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Sample records for submerged batch cultivation

  1. Growth physiology and dimorphism of Mucor circinelloides (syn. racemosus) during submerged batch cultivation

    Mcintyre, Mhairi; Breum, J.; Arnau, J.

    2002-01-01

    Mucor circinelloides is being investigated as a possible host for the production of heterologous proteins. Thus, the environmental conditions defining the physiology and morphology of this dimorphic fungus have been investigated in submerged batch cultivation. The optimal conditions for growth...

  2. Production and partial characterization of alkaline feruloyl esterases by Fusarium oxysporum during submerged batch cultivation

    Topakas, E.; Christakopoulos, Paul

    2004-01-01

    Production of feruloyl esterases (FAEs) by Fusarium oxysporum was enhanced by optimization of initial pH of the culture medium, the type and concentration of nitrogen and carbon source. Submerged batch cultivation in a laboratory bioreactor (17 1) produced activity at 82 nkat g(-1) dry substrate....... Production of FAE does not therefore, require FA, however, production is diminished by the removal of esterified FA from the growth substrate. Optimal FAE activity was observed at pH 7 and 50 degreesC with 68 and 55% activity at pH 8 and pH 9, respectively. The esterase was fully stable at pH 5-8 and up...

  3. Production of biomass and polysaccharides of Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum (W.Curt. :Fr.) P. Karst. (higher Basidiomycetes), by submerged cultivation.

    Habijanic, Jozica; Berovic, Marin; Boh, Bojana; Wraber, Branka; Petravic-Tominac, Vlatka

    2013-01-01

    Submerged batch and repeated fed-batch cultivation techniques were used for mycelia cultivation and polysaccharide production of the Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum. Although most publications use various Asiatic G. lucidum strains, the growth of the strain Ga.l 4 (Biotechnical Faculty Strain Collection, Ljubljana, Slovenia), originally isolated from the Slovenian forest, is much faster. The results between the batch and repeated fed-batch cultivation are compared with the polysaccharide production in batch cultivation. From the aspect of biomass production, the best results were obtained in repeated fed-batch after 44 days, where 12.4 g/L of dry fungal biomass was obtained.

  4. Submerged cultivation of medicinal mushrooms: bioprocesses and products (review).

    Elisashvili, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    Medicinal mushrooms belonging to higher Basidiomycetes are an immensely rich yet largely untapped resource of useful, easily accessible, natural compounds with various biological activities that may promote human well-being. The medicinal properties are found in various cellular components and secondary metabolites (polysaccharides, proteins and their complexes, phenolic compounds, polyketides, triterpenoids, steroids, alkaloids, nucleotides, etc.), which have been isolated and identified from the fruiting bodies, culture mycelium, and culture broth of mushrooms. Some of these compounds have cholesterol-lowering, anti-diabetic, antioxidant, antitumor, immunomodulating, antimicrobial, and antiviral activities ready for industrial trials and further commercialization, while others are in various stages of development. Recently, the submerged cultivation of medicinal mushrooms has received a great deal of attention as a promising and reproducible alternative for the efficient production of mushroom mycelium and metabolites. Submerged cultivation of mushrooms has significant industrial potential, but its success on a commercial scale depends on increasing product yields and development of novel production systems that address the problems associated with this technique of mushroom cultivation. In spite of many researchers' efforts for the production of bioactive metabolites by mushrooms, the physiological and engineering aspects of submerged cultures are still far from being thoroughly studied. The vast majority of studies have focused on polysaccharide and ganoderic acid production in submerged cultivation of medicinal mushrooms, and very little has been written so far on the antioxidant and hemagglutinating activity of submerged mushroom cultures. The purpose of this review is to provide an update of the present state of the art and future prospects of submerged cultivation of medicinal mushrooms to produce mycelium and bioactive metabolites, and to make a

  5. Modeling growth, lipid accumulation and lipid turnover in submerged batch cultures of Umbelopsis isabellina

    Meeuwse, P.; Akbari, P.; Tramper, J.; Rinzema, A.

    2012-01-01

    The production of lipids by oleaginous yeast and fungi becomes more important because these lipids can be used for biodiesel production. To understand the process of lipid production better, we developed a model for growth, lipid production and lipid turnover in submerged batch fermentation. This

  6. The carbon starvation response of Aspergillus niger during submerged cultivation: Insights from the transcriptome and secretome

    Nitsche Benjamin M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Filamentous fungi are confronted with changes and limitations of their carbon source during growth in their natural habitats and during industrial applications. To survive life-threatening starvation conditions, carbon from endogenous resources becomes mobilized to fuel maintenance and self-propagation. Key to understand the underlying cellular processes is the system-wide analysis of fungal starvation responses in a temporal and spatial resolution. The knowledge deduced is important for the development of optimized industrial production processes. Results This study describes the physiological, morphological and genome-wide transcriptional changes caused by prolonged carbon starvation during submerged batch cultivation of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger. Bioreactor cultivation supported highly reproducible growth conditions and monitoring of physiological parameters. Changes in hyphal growth and morphology were analyzed at distinct cultivation phases using automated image analysis. The Affymetrix GeneChip platform was used to establish genome-wide transcriptional profiles for three selected time points during prolonged carbon starvation. Compared to the exponential growth transcriptome, about 50% (7,292 of all genes displayed differential gene expression during at least one of the starvation time points. Enrichment analysis of Gene Ontology, Pfam domain and KEGG pathway annotations uncovered autophagy and asexual reproduction as major global transcriptional trends. Induced transcription of genes encoding hydrolytic enzymes was accompanied by increased secretion of hydrolases including chitinases, glucanases, proteases and phospholipases as identified by mass spectrometry. Conclusions This study is the first system-wide analysis of the carbon starvation response in a filamentous fungus. Morphological, transcriptomic and secretomic analyses identified key events important for fungal survival and their chronology. The

  7. Glucoamylase production in batch, chemostat and fed-batch cultivations by an industrial strain of Aspergillus niger

    Pedersen, Henrik; Beyer, Michael; Nielsen, Jens

    2000-01-01

    The Aspergillus niger strain BO-1 was grown in batch, continuous (chemostat) and fed-batch cultivations in order to study the production of the extracellular enzyme glucoamylase under different growth conditions. In the pH range 2.5-6.0, the specific glucoamylase productivity and the specific...

  8. [Synthesis of protective antigens during submerged cultivation of Vibrio cholerae].

    Fedorova, V A; Syrova, N A; Gromova, O V; Tershkina, N E; Devdariani, Z L; Dzhaparidze, M N; Meleshchenko, M V; Dobrova, G V; Beliakova, N I; Ermakov, N M; Eliseev, Iu Iu

    2000-01-01

    The effectiveness of dot immunoanalysis for evaluating the dynamics of the synthesis of O-antigen, cholera toxin, neuraminidase, adhesin CFA1 in the process of the reactor cultivation of V. cholerae used for the production of oral chemical cholera vaccine is shown. The established regularities of the synthesis of the protective antigens of V. cholerae in the process of scaled-up cultivation are discussed.

  9. Secretome data from Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus niger cultivated in submerged and sequential fermentation methods

    Camila Florencio

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The cultivation procedure and the fungal strain applied for enzyme production may influence levels and profile of the proteins produced. The proteomic analysis data presented here provide critical information to compare proteins secreted by Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus niger when cultivated through submerged and sequential fermentation processes, using steam-explosion sugarcane bagasse as inducer for enzyme production. The proteins were organized according to the families described in CAZy database as cellulases, hemicellulases, proteases/peptidases, cell-wall-protein, lipases, others (catalase, esterase, etc., glycoside hydrolases families, predicted and hypothetical proteins. Further detailed analysis of this data is provided in “Secretome analysis of Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus niger cultivated by submerged and sequential fermentation process: enzyme production for sugarcane bagasse hydrolysis” C. Florencio, F.M. Cunha, A.C Badino, C.S. Farinas, E. Ximenes, M.R. Ladisch (2016 [1]. Keywords: Tricoderma reesei, Aspergillus Niger, Enzyme Production, Secretome

  10. Antioxidant properties of mushroom mycelia obtained by batch cultivation and tocopherol content affected by extraction procedures.

    Vamanu, Emanuel

    2014-01-01

    The determination of the antioxidant potential of lyophilized mushroom mycelia from 5 strains of the species Pleurotus ostreatus and Coprinus comatus (obtained by submerged cultivation in batch system) was analyzed as ethanolic extracts by evaluating ABTS and the hydroxyl scavenging activity, FRAP method, the chelating capacity, the inhibition of human erythrocyte hemolysis, and the inhibition of xanthine oxidase activity. The main compounds present in all extracts were determined by HPLC chromatography. Overall, results demonstrated that the biologically active substances content is modulated by the extraction method used. The most beneficial extract, characterized by determining the EC50 value, was that of C. comatus M8102, followed by P. ostreatus PQMZ91109. Significant amount of α-tocopherol (179.51 ± 1.51 mg/100 g extract) was determined as well as flavones such as rutin and apigenin. In the P. ostreatus PQMZ91109 extract, 4.8 ± 0.05 mg/100 g extract of tocopherol acetate known to play a significant role as an antioxidant in skin protection against oxidative stress generated by UV rays was determined. The various correlations (r (2) = 0.7665-0.9426 for tocopherol content) assessed and the composition of extracts in fluidized bed from the mycelia of the tested species depicted a significant pharmacological potential as well as the possibility of usage in the development of new functional products.

  11. Cellulase production by white-rot basidiomycetous fungi: solid-state versus submerged cultivation

    Bentil, Joseph A.; Thygesen, Anders; Mensah, Moses

    2018-01-01

    fungi for improved enzyme expression, as well as on-site approaches for production of enzyme blends for industrial biomass conversion. The quantitative comparisons made have implications for selection of the most appropriate cultivation method for WRB fungi for attaining maximal cellulase production....... on different biomass residues in SSC or SmC systems. Although some variation in cellulase production yields have been reported for certain substrates, the analysis convincingly shows that SmC is generally more efficient than SSC for obtaining high cellulase production yields and high cellulase production rates......) or submerged cultivation (SmC) systems. In this review, we quantitatively assess the data available in the literature on cellulase production yields by WRB fungi cultivated by SSC or SmC. The review also assesses cellulolytic enzyme production rates and enzyme recovery when WRB fungi are cultivated...

  12. Submergence rice cultivation in southern Bangladesh: farmers opinion and adaptations practices

    AKM Abdul Ahad Biswas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Rice productivity in coastal Bangladesh is lower than the national average and total coastal area is considered to be submergence-prone and higher vulnerable in July to January cropping season. The selected study areas are Kalapara and Patuakhali Sadar Upazila that are too vulnerable to agriculture practices. Field survey was conducted during 01st June to 30th July, 2015 to investigate the impact of submergence on Aman rice cultivation (ARC, existing adopted local adaptation practices with impacts and options to address the submergence problem. Primary data was collected through Focus Group Discussion (FGD, Individual Interview and Key Informant Interview methods and secondary data was collected from different secondary sources. A well-structured pretested questionnaire schedule was developed keeping in mind the objectives and variables under this study. After cyclone SIDR and AILA devastation, the rate of traditional ARC is decreasing every year and in 2015 it was 26.51%. Recently farmers have adopted new cropping practices and strategies like modern ARC in Aman season as single crop; Boro-Aus-Aman season as triple crop and Aus-Aman season as double crop are practicing. Approximately all farmers have adopted to grow stress tolerant rice varieties (STRV; farmer’s curiosities to familiar with and to have the STRV are encouraging. Farmers were fully adopted BRRIdhan52 rice cultivation with positive perceptions of higher yield and lower production cost. Therefore it can be concluded that the intensity of adoption of adaptation and mitigation measures are significantly influenced positively by the STRV yield capability; farmer’s participation in intervention programs; livelihood diversification; frequency of extension personnel contact; submergence and inundation characteristics; tolerance attributes of STRV and availability of STRV cultivation information.International Journal of Environment Vol.4(4 2015: 100-113

  13. Citric acid production from hydrolysate of pretreated straw cellulose by Yarrowia lipolytica SWJ-1b using batch and fed-batch cultivation.

    Liu, Xiaoyan; Lv, Jinshun; Zhang, Tong; Deng, Yuanfang

    2015-01-01

    In this study, crude cellulase produced by Trichoderma reesei Rut-30 was used to hydrolyze pretreated straw. After the compositions of the hydrolysate of pretreated straw were optimized, the study showed that natural components of pretreated straw without addition of any other components such as (NH4)2SO4, KH2PO4, or Mg(2+) were suitable for citric acid production by Yarrowia lipolytica SWJ-1b, and the optimal ventilatory capacity was 10.0 L/min/L medium. Batch and fed-batch production of citric acid from the hydrolysate of pretreated straw by Yarrowia lipolytica SWJ-1b has been investigated. In the batch cultivation, 25.4 g/L and 26.7 g/L citric acid were yields from glucose and hydrolysate of straw cellulose, respectively, while the cultivation time was 120 hr. In the three-cycle fed-batch cultivation, citric acid (CA) production was increased to 42.4 g/L and the cultivation time was extended to 240 hr. However, iso-citric acid (ICA) yield in fed-batch cultivation (4.0 g/L) was similar to that during the batch cultivation (3.9 g/L), and only 1.6 g/L of reducing sugar was left in the medium at the end of fed-batch cultivation, suggesting that most of the added carbon was used in the cultivation.

  14. Change in hyphal morphology of Aspergillus Oryzae during fed-batch cultivation

    Haack, Martin Brian; Olsson, Lisbeth; Hansen, K

    2006-01-01

    the batch phase from 2.8-2.9 up to 4.0-4.4 mu m. The diameter of the hyphal elements remained constant, around 4 mu m, after the feed was started. However, the diameter of the immediate hyphal tip, where the enzyme secretion is thought to take place, increased dramatically with up to a factor 2.5 during......Industrial enzymes are often produced by filamentous fungi in fed-batch cultivations. During cultivation, the different morphological forms displayed by the fungi have an impact on the overall production. The morphology of a recombinant lipase producing Aspergillus oryzae strain was investigated...

  15. Batch cultivation of kluyveromyces fragilis in cheese whey

    Beausejour, D; Leduy, A; Ramalho, R S

    1981-08-01

    Kluyveromyces fragilis was cultivated batchwise in an open pond rectangular bioreactor at 30 degrees Centigrade, 2vvm of aeration, under non-sterile conditions and uncontrolled pH. The culture medium contained 7% cheese whey powder, 0.25% KH/sub 2/PO/sub 4/, 0.5% (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and was adjusted to an initial pH of 4.0 with phosphoric acid. The lactose was almost completely consumed after 16 hours and COD reduction attained 80% after 64 hours. The maximum suspended solids concentration obtained was 11.7 g/L. The cheese whey which had initially low protein and high lactose contents was converted by this system into a high protein and low lactose carbohydrate product. (Refs. 26).

  16. Batch cultivation of kluyveromyces fragilis in cheese whey

    Beausejour, D; Leduy, A; Ramalho, R S

    1981-01-01

    Kluyveromyces fragilis was cultivated batchwise in an open pond rectangular bioreactor at 30 degrees Celcius with aeration, under non-sterile conditions and uncontrolled pH. The culture medium contained 7% cheese whey powder, 0.25% KH2PO4, and 0.5% (NH4)2SO4 and was adjusted to an initial pH of 4.0 with H3PO4. The lactose was almost completely consumed after 16 hours and COD reduction attained 80% after 64 hours. The maximum suspended solids concentration obtained was 11.7 g/L. The cheese whey which had initially low protein and high lactose contents was converted by this system into a high protein and low lactose carbohydrate product.

  17. Combined age and segregated kinetic model for industrial-scale penicillin fed-batch cultivation

    Wang, Z.F.; Lauwerijssen, M.J.C.; Yuan, J.Q.

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes a cell age model forPenicillium chrysogenum fed-batch cultivation to supply a qualitative insight into morphology-associated dynamics. The average ages of the segregated cell populations, such as growing cells, non-growing cells and intact productive cells, were estimated by this

  18. A simple and cost-saving approach to optimize the production of subtilisin NAT by submerged cultivation of Bacillus subtilis natto.

    Ku, Ting-Wei; Tsai, Ruei-Lan; Pan, Tzu-Ming

    2009-01-14

    Subtilisin NAT, formerly designated nattokinase or subtilisin BSP, is a potent cardiovascular drug because of its strong fibrinolytic activity and safety. In this study, one Bacillus subtilis natto strain with high fibrinolytic activity was isolated. We further studied the optimal conditions for subtilisin NAT production by submerged cultivation and three variables/three levels of response surface methodology (RSM) using various inoculum densities, glucose concentrations, and defatted soybean concentrations as the three variables. According to the RSM analysis, while culturing by 2.93% defatted soybean, 1.75% glucose, and 4.00% inoculum density, we obtained an activity of 13.78 SU/mL. Processing the batch fermentation with this optimal condition, the activity reached 13.69 SU/mL, which is equal to 99.3% of the predicted value.

  19. [Dynamics of genome changes in Rauwolfia serpentina callus tissue upon the switch to conditions of submerged cultivation].

    Spiridonova, E V; Adnof, D M; Andreev, I O; Kunakh, V A

    2008-01-01

    Genome of Rauwolfia serpentina callus cells was found to fail undergo the noticeable changes for several early passages upon the switch from surface to submerged cultivation in the liquid medium of special composition. After subsequent 4-6 passages in submerged culture RAPD spectra polymorphism was revealed which may reflect the changes in DNA sequence as well as in the structure of cell population that forms the strain. Introduction of the intermediary passage on the agar-solidified medium of more simple composition prior to transfer into liquid medium appeared not to affect essentially the level and the pattern of genome changes.

  20. Preferences based Control Design of Complex Fed-batch Cultivation Process

    Yuri Pavlov

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In the paper is presented preferences based control design and stabilization of the growth rate of fed-batch cultivation processes. The control is based on an enlarged Wang-Monod-Yerusalimsky kinetic model. Expected utility theory is one of the approaches for utilization of conceptual information (expert preferences. In the article is discussed utilization of stochastic machine learning procedures for evaluation of expert utilities as criteria for optimization.

  1. Studies towards the stabilisation of a mushroom phytase produced by submerged cultivation.

    Spier, Michele Rigon; Behsnilian, Diana; Zielinski, Acácio; Konietzny, Ursula; Greiner, Ralf

    2015-10-01

    A novel phytase from Ganoderma australe G24 was produced by submerged cultivation and recovery. Liquid and solid forms of phytase were developed; both types of product were formulated using different additives. Ganoderma australe G24 phytase was very stable in liquid form with NaCl and sodium acetate buffer. Solid form products were obtained by spray-drying using different polymers to encapsulate the phytase and the capsules obtained were analyzed by electron microscopy. Micrographs confirmed micro and nanoparticles formed with maltodextrin (300 nm to 7-8 µm) without the presence of agglomerates. The use of maltodextrin for solid formulation of G. australe G24 phytase is recommended, and resulted in good stability after the drying process and during storage (shelf life). Kinetic models of phytase inactivation in the microencapsulated powders over time were proposed for the different stabilizing additives. Inactivation rate constants, half-lives and D values (decimal reduction time) were obtained. Phytase encapsulated with maltodextrin remained stable after 90 days, with k 0.0019 day(-1) and a half-life (t1/2) of 367.91 days(-1).

  2. Efficient conversion of pretreated brewer's spent grain and wheat bran by submerged cultivation of Hericium erinaceus.

    Wolters, Niklas; Schabronath, Christoph; Schembecker, Gerhard; Merz, Juliane

    2016-12-01

    Brewer's spent grain (BSG) and wheat bran (WB) are industrial byproducts that accumulate in millions of tons per year and are typically applied as animal feed. Since both byproducts show a great potential as substrates for fermentation, the approach developed in this study consists of utilizing these lignocellulosic byproducts for biomass production of the medicinal fungus Hericium erinaceus through submerged cultivation. To increase the biological efficiency of the bioconversion, acidic pretreatment was applied yielding a bioconversion of 38.6% for pretreated BSG and 34.8% for pretreated WB. This study shows that the complete degradation of (hemi)cellulose into monosaccharides was not required for an efficient bioconversion. The produced fungal biomass was applied in a second fermentation step to induce the secondary metabolite erinacine C production. Thus, biomass was produced as a functional food ingredient with erinacine C contents of 174.8mg/g for BSG and 99.3mg/g for WB based bioconversions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Physiological studies in aerobic batch cultivations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains harboring the MEL1 gene

    Østergaard, Simon; Roca, Christophe Francois Aime; Ronnow, B.

    2000-01-01

    Physiological studies of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains harboring the MEL1 gene were carried out in aerobic batch cultivations on glucose-galactose mixtures and on the disaccharide melibiose, which is hydrolyzed by the enzyme melibiase (Mel1, EC 3.2.1.22) into a glucose and a galactose moiety...... rates were 2.5-3.3-fold higher on glucose than on galactose for all the strains examined, and hence, ethanol production was pronounced on glucose due to respiro-fermentative metabolism. The T256 strain and the T200 strain having the MEL1 gene inserted in the HXK2 locus and the LEU2 locus, respectively...

  4. Sensor combination and chemometric variable selection for online monitoring of Streptomyces coelicolor fed-batch cultivations

    Ödman, Peter; Johansen, C.L.; Olsson, L.

    2010-01-01

    of biomass and substrate (casamino acids) concentrations, respectively. The effect of combination of fluorescence and gas analyzer data as well as of different variable selection methods was investigated. Improved prediction models were obtained by combination of data from the two sensors and by variable......Fed-batch cultivations of Streptomyces coelicolor, producing the antibiotic actinorhodin, were monitored online by multiwavelength fluorescence spectroscopy and off-gas analysis. Partial least squares (PLS), locally weighted regression, and multilinear PLS (N-PLS) models were built for prediction...

  5. Modelling of Functional States during Saccharomyces cerevisiae Fed-batch Cultivation

    Stoyan Tzonkov

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available An implementation of functional state approach for modelling of yeast fed-batch cultivation is presented in this paper. Using of functional state modelling approach aims to overcome the main disadvantage of using global process model, namely complex model structure and big number of model parameters, which complicate the model simulation and parameter estimation. This approach has computational advantages, such as the possibility to use the estimated values from the previous state as starting values for estimation of parameters of a new state. The functional state modelling approach is applied here for fedbatch cultivation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Four functional states are recognised and parameter estimation of local models is presented as well.

  6. Biosynthesis of fructo-oligosaccharides by Sporotrichum thermophile during submerged batch cultivation in high sucrose media

    Katapodis, P.; Kalogeris, E.; Kekos, D.

    2004-01-01

    /l. The FOS mixture obtained was composed of three sugars, which were isolated by size-exclusion chromatography. They were characterized by acid hydrolysis and HPLC as 1-kestose, 6-kestose and neokestose. The mechanism of osmotic adaptation of S. thermophile was investigated and sugars and amino acids were...... found to be the predominant compatible solutes. The fungus accumulated glutamic acid, arginine, alanine, leucine and lysine, in order to balance the outer osmotic pressure. Fatty acid analysis of the membrane lipids showed a relatively high percentage of unsaturated lipids, which is known...

  7. Morphology and physiology of an alpha Amylase producing strain of Aspergillus oryzae during batch cultivations

    Carlsen, Morten; Spohr, Anders Bendsen; Nielsen, Jens Bredal

    1996-01-01

    , whereas the alpha-amylase production has a sharper maximum at about pH 6. During batch cultivation with pellets the growth is described well by the cube-root law when pellet fragmentation can be neglected. The kinetic parameter k in the cube-root law is derived from the growth kinetics with no mass......, suggesting that ethanol is produced in the oxygen limited part of the biomass. A constitutive, low alpha-amylase production was observed at high glucose concentration. The specific alpha-amylase production was significantly higher for filamentous growth than for pellets and oxygen appears to be necessary...... for production of alpha-amylase. (C) 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc....

  8. Online optimal experimental re-design in robotic parallel fed-batch cultivation facilities.

    Cruz Bournazou, M N; Barz, T; Nickel, D B; Lopez Cárdenas, D C; Glauche, F; Knepper, A; Neubauer, P

    2017-03-01

    We present an integrated framework for the online optimal experimental re-design applied to parallel nonlinear dynamic processes that aims to precisely estimate the parameter set of macro kinetic growth models with minimal experimental effort. This provides a systematic solution for rapid validation of a specific model to new strains, mutants, or products. In biosciences, this is especially important as model identification is a long and laborious process which is continuing to limit the use of mathematical modeling in this field. The strength of this approach is demonstrated by fitting a macro-kinetic differential equation model for Escherichia coli fed-batch processes after 6 h of cultivation. The system includes two fully-automated liquid handling robots; one containing eight mini-bioreactors and another used for automated at-line analyses, which allows for the immediate use of the available data in the modeling environment. As a result, the experiment can be continually re-designed while the cultivations are running using the information generated by periodical parameter estimations. The advantages of an online re-computation of the optimal experiment are proven by a 50-fold lower average coefficient of variation on the parameter estimates compared to the sequential method (4.83% instead of 235.86%). The success obtained in such a complex system is a further step towards a more efficient computer aided bioprocess development. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 610-619. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Construction and fed-batch cultivation of Candida famata with enhanced riboflavin production.

    Dmytruk, Kostyantyn; Lyzak, Oleksy; Yatsyshyn, Valentyna; Kluz, Maciej; Sibirny, Vladimir; Puchalski, Czeslaw; Sibirny, Andriy

    2014-02-20

    Riboflavin (vitamin B2) is an essential nutrition component serving as a precursor of coenzymes FMN and FAD that are involved mostly in reactions of oxidative metabolism. Riboflavin is produced in commercial scale and is used in feed and food industries, and in medicine. The yeast Candida famata (Candida flareri) belongs to the group of so called "flavinogenic yeasts" which overproduce riboflavin under iron limitation. Three genes SEF1, RIB1 and RIB7 coding for a putative transcription factor, GTP cyclohydrolase II and riboflavin synthase, respectively were simultaneously overexpressed in the background of a non-reverting riboflavin producing mutant AF-4, obtained earlier in our laboratory using methods of classical selection (Dmytruk et al. (2011), Metabolic Engineering 13, 82-88). Cultivation conditions of the constructed strain were optimized for shake-flasks and bioreactor cultivations. The constructed strain accumulated up to 16.4g/L of riboflavin in optimized medium in a 7L laboratory bioreactor during fed-batch fermentation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Wirelessly powered submerged-light illuminated photobioreactors for efficient microalgae cultivation

    Murray, Alexandra Marie; Fotidis, Ioannis; Isenschmid, Alex

    2017-01-01

    A novel submerged-light photobioreactor (SL-PBR) with free-floating, wireless internal light sources powered by near-field resonant inductive coupling was investigated using a quick (Chlorella vulgaris) and a slow (Haematococcus pluvialis) growing microalgal species. During testing of the SL......, respectively. Thus, the wireless internal light source was proven to be up to fivefold more effective light delivery system compared to the conventional illumination system. Meanwhile, it was discovered that some of the internal light sources had ceased to function, which might have caused underestimation...

  11. Performance and membrane fouling of a step-fed submerged membrane sequencing batch reactor treating swine biogas digestion slurry.

    Han, Zhiying; Chen, Shixia; Lin, Xiaochang; Yu, Hongjun; Duan, Li'an; Ye, Zhangying; Jia, Yanbo; Zhu, Songming; Liu, Dezhao

    2018-01-02

    To identify the performance of step-fed submerged membrane sequencing batch reactor (SMSBR) treating swine biogas digestion slurry and to explore the correlation between microbial metabolites and membrane fouling within this novel reactor, a lab-scale step-fed SMSBR was operated under nitrogen loading rate of 0.026, 0.052 and 0.062 g NH 4 + -N (gVSS·d) -1 . Results show that the total removal efficiencies for NH 4 + -N, total nitrogen and chemical oxygen demand in the reactor (>94%, >89% and >97%, respectively) were high during the whole experiment. However, the cycle removal efficiency of NH 4 + -N decreased significantly when the nitrogen loading rate was increased to 0.062 g NH 4 + -N (gVSS·d) -1 . The total removal efficiency of total phosphorus in the step-fed SMSBR was generally higher than 75%, though large fluctuations were observed during the experiments. In addition, the concentrations of microbial metabolites, i.e., soluble microbial products (SMP) and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) from activated sludge increased as nitrogen loading rate increased, both showing quadratic equation correlations with viscosity of the mixed liquid in the step-fed SMSBR (both R 2 > 0.90). EPS content was higher than SMP content, while protein (PN) was detected as the main component in both SMP and EPS. EPS PN was found to be well correlated with transmembrane pressure, membrane flux and the total membrane fouling resistance. Furthermore, the three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy results suggested the tryptophan-like protein as one of the main contributors to the membrane fouling. Overall, this study showed that the step-fed SMSBR could be used to treat swine digestion slurry at nitrogen loading rate of 0.052 g NH 4 + -N (gVSS·d) -1 , and the control strategy of membrane fouling should be developed based on reducing the tryptophan-like PN in EPS.

  12. Erinacine C: A novel approach to produce the secondary metabolite by submerged cultivation of Hericium erinaceus.

    Wolters, Niklas; Schembecker, Gerhard; Merz, Juliane

    2015-12-01

    Erinacine C is a cyathane scaffold-based secondary metabolite, which is naturally produced by the filamentous fungus Hericium erinaceus and has a high potential to treat nervous diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. The investigated approach consists of combining an optimised precultivation of H. erinaceus with an enhanced erinacine C production by developing a suitable main cultivation medium enabling the utilisation of high biomass contents. The final erinacine C production medium is buffered by 100 mM HEPES to ensure a stable pH value of 7.5 during main cultivation at inoculation ratios of up to 5:10 (v/v). The medium components, such as 5.0 g L(-1) oatmeal, 1.5 g L(-1) calcium carbonate, and 0.5 g L(-1) Edamin(®) K are crucial for an increased erinacine C production. Besides, different carbon to nitrogen ratios of 25, 64, and 103 do not affect the erinacine C synthesis. The investigated approach enables the production of 2.73 g erinacine C per litre main cultivation broth, which is tenfold higher than published data. In addition, erinacine C biosynthesis is determined to occur mainly in the first six days of main cultivation. Copyright © 2015 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Kinetic studies on batch cultivation of Trichoderma reesei and application to enhance cellulase production by fed-batch fermentation.

    Ma, Lijuan; Li, Chen; Yang, Zhenhua; Jia, Wendi; Zhang, Dongyuan; Chen, Shulin

    2013-07-20

    Reducing the production cost of cellulase as the key enzyme for cellulose hydrolysis to fermentable sugars remains a major challenge for biofuel production. Because of the complexity of cellulase production, kinetic modeling and mass balance calculation can be used as effective tools for process design and optimization. In this study, kinetic models for cell growth, substrate consumption and cellulase production in batch fermentation were developed, and then applied in fed-batch fermentation to enhance cellulase production. Inhibition effect of substrate was considered and a modified Luedeking-Piret model was developed for cellulase production and substrate consumption according to the growth characteristics of Trichoderma reesei. The model predictions fit well with the experimental data. Simulation results showed that higher initial substrate concentration led to decrease of cellulase production rate. Mass balance and kinetic simulation results were applied to determine the feeding strategy. Cellulase production and its corresponding productivity increased by 82.13% after employing the proper feeding strategy in fed-batch fermentation. This method combining mathematics and chemometrics by kinetic modeling and mass balance can not only improve cellulase fermentation process, but also help to better understand the cellulase fermentation process. The model development can also provide insight to other similar fermentation processes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Secretome analysis of Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus niger cultivated by submerged and sequential fermentation processes: Enzyme production for sugarcane bagasse hydrolysis.

    Florencio, Camila; Cunha, Fernanda M; Badino, Alberto C; Farinas, Cristiane S; Ximenes, Eduardo; Ladisch, Michael R

    2016-08-01

    Cellulases and hemicellulases from Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus niger have been shown to be powerful enzymes for biomass conversion to sugars, but the production costs are still relatively high for commercial application. The choice of an effective microbial cultivation process employed for enzyme production is important, since it may affect titers and the profile of protein secretion. We used proteomic analysis to characterize the secretome of T. reesei and A. niger cultivated in submerged and sequential fermentation processes. The information gained was key to understand differences in hydrolysis of steam exploded sugarcane bagasse for enzyme cocktails obtained from two different cultivation processes. The sequential process for cultivating A. niger gave xylanase and β-glucosidase activities 3- and 8-fold higher, respectively, than corresponding activities from the submerged process. A greater protein diversity of critical cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic enzymes were also observed through secretome analyses. These results helped to explain the 3-fold higher yield for hydrolysis of non-washed pretreated bagasse when combined T. reesei and A. niger enzyme extracts from sequential fermentation were used in place of enzymes obtained from submerged fermentation. An enzyme loading of 0.7 FPU cellulase activity/g glucan was surprisingly effective when compared to the 5-15 times more enzyme loadings commonly reported for other cellulose hydrolysis studies. Analyses showed that more than 80% consisted of proteins other than cellulases whose role is important to the hydrolysis of a lignocellulose substrate. Our work combined proteomic analyses and enzymology studies to show that sequential and submerged cultivation methods differently influence both titers and secretion profile of key enzymes required for the hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse. The higher diversity of feruloyl esterases, xylanases and other auxiliary hemicellulolytic enzymes observed in the enzyme

  15. Effects of Cultivating Conditions on the Water Soluble Polysaccharides Content of Ganoderma lucidum Mycelium in Submerged Flask Culture

    Rosyida, V. T.; Hayati, S. N.; Apriyana, W.; Darsih, C.; Hernawan; Poeloengasih, C. D.

    2017-12-01

    The carcinostatic substance in Ganoderma lucidum (Fr.) Karst (Polyporaceae) is a water soluble polysaccharides (WSP) which might be useful in immunotherapy. Attempt to produce effective substances from cultured mycelia is important to carry out since solid cultivation is a time consuming and quality fluctuating. The effects of cultivating conditions on the water soluble polysaccharides content of G. Lucidum mycelium were investigated in submerged flask cultures. Culture from fruiting bodies was maintained on potato dextrose-agar slope. Slopes were inoculated and incubated at 30°C for 7 days, and stored at 4°C. The flask experiments were performed in 100 ml erlenmeyer flasks containing 20 ml of the sterilized media. Actively growing mycelia (1 piece, 5 mm X 5 mm) from a newly prepared slant culture (about 7 days incubation at 30°C) were inoculated into the flask. The pH was measured and adjusted to the desired value by addition of either 4 M HCl or 2.5 M NaOH. Incubation temperature were 20, 25, and 30°C. At the end of inoculation period (14 days) mycelium consisting of individual pellets was harvested and wash for the analysis. WSP content was analysed using phenol-sulfuric acid method. The optimal initial pH for metabolite production would depend on the culture medium. Generally, high values of pH, such as 9, negatively affect both cell growth and WSP production. The optimum temperature range for the high G. lucidum mycelium and WSP production were found to be 25 - 30 °C at pH values 5 - 7 in both of media.

  16. Development of a mathematical model for the growth associated Polyhydroxybutyrate fermentation by Azohydromonas australica and its use for the design of fed-batch cultivation strategies.

    Gahlawat, Geeta; Srivastava, Ashok K

    2013-06-01

    In the present investigation, batch cultivation of Azohydromonas australica DSM 1124 was carried out in a bioreactor for growth associated PHB production. The observed batch PHB production kinetics data was then used for the development of a mathematical model which adequately described the substrate limitation and inhibition during the cultivation. The statistical validity test demonstrated that the proposed mathematical model predictions were significant at 99% confidence level. The model was thereafter extrapolated to fed-batch to identify various nutrients feeding regimes during the bioreactor cultivation to improve the PHB accumulation. The distinct capability of the mathematical model to predict highly dynamic fed-batch cultivation strategies was demonstrated by experimental implementation of two fed-batch cultivation strategies. A significantly high PHB concentration of 22.65 g/L & an overall PHB content of 76% was achieved during constant feed rate fed-batch cultivation which is the highest PHB content reported so far using A. australica. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Fed-batch strategy for enhancing cell growth and C-phycocyanin production of Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis under phototrophic cultivation.

    Xie, Youping; Jin, Yiwen; Zeng, Xianhai; Chen, Jianfeng; Lu, Yinghua; Jing, Keju

    2015-03-01

    The C-phycocyanin generated in blue-green algae Arthrospira platensis is gaining commercial interest due to its nutrition and healthcare value. In this study, the light intensity and initial biomass concentration were manipulated to improve cell growth and C-phycocyanin production of A.platensis in batch cultivation. The results show that low light intensity and high initial biomass concentration led to increased C-phycocyanin accumulation. The best C-phycocyanin productivity occurred when light intensity and initial biomass concentration were 300μmol/m(2)/s and 0.24g/L, respectively. The fed-batch cultivation proved to be an effective strategy to further enhance C-phycocyanin production of A.platensis. The results indicate that C-phycocyanin accumulation not only requires nitrogen-sufficient condition, but also needs other nutrients. The highest C-phycocyanin content (16.1%), production (1034mg/L) and productivity (94.8mg/L/d) were obtained when using fed-batch strategy with 5mM medium feeding. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Determination of volumetric gas-liquid mass transfer coefficient of carbon monoxide in a batch cultivation system using kinetic simulations.

    Jang, Nulee; Yasin, Muhammad; Park, Shinyoung; Lovitt, Robert W; Chang, In Seop

    2017-09-01

    A mathematical model of microbial kinetics was introduced to predict the overall volumetric gas-liquid mass transfer coefficient (k L a) of carbon monoxide (CO) in a batch cultivation system. The cell concentration (X), acetate concentration (C ace ), headspace gas (N co and [Formula: see text] ), dissolved CO concentration in the fermentation medium (C co ), and mass transfer rate (R) were simulated using a variety of k L a values. The simulated results showed excellent agreement with the experimental data for a k L a of 13/hr. The C co values decreased with increase in cultivation times, whereas the maximum mass transfer rate was achieved at the mid-log phase due to vigorous microbial CO consumption rate higher than R. The model suggested in this study may be applied to a variety of microbial systems involving gaseous substrates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Transcriptional response of P. pastoris in fed-batch cultivations to Rhizopus oryzae lipase production reveals UPR induction

    Valero Francisco

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The analysis of transcriptional levels of the genes involved in protein synthesis and secretion is a key factor to understand the host organism's responses to recombinant protein production, as well as their interaction with the cultivation conditions. Novel techniques such as the sandwich hybridization allow monitoring quantitatively the dynamic changes of specific RNAs. In this study, the transcriptional levels of some genes related to the unfolded protein response (UPR and central metabolism of Pichia pastoris were analysed during batch and fed-batch cultivations using an X-33-derived strain expressing a Rhizopus oryzae lipase under control of the formaldehyde dehydrogenase promoter (FLD1, namely the alcohol oxidase gene AOX1, the formaldehyde dehydrogenase FLD1, the protein disulfide isomerase PDI, the KAR2 gene coding for the BiP chaperone, the 26S rRNA and the R. oryzae lipase gene ROL. Results The transcriptional levels of the selected set of genes were first analysed in P. pastoris cells growing in shake flask cultures containing different carbon and nitrogen sources combinations, glycerol + ammonium, methanol + methylamine and sorbitol + methylamine. The transcriptional levels of the AOX1 and FLD1 genes were coherent with the known regulatory mechanism of C1 substrates in P. pastoris, whereas ROL induction lead to the up-regulation of KAR2 and PDI transcriptional levels, thus suggesting that ROL overexpression triggers the UPR. This was further confirmed in fed-batch cultivations performed at different growth rates. Transcriptional levels of the analysed set of genes were generally higher at higher growth rates. Nevertheless, when ROL was overexpressed in a strain having the UPR constitutively activated, significantly lower relative induction levels of these marker genes were detected. Conclusion The bead-based sandwich hybridization assay has shown its potential as a reliable instrument for quantification of

  20. Aerobic and anaerobic ethanol production by Mucor circinelloides during submerged growth

    Lübbehüsen, Tina Louise; Nielsen, Jens; Mcintyre, Mhairi

    2004-01-01

    The dimorphic organism Mucor circinelloides is currently being investigated as a potential host for heterologous protein production. The production of ethanol on pentose and hexose sugars was studied in submerged batch cultivations to further the general knowledge of Mucor physiology, with a view...

  1. Biotransformation of sweet lime pulp waste into high-quality nanocellulose with an excellent productivity using Komagataeibacter europaeus SGP37 under static intermittent fed-batch cultivation.

    Dubey, Swati; Singh, Jyoti; Singh, R P

    2018-01-01

    Herein, sweet lime pulp waste (SLPW) was utilized as a low- or no-cost feedstock for the production of bacterial nanocellulose (BNC) alone and in amalgamation with other nutritional supplements by the isolate K. europaeus SGP37 under static batch and static intermittent fed-batch cultivation. The highest yield (26.2±1.50gL -1 ) was obtained in the hot water extract of SLPW supplemented with the components of HS medium, which got further boosted to 38±0.85gL -1 as the cultivation strategy was shifted from static batch to static intermittent fed-batch. BNC obtained from various SLPW medium was similar or even superior to that obtained with standard HS medium in terms of its physicochemical properties. The production yields of BNC thus obtained are significantly higher and fit well in terms of industrial scale production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Thermodynamics of metabolic pathways for penicillin production: Analysis of thermodynamic feasibility and free energy changes during fed-batch cultivation

    Pissarra, P.D.; Nielsen, Jens Bredal

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the thermodynamic analysis of pathways related to penicillin production in Penicillium chrysogenum. First a thermodynamic feasibility analysis is performed of the L-lysine pathway of which one of the precursors for penicillin biosynthesis (alpha-aminoadipic acid......) is an intermediate. It is found that the L-lysine pathway in P. chrysogenum is thermodynamically feasible and that the calculated standard Gibbs free energy values of the two enzymes controlling the pathway flux indicate that they operate far from equilibrium. It is therefore proposed that the regulation of alpha......-aminoadipate reductase by lysine is important to maintain a high concentration of alpha-aminoadipate in order to direct the carbon flux to penicillin production. Secondly the changes in Gibbs free energy in the penicillin biosynthetic pathway during fed-batch cultivation were studied. The analysis showed that all...

  3. Repeated batch cultivation of the hydrocarbon-degrading, micro-algal strain Prototheca zopfii RND16 immobilized in polyurethane foam.

    Ueno, Ryohei; Wada, Shun; Urano, Naoto

    2008-01-01

    This study reports on the stability of the cells of a heterotrophic green micro-algal strain Prototheca zopfii RND16 immobilized in polyurethane foam (PUF) cubes during degradation of mixed hydrocarbon substrate, which was composed of n-alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), in 5 successive cycles of repeated batch cultivation at 30 degrees C. Both RND16 cells and mixed hydrocarbon substrate components had been entrapped in PUF cubes through cultivation. PUF-immobilized RND16 degraded n-alkanes almost completely, whereas the strain hardly degraded PAHs in PUFs, rather they accumulated in the matrices. It is noteworthy that this result is strikingly different from that of the free-living cell culture, where RND16 reduced concentrations of both n-alkanes and PAHs. However, PAHs accumulation in the PUFs did not impair the performance of the immobilized alga to utilize n-alkanes. These results suggest that the PUFs harboring RND16 cells could be used repeatedly for selective retrieval of PAHs from oil-polluted waters after preferential biodegradation of n-alkanes by algae.

  4. Expression of recombinant Pseudomonas stutzeri di-heme cytochrome c(4) by high-cell-density fed-batch cultivation of Pseudomonas putida

    Thuesen, Marianne Hallberg; Nørgaard, Allan; Hansen, Anne Merete

    2003-01-01

    The gene of the di-heme protein cytochrome c(4) from Pseudomonas stutzeri was expressed in Pseudomonas putida. High-yield expression of the protein was achieved by high-cell-density fed-batch cultivation using an exponential glucose feeding strategy. The recombinant cytochrome c(4) protein...

  5. De novo biosynthesis of biodiesel by Escherichia coli in optimized fed-batch cultivation.

    Yangkai Duan

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is a renewable alternative to petroleum diesel fuel that can contribute to carbon dioxide emission reduction and energy supply. Biodiesel is composed of fatty acid alkyl esters, including fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs, and is currently produced through the transesterification reaction of methanol (or ethanol and triacylglycerols (TAGs. TAGs are mainly obtained from oilseed plants and microalgae. A sustainable supply of TAGs is a major bottleneck for current biodiesel production. Here we report the de novo biosynthesis of FAEEs from glucose, which can be derived from lignocellulosic biomass, in genetically engineered Escherichia coli by introduction of the ethanol-producing pathway from Zymomonas mobilis, genetic manipulation to increase the pool of fatty acyl-CoA, and heterologous expression of acyl-coenzyme A: diacylglycerol acyltransferase from Acinetobacter baylyi. An optimized fed-batch microbial fermentation of the modified E. coli strain yielded a titer of 922 mg L(-1 FAEEs that consisted primarily of ethyl palmitate, -oleate, -myristate and -palmitoleate.

