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Sample records for submerged powder injection

  1. Progress in Titanium Metal Powder Injection Molding

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    Randall M. German

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Metal powder injection molding is a shaping technology that has achieved solid scientific underpinnings. It is from this science base that recent progress has occurred in titanium powder injection molding. Much of the progress awaited development of the required particles with specific characteristics of particle size, particle shape, and purity. The production of titanium components by injection molding is stabilized by a good understanding of how each process variable impacts density and impurity level. As summarized here, recent research has isolated the four critical success factors in titanium metal powder injection molding (Ti-MIM that must be simultaneously satisfied—density, purity, alloying, and microstructure. The critical role of density and impurities, and the inability to remove impurities with sintering, compels attention to starting Ti-MIM with high quality alloy powders. This article addresses the four critical success factors to rationalize Ti-MIM processing conditions to the requirements for demanding applications in aerospace and medical fields. Based on extensive research, a baseline process is identified and reported here with attention to linking mechanical properties to the four critical success factors.

  2. Progress in Titanium Metal Powder Injection Molding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, Randall M

    2013-08-20

    Metal powder injection molding is a shaping technology that has achieved solid scientific underpinnings. It is from this science base that recent progress has occurred in titanium powder injection molding. Much of the progress awaited development of the required particles with specific characteristics of particle size, particle shape, and purity. The production of titanium components by injection molding is stabilized by a good understanding of how each process variable impacts density and impurity level. As summarized here, recent research has isolated the four critical success factors in titanium metal powder injection molding (Ti-MIM) that must be simultaneously satisfied-density, purity, alloying, and microstructure. The critical role of density and impurities, and the inability to remove impurities with sintering, compels attention to starting Ti-MIM with high quality alloy powders. This article addresses the four critical success factors to rationalize Ti-MIM processing conditions to the requirements for demanding applications in aerospace and medical fields. Based on extensive research, a baseline process is identified and reported here with attention to linking mechanical properties to the four critical success factors.

  3. Bimodal metal micro-nanopowders for powder injection molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervikov, Aleksandr; Rodkevich, Nikolay; Glazkova, Elena; Lerner, Marat

    2017-12-01

    The paper studies a bimodal metal powder composition designed to prepare feedstock for powder injection molding, as well as microstructure and porosity of sintered pats. Two kinds of metal powder compositions are used, in particular, a mixture of micro- and nanopowders and a bimodal powder prepared with dispersion of steel wire. The feedstock is prepared by mixing a bimodal metal powder composition with acetylacetone and paraffin wax. The microstructure of the debound parts is observed by scanning electron microscopy. The sintered parts are characterized by density measurements and metallographic analysis. The technique of the metal powder composition proves to affect the characteristics of sintered parts. Nanoparticles are shown in the interstitial spaces among the microparticles upon mixing micro- and nanopowders, but the regular distribution of nanoparticles on the surface of microparticles is observed in the bimodal powder providing the reduction of the porosity of sintered parts and increasing the density to the proper density of steel.

  4. POWDER INJECTION MOLDING OF SIC FOR THERMAL MANAGEMENT V

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    Valmikanathan Onbattuvelli

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Silicon carbide (SiC exhibits many functional properties that are relevant to applications in electronics, aerospace, defense and automotive industries. However, the successful translation of these properties into final applications lies in the net-shaping of ceramics into fully dense microstructures. Increasing the packing density of the starting powders is one effective route to achieve high sintered density and dimensional precision. The present paper presents an in-depth study on the effects of nanoparticle addition on the powder injection molding process (PIM of SiC powder-polymer mixtures. In particular, bimodal mixtures of nanoscale and sub-micrometer particles are found to have significantly increased powder packing characteristics (solids loading in the powder-polymer mixtures. The influence of nanoparticle addition on the multi-step PIM process is examined. The above results provide new perspectives which could impact a wide range of materials, powder processing techniques and applications.

  5. Effect of powdered activated carbon on integrated submerged membrane bioreactor-nanofiltration process for wastewater reclamation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Yun Chul; Lee, Jeong Jun; Shim, Wang-Geun; Shon, Ho Kyong; Tijing, Leonard D; Yao, Minwei; Kim, Han-Seung

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of powdered activated carbon (PAC) on the overall performance of a submerged membrane bioreactor (SMBR) system integrated with nanofiltration (NF) for wastewater reclamation. It was found that the trans-membrane pressure of SMBR increased continuously while that of the SMBR with PAC was more stable, mainly because water could still pass through the PACs and membrane even though foulants adhered on the PAC surface. The presence of PAC was able to mitigate fouling in SMBR as well as in NF. SMBR-NF with PAC obtained a higher flux of 8.1 LMH compared to that without PAC (6.6 LMH). In addition, better permeate quality was obtained with SMBR-NF integrated process added with PAC. The present results suggest that the addition of PAC in integrated SMBR-NF process could possibly lead to satisfying water quality and can be operated for a long-term duration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Improving Powder Injection Molding: an Opportunity for the Aerospace Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Emri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with powder injection molding (PIM technology of metal and ceramis powders using polyoximethylene (POM binder. In this study, two ways to decrease the viscosity of PIM feedstock materials with polyoxymethylene were investigated. The first way was to reduce the average molecular weight (AMV of the binder and the second one to select a polydisperse particle size distribution with high maximum packing fraction. It was shown that binder with AMW equal to 24410 g/mol gives required level of viscosity around 10 Pa/s. It was shown that using the low disperse powder with wide size distribution can lead to volumetric loading of approximately 83 %. Moreover, using such a feedstock has viscosity lower than required by PIM technology 1000 Pa/s.

  7. Material flow data for numerical simulation of powder injection molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duretek, I.; Holzer, C.

    2017-01-01

    The powder injection molding (PIM) process is a cost efficient and important net-shape manufacturing process that is not completely understood. For the application of simulation programs for the powder injection molding process, apart from suitable physical models, exact material data and in particular knowledge of the flow behavior are essential in order to get precise numerical results. The flow processes of highly filled polymers are complex. Occurring effects are very hard to separate, like shear flow with yield stress, wall slip, elastic effects, etc. Furthermore, the occurrence of phase separation due to the multi-phase composition of compounds is quite probable. In this work, the flow behavior of a 316L stainless steel feedstock for powder injection molding was investigated. Additionally, the influence of pre-shearing on the flow behavior of PIM-feedstocks under practical conditions was examined and evaluated by a special PIM injection molding machine rheometer. In order to have a better understanding of key factors of PIM during the injection step, 3D non-isothermal numerical simulations were conducted with a commercial injection molding simulation software using experimental feedstock properties. The simulation results were compared with the experimental results. The mold filling studies amply illustrate the effect of mold temperature on the filling behavior during the mold filling stage. Moreover, the rheological measurements showed that at low shear rates no zero shear viscosity was observed, but instead the viscosity further increased strongly. This flow behavior could be described with the Cross-WLF approach with Herschel-Bulkley extension very well.

  8. Performance of Submerged Membrane Bioreactor Combined with Powdered Activated Carbon Addition for the Treatment of an Industrial Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Widjaja

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Membrane technology is one of the alternative solutions to overcome industrial wastewater treatment developed nowadays. The addition of PAC (Powdered Activated Carbon in the activated sludge using Submerged Membrane Adsorption Hybrid Bioreactor (SMAHBR is expected to increase the organic material removal. The purpose of this study was to determine the performance of submerged membrane bioreactor and activated carbon adsorption capacity of organic materials in wastewater. This study used SIER (Surabaya Industrial Estate Rungkut – Surabaya, Indonesia waste as activated sludge operated at Mixed Liquor Suspended Solid (MLSS concentrations of 8000 and 15000 mg/l, and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD concentrations of 1500, 2500 mg/l, Sludge Retention Time (SRT of 10;20; and 30 days and activated carbon variables of 0%; 2.5%; 5%; 7.5%; 10%. The results showed that the fouling potential occurred at high MLSS where the COD removal occurred at PAC addition of 10% reaching 91.86%. High Soluble Microbial Product (SMP accumulation (± 10 mg/l occurred in short SRT and high MLSS concentration. PAC addition resulted in decreased microorganisms in the reactor and better effluent of SMAHBR, as a result, the performance of the submerged membrane bioreactor would be restored.

  9. Bubble Formation at a Submerged Orifice for Aluminum Foams Produced by Gas Injection Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xueliu; Chen, Xiang; Liu, Xingnan; Zhang, Huiming; Li, Yanxiang

    2013-02-01

    The bubble formation at a submerged orifice in the process of aluminum foams produced by gas injection method is investigated. The experimental results show that the increase of the gas flow rate and the orifice diameter can lead to increasing of the bubble size. The large orifice can make the frequency of bubble formation decrease by slowing down the increase of the gas chamber pressure when the gas flow rate increases. The effect of the gas chamber volume on the bubble size can be ignored in the experiment when it expands from 1 to 125 cm3. A theoretical model of bubble formation, expansion, and detachment under constant flow conditions is established to predict the bubble size. The theoretical predictions for air-aluminum melt systems are consistent with the experimental results.

  10. Powder injection molding of Stellite 6 powder: Sintering, microstructural and mechanical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gülsoy, H. Özkan [Marmara University, Technology Faculty, Metall. and Mater. Eng., 34722 Istanbul (Turkey); Özgün, Özgür, E-mail: oozgun@bingol.edu.tr [Bingol University, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Mechanical Eng. Dep., 12000 Bingol (Turkey); Bilketay, Sezer [Marmara University, Technology Faculty, Metall. and Mater. Eng., 34722 Istanbul (Turkey)

    2016-01-10

    The purpose of this study was to produce Co-based Stellite 6 superalloy components by using the method of Powder Injection Molding (PIM) and to characterize the microstructural and mechanical properties of the produced components. The experimental studies were started through the formation of feedstock by mixing Stellite 6 powder with a multicomponent binder system. Prepared feedstock was formed by utilizing powder injection molding technique. Then the molded samples were subjected to the solvent and thermal debinding processes. Different sintering cycles were applied to the raw components for the purpose of determining the optimum sintering conditions. The densities of the sintered components were determined in accordance with the Archimedes' principle. The microstructural characterization was performed through scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis, energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) analyses, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. Hardness measurement and tensile test were conducted in order to determine the mechanical properties. The results illustrated that the injection molded Stellite 6 components were composed of fine and equiaxed grains, plenty of carbide precipitates exhibiting homogenous distribution throughout the microstructure formed at the grain boundaries and thus the mechanical properties were considerably high.

  11. Heat and mass transfer of submerged helium injection in liquid oxygen vessel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Youngsuk; Cho, Namkyung; Baek, Seungwhan; Jeong, Sangkwon

    2014-11-01

    The submerged helium injection process results in the heat and mass transfer between the helium bubble and the cryogenic liquid. The objective of this paper is to analyze the dynamics of the heat and mass transfer process. It is observed that during the helium injection process the dynamics of mass transfer is dominant and the transient heat transfer is negligible. The helium bubble shape and rising patterns are observed with a visualization device that helps to discern the dominant process between heat transfer and mass transfer. The clustering patterns such as coalescence of helium bubbles are observed with the visualization device. The visualization results indicate that, it is very difficult to determine the representative size of bubbles due to the irregular shape of the helium bubbles. The shape and size of the helium bubbles are important parameters for evaluating the overall mass transfer coefficient (kGA) which is the essential parameter for calculating the evaporation rate of the bulk liquid into the helium bubbles. In this paper, the simplified lumped model is considered to fairly approximate the evaporation rate of the cryogenic liquid into the bubbles and the cooling rate of helium injection. The empirical correlation for the average concentration (C‾A) of evaporated cryogenic liquid into the helium bubbles is presented and the overall mass transfer coefficients (kGA) are calculated as the result of the lumped model. The proposed model and empirical correlations are compared with the experimental results, and the comparison result shows good agreement with differences that are less than ±0.4 K.

  12. Studies on the Production of Pectinase from Tamarind Kernel Powder by Submerged Fermentation using Aspergillus Species,and Optimization of Medium Using Design Expert

    OpenAIRE

    Viswanathan, R.; JagadeeshBabu, P. E.

    2008-01-01

    Six strains of filamentous fungi (Aspergillus foetidus NCIM 505, Aspergillus foetidus NCIM 510, Aspergillus foetidus NCIM 1027, Aspergillus niger NCIM 548, Aspergillus niger NCIM 616 and Aspergillus awamorii NCIM 885) were compared for their capacity to produce exo-pectinase in submerged fermentation (SMF) from a new substrate (tamarind kernel powder; TKP). Maximum pectinolytic activity was reached at 72 h of growth, the best fungal strain being A. foetidus NCIM 505. Different types of car...

  13. Degradation of a model azo dye in submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor (SAMBR) operated with powdered activated carbon (PAC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baêta, B E L; Luna, H J; Sanson, A L; Silva, S Q; Aquino, S F

    2013-10-15

    This work investigated the anaerobic degradation of the model azo dye Remazol Yellow Gold RNL in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (UASB) and two submerged anaerobic membrane (SAMBR) bioreactors, one of which (SAMBR-1) was operated with powdered activated carbon (PAC) in its interior. The reactors were operated at 35 °C with a hydraulic retention time of 24 h in three operational phases, aimed to assess the effect of external sources of carbon (glucose) or redox mediator (yeast extract) on the removal or color and organic matter. The results showed that removal efficiencies of COD (73-94%) and color (90-94%) were higher for SAMBR-1 when compared to SAMBR-2 (operated without PAC) and UASB reactors. In addition, the presence of PAC in SAMBR-1 increased reactor stability, thereby leading to a lower accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFA). The microfiltration membrane was responsible for an additional removal of ~50% of soluble residual COD in the form of VFA, thus improving permeate quality. On its turn, PAC exhibited the ability to adsorb byproducts (aromatic amines) of azo dye degradation as well as to act as source of immobilized redox mediator (quinone groups on its surface), thereby enhancing color removal. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Particle morphology influence on mechanical and biocompatibility properties of injection molded Ti alloy powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gülsoy, H Özkan; Gülsoy, Nagihan; Calışıcı, Rahmi

    2014-01-01

    Titanium and Titanium alloys exhibits properties that are excellent for various bio-applications. Metal injection molding is a processing route that offers reduction in costs, with the added advantage of near net-shape components. Different physical properties of Titanium alloy powders, shaped and processed via injection molding can achieve high complexity of part geometry with mechanical and bioactivity properties, similar or superior to wrought material. This study describes that the effect of particle morphology on the microstructural, mechanical and biocompatibility properties of injection molded Ti-6Al-4V (Ti64) alloy powder for biomaterials applications. Ti64 powders irregular and spherical in shape were injection molded with wax based binder. Binder debinding was performed in solvent and thermal method. After debinding the samples were sintered under high vacuum. Metallographic studies were determined to densification and the corresponding microstructural changes. Sintered samples were immersed in a simulated body fluid (SBF) with elemental concentrations that were comparable to those of human blood plasma for a total period of 15 days. Both materials were implanted in fibroblast culture for biocompatibility evaluations were carried out. The results show that spherical and irregular powder could be sintered to a maximum theoretical density. Maximum tensile strength was obtained for spherical shape powder sintered. The tensile strength of the irregular shape powder sintered at the same temperature was lower due to higher porosity. Finally, mechanical tests show that the irregular shape powder has lower mechanical properties than spherical shape powder. The sintered irregular Ti64 powder exhibited better biocompatibility than sintered spherical Ti64 powder. Results of study showed that sintered spherical and irregular Ti64 powders exhibited high mechanical properties and good biocompatibility properties.

  15. Micro powder-injection moulding of metals and ceramics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    for polymeric materials different types of micro injection moulding are suitable. The first plastic products manufactured by micro injection moulding have successfully entered the market. The logical question now is how to proceed in case of applications that require better material properties than those offered by polymers.

  16. Validation of precision powder injection molding process simulations using a spiral test geometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marhöfer, Maximilian; Müller, Tobias; Tosello, Guido

    2015-01-01

    Like in many other areas of engineering, process simulations find application in precision injection molding to assist and optimize the quality and design of precise products and the molding process. Injection molding comprises mainly the manufacturing of plastic components. However, the variant...... of precision powder injection molding for the production of metallic and ceramic micro parts raises more and more interest though. Consequently, in the entire field the demand for simulation tools increases constantly, too. The present work reports the material characterization of feedstocks which are used...... for powder injection molding. This characterization includes measurements of rheological, thermal, and pvT behavior of the powder-binder-mixes. The acquired material data was used to generate new material models for the database of the commercially available Autodesk Moldflow® simulation software...

  17. Mathematical Model of Hot Metal Desulfurization by Powder Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Cepeda Rodríguez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although there have been a numerous number of studies on mathematical model of hot metal desulfurization by deep injection of calcium carbide, the research field as a whole is not well integrated. This paper presents a model that takes into account the kinetics, thermodynamics, and transport processes to predict the sulfur levels in the hot metal throughout a blow. The model could be utilized to assess the influence of the treatment temperature, rate of injection, gas flow rate, and initial concentration of sulfur on the desulfurization kinetics. In the second part of this paper an analysis of the industrial data for injection of calcium carbide using this model is described. From a mathematical model that describes the characteristics of a system, it is possible to predict the behavior of the variables involved in the process, resulting in savings of time and money. Discretization is realized through the finite difference method combined with interpolation in the border domain by Taylor series.

  18. Influence of Powder Injection Parameters in High-Pressure Cold Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Ozan C.; Widener, Christian A.

    2017-10-01

    High-pressure cold spray systems are becoming widely accepted for use in the structural repair of surface defects of expensive machinery parts used in industrial and military equipment. The deposition quality of cold spray repairs is typically validated using coupon testing and through destructive analysis of mock-ups or first articles for a defined set of parameters. In order to provide a reliable repair, it is important to not only maintain the same processing parameters, but also to have optimum fixed parameters, such as the particle injection location. This study is intended to provide insight into the sensitivity of the way that the powder is injected upstream of supersonic nozzles in high-pressure cold spray systems and the effects of variations in injection parameters on the nature of the powder particle kinetics. Experimentally validated three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (3D CFD) models are implemented to study the particle impact conditions for varying powder feeder tube size, powder feeder tube axial misalignment, and radial powder feeder injection location on the particle velocity and the deposition shape of aluminum alloy 6061. Outputs of the models are statistically analyzed to explore the shape of the spray plume distribution and resulting coating buildup.

  19. Influence of capillary die geometry on wall slip of highly filled powder injection molding compounds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sanétrník, D.; Hausnerová, B.; Filip, Petr; Hnátková, E.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 325, February (2018), s. 615-619 ISSN 0032-5910 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA17-26808S Grant - others:Ministerstvo školství, mládeže a tělovýchovy (MŠMT)(CZ) LO1504 Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : powder injection molding * highly filled polymer * wall slip * capillary entrance angle Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 2.942, year: 2016

  20. Application of powder injection moulding for manufacturing of tool composite materials

    OpenAIRE

    G. Matula; A. Jędrzejewska-Anioł; J. Niespodziański

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this work is development of the tool composites on the basis of T15 HSS contained 10% of carbides. This tool material were manufactured by Powder Injection Moulding method and sintered. Design/methodology/approach: Torque-load test, rheological tests, thermal debinding, sintering, hardness test and microstructure examinations. Findings: Examination of the effect of the binder type and portion on structure and properties of the experimental tool materials...

  1. Effect of Alumina Nanoparticles on the Rheological Behavior of Aluminum-Binder Mixtures for Powder Injection Molding

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    Hassan Abdoos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Preparation of appropriate powder-binder mixtures is the crucial step of powder injection molding process. Hence, the rheological properties of powder-binder mixture are important factors in production of sound parts using powder injection molding. Nowadays, the use of nanoparticles in powder injection molding is increasing due to the improved properties and dimensional precision of the final parts. On the other hand, nanoparticles can initiate problems such as agglomeration and loss of rheological properties and homogeneity. In the present study, the rheological behavior of aluminum mixtures containing nanoalumina particles was investigated. Two powder loadings of aluminum powder (54 vol% and 60 vol%, in which 0, 3, 6 and 9 wt% of aluminum was replaced with nanoalumina, were used. The powder systems were blended with the molten binder system in a banbury internal mixer and the rheological properties of the resulting mixtures were evaluated. All feedstocks showed pseudo-plastic behavior. The presence of nanoparticles increased the viscosity of feedstocks. Due to overwhelming particles cohesion by hydrodynamic forces, the viscosity of the mixtures decreased at high shear rates. Tap density results confirmed an improvement in packing compressibility of the mentioned powders. Shear rate sensitivity decreased with incorporation of nanoparticles into the mixtures. This phenomenon improved the injection capability through further reduction in viscosity.

  2. Injection molded plastic helical gear filled with carbon powder made from rice hull

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yen Chu; Itagaki, Takayoshi; Takahashi, Hideo; Takahashi, Mikio

    2017-07-01

    Natural materials are focused on the ecological responsibility, all over the world. The rice-hull contains natural silica about 20 wt.%. Therefore, a carbonized rice-hull; Rice-Hull-Silica-Carbon (RHSC) is focused as effective utilization of the discarded rice hull. In this study, test plastic helical gears were made form polyacetal copolymer filled with RHSC powder by injection molding. Test helical gears were operated on endurance test. The bulk temperature and noise of test gears were measured during gears operation. Then, the tooth damage of test gears were investigated by using optical microscope. It is clarified that difference of tooth damage by kind of test gears. Moreover, the transition of gear bulk temperature and noise during operation are investigated. Based on these results, the effect of RHSC powder is discussed. From the discussions, it seems reasonable to conclude : (1) The heat resistance of plastic gear is improved by adding the RHSC powder. (2) The fatigue life of plastic gear is improved by adding suitable amount of the RHSC powder. (3) The sound pressure level of plastic gear is reduced by adding the smaller median grain diameter of RHSC powder.

  3. Investigation of the powder loading of gas-atomized Ti6Al4V powder using an ‘in-house’ binder for metal injection moulding

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Seerane, MN

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available . Development of niobium powder injection molding. Part II: Debinding and sintering. International Journal of Refractory Metals and Hard Materials, vol. 25. p. 227. Ahn, S., Park, S.J.. Lee, S., Atre, S.V.. and German, R.M. 2009. Effect of powders... and binders on material properties and molding parameters in iron and stainless steel powder injection molding process. Powder Technology, vol. 193. p. 162. 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 0.00246 0.00248 0.0025 0.00252 0.00254 0...

  4. Wall-slip of highly filled powder injection molding compounds: Effect of flow channel geometry and roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausnerova, Berenika; Sanetrnik, Daniel; Paravanova, Gordana

    2014-05-01

    The paper deals with the rheological behavior of highly filled compounds proceeded via powder injection molding (PIM) and applied in many sectors of industry (automotive, medicine, electronic or military). Online rheometer equipped with slit dies varying in surface roughness and dimensions was applied to investigate the wall-slip as a rheological phenomenon, which can be considered as a parameter indicating the separation of compound components (polymer binder and metallic powder) during high shear rates when injection molded.

  5. Preparation and validation of a skin model for the evaluation of intradermal powder injection devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yibin; Winter, Gerhard; Myschik, Julia

    2012-06-01

    A very promising novel needle-free application method is epidermal powder immunisation, a method delivering particulate vaccines into the viable epidermis of human skin where a dense network of immunocompetent cells resides. These antigen-presenting cells (Langerhans cells) are able to recognise antigens, process them and present them to naïve T-cells and induce effective immune responses. Powder injection devices are being developed, and their evaluation is essential before applying them on live animals and individuals. An appropriate skin model will accelerate the development of such injection devices. Different films made from gelatin, silicon and agar were prepared and investigated as skin model candidates for the evaluation of powder injection devices. The mechanical properties of the skin model candidates were measured with an indentation method using a texture analyser, and the results were compared to the properties of human skin and pig skin. The indentation behaviour of the model films and the biological skin samples suggest that gelatin films plasticised with glycerol are very well suitable for a skin model. The mechanical properties of gelatin based films can be tailored by changing the glycerol content in the film making it even possible to simulate human skin with different mechanical properties as the mechanical properties depend on the individual, age, sex and site of injection. The stability of the gelatin films was also investigated under long-term storage. In addition, confocal laser scanning microscopy was used as a novel tool to determine the depths and size of fluorescently labelled particles in the gelatin model. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. INFLUENCE OF THE APPLIED ORGANIC LOAD (OLR ON TEXTILE WASTEWATER TREATMENT USING SUBMERGED ANAEROBIC MEMBRANE BIOREACTORS (SAMBR IN THE PRESENCE OF REDOX MEDIATOR AND POWDERED ACTIVATED CARBON (PAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. E. L. Baêta

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper evaluated the treatment of textile wastewater in submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactors (SAMBR operated on a bench scale. Particularly, the influence of operational conditions, such as the applied organic rate (OLR and the dilution factor (for toxicity attenuation of the textile wastewater, was evaluated on color and organic matter removal. In addition, the effect of powdered activated carbon (PAC on SAMBR-1 and the addition of yeast extract (source of the redox mediator riboflavin were also investigated. The results showed that reducing the textile wastewater dilution factor from 10× (phase 1 to 4× (phase 2 and 0× (no dilution decreased the COD and color removal efficiencies in both SAMBRs, probably due to an increase in the toxic load. Nevertheless, PAC adsorbed toxic compounds found in the textile wastewater and helped biomass acclimatization, which led to higher COD and color removal efficiencies in SAMBR-1. The presence of yeast extract enhanced color removal efficiencies 3-fold in both SAMBRs when they were fed with undiluted textile wastewater.

  7. Removal of intra- and extracellular microcystin by submerged ultrafiltration (UF) membrane combined with coagulation/flocculation and powdered activated carbon (PAC) adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şengül, Ayşe Büşra; Ersan, Gamze; Tüfekçi, Neşe

    2018-02-05

    In this study, we investigated the performance of conventional (coagulation/flocculation→powdered activated carbon [PAC] adsorption) and advanced treatment (coagulation/flocculation→PAC adsorption→submerged ultrafiltration [UF] membrane) processes separately and sequentially for the removal of total (intra- and extracellular) microcystin. Results of the conventional treatment process demonstrated that coagulation/flocculation alone was not effective (up to 70%) for the removal of total microcystin, while the uptake of total microcystin was achieved up to 84% by PAC adsorption (PAC dose of 20mg/L). In addition, the adsorption kinetic mechanism of PAC was also examined using several kinetic models. Results showed that the pseudo-second order (PSOM) and Weber-Morris intraparticle diffusion model (IPDM) are the most suitable models for this study (r2>0.98 and p-values ≤0.05). On the other hand, up to 94% of microcystin was effectively removed when the coagulation/flocculation and PAC systems were combined with UF membranes. Also, the permeate concentration was found to be 0.3mg/L, which is below the World Health Organization (WHO) guideline value of 1μg/L. Overall results indicated that higher removal of microcystin occurred using the advanced treatment process. Therefore, this combined system appears to be a promising treatment technique for the removal of total microcystin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A Mathematical Model for the Multiphase Transport and Reaction Kinetics in a Ladle with Bottom Powder Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Wentao; Zhu, Miaoyong

    2017-08-01

    A computation fluid dynamics-population balance model-simultaneous reaction model (CFD-PBM-SRM) coupled model has been proposed to study the multiphase flow behavior and refining reaction kinetics in a ladle with bottom powder injection, and some new and important phenomena and mechanisms are presented. For the multiphase flow behavior, the effects of bubbly plume flow, powder particle motion, particle-particle collision and growth, particle-bubble collision and adhesion, and powder particle removal into top slag are considered. For the reaction kinetics, the mechanisms of multicomponent simultaneous reactions, including Al, S, Si, Mn, Fe, and O, at the multi-interface, including top slag-liquid steel interface, air-liquid steel interface, powder droplet-liquid steel interface, and bubble-liquid steel interface, are presented, and the effect of sulfur solubility in the powder droplet on the desulfurization is also taken into account. Model validation is carried out using hot tests in a 2-t induction furnace with bottom powder injection. The result shows that the powder particles gradually disperse in the entire furnace; in the vicinity of the bottom slot plugs, the desulfurization product CaS is liquid phase, while in the upper region of the furnace, the desulfurization product CaS is solid phase. The predicted sulfur contents by the present model agree well with the measured data in the 2-t furnace with bottom powder injection.

  9. A Mathematical Model for the Multiphase Transport and Reaction Kinetics in a Ladle with Bottom Powder Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Wentao; Zhu, Miaoyong

    2017-12-01

    A computation fluid dynamics-population balance model-simultaneous reaction model (CFD-PBM-SRM) coupled model has been proposed to study the multiphase flow behavior and refining reaction kinetics in a ladle with bottom powder injection, and some new and important phenomena and mechanisms are presented. For the multiphase flow behavior, the effects of bubbly plume flow, powder particle motion, particle-particle collision and growth, particle-bubble collision and adhesion, and powder particle removal into top slag are considered. For the reaction kinetics, the mechanisms of multicomponent simultaneous reactions, including Al, S, Si, Mn, Fe, and O, at the multi-interface, including top slag-liquid steel interface, air-liquid steel interface, powder droplet-liquid steel interface, and bubble-liquid steel interface, are presented, and the effect of sulfur solubility in the powder droplet on the desulfurization is also taken into account. Model validation is carried out using hot tests in a 2-t induction furnace with bottom powder injection. The result shows that the powder particles gradually disperse in the entire furnace; in the vicinity of the bottom slot plugs, the desulfurization product CaS is liquid phase, while in the upper region of the furnace, the desulfurization product CaS is solid phase. The predicted sulfur contents by the present model agree well with the measured data in the 2-t furnace with bottom powder injection.

  10. Orientation of Carbon Fibers in Copper matrix Produced by Powder Injection Molding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan Shirazi M.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Fiber orientation is a big challenge in short fiber reinforced composites. Powder injection molding (PIM process has some intrinsic fiber alignment associated with it. During PIM process fibers in skin region of moldings are aligned as these regions experience higher shear flow caused by the mold walls. Fibers in the core region remain randomly aligned as these regions are far from mold walls and experience lesser shear flow. In this study short carbon fiber (CF reinforced copper matrix composite was developed by PIM process. Two copper composite feedstock formulations were prepared having 5 vol% and 10 vol% CFs and a wax based binder system. Fiber orientation was controlled during injection molding by using a modified mold that has a diverging sprue. The sprue creates converging flow when feedstock enters into the mold cavity. Fiber orientation was analysed after molding using FESEM. The orientation of fibers can be controlled by controlling flow of feedstock into the mold.

  11. Rheological study of copper and copper grapheme feedstock for powder injection molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azaman, N. Emira Binti; Rafi Raza, M.; Muhamad, N.; Niaz Akhtar, M.; Bakar Sulong, A.

    2017-01-01

    Heatsink is one of the solution to optimize the performance of smart electronic devices. Copper and its composites are helping the electronic industry to solve the heating problem. Copper-graphene heat sink material with enhanced thermal conductivity is the ultimate goal.Powder injection molding (PIM) has advantages of high precision and production rate, complex shape, low cost and suitabality for metal and cremics.PIM consists of four sub sequential steps; feedstock preparation, molding, debinding and sintering. Feedstock preparation is a critical step in PIM process. Any deficiency at this stage cannot be recovered at latter stages. Therefore, this research was carried out to investigate the injectability of copper and copper graphene composite using PIM. PEG based multicomponent binder system was used and the powder loading was upto 7vol.% less than the critical powder loading was used to provide the wettability of the copper powder and graphene nanoplatelets (GNps). Corpper-graphene feedstock contained 0.5vol.% of GNps . To ensure the homogeneity of GNps within feedstock a unique technique was addopted. The microscopic results showed that the feedstock is homogeneous and ready for injection. The viscosity-shear rate relationship was determined and results showed that the addition of 0.5vol.% of GNps in copper has increased the viscosity upto 64.9% at 140˚C than that of pure copper feedstock. This attribute may be due to the large surface area of GNps. On the other hand, by increasing the temperature, viscosity of the feedstock was decreased, which was recommended for PIM. The overall viscosity and share rate lies within the range recommended for PIM process. It is clear that both feedstocks showed pseudo plastic behaviour which is suitable for PIM process. In the pseudo plastic behaviour, the viscosity decreases with the shear rate. It may be due to change in the structure of the solid particles or the binder. The molding results showed that both copper

  12. Molding Properties of Inconel 718 Feedstocks Used in Low-Pressure Powder Injection Molding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fouad Fareh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of binders and temperature on the rheological properties of feedstocks used in low-pressure powder injection molding was investigated. Experiments were conducted on different feedstock formulations obtained by mixing Inconel 718 powder with wax-based binder systems. The shear rate sensitivity index and the activation energy were used to study the degree of dependence of shear rate and temperature on the viscosity of the feedstocks. The injection performance of feedstocks was then evaluated using an analytical moldability model. The results indicated that the viscosity profiles of feedstocks depend significantly on the binder constituents, and the secondary binder constituents play an important role in the rheological behavior (pseudoplastic or near-Newtonian exhibited by the feedstock formulations. Viscosity values as low as 0.06 to 2.9 Pa·s were measured at high shear rates and high temperatures. The results indicate that a feedstock containing a surfactant agent exhibits the best moldability characteristics.

  13. Theoretical and Practical Aspects of Pneumatic Powder Injection into Liquid Alloys with a Non-Submerged Lance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jezierski J.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Technologia wdmuchiwania proszków do ciekłego metalu jest znana od kilkudziesięciu lat i z powodzeniem stosowana w różnorodnych procesach metalurgicznych i odlewniczych. Zdecydowanie najczęściej stosowane jest rozwiązanie z użyciem lancy zanurzonej pod lustro obrabianego stopu, jako łatwiejsze choć nie pozbawione wielu istotnych wad. W pracy zaprezentowano zakończone kompleksowe badania autorów nad procesem wdmuchiwania proszków bez zanurzania lancy w kąpieli. Przedstawiono nowe spojrzenie na tzw. „kąt stożka rozejścia strumienia” i jego wpływ na skuteczność procesu, przeanalizowano zagadnienie tzw. „skutecznego promienia strumienia” proponowanego przez wcześniejszych badaczy oraz opisano wyniki badań symulacyjnych oraz eksperymentów wdmuchiwania, zarejestrowanych z użyciem kamery do szybkich zdjęć. Podjęto się także ostatecznego porównania rozwiązań lancy zwykłej i opracowanej przez autorów tzw. „lancy kołnierzowej” wskazując na zalety tej drugiej, jako narzędzia do obróbki niewielkich objętości ciekłych stopów np. w procesach wprowadzania żelazostopów czy też modyfikacji.

  14. Formulation Screening and Freeze-Drying Process Optimization of Ginkgolide B Lyophilized Powder for Injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Daichun; Galvanin, Federico; Yu, Ying

    2017-08-28

    The purpose of this study was to prepare ginkgolide B (GB) lyophilized powder for injection with excellent appearance and stable quality through a formulation screening and by optimizing the freeze-drying process. Cremophor EL as a solubilizer, PEG 400 as a latent solvent, and mannitol as an excipient were mixed to increase the solubility of GB in water to more than 18 times (about from 2.5 × 10-4 mol/L (0.106 mg/mL) to 1.914 mg/mL). Formulation screening was conducted by orthogonal design where the content of GB in the solution before lyophilization (using external standard method of HPLC) and reconstitution time after lyophilization were the two evaluation indexes. The optimized formulations were GB in an amount of 2 mg/mL, Cremophor EL in an amount of 16% (v/v), PEG 400 in an amount of 9% (v/v), mannitol in an amount of 8% (w/v), and the solution pH of 6.5. Through four single-factor experiments (GB adding order, preparation temperature of GB solution, adding amount, and adsorption time of activated carbon), the preparation process of GB solution was confirmed. The glass transition temperature of maximally GB freeze-concentrated solution was - 17.6°C through the electric resistance method. GB lyophilized powder began to collapse at - 14.0°C, and the fully collapsed temperature was - 13.0°C, which were determined by freeze-drying microscope. When the collapse temperature was determined, the primary drying temperature was obtained. Thereby, the freeze-drying curve of GB lyophilized powder was initially identified. The freeze-drying process was optimized by orthogonal design, the qualified product appearance and residual moisture content were the two evaluation indexes. The optimized process parameters and process were (1) shelf temperature, decreased from room temperature to - 45.0°C, at 0.5°C/min in 2 h; (2) shelf temperature increased from - 45.0 to - 25.0°C, at 0.1°C/min, maintained for 3 h, and the chamber pressure was held at 10 Pa; (3

  15. Estimates of increased black carbon emissions from electrostatic precipitators during powdered activated carbon injection for mercury emissions control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clack, Herek L

    2012-07-03

    The behavior of mercury sorbents within electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) is not well-understood, despite a decade or more of full-scale testing. Recent laboratory results suggest that powdered activated carbon exhibits somewhat different collection behavior than fly ash in an ESP and particulate filters located at the outlet of ESPs have shown evidence of powdered activated carbon penetration during full-scale tests of sorbent injection for mercury emissions control. The present analysis considers a range of assumed differential ESP collection efficiencies for powdered activated carbon as compared to fly ash. Estimated emission rates of submicrometer powdered activated carbon are compared to estimated emission rates of particulate carbon on submicrometer fly ash, each corresponding to its respective collection efficiency. To the extent that any emitted powdered activated carbon exhibits size and optical characteristics similar to black carbon, such emissions could effectively constitute an increase in black carbon emissions from coal-based stationary power generation. The results reveal that even for the low injection rates associated with chemically impregnated carbons, submicrometer particulate carbon emissions can easily double if the submicrometer fraction of the native fly ash has a low carbon content. Increasing sorbent injection rates, larger collection efficiency differentials as compared to fly ash, and decreasing sorbent particle size all lead to increases in the estimated submicrometer particulate carbon emissions.

  16. Influence of powder particle injection velocity on the microstructure of Al-12Si/SiCp coatings produced by laser cladding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anandkumar, R.; Almeida, A.; Vilar, R.; Ocelik, V.; De Hosson, J. Th M.

    2009-01-01

    The influence of powder particle injection velocity on the microstructure of coatings consisting of an Al-Si matrix reinforced with SiC particles prepared by laser cladding from mixtures of powders of Al-12 wt.% Si alloy and SiC was investigated both experimentally and by modeling. At low injection

  17. Chemical stability of azacitidine suspensions for injection after cold-chain reconstitution of powder and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legeron, Rachel; Xuereb, Fabien; Djabarouti, Sarah; Saux, Marie-Claude; Breilh, Dominique

    2013-12-01

    The 72-hour chemical stability of refrigerated syringes of azacitidine suspension prepared via a cold-chain method is investigated. Three 25-mg/mL azacitidine suspensions were prepared from different lots of powdered drug. The suspensions were stored in 2-mL polypropylene syringes at 2-8 °C and protected from light. The concentrations of azacitidine and the mean area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) values for its degradation products were determined after 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours using high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. The degradation process was slow during the first 48 hours and then accelerated. During the first 48 hours of storage, 4.23% of the azacitidine was lost relative to the mean concentration measured at time zero, which complied with International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) guidance specifying a maximum change of 5% from the initial measured value. Two degradation products were present immediately after syringe preparation; N-formylribosylguanylurea formed rapidly (as indicated by a 35.62% increase from the baseline AUC in the first 12 hours), whereas ribosylguanylurea formation occurred more slowly (a 7.69% mean increase from the baseline AUC at 12 hours) but then rapidly accelerated. The study results indicate that properly prepared azacitidine syringes for injection can be administered up to two days later while maintaining conformance with ICH stability standards. Azacitidine 25-mg/mL suspensions reconstituted with refrigerated water (2-8 °C) and stored in propylene syringes were chemically stable during the first 48 hours when stored protected from light at 2-8 °C.

  18. Injection molding as a one-step process for the direct production of pharmaceutical dosage forms from primary powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggenreich, K; Windhab, S; Schrank, S; Treffer, D; Juster, H; Steinbichler, G; Laske, S; Koscher, G; Roblegg, E; Khinast, J G

    2016-05-30

    The objective of the present study was to develop a one-step process for the production of tablets directly from primary powder by means of injection molding (IM), to create solid-dispersion based tablets. Fenofibrate was used as the model API, a polyvinyl caprolactame-polyvinyl acetate-polyethylene glycol graft co-polymer served as a matrix system. Formulations were injection-molded into tablets using state-of-the-art IM equipment. The resulting tablets were physico-chemically characterized and the drug release kinetics and mechanism were determined. Comparison tablets were produced, either directly from powder or from pre-processed pellets prepared via hot melt extrusion (HME). The content of the model drug in the formulations was 10% (w/w), 20% (w/w) and 30% (w/w), respectively. After 120min, both powder-based and pellet-based injection-molded tablets exhibited a drug release of 60% independent of the processing route. Content uniformity analysis demonstrated that the model drug was homogeneously distributed. Moreover, analysis of single dose uniformity also revealed geometric drug homogeneity between tablets of one shot. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Influence of binder system and temperature on rheological properties of water atomized 316L powder injection moulding feedstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uğur GÖKMEN

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to obtain a proper powder injection molding the rheological behavior of feedstocks should be known. To determine the binder effect on the rheological behavior of 316L stainless steel powders feedstock two different feedstock were prepared. In the current experiments water atomized 316L stainless steel powders (-20 µm were used. Two types of binders, one of which is mainly paraffin wax can be dissolved in heptane and the other Polietilenglikol (PEG based and can be dissolved in water, were used. Polypropylene was used as binder and steric acid was used as lubricant for both binder systems as skeleton binder. Dry binder system were mixed for 30 min in a three dimensional Turbola. Capillary rheometer was used to characterize the rheological properties of feed stocks at 150-200 °C and a pressures of 0.165-2.069 MPa. Powder loading capacity of PEG and PW based feed stocks were found to be %55 and %61 respectively. The lowest viscosity of PEG and PW based feed stocks were found to be 304.707 Pa.s and 48.857 Pa.s respectively.Keywords: PIM, Binder, Rheological properties

  20. Flow injection analysis with on-line nylon powder extraction for room-temperature phosphorescence determination of thiabendazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccirilli, G N; Escandar, G M

    2009-07-30

    A fast and very selective flow-through phosphorescence optosensor was designed and characterized for the determination of the fungicide thiabendazole in water samples. For the first time, thiabendazole was determined using a flow-through optosensor based on the phosphorescence signals obtained when it is retained in a solid support. While thiabendazole does not phosphoresce in packing materials commonly used to fill the flow-cell, significant emission signals are observed when it is retained on nylon powder in the presence of iodide and sulfite. The experimental set-up was based on a flow-injection manifold coupled to an on-line phosphorescence detector containing nylon powder packed in a conventional flow-cell. Potassium iodide and sodium sulfite were added to sample aliquots to improve the thiabendazole phosphorescence and injected in the flow manifold using water as carrier. After the phosphorescence emission was registered, the analyte was eluted from the packed nylon with a 65% (v/v) methanol-water mixture. Optimal instrumentation, experimental and flow conditions were evaluated. Using a sample volume of 2000 microL, the analytical signal showed a very good linearity in the range 12.9-110 ng mL(-1), with a detection limit of 4.5 ng mL(-1), and a sample throughput of about 14 samples per hour. The effects of the presence of concomitant species in the thiabendazole phosphorescence signal were studied, and a comparison with the fluorescence nylon-powder optosensor was carried out and discussed. Finally, the applicability of the proposed optosensor was tested in water samples, and satisfactory recoveries ranging between 97% and 105% were obtained.

