape and Visual Observations from Submersible Dives to the Oculina Banks Deep Sea Coral Reefs (NODC Accession 0047190)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are from one of fourteen 2001 submersible "Clelia" dives. Narratives including habitat descriptions and estimates of megafaunal species abundance were...

  7. Sebastian Pinnacles, Oculina Banks Clelia Dive 614 Narrative 2001 - Videotape and Visual Observations from Submersible Dives to the Oculina Banks Deep Sea Coral Reefs (NODC Accession 0047190)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are from one of fourteen 2001 submersible "Clelia" dives. Narratives including habitat descriptions and estimates of megafaunal species abundance were...

  8. Chapman's Reef, Oculina Banks Clelia Dive 620 Narrative 2001 - Videotape and Visual Observations from Submersible Dives to the Oculina Banks Deep Sea Coral Reefs (NODC Accession 0047190)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are from one of fourteen 2001 submersible "Clelia" dives. Narratives including habitat descriptions and estimates of megafaunal species abundance were...

  9. Cocoa Beach, Oculina Banks Clelia Dive 617 Narrative 2001 - Videotape and Visual Observations from Submersible Dives to the Oculina Banks Deep Sea Coral Reefs (NODC Accession 0047190)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are from one of from fourteen 2001 submersible "Clelia" dives. Narratives including habitat descriptions and estimates of megafaunal species abundance...

  10. Cape Canaveral, Oculina Banks Clelia Dive 616 Narrative 2001 - Videotape and Visual Observations from Submersible Dives to the Oculina Banks Deep Sea Coral Reefs (NODC Accession 0047190)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These are data from one of fourteen 2001 submersible "Clelia" dives. Narratives including habitat descriptions and estimates of megafaunal species abundance were...

  11. Eau Gallie, Oculina Banks Clelia Dive 608 Narrative 2001 - Videotape and Visual Observations from Submersible Dives to the Oculina Banks Deep Sea Coral Reefs (NODC Accession 0047190)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are from one of fourteen 2001 submersible "Clelia" dives. Narratives including habitat descriptions and estimates of megafaunal species abundance were...

  12. Sebastian Pinnacles, Oculina Banks Clelia Dive 618 Narrative 2001 - Videotape and Visual Observations from Submersible Dives to the Oculina Banks Deep Sea Coral Reefs (NODC Accession 0047190)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are from one of fourteen 2001 submersible "Clelia" dives. Narratives including habitat descriptions and estimates of megafaunal species abundance were...

  13. Chapman's Reef, Oculina Banks Clelia Dive 621 Narrative 2001 - Videotape and Visual Observations from Submersible Dives to the Oculina Banks Deep Sea Coral Reefs (NODC Accession 0047190)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are from one of fourteen 2001 submersible "Clelia" dives. Narratives including habitat descriptions and estimates of megafaunal species abundance were...

  14. Jeff's Reef Oculina Banks Clelia Dive 607 Narrative 2001 - Videotape and Visual Observations from Submersible Dives to the Oculina Banks Deep Sea Coral Reefs (NODC Accession 0047190)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These are data from one of fourteen 2001 submersible "Clelia" dives. Narratives including habitat descriptions and estimates of megafaunal species abundance were...

  15. Phytoplankton cell counts from a moored submersible flow cytometer at Martha's Vineyard (Massachusetts) Coastal Observatory, May 10 - December 15, 2003 (NODC Accession 0002299)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Phytoplankton cell counts data were collected using a moored submersible flow cytometer from a Coastal Observatory at the Martha's Vineyard in Masschutsetts from 10...

  16. Phytoplankton cell counts from a moored submersible flow cytometer at Martha's Vineyard (Massachusetts) Coastal Observatory, May - December 2006 (NODC Accession 0036656)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Phytoplankton cell counts were collected from using a moored submersible flow cytometer from the Martha's Vineyard Coastal Observatory in the Northwest Atlantic...

  17. DEF- and GLO-like proteins may have lost most of their interaction partners during angiosperm evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melzer, Rainer; Härter, Andrea; Rümpler, Florian; Kim, Sangtae; Soltis, Pamela S; Soltis, Douglas E; Theißen, Günter

    2014-11-01

    DEFICIENS (DEF)- and GLOBOSA (GLO)-like proteins constitute two sister clades of floral homeotic transcription factors that were already present in the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of extant angiosperms. Together they specify the identity of petals and stamens in flowering plants. In core eudicots, DEF- and GLO-like proteins are functional in the cell only as heterodimers with each other. There is evidence that this obligate heterodimerization contributed to the canalization of the flower structure of core eudicots during evolution. It remains unknown as to whether this strict heterodimerization is an ancient feature that can be traced back to the MRCA of extant flowering plants or if it evolved later during the evolution of the crown group angiosperms. The interactions of DEF- and GLO-like proteins of the early-diverging angiosperms Amborella trichopoda and Nuphar advena and of the magnoliid Liriodendron tulipifera were analysed by employing yeast two-hybrid analysis and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). Character-state reconstruction, including data from other species as well, was used to infer the ancestral interaction patterns of DEF- and GLO-like proteins. The yeast two-hybrid and EMSA data suggest that DEF- and GLO-like proteins from early-diverging angiosperms both homo- and heterodimerize. Character-state reconstruction suggests that the ability to form heterodimeric complexes already existed in the MRCA of extant angiosperms and that this property remained highly conserved throughout angiosperm evolution. Homodimerization of DEF- and GLO-like proteins also existed in the MRCA of all extant angiosperms. DEF-like protein homodimerization was probably lost very early in angiosperm evolution and was not present in the MRCA of eudicots and monocots. GLO-like protein homodimerization might have been lost later during evolution, but very probably was not present in the MRCA of eudicots. The flexibility of DEF- and GLO-like protein interactions in

  18. The SLEEPER genes: a transposase-derived angiosperm-specific gene family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knip, Marijn; de Pater, Sylvia; Hooykaas, Paul J J

    2012-10-16

    DAYSLEEPER encodes a domesticated transposase from the hAT-superfamily, which is essential for development in Arabidopsis thaliana. Little is known about the presence of DAYSLEEPER orthologs in other species, or how and when it was domesticated. We studied the presence of DAYSLEEPER orthologs in plants and propose a model for the domestication of the ancestral DAYSLEEPER gene in angiosperms. Using specific BLAST searches in genomic and EST libraries, we found that DAYSLEEPER-like genes (hereafter called SLEEPER genes) are unique to angiosperms. Basal angiosperms as well as grasses (Poaceae) and dicotyledonous plants possess such putative orthologous genes, but SLEEPER-family genes were not found in gymnosperms, mosses and algae. Most species contain more than one SLEEPER gene. All SLEEPERs contain a C2H2 type BED-zinc finger domain and a hATC dimerization domain. We designated 3 motifs, partly overlapping the BED-zinc finger and dimerization domain, which are hallmark features in the SLEEPER family. Although SLEEPER genes are structurally conserved between species, constructs with SLEEPER genes from grapevine and rice did not complement the daysleeper phenotype in Arabidopsis, when expressed under control of the DAYSLEEPER promoter. However these constructs did cause a dominant phenotype when expressed in Arabidopsis. Rice plant lines with an insertion in the RICESLEEPER1 or 2 locus displayed phenotypic abnormalities, indicating that these genes are functional and important for normal development in rice. We suggest a model in which we hypothesize that an ancestral hAT transposase was retrocopied and stably integrated in the genome during early angiosperm evolution. Evidence is also presented for more recent retroposition events of SLEEPER genes, such as an event in the rice genome, which gave rise to the RICESLEEPER1 and 2 genes. We propose the ancestral SLEEPER gene was formed after a process of retro-transposition during the evolution of the first angiosperms

  19. The SLEEPER genes: a transposase-derived angiosperm-specific gene family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knip Marijn

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DAYSLEEPER encodes a domesticated transposase from the hAT-superfamily, which is essential for development in Arabidopsis thaliana. Little is known about the presence of DAYSLEEPER orthologs in other species, or how and when it was domesticated. We studied the presence of DAYSLEEPER orthologs in plants and propose a model for the domestication of the ancestral DAYSLEEPER gene in angiosperms. Results Using specific BLAST searches in genomic and EST libraries, we found that DAYSLEEPER-like genes (hereafter called SLEEPER genes are unique to angiosperms. Basal angiosperms as well as grasses (Poaceae and dicotyledonous plants possess such putative orthologous genes, but SLEEPER-family genes were not found in gymnosperms, mosses and algae. Most species contain more than one SLEEPER gene. All SLEEPERs contain a C2H2 type BED-zinc finger domain and a hATC dimerization domain. We designated 3 motifs, partly overlapping the BED-zinc finger and dimerization domain, which are hallmark features in the SLEEPER family. Although SLEEPER genes are structurally conserved between species, constructs with SLEEPER genes from grapevine and rice did not complement the daysleeper phenotype in Arabidopsis, when expressed under control of the DAYSLEEPER promoter. However these constructs did cause a dominant phenotype when expressed in Arabidopsis. Rice plant lines with an insertion in the RICESLEEPER1 or 2 locus displayed phenotypic abnormalities, indicating that these genes are functional and important for normal development in rice. We suggest a model in which we hypothesize that an ancestral hAT transposase was retrocopied and stably integrated in the genome during early angiosperm evolution. Evidence is also presented for more recent retroposition events of SLEEPER genes, such as an event in the rice genome, which gave rise to the RICESLEEPER1 and 2 genes. Conclusions We propose the ancestral SLEEPER gene was formed after a process of retro

  20. Tool use by aquatic animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Janet; Patterson, Eric M.

    2013-01-01

    Tool-use research has focused primarily on land-based animals, with less consideration given to aquatic animals and the environmental challenges and conditions they face. Here, we review aquatic tool use and examine the contributing ecological, physiological, cognitive and social factors. Tool use among aquatic animals is rare but taxonomically diverse, occurring in fish, cephalopods, mammals, crabs, urchins and possibly gastropods. While additional research is required, the scarcity of tool use can likely be attributable to the characteristics of aquatic habitats, which are generally not conducive to tool use. Nonetheless, studying tool use by aquatic animals provides insights into the conditions that promote and inhibit tool-use behaviour across biomes. Like land-based tool users, aquatic animals tend to find tools on the substrate and use tools during foraging. However, unlike on land, tool users in water often use other animals (and their products) and water itself as a tool. Among sea otters and dolphins, the two aquatic tool users studied in greatest detail, some individuals specialize in tool use, which is vertically socially transmitted possibly because of their long dependency periods. In all, the contrasts between aquatic- and land-based tool users enlighten our understanding of the adaptive value of tool-use behaviour. PMID:24101631

  1. Development of a Semi-submersible Barge for the installation of a TLP floating substructure. TLPWIND® case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amate, Juan; Sánchez, Gustavo D.; González, Gonzalo

    2016-09-01

    One of the biggest challenges to introduce Tension Leg Platform (TLP) technology into the Offshore Wind market are the Transport & Installation (T&I) stages, since most of TLPs are not self-stable as semisubmersible or SPAR platforms, and consequently requires additional means to perform these operations. This paper addresses this problem that has been overcome through the development of a Semi-submersible “Transport & Installation” Barge (SSB) for Iberdrola's TLPWIND® floating support structure. The Semi-submersible Barge has been designed both through the use of numerical models and an extensive basin testing campaign carried out at the University of Strathclyde facilities. This paper also includes an estimation of the duration in time to carry out the installation process of a Floating Offshore Wind Farm, comprising 100x5MW TLPWIND® units in different scenarios.

  2. Studi Pengaruh Gerak Semi-submersible Drilling Rig dengan Variasi Pre-tension Mooring Line terhadap Keamanan Drilling Riser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arda Arda

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Analisis terhadap sistem tambat pada anjungan pengeboran semi-submersible drilling rig perlu dilakukan sebelum dilakukannya operasi di lapangan untuk mengetahui perencanaan sistem tambat yang tepat dan aman. Dalam penelitian ini dilakukan analisa perilaku gerak semi-submersible dengan variasi pre-tension mooring line untuk mengetahui berapa besar pre-tension minimal yang harus digunakan agar operasi pengeboran di lingkungan laut Natuna dapat berjalan dengan aman. Variasi pre-tension yang digunakan adalah sebesar 400kN-2000kN dengan penambahan sebesar 400kN. Karakteristik gerakan semi-submersible diprediksi dengan menghitung RAO free floating dengan pemodelan numerik dalam domain frekuensi. Kemudian dilakukan analisa simulasi sistem lengkap (platform, mooring dan drilling riser dengan pemodelan numerik dalam domain waktu. Hasil yang didapat yakni nilai maksimum tegangan mooring line memenuhi batas kriteria API-RP2SK untuk semua variasi pre-tension dengan safety factor terkecil 2.44. Sudut flex joint drilling riser yang terjadi melewati batas kriteria API-RP16Q pada pre-tension 400kN-800kN yang mencapai 6.20 untuk sudut maksimum dan 4.80 untuk sudut rata-rata. Tegangan von Mises yang terjadi pada drilling riser melebihi kriteria API-RP16Q pada pre-tension 400kN-1200kN karena nilainya mencapai 369 MPa (0.82 yield stress.

  3. Numerical Investigation of a Tuned Heave Plate Energy-Harvesting System of a Semi-Submersible Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel tuned heave plate energy-harvesting system (THPEH is presented for the motion suppressing and energy harvesting of a semi-submersible platform. This THPEH system is designed based on the principle of a tuned mass damper (TMD and is composed of spring supports, a power take-off system (PTO and four movable heave plates. The permanent magnet linear generators (PMLG are used as the PTO system in this design. A semi-submersible platform operating in the South China Sea is selected as the research subject for investigating the effects of the THPEH system on motion reduction and harvesting energy through numerical simulations. The numerical model of the platform and the THPEH system, which was established based on hydrodynamic analysis, is modified and validated by the results of the flume test of a 1:70 scale model. The effects of the parameters, including the size, the frequency ratio and the damping ratio of the THPEH system, are systematically investigated. The results show that this THPEH system, with proper parameters, could significantly reduce the motions of the semi-submersible platform and generate considerable power under different wave conditions.

  4. Linking carbon and nitrogen metabolism to depth distribution of submersed macrophytes using high ammonium dosing tests and a lake survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Guixiang; Cao, Te; Fu, Hui; Ni, Leyi; Zhang, Xiaolin; Li, Wei; Song, Xin; Xie, Ping; Jeppesen, Erik

    2013-12-01

    Strategies of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) utilisation are among the factors determining plant distribution. It has been argued that submersed macrophytes adapted to lower light environments are more efficient in maintaining C metabolic homeostasis due to their conservative C strategy and ability to balance C shortage. We studied how depth distributions of 12 submersed macrophytes in Lake Erhai, China, were linked to their C-N metabolic strategies when facing acute [Formula: see text] dosing.[Formula: see text] dosing changed C-N metabolism significantly by decreasing the soluble carbohydrate (SC) content and increasing the [Formula: see text]-N and free amino acid (FAA) content of plant tissues.The proportional changes in SC contents in the leaves and FAA contents in the stems induced by [Formula: see text] dosing were closely correlated (positive for SC and negative for FAA) with the colonising water depths of the plants in Lake Erhai, the plants adapted to lower light regimes being more efficient in maintaining SC and FAA homeostasis.These results indicate that conservative carbohydrate metabolism of submersed macrophytes allowed the plants to colonise greater water depths in eutrophic lakes, where low light availability in the water column diminishes carbohydrate production by the plants.

  5. Allelopathic effects of microcystin-LR on the germination, growth and metabolism of five charophyte species and a submerged angiosperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo, Carmen; Segura, Matilde; Cortés, Francisco; Rodrigo, María A

    2013-11-15

    Microcystins (MCs) are produced by cyanobacteria in aquatic environments and adversely affect macrophytes at very high concentrations. However, the effects of MC on macrophytes at concentrations of environmental relevance are largely unknown. The main objective of this study was to analyze the allelopathic effects of MC-LR at natural concentrations (1, 8 and 16 μg MC-LR/L) on five charophyte species (Chara aspera, C. baltica, C. hispida, C. vulgaris and Nitella hyalina) and the angiosperm Myriophyllum spicatum. Macrophyte specimens were obtained from a restored area located in Albufera de València Natural Park, a protected coastal Mediterranean wetland. Two different experiments were conducted involving (i) the addition of MC-LR to natural sediment to evaluate its effects on seed germination and (ii) the addition of MC-LR to water cultures of macrophytes to evaluate its effects on growth and metabolic functions. In water, the MC-LR concentration decreased by 84% in two weeks; the loss was not significant in sediment. The first seedlings (all C. hispida) emerged from the wetland sediment following a delay of a few days in the presence of MC-LR. The germination rates in 8 and 16 μg MC-LR/L treatments were 44% and 11% of that occurring in the absence of MC, but these differences disappeared over time. The final density was 6-7 germlings/dm(3). Final germling length was unaffected by MC-LR. Rotifers (Lecane spp.) emerging from the natural sediment during the experiment were favored by MC-LR; the opposite pattern was observed in the cladoceran Daphnia magna. The growth rates of C. vulgaris, C. baltica and N. hyalina were unaffected by MC exposure, whereas those of C. hispida and C. aspera were reduced in the MC treatments relative to the control treatment. The concentration of chlorophyll-a and the in vivo net photosynthetic rate were lower in the presence of MC-LR, even at the lowest concentration, for all of the characeans tested. M. spicatum was sensitive to the

  6. INSAR OF AQUATIC BODIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Tarikhi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Radar remote sensing is a new earth observation technology with promising results and future. InSAR is a sophisticated radar remote sensing technique for combining synthetic aperture radar (SAR single look complex images to form interferogram and utilizing its phase contribution to land topography, surface movement and target velocity. In recent years considerable applications of Interferometric SAR technique have been developed. It is an established technique for precise assessment of land surface movements, and generating high quality digital elevation models (DEM from space-borne and airborne data. InSAR is able to produce DEMs with the precision of a couple of ten meters whereas its movement map results have sub-centimeter precision. The technique has many applications in the context of earth sciences such as topographic mapping, environmental modelling, rainfall-runoff studies, landslide hazard zonation, and seismic source modelling. Nevertheless new developments are taking place in the application of InSAR for aquatic bodies. We have observed that using SAR Interferometry technique for aquatic bodies with the maximum temporal baseline of 16 seconds for image pairs shows considerable results enabling us to determine the direction of sea surface motion in a large area, estimate the sea surface fluctuations in the direction of sensor line-of-the-sight, detect wave pattern and the sea surface disturbance and whether the water motion is bulk and smooth or otherwise. This paper presents our experience and achievements on this new topic through discussing the facts and conditions for the use of InSAR technique. The method has been examined for Haiti, Dominican Republic, Western Chile and Western Turkey coast areas and inland lakes however ground truth data is needed for final verification. This technique scheduled to be applied in some other sites for which the proper data is available.

  7. Topical report on sources and systems for aquatic plant biomass as an energy resource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, J.C.; Ryther, J.H.; Waaland, R.; Wilson, E.H.

    1977-10-21

    Background information is documented on the mass cultivation of aquatic plants and systems design that is available from the literature and through consultation with active research scientists and engineers. The biology of microalgae, macroalgae, and aquatic angiosperms is discussed in terms of morphology, life history, mode of existence, and ecological significance, as they relate to cultivation. The requirements for growth of these plants, which are outlined in the test, suggest that productivity rates are dependent primarily on the availability of light and nutrients. It is concluded that the systems should be run with an excess of nutrients and with light as the limiting factor. A historical review of the mass cultivation of aquatic plants describes the techniques used in commercial large-scale operations throughout the world and recent small-scale research efforts. This review presents information on the biomass yields that have been attained to date in various geographical locations with different plant species and culture conditions, emphasizing the contrast between high yields in small-scale operations and lower yields in large-scale operations.

  8. Ocean Economy and Fault Diagnosis of Electric Submersible Pump applied in Floating platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panlong Zhang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Ocean economy plays a crucial role in the strengthening maritime safety industry and in the welfare of human beings. Electric Submersible Pumps (ESP have been widely used in floating platforms on the sea to provide oil for machines. However, the ESP fault may lead to ocean environment pollution, on the other hand, a timely fault diagnosis of ESP can improve the ocean economy. In order to meet the strict regulations of the ocean economy and environmental protection, the fault diagnosis of ESP system has become more and more popular in many countries. The vibration mechanical models of typical faults have been able to successfully diagnose the faults of ESP. And different types of sensors are used to monitor the vibration signal for the signal analysis and fault diagnosis in the ESP system. Meanwhile, physical sensors would increase the fault diagnosis challenge. Nowadays, the method of neural network for the fault diagnosis of ESP has been applied widely, which can diagnose the fault of an electric pump accurately based on the large database. To reduce the number of sensors and to avoid the large database, in this paper, algorithms are designed based on feature extraction to diagnose the fault of the ESP system. Simulation results show that the algorithms can achieve the prospective objectives superbly.

  9. Counteracting ammonia inhibition during anaerobic digestion by recovery using submersible microbial desalination cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yifeng; Angelidaki, Irini

    2015-07-01

    Ammonia inhibition is one of the most frequent and serious problems in biogas plants. In this study, a novel hybrid system consisting of a submersible microbial desalination cell (SMDC) and a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) was developed for counteracting ammonia inhibition during anaerobic digestion (AD) with simultaneous in situ ammonia recovery and electricity production. The SMDC was powered by acetate in a buffer solution, while synthetic ammonia-rich wastewater was used as the feeding of the CSTR. Under continuous operation, ammonia recovery rate of 86 g-N/m(2) /day and current density of 4.33 A/m(2) were achieved at steady-state condition. As a result, 112% extra biogas was produced due to ammonia recovery by the SMDC. High-throughput sequencing showed that ammonia recovery had an impact on the microbial community structures in the SMDC and CSTR. Considering the additional economic benefits of biogas enhancement and possible wastewater treatment, the SMDC may represent a cost-effective and environmentally friendly method for waste resources recovery and biomethanation of ammonia-rich residues. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. A Review of Experiments and Modeling of Gas-Liquid Flow in Electrical Submersible Pumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun Zhu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available As the second most widely used artificial lift method in petroleum production (and first in produced amount, electrical submersible pump (ESP maintains or increases flow rate by converting kinetic energy to hydraulic pressure of hydrocarbon fluids. To facilitate its optimal working conditions, an ESP has to be operated within a narrow application window. Issues like gas involvement, changing production rate and high oil viscosity, greatly impede ESP boosting pressure. Previous experimental studies showed that the presence of gas would cause ESP hydraulic head degradation. The flow behaviors inside ESPs under gassy conditions, such as pressure surging and gas pockets, further deteriorate ESP pressure boosting ability. Therefore, it is important to know what parameters govern the gas-liquid flow structure inside a rotating ESP and how it can be modeled. This paper presents a comprehensive review on the key factors that affect ESP performance under gassy flow conditions. Furthermore, the empirical and mechanistic models for predicting ESP pressure increment are discussed. The computational fluid dynamics (CFD-based modeling approach for studying the multiphase flow in a rotating ESP is explained as well. The closure relationships that are critical to both mechanistic and numerical models are reviewed, which are helpful for further development of more accurate models for predicting ESP gas-liquid flow behaviors.

  11. Critical surface roughness for wall bounded flow of viscous fluids in an electric submersible pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Dhairyasheel; Siddique, Md Hamid; Kenyery, Frank; Samad, Abdus

    2017-11-01

    Surface roughness plays a vital role in the performance of an electric submersible pump (ESP). A 3-D numerical analysis has been carried out to find the roughness effect on ESP. The performance of pump for steady wall bounded turbulent flows is evaluated at different roughness values and compared with smooth surface considering a non-dimensional roughness factor K. The k- ω SST turbulence model with fine mesh at near wall region captures the rough wall effects accurately. Computational results are validated with experimental results of water (1 cP), at a design speed (3000 RPM). Maximum head is observed for a hydraulically smooth surface (K=0). When roughness factor is increased, the head decreases till critical roughness factor (K=0.1) due to frictional loss. Further increase in roughness factor (K>0.1) increases the head due to near wall turbulence. The performance of ESP is analyzed for turbulent kinetic energy and eddy viscosity at different roughness values. The wall disturbance over the rough surface affects the pressure distribution and velocity field. The roughness effect is predominant for high viscosity oil (43cP) as compared to water. Moreover, the study at off-design conditions showed that Reynolds number influences the overall roughness effect.

  12. Development of LMR Coolant Technology - Development of a submersible-in-pool electromagnetic pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Sang Hi; Kim, Hee Reyoung; Lee, Sang Don; Seo, Joon Ho [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Su Won [Kyoungki University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-15

    A submersible-in-pool type annular linear induction pumps of 60 l/min and 200 l/min, and 600 deg C has been designed with optimum geometrical and operating values found from MHD and circuit analyses reflecting the high-temperature characteristics of pump materials. Through the characteristics analyses inside the narrow flow channel of electromagnetic pump, the distribution of the time-varying flow field is calculated, and magnetic flux and force density are evaluated by end effects of linear induction electromagnetic pump and the instability analyses are carried out introducing one-dimensional linear perturbation. Testing the pump with the flow rate of 60 l/min in the suitably manufactured loop system shows a flow rate of 58 l/min at an input power of 1,377 VA with 60Hz. The design of a scaled-up pump is further taken into account LMR coolant system requiring increased capacity, and a basic analysis is carried out on the pump of 40,000 l/min for KALIMER. The present project contributes to the further design of engineering prototype electromagnetic pumps with higher capacity and to the development of liquid metal reactor with innovative simplicity. 89 refs., 8 tabs., 45 figs. (author)

  13. Electrically heated pipe in pipe combined with electrical submersible pumps for deepwater development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Sidnei Guerreiro da; Euphemio, Mauro Luiz Lopes [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The general trend of deep water and ultra deep water field development is the requirement of highly insulated flow lines, as flow assurance has become one of the major considerations in designing and operating the sub sea system. If not adequately considered in the design phase, it can have significant and unexpected effects to the operational costs, increasing production lost time, decreasing efficiency. In this scenario, the use of pipe in pipe flow lines, with high passive insulation and/ or active heating (called the Electrically Heated Pipe in Pipe - EHPIP), emerges as an attractive method to prevent deposition, especially of waxes and hydrates, by actively maintaining or leading the temperature of the flow line above a critical limit. Besides, the recent heavy oil discoveries in Brazil have encouraged PETROBRAS to move a step forward in the artificial lift design and operation, by the use of Electrical Submersible Pumps (ESP) installed in deep water wells. The combination of EHPIP and ESP are particularly suitable for deep water, high viscosity and long tie back systems, but also can improve oil recovery and production efficiency by allowing the operator to drop down production losses associated Flow Assurance problems. (author)

  14. Innovative self-powered submersible microbial electrolysis cell (SMEC) for biohydrogen production from anaerobic reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yifeng; Angelidaki, Irini

    2012-01-01

    A self-powered submersible microbial electrolysis cell (SMEC), in which a specially designed anode chamber and external electricity supply were not needed, was developed for in situ biohydrogen production from anaerobic reactors. In batch experiments, the hydrogen production rate reached 17.8 m......L/L/d at the initial acetate concentration of 410 mg/L (5 mM), while the cathodic hydrogen recovery (RH2) and overall systemic coulombic efficiency (CEos) were 93% and 28%, respectively, and the systemic hydrogen yield (YH2) peaked at 1.27 mol-H2/mol-acetate. The hydrogen production increased along with acetate...... and buffer concentration. The highest hydrogen production rate of 32.2 mL/L/d and YH2 of 1.43 mol-H2/mol-acetate were achieved at 1640 mg/L (20 mM) acetate and 100 mM phosphate buffer. Further evaluation of the reactor under single electricity-generating or hydrogen-producing mode indicated that further...