  6. ENHANCED PRODUCTION OF POLYHYDROXYBUTYRATE (PHB FROM AGRO-INDUSTRIAL WASTES; FED-BATCH CULTIVATION AND STATISTICAL MEDIA OPTIMIZATION

    Mahmoud M. Berekaa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus megaterium SW1-2 showed enhanced growth and polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB production during cultivation on date palm syrup (DEPS or sugar cane molasses. FT-IR and NMR spectroscopic analyses of the polymer accumulated during growth on DEPS revealed specific absorption peaks characteristic for PHB. 1.65 g/L of PHB (56.9% CDW was produced during growth on medium supplemented with 2 g/L of DEPS. Approximately, 36.1% CDW of PHB were recorded during growth on sugar cane molasses. Six runs of different fed-batch cultivation strategies were tested, the optimal run showed approximately 6.87-fold increase. Modified E2 medium was prefered recording 10.11 and 11.34 g/L of total PHB produced for runs 1 and 2, at the end of 96 h incubation period, respectively. Decrease in PHB was recorded during growth on complex medium (run 3 and run 4. In another independent optimization strategy, ten variables were concurrently examined for their significance on PHB production by Plackett-Burman statistical design for the first time. Among variables, DEPS-II and inoculum concentration followed by KH2PO4 and (NH42SO4 were found to be the most significant variables encourage PHB production. Indeed, DEPS-II or Fresh syrup is more significant than commercial syrup DEPS-I (p-value= 0.05. RPM, incubation period have highly negative effect on PHB production. Role of ago-industrial wastes, especially DEPS, in enhancement of PHB production was closely discussed.

  7. Experimental mixture design as a tool to enhance glycosyl hydrolases production by a new Trichoderma harzianum P49P11 strain cultivated under controlled bioreactor submerged fermentation.

    Delabona, Priscila da Silva; Farinas, Cristiane Sanchez; Lima, Deise Juliana da Silva; Pradella, José Geraldo da Cruz

    2013-03-01

    This work investigates the glycosyl hydrolase (GH) profile of a new Trichoderma harzianum strain cultivated under controlled bioreactor submerged fermentation. The influence of different medium components (delignified steam-exploded sugarcane bagasse, sucrose, and soybean flour) on GH biosynthesis was assessed using experimental mixture design (EMD). Additionally, the effect of increased component concentrations in culture media selected from the EMD was studied. It was found that that a mixed culture medium could significantly maximize GH biosynthesis rate, especially for xylanase enzymes which achieved a 2-fold increment. Overall, it was demonstrated that T. harzianumP49P11 enzymes have a great potential to be used in the deconstruction of biomass. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Alteration of white-rot basidiomycetes cellulase and xylanase activities in the submerged co-cultivation and optimization of enzyme production by Irpex lacteus and Schizophyllum commune.

    Metreveli, Eka; Kachlishvili, Eva; Singer, Steven W; Elisashvili, Vladimir

    2017-10-01

    Mono and dual cultures of four white-rot basidiomycete species were evaluated for cellulase and xylanase activity under submerged fermentation conditions. Co-cultivation of Pycnoporus coccineus or Trametes hirsuta with Schizophyllum commune displayed antagonistic interactions resulting in the decrease of endoglucanase and total cellulase activities. In contrast, increases in cellulase and xylanase activity were revealed through the compatible interactions of Irpex lacteus with S. commune. Co-cultivation conditions were optimized for maximum enzyme production by I. lacteus and S. commune, the best producers of cellulase/xylanase and β-glucosidase, respectively. An optimized medium for the target enzyme production by the mixed culture was established in a laboratory fermenter yielding 7U/mL total cellulase, 142U/mL endoglucanase, 104U/mL xylanase, and 5.2U/mL β-glucosidase. The dual culture approach resulted in an enzymatic mixture with 11% improved lignocellulose saccharification potential compared to enzymes from a monoculture of I. lacteus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [Optimization of cultural condition of genetic engineering strain for antibiotic peptide adenoregulin and research on its fed-batch cultivation].

    Zhou, Yu-Xun; Cao, Wei; Wei, Dong-Zhi; Luo, Qing-Ping; Wang, Jin-Zhi

    2005-07-01

    33 amino acid antibiotic peptide adenoregulin (ADR), which were firstly isolated from the skin of South America arboreal frog Phyllomedusa bicolor, forms alpha-helix amphipathic structure in apolar medium and has a wide spectrum of antimicrobial activity and high potency of lytic ability. Adr gene was cloned in pET32a and transformed into Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) . The cultural and inductive conditions of E. coli BL21(DE3)/pET32a-adr have been optimized. The effect of three factors which were time point of induction, concentration of IPTG in the culture and time of induction on the expression level of Trx-ADR was investigated. The results indicated that the expression level was affected by the time point of induction most predominantly. 9 veriaties of media in which BL21 (DE3)/pET32a-adr was cultured and induced were tested to achieve high expression level of target protein. It was found that glucose in the medium played an important role in keeping stable and high expression level of Trx-ADR. The optimal inductive condition is as follows: the culture medium is 2 x YT + 0.5% glucose, the time point of induction is OD600 = 0.9, the final concentration of IPTG in the culture is 0.1 mmol/L and the induction time is 4 h. BL21 (DE3)/pET32a-adr was cultivated according to the strategy of constant pH at early stage and exponential feeding at later stage to obtain high cell density. During the entire fed-batch phase, by controlling the feeding of glucose, the specific growth rate of the culture was controlled at about 0.15 h(-1), the accumulation of acetic acid was controlled at low level (<2 g/L), but the plasmid stability could not be maintained well. At the end of the cultivation, 40% of the bacteria in the culture lost their plasmids. As a result, the expression level of the target protein declined dramatically, but 90% of Trx-ADR was in soluble form. The expressed fusion protein showed no antibacterial activity, while the native form of ADR lysed from Trx-ADR showed

  10. Using a medium of free amino acids to produce penicillin g acylase in fed-batch cultivations of Bacillus megaterium ATCC 14945

    R. G. Silva

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The production of penicillin G acylase (PGA, an important industrial enzyme from a wild strain of Bacillus megaterium using a pool of free amino acids as substrate was studied in a bench-scale bioreactor. Experiments carried out in shakers showed that the substitution of casein for free amino acids in the presence of cheese whey was the culture medium that provided the highest productivity. Several cultivations were carried out in a bioreactor operated in either batch or fed-batch mode. Batch runs showed that enzyme production is associated with microorganism growth. The following set of amino acids was preferentially consumed: Ala, Arg, Asp, Gly, Lys, Ser, Thr and Trp. On the other hand, the rates of consumption of His, Ile, Leu, Met, Phe, Pro, Tyr and Val were lower.

  11. Submerged Cultivation of Mycelium with High Ergothioneine Content from the Culinary-Medicinal Golden Oyster Mushroom, Pleurotus citrinopileatus (Higher Basidiomycetes).

    Lin, Shin-Yi; Chien, Shih-Chang; Wang, Sheng-Yang; Mau, Jeng-Leun

    2015-01-01

    The optimization of submerged culture of the culinary-medicinal golden oyster mushroom, Pleurotus citrinopileatus, was studied using a one-factor-at-a-time, two-stage stimulation and central composite rotatable design to produce mycelia with high ergothioneine content. The optimal culture conditions for mycelia harvested at day 22 were a temperature of 25°C, an inoculation ratio of 5%, 2% glucose, 0.5% yeast extract, and adjustment of the initial pH value to 10. The biomass and ergothioneine content were 8.28 g/L and 10.65 mg/g dry weight (dw), respectively. The addition of an amino acid precursor increased the ergothioneine content of mycelia; cysteine was the most effective. In addition, the results obtained from central composite rotatable design showed that the recommended combination for cysteine, histidine, and methionine was 8, 4, and 0.5 mmol/L, respectively. The predicted ergothioneine content was 13.90 mg/g dw, whereas the experimental maximal ergothioneine content was 14.57 mg/g dw. With the addition of complex precursors and under optimal culture conditions, mycelia harvested at days 16-20 had higher ergothioneine content. Accordingly, the information obtained could be used to produce mycelia with high ergothioneine content.

  12. Medium pH in submerged cultivation modulates differences in the intracellular protein profile of Fusarium oxysporum.

    da Rosa-Garzon, Nathália Gonsales; Laure, Hélen Julie; Souza-Motta, Cristina Maria de; Rosa, José César; Cabral, Hamilton

    2017-08-09

    Fusarium oxysporum is a filamentous fungus that damages a wide range of plants and thus causes severe crop losses. In fungal pathogens, the genes and proteins involved in virulence are known to be controlled by environmental pH. Here, we report the influence of culture-medium pH (5, 6, 7, and 8) on the production of degradative enzymes involved in the pathogenesis of F. oxysporum URM 7401 and on the 2D-electrophoresis profile of intracellular proteins in this fungus. F. oxysporum URM 7401 was grown in acidic, neutral, and alkaline culture media in a submerged bioprocess. After 96 hr, the crude extract was processed to enzyme activity assays, while the intracellular proteins were obtained from mycelium and analyzed using 2D electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. We note that the diversity of secreted enzymes was changed quantitatively in different culture-medium pH. Also, the highest accumulated biomass and the intracellular protein profile of F. oxysporum URM 7401 indicate an increase in metabolism in neutral-alkaline conditions. The differential profiles of secreted enzymes and intracellular proteins under the evaluated conditions indicate that the global protein content in F. oxysporum URM 7401 is modulated by extracellular pH.

  13. Scale-up bioprocess development for production of the antibiotic valinomycin in Escherichia coli based on consistent fed-batch cultivations.

    Li, Jian; Jaitzig, Jennifer; Lu, Ping; Süssmuth, Roderich D; Neubauer, Peter

    2015-06-12

    Heterologous production of natural products in Escherichia coli has emerged as an attractive strategy to obtain molecules of interest. Although technically feasible most of them are still constrained to laboratory scale production. Therefore, it is necessary to develop reasonable scale-up strategies for bioprocesses aiming at the overproduction of targeted natural products under industrial scale conditions. To this end, we used the production of the antibiotic valinomycin in E. coli as a model system for scalable bioprocess development based on consistent fed-batch cultivations. In this work, the glucose limited fed-batch strategy based on pure mineral salt medium was used throughout all scales for valinomycin production. The optimal glucose feed rate was initially detected by the use of a biocatalytically controlled glucose release (EnBase® technology) in parallel cultivations in 24-well plates with continuous monitoring of pH and dissolved oxygen. These results were confirmed in shake flasks, where the accumulation of valinomycin was highest when the specific growth rate decreased below 0.1 h(-1). This correlation was also observed for high cell density fed-batch cultivations in a lab-scale bioreactor. The bioreactor fermentation produced valinomycin with titers of more than 2 mg L(-1) based on the feeding of a concentrated glucose solution. Valinomycin production was not affected by oscillating conditions (i.e. glucose and oxygen) in a scale-down two-compartment reactor, which could mimic similar situations in industrial bioreactors, suggesting that the process is very robust and a scaling of the process to a larger industrial scale appears a realistic scenario. Valinomycin production was scaled up from mL volumes to 10 L with consistent use of the fed-batch technology. This work presents a robust and reliable approach for scalable bioprocess development and represents an example for the consistent development of a process for a heterologously expressed natural

  14. Study on Molasses Concentration from Sugarcanne Bagasse for Biohydrogen Production using Enriched Granular Activated Carbon (GAC) Immobilised Cells by Repeated Batch Cultivation

    Idris, Norfatiha; Aminah Lutpi, Nabilah; Ruhaizul Che Ridzuan, Che Mohd; Shian, Wong Yee; Nuraiti Tengku Izhar, Tengku

    2018-03-01

    Repeated batch cultivation is known as most attractive method in improving hydrogen productivity, due to the facts that this approach could minimize the reuse of the cell and the inoculum preparation. In addition, with the combination of attach growth system during the fermentation processes to produce biohydrogen, the density of cells will be increased and the cell washout could be avoided. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the effectiveness of repeated batch cultivation for enrichment of anaerobic mixed culture onto granular activated carbon (GAC) and investigate the effect of molasses concentration during immobilization of mixed culture onto the GAC. The molasses concentration using 50 %, 40 %, 30 %, 20 % and 10 % of diluted molasses were used as feedstock in the fermentation process. The maximum hydrogen production of 60 ml was obtained at 30 % of molasses concentration with 831 ppm of hydrogen concentration. Thus, the kinetic parameter obtained from the batch profiling based on modified Gompertz equation are, Hm= 58 ml for the maximum hydrogen production and Rm= 2.02 ml/h representing the hydrogen production rate.

  15. Antioxidant and Cholesterol Esterase Inhibitory Properties of Supplementation with Coconut Water in Submerged Cultivation of the Medicinal Chinese Caterpillar Mushroom, Ophiocordyceps sinensis CS1197 (Ascomycetes).

    Shashidhar, G M; Kumar, S Sravan; Giridhar, P; Manohar, B

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the potential use of coconut water to supplement potato dextrose broth (PDB) in the production of Ophiocordyceps sinensis CS1197 by submerged cultivation. The basal PDB medium was modified by supplementation with tender coconut water (TCW) and mature coconut water (MCW) at 10% and 5% (v/v), respectively; these mixtures were cultured at 28°C for 14 days, with a pH of 7 and an inoculum volume of 10%. The addition of optimized levels of TCW and MCW improved the biomass yield by 2.2- and 2.5-fold, respectively, and adenosine, cordycepin, and polysaccharide content by 58% and 69%, 50% and 55%, and 19% and 27%, respectively. Antioxidant and cholesterol esterase (CE) inhibitory activities of the aqueous extract from O. sinensis CS1197 mycelia supplemented with TCW and MCW were high compared with those of the control, indicating that coconut water has a positive correlation with the enhanced antioxidant and CE inhibitory activities. These antioxidant and CE inhibitory responses were dependent on concentration, and the larger amounts of bioactives in O. sinensis CS1197 are beneficial in pharmaceutical formulations.

  16. Optimization of Submerged Cultivation Conditions for Production of Big Cup Culinary-Medicinal Mushroom Clitocybe maxima (Agaricomycetes) Biomass with Significant Antioxidative and Antihyperlipidemic Activities.

    Hu, Shu-Hui; Chen, Ker-Shew; Liu, Ming-Yi; Cheung, Peter Chi Keung; Wang, Jinn-Chyi; Chang, Sue-Joan

    2017-01-01

    In this study, a large Clitocybe maxima mycelium biomass was obtained by submerged cultivation under optimal conditions. Three test samples from lyophilized mycelia, including hot water extract (CW) and elutes from solvents with different polarity (CA and CB), were combined and used to explore antioxidant and antihyper-lipidemic activities in vitro and in vivo. The CA group showed the highest DPPH free radical scavenging activity and iron-reducing capability at concentrations of 6.0% and 3.0% (w/v), respectively. Further, the CA group showed the highest glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities at a dose of 0.25 mg/kg body weight (CA-0.25 group) in all hyperlipidemic hamsters tested. Serum lipid levels (apart from high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels) of hamsters in the CA-0.25 group were lower than those of hamsters in the negative control group in antihy-perlipidemic tests. Therefore, we believe that extracts from C. maxima mycelia are rich reservoirs of antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic activities.

  17. Long-term effect of inoculum pretreatment on fermentative hydrogen production by repeated batch cultivations: homoacetogenesis and methanogenesis as competitors to hydrogen production

    Luo, Gang; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov; Xie, Li

    2011-01-01

    Long-term effects of inoculum pretreatments(heat, acid, loading-shock) on hydrogen production from glucose under different temperatures (378C, 558C) and initial pH (7 and 5.5) were studied by repeated batch cultivations. Results obtained showed that it was necessary to investigate the long......-term effect of inoculum pretreatment on hydrogen production since pretreatments may just temporarily inhibit the hydrogen consuming processes. After long-term cultivation, pretreated inocula did not enhance hydrogen production compared to untreated inocula under mesophilic conditions (initial pH 7 and pH 5.......5) and thermophilic conditions (initial pH 7). However, pretreatment could inhibit lactate production and lead to higher hydrogen yield under thermophilic conditions at initial pH 5.5. The results further demonstrated that inoculum pretreatment could not permanently inhibit either methanogenesis or homoacetogenesis...

  18. Making soy sauce from defatted soybean meal without the mejus process by submerged cultivation using thermophilic bacteria.

    Hur, Jeong Min; Park, Doo Hyun

    2015-08-01

    The diversity of thermophilic bacteria was not significantly altered while growing in a defatted soybean meal (DFSM) slurry at 60 °C for 10, 20, and 30 days. Five species of thermophilic bacteria, which belong to the genera Aeribacillus (temperature gradient gel electrophoresis [TGGE] band no. 1), Saccharococcus (TGGE band no. 2), Geobacillus (TGGE band no. 3), Bacillus (TGGE band no. 4), and Anoxybacillus (TGGE band no. 5), were detected in the fermenting DFSM slurry. The cell-free culture fluid obtained from the fermenting DFSM slurry on day 14 hydrolyzed starch and soy protein at 60 °C but not at 30 °C. Soy sauce (test soy sauce) was prepared from the fermented DFSM slurry after a 30 day cultivation at 60 °C and a 60 day ripening at 45 °C. Free amino acid (AA) and organic acid contents in the soy sauce increased in proportion to the fermentation period, whereas ammonium decreased proportionally. Mg and Ca contained in the soy sauce decreased proportionally during fermentation and were lower than those in the non-fermented DFSM extract (control). Spectral absorbance of soy sauce prepared from the fermented DFSM slurry was maximal at 430 nm and increased slightly in proportion to the fermentation period. The aroma and flavor of the test soy sauce were significantly different from those of traditional Korean soy sauce. Conclusively, soy sauce may be prepared directly from the fermented DFSM slurry without meju-preparing process and fermentation period may be a factor for control of soy sauce quality.

  19. Biochemical Characterization, Thermal Stability, and Partial Sequence of a Novel Exo-Polygalacturonase from the Thermophilic Fungus Rhizomucor pusillus A13.36 Obtained by Submerged Cultivation

    Lucas Vinícius Trindade

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the production of an exo-polygalacturonase (exo-PG by Rhizomucor pusillus A13.36 in submerged cultivation (SmC in a shaker at 45°C for 96 h. A single pectinase was found and purified in order to analyze its thermal stability, by salt precipitation and hydrophobic interaction chromatography. The pectinase has an estimated Mw of approximately 43.5–47 kDa and optimum pH of 4.0 but is stable in pH ranging from 3.5 to 9.5 and has an optimum temperature of 61°C. It presents thermal stability between 30 and 60°C, has 70% activation in the presence of Ca2+, and was tested using citrus pectin with a degree of methyl esterification (DE of 26%. Ea(d for irreversible denaturation was 125.5 kJ/mol with positive variations of entropy and enthalpy for that and ΔG(d values were around 50 kJ/mol. The hydrolysis of polygalacturonate was analyzed by capillary electrophoresis which displayed a pattern of sequential hydrolysis (exo. The partial identification of the primary sequence was done by MS MALDI-TOF and a comparison with data banks showed the highest identity of the sequenced fragments of exo-PG from R. pusillus with an exo-pectinase from Aspergillus fumigatus. Pectin hydrolysis showed a sigmoidal curve for the Michaelis-Menten plot.

  20. Modelling of a Batch Whey Cultivation of Kluyveromyces marxianus var. lactis MC 5 with Investigation of Mass Transfer Processes in the Bioreactor

    Mitko Petrov

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a mathematical model of a batch fermentation of lactose oxidation from a natural substratum in a cultivation by the strain Kluyweromyces marxianus var. lactis MC 5. In the model of the process, the mass transfer in the bioreactor for oxygen concentration in the gas phase (GP and in the liquid phase (LP is based on the dispersion model of the GP. In addition, perfect mixing in LP is included. Nine models were investigated for specific growth rate and specific oxygen consumptions rate: Monod, Mink, Tessier, Aiba, Andrews, Haldane, Luong, Edward and Han-Levenspiel. In regard to the parameter estimation, the worst observed error was used for all experiments as an objective function. This approach is a special case of multi objective parameter estimation problems allowing the parameter estimation problem to become a min-max problem. The results obtained (values of criteria, relative error and statistics λ for the specific growth rate showed that the best fit to experimental data is achieved when applying the Mink model. In a combination a Mink, and Monod, Mink, Luong, Haldane, and Han-Levenspiel are used for specific oxygen consumptions rate. Based on the investigation, it was discovered that the best fit belonged to the models of Mink and Haldane, Mink and Luong and Mink and Han-Levenspiel. Therefore, these particular models are used for modeling the batch processes.

  1. Enhanced Sorbitol Production under Submerged Fermentation using Lactobacillus plantarum

    Khan Nadiya Jan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Sorbitol is a non-toxic and slightly hygroscopic compound with different applications. Zymomonas mobiles produces sorbitol from sucrose or mixtures of glucose and fructose (formation is coupled with the dehydrogenation of glucose to glucono-δ- lactone. Recombinant Zymomonas mobilis may produce sorbitol and gluconic acid from glucose and fructose using different divalent metal ions with reduced the ethanol yield andsignificantly increased yield of sorbitol. Current study envisaged to alter the media components, physical process parameters and supplementation of amino acids for enhanced sorbitol production.Material and Methods: Several process variables were evaluated on sorbitol production including carbon sources (glucose, fructose, maltose, sucrose, carbon concentrations (5, 10, 20 and 25 g l-1, nitrogen sources (peptone, tryptone, yeast extract, beef extract and organic nitrogen mix, temperatures (25, 29, 33, 37, 41°C, pH (6, 6.5, 7 , 7.5 ,8, agitation rate (50, 100, 150, 200 rpm and amino acids (cysteine, cystine, tryptophanin batch cultivation ofLactobacillus plantarum NCIM 2912. Shake flask cultivation performed under optimum conditions like temperature 37°C, pH 7.0 and agitation rate of 150 rpm, resulted in enhanced sorbitol production. Comparative study of sorbitol production in solid state fermentation and submerged fermentation was also evaluated.Results and Conclusion: Batch cultivation under submerged conditions further performed in 7.5-l lab scale bioreactor (working volume 3.0-l under optimized conditions resulted in maximum cell biomass of 8.95±0.03 g g-1 and a sorbitol content of 9.78±0.04 g l-1 after 42.0 h of fermentation. Scale up study on bioreactor resulted in maximum sorbitol yield (Yp/x and productivity of 1.11 g g-1 and 0.50 g l-1 h under submerged fermentation, respectively.Conflict of interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

  2. Production of the potential sweetener 5-ketofructose from fructose in fed-batch cultivation with Gluconobacter oxydans.

    Herweg, Elena; Schöpping, Marie; Rohr, Katja; Siemen, Anna; Frank, Oliver; Hofmann, Thomas; Deppenmeier, Uwe; Büchs, Jochen

    2018-07-01

    Sweeteners improve the dietary properties of many foods. A candidate for a new natural sweetener is 5-ketofructose. In this study a fed-batch process for the production of 5-ketofructose was developed. A Gluconobacter oxydans strain overexpressing a fructose dehydrogenase from G. japonicus was used and the sensory properties of 5-ketofructose were analyzed. The compound showed an identical sweet taste quality as fructose and a similar intrinsic sweet threshold concentration of 16.4 mmol/L. The production of 5-ketofructose was characterized online by monitoring of the respiration activity in shake flasks. Pulsed and continuous fructose feeding was realized in 2 L stirred tank reactors and maximum fructose consumption rates were determined. 5-Ketofructose concentrations of up to 489 g/L, product yields up to 0.98 g 5-KF /g fructose and space time yields up to 8.2 g/L/h were reached highlighting the potential of the presented process. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. HPLC-ESI-MS(n) Analysis, Fed-Batch Cultivation Enhances Bioactive Compound Biosynthesis and Immune-Regulative Effect of Adventitious Roots in Pseudostellaria heterophylla.

    Wang, Juan; Li, Jing; Li, Hongfa; Wu, Xiaolei; Gao, Wenyuan

    2015-09-01

    A electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS(n)) analysis was performed in order to identify the active composition in Pseudostellaria heterophylla adventitious roots. Pseudostellarin A, C, D, and G were identified from P. heterophylla adventitious roots on the basis of LC-MS(n) analysis. The culture conditions of adventitious roots were optimized, and datasets were subjected to a partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), in which the growth ratio and some compounds showed a positive correlation with an aeration volume of 0.3 vvm and inoculum density of 0.15 %. Fed-batch cultivation enhanced the contents of total saponin, polysaccharides, and specific oxygen uptaker rate (SOUR). The maximum dry root weight (4.728 g l(-1)) was achieved in the 3/4 Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium group. PLS-DA showed that polysaccharides contributed significantly to the clustering of different groups and showed a positive correlation in the MS medium group. The delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction on the mice induced by 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB) was applied to compare the immunocompetence effects of adventitious roots (AR) with field native roots (NR) of P. heterophylla. As a result, AR possessed a similar immunoregulation function as NR.

  4. Effect of pH, Temperature, and Chemicals on the Endoglucanases and β-Glucosidases from the Thermophilic Fungus Myceliophthora heterothallica F.2.1.4. Obtained by Solid-State and Submerged Cultivation

    Vanessa de Cássia Teixeira da Silva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work reports endoglucanase and beta-glucosidase production by the thermophilic fungus Myceliophthora heterothallica in solid-state (SSC and submerged (SmC cultivation. Wheat bran and sugarcane bagasse were used for SSC and cardboard for SmC. Highest endoglucanase production in SSC occurred after 192 hours: 1,170.6 ± 0.8 U/g, and in SmC after 168 hours: 2,642 ± 561 U/g. The endoglucanases and beta-glucosidases produced by both cultivation systems showed slight differences concerning their optimal pH and temperature. The number of endoglucanases was also different: six isoforms in SSC and ten in SmC. Endoglucanase activity remained above 50% after incubation between pH 3.0 and 9.0 for 24 h for both cultivation systems. The effect of several chemicals displayed variation between SSC and SmC isoenzymes. Manganese activated the enzymes from SmC but inhibited those from SSC. For β-glucosidases, maximum production on SmC was 244 ± 48 U/g after 168 hours using cardboard as carbon source. In SSC maximum production reached 10.9 ± 0.3 U/g after 240 h with 1 : 1 wheat bran and sugarcane bagasse. Manganese exerted a significant activation on SSC β-glucosidases, and glucose inhibited the enzymes from both cultivation systems. FeCl3 exerted the strongest inhibition for endoglucanases and β-glucosidases.

  5. Screening of endophytic sources of exopolysaccharides: Preliminary characterization of crude exopolysaccharide produced by submerged culture of Diaporthe sp. JF766998 under different cultivation time

    Ravely Casarotti Orlandelli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Endophytic fungi have been described as producers of important bioactive compounds; however, they remain under-exploited as exopolysaccharides (EPS sources. Therefore, this work reports on EPS production by submerged cultures of eight endophytes isolated from Piper hispidum Sw., belonging to genera Diaporthe, Marasmius, Phlebia, Phoma, Phyllosticta and Schizophyllum. After fermentation for 96 h, four endophytes secreted EPS: Diaporthe sp. JF767000, Diaporthe sp. JF766998, Diaporthe sp. JF767007 and Phoma herbarum JF766995. The EPS from Diaporthe sp. JF766998 differed statistically from the others, with a higher percentage of carbohydrate (91% and lower amount of protein (8%. Subsequently, this fungus was grown under submerged culture for 72, 96 and 168 h (these EPS were designated EPSD1-72, EPSD1-96 and EPSD1-168 and the differences in production, monosaccharide composition and apparent molecular were compared. The EPS yields in mg/100 mL of culture medium were: 3.0 ± 0.4 (EPSD1-72, 15.4 ± 2.2 (EPSD1-96 and 14.8 ± 1.8 (EPSD1-168. The EPSD1-72 had high protein content (28.5% and only 71% of carbohydrate; while EPSD1-96 and EPSD1-168 were composed mainly of carbohydrate (≈95 and 100%, respectively, with low protein content (≈5% detected at 96 h. Galactose was the main monosaccharide component (30% of EPSD1-168. Differently, EPSD1-96 was rich in glucose (51%, with molecular weight of 46.6 kDa. It is an important feature for future investigations, because glucan-rich EPS are reported as effective antitumor agents.

  6. High-level expression of a fungal pyranose oxidase in high cell-density fed-batch cultivations of Escherichia coli using lactose as inducer

    Kotík, Michael; Kočanová, Marcela; Marešová, Helena; Kyslík, Pavel

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 36, - (2004), s. 61-69 ISSN 1046-5928 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : fed-batch * lactose * inclusion bodies Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.336, year: 2004

  7. From 32 ounces to zero: a medical geographic study of dispensing a cultivated batch of "plum" cannabis flowers to medical marijuana patients in Washington State.

    Aggarwal, Sunil K; Carter, Gregory T; Zumbrunnen, Craig; Morrill, Richard; Sullivan, Mark; Mayer, Jonathan D

    2013-01-01

    The medicinal use of cannabis is a growing phenomenon in the U.S. predicated on the success of overcoming specific spatial challenges and establishing particular human-environment relationships. This article takes a medical geographic "snapshot" of an urban site in Washington State where qualifying chronically ill and debilitated patients are delivered locally produced botanical cannabis for medical use. Using interview, survey, and observation, this medical geographic research project collected information on the social space of the particular delivery site and tracked the production cost, reach, and health value of a 32-ounce batch of strain-specific medical cannabis named "Plum" dispensed over a four-day period. A convenience sample of 37 qualifying patients delivered this batch of cannabis botanical medicine was recruited and prospectively studied with survey instruments. Results provide insight into patients' self-rated health, human-plant relationships, and travel-to-clinic distances. An overall systematic geographic understanding of the medical cannabis delivery system gives a grounded understanding of the lengths that patients and care providers go, despite multiple hurdles, to receive and deliver treatment with botanical cannabis that relieves diverse symptoms and improves health-related quality-of-life.

  8. US State Submerged Lands

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Submerged Lands Act (43 U.S.C. Section 1301 et seq.) grants coastal states title to natural resources located within their coastal submerged lands and navigable...

  9. Water-saving analysis on an effective water reuse system in biodiesel feedstock production based on Chlorella zofingiensis fed-batch cultivation.

    Yang, Kang; Qin, Lei; Wang, Zhongming; Feng, Wei; Feng, Pingzhong; Zhu, Shunni; Xu, Jingliang; Yuan, Zhenhong

    2015-01-01

    The micralgae-based biofuel obtained from dairy wastewater (DWW) is considered a promising source of energy. However, this process consumes water due to the concentration of wastewater being normally too high for some micoralgae cultivation, and dilution is always needed. In this work, the cultivation of microalgae has been examined in non-recirculated water (NR) and recirculated water systems (R). The growth of Chlorella zofingiensis and the nutrient removal of DWW have been recorded. The comparison indicates the R had a little more advantage in biomass and lipid output (1.55, 0.22 g, respectively) than the NR (1.51, 0.20 g, respectively). However, the total chemical oxygen demand (COD), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), and total phosphorus (TP) removals of the R were lower than those of the NR system during the culture. The highest removal of total COD, TKN, and TP were 85.05%, 93.64%, and 98.45%, respectively. Furthermore, no significant difference has been observed in the higher heating value and lipid content of the biomass of the R and NR. The results show the R can save 30% of the total water input during the culture. All above results indicate the R system has great potential in industry.

  10. Aerobic and anaerobic ethanol production by Mucor circinelloides during submerged growth

    Luebbehuesen, T.L.; Nielsen, J.; McIntyre, M. [Center for Process Biotechnology, BioCentrum-DTU, Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark)

    2004-07-01

    The dimorphic organism Mucor circinelloides is currently being investigated as a potential host for heterologous protein production. The production of ethanol on pentose and hexose sugars was studied in submerged batch cultivations to further the general knowledge of Mucor physiology, with a view to the minimisation or elimination of the by-product ethanol for future process design. Large amounts of ethanol were produced during aerobic growth on glucose under non-oxygen limiting conditions, which is indicative of M. circinelloides being a Crabtree-positive organism. Ethanol production on galactose or xylose was less significant. The response of the organism to increased ethanol concentrations, both as the sole carbon source and in the presence of a sugar, was investigated in terms of biomass formation and morphology. (orig.)

  11. Effect of medium pH on chemical selectivity of oxalic acid biosynthesis by Aspergillus niger W78C in submerged batch cultures with sucrose as a carbon source.

    Walaszczyk, Ewa; Podgórski, Waldemar; Janczar-Smuga, Małgorzata; Dymarska, Ewelina

    2018-01-01

    The pH of the medium is the key environmental parameter of chemical selectivity of oxalic acid biosynthesis by Aspergillus niger . The activity of the enzyme oxaloacetate hydrolase, which is responsible for decomposition of oxaloacetate to oxalate and acetate inside the cell of the fungus, is highest at pH 6. In the present study, the influence of pH in the range of 3-7 on oxalic acid secretion by A. niger W78C from sucrose was investigated. The highest oxalic acid concentration, 64.3 g dm -3 , was reached in the medium with pH 6. The chemical selectivity of the process was 58.6% because of the presence of citric and gluconic acids in the cultivation broth in the amount of 15.3 and 30.2 g dm -3 , respectively. Both an increase and a decrease of medium pH caused a decrease of oxalic acid concentration. The obtained results confirm that pH 6 of the carbohydrate medium is appropriate for oxalic acid synthesis by A. niger , but the chemical selectivity of the process described in this paper was high in comparison to values reported previously in the literature.

  12. Optimization of probiotic and lactic acid production by Lactobacillus plantarum in submerged bioreactor systems.

    Brinques, Graziela Brusch; do Carmo Peralba, Maria; Ayub, Marco Antônio Záchia

    2010-02-01

    Biomass and lactic acid production by a Lactobacillus plantarum strain isolated from Serrano cheese, a microorganism traditionally used in foods and recognized as a potent probiotic, was optimized. Optimization procedures were carried out in submerged batch bioreactors using cheese whey as the main carbon source. Sequential experimental Plackett-Burman designs followed by central composite design (CCD) were used to assess the influence of temperature, pH, stirring, aeration rate, and concentrations of lactose, peptone, and yeast extract on biomass and lactic acid production. Results showed that temperature, pH, aeration rate, lactose, and peptone were the most influential variables for biomass formation. Under optimized conditions, the CCD for temperature and aeration rate showed that the model predicted maximal biomass production of 14.30 g l(-1) (dw) of L. plantarum. At the central point of the CCD, a biomass of 10.2 g l(-1) (dw), with conversion rates of 0.10 g of cell g(-1) lactose and 1.08 g lactic acid g(-1) lactose (w/w), was obtained. These results provide useful information about the optimal cultivation conditions for growing L. plantarum in batch bioreactors in order to boost biomass to be used as industrial probiotic and to obtain high yields of conversion of lactose to lactic acid.

  13. Optimization of submerged vane parameters

    H Sharma

    the height or length of the submerged vane, no effective change in bed profile .... easily and again vanes will be ineffective, which is what. Odgaard and .... [3] Odgaard A J and Wang Y 1991a Sediment management with submerged vanes.

  14. Following an Optimal Batch Bioreactor Operations Model

    Ibarra-Junquera, V.; Jørgensen, Sten Bay; Virgen-Ortíz, J.J.

    2012-01-01

    The problem of following an optimal batch operation model for a bioreactor in the presence of uncertainties is studied. The optimal batch bioreactor operation model (OBBOM) refers to the bioreactor trajectory for nominal cultivation to be optimal. A multiple-variable dynamic optimization of fed...... as the master system which includes the optimal cultivation trajectory for the feed flow rate and the substrate concentration. The “real” bioreactor, the one with unknown dynamics and perturbations, is considered as the slave system. Finally, the controller is designed such that the real bioreactor...

  15. Medium optimization for protopectinase production by batch culture of

    Medium optimization for protopectinase production by batch culture of. C Fan, Z Liu, L Yao. Abstract. Optimization of medium compositions for protopectinase production by Aspergillus terreus in submerged culture was carried out. The medium components having significant effect on protopectinase production were reported ...

  16. Cultivation of the bacterium Azotobacter chroococcum for ...

    ... increase of bioprocess efficiency parameters (yield coefficient and productivity) were observed compared with the batch cultivation. On the basis of the obtained results, repeated batch technique appeared to be the most suitable for the bacterial biomass production at industrial scale. Key words: Azotobacter chroococcum, ...

  17. [Antimicrobial activity of Laetiporus sulphureus strains grown in submerged culture].

    Ershova, E Iu; Tikhonova, O V; Lur'e, L M; Efremenkova, O V; Kamzolkina, O V; Dudnik, Iu V

    2003-01-01

    Cultural conditions for growth and fruit body formation were elaborated to four strains of Laetiporus sulphureus isolated from nature. All strains demonstrated antimicrobial activity against a wide spectrum of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria during agar and submerged cultivation including methicillin-resistant strain of Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and glycopeptide-resistant strain of Leuconostoc mesenteroides. Antifungal activity was not found. The level of antimicrobial activity during submerged cultivation reached maximum after seven days of growth on specific medium with soybean meal and corn liquid; the next four weeks its increasing was not so manifested. Antimicrobial activity correlated with orange pigment secretion and cultural liquid acidification to pH 2.0-2.8 that indicates on acid nature of synthesized products.

  18. Pro Spring Batch

    Minella, Michael T

    2011-01-01

    Since its release, Spring Framework has transformed virtually every aspect of Java development including web applications, security, aspect-oriented programming, persistence, and messaging. Spring Batch, one of its newer additions, now brings the same familiar Spring idioms to batch processing. Spring Batch addresses the needs of any batch process, from the complex calculations performed in the biggest financial institutions to simple data migrations that occur with many software development projects. Pro Spring Batch is intended to answer three questions: *What? What is batch processing? What

  19. Submerged AUV Charging Station

    Jones, Jack A.; Chao, Yi; Curtin, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) are becoming increasingly important for military surveillance and mine detection. Most AUVs are battery powered and have limited lifetimes of a few days to a few weeks. This greatly limits the distance that AUVs can travel underwater. Using a series of submerged AUV charging stations, AUVs could travel a limited distance to the next charging station, recharge its batteries, and continue to the next charging station, thus traveling great distances in a relatively short time, similar to the Old West “Pony Express.” One solution is to use temperature differences at various depths in the ocean to produce electricity, which is then stored in a submerged battery. It is preferred to have the upper buoy submerged a reasonable distance below the surface, so as not to be seen from above and not to be inadvertently destroyed by storms or ocean going vessels. In a previous invention, a phase change material (PCM) is melted (expanded) at warm temperatures, for example, 15 °C, and frozen (contracted) at cooler temperatures, for example, 8 °C. Tubes containing the PCM, which could be paraffin such as pentadecane, would be inserted into a container filled with hydraulic oil. When the PCM is melted (expanded), it pushes the oil out into a container that is pressurized to about 3,000 psi (approx equals 20.7 MPa). When a valve is opened, the high-pressure oil passes through a hydraulic motor, which turns a generator and charges a battery. The low-pressure oil is finally reabsorbed into the PCM canister when the PCM tubes are frozen (contracted). Some of the electricity produced could be used to control an external bladder or a motor to the tether line, such that depth cycling is continued for a very long period of time. Alternatively, after the electricity is generated by the hydraulic motor, the exiting low-pressure oil from the hydraulic motor could be vented directly to an external bladder on the AUV, such that filling of the bladder

  20. Submerged Grove in Lake Onogawa

    Sato, Yasuhiro; Nakamura, Soken; Ochiai, Masahiro

    1996-01-01

    Abstract : The first record by ultrasonic echo sounding on the distribution of the submerged standing trees on the bottom of Lake Onogawa is presented. Lake Onogawa is a dammed lake formed at the time of the eruption of the volcano Mt.Bandai in 1888. Since then the original vegetation of the dammed valley has remained submerged. Many submerged standing trees are distributed on the bottom within about 600m from the northeast end of the lake. The density of the trees in this area is sufficient ...

  1. Supervision of Fed-Batch Fermentations

    Gregersen, Lars; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    1999-01-01

    Process faults may be detected on-line using existing measurements based upon modelling that is entirely data driven. A multivariate statistical model is developed and used for fault diagnosis of an industrial fed-batch fermentation process. Data from several (25) batches are used to develop...... a model for cultivation behaviour. This model is validated against 13 data sets and demonstrated to explain a significant amount of variation in the data. The multivariate model may directly be used for process monitoring. With this method faults are detected in real time and the responsible measurements...

  2. Functional State Modelling of Cultivation Processes: Dissolved Oxygen Limitation State

    Olympia Roeva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A new functional state, namely dissolved oxygen limitation state for both bacteria Escherichia coli and yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae fed-batch cultivation processes is presented in this study. Functional state modelling approach is applied to cultivation processes in order to overcome the main disadvantages of using global process model, namely complex model structure and a big number of model parameters. Alongwith the newly introduced dissolved oxygen limitation state, second acetate production state and first acetate production state are recognized during the fed-batch cultivation of E. coli, while mixed oxidative state and first ethanol production state are recognized during the fed-batch cultivation of S. cerevisiae. For all mentioned above functional states both structural and parameter identification is here performed based on experimental data of E. coli and S. cerevisiae fed-batch cultivations.

  3. Nitrogen consumption during batch cultivation of Neisseria meningitidis (serogroup C in Frantz medium Consumo de nitrogênio durante cultivo descontínuo de Neisseria meningitidis (sorogrupo C em meio de Frantz

    Júlia Baruque-Ramos

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Capsular polysaccharide, extracted from microorganism cultivations, is the principal antigen for elaboration of vaccine against the disease caused by Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C. The final protein content allowed in this vaccine is 1%. In order to find a relationship between nitrogen consumption and cell growth, including polysaccharide production, and cell nitrogen content, cultivations were carried out in an 80 liters bioreactor (total capacity, under the following conditions: Frantz medium; temperature of 35ºC; air flow of 5 L/min (0.125 vvm; agitation frequency of 120 rpm and vessel pressure of 6 psi (kLa = 0.07 min-1. Concentrations of biomass, total polysaccharide, cellular nitrogen, residual organic and inorganic nitrogen in the medium were measured during cultivation. From five cultivations carried out under the same conditions, a mean cell nitrogen percentage of 12.6% (w/w in respect to the dry biomass was found. The inorganic nitrogen in the medium did not change significantly along the cultivation time, whereas the organic nitrogen consumption was linearly related to cell growth, with constant yield factors (average of 8.44. Polysaccharide production kinetics followed the cell growth kinetics until the beginning of the stationary growth phase. A supplemental polysaccharide production was observed until the end of cultivation, but without cell nitrogen absorption. Thus, the results indicate that polysaccharide is produced in two phases, being the first one biomass formation followed by non-associated to growth.Polissacarídeo capsular, extraído de cultivos microbianos, é o principal antígeno para o preparo da vacina contra a doença causada por Neisseria meningitidis sorogrupo C. O conteúdo final de proteína permitido nessa vacina é de 1%. De modo a encontrar uma relação entre o consumo de nitrogênio, o crescimento microbiano (incluindo a produção de polissacarídeo e o conteúdo de nitrogênio celular, cultivos

  4. Reducing the variability of antibiotic production in Streptomyces by cultivation in 24-square deepwell plates

    Siebenberg, S.; Bapat, Prashant Madhusudhan; Eliasson Lantz, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Highly reproducible production values of the aminocoumarin antibiotic novobiocin were achieved by cultivation of a heterologous Streptomyces producer strain in commercially available square deepwell plates consisting of 24 wells of 3 ml culture volume each. Between parallel cultivation batches...

  5. Lactobacillus plantarum BL011 cultivation in industrial isolated soybean protein acid residue

    Chaline Caren Coghetto

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study, physiological aspects of Lactobacillus plantarum BL011 growing in a new, all-animal free medium in bioreactors were evaluated aiming at the production of this important lactic acid bacterium. Cultivations were performed in submerged batch bioreactors using the Plackett-Burman methodology to evaluate the influence of temperature, aeration rate and stirring speed as well as the concentrations of liquid acid protein residue of soybean, soy peptone, corn steep liquor, and raw yeast extract. The results showed that all variables, except for corn steep liquor, significantly influenced biomass production. The best condition was applied to bioreactor cultures, which produced a maximal biomass of 17.87 g L-1, whereas lactic acid, the most important lactic acid bacteria metabolite, peaked at 37.59 g L-1, corresponding to a productivity of 1.46 g L-1 h-1. This is the first report on the use of liquid acid protein residue of soybean medium for L. plantarum growth. These results support the industrial use of this system as an alternative to produce probiotics without animal-derived ingredients to obtain high biomass concentrations in batch bioreactors.