  1. Powder Injection Molding (PIM) for Low Cost Manufacturing of Intricate Parts to Net-Shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    NRC-IMI activities. Some of the most recent activities at NRC-IMI targets to PIM processing of titanium and Ti6Al4V alloy to match the most...0.13wt. % and carbon below 0.08 wt. %. Table 3 shows the actual stage of the optimization process using a commercial binder system and a Ti6Al4V ...powder containing 0.105wt.% of oxygen and 0.014wt.% of carbon (see Figure 7). Table 3: Interstitial contents of a PIM Ti6Al4V component O wt.% C wt

  2. Encapsulation of antigen-loaded silica nanoparticles into microparticles for intradermal powder injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yibin; Mathaes, Roman; Winter, Gerhard; Engert, Julia

    2014-10-15

    Epidermal powder immunisation (EPI) is being investigated as a promising needle-free delivery methods for vaccination. The objective of this work was to prepare a nanoparticles-in-microparticles (nano-in-micro) system, integrating the advantages of nanoparticles and microparticles into one vaccine delivery system for epidermal powder immunisation. Cationic mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNP-NH2) were prepared and loaded with ovalbumin as a model antigen. Loading was driven by electrostatic interactions. Ovalbumin-loaded silica nanoparticles were subsequently formulated into sugar-based microparticles by spray-freeze-drying. The obtained microparticles meet the size requirement for EPI. Confocal microscopy was used to demonstrate that the nanoparticles are homogeneously distributed in the microparticles. Furthermore, the silica nanoparticles in the dry microparticles can be re-dispersed in aqueous solution showing no aggregation. The recovered ovalbumin shows integrity compared to native ovalbumin. The present nano-in-micro system allows (1) nanoparticles to be immobilized and finely distributed in microparticles, (2) microparticle formation and (3) re-dispersion of nanoparticles without subsequent aggregation. The nanoparticles inside microparticles can (1) adsorb proteins to cationic shell/surface voids in spray-dried products without detriment to ovalbumin stability, (2) deliver antigens in nano-sized modes to allow recognition by the immune system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Magnesium Powder Injection Molding (MIM) of Orthopedic Implants for Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, M.; Schaper, J. G.; Suckert, M. R.; Dahms, M.; Ebel, T.; Willumeit-Römer, R.; Klassen, T.

    2016-04-01

    Metal injection molding (MIM) has a high potential for the economic near-net-shape mass production of small-sized and complex-shaped parts. The motivation for launching Mg into the MIM processing chain for manufacturing biodegradable medical implants is related to its compatibility with human bone and its degradation in a non-toxic matter. It has been recognized that the load-bearing capacity of MIM Mg parts is superior to that of biodegradable polymeric components. However, the choice of appropriate polymeric binder components and alloying elements enabling defect-free injection molding and sintering is a major challenge for the use of MIM Mg parts. This study considered the full processing chain for MIM of Mg-Ca alloys to achieve ultimate tensile strength of up to 141 MPa with tensile yield strength of 73 MPa, elongation at fracture Af of 7% and a Young's modulus of 38 GPa. To achieve these mechanical properties, a thermal debinding study was performed to determine optimal furnace and atmosphere conditions, sintering temperature, heating rates, sintering time and pressure.

  4. US State Submerged Lands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Submerged Lands Act (43 U.S.C. Section 1301 et seq.) grants coastal states title to natural resources located within their coastal submerged lands and navigable...

  5. New processing route for ZrSiO{sub 4} by powder injection moulding using an eco-friendly binder system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abajo, C.; Jimenez-Morales, A.; Torralba, J. M.

    2015-10-01

    New processing route has been developed for zircon based on powder injection moulding (PIM). Raw zircon powders, obtained from mineral sands, have been processed using a new water soluble binder system composed of PEG and CAB. Water solvent debinding stage has been studied in depth. On one hand, influence of some debinding parameters (temperature, debinding rate, additives and the use of climate chamber) has been tested. On the other hand, new binder systems were tested and compared with previous studied ones. The full PIM process has been carried out. Mixing, injection molding, solvent and thermal debinding and finally sintering, have been performed with the optimal binder system composition. Homogeneity along the process has been assessed by thermo-gravimetric analysis and by density measurements. After sintering, dimensional variation, density and fracture surface obtained after flexural strength test, have been analyzed. A competitive flexural strength has been achieved for injected zircon samples. (Author)

  6. Evaluation of the safety and efficiency of novel metallic implant scaler tips manufactured by the powder injection molding technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Kyung A; Kum, Kee-Yeon; Lee, Woo-Cheol; Baek, Seung-Ho; Choi, Hae-Won; Shon, Won-Jun

    2017-07-11

    Although many studies have compared the properties of ultrasonic scaling instruments, it remains controversial as to which is most suitable for implant scaling. This study evaluated the safety and efficiency of novel metallic ultrasonic scaler tips made by the powder injection molding (PIM) technique on titanium surfaces. Mechanical instrumentation was carried out using four types of metal scaler tips consisting of copper (CU), bronze (BR), 316 L stainless steel (316 L), and conventional stainless steel (SS) tips. The instrumented surface alteration image of samples was viewed with scanning electron microscope (SEM) and surface profile of the each sample was investigated with confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Arithmetic mean roughness (Ra) and maximum height roughness (Rmax) of titanium samples were measured and dissipated power of the scaler tip was estimated for scaling efficiency. The average Ra values caused by the 316 L and SS tip were about two times higher than those of the CU and BR tips (p < 0.05). The Rmax value showed similar results. The efficiency of the SS tip was about 3 times higher than that of CU tip, the 316 L tip is about 2.7 times higher than that of CU tip, and the BR tip is about 1.2 times higher than that of CU tip. Novel metallic bronze alloy ultrasonic scaler tip minimally damages titanium surfaces, similar to copper alloy tip. Therefore, this bronze alloy scaler tip may be promising instrument for implant maintenance therapy.

  7. Wear properties of 10 vol.% silicon carbide particulate-reinforced aluminum composite fabricated by powder injection molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patcharawit, T.; Ngeekoh, A.; Chuankrekkul, N.

    2017-09-01

    Wear properties of aluminum matrix composites reinforced with silicon carbide particulate of 10 vol.% addition was investigated in as-sintered and heat-treated conditions under varying loads at -5, -25, -45 and -65N using a ball on flat type of wear test. The composite was fabricated by powder injection molding and sintering at 650 °C for 3 hours. Solution treatment was carried out at 550 °C for 2 hours followed by age-hardening at 160 °C for 6 hours. SEM and XRD results indicated Al and SiCp are present as matrix and reinforcement, while AlN, Al2Cu and Mg2Si were also detected. Further precipitation of Al2Cu and Mg2Si in heat-treated samples promoted maximum macro and micro Vickers hardness values, which were achieved at 161 and 157 Hv respectively. Wear weight loss increased with increasing minus load level. The coefficient of friction was found in the range of 0.042-0.048. Wear mechanisms were determined as the combination of abrasive, adhesion and oxidation.

  8. Evaluation of Hydroxyl Ion Diffusion in Dentin and Injectable Forms and a Simple Powder-Water Calcium Hydroxide Paste: An in Vitro Study

    OpenAIRE

    Eftekhar, Behrooz; Moghimipour, Eskandar; Eini, Ebrahim; Jafarzadeh, Mansour; Behrooz, Narges

    2014-01-01

    Background: Intra canal medicaments are used to reduce the number of bacteria and reinfection in endodontic procedures. Calcium Hydroxide was introduced to endodontics by Herman as an intracanal antimicrobial agent. Objectives: The aim of this study was to present an injectable formulation of calcium hydroxide then compare the final pH of this new formulation with Metapaste and evaluate the effect of a mixture of Calcium Hydroxide powder with water on human extracted teeth. Patients and Metho...

  9. Hydrothermal synthesis of fine oxide powders

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The authors describe. hydrothermal decomposition,; hydrothermal metal oxidation,; hydrothermal reaction,; hydrothermal precipitation and hydrothermal hydrolysis,; hydrothermal electrochemical,; reactive electrode submerged arc,; hydrothermal microwave,; hydrothermal sonochemical,. etc and also ideal and real powders ...

  10. Rapid non-invasive quality control of semi-finished products for the food industry by direct injection mass spectrometry headspace analysis: the case of milk powder, whey powder and anhydrous milk fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhoul, Salim; Yener, Sine; Khomenko, Iuliia; Capozzi, Vittorio; Cappellin, Luca; Aprea, Eugenio; Scampicchio, Matteo; Gasperi, Flavia; Biasioli, Franco

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we demonstrated the suitability of direct injection mass spectrometry headspace analysis for rapid non-invasive quality control of semi-finished dairy ingredients, such as skim milk powder (SMP), whole milk powder (WMP), whey powder (WP) and anhydrous milk fat (AMF), which are widely used as ingredients in the food industry. In this work, for the first time, we applied proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) with a time-of-flight (ToF) analyzer for the rapid and non-invasive analysis of volatile compounds in different samples of SMP, WMP, WP and AMF. We selected different dairy ingredients in various concrete situations (e.g. same producer and different expiration times, different producers and same days of storage, different producers) based on their sensory evaluation. PTR-ToF-MS allowed the separation and characterization of different samples based on the volatile organic compound (VOC) profiles. Statistically significant differences in VOC content were generally coherent with differences in sensory evaluation, particularly for SMP, WMP and WP. The good separation of SMP samples from WMP samples suggested the possible application of PTR-ToF-MS to detect possible cases of adulteration of dairy ingredients for the food industry. Our findings demonstrate the efficient and rapid differentiation of dairy ingredients on the basis of the released VOCs via PTR-ToF-MS analysis and suggest this method as a versatile tool (1) for the facilitation/optimization of the selection of dairy ingredients in the food industry and (2) and for the prompt innovation in the production of dairy ingredients. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Evaluation of Hydroxyl Ion Diffusion in Dentin and Injectable Forms and a Simple Powder-Water Calcium Hydroxide Paste: An in Vitro Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eftekhar, Behrooz; Moghimipour, Eskandar; Eini, Ebrahim; Jafarzadeh, Mansour; Behrooz, Narges

    2014-01-01

    Background: Intra canal medicaments are used to reduce the number of bacteria and reinfection in endodontic procedures. Calcium Hydroxide was introduced to endodontics by Herman as an intracanal antimicrobial agent. Objectives: The aim of this study was to present an injectable formulation of calcium hydroxide then compare the final pH of this new formulation with Metapaste and evaluate the effect of a mixture of Calcium Hydroxide powder with water on human extracted teeth. Patients and Methods: A total of 49 extracted human single-canal roots without caries and visible microcracks were included in this study. The teeth were decoronated and length of teeth was measured 1 mm anatomic apex. The canals were prepared using step-back technique. A cavity was created in the middle third of the buccal surface of all roots. The teeth were randomly divided into five groups: Group A (n = 15): In this group the root canals were filled with a mixture of calcium hydroxide powder and distilled water. Group B (n = 15): Included roots that were filled with Metapaste. Group C (n = 15): Root canals of this group were filled with new formulation of calcium hydroxide paste. Group D (negative control, n = 2): Included roots that were filled with a mixture of calcium hydroxide powder and distilled water. Group E (positive control, n = 2): Root canals of this group were filled with a mixture of calcium hydroxide powder and distilled water. Each tooth was immersed in a separate closed container with 4 mL saline for 2 weeks, pH of liquids were measured with an electrical pH meter after 7 and 14 days. The SPSS software (version 13) was used for data analysis. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey tests were used for the statistical evaluation of results. Results: There was no significant difference at 7th day between the groups (P = 0.17) but at 14th day, a significant difference was observed between the groups (P = 0.04). Conclusions: The new formulation of calcium hydroxide with

  12. Peri-implant bone formation and surface characteristics of rough surface zirconia implants manufactured by powder injection molding technique in rabbit tibiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young-Seok; Chung, Shin-Hye; Shon, Won-Jun

    2013-05-01

    To evaluate osseointegration in rabbit tibiae and to investigate surface characteristics of novel zirconia implants made by powder injection molding (PIM) technique, using molds with and without roughened inner surfaces. A total of 20 rabbits received three types of external hex implants with identical geometry on the tibiae: machined titanium implants, PIM zirconia implants without mold etching, and PIM zirconia implants with mold etching. Surface characteristics of the three types of implant were evaluated. Removal torque tests and histomorphometric analyses were performed. The roughness of PIM zirconia implants was higher than that of machined titanium implants. The PIM zirconia implants exhibited significantly higher bone-implant contact and removal torque values than the machined titanium implants (P mold showed significantly higher removal torque values than PIM zirconia implants without using roughened mold (P mold etching technique can produce substantially rough surfaces on zirconia implants. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. Comparative mechanical evaluation of two 2,5D C/SiC composites processed via chemical vapor infiltration and powder infiltration/polymer injection routes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudre, O.; Parlier, M. [ONERA, Chatillon (France); Bouillon, E. [SEP, Saint Medard-en-Jalles (France)

    1995-12-01

    Ceramic matrix composites were processed using two matrix infiltration techniques: chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) and powder infiltration/polymer injection. However, the two composites were elaborated from an identical fiber preform, and with a similar pyrocarbon interphase deposited onto the fibers by CVI. They reached comparable densification level and had an equivalent monotonic tensile behavior, although the CVI technique gave a higher modulus and a 10% higher tensile strength. The main differences were found in the details of the mechanical behavior (Young`s modulus evolution, residual strain and unloading-loading loops) and in some fatigue behaviors. These differences were related to the matrix modulus and microstructure. Merits of the resulting composites and the two techniques were discussed.

  14. YiQiFuMai powder injection ameliorates blood–brain barrier dysfunction and brain edema after focal cerebral ischemia–reperfusion injury in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao GS

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Guosheng Cao, Xinyi Ye, Yingqiong Xu, Mingzhu Yin, Honglin Chen, Junping Kou, Boyang Yu Jiangsu Key Laboratory of TCM Evaluation and Translational Research, Department of Complex Prescription of TCM, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China Abstract: YiQiFuMai powder injection (YQFM is a modern preparation derived from the traditional Chinese medicine Sheng-Mai-San. YQFM is widely used in clinical practice in the People’s Republic of China, mainly for the treatment of microcirculatory disturbance-related diseases. However, little is known about its role in animals with ischemic stroke. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of YQFM on brain edema and blood–brain barrier (BBB dysfunction induced by cerebral ischemia–reperfusion (I/R injury. Male C57BL/6J mice underwent right middle cerebral artery occlusion for 1 hour with a subsequent 24-hour reperfusion to produce I/R injury. YQFM (three doses: 0.336, 0.671, and 1.342 g/kg was then given intraperitoneally (IP. The results demonstrated that YQFM significantly decreased infarct size, improved neurological deficits, reduced brain water content, and increased cerebral blood flow after I/R injury. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose micro-positron emission tomography imaging and hematoxylin and eosin staining results indicated that YQFM is able to ameliorate brain metabolism and histopathological damage after I/R. Moreover, YQFM administration reduced BBB leakage and upregulated the expression of zona occludens-1 (ZO-1 and occludin, which was confirmed by Evans Blue extravasation, Western blotting, and immunofluorescence assay. Our findings suggest that YQFM provides protection against focal cerebral I/R injury in mice, possibly by improving BBB dysfunction via upregulation of the expression of tight junction proteins. Keywords: YiQiFuMai powder injection, YQFM, ischemic stroke, blood–brain barrier, microvascular permeability, tight junctions

  15. Cars submerged in water.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    Crashes in which cars are submerged in deep water or in a ditch are often complicated and serious. Considering their severity and the fact that approximately half the fatalities in this crash type are not due to drowning but to injury, preventive measures are to be preferred above measures that have

  16. Identification of UV-absorbing extractables from rubber closures used in containers of injectable powder and safety assessment of leachables in the drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yulei; Wu, Ying; Zhu, Tingli; Li, Zhiyan; Zhang, Yilan

    2017-05-10

    Rubber closures have been of great concern to regulatory authorities on account of their potential safety risks to patients. The aim of our work is to provide part of data about the compatibility of the injectable powder and its packaging materials for the drug registration. In this report, methodologies were established to study the system of the preparation. Firstly, three major extractables were isolated by semi-preparative HPLC method combined with silica gel-based chromatographic methods. NMR spectra including 1D NMR (1H, 13C, DEPT135) and 2D NMR (COSY, HSQC, HMBC) were introduced to identify the extractables, besides HPLC, GC-MS, ESI-MS/MS and HRMS. The extractables were determined to be N-(2-(2,2,4,4-tetramethylcyclohexyl)allyl) benzo[d]thiazol-2-amine (1), 2,6-Di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol (2) and sulfur (3) respectively. Then, to address safety concerns, approaches including QSAR analysis, the TTC and comprehensive literature evaluation methods to toxicological safety evaluation of the target compounds were established, where the safety threshold such as TTC and PDE values were developed. Finally, the migration testing of the extractables were performed to assess the leaching behavior of the rubber closures. An optimized analysis method was proposed using SPE and HPLC with an ultraviolet detector, which demonstrated good linearity, acceptable accuracy and precision. The levels of the target compounds in the powder were measured and the calculated worst case exposure of extractable 2 exceeded the TTC limit of 1.5μg/day, indicating that the products may possess potential health risks to patients. In contrast to previous studies, various NMR techniques, which were rarely applied to identify unknown extractables from rubber closures in the literature, were discussed for the structural elucidation of rubber closures extractables. Among the target compounds, extractable 1 was a new compound, whose isolation and structural elucidation were first reported here

  17. YiQiFuMai Powder Injection Protects against Ischemic Stroke via Inhibiting Neuronal Apoptosis and PKCδ/Drp1-Mediated Excessive Mitochondrial Fission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingqiong Xu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available YiQiFuMai (YQFM powder injection has been reported to be used in cardiovascular and nervous system diseases with marked efficacy. However, as a treatment against diseases characterized by hypoxia, lassitude, and asthenia, the effects and underlying mechanisms of YQFM in neuronal mitochondrial function and dynamics have not been fully elucidated. Here, we demonstrated that YQFM inhibited mitochondrial apoptosis and activation of dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1 in cerebral ischemia-injured rats, producing a significant improvement in cerebral infarction and neurological score. YQFM also attenuated oxidative stress-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis through increasing ATP level and mitochondria membrane potential (Δψm, inhibiting ROS production, and regulating Bcl-2 family protein levels in primary cultured neurons. Moreover, YQFM inhibited excessive mitochondrial fission, Drp1 phosphorylation, and translocation from cytoplasm to mitochondria induced by oxidative stress. We provided the first evidence that YQFM inhibited the activation, association, and translocation of PKCδ and Drp1 upon oxidative stress. Taken together, we demonstrate that YQFM ameliorates ischemic stroke-induced neuronal apoptosis through inhibiting mitochondrial dysfunction and PKCδ/Drp1-mediated excessive mitochondrial fission. These findings not only put new insights into the unique neuroprotective properties of YQFM associated with the regulation of mitochondrial function but also expand our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of ischemic stroke.

  18. Optimization of submerged vane parameters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Submerged vanes are airfoils which are in general placed at certain angle with respect to the flow direction in a channel to induce artificial circulations downstream. By virtue of these artificially generated circulations, submerged vanes were utilized to protect banks of rivers against erosion, to control shifting of rivers, to avoid ...

  19. Optimization of submerged vane parameters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H Sharma

    velocities simulated from CFD using standard k-x model were very much in accordance with what it was measured by Wang and Odgaard [4]. Thus, model can be used to study the turbulence characteristics around submerged vanes and to predict various parameters downstream of the submerged vanes. After the model ...

  20. Submerged AUV Charging Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A.; Chao, Yi; Curtin, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) are becoming increasingly important for military surveillance and mine detection. Most AUVs are battery powered and have limited lifetimes of a few days to a few weeks. This greatly limits the distance that AUVs can travel underwater. Using a series of submerged AUV charging stations, AUVs could travel a limited distance to the next charging station, recharge its batteries, and continue to the next charging station, thus traveling great distances in a relatively short time, similar to the Old West “Pony Express.” One solution is to use temperature differences at various depths in the ocean to produce electricity, which is then stored in a submerged battery. It is preferred to have the upper buoy submerged a reasonable distance below the surface, so as not to be seen from above and not to be inadvertently destroyed by storms or ocean going vessels. In a previous invention, a phase change material (PCM) is melted (expanded) at warm temperatures, for example, 15 °C, and frozen (contracted) at cooler temperatures, for example, 8 °C. Tubes containing the PCM, which could be paraffin such as pentadecane, would be inserted into a container filled with hydraulic oil. When the PCM is melted (expanded), it pushes the oil out into a container that is pressurized to about 3,000 psi (approx equals 20.7 MPa). When a valve is opened, the high-pressure oil passes through a hydraulic motor, which turns a generator and charges a battery. The low-pressure oil is finally reabsorbed into the PCM canister when the PCM tubes are frozen (contracted). Some of the electricity produced could be used to control an external bladder or a motor to the tether line, such that depth cycling is continued for a very long period of time. Alternatively, after the electricity is generated by the hydraulic motor, the exiting low-pressure oil from the hydraulic motor could be vented directly to an external bladder on the AUV, such that filling of the bladder

  1. Pharmacokinetics, Safety, and Tolerability of Amygdalin and Paeoniflorin After Single and Multiple Intravenous Infusions of Huoxue-Tongluo Lyophilized Powder for Injection in Healthy Chinese Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaobing; Shi, Fuguo; Zhang, Run; Sun, Chenglong; Gong, Chuting; Jian, Lingyan; Ding, Li

    2016-02-01

    Huoxue-Tongluo lyophilized powder for injection (HTLPI), a traditional Chinese medicine preparation, is a compound of Persicae semen and Paeoniae Radix Rubra that is used mainly for treating blood-stasis obstruction syndrome in the acute stage of cerebral ischemic stroke. Amygdalin (AD) and paeoniflorin (PF) are 2 typical bioactive components in HTLPI and were selected as indicators for this pharmacokinetic study of HTLPI. The objective of this study was to investigate the safety profile, tolerability, and pharmacokinetic properties of AD and PF after single and multiple intravenous infusions of HTLPI in healthy Chinese volunteers. Twenty-one healthy Chinese subjects were recruited for this open-label, single ascending-dose (3, 6, and 9 g) and multiple-dose (6 g, once daily) study. Safety profile was assessed by adverse events and physical examination throughout the study. Serial plasma and urine samples were analyzed by HPLC-MS/MS. Pharmacokinetic parameters of AD and PF were calculated using noncompartmental analysis. In the single-dose phase of the study, the mean maximum plasma concentration and the mean area under the plasma concentration-time curve of AD and PF increased proportionally with each dose escalation. In the multiple-dose phase, the steady state was achieved by day 4 after multiple-dose administration of 6 g HTLPI. Mean pharmacokinetic parameters achieved on day 1 were similar to those on day 7. No significant accumulation was observed after repeat doses of 6 g HTLPI. Approximately 79.6% of the administered AD and 48.4% of the administered PF were excreted unchanged in urine within 24 hours. No serious adverse events were observed during the entire study. The pharmacokinetic properties of AD and PF were linear after a single intravenous infusion of HTLPI in the dose range of 3-9 g. No systemic accumulation was observed with repeat doses of HTLPI. Sex had no significant effect on the pharmacokinetic properties of AD and PF. Intravenous infusion of

  2. Phase and size separations occurring during the injection of model pastes composed of β-tricalcium phosphate powder, glass beads and aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadier, S; Galea, L; Charbonnier, B; Baroud, G; Bohner, M

    2014-05-01

    Glass beads a few hundred micrometers in size were added to aqueous β-tricalcium phosphate pastes to simulate the effect of porogens and drug-loaded microspheres on the injectability of calcium phosphate cements and putties. The composition of the pastes was monitored during the injection process to assess the effect of glass bead content, glass bead size and paste composition on the paste injectability. The results revealed that the injection process led to both liquid and glass bead segregations: the liquid flowed faster than the glass beads, which themselves flowed faster than the β-tricalcium phosphate microparticles. In fact, even the particle size distribution of the glass beads was modified during injection. These results reveal that a good design of multiphasic injectable pastes is essential to prevent phase separation. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Drought and submergence tolerance in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hewei; Zhou, Yufan; Oksenberg, Nir; Ronald, Pamela

    2017-11-14

    The invention provides methods of genetically modified plants to increase tolerance to drought and/or submergence. The invention additionally provides plants having increased drought and/or submergence tolerance engineered using such methods.

  4. Injection molding ceramics to high green densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangels, J. A.; Williams, R. M.

    1983-01-01

    The injection molding behavior of a concentrated suspension of Si powder in wax was studied. It was found that the injection molding behavior was a function of the processing techniques used to generate the powder. Dry ball-milled powders had the best molding behavior, while air classified and impact-milled powders demonstrated poorer injection moldability. The relative viscosity of these molding batches was studied as a function of powder properties: distribution shape, surface area, packing density, and particle morphology. The experimental behavior, in all cases, followed existing theories. The relative viscosity of an injection molding composition composed of dry ball-milled powders could be expressed using Farris' relation.

  5. Submerged membrane distillation for desalination of water

    KAUST Repository

    Francis, Lijo

    2016-10-27

    Submerged membrane modules for use for desalination of water are disclosed. In one or more aspects, the membrane modules can be submerged either in a feed solution tank or the feed solution can pass through the lumen side of the membrane submerged within the tank. The feed solution can be a water-based feed stream containing an amount of salt.

  6. Study of the removal mechanism of magnesium from Al-Si liquid alloys using silica base minerals injection; Estudio del mecanismo de eliminacion de magnesio de aleaciones Al-Si en estado liquido mediante inyeccion de minerales base silice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz-Arroyo, R.; Escobedo-Bocardo, J. C.; Hernande-Garcia, H. M.; Cortes-Hernandez, D. A.; Terrones-Maldonado, M.; Rodriguez-Pulido, A.; Hernandez-Pinero, J. L.

    2010-07-01

    In order to eliminate magnesium from an A 380 Al-Si alloy at 750 degree centigrade, the submerged powder injection method, using an inert carrier gas (Ar), was applied. The injected powders in the liquid aluminum bath were zeolite, silica and mixtures of zeolite-silica minerals. For each experiment the response variables were: eliminated magnesium versus injection time and quantity of drosses produced. Chemical analysis by atomic absorption spectrometry showed that mixtures of silica-zeolite 66:34 wt% have the best results with regarding to the removal magnesium from 1 to 0.0066 wt%. During the elimination of magnesium complex stoichiometry compounds were formed due to the reactions among zeolite, water steam and liquid aluminum. These compounds were analyzed by XRD, SEM and TEM. The results obtained, along with using the FactSage 6 thermodynamic software, allowed to elucidate the reaction mechanism between the minerals used and liquid aluminum. (Author)

  7. Intravitreal injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antibiotic - intravitreal injection; Triamcinolone - intravitreal injection; Dexamethasone - intravitreal injection; Lucentis - intravitreal injection; Avastin - intravitreal injection; Bevacizumab - intravitreal injection; Ranibizumab - intravitreal injection; ...

  8. Plasma spheroidization of nickel powders in a plasma reactor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The technique involves injection of the powder into a plasma flame, melting, acceleration of the powder particles, impact and bonding with the substrate. Feedstock powders of metals, alloys and ceramics for thermal spray applications have to meet several requirements. Particle shape, size and its distribution, powder flow ...

  9. Differential Response of Floating and Submerged Leaves of Longleaf Pondweed to Silver Ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha Shabnam

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have investigated variations in the potential of floating and submerged leaves of longleaf pondweed (Potamogeton nodosus to withstand silver ion (Ag+-toxicity. Both floating and submerged leaves changed clear colorless AgNO3 solutions to colloidal brown in the presence of light. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the presence of distinct crystalline Ag-nanoparticles (Ag-NPs in these brown solutions. Powder X-ray diffraction pattern showed that Ag-NPs were composed of Ag0 and Ag2O. Photosystem (PS II efficiency of leaves declined upon exposure to Ag+ with a significantly higher decline in the submerged leaves than in the floating leaves. Similarly, Ag+ treatment caused a significant reduction in the carboxylase activity of the ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase in leaves. The reduction in this carboxylase activity was significantly higher in the submerged than in the floating leaves. Ag+ treatment also resulted in a significant decline in the levels of non-enzymatic and enzymatic antioxidants; the decline was significantly lower in the floating than in submerged leaves. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed the presence of Ag2O in these leaves. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis revealed a three-fold higher Ag content in the submerged than in floating leaves. Our study demonstrates that floating leaves of longleaf pondweed have a superior potential to counter Ag+-toxicity compared with submerged leaves, which could be due to superior potential of floating leaves to reduce Ag+ to less/non-toxic Ag0/Ag2O-nanoparticles/nanocomplexes. We suggest that modulating the genotype of longleaf pondweed to bear higher proportion of floating leaves would help in cleaning fresh water bodies contaminated with ionic forms of heavy metals.

  10. Flow and scour around vertical submerged structures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Although past investigations establish the effect of various parameters on scour around vertical submerged structures for live and clear water condition, yet further studies are required to analyze the scour around group of submerged structures for various bed sediments, understand the flow physics around the group and ...

  11. Development and Validation of a Rapid Turbidimetric Assay to Determine the Potency of Cefuroxime Sodium in Powder for Dissolution for Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela C. M. Vieira

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The cefuroxime sodium is a second generation cephalosporin indicated for infections caused by Gram-positive and Gram-negative microorganisms. Although this drug is highly studied and researched regarding the antimicrobial activity, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, there are few studies regarding the development of analytical methodology for this cephalosporin. Thus, research involving analytical methods is essential and highly relevant to optimize its analysis in the pharmaceutical industry and guarantee the quality of the product already sold. This study describes the development and validation of a microbiological assay applying the turbidimetric method for the determination of cefuroxime, using Micrococcus luteus ATCC 9341 as micro-organism test and 3x3 parallel line assay design, with nine tubes for each assay, as recommended by the Brazilian Pharmacopoeia. The developed and validated method showed excellent results of linearity, seletivity, precision and robustness, in the concentration range from 30.0 to 120.0 mg/mL, with 100.21% accuracy and content 99.97% to cefuroxime sodium in injectable pharmaceutical form.

  12. Iodine Removal Efficiency in Non-Submerged and Submerged Self-Priming Venturi Scrubber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Majid; Yan, Changqi; Sun, Zhongning; Gu, Haifeng; Wang, Junlong; Mehboob; Khurram [Harbin Engineering Univ., Harbin (China)

    2013-04-15

    The objective of this conducted research is to study the iodine removal efficiency in a self-priming venturi scrubber for submerged and non-submerged operating conditions experimentally and theoretically. The alkaline solution is used as an absorbent, which is prepared by dissolving sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and sodium thiosulphate (Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 3}) in water to remove the gaseous iodine (I{sub 2}) from the gas. Iodine removal efficiency is examined at various gas flow rates and inlet concentrations of iodine for submerged and non-submerged operating conditions. In the non-submerged venturi scrubber, only the droplets take part in iodine removal efficiency. However, in a submerged venturi scrubber condition, the iodine gas is absorbed from gas to droplets inside the venturi scrubber and from bubbles to surrounding liquid at the outlet of a venturi scrubber. Experimentally, it is observed that the iodine removal efficiency is greater in the submerged venturi scrubber as compare to a non-submerged venturi scrubber condition. The highest iodine removal efficiency of 0.99±0.001 has been achieved in a submerged self-priming venturi scrubber condition. A mathematical correlation is used to predict the theoretical iodine removal efficiency in submerged and non-submerged conditions, and it is compared against the experimental results. The Wilkinson et al. correlation is used to predict the bubble diameter theoretically whereas the Nukiyama and Tanasawa correlation is used for droplet diameter. The mass transfer coefficient for the gas phase is calculated from the Steinberger and Treybal correlation. The calculated results for a submerged venturi scrubber agree well with experimental results but underpredicts in the case of the non-submerged venturi scrubber.

  13. IODINE REMOVAL EFFICIENCY IN NON-SUBMERGED AND SUBMERGED SELF-PRIMING VENTURI SCRUBBER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAJID ALI

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this conducted research is to study the iodine removal efficiency in a self-priming venturi scrubber for submerged and non-submerged operating conditions experimentally and theoretically. The alkaline solution is used as an absorbent, which is prepared by dissolving sodium hydroxide (NaOH and sodium thiosulphate (Na2S2O3 in water to remove the gaseous iodine (I2 from the gas. Iodine removal efficiency is examined at various gas flow rates and inlet concentrations of iodine for submerged and non-submerged operating conditions. In the non-submerged venturi scrubber, only the droplets take part in iodine removal efficiency. However, in a submerged venturi scrubber condition, the iodine gas is absorbed from gas to droplets inside the venturi scrubber and from bubbles to surrounding liquid at the outlet of a venturi scrubber. Experimentally, it is observed that the iodine removal efficiency is greater in the submerged venturi scrubber as compare to a non-submerged venturi scrubber condition. The highest iodine removal efficiency of 0.99±0.001 has been achieved in a submerged self-priming venturi scrubber condition. A mathematical correlation is used to predict the theoretical iodine removal efficiency in submerged and non-submerged conditions, and it is compared against the experimental results. The Wilkinson et al. correlation is used to predict the bubble diameter theoretically whereas the Nukiyama and Tanasawa correlation is used for droplet diameter. The mass transfer coefficient for the gas phase is calculated from the Steinberger and Treybal correlation. The calculated results for a submerged venturi scrubber agree well with experimental results but underpredicts in the case of the non-submerged venturi scrubber.

  14. Powder diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, M.

    1995-12-31

    the importance of x-ray powder diffraction as an analytical tool for phase identification of materials was first pointed out by Debye and Scherrer in Germany and, quite independently, by Hull in the US. Three distinct periods of evolution lead to ubiquitous application in many fields of science and technology. In the first period, until the mid-1940`s, applications were and developed covering broad categories of materials including inorganic materials, minerals, ceramics, metals, alloys, organic materials and polymers. During this formative period, the concept of quantitative phase analysis was demonstrated. In the second period there followed the blossoming of technology and commercial instruments became widely used. The history is well summarized by Parrish and by Langford and Loueer. By 1980 there were probably 10,000 powder diffractometers in routine use, making it the most widely used of all x-ray crystallographic instruments. In the third, present, period data bases became firmly established and sophisticated pattern fitting and recognition software made many aspects of powder diffraction analysis routine. High resolution, tunable powder diffractometers were developed at sources of synchrotron radiation. The tunability of the spectrum made it possible to exploit all the subtleties of x-ray spectroscopy in diffraction experiments.

  15. Challenges of titanium metal injection moulding

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Benson, JM

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available . With the increased availability of higher quality titanium powder, metal injection moulding offers an attractive method for producing small, intricate components at a reasonable cost. This paper will present an overview of the metal injection moulding process...

  16. (YSZ) powders

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    XRD pattern for YSZ gel calcined at 900°C. Figure 3. Particle size distribution of the dry and wet ground slurries (20 vol.% solid content at a pH of 3). A. powder dry ground for 1 h; B, C, D, E. wet ground for 1, 2, 4, 10 h, res- pectively. Figure 4. Zeta-potential variation with pH for aqueous sus- pensions of 900°C calcined YSZ ...

  17. Impeller Submergence Depth for Stirred Tanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiyam T. Devi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Impeller submergence governs the performance of mixing tanks employed in oxygen transfer operation. Present work experimentally investigates the effect of impeller submergence depths on oxygen transfer and corresponding power consumption. It has been found that at higher range of impeller submergence, mixing tanks consume less power and gives higher values of oxygen transfer coefficient. Optimal range of submergence depth is 0.7 to 0.9 times the impeller diameter. Copyright ©2011 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved.(Received: 4th March 2011; Revised: 12nd July 2011; Accepted: 14th July 2011[How to Cite: T.T. Devi, A.P. Sinha, M. Thakre, and B. Kumar. (2011. Impeller Submergence Depth for Stirred Tanks. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 6 (2: 123-128. doi:10.9767/bcrec.6.2.826.123-128][How to Link / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.6.2.826.123-128 || or local: http://ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/bcrec/article/view/826] | View in 

  18. Laser Beam Submerged Arc Hybrid Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisgen, Uwe; Olschok, Simon; Jakobs, Stefan; Schleser, Markus; Mokrov, Oleg; Rossiter, Eduardo

    The laser beam-submerged arc hybrid welding method originates from the knowledge that, with increasing penetration depth, the laser beam process has a tendency to pore formation in the lower weld regions. The coupling with the energy-efficient submerged-arc process improves degassing and reduces the tendency to pore formation. The high deposition rate of the SA process in combination with the laser beam process offers, providing the appropriate choice of weld preparation, the possibility of welding plates with a thickness larger than 20° mm in a single pass, and also of welding thicker plates with the double-sided single pass technique.

  19. Multielement stoichiometry of submerged macrophytes across Yunnan plateau lakes (China)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xing, Wei; Wu, Haoping; Shi, Qiao; Hao, Beibei; Liu, Han; Wang, Zhixiu; Liu, Guihua

    2015-01-01

    .... We predicted that tissue element composition in submerged macrophytes is affected by lake trophic level and taxonomy, and submerged macrophytes have weak stoichiometric homeostasis for all above 16 elements...

  20. Oxygen dynamics in submerged rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colmer, Timothy D.; Pedersen, Ole

    2008-01-01

    Complete submergence of plants prevents direct O2 and CO2 exchange with air. Underwater photosynthesis can result in marked diurnal changes in O2 supply to submerged plants. Dynamics in pO2 had not been measured directly for submerged rice (Oryza sativa), but in an earlier study, radial O2 loss...

  1. Talcum powder poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... better the chance for recovery. Breathing in talcum powder can lead to very serious lung problems, even death. Use caution when using talcum powder on babies. Talc-free baby powder products are ...

  2. Benthic bacterial diversity in submerged sinkhole ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nold, Stephen C; Pangborn, Joseph B; Zajack, Heidi A; Kendall, Scott T; Rediske, Richard R; Biddanda, Bopaiah A

    2010-01-01

    Physicochemical characterization, automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA) community profiling, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing approaches were used to study bacterial communities inhabiting submerged Lake Huron sinkholes inundated with hypoxic, sulfate-rich groundwater. Photosynthetic cyanobacterial mats on the sediment surface were dominated by Phormidium autumnale, while deeper, organically rich sediments contained diverse and active bacterial communities.

  3. Production of extracellular aspartic protease in submerged ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    29(1): 1-6. Fraile ER, Bernardinelli SE, Handel M, Jauregui AM (1978). Selección de cepas de Mucor sp productoras de enzimas coagulantes de leche. Rev. Arg. Microbiol. 10(2): 65-69. Ghareib M, Hamdy HS, Khalil AA (2001). Production of intracellular milk clotting enzyme in submerged cultures of Fusarium subglutinans.

  4. Topology optimization for submerged buoyant structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Picelli, R.; van Dijk, R.; Vicente, W.M.; Pavanello, R.; Langelaar, M.; van Keulen, A.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an evolutionary structural topology optimization method for the design of completely submerged buoyant modules with design-dependent fluid pressure loading. This type of structure is used to support offshore rig installation and pipeline transportation at all water depths. The

  5. Production of extracellular aspartic protease in submerged ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fungal milk-clotting enzymes have gained value as bovine Chymosin substitutes in the cheese industry. In this work, the effects of culture conditions on the production of extracellular milk clotting enzymes from Mucor mucedo DSM 809 in submerged fermentation were studied. The maximum activity was observed after 48 h ...

  6. Medroxyprogesterone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medroxyprogesterone intramuscular (into a muscle) injection and medroxyprogesterone subcutaneous (under the skin) injection are used to prevent pregnancy. Medroxyprogesterone subcutaneous injection is also used to treat endometriosis ( ...

  7. Resin-Powder Dispenser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standfield, Clarence E.

    1994-01-01

    Resin-powder dispenser used at NASA's Langley Research Center for processing of composite-material prepregs. Dispenser evenly distributes powder (resin polymer and other matrix materials in powder form) onto wet uncured prepregs. Provides versatility in distribution of solid resin in prepreg operation. Used wherever there is requirement for even, continuous distribution of small amount of powder.

  8. Sumatriptan Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsuma® Injection ... Imitrex® Injection ... Sumavel® Injection ... Sumatriptan injection is used to treat the symptoms of migraine headaches (severe, throbbing headaches that sometimes are accompanied by ...