  15. Dynamic Modeling and Simulation of Deep Geothermal Electric Submersible Pumping Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Kullick

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Deep geothermal energy systems employ electric submersible pumps (ESPs in order to lift geothermal fluid from the production well to the surface. However, rough downhole conditions and high flow rates impose heavy strain on the components, leading to frequent failures of the pump system. As downhole sensor data is limited and often unrealible, a detailed and dynamical model system will serve as basis for deeper understanding and analysis of the overall system behavior. Furthermore, it allows to design model-based condition monitoring and fault detection systems, and to improve controls leading to a more robust and efficient operation. In this paper, a detailed state-space model of the complete ESP system is derived, covering the electrical, mechanical and hydraulic subsystems. Based on the derived model, the start-up phase of an exemplary yet realistic ESP system in the Megawatt range—located at a setting depth of 950 m and producing geothermal fluid of 140 ∘ C temperature at a rate of 0.145 m 3 s − 1 —is simulated in MATLAB/Simulink. The simulation results show that the system reaches a stable operating point with realistic values. Furthermore, the effect of self-excitation between the filter capacitor and the motor inductor can clearly be observed. A full set of parameters is provided, allowing for direct model implementation and reproduction of the presented results.

  16. ESP [electric submersible pump] performance in sand-laden fluids in the Bellshill Lake field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowhaniuk, W. (Petro-Canada Resources, Killam, AB (Canada))

    1992-06-01

    Electric submersible pumps (ESPs) used by Petro-Canada in the Bellshill Lake basal quartz pool, were first used as a means of high volume lift in 1976. Traditionally used in areas of the reservoir with limited sand production, ESPs were run in the more permeable and porous areas of the reservoir consisting mainly of unconsolidated sandstones in 1987. Reservoir inflow and sand production was prolific, and ESPs in these wells typically ran for 2-3 days before catastrophic failure occurred, due to the high concentration of abrasives in the produced fluids. As a result of the failures a study was carried out to identify the problems associated with ESPs and abrasives and to determine economic solutions. As a result of the study, the following measures were implemented to improve the service lives of ESPs in the field. All wells that are converted to ESPs are reperforated at 39 shots/m to reduce the pressure drop across the perforations and thus reduce the inflow of sand. New and rebuilt ESPs are assembled without the conventional brass sleeves, instead using Ni-resist parts to avoid hydrogen sulfide attack and degradation. Rubber bearing radially stabilized design counteracts the effect of sand-laden fluid, and drawdown is limited for the first 2-4 weeks of production. Current ESP run-times range up to 2.5 years, and no rubber bearing ESPs have failed due to sand production. 8 refs., 10 figs.

  17. Towards Chip-Based Salinity Measurements for Small Submersibles and Biologgers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Jonsson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Water’s salinity plays an important role in the environment. It can be determined by measuring conductivity, temperature, and depth (CTD. The corresponding sensor systems are commonly large and cumbersome. Here, a 7.5 × 3.5 mm chip, containing microstructured CTD sensor elements, has been developed. On this, 1.5 mm2 gold finger electrodes are used to measure the impedance, and thereby the conductivity of water, in the MHz frequency range. Operation at these frequencies resulted in higher sensitivities than those at sub-MHz frequencies. Up to 14 kΩ per parts per thousand salt concentration was obtained repeatedly for freshwater concentrations. This was three orders of magnitude higher than that obtained for concentrations in and above the brackish range. A platinum electrode is used to determine a set ambient temperature with an accuracy of 0.005°C. Membranes with Nichrome strain gauges responded to a pressure change of 1 bar with a change in resistance of up to 0.21 Ω. A linear fit to data over 7 bars gave a sensitivity of 0.1185 Ω/bar with an R2 of 0.9964. This indicates that the described device can be used in size-limited applications, like miniaturized submersibles, or as a bio-logger on marine animals.

  18. Phylogeny and divergence of basal angiosperms inferred from APETALA3- and PISTILLATA-like MADS-box genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Seishiro; Uehara, Koichi; Imafuku, Masao; Hasebe, Mitsuyasu; Ito, Motomi

    2004-06-01

    The B-class MADS-box genes composed of APETALA3 ( AP3) and PISTILLATA ( PI) lineages play an important role in petal and stamen identity in previously studied flowering plants. We investigated the diversification of the AP3-like and PI-like MADS-box genes of eight species in five basal angiosperm families: Amborella trichopoda (Amborellaceae); Brasenia schreberi and Cabomba caroliniana (Cabombaceae); Euryale ferox, Nuphar japonicum, and Nymphaea tetragona (Nymphaeaceae); Illicium anisatum (Illiciaceae); and Kadsura japonica (Schisandraceae). Sequence analysis showed that a four amino acid deletion in the K domain, which was found in all previously reported angiosperm PI genes, exists in a PI homologue of Schisandraceae, but not in six PI homologues of the Amborellaceae, Cabombaceae, and Nymphaeaceae, suggesting that the Amborellaceae, Cabombaceae, and Nymphaeaceae are basalmost lineages in angiosperms. The results of molecular phylogenetic analyses were not inconsistent with this hypothesis. The AP3 and PI homologues from Amborella share a sequence of five amino acids in the 5' region of exon 7. Using the linearized tree and likelihood methods, the divergence time between the AP3 and PI lineages was estimated as somewhere between immediately after to several tens of millions of years after the split between angiosperms and extant gymnosperms. Estimates of the age of the most recent common ancestor of all extant angiosperms range from approximately 140-210 Ma, depending on the trees used and assumptions made.

  19. Angiosperm-like pollen and Afropollis from the Middle Triassic (Anisian) of the Germanic Basin (Northern Switzerland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochuli, Peter A.; Feist-Burkhardt, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    Here we report on angiosperm-like pollen and Afropollis from the Anisian (Middle Triassic, 247.2–242.0 Ma) of a mid-latitudinal site in Northern Switzerland. Small monosulcate pollen grains with typical reticulate (semitectate) sculpture, columellate structure of the sexine and thin nexine show close similarities to early angiosperm pollen known from the Early Cretaceous. However, they differ in their extremely thin inner layer (nexine). Six different pollen types (I–VI) are differentiated based on size, reticulation pattern, and exine structure. The described pollen grains show all the essential features of angiosperm pollen. However, considering the lack of a continuous record throughout the lower part of the Mesozoic and the comparison with the oldest Cretaceous finds we suggest an affinity to an angiosperm stem group. Together with the previously published records from the Middle Triassic of the Barents Sea area the angiosperm-like pollen grains reflect a considerable diversity of the parent plants during the Middle Triassic. Sedimentological evidence and associated palynofloras also suggest a remarkable ecological range for these plants. Associated with these grains we found pollen comparable to the genus Afropollis. Representatives of this genus are commonly recorded in Lower Cretaceous sediments of low latitudes, but until now had no record from the lower part of the Mesozoic. PMID:24106492

  20. Angiosperm-like pollen and Afropollis from the Middle Triassic (Anisian) of the Germanic Basin (Northern Switzerland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochuli, Peter A; Feist-Burkhardt, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    Here we report on angiosperm-like pollen and Afropollis from the Anisian (Middle Triassic, 247.2-242.0 Ma) of a mid-latitudinal site in Northern Switzerland. Small monosulcate pollen grains with typical reticulate (semitectate) sculpture, columellate structure of the sexine and thin nexine show close similarities to early angiosperm pollen known from the Early Cretaceous. However, they differ in their extremely thin inner layer (nexine). Six different pollen types (I-VI) are differentiated based on size, reticulation pattern, and exine structure. The described pollen grains show all the essential features of angiosperm pollen. However, considering the lack of a continuous record throughout the lower part of the Mesozoic and the comparison with the oldest Cretaceous finds we suggest an affinity to an angiosperm stem group. Together with the previously published records from the Middle Triassic of the Barents Sea area the angiosperm-like pollen grains reflect a considerable diversity of the parent plants during the Middle Triassic. Sedimentological evidence and associated palynofloras also suggest a remarkable ecological range for these plants. Associated with these grains we found pollen comparable to the genus Afropollis. Representatives of this genus are commonly recorded in Lower Cretaceous sediments of low latitudes, but until now had no record from the lower part of the Mesozoic.

  1. Environmental enrichment for aquatic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Mike

    2015-05-01

    Aquatic animals are the most popular pets in the United States based on the number of owned pets. They are popular display animals and are increasingly used in research settings. Enrichment of captive animals is an important element of zoo and laboratory medicine. The importance of enrichment for aquatic animals has been slower in implementation. For a long time, there was debate over whether or not fish were able to experience pain or form long-term memories. As that debate has reduced and the consciousness of more aquatic animals is accepted, the need to discuss enrichment for these animals has increased. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Food Preference of Fresh-Water Invertebrates - Comparing Fresh and Decomposed Angiosperm and a Filamentous Alga

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kornijow, R.; Gulati, R.D.; Ozimek, T.

    1995-01-01

    1. Fresh and decomposed Mougeotia sp. (a filamentous green alga) and Elodea nuttallii (a vascular plant) were offered as food to three species of aquatic macroinvertebrates (Lymnnea peregra, Asellus meridianus and Endochironomus albipennis) to test: (i) if filamentous algae are preferred to aquatic

  3. A Submersed Macrophyte Index of Condition for the Upper Mississippi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portions of the Upper Mississippi River are listed as impaired for aquatic life use under section 303(d) of the United States Clean Water Act by the State of Minnesota’s Pollution Control Agency and Wisconsin’s Department of Natural Resources for exceeding turbidity and eutrophic...

  4. Large-Scale Analyses of Angiosperm Nucleotide-Binding Site-Leucine-Rich Repeat Genes Reveal Three Anciently Diverged Classes with Distinct Evolutionary Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Zhu-Qing; Xue, Jia-Yu; Wu, Ping; Zhang, Yan-Mei; Wu, Yue; Hang, Yue-Yu; Wang, Bin; Chen, Jian-Qun

    2016-04-01

    Nucleotide-binding site-leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR) genes make up the largest plant disease resistance gene family (R genes), with hundreds of copies occurring in individual angiosperm genomes. However, the expansion history of NBS-LRR genes during angiosperm evolution is largely unknown. By identifying more than 6,000 NBS-LRR genes in 22 representative angiosperms and reconstructing their phylogenies, we present a potential framework of NBS-LRR gene evolution in the angiosperm. Three anciently diverged NBS-LRR classes (TNLs, CNLs, and RNLs) were distinguished with unique exon-intron structures and DNA motif sequences. A total of seven ancient TNL, 14 CNL, and two RNL lineages were discovered in the ancestral angiosperm, from which all current NBS-LRR gene repertoires were evolved. A pattern of gradual expansion during the first 100 million years of evolution of the angiosperm clade was observed for CNLs. TNL numbers remained stable during this period but were eventually deleted in three divergent angiosperm lineages. We inferred that an intense expansion of both TNL and CNL genes started from the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary. Because dramatic environmental changes and an explosion in fungal diversity occurred during this period, the observed expansions of R genes probably reflect convergent adaptive responses of various angiosperm families. An ancient whole-genome duplication event that occurred in an angiosperm ancestor resulted in two RNL lineages, which were conservatively evolved and acted as scaffold proteins for defense signal transduction. Overall, the reconstructed framework of angiosperm NBS-LRR gene evolution in this study may serve as a fundamental reference for better understanding angiosperm NBS-LRR genes. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  5. Large-Scale Analyses of Angiosperm Nucleotide-Binding Site-Leucine-Rich Repeat Genes Reveal Three Anciently Diverged Classes with Distinct Evolutionary Patterns1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Zhu-Qing; Xue, Jia-Yu; Wu, Ping; Zhang, Yan-Mei; Wu, Yue; Hang, Yue-Yu; Wang, Bin; Chen, Jian-Qun

    2016-01-01

    Nucleotide-binding site-leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR) genes make up the largest plant disease resistance gene family (R genes), with hundreds of copies occurring in individual angiosperm genomes. However, the expansion history of NBS-LRR genes during angiosperm evolution is largely unknown. By identifying more than 6,000 NBS-LRR genes in 22 representative angiosperms and reconstructing their phylogenies, we present a potential framework of NBS-LRR gene evolution in the angiosperm. Three anciently diverged NBS-LRR classes (TNLs, CNLs, and RNLs) were distinguished with unique exon-intron structures and DNA motif sequences. A total of seven ancient TNL, 14 CNL, and two RNL lineages were discovered in the ancestral angiosperm, from which all current NBS-LRR gene repertoires were evolved. A pattern of gradual expansion during the first 100 million years of evolution of the angiosperm clade was observed for CNLs. TNL numbers remained stable during this period but were eventually deleted in three divergent angiosperm lineages. We inferred that an intense expansion of both TNL and CNL genes started from the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary. Because dramatic environmental changes and an explosion in fungal diversity occurred during this period, the observed expansions of R genes probably reflect convergent adaptive responses of various angiosperm families. An ancient whole-genome duplication event that occurred in an angiosperm ancestor resulted in two RNL lineages, which were conservatively evolved and acted as scaffold proteins for defense signal transduction. Overall, the reconstructed framework of angiosperm NBS-LRR gene evolution in this study may serve as a fundamental reference for better understanding angiosperm NBS-LRR genes. PMID:26839128

  6. Xylem of early angiosperms: Nuphar (Nymphaeaceae) has novel tracheid microstructure1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlquist, Sherwin; Schneider, Edward L; Hellquist, C Barre

    2009-01-01

    SEM studies of xylem of stems of Nuphar reveal a novel feature, not previously reported for any angiosperm. Pit membranes of tracheid end walls are composed of coarse fibrils, densest on the distal (outside surface, facing the pit of an adjacent cell) surface of the pit membrane of a tracheid, thinner, and disposed at various levels on the lumen side of a pit membrane. The fibrils tend to be randomly oriented on the distal face of the pit membrane; the innermost fibrils facing the lumen take the form of longitudinally oriented strands. Where most abundantly present, the fibrils tend to be disposed in a spongiform, three-dimensional pattern. Pores that interconnect tracheids are present within the fibrillar meshwork. Pit membranes on lateral walls of stem tracheids bear variously diminished versions of this pattern. Pits of root tracheids are unlike those of stems in that the lumen side of pit membranes bears a reticulum revealed on the outer surface of the tracheid after most of the thickness of a pit membrane is shaved away by the sectioning process. No fibrillar texturing is visible on the root tracheid pits when they are viewed from the inside of a tracheid. Tracheid end walls of roots do contain pores of various sizes in pit membranes. These root and stem patterns were seen in six species representing the two sections of Nuphar, plus one intersectional hybrid, as well as in one collection of Nymphaea, included for purposes of comparison. Differences between root and stem tracheids with respect to microstructure are consistent in all species studied. Microstructural patterns reported here for stem tracheid pits of Nymphaeaceae are not like those of Chloranthaceae, Illiciaceae, or other basal angiosperms. They are not referable to any of the patterns reported for early vascular plants. The adaptational nature of the pit membrane structure in these tracheids is not apparent; microstructure of pit membranes in basal angiosperms is more diverse than thought prior to

  7. Accelerated evolution and coevolution drove the evolutionary history of AGPase sub-units during angiosperm radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbi, Jonathan; Dutheil, Julien Y; Damerval, Catherine; Tenaillon, Maud I; Manicacci, Domenica

    2012-03-01

    ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) is a key enzyme of starch biosynthesis. In the green plant lineage, it is composed of two large (LSU) and two small (SSU) sub-units encoded by paralogous genes, as a consequence of several rounds of duplication. First, our aim was to detect specific patterns of molecular evolution following duplication events and the divergence between monocotyledons and dicotyledons. Secondly, we investigated coevolution between amino acids both within and between sub-units. A phylogeny of each AGPase sub-unit was built using all gymnosperm and angiosperm sequences available in databases. Accelerated evolution along specific branches was tested using the ratio of the non-synonymous to the synonymous substitution rate. Coevolution between amino acids was investigated taking into account compensatory changes between co-substitutions. We showed that SSU paralogues evolved under high functional constraints during angiosperm radiation, with a significant level of coevolution between amino acids that participate in SSU major functions. In contrast, in the LSU paralogues, we identified residues under positive selection (1) following the first LSU duplication that gave rise to two paralogues mainly expressed in angiosperm source and sink tissues, respectively; and (2) following the emergence of grass-specific paralogues expressed in the endosperm. Finally, we found coevolution between residues that belong to the interaction domains of both sub-units. Our results support the view that coevolution among amino acid residues, especially those lying in the interaction domain of each sub-unit, played an important role in AGPase evolution. First, within SSU, coevolution allowed compensating mutations in a highly constrained context. Secondly, the LSU paralogues probably acquired tissue-specific expression and regulatory properties via the coevolution between sub-unit interacting domains. Finally, the pattern we observed during LSU evolution is consistent

  8. Phylogenetic footprint of the plant clock system in angiosperms: evolutionary processes of Pseudo-Response Regulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saito Shigeru

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant circadian clocks regulate many photoperiodic and diurnal responses that are conserved among plant species. The plant circadian clock system has been uncovered in the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, using genetics and systems biology approaches. However, it is still not clear how the clock system had been organized in the evolutionary history of plants. We recently revealed the molecular phylogeny of LHY/CCA1 genes, one of the essential components of the clock system. The aims of this study are to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships of angiosperm clock-associated PRR genes, the partner of the LHY/CCA1 genes, and to clarify the evolutionary history of the plant clock system in angiosperm lineages. Results In the present study, to investigate the molecular phylogeny of PRR genes, we performed two approaches: reconstruction of phylogenetic trees and examination of syntenic relationships. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that PRR genes had diverged into three clades prior to the speciation of monocots and eudicots. Furthermore, copy numbers of PRR genes have been independently increased in monocots and eudicots as a result of ancient chromosomal duplication events. Conclusions Based on the molecular phylogenies of both PRR genes and LHY/CCA1 genes, we inferred the evolutionary process of the plant clock system in angiosperms. This scenario provides evolutionary information that a common ancestor of monocots and eudicots had retained the basic components required for reconstructing a clock system and that the plant circadian clock may have become a more elaborate mechanism after the speciation of monocots and eudicots because of the gene expansion that resulted from polyploidy events.

  9. Ultrastructure of stomatal development in early-divergent angiosperms reveals contrasting patterning and pre-patterning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudall, Paula J.; Knowles, Emma V. W.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Angiosperm stomata consistently possess a pair of guard cells, but differ between taxa in the patterning and developmental origin of neighbour cells. Developmental studies of phylogenetically pivotal taxa are essential as comparative yardsticks for understanding the evolution of stomatal development. Methods We present a novel ultrastructural study of developing stomata in leaves of Amborella (Amborellales), Nymphaea and Cabomba (Nymphaeales), and Austrobaileya and Schisandra (Austrobaileyales), representing the three earliest-divergent lineages of extant angiosperms (the ANITA-grade). Key Results Alternative developmental pathways occur in early-divergent angiosperms, resulting partly from differences in pre-patterning and partly from the presence or absence of highly polarized (asymmetric) mitoses in the stomatal cell lineage. Amplifying divisions are absent from ANITA-grade taxa, indicating that ostensible similarities with the stomatal patterning of Arabidopsis are superficial. In Amborella, ‘squared’ pre-patterning occurs in intercostal regions, with groups of four protodermal cells typically arranged in a rectangle; most guard-mother cells are formed by asymmetric division of a precursor cell (the mesoperigenous condition) and are typically triangular or trapezoidal. In contrast, water-lily stomata are always perigenous (lacking asymmetric divisions). Austrobaileya has occasional ‘giant’ stomata. Conclusions Similar mature stomatal phenotypes can result from contrasting morphogenetic factors, although the results suggest that paracytic stomata are invariably the product of at least one asymmetric division. Loss of asymmetric divisions in stomatal development could be a significant factor in land plant evolution, with implications for the diversity of key structural and physiological pathways. PMID:23969762

  10. Five major shifts of diversification through the long evolutionary history of Magnoliidae (angiosperms).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massoni, Julien; Couvreur, Thomas L P; Sauquet, Hervé

    2015-03-18

    With 10,000 species, Magnoliidae are the largest clade of flowering plants outside monocots and eudicots. Despite an ancient and rich fossil history, the tempo and mode of diversification of Magnoliidae remain poorly known. Using a molecular data set of 12 markers and 220 species (representing >75% of genera in Magnoliidae) and six robust, internal fossil age constraints, we estimate divergence times and significant shifts of diversification across the clade. In addition, we test the sensitivity of magnoliid divergence times to the choice of relaxed clock model and various maximum age constraints for the angiosperms. Compared with previous work, our study tends to push back in time the age of the crown node of Magnoliidae (178.78-126.82 million years, Myr), and of the four orders, Canellales (143.18-125.90 Myr), Piperales (158.11-88.15 Myr), Laurales (165.62-112.05 Myr), and Magnoliales (164.09-114.75 Myr). Although families vary in crown ages, Magnoliidae appear to have diversified into most extant families by the end of the Cretaceous. The strongly imbalanced distribution of extant diversity within Magnoliidae appears to be best explained by models of diversification with 6 to 13 shifts in net diversification rates. Significant increases are inferred within Piperaceae and Annonaceae, while the low species richness of Calycanthaceae, Degeneriaceae, and Himantandraceae appears to be the result of decreases in both speciation and extinction rates. This study provides a new time scale for the evolutionary history of an important, but underexplored, part of the tree of angiosperms. The ages of the main clades of Magnoliidae (above the family level) are older than previously thought, and in several lineages, there were significant increases and decreases in net diversification rates. This study is a new robust framework for future investigations of trait evolution and of factors influencing diversification in this group as well as angiosperms as a whole.

  11. Genome-wide analysis of pentatricopeptide-repeat proteins of an aquatic plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenqin; Wu, Yongrui; Messing, Joachim

    2016-10-01

    A large proportion of genes in plant genomes are organized as gene families. Whereas most gene families in the aquative plant Spirodela are reduced in their copy number, the PPR gene family is expanded, which match the RNA editing sites in organelles, providing us with new insights in the evolution of flowering plants. Pentatricopeptide-repeat proteins (PPRs) are nuclear-encoded proteins that are targeted to mitochondria and plastids to stabilize and edit mRNA transcribed from organellar genomes. They have been described for many terrestrial plant species from a diverse spectrum of sequenced genomes. To further increase our understanding of the evolution of this gene family across angiosperms, we analyzed the PPR genes in the aquatic species Spirodela polyrhiza in the order of the Alismatales (monocotyledonous plants). Because we had generated next generation sequencing data from transcripts and had sequenced the genome of Spirodela polyrhiza, we were able to identify its PPR genes and determine the level of their expression. In total, we could identify 556 PPR proteins, of which 238 members belong to the P (P motif) subfamily that is mainly involved in RNA stabilization and 318 ones to the PLS (P, Longer P, shorter P motif) subfamily responsible for RNA editing. Compared to other angiosperms, this is a large increase in the copy number of the PLS-PPRs subfamily and the expansion correlates with the increase of the number of RNA editing sites of organellar transcripts. Expression of PPR was generally stable even during growing and dormant stages, indicating that their function was critical throughout development. However, PPRs, especially those of the PLS subfamily, were expressed at relatively low levels, suggesting a delicate fine-tuning of its trans-acting function in the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. Thus, understanding PPR evolution and expression will help decipher the PPR code for their binding sites, which could genetically engineer

  12. National Aquatic Resource Survey data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Surface water monitoring data from national aquatic surveys (lakes, streams, rivers). This dataset is associated with the following publication: Stoddard , J., J....

  13. Production in aquatic macrophyte communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binzer, Thomas; Sand-Jensen, Kaj

    2002-01-01

    Many terrestrial plant canopies regulate spatial patterns in leaf density and leaf inclination to distribute light evenly between the photosynthetic tissue and to optimize light utilization efficiency. Sessile aquatic macrophytes, however, cannot maintain the same well-defined three......-dimensional structure because of the strong drag and shear forces of moving water. This difference in canopy structure has been suggested to account for the three- to fivefold higher gross production rates in terrestrial than aquatic communities. To evaluate the effect of community structure in aquatic habitats, we...... was markedly enhanced by a vertical orientation of thalli when absorptance and community density were both high. This result implies that aquatic macrophytes of high thallus absorptance and community density exposed to high light are limited in attaining high gross production rates because of their inability...

  14. Aquatic Life Criterion - Selenium Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Documents pertaining to the 2016 Acute and Chronic Ambient Aquatic Life Water Quality Criteria for Selenium (Freshwater). These documents include what the safe levels of Selenium are in water for the majority of species.

  15. Aquatic Plant Control Research Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cofrancesco, Alfred

    1998-01-01

    .... This search for natural plant enemies (insects and fungal pathogens) has led researchers to the native ranges of noxious aquatic plants, located throughout the continents of Africa, Asia, Europe, and Australia...

  16. Tunison Laboratory of Aquatic Science

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Tunison Laboratory of Aquatic Science (TLAS), located in Cortland, New York, is a field station of the USGS Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC). TLAS was established...

  17. Guest editorial: Aquatic science in the Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulveda, Adam; Ray, Andrew M.

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, Northwest Science has seen a significant increase in the number of submissions representing aquatic science. Our region is punctuated by aquatic systems. The current issue in particular, presents a number of new aquatic science contributions. Accordingly, Northwest Science invited the authors of this guest editorial to address the question, why is aquatic science so important in the Northwest?

  18. Ecpagloxylon mathiesenii gen. nov. et sp. nov., a Jurassic wood from Greenland with several primitive angiosperm features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippe, Marc; Cuny, Gilles Guy Roger; Bashforth, Arden Roy

    2010-01-01

    Fossil wood specimens from the late Early–early Middle Jurassic of Jameson Land, Eastern Greenland, have several unexpected features: tracheids of irregular size and shape, thinly pitted ray cell walls, heterogeneous rays, partially scalariform radial pitting, both areolate and simple pits......, and pitted elements associated with rays. These characters diverge markedly from those typical of Jurassic wood, which usually conform to those of modern conifers. Although this combination of features is not encountered in any extant angiosperm, each has been documented in one or several extant homoxylous...... is an early bench-mark in the evolution that led from homoxylous conifer-like wood to that of the angiosperms. Its particular biogeography (Arctic) could renew the discussion about the area of origin of the angiosperms....

  19. Aquatic Plants Aid Sewage Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, B. C.

    1985-01-01

    Method of wastewater treatment combines micro-organisms and aquatic plant roots in filter bed. Treatment occurs as liquid flows up through system. Micro-organisms, attached themselves to rocky base material of filter, act in several steps to decompose organic matter in wastewater. Vascular aquatic plants (typically, reeds, rushes, cattails, or water hyacinths) absorb nitrogen, phosphorus, other nutrients, and heavy metals from water through finely divided roots.

  20. Virioplankton: Viruses in Aquatic Ecosystems†

    OpenAIRE

    Wommack, K. Eric; Colwell, Rita R.

    2000-01-01

    The discovery that viruses may be the most abundant organisms in natural waters, surpassing the number of bacteria by an order of magnitude, has inspired a resurgence of interest in viruses in the aquatic environment. Surprisingly little was known of the interaction of viruses and their hosts in nature. In the decade since the reports of extraordinarily large virus populations were published, enumeration of viruses in aquatic environments has demonstrated that the virioplankton are dynamic co...