  6. Lactobacillus plantarum BL011 cultivation in industrial isolated soybean protein acid residue.

    Coghetto, Chaline Caren; Vasconcelos, Carolina Bettker; Brinques, Graziela Brusch; Ayub, Marco Antônio Záchia

    In this study, physiological aspects of Lactobacillus plantarum BL011 growing in a new, all-animal free medium in bioreactors were evaluated aiming at the production of this important lactic acid bacterium. Cultivations were performed in submerged batch bioreactors using the Plackett-Burman methodology to evaluate the influence of temperature, aeration rate and stirring speed as well as the concentrations of liquid acid protein residue of soybean, soy peptone, corn steep liquor, and raw yeast extract. The results showed that all variables, except for corn steep liquor, significantly influenced biomass production. The best condition was applied to bioreactor cultures, which produced a maximal biomass of 17.87gL -1 , whereas lactic acid, the most important lactic acid bacteria metabolite, peaked at 37.59gL -1 , corresponding to a productivity of 1.46gL -1 h -1 . This is the first report on the use of liquid acid protein residue of soybean medium for L. plantarum growth. These results support the industrial use of this system as an alternative to produce probiotics without animal-derived ingredients to obtain high biomass concentrations in batch bioreactors. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  7. Spring batch essentials

    Rao, P Raja Malleswara

    2015-01-01

    If you are a Java developer with basic knowledge of Spring and some experience in the development of enterprise applications, and want to learn about batch application development in detail, then this book is ideal for you. This book will be perfect as your next step towards building simple yet powerful batch applications on a Java-based platform.

  8. Functional State Modelling of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cultivations

    Iasen Hristozov

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of functional state approach for modelling of yeast cultivation is considered in this paper. This concept helps in monitoring and control of complex processes such as bioprocesses. Using of functional state modelling approach for fermentation processes aims to overcome the main disadvantage of using global process model, namely complex model structure and big number of model parameters. The main advantage of functional state modelling is that the parameters of each local model can be separately estimated from other local models parameters. The results achieved from batch, as well as from fed-batch, cultivations are presented.

  9. Drought and submergence tolerance in plants

    Du, Hewei; Zhou, Yufan; Oksenberg, Nir; Ronald, Pamela

    2017-11-14

    The invention provides methods of genetically modified plants to increase tolerance to drought and/or submergence. The invention additionally provides plants having increased drought and/or submergence tolerance engineered using such methods.

  10. Submerged membrane distillation for desalination of water

    Francis, Lijo; Ghaffour, NorEddine; Alsaadi, Ahmad Salem

    2016-01-01

    Submerged membrane modules for use for desalination of water are disclosed. In one or more aspects, the membrane modules can be submerged either in a feed solution tank or the feed solution can pass through the lumen side of the membrane submerged within the tank. The feed solution can be a water-based feed stream containing an amount of salt.

  11. Submerged membrane distillation for desalination of water

    Francis, Lijo

    2016-10-27

    Submerged membrane modules for use for desalination of water are disclosed. In one or more aspects, the membrane modules can be submerged either in a feed solution tank or the feed solution can pass through the lumen side of the membrane submerged within the tank. The feed solution can be a water-based feed stream containing an amount of salt.

  12. Investigation of a submerged membrane reactor for continuous biomass hydrolysis

    Malmali, Mohammadmahdi; Stickel, Jonathan; Wickramasinghe, S. Ranil

    2015-10-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose is one of the most costly steps in the bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass. Use of a submerged membrane reactor has been investigated for continuous enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose thus allowing for greater use of the enzyme compared to a batch process. Moreover, the submerged 0.65 μm polyethersulfone microfiltration membrane avoids the need to pump a cellulose slurry through an external loop. Permeate containing glucose is withdrawn at pressures slightly below atmospheric pressure. The membrane rejects cellulose particles and cellulase enzyme bound to cellulose. Our proof-of-concept experiments have been conducted using a modified, commercially available membrane filtration cell under low fluxes around 75 L/(m2 h). The operating flux is determined by the rate of glucose production. Maximizing the rate of glucose production involves optimizing mixing, reactor holding time, and the time the feed is held in the reactor prior to commencement of membrane filtration and continuous operation. When we maximize glucose production rates it will require that we operate it at low glucose concentration in order to minimize the adverse effects of product inhibition. Consequently practical submerged membrane systems will require a combined sugar concentration step in order to concentrate the product sugar stream prior to fermentation.

  13. Involvement of Physical Parameters in Medium Improvement for Tannase Production by Aspergillus niger FETL FT3 in Submerged Fermentation

    Darah, I.; Sumathi, G.; Jain, K.; Hong, Lim Sheh

    2011-01-01

    Aspergillus niger FETL FT3, a local extracellular tannase producer strain that was isolated from one of dumping sites of tannin-rich barks of Rhizophora apiculata in Perak, Malaysia. This fungus was cultivated in 250 mL Erlenmeyer flask under submerged fermentation system. Various physical parameters were studied in order to maximize the tannase production. Maximal yield of tannase production, that is, 2.81 U per mL was obtained on the fourth day of cultivation when the submerged fermentation...

  14. SPS batch spacing optimisation

    Velotti, F M; Carlier, E; Goddard, B; Kain, V; Kotzian, G

    2017-01-01

    Until 2015, the LHC filling schemes used the batch spac-ing as specified in the LHC design report. The maximumnumber of bunches injectable in the LHC directly dependson the batch spacing at injection in the SPS and hence onthe MKP rise time.As part of the LHC Injectors Upgrade project for LHCheavy ions, a reduction of the batch spacing is needed. In thisdirection, studies to approach the MKP design rise time of150ns(2-98%) have been carried out. These measurementsgave clear indications that such optimisation, and beyond,could be done also for higher injection momentum beams,where the additional slower MKP (MKP-L) is needed.After the successful results from 2015 SPS batch spacingoptimisation for the Pb-Pb run [1], the same concept wasthought to be used also for proton beams. In fact, thanksto the SPS transverse feed back, it was already observedthat lower batch spacing than the design one (225ns) couldbe achieved. For the 2016 p-Pb run, a batch spacing of200nsfor the proton beam with100nsbunch spacing wasreque...

  15. Heuristics for batching and sequencing in batch processing machines

    Chuda Basnet

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we discuss the “batch processing” problem, where there are multiple jobs to be processed in flow shops. These jobs can however be formed into batches and the number of jobs in a batch is limited by the capacity of the processing machines to accommodate the jobs. The processing time required by a batch in a machine is determined by the greatest processing time of the jobs included in the batch. Thus, the batch processing problem is a mix of batching and sequencing – the jobs need to be grouped into distinct batches, the batches then need to be sequenced through the flow shop. We apply certain newly developed heuristics to the problem and present computational results. The contributions of this paper are deriving a lower bound, and the heuristics developed and tested in this paper.

  16. Macroinvertebrates associated with two submerged macrophytes ...

    Macroinvertebrates associated with two submerged macrophytes, Lagarosiphon ilicifolius and Vallisneria aethiopica , in the Sanyati Basin, Lake Kariba, Zimbabwe: effect of plant morphological complexity.

  17. Prunus dulcis, Batch

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-06-07

    Jun 7, 2010 ... almond (Prunus dulcis, Batch) genotypes as revealed by PCR analysis. Yavar Sharafi1*, Jafar Hajilou1, Seyed AbolGhasem Mohammadi2, Mohammad Reza Dadpour1 and Sadollah Eskandari3. 1Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, 5166614766, Iran.

  18. Submerged fermentation of Lactobacillus rhamnosus YS9 for γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) production

    Lin,Qian

    2013-01-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in central nervous system, and its application in drugs and functional foods has attracted great attention. To enhance production of y-aminobutyric acid, Lactobacillus rhamnosus YS9, a strain isolated from Chinese traditional fermented food pickled vegetable, was grown under submerged fermentation. Its cultivation conditions were investigated. When culture pH condition was adjusted to the optimal pH of glutamate decarboxyl...

  19. PHYSIOLOGICAL REGULATION OF PROTEASE AND ANTIBIOTICS IN PENICILLIUM SP. USING SUBMERGED AND SOLID STATE FERMENTATION TECHNIQUES

    HAIDER M. HAMZAH; ANWAR H.L. Ali; HAMID G. HASSAN

    2009-01-01

    A fungal strain belonging to the genus Penicillium was isolated from soil sample and has been diagnosed as Penicillium sp. according to its morphological characteristics of the colonies on solid media and also microscopical examination of the fungal parts. Antibiotics, protease activity and pH values were determined after cultivation of the fungus using submerged fermentation (SF) and solid state fermentation (SSF). The two different patterns of fermentation processes seem to influence the ph...

  20. Flow and scour around vertical submerged structures

    The safety of the foundations of submerged hydraulic structures due to excessive local scour is threatened by the erosive action of the waves and currents passing around these structures. Fish and aquatic habitat is seriously affected due to the modification of the flow field caused by these submerged structures. Hence, the ...

  1. Improving cellulase productivity of Penicillium oxalicum RE-10 by repeated fed-batch fermentation strategy.

    Han, Xiaolong; Song, Wenxia; Liu, Guodong; Li, Zhonghai; Yang, Piao; Qu, Yinbo

    2017-03-01

    Medium optimization and repeated fed-batch fermentation were performed to improve the cellulase productivity by P. oxalicum RE-10 in submerged fermentation. First, Plackett-Burman design (PBD) and central composite design (CCD) were used to optimize the medium for cellulase production. PBD demonstrated wheat bran and NaNO 3 had significant influences on cellulase production. The CCD results showed the maximum filter paper activity (FPA) production of 8.61U/mL could be achieved in Erlenmeyer flasks. The maximal FPA reached 12.69U/mL by submerged batch fermentation in a 7.5-L stirred tank, 1.76-fold higher than that on the original medium. Then, the repeated fed-batch fermentation strategy was performed successfully for increasing the cellulase productivity from 105.75U/L/h in batch fermentation to 158.38U/L/h. The cellulase activity and the glucan conversion of delignined corn cob residue hydrolysis had no significant difference between the enzymes sampled from different cycles of the repeated fed-batch fermentation and that from batch culture. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Modelling of Batch Process Operations

    Abdul Samad, Noor Asma Fazli; Cameron, Ian; Gani, Rafiqul

    2011-01-01

    Here a batch cooling crystalliser is modelled and simulated as is a batch distillation system. In the batch crystalliser four operational modes of the crystalliser are considered, namely: initial cooling, nucleation, crystal growth and product removal. A model generation procedure is shown that s...

  3. Different cultivation methods to acclimatise ammonia-tolerant methanogenic consortia

    Tian, Hailin; Fotidis, Ioannis; Mancini, Enrico

    2017-01-01

    reactors (i.e. batch, fed-batch and continuous stirred-tank reactors (CSTR)) operated at mesophilic (37°C) and thermophilic (55°C) conditions were assessed, based on methane production efficiency, incubation time, TAN/FAN (total ammonium nitrogen/free ammonia nitrogen) levels and maximum methanogenic...... activity. Overall, fed-batch cultivation was clearly the most efficient method compared to batch and CSTR. Specifically, by saving incubation time up to 150%, fed-batch reactors were acclimatised to nearly 2-fold higher FAN levels with a 37%-153% methanogenic activity improvement, compared to batch method....... Meanwhile, CSTR reactors were inhibited at lower ammonia levels. Finally, specific methanogenic activity test showed that hydrogenotrophic methanogens were more active than aceticlastic methanogens in all FAN levels above 540 mg NH3-N L-1....

  4. IODINE REMOVAL EFFICIENCY IN NON-SUBMERGED AND SUBMERGED SELF-PRIMING VENTURI SCRUBBER

    MAJID ALI

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this conducted research is to study the iodine removal efficiency in a self-priming venturi scrubber for submerged and non-submerged operating conditions experimentally and theoretically. The alkaline solution is used as an absorbent, which is prepared by dissolving sodium hydroxide (NaOH and sodium thiosulphate (Na2S2O3 in water to remove the gaseous iodine (I2 from the gas. Iodine removal efficiency is examined at various gas flow rates and inlet concentrations of iodine for submerged and non-submerged operating conditions. In the non-submerged venturi scrubber, only the droplets take part in iodine removal efficiency. However, in a submerged venturi scrubber condition, the iodine gas is absorbed from gas to droplets inside the venturi scrubber and from bubbles to surrounding liquid at the outlet of a venturi scrubber. Experimentally, it is observed that the iodine removal efficiency is greater in the submerged venturi scrubber as compare to a non-submerged venturi scrubber condition. The highest iodine removal efficiency of 0.99±0.001 has been achieved in a submerged self-priming venturi scrubber condition. A mathematical correlation is used to predict the theoretical iodine removal efficiency in submerged and non-submerged conditions, and it is compared against the experimental results. The Wilkinson et al. correlation is used to predict the bubble diameter theoretically whereas the Nukiyama and Tanasawa correlation is used for droplet diameter. The mass transfer coefficient for the gas phase is calculated from the Steinberger and Treybal correlation. The calculated results for a submerged venturi scrubber agree well with experimental results but underpredicts in the case of the non-submerged venturi scrubber.

  5. Iodine Removal Efficiency in Non-Submerged and Submerged Self-Priming Venturi Scrubber

    Ali, Majid; Yan, Changqi; Sun, Zhongning; Gu, Haifeng; Wang, Junlong; Mehboob; Khurram [Harbin Engineering Univ., Harbin (China)

    2013-04-15

    The objective of this conducted research is to study the iodine removal efficiency in a self-priming venturi scrubber for submerged and non-submerged operating conditions experimentally and theoretically. The alkaline solution is used as an absorbent, which is prepared by dissolving sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and sodium thiosulphate (Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 3}) in water to remove the gaseous iodine (I{sub 2}) from the gas. Iodine removal efficiency is examined at various gas flow rates and inlet concentrations of iodine for submerged and non-submerged operating conditions. In the non-submerged venturi scrubber, only the droplets take part in iodine removal efficiency. However, in a submerged venturi scrubber condition, the iodine gas is absorbed from gas to droplets inside the venturi scrubber and from bubbles to surrounding liquid at the outlet of a venturi scrubber. Experimentally, it is observed that the iodine removal efficiency is greater in the submerged venturi scrubber as compare to a non-submerged venturi scrubber condition. The highest iodine removal efficiency of 0.99±0.001 has been achieved in a submerged self-priming venturi scrubber condition. A mathematical correlation is used to predict the theoretical iodine removal efficiency in submerged and non-submerged conditions, and it is compared against the experimental results. The Wilkinson et al. correlation is used to predict the bubble diameter theoretically whereas the Nukiyama and Tanasawa correlation is used for droplet diameter. The mass transfer coefficient for the gas phase is calculated from the Steinberger and Treybal correlation. The calculated results for a submerged venturi scrubber agree well with experimental results but underpredicts in the case of the non-submerged venturi scrubber.

  6. Iodine Removal Efficiency in Non-Submerged and Submerged Self-Priming Venturi Scrubber

    Ali, Majid; Yan, Changqi; Sun, Zhongning; Gu, Haifeng; Wang, Junlong; Mehboob; Khurram

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this conducted research is to study the iodine removal efficiency in a self-priming venturi scrubber for submerged and non-submerged operating conditions experimentally and theoretically. The alkaline solution is used as an absorbent, which is prepared by dissolving sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and sodium thiosulphate (Na 2 S 2 O 3 ) in water to remove the gaseous iodine (I 2 ) from the gas. Iodine removal efficiency is examined at various gas flow rates and inlet concentrations of iodine for submerged and non-submerged operating conditions. In the non-submerged venturi scrubber, only the droplets take part in iodine removal efficiency. However, in a submerged venturi scrubber condition, the iodine gas is absorbed from gas to droplets inside the venturi scrubber and from bubbles to surrounding liquid at the outlet of a venturi scrubber. Experimentally, it is observed that the iodine removal efficiency is greater in the submerged venturi scrubber as compare to a non-submerged venturi scrubber condition. The highest iodine removal efficiency of 0.99±0.001 has been achieved in a submerged self-priming venturi scrubber condition. A mathematical correlation is used to predict the theoretical iodine removal efficiency in submerged and non-submerged conditions, and it is compared against the experimental results. The Wilkinson et al. correlation is used to predict the bubble diameter theoretically whereas the Nukiyama and Tanasawa correlation is used for droplet diameter. The mass transfer coefficient for the gas phase is calculated from the Steinberger and Treybal correlation. The calculated results for a submerged venturi scrubber agree well with experimental results but underpredicts in the case of the non-submerged venturi scrubber

  7. Acoustic and adsorption properties of submerged wood

    Hilde, Calvin Patrick

    Wood is a common material for the manufacture of many products. Submerged wood, in particular, is used in niche markets, such as the creation of musical instruments. An initial study performed on submerged wood from Ootsa Lake, British Columbia, provided results that showed that the wood was not suitable for musical instruments. This thesis re-examined the submerged wood samples. After allowing the wood to age unabated in a laboratory setting, the wood was retested under the hypothesis that the physical acoustic characteristics would improve. It was shown, however, that the acoustic properties became less adequate after being left to sit. The adsorption properties of the submerged wood were examined to show that the submerged wood had a larger accessible area of wood than that of control wood samples. This implied a lower amount of crystalline area within the submerged wood. From the combined adsorption and acoustic data for the submerged wood, relationships between the moisture content and speed of sound were created and combined with previous research to create a proposed model to describe how the speed of sound varies with temperature, moisture content and the moisture content corresponding to complete hydration of sorption sites within the wood.

  8. Cellulase and Xylanase Production by Penicillium echinulatum in Submerged Media Containing Cellulose Amended with Sorbitol

    Carla Eliana Todero Ritter

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work investigated the use of sorbitol as a soluble carbon source, in association with cellulose, to produce cellulases and xylanases in submerged cultures of Penicillium echinulatum 9A02S1. Because cellulose is an insoluble carbon source, in cellulase production, there are some problems with rheology and oxygen transfer. The submerged fermentations containing media composed of 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1% (w/v sorbitol and cellulose that were added at different times during the cultivation; 0.2% (w/v soy bran; 0.1% (w/v wheat bran; and a solution of salts. The highest filter paper activity (FPA ( IU·mL−1 was obtained on the seventh day in the medium containing 0.5% (w/v sorbitol and 0.5% (w/v cellulose added 24 h after the start of cultivation. However, the CMCases showed an activity peak on the sixth day ( IU·mL−1 in the medium containing 0.75% (w/v sorbitol and 0.75% (w/v cellulose added after 12 h of cultivation. The xylanases showed the highest activity in the medium with 0.75% (w/v sorbitol and 0.25% (w/v cellulose added 36 h after the start of cultivation. This strategy enables the reduction of the cellulose concentration, which in high concentrations can cause rheological and oxygen transfer problems.

  9. Fluid-structure interaction of submerged structures

    Tang, H.T.; Becker, E.B.; Taylor, L.M.

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to investigate fluid-structure interaction (FSI) of submerged structures in a confined fluid-structure system. Our particular interest is the load experienced by a rigid submerged structure subject to a pressure excitation in a fluid domain bounded by a structure which is either flexible or rigid. The objective is to see whether the load experienced by the submerged structure will be influenced by its confinement conditions. This investigation is intended to provide insight into the characteristics of FSI and answer the question as to whether one can obtain FSI independent data by constructing a small scale rigid submerged structure inside a flexible fluid-structure system. (orig.)

  10. Submerged cutting characteristics of abrasive suspension jet

    Shimizu, Seiji; Peng, Guoyi; Oguma, Yasuyuki; Nishikata, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    An abrasive suspension jet (ASJ) formed by propelling abrasive suspension through a nozzle has a greater cutting capability than the conventional abrasive water jet. However the cutting capability of submerged ASJs decreases drastically with increasing the standoff distance and the pressure around the jet. A sheathed nozzle with ventilation for ASJs has been developed as a mean of extending the effective stand-off distance and improving the cutting capabilities under submerged condition. In the present investigation, cutting tests by ASJs in air and under submerged condition are conducted with specimens of aluminum alloy. Air coated ASJs are formed by using a sheathed nozzle with ventilation. The relative cutting depth is defined as the cutting depth under submerged condition divided by the cutting depth in air at the same standoff distance. The relative cutting depth is arranged effectually by the cavitation number based on the cavity pressure measured at the sheath. (author)

  11. Contribution of seedling vigour and anoxia/hypoxia-responsive genes to submergence tolerance in Vietnamese lowland rice (Oryza sativa L.

    Hien Thi Thu Vu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A direct-seeded rice cultivation system has been widely adopted in Asian countries. Optimum germination and vigorous seedling growth under submergence are key traits for the practice of direct seeding. We studied the post-germination seedling vigour in Vietnamese lowland rice accessions based on three bio-parameters, shoot elongation growth under five-day submergence in water-filled test-tubes, seedling recovery rate five days after transferring submerged seedlings to pots with soil and seedling survival rate 21 days after sowing seeds in nursery beds and immediate incubation under submergence. A large diversity was found in seedling vigour thus estimated among the accessions. Significantly high correlations were observed among all three bio-parameters, verifying the contribution of seedling vigour to the manifestation of submergence tolerance at this critical stage of rice development. To examine the roles of anoxia/hypoxia-responsive genes, the expression of 17 candidate genes was studied by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and compared between selected vigorous and non-vigorous groups of accessions. Transcripts of all but two genes showed marked accumulation in submerged seedlings. No differences, however, were found between the two contrasting groups. The observed common and coordinate expression of anoxia/hypoxia-induced genes suggests that they might assume roles in attaining baseline tolerance against submergence stress. It was also suggested that some unknown genetic factors are operating in determining cultivar/genotype-specific levels of submergence tolerance as assessed by post-germination seedling vigour.

  12. Progressing batch hydrolysis process

    Wright, J.D.

    1985-01-10

    A progressive batch hydrolysis process is disclosed for producing sugar from a lignocellulosic feedstock. It comprises passing a stream of dilute acid serially through a plurality of percolation hydrolysis reactors charged with feed stock, at a flow rate, temperature and pressure sufficient to substantially convert all the cellulose component of the feed stock to glucose. The cooled dilute acid stream containing glucose, after exiting the last percolation hydrolysis reactor, serially fed through a plurality of pre-hydrolysis percolation reactors, charged with said feedstock, at a flow rate, temperature and pressure sufficient to substantially convert all the hemicellulose component of said feedstock to glucose. The dilute acid stream containing glucose is cooled after it exits the last prehydrolysis reactor.

  13. Cultivation Techniques and Medicinal Properties of Pleurotus spp.

    Andrej Gregori

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Pleurotus (oyster mushroom comprises some most popular edible mushrooms due to their favourable organoleptic and medicinal properties, vigorous growth and undemanding cultivation conditions. It can be cultivated on log and a wide variety of agroforestry (by-products, weeds and wastes for the production of food, feed, enzymes and medicinal compounds, or for waste degradation and detoxification. Many different techniques and substrates have been successfully utilized for mushroom cultivation and biomass production by means of solid-state and submerged liquid fermentation. However, in contrast to submerged liquid fermentation, solid-state fermentation is not often used in large scale due to severe engineering problems. Various Pleurotus species have been shown to possess a number of medicinal properties, such as antitumour, immunomodulatory, antigenotoxic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hypocholesterolaemic, antihypertensive, antiplatelet-aggregating, antihyperglycaemic, antimicrobial and antiviral activities. These therapeutic activities are exhibited by extracts or isolated compounds from Pleurotus spp. fermentation broth, mycelia and fruiting bodies. In particular, polysaccharides appear to be potent antitumour and immuno-enhancing substances, besides possessing other beneficial activities. However, the biochemical mechanisms of these therapeutic activities still remain largely unknown. This review focuses on recent advances in the biotechnology of Pleurotus spp., with emphasis on the production of fruiting bodies, the production of mycelium and bioactive compounds by solid-state and submerged liquid fermentation. The medicinal properties of this mushroom are also outlined.

  14. Experimental and analytical study on removal of strontium from cultivated soil

    Fukutani, Satoshi; Takahashi, Tomoyuki

    2003-01-01

    Experimental and analytical study was done to estimate the removal of strontium from cultivated soil. The continuous batch tests were made and uneasy desorption form or immobility form was proved to exist. 2-Component Model, which considers easy desorption and uneasy desorption form fraction, was constructed and it showed good explanation of the continuous batch test results. (author)

  15. Impeller Submergence Depth for Stirred Tanks

    Thiyam T. Devi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Impeller submergence governs the performance of mixing tanks employed in oxygen transfer operation. Present work experimentally investigates the effect of impeller submergence depths on oxygen transfer and corresponding power consumption. It has been found that at higher range of impeller submergence, mixing tanks consume less power and gives higher values of oxygen transfer coefficient. Optimal range of submergence depth is 0.7 to 0.9 times the impeller diameter. Copyright ©2011 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved.(Received: 4th March 2011; Revised: 12nd July 2011; Accepted: 14th July 2011[How to Cite: T.T. Devi, A.P. Sinha, M. Thakre, and B. Kumar. (2011. Impeller Submergence Depth for Stirred Tanks. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 6 (2: 123-128. doi:10.9767/bcrec.6.2.826.123-128][How to Link / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.6.2.826.123-128 || or local: http://ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/bcrec/article/view/826] | View in 

  16. Microbial Protein Production from Candida tropicalis ATCC13803 in a Submerged Batch Fermentation Process

    Sahar Golaghaiee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Microbial protein production can resolve one of the major world challenges, i.e. lack of protein sources. Candida tropicalis growth was investigated to specify a medium to reach the highest cell proliferation and protein production.Material and Methods: Fractional factorial design and the index of signal to noise ratio were applied for optimization of microbial protein production. Optimization process was conducted based on the experimental results of Taguchi approach designs. Fermentationwas performed at 25oC and the agitation speed of 300 rpm for 70 h. Ammonium sulfate, iron sulfate, glycine and glucose concentrations were considered as process variables. Optimization of the culture medium composition was conducted in order to obtain the highest cell biomass concentration and protein content. Experiment design was performed based on the Taguchi approach and L-16 orthogonal arrays using Qualitek-4 software.Results and Conclusion: Maximum biomass of 8.72 log (CFU ml-1 was obtained using the optimized medium with 0.3, 0.15, 2 and 80 g l-1 of ammonium sulfate, iron sulfate, glycine and glucose, respectively. Iron sulfate and ammonium sulfate with 41.76% (w w-1 and 35.27% (w w-1 contributions, respectively, were recognized as the main components for cell growth. Glucose and glycine with 17.12% and 5.86% (w w-1 contributions,respectively, also affected cell production. The highest interaction severity index of +54.16% was observed between glycine and glucose while the least one of +0.43% was recorded for ammonium sulfate and glycine. A deviation of 7% between the highestpredicted cell numbers and the experimented count confirms the suitability of the applied statistical method. High protein content of 52.16% (w w-1 as well as low fat and nucleic acids content suggest that Candida tropicalis is a suitable case for commercial processes.Conflict of interest: The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.

  17. ALPHA-AMYLASE PRODUCTION FROM Aspergillus oryzae M BY SUBMERGED FERMENTATION

    Suleimenova

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of present study was implementation of the Aspergillus oryzae M strain improved technology using earlier developed method of microorganism selection. 8 pure strains of Aspergillus fungi were screened for the production of extra cellular alpha-amylase using agar medium with starch as a substrate and incubated for 72h at 30 ºС. Zone of clearance was observed for screening of the amylolytic fungi (in mm. Aspergillus oryzae M has demonstrated the highest zone of clearance. Aspergillus oryzae M was cultivated for 42 days in submerged conditions of growth using new method of fungal cultivation. This method based on immobilizing enzymes producers on solid career in submerged conditions of growth gives the way to improve quality of filtrates, which remain clear, does not require additional filtering and easily separated from the mycelium. Moreover, it allows to prolong the process of fungal cultivation and to maintain high enzymatic activity for a long period of time. Presented method allowed increasing alpha-amylase production from 321 U/ml (before immobilization to 502 U/ml (after immobilization.

  18. Submerged cutting characteristics of abrasive suspension jet

    Shimizu, Seiji; Peng, Guoyi; Oguma, Yasuyuki; Nishikata, Hiroki

    2015-01-01

    An abrasive suspension jet (ASJ) formed by propelling abrasive suspension through a nozzle has a greater cutting capability than the conventional abrasive water jet. However the cutting capability of submerged ASJs decreases drastically with increasing the standoff distance and the pressure around the jet. A sheathed nozzle nozzle with ventilation for ASJs has been developed as a mean of extending the effective stand-off distance and improving the cutting capabilities under submerged condition. In the present investigation, cutting tests by ASJs in air and under submerged condition are conducted with specimens of aluminum alloy. Air coated ASJs are formed by using a sheathed nozzle with ventilation. The relative cutting depth is defined as the cutting depth is arranged effectually by the cavitation number based on the cavity pressure measured at the sheath. (author)

  19. Kubernetes as a batch scheduler

    Souza, Clenimar; Brito Da Rocha, Ricardo

    2017-01-01

    This project aims at executing a CERN batch use case using Kubernetes, in order to figure out what are the advantages and disadvantages, as well as the functionality that can be replicated or is missing. The reference for the batch system is the CERN Batch System, which uses HTCondor. Another goal of this project is to evaluate the current status of federated resources in Kubernetes, in comparison to the single-cluster API resources. Finally, the last goal of this project is to implement buil...

  20. Cultivating the Deep Subsurface Microbiome

    Casar, C. P.; Osburn, M. R.; Flynn, T. M.; Masterson, A.; Kruger, B.

    2017-12-01

    Subterranean ecosystems are poorly understood because many microbes detected in metagenomic surveys are only distantly related to characterized isolates. Cultivating microorganisms from the deep subsurface is challenging due to its inaccessibility and potential for contamination. The Deep Mine Microbial Observatory (DeMMO) in Lead, SD however, offers access to deep microbial life via pristine fracture fluids in bedrock to a depth of 1478 m. The metabolic landscape of DeMMO was previously characterized via thermodynamic modeling coupled with genomic data, illustrating the potential for microbial inhabitants of DeMMO to utilize mineral substrates as energy sources. Here, we employ field and lab based cultivation approaches with pure minerals to link phylogeny to metabolism at DeMMO. Fracture fluids were directed through reactors filled with Fe3O4, Fe2O3, FeS2, MnO2, and FeCO3 at two sites (610 m and 1478 m) for 2 months prior to harvesting for subsequent analyses. We examined mineralogical, geochemical, and microbiological composition of the reactors via DNA sequencing, microscopy, lipid biomarker characterization, and bulk C and N isotope ratios to determine the influence of mineralogy on biofilm community development. Pre-characterized mineral chips were imaged via SEM to assay microbial growth; preliminary results suggest MnO2, Fe3O4, and Fe2O3 were most conducive to colonization. Solid materials from reactors were used as inoculum for batch cultivation experiments. Media designed to mimic fracture fluid chemistry was supplemented with mineral substrates targeting metal reducers. DNA sequences and microscopy of iron oxide-rich biofilms and fracture fluids suggest iron oxidation is a major energy source at redox transition zones where anaerobic fluids meet more oxidizing conditions. We utilized these biofilms and fluids as inoculum in gradient cultivation experiments targeting microaerophilic iron oxidizers. Cultivation of microbes endemic to DeMMO, a system

  1. Data-driven batch schuduling

    Bent, John [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Denehy, Tim [GOOGLE; Arpaci - Dusseau, Remzi [UNIV OF WISCONSIN; Livny, Miron [UNIV OF WISCONSIN; Arpaci - Dusseau, Andrea C [NON LANL

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we develop data-driven strategies for batch computing schedulers. Current CPU-centric batch schedulers ignore the data needs within workloads and execute them by linking them transparently and directly to their needed data. When scheduled on remote computational resources, this elegant solution of direct data access can incur an order of magnitude performance penalty for data-intensive workloads. Adding data-awareness to batch schedulers allows a careful coordination of data and CPU allocation thereby reducing the cost of remote execution. We offer here new techniques by which batch schedulers can become data-driven. Such systems can use our analytical predictive models to select one of the four data-driven scheduling policies that we have created. Through simulation, we demonstrate the accuracy of our predictive models and show how they can reduce time to completion for some workloads by as much as 80%.

  2. Submerged fermentation of Lactobacillus rhamnosus YS9 for γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA production

    Qian Lin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in central nervous system, and its application in drugs and functional foods has attracted great attention. To enhance production of y-aminobutyric acid, Lactobacillus rhamnosus YS9, a strain isolated from Chinese traditional fermented food pickled vegetable, was grown under submerged fermentation. Its cultivation conditions were investigated. When culture pH condition was adjusted to the optimal pH of glutamate decarboxylase activity, culture of Lb. rhamnosus YS9 in medium supplemented with 200 mM of monosodium glutamate and 200 µM of pyridoxal phosphate (PLP, produced 187 mM of GABA.

  3. Submerged fermentation of Lactobacillus rhamnosus YS9 for γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) production

    Lin, Qian

    2013-01-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in central nervous system, and its application in drugs and functional foods has attracted great attention. To enhance production of γ-aminobutyric acid, Lactobacillus rhamnosus YS9, a strain isolated from Chinese traditional fermented food pickled vegetable, was grown under submerged fermentation. Its cultivation conditions were investigated. When culture pH condition was adjusted to the optimal pH of glutamate decarboxylase activity, culture of Lb. rhamnosus YS9 in medium supplemented with 200 mM of monosodium glutamate and 200 μM of pyridoxal phosphate (PLP), produced 187 mM of GABA. PMID:24159304

  4. Topology optimization for submerged buoyant structures

    Picelli, R.; van Dijk, R.; Vicente, W.M.; Pavanello, R.; Langelaar, M.; van Keulen, A.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an evolutionary structural topology optimization method for the design of completely submerged buoyant modules with design-dependent fluid pressure loading. This type of structure is used to support offshore rig installation and pipeline transportation at all water depths. The

  5. Benthic bacterial diversity in submerged sinkhole ecosystems.

    Nold, Stephen C; Pangborn, Joseph B; Zajack, Heidi A; Kendall, Scott T; Rediske, Richard R; Biddanda, Bopaiah A

    2010-01-01

    Physicochemical characterization, automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA) community profiling, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing approaches were used to study bacterial communities inhabiting submerged Lake Huron sinkholes inundated with hypoxic, sulfate-rich groundwater. Photosynthetic cyanobacterial mats on the sediment surface were dominated by Phormidium autumnale, while deeper, organically rich sediments contained diverse and active bacterial communities.

  6. Waterlogging and submergence: surviving poor aeration

    Atwell, B.J.; Ismail, A.M.; Pedersen, O.; Shabala, S.; Sorrell, B.; Voesenek, Laurentius|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074850849

    2014-01-01

    Flooding, resulting in soil waterlogging and in many situations even complete submergence of plants, is an important abiotic stress in many regions worldwide. The number of floods has increased in recent decades (Figure 18.1), and the severity of floods is expected to increase further in many

  7. Production of extracellular aspartic protease in submerged ...

    Fungal milk-clotting enzymes have gained value as bovine Chymosin substitutes in the cheese industry. In this work, the effects of culture conditions on the production of extracellular milk clotting enzymes from Mucor mucedo DSM 809 in submerged fermentation were studied. The maximum activity was observed after 48 h ...

  8. Metodologia para produção de Metarhizium anisopliae (METSCH. sorokin em cultivo submerso: esporulação da biomassa, efeito da concentração de açúcar e custo do inoculant Methodology for production of Metarhizium anisopliae (METSCH. sorokin in submerged cultivation: biomass sporulation, sugar concentration effect and inoculant cost

    Sonia Regina de Mello Pereira

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Desenvolveram-se um método de cultivo e um meio de cultura para produção massal do fungo Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorokin, 1883, com maior pureza e concentração de conídios. Este método envolveu o cultivo submerso da linhagem M-61 do entomopatógeno em meio líquido de arroz parboilizado, extrato de levedura, extrato do percevejo da soja (Nezara viridula (L., 1758 Hemiptera, Pentatomidae, sob seis diferentes níveis de concentração de açúcar (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10g l-1, além do meio convencional sólido de arroz em grão. As biomassas obtidas foram separadas através de tela de nylon (63 mesh e dispostas em estufa para a esporulação. Os efeitos dos tratamentos foram avaliados pelos parâmetros pesos fresco e seco do micélio, número de conídios por grama de substrato, viabilidade e patogenicidade dos conídios sobre o percevejo. Observou-se que 2.0g l-1 de açúcar em meio de cultura de extrato de N. viridula produziu o dobro do número de conídios por grama de substrato em relação à concentração de 10.0g l-1, a um custo 51 vezes inferior ao obtido no processo convencional de produção do fungo. A viabilidade não foi afetada nos diferentes meios utilizados. Não ocorreram diferenças significativas na patogenicidade em função dos meios de cultura e métodos de cultivo.A method of cultivation and a culture medium were developed aiming at the mass production of fungus Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorokin, 1883, with great concentration and purity of conidia. This method involved the M-61 strain of entomopathogenic fungus in liquid medium of rice, yeast extract, soybean bug extract (Nezara viridula (L., 1758 Hemiptera, Pentatomidae, under six differents concentrations of sugar (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10g l-1, and the solid conventional medium of rice grains. The biomasses obtained were filtered and put in an incubator to promote sporulation. The treatments were evaluated through the parameters wet and dry-weight of micelium

  9. Novel pH control strategy for glutathione overproduction in batch ...

    The effects of pH values on cell growth and glutathione (GSH) production were studied in batch cultivation of Candida utilis. According to the fact that lower pH value favors cells growth but retards GSH production and higher pH value promotes GSH production while inhibits cells growth, a pH-shift strategy, optimized via ...

  10. Oxygen dynamics in submerged rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    Colmer, Timothy D.; Pedersen, Ole

    2008-01-01

    Complete submergence of plants prevents direct O2 and CO2 exchange with air. Underwater photosynthesis can result in marked diurnal changes in O2 supply to submerged plants. Dynamics in pO2 had not been measured directly for submerged rice (Oryza sativa), but in an earlier study, radial O2 loss...... from roots showed an initial peak following shoot illumination.  O2 dynamics in shoots and roots of submerged rice were monitored during light and dark periods, using O2 microelectrodes. Tissue sugar concentrations were also measured.  On illumination of shoots of submerged rice, pO2 increased rapidly...... of magnitude higher than in darkness, enhancing also pO2 in roots.The initial peak in pO2 following illumination of submerged rice was likely to result from high initial rates of net photosynthesis, fuelled by CO2 accumulated during the dark period. Nevertheless, since sugars decline with time in submerged...

  11. BatchJS: Implementing Batches in JavaScript

    D. Kasemier

    2014-01-01

    htmlabstractNone of our popular programming languages know how to handle distribution well. Yet our programs interact more and more with each other and our data resorts in databases and web services. Batches are a new addition to languages that can finally bring native support for distribution to

  12. Pump Coastdown with the Submerged Flywheel

    Yoon, Hyun-Gi; Seo, KyoungWoo; Kim, Seong Hoon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Many research reactors are generally designed as open pool types in consideration of the heat removal of the nuclear fuels, reactor operation and accessibility. Reactor structure assembly is generally placed at the pool bottom as shown in Fig. 1. Primary cooling system pump circulates the coolant from the reactor structure to the heat exchanger in order to continuously remove the heat generated from the reactor core in the research reactor as shown in Fig. 1. The secondary cooling system releases the transferred heat to the atmosphere by the cooling tower. Coastdown flow rate of the primary cooling system pump with the submerged flywheel are calculated analytically in case of the accident situation. Coastdown flow rate is maintained until almost 80 sec when the pump stops normally. But, coastdown flow rate is rapidly decreased when the flywheel is submerged because of the friction load on the flywheel surface.

  13. Experimental motion behavior of submerged fuel racks

    Ellingson, F.J.; Wachter, W.; Moscardini, R.L.

    1989-01-01

    The design of submerged nuclear storage racks for light water reactor nuclear fuel has undergone a change from fixed position to a free-standing arrangement. Seismic analysis of the motion of the free-standing racks requires three-dimensional computer modeling that uses past studies of hydrodynamic mass and hydraulic coupling for rigid flat plates. This paper describes the results of experiments that show a reduced value for hydrodynamic mass and coupling forces when flexible elements are involved. To support this work, experiments were run with two full-scale welded box sections submerged in a water tank. The preliminary results indicate reduction in hydrodynamic mass due to box wall flexibility, a lack of impacting of box wall to box wall over the entire frequency range, and large hydrodynamic coupling forces under all test conditions. It is hypothesized that the coupling forces are sufficiently strong to prevent rotational motion of one rack when surrounded by adjacent racks

  14. Effect of clone size on submergence tolerance and post-submergence growth recovery in Carex brevicuspis (Cyperaceae

    Zhengmiao Deng

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Clonal plants are prevalent in wetlands and play important roles in maintaining the functions of the ecosystem. In the present study, we determined the effect of clone sizes (R1, R2, and R3 comprising 1, 3, and 5clumping ramets on the tolerance of Carex brevicuspis growing under 30-cm-deep water to three different periods (one, two, and three months of submergence and its growth recovery one month after de-submergence. Our results showed that the relative growth rate (RGR of C. brevicuspis significantly declined with increasing submergence time, and was higher in R3 and R5 than in R1 plants under both submergence and post-submergence conditions. The concentration of water-soluble carbohydrates (WSCs was highest in R3, intermediate in R5, and the lowest in R1 plants during the first two months of submergence, indicating an optimal trade-off between energy investment and vegetative growth (i.e., buds and ramets production in C. brevicuspis. WSCs were significantly reduced with increasing submergence time, while the starch content was significantly reduced only during the third month of submergence, implying that WSCs were a direct energy source for C. brevicuspis during submergence. The number of buds was higher in R5 than in R3 and R1 plants after two and three months of submergence, which directly resulted in a significantly higher post-submergence ramet production in R5 plants. These results indicated that plants with relatively larger clone sizes display better tolerance to submergence stress and post-submergence growth recovery. Therefore, we speculate that the large clone size in C brevicuspis might be an effective adaptive mechanism to survive under submergence stress in floodplain wetlands.

  15. Corncob hydrolysate, an efficient substrate for Monascus pigment production through submerged fermentation.

    Zhou, Zhongxin; Yin, Zheng; Hu, Xiaoqing

    2014-01-01

    Monascus pigment has traditionally been produced by the fermentation of Monascus using rice powder or glucose as a culture substrate. Submerged fermentation can produce stable Monascus pigment yield and control the accumulation of the by-product, citrinin, which can then be more easily removed. To reduce the cost of Monascus submerged fermentation, the feasibility of corncob hydrolysate as an alternative substrate was investigated. Results showed that, when compared with a conventional glucose medium, the corncob hydrolysate medium produced an equivalent pigment yield without stimulating citrinin accumulation. Furthermore, the corncob hydrolysate medium and cultivation conditions were optimized to enhance pigment production and decrease citrinin synthesis. When Monascus sp. was cultured under dark conditions in the presence of caprylic acid, pigment production was increased to 25.8 ± 0.8 UA500 /mL, which was higher than that achieved in a glucose medium (24.0 ± 0.9 UA500 /mL), and those obtained in previously reported Monascus submerged fermentations using the same yield unit; on the other hand, citrinin accumulation was decreased to 26.2 ± 1.9 µg/L, which was significantly lower than that generated in the glucose control (44.3 ± 2.2 µg/L) and in those previously reported fermentations. Thus, corncob hydrolysate was proved to be an efficient alternative substrate for Monascus pigment production through submerged fermentation, which showed significant advantages over a conventional glucose substrate. © 2014 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. Radiocarbon measurements on submerged forest floating chronologies

    Campbell, J.A.; Baxter, M.S.

    1979-01-01

    It is stated that the submerged forests along the west coast of England and Wales provide a unique source of wood for radiocarbon/ dendrochronological studies. 14 C age determinations are reported on sequential growth increments from three 'gloating' chronologies. A sampling frequency of approximately 10 samples per century was used. Fluctuations in atmospheric 14 C levels of 2 to 3% over several decades can occur, these variations being superimposed on a smoothly changing trend. (author)

  17. A fast approach to determine a fed batch feeding profile for recombinant Pichia pastoris strains

    Herwig Christoph

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The microorganism Pichia pastoris is a commonly used microbial host for the expression of recombinant proteins in biotechnology and biopharmaceutical industry. To speed up process development, a fast methodology to determine strain characteristic parameters, which are needed to subsequently set up fed batch feeding profiles, is required. Results Here, we show the general applicability of a novel approach to quantify a certain minimal set of bioprocess-relevant parameters, i.e. the adaptation time of the culture to methanol, the specific substrate uptake rate during the adaptation phase and the maximum specific substrate uptake rate, based on fast and easy-to-do batch cultivations with repeated methanol pulses in a batch culture. A detailed analysis of the adaptation of different P. pastoris strains to methanol was conducted and revealed that each strain showed very different characteristics during adaptation, illustrating the need of individual screenings for an optimal parameter definition during this phase. Based on the results obtained in batch cultivations, dynamic feeding profiles based on the specific substrate uptake rate were employed for different P. pastoris strains. In these experiments the maximum specific substrate uptake rate, which had been defined in batch experiments, also represented the upper limit of methanol uptake, underlining the validity of the determined process-relevant parameters and the overall experimental strategy. Conclusion In this study, we show that a fast approach to determine a minimal set of strain characteristic parameters based on easy-to-do batch cultivations with methanol pulses is generally applicable for different P. pastoris strains and that dynamic fed batch strategies can be designed on the specific substrate uptake rate without running the risk of methanol accumulation.