  9. Pump Coastdown with the Submerged Flywheel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Hyun-Gi; Seo, KyoungWoo; Kim, Seong Hoon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Many research reactors are generally designed as open pool types in consideration of the heat removal of the nuclear fuels, reactor operation and accessibility. Reactor structure assembly is generally placed at the pool bottom as shown in Fig. 1. Primary cooling system pump circulates the coolant from the reactor structure to the heat exchanger in order to continuously remove the heat generated from the reactor core in the research reactor as shown in Fig. 1. The secondary cooling system releases the transferred heat to the atmosphere by the cooling tower. Coastdown flow rate of the primary cooling system pump with the submerged flywheel are calculated analytically in case of the accident situation. Coastdown flow rate is maintained until almost 80 sec when the pump stops normally. But, coastdown flow rate is rapidly decreased when the flywheel is submerged because of the friction load on the flywheel surface.

  10. Coastline Protection by a Submerged Breakwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, B. D.; Hayatdavoodi, M.; Ertekin, R. C.

    2016-02-01

    Coastal communities are in danger of the impact caused by storm surge and waves. Storm surge brings the water level to a higher elevation and farther inland. This rise in water level increases the chance of a higher number and larger set of waves approaching shorelines, and it can potentially devastate the coastal infrastructure. In this study, we evaluate the performance of a submerged, horizontal breakwater located near shore. Unlike other types of breakwaters, such as the ones that extend to the surface, either fixed or floating, a submerged horizontal breakwater does not create any visual distraction or limit most of the recreational and commercial activities in the nearshore areas. The Level I Green-Naghdi (GN) nonlinear water wave equations are utilized here to study the wave transformation over a submerged breakwater that is located in shallow water. The GN theory is based on the theory of directed fluid sheets and assumes an incompressible and inviscid fluid; no assumption on the rotationality of the flow is required. In this approach, the nonlinear boundary conditions and the averaged conservation laws are satisfied exactly. The reflection and transmission coefficients due to nonlinear shallow water waves are determined implementing two approaches which use Goda's (1976) and Grue's (1992) methods. The results are compared with the existing laboratory experiments, and close agreement is observed overall. Preliminary results of the performance of the breakwater on dissipating storm waves during Hurricane Ike (2008), approaching the shore of Galveston, Texas, are presented.

  11. Corncob hydrolysate, an efficient substrate for Monascus pigment production through submerged fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhongxin; Yin, Zheng; Hu, Xiaoqing

    2014-01-01

    Monascus pigment has traditionally been produced by the fermentation of Monascus using rice powder or glucose as a culture substrate. Submerged fermentation can produce stable Monascus pigment yield and control the accumulation of the by-product, citrinin, which can then be more easily removed. To reduce the cost of Monascus submerged fermentation, the feasibility of corncob hydrolysate as an alternative substrate was investigated. Results showed that, when compared with a conventional glucose medium, the corncob hydrolysate medium produced an equivalent pigment yield without stimulating citrinin accumulation. Furthermore, the corncob hydrolysate medium and cultivation conditions were optimized to enhance pigment production and decrease citrinin synthesis. When Monascus sp. was cultured under dark conditions in the presence of caprylic acid, pigment production was increased to 25.8 ± 0.8 UA500 /mL, which was higher than that achieved in a glucose medium (24.0 ± 0.9 UA500 /mL), and those obtained in previously reported Monascus submerged fermentations using the same yield unit; on the other hand, citrinin accumulation was decreased to 26.2 ± 1.9 µg/L, which was significantly lower than that generated in the glucose control (44.3 ± 2.2 µg/L) and in those previously reported fermentations. Thus, corncob hydrolysate was proved to be an efficient alternative substrate for Monascus pigment production through submerged fermentation, which showed significant advantages over a conventional glucose substrate. © 2014 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. Fulvic acid degradation using nanoparticle TiO2 in a submerged membrane photocatalysis reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jian-feng; Ji, Min; An, Ding-nian

    2005-01-01

    The degradation of fulvic acid (FA) by nanoparticle TiO2 in a submerged membrane photocatalysis (SMPC) reactor was studied. In this reactor, photocatalytic oxidation and membrane separation co-occured. The continuous air supplier provided O2 for the photocatalytical reaction and mixed the solution through an airflow controller. The particle TiO2 could automatically settle due to gravity without particle agglomeration so it could be easily separated by microfiltration (MF) membrane. It was efficient to maintain high flux of membranes. The effects of operational parameters on the photocatalytic oxidation rate of FA were investigated. Results indicated that photocatalyst at 0.5 g/L and airflow at 0.06 m3/h were the optimum condition for the removal of fulvic acid, the removal efficiency was higher in acid media than that in alkaline media. The effects of different filtration duration on permeate flux rate of MF with P25 powder and with nanoparticle TiO2 were compared. Experimental results indicated that the permeate flux rate of MF was improved and the membrane fouling phenomenon was reduced with the addition of nanoparticle TiO2 catalyst compared with conventional P25 powder. Therefore, this submerged membrane photocatalysis reactor can faciliate potential application of photocatalytic oxidation process in drinking water treatment.

  13. IODINE REMOVAL EFFICIENCY IN NON-SUBMERGED AND SUBMERGED SELF-PRIMING VENTURI SCRUBBER

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Majid; CHANGQI, YAN; ZHONGNING, SUN; HAIFENG, GU; JUNLONG, WANG; MEHBOOB, KHURRAM

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this conducted research is to study the iodine removal efficiency in a self-priming venturi scrubber for submerged and non-submerged operating conditions experimentally and theoretically. The alkaline solution is used as an absorbent, which is prepared by dissolving sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and sodium thiosulphate (Na2S2O3) in water to remove the gaseous iodine (I2) from the gas. Iodine removal efficiency is examined at various gas flow rates and inlet concentrations of iodine...

  14. Submergence tolerance in Hordeum marinum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ole; Malik, Al I.; Colmer, Timothy D.

    2010-01-01

    Floodwaters differ markedly in dissolved CO(2), yet the effects of CO(2) on submergence responses of terrestrial plants have rarely been examined. The influence of dissolved CO(2) on underwater photosynthesis and growth was evaluated for three accessions of the wetland plant Hordeum marinum Huds......) movement, would all contribute to submergence tolerance in H. marinum. The present study demonstrates that dissolved CO(2) levels can determine submergence tolerance of terrestrial plants. So, submergence experiments should be conducted with defined CO(2) concentrations and enrichment might be needed...

  15. Review of the Methods for Production of Spherical Ti and Ti Alloy Powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Pei; Fang, Zhigang Zak; Zhang, Ying; Xia, Yang

    2017-10-01

    Spherical titanium alloy powder is an important raw material for near-net-shape fabrication via a powder metallurgy (PM) manufacturing route, as well as feedstock for powder injection molding, and additive manufacturing (AM). Nevertheless, the cost of Ti powder including spherical Ti alloy has been a major hurdle that prevented PM Ti from being adopted for a wide range of applications. Especially with the increasing importance of powder-bed based AM technologies, the demand for spherical Ti powder has brought renewed attention on properties and cost, as well as on powder-producing processes. The performance of Ti components manufactured from powder has a strong dependence on the quality of powder, and it is therefore crucial to understand the properties and production methods of powder. This article aims to provide a cursory review of the basic techniques of commercial and emerging methods for making spherical Ti powder. The advantages as well as limitations of different methods are discussed.

  16. SOVIET ABSTRACTS ON POWDER METALLURGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    CERMETS, * POWDER METALLURGY , ABSTRACTS, CERAMIC MATERIALS, HEAT RESISTANT ALLOYS, INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION, MECHANICAL PROPERTIES, PIEZOELECTRIC CRYSTALS, POLARIZATION, POROUS METALS, POWDER ALLOYS, POWDER METALS, SINTERING.

  17. Adalimumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humira® Injection ... Adalimumab injection is used alone or with other medications to relieve the symptoms of certain autoimmune disorders (conditions in ... some areas of the body) in adults. Adalimumab injection is in a class of medications called tumor ...

  18. Oxacillin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxacillin injection is used to treat infections caused by certain bacteria. Oxacillin injection is in a class of medications called penicillins. ... works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as oxacillin injection will not work for colds, flu, or other ...

  19. Rituximab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rituximab injection (Rituxan) and rituximab and hyaluronidase human injection (Rituxin Hycela) are used alone or with other medications to ... that begins in the white blood cells). Rituximab injection is also used with another medication to treat ...

  20. Fluorouracil Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrucil® Injection ... Fluorouracil injection comes as a solution (liquid) to be given intravenously (into a vein) by a doctor or nurse ... you are feeling during your treatment with fluorouracil injection.

  1. Ondansetron Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zofran® Injection ... Ondansetron injection is used to prevent nausea and vomiting caused by cancer chemotherapy and surgery. Ondansetron is in a ... medications: or any of the ingredients in ondansetron injection. Ask your pharmacist for a list of the ...

  2. Romiplostim Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or may tell you to stop taking these medications if romiplostim injection works well for you.Romiplostim injection does not ... will give you the manufacturer's patient information sheet (Medication ... romiplostim injection. Read the information carefully and ask your doctor ...

  3. Calibration of submerged multi-sluice gates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed F. Sauida

    2014-09-01

    The main objective of this work is to study experimentally and verify empirically the different parameters affecting the discharge through submerged multiple sluice gates (i.e., the expansion ratios, gates operational management, etc.. Using multiple regression analysis of the experimental results, a general equation for discharge coefficient is developed. The results show, that the increase in the expansion ratio and the asymmetric operation of gates, give higher values for the discharge coefficient. The obtained predictions of the discharge coefficient using the developed equations are compared to the experimental data. The present developed equations showed good consistency and high accuracy.

  4. Aluminum powder metallurgy processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flumerfelt, J.F.

    1999-02-12

    The objective of this dissertation is to explore the hypothesis that there is a strong linkage between gas atomization processing conditions, as-atomized aluminum powder characteristics, and the consolidation methodology required to make components from aluminum powder. The hypothesis was tested with pure aluminum powders produced by commercial air atomization, commercial inert gas atomization, and gas atomization reaction synthesis (GARS). A comparison of the GARS aluminum powders with the commercial aluminum powders showed the former to exhibit superior powder characteristics. The powders were compared in terms of size and shape, bulk chemistry, surface oxide chemistry and structure, and oxide film thickness. Minimum explosive concentration measurements assessed the dependence of explosibility hazard on surface area, oxide film thickness, and gas atomization processing conditions. The GARS aluminum powders were exposed to different relative humidity levels, demonstrating the effect of atmospheric conditions on post-atomization processing conditions. The GARS aluminum powders were exposed to different relative humidity levels, demonstrating the effect of atmospheric conditions on post-atomization oxidation of aluminum powder. An Al-Ti-Y GARS alloy exposed in ambient air at different temperatures revealed the effect of reactive alloy elements on post-atomization powder oxidation. The pure aluminum powders were consolidated by two different routes, a conventional consolidation process for fabricating aerospace components with aluminum powder and a proposed alternative. The consolidation procedures were compared by evaluating the consolidated microstructures and the corresponding mechanical properties. A low temperature solid state sintering experiment demonstrated that tap densified GARS aluminum powders can form sintering necks between contacting powder particles, unlike the total resistance to sintering of commercial air atomization aluminum powder.

  5. Experimental studies of the stress state of the surface layer of detailat treatment with submerged jets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олександр Олександрович Анділахай

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the instrument and electrical industry was the use of the method of abrasive machining submerged jet, which is the most promising method for abrasive blasting of small parts of low stiffness. This method eliminates the main drawback сhip plants - abrasion channel nozzles or injection nozzles, but the state of the surface layer of machined parts are poorly understood and to make maximum use of the potential to provide the required quality parameters. The study of the state of the surfaces of parts resulting from abrasive blasting traditional methods, dedicated work, which define quality indicators: microhardness depth residual stress, as well as their nature (compressive, tensile. However, known from the literature values correspond to the conditions of surface treatment of parts in a fixed state with an abrasive material through the feed nozzle, and therefore the dynamics of the interaction of a single abrasive grain and significantly different parts. The process in question, and different modes of processing characteristics of the abrasive grains. In the paper, a series of experimental studies designed to assess the state of machined surfaces of parts as a result of abrasion submerged jets. It is established that during the treatment the non-oriented disorderly traces overlay the abrasive grains on the treated surface, thereby forming a tight skin layer thickness of 4 - 5 micrometers. Processed surface gets cold working, as evidenced by the study of microhardness before and after abrasive machining in a free state submerged jets

  6. 21 CFR 522.2424 - Sodium thiamylal for injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium thiamylal for injection. 522.2424 Section... § 522.2424 Sodium thiamylal for injection. (a) Specifications. The drug is a sterile dry powder. It is reconstituted aseptically with sterile distilled water, water for injection, or sodium chloride injection, to a...

  7. Damage detection in submerged plates using ultrasonic guided waves

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Suitable ultrasonic guided wave modes with optimum scanning capabilities have been generated and identified in submerged plate system. Finally, the propagation of selected modes through submerged notched plates is investigated. Sensitivity of leaky waves to the notches has been studied. The methodology would help ...

  8. Automating a submerged pump method for operating oil wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popa, I.

    1984-01-01

    The basic parameters of wells which operate in a mode of submerged operation are presented. The basic systems for measuring and testing the parameters of submerged operation are described. Worldwide experience in solving this particular problem is analyzed. Romanian (SRR) use of systems for automation, remote signaling and remote management is examined.

  9. Impacts of climate change on submerged and emergent wetland plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick T. Short; Sarian Kosten; Pamela A. Morgan; Sparkle L Malone; Gregg E. Moore

    2016-01-01

    Submerged and emergent wetland plant communities are evaluated for their response to global climate change (GCC), focusing on seagrasses, submerged freshwater plants, tidal marsh plants, freshwater marsh plants and mangroves. Similarities and differences are assessed in plant community responses to temperature increase, CO2increase, greater UV-B exposure, sea...

  10. Identification of a novel submergence response gene regulated by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuoyo Aghomotsegin

    2016-12-07

    Dec 7, 2016 ... 3Engineering Research Center of Ecology and Agricultural Use of Wetland, Ministry of Education, Yangzte University,. Jingzhou 434025, P.R. .... intolerance to submergence) and M202(Sub1A) by qRT-. PCR. We identified a novel gene responsive to submergence, called RS1. The expression patterns of.

  11. Identification of a novel submergence response gene regulated by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Our results also show that RS1 is highly expressed under submergence, drought, and NaCl stresses, but not under cold or dehydration stress. Hormone ABA treatment induces, whereas GA treatment decreases, RS1 expression. The RS1 and Sub1A genes are co-regulated under submergence. Overexpression of RS1 in ...

  12. Ibandronate Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boniva® Injection ... Ibandronate injection is used to treat osteoporosis (a condition in which the bones become thin and weak and break ... Ibandronate injection comes as a solution (liquid) to be injected into a vein by a doctor or nurse in ...

  13. Tocilizumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or the syringe and do not inject the medication.You may inject tocilizumab injection on the front of the thighs or anywhere ... your doctor about the risks of receiving this medication.Tocilizumab injection may cause other side effects. Call your doctor ...

  14. Certolizumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... package or the syringe. Do not inject the medication.You may inject certolizumab injection anywhere on your stomach or thighs except your ... your doctor about the risks of receiving this medication.Certolizumab injection may cause other side effects. Call your doctor ...

  15. Sarilumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for RA or who could not take these medications. Sarilumab injection is in a class of medications called interleukin- ... are any problems and do not inject the medication.You may inject sarilumab injection on the front of the thighs or anywhere ...

  16. Laser-matter Interaction with Submerged Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariella, R; Rubenchik, A; Norton, M; Donohue, G; Roberts, K

    2010-03-25

    With the long-term goal in mind of investigating if one could possibly design a 'universal solid-sample comminution technique' for debris and rubble, we have studied pulsed-laser ablation of solid samples that were contained within a surrounding fluid. Using pulses with fluences between 2 J and 0.3 J, wavelengths of 351 and 527 nm, and samples of rock, concrete, and red brick, each submerged in water, we have observed conditions in which {micro}m-scale particles can be preferentially generated in a controlled manner, during the laser ablation process. Others have studied laser peening of metals, where their attention has been to the substrate. Our study uses non-metallic substrates and analyzes the particles that are ablated from the process. The immediate impact of our investigation is that laser-comminution portion of a new systems concept for chemical analysis has been verified as feasible.

  17. Submerged arc welding of heavy plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    The submerged arc process is particularly suitable for heavy plate welding because of its ability to combine very high deposit rates along with excellent quality. It does these things without the smoke and spatter often accompanying other processes. It is available today in several forms that are pointed to the fabricators of heavy sections with long, short or round about welds. Tandem arc full automatic equipment is particularly suitable for those long heavy welds where speed and deposit rate are of the first order. An attachment called long stick-out which makes use of the IR drop on long electrode extensions can be included on this equipment to increase deposition rates 50% or more.

  18. Modeling tabular icebergs submerged in the ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, A. A.; Adcroft, A.; Sergienko, O.; Marques, G.

    2017-08-01

    Large tabular icebergs calved from Antarctic ice shelves have long lifetimes (due to their large size), during which they drift across large distances, altering ambient ocean circulation, bottom-water formation, sea-ice formation, and biological primary productivity in the icebergs' vicinity. However, despite their importance, the current generation of ocean circulation models usually do not represent large tabular icebergs. In this study, we develop a novel framework to model large tabular icebergs submerged in the ocean. In this framework, tabular icebergs are represented by pressure-exerting Lagrangian elements that drift in the ocean. The elements are held together and interact with each other via bonds. A breaking of these bonds allows the model to emulate calving events (i.e., detachment of a tabular iceberg from an ice shelf) and tabular icebergs breaking up into smaller pieces. Idealized simulations of a calving tabular iceberg, its drift, and its breakup demonstrate capabilities of the developed framework.

  19. Crassulacean acid metabolism in submerged aquatic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, Jon E.; Sybesme, C.

    1984-01-01

    CO2-fixation in the dark is known to occur in various organs of many plants. However, only in species possessing crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) does dark CO2-fixation contribute substantially to the carbon economy of the plant. Until very recently CAM was known only from terrestrial species, largely drought adapted succulents. The discovery of CAM in the submerged aquatic fern ally Isoetes howellii (Isoetaceae)(Keeley 1981) adds a new dimension to our understanding of crassulacean acid metabolism. In this paper I will summarize 1) the evidence of CAM in Isoetes howellii, 2) the data on the distribution of CAM in aquatic species, and 3) the work to date on the functional significance of CAM in aquatic species.

  20. Workshop on ROVs and deep submergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    The deep-submergence community has an opportunity on March 6 to participate in a unique teleconferencing demonstration of a state-of-the-art, remotely operated underwater research vehicle known as the Jason-Medea System. Jason-Medea has been developed over the past decade by scientists, engineers, and technicians at the Deep Submergence Laboratory at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. The U.S. Navy, the Office of the Chief of Naval Research, and the National Science Foundation are sponsoring the workshop to explore the roles that modern computational, communications, and robotics technologies can play in deep-sea oceanographic research.Through the cooperation of Electronic Data Systems, Inc., the Jason Foundation, and Turner Broadcasting System, Inc., 2-1/2 hours of air time will be available from 3:00 to 5:30 PM EST on March 6. Twenty-seven satellite downlink sites will link one operating research vessel and the land-based operation with workshop participants in the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, and Bermuda. The research ship Laney Chouest will be in the midst of a 3-week educational/research program in the Sea of Cortez, between Baja California and mainland Mexico. This effort is focused on active hydrothermal vents driven by heat flow from the volcanically active East Pacific Rise, which underlies the sediment-covered Guaymas Basin. The project combines into a single-operation, newly-developed robotic systems, state-of-the-art mapping and sampling tools, fiber-optic data transmission from the seafloor, instantaneous satellite communication from ship to shore, and a sophisticated array of computational and telecommunications networks. During the workshop, land-based scientists will observe and participate directly with their seagoing colleagues as they conduct seafloor research.

  1. Submerged membrane distillation for seawater desalination

    KAUST Repository

    Francis, Lijo

    2014-08-11

    A submerged membrane distillation (SMD) process for fresh water production from Red Sea water using commercially available hollow fiber membranes has been successfully employed and compared with the conventional direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) process. The hollow fiber membranes have been characterized for its morphology using field effect scanning electron microscope. In SMD process, a bunch of hollow fiber membranes are glued together at both ends to get a simplified open membrane module assembly submerged into the coolant tank equipped with a mechanical stirrer. Hot feed stream is allowed to pass through the lumen side of the membrane using a feed pump. Continuous stirring at the coolant side will reduce the temperature and concentration polarization. During the conventional DCMD process, using feed-coolant streams with co-current and counter-current flows has been tested and the results are compared in this study. In SMD process, a water vapor flux of 10.2 kg m-2 h-1 is achieved when using a feed inlet temperature of 80°C and coolant temperature of 20°C. Under the same conditions, during conventional DCMD process, a water vapor flux of 11.6 and 10.1 kg m-2 h-1 were observed during counter-current and co-current flow streams, respectively. Results show that the water production in the SMD process is comparable with the conventional DCMD process, while the feed-coolant flow streams are in the co-current direction. During conventional DCMD operation, a 15% increase in the water production is observed when feed-coolant streams are in the counter-current direction compared to the co-current direction. © 2014 © 2014 Balaban Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.

  2. Ni Based Powder Reconditioning and Reuse for LMD Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renderos, M.; Girot, F.; Lamikiz, A.; Torregaray, A.; Saintier, N.

    LMD is an additive manufacturing process based on the injection of metallic powder into a melt-pool created by a heat laser source on a substrate. One of the benefits of this technology is the reduction of the wasted material since it is a near-shape process. Moreover one of the main drawbacks is the relatively low efficiency of the trapped powder, which can be loss than 5% in some cases. The non-trapped powder represents a significant cost in the LMD process, since powder metal material is very expensive and usually is not reused. This article proposes a methodology of the reconditioning and posterior reuse of a nickel base powder commonly used in the aerospace industry, with the main objectives of cost saving, higher environmental cleanup and increase of the overall efficiency in the LMD process. The results are checked by the development of a prototype part built up from reused powder.

  3. Titanium Powder Metallurgy Forgings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    TITANIUM ALLOYS, *FORGING), (* POWDER METALLURGY , TITANIUM ALLOYS), ENGINE COMPONENTS, INLET GUIDE VANES, JET ENGINES, RINGS, AIRFRAMES, ANCHORS(STRUCTURAL), COLD WORKING, SINTERING, MECHANICAL PROPERTIES

  4. Tacrolimus Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacrolimus injection is used along with other medications to prevent rejection (attack of the transplanted organ by ... who have received kidney, liver, or heart transplants. Tacrolimus injection should only be used by people who ...

  5. Naltrexone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivitrol® ... Naltrexone injection is used along with counseling and social support to help people who have stopped drinking large amounts of alcohol to avoid drinking again. Naltrexone injection is also used along with counseling and social ...

  6. Cefazolin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cefazolin injection is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria including skin, bone, joint, genital, blood, heart valve, ... pneumonia), biliary tract, and urinary tract infections. Cefazolin injection also may be used before, during, and sometimes ...

  7. Mipomersen Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mipomersen injection is used to decrease levels of cholesterol and other fatty substances in the blood in people who ... that removes LDL from the blood), but mipomersen injection should not be used along with this treatment. ...

  8. Denosumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denosumab injection (Prolia) is used to treat osteoporosis (a condition in which the bones become thin and weak and ... not respond to other medications for osteoporosis. Denosumab injection (Prolia) is also used to treat bone loss ...

  9. Ampicillin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampicillin injection is used to treat certain infections that are caused by bacteria such as meningitis (infection of the ... heart, urinary tract, and gastrointestinal tract infections. Ampicillin injection is in a class of medications called penicillins. ...

  10. Cefotetan Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cefotetan injection is used to treat infections of the lungs, skin, bones, joints, stomach area, blood, female reproductive organs, and urinary tract. Cefotetan injection is also used before surgery to prevent infections. ...

  11. Eculizumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eculizumab injection is used to treat paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH: a type of anemia in which too many red ... oxygen to all parts of the body). Eculizumab injection is also used to treat atypical hemolytic uremic ...

  12. Tigecycline Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tigecycline injection used to treat certain serious infections including community acquired pneumonia (a lung infection that developed in a ... area between the chest and the waist). Tigecycline injection should not be used to treat pneumonia that ...

  13. Estrogen Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... estradiol cypionate and estradiol valerate forms of estrogen injection are used to treat hot flushes (hot flashes; ... consider a different treatment. These forms of estrogen injection are also sometimes used to treat the symptoms ...

  14. Ceftazidime Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceftazidime injection is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria including pneumonia and other lower respiratory tract (lung) ... female genital tract, and urinary tract infections. Ceftazidime injection is in a class of medications called cephalosporin ...

  15. Tobramycin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobramycin injection is used to treat certain serious infections that are caused by bacteria such as meningitis (infection of ... lungs, skin, bones, joints, and urinary tract. Tobramycin injection is in a class of medications called aminoglycoside ...

  16. Cefoxitin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cefoxitin injection is used to treat infections caused by bacteria including pneumonia and other lower respiratory tract (lung) infections; ... organs, blood, bone, joint, and skin infections. Cefoxitin injection may also be used before and during surgery, ...

  17. Naloxone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naloxone injection and naloxone prefilled auto-injection device (Evzio) are used along with emergency medical treatment to reverse the life-threatening effects of a known or suspected opiate (narcotic) ...

  18. Cyanocobalamin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyanocobalamin injection is used to treat and prevent a lack of vitamin B12 that may be caused by any ... organs) and permanent damage to the nerves. Cyanocobalamin injection also may be given as a test to ...

  19. Dulaglutide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulaglutide injection is used with a diet and exercise program to control blood sugar levels in adults with type ... medications did not control levels well enough. Dulaglutide injection is not used to treat type 1 diabetes ( ...

  20. Mitoxantrone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitoxantrone injection is used to decrease the number of symptom episodes and slow the development of disability in patients with certain forms of multiple sclerosis (MS). Mitoxantrone injection is also used together with steroid medications to ...

  1. Testosterone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and testosterone pellet (Testopel) are forms of testosterone injection used to treat symptoms of low testosterone in ... are low before you begin to use testosterone injection. Testosterone enanthate (Delatestryl) and testosterone pellet (Testopel) are ...

  2. Cefepime Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cefepime injection is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria including pneumonia, and skin, urinary tract, and kidney infections. Cefepime injection is used in combination with metronidazole (Flagyl) to ...

  3. Ranitidine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranitidine injection is used in people who are hospitalized to treat certain conditions in which the stomach produces too ... were not successfully treated with other medications. Ranitidine injection is also used on a short-term basis ...

  4. Gentamicin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentamicin injection is used to treat certain serious infections that are caused by bacteria such as meningitis (infection of ... lungs, skin, bones, joints, and urinary tract. Gentamicin injection is in a class of medications called aminoglycoside ...

  5. Meropenem Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meropenem injection is used to treat skin and abdominal (stomach area) infections caused by bacteria and meningitis (infection of ... children 3 months of age and older. Meropenem injection is in a class of medications called antibiotics. ...

  6. Pralatrexate Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pralatrexate injection is used to treat peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL; a form of cancer that begins in a ... come back after treatment with other medications. Pralatrexate injection has not been shown to help people who ...

  7. Tesamorelin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesamorelin injection is used to decrease the amount of extra fat in the stomach area in adults with human ... fat in certain areas of the body). Tesamorelin injection is not used to help with weight loss. ...

  8. Daptomycin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daptomycin injection is used alone or in combination with other medications to treat certain blood infections in adults or ... children 1 year of age and older . Daptomycin injection is in a class of medications called cyclic ...

  9. Albiglutide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albiglutide injection is used with a diet and exercise program to control blood sugar levels in adults with type ... medications did not control levels well enough. Albiglutide injection is not used to treat type 1 diabetes ( ...

  10. Cefuroxime Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cefuroxime injection is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria including pneumonia and other lower respiratory tract (lung) ... blood, bone, joint, and urinary tract infections. Cefuroxime injection may also be used before, during, and sometimes ...

  11. Hydrocortisone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrocortisone injection is used to treat symptoms of low corticosteroid levels (lack of certain substances that are usually produced ... also used to treat severe allergic reactions. Hydrocortisone injection is used in the management of multiple sclerosis ( ...

  12. Aztreonam Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aztreonam injection is used to treat certain infections that are caused by bacteria, including respiratory tract (including pneumonia and ... area) infections, that are caused by bacteria. Aztreonam injection also may be used before, during, and sometimes ...

  13. Peramivir Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peramivir injection is used to treat some types of influenza infection ('flu') in people who have had symptoms of ... flu for no longer than 2 days. Peramivir injection is in a class of medications called neuraminidase ...

  14. Vancomycin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancomycin injection is used alone or in combination with other medications to treat certain serious infections such as endocarditis ( ... of the lungs, skin, blood, and bones. Vancomycin injection is in a class of medications called glycopeptide ...

  15. Amikacin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amikacin injection is used to treat certain serious infections that are caused by bacteria such as meningitis (infection of ... lungs, skin, bones, joints, and urinary tract. Amikacin injection is in a class of medications called aminoglycoside ...

  16. Diphenhydramine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diphenhydramine injection is used to treat allergic reactions, especially for people who are unable to take diphenhydramine by mouth. ... is used also to treat motion sickness. Diphenhydramine injection is also used alone or along with other ...

  17. Abaloparatide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection may cause osteosarcoma (bone cancer) in laboratory rats. It is not known whether abaloparatide injection increases ... too have too much calcium in the blood, hyperparathyroidism (condition in which the body produces too much ...

  18. Doxycycline Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may have been exposed to anthrax in the air. Doxycycline injection is in a class of medications ... decrease the effectiveness of hormonal contraceptives (birth control pills, patches, rings, or injections). Talk to your doctor ...

  19. Trastuzumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trastuzumab injection is used along with other medications or after other medications have been used to treat ... has spread to other parts of the body. Trastuzumab injection is also used during and after treatment ...

  20. Ganciclovir Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganciclovir injection is used to treat cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis (eye infection that can cause blindness) in people ... in transplant recipients at risk for CMV infection. Ganciclovir injection is in a class of medications called ...

  1. Metronidazole Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metronidazole injection is used to treat certain skin, blood, bone, joint, gynecologic, and abdominal (stomach area) infections ... spinal cord), and certain respiratory infections, including pneumonia. Metronidazole injection is also to prevent infection when used ...

  2. Dexrazoxane Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... side effects that may be caused by chemotherapy medications. Dexrazoxane injection (Zinecard) is used to prevent or decrease heart ... your doctor about the risks of receiving this medication.Dexrazoxane injection may cause other side effects. Call your doctor ...

  3. Methylnaltrexone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the bowel from the effects of opioid (narcotic) medications. ... questions about how to prepare or inject this medication.Methylnaltrexone injection comes in prefilled syringes and in vials to ...

  4. Lacosamide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of seizures in people who cannot take oral medications. Lacosamide injection is in a class of medications called anticonvulsants. ... doctor.Do not let anyone else use your medication. Lacosamide injection is a controlled substance. Prescriptions may be refilled ...

  5. Alirocumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your dose depending on your response to this medication.Alirocumab injection helps to control cholesterol levels, but does not ... prefilled syringe or prefilled dosing pen containing alirocumab injection.

  6. Mepolizumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... asthma is not controlled with their current asthma medication. Mepolizumab injection is in a class of medications called monoclonal ... want to decrease the doses of your other medications gradually.Mepolizumab injection is not used to treat a sudden attack ...

  7. Romidepsin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... already been treated with at least one other medication given by mouth or by injection. Romidepsin injection is in a class of medications called histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors. It works by ...

  8. Avelumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or after it was treated with other chemotherapy medications. Avelumab injection is in a class of medications called monoclonal ... avelumab based on your body's response to this medication.Avelumab injection may cause serious reactions during the infusion of ...

  9. Etanercept Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dose. You also should not mix any other medications with etanercept injection.If your medication comes in a prefilled syringe or automatic injection device, use each syringe or device only once ...

  10. Busulfan Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busulfex® Injection ... Busulfan injection is used to treat a certain type of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML; a type of cancer of ... of 16 doses) before bone marrow transplant.Busulfan injection may cause seizures during therapy with the medication. ...

  11. Granisetron Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... antagonists. It works by blocking serotonin, a natural substance in the body that causes nausea and vomiting. ... throat chest pain injection site redness, swelling, or warmth with or without fever (for the extended-release injection) injection site bleeding, bruising, or pain (for ...

  12. Durability performance of submerged concrete structures - phase 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This project determined that severe corrosion of steel can occur in the submerged : portions of reinforced concrete structures in marine environments. Field studies of decommissioned : pilings from Florida bridges revealed multiple instances of stron...

  13. Submerged Aquatic Vegetation of Bogue Sound, North Carolina 1992 Geodatabase

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — During 1992, 1:20,000 scale aerial photography for Bogue Sound, North Carolina was collected as part of an effort to map submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) in...

  14. Submerged Aquatic Vegetation of Bogue Sound, North Carolina 1992 Substrate

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — During 1992, 1:20,000 scale aerial photography for Bogue Sound, North Carolina was collected as part of an effort to map submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) in...

  15. Marine algal flora of submerged Angria Bank (Arabian Sea)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Untawale, A.G.; Reddy, C.R.K.; Ambiye, V.

    Submerged Angria Bank was surveyed for the deep water marine algal flora. About 57 species were reported from this bank for the first time. Rhodophyta dominated (30 species) followed by Chlorophyta (18 species) and Phaeophyta (9 species). A few...

  16. Submerged Aquatic Vegetation of Bogue Sound, North Carolina 1992 Biotic

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — During 1992, 1:20,000 scale aerial photography for Bogue Sound, North Carolina was collected as part of an effort to map submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) in...

  17. Submerged Aquatic Vegetation of Bogue Sound, North Carolina 1992 Geoform

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — During 1992, 1:20,000 scale aerial photography for Bogue Sound, North Carolina was collected as part of an effort to map submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) in...

  18. Supporting Calculations For Submerged Bed Scrubber Condensate Disposal Preconceptual Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pajunen, A. J.; Tedeschi, A. R.

    2012-09-18

    This document provides supporting calculations for the preparation of the Submerged Bed Scrubber Condensate Disposal Preconceptual Study report The supporting calculations include equipment sizing, Hazard Category determination, and LAW Melter Decontamination Factor Adjustments.

  19. Impeded Carbohydrate Metabolism in Rice Plants under Submergence Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malay Kumar ADAK

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The detrimental effects of submergence on physiological performances of some rice varieties with special references to carbohydrate metabolisms and their allied enzymes during post-flowering stages have been documented and clarified in the present investigation. It was found that photosynthetic rate and concomitant translocation of sugars into the panicles were both related to the yield. The detrimental effects of the complete submergence were recorded in generation of sucrose, starch, sucrose phosphate synthase and phosphorylase activity in the developing panicles of the plants as compared to those under normal or control (i.e. non-submerged condition. The accumulation of starch was significantly lower in plants under submergence and that was correlated with ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase activity. Photosynthetic rate was most affected under submergence in varying days of post-flowering and was also related to the down regulation of Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase activity. However, under normal or control condition, there recorded a steady maintenance of photosynthetic rate at the post-flowering stages and significantly higher values of Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase activity. Still, photosynthetic rate of the plants under both control and submerged conditions had hardly any significant correlation with sugar accumulation and other enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism like invertase with grain yield. Finally, plants under submergence suffered significant loss of yield by poor grain filling which was related to impeded carbohydrate metabolism in the tissues. It is evident that loss of yield under submergence is attributed both by lower sink size or sink capacity (number of panicles, in this case as well as subdued carbohydrate metabolism in plants and its subsequent partitioning into the grains.

  20. Incipient motion of sediment in presence of submerged flexible vegetation

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Hao; Tang, Hong-Wu; Zhao, Han-Qing; Xuan-yu ZHAO; Lü, Sheng-qi

    2015-01-01

    The presence of submerged vegetation on river beds can change the water flow structure and alter the state of sediment motion. In this study, the incipient motion of sediment in the presence of submerged flexible vegetation in open channels was investigated in a laboratory experiment. The vegetation was simulated with flexible rubber cylinders arranged in parallel arrays. The effect of the vegetation density, water depth, and sediment grain size on the incipient motion was investigated. The e...

  1. Heat transfer model for quenching by submerging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passarella, D N; Varas, F [Departamento de Matematica Aplicada II, E.T.S. de Ing. de Telecomunicacion, Universidad de Vigo, Campus Marcosende, 36310 Vigo (Spain); MartIn, E B, E-mail: diego@dma.uvigo.es, E-mail: fvaras@uvigo.es, E-mail: emortega@uvigo.es [Area de Mecanica de Fluidos, E.T.S. de Ing. Industriales, Universidad de Vigo, Campus Marcosende, 36310 Vigo (Spain)

    2011-05-01

    In quenching by submerging the workpiece is cooled due to vaporization, convective flow and interaction of both mechanisms. The dynamics of these phenomena is very complex and the corresponding heat fluxes are strongly dependent on local flow variables such as velocity of fluid and vapor fraction. This local dependence may produce very different cooling rates along the piece, responsible for inappropriate metallurgical transformations, variability of material properties and residual stresses. In order to obtain an accurate description of cooling during quenching, a mathematical model of heat transfer is presented here. The model is based on the drift-flux mixture-model for multiphase flows, including an equation of conservation of energy for the liquid phase and specific boundary conditions that account for evaporation and presence of vapor phase on the surface of the piece. The model was implemented on Comsol Multiphysics software. Generation of appropriate initial and boundary conditions, as well as numerical resolution details, is briefly discussed. To test the model, a simple flow condition was analyzed. The effect of vapor fraction on heat transfer is assessed. The presence of the typical vapor blanket and its collapse can be recovered by the model, and its effect on the cooling rates on different parts of the piece is analyzed. Comparisons between numerical results and data from literature are made.

  2. 21 CFR 522.2444a - Sodium thiopental for injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium thiopental for injection. 522.2444a Section... § 522.2444a Sodium thiopental for injection. (a) Specifications. The drug contains sodium thiopental sterile powder for dilution with sterile water for injection. (b) Sponsor. See No. 000856 in § 510.600(c...

  3. 21 CFR 522.1468 - Naproxen for injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Naproxen for injection. 522.1468 Section 522.1468... Naproxen for injection. (a) Specifications. The drug is a lyophilized powder which is reconstituted with sterile water for injection to form a 10 percent sterile aqueous solution (100 milligrams per milliliter...

  4. Powder processing of hybrid titanium neural electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Jose Luis, Jr.

    A preliminary investigation into the powder production of a novel hybrid titanium neural electrode for EEG is presented. The rheological behavior of titanium powder suspensions using sodium alginate as a dispersant are examined for optimal slip casting conditions. Electrodes were slip cast and sintered at 950°C for 1 hr, 1000°C for 1, 3, and 6 hrs, and 1050°C for 1 hr. Residual porosities from sintering are characterized using Archimedes' technique and image analysis. The pore network is gel impregnated by submerging the electrodes in electrically conductive gel and placing them in a chamber under vacuum. Gel evaporation of the impregnated electrodes is examined. Electrodes are characterized in the dry and gelled states using impedance spectrometry and compared to a standard silver- silver chloride electrode. Power spectral densities for the sensors in the dry and gelled state are also compared. Residual porosities for the sintered specimens were between 50.59% and 44.81%. Gel evaporation tests show most of the impregnated gel evaporating within 20 min of exposure to atmospheric conditions with prolonged evaporation times for electrodes with higher impregnated gel mass. Impedance measurements of the produced electrodes indicate the low impedance of the hybrid electrodes are due to the increased contact area of the porous electrode. Power spectral densities of the titanium electrode behave similar to a standard silver-silver chloride electrode. Tests suggest the powder processed hybrid titanium electrode's performance is better than current dry contact electrodes and comparable to standard gelled silver-silver chloride electrodes.

  5. Compaction of Titanium Powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen J. Gerdemann; Paul D. Jablonski

    2010-11-01

    Accurate modeling of powder densification has been an area of active research for more than 60 years. The earliest efforts were focused on linearization of the data because computers were not readily available to assist with curve-fitting methods. In this work, eight different titanium powders (three different sizes of sponge fines <150 μm, <75 μm, and < 45 μm; two different sizes of a hydride-dehydride [HDH] <75 μm and < 45 μm; an atomized powder; a commercially pure [CP] Ti powder from International Titanium Powder [ITP]; and a Ti 6 4 alloy powder) were cold pressed in a single-acting die instrumented to collect stress and deformation data during compaction. From these data, the density of each compact was calculated and then plotted as a function of pressure. The results show that densification of all the powders, regardless of particle size, shape, or chemistry, can be modeled accurately as the sum of an initial density plus the sum of a rearrangement term and a work-hardening term. These last two terms are found to be a function of applied pressure and take the form of an exponential rise.

  6. Compaction of Titanium Powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerdemann, Stephen,J; Jablonski, Paul, J

    2011-05-01

    Accurate modeling of powder densification has been an area of active research for more than 60 years. The earliest efforts were focused on linearization of the data because computers were not readily available to assist with curve-fitting methods. In this work, eight different titanium powders (three different sizes of sponge fines<150 {micro}m,<75 {micro}m, and<45 {micro}m; two different sizes of a hydride-dehydride [HDH]<75 {micro}m and<45 {micro}m; an atomized powder; a commercially pure [CP] Ti powder from International Titanium Powder [ITP]; and a Ti 6 4 alloy powder) were cold pressed in a single-acting die instrumented to collect stress and deformation data during compaction. From these data, the density of each compact was calculated and then plotted as a function of pressure. The results show that densification of all the powders, regardless of particle size, shape, or chemistry, can be modeled accurately as the sum of an initial density plus the sum of a rearrangement term and a work-hardening term. These last two terms are found to be a function of applied pressure and take the form of an exponential rise.

  7. Injection compositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crnogorac Luka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a brief overview of the methods and materials for injection in underground construction, with a focus on the use of new injection compounds for this purpose. The aim is to draw attention to the possibility of applying new materials for injection that are present in the world, which would facilitate the work, significantly shorten time of work and downtime.