  1. Generic phylogeny, historical biogeography and character evolution of the cosmopolitan aquatic plant family Hydrocharitaceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Hydrocharitaceae is a fully aquatic monocot family, consists of 18 genera with approximately 120 species. The family includes both fresh and marine aquatics and exhibits great diversity in form and habit including annual and perennial life histories; submersed, partially submersed and floating leaf habits and linear to orbicular leaf shapes. The family has a cosmopolitan distribution and is well represented in the Tertiary fossil record in Europe. At present, the historical biogeography of the family is not well understood and the generic relationships remain controversial. In this study we investigated the phylogeny and biogeography of Hydrocharitaceae by integrating fossils and DNA sequences from eight genes. We also conducted ancestral state reconstruction for three morphological characters. Results Phylogenetic analyses produced a phylogeny with most branches strongly supported by bootstrap values greater than 95 and Bayesian posterior probability values of 1.0. Stratiotes is the first diverging lineage with the remaining genera in two clades, one clade consists of Lagarosiphon, Ottelia, Blyxa, Apalanthe, Elodea and Egeria; and the other consists of Hydrocharis-Limnobium, Thalassia, Enhalus, Halophila, Najas, Hydrilla, Vallisneria, Nechamandra and Maidenia. Biogeographic analyses (DIVA, Mesquite) and divergence time estimates (BEAST) resolved the most recent common ancestor of Hydrocharitaceae as being in Asia during the Late Cretaceous and Palaeocene (54.7-72.6 Ma). Dispersals (including long-distance dispersal and migrations through Tethys seaway and land bridges) probably played major roles in the intercontinental distribution of this family. Ancestral state reconstruction suggested that in Hydrocharitaceae evolution of dioecy is bidirectional, viz., from dioecy to hermaphroditism, and from hermaphroditism to dioecy, and that the aerial-submerged leaf habit and short-linear leaf shape are the ancestral states. Conclusions Our study has shed light

  2. Evolutionary dynamics of microsatellite distribution in plants: insight from the comparison of sequenced brassica, Arabidopsis and other angiosperm species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jiaqin; Huang, Shunmou; Fu, Donghui; Yu, Jinyin; Wang, Xinfa; Hua, Wei; Liu, Shengyi; Liu, Guihua; Wang, Hanzhong

    2013-01-01

    Despite their ubiquity and functional importance, microsatellites have been largely ignored in comparative genomics, mostly due to the lack of genomic information. In the current study, microsatellite distribution was characterized and compared in the whole genomes and both the coding and non-coding DNA sequences of the sequenced Brassica, Arabidopsis and other angiosperm species to investigate their evolutionary dynamics in plants. The variation in the microsatellite frequencies of these angiosperm species was much smaller than those for their microsatellite numbers and genome sizes, suggesting that microsatellite frequency may be relatively stable in plants. The microsatellite frequencies of these angiosperm species were significantly negatively correlated with both their genome sizes and transposable elements contents. The pattern of microsatellite distribution may differ according to the different genomic regions (such as coding and non-coding sequences). The observed differences in many important microsatellite characteristics (especially the distribution with respect to motif length, type and repeat number) of these angiosperm species were generally accordant with their phylogenetic distance, which suggested that the evolutionary dynamics of microsatellite distribution may be generally consistent with plant divergence/evolution. Importantly, by comparing these microsatellite characteristics (especially the distribution with respect to motif type) the angiosperm species (aside from a few species) all clustered into two obviously different groups that were largely represented by monocots and dicots, suggesting a complex and generally dichotomous evolutionary pattern of microsatellite distribution in angiosperms. Polyploidy may lead to a slight increase in microsatellite frequency in the coding sequences and a significant decrease in microsatellite frequency in the whole genome/non-coding sequences, but have little effect on the microsatellite distribution with

  3. Evolutionary dynamics of microsatellite distribution in plants: insight from the comparison of sequenced brassica, Arabidopsis and other angiosperm species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaqin Shi

    Full Text Available Despite their ubiquity and functional importance, microsatellites have been largely ignored in comparative genomics, mostly due to the lack of genomic information. In the current study, microsatellite distribution was characterized and compared in the whole genomes and both the coding and non-coding DNA sequences of the sequenced Brassica, Arabidopsis and other angiosperm species to investigate their evolutionary dynamics in plants. The variation in the microsatellite frequencies of these angiosperm species was much smaller than those for their microsatellite numbers and genome sizes, suggesting that microsatellite frequency may be relatively stable in plants. The microsatellite frequencies of these angiosperm species were significantly negatively correlated with both their genome sizes and transposable elements contents. The pattern of microsatellite distribution may differ according to the different genomic regions (such as coding and non-coding sequences. The observed differences in many important microsatellite characteristics (especially the distribution with respect to motif length, type and repeat number of these angiosperm species were generally accordant with their phylogenetic distance, which suggested that the evolutionary dynamics of microsatellite distribution may be generally consistent with plant divergence/evolution. Importantly, by comparing these microsatellite characteristics (especially the distribution with respect to motif type the angiosperm species (aside from a few species all clustered into two obviously different groups that were largely represented by monocots and dicots, suggesting a complex and generally dichotomous evolutionary pattern of microsatellite distribution in angiosperms. Polyploidy may lead to a slight increase in microsatellite frequency in the coding sequences and a significant decrease in microsatellite frequency in the whole genome/non-coding sequences, but have little effect on the microsatellite

  4. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Ampelopsis: gene organization, comparative analysis and phylogenetic relationships to other angiosperms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurusamy eRaman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ampelopsis brevipedunculata is an economically important plant that belongs to the Vitaceae family of angiosperms. The phylogenetic placement of Vitaceae is still unresolved. Recent phylogenetic studies suggested that it should be placed in various alternative families including Caryophyllaceae, asteraceae, Saxifragaceae, Dilleniaceae, or with the rest of the rosid families. However, these analyses provided weak supportive results because they were based on only one of several genes. Accordingly, complete chloroplast genome sequences are required to resolve the phylogenetic relationships among angiosperms. Recent phylogenetic analyses based on the complete chloroplast genome sequence suggested strong support for the position of Vitaceae as the earliest diverging lineage of rosids and placed it as a sister to the remaining rosids. These studies also revealed relationships among several major lineages of angiosperms; however, they highlighted the significance of taxon sampling for obtaining accurate phylogenies. In the present study, we sequenced the complete chloroplast genome of A. brevipedunculata and used these data to assess the relationships among 32 angiosperms, including 18 taxa of rosids. The Ampelopsis chloroplast genome is 161,090 bp in length, and includes a pair of inverted repeats of 26,394 bp that are separated by small and large single copy regions of 19,036 bp and 89,266 bp, respectively. The gene content and order of Ampelopsis is identical to many other unrearranged angiosperm chloroplast genomes, including Vitis and tobacco. A phylogenetic tree constructed based on 70 protein-coding genes of 33 angiosperms showed that both Saxifragales and Vitaceae diverged from the rosid clade and formed two clades with 100% bootstrap value. The position of the Vitaceae is sister to Saxifragales, and both are the basal and earliest diverging lineages. Moreover, Saxifragales forms a sister clade to Vitaceae of rosids. Overall, the results of

  5. Discrete shoot and root stem cell-promoting WUS/WOX5 functions are an evolutionary innovation of angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardmann, Judith; Reisewitz, Pascal; Werr, Wolfgang

    2009-08-01

    The morphologically diverse bodies of seed plants comprising gymnosperms and angiosperms, which separated some 350 Ma, grow by the activity of meristems containing stem cell niches. In the dicot model Arabidopsis thaliana, these are maintained by the stem cell-promoting functions of WUS and WUSCHEL-related homeobox 5 (WOX5) in the shoot and the root, respectively. Both genes are members of the WOX gene family, which has a monophyletic origin in green algae. The establishment of the WOX gene phylogeny from basal land plants through gymnosperms to basal and higher angiosperms reveals three major branches: a basal clade consisting of WOX13-related genes present in some green algae and throughout all land plant genomes, a second clade containing WOX8/9/11/12 homologues, and a modern clade restricted to seed plants. The analysis of the origin of the modern branch in two basal angiosperms (Amborella trichopoda and Nymphaea jamesoniana) and three gymnosperms (Pinus sylvestris, Ginkgo biloba, and Gnetum gnemon) shows that all members of the modern clade consistently found in monocots and dicots exist at the base of the angiosperm lineage, including WUS and WOX5 orthologues. In contrast, our analyses identify a single WUS/WOX5 homologue in all three gymnosperm genomes, consistent with a monophyletic origin in the last common ancestor of gymnosperms and angiosperms. Phylogenetic data, WUS- and WOX5-specific evolutionary signatures, as well as the expression pattern and stem cell-promoting function of the single gymnosperm WUS/WOX5 pro-orthologue in Arabidopsis indicate a gene duplication event followed by subfunctionalization at the base of angiosperms.

  6. Evolutionary Dynamics of Microsatellite Distribution in Plants: Insight from the Comparison of Sequenced Brassica, Arabidopsis and Other Angiosperm Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jiaqin; Huang, Shunmou; Fu, Donghui; Yu, Jinyin; Wang, Xinfa; Hua, Wei; Liu, Shengyi; Liu, Guihua; Wang, Hanzhong

    2013-01-01

    Despite their ubiquity and functional importance, microsatellites have been largely ignored in comparative genomics, mostly due to the lack of genomic information. In the current study, microsatellite distribution was characterized and compared in the whole genomes and both the coding and non-coding DNA sequences of the sequenced Brassica, Arabidopsis and other angiosperm species to investigate their evolutionary dynamics in plants. The variation in the microsatellite frequencies of these angiosperm species was much smaller than those for their microsatellite numbers and genome sizes, suggesting that microsatellite frequency may be relatively stable in plants. The microsatellite frequencies of these angiosperm species were significantly negatively correlated with both their genome sizes and transposable elements contents. The pattern of microsatellite distribution may differ according to the different genomic regions (such as coding and non-coding sequences). The observed differences in many important microsatellite characteristics (especially the distribution with respect to motif length, type and repeat number) of these angiosperm species were generally accordant with their phylogenetic distance, which suggested that the evolutionary dynamics of microsatellite distribution may be generally consistent with plant divergence/evolution. Importantly, by comparing these microsatellite characteristics (especially the distribution with respect to motif type) the angiosperm species (aside from a few species) all clustered into two obviously different groups that were largely represented by monocots and dicots, suggesting a complex and generally dichotomous evolutionary pattern of microsatellite distribution in angiosperms. Polyploidy may lead to a slight increase in microsatellite frequency in the coding sequences and a significant decrease in microsatellite frequency in the whole genome/non-coding sequences, but have little effect on the microsatellite distribution with

  7. Re-evaluating the isotopic divide between angiosperms and gymnosperms using n-alkane δ13C values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, R. T.; McInerney, F. A.

    2009-12-01

    Angiosperm δ13C values are typically 1-3‰ more negative than those of co-occurring gymnosperms. This is known for both bulk leaf and compound-specific values from n-alkanes, which are stable, straight-chain hydrocarbons (C23-C35) found in the epicuticular leaf wax of vascular plants. For n-alkanes, there is a second distinction between the δ13C values of angiosperms and gymnosperms—δ13C values generally decrease with increasing chain-length in angiosperms, while in gymnosperms they increase. These two distinctions have been used to support the ‘plant community change hypothesis’ explaining the difference between the terrestrial and marine carbon isotope excursions during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM.) Preserved n-alkanes from terrestrial paleosols in the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming reveal a negative carbon isotope excursion during the PETM of 4-5‰, which is 1-2‰ greater than the excursion recorded by marine carbonates. The local plant community, known from macrofossils as well as palynoflora, shifted from a deciduous, mixed angiosperm/gymnosperm flora to a suite of evergreen angiosperm species during the PETM. At the end of the PETM, the community returned to a mixed deciduous flora very similar to the original. This change in the plant community could thus magnify the terrestrial negative carbon isotope excursion to the degree necessary to explain its divergence from the marine record. However, the comparison between modern angiosperms and gymnosperms has been made mostly between broadleaf, deciduous angiosperms and evergreen, coniferous gymnosperms. New data analyzing deciduous, coniferous gymnosperms, including Metasequoia glyptostroboides and Taxodium distichum, suggests that the division previously ascribed to taxonomy may actually be based on leaf habit and physiology, specifically broadleaf, deciduous versus needle-leaf, evergreen plants. If differences in n-alkane δ13C values can be described not as angiosperms versus gymnosperms

  8. Contrasting sediment records of marine submersion events related to wave exposure, Southwest France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, J.; Chaumillon, E.; Schneider, J.-L.; Jorissen, F.; Sauriau, P.-G.; Richard, P.; Bonnin, J.; Schmidt, S.

    2017-05-01

    Sediment records of two contrasting backshore coastal marshes, extremely vulnerable to recent and historical marine flooding events, located on the SW coast of France, have been investigated using a multiproxy approach. The studied marshes are 30 km apart and have been flooded by similar storm events (7 marine floods in the last 250 years). One is located in a wave-exposed coast but isolated from the sea by a sediment barrier, whereas the other is located in a sheltered estuarine environment and isolated from the sea by a dike. One core was collected in each marsh and information on grain-size, foraminifera, shell contents and stable carbon isotopes was obtained along with an age model using 210Pb, 137Cs and 14C. Core data combined with historical maps give evidence of a typical estuarine backfilling, part of the Holocene regressive parasequence, including an intertidal mudflat at the base and a backshore environment at the top. Despite the absence of grain size anomalies, marine flood-related sedimentation in the backshore area of both marshes is identified by a mixture of marine and terrestrial features, including marine fauna, vegetation debris and variation in the δ13C signature of the organic fraction. Very low sedimentation rates between flood events and/or bioturbation prevents the identification of individual episodic marine floods in the sediment succession. Comparison of the two sedimentary successions shows that the foraminifera deposited by marine submersions are of two different types. Foraminifera are monospecific and originate from the upper tidal mudflat in the sheltered marsh; whereas in the backshore marsh located in a wave-exposed environment, they show higher diversity and originate from both shallow and deeper water marine environments. This study shows that wave exposure can control the faunal content of marine flood sediment records in coastal marshes.

  9. Integrated System Design for a Large Wind Turbine Supported on a Moored Semi-Submersible Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinsong Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few decades, wind energy has emerged as an alternative to conventional power generation that is economical, environmentally friendly and, importantly, renewable. Specifically, offshore wind energy is being considered by a number of countries to harness the stronger and more consistent wind resource compared to that over land. To meet the projected “20% energy from wind by 2030” scenario that was announced in 2006, 54 GW of added wind energy capacity need to come from offshore according to a National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL study. In this study, we discuss the development of a semi-submersible floating offshore platform with a catenary mooring system to support a very large 13.2-MW wind turbine with 100-m blades. An iterative design process is applied to baseline models with Froude scaling in order to achieve preliminary static stability. Structural dynamic analyses are performed to investigate the performance of the new model using a finite element method approach for the tower and a boundary integral equation (panel method for the platform. The steady-state response of the system under uniform wind and regular waves is first studied to evaluate the performance of the integrated system. Response amplitude operators (RAOs are computed in the time domain using white-noise wave excitation; this serves to highlight nonlinear, as well as dynamic characteristics of the system. Finally, selected design load cases (DLCs and the stochastic dynamic response of the system are studied to assess the global performance for sea states defined by wind fields with turbulence and long-crested irregular waves.

  10. DORADO/DOLPHIN: A Unique Semi-submersible Autonomous Vehicle for Ocean Field Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, D.

    2016-02-01

    The Ocean Science and Technology research group (CERC.OCEAN) at Dalhousie University focuses on new approaches to the design and development of autonomous platforms to study biogeochemical and ecological changes in the world's oceans. Mesoscale "patch" experiments involving tracers are used to test hypotheses (e.g. iron fertilization) and examine near-surface processes and air-sea exchange. Such experiments typically require mapping of rapidly-evolving properties on scales of 10's to 100's of kilometers. These experiments typically employ a research vessel to monitor patch movement and to support process studies: however allocation of expensive vessel time between these uses can be problematic. We present a class of autonomous vehicle with unique potential for mesoscale mapping and experimental science at sea. The Dorado/Dolphin semi-submersibles, manufactured by International Submarine Engineering Ltd., travel just below the sea surface. A surface-piercing, "snorkel" mast allows use of a diesel engine allowing speeds of up to 16 knots and sufficient power for support of complex payloads. A tow-body can profile to 200m. The mast allows air sampling with near-zero atmospheric disturbance as well as remote sensing of the sea surface. The characteristics of this type of vehicle will be compared with those of other available platforms. We will report on our adaptation of the vehicle for measurement of gases and purposeful tracers (e.g. SF5CF3) as well as properties such as T, S, pCO2, O2, fluorescence, etc. and present and solicit ideas for the vehicles' further application/use for ocean science.

  11. Innovative self-powered submersible microbial electrolysis cell (SMEC) for biohydrogen production from anaerobic reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yifeng; Angelidaki, Irini

    2012-05-15

    A self-powered submersible microbial electrolysis cell (SMEC), in which a specially designed anode chamber and external electricity supply were not needed, was developed for in situ biohydrogen production from anaerobic reactors. In batch experiments, the hydrogen production rate reached 17.8 mL/L/d at the initial acetate concentration of 410 mg/L (5 mM), while the cathodic hydrogen recovery ( [Formula: see text] ) and overall systemic coulombic efficiency (CE(os)) were 93% and 28%, respectively, and the systemic hydrogen yield ( [Formula: see text] ) peaked at 1.27 mol-H(2)/mol-acetate. The hydrogen production increased along with acetate and buffer concentration. The highest hydrogen production rate of 32.2 mL/L/d and [Formula: see text] of 1.43 mol-H(2)/mol-acetate were achieved at 1640 mg/L (20 mM) acetate and 100 mM phosphate buffer. Further evaluation of the reactor under single electricity-generating or hydrogen-producing mode indicated that further improvement of voltage output and reduction of electron losses were essential for efficient hydrogen generation. In addition, alternate exchanging the electricity-assisting and hydrogen-producing function between the two cell units of the SMEC was found to be an effective approach to inhibit methanogens. Furthermore, 16S rRNA genes analysis showed that this special operation strategy resulted same microbial community structures in the anodic biofilms of the two cell units. The simple, compact and in situ applicable SMEC offers new opportunities for reactor design for a microbial electricity-assisted biohydrogen production system. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The genome of the seagrass Zostera marina reveals angiosperm adaptation to the sea

    KAUST Repository

    Olsen, Jeanine L.

    2016-01-27

    Seagrasses colonized the sea1 on at least three independent occasions to form the basis of one of the most productive and widespread coastal ecosystems on the planet2. Here we report the genome of Zostera marina (L.), the first, to our knowledge, marine angiosperm to be fully sequenced. This reveals unique insights into the genomic losses and gains involved in achieving the structural and physiological adaptations required for its marine lifestyle, arguably the most severe habitat shift ever accomplished by flowering plants. Key angiosperm innovations that were lost include the entire repertoire of stomatal genes3, genes involved in the synthesis of terpenoids and ethylene signalling, and genes for ultraviolet protection and phytochromes for far-red sensing. Seagrasses have also regained functions enabling them to adjust to full salinity. Their cell walls contain all of the polysaccharides typical of land plants, but also contain polyanionic, low-methylated pectins and sulfated galactans, a feature shared with the cell walls of all macroalgae4 and that is important for ion homoeostasis, nutrient uptake and O2/CO2 exchange through leaf epidermal cells. The Z. marina genome resource will markedly advance a wide range of functional ecological studies from adaptation of marine ecosystems under climate warming5, 6, to unravelling the mechanisms of osmoregulation under high salinities that may further inform our understanding of the evolution of salt tolerance in crop plants7.

  13. Non-equilibrium dynamics and floral trait interactions shape extant angiosperm diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Meara, Brian C; Smith, Stacey D; Armbruster, W Scott; Harder, Lawrence D; Hardy, Christopher R; Hileman, Lena C; Hufford, Larry; Litt, Amy; Magallón, Susana; Smith, Stephen A; Stevens, Peter F; Fenster, Charles B; Diggle, Pamela K

    2016-05-11

    Why are some traits and trait combinations exceptionally common across the tree of life, whereas others are vanishingly rare? The distribution of trait diversity across a clade at any time depends on the ancestral state of the clade, the rate at which new phenotypes evolve, the differences in speciation and extinction rates across lineages, and whether an equilibrium has been reached. Here we examine the role of transition rates, differential diversification (speciation minus extinction) and non-equilibrium dynamics on the evolutionary history of angiosperms, a clade well known for the abundance of some trait combinations and the rarity of others. Our analysis reveals that three character states (corolla present, bilateral symmetry, reduced stamen number) act synergistically as a key innovation, doubling diversification rates for lineages in which this combination occurs. However, this combination is currently less common than predicted at equilibrium because the individual characters evolve infrequently. Simulations suggest that angiosperms will remain far from the equilibrium frequencies of character states well into the future. Such non-equilibrium dynamics may be common when major innovations evolve rarely, allowing lineages with ancestral forms to persist, and even outnumber those with diversification-enhancing states, for tens of millions of years. © 2016 The Author(s).

  14. The floral morphospace--a modern comparative approach to study angiosperm evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartier, Marion; Jabbour, Florian; Gerber, Sylvain; Mitteroecker, Philipp; Sauquet, Hervé; von Balthazar, Maria; Staedler, Yannick; Crane, Peter R; Schönenberger, Jürg

    2014-12-01

    Morphospaces are mathematical representations used for studying the evolution of morphological diversity and for the evaluation of evolved shapes among theoretically possible ones. Although widely used in zoology, they--with few exceptions--have been disregarded in plant science and in particular in the study of broad-scale patterns of floral structure and evolution. Here we provide basic information on the morphospace approach; we review earlier morphospace applications in plant science; and as a practical example, we construct and analyze a floral morphospace. Morphospaces are usually visualized with the help of ordination methods such as principal component analysis (PCA) or nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS). The results of these analyses are then coupled with disparity indices that describe the spread of taxa in the space. We discuss these methods and apply modern statistical tools to the first and only angiosperm-wide floral morphospace published by Stebbins in 1951. Despite the incompleteness of Stebbins’ original dataset, our analyses highlight major, angiosperm-wide trends in the diversity of flower morphology and thereby demonstrate the power of this previously neglected approach in plant science.

  15. Development of polyspermic zygote and possible contribution of polyspermy to polyploid formation in angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Takashi; Ohnishi, Yukinosuke; Toda, Erika

    2017-05-01

    Fertilization is a general feature of eukaryotic uni- and multicellular organisms to restore a diploid genome from female and male gamete haploid genomes. In angiosperms, polyploidization is a common phenomenon, and polyploidy would have played a major role in the long-term diversification and evolutionary success of plants. As for the mechanism of formation of autotetraploid plants, the triploid-bridge pathway, crossing between triploid and diploid plants, is considered as a major pathway. For the emergence of triploid plants, fusion of an unreduced gamete with a reduced gamete is generally accepted. In addition, the possibility of polyspermy has been proposed for maize, wheat and some orchids, although it has been regarded as an uncommon mechanism of triploid formation. One of the reasons why polyspermy is regarded as uncommon is because it is difficult to reproduce the polyspermy situation in zygotes and to analyze the developmental profiles of polyspermic triploid zygotes. Recently, polyspermic rice zygotes were successfully produced by electric fusion of an egg cell with two sperm cells, and their developmental profiles were monitored. Two sperm nuclei and an egg nucleus fused into a zygotic nucleus in the polyspermic zygote, and the triploid zygote divided into a two-celled embryo via mitotic division with a typical bipolar microtubule spindle. The two-celled proembryos further developed and regenerated into triploid plants. These suggest that polyspermic plant zygotes have the potential to form triploid embryos, and that polyspermy in angiosperms might be a pathway for the formation of triploid plants.

  16. Evolution of a unique anatomical precision in angiosperm leaf venation lifts constraints on vascular plant ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwieniecki, Maciej A; Boyce, Charles K

    2014-03-22

    The main role of leaf venation is to supply water across the photosynthetic surface to keep stomata open and allow access to atmospheric CO2 despite evaporative demand. The optimal uniform delivery of water occurs when the distance between veins equals the depth of vein placement within the leaf away from the evaporative surface. As presented here, only angiosperms maintain this anatomical optimum across all leaf thicknesses and different habitats, including sheltered environments where this optimization need not be required. Intriguingly, basal angiosperm lineages tend to be underinvested hydraulically; uniformly high optimization is derived independently in the magnoliids, monocots and core eudicots. Gymnosperms and ferns, including available fossils, are limited by their inability to produce high vein densities. The common association of ferns with shaded humid environments may, in part, be a direct evolutionary consequence of their inability to produce hydraulically optimized leaves. Some gymnosperms do approach optimal vein placement, but only by virtue of their ability to produce thick leaves most appropriate in environments requiring water conservation. Thus, this simple anatomical metric presents an important perspective on the evolution and phylogenetic distribution of plant ecologies and further evidence that the vegetative biology of flowering plants-not just their reproductive biology-is unique.

  17. Molecular evolution constraints in the floral organ specification gene regulatory network module across 18 angiosperm genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davila-Velderrain, Jose; Servin-Marquez, Andres; Alvarez-Buylla, Elena R

    2014-03-01

    The gene regulatory network of floral organ cell fate specification of Arabidopsis thaliana is a robust developmental regulatory module. Although such finding was proposed to explain the overall conservation of floral organ types and organization among angiosperms, it has not been confirmed that the network components are conserved at the molecular level among flowering plants. Using the genomic data that have accumulated, we address the conservation of the genes involved in this network and the forces that have shaped its evolution during the divergence of angiosperms. We recovered the network gene homologs for 18 species of flowering plants spanning nine families. We found that all the genes are highly conserved with no evidence of positive selection. We studied the sequence conservation features of the genes in the context of their known biological function and the strength of the purifying selection acting upon them in relation to their placement within the network. Our results suggest an association between protein length and sequence conservation, evolutionary rates, and functional category. On the other hand, we found no significant correlation between the strength of purifying selection and gene placement. Our results confirm that the studied robust developmental regulatory module has been subjected to strong functional constraints. However, unlike previous studies, our results do not support the notion that network topology plays a major role in constraining evolutionary rates. We speculate that the dynamical functional role of genes within the network and not just its connectivity could play an important role in constraining evolution.

  18. Recalibrated tree of leaf beetles (Chrysomelidae indicates independent diversification of angiosperms and their insect herbivores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Gómez-Zurita

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The great diversity of the "Phytophaga" (weevils, longhorn beetles and leaf beetles has been attributed to their co-radiation with the angiosperms based on matching age estimates for both groups, but phylogenetic information and molecular clock calibrations remain insufficient for this conclusion.A phylogenetic analysis of the leaf beetles (Chrysomelidae was conducted based on three partial ribosomal gene markers (mitochondrial rrnL, nuclear small and large subunit rRNA including over 3000 bp for 167 taxa representing most major chrysomelid lineages and outgroups. Molecular clock calibrations and confidence intervals were based on paleontological data from the oldest (K-T boundary leaf beetle fossil, ancient feeding traces ascribed to hispoid Cassidinae, and the vicariant split of Nearctic and Palearctic members of the Timarchini.The origin of the Chrysomelidae was dated to 73-79 Mya (confidence interval 63-86 Mya, and most subfamilies were post-Cretaceous, consistent with the ages of all confirmed body fossils. Two major monocot feeding chrysomelid lineages formed widely separated clades, demonstrating independent colonization of this ancient (early Cretaceous angiosperm lineage.Previous calibrations proposing a much older origin of Chrysomelidae were not supported. Therefore, chrysomelid beetles likely radiated long after the origin of their host lineages and their diversification was driven by repeated radiaton on a pre-existing diverse resource, rather than ancient host associations.