  18. Simulated Batch Production of Penicillin

    Whitaker, A.; Walker, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    Describes a program in applied biology in which the simulation of the production of penicillin in a batch fermentor is used as a teaching technique to give students experience before handling a genuine industrial fermentation process. Details are given for the calculation of minimum production cost. (JR)

  19. NDA BATCH 2002-02

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    2009-12-09

    QC sample results (daily background checks, 20-gram and 100-gram SGS drum checks) were within acceptable criteria established by WIPP's Quality Assurance Objectives for TRU Waste Characterization. Replicate runs were performed on 5 drums with IDs LL85101099TRU, LL85801147TRU, LL85801109TRU, LL85300999TRU and LL85500979TRU. All replicate measurement results are identical at the 95% confidence level as established by WIPP criteria. Note that the batch covered 5 weeks of SGS measurements from 23-Jan-2002 through 22-Feb-2002. Data packet for SGS Batch 2002-02 generated using gamma spectroscopy with the Pu Facility SGS unit is technically reasonable. All QC samples are in compliance with established control limits. The batch data packet has been reviewed for correctness, completeness, consistency and compliance with WIPP's Quality Assurance Objectives and determined to be acceptable. An Expert Review was performed on the data packet between 28-Feb-02 and 09-Jul-02 to check for potential U-235, Np-237 and Am-241 interferences and address drum cases where specific scan segments showed Se gamma ray transmissions for the 136-keV gamma to be below 0.1 %. Two drums in the batch showed Pu-238 at a relative mass ratio more than 2% of all the Pu isotopes.

  20. Batching System for Superior Service

    2001-01-01

    Veridian's Portable Batch System (PBS) was the recipient of the 1997 NASA Space Act Award for outstanding software. A batch system is a set of processes for managing queues and jobs. Without a batch system, it is difficult to manage the workload of a computer system. By bundling the enterprise's computing resources, the PBS technology offers users a single coherent interface, resulting in efficient management of the batch services. Users choose which information to package into "containers" for system-wide use. PBS also provides detailed system usage data, a procedure not easily executed without this software. PBS operates on networked, multi-platform UNIX environments. Veridian's new version, PBS Pro,TM has additional features and enhancements, including support for additional operating systems. Veridian distributes the original version of PBS as Open Source software via the PBS website. Customers can register and download the software at no cost. PBS Pro is also available via the web and offers additional features such as increased stability, reliability, and fault tolerance.A company using PBS can expect a significant increase in the effective management of its computing resources. Tangible benefits include increased utilization of costly resources and enhanced understanding of computational requirements and user needs.

  1. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MORPHOLOGY, RHEOLOGY AND GLUCOAMYLASE PRODUCTION BY Aspergillus awamori IN SUBMERGED CULTURES

    C.R.D. Pamboukian

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available The influence of inoculum preparation on Aspergillus awamori morphology, broth rheology and glucoamylase synthesis in submerged cultures was investigated. A series of runs were performed in fermenters, using initial total reducing sugar concentrations of 20 g/L and 80 g/L. The inocula were prepared in a rotary shaker, at 35oC and 200 rev/min, using a spore concentration of 9.2 x 105 spores/mL and varying both cultivation time and medium pH during the spore germination step. Three types of inocula were used: inoculum cultivated for 24 hours at an initial pH of 5.0, and inocula cultivated for 7 hours at both a pH of 2.5 and a pH of 5.5. Regarding glucoamylase production, the inoculum which provided the best results was shaker cultivated for 7 hours at a pH of 2.5. This inoculum produced glucoamylase of about 1,221 U/L in the fermenter, which was between 20% and 30% higher than those obtained using other inocula.

  2. Lipid production in batch and fed-batch cultures of Rhodosporidium toruloides from 5 and 6 carbon carbohydrates

    Wiebe Marilyn G

    2012-05-01

    carbohydrates than from glucose or xylose. Although high biomass and lipid production were achieved in both batch and fed-batch cultures with glucose as carbon source, for lipid production from mixtures of carbohydrates fed-batch cultivation was preferable. Constant feeding was better than intermittent feeding. The feeding strategy did not affect the relative proportion of different fatty acids in the lipid, but the presence of C5 sugars did.

  3. High cell density fed-batch fermentations for lipase production: feeding strategies and oxygen transfer.

    Salehmin, M N I; Annuar, M S M; Chisti, Y

    2013-11-01

    This review is focused on the production of microbial lipases by high cell density fermentation. Lipases are among the most widely used of the enzyme catalysts. Although lipases are produced by animals and plants, industrial lipases are sourced almost exclusively from microorganisms. Many of the commercial lipases are produced using recombinant species. Microbial lipases are mostly produced by batch and fed-batch fermentation. Lipases are generally secreted by the cell into the extracellular environment. Thus, a crude preparation of lipases can be obtained by removing the microbial cells from the fermentation broth. This crude cell-free broth may be further concentrated and used as is, or lipases may be purified from it to various levels. For many large volume applications, lipases must be produced at extremely low cost. High cell density fermentation is a promising method for low-cost production: it allows a high concentration of the biomass and the enzyme to be attained rapidly and this eases the downstream recovery of the enzyme. High density fermentation enhances enzyme productivity compared with the traditional submerged culture batch fermentation. In production of enzymes, a high cell density is generally achieved through fed-batch operation, not through perfusion culture which is cumbersome. The feeding strategies used in fed-batch fermentations for producing lipases and the implications of these strategies are discussed. Most lipase-producing microbial fermentations require oxygen. Oxygen transfer in such fermentations is discussed.

  4. NGBAuth - Next Generation Batch Authentication for long running batch jobs.

    Juto, Zakarias

    2015-01-01

    This document describes the prototyping of a new solution for the CERN batch authentication of long running jobs. While the job submission requires valid user credentials, these have to be renewed due to long queuing and execution times. Described within is a new system which will guarantee a similar level of security as the old LSFAuth while simplifying the implementation and the overall architecture. The new system is being built on solid, streamlined and tested components (notably OpenSSL) and a priority has been to make it more generic in order to facilitate the evolution of the current system such as for the expected migration from LSF to Condor as backend batch system.

  5. Polysaccharide production in batch process of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C comparing Frantz, modified Frantz and Cartlin 6 cultivation media Produção de polissacarídeo em processo de cultivo descontínuo de Neisseria meningitidis sorogrupo C comparando os meios de cultivo Frantz, Frantz modificado e Catlin 6

    Marcelo Fossa da Paz

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Polysaccharide of N. meningitidis serogroup C constitutes the antigen for the vaccine against meningitis. The goal of this work was to compare three cultivation media for production of this polysaccharide: Frantz, modified Frantz medium (with replacement of glucose by glycerol, and Catlin 6 (a synthetic medium with glucose. The comparative criteria were based on the final polysaccharide concentrations and the yield coefficient cell/polysaccharide (Y P/X. The kinetic parameters: pH, substrate consumption and cell growth were also determined. For this purpose, 9 cultivation runs were carried out in a 80 L New Brunswick bioreactor, under the following conditions: 42 L of culture medium, temperature 35ºC, air flow 5 L/min, agitation frequency 120 rpm and vessel pressure 6 psi, without dissolved oxygen or pH controls. The cultivation runs were divided in three groups, with 3 repetitions each. The cultivation using the Frantz medium presented the best results: average of final polysaccharide concentration = 0.134 g/L and Y P/X=0.121, followed by Catlin 6 medium, with results of 0.095 g/L and 0.067 respectively. Considering the principal advantages in the use of the synthetic medium, i.e. facilitation of a cultivation and purification steps of the polysaccharide production process, there is a possibility that in the near future, Catlin 6 will replace the traditional Frantz medium.O polissacarídeo de N. meningitidis sorogrupo C constitui o antígeno para a elaboração da vacina contra a meningite C. O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar três meios de cultivo para produção desse polissacarídeo: Frantz, Frantz modificado (com a substituição de glicose por glicerol e Catlin 6 (meio sintético com glicose. Os critérios comparativos foram baseados nas concentrações finais de polissacarídeo e o fator de conversão célula/polissacarídeo (Y P/X. Também foram determinados os parâmetros cinéticos de pH, consumo de substrato e crescimento

  6. IODINE REMOVAL EFFICIENCY IN NON-SUBMERGED AND SUBMERGED SELF-PRIMING VENTURI SCRUBBER

    MAJID ALI; YAN CHANGQI; SUN ZHONGNING; GU HAIFENG; WANG JUNLONG; KHURRAM MEHBOOB

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this conducted research is to study the iodine removal efficiency in a self-priming venturi scrubber for submerged and non-submerged operating conditions experimentally and theoretically. The alkaline solution is used as an absorbent, which is prepared by dissolving sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and sodium thiosulphate (Na2S2O3) in water to remove the gaseous iodine (I2) from the gas. Iodine removal efficiency is examined at various gas flow rates and inlet concentrations of iodine...

  7. Design of extended length submerged traveling screen and submerged bar screen fish guidance equipment

    Bardy, D.; Lindstrom, M.; Fechner, D.

    1991-01-01

    The hydropower projects on the Snake and lower Columbia Rivers in the Pacific Northwest are unique because these rivers are also the spawning grounds for migratory salmon. The salmon swim upstream from the ocean, lay their eggs, and die. The newly hatched fingerlings must then make their way past the hydroelectric dams to the ocean. Two separate bypass systems are needed, one to pass the adult fish going upstream, and one to pass the fingerlings going downstream. This paper addresses the design considerations for two of the components of the downstream migrant fish passage facilities, the extended Submerged Traveling Screen and Submerged Bar Screen

  8. Xylitol production by Candida parapsilosis under fed-batch culture

    Sandra A. Furlan

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Xylitol production by Candida parapsilosis was investigated under fed-batch cultivation, using single (xylose or mixed (xylose and glucose sugars as substrates. The presence of glucose in the medium induced the production of ethanol as secondary metabolite and improved specific rates of growth, xylitol formation and substrate consumption. Fractionated supply of the feed medium at constant sugar concentration did not promote any increase on the productivity compared to the single batch cultivation.A produção de xylitol por Candida parapsilosis foi investigada em regime de batelada alimentada, usando substratos açucarados de composição simples (xilose ou composta (xilose e glicose. A presença de glicose no meio induziu a formação de etanol como metabólito secundário. A suplementação fracionada do meio de alimentação numa concentração fixa de açúcar não resultou em aumento da produtividade em relação àquela alcançada em batelada simples.

  9. PROOF on a Batch System

    Behrenhoff, W; Ehrenfeld, W; Samson, J; Stadie, H

    2011-01-01

    The 'parallel ROOT facility' (PROOF) from the ROOT framework provides a mechanism to distribute the load of interactive and non-interactive ROOT sessions on a set of worker nodes optimising the overall execution time. While PROOF is designed to work on a dedicated PROOF cluster, the benefits of PROOF can also be used on top of another batch scheduling system with the help of temporary per user PROOF clusters. We will present a lightweight tool which starts a temporary PROOF cluster on a SGE based batch cluster or, via a plugin mechanism, e.g. on a set of bare desktops via ssh. Further, we will present the result of benchmarks which compare the data throughput for different data storage back ends available at the German National Analysis Facility (NAF) at DESY.

  10. Cultivation characteristics of immobilized Aspergillus oryzae for kojic acid production.

    Kwak, M Y; Rhee, J S

    1992-04-15

    Aspergillus oryzae in situ grown from spores entrapped in calcium alginate gel beads was used for the production of kojic acid. The immobilized cells in flask cultures produced kojic acid in a linear proportion while maintaining the stable metabolic activity for a prolonged production period. Kojic acid was accumulated up to a high concentration of 83 g/L, at which the kojic acid began to crystallize, and, thus, the culture had to be replaced with fresh media for the next batch culture. The overall productivities of two consecutive cultivations were higher than that of free mycelial fermentation. However, the production rate of kojic acid by the immobilized cells was suddenly decreased with the appearance of central cavernae inside the immobilized gel beads after 12 days of the third batch cultivation.

  11. Different cultivation methods to acclimatise ammonia-tolerant methanogenic consortia.

    Tian, Hailin; Fotidis, Ioannis A; Mancini, Enrico; Angelidaki, Irini

    2017-05-01

    Bioaugmentation with ammonia tolerant-methanogenic consortia was proposed as a solution to overcome ammonia inhibition during anaerobic digestion process recently. However, appropriate technology to generate ammonia tolerant methanogenic consortia is still lacking. In this study, three basic reactors (i.e. batch, fed-batch and continuous stirred-tank reactors (CSTR)) operated at mesophilic (37°C) and thermophilic (55°C) conditions were assessed, based on methane production efficiency, incubation time, TAN/FAN (total ammonium nitrogen/free ammonia nitrogen) levels and maximum methanogenic activity. Overall, fed-batch cultivation was clearly the most efficient method compared to batch and CSTR. Specifically, by saving incubation time up to 150%, fed-batch reactors were acclimatised to nearly 2-fold higher FAN levels with a 37%-153% methanogenic activity improvement, compared to batch method. Meanwhile, CSTR reactors were inhibited at lower ammonia levels. Finally, specific methanogenic activity test showed that hydrogenotrophic methanogens were more active than aceticlastic methanogens in all FAN levels above 540mgNH 3 -NL -1 . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Calibration of submerged multi-sluice gates

    Mohamed F. Sauida

    2014-09-01

    The main objective of this work is to study experimentally and verify empirically the different parameters affecting the discharge through submerged multiple sluice gates (i.e., the expansion ratios, gates operational management, etc.. Using multiple regression analysis of the experimental results, a general equation for discharge coefficient is developed. The results show, that the increase in the expansion ratio and the asymmetric operation of gates, give higher values for the discharge coefficient. The obtained predictions of the discharge coefficient using the developed equations are compared to the experimental data. The present developed equations showed good consistency and high accuracy.

  13. Chemometric analysis of in-line multi-wavelength fluorescence measurements obtained during cultivations with a lipase producing Aspergillus oryzae strain

    Haack, Martin Brian; Eliasson Lantz, Anna; Mortensen, P.P.

    2007-01-01

    The filamentous fungus, Aspergillus oryzae, was cultivated in batch and fed-batch cultivations in order to investigate the use of multi-wavelength fluorescence for monitoring course of events during filamentous fungi cultivations. The A. oryzae strain applied expressed a fungal lipase from...... Thermomyces lanuginosus. Spectra of multi-wavelength fluorescence were collected every 5 min with the BioView system (DELTA, Denmark) and both explorative and predictive models, correlating the fluorescence data with cell mass and lipase activity, were built. During the cultivations, A. oryzae displayed...

  14. CYANOBACTERIA FOR MITIGATING METHANE EMISSION FROM SUBMERGED PADDY FIELDS

    Upasana Mishra; Shalini Anand [Department of Environmental Studies, Inderprastha Engineering College, Sahibabad, Ghaziabad (India)

    2008-09-30

    Atmospheric methane, a potent greenhouse gas with high absorption potential for infrared radiation, is responsible for one forth of the total anticipated warming. It is forming a major part of green house gases, next after carbon dioxide. Its concentration has been increasing alarmingly on an average at the rate of one percent per year. Atmospheric methane, originating mainly from biogenic sources such as paddy fields, natural wetlands and landfills, accounts for 15-20% of the world's total anthropogenic methane emission. With intensification of rice cultivation in coming future, methane emissions from paddy fields are anticipated to increase. India's share in world's rice production is next after to China and likewise total methane emission from paddy fields also. Methane oxidation through planktophytes, particularly microalgae which are autotrophic and abundant in rice rhizospheres, hold promise in controlling methane emission from submerged paddy fields. The present study is focused on the role of nitrogen fixing, heterocystous cyanobacteria and Azolla (a water fern harboring a cyanobacterium Anabaena azollae) as biological sink for headspace concentration of methane in flooded soils. In this laboratory study, soil samples containing five potent nitrogen fixer cyanobacterial strains from paddy fields, were examined for their methane reducing potential. Soil sample without cyanobacterial strain was tested and taken as control. Anabaena sp. was found most effective in inhibiting methane concentration by 5-6 folds over the control. Moist soil cores treated with chemical nitrogen, urea, in combination with cyanobacteria mixture, Azolla microphylla or cyanobacteria mixture plus Azolla microphylla exhibited significance reduction in the headspace concentration of methane than the soil cores treated with urea alone. Contrary to other reports, this study also demonstrates that methane oxidation in soil core samples from paddy fields was stimulated by

  15. [Effects of two submerged macrophytes on dissolved inorganic nitrogen in overlying water and interstitial water].

    Yang, Wen-Bin; Li, Yang; Sun, Gong-Xian

    2014-06-01

    Ceratophyllum demersum (C. demersum) and Vallisneria spiralis L. (V. spiralis L.) were studied as model submerged macrophytes. The effects of the submerged macrophytes on the forms and concentration of the dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) in the overlying water and the interstitial water, as well as the diffusion flux of DIN in the water-sediment interface were investigated by batch simulation experiment. The results indicated that the removal effect of DIN in the overlying water was better than that in the interstitial water by submerged macrophytes. The removal efficiency of DIN in the overlying water and the interstitial water followed the order of NO2(-) -N > NH4(+) -N > NO3(-) -N. The removal rate of DIN by C. demersum was higher than that of V. spiralis L. in the overlying water, while the result was converse in the interstitial water. C. demersum and V. spiralis L. decreased the diffusion flux of NH4(+) -N and NO2(-) -N, and increased the diffusion flux of NO3(-) -N significantly. Consequently, NO3(-) -N replaced NH4(+) -N and became the main form of DIN, which diffused from the interstitial water to the overlying water. The impact of the diffusion flux of NO3(-) -N between C. demersum and V. spiralis L. showed no significant difference, and the result was the same for NH4(+) -N. C. demersum and V. spiralis L. increased the width of variation of the three nitrogen forms to total DIN in the overlying water and the interstitial water, the influence on the ratio of DIN by C. demersum was greater than that of V. spiralis L. in the overlying water, while the result was opposite in the interstitial water. In general, C. demersum had more influence in the overlying water, while V. spiralis L. had more influence in the interstitial water, and the influence of DIN diffusion flux was not significant.

  16. Characterisation and immunomodulating activities of exo-polysaccharides from submerged cultivation of Hypsizigus marmoreus.

    Zhang, Bing-Zhao; Inngjerdingen, Kari T; Zou, Yuan-Feng; Rise, Frode; Michaelsen, Terje E; Yan, Pei-Sheng; Paulsen, Berit S

    2014-11-15

    Exo-polysaccharides were purified and characterized from the fermentation broth of Hypsizigus marmoreus, a popular edible mushroom consumed in Asia. Among them, B-I-I and B-II-I exhibited potent complement fixating activity, meanwhile, B-N-I, B-I-I, B-II-I and B-II-II exhibited significant macrophage stimulating activity. Molecular weights of the four exo-polysaccharides were determined to be 6.3, 120, 150 and 11 kDa respectively. Molecular characterisation showed that B-N-I is basically an α-1→4 glucan, with branches on C6; B-I-I is a heavily branched α-mannan with 1→2 linked main chain. B-II-I and B-II-II, have a backbone of rhamno-galacturonan with 1→2 linked l-rhamnose interspersed with 1→4 linked galacturonic acid. Structure-activity relationship analysis indicated that monosaccharide compositions, molecular weight, certain structural units (rhamno-galacturonan type I and arabinogalactan type II) are the principal factors responsible for potent complement fixating and macrophage-stimulating activities. Their immunomodulating activities may, at least partly, explain the health benefits of the mushroom. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparing cellular performance of Yarrowia lipolytica during growth on glucose and glycerol in submerged cultivations

    Workman, Mhairi; Holt, Philippe; Thykær, Jette

    2013-01-01

    . Growth on glycerol proceeded at approximately 0.30 h-1, and the substrate uptake rate was 0.02 mol L-1 h-1 regardless of the starting glycerol concentration (10, 20 or 45 g L-1). Utilisation of glycerol was accompanied by higher oxygen uptake rates compared to glucose growth, indicating import......Yarrowia lipolytica is an attractive host for sustainable bioprocesses due to its ability to utilize a variety of carbon substrates and convert them to a range of different product types (including lipids, organic acids and polyols) under specific conditions. Despite an increasing number...... of applications for this yeast, relatively few studies have focused on uptake and metabolism of carbon sources, and the metabolic basis for carbon flow to the different products. The focus of this work was quantification of the cellular performance of Y. lipolytica during growth on glycerol, glucose or a mixture...

  18. Potential of Submergedly Cultivated Mycelia of Ganoderma spp. as Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Agents.

    Ćilerdžić, Jasmina; Stajic, Mirjana; Vukojevic, Jelena

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the antiradical and antimicrobial (antibacterial and antifungal) potentials of ethanol mycelial extracts of selected Ganoderma species and strains and to define interand intraspecies diversity among Ganoderma species and strains. Ganoderma lucidum strains were good DPPH• scavengers (neutralizing up to 57.12% radicals), contrary to G. applanatum (20.35%) and G. carnosum (17.04%). High correlations between the activities and contents of total phenols in the extracts showed that these compounds were carriers of the activity. Results obtained by both discdiffusion and microdilution methods indicated that the extract of G. lucidum BEOFB 433 was the most potent antibacterial agent that inhibited growth of almost all bacterial species at a concentration of 1.0 mg/mL. Salmonella typhimurium was the most sensitive species to the mycelium extracts. Extracts of G. lucidum BEOFB 431 and BEOFB 434 showed the best antifungal activity since in concentration of 0.5 mg/mL inhibited the growth of Aspergillus glaucus (BEOFB 431) and the growth of A. glaucus and Trichoderma viride (BEOFB 434). Extracts of G. applanatum and G. lucidum BEOFB 431 had the strongest fungicidal effects, with lethal outcomes for A. glaucus and T. viride, respectively, being noted at a concentration of 1.17 mg/mL. Aspergillus niger was proved as the most resistant species.

  19. Effect of oxygen supply on Monascus pigments and citrinin production in submerged fermentation.

    Yang, Jian; Chen, Qi; Wang, Weiping; Hu, Jiajun; Hu, Chuan

    2015-05-01

    The influence of oxygen supply on Monascus pigments and citrinin production by Monascus ruber HS.4000 in submerged fermentation was studied. For Monascus cultivation with high pigments and low citrinin production, the initial growth phase, mid-stage phase, and later-stage production phase were separated by shifting oxygen supply. The optimal condition for the fermentation process in shake-flask fermentation was a three-stage rotating rate controlled strategy (0-48 h at 150 rpm, 48-108 h at 250 rpm, 108-120 h at 200 rpm) with medium volume of 100 mL added to 250 mL Erlenmeyer flasks at 30°C for 120 h cultivation. Compared to constant one-stage cultivation (medium volume of 100 mL, rotating rate of 250 rpm), the pigments were reduced by 40.4%, but citrinin was reduced by 64.2%. The most appropriate condition for the fermentation process in a 10 L fermentor is also a three-stage aeration process (0-48 h at 300 L/h, 48-96 h at 500 L/h, 96-120 h at 200 L/h) with agitation of 300 rpm at 30°C for 120 h cultivation, and 237.3 ± 5.7 U/mL pigments were produced in 120 h with 6.05 ± 0.19 mg/L citrinin in a 10 L fermentor. Compared to aeration-constant (500 L/h) cultivation, pigment production was increased by 29.6% and citrinin concentration was reduced by 79.5%. Copyright © 2014 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Allelic variants of OsSUB1A cause differential expression of transcription factor genes in response to submergence in rice.

    Sharma, Niharika; Dang, Trang Minh; Singh, Namrata; Ruzicic, Slobodan; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd; Baumann, Ute; Heuer, Sigrid

    2018-01-08

    Flooding during seasonal monsoons affects millions of hectares of rice-cultivated areas across Asia. Submerged rice plants die within a week due to lack of oxygen, light and excessive elongation growth to escape the water. Submergence tolerance was first reported in an aus-type rice landrace, FR13A, and the ethylene-responsive transcription factor (TF) gene SUB1A-1 was identified as the major tolerance gene. Intolerant rice varieties generally lack the SUB1A gene but some intermediate tolerant varieties, such as IR64, carry the allelic variant SUB1A-2. Differential effects of the two alleles have so far not been addressed. As a first step, we have therefore quantified and compared the expression of nearly 2500 rice TF genes between IR64 and its derived tolerant near isogenic line IR64-Sub1, which carries the SUB1A-1 allele. Gene expression was studied in internodes, where the main difference in expression between the two alleles was previously shown. Nineteen and twenty-six TF genes were identified that responded to submergence in IR64 and IR64-Sub1, respectively. Only one gene was found to be submergence-responsive in both, suggesting different regulatory pathways under submergence in the two genotypes. These differentially expressed genes (DEGs) mainly included MYB, NAC, TIFY and Zn-finger TFs, and most genes were downregulated upon submergence. In IR64, but not in IR64-Sub1, SUB1B and SUB1C, which are also present in the Sub1 locus, were identified as submergence responsive. Four TFs were not submergence responsive but exhibited constitutive, genotype-specific differential expression. Most of the identified submergence responsive DEGs are associated with regulatory hormonal pathways, i.e. gibberellins (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and jasmonic acid (JA), apart from ethylene. An in-silico promoter analysis of the two genotypes revealed the presence of allele-specific single nucleotide polymorphisms, giving rise to ABRE, DRE/CRT, CARE and Site II cis-elements, which

  1. Impacts of climate change on submerged and emergent wetland plants

    Frederick T. Short; Sarian Kosten; Pamela A. Morgan; Sparkle L Malone; Gregg E. Moore

    2016-01-01

    Submerged and emergent wetland plant communities are evaluated for their response to global climate change (GCC), focusing on seagrasses, submerged freshwater plants, tidal marsh plants, freshwater marsh plants and mangroves. Similarities and differences are assessed in plant community responses to temperature increase, CO2increase, greater UV-B exposure, sea...

  2. Multielement stoichiometry of submerged macrophytes across Yunnan plateau lakes (China).

    Xing, Wei; Wu, Haoping; Shi, Qiao; Hao, Beibei; Liu, Han; Wang, Zhixiu; Liu, Guihua

    2015-05-13

    Stoichiometric homeostasis of element composition is one of the central concepts of ecological stoichiometry. We analyzed concentrations of macroelements (C, N, P, Ca, K, Mg, S), microelements (Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Zn) and beneficial elements (Na, Se, Si) in submerged macrophytes, water and sediments across 20 Yunnan plateau lakes. We predicted that tissue element composition in submerged macrophytes is affected by lake trophic level and taxonomy, and submerged macrophytes have weak stoichiometric homeostasis for all above 16 elements. Canonical discriminant analyses successfully discriminated among trophic level groups and taxa groups. Of all the elements, C, N, P and S most effectively discriminated among trophic level groups across 20 lakes, revealing lake trophic level mostly affect tissue macroelement composition in submerged macrophytes; while Ca, K and Se most effectively discriminated among submerged macrophytes taxa groups, suggesting taxonomy mostly affect compositions of macroelements and beneficial elements in submerged macrophytes. In addition, the stoichiometric homeostatic coefficient of 1/HCa:C for all five taxa of submerged macrophytes were less than zero, suggesting submerged macrophytes in Yunnan plateau lakes have strong Ca stoichiometric homeostasis. Our findings, not only broaden the knowledge of multielement stoichiometric homeostasis, but also help to choose most appropriate lake management strategy.

  3. Sustainable operation of submerged Anammox membrane bioreactor with recycling biogas sparging for alleviating membrane fouling.

    Li, Ziyin; Xu, Xindi; Xu, Xiaochen; Yang, FengLin; Zhang, ShuShen

    2015-12-01

    A submerged anaerobic ammonium oxidizing (Anammox) membrane bioreactor with recycling biogas sparging for alleviating membrane fouling has been successfully operated for 100d. Based on the batch tests, a recycling biogas sparging rate at 0.2m(3)h(-1) was fixed as an ultimate value for the sustainable operation. The mixed liquor volatile suspended solid (VSS) of the inoculum for the long operation was around 3000mgL(-1). With recycling biogas sparging rate increasing stepwise from 0 to 0.2m(3)h(-1), the reactor reached an influent total nitrogen (TN) up to 1.7gL(-1), a stable TN removal efficiency of 83% and a maximum specific Anammox activity (SAA) of 0.56kg TNkg(-1) VSSd(-1). With recycling biogas sparging rate at 0.2 m(3) h(-1) (corresponding to an aeration intensity of 118m(3)m(-2)h(-1)), the membrane operation circle could prolong by around 20 times compared to that without gas sparging. Furthermore, mechanism of membrane fouling was proposed. And with recycling biogas sparging, the VSS and EPS content increasing rate in cake layer were far less than the ones without biogas sparging. The TN removal performance and sustainable membrane operation of this system showed the appealing potential of the submerged Anammox MBR with recycling biogas sparging in treating high-strength nitrogen-containing wastewaters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Submerged Glow-Discharge Plasma: An Economical Approach to Convert Construction Scrap Metal into Nanomaterials

    Yek Peter Nai Yuh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Submerged glow-discharge plasma (SGDP is relatively new among the various methods available for nanomaterials synthesis (NMs techniques. This method allows great control over the production cost of nanomaterials synthesis. A lab-scale batch type SDGP technology has been constructed to produce nanomaterials and investigate the inter-relationship between plasma excitation voltages, electrodes submerged areas and electrolyte concentration. Metal oxide nanospheres has been synthesised from different electrolyte concentrations (1M-0.001M and characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS. As the major results showed that the nanospheres are uniformly spherical with diameter size distribution are between 100 nm - 2μm. EDS analysis shown the nano-Iron Oxide have been formed. Scrap metal initially showed around 6.45% and 93.55% of Carbon and Iron composition respectively. After SGDP process to the scrap metal, Carbon content has increased to 34-35% and Iron content has reduced to around 15-40%. EDS results also shown the higher percentage of Iron amount has remained with lower electrolyte concentration and Current is proportionally related to submersion area of cathode.

  5. Submerged Glow-Discharge Plasma: An Economical Approach to Convert Construction Scrap Metal into Nanomaterials

    Yek, Peter Nai Yuh; Rafiq Mirza Julaihi, Muhammad; Shahril Osman, Mohammad; Tiong, Tung Chuan; Lee, Wak Ha; Leing Lee, Chern

    2018-03-01

    Submerged glow-discharge plasma (SGDP) is relatively new among the various methods available for nanomaterials synthesis (NMs) techniques. This method allows great control over the production cost of nanomaterials synthesis. A lab-scale batch type SDGP technology has been constructed to produce nanomaterials and investigate the inter-relationship between plasma excitation voltages, electrodes submerged areas and electrolyte concentration. Metal oxide nanospheres has been synthesised from different electrolyte concentrations (1M-0.001M) and characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS). As the major results showed that the nanospheres are uniformly spherical with diameter size distribution are between 100 nm - 2μm. EDS analysis shown the nano-Iron Oxide have been formed. Scrap metal initially showed around 6.45% and 93.55% of Carbon and Iron composition respectively. After SGDP process to the scrap metal, Carbon content has increased to 34-35% and Iron content has reduced to around 15-40%. EDS results also shown the higher percentage of Iron amount has remained with lower electrolyte concentration and Current is proportionally related to submersion area of cathode.

  6. Greenalgae as a substrate for biogas production - cultivation and biogas potentials

    Liu, Yang

    2010-01-01

    Algae is regarded as a good potential substrate for biogas production, due to high cells productivity, low cellulose and zero lignin content. Two parts were included in this study: first, cultivations of micro-algae (Chlorella sorokiniana and Tetraselmis suecica) at two different nitrate concentrations, also the effect of addition of CO2 on algae grow was investigated in this first part. Second, batch fermentations of the cultivated micro-algae as well as a powder Chlorella (obtained from Raw...

  7. Dynamics of ligninolytic enzyme production in Ganoderma applanatum depending on cultivation type

    Ćilerdžić Jasmina Lj.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ganoderma applanatum belongs to the group of white-rot fungi, due to a well-developed ligninolytic enzyme system. White-rot fungi have attracted great scientific attention in recent years, especially with respect to their enzymatic potential for the bioremediation of persistent pollutants. Contrary to G. lucidum, which medicinal properties, as well as ligninolytic enzyme system have been extensively studied, enzymatic system of G. applanatum has not been studied yet. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the dynamics of laccase, Mn-dependent peroxidase, and versatile peroxidase activity during submerged and solid state cultivation on two selected plant raw materials. Enzyme activity was determined spectrophotometrically after 7, 10 and 14 days of cultivation. The peak of laccase activity (220.14 Ul-1 was noted after 14 days of submerged wheat straw fermentation. Maximum level of Mn-dependent peroxidase (110.91 Ul-1 and versatile peroxidase (116.20 Ul-1 activity was obtained in the medium with oak sawdust after 14 days of submerged cultivation.

  8. Association of Candidate Genes With Submergence Response in Perennial Ryegrass

    Xicheng Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Perennial ryegrass is a popular cool-season grass species due to its high quality for forage and turf. The objective of this study was to identify associations of candidate genes with growth and physiological traits to submergence stress and recovery after de-submergence in a global collection of 94 perennial ryegrass accessions. Accessions varied largely in leaf color, plant height (HT, leaf fresh weight (LFW, leaf dry weight (LDW, and chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm at 7 days of submergence and in HT, LFW and LDW at 7 days of recovery in two experiments. Among 26 candidate genes tested by various models, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in 10 genes showed significant associations with traits including 16 associations for control, 10 for submergence, and 8 for recovery. Under submergence, Lp1-SST encoding sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase and LpGA20ox encoding gibberellin 20-oxidase were associated with LFW and LDW, and LpACO1 encoding 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase was associated with LFW. Associations between Lp1-SST and HT, Lp6G-FFT encoding fructan:fructan 6G-fructosyltransferase and Fv/Fm, LpCAT encoding catalase and HT were also detected under submergence stress. Upon de-submergence, Lp1-SST, Lp6G-FFT, and LpPIP1 encoding plasma membrane intrinsic protein type 1 were associated with LFW or LDW, while LpCBF1b encoding C-repeat binding factor were associated with HT. Nine significant SNPs in Lp1-SST, Lp6G-FFT, LpCAT, and LpACO1 resulted in amino acid changes with five substitutions found in Lp1-SST under submergence or recovery. The results indicated that allelic diversity in genes involved in carbohydrate and antioxidant metabolism, ethylene and gibberellin biosynthesis, and transcript factor could contribute to growth variations in perennial ryegrass under submergence stress and recovery after de-submergence.

  9. Improved, Low-Stress Economical Submerged Pipeline

    Jones, Jack A.; Chao, Yi

    2011-01-01

    A preliminary study has shown that the use of a high-strength composite fiber cloth material may greatly reduce fabrication and deployment costs of a subsea offshore pipeline. The problem is to develop an inexpensive submerged pipeline that can safely and economically transport large quantities of fresh water, oil, and natural gas underwater for long distances. Above-water pipelines are often not feasible due to safety, cost, and environmental problems, and present, fixed-wall, submerged pipelines are often very expensive. The solution is to have a submerged, compliant-walled tube that when filled, is lighter than the surrounding medium. Some examples include compliant tubes for transporting fresh water under the ocean, for transporting crude oil underneath salt or fresh water, and for transporting high-pressure natural gas from offshore to onshore. In each case, the fluid transported is lighter than its surrounding fluid, and thus the flexible tube will tend to float. The tube should be ballasted to the ocean floor so as to limit the motion of the tube in the horizontal and vertical directions. The tube should be placed below 100-m depth to minimize biofouling and turbulence from surface storms. The tube may also have periodic pumps to maintain flow without over-pressurizing, or it can have a single pump at the beginning. The tube may have periodic valves that allow sections of the tube to be repaired or maintained. Some examples of tube materials that may be particularly suited for these applications are non-porous composite tubes made of high-performance fibers such as Kevlar, Spectra, PBO, Aramid, carbon fibers, or high-strength glass. Above-ground pipes for transporting water, oil, and natural gas have typically been fabricated from fiber-reinforced plastic or from more costly high-strength steel. Also, previous suggested subsea pipeline designs have only included heavy fixed-wall pipes that can be very expensive initially, and can be difficult and expensive

  10. Cultivation Of Deep Subsurface Microbial Communities

    Obrzut, Natalia; Casar, Caitlin; Osburn, Magdalena R.

    2018-01-01

    The potential habitability of surface environments on other planets in our solar system is limited by exposure to extreme radiation and desiccation. In contrast, subsurface environments may offer protection from these stressors and are potential reservoirs for liquid water and energy that support microbial life (Michalski et al., 2013) and are thus of interest to the astrobiology community. The samples used in this project were extracted from the Deep Mine Microbial Observatory (DeMMO) in the former Homestake Mine at depths of 800 to 2000 feet underground (Osburn et al., 2014). Phylogenetic data from these sites indicates the lack of cultured representatives within the community. We used geochemical data to guide media design to cultivate and isolate organisms from the DeMMO communities. Media used for cultivation varied from heterotrophic with oxygen, nitrate or sulfate to autotrophic media with ammonia or ferrous iron. Environmental fluid was used as inoculum in batch cultivation and strains were isolated via serial transfers or dilution to extinction. These methods resulted in isolating aerobic heterotrophs, nitrate reducers, sulfate reducers, ammonia oxidizers, and ferric iron reducers. DNA sequencing of these strains is underway to confirm which species they belong to. This project is part of the NASA Astrobiology Institute Life Underground initiative to detect and characterize subsurface microbial life; by characterizing the intraterrestrials, the life living deep within Earth’s crust, we aim to understand the controls on how and where life survives in subsurface settings. Cultivation of terrestrial deep subsurface microbes will provide insight into the survival mechanisms of intraterrestrials guiding the search for these life forms on other planets.

  11. Nitrogen fertilizer management for tidal submergence tolerant landrace rice (Oryza sativa L. cultivars

    M.A.A. Mamun

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In tidal submergence ecosystem, nitrogen (N is a crucial nutrient for improved and sustainable rice production. Therefore, a series of on-farm and on-station field experiments were conducted to develop a suitable N management practice for tidal submergence tolerant landrace aman rice. In on-farm, urea deep placement (UDP through urea super granule before panicle initiation (PI stage was compared with no fertilizer application. Similarly, five N fertilizer management practices viz. (i. two splits of prilled urea (PU, (ii. UDP at 10 DAT, (iii. UDP before PI, (iv. full dose PU before PI and (v. No urea (control were compared at on-station trial. Tidal submergence tolerance aman rice varieties (Rajashail, Kutiagni, Sadamota and Lalmota were used as testing materials. In on farm experiment, aman cultivars produced 2.0–2.5 t ha−1 grain without N fertilizer. But, cultivated Rajashail, Kutiagni, Sadachikon, Sadapajam, Lalmota and Sadamota gave 3.0–3.5 t ha−1 grain yield with the UDP before PI in tidal prone areas. Though UDP required fertilizer and application cost but it gave profit upto 22,000 BDT ha−1 (Bangladeshi Taka. In on-station experiment, UDP before PI stage significantly increased rice yield and economic return although it was comparable to two splits of PU and top dressing of PU before PI stage. However, UDP at 10 DAT increased straw yield but failed to increase grain yield even compared to control. It could be concluded that UDP before PI stage of rice is an effective method for increasing rice yield and farm income in tidal prone areas.

  12. A Model-based B2B (Batch to Batch) Control for An Industrial Batch Polymerization Process

    Ogawa, Morimasa

    This paper describes overview of a model-based B2B (batch to batch) control for an industrial batch polymerization process. In order to control the reaction temperature precisely, several methods based on the rigorous process dynamics model are employed at all design stage of the B2B control, such as modeling and parameter estimation of the reaction kinetics which is one of the important part of the process dynamics model. The designed B2B control consists of the gain scheduled I-PD/II2-PD control (I-PD with double integral control), the feed-forward compensation at the batch start time, and the model adaptation utilizing the results of the last batch operation. Throughout the actual batch operations, the B2B control provides superior control performance compared with that of conventional control methods.

  13. Degradation of toluene and trichloroethylene by Burkholderia cepacia G4 in growth-limited fed-batch culture

    Mars, Astrid E.; Houwing, Joukje; Dolfing, Jan; Janssen, Dick B.

    Burkholderia (Pseudomonas) cepacia G4 was cultivated in a fed-batch bioreactor on either toluene or toluene plus trichloroethylene (TCE), The culture was allowed to reach a constant cell density under conditions in which the amount of toluene supplied equals the maintenance energy demand of the

  14. Submerged membrane distillation for seawater desalination

    Francis, Lijo; Ghaffour, NorEddine; Alsaadi, Ahmad Salem; Amy, Gary L.

    2014-01-01

    A submerged membrane distillation (SMD) process for fresh water production from Red Sea water using commercially available hollow fiber membranes has been successfully employed and compared with the conventional direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) process. The hollow fiber membranes have been characterized for its morphology using field effect scanning electron microscope. In SMD process, a bunch of hollow fiber membranes are glued together at both ends to get a simplified open membrane module assembly submerged into the coolant tank equipped with a mechanical stirrer. Hot feed stream is allowed to pass through the lumen side of the membrane using a feed pump. Continuous stirring at the coolant side will reduce the temperature and concentration polarization. During the conventional DCMD process, using feed-coolant streams with co-current and counter-current flows has been tested and the results are compared in this study. In SMD process, a water vapor flux of 10.2 kg m-2 h-1 is achieved when using a feed inlet temperature of 80°C and coolant temperature of 20°C. Under the same conditions, during conventional DCMD process, a water vapor flux of 11.6 and 10.1 kg m-2 h-1 were observed during counter-current and co-current flow streams, respectively. Results show that the water production in the SMD process is comparable with the conventional DCMD process, while the feed-coolant flow streams are in the co-current direction. During conventional DCMD operation, a 15% increase in the water production is observed when feed-coolant streams are in the counter-current direction compared to the co-current direction. © 2014 © 2014 Balaban Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.

  15. Workshop on ROVs and deep submergence

    The deep-submergence community has an opportunity on March 6 to participate in a unique teleconferencing demonstration of a state-of-the-art, remotely operated underwater research vehicle known as the Jason-Medea System. Jason-Medea has been developed over the past decade by scientists, engineers, and technicians at the Deep Submergence Laboratory at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. The U.S. Navy, the Office of the Chief of Naval Research, and the National Science Foundation are sponsoring the workshop to explore the roles that modern computational, communications, and robotics technologies can play in deep-sea oceanographic research.Through the cooperation of Electronic Data Systems, Inc., the Jason Foundation, and Turner Broadcasting System, Inc., 2-1/2 hours of air time will be available from 3:00 to 5:30 PM EST on March 6. Twenty-seven satellite downlink sites will link one operating research vessel and the land-based operation with workshop participants in the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, and Bermuda. The research ship Laney Chouest will be in the midst of a 3-week educational/research program in the Sea of Cortez, between Baja California and mainland Mexico. This effort is focused on active hydrothermal vents driven by heat flow from the volcanically active East Pacific Rise, which underlies the sediment-covered Guaymas Basin. The project combines into a single-operation, newly-developed robotic systems, state-of-the-art mapping and sampling tools, fiber-optic data transmission from the seafloor, instantaneous satellite communication from ship to shore, and a sophisticated array of computational and telecommunications networks. During the workshop, land-based scientists will observe and participate directly with their seagoing colleagues as they conduct seafloor research.

  16. Submerged membrane distillation for seawater desalination

    Francis, Lijo

    2014-08-11

    A submerged membrane distillation (SMD) process for fresh water production from Red Sea water using commercially available hollow fiber membranes has been successfully employed and compared with the conventional direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) process. The hollow fiber membranes have been characterized for its morphology using field effect scanning electron microscope. In SMD process, a bunch of hollow fiber membranes are glued together at both ends to get a simplified open membrane module assembly submerged into the coolant tank equipped with a mechanical stirrer. Hot feed stream is allowed to pass through the lumen side of the membrane using a feed pump. Continuous stirring at the coolant side will reduce the temperature and concentration polarization. During the conventional DCMD process, using feed-coolant streams with co-current and counter-current flows has been tested and the results are compared in this study. In SMD process, a water vapor flux of 10.2 kg m-2 h-1 is achieved when using a feed inlet temperature of 80°C and coolant temperature of 20°C. Under the same conditions, during conventional DCMD process, a water vapor flux of 11.6 and 10.1 kg m-2 h-1 were observed during counter-current and co-current flow streams, respectively. Results show that the water production in the SMD process is comparable with the conventional DCMD process, while the feed-coolant flow streams are in the co-current direction. During conventional DCMD operation, a 15% increase in the water production is observed when feed-coolant streams are in the counter-current direction compared to the co-current direction. © 2014 © 2014 Balaban Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.