  8. Submerged cultivation of medicinal mushrooms: bioprocesses and products (review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elisashvili, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    Medicinal mushrooms belonging to higher Basidiomycetes are an immensely rich yet largely untapped resource of useful, easily accessible, natural compounds with various biological activities that may promote human well-being. The medicinal properties are found in various cellular components and secondary metabolites (polysaccharides, proteins and their complexes, phenolic compounds, polyketides, triterpenoids, steroids, alkaloids, nucleotides, etc.), which have been isolated and identified from the fruiting bodies, culture mycelium, and culture broth of mushrooms. Some of these compounds have cholesterol-lowering, anti-diabetic, antioxidant, antitumor, immunomodulating, antimicrobial, and antiviral activities ready for industrial trials and further commercialization, while others are in various stages of development. Recently, the submerged cultivation of medicinal mushrooms has received a great deal of attention as a promising and reproducible alternative for the efficient production of mushroom mycelium and metabolites. Submerged cultivation of mushrooms has significant industrial potential, but its success on a commercial scale depends on increasing product yields and development of novel production systems that address the problems associated with this technique of mushroom cultivation. In spite of many researchers' efforts for the production of bioactive metabolites by mushrooms, the physiological and engineering aspects of submerged cultures are still far from being thoroughly studied. The vast majority of studies have focused on polysaccharide and ganoderic acid production in submerged cultivation of medicinal mushrooms, and very little has been written so far on the antioxidant and hemagglutinating activity of submerged mushroom cultures. The purpose of this review is to provide an update of the present state of the art and future prospects of submerged cultivation of medicinal mushrooms to produce mycelium and bioactive metabolites, and to make a

  9. Simulation for the powder movement and accumulation in the lower part of blast furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugiyama, Takashi [Mineral Resources Research Center, Nippon Steel Technoresearch, Futtsu-shi Chiba (Japan)

    1997-12-31

    The behavior of unburnt char and coke powder in the blast furnace becomes material for discussion with the increase in injection rate of pulverized coal into the blast furnace. An analysis was made as to the simulation of powder accumulation at the deadman and dripping zone of blast furnace by using a powder/gas two-phases flow experimental data. When an excessive powder has penetrated at a low gas velocity, it brings an increment in holdup and the controlling factors are powder/gas ratio and gas velocity. An empirical formula used for estimating the powder hold-up in the blast furnace internal conditions has proposed based on similarity. The controlling {pi} numbers are Floude number, powder/gas ratio and particle diameter ratio of powder/lump. This empirical formular was connected with Blast Furnace Total Model `BRIGHT` for the simulation of powder amount distribution in the lower part of blast furnace. When Powder diameter Dk exceeds 100 {mu} and gas velocity becomes lower than 0.7m/s at PC1OOkg/T, the powder tends to accumulate in the deadman. These results was available for the decision of optimum blast conditions and optimum powder diameter in the high amount of pulverized coal injection to the blast furnace. (author) 10 refs.

  10. Omalizumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... want to decrease the doses of your other medications gradually.Omalizumab injection is not used to treat a sudden attack ... your doctor about the risks of using this medication.Omalizumab injection may cause other side effects. Call your doctor ...

  11. Elotuzumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or that had improved after treatment with other medications but later returned. Elotuzumab injection is in a class of medications called monoclonal ... your doctor about the risks of receiving this medication.Elotuzumab injection may cause other side effects. Call your doctor ...

  12. Colistimethate Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have, and how well you respond to the medication.You may receive colistimethate injection in a hospital or you may administer the medication at home. If you will be receiving colistimethate injection at home, your healthcare provider will show you ...

  13. Carfilzomib Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on how well your body responds to the medication.Carfilzomib injection may cause a severe or life-threatening reactions ... if you are allergic to carfilzomib, any other medications, or any of the ingredients in carfilzomib injection. Ask your pharmacist for a list of the ...

  14. Vedolizumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that has not improved when treated with other medications. Vedolizumab injection is in a class of medications called integrin ... to the medication. You may be given other medications to treat reactions to vedolizumab injection. Tell your doctor or nurse immediately if you ...

  15. Leucovorin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... accidentally received an overdose of methotrexate or similar medications. Leucovorin injection is also used to treat anemia (low level ... is also used with 5-fluorouracil (a chemotherapy medication) to treat ... intestine). Leucovorin injection is in a class of medications called folic ...

  16. Powder Diffraction: By Decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, William I. F.

    This introductory chapter reviews the first 100 years of powder diffraction, decade by decade, from the earliest X-ray powder diffraction measurements of the crystal structure of graphite through to the diversity and complexity of twenty-first century powder diffraction. Carbon features as an illustrative example throughout the discussion of these ten decades from graphite and the disorder of carbon black through to lonsdaleite, the elusive hexagonal polymorph of diamond, and C60, the most symmetrical of molecules. Electronics and computing have played a leading role in the development of powder diffraction, particularly over the past 60 years, and the Moore's Law decade-by-decade rise in computing power is clear in the increasing complexity of powder diffraction experiments and material systems that can be studied. The chapter concludes with a final discussion of decades - the four decades of length-scale from the ångstrom to the micron that not only represent the domain of powder diffraction but are also the distances that will dominate twenty-first century science and technology.

  17. Subcutaneous Injections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Maria

    This thesis is about visualization and characterization of the tissue-device interaction during subcutaneous injection. The tissue pressure build-up during subcutaneous injections was measured in humans. The insulin pen FlexTouchr (Novo Nordisk A/S) was used for the measurements and the pressure...... build-up was evaluated indirectly from the changes in the flow rate between subcutaneous injections and air injections. This method enabled the tissue counter pressure to be evaluated without a formal clinical study approval. The measurements were coupled to a model for the pressure evolution...... in subcutaneous tissue, based on mass conservation and flow in a porous medium. From the measurements the flow permeability and bulk modulus of the tissue were determined. In the adipose tissue the drug forms a bolus from where it is absorbed by the blood capillaries. The spatial distribution of the injected...

  18. Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2003-07-29

    A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of mixtures consisting of: at least 60 at % Ni powder and at least one of Cr powder, W powder, V powder, Mo powder, Cu powder, Al powder, Ce powder, YSZ powder, Y powder, Mg powder, and RE powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100} orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  19. Rice SUB1A constrains remodelling of the transcriptome and metabolome during submergence to facilitate post-submergence recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Anna M; Barding, Gregory A; Sathnur, Sumukh; Larive, Cynthia K; Bailey-Serres, Julia

    2017-11-02

    The rice (Oryza sativa L.) ethylene-responsive transcription factor gene SUB1A-1 confers tolerance to prolonged, complete submergence by limiting underwater elongation growth. Upon desubmergence, SUB1A-1 genotypes rapidly recover photosynthetic function and recommence development towards flowering. The underpinnings of the transition from stress amelioration to the return to homeostasis are not well known. Here, transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses were conducted to identify mechanisms by which SUB1A improves physiological function over the 24 hr following a sublethal submergence event. Evaluation of near-isogenic genotypes after submergence and over a day of reaeration demonstrated that SUB1A transiently constrains the remodelling of cellular activities associated with growth. SUB1A influenced the abundance of ca. 1,400 transcripts and had a continued impact on metabolite content, particularly free amino acids, glucose, and sucrose, throughout the recovery period. SUB1A promoted recovery of metabolic homeostasis but had limited influence on mRNAs associated with growth processes and photosynthesis. The involvement of low energy sensing during submergence and recovery was supported by dynamics in trehalose-6-phosphate and mRNAs encoding key enzymes and signalling proteins, which were modulated by SUB1A. This study provides new evidence of convergent signalling pathways critical to the rapidly reversible management of carbon and nitrogen metabolism in submergence resilient rice. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Midazolam Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called benzodiazepines. It works by slowing activity in the brain ... you have recently stopped drinking large amounts of alcohol or if you have or have ever had ...

  1. Oxytocin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxytocin injection is used to begin or improve contractions during labor. Oxytocin also is used to reduce bleeding after childbirth. ... other medications or procedures to end a pregnancy. Oxytocin is in a class of medications called oxytocic ...

  2. Fluconazole Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and fungal infections of the eye, prostate (a male reproductive organ), skin and nails. Fluconazole injection is ... Motrin, others) and naproxen (Aleve, Anaprox, Naprelan); oral contraceptives (birth control pills); oral medication for diabetes such ...

  3. Ifosfamide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... intravenously (into a vein) by a doctor or nurse in a medical facility. It may be injected ... for allergies or hay fever; medications for nausea; opioid (narcotic) medications for pain; rifampin (Rifadin, Rimactane); sedatives; ...

  4. Furosemide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furosemide injection is used to treat edema (fluid retention; excess fluid held in body tissues) caused by ... fluid in the lungs), kidney, and liver disease. Furosemide is in a class of medications called diuretics (' ...

  5. Pembrolizumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or lightheadedness fainting change in the amount or color of urine changes in vision feeling confused Pembrolizumab injection may cause other side effects. Call your doctor if you have any unusual ...

  6. Botox Injections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... LEARN logo to transfer to the LEARN Portal Botox Injections The American Academy of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery recommends persons considering Botox® treatment to: Check the physician’s credentials: The physician ...

  7. Epinephrine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... refrigerate epinephrine injection or leave it in your car, especially in hot or cold weather. If the ... to your pharmacist or contact your local garbage/recycling department to learn about take-back programs in ...

  8. Nivolumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nivolumab injection is used alone or in combination with ipilimumab (Yervoy) to treat certain types of melanoma ( ... has worsened after treatment with other chemotherapy medications. Nivolumab is in a class of medications called monoclonal ...

  9. Cidofovir Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cidofovir injection is used along with another medication (probenecid) to treat cytomegaloviral retinitis (CMV retinitis) in people ... body's response to the medication.You must take probenecid tablets by mouth with each dose of cidofovir. ...

  10. Palivizumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the skin swelling of the lips, tongue, or face difficulty swallowing difficult, rapid, or irregular breathing bluish-tinged skin, lips, or fingernails muscle weakness or floppiness loss of consciousness Palivizumab injection may cause other side effects. Call ...

  11. Acyclovir Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It is also used to treat first-time genital herpes outbreaks (a herpes virus infection that causes sores ... in the body. Acyclovir injection will not cure genital herpes and may not stop the spread of genital ...

  12. Haloperidol Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of interest in life, and strong or inappropriate emotions). Haloperidol injection is also used to control motor ... and the laboratory. Your doctor may order certain lab tests to check your body's response to haloperidol ...

  13. Risperidone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of interest in life, and strong or inappropriate emotions). Risperidone extended-release injection is used alone or ... and the laboratory. Your doctor may order certain lab tests to check your body's response to risperidone ...

  14. Aripiprazole Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of interest in life, and strong or inappropriate emotions). Aripiprazole extended-release injection (Abilify Maintena) is also ... and the laboratory. Your doctor may order certain lab tests to check your body's response to aripiprazole ...

  15. Olanzapine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of interest in life, and strong or inappropriate emotions). Olanzapine injection is used to treat episodes of ... and the laboratory. Your doctor may order certain lab tests to check your body's response to olanzapine ...

  16. Bendamustine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Avelox), norfloxacin (Noroxin), and ofloxacin (Floxin); fluvoxamine (Luvox); omeprazole (Prilosec); and ticlopidine (Ticlid). Your doctor may need ... injection. You should use birth control to prevent pregnancy in yourself or your partner during your treatment ...

  17. Pegloticase Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... doctor if you have glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency (an inherited blood disease). Your doctor may test you for G6PD deficiency before you start to receive pegloticase injection. If ...

  18. Leuprolide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the body and causes pain, heavy or irregular menstruation [periods], and other symptoms). Leuprolide injection (Lupron Depot) ... itching in women spotting (light vaginal bleeding) or menstruation (periods) decrease in size of testicles decrease in ...

  19. Lixisenatide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/Drugs/DrugSafety/ucm085729.htm) to obtain the Medication Guide. ... exenatide (Bydureon, Byetta), liraglutide (Saxenda, Victoza), any other medications, or any of the ingredients in lixisenatide injection. Ask your pharmacist or check the Medication Guide ...

  20. Tisagenlecleucel Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... htm) or the manufacturer's website to obtain the Medication Guide. ... your doctor about the risks of receiving this medication.Tisagenlecleucel injection may cause other side effects. Call your doctor ...

  1. Meperidine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... htm) or the manufacturer's website to obtain the Medication Guide. ... and during surgery or other medical procedures. Meperidine injection is in a class of medications called opiate (narcotic) analgesics. It works by changing ...

  2. Peculiarities of thermal dissociation of oxides during submerged arc welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid Zhdanov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A method of settlement of the process of thermal dissociation of oxides in reaction zone during the submerged arc welding and welding deposition is presented. Combined non-linear equations for definition of gas-vapour mixture composition were developed. They describe the dissociation of MeO, MeO2 and Me2O3 types of oxides. Calculations of the processes of oxide dissociation were performed for the oxides that are commonly included into welding fluxes. Their results and analysis are presented. The method proposed appeared to be adequate and applicable for analysis of processes during submerged arc operation that run in the gas phase.

  3. EAARL-B Submerged Topography—Saint Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A submerged topography digital elevation model (DEM) mosaic for a portion of the submerged environs of Saint Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands, was produced from remotely...

  4. EAARL-B Submerged Topography--Saint Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A submerged topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for a portion of the submerged environs of Saint Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands, was produced from remotely...

  5. Long-term allelopathic control of phytoplankton by the submerged macrophyte Elodea nuttallii

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanderstukken, M.; Declerck, S.A.J.; Decaestecker, E.; Muylaert, K.

    2014-01-01

    Keywords: allelochemicals; chemical ecology; competition; nutrient limitation; shallow lakes Summary 1.It is well known that submerged macrophytes can suppress phytoplankton blooms in lakes and thus promote water quality and biodiversity. One of the possible mechanisms through which submerged

  6. Invasive Crayfish Threaten the Development of Submerged Macrophytes in Lake Restoration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wal, van der J.E.M.; Dorenbosch, M.; Immers, A.K.; Vidal Forteza, C.; Geurts Van Kessel, J.M.M.; Peeters, E.T.H.M.; Koese, B.; Bakker, E.S.

    2013-01-01

    Submerged macrophytes enhance water transparency and aquatic biodiversity in shallow water ecosystems. Therefore, the return of submerged macrophytes is the target of many lake restoration projects. However, at present, north-western European aquatic ecosystems are increasingly invaded by omnivorous

  7. Invasive crayfish threaten the development of submerged macrophytes in lake restoration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Wal, J.E.M.; Dorenbosch, M.; Immers, A.; Vidal Forteza, C.; Geurts, J.J.M.; Peeters, E.T.H.M.; Koese, B.; Bakker, E.S.

    2013-01-01

    Submerged macrophytes enhance water transparency and aquatic biodiversity in shallow water ecosystems. Therefore, the return of submerged macrophytes is the target of many lake restoration projects. However, at present, north-western European aquatic ecosystems are increasingly invaded by omnivorous

  8. Through-flow of water in leaves of a submerged plant is influenced by the apical opening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ole; Jørgensen, Lise Bolt; Sand-Jensen, Kaj

    1997-01-01

    Submerged plant, apical opening, hydathode, Sparganium, hydraulic architecture, leaf specific conductivity......Submerged plant, apical opening, hydathode, Sparganium, hydraulic architecture, leaf specific conductivity...

  9. Hydrogen mitigation in submerged arc welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimowicz, Steven

    With the role of hydrogen in weld metal well understood in its relation to cold cracking, there has been a push to produce welds with lower and lower diffusible hydrogen contents. The push for lower diffusible hydrogen contents has placed pressure on consumables manufactures to create consumables that can achieve the requirements for lower diffusible hydrogen content. Currently EM12K flux is produced so that it can achieve below 4 ml of diffusible hydrogen for every 100g of weld metal deposited (ml/100g) for submerged arc welding (SAW). The recent trend for industry is to preferentially achieve diffusible hydrogen contents below 3 ml/100g. Making it necessary to find a way to modify the flux to achieve a lower diffusible hydrogen content for the welds it produces. To achieve this goal a two phase plan was developed. The first phase was to characterize the entire welding system for hydrogen. Since the goal of the project is hydrogen mitigation, any amount of hydrogen that could be reduced is helpful and therefore must first be discovered. Sources of hydrogen may be found by analyzing the welding wire and base metal, as well as breaking the flux down into its components and production steps. The wire was analyzed for total hydrogen content as was the base metal. The flux and its components were analyzed using differential thermal analysis-simultaneous thermal analysis (DTA-STA) and later vacuum degassing for moisture content. The analysis of the wire showed that the copper coating on the wire was the largest contributor of hydrogen. There was lubricant present on the wire surface as well, but it did not contribute as much as the copper coating. It was found that a simple low temperature baking of the wire was enough to remove the lubricant and coating moisture. The base metal was found to have a similar total hydrogen content to that of the wire. The breakdown of the flux and production process for moisture content analysis revealed that the production process

  10. Proposed gas generation assembly would recover deeply submerged objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, C. W.

    1968-01-01

    Gas generation system, used for recovery of submerged objects, generates hydrogen gas by the reaction of sodium with sea water. The assembly consists of flooded flotation tanks cabled together, equipped with relief valves to equalize pressure as the array ascends and hydrostatic pressure diminishes, and carrying remotely activated welding units.

  11. Implementation of Submerged Arc Welding Training. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowick, Earl; Todd, John

    A unit on submerged arc welding (SAW) was developed and integrated into the welding program at Seattle Central Community College (Washington) during the period December 1983 through May 1984. During this time, 10 major users of SAW in the area were contacted and mailed questionnaires. Follow up consisted of telephone calls and personal contact as…

  12. Benthic Bacterial Diversity in Submerged Sinkhole Ecosystems▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nold, Stephen C.; Pangborn, Joseph B.; Zajack, Heidi A.; Kendall, Scott T.; Rediske, Richard R.; Biddanda, Bopaiah A.

    2010-01-01

    Physicochemical characterization, automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA) community profiling, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing approaches were used to study bacterial communities inhabiting submerged Lake Huron sinkholes inundated with hypoxic, sulfate-rich groundwater. Photosynthetic cyanobacterial mats on the sediment surface were dominated by Phormidium autumnale, while deeper, organically rich sediments contained diverse and active bacterial communities. PMID:19880643

  13. Effects of submerged and anaerobic fermentations on cassava flour ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oke Oluwatoyin Victoria

    2015-03-18

    Mar 18, 2015 ... Cassava tubers for processing into cassava flour, Lafun a Nigerian locally fermented product was subjected to two different types of fermentations: submerged and anaerobic fermentation for 72 h. Physicochemical changes that occurred during fermentation and their influence on the functional, rheological ...

  14. Reactive oxygen species mediate growth and death in submerged plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianka eSteffens

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic and semi-aquatic plants are well adapted to survive partial or complete submergence which is commonly accompanied by oxygen deprivation. The gaseous hormone ethylene controls a number of adaptive responses to submergence including adventitious root growth and aerenchyma formation. Reactive oxygen species (ROS act as signaling intermediates in ethylene-controlled submergence adaptation and possibly also independent of ethylene. ROS levels are controlled by synthesis, enzymatic metabolism and nonenzymatic scavenging. While the actors are by and large known, we still have to learn about altered ROS at the subcellular level and how they are brought about, and the signaling cascades that trigger a specific response. This review briefly summarizes our knowledge on the contribution of ROS to submergence adaptation and describes spectrophotometrical, histochemical and live cell imaging detection methods that have been used to study changes in ROS abundance. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR spectroscopy is introduced as a method that allows identification and quantification of specific ROS in cell compartments. The use of advanced technologies such as EPR spectroscopy will be necessary to untangle the intricate and partially interwoven signaling networks of ethylene and ROS.

  15. Surface Intermediate Zone of Submerged Turbulent Buoyant Jet in Current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, H. B.; Larsen, Torben

    1995-01-01

    This paper deals with the intermediate zone between the jet and plume stages of a submerged buoyant discharge from sea outfall in current. The stability criteria, plume width and height after the intermediate zone and the dilution within the intermediate region have been studied theoretically and...

  16. Effects of prolonged elevated water salinity on submerged ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    environmental change, global warming. * To whom all correspondence should be addressed. e-mail: ian.russell@sanparks.org. Received 9 March 2017; accepted in revised form 10 October 2017. INTRODUCTION. Estuarine submerged macrophyte communities can be highly variable at both spatial and temporal scales, ...

  17. Protein enrichment of cassava peel by submerged fermentation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2010-01-11

    Jan 11, 2010 ... Key words: Cassava peel, Trichoderma viride, enzyme, submerged fermentation, protein, amino acids. INTRODUCTION. Protein-energy malnutrition remains a major public health problem in many developing countries and there is the need to increase daily intake of protein, especially animal protein, using ...

  18. Relationships between the biomass of waterfowl and submerged ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Wilderness Lakes system, comprising three estuarine lakes (Eilandvlei, Langvlei and Rondevlei), supports a diverse waterbird community, which includes 12 duck species and the abundant Red-knobbed Coot Fulica cristata. Biannual counts of waterfowl (ducks and Red-knobbed Coot) and assessments of submerged ...

  19. Protein enrichment of cassava peel by submerged fermentation with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Protein enrichment of cassava peel by submerged fermentation with Trichoderma viride (ATCC 36316). OO Ezekiel, OC Aworh, HP Blaschek, TC Ezeji. Abstract. Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) peel is one of the solid wastes produced as a consequence of cassava processing. It is low in protein but contains a large ...

  20. Nitrification in a submerged attached growth bioreactor using Luffa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A laboratory-scale submerged attached growth bioreactor using Luffa cylindrica as support material for the immobilization of nitrifying bacteria was applied for polishing the effluent of an UASB reactor treating domestic wastewater under the tropical conditions of northeast Brazil, in the City of Campina Grande (7o 13' 11” ...

  1. Effects of submerged vegetation on water clarity across climates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kosten, S.; Lacerot, G.; Jeppesen, E.; Motta Marques, D.M.L.; Nes, van E.H.; Mazzeo, N.; Scheffer, M.

    2009-01-01

    A positive feedback between submerged vegetation and water clarity forms the backbone of the alternative state theory in shallow lakes. The water clearing effect of aquatic vegetation may be caused by different physical, chemical, and biological mechanisms and has been studied mainly in temperate

  2. Demystifying Mystery Powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotar, Michael

    1989-01-01

    Describes science activities which use simple chemical tests to distinguish between materials and to determine some of their properties. Explains the water, iodine, heat, acid, baking soda, acid/base indicator, glucose, and sugar tests. Includes activities to enhance chemical testing and a list of suggested powders for use. (RT)

  3. Moldagem por injeção em baixa pressão de peças complexas de cerâmicas avançadas produzidas com pós submicrométricos Low-pressure injection molding of complex parts of advanced ceramic produced with fine powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Zorzi

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A moldagem por injeção em baixa pressão (MIBP tem constituído, nos últimos anos, uma excelente alternativa para a produção de pequenos lotes de peças cerâmicas diversificadas e com formas complexas. Esta técnica de conformação é relativamente simples e barata, mas apresenta diversos problemas na etapa de extração dos ligantes, principalmente quando o pó cerâmico é muito fino e as peças possuem grande seção transversal. Neste trabalho é descrita uma metodologia específica para a produção de peças cerâmicas por moldagem por injeção a baixa pressão de alumina submicrométrica (0,4 mim, incluindo a formulação da mistura para injeção, bem como detalhes do processo de extração dos ligantes orgânicos utilizados na moldagem. Para o desenvolvimento deste processo fez-se necessário (i entender melhor o processo de MIBP, (ii desenvolver a formulação da mistura de pó cerâmico e aditivos orgânicos, (iii confeccionar moldes adequados para a injeção a baixas pressões e (iv otimizar os parâmetros de injeção. A metodologia desenvolvida neste trabalho, possibilita a confecção de peças cerâmicas complexas, com seção transversal relativamente grande, permitindo uma produção robusta de pequenos lotes de peças cerâmicas diversificadas com ótima qualidade e excelente reprodutibilidade.In the past years, low-pressure injection molding (LPIM has been a good alternative for the production of small batches of diversified complex shapes ceramic parts. This molding technique is relatively simple and cheap, but presents several problems related to debinding, especially for fine ceramic particle, and large cross-section ceramic pieces. In this work, we present a metodology for the production of ceramic parts based on the LPIM of submicrometer-sized alumina powder (0.4 mum. The binder formulation is described, as well as the details of the debinding stage. For the development of this process it was necessary (i to

  4. Functionalized hyperbranched polyethylene powder supports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergbreiter, D E; Tao, G; Kippenberger, A M

    2000-09-07

    [reaction: see text] Polyethylene powders with useful loadings of functional groups are accessible by hyperbranched grafting chemistry. Using a 200 microm diameter high-density powder, loadings of up to 0.4 mmol/g of CO(2)H groups are attained. The carboxylic acid groups in the resulting powders can be further functionalized covalently or ionically and resulting powders have the physical durability and solvent resistance associated with polyethylene itself.

  5. Powder diffraction at ALBA synchrotron

    OpenAIRE

    Aranda, Miguel A. G.

    2017-01-01

    This talk is devoted to explain the uses of powder diffraction at MSPD (material science and powder diffraction) of ALBA synchrotron light source. General characteristics of the beamline are: Station 1 - High Pressure Diffraction on powders with diamond anvil cell (DAC) and CCD detector. Microdiffraction; and Station 2 - High Resolution Powder Diffraction with Multicrystal- and Silicon-Strip detector. Energy Range: 8-50keV; Typical beam size: 4x1mm; all typical sample geometries possible: cap...

  6. Liraglutide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stroke, or death in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus and heart and blood vessel disease. Liraglutide injection ( ... helps move sugar from the blood into other body tissues where it is used for ... appetite and cause weight loss.Over time, people who have diabetes and ...

  7. Obinutuzumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... other chemotherapy medication(s). Obinutuzumab injection is in a class of medications called monoclonal antibodies. It works by killing cancer cells. ... office or hospital. Your doctor will select a schedule to give you obinutuzumab ... certain side effects. Your doctor will give you other medications to ...

  8. Ipilimumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    (ip'' i lim' ue mab)Ipilimumab injection may cause severe or life-threatening side effects. This includes ... In case of overdose, call your local poison control center at 1-800-222-1222. If the victim has collapsed or is not breathing, call local emergency services at ...

  9. Isavuconazonium Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fungal infections such as invasive aspergillosis (a fungal infection that begins in the lungs and spreads through the bloodstream to other organs) and invasive mucormycosis (a fungal infection that usually begins in the sinuses, brain, or lungs). Isavuconazonium injection is in a class of medications ...

  10. Micro powder-injection moulding of metals and ceramics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    annular gear pumps made of zirconia for future handling of very small volumes of dangerous fluids and micro samples (tensile and bending specimens) suitable for mechanical testing of metals (316L, 17-4PH) and ceramic materials (Al23, ZrO2) in ...

  11. Advanced powder processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janney, M.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Gelcasting is an advanced powder forming process. It is most commonly used to form ceramic or metal powders into complex, near-net shapes. Turbine rotors, gears, nozzles, and crucibles have been successfully gelcast in silicon nitride, alumina, nickel-based superalloy, and several steels. Gelcasting can also be used to make blanks that can be green machined to near-net shape and then high fired. Green machining has been successfully applied to both ceramic and metal gelcast blanks. Recently, the authors have used gelcasting to make tooling for metal casting applications. Most of the work has centered on H13 tool steel. They have demonstrated an ability to gelcast and sinter H13 to near net shape for metal casting tooling. Also, blanks of H13 have been cast, green machined into complex shape, and fired. Issues associated with forming, binder burnout, and sintering are addressed.

  12. Applying the seedling-emergence method under waterlogged conditions to detect the seed bank of aquatic plants in submerged sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boedeltje, G; ter Heerdt, GNJ; Bakker, JP

    Seed bank studies focused on submerged aquatic plants are generally performed under submerged conditions, using the seedling-emergence method. However, if a study targets at both submerged species and helophytes, submerged conditions are generally not suitable. We tested the emergence of seedlings

  13. Dispersing powders in liquids

    CERN Document Server

    Nelson, RD

    1988-01-01

    This book provides powder technologists with laboratory procedures for selecting dispersing agents and preparing stable dispersions that can then be used in particle size characterization instruments. Its broader goal is to introduce industrial chemists and engineers to the phenomena, terminology, physical principles, and chemical considerations involved in preparing and handling dispersions on a commercial scale. The book introduces novices to: - industrial problems due to improper degree of dispersion; - the nomenclature used in describing particles; - the basic physica

  14. Sintering of HDH Ti Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kováčik Jaroslav

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Titanium powders prepared by hydro-dehydration process (HDH powder were pressure less sintered in vacuum oven at different temperatures, time and green density. The sintering properties of powders of two particle sizes - 30 and 150 microns were investigated. The usual powder metallurgical (PM results were observed, i.e., decreasing final porosity with increasing sintering temperature and time at constant heating rate. Higher green density leading to higher final density for both powder sizes was also observed. The obtained results will be used as comparative material for future sintering experiments of Ti based composites.

  15. Studies towards the stabilisation of a mushroom phytase produced by submerged cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spier, Michele Rigon; Behsnilian, Diana; Zielinski, Acácio; Konietzny, Ursula; Greiner, Ralf

    2015-10-01

    A novel phytase from Ganoderma australe G24 was produced by submerged cultivation and recovery. Liquid and solid forms of phytase were developed; both types of product were formulated using different additives. Ganoderma australe G24 phytase was very stable in liquid form with NaCl and sodium acetate buffer. Solid form products were obtained by spray-drying using different polymers to encapsulate the phytase and the capsules obtained were analyzed by electron microscopy. Micrographs confirmed micro and nanoparticles formed with maltodextrin (300 nm to 7-8 µm) without the presence of agglomerates. The use of maltodextrin for solid formulation of G. australe G24 phytase is recommended, and resulted in good stability after the drying process and during storage (shelf life). Kinetic models of phytase inactivation in the microencapsulated powders over time were proposed for the different stabilizing additives. Inactivation rate constants, half-lives and D values (decimal reduction time) were obtained. Phytase encapsulated with maltodextrin remained stable after 90 days, with k 0.0019 day(-1) and a half-life (t1/2) of 367.91 days(-1).

  16. Statistical Optimization of Tannase Production by Penicillium sp. EZ-ZH390 in Submerged Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Hamidi-Esfahani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Tannase has several important applications in food, feed, chemical and pharmaceutical industries. In the present study, production of tannase by mutant strain, Penicillium sp. EZ-ZH390, was optimized in submerged fermentation utilizing two statistical approaches. At first step, a one factor at a time design was employed to screen the preferable nutriments (carbon and nitrogen sources of the medium to produce tannase. Screening of the carbon source resulted in the production of 10.74 U/mL of tannase in 72 h in the presence of 14% raspberry leaves powder. A 1.99-fold increase in tannase production was achieved upon further screening of the nitrogen source (in the presence of 1.2% ammonium nitrate. Then the culture condition variables were studied by the response surface methodology using a central composite design. The results showed that temperature of 30°C rotation rate of 85 rpm and fermentation time 24h led to increased tannase production. At these conditions, tannase activity reached to 21.77 U/mL, and tannase productivity was at least 3.55 times (0.26 U/mL.h in compare to those reported in the literature. The present study showed that, at the optimum conditions, Penicillium sp. EZ-ZH390 is an excellent strain for use in the efficient production of tannase.

  17. Modeling of melt-coolant mixing by bottom injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazachkov, I.V.; Paladino, D.; Sehgal, B.R. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Div. of Nuclear Power Safety, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2001-07-01

    In this paper, the flow characteristics during the coolant injection, with submerged nozzles, at the bottom of a molten pool are studied. The flow pattern developed by the rising coolant is considered for the case of complete coolant vaporization, and the pool-coolant phase distributions are assessed by a modeling approach delivered from literature for a heterogeneous turbulent jet. To calculate the basic characteristics of such flow, integral relationships are proposed for the two-phase boundary layer. The results of numerical computations and approximate solution are compared with the experimental data obtained in the low temperature experiments, conducted in the DECOBI (debris coolability by bottom injection) facility. (authors)

  18. Methods for geothermal reservoir detection emphasizing submerged environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Case, C.W.; Wilde, P.

    1976-05-21

    This report has been prepared for the California State Lands Commission to aid them in evaluating exploration programs for geothermal reservoirs, particularly in submerged land environments. Three charts show: (1) a logical progression of specific geologic, geochemical, and geophysical exploration techniques for detecting geothermal reservoirs in various geologic environments with emphasis on submerged lands, (2) various exploration techniques which can be used to develop specific information in geothermal areas, and (3) if various techniques will apply to geothermal exploration according to a detailed geologic classification. A narrative in semi-outline form supplements these charts, providing for each technique; a brief description, advantages, disadvantages, special geologic considerations, and specific references. The specific geologic situation will control the exploration criterion to be used for reservoir detection. General guidelines are established which may be of use in evaluating such a program, but the optimum approach will vary with each situation.

  19. Antitumor activity of submerged biomass of Hericium erinaceus

    OpenAIRE

    Avtonomova, A.; Bakanov, A.; Vinokurov, V.; Bukhman, V.; Krasnopolskaya, L.

    2011-01-01

    Submerged cultivation of Hericium erinaceus in various media has been studied. The yield of biomass was shown to depend mainly on the carbon source, whereas the content of watersoluble polysaccharides depended primarily on the nitrogen source. Using optimal medium composition, the biomass yield of 22-23 g/l in 7 days was achieved. The antitumor activity was studied in vivo with using 2 tumor strains. The inhibition ratio of tumor in these experience reached 86%. An exposure of mice with tumor...

  20. Submerged beachrock preservation in the context of wave ravinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretorius, Lauren; Green, Andrew N.; Andrew Cooper, J.

    2018-02-01

    This study examines a Holocene-aged submerged shoreline, Limestone Reef, located in the shallow subtidal zone of South Africa's east coast. It comprises an elongate, coast-oblique, slab-like outcrop of beachrock situated above the contemporary fair-weather wave base. It is currently undergoing mechanical disintegration. Its unique and rare preservation in a high-energy setting affords an opportunity to examine the mechanical processes occurring during wave ravinement associated with rising sea level. The submerged shoreline and the adjacent shoreface were examined using high-resolution seismic reflection, side-scan sonar and shallow-water multibeam echosounding techniques. Limestone Reef rests on top of unconsolidated Holocene deposits. The structure's surface is characterised by reef-perpendicular gullies with rubble derived from the slab fringing its seaward edge. Limestone Reef slopes gently seawards and has a steep landward-facing edge where gullies are most prominently developed. Teardrop-shaped rippled scour depressions, marked by high backscatter, are located seawards of the submerged shoreline. These elongate in a seaward direction and are filled with bioclastic gravels and residual rubble from Limestone Reef. The gullies in the upstanding structure are indicative of wave plucking and abrasion of the shoreline. The material exposed by the rippled scour depressions is identical to that comprising the postglacial ravinement surface identified in the offshore stratigraphy. These deposits are considered to represent the contemporary, actively forming wave ravinement surface. The results suggest that wave ravinement of submerged shorelines is a discontinuous process dominated by the seaward entrainment of material from its landward edge controlled by high-energy drawback during storm surges. The ravinement process appears to operate at the seasonal scale and averages out over the long-term millennial scale for the continuous surface.

  1. Submerged Pagodas of Mahabalipuram - Study based on underwater investigations

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sundaresh; Gaur, A.S.; Tripati, S.; Vora, K.H.; Rao, K.M.

    - gested that this place could have served as an ancient port (Dayalan, 1992). Mahabalipuram was well known to earlier mariners as 'Seven Pagodas' since the 1 7h century AD. it is generally believed that out of 7 temples originally con- structed, all... based on the local traditions and available literature. The local tradition and the people of Mahabalipuram believe that five temples similar to the Shore Temple have been submerged in the sea. On the basis of local traditions Ancient Tamil...

  2. Instrumentation, control, and automation for submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactors

    OpenAIRE

    Robles Martínez, Ángel; Durán Pinzón, Freddy; Ruano García, María Victoria; Ribes Bertomeu, José; Rosado Muñoz, Alfredo; SECO TORRECILLAS, AURORA; Ferrer, J.

    2015-01-01

    A submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) demonstration plant with two commercial hollow-fibre ultrafiltration systems (PURON® , Koch Membrane Systems, PUR-PSH31) was designed and operated for urban wastewater treatment. An instrumentation, control, and automation (ICA) system was designed and implemented for proper process performance. Several single-input-single-output (SISO) feedback control loops based on conventional on off and PID algorithms were implemented to control the follo...

  3. Powder Production and Particle Engineering for Dry Powder Inhaler Formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Wei; Wong, Jennifer; Qu, Li; Chan, Hak-Kim; Zhou, Qi Tony

    2015-01-01

    Dry powder inhalers have become increasingly attractive for pulmonary delivery of locally and systemically effective medications. In comparison to the liquid counterparts, such as nebulisation and pressurised metered dose inhalers, the powder form generally offers better chemical stability, improved portability and potentially superior patient adherence. Currently, the aerosol performance between dry powder inhalers varies to a large extent due to differences in the design of inhaler device and formulation. The particulate properties have a significant influence on the inter-particle interactions, which impacts on the aerosolisation of the inhaled powder. In this review, critical particulate properties that affect aerosol performance are discussed. Recent advances in powder production and particle engineering techniques are also assessed, aiming to develop new inhaled powder formulations or improve the aerosolisation efficiency of existing products.

  4. On the submerging of a spherical intruder into granular beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chuan-Yu; Zhang, Ling; Chen, Lan

    2017-06-01

    Granular materials are complex systems and their mechanical behaviours are determined by the material properties of individual particles, the interaction between particles and the surrounding media, which are still incompletely understood. Using an advanced discrete element method (DEM), we simulate the submerging process of a spherical projectile (an intruder) into granular materials of various properties with a zero penetration velocity (i.e. the intruder is touching the top surface of the granular bed and released from stationary) and examine its settling behaviour. By systematically changing the density and size of the intruder and the particle density (i.e. the density of the particles in the granular bed), we find that the intruder can sink deep into the granular bed even with a zero penetration velocity. Furthermore, we confirm that under certain conditions the granular bed can behave like a Newtonian liquid and the submerging intruder can reach a constant velocity, i.e. the terminal velocity, identical to the settling of a sphere in a liquid, as observed experimentally. A mathematical model is also developed to predict the maximum penetration depth of the intruder. The model predictions are compared with experimental data reported in the literature,good agreement was obtained, demonstrating the model can accurately predict the submerging behaviour of the intruder in the granular media.

  5. Research efforts for detection and recovery of submerged oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, K. [United States Coast Guard, Groton, CT (United States). Research and Development Center

    2009-07-01

    Submerged oil can sink and destroy shellfish and other marine populations in addition to causing closure of water intakes at industrial facilities and power plants. However, current methods to find and recover oil from spills involving submerged oil are inadequate. The underwater environment presents major challenges such as poor visibility, difficulty in tracking oil spill movement, colder temperatures, inadequate containment methods and problems with the equipment's interaction with water. This paper reported on a multi-year project launched by the Research and Development Center of the United States Coast Guard to develop a complete approach for spills of submerged oil. The project involved detection technologies and recovery methods for oil on the bottom of any body of water. Proof of concept (POC) and prototype tests of potential detection technologies were evaluated during tests at the Ohmsett facility in Leonardo, New Jersey. The technologies included sonar, laser fluorometry, real-time mass spectrometry and in-situ fluorometry. This paper described the development of a complete specification for an integrated recovery system along with a plan for future development. 9 refs., 2 tabs., 11 figs.

  6. Measurement of Submerged Oil/Gas Leaks using ROV Video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Franklin; de Vera, Giorgio; Lee, Kenneth; Savas, Ömer

    2013-11-01

    Drilling for oil or gas in the Gulf of Mexico is increasing rapidly at depths up to three miles. The National Commission on the Deepwater Horizon Oil Leak concluded that inaccurate estimates of the leak rate from the Deepwater Horizon caused an inadequate response and attempts to cap the leak to fail. The first response to a submerged oil/gas leak will be to send a Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) down to view the leak. During the response to the Deepwater Horizon crisis, the authors Savas and Shaffer were members of the Flow Rate Technical Group's Plume Team who used ROV video to develop the FRTG's first official estimates of the oil leak rate. Savas and Shaffer developed an approach using the larger, faster jet features (e.g., turbulent eddies, vortices, entrained particles) in the near-field developing zone to measure discharge rates. The authors have since used the Berkeley Tow Tank to test this approach on submerged dye-colored water jets and compressed air jets. Image Correlation Velocimetry has been applied to measure the velocity of visible features. Results from tests in the Berkeley Tow Tank and submerged oil jets in the OHMSETT facility will be presented.

  7. Production of Alpha Amylase by Bacillus cereus in Submerged Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen H. Raplong

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms have the ability to secrete enzymes when they are grown in the presence of certain substrates. Amylases are among the most important industrial enzymes and are of great significance in biotechnological studies. Bacteria belonging to the genus Bacillus were isolated using mannitol egg yolk polymyxin B (MYP agar a highly selective media for Bacillus cereus isolation. The isolates were tested for α-amylase production on nutrient agar supplemented with starch and in submerged fermentation. The bacteria isolated and identified (using the Microgen Bacillus identification kit were all Bacillus cereus and SB2 had the largest zone of hydrolysis of 12mm on nutrient agar supplemented with starch as well as the highest enzyme activity of 1.62U/ml. Amylase activity of 2.56U/ml was obtained after 24 hours incubation in submerged fermentation. When amylase enzyme production parameters where optimized, maximum amylase activity was obtained at a pH of 6.5, temperature of 350C, incubation time of 24 hours and 4% inoculums concentration. Bacillus cereus SB2 is a potential isolate for alpha-amylase production with soluble starch as the sole carbon source in submerged fermentation.