  19. Polyembryony in angiospermous trees of the Brazilian Cerrado and Caatinga vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonieta N. Salomão

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of polyembryony was investigated in 75 woody species of the Cerrado in central Brazil and the xerophilous Caatinga vegetation in northeastern Brazil. Fourteen species showed polyembryony, a type of anomalous angiospermous reproduction. Polyembryony is reported for the first time for nine genera, Astronium, Byrsonima, Cariniana, Copaifera, Hancornia, Magonia, Myracrodruon, Tabebuia, and Tapirira. The positive correlation found between polyembryony, sexual reproduction, and apomictic processes suggests that a number of angiospermous species may make regular use of multiple breeding systems.A ocorrência de poliembrionia foi investigada em 75 espécies lenhosas do Cerrado do Brasil central e da Caatinga xerófila do nordeste brasileiro. Quatorze espécies apresentaram poliembrionia, uma modalidade de reprodução anômala em angiospermas. Poliembrionia é relatada pela primeira vez para nove gêneros, Astronium, Byrsonima, Cariniana, Copaifera, Hancornia, Magonia, Myracrodruon, Tabebuia e Tapirira. A correlação positiva encontrada entre poliembrionia, reprodução sexual e processos apomíticos sugere que parte das espécies de angiospermas faça uso regular de sistemas de cruzamento múltiplos.

  20. Oil biosynthesis in a basal angiosperm: transcriptome analysis of Persea Americana mesocarp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilaru, Aruna; Cao, Xia; Dabbs, Parker B; Sung, Ha-Jung; Rahman, Md Mahbubur; Thrower, Nicholas; Zynda, Greg; Podicheti, Ram; Ibarra-Laclette, Enrique; Herrera-Estrella, Luis; Mockaitis, Keithanne; Ohlrogge, John B

    2015-08-16

    The mechanism by which plants synthesize and store high amounts of triacylglycerols (TAG) in tissues other than seeds is not well understood. The comprehension of controls for carbon partitioning and oil accumulation in nonseed tissues is essential to generate oil-rich biomass in perennial bioenergy crops. Persea americana (avocado), a basal angiosperm with unique features that are ancestral to most flowering plants, stores ~ 70 % TAG per dry weight in its mesocarp, a nonseed tissue. Transcriptome analyses of select pathways, from generation of pyruvate and leading up to TAG accumulation, in mesocarp tissues of avocado was conducted and compared with that of oil-rich monocot (oil palm) and dicot (rapeseed and castor) tissues to identify tissue- and species-specific regulation and biosynthesis of TAG in plants. RNA-Seq analyses of select lipid metabolic pathways of avocado mesocarp revealed patterns similar to that of other oil-rich species. However, only some predominant orthologs of the fatty acid biosynthetic pathway genes in this basal angiosperm were similar to those of monocots and dicots. The accumulation of TAG, rich in oleic acid, was associated with higher transcript levels for a putative stearoyl-ACP desaturase and endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated acyl-CoA synthetases, during fruit development. Gene expression levels for enzymes involved in terminal steps to TAG biosynthesis in the ER further indicated that both acyl-CoA-dependent and -independent mechanisms might play a role in TAG assembly, depending on the developmental stage of the fruit. Furthermore, in addition to the expression of an ortholog of WRINKLED1 (WRI1), a regulator of fatty acid biosynthesis, high transcript levels for WRI2-like and WRI3-like suggest a role for additional transcription factors in nonseed oil accumulation. Plastid pyruvate necessary for fatty acid synthesis is likely driven by the upregulation of genes involved in glycolysis and transport of its intermediates

  1. Submersible microbial desalination cell for simultaneous ammonia recovery and electricity production from anaerobic reactors containing high levels of ammonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yifeng; Angelidaki, Irini

    2015-01-01

    High ammonia concentration in anaerobic reactors can seriously inhibit the anaerobic digestion process. In this study, a submersible microbial desalination cell (SMDC) was developed as an innovative method to lower the ammonia level in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) by in situ ammonia...... and free NH3 diffusion were identified as the mechanisms responsible for the ammonia transportation. With an increase in initial ammonia concentration and a decrease in external resistance, the SMDC performance was enhanced. In addition, the coexistence of other cations in CSTR or cathode had no negative...

  2. Aquatic exercise training for fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidonde, Julia; Busch, Angela J; Webber, Sandra C; Schachter, Candice L; Danyliw, Adrienne; Overend, Tom J; Richards, Rachel S; Rader, Tamara

    2014-10-28

    Exercise training is commonly recommended for individuals with fibromyalgia. This review examined the effects of supervised group aquatic training programs (led by an instructor). We defined aquatic training as exercising in a pool while standing at waist, chest, or shoulder depth. This review is part of the update of the 'Exercise for treating fibromyalgia syndrome' review first published in 2002, and previously updated in 2007. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the benefits and harms of aquatic exercise training in adults with fibromyalgia. We searched The Cochrane Library 2013, Issue 2 (Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Health Technology Assessment Database, NHS Economic Evaluation Database), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PEDro, Dissertation Abstracts, WHO international Clinical Trials Registry Platform, and AMED, as well as other sources (i.e., reference lists from key journals, identified articles, meta-analyses, and reviews of all types of treatment for fibromyalgia) from inception to October 2013. Using Cochrane methods, we screened citations, abstracts, and full-text articles. Subsequently, we identified aquatic exercise training studies. Selection criteria were: a) full-text publication of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) in adults diagnosed with fibromyalgia based on published criteria, and b) between-group data for an aquatic intervention and a control or other intervention. We excluded studies if exercise in water was less than 50% of the full intervention. We independently assessed risk of bias and extracted data (24 outcomes), of which we designated seven as major outcomes: multidimensional function, self reported physical function, pain, stiffness, muscle strength, submaximal cardiorespiratory function, withdrawal rates and adverse effects. We resolved discordance through discussion. We evaluated interventions using mean differences

  3. Conservation and canalization of gene expression during angiosperm diversification accompany the origin and evolution of the flower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanderbali, André S.; Yoo, Mi-Jeong; Zahn, Laura M.; Brockington, Samuel F.; Wall, P. Kerr; Gitzendanner, Matthew A.; Albert, Victor A.; Leebens-Mack, James; Altman, Naomi S.; Ma, Hong; dePamphilis, Claude W.; Soltis, Douglas E.; Soltis, Pamela S.

    2010-01-01

    The origin and rapid diversification of the angiosperms (Darwin's “Abominable Mystery”) has engaged generations of researchers. Here, we examine the floral genetic programs of phylogenetically pivotal angiosperms (water lily, avocado, California poppy, and Arabidopsis) and a nonflowering seed plant (a cycad) to obtain insight into the origin and subsequent evolution of the flower. Transcriptional cascades with broadly overlapping spatial domains, resembling the hypothesized ancestral gymnosperm program, are deployed across morphologically intergrading organs in water lily and avocado flowers. In contrast, spatially discrete transcriptional programs in distinct floral organs characterize the more recently derived angiosperm lineages represented by California poppy and Arabidopsis. Deep evolutionary conservation in the genetic programs of putatively homologous floral organs traces to those operating in gymnosperm reproductive cones. Female gymnosperm cones and angiosperm carpels share conserved genetic features, which may be associated with the ovule developmental program common to both organs. However, male gymnosperm cones share genetic features with both perianth (sterile attractive and protective) organs and stamens, supporting the evolutionary origin of the floral perianth from the male genetic program of seed plants. PMID:21149731

  4. Weak coordination among petiole, leaf, vein, and gas-exchange traits across 41 Australian angiosperm species and its possible implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background and Aims Close coordination between leaf gas exchange and maximal hydraulic supply has been reported across diverse plant life-forms. However, recent reports suggest that this relationship may become weak or break down completely within the angiosperms. Methods To examine this possi...

  5. Thioacidolysis Marker Compound for Ferulic Acid Incorporation into Angiosperm Lignins (and an Indicator for Cinnamoyl-coenzyme-A Reductase Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    A molecular marker compound, derived from lignin by the thioacidolysis degradative method, for structures produced when ferulic acid is incorporated into lignification in angiosperms (poplar, Arabidopsis, tobacco) has been structurally identified as 1,2,2-trithioethyl ethylguaiacol [1-(4-hydroxy-3-m...

  6. Hydraulic safety margins and embolism reversal in stems and leaves: Why are conifers and angiosperms so different?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel M. Johnson; Katherine A. McCulloh; David R. Woodruff; Frederick C. Meinzer

    2012-01-01

    Angiosperm and coniferous tree species utilize a continuum of hydraulic strategies. Hydraulic safety margins (defined as differences between naturally occurring xylem pressures and pressures that would cause hydraulic dysfunction, or differences between pressures resulting in loss of hydraulic function in adjacent organs (e.g., stems vs. leaves) tend to be much greater...

  7. Stigmatic receptivity in a dichogamous early-divergent angiosperm species, Annona cherimola (Annonaceae): influence of temperature and humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lora, Jorge; Herrero, Maria; Hormaza, Jose I

    2011-02-01

    A variety of mechanisms to prevent inbreeding have arisen in different angiosperm taxa during plant evolution. In early-divergent angiosperms, a widespread system is dichogamy, in which female and male structures do not mature simultaneously, thus encouraging cross pollination. While this system is common in early-divergent angiosperms, it is less widespread in more recently evolved clades. An evaluation of the consequences of this system on outbreeding may provide clues on this change, but this subject has been little explored. In this work, we characterized the cycle and anatomy of the flower and studied the influence of temperature and humidity on stigmatic receptivity in Annona cherimola, a member of an early-divergent angiosperm clade with protogynous dichogamy. Paternity analysis reveals a high proportion of seeds resulting from self-fertilization, indicating that self-pollination can occur in spite of the dichogamous system. Stigmatic receptivity is environmentally modulated--shortened by high temperatures and prolonged by high humidity. Although spatial and temporal sexual separation in this system seems to effectively decrease selfing, the system is modulated by environmental conditions and may allow high levels of selfing that can guarantee reproductive assurance.

  8. Conservation and canalization of gene expression during angiosperm diversification accompany the origin and evolution of the flower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanderbali, André S; Yoo, Mi-Jeong; Zahn, Laura M; Brockington, Samuel F; Wall, P Kerr; Gitzendanner, Matthew A; Albert, Victor A; Leebens-Mack, James; Altman, Naomi S; Ma, Hong; dePamphilis, Claude W; Soltis, Douglas E; Soltis, Pamela S

    2010-12-28

    The origin and rapid diversification of the angiosperms (Darwin's "Abominable Mystery") has engaged generations of researchers. Here, we examine the floral genetic programs of phylogenetically pivotal angiosperms (water lily, avocado, California poppy, and Arabidopsis) and a nonflowering seed plant (a cycad) to obtain insight into the origin and subsequent evolution of the flower. Transcriptional cascades with broadly overlapping spatial domains, resembling the hypothesized ancestral gymnosperm program, are deployed across morphologically intergrading organs in water lily and avocado flowers. In contrast, spatially discrete transcriptional programs in distinct floral organs characterize the more recently derived angiosperm lineages represented by California poppy and Arabidopsis. Deep evolutionary conservation in the genetic programs of putatively homologous floral organs traces to those operating in gymnosperm reproductive cones. Female gymnosperm cones and angiosperm carpels share conserved genetic features, which may be associated with the ovule developmental program common to both organs. However, male gymnosperm cones share genetic features with both perianth (sterile attractive and protective) organs and stamens, supporting the evolutionary origin of the floral perianth from the male genetic program of seed plants.

  9. Saponins in the aquatic environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Xiaogang

    extract) in the environment, and to relate the measurements to the potential risk of the different fractions (saponins and non-saponins) in the saponin-rich plant extract. The toxicity tests were conducted with the aquatic crustacean Daphnia magna and zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos. We confirm......This PhD thesis consists of three parts to illustrate the goal of getting a better understanding of the fate and toxicity of saponins in the aquatic environment. It includes an introduction to the general aspects of saponins, their chemistry and the ecotoxicology concepts, and a second part......-like structure, saponins have a lot of applications, e.g. as foaming agents in consumer products, as adjuvants in the vaccine, as biosurfactants in soil washing and as biopesticides in crop protection. Hence, they may leach into the aquatic environment due to their low octanol/water partition coefficient...

  10. Identification, characterization, and utilization of single copy genes in 29 angiosperm genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Fengming; Peng, Yong; Xu, Lijia; Xiao, Peigen

    2014-06-21

    Single copy genes are common across angiosperm genomes. With the sufficiently high quality sequenced genomes, the identification of large-scale single copy genes among multiple species is possible. Although some characteristics have been reported, our study provides novel insights into single copy genes. We identified single copy genes across 29 angiosperm genomes. A significant negative correlation was found between the number of duplicate blocks and the number of single copy genes. We found that a considerable number of single copy genes are located in organelles, showing a preference for binding and catalytic activity. The analysis of effective number of codons (Nc) illustrates that single copy genes have a stronger codon bias than non-single copy genes in eudicots. The relative high expression level of single copy genes was partially confirmed by the RNA-seq data, rather than the Codon Adaptation Index (CAI). Unlike in most other species, a strongly negatively correlation occurs between Nc and GC3 among single copy genes in grass genomes. When compared to all non-single copy genes, single copy genes indicate more conservation (as indicated by Ka and Ks values). But our alternative splicing (AS) results reveal that selective constraints are weaker in single copy genes than in low copy family genes (1-10 in-paralogs) and stronger than high copy family genes (>10 in-paralogs). Using concatenated shared single copy genes, we obtained a well-resolved phylogenetic tree. With the addition of intron sequences, the branch support is improved, but striking incongruences are also evident. Therefore, it is noteworthy that inclusion of intron sequences seems more appropriate for the phylogenetic reconstruction at lower taxonomic levels. Our analysis provides insight into the evolutionary characteristics of single copy genes across 29 angiosperm genomes. The results suggest that there are key differences in evolutionary constraints between single copy genes and non

  11. Marine and other aquatic dermatoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jandhyala Sridhar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Occupational and recreational aquatic activity predisposes our population to a wide variety of dermatoses. Sunburn, urticaria, jellyfish stings, and contact dermatitis to rubber equipment are common allergies that are encountered in the aquatic environment. Among the infections, tinea versicolor, intertrigo, and verruca vulgaris are widespread. Swimmer's itch may occur due to skin penetration by schistosome cercariae, while free-floating nematocysts of marine coelenterates may precipitate seabather's eruption. “Suit squeeze” due to cutaneous barotrauma and lymphoedematous peau d'orange due to decompression are rare, described entities. This review serves as a ready reckoner for Indian dermatologists and medical practitioners to identify and manage these conditions.

  12. Structural analyses of very large semi-submersibles in waves; Choogata hansensuishiki futai no harochu kozo oto kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iijima, K.; Yoshida, K.; Suzuki, H. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-08-01

    An analysis method in which the technique of a vehicle obtained when a three-dimensional singular point distribution method and Kagemoto`s mutual interaction theory are combined was expanded for the fluid area was proposed as the structural analysis of very large semi-submersibles in waves. A partial structure method is used for the structure. In a fluid area, the number of unknown quantities appearing in a final expression could be largely reduced by introducing the new concept of a group body. In this process, both hydro-elasticity and hydrodynamic mutual interaction are considered. As a result, floating bodies that could not be previously calculated can be modeled as a three-dimensional frame structure and the response analysis in waves can be carried out without damaging the accuracy. The calculation result is used as the input data required for analyzing the structural fatigue locally during structural design of very large semi-submersibles in the 3,000 (m) class. This study can present a series of procedures between the response analysis of very large floating bodies in waves and the structural design. 11 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Hydrodynamic comparison of a semi-submersible, TLP, and Spar: Numerical study in the South China Sea environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Binbin; Liu, Kun; Yan, Gongwei; Ou, Jinping

    2011-09-01

    The South China Sea contains tremendous oil and gas resources in deepwater areas. However, one of the keys for deepwater exploration, the investigation of deepwater floating platforms, is very inadequate. In this paper, the authors studied and compared the hydrodynamics and global motion behaviors of typical deepwater platforms in the South China Sea environment. The hydrodynamic models of three main types of floating platforms, e.g. the Semi-submersible, tension leg platform (TLP), and Truss Spar, which could potentially be utilized in the South China Sea, were established by using the 3-D potential theory. Additionally, some important considerations which significantly influence the hydrodynamics were given. The RAOs in frequency domains as well as global motions in time domains under time-varying wind, random waves, and current in 100-y, 10-y, and 1-y return period environment conditions were predicted, compared, and analyzed. The results indicate that the heave and especially the pitch motion of the TLP are favorable. The heave response of the Truss Spar is perfect and comparable with that of the TLP when the peak period of random waves is low. However, the pitch motion of Truss Spar is extraordinarily larger than that of Semi-submersible and TLP.

  14. WHTSubmersible: a simulator for estimating transient circulation temperature in offshore wells with the semi-submersible platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xun-cheng; Liu, Yong-wang; Guan, Zhi-chuan

    2015-10-01

    Offshore wellbore temperature field is significant to drilling fluids program, equipment selection, evaluations on potential risks caused by casing thermal stress, etc. This paper mainly describes the theoretical basis, module structure and field verification of the simulator WHTSubmersible. This computer program is a useful tool for estimating transient temperature distribution of circulating drilling fluid on semi-submersible platform. WHTSubmersible is based on a mathematical model which is developed to consider radial and axial two-dimensional heat exchange of the inner drill pipe, the annulus, the drill pipe wall, the sea water and the formation in the process of drilling fluid circulation. The solution of the discrete equations is based on finite volume method with an implicit scheme. This scheme serves to demonstrate the numerical solution procedure. Besides, the simulator also considers the heating generated by drilling fluid circulation friction, drill bit penetrating rocks, friction between the drill column and the borehole wall, and the temperature effect on thermal physical properties and rheology of the drilling fluid. These measures ensure more accurate results. The simulator has been programmed as a dynamic link library using Visual C++, the routine interface is simple, which can be connected with other computer programs conveniently. The simulator is validated with an actual well temperature filed developed on a semi-submersible platform in South China, and the error is less than 5 %.

  15. The relative and absolute frequencies of angiosperm sexual systems: dioecy, monoecy, gynodioecy, and an updated online database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Susanne S

    2014-10-01

    • Separating sexual function between different individuals carries risks, especially for sedentary organisms. Nevertheless, many land plants have unisexual gametophytes or sporophytes. This study brings together data and theoretical insights from research over the past 20 yr on the occurrence and frequency of plant sexual systems, focusing on the flowering plants.• A list of genera with dioecious species, along with other information, is made available (http://www.umsl.edu/∼renners/). Frequencies of other sexual systems are tabulated, and data on the genetic regulation, ecological context, and theoretical benefits of dioecy reviewed.• There are 15600 dioecious angiosperms in 987 genera and 175 families, or 5-6% of the total species (7% of genera, 43% of families), with somewhere between 871 to 5000 independent origins of dioecy. Some 43% of all dioecious angiosperms are in just 34 entirely dioecious clades, arguing against a consistent negative influence of dioecy on diversification. About 31.6% of the dioecious species are wind-pollinated, compared with 5.5-6.4% of nondioecious angiosperms. Also, 1.4% of all angiosperm genera contain dioecious and monoecious species, while 0.4% contain dioecious and gynodioecious species. All remaining angiosperm sexual systems are rare. Chromosomal sex determination is known from 40 species; environmentally modulated sex allocation is common. Few phylogenetic studies have focused on the evolution of dioecy.• The current focus is on the genetic mechanisms underlying unisexual flowers and individuals. Mixed strategies of sexual and vegetative dispersal, together with plants' sedentary life style, may often favor polygamous systems in which sexually inconstant individuals can persist. Nevertheless, there are huge entirely dioecious clades of tropical woody plants. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  16. Gymnosperms have increased capacity for electron leakage to oxygen (Mehler and PTOX reactions) in photosynthesis compared with angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirao, Masayoshi; Kuroki, Shu; Kaneko, Kaoru; Kinjo, Yuriko; Tsuyama, Michito; Förster, Britta; Takahashi, Shunichi; Badger, Murray R

    2013-07-01

    Oxygen plays an important role in photosynthesis by participating in a number of O2-consuming reactions. O2 inhibits CO2 fixation by stimulating photorespiration, thus reducing plant production. O2 interacts with photosynthetic electron transport in the chloroplasts' thylakoids in two main ways: by accepting electrons from PSI (Mehler reaction); and by accepting electrons from reduced plastoquinone (PQ) mediated by the plastid terminal oxidase (PTOX). In this study, we show, using 101 plant species, that there is a difference in the potential for photosynthetic electron flow to O2 between angiosperms and gymnosperms. We found, from measurements of Chl fluorescence and leaf absorbance at 830 nm, (i) that electron outflow from PSII, as determined by decay kinetics of Chl fluorescence after application of a saturating light pulse, is more rapid in gymnosperms than in angiosperms; (ii) that the reaction center Chl of PSI (P700) is rapidly and highly oxidized in gymnosperms during induction of photosynthesis; and (iii) that these differences are dependent on oxygen. Finally, rates of O2 uptake measured by mass spectrometry in the absence of photorespiration were significantly promoted by illumination in dark-adapted leaves of gymnosperms, but not in those of angiosperms. The light-stimulated O2 uptake was around 10% of the maximum O2 evolution in gymnosperms and 1% in angiosperms. These results suggest that gymnosperms have increased capacity for electron leakage to oxygen in photosynthesis compared with angiosperms. The involvement of the Mehler reaction and PTOX in the electron flow to O2 is discussed.

  17. A single evolutionary innovation drives the deep evolution of symbiotic N2-fixation in angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Gijsbert D A; Cornwell, William K; Sprent, Janet I; Kattge, Jens; Kiers, E Toby

    2014-06-10

    Symbiotic associations occur in every habitat on earth, but we know very little about their evolutionary histories. Current models of trait evolution cannot adequately reconstruct the deep history of symbiotic innovation, because they assume homogenous evolutionary processes across millions of years. Here we use a recently developed, heterogeneous and quantitative phylogenetic framework to study the origin of the symbiosis between angiosperms and nitrogen-fixing (N2) bacterial symbionts housed in nodules. We compile the largest database of global nodulating plant species and reconstruct the symbiosis' evolution. We identify a single, cryptic evolutionary innovation driving symbiotic N2-fixation evolution, followed by multiple gains and losses of the symbiosis, and the subsequent emergence of 'stable fixers' (clades extremely unlikely to lose the symbiosis). Originating over 100 MYA, this innovation suggests deep homology in symbiotic N2-fixation. Identifying cryptic innovations on the tree of life is key to understanding the evolution of complex traits, including symbiotic partnerships.

  18. Angiosperms, Hydrophytes of five ephemeral lakes of Thiruvallur District, Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udayakumar, M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to document the Angiosperm diversity of five ephemeral lakes of ThiruvallurDistrict of Tamil Nadu South India. Qualitative floristic surveys were carried out during 2005-2007. Herbarium specimenswith voucher number, taxonomical and ecological information were deposited to the herbarium, Pachaiyappa’s College(PCH Chennai, Tamilnadu. Forty five species of hydrophytes belonging to 21 families and 34 genera were documented.Most speciose families were Poaceae with 5 species followed by Polygalaceae and Nymphaeaceae (4 Cyperaceae,Hydrocharitaceae, Najadaceae, and Scrophulariaceae (3 species each. Mean depth of all five lakes shrinking gradually dueto severe anthropogenic pressure. Conservation of wetlands is the need of the hour to protect the biota as well as quality ofdrinking water.

  19. Large distribution and high sequence identity of a Copia-type retrotransposon in angiosperm families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Elaine Silva; Hatt, Clémence; Hamon, Serge; Hamon, Perla; Rigoreau, Michel; Crouzillat, Dominique; Carareto, Claudia Marcia Aparecida; de Kochko, Alexandre; Guyot, Romain

    2015-09-01

    Retrotransposons are the main component of plant genomes. Recent studies have revealed the complexity of their evolutionary dynamics. Here, we have identified Copia25 in Coffea canephora, a new plant retrotransposon belonging to the Ty1-Copia superfamily. In the Coffea genomes analyzed, Copia25 is present in relatively low copy numbers and transcribed. Similarity sequence searches and PCR analyses show that this retrotransposon with LTRs (Long Terminal Repeats) is widely distributed among the Rubiaceae family and that it is also present in other distantly related species belonging to Asterids, Rosids and monocots. A particular situation is the high sequence identity found between the Copia25 sequences of Musa, a monocot, and Ixora, a dicot species (Rubiaceae). Our results reveal the complexity of the evolutionary dynamics of the ancient element Copia25 in angiosperm, involving several processes including sequence conservation, rapid turnover, stochastic losses and horizontal transfer.

  20. Uneven HAK/KUP/KT protein diversity among angiosperms: species distribution and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel eNieves-Cordones

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available HAK/KUP/KT K+ transporters have been widely associated with K+ transport across membranes in bacteria, fungi and plants. Indeed some members of the plant HAK/KUP/KT family contribute to root K+ uptake, notably at low external concentrations. Besides such role in acquisition, several studies carried out in Arabidopsis have shown that other members are also involved in developmental processes. With the publication of new plant genomes, a growing interest on plant species other than Arabidopsis has become evident. In order to understand HAK/KUP/KT diversity in these new plant genomes, we discuss the evolutionary trends of 913 HAK/KUP/KT sequences identified in 46 genomes revealing five major groups with an uneven distribution among angiosperms, notably between dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous species. This information evidenced the richness of crop genomes in HAK/KUP/KT transporters and supports their study for unraveling novel physiological roles of such transporters in plants.

  1. Multiple regulatory roles of AP2/ERF transcription factor in angiosperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Chao; Guo, Zhi-Hua; Hao, Ping-Ping; Wang, Guo-Ming; Jin, Zi-Ming; Zhang, Shao-Ling

    2017-12-01

    APETALA2/ethylene response factor (AP2/ERF) transcription factor (TF) is a superfamily in plant kingdom, which has been reported to be involved in regulation of plant growth and development, fruit ripening, defense response, and metabolism. As the final response gene in ethylene signaling pathway, AP2/ERF TF could feedback modulate phytohormone biosynthesis, including ethylene, cytokinin, gibberellin, and abscisic acid. Moreover, AP2/ERF TF also participates in response to the signals of auxin, cytokinin, abscisic acid, and jasmonate. Thus, this superfamily is key regulator for connecting the phytohormonal signals. In this review, based on the evidence of structural and functional studies, we discussed the multiple regulator roles of AP2/ERF TF in angiosperm, and then constructed the network model of AP2/ERF TF in response to various phytohormonal signals and regulatory mechanism of the cross-talk.

  2. Inferring phylogenies with incomplete data sets: a 5-gene, 567-taxon analysis of angiosperms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilu Khidir W

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phylogenetic analyses of angiosperm relationships have used only a small percentage of available sequence data, but phylogenetic data matrices often can be augmented with existing data, especially if one allows missing characters. We explore the effects on phylogenetic analyses of adding 378 matK sequences and 240 26S rDNA sequences to the complete 3-gene, 567-taxon angiosperm phylogenetic matrix of Soltis et al. Results We performed maximum likelihood bootstrap analyses of the complete, 3-gene 567-taxon data matrix and the incomplete, 5-gene 567-taxon data matrix. Although the 5-gene matrix has more missing data (27.5% than the 3-gene data matrix (2.9%, the 5-gene analysis resulted in higher levels of bootstrap support. Within the 567-taxon tree, the increase in support is most evident for relationships among the 170 taxa for which both matK and 26S rDNA sequences were added, and there is little gain in support for relationships among the 119 taxa having neither matK nor 26S rDNA sequences. The 5-gene analysis also places the enigmatic Hydrostachys in Lamiales (BS = 97% rather than in Cornales (BS = 100% in 3-gene analysis. The placement of Hydrostachys in Lamiales is unprecedented in molecular analyses, but it is consistent with embryological and morphological data. Conclusion Adding available, and often incomplete, sets of sequences to existing data sets can be a fast and inexpensive way to increase support for phylogenetic relationships and produce novel and credible new phylogenetic hypotheses.