  17. [Algal control ability of allelopathically active submerged macrophytes: a review].

    Xiao, Xi; Lou, Li-ping; Li, Hua; Chen, Ying-xu

    2009-03-01

    The inhibitory effect of allelochemicals released by submerged macrophytes on phytoplankton is considered as one of the mechanisms that contribute to the stabilization of clear-water status in shallow lakes. This paper reviewed the research progress in the allelopathy of submerged macrophytes on algae from the aspects of the occurrence frequency and coverage of allelopathically active submerged macrophytes in lakes, and the kinds and allelopathical effects of the allelochemicals released from the macrophytes. The previous researches indicated that allelopathically active submerged macrophyte species such as Myriophyllum, Ceratophyllum, and Elodea were efficient to control phytoplankton, especially when their biomass was high enough, and the dominant algae were sensitive species. The allelochemicals such as hydroxybenzene released by the submerged macrophytes could inhibit the growth of algae. Different phytoplankton species exhibited different sensitivity against allelochemicals, e.g., cyanobacteria and diatom were more sensitive than green algae, while epiphytic species were less sensitive than phytoplankton. Environmental factors such as light, temperature, and nutrients could significantly affect the allelopathical effect of submerged macrophytes. The research of the allelopathy of submerged macrophytes is still at its beginning, and further researches are needed on the effects of environmental factors on the allelopathy, extraction and identification of allelochemicals, selective algal control mechanisms, and metabolism of the allelochmicals.

  18. Optimization of cyclosporin A production by Beauveria nivea in continuous fed-batch fermentation

    Dong Huijun

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To develop the effective control method for fed-batch culture of cyclosporin A production, we chose fructose, L-valine and (NH42HPO4 as feeding nutrients and compared their productivities in relation to different concentrations. The feeding rate of three kinds of feeding materials was controlled to maintain the suitable residual concentration. The fed-batch fermentation results indicated that the optimal concentrations of fructose, L-valine and (NH42HPO4 were about 20 g/L, 0.5 g/L and 0.6 g/L for cyclosporin A production, respectively. The cultivation of Beauveria nivea could produce cyclosporin A up to 6.2 g/L for 240 hrs through a continuous feeding-rate-controlled-batch process under the optimal feeding conditions.

  19. Vibrational analysis of submerged cylindrical shells based on elastic foundations

    Shah, A.G.; Naeem, M.N.

    2014-01-01

    In this study a vibration analysis was performed of an isotropic cylindrical shell submerged in fluid, resting on Winkler and Pasternak elastic foundations for simply supported boundary condition. Love's thin shell theory was exploited for strain- and curvature- displacement relationship. Shell problem was solved by using wave propagation approach. Influence of fluid and Winkler as well as Pasternak elastic foundations were studied on the natural frequencies of submerged isotropic cylindrical shells. Results were validated by comparing with the existing results in literature. Vibration, Submerged cylindrical shell, Love's thin shell theory, Wave propagation method, Winkler and Pasternak foundations. (author)

  20. The association between measurements of antimicrobial use and resistance in the faeces microbiota of finisher batches.

    Andersen, V D; DE Knegt, L V; Munk, P; Jensen, M S; Agersø, Y; Aarestrup, F M; Vigre, H

    2017-10-01

    The objectives were to present three approaches for calculating antimicrobial (AM) use in pigs that take into account the rearing period and rearing site, and to study the association between these measurements and phenotypical resistance and abundance of resistance genes in faeces samples from 10 finisher batches. The AM use was calculated relative to the rearing period of the batches as (i) 'Finisher Unit Exposure' at unit level, (ii) 'Lifetime Exposure' at batch level and (iii) 'Herd Exposure' at herd level. A significant effect on the occurrence of tetracycline resistance measured by cultivation was identified for Lifetime Exposure for the AM class: tetracycline. Furthermore, for Lifetime Exposure for the AM classes: macrolide, broad-spectrum penicillin, sulfonamide and tetracycline use as well as Herd Unit Exposure for the AM classes: aminoglycoside, lincosamide and tetracycline use, a significant effect was observed on the occurrence of genes coding for the AM resistance classes: aminoglycoside, lincosamide, macrolide, β-lactam, sulfonamide and tetracycline. No effect was observed for Finisher Unit Exposure. Overall, the study shows that Lifetime Exposure is an efficient measurement of AM use in finisher batches, and has a significant effect on the occurrence of resistance, measured either by cultivation or metagenomics.

  1. Isolation and Cultivation of Anaerobes

    Aragao Börner, Rosa

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic microorganisms play important roles in different biotechnological processes. Their complex metabolism and special cultivation requirements have led to less isolated representatives in comparison to their aerobic counterparts.In view of that, the isolation and cultivation of anaerobic...

  2. Monte Carlo simulation on kinetics of batch and semi-batch free radical polymerization

    Shao, Jing; Tang, Wei; Xia, Ru; Feng, Xiaoshuang; Chen, Peng; Qian, Jiasheng; Song, Changjiang

    2015-01-01

    experimental and simulation studies, we showed the capability of our Monte Carlo scheme on representing polymerization kinetics in batch and semi-batch processes. Various kinetics information, such as instant monomer conversion, molecular weight

  3. [Dendrobium officinale stereoscopic cultivation method].

    Si, Jin-Ping; Dong, Hong-Xiu; Liao, Xin-Yan; Zhu, Yu-Qiu; Li, Hui

    2014-12-01

    The study is aimed to make the most of available space of Dendrobium officinale cultivation facility, reveal the yield and functional components variation of stereoscopic cultivated D. officinale, and improve quality, yield and efficiency. The agronomic traits and yield variation of stereoscopic cultivated D. officinale were studied by operating field experiment. The content of polysaccharide and extractum were determined by using phenol-sulfuric acid method and 2010 edition of "Chinese Pharmacopoeia" Appendix X A. The results showed that the land utilization of stereoscopic cultivated D. officinale increased 2.74 times, the stems, leaves and their total fresh or dry weight in unit area of stereoscopic cultivated D. officinale were all heavier than those of the ground cultivated ones. There was no significant difference in polysaccharide content between stereoscopic cultivation and ground cultivation. But the extractum content and total content of polysaccharide and extractum were significantly higher than those of the ground cultivated ones. In additional, the polysaccharide content and total content of polysaccharide and extractum from the top two levels of stereoscopic culture matrix were significantly higher than that of the ones from the other levels and ground cultivation. Steroscopic cultivation can effectively improves the utilization of space and yield, while the total content of polysaccharides and extractum were significantly higher than that of the ground cultivated ones. The significant difference in Dendrobium polysaccharides among the plants from different height of stereo- scopic culture matrix may be associated with light factor.

  4. Submerged Aquatic Vegetation of Bogue Sound, North Carolina 1992 Geoform

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — During 1992, 1:20,000 scale aerial photography for Bogue Sound, North Carolina was collected as part of an effort to map submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) in...

  5. Submerged Aquatic Vegetation of Bogue Sound, North Carolina 1992 Geodatabase

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — During 1992, 1:20,000 scale aerial photography for Bogue Sound, North Carolina was collected as part of an effort to map submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) in...

  6. Submerged Aquatic Vegetation of Bogue Sound, North Carolina 1992 Substrate

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — During 1992, 1:20,000 scale aerial photography for Bogue Sound, North Carolina was collected as part of an effort to map submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) in...

  7. Supporting Calculations For Submerged Bed Scrubber Condensate Disposal Preconceptual Study

    Pajunen, A. J.; Tedeschi, A. R.

    2012-01-01

    This document provides supporting calculations for the preparation of the Submerged Bed Scrubber Condensate Disposal Preconceptual Study report. The supporting calculations include equipment sizing, Hazard Category determination, and LAW Melter Decontamination Factor Adjustments

  8. Marine algal flora of submerged Angria Bank (Arabian Sea)

    Untawale, A.G.; Reddy, C.R.K.; Ambiye, V.

    Submerged Angria Bank was surveyed for the deep water marine algal flora. About 57 species were reported from this bank for the first time. Rhodophyta dominated (30 species) followed by Chlorophyta (18 species) and Phaeophyta (9 species). A few...

  9. Submergence tolerance in Hordeum marinum

    Pedersen, Ole; Malik, Al I.; Colmer, Timothy D.

    2010-01-01

    Floodwaters differ markedly in dissolved CO(2), yet the effects of CO(2) on submergence responses of terrestrial plants have rarely been examined. The influence of dissolved CO(2) on underwater photosynthesis and growth was evaluated for three accessions of the wetland plant Hordeum marinum Huds....... All three accessions tolerated complete submergence, but only when in CO(2) enriched floodwater. Plants submerged for 7 days in water at air equilibrium (18 mM CO(2)) suffered loss of biomass, whereas those with 200 mM CO(2) continued to grow. Higher underwater net photosynthesis at 200 mM CO(2......) increased by 2.7- to 3.2-fold sugar concentrations in roots of submerged plants, compared with at air equilibrium CO(2). Leaf gas films enhancing gas exchange with floodwater, lack of a shoot elongation response conserving tissue sugars and high tissue porosity (24-31% in roots) facilitating internal O(2...

  10. Canopy Modeling of Aquatic Vegetation: Construction of Submerged Vegetation Index

    Ma, Z.; Zhou, G.

    2018-04-01

    The unique spectral characteristics of submerged vegetation in wetlands determine that the conventional terrestrial vegetation index cannot be directly employed to species identification and parameter inversion of submerged vegetation. Based on the Aquatic Vegetation Radiative Transfer model (AVRT), this paper attempts to construct an index suitable for submerged vegetation, the model simulated data and a scene of Sentinel-2A image in Taihu Lake, China are utilized for assessing the performance of the newly constructed indices and the existent vegetation indices. The results show that the angle index composed by 525 nm, 555 nm and 670 nm can resist the effects of water columns and is more sensitive to vegetation parameters such as LAI. Furthermore, it makes a well discrimination between submerged vegetation and water bodies in the satellite data. We hope that the new index will provide a theoretical basis for future research.

  11. Durability performance of submerged concrete structures - phase 2.

    2015-09-01

    This project determined that severe corrosion of steel can occur in the submerged : portions of reinforced concrete structures in marine environments. Field studies of decommissioned : pilings from Florida bridges revealed multiple instances of stron...

  12. Supporting Calculations For Submerged Bed Scrubber Condensate Disposal Preconceptual Study

    Pajunen, A. J.; Tedeschi, A. R.

    2012-09-18

    This document provides supporting calculations for the preparation of the Submerged Bed Scrubber Condensate Disposal Preconceptual Study report The supporting calculations include equipment sizing, Hazard Category determination, and LAW Melter Decontamination Factor Adjustments.

  13. Involvement of Physical Parameters in Medium Improvement for Tannase Production by Aspergillus niger FETL FT3 in Submerged Fermentation.

    Darah, I; Sumathi, G; Jain, K; Hong, Lim Sheh

    2011-01-01

    Aspergillus niger FETL FT3, a local extracellular tannase producer strain that was isolated from one of dumping sites of tannin-rich barks of Rhizophora apiculata in Perak, Malaysia. This fungus was cultivated in 250 mL Erlenmeyer flask under submerged fermentation system. Various physical parameters were studied in order to maximize the tannase production. Maximal yield of tannase production, that is, 2.81 U per mL was obtained on the fourth day of cultivation when the submerged fermentation was carried out using liquid Czapek-Dox medium containing (percent; weight per volume) 0.25% NaNO(3), 0.1% KH(2)PO(4), 0.05% MgSO(4) ·7H(2)O, 0.05% KCl, and 1.0% tannic acid. The physical parameters used initial medium pH of 6.0, incubation temperature of 30°C, agitation speed of 200 rpm and inoculums size of 6 × 10(6) spores/ ml. This research has showed that physical parameters were influenced the tannase production by the fungus with 156.4 percent increment.

  14. Cultivating an entrepreneurial mindset.

    Matheson, Sandra A

    2013-01-01

    Now as never before, familiar challenges require bold, novel approaches. Registered dietitians will benefit by cultivating an entrepreneurial mindset that involves being comfortable with uncertainty, learning to take calculated risks, and daring to just try it. An entrepreneur is someone who takes risks to create something new, usually in business. But the entrepreneurial mindset is available to anyone prepared to rely only on their own abilities for their economic security and expect no opportunity without first creating value for others.

  15. Cultivating strategic thinking skills.

    Shirey, Maria R

    2012-06-01

    This department highlights change management strategies that may be successful in strategically planning and executing organizational change initiatives. With the goal of presenting practical approaches helpful to nurse leaders advancing organizational change, content includes evidence-based projects, tools, and resources that mobilize and sustain organizational change initiatives. In this article, the author presents an overview of strategic leadership and offers approaches for cultivating strategic thinking skills.

  16. Impeded Carbohydrate Metabolism in Rice Plants under Submergence Stress

    Malay Kumar ADAK

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The detrimental effects of submergence on physiological performances of some rice varieties with special references to carbohydrate metabolisms and their allied enzymes during post-flowering stages have been documented and clarified in the present investigation. It was found that photosynthetic rate and concomitant translocation of sugars into the panicles were both related to the yield. The detrimental effects of the complete submergence were recorded in generation of sucrose, starch, sucrose phosphate synthase and phosphorylase activity in the developing panicles of the plants as compared to those under normal or control (i.e. non-submerged condition. The accumulation of starch was significantly lower in plants under submergence and that was correlated with ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase activity. Photosynthetic rate was most affected under submergence in varying days of post-flowering and was also related to the down regulation of Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase activity. However, under normal or control condition, there recorded a steady maintenance of photosynthetic rate at the post-flowering stages and significantly higher values of Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase activity. Still, photosynthetic rate of the plants under both control and submerged conditions had hardly any significant correlation with sugar accumulation and other enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism like invertase with grain yield. Finally, plants under submergence suffered significant loss of yield by poor grain filling which was related to impeded carbohydrate metabolism in the tissues. It is evident that loss of yield under submergence is attributed both by lower sink size or sink capacity (number of panicles, in this case as well as subdued carbohydrate metabolism in plants and its subsequent partitioning into the grains.

  17. Application of submerged induction hardening; Ekichu koshuha yakiire no jitsuyoka

    Nishimori, Y; Nagai, Y; Amii, Y [Mazda Motor Corp., Hiroshima (Japan); Tanaka, Y [Netsuren Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Mizuma, T [Toyo Advanced Technologies Co. Ltd., Hiroshima (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    As a cost-cutting measure, the linerless diesel engine was adopted by applying submerged induction hardening process which can harden partial inner surface of cylinder block bore. In applying this process, (1) development of induction coil which can form any shape of quenched pattern and (2) the development of machining technology which can hone precisely the distorted bore after quenching, were important. With these improvements, submerged Induction hardening was made practical. 1 ref., 11 figs.

  18. Family based dispatching with batch availability

    van der Zee, D.J.

    2013-01-01

    Family based dispatching rules seek to lower set-up frequencies by grouping (batching) similar types of jobs for joint processing. Hence shop flow times may be improved, as less time is spent on set-ups. Motivated by an industrial project we study the control of machines with batch availability,

  19. Effective mass and damping of submerged structures

    Dong, R.G.

    1979-01-01

    A number of structures important for safety in nuclear power plants are submerged in water. These include spent fuel storage racks, main pressure relief valve lines, and internal structures in the reactor vessel. Dynamic analyses of such structures must include the force and damping effects of water. A wide variety of modeling assumptions are being used in design analyses, and currently there are no uniform positions by which to judge the adequacy of the assumptions . A study was caried out to establish a technical basis for evaluating the assymptions and to recommend suitable methods to describe the effects of the water. The results of the study were based on information published in the literature or conveyed by industrial firms. A survey of 32 firms and 49 technical references was carried out. Heavy emphasis was placed on validating the results with available experimental data. The information collected apply generally to idealized structures such as single isolated members, arrays of members and coaxial cylinders. The results of the study are categorized with respect to such idealized structures, and the applicability to actual reactor structures was discussed through observations and recommendations. (orig.)

  20. Effective mass and damping of submerged structures

    Dong, R.G.

    1978-01-01

    Various structures important for safety in nuclear power plants must remain functioning in the event of an earthquake or other dynamic phenomenon. Some of these important structures, such as spent-fuel storage racks, main pressure-relief valve lines, and internal structures in the reactor vessel, are submerged in water. Dynamic analysis must include the force and damping effects of water. This report provides a technical basis for evaluating the wide variety of modeling assumptions currently used in design analysis. Current design analysis techniques and information in the literature form the basis of our conclusions and recommendations. We surveyed 32 industrial firms and reviewed 49 technical references. We compare various theories with published experimental results wherever possible. Our findings generally pertain to idealized structures, such as single isolated members, arrays of members, and coaxial cylinders. We relate these findings to the actual reactor structures through observations and recommendations. Whenever possible we recommend a definite way to evaluate the effect of hydrodynamic forces on these structures

  1. Heat transfer model for quenching by submerging

    Passarella, D N; Varas, F; MartIn, E B

    2011-01-01

    In quenching by submerging the workpiece is cooled due to vaporization, convective flow and interaction of both mechanisms. The dynamics of these phenomena is very complex and the corresponding heat fluxes are strongly dependent on local flow variables such as velocity of fluid and vapor fraction. This local dependence may produce very different cooling rates along the piece, responsible for inappropriate metallurgical transformations, variability of material properties and residual stresses. In order to obtain an accurate description of cooling during quenching, a mathematical model of heat transfer is presented here. The model is based on the drift-flux mixture-model for multiphase flows, including an equation of conservation of energy for the liquid phase and specific boundary conditions that account for evaporation and presence of vapor phase on the surface of the piece. The model was implemented on Comsol Multiphysics software. Generation of appropriate initial and boundary conditions, as well as numerical resolution details, is briefly discussed. To test the model, a simple flow condition was analyzed. The effect of vapor fraction on heat transfer is assessed. The presence of the typical vapor blanket and its collapse can be recovered by the model, and its effect on the cooling rates on different parts of the piece is analyzed. Comparisons between numerical results and data from literature are made.

  2. Heat transfer model for quenching by submerging

    Passarella, D N; Varas, F [Departamento de Matematica Aplicada II, E.T.S. de Ing. de Telecomunicacion, Universidad de Vigo, Campus Marcosende, 36310 Vigo (Spain); MartIn, E B, E-mail: diego@dma.uvigo.es, E-mail: fvaras@uvigo.es, E-mail: emortega@uvigo.es [Area de Mecanica de Fluidos, E.T.S. de Ing. Industriales, Universidad de Vigo, Campus Marcosende, 36310 Vigo (Spain)

    2011-05-01

    In quenching by submerging the workpiece is cooled due to vaporization, convective flow and interaction of both mechanisms. The dynamics of these phenomena is very complex and the corresponding heat fluxes are strongly dependent on local flow variables such as velocity of fluid and vapor fraction. This local dependence may produce very different cooling rates along the piece, responsible for inappropriate metallurgical transformations, variability of material properties and residual stresses. In order to obtain an accurate description of cooling during quenching, a mathematical model of heat transfer is presented here. The model is based on the drift-flux mixture-model for multiphase flows, including an equation of conservation of energy for the liquid phase and specific boundary conditions that account for evaporation and presence of vapor phase on the surface of the piece. The model was implemented on Comsol Multiphysics software. Generation of appropriate initial and boundary conditions, as well as numerical resolution details, is briefly discussed. To test the model, a simple flow condition was analyzed. The effect of vapor fraction on heat transfer is assessed. The presence of the typical vapor blanket and its collapse can be recovered by the model, and its effect on the cooling rates on different parts of the piece is analyzed. Comparisons between numerical results and data from literature are made.

  3. Identification of potential cell wall component that allows Taka-amylase A adsorption in submerged cultures of Aspergillus oryzae.

    Sato, Hiroki; Toyoshima, Yoshiyuki; Shintani, Takahiro; Gomi, Katsuya

    2011-12-01

    We observed that α-amylase (Taka-amylase A; TAA) activity in the culture broth disappeared in the later stage of submerged cultivation of Aspergillus oryzae. This disappearance was caused by adsorption of TAA onto the cell wall of A. oryzae and not due to protein degradation by extracellular proteolytic enzymes. To determine the cell wall component(s) that allows TAA adsorption efficiently, the cell wall was fractionated by stepwise alkali treatment and enzymatic digestion. Consequently, alkali-insoluble cell wall fractions exhibited high levels of TAA adsorption. In addition, this adsorption capacity was significantly enhanced by treatment of the alkali-insoluble fraction with β-glucanase, which resulted in the concomitant increase in the amount of chitin in the resulting fraction. In contrast, the adsorption capacity was diminished by treating the cell wall fraction with chitinase. These results suggest that the major component that allows TAA adsorption is chitin. However, both the mycelium and the cell wall demonstrated the inability to allow TAA adsorption in the early stage of cultivation, despite chitin content in the cell wall being identical in both early and late stages of cultivation. These results suggest the existence of unidentified factor(s) that could prevent the adsorption of TAA onto the cell wall. Such factor(s) is most likely removed or diminished from the cell wall following longer cultivation periods.

  4. Cell wall α-1,3-glucan prevents α-amylase adsorption onto fungal cell in submerged culture of Aspergillus oryzae.

    Zhang, Silai; Sato, Hiroki; Ichinose, Sakurako; Tanaka, Mizuki; Miyazawa, Ken; Yoshimi, Akira; Abe, Keietsu; Shintani, Takahiro; Gomi, Katsuya

    2017-07-01

    We have previously reported that α-amylase (Taka-amylase A, TAA) activity disappears in the later stage of submerged Aspergillus oryzae culture as a result of TAA adsorption onto the cell wall. Chitin, one of the major components of the cell wall, was identified as a potential factor that facilitates TAA adsorption. However, TAA adsorption only occurred in the later stage of cultivation, although chitin was assumed to be sufficiently abundant in the cell wall regardless of the submerged culture period. This suggested the presence a factor that inhibits TAA adsorption to the cell wall in the early stage of cultivation. In the current study, we identified α-1,3-glucan as a potential inhibiting factor for TAA adsorption. We constructed single, double, and triple disruption mutants of three α-1,3-glucan synthase genes (agsA, agsB, and agsC) in A. oryzae. Growth characteristics and cell wall component analysis of these disruption strains showed that AgsB plays a major role in α-1,3-glucan synthesis. In the ΔagsB mutant, TAA was adsorbed onto the mycelium in all stages of cultivation (early and later), and the ΔagsB mutant cell walls had a significantly high capacity for TAA adsorption. Moreover, the α-1,3-glucan content of the cell wall prepared from the wild-type strain in the later stage of cultivation was markedly reduced compared with that in the early stage. These results suggest that α-1,3-glucan is a potential inhibiting factor for TAA adsorption onto the cell wall component, chitin, in the early stage of submerged culture in A. oryzae. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Applications of image analysis in the characterization of Streptomyces olindensis in submerged culture

    Pamboukian Celso R. Denser

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The morphology of Streptomyces olindensis (producer of retamycin, an antitumor antibiotic grown in submerged culture was assessed by image analysis. The morphology was differentiated into four classes: pellets, clumps (or entangled filaments, branched and unbranched free filaments. Four morphological parameters were initially considered (area, convex area, perimeter, and convex perimeter but only two parameters (perimeter and convex perimeter were chosen to automatically classify the cells into the four morphological classes, using histogram analysis. Each morphological class was evaluated during growth carried out in liquid media in fermenter or shaker. It was found that pellets and clumps dominated in early growth stages in fermenter (due to the inoculum coming from a shaker cultivation and that during cultivation, the breakage of pellets and clumps caused an increase in the percentage of free filaments. The criteria of morphological classification by image analysis proposed were useful to quantify the percentage of each morphological class during fermentations and may help to establish correlations between antibiotic production and microorganism morphology.

  6. Uneven batch data alignment with application to the control of batch end-product quality.

    Wan, Jian; Marjanovic, Ognjen; Lennox, Barry

    2014-03-01

    Batch processes are commonly characterized by uneven trajectories due to the existence of batch-to-batch variations. The batch end-product quality is usually measured at the end of these uneven trajectories. It is necessary to align the time differences for both the measured trajectories and the batch end-product quality in order to implement statistical process monitoring and control schemes. Apart from synchronizing trajectories with variable lengths using an indicator variable or dynamic time warping, this paper proposes a novel approach to align uneven batch data by identifying short-window PCA&PLS models at first and then applying these identified models to extend shorter trajectories and predict future batch end-product quality. Furthermore, uneven batch data can also be aligned to be a specified batch length using moving window estimation. The proposed approach and its application to the control of batch end-product quality are demonstrated with a simulated example of fed-batch fermentation for penicillin production. Copyright © 2013 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Transition in nori cultivation

    Delaney, Alyne

    2011-01-01

    . Technological change has had a profound impact on both the manner of nori production as well as the household division of labor and work and gender roles. Women play a key role in nori production today. With better understanding of such outward manifestations of culture and society we can bring the human...... of social and environmental sustainability, we must understand both society and cultural institutions. With this in mind, this article focuses on the division of labor among cultivators, particularly along gender lines and the impacts, on a cultural level, of technological change on nori production...

  8. LSF usage for batch at CERN

    Schwickerath, Ulrich

    2007-01-01

    Contributed poster to the CHEP07. Original abstract: LSF 7, the latest version of Platform's batch workload management system, addresses many issues which limited the ability of LSF 6.1 to support large scale batch farms, such as the lxbatch service at CERN. In this paper we will present the status of the evaluation and deployment of LSF 7 at CERN, including issues concerning the integration of LSF 7 with the gLite grid middleware suite and, in particular, the steps taken to endure an efficient reporting of the local batch system status and usage to the Grid Information System

  9. Hydrogen production from formic acid in pH-stat fed-batch operation for direct supply to fuel cell.

    Shin, Jong-Hwan; Yoon, Jong Hyun; Lee, Seung Hoon; Park, Tai Hyun

    2010-01-01

    Enterobacter asburiae SNU-1 harvested after cultivation was used as a whole cell biocatalyst, for the production of hydrogen. Formic acid was efficiently converted to hydrogen using the harvested cells with an initial hydrogen production rate and total hydrogen production of 491 ml/l/h and 6668 ml/l, respectively, when 1 g/l of whole cell enzyme was used. Moreover, new pH-stat fed-batch operation was conducted, and total hydrogen production was 1.4 times higher than that of batch operation. For practical application, bio-hydrogen produced from formic acid using harvested cells was directly applied to PEMFC for power generation.

  10. Preliminary Analysis of a Submerged Wave Energy Device

    Wagner, J. R.; Wagner, J. J.; Hayatdavoodi, M.; Ertekin, R. C.

    2016-02-01

    Preliminary analysis of a submerged wave energy harvesting device is presented. The device is composed of a thin, horizontally submerged plate that is restricted to heave oscillations under the influence of surface waves. The submerged plate is oscillating, and it can be attached to a fixed rotor, or a piston, to harvest the wave energy. A fully submerged wave energy converter is preferred over a surface energy convertor due to its durability and less visual and physical distractions it presents. In this study, the device is subject to nonlinear shallow-water waves. Wave loads on the submerged oscillating plate are obtained via the Level I Green-Naghdi equations. The unsteady motion of the plate is obtained by solving the nonlinear equations of motion. The results are obtained for a range of waves with varying heights and periods. The amplitude and period of plate oscillations are analyzed as functions of the wave parameters and plate width. Particular attention is given to the selection of the site of desired wave field. Initial estimation on the amount of energy extraction from the device, located near shore at a given site, is provided.

  11. Demonstration and Field Evaluation of Streambank Stabilization with Submerged Vanes

    Whitman, H.; Hoopes, J.; Poggi, D.; Fitzpatrick, F.; Walz, K.; ,

    2001-01-01

    The effectiveness of submerged vanes for reducing bank erosion and improving aquatic habitat is being evaluated at a site on North Fish Creek, a Lake Superior tributary. Increased runoff from agricultural areas with clayey soils has increased flood magnitudes and the erosion potential/transport capacity of the stream. Most of the creek's sediment load originates from the erosion of 17 large bluffs. This creek contains important recreational fisheries that are potentially limited by the loss of aquatic habitat from deposition of sediment on spawning beds. Submerged vanes are a cost effective and environmentally less intrusive alternative to traditional structural stabilization measures. Submerged vanes protrude from a channel bed, are oriented at an angle to the local velocity, and are distributed along a portion of channel. They induce a transverse force and torque on the flow along with longitudinal vortexes that alter the cross sectional shape and alignment of the channel. Submerged vanes were installed at a bluff/bend site in summer and fall 2000. The number, size, and layout of the vanes were based upon the channel morphology under estimated bankfull conditions. The effectiveness of the vanes will be evaluated by comparing surveys of the bluff face, streamflow, and channel conditions for several years after installation of the submerged vanes with surveys before and immediately after their installation.

  12. Glass bead cultivation of fungi

    Droce, Aida; Sørensen, Jens Laurids; Giese, H.

    2013-01-01

    Production of bioactive compounds and enzymes from filamentous fungi is highly dependent on cultivation conditions. Here we present an easy way to cultivate filamentous fungi on glass beads that allow complete control of nutrient supply. Secondary metabolite production in Fusarium graminearum...... and Fusarium solani cultivated on agar plates, in shaking liquid culture or on glass beads was compared. Agar plate culture and glass bead cultivation yielded comparable results while liquid culture had lower production of secondary metabolites. RNA extraction from glass beads and liquid cultures was easier...... to specific nutrient factors. •Fungal growth on glass beads eases and improves fungal RNA extraction....

  13. Fuzzy batch controller for granular materials

    Zamyatin Nikolaj; Smirnov Gennadij; Fedorchuk Yuri; Rusina Olga

    2018-01-01

    The paper focuses on batch control of granular materials in production of building materials from fluorine anhydrite. Batching equipment is intended for smooth operation and timely feeding of supply hoppers at a required level. Level sensors and a controller of an asynchronous screw drive motor are used to control filling of the hopper with industrial anhydrite binders. The controller generates a required frequency and ensures required productivity of a feed conveyor. Mamdani-type fuzzy infer...

  14. Batch Computed Tomography Analysis of Projectiles

    2016-05-01

    ARL-TR-7681 ● MAY 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Batch Computed Tomography Analysis of Projectiles by Michael C Golt, Chris M...Laboratory Batch Computed Tomography Analysis of Projectiles by Michael C Golt and Matthew S Bratcher Weapons and Materials Research...values to account for projectile variability in the ballistic evaluation of armor. 15. SUBJECT TERMS computed tomography , CT, BS41, projectiles

  15. Anaerobic and aerobic batch cultivations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants impaired in glycerol synthesis

    Nissen, Torben Lauesgaard; Hamann, Claus Wendelboe; Kielland-Brandt, M. C.

    2000-01-01

    Glycerol is formed as a by-product in production of ethanol and baker's yeast during fermentation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae under anaerobic and aerobic growth conditions, respectively. One physiological role of glycerol formation by yeast is to reoxidize NADH, formed in synthesis of biomass...

  16. Morphological characterization of recombinant strains of Aspergillus oryzae producing alpha-amylase during batch cultivations

    Spohr, Anders Bendsen; Carlsen, Morten; Nielsen, Jens Bredal

    1997-01-01

    Three alpha-amylase producing strains of Aspergillus oryzae used for recombinant protein production have been studied with respect to growth and protein production. By comparing the three strains with respect to morphology and protein production it is shown that a morphological mutant with a more...

  17. Starting from grape cultivation.

    Yoshida, A

    1992-06-01

    Rapid population growth can only be stopped by lowering the fertility rate. The UNFPA recommends improving the employment opportunities for women as the single best way of achieving this reduction. An example of this phenomenon is the grape cultivation in the Nordeste (Northeastern) region of Brazil. This area is the poorest part of Brazil and has the highest proportion of indigent people. These people have been deforesting the Amazon in search of a better life. What they have done is sterilize the land and turned a tropical rain forest into a desert. In an effort to reverse this trend, grape cultivation has been introduced in an area called Petrolina. The area is very dry with less than 500 mm of precipitation annually. They do have access to a 5000 square kilometer artificial lake (the largest in the world) and the 3rd largest river in Brazil (the Sao Francisco). In an effort to avoid using agricultural medicines, the vines are fertilized with organic matter created on the farm and little or no pesticides are used since pests do not live in such an arid region. It has taken 20 years of trial and error, but the quality of the grapes is now very high and is competitive on the world market. Because of climate and location, harvesting is done year round which increases the productivity of the land. The farm managers have found that married women make the best workers and have the highest level of productivity. Age at 1st marriage averages 24-25, compared with 15-16 for unemployed women in the same area. The fertility rate averages 50% of that for unemployed women in the same area. Agricultural development offers the best opportunity for the women of developing countries. It can pay a high wage, reduce fertility, and replant desert areas.

  18. Micrometeorological principles of protected cultivation

    Protected cultivation is a broad term commonly used among producers of specialty crops. Techniques can range from complex fixed structures to field site selection, to straightforward cultural practices in the field. This introduction to the ASHS workshop "Protected cultivation for fruit crops" consi...

  19. Long-term allelopathic control of phytoplankton by the submerged macrophyte Elodea nuttallii

    Vanderstukken, M.; Declerck, S.A.J.; Decaestecker, E.; Muylaert, K.

    2014-01-01

    Keywords: allelochemicals; chemical ecology; competition; nutrient limitation; shallow lakes Summary 1.It is well known that submerged macrophytes can suppress phytoplankton blooms in lakes and thus promote water quality and biodiversity. One of the possible mechanisms through which submerged

  20. Through-flow of water in leaves of a submerged plant is influenced by the apical opening

    Pedersen, Ole; Jørgensen, Lise Bolt; Sand-Jensen, Kaj

    1997-01-01

    Submerged plant, apical opening, hydathode, Sparganium, hydraulic architecture, leaf specific conductivity......Submerged plant, apical opening, hydathode, Sparganium, hydraulic architecture, leaf specific conductivity...

  1. Plasma modified PLA electrospun membranes for actinorhodin production intensification in Streptomyces coelicolor immobilized-cell cultivations.

    Scaffaro, Roberto; Lopresti, Francesco; Sutera, Alberto; Botta, Luigi; Fontana, Rosa Maria; Gallo, Giuseppe

    2017-09-01

    Most of industrially relevant bioproducts are produced by submerged cultivations of actinomycetes. The immobilization of these Gram-positive filamentous bacteria on suitable porous supports may prevent mycelial cell-cell aggregation and pellet formation which usually negatively affect actinomycete submerged cultivations, thus, resulting in an improved biosynthetic capability. In this work, electrospun polylactic acid (PLA) membranes, subjected or not to O 2 -plasma treatment (PLA-plasma), were used as support for immobilized-cell submerged cultivations of Streptomyces coelicolor M145. This strain produces different bioactive compounds, including the blue-pigmented actinorhodin (ACT) and red-pigmented undecylprodigiosin (RED), and constitutes a model for the study of antibiotic-producing actinomycetes. Wet contact angles and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis confirmed the increased wettability of PLA-plasma due to the formation of polar functional groups such as carboxyl and hydroxyl moieties. Scanning electron microscope observations, carried out at different incubation times, revealed that S. coelicolor immobilized-cells created a dense "biofilm-like" mycelial network on both kinds of PLA membranes. Cultures of S. coelicolor immobilized-cells on PLA or PLA-plasma membranes produced higher biomass (between 1.5 and 2 fold) as well as higher levels of RED and ACT than planktonic cultures. In particular, cultures of immobilized-cells on PLA and PLA-plasma produced comparable levels of RED that were approximatively 4 and 5 fold higher than those produced by planktonic cultures, respectively. In contrast, levels of ACT produced by immobilized-cell cultures on PLA and PLA-plasma were different, being 5 and 10 fold higher than those of planktonic cultures, respectively. Therefore, this is study demonstrated the positive influence of PLA membrane on growth and secondary metabolite production in S. coelicolor and also revealed that O 2 -plasma treated PLA membranes

  2. Production of nattokinase by high cell density fed-batch culture of Bacillus subtilis.

    Kwon, Eun-Yeong; Kim, Kyung Mi; Kim, Mi Kyoung; Lee, In Young; Kim, Beom Soo

    2011-09-01

    Bacillus subtilis was cultivated to high cell density for nattokinase production by pH-stat fed-batch culture. A concentrated mixture solution of glucose and peptone was automatically added by acid-supplying pump when culture pH rose above high limit. Effect of the ratio of glucose to peptone in feeding solution was investigated on cell growth and nattokinase production by changing the ratio from 0.2 to 5 g glucose/g peptone. The highest cell concentration was 77 g/L when the ratio was 0.2 g glucose/g peptone. Cell concentration decreased with increasing the ratio of glucose to peptone in feeding solution, while the optimum condition existed for nattokinase production. The highest nattokinase activity was 14,500 unit/mL at a ratio of 0.33 g glucose/g peptone, which was 4.3 times higher than that in batch culture.

  3. Energy efficiency of batch and semi-batch (CCRO) reverse osmosis desalination.

    Warsinger, David M; Tow, Emily W; Nayar, Kishor G; Maswadeh, Laith A; Lienhard V, John H

    2016-12-01

    As reverse osmosis (RO) desalination capacity increases worldwide, the need to reduce its specific energy consumption becomes more urgent. In addition to the incremental changes attainable with improved components such as membranes and pumps, more significant reduction of energy consumption can be achieved through time-varying RO processes including semi-batch processes such as closed-circuit reverse osmosis (CCRO) and fully-batch processes that have not yet been commercialized or modelled in detail. In this study, numerical models of the energy consumption of batch RO (BRO), CCRO, and the standard continuous RO process are detailed. Two new energy-efficient configurations of batch RO are analyzed. Batch systems use significantly less energy than continuous RO over a wide range of recovery ratios and source water salinities. Relative to continuous RO, models predict that CCRO and batch RO demonstrate up to 37% and 64% energy savings, respectively, for brackish water desalination at high water recovery. For batch RO and CCRO, the primary reductions in energy use stem from atmospheric pressure brine discharge and reduced streamwise variation in driving pressure. Fully-batch systems further reduce energy consumption by not mixing streams of different concentrations, which CCRO does. These results demonstrate that time-varying processes can significantly raise RO energy efficiency. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Leaf gas films contribute to rice (Oryza sativa) submergence tolerance during saline floods

    Herzog, Max; Konnerup, Dennis; Pedersen, Ole

    2018-01-01

    Floods and salinization of agricultural land adversely impact global rice production. We investigated whether gas films on leaves of submerged rice delay salt entry during saline submergence. Two-week-old plants with leaf gas films (+GF) or with gas films experimentally removed (-GF) were submerged...

  5. Microcystin production in epiphytic cyanobacteria on submerged macrophytes.

    Mohamed, Zakaria A; Al Shehri, Abdulrahman M

    2010-06-15

    Cyanotoxins have been largely studied in planktonic and benthic cyanobacteria, but microcystin (MCYST) production in epiphytic cyanobacteria has not been reported yet. The present study reports for the first time the MCYST production in epiphytic cyanobacteria on submerged macrophytes. During this study, four common submerged macrophytes in eutrophic pond in Saudi Arabia were surveyed for the presence of toxic epiphytic cyanobacteria. The results showed that chlorophyll-a and total biovolume of epiphytic cyanobacteria differed significantly among submerged plants with highest values obtained in Stratiotes aloides and lowest in Elodea canadensis. Epiphytic materials collected from Ceratophyllum demersum and S. aloides had higher species diversities than materials collected from E. canadensis and Myriophyllum verticillatum. The cyanobacteria, Merismopedia tenuissima and Leptolyngbya boryana were recorded with a high abundance in epiphytic materials collected from all submerged macrohpytes. Based on Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), these two species were found to produce MCYSTs (MCYSTs) with concentrations of 1438 and 630 microg g(-1) dry weight, respectively. HPLC analysis of the methanolic extracts of the two species showed that M. tenuissima extract contained MCYST-RR and -LR/demethyl LR plus 3 minor unidentified MCYSTs, while L. boryana extract contained MCYST-YR, -LR/demethyl LR, and 2 minor unidentified MCYSTs. This study suggests that epiphytic species should be considered during monitoring of toxic cyanobacteria in water sources. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Gas exchange under water. Acclimation of terrestrial plants to submergence

    Mommer, L.

    2005-01-01

    Gas exchange between the plant and the environment is severely hampered when plants are submerged, leading to oxygen and energy deficits. A straightforward way to reduce these shortages of oxygen and carbohydrates would be prolonged photosynthesis under water, but this has received only little

  7. Tidal Power Potential in the Submerged Channels of Dar es

    on the tidal plateau, shallow water area on the sand banks and in the submerged channels, using self—recording .... in a Cartesian frame where iz is directed towards the vertical, ix points ..... Bongoyo, there is a 15 m deep channel that passes.

  8. Benthic Bacterial Diversity in Submerged Sinkhole Ecosystems▿ †

    Nold, Stephen C.; Pangborn, Joseph B.; Zajack, Heidi A.; Kendall, Scott T.; Rediske, Richard R.; Biddanda, Bopaiah A.

    2010-01-01

    Physicochemical characterization, automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA) community profiling, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing approaches were used to study bacterial communities inhabiting submerged Lake Huron sinkholes inundated with hypoxic, sulfate-rich groundwater. Photosynthetic cyanobacterial mats on the sediment surface were dominated by Phormidium autumnale, while deeper, organically rich sediments contained diverse and active bacterial communities. PMID:19880643

  9. Effects of submerged and anaerobic fermentations on cassava flour ...

    Cassava tubers for processing into cassava flour, Lafun a Nigerian locally fermented product was subjected to two different types of fermentations: submerged and anaerobic fermentation for 72 h. Physicochemical changes that occurred during fermentation and their influence on the functional, rheological and sensory ...

  10. Surface Intermediate Zone of Submerged Turbulent Buoyant Jet in Current

    Chen, H. B.; Larsen, Torben

    1995-01-01

    This paper deals with the intermediate zone between the jet and plume stages of a submerged buoyant discharge from sea outfall in current. The stability criteria, plume width and height after the intermediate zone and the dilution within the intermediate region have been studied theoretically and...

  11. Identification of a novel submergence response gene regulated by ...

    Tuoyo Aghomotsegin

    2016-12-07

    Dec 7, 2016 ... ... stress. Hormone ABA treatment induces, whereas GA treatment decreases, RS1 ... Key word: Rice (Oryza sativa L.), submergence, RNA-seq, Sub1A, abiotic stress. ... genes may interact with Sub1A-1 that are necessary for.

  12. Effects of submerged vegetation on water clarity across climates

    Kosten, S.; Lacerot, G.; Jeppesen, E.; Motta Marques, D.M.L.; Nes, van E.H.; Mazzeo, N.; Scheffer, M.

    2009-01-01

    A positive feedback between submerged vegetation and water clarity forms the backbone of the alternative state theory in shallow lakes. The water clearing effect of aquatic vegetation may be caused by different physical, chemical, and biological mechanisms and has been studied mainly in temperate

  13. Influence of attapulgite addition on the biological performance and microbial communities of submerged dynamic membrane bioreactor

    Wensong Duan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A submerged dynamic membrane bioreactor (sDMBR was developed to test the influence of attapulgite (AT addition on the treatment performances and the microbial community structure and function. The batch experimental results displayed the highest UV254 and dissolved organic carbon (DOC removal efficiencies with 5% AT/mixed liquid suspended solids addition dosage. The continuous sDMBR results showed that the removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand, NH4+-N, total nitrogen and total phosphorus significantly increased in the AT added sDMBR. Excitation emission matrix analysis demonstrated that the protein-like peaks and fulvic acid-like peaks were significantly decreased in both in the mixed liquid and the effluent of the AT added reactor. The obligate anaerobes were observed in the sDMBR with AT addition, such as Bacteroidetes and Gamma proteobacterium in the dynamic membrane, which played an important role in the process of sludge granulation. Bacterial community richness significantly increased after AT addition with predominated phyla of Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. Similarly, species abundance significantly increased in the AT added sDMBR. Further investigations with cluster proved that AT was a favorite biological carrier for the microbial ecology, which enriched microbial abundance and community diversity of the sDMBR.