  8. On the submerging of a spherical intruder into granular beds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Chuan-Yu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Granular materials are complex systems and their mechanical behaviours are determined by the material properties of individual particles, the interaction between particles and the surrounding media, which are still incompletely understood. Using an advanced discrete element method (DEM, we simulate the submerging process of a spherical projectile (an intruder into granular materials of various properties with a zero penetration velocity (i.e. the intruder is touching the top surface of the granular bed and released from stationary and examine its settling behaviour. By systematically changing the density and size of the intruder and the particle density (i.e. the density of the particles in the granular bed, we find that the intruder can sink deep into the granular bed even with a zero penetration velocity. Furthermore, we confirm that under certain conditions the granular bed can behave like a Newtonian liquid and the submerging intruder can reach a constant velocity, i.e. the terminal velocity, identical to the settling of a sphere in a liquid, as observed experimentally. A mathematical model is also developed to predict the maximum penetration depth of the intruder. The model predictions are compared with experimental data reported in the literature,good agreement was obtained, demonstrating the model can accurately predict the submerging behaviour of the intruder in the granular media.

  9. Nano powders, components and coatings by plasma technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKechnie, Timothy N. (Inventor); Antony, Leo V. M. (Inventor); O'Dell, Scott (Inventor); Power, Chris (Inventor); Tabor, Terry (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Ultra fine and nanometer powders and a method of producing same are provided, preferably refractory metal and ceramic nanopowders. When certain precursors are injected into the plasma flame in a reactor chamber, the materials are heated, melted and vaporized and the chemical reaction is induced in the vapor phase. The vapor phase is quenched rapidly to solid phase to yield the ultra pure, ultra fine and nano product. With this technique, powders have been made 20 nanometers in size in a system capable of a bulk production rate of more than 10 lbs/hr. The process is particularly applicable to tungsten, molybdenum, rhenium, tungsten carbide, molybdenum carbide and other related materials.

  10. The influence of particle size distribution on the properties of metal-injection-moulded 17-4 PH stainless steel

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Seerane, Mandy

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available .V. and GERMAN, R.M. 2009. Effect of powders and binders on material properties and molding parameters in iron and stainless steel powder injection molding process. Powder Technology, vol. 193, no. 2. pp. 162–169. AMIN, S.Y.M., JAMALUDIN, K.R. and MUHAMAD, N.... Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, vol. 23A, May. pp. 1455–1465. GERMAN, R.M. 2005. Powder Metallurgy and Particulate Materials Processing. Metal Powder Industries Federation, Princeton, NJ, USA. GERMAN, R.M. and BOSE, A. 1997. Injection Molding...

  11. Titanium Metal Powder Production by the Plasma Quench Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. A. Cordes; A. Donaldson

    2000-09-01

    The goals of this project included the scale-up of the titanium hydride production process to a production rate of 50 kg/hr at a purity level of 99+%. This goal was to be achieved by incrementally increasing the production capability of a series of reactor systems. This methodic approach was designed to allow Idaho Titanium Technologies to systematically address the engineering issues associated with plasma system performance, and powder collection system design and performance. With quality powder available, actual fabrication with the titanium hydride was to be pursued. Finally, with a successful titanium production system in place, the production of titanium aluminide was to be pursued by the simultaneously injection of titanium and aluminum precursors into the reactor system. Some significant accomplishments of the project are: A unique and revolutionary torch/reactor capable of withstanding temperatures up to 5000 C with high thermal efficiency has been operated. The dissociation of titanium tetrachloride into titanium powder and HC1 has been demonstrated, and a one-megawatt reactor potentially capable of producing 100 pounds per hour has been built, but not yet operated at the powder level. The removal of residual subchlorides and adsorbed HC1 and the sintering of powder to form solid bodies have been demonstrated. The production system has been operated at production rates up to 40 pounds per hour. Subsequent to the end of the project, Idaho Titanium Technologies demonstrated that titanium hydride powder can indeed be sintered into solid titanium metal at 1500 C without sintering aids.

  12. Effect of decellularized tissue powders on a rat model of acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabuchi, Masaki; Negishi, Jun; Yamashita, Akitatsu; Higami, Tetsuya; Kishida, Akio; Funamoto, Seiichi

    2015-11-01

    Many research groups are currently investigating new treatment modalities for myocardial infarction. Numerous aspects need to be considered for the clinical application of these therapies, such as low cell integration and engraftment rates of cell injection techniques. Decellularized tissues are considered good materials for promoting regeneration of traumatic tissues. The properties of the decellularized tissues are sustained after processing to powder form. In this study, we examined the use of decellularized tissue powder in a rat model of acute myocardial infarction. The decellularized tissue powders, especially liver powder, promoted cell integration and neovascularization both in vitro and in vivo. Decellularized liver powder induced neovascularization in the infarct area, resulting in the suppression of myocardial necrosis. The results of this study suggest that decellularized liver powder has good potential for application as a blood supply material for the treatment of myocardial infarction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Antioxidant Properties of the Edible Basidiomycete Armillaria mellea in Submerged Cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Lung, Ming-Yeou; Chang, Yu-Cheng

    2011-01-01

    Antioxidant components, ascorbic acid, total flavonoids and total phenols are produced effectively by Armillaria mellea submerged cultures. Dried mycelia and mycelia-free broths obtained by A. mellea submerged cultures are extracted with methanol and hot water and investigated for antioxidant properties. Methanolic extracts from dried mycelia (MEM) and mycelia-free broth (MEB) and hot water extracts from dried mycelia (HWEM) by A. mellea submerged cultures show good antioxidant properties as ...

  14. Enhanced effects of biotic interactions on predicting multispecies spatial distribution of submerged macrophytes after eutrophication

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Kun; Cui, Yichong; Zhang, Xijin; Pan, Yingji; Xu, Junli; Xu, Kaiqin; Da, Liangjun

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Water eutrophication creates unfavorable environmental conditions for submerged macrophytes. In these situations, biotic interactions may be particularly important for explaining and predicting the submerged macrophytes occurrence. Here, we evaluate the roles of biotic interactions in predicting spatial occurrence of submerged macrophytes in 1959 and 2009 for Dianshan Lake in eastern China, which became eutrophic since the 1980s. For the four common species occurred in 1959 and 2009,...

  15. GigaUnit Transplant System: A New Mechanical Tool for Transplanting Submerged Aquatic Vegetation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shafer, Deborah J

    2008-01-01

    Submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) performs many important ecosystem functions, including wave attenuation and sediment stabilization, water quality improvement, primary production, food web support for secondary consumers...

  16. Evaluation of powder metallurgical processing routes for multi-component niobium silicide-based high-temperature alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seemueller, Hans Christoph Maximilian

    2016-03-22

    Niobium silicide-based composites are potential candidates to replace nickel-base superalloys for turbine applications. The goal of this work was to evaluate the feasibility and differences in ensuing properties of various powder metallurgical processing techniques that are capable of manufacturing net-shape turbine components. Two routes for powder production, mechanical alloying and gas atomization were combined with compaction via hot isostatic pressing and powder injection molding.

  17. Indigenous tooth powders = Covert lead poisoning?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hegde, Sapna; Shubha, A; Rao, B

    2013-01-01

    .../almond shell, coconut shell and its sheath, wood, coal and other powders (sand, common salt-powder and crystalline, brick and tile powder, tobacco, areca nut). [4] In addition, a variety of indigenous tooth powders are marketed which are very popular with the local people. Many of these age-old formulations of tooth powders may contain ha...

  18. Method of manufacturing powder particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borra, J.P.D.

    2002-01-01

    The invention relates to a method of manufacturing a dry powder particle, preferably using electro-hydrodynamic spraying, wherein two oppositely charged aerosol streams are contacted. The invention allows for the manufacture of powders having various, controllable compositions and shapes. In

  19. Restoring Ecological Function to a Submerged Salt Marsh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagg, C.L.; Mendelssohn, I.A.

    2010-01-01

    Impacts of global climate change, such as sea level rise and severe drought, have altered the hydrology of coastal salt marshes resulting in submergence and subsequent degradation of ecosystem function. A potential method of rehabilitating these systems is the addition of sediment-slurries to increase marsh surface elevation, thus ameliorating effects of excessive inundation. Although this technique is growing in popularity, the restoration of ecological function after sediment addition has received little attention. To determine if sediment subsidized salt marshes are functionally equivalent to natural marshes, we examined above- and belowground primary production in replicated restored marshes receiving four levels of sediment addition (29-42 cm North American Vertical Datum of 1988 [NAVD 88]) and in degraded and natural ambient marshes (4-22 cm NAVD 88). Moderate intensities of sediment-slurry addition, resulting in elevations at the mid to high intertidal zone (29-36 cm NAVD 88), restored ecological function to degraded salt marshes. Sediment additions significantly decreased flood duration and frequency and increased bulk density, resulting in greater soil drainage and redox potential and significantly lower phytotoxic sulfide concentrations. However, ecological function in the restored salt marsh showed a sediment addition threshold that was characterized by a decline in primary productivity in areas of excessive sediment addition and high elevation (>36 cm NAVD 88). Hence, the addition of intermediate levels of sediment to submerging salt marshes increased marsh surface elevation, ameliorated impacts of prolonged inundation, and increased primary productivity. However, too much sediment resulted in diminished ecological function that was equivalent to the submerged or degraded system. ?? 2010 Society for Ecological Restoration International.

  20. Enhanced Sorbitol Production under Submerged Fermentation using Lactobacillus plantarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Nadiya Jan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Sorbitol is a non-toxic and slightly hygroscopic compound with different applications. Zymomonas mobiles produces sorbitol from sucrose or mixtures of glucose and fructose (formation is coupled with the dehydrogenation of glucose to glucono-δ- lactone. Recombinant Zymomonas mobilis may produce sorbitol and gluconic acid from glucose and fructose using different divalent metal ions with reduced the ethanol yield andsignificantly increased yield of sorbitol. Current study envisaged to alter the media components, physical process parameters and supplementation of amino acids for enhanced sorbitol production.Material and Methods: Several process variables were evaluated on sorbitol production including carbon sources (glucose, fructose, maltose, sucrose, carbon concentrations (5, 10, 20 and 25 g l-1, nitrogen sources (peptone, tryptone, yeast extract, beef extract and organic nitrogen mix, temperatures (25, 29, 33, 37, 41°C, pH (6, 6.5, 7 , 7.5 ,8, agitation rate (50, 100, 150, 200 rpm and amino acids (cysteine, cystine, tryptophanin batch cultivation ofLactobacillus plantarum NCIM 2912. Shake flask cultivation performed under optimum conditions like temperature 37°C, pH 7.0 and agitation rate of 150 rpm, resulted in enhanced sorbitol production. Comparative study of sorbitol production in solid state fermentation and submerged fermentation was also evaluated.Results and Conclusion: Batch cultivation under submerged conditions further performed in 7.5-l lab scale bioreactor (working volume 3.0-l under optimized conditions resulted in maximum cell biomass of 8.95±0.03 g g-1 and a sorbitol content of 9.78±0.04 g l-1 after 42.0 h of fermentation. Scale up study on bioreactor resulted in maximum sorbitol yield (Yp/x and productivity of 1.11 g g-1 and 0.50 g l-1 h under submerged fermentation, respectively.Conflict of interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

  1. [Genetic algorithm for fermentation kinetics of submerged fermentation by Morchella].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Piao, Meizi; Sun, Yonghai

    2008-08-01

    Fermentation kinetics is important for optimizing control and up-scaling fermentation process. We studied submerged fermentation kinetics of Morchella. Applying the genetic Algorithm in the Matlab software platform, we compared suitability of the Monod and Logistic models, both are commonly used in process of fungal growth, to describe Morchella growth kinetics. Meanwhile, we evaluated parameters involved in the models for Morchella growth, EPS production and substrate consumption. The results indicated that Logistic model fit better with the experimental data. The average error of this model was 5.8%. This kinetics model can be useful for optimizing and up-scaling fungal fermentation process.

  2. Liquid Film Diffusion on Reaction Rate in Submerged Biofilters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Pia; Hollesen, Line; Harremoës, Poul

    1995-01-01

    Experiments were carried out in order to investigate the influence of liquid film diffusion on reaction rate in a submerged biofilter with denitrification and in order to compare with a theoretical study of the mass transfer coefficient. The experiments were carried out with varied flow, identified...... by the empty bed velocity of inflow and recirculation, respectively 1.3, 2.8, 5.6 and 10.9 m/h. The filter material consisted of 3 mm biostyren spheres. The results indicate that the influence of liquid film diffusion on reaction rate can be ignored....

  3. Slag Metal Reactions during Submerged Arc Welding of Alloy Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, U.; Eagar, T. W.

    1984-01-01

    The transfer of Cr, Si, Mn, P, S, C, Ni, and Mo between the slag and the weld pool has been studied for submerged arc welds made with calcium silicate and manganese silicate fluxes. The results show a strong interaction between Cr and Si transfer but no interaction with Mn. The manganese silicate flux produces lower residual sulfur while the calcium silicate fluxes are more effective for removal of phosphorus. The effective oxygen reaction temperature lies between 1700 and 2000 °C for all elements studied. Evidence of Cr and Mn loss by metal vaporization is also presented.

  4. Powder-Bed Stabilization for Powder-Based Additive Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Zocca

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The most successful additive manufacturing (AM technologies are based on thelayer-by-layer depositionof a flowable powder. Although considered as the third industrial revolution, one factor still limiting these processes to become completely autonomous is the often necessary build-up of support structures. Besides the prevention of lateral shifts of the part during the deposition of layers, the support assures quality and stability to the built process. The loose powder itself surrounding the built object, or so-called powder-bed, does not provide this sustenance in most existent technology available. Here we present a simple but effective and economical method for stabilizing the powder-bed, preventing distortions in the geometry with no need for support structures. This effect, achieved by applying an air flow through the powder-bed, is enabling an entirely autonomous generation of parts and is a major contribution to all powder-based additive manufacturing technologies. Moreover, it makes powder-based AM independent of gravitational forces, which will facilitate crafting items in space from a variety of powdery materials.

  5. Cathodic disbonding of organic coatings on submerged steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knudsen, Ole oeystein

    1998-12-31

    In offshore oil production, submerged steel structures are commonly protected by an organic coating in combination with cathodic protection. The main advantage is that the coating decreases the current demand for cathodic protection. But the coating degrades with time. This thesis studies one of the most important mechanisms for coating degradation in seawater, cathodic disbonding. Seven commercial coatings and two model coatings with various pigmentations have been studied. Parameter studies, microscopy and studies of free films were used in the mechanism investigations. Exposure to simulated North Sea conditions was used in the performance studies. The effect of aluminium and glass barrier pigments on cathodic disbonding was investigated. The mechanism for the effect of the aluminium pigments on cathodic disbonding was also investigated. The transport of charge and oxygen to the steel/coating interface during cathodic disbonding was studied for two epoxy coatings. Cathodic disbonding, blistering and current demand for cathodic protection was measured for nine commercial coatings for submerged steel structures, using the ASTM-G8 standard test and a long term test under simulated North Sea conditions. The relevance of the ASTM-G8 test as a prequalification test was evaluated. 171 refs., 40 figs., 6 tabs.

  6. Period Doubling in Bubbling from a Submerged Nozzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Jordan; Grace, Laura; Lehman, Susan

    The timing of bubbles rising from a nozzle submerged in a viscous solution was measured to examine the period-doubling route to chaos in this system. A narrow nozzle was submerged in a mixture of water and glycerin, and nitrogen was supplied to the nozzle at a varying flow rate. The bubbles were detected using a laser and photodiode system; when the bubbles rise through the laser beam, they scatter the light so that the signal at the photodiode decreases. The period between bubbles as well as the duration of each bubble (a function of bubble size and bubble velocity) was determined, and examined as the nitrogen flow rate increased, for solutions with five different concentrations of glycerin. Bubbles were also recorded visually using a high-speed camera. Within the flow rates tested, we observed a bifurcation of the period to period-2 behavior for all solutions tested, and a further bifurcation to period-4 for all solutions except pure glycerin. The solution viscosity affected both the onset of the bifurcation and the precise bubble behavior during the bifurcation. Unusually, a short period/long period pair of bubbles recurring at a regular interval was sometimes observed in the low flow regime which is typically period-1, an observation which requires further investigation. Research supported by NSF DMR 1560093.

  7. Magnetic imaging of a submerged Roman harbour, Caesarea Maritima, Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, J. I.; Reinhardt, E. G.; Raban, A.; Pozza, M. R.

    2003-04-01

    The harbour built by King Herod's engineers at Caesarea represented a major advance in Roman harbour construction that incorporated the use of large (390 m^3), form-filled hydraulic concrete blocks to build an extensive foundation for the harbour moles and breakwater barriers. Marine geophysical surveys were recently conducted across the submerged harbour in an attempt to map the configuration of the buried concrete foundation. A total of 107 line km of high-resolution marine magnetic surveys (nominal 15 m line separations) and bathymetry data were acquired over a 1 km^2 area of the submerged harbour using an Overhauser marine magnetometer, integrated DGPS and single-beam (200 KHz) echosounder. The feasibility of magnetic detection of the concrete was established before the survey by magnetic susceptibility testing of concrete core samples. All concrete samples contained appreciable amounts of fe-oxide-rich volcanic ash ('pozzolana') and showed uniformly high susceptibility values (k > 10^-^4 cgs) when compared to harbour bottom sediments and building stones (k construction of the harbour moles and quays.

  8. THE INFLUENCE OF SUBMERGED MACROPHYTES ON SEDIMENTARY DIATOM ASSEMBLAGES(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermaire, Jesse C; Prairie, Yves T; Gregory-Eaves, Irene

    2011-12-01

    Submerged macrophytes are a central component of lake ecosystems; however, little is known regarding their long-term response to environmental change. We have examined the potential of diatoms as indicators of past macrophyte biomass. We first sampled periphyton to determine whether habitat was a predictor of diatom assemblage. We then sampled 41 lakes in Quebec, Canada, to evaluate whether whole-lake submerged macrophyte biomass (BiomEpiV) influenced surface sediment diatom assemblages. A multivariate regression tree (MRT) was used to construct a semiquantitative model to reconstruct past macrophyte biomass. We determined that periphytic diatom assemblages on macrophytes were significantly different from those on wood and rocks (ANOSIM R = 0.63, P macrophyte, nutrient-limited lakes (BiomEpiV ≥525 μg · L(-1) ; total phosphorus [TP] macrophyte, nutrient-limited lakes (BiomEpiV eutrophic lakes (TP ≥35 μg · L(-1) ; six lakes). A semiquantitative model correctly predicted the MRT group of the lake 71% of the time (P macrophytes have a significant influence on diatom community structure and that sedimentary diatom assemblages can be used to infer past macrophyte abundance. © 2011 Phycological Society of America.

  9. Preparation of superconductor precursor powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Raghunath; Blaugher, Richard D.

    1995-01-01

    A process for the preparation of a precursor metallic powder composition for use in the subsequent formation of a superconductor. The process comprises the steps of providing an electrodeposition bath comprising an electrolyte medium and a cathode substrate electrode, and providing to the bath one or more soluble salts of one or more respective metals, such as nitrate salts of thallium, barium, calcium, and copper, which are capable of exhibiting superconductor properties upon subsequent appropriate treatment. The bath is continually energized to cause the metallic particles formed at the electrode to drop as a powder from the electrode into the bath, and this powder, which is a precursor powder for superconductor production, is recovered from the bath for subsequent treatment. The process permits direct inclusion of thallium in the preparation of the precursor powder, and yields an amorphous product mixed on an atomic scale to thereby impart inherent high reactivity. Superconductors which can be formed from the precursor powder include pellet and powder-in-tube products.

  10. Wait or escape? Contrasting submergence tolerance strategies of Rorippa amphibia, Rorippa sylvestris and their hybrid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akman, M.; Bhikharie, A.V.; McLean, E.H.; Boonman, A.; Visser, E.J.W.; Schranz, M.E.; van Tienderen, P.H.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Differential responses of closely related species to submergence can provide insight into the evolution and mechanisms of submergence tolerance. Several traits of two wetland species from habitats with contrasting flooding regimes, Rorippa amphibia and Rorippa sylvestris, as well

  11. Growth rate, protein:RNA ratio and stoichiometric homeostasis of submerged macrophytes under eutrophication stress

    OpenAIRE

    Xing W.; Shi Q.; Liu H.; Liu G.

    2016-01-01

    Growth rate hypothesis (GRH) and stoichiometric homeostasis of photoautotrophs have always been questioned. However, little is known about GRH and stoichiometric homeostasis of aquatic plants, especially submerged macrophytes. Therefore, we aim to test the GRH and explore stoichiometric homeostasis of four freshwater submerged macrophytes under eutrophication stress. At the single species level and the multi-species level, N:P ratios ...

  12. Evidence of shoreline shift on the northern Saurashtra coast: Study based on the submerged temple complex at Pindara

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh

    . It is difficult to assign a particular reason for the submergence of the temple in discussion, however minor sea level rise and seismic activity might have played a vital role in submergence of the temple complex....

  13. Submerged beach ridge lineation and associated sedentary fauna in the innershelf of Gopalpur Coast, Orissa, Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, K.M.; Murthy, K.S.R.; Reddy, N.P.C.; Subrahmanyam, A.S.; Lakshminarayana, S.; Rao, M.M.M.; Sarma, K.V.L.N.S.; Premkumar, M.K.; Sree, A.; Bapuji, M.

    . (e - mail: kmrao@kadali.nio.org) RESEARCH COMMUNICATIONS CURRENT SCIENCE, VOL. 81, NO. 7, 10 OCTOBER 2001 829 mic profiling to locate the submerged roc k outcrops. Though the submerged topographic features were r e por - ted by some...

  14. EAARL-B Submerged Topography–Saint Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A submerged topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for a portion of the submerged environs of Saint Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands, was produced from remotely...

  15. (TECTONA GRANDIS LEAF POWDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yash Mishra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the adsorption potential of Teak (Tectona grandis leaf powder (TLP toremove Methylene blue (MB and Malachite Green (MG dye molecules from aqueoussolution was investigated. Batch experiments were conducted to evaluate the influenceof operational parameters such as, pH (2−9, adsorbent dosage (1−7 g/L, contact time(15−150 minutes and initial dye concentration (20−120 mg/L at stirring speed of 150rpm for the adsorption of MB and MG on TLP. Maximum removal efficiency of 98.4%and 95.1% was achieved for MB and MG dye, respectively. The experimentalequilibrium data were analysed using Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isothermmodels and it was found that, it fitted well to the Freundlich isotherm model. Thesurface structure and morphology of the adsorbent was characterized using scanningelectron microscopy (SEM and the presence of functional groups and its interactionwith the dye molecules were analysed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy(FTIR. Based on the investigation, it has been demonstrated that the teak leaf powderhas good potential for effective adsorption of methylene blue and malachite green dye.

  16. Numerical study to represent non-isothermal melt-crystallization kinetics at laser-powder cladding

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Niziev, VG

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available model for direct metal deposition with coaxial powder injection. He et al. [9] used that model for investigation of transport phenomena. Modeling of heat-and-mass transfer during plasma deposition manu- facturing has some similar solutions [10... in plasma torch formation and decreases powder capture efficiency that influences negatively on laser cladding. The effect of fluid motion due to Marangoni forces is modeled by in- troducing an enhanced thermal conductivity factor in the melt pool region...

  17. THE STUDY ON THE DURABILITY OF SUBMERGED STRUCTURE DISPLACEMENT DUE TO CONCRETE FAILURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mohd

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Concrete structures that exposed to marine environments are subjected to multiple deterioration mechanisms. An overview of the existing technology for submerged concrete, pressure resistant, concrete structures which related such as cracks, debonds, and delamination are discussed. Basic knowledge related to drowning durability such as submerged concrete structures in the maritime environment are the durability of a concrete and the ability to resist to weathering, chemical attack, abrasion or other deterioration processes. The measuring techniques and instrumentation for geometrical monitoring of submerged structural displacements have traditionally been categorized into two groups according to the two main groups, namely as geodetic surveying and geotechnical structural measurements of local displacements. This paper aims to study the durability of submerged concrete displacement and harmful effects of submerged concrete structures.

  18. [Effects of light on submerged macrophytes in eutrophic water: research progress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li-Sha, Zou; Ze-Yu, Nie; Xiao-Yan, Yao; Ji-Yan, Shi

    2013-07-01

    The restoration of submerged macrophytes is the key to remediate eutrophic water and maintain the health of aquatic ecosystem, while light is the main limiting factor. This paper summarized the factors affecting the light extinction in water and the mechanisms of light intensity affecting the physiology of submerged macrophytes, with the focuses on the metabolic mechanisms of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus, the responses of antioxidant enzyme system, and the feedbacks of pigment composition and concentration in the common submerged macrophytes under low light stress. Several engineering techniques applied in the ecological restoration of submerged macrophytes were presented, and the framework of the restoration of submerged macrophytes in eutrophic water was proposed. Some problems in current research and several suggestions on future research were addressed, which could help the related research and engineering practices.

  19. Leaf gas films contribute to rice (Oryza sativa) submergence tolerance during saline floods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herzog, Max; Konnerup, Dennis; Pedersen, Ole

    2018-01-01

    Floods and salinization of agricultural land adversely impact global rice production. We investigated whether gas films on leaves of submerged rice delay salt entry during saline submergence. Two-week-old plants with leaf gas films (+GF) or with gas films experimentally removed (-GF) were submerg...

  20. Joint Injection/Aspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A Patient / Caregiver Treatments Joint Injection / Aspiration Joint Injections (Joint Aspirations) Fast Facts Joint aspiration is used ... is derived from a joint aspiration or joint injection? Joint aspiration usually is done for help with ...

  1. Penicillin G Procaine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penicillin G procaine injection is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria. Penicillin G procaine injection should not be used to ... early in the treatment of certain serious infections. Penicillin G procaine injection is in a class of ...

  2. Desenvolvimento e validação de método analítico por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE para determinação de associação de ampicilinas em pó liofilizado para injeção Development and validation of analytical method for determination of an association of ampicillins in lyophilized powder for injection by HPLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paola Prata Cione

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An analytical method has been developed and validated for the determination of an association of ampicillins in a lyophilized powder for injection by HPLC. The advantage of chromatographic method other than the microbiological one is that, it is possible to monitor precisely, out-of-specification results in quality control processes and also during stability studies, in which an association of ampicillins is present. The proposed HPLC method was developed by using forced degraded samples, in order to reach a selective analysis of ampicillins when in the presence of their degradation products. It was possible to detect benzatine and through indirect calculation, to determine the ampicillin sodium in the drug sample. The method showed to be selective, accurate, precise, robust and linear (from 45.92 to 36.04 μg mL-1 of total ampicillin and from 14.53 to 43.28 μg mL-1 of benzatine. The accuracy determined from recovery test, gave results in the range of 99.41% of total ampicillin to 100.31% of benzatine. Hence, it can be concluded that the proposed HPLC method is applicable for ampicillins determination.

  3. Critical Assessment of Temperature Distribution in Submerged Arc Welding Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vineet Negi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Temperature distribution during any welding process holds the key for understanding and predicting several important welding attributes like heat affected zone, microstructure of the weld, residual stress, and distortion during welding. The accuracy of the analytical approaches for modeling temperature distribution during welding has been constrained by oversimplified assumptions regarding boundary conditions and material properties. In this paper, an attempt has been made to model the temperature distribution during submerged arc welding process using finite element modeling technique implemented in ANSYS v12. In the present analysis, heat source is assumed to be double-ellipsoidal with Gaussian volumetric heat generation. Furthermore, variation of material properties with temperature and both convective and radiant heat loss boundary condition have been considered. The predicted temperature distribution is then validated against the experimental results obtained by thermal imaging of the welded plate, and they are found to be in a good agreement.

  4. Arc characteristics of submerged arc welding with stainless steel wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ke; Wu, Zhi-sheng; Liu, Cui-rong; Chen, Feng-hua

    2014-08-01

    The arc characteristics of submerged arc welding (SAW) with stainless steel wire were studied by using Analysator Hannover (AH). The tests were carried out under the same preset arc voltage combined with different welding currents. By comparing the probability density distribution (PDD) curves of arc voltage and welding current, the changes were analyzed, the metal transfer mode in SAW was deduced, and the characteristics of a stable arc were summarized. The analysis results show that, with an increase of welding parameters, the short-circuiting peak in the PDD curves of arc voltage decreases gradually until it disappears, and the dominant metal transfer mode changes from flux-wall guided transfer to projected transfer and then to streaming transfer. Moreover, when the PDD curves of arc voltage are both unimodal and generally symmetrical, the greater the peak probability and the smaller the peak span, the more stable the arc becomes.

  5. Numerical study on tsunami hazard mitigation using a submerged breakwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Taemin; Yoo, Jeseon; Han, Sejong; Cho, Yong-Sik

    2014-01-01

    Most coastal structures have been built in surf zones to protect coastal areas. In general, the transformation of waves in the surf zone is quite complicated and numerous hazards to coastal communities may be associated with such phenomena. Therefore, the behavior of waves in the surf zone should be carefully analyzed and predicted. Furthermore, an accurate analysis of deformed waves around coastal structures is directly related to the construction of economically sound and safe coastal structures because wave height plays an important role in determining the weight and shape of a levee body or armoring material. In this study, a numerical model using a large eddy simulation is employed to predict the runup heights of nonlinear waves that passed a submerged structure in the surf zone. Reduced runup heights are also predicted, and their characteristics in terms of wave reflection, transmission, and dissipation coefficients are investigated.

  6. Numerical Study on Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Using a Submerged Breakwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taemin Ha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Most coastal structures have been built in surf zones to protect coastal areas. In general, the transformation of waves in the surf zone is quite complicated and numerous hazards to coastal communities may be associated with such phenomena. Therefore, the behavior of waves in the surf zone should be carefully analyzed and predicted. Furthermore, an accurate analysis of deformed waves around coastal structures is directly related to the construction of economically sound and safe coastal structures because wave height plays an important role in determining the weight and shape of a levee body or armoring material. In this study, a numerical model using a large eddy simulation is employed to predict the runup heights of nonlinear waves that passed a submerged structure in the surf zone. Reduced runup heights are also predicted, and their characteristics in terms of wave reflection, transmission, and dissipation coefficients are investigated.

  7. Phytoremediation of arsenic in submerged soil by wetland plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jomjun, Nateewattana; Siripen, Trichaiyaporn; Maliwan, Saeouy; Jintapat, Nateewattana; Prasak, Thavornyutikarn; Somporn, Choonluchanon; Petch, Pengchai

    2011-01-01

    Wetland aquatic plants including Canna glauca L., Colocasia esculenta L. Schott, Cyperus papyrus L. and Typha angustifolia L. were used in the phytoremediation of submerged soil polluted by arsenic (As). Cyperus papyrus L. was noticed as the largest biomass producer which has arsenic accumulation capacity of 130-172 mg As/kg plant. In terms of arsenic removal rate, however, Colocasia esculenta L. was recognized as the largest and fastest arsenic remover in this study. Its arsenic removal rate was 68 mg As/m2/day while those rates of Canna glauca L., Cyperus papyrus L. and Typha angustifolia L. were 61 mg As/m2/day, 56 mg As/m2/day, and 56 mg As/m2/day, respectively. Although the 4 aquatic plants were inferior in arsenic accumulation, their high arsenic removal rates were observed. Phytostabilization should be probable for the application of these plants.

  8. Minimizing downstream scour due to submerged hydraulic jump using corrugated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossam Mohamed Ali

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Local scour downstream of hydraulic structures due to hydraulic jump is considered one of the tedious and complicated problems facing their stability. Throughout this paper, an experimental study was conducted to study the effect of using different spaced corrugated aprons on the downstream local scour due to submerged jump. Sixty runs were carried out in a horizontal rectangular flume to determine the optimal corrugation wavelength which minimizing the scour. A case of flat apron included to estimate the influence of corrugated aprons on scour holes dimensions. Two types of non-cohesive soil were used. Experiments were performed for a range of Froude numbers between 1.68 and 9.29. The results showed that using spaced triangular corrugated aprons minimize the scour depth and length of fine sand by average percentage of 63.4% and 30.2%, respectively and for coarse sand by 44.2% and 20.6% in comparing with classical jump.

  9. Microbial production of four biodegradable siderophores under submerged fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazary, Ahmed E; Al-Shihri, Ayed S; Alfaifi, Mohammad Y; Saleh, Kamel A; Alshehri, Mohammed A; Elbehairi, Serag Eldin I; Ju, Yi-Hsu

    2016-07-01

    Four siderophore analogues were isolated and purified from Escherichia coli, Bacillus spp. ST13, and Streptomyces pilosus microorganisms under some specific submerged fermentation conditions. In order to evaluate the highest production of this siderophore analogues through the growth, a rapid spectrophotometric screening semi-quantitative method was used, in which interestingly the analogues were isolated in its own form not its iron chelate. After chromatographic separation, the chemical structures of the isolated and purified siderophores were illustrated using detailed spectroscopic techniques. The biodegradation studies were done on that four novel isolated and purified siderophores following OECD protocols. In addition, the bioactivities of these siderophores and their iron complexes were examined and evaluated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Development of Submerged Entry Nozzles that Resist Clogging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Jeffrey D. Smith; Kent D. Peasle

    2002-10-14

    Accretion formation and the associated clogging of SENs is a major problem for the steel industry leading to decreased strand speed, premature changing of SENs or strand termination and the associated reductions in productivity, consistency, and steel quality. A program to evaluate potentially clog resistance materials was initiated at the University of Missouri-Rolla. The main objective of the research effort was to identify combinations of steelmaking and refractory practices that would yield improved accretion resistance for tundish nozzles and submerged entry nozzles. A number of tasks were identified during the initial kick-off meeting and each was completed with two exceptions, the thermal shock validation and the industrial trials. Not completing these two tasks related to not having access to industrial scale production facilities. Though much of the results and information generated in the project is of proprietary nature.

  11. Slag-metal equilibrium during submerged arc welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, C. S.; Eagar, T. W.

    1981-09-01

    A thermodynamic model of the equilibria existing between the slag and the weld metal during submerged arc welding is presented. As formulated, the model applies only to fused neutral fluxes containing less than 20 pct CaF2, however some results indicate that the model may be useful in more general cases as well. The model is shown to be capable of predicting the gain or loss of both Mn and Si over a wide range of baseplate, electrode and flux compositions. At large deviations from the predicted equilibrium, the experimental results indicate considerable variability in the amount of Mn or Si transferred between the slag and metal phases, while closer to the calculated equilibrium, the extent of metal transfer becomes more predictable. The variability in metal transfer rate at large deviations from equilibrium may be explained by variations between the bulk and the surface concentrations of Mn and Si in both metal and slag phases.

  12. Endodontic Treatment in Submerged Roots: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemalatha Pameshwar Hiremath

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Alveolar ridge resorption has long been considered an unavoidable consequence of tooth extraction. While the extent and pattern of resorption is variable among individuals, there is a progressive loss of ridge contour as a result of physiologic bone remodeling. Even today, with best modalities of tooth preservation, there is a group of elderly individuals who do not benefit from modern preventive practices and who now present a dilemma in terms of maintaining the masticatory apparatus necessary for nutrition. Even with excellent dental care, such patients experience abrasion of the natural tooth crowns with age, and embedded roots are left within the alveolar bone. According to old concepts of dental care, extraction of these roots would have been recommended, but today’s goal of excellence in endodontics dictates otherwise. We report a case in which vital and non-vital root submergence was carried out to prevent alveolar ridge reduction.

  13. Structure and shear in a cohesive powder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, R.J.M.

    2001-01-01

    Handling of powders and granular materials is of great importance to industry. However, the knowledge of many powder related processes in industry is poor. In this work, the flow behaviour of powder has been investigated with an advanced tester: the Flexible Wall Biaxial Tester. Flow of powder

  14. On the Methods to Measure Powder Flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Geoffrey; Morton, David A V; Larson, Ian

    2015-01-01

    The flow of powders can often play a critical role in the manufacturing of pharmaceutical products. Many of these processes require good, consistent and predictable flow of powders to ensure continuous production of pharmaceutical dosages and to ensure their quality. Therefore, the flow of powders is of paramount importance to the pharmaceutical industry and thus the measuring and evaluating of powder flow is of utmost importance. At present, there are numerous methods in which the flow of powders can be measured. However, due to the complex and environment-dependent nature of powders, no one method exists that is capable of providing a complete picture of the behaviour of powders under dynamic conditions. Some of the most commonly applied methods to measure the flow of powders include: density indices, such as the Carr index and Hausner ratio, powder avalanching, the angle of repose (AOR), flow through an orifice, powder rheometry and shear cell testing.

  15. Development of New Submergence Tolerant Rice Variety for Bangladesh Using Marker-Assisted Backcrossing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khandakar Md Iftekharuddaula

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Submergence tolerant high yielding rice variety was developed using BR11 as a recipient parent applying foreground, phenotypic and background selection approaches. Recombinant selection was found essential to minimize linkage drag by BC2F2 generation. Without recombinant selection, the introgression size in the backcross recombinant lines (BRLs was approximately 15 Mb on the carrier chromosome. The BRLs were found submergence tolerance compared to the check varieties under complete submergence for two weeks at Bangladesh Rice Research Institute, and produced higher yield compared to the isogenic Sub1-line under controlled submerged condition. The BRL IR85260-66-654-Gaz2 was released as BRRI dhan52 in 2010, which was the first high yielding submergence tolerant variety in Bangladesh. BRRI dhan52 produced grain yield ranging from 4.2 to 5.2 t/hm2 under different flash flood prone areas of Bangladesh in three consecutive seasons. The study demonstrated the efficiency of recombinant selection and better adaptability of the newly released submergence tolerant high yielding variety in flash flood prone different areas of the country with respect to submergence tolerance and yield potential.

  16. Physiological and transcriptomic characterization of submergence and reoxygenation responses in soybean seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamang, Bishal G; Magliozzi, Joseph O; Maroof, M A Saghai; Fukao, Takeshi

    2014-10-01

    Complete inundation at the early seedling stage is a common environmental constraint for soybean production throughout the world. As floodwaters subside, submerged seedlings are subsequently exposed to reoxygenation stress in the natural progression of a flood event. Here, we characterized the fundamental acclimation responses to submergence and reoxygenation in soybean at the seedling establishment stage. Approximately 90% of seedlings succumbed during 3 d of inundation under constant darkness, whereas 10 d of submergence were lethal to over 90% of seedlings under 12 h light/12 h dark cycles, indicating the significance of underwater photosynthesis in seedling survival. Submergence rapidly decreased the abundance of carbohydrate reserves and ATP in aerial tissue of seedlings although chlorophyll breakdown was not observed. The carbohydrate and ATP contents were recovered upon de-submergence, but sudden exposure to oxygen also induced lipid peroxidation, confirming that reoxygenation induced oxidative stress. Whole transcriptome analysis recognized genome-scale reconfiguration of gene expression that regulates various signalling and metabolic pathways under submergence and reoxygenation. Comparative analysis of differentially regulated genes in shoots and roots of soybean and other plants defines conserved, organ-specific and species-specific adjustments which enhance adaptability to submergence and reoxygenation through different metabolic pathways. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Submergence induced changes of molecular species in membrane lipids in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulan Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The composition of membrane lipids is sensitive to environmental stresses. Submergence is a type of stress often encountered by plants. However, how the molecular species of membrane lipids respond to submergence has not yet been characterised. In this study, we used a lipidomic approach to profile the molecular species of membrane lipids in whole plants of Arabidopsis thaliana that were completely submerged for three days. The plants survived one day of submergence, after which, we found that the total membrane lipids were only subtly decreased, showing significant decreases of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG and phosphatidylcholine (PC and an increase of phosphatidic acid (PA; however, the basic lipid composition was retained. In contrast, three days of submergence caused plants to die, and the membranes deteriorated via the rapid loss of 96% of lipid content together with a 229% increase in PA. The turnover of molecular species from PG and MGDG to PA indicated that submergence-induced lipid changes occurred through PA-mediated degradation. In addition, molecular species of extraplastidic PG degraded sooner than plastidic ones, lyso-phospholipids exhibited various patterns of change, and the double-bond index (DBI remained unchanged until membrane deterioration. Our results revealed the unique changes of membrane lipids upon submergence and suggested that the major cause of the massive lipid degradation could be anoxia.

  18. The Performance and Fouling Control of Submerged Hollow Fiber (HF Systems: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Akhondi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The submerged membrane filtration concept is well-established for low-pressure microfiltration (MF and ultrafiltration (UF applications in the water industry, and has become a mainstream technology for surface-water treatment, pretreatment prior to reverse osmosis (RO, and membrane bioreactors (MBRs. Compared to submerged flat sheet (FS membranes, submerged hollow fiber (HF membranes are more common due to their advantages of higher packing density, the ability to induce movement by mechanisms such as bubbling, and the feasibility of backwashing. In view of the importance of submerged HF processes, this review aims to provide a comprehensive landscape of the current state-of-the-art systems, to serve as a guide for further improvements in submerged HF membranes and their applications. The topics covered include recent developments in submerged hollow fiber membrane systems, the challenges and developments in fouling-control methods, and treatment protocols for membrane permeability recovery. The highlighted research opportunities include optimizing the various means to manipulate the hydrodynamics for fouling mitigation, developing online monitoring devices, and extending the submerged HF concept beyond filtration.

  19. Development of a Reproducible Powder Characterization Method using a Powder Rheometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Søren Vinter; Allesø, Morten; Garnæs, Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    In this study, a powder rheometer was used to measure flow characteristics of two pharmaceutical model powders. Precise measurements were obtained for one of the model powders whereas the results were less precise for the second powder. In conclusion, further work is needed to increase...... the mechanistic understanding of powder rheological measurements....