  3. Influence of biological and social-historical variables on the time taken to describe an angiosperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallin, Evelin K S; Munhoz, Cássia B R; Harris, Stephen A; Villarroel, Daniel; Proença, Carolyn E B

    2016-11-01

    By convention, scientific naming of angiosperm species began in 1753; it is estimated that 10-20% of species remain undescribed. To complete this task before rare, undescribed species go extinct, a better understanding of the description process is needed. The South American Cerrado biodiversity hotspot was considered a suitable model due to a high diversity of plants, habitats, and social history of species description. A randomized sample of 214 species (2% of the angiosperm flora) and 22 variables were analyzed using multivariate analyses and analysis of variance. Plants with wide global distributions, recorded from many areas, and above 2.6 m were described significantly earlier than narrowly distributed, uncommon species of smaller stature. The beginning of the career of the botanist who first collected the species was highly significant, with an average delay between first collection and description of 29 yr, and between type collection and description 19 yr; standard deviations were high and rose over time. Over a third of first collections were not cited in descriptions. Trends such as scientific specialization and decline of undescribed species were highlighted. Descriptions that involved potential collaboration between collectors and authors were significantly slower than those that did not. Results support four recommendations to hasten discovery of new species: (1) preferential collecting of plants below 2.6 m, at least in the Cerrado; (2) access to undetermined material in herbaria; (3) fieldwork in areas where narrow-endemic species occur; (4) fieldwork by knowledgeable botanists followed by descriptive activity by the same. © 2016 Proenca et al. Published by the Botanical Society of America. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License (CC-BY-NC).

  4. Chromosome behavior at the base of the angiosperm radiation: karyology of Trithuria submersa (Hydatellaceae, Nymphaeales).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kynast, Ralf G; Joseph, Jeffrey A; Pellicer, Jaume; Ramsay, Margaret M; Rudall, Paula J

    2014-09-01

    • Hydatellaceae are minute annual herbs with potential as a model system for studying early angiosperm evolution, but their karyology and ploidy levels are almost unknown. We investigated these aspects of Trithuria submersa, a widespread species that we show to be amenable to extended vegetative propagation.• We cultivated plants of T. submersa in vitro after developing and optimizing culture conditions. We estimated genome size using flow cytometry, counted chromosome numbers using root-meristem squashes after Feulgen staining, and examined meiotic chromosome behavior using microsporocytes.• We developed methods to reliably germinate seeds of T. submersa and to propagate them vegetatively in critical thermo- and photoperiod regimes on 1/2 Murashige-Skoog (MS) medium with vitamins and 2% sucrose solidified with 0.7% agar-agar. Seedling growth requires the medium be supplemented with activated charcoal. The mean nuclear DNA content of T. submersa sporophytes is 2C = 2.74 pg (∼2.68 Gbp). The sporophytic chromosome number is 2n = 56 with a bimodal complement, which may suggest an allopolyploid origin. Some of the largest chromosomes lack a recognizable constriction, which relates to a highly unusual and irregular chromosome behavior. Microsporocytes undergo reduced and asynchronous meioses that show a modified intermediate cell division with a nucleus division by fractional postreduction, indicating partially inverted microsporogenesis.• In vitro cultivation and karyological assessment of T. submersa open new opportunities for investigating early-divergent angiosperms. The remarkably different meiotic behavior exhibits new insights into a potentially ancestral microsporogenesis. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  5. Diversity and composition of herbaceous angiosperms along gradients of elevation and forest-use intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krömer, Thorsten; Kreft, Holger; Gerold, Gerhard; Carvajal-Hernández, César Isidro; Heitkamp, Felix

    2017-01-01

    Terrestrial herbs are important elements of tropical forests; however, there is a lack of research on their diversity patterns and how they respond to different intensities of forest-use. The aim of this study was to analyze the diversity of herbaceous angiosperms along gradients of elevation (50 m to 3500 m) and forest-use intensity on the eastern slopes of the Cofre de Perote, Veracruz, Mexico. We recorded the occurrence of all herbaceous angiosperm species within 120 plots of 20 m x 20 m each. The plots were located at eight study locations separated by ~500 m in elevation and within three different habitats that differ in forest-use intensity: old-growth, degraded, and secondary forest. We analyzed species richness and floristic composition of herb communities among different elevations and habitats. Of the 264 plant species recorded, 31 are endemic to Mexico. Both α- and γ-diversity display a hump-shaped relation to elevation peaking at 2500 m and 3000 m, respectively. The relative contribution of between-habitat β-diversity to γ-diversity also showed a unimodal hump whereas within-habitat β-diversity declined with elevation. Forest-use intensity did not affect α-diversity, but β-diversity was high between old-growth and secondary forests. Overall, γ-diversity peaked at 2500 m (72 species), driven mainly by high within- and among-habitat β-diversity. We infer that this belt is highly sensitive to anthropogenic disturbance and forest-use intensification. At 3100 m, high γ-diversity (50 species) was driven by high α- and within-habitat β-diversity. There, losing a specific forest area might be compensated if similar assemblages occur in nearby areas. The high β-diversity and endemism suggest that mixes of different habitats are needed to sustain high γ-richness of terrestrial herbs along this elevational gradient. PMID:28792536

  6. Evolution of Xylan Substitution Patterns in Gymnosperms and Angiosperms: Implications for Xylan Interaction with Cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busse-Wicher, Marta; Li, An; Silveira, Rodrigo L; Pereira, Caroline S; Tryfona, Theodora; Gomes, Thiago C F; Skaf, Munir S; Dupree, Paul

    2016-08-01

    The interaction between cellulose and xylan is important for the load-bearing secondary cell wall of flowering plants. Based on the precise, evenly spaced pattern of acetyl and glucuronosyl (MeGlcA) xylan substitutions in eudicots, we recently proposed that an unsubstituted face of xylan in a 2-fold helical screw can hydrogen bond to the hydrophilic surfaces of cellulose microfibrils. In gymnosperm cell walls, any role for xylan is unclear, and glucomannan is thought to be the important cellulose-binding polysaccharide. Here, we analyzed xylan from the secondary cell walls of the four gymnosperm lineages (Conifer, Gingko, Cycad, and Gnetophyta). Conifer, Gingko, and Cycad xylan lacks acetylation but is modified by arabinose and MeGlcA. Interestingly, the arabinosyl substitutions are located two xylosyl residues from MeGlcA, which is itself placed precisely on every sixth xylosyl residue. Notably, the Gnetophyta xylan is more akin to early-branching angiosperms and eudicot xylan, lacking arabinose but possessing acetylation on alternate xylosyl residues. All these precise substitution patterns are compatible with gymnosperm xylan binding to hydrophilic surfaces of cellulose. Molecular dynamics simulations support the stable binding of 2-fold screw conifer xylan to the hydrophilic face of cellulose microfibrils. Moreover, the binding of multiple xylan chains to adjacent planes of the cellulose fibril stabilizes the interaction further. Our results show that the type of xylan substitution varies, but an even pattern of xylan substitution is maintained among vascular plants. This suggests that 2-fold screw xylan binds hydrophilic faces of cellulose in eudicots, early-branching angiosperm, and gymnosperm cell walls. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  7. The Aquatic Coleoptera of the Dismal Swamp

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A brief review of the aquatic habitats and an annotated list of the aquatic Cleoptera of the Dismal Swamp is presented. Six families with a total of 53 species are...

  8. Macrophytes: Ecology of aquatic plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bornette, G.; Puijalon, S.

    2009-01-01

    Aquatic plants contribute to maintaining key functions and related biodiversity in freshwater ecosystems, and to provide the needs of human societies. The way the ecological niches of macrophytes are determined by abiotic filters and biotic ones is considered. A simple, broadly applicable model of

  9. Checklist of the Aquatic Macrophytes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aquatic plants colonize the fresh water bodies in. Nigeria with Jebba Lake as a case study. Nigerian water bodies are of high economic importance to the riparian populace and other stakeholders that depend on such water bodies for their economic activities. It is therefore essential to monitor and manage the influx of these ...

  10. Nanomaterials in the aquatic environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selck, Henriette; Handy, Richard D; Fernandes, Teresa F.

    2016-01-01

    on work within the Ecotoxicology Community of Research (2012–2015) the present Focus article provides an overview of the state of the art of nanomaterials (NMs) in the aquatic environment by addressing different research questions, with a focus on ecotoxicological test systems and the challenges faced...

  11. Harnessing Aquatic Physicochemical Parameters Influencing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The management-oriented background for harnessing aquatic physicochemical parameters influencing macro invertebrate fauna of Anambra River basin for sustainable fish productivity was studied. The intra seasonal variability in the water quality of the river revealed mean transparency of 1.79 cm, Conductivity of 28.81 ...

  12. Aquatic Exercise for the Aged.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Michael; And Others

    The development and implementation of aquatic exercise programs for the aged are discussed in this paper. Program development includes a discussion of training principles, exercise leadership and the setting up of safe water exercise programs for the participants. The advantages of developing water exercise programs and not swimming programs are…

  13. Anaerobic decomposition of a native and an exotic submersed macrophyte in two tropical reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WA Chiba de Castro

    Full Text Available Some aquatic plants have fast metabolism and growth, even at sub-optimal conditions, and become dominant in lentic environments such as large reservoirs, altering the nutrient cycle and impairing their environmental quality. There is great need in the knowledge impact processes of invasive species in aquatic environments, among the major, those related to the decomposition. This study evaluated the anaerobic decomposition of invasive submerged macrophytes Egeria densa Planch, native, and Hydrilla verticillata (L.f. Royle, exotic in Porto Primavera and Jupiá reservoirs, Paraná basin. We evaluated the decay of organic matter, humification degree of the leached material, electrical conductivity and pH of the decomposition process. Mathematical models were utilised to describe the decomposition patterns over time. Both species showed the same heterogeneous pattern of decay of organic matter and carbon mineralisation. The models of carbon mineralisation, compared with the experimentally obtained data presented were adequate. Both species show no significant differences in the decomposition processes. Incubations of both species presented rapid t ½ for POC mineralisation and low DOC mineralisation.

  14. Temperature relations of aerial and aquatic physiological performance in a mid-intertidal limpet Cellana toreuma: adaptation to rapid changes in thermal stress during emersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiongwei; Wang, Tifeng; Ye, Ziwen; Han, Guodong; Dong, Yunwei

    2015-01-01

    The physiological performance of a mid-intertidal limpet Cellana toreuma was determined to study the physiological adaptation of intertidal animals to rapid changes and extreme temperatures during emersion. The relationship between the Arrhenius breakpoint temperature (ABT) and in situ operative body temperature was studied to predict the possible impact of climate change on the species. The temperature coefficient (Q10) of emersed animals was higher than that of submersed animals and the ratio of aerial: aquatic heart rate rose with increasing temperature. The ABTs of submersed and emersed animals were 30.2 and 34.2°C, respectively. The heart rate and levels of molecular biomarkers (hsps, ampkα, ampkβ and sirt1 mRNA) were determined in 48 h simulated semi-diurnal tides. There were no obvious changes of heart rate and gene expression during the transition between emersion and submersion at room temperature, although expressions of hsp70 and hsp90 were induced significantly after thermal stress. These results indicate that C. toreuma can effectively utilize atmospheric oxygen, and the higher Q10 and ABT of emersed animals are adaptations to the rapid change and extreme thermal stress during emersion. However, the in situ operative body temperature frequently exceeds the aerial ABT of C. toreuma, indicating the occurrence of large-scale mortality of C. toreuma in summer, and this species should be sensitive to increasing temperature in the scenario of climate change. © 2014 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  15. 8 Aquatic Insect Fauna.cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    period of one year during the wet, dry and intermediate seasons for aquatic insect fauna. Fifteen sampling sites were chosen based on certain ... objects as well as aquatic plants and leaves. Fifty seven (57) species of aquatic insects .... Both litter and household waste littered the river bank. D4 UP. Sampling was done at ...

  16. Improvements in the use of aquatic herbicides and establishment of future research directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getsinger, K.D.; Netherland, M.D.; Grue, C.E.; Koschnick, T.J.

    2008-01-01

    Peer-reviewed literature over the past 20 years identifies significant changes and improvements in chemical control strategies used to manage nuisance submersed vegetation. The invasive exotic plants hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata L.f. Royle) and Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum L.) continue to spread and remain the plant species of greatest concern for aquatic resource managers at the national scale. Emerging exotic weeds of regional concern such as egeria (Egeria densa Planch.), curlyleaf pondweed (Potamogeton crispus L.), and hygrophila (Hygrophila polysperma (Roxb.) T. Anders), as well as native plants such as variable watermilfoil (Myriophyllum heterophyllum Michx), and cabomba (Cabomba caroliniana Gray) are invasive outside their home ranges. In addition, there is always the threat of new plant introductions such as African elodea (Lagarosiphon major (Ridley) Moss) or narrow-leaf anacharis (Egeria najas Planchon). The registration of the bleaching herbicide fluridone in the mid 1980s for whole-lake and large-scale management stimulated numerous lines of research involving reduction of use rates, plant selectivity, residue monitoring, and impacts on fisheries. In addition to numerous advances, the specificity of fluridone for a single plant enzyme led to the first documented case of herbicide resistance in aquatic plant management. The resistance of hydrilla to fluridone has stimulated a renewed interest by industry and others in the registration of alternative modes of action for aquatic use. These newer chemistries tend to be enzyme-specific compounds with favorable non-target toxicity profiles. Registration efforts have been facilitated by increased cooperation between key federal government agencies that have aquatic weed control and research responsibilities, and regulators within the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). We reviewed past and current research efforts to identify areas in need of further investigation and to establish

  17. Submersible microbial fuel cell sensor for monitoring microbial activity and BOD in groundwater: Focusing on impact of anodic biofilm on sensor applicability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yifeng; Angelidaki, Irini

    2011-01-01

    A sensor, based on a submersible microbial fuel cell (SUMFC), was developed for in situ monitoring of microbial activity and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) in groundwater. Presence or absence of a biofilm on the anode was a decisive factor for the applicability of the sensor. Fresh anode was req...

  18. A high-resolution angiosperm pollen reference record covering Albian mid-latitude coastal deposits (Lusitanian Basin, Portugal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikx, Maurits; Dinis, Jorge L.; Heimhofer, Ulrich

    2013-04-01

    The Lusitanian Basin in Portugal is one of the most important areas to investigate the rise and radiation of early angiosperms. Here, important micro-, macro- and mesofossil remains including pollen, reproductive organs, fruits and seeds have been found. In this study, a high-resolution Early to Late Albian pollen record from a thick (~160m) coastal succession in the Lusitanian Basin containing mixed carbonate-siliciclastic near-shore deposits is generated. The outcrop is located near the town of Ericeira (São Julião) and exhibits some important new features compared to existing records from the Lusitanian basin. The comparatively proximal depositional setting and high sedimentation rate of the São Julião outcrop is well suited for high-resolution palynological sampling compared to previously studied, more distal outcrops. In addition, the succession covers almost the entire Albian including a thick interval representing Late Albian strata. Dating of the succession was obtained using dinoflagellate cyst biostratigraphy, bulk C-isotope analysis and strontium isotope analysis of low-Mg oysters and rudist shells. The high-resolution pollen record shows a distinct radiation pattern of early angiosperm pollen as well as significant changes in the accompanying palynoflora. During most of the section gymnosperm pollen types such as Classopollis spp., Inaperturopollenites spp. and Exesipollenites spp. are dominant. Angiosperm pollen abundances do not exceed 20%, although angiosperms increase slightly from the Early Albian onwards. Monoaperturate grains of magnoliid or monocot affinity remain the most dominant angiosperm pollen type, both in abundances and diversity. Tricolpate and zonoaperturate pollen grains are also present. In addition, the occurrence of several odd-shaped Dichastopollenites-type pollen types is intriguing. The palynological results indicate a warm and dry climate during most of the Albian, although a rise in the spores over pollen ratio in the

  19. Proceedings, Annual Meeting, Aquatic Plant Control Research Program (20th) Held at Atlanta, Georgia on 18-21 November 1985.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-01

    glyphosate , and fenatrol have been conducted in cooperation with industry to evaluate efficacy, environmental fate, and/or toxicology of these...interact with essentially equal importance in influencing the growth and morphology of submersed freshwater macrophytes. Differences in the morphological...supply in relation to the growth of submersed macrophytes. Significantly, the photosynthetic potential of a variety of submersed freshwater

  20. Proposed Release Guides to Protect Aquatic Biota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marter, W.L.

    2001-03-28

    At the request of South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) and the Department of Energy (DOE), the Savannah River Laboratory was assigned the task of developing the release guides to protect aquatic biota. A review of aquatic radioecology literature by two leading experts in the field of radioecology concludes that exposure of aquatic biota at one rad per day or less will not produce detectable deleterious effects on aquatic organisms. On the basis of this report, DOE recommends the use of one rad per day as an interim dose standard to protect aquatic biota.

  1. Contrasting trait syndromes in angiosperms and conifers are associated with different responses of tree growth to temperature on a large scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnicer, Jofre; Barbeta, Adrià; Sperlich, Dominik; Coll, Marta; Peñuelas, Josep

    2013-01-01

    Recent large-scale studies of tree growth in the Iberian Peninsula reported contrasting positive and negative effects of temperature in Mediterranean angiosperms and conifers. Here we review the different hypotheses that may explain these trends and propose that the observed contrasting responses of tree growth to temperature in this region could be associated with a continuum of trait differences between angiosperms and conifers. Angiosperm and conifer trees differ in the effects of phenology in their productivity, in their growth allometry, and in their sensitivity to competition. Moreover, angiosperms and conifers significantly differ in hydraulic safety margins, sensitivity of stomatal conductance to vapor-pressure deficit (VPD), xylem recovery capacity or the rate of carbon transfer. These differences could be explained by key features of the xylem such as non-structural carbohydrate content (NSC), wood parenchymal fraction or wood capacitance. We suggest that the reviewed trait differences define two contrasting ecophysiological strategies that may determine qualitatively different growth responses to increased temperature and drought. Improved reciprocal common garden experiments along altitudinal or latitudinal gradients would be key to quantify the relative importance of the different hypotheses reviewed. Finally, we show that warming impacts in this area occur in an ecological context characterized by the advance of forest succession and increased dominance of angiosperm trees over extensive areas. In this context, we examined the empirical relationships between the responses of tree growth to temperature and hydraulic safety margins in angiosperm and coniferous trees. Our findings suggest a future scenario in Mediterranean forests characterized by contrasting demographic responses in conifer and angiosperm trees to both temperature and forest succession, with increased dominance of angiosperm trees, and particularly negative impacts in pines.

  2. Phylogeny and diversification of B-function MADS-box genes in angiosperms: evolutionary and functional implications of a 260-million-year-old duplication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sangtae; Yoo, Mi-Jeong; Albert, Victor A; Farris, James S; Soltis, Pamela S; Soltis, Douglas E

    2004-12-01

    B-function MADS-box genes play crucial roles in floral development in model angiosperms. We reconstructed the structural and functional implications of B-function gene phylogeny in the earliest extant flowering plants based on analyses that include 25 new AP3 and PI sequences representing critical lineages of the basalmost angiosperms: Amborella, Nuphar (Nymphaeaceae), and Illicium (Austrobaileyales). The ancestral size of exon 5 in PI-homologues is 42 bp, typical of exon 5 in other plant MADS-box genes. This 42-bp length is found in PI-homologues from Amborella and Nymphaeaceae, successive sisters to all other angiosperms. Following these basalmost branches, a deletion occurred in exon 5, yielding a length of 30 bp, a condition that unites all other angiosperms. Several shared amino acid strings, including a prominent "DEAER" motif, are present in the AP3- and PI-homologues of Amborella. These may be ancestral motifs that were present before the duplication that yielded the AP3 and PI lineages and subsequently were modified after the divergence of Amborella. Other structural features were identified, including a motif that unites the previously described TM6 clade and a deletion in AP3-homologues that unites all Magnoliales. Phylogenetic analyses of AP3- and PI-homologues yielded gene trees that generally track organismal phylogeny as inferred by multigene data sets. With both AP3 and PI amino acid sequences, Amborella and Nymphaeaceae are sister to all other angiosperms. Using nonparametric rate smoothing (NPRS), we estimated that the duplication that produced the AP3 and PI lineages occurred approximately 260 mya (231-290). This places the duplication after the split between extant gymnosperms and angiosperms, but well before the oldest angiosperm fossils. A striking similarity in the multimer-signalling C domains of the Amborella proteins suggests the potential for the formation of unique transcription-factor complexes. The earliest angiosperms may have been

  3. Contrasting trait syndromes in angiosperms and conifers are associated with different responses of tree growth to temperature on a large scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnicer, Jofre; Barbeta, Adrià; Sperlich, Dominik; Coll, Marta; Peñuelas, Josep

    2013-01-01

    Recent large-scale studies of tree growth in the Iberian Peninsula reported contrasting positive and negative effects of temperature in Mediterranean angiosperms and conifers. Here we review the different hypotheses that may explain these trends and propose that the observed contrasting responses of tree growth to temperature in this region could be associated with a continuum of trait differences between angiosperms and conifers. Angiosperm and conifer trees differ in the effects of phenology in their productivity, in their growth allometry, and in their sensitivity to competition. Moreover, angiosperms and conifers significantly differ in hydraulic safety margins, sensitivity of stomatal conductance to vapor-pressure deficit (VPD), xylem recovery capacity or the rate of carbon transfer. These differences could be explained by key features of the xylem such as non-structural carbohydrate content (NSC), wood parenchymal fraction or wood capacitance. We suggest that the reviewed trait differences define two contrasting ecophysiological strategies that may determine qualitatively different growth responses to increased temperature and drought. Improved reciprocal common garden experiments along altitudinal or latitudinal gradients would be key to quantify the relative importance of the different hypotheses reviewed. Finally, we show that warming impacts in this area occur in an ecological context characterized by the advance of forest succession and increased dominance of angiosperm trees over extensive areas. In this context, we examined the empirical relationships between the responses of tree growth to temperature and hydraulic safety margins in angiosperm and coniferous trees. Our findings suggest a future scenario in Mediterranean forests characterized by contrasting demographic responses in conifer and angiosperm trees to both temperature and forest succession, with increased dominance of angiosperm trees, and particularly negative impacts in pines. PMID

  4. A bioinspired modular aquatic robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallapragada, Phanindra; Pollard, Beau

    2016-11-01

    Several bio inspired swimming robots exist which seek to emulate the morphology of fish and the flapping motion of the tail and fins or other appendages and body of aquatic creatures. The locomotion of such robots and the aquatic animals that they seek to emulate is determined to a large degree by the changes in the shape of the body, which produce periodic changes in the momentum of the body and the creation and interaction of the vorticity field in the fluid with the body. We demonstrate an underactuated robot which swims due to the periodic changes in the angular momentum of the robot effected by the motion of an internal rotor. The robot is modular, unactuated tail like segments can be easily added to the robot. These segments modulate the interaction of the body with the fluid to produce a variety of passive shape changes that can allow the robot to swim in different modes.

  5. Dynamics modeling of a semi-submersible autonomous underwater vehicle with a towfish towed by a cable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinmo Park

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we employ a dynamics modeling method for investigating a multi-body dynamics system of semi-submersible autonomous underwater vehicles consisting of a towing vehicle operated near the water surface, a tow cable, and a towfish. The towfish, which is towed by a marine cable for the purposes of exploration or mine hunting, is modeled with a Six-Degree-of-Freedom (6-DOF equation of motion that reflects its hydrodynamics characteristics. The towing cable, which can experience large displacements and deformations, is modeled using an absolute nodal coordinate formulation. To reflect the hydrodynamic characteristics of the cable during motion, the hydrodynamic force due to added mass and the drag force are imposed. To verify the completeness of the modeling, a few simple numerical simulations were conducted, and the results confirm the physical plausibility of the model.

  6. Stochastic dynamic response analysis of a floating vertical-axis wind turbine with a semi-submersible floater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Kai; Moan, Torgeir; Hansen, Martin Otto Laver

    2016-01-01

    Floating vertical-axis wind turbines (FVAWTs) provide the potential for utilizing offshore wind resources in moderate and deep water because of their economical installation and maintenance. Therefore, it is important to assess the performance of the FVAWT concept. This paper presents a stochastic...... dynamic response analysis of a 5MW FVAWT based on fully coupled nonlinear time domain simulations. The studied FVAWT, which is composed of a Darrieus rotor and a semi-submersible floater, is subjected to various wind and wave conditions. The global motion, structural response and mooring line tension...... on the response is demonstrated by comparing the floating wind turbine with the equivalent land-based wind turbine. Additionally, by comparing the behaviour of FVAWTs with flexible and rigid rotors, the effect of rotor flexibility is evaluated. Furthermore, the FVAWT is also investigated in the parked condition...