  14. Fuzzy batch controller for granular materials

    Zamyatin Nikolaj

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on batch control of granular materials in production of building materials from fluorine anhydrite. Batching equipment is intended for smooth operation and timely feeding of supply hoppers at a required level. Level sensors and a controller of an asynchronous screw drive motor are used to control filling of the hopper with industrial anhydrite binders. The controller generates a required frequency and ensures required productivity of a feed conveyor. Mamdani-type fuzzy inference is proposed for controlling the speed of the screw that feeds mixture components. As related to production of building materials based on fluoride anhydrite, this method is used for the first time. A fuzzy controller is proven to be effective in controlling the filling level of the supply hopper. In addition, the authors determined optimal parameters of the batching process to ensure smooth operation and production of fluorine anhydrite materials of specified properties that can compete with gypsum-based products.

  15. History based batch method preserving tally means

    Shim, Hyung Jin; Choi, Sung Hoon

    2012-01-01

    In the Monte Carlo (MC) eigenvalue calculations, the sample variance of a tally mean calculated from its cycle-wise estimates is biased because of the inter-cycle correlations of the fission source distribution (FSD). Recently, we proposed a new real variance estimation method named the history-based batch method in which a MC run is treated as multiple runs with small number of histories per cycle to generate independent tally estimates. In this paper, the history-based batch method based on the weight correction is presented to preserve the tally mean from the original MC run. The effectiveness of the new method is examined for the weakly coupled fissile array problem as a function of the dominance ratio and the batch size, in comparison with other schemes available

  16. Activity of Mn-Oxidizing Peroxidases of Ganoderma lucidum Depending on Cultivation Conditions

    Jasmina Ćilerdžić

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Trunks and stumps of various deciduous species act as natural habitats for Ganoderma lucidum. The chemical composition of their cell wall affects the development of fungal ligninolytic enzyme system as well as its ability to degrade lignin from the plant cell wall. Additionally, numerous compounds structurally similar to lignin can be degraded by the G. lucidum enzyme system which could take important roles in various biotechnological processes. The laccases, which are the dominant enzymes synthesized by G. lucidum, have been studied more extensively than the Mn-oxidizing peroxidases. Therefore, this study aimed to create the dynamics profile of Mn-oxidizing peroxidases activities in four G. lucidum strains, classifying and determining their properties depending on the cultivation type and plant residue as a carbon source in the medium, as well as to establish whether intraspecific variety exists. The findings suggest that submerged cultivation appeared to be a more appropriate cultivation type for enzyme activities compared with solid-state cultivation, and oak sawdust was a better carbon source than wheat straw. Under the optimum conditions, on day 14, G. lucidum BEOFB 431 was characterized by the highest levels of both Mn-dependent and Mn-independent peroxidase activities (4795.5 and 5170.5 U/L, respectively. Strain, cultivation type, and carbon source were factors that affected the profiles of Mn-oxidizing peroxidases isoenzymes.

  17. Exploring the Transition From Batch to Online

    Jørgensen, Anker Helms

    2010-01-01

    of the truly interactive use of computers known today. The transition invoked changes in a number of areas: technological, such as hybrid forms between batch and online; organisational such as decentralization; and personal as users and developers alike had to adopt new technology, shape new organizational...... structures, and acquire new skills. This work-in-progress paper extends an earlier study of the transition from batch to online, based on oral history interviews with (ex)-employees in two large Danish Service Bureaus. The paper takes the next step by ana-lyzing a particular genre: the commercial computer...

  18. Model-based intensification of a fed-batch microbial process for the maximization of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) production rate.

    Penloglou, Giannis; Vasileiadou, Athina; Chatzidoukas, Christos; Kiparissides, Costas

    2017-08-01

    An integrated metabolic-polymerization-macroscopic model, describing the microbial production of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) in Azohydromonas lata bacteria, was developed and validated using a comprehensive series of experimental measurements. The model accounted for biomass growth, biopolymer accumulation, carbon and nitrogen sources utilization, oxygen mass transfer and uptake rates and average molecular weights of the accumulated PHB, produced under batch and fed-batch cultivation conditions. Model predictions were in excellent agreement with experimental measurements. The validated model was subsequently utilized to calculate optimal operating conditions and feeding policies for maximizing PHB productivity for desired PHB molecular properties. More specifically, two optimal fed-batch strategies were calculated and experimentally tested: (1) a nitrogen-limited fed-batch policy and (2) a nitrogen sufficient one. The calculated optimal operating policies resulted in a maximum PHB content (94% g/g) in the cultivated bacteria and a biopolymer productivity of 4.2 g/(l h), respectively. Moreover, it was demonstrated that different PHB grades with weight average molecular weights of up to 1513 kg/mol could be produced via the optimal selection of bioprocess operating conditions.

  19. Rice SUB1A constrains remodeling of the transcriptome and metabolome during submergence and post-submergence recovery”.

    The rice (Oryza sativa L.) ethylene-responsive transcription factor SUB1A confers tolerance to prolonged, complete submergence by limiting underwater elongation growth. Rice encoding SUB1A-1 also recovers photosynthetic function and re-commences development towards flowering more rapidly after desu...

  20. Production of nattokinase by batch and fed-batch culture of Bacillus subtilis.

    Cho, Young-Han; Song, Jae Yong; Kim, Kyung Mi; Kim, Mi Kyoung; Lee, In Young; Kim, Sang Bum; Kim, Hyeon Shup; Han, Nam Soo; Lee, Bong Hee; Kim, Beom Soo

    2010-09-30

    Nattokinase was produced by batch and fed-batch culture of Bacillus subtilis in flask and fermentor. Effect of supplementing complex media (peptone, yeast extract, or tryptone) was investigated on the production of nattokinase. In flask culture, the highest cell growth and nattokinase activity were obtained with 50 g/L of peptone supplementation. In this condition, nattokinase activity was 630 unit/ml at 12 h. In batch culture of B. subtilis in fermentor, the highest nattokinase activity of 3400 unit/ml was obtained at 10h with 50 g/L of peptone supplementation. From the batch kinetics data, it was shown that nattokinase production was growth-associated and culture should be harvested before stationary phase for maximum nattokinase production. In fed-batch culture of B. subtilis using pH-stat feeding strategy, cell growth (optical density monitored at 600 nm) increased to ca. 100 at 22 h, which was 2.5 times higher than that in batch culture. The highest nattokinase activity was 7100 unit/ml at 19 h, which was also 2.1 times higher than that in batch culture. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Systematic Methodology for Reproducible Optimizing Batch Operation

    Bonné, Dennis; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2006-01-01

    This contribution presents a systematic methodology for rapid acquirement of discrete-time state space model representations of batch processes based on their historical operation data. These state space models are parsimoniously parameterized as a set of local, interdependent models. The present...

  2. Batch extractive distillation for high purity methanol

    Zhang Weijiang; Ma Sisi

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the application in chemical industry and microelectronic industry, market status and the present situation of production of high purity methanol at home and abroad were introduced firstly. Purification of industrial methanol for high purity methanol is feasible in china. Batch extractive distillation is the best separation technique for purification of industrial methanol. Dimethyl sulfoxide was better as an extractant. (authors)

  3. Monitoring of batch processes using spectroscopy

    Gurden, S. P.; Westerhuis, J. A.; Smilde, A. K.

    2002-01-01

    There is an increasing need for new techniques for the understanding, monitoring and the control of batch processes. Spectroscopy is now becoming established as a means of obtaining real-time, high-quality chemical information at frequent time intervals and across a wide range of industrial

  4. Cashew apple juice as microbial cultivation medium for non-immunogenic hyaluronic acid production

    Oliveira, Adriano H.; Ogrodowski, Cristiane C.; de Macedo, André C.; Santana, Maria Helena A.; Gonçalves, Luciana R.B.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, natural cashew apple juice was used as cultivation medium as an alternative to substitute brain heart infusion medium. The effect of aeration and juice supplementation with yeast extract on the production of hyaluronic acid in batch fermentation was also investigated. Similar levels of cell mass were obtained in inoculum using cashew apple juice supplemented with yeast extract or the conventional brain heart infusion medium. Fermentation in Erlenmeyer flasks produced low biomass...

  5. A novel stirrer design and its application in submerged fermentation of the edible fungus Pleurotus ostreatus.

    Zhu, Hu; Sun, Jiao; Tian, Baozhen; Wang, Honglin

    2015-03-01

    In this study, a straight diagonal-pitched blade stirrer was designed, built and characterized in a 5-L fermenter. Compared with the six straight blade Rushton turbine, the power consumption of the new stirrer is lower at a given speed under conditions of no ventilation. The oxygen transference is poorer at the same agitation speed in the cultivation conditions and scales investigated, which confirms that the shear stress of the new stirrer is lower and the gas dispersion is weaker. The new stirrer was installed in a 5-L bioreactor and evaluated in submerged fermentation of the edible fungus Pleurotus ostreatus. The results showed that the maximum dry weight of mycelium is increased by 47 % and reached 7.47 g/L, and the maximum laccase activity is increased by 15 % up to 2,277 U/L. Glucose consumption was also found to be relatively faster. The power consumption is 2.8 % lower than that of the Rushton turbine.

  6. Towards high-siderophore-content foods: optimisation of coprogen production in submerged cultures of Penicillium nalgiovense.

    Emri, Tamás; Tóth, Viktória; Nagy, Csilla Terézia; Nagy, Gábor; Pócsi, Imre; Gyémánt, Gyöngyi; Antal, Károly; Balla, József; Balla, György; Román, Gyula; Kovács, István; Pócsi, István

    2013-07-01

    Fungal siderophores are likely to possess atheroprotective effects in humans, and therefore studies are needed to develop siderophore-rich food additives or functional foods to increase the siderophore uptake in people prone to cardiovascular diseases. In this study the siderophore contents of mould-ripened cheeses and meat products were analysed and the coprogen production by Penicillium nalgiovense was characterised. High concentrations of hexadentate fungal siderophores were detected in penicillia-ripened Camembert- and Roquefort-type cheeses and also in some sausages. In one sausage fermented by P. nalgiovense, the siderophore content was comparable to those found in cheeses. Penicillium nalgiovense produced high concentrations of coprogen in submerged cultures, which were affected predominantly by the available carbon and nitrogen sources under iron starvation. Considerable coprogen yields were still detectable in the presence of iron when the fermentation medium was supplemented with the iron chelator Na₂-EDTA or when P. nalgiovense was co-cultivated with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These data may be exploitable in the future development of high-siderophore-content foods and/or food additives. Nevertheless, the use of P. nalgiovense fermentation broths for these purposes may be limited by the instability of coprogen in fermentation media and by the β-lactam production by the fungus. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Effect of Media Components on the Mycelial Film Formation in Submerged Culture of Lentinus edodes (Shiitake

    Olga M. Tsivileva

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A relationship between the chemical composition of nutrient medium, the activity of extracellular lectins of Lentinus edodes (Berk. Sing Lentinula edodes (Berk. Pegler (shiitake, and the formation of pigmented mycelial film in liquid culture has been found. A possibility to regulate the lectin activity of shiitake using the synthetic components has been shown. The formulation of medium, on which the brown mycelial film appears in several days of submerged cultivation, has been proposed. Among the natural amino acids studied as nitrogen sources, and nine divalent metal cations as inorganic additives, L-asparagine and Ca2+ (Mn2+ in the simultaneous presence exhibited the explicit positive effect in respect to the above without regard to the age of the culture. Quantum chemical methods and QSAR were applied to test our supposition that a differential character of interaction between the studied amino acids and Ca2+ (Mn2+ cations should be related not to the distinct electron structures of zwitter ions, but most likely to their differing hydrophobicities. The results obtained seem to make some contribution to the present notion of biochemicalprocesses that give rise to the occurrence of the aforesaid morphological structure of shiitake.

  8. Applying the seedling-emergence method under waterlogged conditions to detect the seed bank of aquatic plants in submerged sediments

    Boedeltje, G; ter Heerdt, GNJ; Bakker, JP

    Seed bank studies focused on submerged aquatic plants are generally performed under submerged conditions, using the seedling-emergence method. However, if a study targets at both submerged species and helophytes, submerged conditions are generally not suitable. We tested the emergence of seedlings

  9. Use of diluted urine for cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris.

    Jaatinen, Sanna; Lakaniemi, Aino-Maija; Rintala, Jukka

    2016-01-01

    Our aim was to study the biomass growth of microalga Chlorella vulgaris using diluted human urine as a sole nutrient source. Batch cultivations (21 days) were conducted in five different urine dilutions (1:25-1:300), in 1:100-diluted urine as such and with added trace elements, and as a reference, in artificial growth medium. The highest biomass density was obtained in 1:100-diluted urine with and without additional trace elements (0.73 and 0.60 g L(-1), respectively). Similar biomass growth trends and densities were obtained with 1:25- and 1:300-diluted urine (0.52 vs. 0.48 gVSS L(-1)) indicating that urine at dilution 1:25 can be used to cultivate microalgal based biomass. Interestingly, even 1:300-diluted urine contained sufficiently nutrients and trace elements to support biomass growth. Biomass production was similar despite pH-variation from < 5 to 9 in different incubations indicating robustness of the biomass growth. Ammonium formation did not inhibit overall biomass growth. At the beginning of cultivation, the majority of the biomass consisted of living algal cells, while towards the end, their share decreased and the estimated share of bacteria and cell debris increased.

  10. Fungal cultivation on glass-beads

    Droce, Aida; Sørensen, Jens Laurids; Giese, Henriette

    Transcription of various bioactive compounds and enzymes are dependent on fungal cultivation method. In this study we cultivate Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium solani on glass-beads with liquid media in petri dishes as an easy and inexpensive cultivation method, that resembles in secondary...... metabolite production to agar-cultivation but with an easier and more pure RNA-extraction of total fungal mycelia....

  11. Monte Carlo simulation on kinetics of batch and semi-batch free radical polymerization

    Shao, Jing

    2015-10-27

    Based on Monte Carlo simulation technology, we proposed a hybrid routine which combines reaction mechanism together with coarse-grained molecular simulation to study the kinetics of free radical polymerization. By comparing with previous experimental and simulation studies, we showed the capability of our Monte Carlo scheme on representing polymerization kinetics in batch and semi-batch processes. Various kinetics information, such as instant monomer conversion, molecular weight, and polydispersity etc. are readily calculated from Monte Carlo simulation. The kinetic constants such as polymerization rate k p is determined in the simulation without of “steady-state” hypothesis. We explored the mechanism for the variation of polymerization kinetics those observed in previous studies, as well as polymerization-induced phase separation. Our Monte Carlo simulation scheme is versatile on studying polymerization kinetics in batch and semi-batch processes.

  12. Multi-objective optimization of glycopeptide antibiotic production in batch and fed batch processes

    Maiti, Soumen K.; Eliasson Lantz, Anna; Bhushan, Mani

    2011-01-01

    batch operations using process model for Amycolatopsis balhimycina, a glycopeptide antibiotic producer. This resulted in a set of several pareto optimal solutions with the two objectives ranging from (0.75gl−1, 3.97g$-1) to (0.44gl−1, 5.19g$-1) for batch and from (1.5gl−1, 5.46g$-1) to (1.1gl−1, 6.34g...

  13. Cultivation of oleaginous Rhodotorula mucilaginosa in airlift bioreactor by using seawater.

    Yen, Hong-Wei; Liao, Yu-Ting; Liu, Yi Xian

    2016-02-01

    The enormous water resource consumption is a concern to the scale-up fermentation process, especially for those cheap fermentation commodities, such as microbial oils as the feedstock for biodiesel production. The direct cultivation of oleaginous Rhodotorula mucilaginosa in a 5-L airlift bioreactor using seawater instead of pure water led to a slightly lower biomass being achieved, at 17.2 compared to 18.1 g/L, respectively. Nevertheless, a higher lipid content of 65 ± 5% was measured in the batch using seawater as compared to the pure water batch. Both the salinity and osmotic pressure decreased as the cultivation time increased in the seawater batch, and these effects may contribute to the high tolerance for salinity. No effects were observed for the seawater on the fatty acid profiles. The major components for both batches using seawater and pure water were C16:0 (palmitic acid), C18:1 (oleic acid) and C18:2 (linoleic acid), which together accounted for over 85% of total lipids. The results of this study indicated that seawater could be a suitable option for scaling up the growth of oleaginous R. mucilaginosa, especially from the perspective of water resource utilization. Copyright © 2015 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Improvement of Xylanase Production by Cochliobolus sativus in Submerged Culture

    Yasser Bakri

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The xylanase production by a new Cochliobolus sativus Cs5 strain was improved under submerged fermentation. The xylanase was induced by xylan and repressed by glucose, sucrose, maltose, xylose, starch and cellulose. Highest enzyme production (98.25 IU/mL was recorded when wheat straw (4 % by mass per volume was used as a carbon source after 120 h of incubation. NaNO3 increased xylanase production 5.4-fold as compared to the control. Optimum initial pH was found to be 4.5 to 5. The C. sativus Cs5 strain grown under submerged culture in a simple medium proved to be a promising microorganism for xylanase production.

  15. Medication waste reduction in pediatric pharmacy batch processes.

    Toerper, Matthew F; Veltri, Michael A; Hamrock, Eric; Mollenkopf, Nicole L; Holt, Kristen; Levin, Scott

    2014-04-01

    To inform pediatric cart-fill batch scheduling for reductions in pharmaceutical waste using a case study and simulation analysis. A pre and post intervention and simulation analysis was conducted during 3 months at a 205-bed children's center. An algorithm was developed to detect wasted medication based on time-stamped computerized provider order entry information. The algorithm was used to quantify pharmaceutical waste and associated costs for both preintervention (1 batch per day) and postintervention (3 batches per day) schedules. Further, simulation was used to systematically test 108 batch schedules outlining general characteristics that have an impact on the likelihood for waste. Switching from a 1-batch-per-day to a 3-batch-per-day schedule resulted in a 31.3% decrease in pharmaceutical waste (28.7% to 19.7%) and annual cost savings of $183,380. Simulation results demonstrate how increasing batch frequency facilitates a more just-in-time process that reduces waste. The most substantial gains are realized by shifting from a schedule of 1 batch per day to at least 2 batches per day. The simulation exhibits how waste reduction is also achievable by avoiding batch preparation during daily time periods where medication administration or medication discontinuations are frequent. Last, the simulation was used to show how reducing batch preparation time per batch provides some, albeit minimal, opportunity to decrease waste. The case study and simulation analysis demonstrate characteristics of batch scheduling that may support pediatric pharmacy managers in redesign toward minimizing pharmaceutical waste.

  16. Mineralization of Surfactants by the Microbiota of Submerged Plant Detritus

    Federle, Thomas W.; Ventullo, Roy M.

    1990-01-01

    In wetlands and canopied bodies of water, plant detritus is an important source of carbon and energy. Detrital materials possess a large surface area for sorption of dissolved organics and are colonized by a large and diverse microbiota. To examine the biodegradation of surfactants by these microorganisms, submerged oak leaves were obtained from a laundromat wastewater pond, its overflow, and a pristine control pond. Leaves were cut into disks and incubated in sterile water amended with 50 μg...

  17. Submerged beachrock preservation in the context of wave ravinement

    Pretorius, Lauren; Green, Andrew N.; Andrew Cooper, J.

    2018-02-01

    This study examines a Holocene-aged submerged shoreline, Limestone Reef, located in the shallow subtidal zone of South Africa's east coast. It comprises an elongate, coast-oblique, slab-like outcrop of beachrock situated above the contemporary fair-weather wave base. It is currently undergoing mechanical disintegration. Its unique and rare preservation in a high-energy setting affords an opportunity to examine the mechanical processes occurring during wave ravinement associated with rising sea level. The submerged shoreline and the adjacent shoreface were examined using high-resolution seismic reflection, side-scan sonar and shallow-water multibeam echosounding techniques. Limestone Reef rests on top of unconsolidated Holocene deposits. The structure's surface is characterised by reef-perpendicular gullies with rubble derived from the slab fringing its seaward edge. Limestone Reef slopes gently seawards and has a steep landward-facing edge where gullies are most prominently developed. Teardrop-shaped rippled scour depressions, marked by high backscatter, are located seawards of the submerged shoreline. These elongate in a seaward direction and are filled with bioclastic gravels and residual rubble from Limestone Reef. The gullies in the upstanding structure are indicative of wave plucking and abrasion of the shoreline. The material exposed by the rippled scour depressions is identical to that comprising the postglacial ravinement surface identified in the offshore stratigraphy. These deposits are considered to represent the contemporary, actively forming wave ravinement surface. The results suggest that wave ravinement of submerged shorelines is a discontinuous process dominated by the seaward entrainment of material from its landward edge controlled by high-energy drawback during storm surges. The ravinement process appears to operate at the seasonal scale and averages out over the long-term millennial scale for the continuous surface.

  18. Measurement of Submerged Oil/Gas Leaks using ROV Video

    Shaffer, Franklin; de Vera, Giorgio; Lee, Kenneth; Savas, Ömer

    2013-11-01

    Drilling for oil or gas in the Gulf of Mexico is increasing rapidly at depths up to three miles. The National Commission on the Deepwater Horizon Oil Leak concluded that inaccurate estimates of the leak rate from the Deepwater Horizon caused an inadequate response and attempts to cap the leak to fail. The first response to a submerged oil/gas leak will be to send a Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) down to view the leak. During the response to the Deepwater Horizon crisis, the authors Savas and Shaffer were members of the Flow Rate Technical Group's Plume Team who used ROV video to develop the FRTG's first official estimates of the oil leak rate. Savas and Shaffer developed an approach using the larger, faster jet features (e.g., turbulent eddies, vortices, entrained particles) in the near-field developing zone to measure discharge rates. The authors have since used the Berkeley Tow Tank to test this approach on submerged dye-colored water jets and compressed air jets. Image Correlation Velocimetry has been applied to measure the velocity of visible features. Results from tests in the Berkeley Tow Tank and submerged oil jets in the OHMSETT facility will be presented.

  19. The effect of submergence on structural response in confined pools

    Sturm, A.J. Jr.; Song, C.C.S.

    1980-01-01

    In this paper the response of single and multi degree of submerged systems is investigated. The complete equations of motions including fluid coupling terms are developed for submerged bodies where the surrounding fluid is both moving in phase and out of phase with the support motion. The analysis considers both structural and fluid damping. Also included is an analysis of two degrees of freedom fluid coupling for submerged bodies completely enclosed within another body. In this case limiting conditions of the inner body hydrodynamic mass are examined, along the frequency response characteristics of these systems. The paper developes a simplified forcing function approach for in phase fluid support motion systems. This method is applicable for both modal-spectral and time history dynamic analyses of any linear structure. The results of the analysis are expanded for s structures with non-linear support configuration, i.e. (sliding or rocking bases) to again define a simplified analytical approach accounting for in phase fluid support motion. (orig.)

  20. Production of Alpha Amylase by Bacillus cereus in Submerged Fermentation

    Helen H. Raplong

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms have the ability to secrete enzymes when they are grown in the presence of certain substrates. Amylases are among the most important industrial enzymes and are of great significance in biotechnological studies. Bacteria belonging to the genus Bacillus were isolated using mannitol egg yolk polymyxin B (MYP agar a highly selective media for Bacillus cereus isolation. The isolates were tested for α-amylase production on nutrient agar supplemented with starch and in submerged fermentation. The bacteria isolated and identified (using the Microgen Bacillus identification kit were all Bacillus cereus and SB2 had the largest zone of hydrolysis of 12mm on nutrient agar supplemented with starch as well as the highest enzyme activity of 1.62U/ml. Amylase activity of 2.56U/ml was obtained after 24 hours incubation in submerged fermentation. When amylase enzyme production parameters where optimized, maximum amylase activity was obtained at a pH of 6.5, temperature of 350C, incubation time of 24 hours and 4% inoculums concentration. Bacillus cereus SB2 is a potential isolate for alpha-amylase production with soluble starch as the sole carbon source in submerged fermentation.

  1. Vibration analysis of partially cracked plate submerged in fluid

    Soni, Shashank; Jain, N. K.; Joshi, P. V.

    2018-01-01

    The present work proposes an analytical model for vibration analysis of partially cracked rectangular plates coupled with fluid medium. The governing equation of motion for the isotropic plate based on the classical plate theory is modified to accommodate a part through continuous line crack according to simplified line spring model. The influence of surrounding fluid medium is incorporated in the governing equation in the form of inertia effects based on velocity potential function and Bernoulli's equations. Both partially and totally submerged plate configurations are considered. The governing equation also considers the in-plane stretching due to lateral deflection in the form of in-plane forces which introduces geometric non-linearity into the system. The fundamental frequencies are evaluated by expressing the lateral deflection in terms of modal functions. The assessment of the present results is carried out for intact submerged plate as to the best of the author's knowledge the literature lacks in analytical results for submerged cracked plates. New results for fundamental frequencies are presented as affected by crack length, fluid level, fluid density and immersed depth of plate. By employing the method of multiple scales, the frequency response and peak amplitude of the cracked structure is analyzed. The non-linear frequency response curves show the phenomenon of bending hardening or softening and the effect of fluid dynamic pressure on the response of the cracked plate.

  2. On the submerging of a spherical intruder into granular beds

    Wu Chuan-Yu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Granular materials are complex systems and their mechanical behaviours are determined by the material properties of individual particles, the interaction between particles and the surrounding media, which are still incompletely understood. Using an advanced discrete element method (DEM, we simulate the submerging process of a spherical projectile (an intruder into granular materials of various properties with a zero penetration velocity (i.e. the intruder is touching the top surface of the granular bed and released from stationary and examine its settling behaviour. By systematically changing the density and size of the intruder and the particle density (i.e. the density of the particles in the granular bed, we find that the intruder can sink deep into the granular bed even with a zero penetration velocity. Furthermore, we confirm that under certain conditions the granular bed can behave like a Newtonian liquid and the submerging intruder can reach a constant velocity, i.e. the terminal velocity, identical to the settling of a sphere in a liquid, as observed experimentally. A mathematical model is also developed to predict the maximum penetration depth of the intruder. The model predictions are compared with experimental data reported in the literature,good agreement was obtained, demonstrating the model can accurately predict the submerging behaviour of the intruder in the granular media.

  3. Detecting submerged features in water: modeling, sensors, and measurements

    Bostater, Charles R., Jr.; Bassetti, Luce

    2004-11-01

    It is becoming more important to understand the remote sensing systems and associated autonomous or semi-autonomous methodologies (robotic & mechatronics) that may be utilized in freshwater and marine aquatic environments. This need comes from several issues related not only to advances in our scientific understanding and technological capabilities, but also from the desire to insure that the risk associated with UXO (unexploded ordnance), related submerged mines, as well as submerged targets (such as submerged aquatic vegetation) and debris left from previous human activities are remotely sensed and identified followed by reduced risks through detection and removal. This paper will describe (a) remote sensing systems, (b) platforms (fixed and mobile, as well as to demonstrate (c) the value of thinking in terms of scalability as well as modularity in the design and application of new systems now being constructed within our laboratory and other laboratories, as well as future systems. New remote sensing systems - moving or fixed sensing systems, as well as autonomous or semi-autonomous robotic and mechatronic systems will be essential to secure domestic preparedness for humanitarian reasons. These remote sensing systems hold tremendous value, if thoughtfully designed for other applications which include environmental monitoring in ambient environments.

  4. Influence of Microalgae onto submerged surfaces on Fouling

    Kong, M.; Eom, C.; Yoon, B.; Yoon, H.; Kim, B.; Chung, K.

    2012-12-01

    Lots of algae together with organic matter deposited on the submerged surface can be easily observed occurring in the shallower water along the coast. This is mainly because only those organisms with the ability to adapt to the new situations created by man can firmly adhere enough to avoid being washed off. Chemical and microbiological characteristics of the fouling microalgae developed on various surfaces in contact with the seawater were made. The microbial compositions of the microalgae formed on the submerged surfaces were tested for. The quantities of the diverse microalgae in the samples developed on the prohibiting submerged surface were larger when there was no concern about materials for special selection for fouling. To confirm formation of microalgae on adsorbents was done SEM-EDS (Scanning Electron Microscope-Spectrometer) analysis. Microbial identified using optical microscope. In addition to, we quantified attaching microalgae as pass time. Experiment results, ten species which are Nitzshhia sp., Eucampia sp., Coscinodiscus sp., Licmophora sp., Rhizosolenia sp., Cylindrotheca sp., Striateela sp., Thalassionema sp., Guinardia sp., and Helicostomella sp. discovered to reservoir formed biofouling. They showed the important role microbial activity in fouling and corrosion of the surfaces in contact with the any seawater.

  5. Optimal operation of batch membrane processes

    Paulen, Radoslav

    2016-01-01

    This study concentrates on a general optimization of a particular class of membrane separation processes: those involving batch diafiltration. Existing practices are explained and operational improvements based on optimal control theory are suggested. The first part of the book introduces the theory of membrane processes, optimal control and dynamic optimization. Separation problems are defined and mathematical models of batch membrane processes derived. The control theory focuses on problems of dynamic optimization from a chemical-engineering point of view. Analytical and numerical methods that can be exploited to treat problems of optimal control for membrane processes are described. The second part of the text builds on this theoretical basis to establish solutions for membrane models of increasing complexity. Each chapter starts with a derivation of optimal operation and continues with case studies exemplifying various aspects of the control problems under consideration. The authors work their way from th...

  6. In vitro azadirachtin production by hairy root cultivation of Azadirachta indica in nutrient mist bioreactor.

    Srivastava, Smita; Srivastava, A K

    2012-01-01

    Azadirachtin, a well-known biopesticide is a secondary metabolite conventionally extracted from the seeds of Azadirachta indica. The present study involved in vitro azadirachtin production by developing hairy roots of A. indica via Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation of A. indica explants. Liquid culture of hairy roots was established in shake flask to study the kinetics of growth and azadirachtin production. A biomass production of 13.3 g/L dry weight (specific growth rate of 0.7 day(-1)) was obtained after 25 days of cultivation period with an azadirachtin yield of 3.3 mg/g root biomass. To overcome the mass transfer limitation in conventionally used liquid-phase reactors, batch cultivation of hairy roots was carried out in gas-phase reactors (nutrient spray and nutrient mist bioreactor) to investigate the possible scale-up of A. indica hairy root culture. The nano-size nutrient mist particles generated from the nozzle of the nutrient mist bioreactor could penetrate till the inner core of the inoculated root matrix, facilitating uniform growth during high-density cultivation of hairy roots. A biomass production of 9.8 g/L dry weight with azadirachtin accumulation of 2.8 mg/g biomass (27.4 mg/L) could be achieved in 25 days of batch cultivation period, which was equivalent to a volumetric productivity of 1.09 mg/L per day of azadirachtin.

  7. Development of bioprocess for high density cultivation yield of the probiotic Bacillus coagulans and its spores

    Kavita R. Pandey

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus coagulans is a spore forming lactic acid bacterium. Spore forming bacteria, have been extensively studied and commercialized as probiotics. Probiotics are produced by fermentation technology. There is a limitation to biomass produced by conventional modes of fermentation. With the great demand generated by range of probiotic products, biomass is becoming very valuable for several pharmaceutical, dairy and probiotic companies. Thus, there is a need to develop high cell density cultivation processes for enhanced biomass accumulation. The bioprocess development was carried out in 6.6 L bench top lab scale fermentor. Four different cultivation strategies were employed to develop a bioprocess for higher growth and sporulation efficiencies of probiotic B. coagulans. Batch fermentation of B. coagulans yielded 18 g L-1 biomass (as against 8.0 g L-1 productivity in shake flask with 60% spore efficiency. Fed-batch cultivation was carried out for glucose, which yielded 25 g L-1 of biomass. C/N ratio was very crucial in achieving higher spore titres. Maximum biomass yield recorded was 30 g L-1, corresponding to 3.8 × 1011 cells mL-1 with 81% of cells in sporulated stage. The yield represents increment of 85 times the productivity and 158 times the spore titres relative to the highest reported values for high density cultivation of B. coagulans.

  8. Batch calculations in CalcHEP

    Pukhov, A.

    2003-01-01

    CalcHEP is a clone of the CompHEP project which is developed by the author outside of the CompHEP group. CompHEP/CalcHEP are packages for automatic calculations of elementary particle decay and collision properties in the lowest order of perturbation theory. The main idea prescribed into the packages is to make available passing on from the Lagrangian to the final distributions effectively with a high level of automation. According to this, the packages were created as a menu driven user friendly programs for calculations in the interactive mode. From the other side, long-time calculations should be done in the non-interactive regime. Thus, from the beginning CompHEP has a problem of batch calculations. In CompHEP 33.23 the batch session was realized by mean of interactive menu which allows to the user to formulate the task for batch. After that the not-interactive session was launched. This way is too restricted, not flexible, and leads to doubling in programming. In this article I discuss another approach how one can force an interactive program to work in non-interactive mode. This approach was realized in CalcHEP 2.1 disposed on http://theory.sinp.msu.ru/~pukhov/calchep.html

  9. Pollution prevention applications in batch manufacturing operations

    Sykes, Derek W.; O'Shaughnessy, James

    2004-02-01

    Older, "low-tech" batch manufacturing operations are often fertile grounds for gains resulting from pollution prevention techniques. This paper presents a pollution prevention technique utilized for wastewater discharge permit compliance purposes at a batch manufacturer of detergents, deodorants, and floor-care products. This manufacturer generated industrial wastewater as a result of equipment rinses required after each product batch changeover. After investing a significant amount of capital on end of pip-line wastewater treatment technology designed to address existing discharge limits, this manufacturer chose to investigate alternate, low-cost approaches to address anticipated new permit limits. Mass balances using spreadsheets and readily available formulation and production data were conducted on over 300 products to determine how each individual product contributed to the total wastewater pollutant load. These mass balances indicated that 22 products accounted for over 55% of the wastewater pollutant. Laboratory tests were conducted to determine whether these same products could accept their individual changeover rinse water as make-up water in formulations without sacrificing product quality. This changeover reuse technique was then implement at the plant scale for selected products. Significant reductions in wastewater volume (25%) and wastewater pollutant loading (85+%) were realized as a direct result of this approach.

  10. Differential proteomic analysis highlights metabolic strategies associated with balhimycin production in Amycolatopsis balhimycina chemostat cultivations

    Gallo, Giuseppe; Alduina, Rosa; Renzone, Giovanni

    2010-01-01

    Background Proteomics was recently used to reveal enzymes whose expression is associated with the production of the glycopeptide antibiotic balhimycin in Amycolatopsis balhimycina batch cultivations. Combining chemostat fermentation technology, where cells proliferate with constant parameters...... in a highly reproducible steady-state, and differential proteomics, the relationships between physiological status and metabolic pathways during antibiotic producing and non-producing conditions could be highlighted. Results Two minimal defined media, one with low Pi (0.6 mM; LP) and proficient glucose (12 g....../l) concentrations and the other one with high Pi (1.8 mM) and limiting (6 g/l; LG) glucose concentrations, were developed to promote and repress antibiotic production, respectively, in A. balhimycina chemostat cultivations. Applying the same dilution rate (0.03 h-1), both LG and LP chemostat cultivations showed...

  11. Expression of manganese peroxidase by Lentinula edodes and Lentinula boryana in solid state and submerged system fermentation

    KATIA L. HERMANN

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The production of ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass is referred as a second generation biofuel, whose processing is one of the most promising technologies under development. There are few available studies on the use of enzymes produced by fungi as active for the biodegradation of lignocellulosic biomass. However, the manganese peroxidase (MnP enzyme presents high potential to degrade lignin and the basidiomycetes are the major producers of this oxidase. Thus, this study aimed at evaluating the ability of fungi Lentinula edodes and Lentinula boryana to produce this enzyme when cultivated in submerged fermentation system (SS and also in solid-state fermentation system (SSF containing Eucalyptus benthamii sawdust with or without corn cob meal. In the SS the greatest MnP expression occurred on the 25th day, being of 70 UI.L–1 for L. boryana and of 20 UI.L–1 for L. edodes. In the SSF, the best results were obtained on the 10th day for L. edodes, while for L. boryana it happened between the 20th and the 25th days, despite both species presented values close to 110 UI.L–1. Therefore, the results indicated that the studied fungi express the enzyme of interest and that its production is enhanced when cultivated in solid system.

  12. Utilization of fruit peels as carbon source for white rot fungi biomass production under submerged state bioconversion

    Olorunnisola Kola Saheed

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present generation of nutrient rich waste streams within the food and hospitality industry is inevitable and remained a matter of concern to stakeholders. Three white rot fungal strains were cultivated under submerged state bioconversion (SmB. Fermentable sugar conversion efficiency, biomass production and substrate utilization constant were indicators used to measure the success of the process. The substrates – banana peel (Bp, pineapple peel (PAp and papaya peel (Pp were prepared in wet and dried forms as substrates. Phanerochaete chrysosporium (P. chrysosporium, Panus tigrinus M609RQY, and RO209RQY were cultivated on sole fruit wastes and their composites. All fungal strains produced profound biomass on dry sole wet substrates, but wet composite substrates gave improved results. P. tigrinus RO209RQY was the most efficient in sugar conversion (99.6% on sole substrates while P. tigrinus M609RQY was efficient on composite substrates. Elevated substrate utilization constant (Ku and biomass production heralded wet composite substrates. P. chrysosporium was the most performing fungal strain for biomass production, while PApBp was the best composite substrate.

  13. Comprehensive Secondary Metabolite Profiling Toward Delineating the Solid and Submerged-State Fermentation of Aspergillus oryzae KCCM 12698

    Su Y. Son

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus oryzae has been commonly used to make koji, meju, and soy sauce in traditional food fermentation industries. However, the metabolic behaviors of A. oryzae during fermentation in various culture environments are largely uncharacterized. Thus, we performed time resolved (0, 4, 8, 12, 16 day secondary metabolite profiling for A. oryzae KCCM 12698 cultivated on malt extract agar and broth (MEA and MEB under solid-state fermentation (SSF and submerged fermentation (SmF conditions using the ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-linear trap quadrupole-ion trap-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-LTQ-IT-MS/MS followed by multivariate analyses. We observed the relatively higher proportions of coumarins and oxylipins in SSF, whereas the terpenoids were abundant in SmF. Moreover, we investigated the antimicrobial efficacy of metabolites that were extracted from SSF and SmF. The SSF extracts showed higher antimicrobial activities as compared to SmF, with higher production rates of bioactive secondary metabolites viz., ketone-citreoisocoumarin, pentahydroxy-anthraquinone, hexylitaconic acid, oxylipins, and saturated fatty acids. The current study provides the underpinnings of a metabolomic framework regarding the growth and bioactive compound production for A. oryzae under the primarily employed industrial cultivation states. Furthermore, the study holds the potentials for rapid screening and MS-characterization of metabolites helpful in determining the consumer safety implications of fermented foods involving Koji mold.

  14. Batch-batch stable microbial community in the traditional fermentation process of huyumei broad bean pastes.

    Zhu, Linjiang; Fan, Zihao; Kuai, Hui; Li, Qi

    2017-09-01

    During natural fermentation processes, a characteristic microbial community structure (MCS) is naturally formed, and it is interesting to know about its batch-batch stability. This issue was explored in a traditional semi-solid-state fermentation process of huyumei, a Chinese broad bean paste product. The results showed that this MCS mainly contained four aerobic Bacillus species (8 log CFU per g), including B. subtilis, B. amyloliquefaciens, B. methylotrophicus, and B. tequilensis, and the facultative anaerobe B. cereus with a low concentration (4 log CFU per g), besides a very small amount of the yeast Zygosaccharomyces rouxii (2 log CFU per g). The dynamic change of the MCS in the brine fermentation process showed that the abundance of dominant species varied within a small range, and in the beginning of process the growth of lactic acid bacteria was inhibited and Staphylococcus spp. lost its viability. Also, the MCS and its dynamic change were proved to be highly reproducible among seven batches of fermentation. Therefore, the MCS naturally and stably forms between different batches of the traditional semi-solid-state fermentation of huyumei. Revealing microbial community structure and its batch-batch stability is helpful for understanding the mechanisms of community formation and flavour production in a traditional fermentation. This issue in a traditional semi-solid-state fermentation of huyumei broad bean paste was firstly explored. This fermentation process was revealed to be dominated by a high concentration of four aerobic species of Bacillus, a low concentration of B. cereus and a small amount of Zygosaccharomyces rouxii. Lactic acid bacteria and Staphylococcus spp. lost its viability at the beginning of fermentation. Such the community structure was proved to be highly reproducible among seven batches. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  15. On-line Scheduling Of Multi-Server Batch Operations

    van der Zee, D.J.; van Harten, A.; Schuur, P.C.

    1999-01-01

    Batching jobs in a manufacturing system is a very common policy in most industries. Main reasons for batching are avoidance of setups and/or facilitation of material handling. Good examples of batch-wise production systems are ovens found in aircraft industry and in semiconductor manufacturing.

  16. On-line scheduling of multi-server batch operations

    Zee, Durk Jouke van der; Harten, Aart van; Schuur, Peter

    The batching of jobs in a manufacturing system is a very common policy in many industries. The main reasons for batching are the avoidance of setups and/or facilitation of material handling. Good examples of batch-wise production systems are the ovens that are found in the aircraft industry and in

  17. 7 CFR 58.728 - Cooking the batch.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooking the batch. 58.728 Section 58.728 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Procedures § 58.728 Cooking the batch. Each batch of cheese within the cooker, including the optional...

  18. 40 CFR 63.1408 - Aggregate batch vent stream provisions.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Aggregate batch vent stream provisions... § 63.1408 Aggregate batch vent stream provisions. (a) Emission standards. Owners or operators of aggregate batch vent streams at a new or existing affected source shall comply with either paragraph (a)(1...

  19. Response variation in a batch of TLDS

    Burrage, J.; Campbell, A.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: At Royal Perth Hospital, LiF thermoluminescent dosimeter rods (TLDs) are handled in batches of 50. Rods in each batch are always annealed together to ensure the same thermal history and an individual batch is used with the same type and energy of radiation. A subset of a batch is used for calibration purposes by exposing them to a range of known doses and their output is used to calculate the dose received by other rods used for a dose measurement. Variation in TLD response is addressed by calculating 95% certainty levels from the calibration rods and applying this to the dose measurement rods. This approach relies on the sensitivity of rods within each batch being similar. This work investigates the validity of this assumption and considers possible benefits of applying individual rod sensitivities. The variation in response of TLD rods was assessed using 25 TLD-100 rods (Harshaw/Bicron) which were uniformly exposed to 1 Gy using 6 MeV photons in a linear accelerator on 5 separate occasions. Rods were read with a Harshaw 5500 reader. During the read process the Harshaw reader periodically checks for noise and PMT gain drift and the data were corrected for these parameters. Replicate exposure data were analysed using 1-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) to determine whether the between rod variations were significantly different to the variations within a single rod. A batch of 50 rods was also exposed on three occasions using the above technique. Individual TLD rod sensitivity values were determined using the rod responses from 2 exposures and these values were applied to correct charges on a rod-by-rod basis for the third exposure. ANOVA results on the 5 exposures of 25 rods showed the variance between rods was significantly greater than the within rod variance (p < 0.001). The precision of an individual rod was estimated to have a standard deviation of 2.8%. This suggests that the 95% confidence limits for repeated measurements using the same dose and

  20. EAARL coastal topography-western Florida, post-Hurricane Charley, 2004: seamless (bare earth and submerged.

    Nayegandhi, Amar; Bonisteel, Jamie M.; Wright, C. Wayne; Sallenger, A.H.; Brock, John C.; Yates, Xan

    2010-01-01

    processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA-USGS collaboration. ALPS supports the exploration and processing of lidar data in an interactive or batch mode. Modules for presurvey flight-line definition, flight-path plotting, lidar raster and waveform investigation, and digital camera image playback have been developed. Processing algorithms have been developed to extract the range to the first and last significant return within each waveform. ALPS is used routinely to create maps that represent submerged or sub-aerial topography. Specialized filtering algorithms have been implemented to determine the 'bare earth' under vegetation. For more information about similar projects, please visit the Decision Support for Coastal Science and Management website. Selected References Brock, J.C., Wright, C.W., Sallenger, A.H., Krabill, W.B., and Swift, R.N., 2002, Basis and methods of NASA airborne topographic mapper Lidar surveys for coastal studies: Journal of Coastal Research, v. 18, no. 1, p. 1-13. Crane, Michael, Clayton, Tonya, Raabe, Ellen, Stoker, Jason, Handley, Larry, Bawden, Gerald, Morgan, Karen, and Queija, Vivian, 2004, Report of the U.S. Geological Survey Lidar workshop sponsored by the Land Remote Sensing Program and held in St. Petersburg, FL, November 2002: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2004-1456, 72 p. Nayegandhi, Amar, Brock, J.C., and Wright, C.W., 2009, Small-footprint, waveform-resolving Lidar estimation of submerged and sub-canopy topography in coastal environments: International Journal of Remote Sensing, v. 30, no. 4, p. 861-878. Sallenger, A.H., Wright, C.W., and Lillycrop, Jeff, 2005, Coastal impacts of the 2004 hurricanes measured with airborne Lidar; initial results: Shore and Beach, v. 73, nos. 2-3, p. 10-14. Resources Included Readme.txt File

  1. BATCH-GE: Batch analysis of Next-Generation Sequencing data for genome editing assessment

    Boel, Annekatrien; Steyaert, Woutert; De Rocker, Nina; Menten, Björn; Callewaert, Bert; De Paepe, Anne; Coucke, Paul; Willaert, Andy

    2016-01-01

    Targeted mutagenesis by the CRISPR/Cas9 system is currently revolutionizing genetics. The ease of this technique has enabled genome engineering in-vitro and in a range of model organisms and has pushed experimental dimensions to unprecedented proportions. Due to its tremendous progress in terms of speed, read length, throughput and cost, Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) has been increasingly used for the analysis of CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing experiments. However, the current tools for genome editing assessment lack flexibility and fall short in the analysis of large amounts of NGS data. Therefore, we designed BATCH-GE, an easy-to-use bioinformatics tool for batch analysis of NGS-generated genome editing data, available from https://github.com/WouterSteyaert/BATCH-GE.git. BATCH-GE detects and reports indel mutations and other precise genome editing events and calculates the corresponding mutagenesis efficiencies for a large number of samples in parallel. Furthermore, this new tool provides flexibility by allowing the user to adapt a number of input variables. The performance of BATCH-GE was evaluated in two genome editing experiments, aiming to generate knock-out and knock-in zebrafish mutants. This tool will not only contribute to the evaluation of CRISPR/Cas9-based experiments, but will be of use in any genome editing experiment and has the ability to analyze data from every organism with a sequenced genome. PMID:27461955

  2. PROSPECTS FOR THE APPLICATION OF ULTRASONIC MEMBRANE EXTRACTORS IN THE SUBMERGED CULTIVATION OF LACTIC ACID AND PROPIONIC ACID BACTERIA

    D. A. Durnikin

    2016-08-01

    Due to the maintenance of optimum pH, the final concentration of L. lactis, L. plantarum, and P. acidipropionici cells increased in 5.8, 3.6, and 3.2 times, respectively. The equipping of a membrane extractor with ultrasonic transducers accelerated the removal of organic acids from fermentation broth of L. lactis, L. plantarum, and P. acidipropionici in 5.25, 5, and 6.25 times, respectively, i.e., provided a more rapid and efficient fermentation. The proposed technology improves the economical efficiency of the process and provides the required diversity of technical solutions for its use in a microbiological production.