  20. Oxygen absorption by adventitious roots promotes the survival of completely submerged terrestrial plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayi, Qiaoli; Zeng, Bo; Liu, Jianhui; Li, Siqi; van Bodegom, Peter M; Cornelissen, Johannes H C

    2016-04-10

    Flooding imposes stress upon terrestrial plants because it results in oxygen deficiency, which is considered a major problem for submerged plants. A common response of terrestrial plants to flooding is the formation of aquatic adventitious roots. Some studies have shown that adventitious roots on submerged plants are capable of absorbing water and nutrients. However, there is no experimental evidence for the possible oxygen uptake function of adventitious roots or for how important this function might be for the survival of plants during prolonged submergence. This study aims to investigate whether adventitious roots absorb oxygen from the water column, and whether this new function is beneficial to the survival of completely submerged plants. TakingAlternanthera philoxeroides(Mart.) Griseb. as a representative species, the profiling of the underwater oxygen gradient towards living and dead adventitious roots on completely submerged plants was conducted, the oxygen concentration in stem nodes with and without adventitious roots was measured, and the growth, survival and non-structural carbohydrate content of completely submerged plants with and without adventitious roots was investigated. Oxygen profiles in the water column of adventitious roots showed that adventitious roots absorbed oxygen from water. It is found that the oxygen concentration in stem nodes having adventitious roots was higher than that in stem nodes without adventitious roots, which implies that the oxygen absorbed by adventitious roots from water was subsequently transported from the roots to other plant tissues. Compared with plants whose adventitious roots had been pruned, those with intact adventitious roots had slower leaf shedding, slower plant mass reduction, more efficient carbohydrate economy and prolonged survival when completely submerged. The adventitious roots ofA. philoxeroidesformed upon submergence can absorb oxygen from ambient water, thereby alleviating the adverse effects of

  1. Injection of marinade with actinidin increases tenderness of porcine M. biceps femoris and affects myofibrils and connective tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, M.; Torngren, M. A.; Gunvig, A.

    2009-01-01

    and juiciness. Injection of 2.8g L-1 actinidin powder and storage for 2 days resulted in WB shear force values similar to control samples stored for 5 or 9 days. In samples injected with 10 g L-1 actinidin powder, degradation of desmin and percentage of heat-soluble collagen (P .... biceps femoris was investigated by Warner-Bratzler (WB) shear test and sensory evaluation after injection of brine containing up to 11 g L-1 actinidin-containing kiwi fruit powder and 2, 5 or 9 days of storage. RESULTS: actinidin decreased WB shear force, increased tenderness and did not affect flavour...

  2. Interaction of Submerged Breakwater by a Solitary Wave Using WC-SPH Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Mansouri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Interaction of a solitary wave and submerged breakwater is studied in a meshless, Lagrangian approach. For this purpose, a two-dimensional smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH code is developed. Furthermore, an extensive set of simulations is conducted. In the first step, the generated solitary wave is validated. Subsequently, the interaction of solitary wave and submerged breakwater is investigated thoroughly. Results of the interaction of solitary wave and a submerged breakwater are also shown to be in good agreement with published experimental studies. Afterwards, the effects of the inclination and length of breakwater as well as distance between two breakwaters are evaluated on damping ratio of breakwater.

  3. Oxygen dynamics during submergence in the halophytic stem succulent Halosarcia pergranulata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ole; Vos, Harrie; Colmer, Timothy David

    2006-01-01

    This study elucidated O2 dynamics in shoots and roots of submerged Halosarcia pergranulata (Salicornioideae), a perennial halophytic stem succulent that grows on flood-prone mudflats of salt lakes. Oxygen within shoots and roots was measured using microelectrodes, for plants when waterlogged...... the roots, at least during the first several hours (the time period measured) after submergence or when light periods followed darkness. The influence of light on tissue O2 dynamics was confirmed in an experiment on a submerged plant in a salt lake in south-western Australia. In the late afternoon, partial...

  4. Pressureless sintering behavior of injection molded alumina ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu W.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The pressureless sintering behaviors of two widely used submicron alumina (MgOdoped and undoped with different solid loadings produced by injection molding have been studied systematically. Regardless of the sinterability of different powders depending on their inherent properties, solid loading plays a critical role on the sintering behavior of injection molded alumina, which greatly determines the densification and grain size, and leads to its full densification at low temperatures. As compared to the MgO-doped alumina powder, the undoped specimens exhibit a higher sinterability for its smaller particle size and larger surface area. While full densification could be achieved for MgO-doped powders with only a lower solid loading, due to the fact that MgO addition can reduce the detrimental effect of the large pore space on the pore-boundary separation.

  5. Development of a fully injectable calcium phosphate cement for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A study on the development of a fully injectable calcium phosphate cement for orthopedic and dental applications is presented. The paper describes its characteristic properties including results of bio- compatibility studies. A conventional two-component calcium phosphate cement formulation (having a powder part ...

  6. Beam Injection into RHIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, W.; Hahn, H.; Mackay, W. W.; Tsoupas, N.

    1997-05-01

    During the RHIC sextant test in January 1997 beam was injected into a sixth of one of the rings for the first time. We describe the injection zone and its bottlenecks, the application program to steer the beam and the injection kickers. We report on the commissioning of the injection systems and on measurements of the kickers.

  7. Sipuleucel-T Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipuleucel-T injection is used to treat certain types of advanced prostate cancer. Sipuleucel-T injection is in a class of medications called ... Sipuleucel-T injection comes as a suspension (liquid) to be injected over about 60 minutes into a vein by ...

  8. Effects of submergence on growth and survival of saplings of three wetland trees differing in adaptive mechanisms for flood tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumiko Iwanaga

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: Withstanding total submergence and reaeration following submergence is essential for the survival and establishment of wetland species. We focused on “LOES–low oxygen escape syndrome” and “LOQS–low oxygen quiescence syndrome” and compared tolerances to total submergence among wetland woody species differing in morphological adaptation to soil flooding. Area of study, materials and methods: This study examined the survival of 2-year-old saplings of Taxodium distichum and Metasequioia glyptostroboides (LOQS species, and Alnus japonica (LOES species, during and after total submergence. Saplings were completely submerged, then de-submerged to determine trends in survival and growth Main results: The M. glyptostroboides and A. japonica saplings could not survive prolonged submergence for more than 8 weeks, whereas saplings of T. distichum survived for over 2 years. Submerged saplings of all species showed no significant growth or modifications in morphology and anatomy under water, such as shoot elongation, adventitious root formation, and/or aerenchyma development. All T. distichum saplings that were de-submerged in the second year had the same pattern of shoot growth regardless of differences in timing and seasonality of de-submergence. Wood formation in T. distichum saplings ceased during submergence and resumed after de-submergence in spring and summer, but not in autumn. Research highlights: T. distichum saplings, which survived longer submergence periods than A. japonica and M. glyptostroboides, had physiological characteristics, such as suspension of growth and metabolism, which allowed survival of protracted total submergence (at least 2 years when saplings were immersed during the dormant stage before leaf flushing.

  9. Production of carotenoids by Rhodotorula glutinis MT-5 in submerged fermentation using the extract from waste loquat kernels as substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taskin, Mesut; Erdal, Serkan

    2011-06-01

    The aim of present study was to investigate the feasibility of the hydrolysate extracts from waste loquat kernels as substrate in submerged culture of yeast Rhodotorula glutinis MT-5 for carotenoid production. Loquat kernel was found to have high protein (22.5%) and total carbohydrate (71.2%) contents. Dried and powdered loquat kernels were subjected to acid hydrolysis with 2 mol L⁻¹ HCl. The hydrolysate obtained was used for the preparation of loquat kernel extract and detoxified loquat kernel extract. The detoxification of hydrolysate was performed with Ca(OH)₂. Among the 10 R. glutinis isolates, the MT-5 was found to be best in order to produce carotenoid using the extract as substrate. Production media prepared with detoxified loquat kernel extract or loquat kernel extract gave maximum biomass concentrations of 12.64 and 11.37 g L⁻¹, and maximum carotenoid concentrations of 72.36 and 62.73 mg L⁻¹, respectively. This study has provided effective processes for the conversion of waste material of plant origin to the extracts which are very rich in term of total fermentable sugar. The practicability of the extracts as fermentation substrate was proven in carotenoid production. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on use of this waste material as a substrate in yeast fermentations. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Flavonoid-rich agro-industrial residues for enhanced bacterial laccase production by submerged and solid-state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Aarjoo; Gupta, Vijaya; Khan, Mussarat; Balda, Sanjeev; Gupta, Naveen; Capalash, Neena; Sharma, Prince

    2017-07-01

    Laccases have potential applications in industrial, biotechnological, and environmental set ups. Development of cost effective and efficient production technologies has gained significant attention in recent years. To enhance the laccase production from Rheinheimera sp. (Gram negative) using submerged fermentation (SmF) and from Lysinibacillus sp. (Gram positive) using solid-state fermentation (SSF), the inducing effect of various flavonoid-rich agro-industrial residues was investigated. Peels of citrus fruits, soybean meal, tofu dreg, lignin monomers, and lingo-cellulosic waste, used tea leaves and peels of onion and kiwi, paper, and dying industry effluents were tested as inducers. In SmF, 0.1% of soybean meal, tofu dreg, and powdered orange peel were best, enhancing the laccase production 2.57-, 2.11-, and 2.05-fold, respectively. In SSF, 10 mg (w/w) of used tata acti green tea leaves per 5 g of wheat bran, 1% pulp and paper industry effluent (agro based), and 1% wine made from Sygium cumini enhanced the laccase production 2.69-, 2.61-, and 2.09-fold, respectively. These results suggest the utilization of these flavonoid and phenolic-rich waste materials to be potential enhancers of industrially important laccase production.

  11. Traction Drive Inverter Cooling with Submerged Liquid Jet Impingement on Microfinned Enhanced Surfaces (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waye, S.; Narumanchi, S.; Moreno, G.

    2014-09-01

    Jet impingement is one means to improve thermal management for power electronics in electric-drive traction vehicles. Jet impingement on microfin-enhanced surfaces further augments heat transfer and thermal performance. A channel flow heat exchanger from a commercial inverter was characterized as a baseline system for comparison with two new prototype designs using liquid jet impingement on plain and microfinned enhanced surfaces. The submerged jets can target areas with the highest heat flux to provide local cooling, such as areas under insulated-gate bipolar transistors and diode devices. Low power experiments, where four diodes were powered, dissipated 105 W of heat and were used to validate computational fluid dynamics modeling of the baseline and prototype designs. Experiments and modeling used typical automotive flow rates using water-ethylene glycol as a coolant (50%-50% by volume). The computational fluid dynamics model was used to predict full inverter power heat dissipation. The channel flow and jet impingement configurations were tested at full inverter power of 40 to 100 kW (output power) on a dynamometer, translating to an approximate heat dissipation of 1 to 2 kW. With jet impingement, the cold plate material is not critical for the thermal pathway. A high-temperature plastic was used that could eventually be injection molded or formed, with the jets formed from a basic aluminum plate with orifices acting as nozzles. Long-term reliability of the jet nozzles and impingement on enhanced surfaces was examined. For jet impingement on microfinned surfaces, thermal performance increased 17%. Along with a weight reduction of approximately 3 kg, the specific power (kW/kg) increased by 36%, with an increase in power density (kW/L) of 12% compared with the baseline channel flow configuration.

  12. Outer Continental Shelf Submerged Lands Act Boundary - Atlantic Region NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains the Submerged Lands Act (SLA) boundary line (also known as State Seaward Boundary (SSB), or Fed State Boundary) in ESRI shapefile formats for...

  13. The Development of a Composite Consumable Insert for Submerged ARC Welding

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1980-01-01

    .... When the submerged arc process was utilized to weld the butt joint in large flat plate structures, the repositioning of the plate for welding of the reverse side was a costly time consuming procedure...

  14. Meta Modelling of Submerged-Arc Welding Design based on Fuzzy Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chang-Yong; Park, Jonghwan; Goh, Dugab; Park, Woo-Chang; Lee, Chang-Ha; Kim, Mun Yong; Kang, Jinseo

    2017-12-01

    Fuzzy algorithm based meta-model is proposed for approximating submerged-arc weld design factors such as weld speed and weld output. Orthogonal array design based on the submerged-arc weld numerical analysis is applied to the proposed approach. The nonlinear finite element analysis is carried out to simulate the submerged-arc weld numerical analysis using thermo-mechanical and temperature-dependent material properties for general mild steel. The proposed meta-model based on fuzzy algorithm design is generated with triangle membership functions and fuzzy if-then rules using training data obtained from the Taguchi orthogonal array design data. The aim of proposed approach is to develop a fuzzy meta-model to effectively approximate the optimized submerged-arc weld factors. To validate the meta-model, the results obtained from the fuzzy meta-model are compared to the best cases from the Taguchi orthogonal array.

  15. Large-Scale Submerged Aquatic Vegetation Restoration in Chesapeake Bay: Status Report, 2003-2006

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shafer, Deborah J; Bergstrom, Peter

    2008-01-01

    In 2003, the U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Chesapeake Bay Office began a comprehensive research effort to restore submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV...

  16. Flow Velocity and Morphology of a Submerged Patch of the Aquatic Species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornacchia, L.; Licci, S.; van de Koppel, J.; van der Wal, D.; Wharton, G.; Puijalon, S.; Bouma, T.J.

    2016-01-01

    The interaction between macrophytes and hydrodynamic conditions is animportant feature in many aquatic ecosystems. Submerged macrophytes can formmonospecific patches that interact with the flow and alter current velocity; withinthe same vegetation patch, plants are exposed to different levels of

  17. Uncalibrated EAARL-B Submerged Topography--Fort Lauderdale, Florida, 2014 (GEOID12A)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Binary point-cloud data of a portion of the submerged environs of Fort Lauderdale, Florida, were produced from remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation...

  18. EAARL-B Submerged Topography - Saint Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — ASCII XYZ point cloud data for a portion of the submerged environs of Saint Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands, was produced from remotely sensed, geographically referenced...

  19. EAARL-B Submerged Topography—Crocker Reef, Florida, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — ASCII XYZ point cloud data for a portion of the submerged environs of Crocker Reef, Florida, were produced from remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation...

  20. Calibrated EAARL-B Submerged Topography--Fort Lauderdale, Florida, 2014 (GEOID12A)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Binary point-cloud data of a portion of the submerged environs of Fort Lauderdale, Florida, were produced from remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation...

  1. Environmental Assessment: Submerged Aquatic Plant Management of Banks Lake, Banks Lake NWR, Lakeland, Georgia

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Environmental Assessment is an analysis of five alternatives developed to address themanagement of the submerged aquatic plants of Banks Lake on Banks Lake...

  2. Satellite remote sensing of submerged aquatic vegetation distribution and status in the Currituck Sound, NC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Submerged Aquatic Vegetation (SAV) is an important component in any estuarine ecosystem. As such, it is regulated by federal and state agencies as a jurisdictional resource, where impacts to SAV are compensated through mitigation. Historically, tradi...

  3. Root transcript profiling of two Rorippa (brassicaceae) species reveals gene clusters associated with extreme submergence tolerance.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sasidharan, R.; Mustroph, A.; Boonman, A.; Akman, M.; Ammerlaan, A.M.H.; Breit, T.M.; Schranz, M.E.; Voesenek, L.A.C.J.; Tienderen, van P.H.

    2013-01-01

    Complete submergence represses photosynthesis and aerobic respiration, causing rapid mortality in most terrestrial plants. However, some plants have evolved traits allowing them to survive prolonged flooding, such as species of the genus Rorippa, close relatives of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis

  4. Root transcript profiling of two Rorippa species reveals gene clusters associated with extreme submergence tolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sasidharan, R.; Mustroph, A.; Boonman, A.; Akman, M.; Ammerlaan, A.M.H.; Breit, T.M.; Schranz, M.E.; Voesenek, L.A.C.J.; van Tienderen, P.H.

    2013-01-01

    Complete submergence represses photosynthesis and aerobic respiration, causing rapid mortality in most terrestrial plants. However, some plants have evolved traits allowing them to survive prolonged flooding, such as species of the genus Rorippa, close relatives of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis

  5. Swan foraging shapes spatial distribution of two submerged plants, favouring the preferred prey species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandsten, H.; Klaassen, M.R.J.

    2008-01-01

    Compared to terrestrial environments, grazing intensity on belowground plant parts may be particularly strong in aquatic environments, which may have great effects on plant-community structure. We observed that the submerged macrophyte, Potamogeton pectinatus, which mainly reproduces with tubers,

  6. EAARL-B Submerged Topography—Saint Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — ASCII XYZ point cloud data for a portion of the submerged environs of Saint Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands, was produced from remotely sensed, geographically referenced...

  7. Uncalibrated EAARL-B Submerged Topography--Fort Lauderdale, Florida, 2014 (WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Binary point-cloud data of a portion of the submerged environs of Fort Lauderdale, Florida, were produced from remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation...

  8. Calibrated EAARL-B Submerged Topography--Fort Lauderdale, Florida, 2014 (WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Binary point-cloud data of a portion of the submerged environs of Fort Lauderdale, Florida, were produced from remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation...

  9. Outer Continental Shelf Submerged Lands Act Boundary - Pacific Region - West Coast NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains the Submerged Lands Act (SLA)boundary line (also known as the State Seaward Boundary (SSB) and Fed State Boundary) for the BOEM Pacific Region...

  10. Process Modeling and Optimization of a Submerged Arc Furnace for Phosphorus Production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheepers, E.; Yang, Y.; Adema, A.T.; Boom, R.; Reuter, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a process model of a phosphorus-producing, submerged arc furnace. The model successfully incorporates accurate, multifield thermodynamic, kinetic, and industrial data with computational flow dynamic calculations and thus further unifies the sciences of kinetics and equilibrium

  11. EAARL-B Submerged Topography - Saint Croix and Saint Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Binary point-cloud data for part of the submerged environs of Saint Croix and Saint Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands, were produced from remotely sensed, geographically...

  12. Outer Continental Shelf Submerged Lands Act Boundary - Alaska Region NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains the Submerged Lands Act (SLA) boundary (also known as State Seaward Boundary (SSB), or Fed State Boundary) in ESRI shapefile format for the...

  13. Tolerance of combined submergence and salinity in the halophytic stem-succulent Tecticornia pergranulata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colmer, T D; Vos, H; Pedersen, Ole

    2009-01-01

    in waters of high salinity. A 'quiescence response', i.e. no shoot growth, would conserve carbohydrates, but tissue sugars still declined with time. A low K(+) : Na(+) ratio, typical for tissues of succulent halophytes, was tolerated even during prolonged submergence, as evidenced by maintenance......BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Habitats occupied by many halophytes are not only saline, but are also prone to flooding. Few studies have evaluated submergence tolerance in halophytes. METHODS: Responses to submergence, at a range of salinity levels, were studied for the halophytic stem-succulent Tecticornia...... pergranulata subsp. pergranulata (syn. Halosarcia pergranulata subsp. pergranulata). Growth and total sugars in succulent stems were assessed as a function of time after submergence. Underwater net photosynthesis, dark respiration, total sugars, glycinebetaine, Na(+), Cl(-) and K(+), in succulent stems, were...

  14. Dynamic Response Analysis of Cable of Submerged Floating Tunnel under Hydrodynamic Force and Earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwen Wu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A simplified analysis model of cable for submerged floating tunnel subjected to parametrically excited vibrations in the ocean environment is proposed in this investigation. The equation of motion of the cable is obtained by a mathematical method utilizing the Euler beam theory and the Galerkin method. The hydrodynamic force induced by earthquake excitations is formulated to simulate real seaquake conditions. The random earthquake excitation in the time domain is formulated by the stochastic phase spectrum method. An analytical model for analyzing the cable for submerged floating tunnel subjected to combined hydrodynamic forces and earthquake excitations is then developed. The sensitivity of key parameters including the hydrodynamic, earthquake, and structural parameters on the dynamic response of the cable is investigated and discussed. The present model enables a preliminary examination of the hydrodynamic and seismic behavior of cable for submerged floating tunnel and can provide valuable recommendations for use in design and operation of anchor systems for submerged floating tunnel.

  15. EAARL-B submerged topography: Barnegat Bay, New Jersey, pre-Hurricane Sandy, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, C. Wayne; Troche, Rodolfo J.; Klipp, Emily S.; Kranenburg, Christine J.; Fredericks, Alexandra M.; Nagle, David B.

    2014-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of lidar-derived submerged topography datasets were produced by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center, St. Petersburg, Florida.

  16. Metal accumulation by submerged macrophytes in eutrophic lakes at the watershed scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Wei; Wu, Haoping; Hao, Beibei; Liu, Guihua

    2013-10-01

    Metal concentrations (Al, Ba, Ca, K, Li, Mg, Na, Se, Sr and Ti) in submerged macrophytes and corresponding water and sediments were studied in 24 eutrophic lakes along the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River (China). Results showed that these eutrophic lakes have high metal concentrations in both water and sediments because of human activities. Average concentrations of Al and Na in tissues of submerged macrophytes were very high in sampled eutrophic lakes. By comparison, Ceratophyllum demersum and Najas marina accumulated more metals (e.g. Ba, Ca, K, Mg, Na, Sr and Ti). Strong positive correlations were found between metal concentrations in tissues of submerged macrophytes, probably because of co-accumulation of metals. The concentrations of Li, Mg, Na and Sr in tissues of submerged macrophytes significantly correlated with their corresponding water values, but not sediment values.

  17. Outer Continental Shelf Submerged Lands Act Boundary - Gulf of Mexico Region NAD27

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains the Submerged Lands Act (SLA) boundary line (also known as State Seaward Boundary (SSB), or Fed State Boundary)in ESRI shapefile formats for...

  18. Suitability of seagrasses and submerged aquatic vegetation as indicators of eutrophication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooted submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) encompasses a large diversity of species that range from obligate halophytes such as, seagrasses, to euryhaline species and freshwater obligates. All seagrass and SAV provide key biological functions within the enclosed bays, estuaries, a...

  19. EAARL Submerged Topography - U.S. Virgin Islands 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Stevens, Sara; Yates, Xan; Bonisteel, Jamie M.

    2008-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of Lidar-derived submerged topography were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL; the National Park Service (NPS), South Florida-Caribbean Network, Miami, FL; and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate bathymetric datasets of a portion of the U.S. Virgin Islands, acquired on April 21, 23, and 30, May 2, and June 14 and 17, 2003. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural resource managers. An innovative airborne Lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL), was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) Lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive Lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multi-spectral color infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers, and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for submeter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine Cessna 310 aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. A single pilot, a Lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the EAARL system, and

  20. Electrodeposition of Fe powder from acid electrolytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VESNA M. MAKSIMOVIC

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Polarization characteristics of the electrodeposition processes of Fe powders from sulfate and chloride electrolytes and the morphology of the obtained powders were investigated. The morphology depended on the anion presence in the electrolyte but not on the current density in the investigated range. A characteristic feature of the dendritic powder with cauliflower endings obtained from sulfate electrolyte is the presence of cone-like cavities and the crystallite morphology of the powders surface. On the other hand, Fe powders electrodeposited from chloride electrolyte appear in the form of agglomerates. A soap solution treatment applied as a method of washing and drying provides good protection from oxidation of the powders.

  1. Anatomy of floating and submerged leaves of heterophyllous plant of Nymphaea candida L.

    OpenAIRE

    E.N. Klimenko

    2014-01-01

    The data on anatomy of floating and submerged leaves of heterophyllous aquatic plant Nymphaea candida L. are presented. Anatomy of floating leaves is shown to be different from that of submerged leaves: the absence of stomata, asterosclereids, and differentiated parenchyma, as well as by reduce intercellular volume and leaf width. Common patterns of leaf structure plasticity of aquatic heterophyllous plants in dependence on the environment are discussed.

  2. Aquatic adventitious root development in partially and completely submerged wetland plants Cotula coronopifolia and Meionectes brownii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Sarah Meghan; Ludwig, Martha; Colmer, Timothy David

    2012-07-01

    A common response of wetland plants to flooding is the formation of aquatic adventitious roots. Observations of aquatic root growth are widespread; however, controlled studies of aquatic roots of terrestrial herbaceous species are scarce. Submergence tolerance and aquatic root growth and physiology were evaluated in two herbaceous, perennial wetland species Cotula coronopifolia and Meionectes brownii. Plants were raised in large pots with 'sediment' roots in nutrient solution and then placed into individual tanks and shoots were left in air or submerged (completely or partially). The effects on growth of aquatic root removal, and of light availability to submerged plant organs, were evaluated. Responses of aquatic root porosity, chlorophyll and underwater photosynthesis, were studied. Both species tolerated 4 weeks of complete or partial submergence. Extensive, photosynthetically active, aquatic adventitious roots grew from submerged stems and contributed up to 90 % of the total root dry mass. When aquatic roots were pruned, completely submerged plants grew less and had lower stem and leaf chlorophyll a, as compared with controls with intact roots. Roots exposed to the lowest PAR (daily mean 4.7 ± 2.4 µmol m(-2) s(-1)) under water contained less chlorophyll, but there was no difference in aquatic root biomass after 4 weeks, regardless of light availability in the water column (high PAR was available to all emergent shoots). Both M. brownii and C. coronopifolia responded to submergence with growth of aquatic adventitious roots, which essentially replaced the existing sediment root system. These aquatic roots contained chlorophyll and were photosynthetically active. Removal of aquatic roots had negative effects on plant growth during partial and complete submergence.

  3. Agenesis of premolar associated with submerged primary molar and a supernumerary premolar: An unusual case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. S. G. Nirmala

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The combination of submerged primary molar, agenesis of permanent successor with a supernumerary in the same place is very rare. The purpose of this article is to report a case of submerged mandibular left second primary molar with supernumerary tooth in the same region along with agenesis of second premolar in an 11-year-old girl, its possible etiological factors, and a brief discussion on treatment options.

  4. Parametric and Nonparametric Analysis of LANDSAT TM and MSS Imagery for Detecting Submerged Plant Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackleson, S. G.; Klemas, V.

    1984-01-01

    The spatial, spectral and radiometric characteristics of LANDSAT TM and MSS imagery for detecting submerged aquatic vegetation are assessed. The problem is approached from two perspectives; purely stochastic or nonparametric in a radiative sense and theoretical in which radiative transfer equations are used to predict upwelling radiance at satellite altitude. The spectral and radiometric aspects of the theoretical approach are addressed with which a submerged plant canopy is distinguished from a surrounding bottom of sand or mud.

  5. Growth rate, protein:RNA ratio and stoichiometric homeostasis of submerged macrophytes under eutrophication stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing W.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth rate hypothesis (GRH and stoichiometric homeostasis of photoautotrophs have always been questioned. However, little is known about GRH and stoichiometric homeostasis of aquatic plants, especially submerged macrophytes. Therefore, we aim to test the GRH and explore stoichiometric homeostasis of four freshwater submerged macrophytes under eutrophication stress. At the single species level and the multi-species level, N:P ratios of Potamogeton maackianus, Myriophyllum spicatum, Vallisneria natans and Ceratophyllum demersum had no consistent trends with growth rates. However, protein:RNA ratios of P. maackianus, M. spicatum and V. natans all correlated negatively with growth rates, demonstrating GRH can apply to freshwater submerged macrophytes, even though they are threatening by eutrophication stress. Protein:RNA ratios positively correlated with N:P ratios in culture media and tissues in submerged macrophytes except in P. maackianus (30d, suggesting effects of varying N:P ratios in culture media on protein:RNA ratios are basically in concert with tissue N:P ratios under short-time eutrophication stress. Stoichiometric homeostasis coefficients (HN:P indicated submerged macrophytes have weak homeostasis. Stoichiometric homeostasis of V. natans was stronger than those of P. maackianus, M. spicatum and C. demersum. The differences in GRH and homeostasis of the four submerged macrophytes may be due to species traits.

  6. Mask materials for powder blasting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wensink, H.; Jansen, Henricus V.; Berenschot, Johan W.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    Powder blasting, or abrasive jet machining (AJM), is a technique in which a particle jet is directed towards a target for mechanical material removal. It is a fast, cheap and accurate directional etch technique for brittle materials such as glass, silicon and ceramics. The particle jet (which

  7. High resolution powder blast micromachining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wensink, H.; Berenschot, Johan W.; Jansen, Henricus V.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    2000-01-01

    Powder blasting, or Abrasive Jet Machining (AJM), is a technique in which a particle jet is directed towards a target for mechanical material removal. It is a fast, cheap and accurate directional etch technique for brittle materials like glass, silicon and ceramics. By introducing electroplated

  8. Phonons from neutron powder diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimitrov, D.A.; Louca, D.; Roeder, H. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 (United States))

    1999-09-01

    The spherically averaged structure function S([vert bar][bold q][vert bar]) obtained from pulsed neutron powder diffraction contains both elastic and inelastic scattering via an integral over energy. The Fourier transformation of S([vert bar][bold q][vert bar]) to real space, as is done in the pair density function (PDF) analysis, regularizes the data, i.e., it accentuates the diffuse scattering. We present a technique which enables the extraction of off-center ([vert bar][bold q][vert bar][ne]0) phonon information from powder diffraction experiments by comparing the experimental PDF with theoretical calculations based on standard interatomic potentials and the crystal symmetry. This procedure [dynamics from powder diffraction] has been [ital successfully] implemented as demonstrated here for two systems, a simple metal fcc Ni and an ionic crystal CaF[sub 2]. Although computationally intensive, this data analysis allows for a phonon based modeling of the PDF, and additionally provides off-center phonon information from neutron powder diffraction. [copyright] [ital 1999] [ital The American Physical Society

  9. Structural and Acoustic Responses of a Submerged Stiffened Conical Shell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meixia Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the vibrational behavior and far-field sound radiation of a submerged stiffened conical shell at low frequencies. The solution for the dynamic response of the conical shell is presented in the form of a power series. A smeared approach is used to model the ring stiffeners. Fluid loading is taken into account by dividing the conical shell into narrow strips which are considered to be local cylindrical shells. The far-field sound pressure is solved by the Element Radiation Superposition Method. Excitations in two directions are considered to simulate the loading on the surface of the conical shell. These excitations are applied along the generator and normal to the surface of the conical shell. The contributions from the individual circumferential modes on the structural responses of the conical shell are studied. The effects of the external fluid loading and stiffeners are discussed. The results from the analytical models are validated by numerical results from a fully coupled finite element/boundary element model.

  10. [Submerged cultivation and chemical composition of Hericium erinaceus mycelium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avtonomova, A V; Bakanov, A V; Shuktueva, M I; Vinokurov, V A; Popova, O V; Usov, A I; Krasnopol'skaia, L M

    2012-01-01

    Submerged cultivation of Hericium erinaceus in various media was studied. The yield of the biomass was shown to depend mainly on the carbon source, whereas the content of water soluble polysaccharides depended mainly on the nitrogen source. The optimal medium composition provided the biomass yield of 21-23 g/l in 7 days. The biomass was characterized by the content of total protein, lipids and carbohydrates. In addition, the amino acid composition of the biomass was determined and shown to meet all the requirements of FAO/WHO concerning the amounts of essential amino acids (with exception of tryptophane). Oleinic and linoleic acids were identified as the main components of the fatty acids. Two water soluble polysaccharide fractions differing in solubility in aqueous ethanol were isolated and shown to contain rhamnose, fucose, xylose, glucose and galactose in different proportions. Vitamins B1, B2, B6, PP and E, ergosterol and coenzyme Q were also detected in the biomass of H. erinaceus.

  11. Underwater Photosynthesis of Submerged Plants – Recent Advances and Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Ole; Colmer, Timothy D.; Sand-Jensen, Kaj

    2013-01-01

    We describe the general background and the recent advances in research on underwater photosynthesis of leaf segments, whole communities, and plant dominated aquatic ecosystems and present contemporary methods tailor made to quantify photosynthesis and carbon fixation under water. The majority of studies of aquatic photosynthesis have been carried out with detached leaves or thalli and this selectiveness influences the perception of the regulation of aquatic photosynthesis. We thus recommend assessing the influence of inorganic carbon and temperature on natural aquatic communities of variable density in addition to studying detached leaves in the scenarios of rising CO2 and temperature. Moreover, a growing number of researchers are interested in tolerance of terrestrial plants during flooding as torrential rains sometimes result in overland floods that inundate terrestrial plants. We propose to undertake studies to elucidate the importance of leaf acclimation of terrestrial plants to facilitate gas exchange and light utilization under water as these acclimations influence underwater photosynthesis as well as internal aeration of plant tissues during submergence. PMID:23734154

  12. Immunomodulatory properties of Grifola frondosa in submerged culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ming-Jiuan; Cheng, Tso-Lin; Cheng, Su-Yun; Lian, Tzi-Wei; Wang, Lisu; Chiou, Shu-Yuan

    2006-04-19

    Maitake (Grifola frondosa) is a popular mushroom in Asia for its tasty flavor and immune-stimulating property. The aim of the study is to investigate the innate immunity augmentation effects of different extracts of mycelia and culture filtrate from G. frondosa in submerged cultures. The hot water extract of mycelia showed the strongest cytokine induction effect as a function of its concentration in human whole blood culture. The most potent fractions of hot water extract, Fr. I and II, were mainly composed of polysaccharides with molecular masses of 43-140 and 13-38 kDa, respectively. These fractions (0.025 mg/mL) showed marked activity in enhancing phagocytosis of human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN). In parallel, the expression of CD11b, an early marker of PMN activation, was also up-regulated dose dependently. This result suggested that complement receptor 3 was primed by these fractions. In addition to activation of phagocytes, these bioactive fractions also increased human peripheral blood natural killer cell cytotoxicity. These results imply that the relatively low molecular mass polysaccharides isolated from mycelia of G. frondosa can enhance innate immunity in vitro and therefore may serve as biological response modifiers.

  13. The use of bottle caps as submerged aerated filter medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damasceno de Oliveira, Laurence; Motlagh, Amir Mohaghegh; Goel, Ramesh; de Souza Missagia, Beatriz; Alves de Abreu Filho, Benício; Lautenschlager, Sandro Rogério

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a submerged aerated filter (SAF) using bottle caps as a support medium was evaluated. The system was fed with effluent from an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket system at ETE 2-South wastewater treatment plant, under different volumetric organic load rates (VOLRs). The population of a particular nitrifying microbial community was assessed by fluorescent in situ hybridization with specific oligonucleotide probes. The system showed an average removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) equal to 76% for VOLRs between 2.6 and 13.6 kg COD m(-3)_media.day(-1). The process of nitrification in conjunction with the removal of organic matter was observed from applying VOLRs lower than 5.5 kg COD m(-3)_media.day(-1) resulting in 78% conversion of NH4(+)-N. As the applied organic load was reduced, an increase in the nitrifying bacteria population was observed compared with total 4'-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) stained cells. Generally, SAF using bottle caps as a biological aerated filter medium treating wastewater from an anaerobic system showed promising removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and conversion of NH4(+)-N.

  14. Stainless steel submerged arc weld fusion line toughness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenfield, A.R.; Held, P.R.; Wilkowski, G.M. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States)

    1995-04-01

    This effort evaluated the fracture toughness of austenitic steel submerged-arc weld (SAW) fusion lines. The incentive was to explain why cracks grow into the fusion line in many pipe tests conducted with cracks initially centered in SAWS. The concern was that the fusion line may have a lower toughness than the SAW. It was found that the fusion line, Ji. was greater than the SAW toughness but much less than the base metal. Of greater importance may be that the crack growth resistance (JD-R) of the fusion line appeared to reach a steady-state value, while the SAW had a continually increasing JD-R curve. This explains why the cracks eventually turn to the fusion line in the pipe experiments. A method of incorporating these results would be to use the weld metal J-R curve up to the fusion-line steady-state J value. These results may be more important to LBB analyses than the ASME flaw evaluation procedures, since there is more crack growth with through-wall cracks in LBB analyses than for surface cracks in pipe flaw evaluations.

  15. Uranium Carbide Powder Ignition Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berthinier, C.; Coullomb, S.; Rado, C.; Le Guyadec, F. [CEA, DEN, DTEC, SDTC, LEME, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France); Chatillon, C.; Blanquet, E.; Boichot, R. [SIMAP, Sciences et Ingenierie des Materiaux et Procedes, INPG-CNRS-UJF ENSEEG, BP 75, 38402 St Martin-d' Heres (France)

    2009-06-15

    Mixed (U, Pu) carbide, constituted by means of 80% of uranium monocarbide (UC), is considered as a possible fuel material for future gas fast reactors or sodium fast reactor. However, UC undergoes a strong exothermic reaction with air and fine powders of UC are pyrophoric. Thus, it is necessary to understand this high reactivity in order to determine safe handling conditions for the production and reprocessing of carbide fuels. UC powder was obtained by arc melting and milling. The reactivity of uranium carbide was studied in oxidizing atmosphere and different experimental devices were used to determine ignition temperatures. The phases formed at the various observed stages of the oxidation process were determined by post-mortem X ray diffraction analysis. Studies were first performed using small quantities of UC powder (around 50 mg) in Differential Thermal Analysis / Thermogravimetric Analysis (DTA/TGA) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). Experiments were realized using different parameters, such as heating rate and gas flow rate and composition, to determine their influence on pyro-phoricity. Results obtained with small quantities (tens of milligrams) revealed that UC powder is highly reactive in air in the range 200- 250 deg. C. Studies were also performed in the 'Pyro' test facility multi-function furnace allowing CCD camera recording, during heating and ignition, through view-ports. Lower ignition temperatures, around 100 deg. C, were obtained using around 1 g UC powder samples. Results are discussed and analysed with theory of burning curve ignition and numerical simulations. Simulations aim to understand the influence of the different parameters on pyro-phoricity. Small scale simulations (on a spherical grain) confirm the influence of UC grains size, heat rate and gas composition on powder ignition temperature with small quantities. The issue is now to understand the influence of grain pile form factor and volume on the pyro-phoricity of

  16. Polymer quenched prealloyed metal powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajaligol, Mohammad R.; Fleischhauer, Grier; German, Randall M.

    2001-01-01

    A powder metallurgical process of preparing a sheet from a powder having an intermetallic alloy composition such as an iron, nickel or titanium aluminide. The sheet can be manufactured into electrical resistance heating elements having improved room temperature ductility, electrical resistivity, cyclic fatigue resistance, high temperature oxidation resistance, low and high temperature strength, and/or resistance to high temperature sagging. The iron aluminide has an entirely ferritic microstructure which is free of austenite and can include, in weight %, 4 to 32% Al, and optional additions such as .ltoreq.1% Cr, .gtoreq.0.05% Zr .ltoreq.2% Ti, .ltoreq.2% Mo, .ltoreq.1% Ni, .ltoreq.0.75% C, .ltoreq.0.1% B, .ltoreq.1% submicron oxide particles and/or electrically insulating or electrically conductive covalent ceramic particles, .ltoreq.1% rare earth metal, and/or .ltoreq.3 % Cu. The process includes forming a non-densified metal sheet by consolidating a powder having an intermetallic alloy composition such as by roll compaction, tape casting or plasma spraying, forming a cold rolled sheet by cold rolling the non-densified metal sheet so as to increase the density and reduce the thickness thereof and annealing the cold rolled sheet. The powder can be a water, polymer or gas atomized powder which is subjecting to sieving and/or blending with a binder prior to the consolidation step. After the consolidation step, the sheet can be partially sintered. The cold rolling and/or annealing steps can be repeated to achieve the desired sheet thickness and properties. The annealing can be carried out in a vacuum furnace with a vacuum or inert atmosphere. During final annealing, the cold rolled sheet recrystallizes to an average grain size of about 10 to 30 .mu.m. Final stress relief annealing can be carried out in the B2 phase temperature range.

  17. Influence of Rubber Powders on Foaming Behavior and Mechanical Properties of Foamed Polypropylene Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HE Yue

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Polypropylene/rubber powders composites with different kinds of rubber powders were foamed by injection molding machine equipped with volume-adjustable cavity. The effect of dispersity of rubber powders and crystallization behavior of composites on the foaming behavior and mechanical properties was investigated. The results show that the addition of rubber powders can improve the cell structure of foamed PP with fine and uniform cell distribution. And cell density and size of PP/PP-MAH/NBR foams are 7.64×106cell/cm3 and 29.78μm respectively, which are the best among these foams. Combining cell structures with mechanical properties, notch impact strength of PP/PP-MAH/CNBR composites increases approximately by 2.2 times while tensile strength is reduced just by 26% compared with those of the pure PP. This indicates that PP/PP-MAH/CNBR composites are ideal foamed materials.

  18. Iron Dextran Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iron dextran injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of red blood ... be treated with iron supplements taken by mouth. Iron dextran injection is in a class of medications called ...

  19. Sodium Ferric Gluconate Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium ferric gluconate injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of ... are also receiving the medication epoetin (Epogen, Procrit). Sodium ferric gluconate injection is in a class of ...

  20. Co-trimoxazole Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Co-trimoxazole injection is used to treat certain infections that are caused by bacteria such as infection of the intestine, lungs ( ... younger than 2 months of age. Co-trimoxazole injection is in a class of medications called sulfonamides. ...

  1. Epoetin Alfa Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epoetin alfa injection is used to treat anemia (a lower than normal number of red blood cells) in people with chronic ... working over a period of time). Epoetin alfa injection is also used to treat anemia caused by ...

  2. Injection losses and protection

    CERN Document Server

    Bartmann, W; Baudrenghien, P; Bracco, C; Dehning, B; Di Mauro, A; Drosdal, L; Emery, J; Goddard, B; Holzer, E B; Höfle, W; Kain, V; Meddahi, M; Radaelli, S; Shaposhnilova, E; Uythoven, J; Valuch, D; Wenninger, J; Zamantzas, C; Gianfelice-Wendt, E

    2012-01-01

    Injection losses are compared for 2010 and 2011 operation. Mitigation techniques which were put in place in 2010 to reduce losses at injection are described. Issues in 2011 operation, their potential improvements and the performance reach for 2012 are shown.

  3. Deoxycholic Acid Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deoxycholic acid injection is used to improve the appearance and profile of moderate to severe submental fat ('double chin'; fatty tissue located under the chin). Deoxycholic acid injection is in a class of medications called ...

  4. Epidural Steroid Injections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Spondylolisthesis BLOG FIND A SPECIALIST Treatments Epidural Steroid Injections Ray Baker MD Ray Baker MD Updated ... out of the spine. Why Get an Epidural Steroid Injection? Narrowing of the spinal passages can occur ...

  5. Amphotericin B Liposomal Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amphotericin B liposomal injection is used to treat fungal infections such as cryptococcal meningitis (a fungal infection of the ... infections in people who cannot receive conventional amphotericin B therapy. Amphotericin B liposomal injection is in a ...