  7. Universal hydraulics of the flowering plants: vessel diameter scales with stem length across angiosperm lineages, habits and climates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Mark E; Anfodillo, Tommaso; Rosell, Julieta A; Petit, Giai; Crivellaro, Alan; Isnard, Sandrine; León-Gómez, Calixto; Alvarado-Cárdenas, Leonardo O; Castorena, Matiss

    2014-08-01

    Angiosperm hydraulic performance is crucially affected by the diameters of vessels, the water conducting conduits in the wood. Hydraulic optimality models suggest that vessels should widen predictably from stem tip to base, buffering hydrodynamic resistance accruing as stems, and therefore conductive path, increase in length. Data from 257 species (609 samples) show that vessels widen as predicted with distance from the stem apex across angiosperm orders, habits and habitats. Standardising for stem length, vessels are only slightly wider in warm/moist climates and in lianas, showing that, rather than climate or habit, plant size is by far the main driver of global variation in mean vessel diameter. Terminal twig vessels become wider as plant height increases, while vessel density decreases slightly less than expected tip to base. These patterns lead to testable predictions regarding evolutionary strategies allowing plants to minimise carbon costs per unit leaf area even as height increases. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  8. Anatomical adaptations of aquatic mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidenberg, Joy S

    2007-06-01

    This special issue of the Anatomical Record explores many of the anatomical adaptations exhibited by aquatic mammals that enable life in the water. Anatomical observations on a range of fossil and living marine and freshwater mammals are presented, including sirenians (manatees and dugongs), cetaceans (both baleen whales and toothed whales, including dolphins and porpoises), pinnipeds (seals, sea lions, and walruses), the sea otter, and the pygmy hippopotamus. A range of anatomical systems are covered in this issue, including the external form (integument, tail shape), nervous system (eye, ear, brain), musculoskeletal systems (cranium, mandible, hyoid, vertebral column, flipper/forelimb), digestive tract (teeth/tusks/baleen, tongue, stomach), and respiratory tract (larynx). Emphasis is placed on exploring anatomical function in the context of aquatic life. The following topics are addressed: evolution, sound production, sound reception, feeding, locomotion, buoyancy control, thermoregulation, cognition, and behavior. A variety of approaches and techniques are used to examine and characterize these adaptations, ranging from dissection, to histology, to electron microscopy, to two-dimensional (2D) and 3D computerized tomography, to experimental field tests of function. The articles in this issue are a blend of literature review and new, hypothesis-driven anatomical research, which highlight the special nature of anatomical form and function in aquatic mammals that enables their exquisite adaptation for life in such a challenging environment. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Comparative chloroplast genomics: analyses including new sequences from the angiosperms Nuphar advena and Ranunculus macranthus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boore Jeffrey L

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of completely sequenced plastid genomes available is growing rapidly. This array of sequences presents new opportunities to perform comparative analyses. In comparative studies, it is often useful to compare across wide phylogenetic spans and, within angiosperms, to include representatives from basally diverging lineages such as the genomes reported here: Nuphar advena (from a basal-most lineage and Ranunculus macranthus (a basal eudicot. We report these two new plastid genome sequences and make comparisons (within angiosperms, seed plants, or all photosynthetic lineages to evaluate features such as the status of ycf15 and ycf68 as protein coding genes, the distribution of simple sequence repeats (SSRs and longer dispersed repeats (SDR, and patterns of nucleotide composition. Results The Nuphar [GenBank:NC_008788] and Ranunculus [GenBank:NC_008796] plastid genomes share characteristics of gene content and organization with many other chloroplast genomes. Like other plastid genomes, these genomes are A+T-rich, except for rRNA and tRNA genes. Detailed comparisons of Nuphar with Nymphaea, another Nymphaeaceae, show that more than two-thirds of these genomes exhibit at least 95% sequence identity and that most SSRs are shared. In broader comparisons, SSRs vary among genomes in terms of abundance and length and most contain repeat motifs based on A and T nucleotides. Conclusion SSR and SDR abundance varies by genome and, for SSRs, is proportional to genome size. Long SDRs are rare in the genomes assessed. SSRs occur less frequently than predicted and, although the majority of the repeat motifs do include A and T nucleotides, the A+T bias in SSRs is less than that predicted from the underlying genomic nucleotide composition. In codon usage third positions show an A+T bias, however variation in codon usage does not correlate with differences in A+T-richness. Thus, although plastome nucleotide composition shows "A

  10. Comparative chloroplast genomics: analyses including new sequences from the angiosperms Nuphar advena and Ranunculus macranthus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raubeson, Linda A; Peery, Rhiannon; Chumley, Timothy W; Dziubek, Chris; Fourcade, H Matthew; Boore, Jeffrey L; Jansen, Robert K

    2007-06-15

    The number of completely sequenced plastid genomes available is growing rapidly. This array of sequences presents new opportunities to perform comparative analyses. In comparative studies, it is often useful to compare across wide phylogenetic spans and, within angiosperms, to include representatives from basally diverging lineages such as the genomes reported here: Nuphar advena (from a basal-most lineage) and Ranunculus macranthus (a basal eudicot). We report these two new plastid genome sequences and make comparisons (within angiosperms, seed plants, or all photosynthetic lineages) to evaluate features such as the status of ycf15 and ycf68 as protein coding genes, the distribution of simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and longer dispersed repeats (SDR), and patterns of nucleotide composition. The Nuphar [GenBank:NC_008788] and Ranunculus [GenBank:NC_008796] plastid genomes share characteristics of gene content and organization with many other chloroplast genomes. Like other plastid genomes, these genomes are A+T-rich, except for rRNA and tRNA genes. Detailed comparisons of Nuphar with Nymphaea, another Nymphaeaceae, show that more than two-thirds of these genomes exhibit at least 95% sequence identity and that most SSRs are shared. In broader comparisons, SSRs vary among genomes in terms of abundance and length and most contain repeat motifs based on A and T nucleotides. SSR and SDR abundance varies by genome and, for SSRs, is proportional to genome size. Long SDRs are rare in the genomes assessed. SSRs occur less frequently than predicted and, although the majority of the repeat motifs do include A and T nucleotides, the A+T bias in SSRs is less than that predicted from the underlying genomic nucleotide composition. In codon usage third positions show an A+T bias, however variation in codon usage does not correlate with differences in A+T-richness. Thus, although plastome nucleotide composition shows "A+T richness", an A+T bias is not apparent upon more in

  11. Evidence that CRABS CLAW and TOUSLED have conserved their roles in carpel development since the ancestor of the extant angiosperms

    OpenAIRE

    Fourquin, Chloé; Vinauger-Douard, Marion; Fogliani, Bruno; Dumas, Christian; Scutt, Charles P.

    2005-01-01

    The carpel is the female reproductive organ specific to flowering plants. We aim to define the genes that controlled carpel development in the common ancestor of this group as a step toward determining the molecular events that were responsible for the evolution of the carpel. CRABS CLAW (CRC) and TOUSLED (TSL) control important aspects of carpel development in the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana. The basal angiosperm species Amborella trichopoda and Cabomba aquatica very likely represent t...

  12. Gene family structure, expression and functional analysis of HD-Zip III genes in angiosperm and gymnosperm forest trees

    OpenAIRE

    C?t?, Caroline L; Boileau, Francis; Roy, Vicky; Ouellet, Mario; Levasseur, Caroline; Morency, Marie-Jos?e; Cooke, Janice EK; S?guin, Armand; MacKay, John J

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Class III Homeodomain Leucine Zipper (HD-Zip III) proteins have been implicated in the regulation of cambium identity, as well as primary and secondary vascular differentiation and patterning in herbaceous plants. They have been proposed to regulate wood formation but relatively little evidence is available to validate such a role. We characterised and compared HD-Zip III gene family in an angiosperm tree, Populus spp. (poplar), and the gymnosperm Picea glauca (white spruc...

  13. Image spectroscopy and stable isotopes elucidate functional dissimilarity between native and nonnative plant species in the aquatic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Maria J; Hestir, Erin L; Khanna, Shruti; Ustin, Susan L

    2012-02-01

    • Nonnative species may change ecosystem functionality at the expense of native species. Here, we examine the similarity of functional traits of native and nonnative submersed aquatic plants (SAP) in an aquatic ecosystem. • We used field and airborne imaging spectroscopy and isotope ratios of SAP species in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California (USA) to assess species identification, chlorophyll (Chl) concentration, and differences in photosynthetic efficiency. • Spectral separability between species occurs primarily in the visible and near-infrared spectral regions, which is associated with morphological and physiological differences. Nonnatives had significantly higher Chl, carotene, and anthocyanin concentrations than natives and had significantly higher photochemical reflectance index (PRI) and δ(13) C values. • Results show nonnative SAPs are functionally dissimilar to native SAPs, having wider leaf blades and greater leaf area, dense and evenly distributed vertical canopies, and higher pigment concentrations. Results suggest that nonnatives also use a facultative C(4) -like photosynthetic pathway, allowing efficient photosynthesis in high-light and low-light environments. Differences in plant functionality indicate that nonnative SAPs have a competitive advantage over native SAPs as a result of growth form and greater light-use efficiency that promotes growth under different light conditions, traits affecting system-wide species distributions and community composition. © 2011 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2011 New Phytologist Trust.

  14. Angiosperms evolved a higher mesophyll surface area per volume to maximize exchange surface under a low CO2 world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Théroux-Rancourt, Guillaume; Mason Earles, J.; Gilbert, Matthew E.; Zwieniecki, Maciej A.; Boyce, C. Kevin; McElrone, Andrew; Brodersen, Craig

    2017-04-01

    Variation in leaf mesophyll structure strongly affects CO2 diffusion and photosynthetic rates. One key trait is the surface of mesophyll cells exposed to intercellular airspace (Sm) which increases mesophyll conductance. Consequently, Sm is a key control of CO2 diffusion among species and genotypes. Using Sm values from the literature (> 200 species with 500 data points) and from our high-resolution X-ray computed tomography (μCT) dataset (currently 117 species), Sm shows little variation from pteridophytes to early angiosperms, while eudicots show the greatest structural diversity. However, Sm increases with total thickness of the mesophyll. By considering the exposed surface of the mesophyll to the intercellular air space (IAS) on a leaf or mesophyll volume (Ames/V mes) rather than leaf area basis (Sm), we demonstrate that angiosperms, and most specifically commelinids and non-basal eudicots, have constructed leaves with more surface per volume, while gymnosperms keep a constant Ames/V mes ratio. Thus, this strong phylogenetic signal suggests that angiosperms have developed IAS properties favoring leaves with higher surface to volume ratio, trait that allowed for the potential of high productivity even as atmospheric CO2 declined over the Cenozoic.

  15. A physical map for the Amborella trichopoda genome sheds light on the evolution of angiosperm genome structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Recent phylogenetic analyses have identified Amborella trichopoda, an understory tree species endemic to the forests of New Caledonia, as sister to a clade including all other known flowering plant species. The Amborella genome is a unique reference for understanding the evolution of angiosperm genomes because it can serve as an outgroup to root comparative analyses. A physical map, BAC end sequences and sample shotgun sequences provide a first view of the 870 Mbp Amborella genome. Results Analysis of Amborella BAC ends sequenced from each contig suggests that the density of long terminal repeat retrotransposons is negatively correlated with that of protein coding genes. Syntenic, presumably ancestral, gene blocks were identified in comparisons of the Amborella BAC contigs and the sequenced Arabidopsis thaliana, Populus trichocarpa, Vitis vinifera and Oryza sativa genomes. Parsimony mapping of the loss of synteny corroborates previous analyses suggesting that the rate of structural change has been more rapid on lineages leading to Arabidopsis and Oryza compared with lineages leading to Populus and Vitis. The gamma paleohexiploidy event identified in the Arabidopsis, Populus and Vitis genomes is shown to have occurred after the divergence of all other known angiosperms from the lineage leading to Amborella. Conclusions When placed in the context of a physical map, BAC end sequences representing just 5.4% of the Amborella genome have facilitated reconstruction of gene blocks that existed in the last common ancestor of all flowering plants. The Amborella genome is an invaluable reference for inferences concerning the ancestral angiosperm and subsequent genome evolution. PMID:21619600

  16. Angiosperm wood structure: Global patterns in vessel anatomy and their relation to wood density and potential conductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanne, Amy E; Westoby, Mark; Falster, Daniel S; Ackerly, David D; Loarie, Scott R; Arnold, Sarah E J; Coomes, David A

    2010-02-01

    Woody stems comprise a large biological carbon fraction and determine water transport between roots and leaves; their structure and function can influence both carbon and hydrological cycles. While angiosperm wood anatomy and density determine hydraulic conductivity and mechanical strength, little is known about interrelations across many species. We compiled a global data set comprising two anatomical traits for 3005 woody angiosperms: mean vessel lumen area (Ā) and number per unit area (N). From these, we calculated vessel lumen fraction (F = ĀN) and size to number ratio (S = Ā/N), a new vessel composition index. We examined the extent to which F and S influenced potential sapwood specific stem conductivity (K(S)) and wood density (D; dry mass/fresh volume). F and S varied essentially independently across angiosperms. Variation in K(S) was driven primarily by S, and variation in D was virtually unrelated to F and S. Tissue density outside vessel lumens (D(N)) must predominantly influence D. High S should confer faster K(S) but incur greater freeze-thaw embolism risk. F should also affect K(S), and both F and D(N) should influence mechanical strength, capacitance, and construction costs. Improved theory and quantification are needed to better understand ecological costs and benefits of these three distinct dimensions.

  17. The OIE's involvement in aquatic animal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernoth, Eva-Maria

    2007-01-01

    The OIE develops normative documents relating to rules that Member Countries can use to protect themselves from diseases without setting up unjustified sanitary barriers. For aquatic animal disease, the Aquatic Animal Health Code and the Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals are prepared by the Aquatic Animals Commission, with the assistance of internationally renowned experts, the OIE's other Specialist Commissions, and in consultation with OIE Member Countries. These standards are described in detail. There are currently 27 OIE Reference Laboratories and one Collaborating Centre for aquatic animal diseases, providing a network of expertise in aquatic animal health. The OIE is committed to raising awareness about aquatic animal health and assisting Member Countries to fulfill their international obligations. Members of the Aquatic Animals Commission regularly present on the activities of the Aquatic Animals Commission at the Conferences of the OIE Regional Commissions and at scientific venues. Regional initiatives conducted in concert with other organisations complement the OIE's involvement in aquatic animal health. A range of interesting challenges lies ahead.

  18. Long-term Simulation Study about the Impact of submerse Macrophytes on thermal Stratification Dynamics and Transport Processes in an extreme shallow water lake - Lake Federsee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Thomas; Pöschke, Franziska; Pflugbeil, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Lake Federsee is formed primarily by ice age processes and was subjected to strong siltation processes in post-glacial times, while in the last two centuries anthropogenic impact due to amelioration projects became more important and determined it's morphometry. Lake Federsee has a maximum length of 2.4 km, a maximum width of 1.1 km and an area of approx. 1.4 km2. With respect to it's area Lake Federsee is the third largest lake in the federal state of Baden-Wuerttemberg situated in the south of Germany. It is characterized by its very flat bathymetry with a maximum depth of about 3.15 m and an average depth of about 1 m. In recent years Lake Federsee has undergone a strong reduction of the nutrient content, thus developing from hypertrophic states in the years 1980ies to eutrophic conditions in the years 2000ies. Since 2005 this development is accompanied by a change of the general habitus of the lake converting from a lake dominated by algae to a lake dominated by macrophytes. Changing successions of aquatic plants have been observed in the lake with strong seasonal variations in the composition and density of the vegetation cover, however forming often an almost complete coverage of the lake. In the present study the implementation of the hydrodynamic, three-dimensional model DELFT3D - FLOW for this extreme shallow water lake will be presented. The impact of some numerical parameters will be investigated in a sensitivity study, which is aiming to set up the hydrodynamic model in an optimal way. This 3-dim hydrodynamic model is used to simulate the 3-dim flow field and to investigate the thermal stratification as well as the mixing processes taking place in this lake. The model is run for the simulation time period 2000 - 2016 having a horizontal resolution of dx=dy=50 m and 10 or 20 equidistantly spaced fixed vertical layers giving a vertical resolution of 0.32 or 0.16 m respectively. The timestep is choosen to be dt = 10 s. Analysis of the simulated vertical

  19. Human Physiology in an Aquatic Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendergast, David R; Moon, Richard E; Krasney, John J; Held, Heather E; Zamparo, Paola

    2015-09-20

    Water covers over 70% of the earth, has varying depths and temperatures and contains much of the earth's resources. Head-out water immersion (HOWI) or submersion at various depths (diving) in water of thermoneutral (TN) temperature elicits profound cardiorespiratory, endocrine, and renal responses. The translocation of blood into the thorax and elevation of plasma volume by autotransfusion of fluid from cells to the vascular compartment lead to increased cardiac stroke volume and output and there is a hyperperfusion of some tissues. Pulmonary artery and capillary hydrostatic pressures increase causing a decline in vital capacity with the potential for pulmonary edema. Atrial stretch and increased arterial pressure cause reflex autonomic responses which result in endocrine changes that return plasma volume and arterial pressure to preimmersion levels. Plasma volume is regulated via a reflex diuresis and natriuresis. Hydrostatic pressure also leads to elastic loading of the chest, increasing work of breathing, energy cost, and thus blood flow to respiratory muscles. Decreases in water temperature in HOWI do not affect the cardiac output compared to TN; however, they influence heart rate and the distribution of muscle and fat blood flow. The reduced muscle blood flow results in a reduced maximal oxygen consumption. The properties of water determine the mechanical load and the physiological responses during exercise in water (e.g. swimming and water based activities). Increased hydrostatic pressure caused by submersion does not affect stroke volume; however, progressive bradycardia decreases cardiac output. During submersion, compressed gas must be breathed which introduces the potential for oxygen toxicity, narcosis due to nitrogen, and tissue and vascular gas bubbles during decompression and after may cause pain in joints and the nervous system. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  20. A draft of the genome and four transcriptomes of a medicinal and pesticidal angiosperm Azadirachta indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Neeraja M; Pattnaik, Swetansu; Jain, Prachi; Gaur, Prakhar; Choudhary, Rakshit; Vaidyanathan, Srividya; Deepak, Sa; Hariharan, Arun K; Krishna, Pg Bharath; Nair, Jayalakshmi; Varghese, Linu; Valivarthi, Naveen K; Dhas, Kunal; Ramaswamy, Krishna; Panda, Binay

    2012-09-09

    The Azadirachta indica (neem) tree is a source of a wide number of natural products, including the potent biopesticide azadirachtin. In spite of its widespread applications in agriculture and medicine, the molecular aspects of the biosynthesis of neem terpenoids remain largely unexplored. The current report describes the draft genome and four transcriptomes of A. indica and attempts to contextualise the sequence information in terms of its molecular phylogeny, transcript expression and terpenoid biosynthesis pathways. A. indica is the first member of the family Meliaceae to be sequenced using next generation sequencing approach. The genome and transcriptomes of A. indica were sequenced using multiple sequencing platforms and libraries. The A. indica genome is AT-rich, bears few repetitive DNA elements and comprises about 20,000 genes. The molecular phylogenetic analyses grouped A. indica together with Citrus sinensis from the Rutaceae family validating its conventional taxonomic classification. Comparative transcript expression analysis showed either exclusive or enhanced expression of known genes involved in neem terpenoid biosynthesis pathways compared to other sequenced angiosperms. Genome and transcriptome analyses in A. indica led to the identification of repeat elements, nucleotide composition and expression profiles of genes in various organs. This study on A. indica genome and transcriptomes will provide a model for characterization of metabolic pathways involved in synthesis of bioactive compounds, comparative evolutionary studies among various Meliaceae family members and help annotate their genomes. A better understanding of molecular pathways involved in the azadirachtin synthesis in A. indica will pave ways for bulk production of environment friendly biopesticides.

  1. A Southern Hemisphere origin for campanulid angiosperms, with traces of the break-up of Gondwana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, Jeremy M; Tank, David C; Donoghue, Michael J

    2013-04-08

    New powerful biogeographic methods have focused attention on long-standing hypotheses regarding the influence of the break-up of Gondwana on the biogeography of Southern Hemisphere plant groups. Studies to date have often concluded that these groups are too young to have been influenced by these ancient continental movements. Here we examine a much larger and older angiosperm clade, the Campanulidae, and infer its biogeographic history by combining Bayesian divergence time information with a likelihood-based biogeographic model focused on the Gondwanan landmasses. Our analyses imply that campanulids likely originated in the middle Albian (~105 Ma), and that a substantial portion of the early evolutionary history of campanulids took place in the Southern Hemisphere, despite their greater species richness in the Northern Hemisphere today. We also discovered several disjunctions that show biogeographic and temporal correspondence with the break-up of Gondwana. While it is possible to discern traces of the break-up of Gondwana in clades that are old enough, it will generally be difficult to be confident in continental movement as the prime cause of geographic disjunctions. This follows from the need for the geographic disjunction, the inferred biogeographic scenario, and the dating of the lineage splitting events to be consistent with the causal hypothesis.

  2. Does the globally invasive marine angiosperm, Halophila stipulacea, have high genetic diversity or unique mutations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiquillo, K.; Campese, L.; Barber, P. H.; Willette, D. A.

    2016-02-01

    Seagrasses are important primary producers in many marine ecosystems, and support a wide diversity of marine life. However, invasive seagrasses like Halophila stipulacea can have pronounced negative impacts on an ecosystem by displacing native seagrasses and changing the community composition of the reef. Endemic to the Red Sea, Persian Gulf and Indian Ocean, Halophila stipulacea has become invasive in the Mediterranean and Caribbean Seas, presumably as a result of the opening of the Suez Canal and international ship traffic. However, it is unclear why this marine angiosperm has become invasive in parts of its range and not others. It is hypothesized that invasive forms may have evolved rapidly in response to natural selection in new and novel environments. Alternatively, genetic variation of introduced populations may be uniquely suited to thrive in regions where it is invasive. In this study, we use RAD next-generation sequencing to screen thousands of SNPs to investigate the genetic basis of adaptation in both native and invasive populations. We test whether genes under selection in the native range are the same as in the invasive range, or whether new genes have arisen with the invasion of each marine basin. The comparison of SNP frequencies unique among basins and environmental variables will aid in predicting new areas of invasion, assisting in improved management strategies to combat this invasive seagrass.

  3. Heterogeneous distribution of pectin epitopes and calcium in different pit types of four angiosperm species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plavcová, Lenka; Hacke, Uwe G

    2011-12-01

    Intervessel pits act as safety valves that prevent the spread of xylem embolism. Pectin-calcium crosslinks within the pit membrane have been proposed to affect xylem vulnerability to cavitation. However, as the chemical composition of pit membranes is poorly understood, this hypothesis has not been verified. Using electron microscopy, immunolabeling, an antimonate precipitation technique, and ruthenium red staining, we studied the distribution of selected polysaccharides and calcium in the pit membranes of four angiosperm tree species. We tested whether shifts in xylem vulnerability resulting from perfusion of stems with a calcium chelating agent corresponded with the distribution of pectic homogalacturonans (HG) and/or calcium within interconduit pit membranes. No HG were detected in the main part of intervessel pit membranes, but were consistently found in the marginal membrane region known as the annulus. Calcium colocalized with HG in the annulus. In contrast to intervessel pits, the membrane of vessel-ray pits showed a high pectin content. The presence of two distinct chemical domains, the annulus and the actual pit membrane, can have substantial implications for pit membrane functioning. We propose that the annulus could affect the observed shift in xylem vulnerability after calcium removal by allowing increased pit membrane deflection. © 2011 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2011 New Phytologist Trust.

  4. Bacterial leaf symbiosis in angiosperms: host specificity without co-speciation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benny Lemaire

    Full Text Available Bacterial leaf symbiosis is a unique and intimate interaction between bacteria and flowering plants, in which endosymbionts are organized in specialized leaf structures. Previously, bacterial leaf symbiosis has been described as a cyclic and obligate interaction in which the endosymbionts are vertically transmitted between plant generations and lack autonomous growth. Theoretically this allows for co-speciation between leaf nodulated plants and their endosymbionts. We sequenced the nodulated Burkholderia endosymbionts of 54 plant species from known leaf nodulated angiosperm genera, i.e. Ardisia, Pavetta, Psychotria and Sericanthe. Phylogenetic reconstruction of bacterial leaf symbionts and closely related free-living bacteria indicates the occurrence of multiple horizontal transfers of bacteria from the environment to leaf nodulated plant species. This rejects the hypothesis of a long co-speciation process between the bacterial endosymbionts and their host plants. Our results indicate a recent evolutionary process towards a stable and host specific interaction confirming the proposed maternal transmission mode of the endosymbionts through the seeds. Divergence estimates provide evidence for a relatively recent origin of bacterial leaf symbiosis, dating back to the Miocene (5-23 Mya. This geological epoch was characterized by cool and arid conditions, which may have triggered the origin of bacterial leaf symbiosis.

  5. The AFL subfamily of B3 transcription factors: evolution and function in angiosperm seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonero, Pilar; Iglesias-Fernández, Raquel; Vicente-Carbajosa, Jesús

    2017-02-01

    Seed development follows zygotic embryogenesis; during the maturation phase reserves accumulate and desiccation tolerance is acquired. This is tightly regulated at the transcriptional level and the AFL (ABI3/FUS3/LEC2) subfamily of B3 transcription factors (TFs) play a central role. They alter hormone biosynthesis, mainly in regards to abscisic acid and gibberellins, and also regulate the expression of other TFs and/or modulate their downstream activity via protein-protein interactions. This review deals with the origin of AFL TFs, which can be traced back to non-vascular plants such as Physcomitrella patens and achieves foremost expansion in the angiosperms. In green algae, like the unicellular Chlamydomonas reinhardtii or the pluricellular Klebsormidium flaccidum, a single B3 gene and four B3 paralogous genes are annotated, respectively. However, none of them present with the structural features of the AFL subfamily, with the exception of the B3 DNA-binding domain. Phylogenetic analysis groups the AFL TFs into four Major Clusters of Ortologous Genes (MCOGs). The origin and function of these genes is discussed in view of their expression patterns and in the context of major regulatory interactions in seeds of monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous species. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Conflicting demands on angiosperm xylem: Tradeoffs among storage, transport and biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, R Brandon; Jacobsen, Anna L

    2017-06-01

    The secondary xylem of woody plants transports water mechanically supports the plant body and stores resources. These three functions are interdependent giving rise to tradeoffs in function. Understanding the relationships among these functions and their structural basis forms the context in which to interpret xylem evolution. The tradeoff between xylem transport efficiency and safety from cavitation has been carefully examined with less focus on other functions, particularly storage. Here, we synthesize data on all three xylem functions in angiosperm branch xylem in the context of tradeoffs. Species that have low safety and efficiency, examined from a resource economics perspective, are predicted to be adapted for slow resource acquisition and turnover as characterizes some environments. Tradeoffs with water storage primarily arise because of differences in fibre traits, while tradeoffs in carbohydrate storage are driven by parenchyma content of tissue. We find support for a tradeoff between safety from cavitation and storage of both water and starch in branch xylem tissue and between water storage capacity and mechanical strength. Living fibres may facilitate carbohydrate storage without compromising mechanical strength. The division of labour between different xylem cell types allows for considerable functional and structural diversity at multiple scales. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Transport efficiency through uniformity: organization of veins and stomata in angiosperm leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorin, Lucia; Brodribb, Timothy J; Anfodillo, Tommaso

    2016-01-01

    Leaves of vascular plants use specific tissues to irrigate the lamina (veins) and to regulate water loss (stomata), to approach homeostasis in leaf hydration during photosynthesis. As both tissues come with attendant costs, it would be expected that the synthesis and spacing of leaf veins and stomata should be coordinated in a way that maximizes benefit to the plant. We propose an innovative geoprocessing method based on image editing and a geographic information system to study the quantitative relationships between vein and stomatal spatial patterns on leaves collected from 31 angiosperm species from different biomes. The number of stomata within each areole was linearly related to the length of the looping vein contour. As a consequence of the presence of free-ending veinlets, the minimum mean distance of stomata from the nearest veins was invariant with areole size in most of the species, and species with smaller distances carried a higher density of stomata. Uniformity of spatial patterning was consistent within leaves and species. Our results demonstrate the existence of an optimal spatial organization of veins and stomata, and suggest their interplay as a key feature for achieving a constant mesophyll hydraulic resistance throughout the leaf. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  8. Patterning of the angiosperm female gametophyte through the prism of theoretical paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lituiev, Dmytro S; Grossniklaus, Ueli

    2014-04-01

    The FG (female gametophyte) of flowering plants (angiosperms) is a simple highly polar structure composed of only a few cell types. The FG develops from a single cell through mitotic divisions to generate, depending on the species, four to 16 nuclei in a syncytium. These nuclei are then partitioned into three or four distinct cell types. The mechanisms underlying the specification of the nuclei in the FG has been a focus of research over the last decade. Nevertheless, we are far from understanding the patterning mechanisms that govern cell specification. Although some results were previously interpreted in terms of static positional information, several lines of evidence now show that local interactions are important. In the present article, we revisit the available data on developmental mutants and cell fate markers in the light of theoretical frameworks for biological patterning. We argue that a further dissection of the mechanisms may be impeded by the combinatorial and dynamical nature of developmental cues. However, accounting for these properties of developing systems is necessary to disentangle the diversity of the phenotypic manifestations of the underlying molecular interactions.

  9. Floristic composition and community structure of epiphytic angiosperms in a terra firme forest in central Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Victória Irume

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This survey aimed to describe the floristic composition and structure of the epiphytic community occurring in a terra firme forest in the city of Coari, Brazil, in the Amazon region. Data collection was performed with a 1.5 ha plot method, with which upland, slope and lowland habitats were sampled. All angiosperm epiphytes and their host plants (diameter at breast height > 10 cm were sampled. We recorded 3.528 individuals in 13 families, 48 genera and 164 species. Araceae was the most prevalent family with regard to the importance value and stood out in all related parameters, followed by Bromeliaceae, Cyclanthaceae and Orchidaceae. The species with the highest epiphytic importance values were Guzmania lingulata (L. Mez. and Philodendron linnaei Kunth. The predominant life form was hemiepiphytic. Estimated floristic diversity was 3.2 (H'. The studied epiphytic community was distributed among 727 host plants belonging to 40 families, 123 genera and 324 species. One individual of Guarea convergens T.D. Penn. was the host with the highest richness and abundance of epiphytes. Stems/trunks of host plants were the most colonized segments, and the most favorable habitat for epiphytism was the lowlands, where 84.1% of species and 48.2% of epiphytic specimens were observed.