  3. Consultancy on Large-Scale Submerged Aerobic Cultivation Process Design - Final Technical Report: February 1, 2016 -- June 30, 2016

    Crater, Jason [Gemomatica, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Galleher, Connor [Gemomatica, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Lievense, Jeff [Gemomatica, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States)

    2017-05-12

    NREL is developing an advanced aerobic bubble column model using Aspen Custom Modeler (ACM). The objective of this work is to integrate the new fermentor model with existing techno-economic models in Aspen Plus and Excel to establish a new methodology for guiding process design. To assist this effort, NREL has contracted Genomatica to critique and make recommendations for improving NREL's bioreactor model and large scale aerobic bioreactor design for biologically producing lipids at commercial scale. Genomatica has highlighted a few areas for improving the functionality and effectiveness of the model. Genomatica recommends using a compartment model approach with an integrated black-box kinetic model of the production microbe. We also suggest including calculations for stirred tank reactors to extend the models functionality and adaptability for future process designs. Genomatica also suggests making several modifications to NREL's large-scale lipid production process design. The recommended process modifications are based on Genomatica's internal techno-economic assessment experience and are focused primarily on minimizing capital and operating costs. These recommendations include selecting/engineering a thermotolerant yeast strain with lipid excretion; using bubble column fermentors; increasing the size of production fermentors; reducing the number of vessels; employing semi-continuous operation; and recycling cell mass.

  4. Growth and product formation of Aspergillus oryzae during submerged cultivations: Verification of a morphologically structured model using fluorescent probes

    Agger, Teit; Spohr, Anders Bendsen; Carlsen, Morten

    1998-01-01

    of Aspergillus oryzae. The model is based on a division of the fungal hyphae into three different regions: an extension zone, representing the tips of the hyphae; an active region, which is responsible for growth and product formation; and an inactive hyphal region. Two metamorphosis reactions describing...... and automated image analysis, has been developed for measuring the fraction of active cells. The method employs the fluorescent dye 3,3'-dihexyloxocarbocyanin to stain organelles inside the hyphae and Calcoflour White to stain the cell wall. The ratio between the projected areas of the organelles...

  5. Cultivation and uses of cucurbits

    Cultivated cucurbits have spread through trade and exploration from their respective Old and New World centers of origin to the six arable continents and are important in local, regional and world trade. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), melon (Cucumis melo L.), pumpkin, squash and gourd (Cucurbita spp...

  6. Cultivating Audiences: Taming, Teaching, Transforming

    Nicolucci, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    Satisfying and successful school concerts require an active, empathic, and cooperative partnership between performers and audience members. As music educators work to prepare artful, dignified, and confident performers, "audiences" for these performers must be cultivated just as purposefully. Concertgoers can be motivated to consume school…

  7. GigaUnit Transplant System: A New Mechanical Tool for Transplanting Submerged Aquatic Vegetation

    Shafer, Deborah J

    2008-01-01

    Submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) performs many important ecosystem functions, including wave attenuation and sediment stabilization, water quality improvement, primary production, food web support for secondary consumers...

  8. Production of ethanol in batch and fed-batch fermentation of soluble sugar

    Chaudhary, M.Y.; Shah, M.A.; Shah, F.H.

    1991-01-01

    Keeping in view of the demand and need for alternate energy source, especially liquid fuels and the availability of raw materials in Pakistan, we have carried out biochemical and technological studies for ethanol through fermentation of renewable substrates. Molasses and sugar cane have been used as substrate for yeast fermentation. Selected yeast were used in both batch and semi continuous fermentation of molasses. Clarified dilute molasses were fermented with different strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Ethanol concentration after 64 hours batch fermentation reached 9.4% with 90% yield based on sugar content. During feed batch system similar results were obtained after a fermentation cycle of 48 hours resulting in higher productivity. Similarly carbohydrates in fruit juices and hydro lysates of biomass can be economically fermented to ethanol to be used as feed stock for other chemicals. (author)

  9. Passing in Command Line Arguments and Parallel Cluster/Multicore Batching in R with batch.

    Hoffmann, Thomas J

    2011-03-01

    It is often useful to rerun a command line R script with some slight change in the parameters used to run it - a new set of parameters for a simulation, a different dataset to process, etc. The R package batch provides a means to pass in multiple command line options, including vectors of values in the usual R format, easily into R. The same script can be setup to run things in parallel via different command line arguments. The R package batch also provides a means to simplify this parallel batching by allowing one to use R and an R-like syntax for arguments to spread a script across a cluster or local multicore/multiprocessor computer, with automated syntax for several popular cluster types. Finally it provides a means to aggregate the results together of multiple processes run on a cluster.

  10. Effects of medium components and culture conditions on mycelial biomass and the production of bioactive ingredients in submerged culture of Xylaria nigripes (Ascomycetes), a Chinese medicinal fungus.

    Chen, Jian-Zhi; Lo, Hui-Chen; Lin, Fang-Yi; Chang, Shih-Liang; Hsieh, Changwei; Liang, Zeng-Chin; Ho, Wai-Jane; Hsu, Tai-Hao

    2014-01-01

    The optimal culture conditions were investigated to maximize the production of mycelial biomass and bioactive ingredients in submerged cultivation of Xylaria nigripes, a Chinese medicinal fungus. The one-factor-at-a-time method was used to explore the effects of medium components, including carbon, nitrogen, mineral sources, and initial pH of the medium and environmental factors, such as culture temperature and rotation speed, on mycelial growth and production of bioactive ingredients. The results indicated that the optimal culture temperature and rotation speed were 25°C and 100 rpm in a medium with 20 g fructose, 6 g yeast extract, and 2 g magnesiun sulfate heptahydrate as carbon, nitrogen, and mineral sources, respectively, in 1 L distilled water with an initial medium pH of 5.5. With optimal medium components and conditions of cultivation, the maximal production of mycelial biomass was 6.64 ± 0.88 g/L, with maximal production of bioactive ingredients such as extracellular polysaccharides (2.36 ± 0.18 mg/mL), intracellular polysaccharides (2.38 ± 0.07 mg/g), adenosine (43.27 ± 2.37 mg/g), total polyphenols (36.57 ± 1.36 mg/g), and triterpenoids (31.29 ± 1.17 mg/g) in a shake flask culture. These results suggest that different bioactive ingredients including intracellular polysaccharides, adenosine, total polyphenols and triterpenoids in mycelia and extracellular polysaccharides in broth can be obtained from one simple medium for submerged cultivation of X. nigripes.

  11. CONVERSION OF PINEAPPLE JUICE WASTE INTO LACTIC ACID IN BATCH AND FED – BATCH FERMENTATION SYSTEMS

    Abdullah Mochamad Busairi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pineapple juice waste contains valuable components, which are mainly sucrose, glucose, and fructose. Recently, lactic acid has been considered to be an important raw material for the production of biodegradable lactide polymer. The fermentation experiments were carried out in a 3 litres fermentor (Biostat B Model under anaerobic condition with stirring speed of 50 rpm, temperature at 40oC, and pH of 6.00. Effect of feed concentration on lactic acid production, bacterial growth, substrate utilisation and productivity was studied. The results obtained from fed- batch culture fermentation showed that the maximum lactic acid productivity was 0.44 g/L.h for feed concentration of 90 g/L at 48 hours. Whereas the lactic acid productivity obtained from fed-batch culture was twice and half fold higher than that of batch culture productivity.  Buangan jus nanas mengandung komponen yang berharga terutama sukrosa, glukosa, dan fruktosa. Asam laktat adalah bahan baku yang terbaru dan penting untuk dibuat sebagai polimer laktat yang dapat terdegradasi oleh lingkungan. Percobaan dilakukan pada fermentor 3 liter (Model Biostat B di bawah kondisi anaerob dengan kecepatan pengadukan 50 rpm, temperatur 40oC, dan pH 6,00. Pengaruh konsentrasi umpan terhadap produksi asam laktat, pertumbuhan mikroba, pengggunaan substrat dan produktivitas telah dipelajari. Hasil yang didapatkan pada fermentasi dengan menggunakan sistem fed-batch menunjukkan bahwa produktivitas asam laktat maksimum adalah 0.44 g/L,jam dengan konsentrasi umpan, 90 g/L pada waktu 48 jam. Bahkan produktivitas asam laktat yang didapat pada kultur fed-batch lebih tinggi 2,5 kali dari pada proses menggunakan sistem batch

  12. Sojourn time distributions in a Markovian G-queue with batch arrival and batch removal

    Yang Woo Shin

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a single server Markovian queue with two types of customers; positive and negative, where positive customers arrive in batches and arrivals of negative customers remove positive customers in batches. Only positive customers form a queue and negative customers just reduce the system congestion by removing positive ones upon their arrivals. We derive the LSTs of sojourn time distributions for a single server Markovian queue with positive customers and negative customers by using the first passage time arguments for Markov chains.

  13. Cadmium removal using Cladophora in batch, semi-batch and flow reactors.

    Sternberg, Steven P K; Dorn, Ryan W

    2002-02-01

    This study presents the results of using viable algae to remove cadmium from a synthetic wastewater. In batch and semi-batch tests, a local strain of Cladophora algae removed 80-94% of the cadmium introduced. The flow experiments that followed were conducted using non-local Cladophora parriaudii. Results showed that the alga removed only 12.7(+/-6.4)% of the cadmium introduced into the reactor. Limited removal was the result of insufficient algal quantities and poor contact between the algae and cadmium solution.

  14. In process acoustic emission in multirun submerged arc welding

    Asty, M.; Birac, C.

    1980-01-01

    In order to avoid the formation of deep grooves when repairing defects in welded joints in heavy plates, an investigation was made aiming to detect and locate the defects by in-process acoustic emission in multirun submerged arc welding. Twelve defects (lack of penetration, cracks, inclusions, lack of fusion together with inclusions, blowholes) were intentionally introduced when the first plate was welded. A space-time method for processing the acoustic activity during welding allowed the detection and the location of the intentional defects as well as of the most important accidental defects evidenced by ultrasonic testing [fr

  15. Liquid Film Diffusion on Reaction Rate in Submerged Biofilters

    Christiansen, Pia; Hollesen, Line; Harremoës, Poul

    1995-01-01

    Experiments were carried out in order to investigate the influence of liquid film diffusion on reaction rate in a submerged biofilter with denitrification and in order to compare with a theoretical study of the mass transfer coefficient. The experiments were carried out with varied flow, identified...... by the empty bed velocity of inflow and recirculation, respectively 1.3, 2.8, 5.6 and 10.9 m/h. The filter material consisted of 3 mm biostyren spheres. The results indicate that the influence of liquid film diffusion on reaction rate can be ignored....

  16. Sustainable intensification of cultivated pastures using multiple ...

    rangeland and wildlife parks) for guidelines to implementing this approach in cultivated pasture. In rangeland or natural grassland ... Keywords: animal production, biodiversity, cultivated pastures, foraging ecology, plant–herbivore interactions ...

  17. PHYSIOLOGICAL REGULATION OF PROTEASE AND ANTIBIOTICS IN PENICILLIUM SP. USING SUBMERGED AND SOLID STATE FERMENTATION TECHNIQUES

    HAIDER M. HAMZAH

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A fungal strain belonging to the genus Penicillium was isolated from soil sample and has been diagnosed as Penicillium sp. according to its morphological characteristics of the colonies on solid media and also microscopical examination of the fungal parts. Antibiotics, protease activity and pH values were determined after cultivation of the fungus using submerged fermentation (SF and solid state fermentation (SSF. The two different patterns of fermentation processes seem to influence the physiological behavior of the fungus differently. Experiments were made using nutrient broth medium (N.B for SF and wheat bran in SSF. The pH values were adjacent to 5.5. Wheat bran was enriched with fish scales and egg shale in a ratio of (1:2:0.005 w/w and the mixture was moistened by adding (30 ml whey solution. After 7 days of incubation, the pH value of SF was increased to 8.0 at 30ºC. The SF was appeared efficient for antibiotics production. Using well diffusion technique the extracted antibiotics solution was active against some pathogenic bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli, Proteus sp., Salmonella sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Streptococcus sp. In SSF relative proteases concentrations were found to be highly reactive than SF. This was proved by the appearance of the zone (20 mm and 32 mm due to the hydrolysis of milk and blood proteins respectively using pH 5.5 at 30ºC for 24 hrs. The activity of proteases was (10.4 U/ml.

  18. The carbon count of 2000 years of rice cultivation.

    Kalbitz, Karsten; Kaiser, Klaus; Fiedler, Sabine; Kölbl, Angelika; Amelung, Wulf; Bräuer, Tino; Cao, Zhihong; Don, Axel; Grootes, Piet; Jahn, Reinhold; Schwark, Lorenz; Vogelsang, Vanessa; Wissing, Livia; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid

    2013-04-01

    More than 50% of the world's population feeds on rice. Soils used for rice production are mostly managed under submerged conditions (paddy soils). This management, which favors carbon sequestration, potentially decouples surface from subsurface carbon cycling. The objective of this study was to elucidate the long-term rates of carbon accrual in surface and subsurface soil horizons relative to those of soils under nonpaddy management. We assessed changes in total soil organic as well as of inorganic carbon stocks along a 2000-year chronosequence of soils under paddy and adjacent nonpaddy management in the Yangtze delta, China. The initial organic carbon accumulation phase lasts much longer and is more intensive than previously assumed, e.g., by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Paddy topsoils accumulated 170-178 kg organic carbon ha(-1) a(-1) in the first 300 years; subsoils lost 29-84 kg organic carbon ha(-1) a(-1) during this period of time. Subsoil carbon losses were largest during the first 50 years after land embankment and again large beyond 700 years of cultivation, due to inorganic carbonate weathering and the lack of organic carbon replenishment. Carbon losses in subsoils may therefore offset soil carbon gains or losses in the surface soils. We strongly recommend including subsoils into global carbon accounting schemes, particularly for paddy fields. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Exploring the Cultivable Ectocarpus Microbiome.

    KleinJan, Hetty; Jeanthon, Christian; Boyen, Catherine; Dittami, Simon M

    2017-01-01

    Coastal areas form the major habitat of brown macroalgae, photosynthetic multicellular eukaryotes that have great ecological value and industrial potential. Macroalgal growth, development, and physiology are influenced by the microbial community they accommodate. Studying the algal microbiome should thus increase our fundamental understanding of algal biology and may help to improve culturing efforts. Currently, a freshwater strain of the brown macroalga Ectocarpus subulatus is being developed as a model organism for brown macroalgal physiology and algal microbiome studies. It can grow in high and low salinities depending on which microbes it hosts. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in this process are still unclear. Cultivation of Ectocarpus -associated bacteria is the first step toward the development of a model system for in vitro functional studies of brown macroalgal-bacterial interactions during abiotic stress. The main aim of the present study is thus to provide an extensive collection of cultivable E . subulatus -associated bacteria. To meet the variety of metabolic demands of Ectocarpus -associated bacteria, several isolation techniques were applied, i.e., direct plating and dilution-to-extinction cultivation techniques, each with chemically defined and undefined bacterial growth media. Algal tissue and algal growth media were directly used as inoculum, or they were pretreated with antibiotics, by filtration, or by digestion of algal cell walls. In total, 388 isolates were identified falling into 33 genera (46 distinct strains), of which Halomonas ( Gammaproteobacteria ), Bosea ( Alphaproteobacteria ), and Limnobacter ( Betaproteobacteria ) were the most abundant. Comparisons with 16S rRNA gene metabarcoding data showed that culturability in this study was remarkably high (∼50%), although several cultivable strains were not detected or only present in extremely low abundance in the libraries. These undetected bacteria could be considered as part

  20. Exploring the Cultivable Ectocarpus Microbiome

    Hetty KleinJan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Coastal areas form the major habitat of brown macroalgae, photosynthetic multicellular eukaryotes that have great ecological value and industrial potential. Macroalgal growth, development, and physiology are influenced by the microbial community they accommodate. Studying the algal microbiome should thus increase our fundamental understanding of algal biology and may help to improve culturing efforts. Currently, a freshwater strain of the brown macroalga Ectocarpus subulatus is being developed as a model organism for brown macroalgal physiology and algal microbiome studies. It can grow in high and low salinities depending on which microbes it hosts. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in this process are still unclear. Cultivation of Ectocarpus-associated bacteria is the first step toward the development of a model system for in vitro functional studies of brown macroalgal–bacterial interactions during abiotic stress. The main aim of the present study is thus to provide an extensive collection of cultivable E. subulatus-associated bacteria. To meet the variety of metabolic demands of Ectocarpus-associated bacteria, several isolation techniques were applied, i.e., direct plating and dilution-to-extinction cultivation techniques, each with chemically defined and undefined bacterial growth media. Algal tissue and algal growth media were directly used as inoculum, or they were pretreated with antibiotics, by filtration, or by digestion of algal cell walls. In total, 388 isolates were identified falling into 33 genera (46 distinct strains, of which Halomonas (Gammaproteobacteria, Bosea (Alphaproteobacteria, and Limnobacter (Betaproteobacteria were the most abundant. Comparisons with 16S rRNA gene metabarcoding data showed that culturability in this study was remarkably high (∼50%, although several cultivable strains were not detected or only present in extremely low abundance in the libraries. These undetected bacteria could be considered

  1. A New Detection Method for Submerged Implants: Oral Tattoo.

    Soylu, Emrah; Gönen, Zeynep Burçin; Alkan, Alper

    2018-04-01

    To evaluate the marking potential of tattoo ink in determining the definitive locations of submerged implants at the time of surgical exposure of the implants. In total, 104 implants in 32 patients were included in this study. After placement of the implants, cover screws were inserted. Overlying mucosa was marked with tattoo ink using a 20 g needle through the center of the cover screw. At the time of surgical exposure the tattoo marks were evaluated relative to visibility. At the time of the surgical exposures, tattoo ink was clearly visible at 91 implants, slightly visible at 8 implants, and not visible at 5 implants. After detection and classification of tattoo ink, the overlying mucosa was gently removed by tissue punch under local anesthesia. The results of this study seemed to indicate that marking the location of implants with tattoos at the time of implant placement can be an inexpensive, easy, healthy, and practical way to identify the location of marked submerged dental implants. © 2016 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  2. Bistatic scattering from submerged unexploded ordnance lying on a sediment.

    Bucaro, J A; Simpson, H; Kraus, L; Dragonette, L R; Yoder, T; Houston, B H

    2009-11-01

    The broadband bistatic target strengths (TSs) of two submerged unexploded ordnance (UXO) targets have been measured in the NRL sediment pool facility. The targets-a 5 in. rocket and a 155 mm projectile-were among the targets whose monostatic TSs were measured and reported previously by the authors. Bistatic TS measurements were made for 0 degrees (target front) and 90 degrees (target side) incident source directions, and include both backscattered and forward scattered echo angles over a complete 360 degrees with the targets placed proud of the sediment surface. For the two source angles used, each target exhibits two strong highlights: a backscattered specular-like echo and a forward scattered response. The TS levels of the former are shown to agree reasonably well with predictions, based on scattering from rigid disks and cylinders, while the levels of the latter with predictions from radar cross section models, based on simple geometric optics appropriately modified. The bistatic TS levels observed for the proud case provide comparable or higher levels of broadband TS relative to free-field monostatic measurements. It is concluded that access to bistatic echo information in operations aimed at detecting submerged UXO targets could provide an important capability.

  3. Cathodic disbonding of organic coatings on submerged steel

    Knudsen, Ole oeystein

    1998-12-31

    In offshore oil production, submerged steel structures are commonly protected by an organic coating in combination with cathodic protection. The main advantage is that the coating decreases the current demand for cathodic protection. But the coating degrades with time. This thesis studies one of the most important mechanisms for coating degradation in seawater, cathodic disbonding. Seven commercial coatings and two model coatings with various pigmentations have been studied. Parameter studies, microscopy and studies of free films were used in the mechanism investigations. Exposure to simulated North Sea conditions was used in the performance studies. The effect of aluminium and glass barrier pigments on cathodic disbonding was investigated. The mechanism for the effect of the aluminium pigments on cathodic disbonding was also investigated. The transport of charge and oxygen to the steel/coating interface during cathodic disbonding was studied for two epoxy coatings. Cathodic disbonding, blistering and current demand for cathodic protection was measured for nine commercial coatings for submerged steel structures, using the ASTM-G8 standard test and a long term test under simulated North Sea conditions. The relevance of the ASTM-G8 test as a prequalification test was evaluated. 171 refs., 40 figs., 6 tabs.

  4. THE INFLUENCE OF SUBMERGED MACROPHYTES ON SEDIMENTARY DIATOM ASSEMBLAGES(1).

    Vermaire, Jesse C; Prairie, Yves T; Gregory-Eaves, Irene

    2011-12-01

    Submerged macrophytes are a central component of lake ecosystems; however, little is known regarding their long-term response to environmental change. We have examined the potential of diatoms as indicators of past macrophyte biomass. We first sampled periphyton to determine whether habitat was a predictor of diatom assemblage. We then sampled 41 lakes in Quebec, Canada, to evaluate whether whole-lake submerged macrophyte biomass (BiomEpiV) influenced surface sediment diatom assemblages. A multivariate regression tree (MRT) was used to construct a semiquantitative model to reconstruct past macrophyte biomass. We determined that periphytic diatom assemblages on macrophytes were significantly different from those on wood and rocks (ANOSIM R = 0.63, P macrophyte, nutrient-limited lakes (BiomEpiV ≥525 μg · L(-1) ; total phosphorus [TP] macrophyte, nutrient-limited lakes (BiomEpiV macrophytes have a significant influence on diatom community structure and that sedimentary diatom assemblages can be used to infer past macrophyte abundance. © 2011 Phycological Society of America.

  5. Sludge mobilization with submerged nozzles in horizontal cylindrical tanks

    Hylton, T.D.; Cummins, R.L.; Youngblood, E.L.; Perona, J.J.

    1995-10-01

    The Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVSTs) and the evaporator service tanks at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) are used for the collection and storage of liquid low-level waste (LLLW). Wastes collected in these tanks are typically acidic when generated and are neutralized with sodium hydroxide to protect the tanks from corrosion; however, the high pH of the solution causes the formation of insoluble compounds that precipitate. These precipitates formed a sludge layer approximately 0.6 to 1.2 m (2 to 4 ft) deep in the bottom of the tanks. The sludge in the MVSTs and the evaporator service tanks will eventually need to be removed from the tanks and treated for final disposal or transferred to another storage facility. The primary options for removing the sludge include single-point sluicing, use of a floating pump, robotic sluicing, and submerged-nozzle sluicing. The objectives of this study were to (1) evaluate the feasibility of submerged-nozzle sluicing in horizontal cylindrical tanks and (2) obtain experimental data to validate the TEMPEST (time-dependent, energy, momentun, pressure, equation solution in three dimensions) computer code

  6. The USGS role in mapping the nation's submerged lands

    Schwab, Bill; Haines, John

    2004-01-01

    The seabed provides habitat for a diverse marine life having commercial, recreational, and intrinsic value. The habitat value of the seabed is largely a function of the geological structure and related geological, biological, oceanologic, and geochemical processes. Of equal importance, the nation's submerged lands contain energy and mineral resources and are utilized for the siting of offshore infrastructure and waste disposal. Seabed character and processes influence the safety and viability of offshore operations. Seabed and subseabed characterization is a prerequisite for the assessment, protection, and utilization of both living and non-living marine resources. A comprehensive program to characterize and understand the nation's submerged lands requires scientific expertise in the fields of geology, biology, hydrography, and oceanography. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has long experience as the Federal agency charged with conducting geologic research and mapping in both coastal and offshore regions. The USGS Coastal and Marine Geology Program (CMGP) leads the nation in expertise related to characterization of seabed and subseabed geology, geological processes, seabed dynamics, and (in collaboration with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and international partners) habitat geoscience. Numerous USGS studies show that sea-floor geology and processes determine the character and distribution of biological habitats, control coastal evolution, influence the coastal response to storm events and human alterations, and determine the occurrence and concentration of natural resources.

  7. Carbohydrates in Ankistrodesmus braunii biomass cultivated in tubular photobioreactors

    Ana Lucía Morocho-Jácome

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The great need for microalgae biomass production in tubular photobioreactors has increased for use in biofuels, pharmaceuticals and even cosmetic applications. In order to better understand the potential applications of this material, it is imperative to know in detail its composition. Ankistrodesmus braunii was cultivated in 3.5 L tubular air-lift photobioreactors using 10 mM sodium nitrate as nitrogen source in batch mode at 60 µmol photons m-2 s-1. The maximum biomass concentration (Xm and the biomass productivity (PX reached at 6th day of cultivation was 1249 ± 72 mg L-1 and 165 ± 13 mg L-1 d-1, respectively. Carbohydrates productivity expressed in terms of glucose, galactose and glucose+galactose (1:1 were 2.57 ± 0.04, 4.12 ± 0.06 and 3.22 ± 0.05 mg L-1 d-1, respectively. Results show a statistical difference that was found between carbohydrate productivity values expressed as glucose, galactose and glucose+galactose (1:1.

  8. Hydroponic cultivation of Oncidium baueri

    Daniele Brandstetter Rodrigues

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, orchid cultivation has been increasing steadily over the last few years and contributing significantly to the economy. It has been reported that several vegetable crops and ornamentals have been successfully grown by soilless cultivation. The orchid Oncidium baueri Lindl. is grown on pot substrates. Nevertheless, hydroponics is an excellent alternative, especially for the production of cut flowers and bare root plants. The objective of this study was to evaluate the development of Oncidium baueri on two soilless systems: (a pots containing Amafibra® coconut fiber, carbonized rice husk, and pine bark (1:1:1 irrigated with nutrient solution every 15 d; and (b a nutrient film technique (NFT hydroponic system irrigated with nutrient solution daily. Shoot height, pseudobulb diameter, and number of sprouts were evaluated monthly. The number of flowering plants, number of flowers, dry mass of shoots, and dry mass of roots were evaluated 11 months after onset of experiment. The pot cultivation system yielded more flowers and higher values for all vegetative parameters than the NFT hydroponic system.

  9. A functional comparison of acclimation to shade and submergence in two terrestrial plant species

    Mommer, L.; Kroon, de H.; Pierik, R.; bögemann, G.M.; Visser, E.J.W.

    2005-01-01

    Terrestrial plants experience multiple stresses when they are submerged, caused both by oxygen deficiency due to reduced gas diffusion in water, and by shade due to high turbidity of the floodwater. It has been suggested that responses to submergence are de facto responses to low light intensity. •

  10. Contrasting Changes Caused by Drought and Submergence Stresses in Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon)

    Ye, Tiantian; Shi, Haitao; Wang, Yanping; Chan, Zhulong

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the mechanisms by which bermudagrass withstands the drought and submergence stresses through physiological, proteomic and metabolomic approaches. The results showed that significant physiological changes were observed after drought treatment, while only slight changes after submergence treatment, including compatible solute contents, ROS levels and antioxidant enzyme activities. Proteomics results showed that 81 proteins regulated by drought or submergence treatment were identified by MALDI-TOF-MS. Among them, 76 proteins were modulated by drought stress with 46 increased abundance and 30 decreased abundance. Forty-five showed abundance changes after submergence treatment with 10 increased and 35 decreased. Pathway enrichment analysis revealed that pathways of amino acid metabolism and mitochondrial electron transport/ATP synthesis were only enriched by drought treatment, while other pathways including photosynthesis, biodegradation of xenobiotics, oxidative pentose phosphate, glycolysis and redox were commonly over-represented after both drought and submergence treatments. Metabolomic analysis indicated that most of the metabolites were up-regulated by drought stress, while 34 of 40 metabolites contents exhibited down-regulation or no significant changes when exposed to submergence stress, including sugars and sugar alcohols. These data indicated that drought stress extensively promoted photosynthesis and redox metabolisms while submergence stress caused declined metabolisms and dormancy in Cynodon dactylon. Taken together, the quiescence strategy with retarded growth might allow bermudagrass to be adaptive to long-term submerged environment, while activation of photosynthesis and redox, and accumulation of compatible solutes and molecular chaperones increased bermudagrass tolerance to drought stress. PMID:26617615

  11. Evaluation of vitrification factors from DWPF's macro-batch 1

    Edwards, T.B.

    2000-01-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is evaluating new sampling and analytical methods that may be used to support future Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) batch acceptability decisions. This report uses data acquired during DWPF's processing of macro-batch 1 to determine a set of vitrification factors covering several SME and Melter Feed Tank (MFT) batches. Such values are needed for converting the cation measurements derived from the new methods to a ''glass'' basis. The available data from macro-batch 1 were used to examine the stability of these vitrification factors, to estimate their uncertainty over the course of a macro-batch, and to provide a recommendation on the use of a single factor for an entire macro-batch. The report is in response to Technical Task Request HLW/DWPF/TTR-980015

  12. Heat transfer study of a submerged reactor channel under boil-off condition

    Mukhopadhyay, Deb [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India). Reactor Safety Div.; Sahoo, P.K. [Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee (India). Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering; Ghosh, A.K. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India). Health, Safety and Environment Group

    2012-12-15

    Experiments have been carried out to study the heatup behavior of a single segmented reactor channel for Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor under submerged, partially submerged and exposed conditions. This situation may arise from a severe accident scenario of Pressurised Heavy Water Reactors where full or segmented reactor channels are likely to be disassembled and form a submerged debris bed. An assembly of electrical heater rod, simulating fuel bundle and channel components like Pressure Tube and Calandria Tube constitutes the segmented reactor channel. Heatup of this assembly is observed with respect to different water levels ranging from full submergence to totally exposed and power levels of 6-8 kW, typical to decay power level. It has been observed from the set of experiment that fuel bundle local dry out followed by heatup does not happen till the bundle is partially submerged. Temperature excursion of the bundle is evident when the bundle is exposed to steam-air environment. (orig.)

  13. [Effects of light on submerged macrophytes in eutrophic water: research progress].

    Li-Sha, Zou; Ze-Yu, Nie; Xiao-Yan, Yao; Ji-Yan, Shi

    2013-07-01

    The restoration of submerged macrophytes is the key to remediate eutrophic water and maintain the health of aquatic ecosystem, while light is the main limiting factor. This paper summarized the factors affecting the light extinction in water and the mechanisms of light intensity affecting the physiology of submerged macrophytes, with the focuses on the metabolic mechanisms of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus, the responses of antioxidant enzyme system, and the feedbacks of pigment composition and concentration in the common submerged macrophytes under low light stress. Several engineering techniques applied in the ecological restoration of submerged macrophytes were presented, and the framework of the restoration of submerged macrophytes in eutrophic water was proposed. Some problems in current research and several suggestions on future research were addressed, which could help the related research and engineering practices.

  14. THE STUDY ON THE DURABILITY OF SUBMERGED STRUCTURE DISPLACEMENT DUE TO CONCRETE FAILURE

    M. Mohd

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Concrete structures that exposed to marine environments are subjected to multiple deterioration mechanisms. An overview of the existing technology for submerged concrete, pressure resistant, concrete structures which related such as cracks, debonds, and delamination are discussed. Basic knowledge related to drowning durability such as submerged concrete structures in the maritime environment are the durability of a concrete and the ability to resist to weathering, chemical attack, abrasion or other deterioration processes. The measuring techniques and instrumentation for geometrical monitoring of submerged structural displacements have traditionally been categorized into two groups according to the two main groups, namely as geodetic surveying and geotechnical structural measurements of local displacements. This paper aims to study the durability of submerged concrete displacement and harmful effects of submerged concrete structures.

  15. Inorganic fouling mitigation by salinity cycling in batch reverse osmosis

    Maswadeh, Laith A.; Warsinger, David Elan Martin; Tow, Emily W.; Connors, Grace B.; Swaminathan, Jaichander; Lienhard, John H

    2018-01-01

    Enhanced fouling resistance has been observed in recent variants of reverse osmosis (RO) desalination which use time-varying batch or semi-batch processes, such as closed-circuit RO (CCRO) and pulse flow RO (PFRO). However, the mechanisms of batch processes' fouling resistance are not well-understood, and models have not been developed for prediction of their fouling performance. Here, a framework for predicting reverse osmosis fouling is developed by comparing the fluid residence time in bat...

  16. Optimizing Resource Utilization in Grid Batch Systems

    Gellrich, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    On Grid sites, the requirements of the computing tasks (jobs) to computing, storage, and network resources differ widely. For instance Monte Carlo production jobs are almost purely CPU-bound, whereas physics analysis jobs demand high data rates. In order to optimize the utilization of the compute node resources, jobs must be distributed intelligently over the nodes. Although the job resource requirements cannot be deduced directly, jobs are mapped to POSIX UID/GID according to the VO, VOMS group and role information contained in the VOMS proxy. The UID/GID then allows to distinguish jobs, if users are using VOMS proxies as planned by the VO management, e.g. ‘role=production’ for Monte Carlo jobs. It is possible to setup and configure batch systems (queuing system and scheduler) at Grid sites based on these considerations although scaling limits were observed with the scheduler MAUI. In tests these limitations could be overcome with a home-made scheduler.

  17. Sewage sludge irradiators: Batch and continuous flow

    Lavale, D.S.; George, J.R.; Shah, M.R.; Rawat, K.P.

    1998-01-01

    The potential threat to the environment imposed by high pathogenic organism content in municipal wastewater, especially the sludge and the world-wide growing aspirations for a cleaner, salubrious environment have made it mandatory for the sewage and sludge to undergo treatment, prior to their ultimate disposal to mother nature. Incapabilities associated with the conventional wastewater treatments to mitigate the problem of microorganisms have made it necessary to look for other alternatives, radiation treatment being the most reliable, rapid and environmentally sustainable of them. To promote the use of radiation for the sludge hygienization, Department of Atomic Energy has endeavoured to set up an indigenous, Sludge Hygienization Research Irradiator (SHRI) in the city of Baroda. Designed for 18.5 PBq of 60 Co to disinfect the digested sludge, the irradiator has additional provision for treatment of effluent and raw sewage. From engineering standpoint, all the subsystems have been functioning satisfactorily since its commissioning in 1990. Prolonged studies, spanning over a period of six years, primarily focused on inactivation of microorganism revealed that 3 kGy dose of gamma radiation is adequate to make the sludge pathogen and odour-free. A dose of 1.6 kGy in raw sewage and 0.5 kGy in effluent reduced coliform counts down to the regulatory discharge limits. These observations reflect a possible cost-effective solution to the burgeoning problem of surface water pollution across the globe. In the past, sub 37 PBq 60 Co batch irradiators have been designed and commissioned successfully for the treatment of sludge. Characterized with low dose delivery rates they are well-suited for treating low volumes of sludge in batches. Some concepts of continuous flow 60 Co irradiators having larger activities, yet simple and economic in design, are presented in the paper

  18. Enhancing the Production of Polyhydroxyalkanoate Biopolymer by Azohydromonas Australica Using a Simple Empty and Fill Bioreactor Cultivation Strategy

    G. Gahlawat; A. K. Srivastava

    2018-01-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are biodegradable polymers which are considered as an effective alternative for conventional plastics due to their mechanical properties similar to the latter. However, widespread use of these polymers is still hampered due to their high cost of production. This shortcoming could partly be resolved by obtaining high yields and productivity. In the present study, a drain-and-fill strategy of repeated-batch cultivation was adopted for the enhanced production of p...

  19. A Genetic Algorithms Based Approach for Identification of Escherichia coli Fed-batch Fermentation

    Olympia Roeva

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the use of genetic algorithms for identification of Escherichia coli fed-batch fermentation process. Genetic algorithms are a directed random search technique, based on the mechanics of natural selection and natural genetics, which can find the global optimal solution in complex multidimensional search space. The dynamic behavior of considered process has known nonlinear structure, described with a system of deterministic nonlinear differential equations according to the mass balance. The parameters of the model are estimated using genetic algorithms. Simulation examples for demonstration of the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed identification scheme are included. As a result, the model accurately predicts the process of cultivation of E. coli.

  20. Cybernetic modeling based on pathway analysis for Penicillium chrysogenum fed-batch fermentation.

    Geng, Jun; Yuan, Jingqi

    2010-08-01

    A macrokinetic model employing cybernetic methodology is proposed to describe mycelium growth and penicillin production. Based on the primordial and complete metabolic network of Penicillium chrysogenum found in the literature, the modeling procedure is guided by metabolic flux analysis and cybernetic modeling framework. The abstracted cybernetic model describes the transients of the consumption rates of the substrates, the assimilation rates of intermediates, the biomass growth rate, as well as the penicillin formation rate. Combined with the bioreactor model, these reaction rates are linked with the most important state variables, i.e., mycelium, substrate and product concentrations. Simplex method is used to estimate the sensitive parameters of the model. Finally, validation of the model is carried out with 20 batches of industrial-scale penicillin cultivation.

  1. Targeting population heterogeneity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae batch fermentation for optimal cell factories

    Heins, Anna-Lena; Lencastre Fernandes, Rita; Lundin, L.

    )). Significant gradients of e.g. dissolved oxygen, substrates, and pH are typically observed in many industrial scale fermentation processes. Consequently, the microbial cells experience rapid changes in environmental conditions as they circulate throughout the reactor, which might pose stress on the cells...... and affect their metabolism and consequently affect the heterogeneity level of the population. To further investigate these phenomena and gain a deeper understanding of population heterogeneity, Saccharomyces cerevisiae growth reporter strains based on the expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) were...... environmental factors on heterogeneity level and amount of living cells. A highly dynamic behavior with regard to subpopulation distribution during the different growth stages was seen for the batch cultivations. Moreover, it could be demonstrated that the glucose concentration had a clear influence...

  2. Mixing Characteristics during Fuel Coolant Interaction under Reactor Submerged Conditions

    Hong, S. W.; Na, Y. S.; Hong, S. H.; Song, J. H.

    2014-01-01

    A molten material is injected into an interaction chamber by free gravitation fall. This type of fuel coolant interaction could happen to operating plants. However, the flooding of a reactor cavity is considered as SAM measures for new PWRs such as APR-1400 and AP1000 to assure the IVR of a core melt. In this case, a molten corium in a reactor is directly injected into water surrounding the reactor vessel without a free fall. KAERI has carried out fuel coolant interaction tests without a free fall using ZrO 2 and corium to simulate the reactor submerged conditions. There are four phases in a steam explosion. The first phase is a premixing phase. The premixing is described in the literature as follows: during penetration of melt into water, hydrodynamic instabilities, generated by the velocities and density differences as well as vapor production, induce fragmentation of the melt into particles; the particles fragment in turn into smaller particles until they reach a critical size such that the cohesive forces (surface tension) balance exactly the disruptive forces (inertial); and the molten core material temperature (>2500 K) is such that the mixing always occurs in the film boiling regime of the water: It is very important to qualify and quantify this phase because it gives the initial conditions for a steam explosion This paper mainly focuses on the observation of the premixing phase between a case with 1 m free fall and a case without a free fall to simulate submerged reactor condition. The premixing behavior between a 1m free fall case and reactor case submerged without a free fall is observed experimentally. The average velocity of the melt front passing through 1m water pool; - Case without a free fall: The average velocity of corium, 2.7m/s, is faster than ZrO 2 , 2.3m/s, in water. - Cases of with a 1 m free fall and without a free fall : The case without a free fall is about two times faster than a case with a 1 m free fall. Bubble characteristics; - Case

  3. A fed-batch strategy to produce high poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) terpolymer yield with enhanced mechanical properties in bioreactor.

    Aziz, Nursolehah Abd; Huong, Kai-Hee; Sipaut, Coswald Stephen; Amirul, A A

    2017-11-01

    This study reports an efficient fed-batch strategy to improve poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB-co-3HV-co-4HB)] terpolymer production by Cupriavidus sp. USMAA2-4 with enhanced mechanical properties in bioreactor. The cultivations have been performed by combining oleic acid with γ-butyrolactone at different concentration ratios with 1-pentanol at a fixed concentration. The batch and fed-batch fermentations have resulted in P(3HB-co-3HV-co-4HB) with compositions of 9-35 mol% 3HV and 4-24 mol% 4HB monomers. The DO-stat fed-batch fermentation strategies have significantly improved the production with a maximum 4.4-fold increment of cell dry weight (CDW). Besides, appropriate feeding of the substrates has resulted in an increment of terpolymer productivity from 0.086-0.347 g/L/h, with a significantly shortened cultivation time. The bacterial growth and terpolymer formation have been found to be affected by the concentration of carbon sources supplied. Characterization of P(3HB-co-3HV-co-4HB) has demonstrated that incorporation of 3HV and 4HB monomer has significantly improved the physical and thermodynamic properties of the polymers, by reducing the polymer's crystallinity. The tensile strength, Young's modulus of the terpolymer has been discovered to increase with the increase of M w . The fed-batch fermentation strategies employed in this study have resulted in terpolymers with a range of flexible materials having improved tensile strength and Young's modulus as compared to the terpolymer produced from batch fermentation. Possession of lower melting temperature indicates an enhanced thermal stability which broadens the polymer processing window.

  4. Submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor (SAnMBR) performance on sewage treatment: removal efficiencies, biogas production and membrane fouling.

    Chen, Rong; Nie, Yulun; Ji, Jiayuan; Utashiro, Tetsuya; Li, Qian; Komori, Daisuke; Li, Yu-You

    2017-09-01

    A submerged anaerobic membrane reactor (SAnMBR) was employed for comprehensive evaluation of sewage treatment at 25 °C and its performance in removal efficiency, biogas production and membrane fouling. Average 89% methanogenic degradation efficiency as well as 90%, 94% and 96% removal of total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and nonionic surfactant were obtained, while nitrogen and phosphorus were only subjected to small removals. Results suggest that SAnMBRs can effectively decouple organic degradation and nutrients disposal, and reserve all the nitrogen and phosphorus in the effluent for further possible recovery. Small biomass yields of 0.11 g mixed liquor volatile suspended solids (MLVSS)/gCOD were achieved, coupled to excellent methane production efficiencies of 0.338 NLCH 4 /gCOD, making SAnMBR an attractive technology characterized by low excess sludge production and high bioenergy recovery. Batch tests revealed the SAnMBR appeared to have the potential to bear a high food-to-microorganism ratio (F/M) of 1.54 gCOD/gMLVSS without any inhibition effect, and maximum methane production rate occurred at F/M 0.7 gCOD/gMLVSS. Pore blocking dominated the membrane fouling behaviour at a relative long hydraulic retention time (HRT), i.e. >12 hours, while cake layer dominated significantly at shorter HRTs, i.e. <8 hours.