  6. Aminocaproic Acid Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminocaproic acid injection is used to control bleeding that occurs when blood clots are broken down too quickly. ... before the baby is ready to be born). Aminocaproic acid injection is also used to control bleeding in ...

  7. OnabotulinumtoxinA Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... htm) or the manufacturer's website to obtain the Medication Guide. ... adults 18 years of age and older. OnabotulinumtoxinA injection is in a class of medications called neurotoxins. When onabotulinumtoxinA is injected into a ...

  8. Rich catalytic injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veninger, Albert [Coventry, CT

    2008-12-30

    A gas turbine engine includes a compressor, a rich catalytic injector, a combustor, and a turbine. The rich catalytic injector includes a rich catalytic device, a mixing zone, and an injection assembly. The injection assembly provides an interface between the mixing zone and the combustor. The injection assembly can inject diffusion fuel into the combustor, provides flame aerodynamic stabilization in the combustor, and may include an ignition device.

  9. 21 CFR 73.2645 - Aluminum powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum powder. 73.2645 Section 73.2645 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2645 Aluminum powder. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive aluminum powder shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of...

  10. 21 CFR 73.1645 - Aluminum powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum powder. 73.1645 Section 73.1645 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1645 Aluminum powder. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive aluminum powder shall be composed of finely divided particles of aluminum prepared from virgin aluminum. It...

  11. Metallurgical Characterization of Aluminum Powder Consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-05-01

    theoretical density could be obtained by cold compacting Al powder. The apparent lack of inter- particle bonding in Figure 13 is due to heavy etching of the...34 ring seal Crimp hold Figure 39. Powder pack as assembled. 47 • .U % . * .,Z . % Ignition PVC tube (21.6 cm O.D., 20 cm l.D.) ON 30cm Powder pack ANFO

  12. Early Human Dispersals and Submerged Landscapes : comment on news feature "Migration: value of submerged early sites" in Nature's May 2012 special issue "Peopling the Planet"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flemming, Nicholas; Bailey, Geoffrey N.; Sakellariou, Dimitris; Arias, Pablo; Canals, M.; Chiocci, Francesco Latino; Cohen, K.M.; Erlandson, Jon; Faught, Michael K.; Flatman, Joe; Fischer, Anders; Galili, Ehud; Harff, Jan; Lericolais, Gilles; Lűth, Friedrich

    2012-01-01

    Your articles on human dispersal in the late Pleistocene epoch (Nature 485, 23; 2012) overlook the significance of now-submerged archaeological sites on the continental shelf during this period (126,000–11,000 years ago). It is wrong to assume that these were completely destroyed by the sea and that

  13. Parathyroid Hormone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have any questions about how to inject this medication.Parathyroid hormone injection comes in a cartridge to be mixed in ... and vitamin D while you are taking this medication.Parathyroid hormone injection controls hypoparathyroidism but does not cure it. Continue ...

  14. 21 CFR 520.1696a - Buffered penicillin powder, penicillin powder with buffered aqueous diluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Buffered penicillin powder, penicillin powder with... FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1696a Buffered penicillin powder, penicillin powder with buffered aqueous diluent. (a) Specifications. When reconstituted, each milliliter contains penicillin G procaine equivalent...

  15. [Impact of directly compressed auxiliary materials on powder property of fermented cordyceps powder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Hua; Yue, Guo-Chao; Guan, Yong-Mei; Yang, Ming; Zhu, Wei-Feng

    2014-01-01

    To investigate such physical indexes as hygroscopicity, angle of repose, bulk density, fillibility of compression of mixed powder of directly compressed auxiliary materials and fermented cordyceps powder by using micromeritic study methods. The results showed that spray-dried lactose Flowlac100 and microcrystalline cellulose Avicel PH102 had better effect in liquidity and compressibility on fermented cordyceps powder than pregelatinized starch. The study on the impact of directly compressed auxiliary materials on the powder property of fermented cordyceps powder had guiding significant to the research of fermented cordyceps powder tablets, and could provide basis for the development of fermented cordyceps powder tablets.

  16. Multi-Objective Optimization of Submerged Arc Welding Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurav Datta

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Submerged arc welding (SAW is an important metal fabrication technology specially applied to join metals of large thickness in a single pass. In order to obtain an efficient joint, several process parameters of SAW need to be studied and precisely selected to improve weld quality. Many methodologies were proposed in the past research to address this issue. However, a good number of past work seeks to optimize SAWprocess parameters with a single response only. In practical situations, not only is the influence of process parameters and their interactive effects on output responses are to be critically examined but also an attempt is to be made to optimize more than one response, simultaneously. To this end, the present study considers four process control parameters viz. voltage (OCV, wire feed rate, traverse speed and electrode stick-out. The selected weld quality characteristics related to features of bead geometry are depth of penetration, reinforcement and bead width. In the present reporting, an integrated approach capable of solving the simultaneous optimization of multi-quality responses in SAW was suggested. In the proposed approach, the responses were transformed into their individual desirability values by selecting appropriate desirability function. Assuming equal importance for all responses, these individual desirability values were aggregated to calculate the overall desirability values. Quadratic Response Surface Methodology (RSM was applied to establish a mathematical model representing overall desirability as a function involving linear, quadratic and interaction effect of process control parameters. This model was optimized finally within the experimental domain using PSO (Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm. A confirmatory test showed a satisfactory result. A detailed methodology of RSM, desirability function (DF and a PSO-based optimization approach was illustrated in the paper.

  17. Fallout plume of submerged oil from Deepwater Horizon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, David L.; Fisher, G. Burch; Bagby, Sarah C.; Nelson, Robert K.; Reddy, Christopher M.; Sylva, Sean P.; Woo, Mary A.

    2014-01-01

    The sinking of the Deepwater Horizon in the Gulf of Mexico led to uncontrolled emission of oil to the ocean, with an official government estimate of ∼5.0 million barrels released. Among the pressing uncertainties surrounding this event is the fate of ∼2 million barrels of submerged oil thought to have been trapped in deep-ocean intrusion layers at depths of ∼1,000–1,300 m. Here we use chemical distributions of hydrocarbons in >3,000 sediment samples from 534 locations to describe a footprint of oil deposited on the deep-ocean floor. Using a recalcitrant biomarker of crude oil, 17α(H),21β(H)-hopane (hopane), we have identified a 3,200-km2 region around the Macondo Well contaminated by ∼1.8 ± 1.0 × 106 g of excess hopane. Based on spatial, chemical, oceanographic, and mass balance considerations, we calculate that this contamination represents 4–31% of the oil sequestered in the deep ocean. The pattern of contamination points to deep-ocean intrusion layers as the source and is most consistent with dual modes of deposition: a “bathtub ring” formed from an oil-rich layer of water impinging laterally upon the continental slope (at a depth of ∼900–1,300 m) and a higher-flux “fallout plume” where suspended oil particles sank to underlying sediment (at a depth of ∼1,300–1,700 m). We also suggest that a significant quantity of oil was deposited on the ocean floor outside this area but so far has evaded detection because of its heterogeneous spatial distribution. PMID:25349409

  18. LHC Injection Scenarios

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, R

    2002-01-01

    Injection of nominal beam intensities from the SPS into the LHC must be done under well-controlled conditions since an abnormal state of one or more elements in the LHC could lead to severe damage of LHC machine components. This note proposes some general principles to be applied for injection into the LHC. Firstly, only low intensity beams below damage threshold can be injected into an empty machine. Secondly, high intensity beams can only be injected when some beam is already present in the machine. Procedures for injection and failure scenarios are discussed.

  19. Submergence Causes Similar Carbohydrate Starvation but Faster Post-Stress Recovery than Darkness in Alternanthera philoxeroides Plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Qi Ye

    Full Text Available Carbon assimilation by submerged plants is greatly reduced due to low light levels. It is hypothesized that submergence reduces carbohydrate contents and that plants recover from submergence in the same way as darkness-treated plants. To test this hypothesis, the responses of plants to submergence and darkness were studied and compared. Plants of a submergence-tolerant species, Alternanthera philoxeroides, were exposed to well drained and illuminated conditions, complete submergence conditions or darkness conditions followed by a recovery growth period in a controlled experiment. The biomass maintenance and accumulation, carbohydrate content dynamics and respiration rate in the plants were assessed to quantify the carbohydrate utilization rate and regrowth. The submerged plants maintained higher chlorophyll contents, more green leaf tissue and more biomass; recovered more quickly; and accumulated more carbohydrates and biomass than darkness-treated plants. The respiration rate was continuously reduced in the same pattern under both stress conditions but was maintained at a significantly lower level in the submerged plants; the total soluble sugar and total fructan contents were decreased at approximately the same rate of decrease, reaching similar low levels, in the two stress treatments. The A. philoxeroides plants were more tolerant of submergence than darkness. The faster recovery of desubmerged plants could not be explained by the similar carbohydrate contents at the start of recovery. Other types of carbon reserves besides carbohydrates or other mechanisms such as higher post-stress photosynthetic performance might be involved.

  20. Changes in selected oxysterols in powdered foodstuffs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Chudy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present research consisted of producing 3 types of powdered concentrates: the dairy, the egg and the dairy-egg (produced from a blend of raw liquid milk and liquid eggs. The dairy-egg powder was produced in order to facilitate formulation of dry food mixes. Powders were vacuumpackaged and packaged in air atmosphere and stored for 24 months. Changes in contents of selected oxysterols (determined by gas chromatography were recorded. Regardless of the packaging type, the predominant oxysterol in the dairy-egg powder was α-epoxy-C (7.679 and 5.600 μg/g powder, respectively.

  1. [Advances in studies on bear bile powder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chao-fan; Gao, Guo-jian; Liu, Ying

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, a detailed analysis was made on relevant literatures about bear bile powder in terms of chemical component, pharmacological effect and clinical efficacy, indicating bear bile powder's significant pharmacological effects and clinical application in treating various diseases. Due to the complex composition, bear bile powder is relatively toxic. Therefore, efforts shall be made to study bear bile powder's pharmacological effects, clinical application, chemical composition and toxic side-effects, with the aim to provide a scientific basis for widespread reasonable clinical application of bear bile powder.

  2. Micro-fractional epidermal powder delivery for improved skin vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinyuan; Kositratna, Garuna; Zhou, Chang; Manstein, Dieter; Wu, Mei X

    2014-10-28

    Skin vaccination has gained increasing attention in the last two decades due to its improved potency compared to intramuscular vaccination. Yet, the technical difficulty and frequent local reactions hamper its broad application in the clinic. In the current study, micro-fractional epidermal powder delivery (EPD) is developed to facilitate skin vaccination and minimize local adverse effects. EPD is based on ablative fractional laser or microneedle treatment of the skin to generate microchannel (MC) arrays in the epidermis followed by topical application of powder drug/vaccine-coated array patches to deliver drug/vaccine into the skin. The novel EPD delivered more than 80% sulforhodamine b (SRB) and model antigen ovalbumin (OVA) into murine, swine, and human skin within 1h. EPD of OVA induced anti-OVA antibody titer at a level comparable to intradermal (ID) injection and was much more efficient than tape stripping in both delivery efficiency and immune responses. Strikingly, the micro-fractional delivery significantly reduced local side effects of LPS/CpG adjuvant and BCG vaccine, leading to complete skin recovery. In contrast, ID injection induced severe local reactions that persisted for weeks. While reducing local reactogenicity, EPD of OVA/LPS/CpG and BCG vaccine generated a comparable humoral immune response to ID injection. EPD of vaccinia virus encoding OVA induced significantly higher and long-lasting interferon γ-secreting CD8+ T cells than ID injection. In conclusion, EPD represents a promising technology for needle-free, painless skin vaccination with reduced local reactogenicity and at least sustained immunogenicity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Preparation of antimony trioxide powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hyung Kyu; Jang, Hee Dong; Km, Joon Soo; Lim, Young Woong; Kim, Sung Don; Yoon, Ho Sung; Lee, Hoo In; Kim, Chul Joo [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    Antimony trioxide is used as flame retardant material in plastic, rubber, and textile industries. It was carried out to establish processing technology of antimony trioxide, and provide for smelting of metallic antimony by domestic industries. Also, domestic market of antimony trioxide was surveyed. Commercial antimony trioxide has been manufactured through two steps : the first is to extract antimony metal from Stibnite ore, and the second is to evaporate and oxidize metallic antimony. In this study, it was focused on the second step because primary antimony has not been produced domestically. An equipment for melting and vaporizing of metallic antimony was experimentally prepared. Antimony metal was melted in magnesia crucible, and reacted with air to oxidize into antimony trioxide powder in the equipment by use of suction blower. The powder was collected through bag filter. The crystal form of the antimony trioxide sample was senarmontite. The shape of the powder was widely spherical. It is considered that antimony trioxide could be prepared effectively through the experiment. (author). 9 figs.

  4. Dynamic compaction of ceramic powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cline, C.F.

    1982-06-10

    Dynamic consolidation is a technique for densifying powder ensembles to near theoretical with or without external application of heat. The technique itself is simple: the confined powder, initially at a green density of approx. 50% encounters a high pressure shock wave which exceeds the yield strength and densifies as the wave proceeds through the compact. The time scales and pressure range from 1-10's of microseconds and 10-100's of kilobars (10 Kb = 1 GPa). The short time scale of the pressure pulse during the compaction stage inhibits kinetic processes which have longer time constants. The pressure pulse can be delivered to the green compact by a number of techniques, i.e. high explosive, projectile. The methods differ in the degree that one can control the amplitude, duration, and nature of the pressure pulse. The lecture compares powders compacted by explosive and light gas guns and when possible characterize their resulting structures and properties, using AlN as example. 14 figures.

  5. FUNDAMENTAL STUDIES OF THE DISPERSIBILITY OF POWDERED MATERIALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    respectively. Late in the program, a fourth powder ( egg albumin ) was added to the list of powders to be investigated. The preparation of powders including...effects of ad sorbed foreign vapors on powder properties, (7) effects of removal of adsorbed gases and vapors, (8) energy required to disperse a powder sample, (9) properties of compacted powders, and (10) egg albumin studies.

  6. Solitary and cnoidal wave scattering by a submerged horizontal plate in shallow water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Hayatdavoodi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Solitary and cnoidal wave transformation over a submerged, fixed, horizontal rigid plate is studied by use of the nonlinear, shallow-water Level I Green-Naghdi (GN equations. Reflection and transmission coefficients are defined for cnoidal and solitary waves to quantify the nonlinear wave scattering. Results of the GN equations are compared with the laboratory experiments and other theoretical solutions for linear and nonlinear waves in intermediate and deep waters. The GN equations are then used to study the nonlinear wave scattering by a plate in shallow water. It is shown that in deep and intermediate depths, the wave-scattering varies nonlinearly by both the wavelength over the plate length ratio, and the submergence depth. In shallow water, however, and for long-waves, only the submergence depth appear to play a significant role on wave scattering. It is possible to define the plate submergence depth and length such that certain wave conditions are optimized above, below, or downwave of the plate for different applications. A submerged plate in shallow water can be used as a means to attenuate energy, such as in wave breakers, or used for energy focusing, and in wave energy devices.

  7. [Influence of Submerged Plants on Microbial Community Structure in Sediment of Hongze Lake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ding-yu; Zhang, Ting-xi; Dong, Dan-ping; Li, De-fang; Wang, Guo-xiang

    2016-05-15

    Phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) method was applied to analyze the influence of submerged plants on sediment microbial community structure, in order to investigate the changes of sediment microbial community structure for different kinds of the submerged plants in different growth periods. Particularly, Potamogeton crispus L., Potamogeton pectinatus L and the mixed group were chosen as the typical submerged plants in Hongze Lake for investigation in this paper. The results indicated that the change of total PLFAs in different periods was significant, on the contrary, the PLFA change for different groups in the same period was insignificant. The values of G⁺ PLFA/G⁻ PLFA in the submerged plant group were also highly related to the different growth periods, which demonstrated that the root function of the submerged plant had a severe impact on the microbial community in sediment. Furthermore, some environmental factors, such as Temperature, pH, TOC and DO, were correlated to characteristic phospholipid of PLFAs in sediment, which means the environmental factors could also affect the microbial community structure.

  8. Suspension of Egg Hatching Caused by High Humidity and Submergence in Spider Mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubara, Masashi; Osakabe, Masahiro

    2015-08-01

    We tested the effects of high humidity and submergence on egg hatching of spider mites. In both the high humidity and submergence treatments, many Tetranychus and Panonychus eggs did not hatch until after the hatching peak of the lower humidity or unsubmerged controls. However, after humidity decreased or water was drained, many eggs hatched within 1-3 h. This was observed regardless of when high humidity or submergence treatments were implemented: either immediately after oviposition or immediately before hatching was due. Normal eyespot formation was observed in most eggs in the high humidity and submergence treatments, which indicates that spider mite embryos develop even when eggs are underwater. Therefore, delays in hatching are not caused by delayed embryonic development. A delay in hatching was always observed in Panonychus citri (McGregor) but was more variable in Tetranychus urticae Koch and Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida. The high humidity and submergence treatments affected but did not suppress larval development in these species. In contrast, many Oligonychus eggs died following the high humidity treatments. In Tetranychus and Panonychus spider mites, suspension of egg hatching may mitigate the adverse effects of rainfall. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Individual and combined suppressive effects of submerged and floating-leaved macrophytes on algal blooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Mayumi; Takamura, Noriko; Iwasa, Yoh

    2013-02-21

    Shallow lakes and ponds are often characterised either by clear water with abundant submerged macrophytes or by turbid water with abundant phytoplankton. Blooms of toxic filamentous blue-green algae (cyanobacteria) often dominate the phytoplankton community in eutrophic lakes, which threatens ecological functions and biodiversity of freshwater ecosystems. We studied a simple lake model in order to evaluate individual and combined suppressive effects of rooted submerged and rooted floating-leaved macrophytes on algal blooms. Floating-leaved plants are superior competitors for light, whereas submerged plants absorb and reduce available phosphorus in a water column that rooted floating-leaved plants exploit to a lesser extent. We found that mixed vegetation that includes both submerged and floating-leaved plants is more resistant than vegetation comprised by a single plant type to algal invasion triggered by phosphorus loading. In addition, competitive exclusion of submerged plants by floating-leaved plants may promote an algal bloom. These predictions were confirmed by the decision tree analysis of field data from 35 irrigation ponds in Hyogo Prefecture, Japan. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Constructed tropical wetlands with integrated submergent-emergent plants for sustainable water quality management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Norio; Jinadasa, K B S N; Werellagama, D R I B; Mowjood, M I M; Ng, W J

    2006-01-01

    Improvement of primary effluent quality by using an integrated system of emergent plants (Scirpus grossus in the leading subsurface flow arrangement) and submergent plants (Hydrilla verticillata in a subsequent channel) was investigated. The primary effluent was drawn from a septic tank treating domestic sewage from a student dormitory at the University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka. Influent and effluent samples were collected once every 2 weeks from May 2004 through July 2005 and analyzed to determine water quality parameters. Both the emergent and submergent plants were harvested at predetermined intervals. The results suggested that harvesting prolonged the usefulness of the system and the generation of a renewable biomass with potential economic value. The mean overall pollutant removal efficiencies of the integrated emergent and submergent plant system were biological oxygen demand (BOD5), 65.7%; chemical oxygen demand (COD), 40.8%; ammonium (NH4+-N), 74.8%; nitrate (NO3--N), 38.8%; phosphate (PO43-), 61.2%; total suspended solids (TSS), 65.8%; and fecal coliforms, 94.8%. The submergent plant subsystem improved removal of nutrients that survived the emergent subsystem operated at low hydraulic retention times. The significant improvement in effluent quality following treatment by the submergent plant system indicates the value of incorporating such plants in wetland systems.

  11. Laser stereolithography by multilayer cladding of metal powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jendrzejewski, Rafal; Rabczuk, Grazyna T.; Zaremba, R.; Sliwinski, Gerard

    1998-07-01

    3D-structures obtained by means of laser cladding of the metal alloy powders: bronze B10 and stellite 6 and the process parameters are studied experimentally. The structures are made trace-on-trace by remelting of the metal powder injected into the focusing region of the 1.2 kW CO2 laser beam. For the powder and sample feeding rates of 8-22 g/min and 0.4-1.2 m/min, respectively, and the applied beam intensities not exceeding 2 X 105 W cm-2 the process is stable and regular traces connected via fusion zones are produced for each material. The thickness of these zones does not exceed several per cent of the layer height. The process results in the efficient formation of multilayer structures. From their geometry the effect of energy coupling and interaction parameters are deduced. Moreover, the microanalysis by means of SEM- and optical photographs of samples produced under different experimental conditions confirms the expected mechanical properties, low porosity and highly homogenous structure of the multilayers. In addition to the known material stellite 6 the bronze B10 is originally proposed for a rapid prototyping.

  12. Dihydroergotamine Injection and Nasal Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    DHE-45® Injection ... to use the nasal spray or administer the injection correctly. After that, you may spray or inject ... home.If you are using the solution for injection, you should never reuse syringes. Dispose of syringes ...

  13. Characteristics and Limitations of Submerged GPS L1 Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Ladina; Geiger, Alain

    2017-04-01

    Extensive amount of water stored in snow covers has a high impact on flood development during snow melting periods. Early assessment of these parameters in mountain environments enhance early-warning and thus prevention of major impacts. Sub-snow GNSS techniques are lately suggested to determine liquid water content, snow water equivalent or considered for avalanche rescue. This technique is affordable, flexible, and provides accurate and continuous observations independent on weather conditions. However, the characteristics of GNSS observations for applications within a snow-pack still need to be further investigated. The magnitude of the main interaction processes involved for the GPS wavelength propagating through different layers of snow, ice or water is theoretically examined. Liquid water exerts the largest influence on GPS signal propagation through a snow-pack. Therefore, we focus on determining the characteristics of GNSS observables under water. An experiment was set-up to investigate the characteristics and limitations of submerged GPS observations using a pool, a level control by communicating pipes, a geodetic and a low-cost GPS antenna, and a water level sensor. The GPS antennas were placed into the water. The water level was increased daily by a step of two millimeters up to thirty millimeters above the antenna. Based on this experiment, the signal penetration depth, satellite availability, the attenuation of signal strength and the quality of solutions are analyzed. Our experimental results show an agreement with the theoretically derived attenuation parameter and signal penetration depth. The assumption of water as the limiting parameter for GPS observations within a snow-pack can be confirmed. Higher wetness in a snow-pack leads to less transmission, higher refraction, higher attenuation and thus a decreased penetration depth as well as a reduced quality of the solutions. In consequence, GPS applications within a snow-pack are heavily impacted by

  14. Injection moulding antireflective nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Alexander Bruun; Clausen, Jeppe Sandvik; Mortensen, N. Asger

    We present a method for injection moulding antireflective nanostructures on large areas, for high volume production. Nanostructured black silicon masters were fabricated by mask-less reactive ion etching, and electroplated with nickel. The nickel shim was antistiction coated and used in an inject......We present a method for injection moulding antireflective nanostructures on large areas, for high volume production. Nanostructured black silicon masters were fabricated by mask-less reactive ion etching, and electroplated with nickel. The nickel shim was antistiction coated and used...... in an injection moulding process, to fabricate the antireflective surfaces. The cycle-time was 35 s. The injection moulded structures had a height of 125 nm, and the visible spectrum reflectance of injection moulded black polypropylene surfaces was reduced from 4.5±0.5% to 2.5±0.5%. The gradient of the refractive...

  15. Survival after submergence in the pupae of five species of blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, D; Greenberg, B

    1994-09-01

    Survival of pupae of known ages after 1 to 5 d of submersion under water was assessed by determining the emergence of Protophormia terraenovae (Robineau-Desvoidy), Calliphora vicina (Robineau-Desvoidy), Cochliomyia macellaria (F.), Phormia regina (Meigen), and Phaenicia sericata (Meigen). Survival after 1 d of submergence was < 14% in the white puparial stage, 0-100% in pharate adults nearing eclosion, and approximately 100% in pupae between these two stages. This pattern inversely tracks O2 consumption during metamorphosis. Twenty-five percent of the pupae of three species (P. terraenovae, P. regina, and P. sericata) produced normal adults after 4 d of submersion, but none after 5 d. Among survivors, the pupation period was extended by the duration of submersion. Pupae of C. vicina were least able to withstand drowning. These data are potentially useful in estimating duration of submergence of a corpse in forensic investigations where the corpse becomes submerged after the larvae have developed and pupariated.

  16. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals by submerged macrophytes: looking for hyperaccumulators in eutrophic lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Wei; Wu, Haoping; Hao, Beibei; Huang, Wenmin; Liu, Guihua

    2013-05-07

    To directly select submerged macrophytes with high accumulation capability from the field, 24 eutrophic lakes along the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River were investigated in the study. These eutrophic lakes have large amounts of heavy metals in both water and sediments because of human activities. The results showed that Najas marina is a hyperaccumulator of As and Cd, Ceratophyllum demersum is a hyperaccumulator of Co, Cr, and Fe, and Vallisneria natans is a hyperaccumulator of Pb. Strong positive correlations were found between concentrations of heavy metals in tissues of submerged macrophytes, probably because of coaccumulation of heavy metals. However, for most heavy metals, no significant correlations were found between submerged macrophytes and their surrounding environments. In conclusion, N. marina, C. demersum, and V. natans are good candidate species for removing heavy metals from eutrophic lakes.

  17. Roller compaction of moist pharmaceutical powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, C-Y; Hung, W-L; Miguélez-Morán, A M; Gururajan, B; Seville, J P K

    2010-05-31

    The compression behaviour of powders during roller compaction is dominated by a number of factors, such as process conditions (roll speed, roll gap, feeding mechanisms and feeding speed) and powder properties (particle size, shape, moisture content). The moisture content affects the powder properties, such as the flowability and cohesion, but it is not clear how the moisture content will influence the powder compression behaviour during roller compaction. In this study, the effect of moisture contents on roller compaction behaviour of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC, Avicel PH102) was investigated experimentally. MCC samples of different moisture contents were prepared by mixing as-received MCC powder with different amount of water that was sprayed onto the powder bed being agitated in a rotary mixer. The flowability of these samples were evaluated in terms of the poured angle of repose and flow functions. The moist powders were then compacted using the instrumented roller compactor developed at the University of Birmingham. The flow and compression behaviour during roller compaction and the properties of produced ribbons were examined. It has been found that, as the moisture content increases, the flowability of moist MCC powders decreases and the powder becomes more cohesive. As a consequence of non-uniform flow of powder into the compaction zone induced by the friction between powder and side cheek plates, all produced ribbons have a higher density in the middle and lower densities at the edges. For the ribbons made of powders with high moisture contents, different hydration states across the ribbon width were also identified from SEM images. Moreover, it was interesting to find that these ribbons were split into two halves. This is attributed to the reduction in the mechanical strength of moist powder compacts with high moisture contents produced at high compression pressures. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Factors involved in spatiotemporal dynamics of submerged macrophytes in a Portuguese coastal lagoon under Mediterranean climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Cristina; Correia, Otília; Marques da Silva, Jorge; Cruces, Anabela; Freitas, Maria da Conceição; Branquinho, Cristina

    2012-09-01

    Submerged macrophytes are key in coastal ecosystems, with important structural and functional roles. Thus, the characterization of the submerged aquatic vegetation dynamics is of prime importance for assessing the ecological status of coastal ecosystems. The main aim of this study was to assess the spatial and temporal dynamics of submerged macrophytes biomass in a temporarily open coastal lagoon in Melides, Portugal, and to evaluate the physiological performance of the dominant macrophyte in the system. This lagoon is subject to several disturbances such as the dramatic changes in water physicochemical parameters over time, since temporarily opens to the sea occur renewing the lagoon water content. Moreover it is under a Mediterranean climate with the inherently high temporal variability of precipitation and high temperatures during the summer. Our study shows that the submerged macrophyte community was dominated initially by Ruppia cirrhosa and then replaced by Potamogeton pectinatus, which showed a marked temporal and spatial pattern with extremely high values of biomass in August and in the inner part of the lagoon. The spatial and temporal biomass patterns in submerged macrophytes were mainly related with water level, salinity, pH and transparency. The physiological performance of R. cirrhosa was lower when there was greater biomass accumulation and in extremely shallow waters, whereas physiological vigor seemed to be greater at moderate temperatures and in areas with higher salinity and dissolved oxygen. The data from this study can be used to predict submerged biomass macrophyte responses to extreme water quality changes and to feed a decision support system for the best period to promote the seasonal artificial breaching of the sandy barrier.

  19. Elevation dynamics in a restored versus a submerging salt marsh in Long Island Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisfeld, Shimon C.; Hill, Troy D.; Cahoon, Donald R.

    2016-01-01

    Accelerated sea-level rise (SLR) poses the threat of salt marsh submergence, especially in marshes that are relatively low-lying. At the same time, restoration efforts are producing new low-lying marshes, many of which are thriving and avoiding submergence. To understand the causes of these different fates, we studied two Long Island Sound marshes: one that is experiencing submergence and mudflat expansion, and one that is undergoing successful restoration. We examined sedimentation using a variety of methods, each of which captures different time periods and different aspects of marsh elevation change: surface-elevation tables, marker horizons, sediment cores, and sediment traps. We also studied marsh hydrology, productivity, respiration, nutrient content, and suspended sediment. We found that, despite the expansion of mudflat in the submerging marsh, the areas that remain vegetated have been gaining elevation at roughly the rate of SLR over the last 10 years. However, this elevation gain was only possible thanks to an increase in belowground volume, which may be a temporary response to waterlogging. In addition, accretion rates in the first half of the twentieth century were much lower than current rates, so century-scale accretion in the submerging marsh was lower than SLR. In contrast, at the restored marsh, accretion rates are now averaging about 10 mm yr−1 (several times the rate of SLR), much higher than before restoration. The main cause of the different trajectories at the two marshes appeared to be the availability of suspended sediment, which was much higher in the restored marsh. We considered and rejected alternative hypotheses, including differences in tidal flooding, plant productivity, and nutrient loading. In the submerging marsh, suspended and deposited sediment had relatively high organic content, which may be a useful indicator of sediment starvation.

  20. Strong growth limitation of a floating plant (Lemna gibba) by the submerged macrophyte (Elodea nuttallii) under laboratory conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szabo, S.; Scheffer, M.; Roijackers, R.M.M.; Waluto, B.; Zambrano, L.

    2010-01-01

    1. The asymmetric competition for light and nutrients between floating and submerged aquatic plants is thought to be key in explaining why dominance by either of these groups can be stable and difficult to change. 2. Although the shading effect of floating plants on submerged plants has been well

  1. Effect of temperature and nutrients on the competition between free-floating Salvinia natans and submerged Elodea nuttallii in mesocosms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Netten, J.J.C.; Arts, G.H.P.; Gylstra, R.; Nes, van E.H.; Scheffer, M.; Roijackers, R.M.M.

    2010-01-01

    In many aquatic ecosystems, free-floating plants compete with submerged plants for nutrients and light. Being on top of the water surface free-floating plants are superior competitors for light. Submerged plants can take up nutrients from the sediment and the water column, hereby reducing these

  2. Biological control of phytoplankton by the subtropical submerged macrophytes Egeria densa and Potamogeton illinoensis: a mesocosm study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanderstukken, M.; Mazzeo, N.; Colen, W.; Declerck, S.A.J.; Muylaert, K.

    2011-01-01

    1. In temperate regions, submerged macrophytes can hamper phytoplankton blooms. Such an effect could arise directly, for instance via allelopathy, or indirectly, via competition for nutrients or the positive interaction between submerged macrophytes and zooplankton grazing. However, there is some

  3. Fabrication of TiO2/Carbon Photocatalyst using Submerged DC Arc Discharged in Ethanol/Acetic Acid Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraswati, T. E.; Nandika, A. O.; Andhika, I. F.; Patiha; Purnawan, C.; Wahyuningsih, S.; Rahardjo, S. B.

    2017-05-01

    This study aimed to fabricate a modified photocatalyst of TiO2/C to enhance its performance. The fabrication was achieved using the submerged direct current (DC) arc-discharge method employing two graphite electrodes, one of which was filled with a mixture of carbon powder, TiO2, and binder, in ethanol with acetic acid added in various concentrations. The arc-discharge method was conducted by flowing a current of 10-20 A (~20 V). X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns showed significant placements of the main peak characteristics of TiO2, C graphite, and titanium carbide. The surface analysis using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) revealed that fabricated TiO2/C nanoparticles had stretching vibrations of Ti-O, C-H, C═O, C-O, O-H and C═C in the regions of 450-550 cm-1, 2900-2880 cm-1, 1690-1760 cm-1, 1050-1300 cm-1, 3400-3700 cm-1 and ~1600 cm-1, respectively. In addition, the study investigated the photocatalysts of unmodified and modified TiO2/C for photodegradation of methylene blue (MB) dye solution under mercury lamp irradiation. The effectiveness of the degradation was defined by the decrease in 60-minute absorbance under a UV-Vis spectrophotometer. Modified TiO2/C proved to be significantly more efficient in reducing dye concentrations, reaching ~70%. It indicated that the oxygen-containing functional groups have been successfully attached to the surface of the nanoparticles and played a role in enhancing photocatalytic activity.

  4. Adsorption of lignosulfonate compounds using powdered eggshell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ali Zulfikar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Batch adsorption of lignosulfonates using untreated powdered eggshell under the influences of mixing time, pH,particle size and dose of powdered eggshell was investigated. Adsorption isotherms of lignosulfonates onto powder eggshellwere also studied. Eggshells were collected from the Balubur traditional market in Bandung, Indonesia, washed with distilledwater, air dried, and then ground into powder of different particle sizes. Kinetic studies found that equilibrium time was ashigh as 90 minutes. From experiments carried out at different pH, it was observed that pH plays an important role in theadsorption of lignosulfonate compounds. It was also observed that particles size has no significant effect on the adsorptionof lignosulfonate compounds. The optimum dosage of powdered eggshell was 30 g/100 mL of 500 mg/L lignosulfonatesolution. Adsorption isotherms studied through the use of graphical methods revealed that the adsorption of lignosulfonatesonto powdered eggshell follows the Langmuir model.

  5. Indigenous tooth powders = covert lead poisoning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, Sapna; Shubha, A B; Rao, B Dinesh

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to measure the concentration of lead in various indigenous preparations of tooth powders available and used locally in and around Udaipur, Rajasthan, India. Seven different brands of tooth powders manufactured and/or marketed locally were obtained from stores all over Udaipur city. Some home-made powders commonly used for cleaning teeth were also collected. The tooth powders were analyzed for lead content by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. All tooth powders tested were found to contain high levels of lead ranging from 21 ppm to 82 ppm, above the maximum permissible level of 20 ppm prescribed by the Bureau of Indian Standards. Indigenous tooth powders contain high levels of lead and thus may be a source of lead poisoning that is often overlooked.

  6. Sun drying of residual annatto seed powder

    OpenAIRE

    Dyego da Costa Santos; Alexandre José de Melo Queiroz; Rossana Maria Feitosa de Figueirêdo; Emanuel Neto Alves de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Residual annatto seeds are waste from bixin extraction in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Most of this by-product is currently discarded; however, the use of these seeds in human foods through the elaboration of powder added to other commercial powders is seen as a viable option. This study aimed at drying of residual annatto powder, with and without the oil layer derived from the industrial extraction of bixin, fitting different mathematical models to experimental data and ...

  7. In-house characterization of protein powder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Christian Grundahl; Nielsen, Ole Faurskov; Ståhl, Kenny

    2010-01-01

    X-ray powder diffraction patterns of lysozyme and insulin were recorded on a standard in-house powder diffractometer. The experimental powder diffraction patterns were compared with patterns calculated from Protein Data Bank coordinate data. Good agreement was obtained by including straightforward...... to include calculated H-atom positions did not improve the overall fit and was abandoned. The method devised was shown to be a quick and convenient tool for distinguishing precipitates and polymorphs of proteins....

  8. Multipoint Fuel Injection Arrangements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prociw, Lev Alexander (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A multipoint fuel injection system includes a plurality of fuel manifolds. Each manifold is in fluid communication with a plurality of injectors arranged circumferentially about a longitudinal axis for multipoint fuel injection. The injectors of separate respective manifolds are spaced radially apart from one another for separate radial staging of fuel flow to each respective manifold.

  9. Epidural Steroid Injections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Spine Treatment Spondylolisthesis BLOG FIND A SPECIALIST Treatments Epidural Steroid Injections Ray Baker MD Ray Baker MD Updated 7/2009 Epidural Steroid Injections (ESIs) are a common method of treating inflammation associated with low back related leg pain, or neck related arm pain. In both of ...

  10. Iron Sucrose Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... finish your treatment, your doctor may prescribe this medication again.Iron sucrose injection may cause severe or life-threatening reactions while you receive the medication. Your doctor will watch you carefully while you ... of iron sucrose injection and for at least 30 minutes afterwards. Tell ...

  11. CVD carbon powders modified by ball milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazmierczak Tomasz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Carbon powders produced using a plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD methods are an interesting subject of research. One of the most interesting methods of synthesizing these powders is using radio frequency plasma. This method, originally used in deposition of carbon films containing different sp2/sp3 ratios, also makes possible to produce carbon structures in the form of powder. Results of research related to the mechanical modification of these powders have been presented. The powders were modified using a planetary ball mill with varying parameters, such as milling speed, time, ball/powder mass ratio and additional liquids. Changes in morphology and particle sizes were measured using scanning electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. Phase composition was analyzed using Raman spectroscopy. The influence of individual parameters on the modification outcome was estimated using statistical method. The research proved that the size of obtained powders is mostly influenced by the milling speed and the amount of balls. Powders tend to form conglomerates sized up to hundreds of micrometers. Additionally, it is possible to obtain nanopowders with the size around 100 nm. Furthermore, application of additional liquid, i.e. water in the process reduces the graphitization of the powder, which takes place during dry milling.

  12. Dry powder formulation of kanamycin with enhanced aerosolization efficiency for drug-resistant tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momin, Mohammad A M; Sinha, Shubhra; Tucker, Ian G; Doyle, Colin; Das, Shyamal C

    2017-08-07

    Kanamycin, an injectable agent, is currently used to treat drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB). Parenteral kanamycin causes high systemic toxicity which could be avoided by direct delivery to the lungs. This study focused on producing a highly aerosolizable dry-powder of hygroscopic kanamycin by spray-drying with l-leucine. Kanamycin powders were prepared with different concentrations (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% w/w) of l-leucine using the Buchi B-290 Mini Spray-Dryer. In vitro aerosolization efficiency, particle size, morphology, crystallinity, surface composition, drug-excipient interaction and moisture content of the powders were characterized by a Next Generation Impactor (NGI), laser diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, XPS, ATR-FTIR and thermogravimetric analysis. The physicochemical and aerosolization stability of the powders were investigated after one-month storage at 25±2°C/15% RH and 25±2°C/75% RH. The cytotoxicity on Calu-3 and A549 cells of the kanamycin powders was evaluated by MTT assay. The spray-dried powder particles were in the inhalable size range (<6.1μm). The powders with l-leucine were wrinkled in shape, amorphous in nature and had low moisture content (<5.0%). Kanamycin with 5% (w/w) of l-leucine showed the best aerosolization efficiency of 73.0±2.5%. The powders remained stable during storage at 25±2°C/15% RH and tolerated by respiratory cell lines. l-leucine improved the aerosolization of kanamycin by surface modification, which may be helpful for the effective treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of bovine rennet whey powder in milk powder and buttermilk powder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremer, M.G.E.G.; Kemmers-Voncken, A.; Boers, E.A.M.; Frankhuizen, R.; Haasnoot, W.

    2008-01-01

    An inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of bovine rennet whey (BRW) solids in skim milk powders (SMP) and buttermilk powders is presented. The BRW content was determined in a neutralised trichloroacetic acid sample extract by binding of the dissolved

  14. Effect of heat input on dilution and heat affected zone in submerged ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Submerged arc welding (SAW) is a fusion joining process, known for its high deposition capabilities. This process is useful in joining thick section components used in various industries. Besides joining, SAW can also be used for surfacing applications. Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) produced within the base metal as a result of ...

  15. Effect of heat input on dilution and heat affected zone in submerged ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Effect of heat input on dilution and heat affected zone in submerged arc welding process. HARI OM1,∗ and SUNIL PANDEY2. 1Department of Mechanical Engineering, YMCA University of Science and. Technology, Sector 06, Faridabad 121 006, India. 2Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology ...

  16. Environmental cracking behavior of submerged arc-welded supermartensitic stainless steel weldments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, P. Bala; Sharkawy, S. W.; Dietzel, W.

    2004-04-01

    Supermartensitic stainless steel welds produced by submerged are welding were assessed for their microstructure and properties. Slow strain rate tests conducted on these specimens revealed that both the parent material and the weld metals are susceptible to cracking under conditions of hydrogen (H) charging.

  17. Possibilities of Application of Carbon-Fluorine Containing Additions in Submerged-Arc Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozyrev, N. A.; Kryukov, N. E.; Kryukov, R. E.; Igushev, V. F.; Kovalskii, I. I.

    2015-09-01

    The paper provides results of comparative analysis of the effect of carbonaceous components introduced into welding fluxes on molten metal - slag interaction. A positive influence of carbonaceous additives on gas content and mechanical properties of welds is demonstrated. Carbon and fluorine containing additives are emphasized to be promising for automatic submerged arc welding.

  18. Modification of the submerged coil to prevent microbial carryover error in thermal death studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Susanne E; Shazer, Arlette G; Fleischman, Gregory J; Chirtel, Stuart; Anderson, Nathan; Larkin, John

    2008-04-01

    A submerged coil unit generates death rate data for foodborne pathogens through precise computer-controlled sequential sampling rather than the usual manually timed, labor-intensive single sampling associated with other approaches. Our work with Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Listeria monocytogenes Scott A using the submerged coil unit indicated non-log-linear death rates with large degrees of tailing. Varying degrees of cell adhesion to the surface of the exit port resulted in carryover that was likely the primary cause of these non-log-linear kinetics. This carryover also resulted in erroneously high measured levels of thermal resistance for both organisms. To address the carryover problem, modifications were made to the exit port of the submerged coil unit to ensure continuous and uniform heat treatment. These modifications resulted in a 2-fold decrease in measured D-values for L. monocytogenes Scott A and a 10-fold decrease in measured D-values for Y. pseudotuberculosis. D-values measured with the modified machine for L. monocytogenes Scott A were similar to those found in the literature. Slight tailing in survival curves persisted with the modified method, particularly for Y. pseudotuberculosis. These results indicate that kinetic data for microbial death rates obtained using an unmodified submerged coil unit must be viewed with suspicion in light of the significant potential for carryover.