  10. Emerging roles for microtubules in angiosperm pollen tube growth highlight new research cues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra eMoscatelli

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In plants, actin filaments have an important role in organelle movement and cytoplasmic streaming. Otherwise microtubules have a role in restricting organelles to specific areas of the cell and in maintaining organelle morphology. In somatic plant cells, microtubules also participate in cell division and morphogenesis, allowing cells to take their definitive shape in order to perform specific functions. In the latter case, microtubules influence assembly of the cell wall, controlling the delivery of enzymes involved in cellulose synthesis and of wall modulation material to the proper sites.In angiosperm pollen tubes, organelle movement is generally attributed to the acto-myosin system, the main role of which is in distributing organelles in the cytoplasm and in carrying secretory vesicles to the apex for polarized growth. Recent data on membrane trafficking suggests a role of microtubules in fine delivery and repositioning of vesicles to sustain pollen tube growth. This review examines the role of microtubules in secretion and endocytosis, highlighting new research cues regarding cell wall construction and pollen tube-pistil crosstalk, that help unravel the role of microtubules in polarized growth.

  11. Internal habitat quality determines the effects of fragmentation on austral forest climbing and epiphytic angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrach, Ainhoa; Larrinaga, Asier R; Santamaría, Luis

    2012-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation has become one of the major threats to biodiversity worldwide, particularly in the case of forests, which have suffered enormous losses during the past decades. We analyzed how changes in patch configuration and habitat quality derived from the fragmentation of austral temperate rainforests affect the distribution of six species of forest-dwelling climbing and epiphytic angiosperms. Epiphyte and vine abundance is primarily affected by the internal characteristics of patches (such as tree size, the presence of logging gaps or the proximity to patch edges) rather than patch and landscape features (such as patch size, shape or connectivity). These responses were intimately related to species-specific characteristics such as drought- or shade-tolerance. Our study therefore suggests that plant responses to fragmentation are contingent on both the species' ecology and the specific pathways through which the study area is being fragmented, (i.e. extensive logging that shaped the boundaries of current forest patches plus recent, unregulated logging that creates gaps within patches). Management practices in fragmented landscapes should therefore consider habitat quality within patches together with other spatial attributes at landscape or patch scales.

  12. Internal habitat quality determines the effects of fragmentation on austral forest climbing and epiphytic angiosperms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainhoa Magrach

    Full Text Available Habitat fragmentation has become one of the major threats to biodiversity worldwide, particularly in the case of forests, which have suffered enormous losses during the past decades. We analyzed how changes in patch configuration and habitat quality derived from the fragmentation of austral temperate rainforests affect the distribution of six species of forest-dwelling climbing and epiphytic angiosperms. Epiphyte and vine abundance is primarily affected by the internal characteristics of patches (such as tree size, the presence of logging gaps or the proximity to patch edges rather than patch and landscape features (such as patch size, shape or connectivity. These responses were intimately related to species-specific characteristics such as drought- or shade-tolerance. Our study therefore suggests that plant responses to fragmentation are contingent on both the species' ecology and the specific pathways through which the study area is being fragmented, (i.e. extensive logging that shaped the boundaries of current forest patches plus recent, unregulated logging that creates gaps within patches. Management practices in fragmented landscapes should therefore consider habitat quality within patches together with other spatial attributes at landscape or patch scales.

  13. MarkerMiner 1.0: A new application for phylogenetic marker development using angiosperm transcriptomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamala, Srikar; García, Nicolás; Godden, Grant T; Krishnakumar, Vivek; Jordon-Thaden, Ingrid E; De Smet, Riet; Barbazuk, W Brad; Soltis, Douglas E; Soltis, Pamela S

    2015-04-01

    Targeted sequencing using next-generation sequencing (NGS) platforms offers enormous potential for plant systematics by enabling economical acquisition of multilocus data sets that can resolve difficult phylogenetic problems. However, because discovery of single-copy nuclear (SCN) loci from NGS data requires both bioinformatics skills and access to high-performance computing resources, the application of NGS data has been limited. We developed MarkerMiner 1.0, a fully automated, open-access bioinformatic workflow and application for discovery of SCN loci in angiosperms. Our new tool identified as many as 1993 SCN loci from transcriptomic data sampled as part of four independent test cases representing marker development projects at different phylogenetic scales. MarkerMiner is an easy-to-use and effective tool for discovery of putative SCN loci. It can be run locally or via the Web, and its tabular and alignment outputs facilitate efficient downstream assessments of phylogenetic utility, locus selection, intron-exon boundary prediction, and primer or probe development.

  14. Conservation and divergence of plant LHP1 protein sequences and expression patterns in angiosperms and gymnosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Hexin; Zheng, Zhengui; Grey, Paris H; Li, Yuhua; Oppenheimer, David G

    2011-05-01

    Floral transition is a critical and strictly regulated developmental process in plants. Mutations in Arabidopsis LIKE HETEROCHROMATIN PROTEIN 1 (AtLHP1)/TERMINAL FLOWER 2 (TFL2) result in early and terminal flowers. Little is known about the gene expression, function and evolution of plant LHP1 homologs, except for Arabidopsis LHP1. In this study, the conservation and divergence of plant LHP1 protein sequences was analyzed by sequence alignments and phylogeny. LHP1 expression patterns were compared among taxa that occupy pivotal phylogenetic positions. Several relatively conserved new motifs/regions were identified among LHP1 homologs. Phylogeny of plant LHP1 proteins agreed with established angiosperm relationships. In situ hybridization unveiled conserved expression of plant LHP1 in the axillary bud/tiller, vascular bundles, developing stamens, and carpels. Unlike AtLHP1, cucumber CsLHP1-2, sugarcane SoLHP1 and maize ZmLHP1, rice OsLHP1 is not expressed in the shoot apical meristem (SAM) and the OsLHP1 transcript level is consistently low in shoots. "Unequal crossover" might have contributed to the divergence in the N-terminal and hinge region lengths of LHP1 homologs. We propose an "insertion-deletion" model for soybean (Glycine max L.) GmLHP1s evolution. Plant LHP1 homologs are more conserved than previously expected, and may favor vegetative meristem identity and primordia formation. OsLHP1 may not function in rice SAM during floral induction.

  15. Editing site analysis in a gymnosperm mitochondrial genome reveals similarities with angiosperm mitochondrial genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmans, Michael Lee; Chaw, Shu-Miaw; Lin, Ching-Ping; Shih, Arthur Chun-Chieh; Wu, Yu-Wei; Mulligan, R Michael

    2010-10-01

    Sequence analysis of organelle genomes and comprehensive analysis of C-to-U editing sites from flowering and non-flowering plants have provided extensive sequence information from diverse taxa. This study includes the first comprehensive analysis of RNA editing sites from a gymnosperm mitochondrial genome, and utilizes informatics analyses to determine conserved features in the RNA sequence context around editing sites. We have identified 565 editing sites in 21 full-length and 4 partial cDNAs of the 39 protein-coding genes identified from the mitochondrial genome of Cycas taitungensis. The information profiles and RNA sequence context of C-to-U editing sites in the Cycas genome exhibit similarity in the immediate flanking nucleotides. Relative entropy analyses indicate that similar regions in the 5' flanking 20 nucleotides have information content compared to angiosperm mitochondrial genomes. These results suggest that evolutionary constraints exist on the nucleotide sequences immediately adjacent to C-to-U editing sites, and similar regions are utilized in editing site recognition.

  16. Shoot desiccation and hydraulic failure in temperate woody angiosperms during an extreme summer drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardini, Andrea; Battistuzzo, Marta; Savi, Tadeja

    2013-10-01

    Plant water status and hydraulics were measured in six woody angiosperms growing in a karstic woodland, during an extreme summer drought. Our aim was to take advantage of an unusual climatic event to identify key traits related to species-specific drought damage. The damage suffered by different species was assessed in terms of percentage of individuals showing extensive crown desiccation. Stem water potential (Ψstem ) and percent loss of hydraulic conductivity (PLC) were measured in healthy and desiccated individuals. Vulnerability to cavitation was assessed in terms of stem water potential inducing 50% PLC (Ψ50 ). Stem density (ρstem ) was also measured. Species-specific percentage of desiccated individuals was correlated to Ψ50 and ρstem . Crown desiccation was more widespread in species with less negative Ψ50 and lower ρstem . Desiccated individuals had lower Ψstem and higher PLC than healthy ones, suggesting that hydraulic failure was an important mechanism driving shoot dieback. Drought-vulnerable species showed lower safety margins (Ψstem  - Ψ50 ) than resistant ones. The Ψ50 , safety margins and ρstem values emerge as convenient traits to be used for tentative predictions of differential species-specific impact of extreme drought events on a local scale. The possibility that carbohydrate depletion was also involved in induction of desiccation symptoms is discussed. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  17. A novel family of transcription factors conserved in angiosperms is required for ABA signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hainan; Chen, Siyu; Yang, Wenting; Wang, Tianya; Zheng, Kaijie; Wang, Yating; Cheng, Yuxin; Zhang, Na; Liu, Shanda; Li, Dongqiu; Liu, Bao; Wang, Shucai

    2017-08-30

    The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays a crucial role in regulating plant responses to environmental stresses. Interplay of several different proteins including the PYR/PYL/RCAR receptors, A-group PP2C protein phosphatases, SnRK2 protein kinases, and downstream transcription factors regulates ABA signalling. We report here the identification of a family of ABA-induced transcription repressors (AITRs) that act as feedback regulators in ABA signalling. We found that the expression of all the 6 Arabidopsis AITR genes was induced by exogenously ABA, and their expression levels were decreased in ABA biosynthesis mutant aba1-5. BLAST searches showed that AITRs are exclusively present in angiosperms. When recruited to the promoter region of a reporter gene by a fused DNA binding domain, all AITRs inhibited reporter gene expression in transfected protoplasts. In Arabidopsis, aitr mutants showed reduced sensitivity to ABA and to stresses such as salt and drought. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that the ABA-induced response of PP2C and some PYR/PYL/RCAR genes was reduced in AITR5 transgenic plants but increased in an aitr2 aitr5 aitr6 triple mutant. These results provide important new insights into the regulation of ABA signalling in plants, and such information may lead to the production of plants with enhanced resistance to environmental stresses. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. The naked and the dead: the ABCs of gymnosperm reproduction and the origin of the angiosperm flower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melzer, Rainer; Wang, Yong-Qiang; Theissen, Günter

    2010-02-01

    20 years after establishment of the ABC model many of the molecular mechanisms underlying development of the angiosperm flower are relatively well understood. Central players in the gene regulatory network controlling flower development are SQUA-like, DEF/GLO-like, AG-like and AGL6/SEP1-like MIKC-type MADS-domain transcription factors. These provide class A, class B, class C and the more recently defined class E floral homeotic functions, respectively. There is evidence that the floral homeotic proteins recognize the DNA of target genes in an organ-specific way as multimeric protein complexes, thus constituting 'floral quartets'. In contrast to the detailed insights into flower development, how the flower originated during evolution has remained enigmatic. However, while orthologues of all classes of floral homeotic genes appear to be absent from all non-seed plants, DEF/GLO-like, AG-like, and AGL6-like genes have been found in diverse extant gymnosperms, the closest relatives of the angiosperms. While SQUA-like and SEP1-like MADS-box genes appear to be absent from extant gymnosperms, reconstruction of MADS-box gene phylogeny surprisingly suggests that the most recent common ancestor of gymnosperms and angiosperms possessed representatives of both genes, but that these have been lost in the lineage that led to extant gymnosperms. Expression studies and genetic complementation experiments indicate that both angiosperm and gymnosperm AG-like and DEF/GLO-like genes have conserved functions in the specification of reproductive organs and in distinguishing male from female organs, respectively. Based on these findings novel models about the molecular basis of flower origin, involving changes in the expression patterns of DEF/GLO-like or AGL6/SEP1/SQUA-like genes in reproductive structures, were developed. While in angiosperms SEP1-like proteins play an important role in floral quartet formation, preliminary evidence suggests that gymnosperm DEF/GLO-like and AG

  19. Toxicity of Engineered Nanoparticles to Aquatic Invertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cupi, Denisa; Sørensen, Sara Nørgaard; Skjolding, Lars Michael

    2016-01-01

    This chapter provides a targeted description of some of the most important processes that influence toxicity and uptake of nanoparticles in aquatic invertebrates. It discusses silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs), on how aspects of dissolution and chemical species obtained from this process can influenc...... on bioaccumulation focusing on the effect of nanoparticle coating, uptake, and depuration in aquatic invertebrates.......This chapter provides a targeted description of some of the most important processes that influence toxicity and uptake of nanoparticles in aquatic invertebrates. It discusses silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs), on how aspects of dissolution and chemical species obtained from this process can influence...... ecotoxicity of aquatic invertebrates. The chapter focuses on how fullerenes affect the toxicity of other pollutants, but also reflect on the fate and behavior of C60 in the aquatic environment, as well as ecotoxicity to aquatic invertebrates. It presents the case of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs...

  20. Central Experimental Oculina Research Reserve, Oculina Banks Clelia Dive 612 Narrative 2001 - Videotape and Visual Observations from Submersible Dives to the Oculina Banks Deep Sea Coral Reefs (NODC Accession 0047190)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are from one of fourteen 2001 submersible "Clelia" dives. Narratives including habitat descriptions and estimates of megafaunal species abundance were...

  1. Studies of angiospermous woods in Australian brown coal by nuclear magnetic resonance and analytical pyrolysis: new insight into early coalification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, P.G.; Wilson, M.A.; Vassalo, M.; Lerch, H. E.

    1990-01-01

    Many Tertiary coals contain abundant fossilized remains of angiosperms that often dominated some ancient peat-swamp environments; modern analogs of which can be found in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Comparisons of angiospermous woods from Australian brown coal with similar woods buried in modern peat swamps of Indonesia have provided some new insights into coalification reactions. These comparisons were made by using solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques and pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (py-gc-ms), two modern techniques especially suited for detailed structural evaluation of the complex macromolecules in coal. From these studies, we conclude that the earliest transformation (peatification) of organic matter in angiospermous wood is the degradation of cellulosic components. The efficiency of removal of cellulosic components in the wood varies considerably in peat, which results in variable levels of cellulose in peatified wood. However, the net trend is towards eventual removal of the cellulose. The angiospermous lignin that becomes enriched in wood as a result of cellulose degradation also is modified by coalifications reactions; this modification, however, does not involve degradation and removal. Rather, the early coalification process transforms the lignin phenols (guaiacyl and syringyl) to eventually yield the aromatic structures typically found in brown coal. One such transformation, which is determined from the NMR data, involves the cleavage of aryl ether bonds that link guaiacyl and syringyl units in lignin and leads to the formation of free lignin phenols. Another transformation, which is also determined from the NMR data, involves the loss of methoxyl groups, probably via demethylation, to produce catechol-like structures. Coincident with ether-cleavage and demethylation, the aromatic rings derived from lignin phenols become more carbon-substituted and cross-linked, as determined by dipolar

  2. EPA Region 7 Aquatic Focus Areas (ECO_RES.R7_AQUATIC_FOCUS_AREAS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This shapefile consists of 347 individual Aquatic Ecological System (AES) polygons that are the Aquatic Conservation Focus Areas for EPA Region 7. The focus areas...

  3. Aquatic and Terrestrial Environment 2004

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, J. M.; Boutrup, S.; Bijl, L. van der

    This report presents the 2004 results of the Danish National Monitoring and Assess-ment Programme for the Aquatic and Terrestrial Environments (NOVANA). 2004 was the first year in which terrestrial nature was included in the monitoring pro-gramme. The report reviews the state of the groundwater......, watercourses, lakes and marine waters and the pressures upon them and reviews the monitoring of terrestrial natural habitats and selected plants and animals. The report is based on the annual reports prepared for each subprogramme by the Topic Centres. The latter reports are mainly based on data collected...

  4. Aquatic Plant Control Research Program: The Rhizosphere Microbiology of Rooted Aquatic Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    540-553. Bagyaraj, C. J., A. Manjunath, and R. B. Patil. 1979. Occurrence of vesicular- arbuscular mycorrhizas in some tropical aquatic plants...39-45. Chaubal, R., G. D. Charma, and R. R. Mishra. 1982. Vesicular- arbuscular mycorrhiza in subtropical aquatic and marshy plant communities...11A:29-35. Clayton, J. S. and D. J. Bagyaraj. 1984. Vesicular- arbuscular mycorrhizas in submerged aquatic plants of New Zealand. Aquatic Botany. 19:251

  5. A draft of the genome and four transcriptomes of a medicinal and pesticidal angiosperm Azadirachta indica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The Azadirachta indica (neem) tree is a source of a wide number of natural products, including the potent biopesticide azadirachtin. In spite of its widespread applications in agriculture and medicine, the molecular aspects of the biosynthesis of neem terpenoids remain largely unexplored. The current report describes the draft genome and four transcriptomes of A. indica and attempts to contextualise the sequence information in terms of its molecular phylogeny, transcript expression and terpenoid biosynthesis pathways. A. indica is the first member of the family Meliaceae to be sequenced using next generation sequencing approach. Results The genome and transcriptomes of A. indica were sequenced using multiple sequencing platforms and libraries. The A. indica genome is AT-rich, bears few repetitive DNA elements and comprises about 20,000 genes. The molecular phylogenetic analyses grouped A. indica together with Citrus sinensis from the Rutaceae family validating its conventional taxonomic classification. Comparative transcript expression analysis showed either exclusive or enhanced expression of known genes involved in neem terpenoid biosynthesis pathways compared to other sequenced angiosperms. Genome and transcriptome analyses in A. indica led to the identification of repeat elements, nucleotide composition and expression profiles of genes in various organs. Conclusions This study on A. indica genome and transcriptomes will provide a model for characterization of metabolic pathways involved in synthesis of bioactive compounds, comparative evolutionary studies among various Meliaceae family members and help annotate their genomes. A better understanding of molecular pathways involved in the azadirachtin synthesis in A. indica will pave ways for bulk production of environment friendly biopesticides. PMID:22958331

  6. Gene Duplicability of Core Genes Is Highly Consistent across All Angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Defoort, Jonas; Tasdighian, Setareh; Maere, Steven; Van de Peer, Yves; De Smet, Riet

    2016-02-01

    Gene duplication is an important mechanism for adding to genomic novelty. Hence, which genes undergo duplication and are preserved following duplication is an important question. It has been observed that gene duplicability, or the ability of genes to be retained following duplication, is a nonrandom process, with certain genes being more amenable to survive duplication events than others. Primarily, gene essentiality and the type of duplication (small-scale versus large-scale) have been shown in different species to influence the (long-term) survival of novel genes. However, an overarching view of "gene duplicability" is lacking, mainly due to the fact that previous studies usually focused on individual species and did not account for the influence of genomic context and the time of duplication. Here, we present a large-scale study in which we investigated duplicate retention for 9178 gene families shared between 37 flowering plant species, referred to as angiosperm core gene families. For most gene families, we observe a strikingly consistent pattern of gene duplicability across species, with gene families being either primarily single-copy or multicopy in all species. An intermediate class contains gene families that are often retained in duplicate for periods extending to tens of millions of years after whole-genome duplication, but ultimately appear to be largely restored to singleton status, suggesting that these genes may be dosage balance sensitive. The distinction between single-copy and multicopy gene families is reflected in their functional annotation, with single-copy genes being mainly involved in the maintenance of genome stability and organelle function and multicopy genes in signaling, transport, and metabolism. The intermediate class was overrepresented in regulatory genes, further suggesting that these represent putative dosage-balance-sensitive genes. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  7. Gene Duplicability of Core Genes Is Highly Consistent across All Angiosperms[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Van de Peer, Yves; De Smet, Riet

    2016-01-01

    Gene duplication is an important mechanism for adding to genomic novelty. Hence, which genes undergo duplication and are preserved following duplication is an important question. It has been observed that gene duplicability, or the ability of genes to be retained following duplication, is a nonrandom process, with certain genes being more amenable to survive duplication events than others. Primarily, gene essentiality and the type of duplication (small-scale versus large-scale) have been shown in different species to influence the (long-term) survival of novel genes. However, an overarching view of “gene duplicability” is lacking, mainly due to the fact that previous studies usually focused on individual species and did not account for the influence of genomic context and the time of duplication. Here, we present a large-scale study in which we investigated duplicate retention for 9178 gene families shared between 37 flowering plant species, referred to as angiosperm core gene families. For most gene families, we observe a strikingly consistent pattern of gene duplicability across species, with gene families being either primarily single-copy or multicopy in all species. An intermediate class contains gene families that are often retained in duplicate for periods extending to tens of millions of years after whole-genome duplication, but ultimately appear to be largely restored to singleton status, suggesting that these genes may be dosage balance sensitive. The distinction between single-copy and multicopy gene families is reflected in their functional annotation, with single-copy genes being mainly involved in the maintenance of genome stability and organelle function and multicopy genes in signaling, transport, and metabolism. The intermediate class was overrepresented in regulatory genes, further suggesting that these represent putative dosage-balance-sensitive genes. PMID:26744215

  8. A test of the hydraulic vulnerability segmentation hypothesis in angiosperm and conifer tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Daniel M; Wortemann, Remi; McCulloh, Katherine A; Jordan-Meille, Lionel; Ward, Eric; Warren, Jeffrey M; Palmroth, Sari; Domec, Jean-Christophe

    2016-08-01

    Water transport from soils to the atmosphere is critical for plant growth and survival. However, we have a limited understanding about many portions of the whole-tree hydraulic pathway, because the vast majority of published information is on terminal branches. Our understanding of mature tree trunk hydraulic physiology, in particular, is limited. The hydraulic vulnerability segmentation hypothesis (HVSH) stipulates that distal portions of the plant (leaves, branches and roots) should be more vulnerable to embolism than trunks, which are nonredundant organs that require a massive carbon investment. In the current study, we compared vulnerability to loss of hydraulic function, leaf and xylem water potentials and the resulting hydraulic safety margins (in relation to the water potential causing 50% loss of hydraulic conductivity) in leaves, branches, trunks and roots of four angiosperms and four conifer tree species. Across all species, our results supported strongly the HVSH as leaves and roots were less resistant to embolism than branches or trunks. However, branches were consistently more resistant to embolism than any other portion of the plant, including trunks. Also, calculated whole-tree vulnerability to hydraulic dysfunction was much greater than vulnerability in branches. This was due to hydraulic dysfunction in roots and leaves at less negative water potentials than those causing branch or trunk dysfunction. Leaves and roots had narrow or negative hydraulic safety margins, but trunks and branches maintained positive safety margins. By using branch-based hydraulic information as a proxy for entire plants, much research has potentially overestimated embolism resistance, and possibly drought tolerance, for many species. This study highlights the necessity to reconsider past conclusions made about plant resistance to drought based on branch xylem only. This study also highlights the necessity for more research of whole-plant hydraulic physiology to better

  9. A draft of the genome and four transcriptomes of a medicinal and pesticidal angiosperm Azadirachta indica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnan Neeraja M

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Azadirachta indica (neem tree is a source of a wide number of natural products, including the potent biopesticide azadirachtin. In spite of its widespread applications in agriculture and medicine, the molecular aspects of the biosynthesis of neem terpenoids remain largely unexplored. The current report describes the draft genome and four transcriptomes of A. indica and attempts to contextualise the sequence information in terms of its molecular phylogeny, transcript expression and terpenoid biosynthesis pathways. A. indica is the first member of the family Meliaceae to be sequenced using next generation sequencing approach. Results The genome and transcriptomes of A. indica were sequenced using multiple sequencing platforms and libraries. The A. indica genome is AT-rich, bears few repetitive DNA elements and comprises about 20,000 genes. The molecular phylogenetic analyses grouped A. indica together with Citrus sinensis from the Rutaceae family validating its conventional taxonomic classification. Comparative transcript expression analysis showed either exclusive or enhanced expression of known genes involved in neem terpenoid biosynthesis pathways compared to other sequenced angiosperms. Genome and transcriptome analyses in A. indica led to the identification of repeat elements, nucleotide composition and expression profiles of genes in various organs. Conclusions This study on A. indica genome and transcriptomes will provide a model for characterization of metabolic pathways involved in synthesis of bioactive compounds, comparative evolutionary studies among various Meliaceae family members and help annotate their genomes. A better understanding of molecular pathways involved in the azadirachtin synthesis in A. indica will pave ways for bulk production of environment friendly biopesticides.

  10. Development of aquatic animal experiment facility, Aquatic Habitat (AQH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, S.; Kono, Y.; Sakimura, T.; Nishikawa, W.; Fujimoto, N.; Murakami, K.; Nakamura, T.

    We have been performing technical studies to develop aquatic animal experiment facility, Aquatic Habitat (AQH), for both of short-term experiments in the Space Shuttle middeck and long-term experiments in the Space Station including the Centrifuge Accommodation Module (CAM). The AQH will have the capabilities to accommodate three-generations of small freshwater fish (medaka and zebrafish) and egg through metamorphosis of amphibian (African clawed frog). For these purposes, the AQH will have the following brand-new capabilities that the previous facilities have never had; 90days experiment duration, automatic feeding according to specimen types and their developmental stages, separation of generations for fish, specimen sample collection in various developmental stages, air/water interface control for amphibian, continuous monitoring of specimen behavior even in dark condition, and so on. We have already performed preliminary breeding tests for medaka and zebrafish with a breeding system prototype. Their mating behavior was performed successfully in the small closed chamber and the hatched larvae grew and started spawning on the 45-47th day after hatching. These results demonstrated that three generational breeding of medaka and zebrafish within 90days would be possible based on this breeding system prototype. Also, we have developed almost of the above new mechanisms, that is, an automatic feeding system, an egg separation mechanism for fish, an air stabilizer to control air/water interface, and a continuous specimen monitoring system through light/dark cycle. Based on these results, we have manufactured a BBM of AQH water circulation system and performed biological compatibility tests as a next step. For African clawed frog breeding, some problems have been revealed through the preliminary tests with the breeding system prototype. Currently, we are performing the investigations to resolve the problems and preparing to proceed to the next step.

  11. Phylogenetic assemblage structure of North American trees is more strongly shaped by glacial-interglacial climate variability in gymnosperms than in angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ziyu; Sandel, Brody; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2016-05-01

    How fast does biodiversity respond to climate change? The relationship of past and current climate with phylogenetic assemblage structure helps us to understand this question. Studies of angiosperm tree diversity in North America have already suggested effects of current water-energy balance and tropical niche conservatism. However, the role of glacial-interglacial climate variability remains to be determined, and little is known about any of these relationships for gymnosperms. Moreover, phylogenetic endemism, the concentration of unique lineages in restricted ranges, may also be related to glacial-interglacial climate variability and needs more attention. We used a refined phylogeny of both angiosperms and gymnosperms to map phylogenetic diversity, clustering and endemism of North American trees in 100-km grid cells, and climate change velocity since Last Glacial Maximum together with postglacial accessibility to recolonization to quantify glacial-interglacial climate variability. We found: (1) Current climate is the dominant factor explaining the overall patterns, with more clustered angiosperm assemblages toward lower temperature, consistent with tropical niche conservatism. (2) Long-term climate stability is associated with higher angiosperm endemism, while higher postglacial accessibility is linked to to more phylogenetic clustering and endemism in gymnosperms. (3) Factors linked to glacial-interglacial climate change have stronger effects on gymnosperms than on angiosperms. These results suggest that paleoclimate legacies supplement current climate in shaping phylogenetic patterns in North American trees, and especially so for gymnosperms.