  19. Modelling of wave propagation over a submerged sand bar using SWASH

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jishad, M.; Vu, T.T.T.; JayaKumar, S.

    A non-hydrostatic numerical model "SWASH" (Simulating WAves till SHore) is used to study the wave propagation over a submerged sand bar in a wave flume The SWASH model is calibrated and further used to validate the wave propagation for two different...

  20. Captive bubble and sessile drop surface characterization of a submerged aquatic plant, Hydrilla verticillata

    Science.gov (United States)

    The surface energy parameters of the invasive aquatic weed, Hydrilla verticillata, were determined using contact angle measurements using two different methods. The abaxial and adaxial surfaces of the leaves and stem were characterized for the weed while submerged in water using captive air and octa...

  1. Surprising spectra of root-associated fungi in submerged aquatic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohout, Petr; Sýkorová, Zuzana; Ctvrtlíková, Martina; Rydlová, Jana; Suda, Jan; Vohník, Martin; Sudová, Radka

    2012-04-01

    Similarly to plants from terrestrial ecosystems, aquatic species harbour wide spectra of root-associated fungi (RAF). However, comparably less is known about fungal diversity in submerged roots. We assessed the incidence and diversity of RAF in submerged aquatic plants using microscopy, culture-dependent and culture-independent techniques. We studied RAF of five submerged isoetid species collected in four oligotrophic freshwater lakes in Norway. Levels of dark septate endophytes (DSE) colonization differed among the lakes and were positively related to the organic matter content and negatively related to pH. In total, we identified 41 fungal OTUs using culture-dependent and culture-independent techniques, belonging to Mucoromycotina, Chytridiomycota, Glomeromycota, Ascomycota as well as Basidiomycota. Sequences corresponding to aquatic hyphomycetes (e.g. Nectria lugdunensis, Tetracladium furcatum and Varicosporium elodeae) were obtained. Eight arbuscular mycorrhizal taxa belonging to the orders Archaeosporales, Diversisporales and Glomerales were also detected. However, the vast majority of the fungal species detected (e.g. Ceratobasidium sp., Cryptosporiopsis rhizophila, Leptodontidium orchidicola, and Tuber sp.) have previously been known only from roots of terrestrial plants. The abundance and phylogenetic distribution of mycorrhizal as well as nonmycorrhizal fungi in the roots of submerged plants have reshaped our views on the fungal diversity in aquatic environment. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. PERFORMANCE OF NEWLY CONFIGURED SUBMERGED MEMBRANE BIOREACTOR FOR AEROBIC INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gede Wenten

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The application of membrane to replace secondary clarifier of conventional activated sludge, known as membrane bioreactor, has led to a small footprint size of treatment with excellent effluent quality. The use of MBR eliminates almost all disadvantages encountered in conventional wastewater treatment plant such as low biomass concentration and washout of fine suspended solids. However, fouling remains as a main drawback. To minimize membrane fouling, a new configuration of submerged membrane bioreactor for aerobic industrial wastewater treatment has been developed. For the new configuration, a bed of porous particle is applied to cover the submerged ends-free mounted ultrafiltration membrane. Membrane performance was assessed based on flux productivity and selectivity. By using tapioca wastewater containing high organic matter as feed solution, reasonably high and stable fluxes around 11 l/m2.h were achieved with COD removal efficiency of more than 99%. The fouling analysis also shows that the newly configured ends-free membrane bioreactor exhibits lower irreversible resistance compared with the submerged one. In addition, the performance of pilot scale system, using a membrane module  with 10 m2 effective area and reactor tank with 120 L volume, was also assessed. The flux achieved from the pilot scale system around 8 l/m2.h with COD removal of more than 99%. Hence, this study has demonstrated the feasibility of the newly configured submerged ends-free MBR at larger scale.

  3. Underwater exploration of submerged towns near Tranquebar (Tarangambadi) on Tamilnadu coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, S.R.

    to the transgression of the sea. The foot of the medieval habitation deposit north of the temple is of great archaeological importance. Innumerable coins, mostly of copper and a few of silver, lead and gold were found indicating wreck or structure submergence....

  4. Analytical model for stage-discharge estimation in meandering compound channels with submerged flexible vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Yuqi; Liu, Xingnian; Yang, Kejun; Liu, Chao

    2017-10-01

    For overbank flows, submerged flexible vegetation on floodplains increases channel resistance and decreases channel conveyance capability. This study presents an analytical model for estimating the stage-discharge relationship in a meandering compound channel with dense, submerged, flexible vegetation on floodplains under high flow conditions. The mean velocity within a canopy was linked to the depth-averaged velocity, and a relationship between the two velocities was proposed. The governing equation was deduced in curvilinear coordinates, and the lateral shear stresses were found to be negligible, as validated by our experimental measurements in a large-scale meandering channel. Then, analytical solutions of subarea discharges and total discharge were derived by ignoring lateral shear stresses. Measurements from two flume experiments and one field study were used to verify the proposed model. The field case involved a natural river with both submerged and emergent grass on the floodplains. Good agreement between predictions and measurements indicated that the model accurately predicted subarea discharges and the stage-discharge relationships in a meandering compound channel with submerged vegetation. Finally, the predictions of this model were sensitive to the secondary flow parameters in the main channel but insensitive to those on the floodplains.

  5. Microbial community dynamics in a submerged fixed bed bioreactor during biological treatment of saline urban wastewater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cortés-Lorenzo, C.; Sipkema, D.; Rodríguez-Díaz, M.; Fuentes, S.; Juárez-Jiménez, B.; Rodelas, B.; Smidt, H.; González-López, J.

    2014-01-01

    The influence of salt (NaCl) on bacterial and archaeal communities in a submerged fixed bed bioreactor system for the treatment of urban wastewater was determined by DGGE and 454 pyrosequencing of PCR-amplified 16S ribosomal RNA gene fragments. Cluster analysis of DGGE fingerprints showed

  6. Effects of surrounding land use on metal accumulation in environments and submerged plants in subtropical ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Bu, Hongmei; Liu, Guihua; Wang, Zhixiu; Liu, Wenzhi

    2015-12-01

    Ponds are widely used as stormwater treatment facilities to retain contaminants, including metals, and to improve water quality throughout the world. However, there is still a limited understanding of the effects of surrounding land use on metal accumulation in pond environments and organisms. To address this gap, we measured the concentrations of nine metals (i.e., Al, Ba, Ca, K, Li, Mg, Na, Se, and Sr) in water, sediments, and submerged plants collected from 37 ponds with different surrounding land uses in southwestern China and assessed the metal accumulation capacity of four dominant submerged plant species. Our results showed that Al, Ca, and K concentrations in the water were above drinking water standards. In the sediments, the average concentrations of Ca and Sr were higher than the corresponding soil background values. Ceratophyllum demersum L. could accumulate more K in aboveground biomass than Myriophyllum spicatum L. and Potamogeton maackianus A. Benn. The K concentration in submerged plants was positively influenced by the corresponding metal concentration in the water and negatively influenced by water temperature. Among the nine studied metals, only the water K concentration in ponds receiving agricultural runoff was significantly higher than that for ponds receiving urban and forested runoff. This result suggests that surrounding land use types have no significant effect on metal accumulation in sediments and submerged plants in the studied ponds. A large percentage of the metals in these ponds may be derived from natural sources such as the weathering of rocks.

  7. Heavy metals in water, sediments and submerged macrophytes in ponds around the Dianchi Lake, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhixiu; Yao, Lu; Liu, Guihua; Liu, Wenzhi

    2014-09-01

    Through retaining runoff and pollutants such as heavy metals from surrounding landscapes, ponds around a lake play an important role in mitigating the impacts of human activities on lake ecosystems. In order to determine the potential for heavy metal accumulation of submerged macrophytes, we investigated the concentrations of 10 heavy metals (i.e., As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in water, sediments, and submerged macrophytes collected from 37 ponds around the Dianchi Lake in China. Our results showed that both water and sediments of these ponds were polluted by Pb. Water and sediments heavy metal concentrations in ponds received urban and agricultural runoff were not significantly higher than those in ponds received forest runoff. This result indicates that a large portion of heavy metals in these ponds may originate from atmospheric deposition and weathering of background soils. Positive relationships were found among heavy metal concentrations in submerged macrophytes, probably due to the coaccumulation of heavy metals. For most heavy metals, no significant relationships were found between submerged macrophytes and their water and sediment environments. The maximum concentrations of Cr, Fe and Ni in Ceratophyllum demersum were 4242, 16,429 and 2662mgkg(-1), respectively. The result suggests that C. demersum is a good candidate species for removing heavy metals from polluted aquatic environments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Corrosion monitoring for underground and submerged concrete structures - examples and interpretation issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polder, R.B.; Peelen, W.H.A.; Leegwater, G.

    2008-01-01

    Since about 1980 Corrosion Monitoring Systems have been used in many concrete structures in aggressive environmentworldwide. While these systemswork properly in aboveground environment, some questions have arisen for submerged conditions, e.g. the outer sides of tunnels, piers in seawater or

  9. A comparative study of the lipase yield by solid state and submerged ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-01-05

    Jan 5, 2009 ... A comparative study of lipase enzyme yields by solid state fermentation (SSF) and submerged fermentation (SmF) was performed here. Three fungal colonies were isolated from biopharmaceutical oil waste collected from “Oushadhi” (The Pharmaceutical Corporation (IM) Kerala Ltd). The pure colonies.

  10. Wave forces limit the establishment of submerged macrophytes in large shallow lakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuidam, van B.G.; Peeters, E.T.H.M.

    2015-01-01

    We studied the effect of waves on submerged macrophytes and hypothesized that exposure to large wave forces can hamper seedling establishment. In an indoor experiment in cylindrical mesocosms we tested whether large wave forces indeed inhibited the establishment of Chara globularis and Potamogeton

  11. Wave attenuation by submerged vegetation: combining the effect of organism traits and tidal current

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paul, M.; Bouma, T.J.; Amos, C.L.

    2012-01-01

    Accurate wave height prediction along the shore plays an important role in coastal protection and management. To account for the effect of submerged vegetation in wave-attenuation models, it is important to understand how the interaction between vegetation characteristics and hydrodynamic forcing

  12. Clonal variation in the thermal response of the submerged aquatic macrophyte Potamogeton pectinatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pilon, J.; Santamaria, L.

    2002-01-01

    Broadly distributed plants have to cope with dramatic differences across latitude in the prevailing environmental temperature. We investigated the effect of water temperature on plant morphology, biomass accumulation and oxygen-exchange for five clones of the submerged aquatic macrophyte Potamogeton

  13. Over-expression of Sub1 A, a submergence tolerance gene from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sub1A, an ethylene-response-factor-like (ERE-like) gene, mediates the extinguished submergence tolerance of rice. To gain further insight into the function of Sub1A in other species, we transformed tobacco plants with the gene under the control of the ubiquitin promoter. Compared to the wild-type plants, transgenic plants ...

  14. Deep water marine algal flora of the submerged banks off west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ambiye, V.; Untawale, A.G.

    A survey of submerged banks off India viz Cora Divh, Sessostris and Bassas de-Pedro resulted in obtaining information on the rich and diverse marine algal flora from various depths ranging from 18-70 m. A programme of onboard dredging was undertaken...

  15. A survey of estuarine submerged aquatic vegetation in the northern Gulf coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, J.

    2003-01-01

    The status of submerged aquatic vegetation along the northern Gulf of Mexico is of concern because of its role in the ecology and economy of the coast. Recent studies by U.S. Geological Survey scientists help assess the factors that contribute to SAV distribution and health.

  16. Transient Marangoni waves due to impulsive motion of a submerged body

    CERN Document Server

    Shu, Jian-Jun

    2014-01-01

    The Oseen problem in a viscous fluid is formulated for studying the transient free-surface and Marangoni waves generated by the impulsive motion of a submerged body beneath a surface with surfactants. Wave asymptotics and wavefronts for large Reynolds numbers are obtained by employing Lighthill's two-stage scheme. The results obtained show explicitly the effects of viscosity and surfactants on Kelvin wakes.

  17. Competition between free-floating and submerged macrophytes in a future of climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Netten, J.J.C.

    2011-01-01


    This research was about the asymmetric competition between free-floating and submerged macrophytes in shallow freshwater ecosystems. I studied the effect of climate change on the dominance of free-floating macrophytes in temperate regions. The research approach was a combination of outdoor

  18. The mechanism of improved aeration due to gas films on leaves of submerged rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verboven, Pieter; Pedersen, Ole; Ho, Quang Tri; Nicolai, Bart M; Colmer, Timothy D

    2014-10-01

    Some terrestrial wetland plants, such as rice, have super-hydrophobic leaf surfaces which retain a gas film when submerged. O2 movement through the diffusive boundary layer (DBL) of floodwater, gas film and stomata into leaf mesophyll was explored by means of a reaction-diffusion model that was solved in a three-dimensional leaf anatomy model. The anatomy and dark respiration of leaves of rice (Oryza sativa L.) were measured and used to compute O2 fluxes and partial pressure of O2 (pO2 ) in the DBL, gas film and leaf when submerged. The effects of floodwater pO2 , DBL thickness, cuticle permeability, presence of gas film and stomatal opening were explored. Under O2 -limiting conditions of the bulk water (pO2  gas film significantly increases the O2 flux into submerged leaves regardless of whether stomata are fully or partly open. With a gas film, tissue pO2 substantially increases, even for the slightest stomatal opening, but not when stomata are completely closed. The effect of gas films increases with decreasing cuticle permeability. O2 flux and tissue pO2 decrease with increasing DBL thickness. The present modelling analysis provides a mechanistic understanding of how leaf gas films facilitate O2 entry into submerged plants. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Acclimation of a terrestrial plant to submergence facilitates gas exchange under water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mommer, L.; Pedersen, O.; Visser, E.J.W.

    2004-01-01

    Flooding imposes stress upon terrestrial plants since it severely hampers gas exchange rates between the shoot and the environment. The resulting oxygen deficiency is considered to be the major problem for submerged plants. Oxygen microelectrode studies have, however, shown that aquatic plants

  20. A comparative study of the lipase yield by solid state and submerged ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparative study of lipase enzyme yields by solid state fermentation (SSF) and submerged fermentation (SmF) was performed here. Three fungal colonies were isolated from biopharmaceutical oil waste collected from “Oushadhi” (The Pharmaceutical Corporation (IM) Kerala Ltd). The pure colonies were then used as ...

  1. Impact of submerged macrophytes including charophytes on phyto- and zooplankton communities: allelopathy versus other mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Donk, E.; Van de Bund, W.J.

    2002-01-01

    Submerged macrophytes are crucial for the stabilization of the clear water state in shallow, mesotrophic and eutrophic lakes. Especially, charophytes often play an important role because they are typically rapid colonizers and because charophyte meadows are believed to have a particularly strong

  2. Differential response to climatic variation of free-floating and submerged macrophytes in ditches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Netten, J.J.C.; Zuidam, van J.P.; Kosten, S.; Peeters, E.T.H.M.

    2011-01-01

    1. Experimental studies have indicated in freshwater ecosystems that a shift in dominance from submerged to free-floating macrophytes may occur with climate change because of increased water surface temperatures and eutrophication. Field evidence is, however, rare. 2. Here, we analysed long-term (26

  3. Parameter Optimization Of Natural Hydroxyapatite/SS316l Via Metal Injection Molding (MIM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, N.; Ibrahim1, M. H. I.; Amin, A. M.; Asmawi, R.

    2017-01-01

    Metal injection molding (MIM) are well known as a worldwide application of powder injection molding (PIM) where as applied the shaping concept and the beneficial of plastic injection molding but develops the applications to various high performance metals and alloys, plus metal matrix composites and ceramics. This study investigates the strength of green part by using stainless steel 316L/ Natural hydroxyapatite composite as a feedstock. Stainless steel 316L (SS316L) was mixed with Natural hydroxyapatite (NHAP) by adding 40 wt. % Low Density Polyethylene and 60 %wt. Palm Stearin as a binder system at 63 wt. % powder loading consist of 90 % wt. of SS316 L and 10 wt. % NHAP prepared thru critical powder volume percentage (CPVC). Taguchi method was functional as a tool in determining the optimum green strength for Metal Injection Molding (MIM) parameters. The green strength was optimized with 4 significant injection parameter such as Injection temperature (A), Mold temperature (B), Pressure (C) and Speed (D) were selected throughout screening process. An orthogonal array of L9 (3)4 was conducted. The optimum injection parameters for highest green strength were established at A1, B2, C0 and D1 and where as calculated based on Signal to Noise Ratio.

  4. Immunotherapeutic effect of BCG-polysaccharide nucleic acid powder on Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected mice using microneedle patches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Qinying; Liu, Houming; Cheng, Zhigang; Xue, Yun; Cheng, Zhide; Dai, Xuyong; Shan, Wanshui; Chen, Fan

    2017-11-01

    Polysaccharide nucleic acid fractions of bacillus Calmette-Guérin, termed BCG-PSN, have traditionally been used as immunomodulators in the treatment of dermatitis and allergic diseases. While the sales of injectable BCG-PSN have shown steady growth in recent years, no reports of using BCG-PSN powder or its immunotherapeutic effects exist. Here, BCG-PSN powder was applied directly to the skin to evaluate the immunotherapeutic effects on mice infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). In total, 34 μg of BCG-PSN powder could be loaded into a microneedle patch (MNP). Mice receiving BCG-PSN powder delivered via MNP exhibited significantly increased IFN-γ and TNF-α production in peripheral blood CD4 + T cells and improved pathological changes in their lungs and spleens compared to control group mice. The immunotherapeutic effect of BCG-PSN powder delivered via MNP was better than that delivered via intramuscular injection to some extent. Furthermore, MNPs eliminate the side effects of syringes, and this study demonstrated that BCG-PSN can be clinically administrated in powder form.

  5. Injectables in the prostate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saemi, Arash M; Plante, Mark K

    2008-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia with associated symptoms and morbidity is increasingly common among aging men. Medical treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms is the mainstay of therapy with progressive disease requiring more invasive intervention. Transurethral resection of the prostate remains a widely applied gold standard therapy. Numerous minimally invasive surgical therapy options have arisen and subsequently faded over recent years. Those remaining in use are largely positioned between pharmacological treatment and transurethral resection of the prostate. Intraprostatic injection therapy, the oldest minimally invasive surgical therapy, has been investigated for over 100 years with renewed interest recently. This review will provide some history of intraprostatic injection for benign prostatic hyperplasia including the most recent reports using transperineal, transrectal and transurethral routes with different injectables. For benign prostatic hyperplasia, transperineal and transurethral injection routes have received the most systematic evaluation. Intraprostatic injection of botulinum toxin type A has received much recent attention with regards to mechanism of action and efficacy. Anhydrous ethanol remains the most extensively studied injectable to date. Injection therapy remains a very promising minimally invasive surgical therapy for benign prostatic hyperplasia with increased attention from the urologic community in recent years. Further experience both with systematic laboratory and clinical trials investigation will be necessary before widespread clinical adoption.

  6. Ethylene response factor BnERF2-like (ERF2.4 from Brassica napus L. enhances submergence tolerance and alleviates oxidative damage caused by submergence in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyan Lv

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ethylene response factor proteins play an important role in regulating a variety of stress responses in plants, but their exact functions in submergence stress are not well understood. In this study, we isolated BnERF2.4 from Brassica napus L. to study its function in submergence tolerance. The expression of the BnERF2.4 gene in B. napus and the expression of antioxidant enzyme genes in transgenic Arabidopsis were analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR. The expression of BnERF2.4 was induced by submergence in B. napus and the overexpression of BnERF2.4 in Arabidopsis increased the level of tolerance to submergence and oxidative stress. A histochemical method detected lower levels of H2O2, O2•− and malondialdehyde (MDA in transgenic Arabidopsis. Compared to the wild type, transgenic lines also had higher soluble sugar content and higher activity of antioxidant enzymes, which helped to protect plants against the oxidative damage caused by submergence. It was concluded that BnERF2.4 increased the tolerance of plants to submergence stress and may be involved in regulating soluble sugar content and the antioxidant system in defense against submergence stress.

  7. Experimental Equipment for Powder Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-20

    Al2O3/ZrO2 FGM samples. 3.3.4 CTEs measurement [29, 30] By in situ reaction of WO3 to ZrO2, we fabricated various ZrW2O8 /ZrO2 composites, as listed in...Table 6. Table 6 The WO3/ZrO2 mass ratios of various green samples and the corresponding resultant ZrW2O8 /ZrO2 volume ratios in the sintered...samples. # WO3/ZrO2 mass ratio in reactant powder ZrW2O8 /ZrO2 volume ratios in the sintered sample Final relative density 1 0.159:1 20:80 77% 2

  8. THE RHIC INJECTION SYSTEM.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FISCHER,W.; GLENN,J.W.; MACKAY,W.W.; PTITSIN,V.; ROBINSON,T.G.; TSOUPAS,N.

    1999-03-29

    The RHIC injection system has to transport beam from the AGS-to-RHIC transfer line onto the closed orbits of the RHIC Blue and Yellow rings. This task can be divided into three problems. First, the beam has to be injected into either ring. Second, once injected the beam needs to be transported around the ring for one turn. Third, the orbit must be closed and coherent beam oscillations around the closed orbit should be minimized. We describe our solutions for these problems and report on system tests conducted during the RHIC Sextant test performed in 1997. The system will be fully commissioned in 1999.

  9. Injection moulding antireflective nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Alexander Bruun; Clausen, Jeppe Sandvik; Mortensen, N. Asger

    We present a method for injection moulding antireflective nanostructures on large areas, for high volume production. Nanostructured black silicon masters were fabricated by mask-less reactive ion etching, and electroplated with nickel. The nickel shim was antistiction coated and used in an inject......We present a method for injection moulding antireflective nanostructures on large areas, for high volume production. Nanostructured black silicon masters were fabricated by mask-less reactive ion etching, and electroplated with nickel. The nickel shim was antistiction coated and used...

  10. Injection moulding antireflective nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Alexander Bruun; Clausen, Jeppe Sandvik; Mortensen, N. Asger

    2014-01-01

    We present a method for injection moulding antireflective nanostructures on large areas, for high volume production. Nanostructured black silicon masters were fabricated by mask-less reactive ion etching, and electroplated with nickel. The nickel shim was antistiction coated and used in an inject......We present a method for injection moulding antireflective nanostructures on large areas, for high volume production. Nanostructured black silicon masters were fabricated by mask-less reactive ion etching, and electroplated with nickel. The nickel shim was antistiction coated and used...

  11. Hydrothermal synthesis of fine oxide powders

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Inorganic powders are among the most important factors in many fields of materials such as ceramics, catalysts, medicines, food, etc. There are many papers and books related to powders preparation by many authors (Veale. 1972; Kato and Yamaguchi 1983; Vincenzini 1983;. Brinker et al 1984; Johnson Jr. 1987; Messing ...

  12. Evaluating the Johanson theory for titanium powder

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chikosha, S

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available . In this study, the Johanson theory was used to determine the rolling parameters of titanium powder. Preliminary results of the nip angle, nip pressures and maximum horizontal pressures of the mill for the powder rolled on a 55mm diameter roll with roll gap sizes...

  13. Autoclave heat treatment for prealloyed powder products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freche, J. C.; Ashbrook, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    Technique could be applied directly to loose powders as part of hot pressing process of forming them to any required shapes. This would eliminate initial extrusion step commonly applied to prealloyed powders, substantially reduce cost of forming operation, and result in optimum properties.

  14. Jetting formation of the explosively loaded powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Kun; Yu, Qiqi

    2017-10-01

    The formation of jet-like structures is widely reported in the explosive dispersal of powders surrounding high explosive charges. The jetting of powder beds initiates upon the shock wave reaches the outer edge of the charge. Opposed to the interface instability theory, a hollow sphere based bulk fragmentation model is established to account for the jetting of powders. A two-phase process, namely the nucleation and free expansion of hollow spheres, corresponds to the unloading process of the powder compact caused by the rarefaction waves which governs the fragmentation of the powders. The separation between adjacent hollow spheres dictates the size of the particle clusters, which would evolve into particle jets in later times. The predicted breakup time and the size of particle jets agree well with the experimental results. The increased moisture content in powders results in an increased number of particle jets. This moisture effect can be understood in light of the varied energy distribution due to the incompressibility of the interstitial liquids trapped inside the inter-grain pores. The portion of shock energy which is not consumed in the shock compaction of the wet powders would be dissipated through the viscous shear flows during the unloading of the wet powder compact. The excessive viscous energy requires to activate more localized shear flows, accordingly leading to an increased number of particle jets.

  15. Characterization of mock high-explosive powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, C.R.; Dorsey, G.F.

    1979-03-01

    Analytical characterization and explosibility tests were made on a simulative high-explosive powder consisting of cyanuric acid, melamine, nitrocellulose, and tris-(..beta..-chloroethyl)-phosphate. Tests indicated that the powder presents no unusual safety or health hazards in isostatic-pressing and dry-machining operations.

  16. Preparation of silver powder through glycerol process

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    High purity fine silver powder with uniform particle morphology was prepared through glycerol process. The process involves reduction of silver nitrate by glycerol under atmospheric conditions at a temperature below 175°C. Glycerol, in this process, acts as a solvent as well as a reducing agent. The powders prepared ...

  17. A breath actuated dry powder inhaler

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Anne; Frijlink, Henderik W.; Hagedoorn, Paul

    2015-01-01

    A breath actuated dry powder inhaler with a single air circulation chamber for de-agglomeration of entrained powdered medicament using the energy of the inspiratory air stream. The chamber has a substantially polygonal sidewall, a plurality of air supply channels entering the chamber substantially

  18. Slip casting and nitridation of silicon powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiko, Y.

    1985-01-01

    Powdered Silicon was slip-cast with a CaSO4 x 0.5H2O mold and nitrided in a N atm. containing 0 or 5 vol. % H at 1000 to 1420 deg. To remove the castings, the modeling faces were coated successively with an aq. salt soap and powdered cellulose containing Na alginate, and thus prevented the sticking problem.

  19. Computational modelling for dry-powder inhalers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kröger, Ralf; Woolhouse, Robert; Becker, Michael; Wachtel, Herbert; de Boer, Anne; Horner, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is a simulation tool used for modelling powder flow through inhalers to allow optimisation both of device design and drug powder. Here, Ralf Kröger, Consulting Senior CFD Engineer, ANSYS Germany GmbH; Marc Horner, Lead Technical Services Engineer, Healthcare,

  20. Invasive crayfish threaten the development of submerged macrophytes in lake restoration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica E M van der Wal

    Full Text Available Submerged macrophytes enhance water transparency and aquatic biodiversity in shallow water ecosystems. Therefore, the return of submerged macrophytes is the target of many lake restoration projects. However, at present, north-western European aquatic ecosystems are increasingly invaded by omnivorous exotic crayfish. We hypothesize that invasive crayfish pose a novel constraint on the regeneration of submerged macrophytes in restored lakes and may jeopardize restoration efforts. We experimentally investigated whether the invasive crayfish (Procambarus clarkii Girard affects submerged macrophyte development in a Dutch peat lake where these crayfish are expanding rapidly. Seemingly favourable abiotic conditions for macrophyte growth existed in two 0.5 ha lake enclosures, which provided shelter and reduced turbidity, and in one lake enclosure iron was added to reduce internal nutrient loading, but macrophytes did not emerge. We transplanted three submerged macrophyte species in a full factorial exclosure experiment, where we separated the effect of crayfish from large vertebrates using different mesh sizes combined with a caging treatment stocked with crayfish only. The three transplanted macrophytes grew rapidly when protected from grazing in both lake enclosures, demonstrating that abiotic conditions for growth were suitable. Crayfish strongly reduced biomass and survival of all three macrophyte species while waterfowl and fish had no additive effects. Gut contents showed that crayfish were mostly carnivorous, but also consumed macrophytes. We show that P. clarkii strongly inhibit macrophyte development once favourable abiotic conditions for macrophyte growth are restored. Therefore, expansion of invasive crayfish poses a novel threat to the restoration of shallow water bodies in north-western Europe. Prevention of introduction and spread of crayfish is urgent, as management of invasive crayfish populations is very difficult.

  1. Crestal bone loss around submerged and nonsubmerged dental implants: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Amri, Mohammad D

    2016-05-01

    To my knowledge, there is no systematic review of crestal bone loss (CBL) around submerged and nonsubmerged dental implants. The purpose of this review was to systematically assess CBL around submerged and nonsubmerged dental implants. The addressed focused question was, "Does crestal and subcrestal placement of dental implants influence crestal bone levels?" Databases were searched from 1986 through October 2015 using different combinations of the following keywords: crestal, sub-crestal, bone loss, dental implant, submerged, and nonsubmerged. Reference lists of potentially relevant original and review articles were hand-searched to identify any further studies. Letters to the editor, case reports, commentaries, studies on platform-switched implants, and studies published in languages other than English were excluded. In total, 13 studies (6 human and 7 animal), which were performed at universities, were included. In the human studies, the number of participants ranged from 8 to 84 individuals. The follow-up period ranged from 1 to 5 years. CBL at the test sites ranged from 0.17 mm to 0.9 mm and at control sites from 0.02 mm to 1.4 mm. Five human studies reported no significant difference in CBL around implants placed at the test and control sites. All animal studies were performed in dogs with a mean age ranging from 1 to approximately 2 years. The follow-up period ranged from 2 to 6 months. Four animal studies reported no significant difference in CBL around submerged and nonsubmerged implants. No significant difference in CBL was found around submerged and nonsubmerged dental implants. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Method of manufacturing molded articles from metallic or ceramic powdered particles and binder system suitable for use therein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervoort, P.J.; Vetter, R.; Duszczyk, J.

    1995-01-01

    The invention relates to a method of manufacturing molded articles by mixing metallic or ceramic powder particles homogeneously with a binder system, whereafter the mixture is shaped in fluid condition by injection molding, the molding obtained is treated with an aqueous liquid in order to wash out

  3. Wet powder seal for gas containment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stang, Louis G.

    1982-01-01

    A gas seal is formed by a compact layer of an insoluble powder and liquid filling the fine interstices of that layer. The smaller the particle size of the selected powder, such as sand or talc, the finer will be the interstices or capillary spaces in the layer and the greater will be the resulting sealing capacity, i.e., the gas pressure differential which the wet powder layer can withstand. Such wet powder seal is useful in constructing underground gas reservoirs or storage cavities for nuclear wastes as well as stopping leaks in gas mains buried under ground or situated under water. The sealing capacity of the wet powder seal can be augmented by the hydrostatic head of a liquid body established over the seal.

  4. Electronic Nose Study of Powdered Garlic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa E. Baby

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available An electronic nose was used to study the odour profile of garlic, separating the powered samples of eight cultivars and proving to be useful to discriminate garlic specimen dried by lyophilization and oven-dried and humidified specimen (before dried by both techniques for each cultivar. Pattern recognition and multivariate analysis of the electronic nose data has enabled to easily separate the garlic cultivars, to clearly discriminate the lyophilized or oven-dried specimen and the non humidified samples from the humidified powders maintaining, in every case, the cultivars identification. The humidification of lyophilized powders has shown a sharp separation of cultivars, otherwise, in the humidified oven-dried powders, their identification resulted less precise. This fact enabled to infer that lyophilized powders (either dry or humidified better retained their odour profile than oven-dried powders, maintaining the properties of each cultivar.

  5. Sun drying of residual annatto seed powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyego da Costa Santos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Residual annatto seeds are waste from bixin extraction in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Most of this by-product is currently discarded; however, the use of these seeds in human foods through the elaboration of powder added to other commercial powders is seen as a viable option. This study aimed at drying of residual annatto powder, with and without the oil layer derived from the industrial extraction of bixin, fitting different mathematical models to experimental data and calculating the effective moisture diffusivity of the samples. Powder containing oil exhibited the shortest drying time, highest drying rate (≈ 5.0 kg kg-1 min-1 and highest effective diffusivity (6.49 × 10-12 m2 s-1. All mathematical models assessed were a suitable representation of the drying kinetics of powders with and without oil, with R2 above 0.99 and root mean square error values lower than 1.0.

  6. Improvement of Photosynthesis by Sub1 QTL in Rice Under Submergence: Probed by Chlorophyll Fluorescence OJIP Transients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panda Debabrata

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The influence of submergence on the photosynthetic activity in rice plants either possessing or not possessing Sub1 QTL i.e. Swarna and Swarna Sub1 cultivars (cv. were evaluated under simulated complete submergence. The leaf photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance decreased in both the cv. during the progression of submergence as compared to control plant but significant varietal differences was observed after 1 day (d of submergence. Submergence also alters the photo-system (PS II activity, as reflected in a decrease in the values of Fo, Fm and the Fv/Fm ratio and degradation of chlorophyll, more in Swarna than that of Swarna Sub1. Under complete submergence the shape of the OJIP transient also changed in rice leaves with decrease in maximal fluorescence (P=Fm intensity, resulted lowering of variable fluorescence levels. The decrease was more pronounced in Swarna compared to the Swarna Sub1 cv. Thus, Swarna Sub1 improves photosynthetic activity showing more photosynthetic rate compared to Swarna under submergence because, of less degradation of chlorophyll, higher stomatal conductance, and efficient PS II activity.

  7. Collagenase Clostridium Histolyticum Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease (a thickening of tissue [plaque] inside the penis that causes the penis to curve). Collagenase Clostridium histolyticum injection is in ... the plaque of thickened tissue and allows the penis to be straightened.

  8. Injection-induced earthquakes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ellsworth, William L

    2013-01-01

    ...s. It has long been understood that earthquakes can be induced by impoundment of reservoirs, surface and underground mining, withdrawal of fluids and gas from the subsurface, and injection of fluids...

  9. Premixed direct injection disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, William David; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Lacy, Benjamin; Zuo, Baifang; Uhm, Jong Ho

    2013-04-23

    A fuel/air mixing disk for use in a fuel/air mixing combustor assembly is provided. The disk includes a first face, a second face, and at least one fuel plenum disposed therebetween. A plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes extend through the pre-mixing disk, each mixing tube including an outer tube wall extending axially along a tube axis and in fluid communication with the at least one fuel plenum. At least a portion of the plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes further includes at least one fuel injection hole have a fuel injection hole diameter extending through said outer tube wall, the fuel injection hole having an injection angle relative to the tube axis. The invention provides good fuel air mixing with low combustion generated NOx and low flow pressure loss translating to a high gas turbine efficiency, that is durable, and resistant to flame holding and flash back.

  10. Corticotropin, Repository Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... organs such as the lungs, eyes, skin, and heart and interfere with the function of these organs); ... of the ingredients in corticotropin repository injection, or porcine (pig) proteins. Ask your pharmacist or check the ...

  11. Talimogene Laherparepvec Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talimogene laherparepvec injection is used to treat certain melanoma (a type of skin cancer) tumors that cannot ... that came back after being treated with surgery. Talimogene laherparepvec is in a class of medications called ...

  12. Urinary incontinence - injectable implant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... repair; ISD repair; Injectable bulking agents for stress urinary incontinence ... Guideline on the surgical management of female stress urinary incontinence. J Urol . 2010;183(5):1906-1914. PMID: ...

  13. RimabotulinumtoxinB Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... htm) or the manufacturer's website to obtain the Medication Guide. ... cause neck pain and abnormal head positions). RimabotulinumtoxinB injection is in a class of medications called neurotoxins. It works by blocking the nerve ...

  14. Powder strength distributions for understanding de-agglomeration of lactose powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Shyamal C; Behara, Srinivas Ravindra Babu; Bulitta, Jurgen B; Morton, David A V; Larson, Ian; Stewart, Peter J

    2012-10-01

    The purpose was to calculate distributions of powder strength of a cohesive bed to explain the de-agglomeration of lactose. De-agglomeration profiles of Lactohale 300(®) (L300) and micronized lactose (ML) were constructed by particle sizing aerosolised plumes dispersed at air flow rates of 30-180 l/min. The work of cohesion distribution was determined by inverse gas chromatography. The primary particle size and tapped density distributions were determined. Powder strength distributions were calculated by Monte Carlo simulations from distributions of particle size, work of cohesion and tapped density measurements. The powder strength distribution of L300 was broader than that of ML. Up to 85th percentile, powder strength of L300 was lower than ML which was consistent with the better de-agglomeration of L300 at low flow rates. However, ~15% of L300 particles had higher powder strength than ML which likely to cause lower de-agglomeration for L300 at high air flow rates. Cohesive lactose powders formed matrices of non-homogenous powder strength. De-agglomeration of cohesive powders has been shown to be related to powder strength. This study provided new insights into powder de-agglomeration by a new approach for calculating powder strength distributions to better understand complex de-agglomeration behaviour.

  15. Application of powder rheometer to determine powder flow properties and lubrication efficiency of pharmaceutical particulate systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navaneethan, Charu V; Missaghi, Shahrzad; Fassihi, Reza

    2005-10-19

    The objective of this study was to understand the behavior of particulate systems under different conditions of shear dynamics before and after granulation and to investigate the efficiency of powder lubrication. Three drug powders, metronidazole, colloidal bismuth citrate, and tetracycline hydrochloride, were chosen as model drugs representing noncohesive and cohesive powder systems. Each powder was individually granulated with microcrystalline cellulose and 5%PVP as a binder. One portion from each granulation was lubricated with different levels of magnesium stearate for 5 minutes. The powder characterization was performed on the plain powders, nonlubricated and lubricated granules using powder rheometer equipped with a helical blade rotating and moving under experimentally fixed set of parameters. The profiles of interaction during the force-distance measurements indicate that powder compresses, expands, and shears many times in a test cycle. Test profiles also clearly reveal existence of significant differences between cohesive and noncohesive powders. In all cases lubrication normalized the overall interactive nature of the powder by reducing peaks and valleys as observed from the profiles and reduced the frictional effect. The developed methods are easy to perform and will allow formulation scientists to better understand powder behavior and help in predicting potential impact of processing factors on particulate systems.

  16. Improving powder flow properties of a cohesive lactose monohydrate powder by intensive mechanical dry coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qi; Armstrong, Brian; Larson, Ian; Stewart, Peter J; Morton, David A V

    2010-02-01

    The objective of this study was to improve the cohesive lactose powder flowability. A cohesive lactose monohydrate powder was processed in either a tumbling blender or an intensive mechanical processor with either magnesium stearate or fumed silica. No substantial changes in particle size were detected by laser diffraction following either treatment. The untreated lactose sample exhibited very poor powder flow. Only limited improvements in powder flowability were indicated after the tumbling blending, intensive mechanical processing with the fumed silica or without additives. However, the intensive mechanical processing of the lactose sample with magnesium stearate demonstrated exceptionally large increases in both poured and tapped density as well as notable improvements in all powder flowability indicators examined. Our findings support the use of intensive mechanical processing technique as an effective method to coat cohesive pharmaceutical powders with selected additives, modify the surface nature of the particles, reduce the interparticle cohesive forces and hence improve powder flowability. The subtle differences in powder flow behaviour of lactose samples between the untreated and tumbling blended powders with magnesium stearate were only detected by the powder rheometer using its dynamic mode, indicating its potential advantages over traditional powder flow characterisation approaches. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  17. Mesotherapy and injection lipolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matarasso, Alan; Pfeifer, Tracy M

    2009-04-01

    The first part of this article familiarizes the reader with the evolution of mesotherapy, injection lipolysis, and the use of phosphatidylcholine and deoxycholate for subcutaneous fat reduction. There is an emphasis on the underlying basic science of fat metabolism and the biochemistry of phosphatidylcholine, so that practitioners will be able to understand future published research on these topics. The second half details some personal experience with injection lipolysis.

  18. Injection and Dump Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bracco, C; Barnes, M J; Carlier, E; Drosdal, L N; Goddard, B; Kain, V; Meddahi, M; Mertens, V; Uythoven, J

    2012-01-01

    Performance and failures of the LHC injection and ex- traction systems are presented. In particular, a comparison with the 2010 run, lessons learnt during operation with high intensity beams and foreseen upgrades are described. UFOs, vacuum and impedance problems related to the injection and extraction equipment are analysed together with possible improvements and solutions. New implemented features, diagnostics, critical issues of XPOC and IQC applications are addressed.

  19. PS injection area

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    To the right is the PS ring viewed along the direction of the protons. At the left the injection line coming from the 50 MeV Linac 1 (bottom) and going towards the 800 MeV booster, or deflected to the right to be injected directly into straight section 16. The drumlike element behind the (blue) dipole magnet is a 'debuncher' (a 200 MHz cavity). See photos 7409014X and 7409009.

  20. Measurement of powder bed density in powder bed fusion additive manufacturing processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, G.; Donmez, A.; Slotwinski, J.; Moylan, S.

    2016-11-01

    Many factors influence the performance of additive manufacturing (AM) processes, resulting in a high degree of variation in process outcomes. Therefore, quantifying these factors and their correlations to process outcomes are important challenges to overcome to enable widespread adoption of emerging AM technologies. In the powder bed fusion AM process, the density of the powder layers in the powder bed is a key influencing factor. This paper introduces a method to determine the powder bed density (PBD) during the powder bed fusion (PBF) process. A complete uncertainty analysis associated with the measurement method was also described. The resulting expanded measurement uncertainty, U PBD (k  =  2), was determined as 0.004 g · cm-3. It was shown that this expanded measurement uncertainty is about three orders of magnitude smaller than the typical powder bed density. This method enables establishing correlations between the changes in PBD and the direction of motion of the powder recoating arm.