  12. Aquatic ecosystems of the redwood region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwell H. Welsh; T.D. Roelofs; C.A. Frissell

    2000-01-01

    The primary purpose of this chapter is to describe aquatic ecosystems within the redwood region and discuss related management and conservation issues. Although scientists from many disciplines have conducted research in the redwood region, few comprehensive interdisciplinary studies exist (but see Ziemer 1998b) and no regionwide overview or synthesis of the aquatic...

  13. Nutrition, Illness, and Injury in Aquatic Sports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pyne, D.B.; Verhagen, E.A.L.M.; Mountjoy, M.

    2014-01-01

    In this review, we outline key principles for prevention of injury and illness in aquatic sports, detail the epidemiology of injury and illness in aquatic athletes at major international competitions and in training, and examine the relevant scientific evidence on nutrients for reducing the risk of

  14. Control of Fish and Aquatic Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesser, R. B.; And Others

    This agriculture extension service publication from Pennsylvania State University is a handbook for the water body manager. The bulk of the contents deals with aquatic plant control. The different types of aquatic plants, their reproduction and growth, and their role in the ecology of the water body are introduced in this main section. Also, the…

  15. Short Communication - Aquatic Oil Pollution Impact Indicators ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The resultant effect of these abnormal shifts in the impact indicators is disorders in the physiological status and reduction in the immune status of aquatic organisms, which may lead to mortality. Therefore to ensure sustainable management and optimum exploitation of the aquatic resources, it is necessary to set safe limits ...

  16. Estimating Aquatic Insect Populations. Introduction to Sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chihuahuan Desert Research Inst., Alpine, TX.

    This booklet introduces high school and junior high school students to the major groups of aquatic insects and to population sampling techniques. Chapter 1 consists of a short field guide which can be used to identify five separate orders of aquatic insects: odonata (dragonflies and damselflies); ephemeroptera (mayflies); diptera (true flies);…

  17. Physico-chemical water characteristics and aquatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Saline lakes are known to be amongst the most productive ecosystems in the world. Tsimanampesotse, a 'conservation hotspot' soda lake in southwestern Madagascar, was integrated into the Ramsar wetland network in 1998. Despite its importance for aquatic birds, knowledge of its water characteristics and aquatic biota ...

  18. Sustainable Aquatic Resource Management Initiative | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Governance of aquatic resources continues to be a major problem in most parts of the world. More than 50 million people are highly dependent on aquatic resources that continue to be degraded and governed in an unsustainable way. In the last few years, IDRC has funded a number of projects in Asia, Latin America and ...

  19. Chapter 6: Selenium Toxicity to Aquatic Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter addresses the characteristics and nature of organic selenium (Se) toxicity to aquatic organisms, based on the most current state of scientific knowledge. As such, the information contained in this chapter relates to the 'toxicity assessment' phase of aquatic ecologi...

  20. Purification of Water by Aquatic Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Morimitsu, Katsuhito; Kawahigashi, Tatsuo

    2013-01-01

    [Abstract] Water quality purification of many water systems including those occurring in rivers depends to a great degree on water quality purification activities of aquatic plants and microbes. This paper presents a discussion of results, based on laboratory experiments, of purification by aquatic plants.

  1. New tools for aquatic habitat modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Tonina; J. A. McKean; C. Tang; P. Goodwin

    2011-01-01

    Modeling of aquatic microhabitat in streams has been typically done over short channel reaches using one-dimensional simulations, partly because of a lack of high resolution. subaqueous topographic data to better define model boundary conditions. The Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL) is an airborne aquatic-terrestrial sensor that allows simultaneous...

  2. Assessing the role of large herbivores in the structuring and functioning of freshwater and marine angiosperm ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Elisabeth S.; Pagès, Jordi F.; Arthur, Rohan; Alcoverro, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    While large herbivores can have strong impacts on terrestrial ecosystems, much less is known of their role in aquatic systems. We reviewed the literature to determine: (1) which large herbivores (>10 kg) have a (semi-)aquatic lifestyle and are important consumers of submerged vascular plants, (2)

  3. Phytoremediation potential of aquatic macrophyte, Azolla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Anjuli; Uniyal, Perm L; Prasanna, Radha; Ahluwalia, Amrik S

    2012-03-01

    Aquatic macrophytes play an important role in the structural and functional aspects of aquatic ecosystems by altering water movement regimes, providing shelter to fish and aquatic invertebrates, serving as a food source, and altering water quality by regulating oxygen balance, nutrient cycles, and accumulating heavy metals. The ability to hyperaccumulate heavy metals makes them interesting research candidates, especially for the treatment of industrial effluents and sewage waste water. The use of aquatic macrophytes, such as Azolla with hyper accumulating ability is known to be an environmentally friendly option to restore polluted aquatic resources. The present review highlights the phytoaccumulation potential of macrophytes with emphasis on utilization of Azolla as a promising candidate for phytoremediation. The impact of uptake of heavy metals on morphology and metabolic processes of Azolla has also been discussed for a better understanding and utilization of this symbiotic association in the field of phytoremediation.

  4. Comparative ovule and megagametophyte development in Hydatellaceae and water lilies reveal a mosaic of features among the earliest angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudall, Paula J; Remizowa, Margarita V; Beer, Anton S; Bradshaw, Elizabeth; Stevenson, Dennis W; Macfarlane, Terry D; Tuckett, Renee E; Yadav, Shrirang R; Sokoloff, Dmitry D

    2008-05-01

    The embryo sac, nucellus and integuments of the early-divergent angiosperms Hydatellaceae and other Nymphaeales are compared with those of other seed plants, in order to evaluate the evolutionary origin of these characters in the angiosperms. Using light microscopy, ovule and embryo sac development are described in five (of 12) species of Trithuria, the sole genus of Hydatellaceae, and compared with those of Cabombaceae and Nymphaeaceae. The ovule of Trithuria is bitegmic and tenuinucellate, rather than bitegmic and crassinucellate as in most other Nymphaeales. The seed is operculate and possesses a perisperm that develops precociously, which are both key features of Nymphaeales. However, in the Indian species T. konkanensis, perisperm is relatively poorly developed by the time of fertilization. Perisperm cells in Trithuria become multinucleate during development, a feature observed also in other Nymphaeales. The outer integument is semi-annular ('hood-shaped'), as in Cabombaceae and some Nymphaeaceae, in contrast to the annular ('cap-shaped') outer integument of some other Nymphaeaceae (e.g. Barclaya) and Amborella. The megagametophyte in Trithuria is monosporic and four-nucleate; at the two-nucleate stage both nuclei occur in the micropylar domain. Double megagametophytes were frequently observed, probably developed from different megaspores of the same tetrad. Indirect, but strong evidence is presented for apomictic embryo development in T. filamentosa. Most features of the ovule and embryo sac of Trithuria are consistent with a close relationship with other Nymphaeales, especially Cabombaceae. The frequent occurrence of double megagametophytes in the same ovule indicates a high degree of developmental flexibility, and could provide a clue to the evolutionary origin of the Polygonum-type of angiosperm embryo sac.

  5. Molecular evolution and phylogenetic utility of the petD group II intron: a case study in basal angiosperms.

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    Löhne, Cornelia; Borsch, Thomas

    2005-02-01

    Sequences of spacers and group I introns in plant chloroplast genomes have recently been shown to be very effective in phylogenetic reconstruction at higher taxonomic levels and not only for inferring relationships among species. Group II introns, being more frequent in those genomes than group I introns, may be further promising markers. Because group II introns are structurally constrained, we assumed that sequences of a group II intron should be alignable across seed plants. We designed universal amplification primers for the petD intron and sequenced this intron in a representative selection of 47 angiosperms and three gymnosperms. Our sampling of taxa is the most representative of major seed plant lineages to date for group II introns. Through differential analysis of structural partitions, we studied patterns of molecular evolution and their contribution to phylogenetic signal. Nonpairing stretches (loops, bulges, and interhelical nucleotides) were considerably more variable in both substitutions and indels than in helical elements. Differences among the domains are basically a function of their structural composition. After the exclusion of four mutational hotspots accounting for less than 18% of sequence length, which are located in loops of domains I and IV, all sequences could be aligned unambiguously across seed plants. Microstructural changes predominantly occurred in loop regions and are mostly simple sequence repeats. An indel matrix comprising 241 characters revealed microstructural changes to be of lower homoplasy than are substitutions. In showing Amborella first branching and providing support for a magnoliid clade through a synapomorphic indel, the petD data set proved effective in testing between alternative hypotheses on the basal nodes of the angiosperm tree. Within angiosperms, group II introns offer phylogenetic signal that is intermediate in information content between that of spacers and group I introns on the one hand and coding sequences

  6. Development and evolution of extreme synorganization in angiosperm flowers and diversity: a comparison of Apocynaceae and Orchidaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endress, Peter K

    2016-04-01

    Apocynaceae and Orchidaceae are two angiosperm families with extreme flower synorganization. They are unrelated, the former in eudicots, the latter in monocots, but they converge in the formation of pollinia and pollinaria, which do not occur in any other angiosperm family, and for which extreme synorganization of floral organs is a precondition. In each family extensive studies on flower development and evolution have been performed; however, newer comparative studies focusing on flower synorganization and involving both families together are lacking. For this study an extensive search through the morphological literature has been conducted. Based on this and my own studies on flowers in various Apocynaceae and Orchidaceae and complex flowers in other angiosperms with scanning electron microscopy and with microtome section series, a review on convergent floral traits in flower development and architecture in the two families is presented. There is a tendency of protracted development of synorganized parts in Apocynaceae and Orchidaceae (development of synorganization of two or more organs begins earlier the more accentuated it is at anthesis). Synorganization (or complexity) also paves the way for novel structures. One of the most conspicuous such novel structures in Apocynaceae is the corona, which is not the product of synorganization of existing organs; however, it is probably enhanced by synorganization of other, existing, floral parts. In contrast to synorganized parts, the corona appears developmentally late. Synorganization of floral organs may lead to a large number of convergences in clades that are only very distantly related. The convergences that have been highlighted in this comparative study should be developmentally investigated directly in parallel in future studies. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Gene family structure, expression and functional analysis of HD-Zip III genes in angiosperm and gymnosperm forest trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côté, Caroline L; Boileau, Francis; Roy, Vicky; Ouellet, Mario; Levasseur, Caroline; Morency, Marie-Josée; Cooke, Janice E K; Séguin, Armand; MacKay, John J

    2010-12-11

    Class III Homeodomain Leucine Zipper (HD-Zip III) proteins have been implicated in the regulation of cambium identity, as well as primary and secondary vascular differentiation and patterning in herbaceous plants. They have been proposed to regulate wood formation but relatively little evidence is available to validate such a role. We characterised and compared HD-Zip III gene family in an angiosperm tree, Populus spp. (poplar), and the gymnosperm Picea glauca (white spruce), representing two highly evolutionarily divergent groups. Full-length cDNA sequences were isolated from poplar and white spruce. Phylogenetic reconstruction indicated that some of the gymnosperm sequences were derived from lineages that diverged earlier than angiosperm sequences, and seem to have been lost in angiosperm lineages. Transcript accumulation profiles were assessed by RT-qPCR on tissue panels from both species and in poplar trees in response to an inhibitor of polar auxin transport. The overall transcript profiles HD-Zip III complexes in white spruce and poplar exhibited substantial differences, reflecting their evolutionary history. Furthermore, two poplar sequences homologous to HD-Zip III genes involved in xylem development in Arabidopsis and Zinnia were over-expressed in poplar plants. PtaHB1 over-expression produced noticeable effects on petiole and primary shoot fibre development, suggesting that PtaHB1 is involved in primary xylem development. We also obtained evidence indicating that expression of PtaHB1 affected the transcriptome by altering the accumulation of 48 distinct transcripts, many of which are predicted to be involved in growth and cell wall synthesis. Most of them were down-regulated, as was the case for several of the poplar HD-Zip III sequences. No visible physiological effect of over-expression was observed on PtaHB7 transgenic trees, suggesting that PtaHB1 and PtaHB7 likely have distinct roles in tree development, which is in agreement with the functions that

  8. Gene family structure, expression and functional analysis of HD-Zip III genes in angiosperm and gymnosperm forest trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooke Janice EK

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Class III Homeodomain Leucine Zipper (HD-Zip III proteins have been implicated in the regulation of cambium identity, as well as primary and secondary vascular differentiation and patterning in herbaceous plants. They have been proposed to regulate wood formation but relatively little evidence is available to validate such a role. We characterised and compared HD-Zip III gene family in an angiosperm tree, Populus spp. (poplar, and the gymnosperm Picea glauca (white spruce, representing two highly evolutionarily divergent groups. Results Full-length cDNA sequences were isolated from poplar and white spruce. Phylogenetic reconstruction indicated that some of the gymnosperm sequences were derived from lineages that diverged earlier than angiosperm sequences, and seem to have been lost in angiosperm lineages. Transcript accumulation profiles were assessed by RT-qPCR on tissue panels from both species and in poplar trees in response to an inhibitor of polar auxin transport. The overall transcript profiles HD-Zip III complexes in white spruce and poplar exhibited substantial differences, reflecting their evolutionary history. Furthermore, two poplar sequences homologous to HD-Zip III genes involved in xylem development in Arabidopsis and Zinnia were over-expressed in poplar plants. PtaHB1 over-expression produced noticeable effects on petiole and primary shoot fibre development, suggesting that PtaHB1 is involved in primary xylem development. We also obtained evidence indicating that expression of PtaHB1 affected the transcriptome by altering the accumulation of 48 distinct transcripts, many of which are predicted to be involved in growth and cell wall synthesis. Most of them were down-regulated, as was the case for several of the poplar HD-Zip III sequences. No visible physiological effect of over-expression was observed on PtaHB7 transgenic trees, suggesting that PtaHB1 and PtaHB7 likely have distinct roles in tree development

  9. Spatial distribution of aquatic insects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Lars Lønsmann

    Species associated with freshwater ecosystems are currently undergoing severe global declines and freshwater ecosystems are regarded as some of the most endangered ecosystems in the world. These declines are a consequence of decades of human overexploitation, pollution and climate change. If adeq......Species associated with freshwater ecosystems are currently undergoing severe global declines and freshwater ecosystems are regarded as some of the most endangered ecosystems in the world. These declines are a consequence of decades of human overexploitation, pollution and climate change...... niche is derived from local distribution patterns, without incorporating landscape history it can lead to an erroneous niche definition. Chapter III provides some of the first evidence for differences in dispersal phenology related to flight potential in aquatic insects. The chapter highlights...

  10. Aquatic organotin pollution in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Pei-Jie; Lin, Junda; Liu, Li-Lian

    2009-02-01

    The current status of aquatic organotin pollution in Taiwan is reviewed. In freshwater sediments and biota, especially in rice-field related habitats, phenyltins (PTs) were dominant among the organotin pollutants, whereas butyltins (BTs) were usually predominant in marine environments. Among the marine habitats, contamination levels were found to be in the descending order of harbour and estuary>fish cultural site>coastal>offshore>coral reefs. Imposex snails were observed in all the sampling years (1990-2003). Meanwhile, organotin concentrations were greater in winter than those in summer, whereas proportions of PTs were much higher in summer than in winter. Due to the lack of continuous monitoring data, the effectiveness of the ban on TPT usage in agriculture in 1999 and the prohibition of TBT use on small boats in 2003 is still not known.

  11. A Submersible, Off-Axis Holographic Microscope for Detection of Microbial Motility and Morphology in Aqueous and Icy Environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian A Lindensmith

    Full Text Available Sea ice is an analog environment for several of astrobiology's near-term targets: Mars, Europa, Enceladus, and perhaps other Jovian or Saturnian moons. Microorganisms, both eukaryotic and prokaryotic, remain active within brine channels inside the ice, making it unnecessary to penetrate through to liquid water below in order to detect life. We have developed a submersible digital holographic microscope (DHM that is capable of resolving individual bacterial cells, and demonstrated its utility for immediately imaging samples taken directly from sea ice at several locations near Nuuk, Greenland. In all samples, the appearance and motility of eukaryotes were conclusive signs of life. The appearance of prokaryotic cells alone was not sufficient to confirm life, but when prokaryotic motility occurred, it was rapid and conclusive. Warming the samples to above-freezing temperatures or supplementing with serine increased the number of motile cells and the speed of motility; supplementing with serine also stimulated chemotaxis. These results show that DHM is a useful technique for detection of active organisms in extreme environments, and that motility may be used as a biosignature in the liquid brines that persist in ice. These findings have important implications for the design of missions to icy environments and suggest ways in which DHM imaging may be integrated with chemical life-detection suites in order to create more conclusive life detection packages.

  12. Taxonomic research on deep-sea macrofauna in the South China Sea using the Chinese deep-sea submersible Jiaolong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinzheng

    2017-07-01

    This paper reviews the taxonomic and biodiversity studies of deep-sea invertebrates in the South China Sea based on the samples collected by the Chinese manned deep-sea submersible Jiaolong. To date, 6 new species have been described, including the sponges Lophophysema eversa, Saccocalyx microhexactin and Semperella jiaolongae as well as the crustaceans Uroptychus jiaolongae, Uroptychus spinulosus and Globospongicola jiaolongi; some newly recorded species from the South China Sea have also been reported. The Bathymodiolus platifrons-Shinkaia crosnieri deep-sea cold seep community has been reported by Li (2015), as has the mitochondrial genome of the glass sponge L. eversa by Zhang et al. (2016). The population structures of two dominant species, the shrimp Shinkaia crosnieri and the mussel Bathymodiolus platifrons, from the cold seep Bathymodiolus platifrons-Shinkaia crosnieri community in the South China Sea and the hydrothermal vents in the Okinawa Trough, were compared using molecular analysis. The systematic position of the shrimp genus Globospongicola was discussed based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. © 2017 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  13. Tethyan changes shaped aquatic diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Zhonge; Li, Shuqiang

    2017-10-12

    The Tethys Ocean existed between the continents of Gondwana and Laurasia from the Triassic to the Pliocene. Analyses of multiple biogeographic and phylogenetic histories reveal that the subsequent breakup of the Tethys greatly influenced the distributions of many species. The ancestral Tethyan realm broke into five biogeographic provinces, including the present-day East Pacific, West Atlantic, East Atlantic, Mediterranean Sea, and Indo-West Pacific. Palaeogeographic maps illustrate the Mesozoic Atlantic opening, the Cenozoic closure of the Tethys, the Messinian Salinity Crisis, the mid-Miocene closure of the Central American Seaway, and Quaternary geological changes. Further, we consider Cenozoic sea-level changes and the formation of freshwater habitats. These reconstructions allow assessment of patterns of aquatic diversification for marine and freshwater animals, and comparison of vicariance and dispersal processes. Estimated divergence times indicate that fragmentation of the Tethys was responsible for the vicariant speciation of aquatic animals because these dates are consistent with associated tectonic events. The opening of the Atlantic Ocean during the Cretaceous is responsible for the earliest isolation between the West and East Atlantic. The mid-Miocene closure of the Tethys, which blocked global equatorial currents, appears to have isolated the Atlantic/Mediterranean Sea and Indo-West Pacific. Finally, formation of the Isthmus of Panama isolated East Pacific and West Atlantic marine organisms. Dispersals related to the Messinian Salinity Crisis and Quaternary sea-level changes influenced population structuring. Tethyan changes affected marine habitats, created new freshwater habitats, inland caves and ancient lakes along the Alps and Himalayas, and influenced anchialine caves at the edge of the ancient sea. The extensive new habitats provided opportunities for colonisation and rapid diversification. Future work should focus on testing the biological

  14. Phylogenetic assemblage structure of North American trees is more strongly shaped by glacial–interglacial climate variability in gymnosperms than in angiosperms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ziyu; Sandel, Brody Steven; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2016-01-01

    and tropical niche conservatism. However, the role of glacial-interglacial climate variability remains to be determined, and little is known about any of these relationships for gymnosperms. Moreover, phylogenetic edemism, patterns of unique lineages in restricted ranges is also related to glacial......-interglacial climate variability and needs more attention. We used a refined phylogeny of both angiosperms and gymnosperms to map phylogenetic diversity, clustering and endemism of North American trees in 100-km grid cells, and climate change velocity since Last Glacial Maximum together with postglacial accessibility...... is associated with higher angiosperm endemism, while higher postglacial accessibility is linked to to more phylogenetic clustering and endemism in gymnosperms. iii) Factors linked to glacial-interglacial climate change had stronger effects on gymnosperms than on angiosperms. These results suggest...

  15. Toxicity, accumulation, and removal of heavy metals by three aquatic macrophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basile, A; Sorbo, S; Conte, B; Cobianchi, R Castaldo; Trinchella, F; Capasso, C; Carginale, V

    2012-04-01

    A comprehensive understanding of the uptake, tolerance, and transport of heavy metals by plants will be essential for the development of phytoremediation technologies. In the present paper, we investigated accumulation, tissue and intracellular localization, and toxic effects of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and copper (Cu) in three aquatic macrophytes (the angiosperms Lemna minor and Elodea canadensis, and the moss Leptodictyum riparium). We also tested and compared their capacity to absorb heavy metal from water under laboratory conditions. Our data showed that all the three species examined could be considered good bioaccumulators for the heavy metals tested. L. riparium was the most resistant species and the most effective in accumulating Cu, Zn, and Pb, whereas L. minor was the most effective in accumulating Cd. Cd was the most toxic metal, followed by Pb, Cu, and Zn. At the ultrastructural level, sublethal concentrations of the heavy metals tested caused induced cell plasmolysis and alterations of the chloroplast arrangement. Heavy metal removal experiments revealed that the three macrophytes showed excellent performance in removing the selected metals from the solutions in which they are maintained, thus suggesting that they could be considered good candidates for wastewaters remediation purpose.

  16. Barcoding success as a function of phylogenetic relatedness in Viburnum, a clade of woody angiosperms

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    Clement Wendy L

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The chloroplast genes matK and rbcL have been proposed as a “core” DNA barcode for identifying plant species. Published estimates of successful species identification using these loci (70-80% may be inflated because they may have involved comparisons among distantly related species within target genera. To assess the ability of the proposed two-locus barcode to discriminate closely related species, we carried out a hierarchically structured set of comparisons within Viburnum, a clade of woody angiosperms containing ca. 170 species (some 70 of which are currently used in horticulture. For 112 Viburnum species, we evaluated rbcL + matK, as well as the chloroplast regions rpl32-trnL, trnH-psbA, trnK, and the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region (nrITS. Results At most, rbcL + matK could discriminate 53% of all Viburnum species, with only 18% of the comparisons having genetic distances >1%. When comparisons were progressively restricted to species within major Viburnum subclades, there was a significant decrease in both the discriminatory power and the genetic distances. trnH-psbA and nrITS show much higher levels of variation and potential discriminatory power, and their use in plant barcoding should be reconsidered. As barcoding has often been used to discriminate species within local areas, we also compared Viburnum species within two regions, Japan and Mexico and Central America. Greater success in discriminating among the Japanese species reflects the deeper evolutionary history of Viburnum in that area, as compared to the recent radiation of a single clade into the mountains of Latin America. Conclusions We found very low levels of discrimination among closely related species of Viburnum, and low levels of variation in the proposed barcoding loci may limit success within other clades of long-lived woody plants. Inclusion of the supplementary barcodes trnH-psbA and nrITS increased discrimination rates but

  17. Morphological and molecular phylogenetic context of the angiosperms: contrasting the 'top-down' and 'bottom-up' approaches used to infer the likely characteristics of the first flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, Richard M; Hilton, Jason; Rudall, Paula J

    2006-01-01

    Recent attempts to address the long-debated 'origin' of the angiosperms depend on a phylogenetic framework derived from a matrix of taxa versus characters; most assume that empirical rigour is proportional to the size of the matrix. Sequence-based genotypic approaches increase the number of characters (nucleotides and indels) in the matrix but are confined to the highly restricted spectrum of extant species, whereas morphology-based approaches increase the number of phylogenetically informative taxa (including fossils) at the expense of accessing only a restricted spectrum of phenotypic characters. The two approaches are currently delivering strongly contrasting hypotheses of relationship. Most molecular studies indicate that all extant gymnosperms form a natural group, suggesting surprisingly early divergence of the lineage that led to angiosperms, whereas morphology-only phylogenies indicate that a succession of (mostly extinct) gymnosperms preceded a later angiosperm origin. Causes of this conflict include: (i) the vast phenotypic and genotypic lacuna, largely reflecting pre-Cenozoic extinctions, that separates early-divergent living angiosperms from their closest relatives among the living gymnosperms; (ii) profound uncertainty regarding which (a) extant and (b) extinct angiosperms are most closely related to gymnosperms; and (iii) profound uncertainty regarding which (a) extant and (b) extinct gymnosperms are most closely related to angiosperms, and thus best serve as 'outgroups' dictating the perceived evolutionary polarity of character transitions among the early-divergent angiosperms. These factors still permit a remarkable range of contrasting, yet credible, hypotheses regarding the order of acquisition of the many phenotypic characters, reproductive and vegetative, that distinguish 'classic' angiospermy from 'classic' gymnospermy. The flower remains ill-defined and its mode (or modes) of origin remains hotly disputed; some definitions and hypotheses of

  18. Human Exploitation of Aquatic Landscapes. Editorial

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    Ricardo Fernandes

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic landscapes such as rivers, lakes, and seas played an important role in past human behaviour, affecting modes of subsistence, patterns of mobility, access to material resources, and technological choices and their developments. The interaction with aquatic landscapes was also influential in the establishment of economic and social structures and in the formation of communal identities. The aim of this special themed issue of Internet Archaeology is to contribute to a better understanding of different forms of human interaction with aquatic landscapes.

  19. Aquatic invasive species: Lessons from cancer research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulveda, Adam; Ray, Andrew; Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Gresswell, Robert E.; Gross, Jackson A.; Kershner, Jeffrey L.

    2014-01-01

    Aquatic invasive species are disrupting ecosystems with increasing frequency. Successful control of these invasions has been rare: Biologists and managers have few tools for fighting aquatic invaders. In contrast, the medical community has long worked to develop tools for preventing and fighting cancer. Its successes are marked by a coordinated research approach with multiple steps: prevention, early detection, diagnosis, treatment options and rehabilitation. The authors discuss how these steps can be applied to aquatic invasive species, such as the American bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus), in the Northern Rocky Mountain region of the United States, to expedite tool development and implementation along with achievement of biodiversity conservation goals.

  20. Differential phylogenetic expansions in BAHD acyltransferases across five angiosperm taxa and evidence of divergent expression among Populus paralogues

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    Johnson Virgil E

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background BAHD acyltransferases are involved in the synthesis and elaboration of a wide variety of secondary metabolites. Previous research has shown that characterized proteins from this family fall broadly into five major clades and contain two conserved protein motifs. Here, we aimed to expand the understanding of BAHD acyltransferase diversity in plants through genome-wide analysis across five angiosperm taxa. We focus particularly on Populus, a woody perennial known to produce an abundance of secondary metabolites. Results Phylogenetic analysis of putative BAHD acyltransferase sequences from Arabidopsis, Medicago, Oryza, Populus, and Vitis, along with previously characterized proteins, supported a refined grouping of eight major clades for this family. Taxon-specific clustering of many BAHD family members appears pervasive in angiosperms. We identified two new multi-clade motifs and numerous clade-specific motifs, several of which have been implicated in BAHD function by previous structural and mutagenesis research. Gene duplication and expression data for Populus-dominated subclades revealed that several paralogous BAHD members in this genus might have already undergone functional divergence. Conclusions Differential, taxon-specific BAHD family expansion via gene duplication could be an evolutionary process contributing to metabolic diversity across plant taxa. Gene expression divergence among some Populus paralogues highlights possible distinctions between their biochemical and physiological functions. The newly discovered motifs, especially the clade-specific motifs, should facilitate future functional study of substrate and donor specificity among BAHD enzymes.