  5. Increasing the Photoautotrophic Growth Rate of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 by Identifying the Limitations of Its Cultivation.

    van Alphen, Pascal; Abedini Najafabadi, Hamed; Branco Dos Santos, Filipe; Hellingwerf, Klaas J

    2018-03-25

    Many conditions have to be optimized in order to be able to grow the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 (Synechocystis) for an extended period of time under physiologically well-defined and constant conditions. It is still poorly understood what limits growth of this organism in batch and continuous cultures in BG-11, the standard medium used to grow Synechocystis. Through a series of batch experiments in flasks and continuous mode experiments in advanced photobioreactors, it is shown that the limiting nutrient during batch cultivation is sulfate, the depletion of which leads to ROS formation and rapid bleaching of pigments after entry into stationary phase. In continuous mode, however, the limiting nutrient is iron. Optimizing these growth conditions resulted in a so far highest growth rate of 0.16 h -1 (4.3 h doubling time), which is significantly higher than the textbook value of 0.09 h -1 (8 h doubling time). An improved medium, BG-11 for prolonged cultivation (BG-11-PC) is introduced, that allows for controlled, extended cultivation of Synechocystis, under well-defined physiological conditions. The data present here have implications for mass-culturing of cyanobacteria. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Enhancing the Production of Polyhydroxyalkanoate Biopolymer by Azohydromonas Australica Using a Simple Empty and Fill Bioreactor Cultivation Strategy

    G. Gahlawat

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs are biodegradable polymers which are considered as an effective alternative for conventional plastics due to their mechanical properties similar to the latter. However, widespread use of these polymers is still hampered due to their high cost of production. This shortcoming could partly be resolved by obtaining high yields and productivity. In the present study, a drain-and-fill strategy of repeated-batch cultivation was adopted for the enhanced production of polyhydroxybutyrate PHB using Azohydromonas australica. In this strategy, 20 % (v/v of the culture broth was removed from the reactor and supplemented with an equal volume of fresh medium. This strategy demonstrated a 3.3 fold and 1.8 fold increase in PHB concentration and productivity, respectively, as compared to batch cultivation. Repeated cultivation had also the benefit of avoiding non-productive time required for cleaning, refilling and sterilization of bioreactor during batch, thereby increasing the overall volumetric productivity and industrial importance of the process.

  7. Plants cultivation in controlled containments

    2000-01-01

    The plants cultivation in controlled containments permits to the - Departement d'Ecophysiologie Vegetale et de Microbiologie (DVEM) - of the CEA to lead several topics of research. The works of DVEM which are based on the molecular labelling, technique adapted to plants, contribute to understand the plant - soil relationships and the plant growth process. In addition, the staff of DVEM study the impact of pollutant heavy metals, existing in the soil, on plants and the plant stress induced by oxygen, light, ionizing radiations,... and defence mechanisms of plants (F. M.)

  8. Submerged cutting of steel by abrasive water jets

    Haferkamp, H.; Louis, H.; Meier, G.

    1990-01-01

    A special cutting head for underwater use was designed and built. Tests were carried out to find out useful parameters for submerged cutting. With regard to the production of secondary waste the abrasive flow rate had to be minimized. This was achieved by using a small water jet nozzle (up to 0.4 mm diameter) and a high pressure (up to 4000 bar) with an optimal abrasive flow rate of about 5 g/s. In the case of a higher ambient pressure a decrease of the cutting performance was measured. But this decrease is not important regarding decommissioning because the ambient pressure is less than 2 bar. An air mantle nozzle was adapted to the cutting head to improve the working distance under water. The air mantle surrounding the abrasive jet lowers the friction between jet and surrounding water and increases the cutting efficiency in the case of greater working distances. (author)

  9. Microbial production of four biodegradable siderophores under submerged fermentation.

    Fazary, Ahmed E; Al-Shihri, Ayed S; Alfaifi, Mohammad Y; Saleh, Kamel A; Alshehri, Mohammed A; Elbehairi, Serag Eldin I; Ju, Yi-Hsu

    2016-07-01

    Four siderophore analogues were isolated and purified from Escherichia coli, Bacillus spp. ST13, and Streptomyces pilosus microorganisms under some specific submerged fermentation conditions. In order to evaluate the highest production of this siderophore analogues through the growth, a rapid spectrophotometric screening semi-quantitative method was used, in which interestingly the analogues were isolated in its own form not its iron chelate. After chromatographic separation, the chemical structures of the isolated and purified siderophores were illustrated using detailed spectroscopic techniques. The biodegradation studies were done on that four novel isolated and purified siderophores following OECD protocols. In addition, the bioactivities of these siderophores and their iron complexes were examined and evaluated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Use of the submerged demineralizer system at Three Mile Island

    Hofstetter, K.J.; Hitz, C.G.

    1983-01-01

    The Submerged Demineralizer System (SDS) has been used at Three Mile Island-Unit 2 (TMI-2) to process more than 1.5 million gallons of water contaminated as a result of the March, 1979 accident. The SDS has processed approximately 315,000 gallons of water accumulated in tanks in the Auxiliary Building, approximately 650,000 gallons of water that existed in the Reactor Containment Building basement, approximately 90,000 gallons of primary reactor coolant (processed in a bleed and feed mode) and approximately 169,000 gallons of water used in the large scale decontamination of the Reactor Building. During its operation, the SDS has immobilized approximately 340,000 curies of the principal fission products 137 Cs, 134 Cs and 90 Sr on inorganic media (zeolite). Processing summaries and performance evaluations are presented. 12 references, 1 figure, 6 tables

  11. Endodontic Treatment in Submerged Roots: A Case Report

    Hemalatha Pameshwar Hiremath

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Alveolar ridge resorption has long been considered an unavoidable consequence of tooth extraction. While the extent and pattern of resorption is variable among individuals, there is a progressive loss of ridge contour as a result of physiologic bone remodeling. Even today, with best modalities of tooth preservation, there is a group of elderly individuals who do not benefit from modern preventive practices and who now present a dilemma in terms of maintaining the masticatory apparatus necessary for nutrition. Even with excellent dental care, such patients experience abrasion of the natural tooth crowns with age, and embedded roots are left within the alveolar bone. According to old concepts of dental care, extraction of these roots would have been recommended, but today’s goal of excellence in endodontics dictates otherwise. We report a case in which vital and non-vital root submergence was carried out to prevent alveolar ridge reduction.

  12. Three-Dimensional Flow Behavior Inside the Submerged Entry Nozzle

    Real-Ramirez, Cesar Augusto; Carvajal-Mariscal, Ignacio; Sanchez-Silva, Florencio; Cervantes-de-la-Torre, Francisco; Diaz-Montes, Jesus; Gonzalez-Trejo, Jesus

    2018-05-01

    According to various authors, the surface quality of steel depends on the dynamic conditions that occur within the continuous casting mold's upper region. The meniscus, found in that upper region, is where the solidification process begins. The liquid steel is distributed into the mold through a submerged entry nozzle (SEN). In this paper, the dynamic behavior inside the SEN is analyzed by means of physical experiments and numerical simulations. The particle imaging velocimetry technique was used to obtain the vector field in different planes and three-dimensional flow patterns inside the SEN volume. Moreover, large eddy simulation was performed, and the turbulence model results were used to understand the nonlinear flow pattern inside the SEN. Using scaled physical and numerical models, quasi-periodic behavior was observed due to the interaction of two three-dimensional vortices that move inside the SEN lower region located between the exit ports of the nozzle.

  13. Comparison of submerged and unsubmerged printing of ovarian cancer cells.

    Davidoff, Sherry N; Au, David; Smith, Samuel; Brooks, Amanda E; Brooks, Benjamin D

    2015-01-01

    A high-throughput cell based assay would greatly aid in the development and screening of ovarian cancer drug candidates. Previously, a three-dimensional microfluidic printer that is not only capable of controlling the location of cell deposition, but also of maintaining a liquid, nutrient rich environment to preserve cellular phenotype has been developed (Wasatch Microfluidics). In this study, we investigated the impact (i.e., viability, density, and phenotype) of depositing cells on a surface submerged in cell culture media. It was determined that submersion of the microfluidic print head in cell media did not alter the cell density, viability, or phenotype.. This article describes an in depth study detailing the impact of one of the fundamental components of a 3D microfluidic cell printer designed to mimic the in vivo cell environment. Development of such a tool holds promise as a high-throughput drug-screening platform for new cancer therapeutics.

  14. Growth Control of Cyanobacteria by Three Submerged Macrophytes

    Wang, Haiou; Zhong, Guangrong; Yan, Hai; Liu, Hu; Wang, Yao; Zhang, Chun

    2012-01-01

    Abstract To illustrate the control of harmful cyanobacterial growth and the removal of nutritients from fresh water, three submerged macrophytes were grown in the raw water of Guishui Lake. Lindernia rotundifolia, Hygrophila stricta, and Cryptocoryne crispatula were grown together in situ to assess their effectiveness in nutrient removal in microcosms. Results revealed the inhibitory effects of these species on cyanobacterial growth. In addition, water quality in the planted microcosms showed improvement when compared to the water quality of the unplanted microcosm. At all treatments studied, the chemical oxygen demand in the planted microcosms was lower than that in the unplanted microcosms, and the removal rate of all the nitrogen and phosphate in the planted microcosms was better than that of the microcosm without plants. Our study offers a useful algal control method for the lakes or reservoirs that suffer from harmful cyanobacterial blooms. PMID:22693412

  15. Submerged-arc wire electrodes with nickel-plated surfaces

    Hagen, H. vom.

    1976-01-01

    The article reports on the development of SANWELD welding rods at GARHYTTAN's which is a wire free of impurities, copper, and hydrogen with a nickel surface. It is producted according to the SANBOND process. The wire has an optimum of mechanical quality grades depending on the powder used for welding, especially an improvement of notch impact strength. The elongation, especially the long-time values, are improved, hydrogen cracks are excluded depending on the correct powder or protective gas, and the low-temparature values are improved. An attendant phenomenon, which is not unimportant, is that the wires are practically corrosion-resistant in the non-welded state. The wire is suitable for submerged-arc welding in steam boilers and pressure vessels. (IHoe) [de

  16. Phytoremediation of arsenic in submerged soil by wetland plants.

    Jomjun, Nateewattana; Siripen, Trichaiyaporn; Maliwan, Saeouy; Jintapat, Nateewattana; Prasak, Thavornyutikarn; Somporn, Choonluchanon; Petch, Pengchai

    2011-01-01

    Wetland aquatic plants including Canna glauca L., Colocasia esculenta L. Schott, Cyperus papyrus L. and Typha angustifolia L. were used in the phytoremediation of submerged soil polluted by arsenic (As). Cyperus papyrus L. was noticed as the largest biomass producer which has arsenic accumulation capacity of 130-172 mg As/kg plant. In terms of arsenic removal rate, however, Colocasia esculenta L. was recognized as the largest and fastest arsenic remover in this study. Its arsenic removal rate was 68 mg As/m2/day while those rates of Canna glauca L., Cyperus papyrus L. and Typha angustifolia L. were 61 mg As/m2/day, 56 mg As/m2/day, and 56 mg As/m2/day, respectively. Although the 4 aquatic plants were inferior in arsenic accumulation, their high arsenic removal rates were observed. Phytostabilization should be probable for the application of these plants.

  17. Bioprocess iterative batch-to-batch optimization based on hybrid parametric/nonparametric models.

    Teixeira, Ana P; Clemente, João J; Cunha, António E; Carrondo, Manuel J T; Oliveira, Rui

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method for iterative batch-to-batch dynamic optimization of bioprocesses. The relationship between process performance and control inputs is established by means of hybrid grey-box models combining parametric and nonparametric structures. The bioreactor dynamics are defined by material balance equations, whereas the cell population subsystem is represented by an adjustable mixture of nonparametric and parametric models. Thus optimizations are possible without detailed mechanistic knowledge concerning the biological system. A clustering technique is used to supervise the reliability of the nonparametric subsystem during the optimization. Whenever the nonparametric outputs are unreliable, the objective function is penalized. The technique was evaluated with three simulation case studies. The overall results suggest that the convergence to the optimal process performance may be achieved after a small number of batches. The model unreliability risk constraint along with sampling scheduling are crucial to minimize the experimental effort required to attain a given process performance. In general terms, it may be concluded that the proposed method broadens the application of the hybrid parametric/nonparametric modeling technique to "newer" processes with higher potential for optimization.

  18. Evaluation of metal ions and surfactants effect on cell growth and exopolysaccharide production in two-stage submerged culture of Cordyceps militaris.

    Cui, Jian-Dong; Zhang, Ya-Nan

    2012-11-01

    During the two-stage submerged fermentation of medicinal mushroom Cordyceps militaris, it was found that K(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and Mn(2+) were favorable to the mycelial growth. The EPS production reached the highest levels in the media containing Mg(2+) and Mn(2+). However, Ca(2+) and K(+) almost failed to increase significantly exopolysaccharides (EPS) production. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) significantly enhanced EPS production compared with that of without adding SDS when SDS was added on static culture stage of two-stage cultivation process. The presence of Tween 80 in the medium not only simulated mycelial growth but also increased EPS production. By response surface methods (RSM), EPS production reached its peak value of 3.28 g/L under optimal combination of 27.6 mM Mg(2+), 11.1 mM Mn(2+), and 0.05 mM SDS, which was 3.76-fold compared with that of without metal ion and surfactant. The results obtained were useful in better understanding the regulation for efficient production of EPS of C. militaris in the two-stage submerged culture.

  19. Safe shutdown analysis for submerged equipment inside containment

    Song, Dong Soo; Lee, Seung Chan; Yoon, Duk Joo; Ha, Sang Jun

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to analyze internal flooding effects on the submerged safety-related components inside containment building. Safe shutdown analysis has been performed based on the criteria, assumptions and guideline provided in ANSI/ANS-56.11-1988 and ANSI/ANS-58.11-1988. Flooding can be postulated from a failure of several systems located inside the containment. Loss of coolant accident (LOCA), Feed water line break (FWLB), and other pipe breaks/cracks are assumed. The worst case flooding scenario is a large break LOCA. The maximum flood level for a large break LOCA is calculated based on the combined inventory of the reactor coolant system, the three accumulators, the boron injection tank (BIT), the chemical additive tank (CAT), and the refueling water storage tank (RWST) flooding the containment. The maximum flood level that could occur from all of the water which is available in containment is 2.3 m from the base elevation. A detailed flooding analysis for the components has been performed to demonstrate that internal flooding resulting from a postulated initiating event does not cause the loss of equipment required to achieve and maintain safe shutdown of the plant, emergency core cooling capability, or equipment whose failure could result in unacceptable offsite radiological consequences. The flood height can be calculated as h = (dh/dt) x (t-t 0 ) + h 0 , where h = time dependent flood height and subscript 0 means the initial value and height slope dh/dt. In summary, the submerged components inside containment are acceptable because they complete the mission of safety injection (SI) prior to submeregency or have no safe shutdown function including containment isolation during an accident. (author)

  20. Photosynthetic carbon metabolism in the submerged aquatic angiosperm Scirpus subterminalis

    Beer, S; Wetzel, R G

    1981-01-01

    Scirpus subterminalis Torr., a submerged angiosperm abundant in many hardwater lakes of the Great Lakes region, was investigated for various photosynthetic carbon fixation properties in relation to available inorganic carbon and levels of carbon fixing enzymes. Photosynthetic experiments were CO/sub 2/ and HCO/sub 3//sup -/ were supplied at various concentrations showed that Scirpus was able to utilize HCO/sub 3//sup -/ at those concentrations close to natural conditions. However, when CO/sub 2/ concentrations were increased above ambient, photosynthetic rates increased markedly. It was concluded that the photosynthetic potential of this plant in many natural situations may be limited by inorganic carbon uptake in the light. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPcase)/ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (ruBPcase) ratios of the leaves varied between 0.5 and 0.9 depending on substrate concentration during assay. The significance of PEP-mediated carbon fixation of Scirpus (basically a C/sub 3/ plant) in the dark was investigated. Malate accumulated in the leaves during the dark period of a 24-h cycle and malate levels decreased significantly during the following light period. The accumulation was not due to transport of malate from the roots. Carbon uptake rates in the dark by the leaves of Scirpus were lower than malate accumulation rates. Therefore, part of the malate was likely derived from respired CO/sub 2/. Carbon uptake rates in the light were much higher than malate turnover rates. It was estimated that carbon fixation via malate could contribute up to 12% to net photosynthetic rates. The ecological significance of this type of metabolism in submerged aquatics is discussed.

  1. Development of New Submergence Tolerant Rice Variety for Bangladesh Using Marker-Assisted Backcrossing

    Khandakar Md Iftekharuddaula

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Submergence tolerant high yielding rice variety was developed using BR11 as a recipient parent applying foreground, phenotypic and background selection approaches. Recombinant selection was found essential to minimize linkage drag by BC2F2 generation. Without recombinant selection, the introgression size in the backcross recombinant lines (BRLs was approximately 15 Mb on the carrier chromosome. The BRLs were found submergence tolerance compared to the check varieties under complete submergence for two weeks at Bangladesh Rice Research Institute, and produced higher yield compared to the isogenic Sub1-line under controlled submerged condition. The BRL IR85260-66-654-Gaz2 was released as BRRI dhan52 in 2010, which was the first high yielding submergence tolerant variety in Bangladesh. BRRI dhan52 produced grain yield ranging from 4.2 to 5.2 t/hm2 under different flash flood prone areas of Bangladesh in three consecutive seasons. The study demonstrated the efficiency of recombinant selection and better adaptability of the newly released submergence tolerant high yielding variety in flash flood prone different areas of the country with respect to submergence tolerance and yield potential.

  2. Antioxidant activity of seedling growth in selected soybean genotypes (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) responses of submergence

    Damanik, R. I.; Marbun, P.; Sihombing, L.

    2016-08-01

    In order to better understand the physiological and biochemical responses relating to direct seeding establishment in soybeans, the plant growth rate and antioxidative defense responses of seedlings in seven Indonesian soybean genotypes (Anjasmoro, Detam-1, Detam-2, Dieng, Grobogan, Tanggamus, and Willis) at different submergence periods (4, and 8 days) were examined. Twelve-day old seedlings were hydroponically grown in limited oxygen conditions. The results showed that the chlorophyll content in soybean seedlings was reduced beginning as early as 4 d under submerged condition, except for Detam-1, Detam-2, and Grobogan genotypes. The dry weight and protein concentration of seedlings were significantly higher at control condition (0 d) than those in submerged condition. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) increased linearly until 8 d submerged for all genotypes. On the other hand, our results showed that catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities did not work together, meaning that CAT is activated and APX deactivated, or vice versa, in response to submergence conditions, except for Grobogan and Tanggamus genotypes which had an effect on both CAT and APX activities. Submergence stress led to a significant increase in glutathione reductase (GR) together with APX activity for Detam-2 and Dieng genotypes at 8 d submerged.

  3. The Performance and Fouling Control of Submerged Hollow Fiber (HF Systems: A Review

    Ebrahim Akhondi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The submerged membrane filtration concept is well-established for low-pressure microfiltration (MF and ultrafiltration (UF applications in the water industry, and has become a mainstream technology for surface-water treatment, pretreatment prior to reverse osmosis (RO, and membrane bioreactors (MBRs. Compared to submerged flat sheet (FS membranes, submerged hollow fiber (HF membranes are more common due to their advantages of higher packing density, the ability to induce movement by mechanisms such as bubbling, and the feasibility of backwashing. In view of the importance of submerged HF processes, this review aims to provide a comprehensive landscape of the current state-of-the-art systems, to serve as a guide for further improvements in submerged HF membranes and their applications. The topics covered include recent developments in submerged hollow fiber membrane systems, the challenges and developments in fouling-control methods, and treatment protocols for membrane permeability recovery. The highlighted research opportunities include optimizing the various means to manipulate the hydrodynamics for fouling mitigation, developing online monitoring devices, and extending the submerged HF concept beyond filtration.

  4. Submergence sensitivity of durum wheat, bread wheat and barley at the germination stage

    Iduna Arduini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil waterlogging at initial growth stages can cause heavy yield losses of winter cereals. Therefore, the screening for submergence tolerance traits in seeds of commercial varieties is of high concern worldwide. Ten Italian varieties of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf., bread wheat (T. aestivum L. and barley (Hordeum vulgare L. were investigated for their ability to germinate in submerged conditions and to recover after submergence periods of three to 15 days. Submergence prevented germination and decreased germinability, at rates that increased with duration of submergence. Sensitivity ranked in the order: barley >durum wheat >bread wheat. We related the higher sensitivity of barley to its slower germination and slightly higher leakage of electrolytes, whereas the percentage of abnormal seedlings was lower than in other species. It was less than 4%, compared to less than 15 and 8% in durum wheat and bread wheat, respectively. Wide varietal differences were found in all species. According to variety, after 6-day submergence, germinability ranged from 2 to 42% in barley, from 5 to 80% in durum wheat, and from 30 to 77% in bread wheat. Varieties with more than 40% seed survival were three, six and seven per species, in the same order. The differential submergence sensitivity of varieties indicates a potential to select for waterlogging tolerance within Italian genotypes of winter cereal crops.

  5. Modelling and Simulation of the Batch Hydrolysis of Acetic ...

    The kinetic modelling of the batch synthesis of acetic acid from acetic anhydride was investigated. The kinetic data of the reaction was obtained by conducting the hydrolysis reaction in a batch reactor. A dynamic model was formulated for this process and simulation was carried out using gPROMS® an advanced process ...

  6. [Batch release of immunoglobulin and monoclonal antibody products].

    Gross, S

    2014-10-01

    The Paul-Ehrlich Institute (PEI) is an independent institution of the Federal Republic of Germany responsible for performing official experimental batch testing of sera. The institute decides about the release of each batch and performs experimental research in the field. The experimental quality control ensures the potency of the product and also the absence of harmful impurities. For release of an immunoglobulin batch the marketing authorization holder has to submit the documentation of the manufacture and the results of quality control measures together with samples of the batch to the PEI. Experimental testing is performed according to the approved specifications regarding the efficacy and safety. Since implementation of the 15th German drug law amendment, the source of antibody is not defined anymore. According to § 32 German drug law, all batches of sera need to be released by an official control laboratory. Sera are medicinal products, which contain antibodies, antibody fragments or fusion proteins with a functional antibody portion. Therefore, all batches of monoclonal antibodies and derivatives must also be released by the PEI and the marketing authorization holder has to submit a batch release application. Under certain circumstances a waiver for certain products can be issued with regard to batch release. The conditions for such a waiver apply to the majority of monoclonal antibodies.

  7. 21 CFR 80.37 - Treatment of batch pending certification.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Treatment of batch pending certification. 80.37 Section 80.37 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVE CERTIFICATION Certification Procedures § 80.37 Treatment of batch pending certification...

  8. Solving a chemical batch scheduling problem by local search

    Brucker, P.; Hurink, Johann L.

    1999-01-01

    A chemical batch scheduling problem is modelled in two different ways as a discrete optimization problem. Both models are used to solve the batch scheduling problem in a two-phase tabu search procedure. The method is tested on real-world data.

  9. Dynamic Scheduling Of Batch Operations With Non-Identical Machines

    van der Zee, D.J.; van Harten, A.; Schuur, P.C.

    1997-01-01

    Batch-wise production is found in many industries. A good example of production systems which process products batch-wise are the ovens found in aircraft industry and in semiconductor manufacturing. These systems mostly consist of multiple machines of different types, given the range and volumes of

  10. Dynamic scheduling of batch operations with non-identical machines

    van der Zee, D.J.; van Harten, Aart; Schuur, Peter

    1997-01-01

    Batch-wise production is found in many industries. A good example of production systems which process products batch-wise are the ovens found in aircraft industry and in semiconductor manufacturing. These systems mostly consist of multiple machines of different types, given the range and volumes of

  11. A canned food scheduling problem with batch due date

    Chung, Tsui-Ping; Liao, Ching-Jong; Smith, Milton

    2014-09-01

    This article considers a canned food scheduling problem where jobs are grouped into several batches. Jobs can be sent to the next operation only when all the jobs in the same batch have finished their processing, i.e. jobs in a batch, have a common due date. This batch due date problem is quite common in canned food factories, but there is no efficient heuristic to solve the problem. The problem can be formulated as an identical parallel machine problem with batch due date to minimize the total tardiness. Since the problem is NP hard, two heuristics are proposed to find the near-optimal solution. Computational results comparing the effectiveness and efficiency of the two proposed heuristics with an existing heuristic are reported and discussed.

  12. Spatial and interannual variability in Baltic sprat batch fecundity

    Haslob, H.; Tomkiewicz, Jonna; Hinrichsen, H.H.

    2011-01-01

    in the central Baltic Sea, namely the Bornholm Basin, Gdansk Deep and Southern Gotland Basin. Environmental parameters such as hydrography, fish condition and stock density were tested in order to investigate the observed variability in sprat fecundity. Absolute batch fecundity was found to be positively related...... to fish length and weight. Significant differences in absolute and relative batch fecundity of Baltic sprat among areas and years were detected, and could partly be explained by hydrographic features of the investigated areas. A non-linear multiple regression model taking into account fish length...... and ambient temperature explained 70% of variability in absolute batch fecundity. Oxygen content and fish condition were not related to sprat batch fecundity. Additionally, a negative effect of stock size on sprat batch fecundity in the Bornholm Basin was revealed. The obtained data and results are important...

  13. Optimization of Growth Medium for Efficient Cultivation of Lactobacillus salivarius i 24 using Response Surface Method

    Lim, C. H.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of Lactobacillus salivarius i 24, a probiotic strain for chicken, was studied in batch fermentation using 500 mL Erlenmeyer flask. Response surface method (RSM was used to optimize the medium for efficient cultivation of the bacterium. The factors investigated were yeast extract, glucose and initial culture pH. A polynomial regression model with cubic and quartic terms was used for the analysis of the experimental data. Estimated optimal conditions of the factors for growth of L. salivarius i 24 were; 3.32 % (w/v glucose, 4.31 % (w/v yeast extract and initial culture pH of 6.10.

  14. Development and application of a milliliter-scale bioreactor for continuous microbial cultivations

    Bolic, Andrijana

    measurementwhere light was sent through the MSBR bottom and sample to a mirror-like surface in the MSBR and returned back to a fiber bundle. Aerobic and anaerobic batch cultivations were performed with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactobacillus paracasei, respectively. A high evaporation rate was experienced...... bioreactor functionality usually comes in regular lab size, which then transforms a smallscale bioreactor platform to a regular size experimental set up. To address this issue, effort was placed in developing 2 push/pull pumps that were able to deliver gas and medium ina controlled manner as a part...

  15. ADAPTIVE ENERGY-SAVING CULTIVATOR FOR STONY SOILS CULTIVATING

    A. B. Kudzaev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Practice of cultivators operation on stony soils in RNO-Alania with high hardness and humidity indicates that traction resistance during the work varies widely, with deviation from the mean value by more than 2 times. Optimally adjust the machine to the soil background when using most modern mechanisms of regulation is not always possible. Customizing the data machine boils down to the choice of priority between the vibration of the working bodies in the soil, the maintenance of the given depth and power reserve stands required to crawl the working body of the big stones. It is very difficult to get in practice the best combination of these three factors, especially on stony soils. Therefore, the machine must be designed with the ability to quickly adjust to changing operating conditions and modes to ensure energy-saving effects and not violations of the specified soil depth of various hardness with the possibility of equipping the machine racks with different working bodies. The interrow cultivator with the possibility of the quick adjustment (including automated to varying conditions was developed. In the process of studied basic parameters of elastic composite racks and parameters of pneumatic mechanism drive to adjust the proposed section of the machine were established. The system hardiness in layouts by elastic bars with air pressure up to 0.6 MPa varies from 17.7 to 45.3 N/mm. It was received effective values of pressures 0.4-0.5 MPa in the pneumatic drive partitions of the machine when operating with universal blade and ridger body OK-3 on stony soil. As a result, traction resistance decreases by 30-35 percent.

  16. An ultrasonic method for separation of epiphytic microbes from freshwater submerged macrophytes.

    Cai, Xianlei; Gao, Guang; Yang, Jing; Tang, Xiangming; Dai, Jiangyu; Chen, Dan; Song, Yuzhi

    2014-07-01

    Epiphytic microbes are common inhabitants of freshwater submerged macrophytes, which play an important role in aquatic ecosystems. An important precondition for studying the epiphytic microbes is having an effective method of separating the attached microbes from the host macrophytes. We developed an ultrasound-based method for separating epiphytic microbes from freshwater submerged macrophytes, optimized the conditions of ultrasonic separation with an orthogonal experimental design, and compared the optimized ultrasonic method with manual separation. This method can be particularly useful for freshwater submerged macrophytes having a complex morphology. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Cultivation of Scenedesmus obliquus in liquid hydrolysate from flash hydrolysis for nutrient recycling

    Barbera, Elena; Sforza, Eleonora; Kumar, Sandeep; Morosinotto, Tomas; Bertucco, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    The production of biofuels from microalgae is associated with high demands of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) required for growth. Recycling nutrients from the residual biomass is essential to obtain a sustainable production. In this work, the aqueous phase obtained from flash hydrolysis of Scenedesmus sp. was used as cultivation medium for a microalga of the same genus, to assess the feasibility of this technique for nutrient recycling purposes. Batch and continuous cultivations were carried out, to determine growth performances in this substrate compared to standard media, and verify if a stable biomass production could be obtained. In continuous experiments, the effect of hydrolysate inlet concentration and of residence time were assessed to optimize nutrient supply in relation to productivity. Results obtained show that nutrient recycling is feasible by treating biomass with flash hydrolysis, and Scenedesmus is capable of recycling large amounts of recovered nutrients. PMID:26868157

  18. Biodenitrification in Sequencing Batch Reactors. Final report

    Silverstein, J.

    1996-01-01

    One plan for stabilization of the Solar Pond waters and sludges at Rocky Flats Plant (RFP), is evaporation and cement solidification of the salts to stabilize heavy metals and radionuclides for land disposal as low-level mixed waste. It has been reported that nitrate (NO 3- ) salts may interfere with cement stabilization of heavy metals and radionuclides. Therefore, biological nitrate removal (denitrification) may be an important pretreatment for the Solar Pond wastewaters at RFP, improving the stability of the cement final waste form, reducing the requirement for cement (or pozzolan) additives and reducing the volume of cemented low-level mixed waste requiring ultimate disposal. A laboratory investigation of the performance of the Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) activated sludge process developed for nitrate removal from a synthetic brine typical of the high-nitrate and high-salinity wastewaters in the Solar Ponds at Rocky Flats Plant was carried out at the Environmental Engineering labs at the University of Colorado, Boulder, between May 1, 1994 and October 1, 1995

  19. Aerobic granulation strategy for bioaugmentation of a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) treating high strength pyridine wastewater

    Liu, Xiaodong; Chen, Yan [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Chemical Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, School of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094, Jiangsu Province (China); Zhang, Xin [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Chemical Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, School of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094, Jiangsu Province (China); Suzhou Institute of Architectural Design Co., Ltd, Suzhou 215021, Jiangsu Province (China); Jiang, Xinbai; Wu, Shijing [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Chemical Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, School of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094, Jiangsu Province (China); Shen, Jinyou, E-mail: shenjinyou@mail.njust.edu.cn [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Chemical Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, School of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094, Jiangsu Province (China); Sun, Xiuyun; Li, Jiansheng; Lu, Lude [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Chemical Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, School of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094, Jiangsu Province (China); Wang, Lianjun, E-mail: wanglj@mail.njust.edu.cn [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Chemical Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, School of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094, Jiangsu Province (China)

    2015-09-15

    Abstract: Aerobic granules were successfully cultivated in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR), using a single bacterial strain Rhizobium sp. NJUST18 as the inoculum. NJUST18 presented as both a good pyridine degrader and an efficient autoaggregator. Stable granules with diameter of 0.5–1 mm, sludge volume index of 25.6 ± 3.6 mL g{sup −1} and settling velocity of 37.2 ± 2.7 m h{sup −1}, were formed in SBR following 120-day cultivation. These granules exhibited excellent pyridine degradation performance, with maximum volumetric degradation rate (V{sub max}) varied between 1164.5 mg L{sup −1} h{sup −1} and 1867.4 mg L{sup −1} h{sup −1}. High-throughput sequencing analysis exhibited a large shift in microbial community structure, since the SBR was operated under open condition. Paracoccus and Comamonas were found to be the most predominant species in the aerobic granule system after the system had stabilized. The initially inoculated Rhizobium sp. lost its dominance during aerobic granulation. However, the inoculation of Rhizobium sp. played a key role in the start-up process of this bioaugmentation system. This study demonstrated that, in addition to the hydraulic selection pressure during settling and effluent discharge, the selection of aggregating bacterial inocula is equally important for the formation of the aerobic granule.

  20. Aerobic granulation strategy for bioaugmentation of a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) treating high strength pyridine wastewater

    Liu, Xiaodong; Chen, Yan; Zhang, Xin; Jiang, Xinbai; Wu, Shijing; Shen, Jinyou; Sun, Xiuyun; Li, Jiansheng; Lu, Lude; Wang, Lianjun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Aerobic granules were successfully cultivated in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR), using a single bacterial strain Rhizobium sp. NJUST18 as the inoculum. NJUST18 presented as both a good pyridine degrader and an efficient autoaggregator. Stable granules with diameter of 0.5–1 mm, sludge volume index of 25.6 ± 3.6 mL g −1 and settling velocity of 37.2 ± 2.7 m h −1 , were formed in SBR following 120-day cultivation. These granules exhibited excellent pyridine degradation performance, with maximum volumetric degradation rate (V max ) varied between 1164.5 mg L −1 h −1 and 1867.4 mg L −1 h −1 . High-throughput sequencing analysis exhibited a large shift in microbial community structure, since the SBR was operated under open condition. Paracoccus and Comamonas were found to be the most predominant species in the aerobic granule system after the system had stabilized. The initially inoculated Rhizobium sp. lost its dominance during aerobic granulation. However, the inoculation of Rhizobium sp. played a key role in the start-up process of this bioaugmentation system. This study demonstrated that, in addition to the hydraulic selection pressure during settling and effluent discharge, the selection of aggregating bacterial inocula is equally important for the formation of the aerobic granule

  1. Batch-to-batch quality consistency evaluation of botanical drug products using multivariate statistical analysis of the chromatographic fingerprint.

    Xiong, Haoshu; Yu, Lawrence X; Qu, Haibin

    2013-06-01

    Botanical drug products have batch-to-batch quality variability due to botanical raw materials and the current manufacturing process. The rational evaluation and control of product quality consistency are essential to ensure the efficacy and safety. Chromatographic fingerprinting is an important and widely used tool to characterize the chemical composition of botanical drug products. Multivariate statistical analysis has showed its efficacy and applicability in the quality evaluation of many kinds of industrial products. In this paper, the combined use of multivariate statistical analysis and chromatographic fingerprinting is presented here to evaluate batch-to-batch quality consistency of botanical drug products. A typical botanical drug product in China, Shenmai injection, was selected as the example to demonstrate the feasibility of this approach. The high-performance liquid chromatographic fingerprint data of historical batches were collected from a traditional Chinese medicine manufacturing factory. Characteristic peaks were weighted by their variability among production batches. A principal component analysis model was established after outliers were modified or removed. Multivariate (Hotelling T(2) and DModX) control charts were finally successfully applied to evaluate the quality consistency. The results suggest useful applications for a combination of multivariate statistical analysis with chromatographic fingerprinting in batch-to-batch quality consistency evaluation for the manufacture of botanical drug products.

  2. Batch-To-Batch Rational Feedforward Control : From Iterative Learning to Identification Approaches, with Application to a Wafer Stage

    Blanken, L.; Boeren, F.A.J.; Bruijnen, D.J.H.; Oomen, T.A.E.

    2017-01-01

    Feedforward control enables high performance for industrial motion systems that perform nonrepeating motion tasks. Recently, learning techniques have been proposed that improve both performance and flexibility to nonrepeating tasks in a batch-To-batch fashion by using a rational parameterization in

  3. Kinetic study of batch and fed-batch enzymatic saccharification of pretreated substrate and subsequent fermentation to ethanol

    Gupta Rishi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enzymatic hydrolysis, the rate limiting step in the process development for biofuel, is always hampered by its low sugar concentration. High solid enzymatic saccharification could solve this problem but has several other drawbacks such as low rate of reaction. In the present study we have attempted to enhance the concentration of sugars in enzymatic hydrolysate of delignified Prosopis juliflora, using a fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis approach. Results The enzymatic hydrolysis was carried out at elevated solid loading up to 20% (w/v and a comparison kinetics of batch and fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis was carried out using kinetic regimes. Under batch mode, the actual sugar concentration values at 20% initial substrate consistency were found deviated from the predicted values and the maximum sugar concentration obtained was 80.78 g/L. Fed-batch strategy was implemented to enhance the final sugar concentration to 127 g/L. The batch and fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysates were fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and ethanol production of 34.78 g/L and 52.83 g/L, respectively, were achieved. Furthermore, model simulations showed that higher insoluble solids in the feed resulted in both smaller reactor volume and shorter residence time. Conclusion Fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis is an efficient procedure for enhancing the sugar concentration in the hydrolysate. Restricting the process to suitable kinetic regimes could result in higher conversion rates.

  4. Kinetic study of batch and fed-batch enzymatic saccharification of pretreated substrate and subsequent fermentation to ethanol

    2012-01-01

    Background Enzymatic hydrolysis, the rate limiting step in the process development for biofuel, is always hampered by its low sugar concentration. High solid enzymatic saccharification could solve this problem but has several other drawbacks such as low rate of reaction. In the present study we have attempted to enhance the concentration of sugars in enzymatic hydrolysate of delignified Prosopis juliflora, using a fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis approach. Results The enzymatic hydrolysis was carried out at elevated solid loading up to 20% (w/v) and a comparison kinetics of batch and fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis was carried out using kinetic regimes. Under batch mode, the actual sugar concentration values at 20% initial substrate consistency were found deviated from the predicted values and the maximum sugar concentration obtained was 80.78 g/L. Fed-batch strategy was implemented to enhance the final sugar concentration to 127 g/L. The batch and fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysates were fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and ethanol production of 34.78 g/L and 52.83 g/L, respectively, were achieved. Furthermore, model simulations showed that higher insoluble solids in the feed resulted in both smaller reactor volume and shorter residence time. Conclusion Fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis is an efficient procedure for enhancing the sugar concentration in the hydrolysate. Restricting the process to suitable kinetic regimes could result in higher conversion rates. PMID:22433563

  5. Streptomyces sp. TEM 33 possesses high lipolytic activity in solid-state fermentation in comparison with submerged fermentation.

    Cadirci, Bilge Hilal; Yasa, Ihsan; Kocyigit, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Solid-state fermentation (SSF) is a bioprocess that doesn't need an excess of free water, and it offers potential benefits for microbial cultivation for bioprocesses and product development. In comparing the antibiotic production, few detailed reports could be found with lipolytic enzyme production by Streptomycetes in SSF. Taking this knowledge into consideration, we prefer to purify Actinomycetes species as a new source for lipase production. The lipase-producing strain Streptomyces sp. TEM 33 was isolated from soil and lipase production was managed by solid-state fermentation (SSF) in comparison with submerged fermentation (SmF). Bioprocess-affecting factors like initial moisture content, incubation time, and various carbon and nitrogen additives and the other enzymes secreted into the media were optimized. Lipase activity was measured as 1.74 ± 0.0005 U/g dry substrate (gds) by the p-nitrophenylpalmitate (pNPP) method on day 6 of fermentation with 71.43% final substrate moisture content. In order to understand the metabolic priority in SSF, cellulase and xylanase activity of Streptomyces sp. TEM33 was also measured. The microorganism degrades the wheat bran to its usable form by excreting cellulases and xylanases; then it secretes the lipase that is necessary for degrading the oil in the medium.

  6. Azadirachtin production by hairy root cultivation of Azadirachta indica in a modified stirred tank reactor.

    Srivastava, Smita; Srivastava, A K

    2012-11-01

    Present investigation involves hairy root cultivation of Azadirachta indica in a modified stirred tank reactor under optimized culture conditions for maximum volumetric productivity of azadirachtin. The selected hairy root line (Az-35) was induced via Agrobacterium rhizogenes LBA 920-mediated transformation of A. indica leaf explants (Coimbatore variety, India). Liquid culture of the hairy roots was developed in a modified Murashige and Skoog medium (MM2). To further enhance the productivity of azadirachtin, selected growth regulators (1.0 mg/l IAA and 0.025 mg/l GA(3)), permeabilizing agent (0.5 % v/v DNBP), a biotic elicitor (1 % v/v Curvularia (culture filtrate)) and an indirectly linked biosynthetic precursor (50 mg/l cholesterol) were added in the growth medium on 15th day of the hairy root cultivation period in shake flask. Highest azadirachtin production (113 mg/l) was obtained on 25th day of the growth cycle with a biomass of 21 g/l DW. Further, batch cultivation of hairy roots was carried out in a novel liquid-phase bioreactor configuration (modified stirred tank reactor with polyurethane foam as root support) to investigate the possible scale-up of the established A. indica hairy root culture. A biomass production of 15.2 g/l with azadirachtin accumulation in the hairy roots of 6.4 mg/g (97.28 mg/l) could be achieved after 25 days of the batch cultivation period, which was ~27 and ~14 % less biomass and azadirachtin concentration obtained respectively, in shake flasks. An overall volumetric productivity of 3.89 mg/(l day) of azadirachtin was obtained in the bioreactor.

  7. Denitrifying capability and community dynamics of glycogen accumulating organisms during sludge granulation in an anaerobic-aerobic sequencing batch reactor

    Bin, Zhang; Bin, Xue; Zhigang, Qiu; Zhiqiang, Chen; Junwen, Li; Taishi, Gong; Wenci, Zou; Jingfeng, Wang

    2015-08-01

    Denitrifying capability of glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs) has received great attention in environmental science and microbial ecology. Combining this ability with granule processes would be an interesting attempt. Here, a laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was operated to enrich GAOs and enable sludge granulation. The results showed that the GAO granules were cultivated successfully and the granules had denitrifying capability. The batch experiments demonstrated that all NO3--N could be removed or reduced, some amount of NO2--N were accumulated in the reactor, and N2 was the main gaseous product. SEM analysis suggested that the granules were tightly packed with a large amount of tetrad-forming organisms (TFOs); filamentous bacteria served as the supporting structures for the granules. The microbial community structure of GAO granules was differed substantially from the inoculant conventional activated sludge. Most of the bacteria in the seed sludge grouped with members of Proteobacterium. FISH analysis confirmed that GAOs were the predominant members in the granules and were distributed evenly throughout the granular space. In contrast, PAOs were severely inhibited. Overall, cultivation of the GAO granules and utilizing their denitrifying capability can provide us with a new approach of nitrogen removal and saving more energy.

  8. Effects of submergence on growth and survival of saplings of three wetland trees differing in adaptive mechanisms for flood tolerance

    Fumiko Iwanaga

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: Withstanding total submergence and reaeration following submergence is essential for the survival and establishment of wetland species. We focused on “LOES–low oxygen escape syndrome” and “LOQS–low oxygen quiescence syndrome” and compared tolerances to total submergence among wetland woody species differing in morphological adaptation to soil flooding. Area of study, materials and methods: This study examined the survival of 2-year-old saplings of Taxodium distichum and Metasequioia glyptostroboides (LOQS species, and Alnus japonica (LOES species, during and after total submergence. Saplings were completely submerged, then de-submerged to determine trends in survival and growth Main results: The M. glyptostroboides and A. japonica saplings could not survive prolonged submergence for more than 8 weeks, whereas saplings of T. distichum survived for over 2 years. Submerged saplings of all species showed no significant growth or modifications in morphology and anatomy under water, such as shoot elongation, adventitious root formation, and/or aerenchyma development. All T. distichum saplings that were de-submerged in the second year had the same pattern of shoot growth regardless of differences in timing and seasonality of de-submergence. Wood formation in T. distichum saplings ceased during submergence and resumed after de-submergence in spring and summer, but not in autumn. Research highlights: T. distichum saplings, which survived longer submergence periods than A. japonica and M. glyptostroboides, had physiological characteristics, such as suspension of growth and metabolism, which allowed survival of protracted total submergence (at least 2 years when saplings were immersed during the dormant stage before leaf flushing.

  9. Robotic platform for parallelized cultivation and monitoring of microbial growth parameters in microwell plates.

    Knepper, Andreas; Heiser, Michael; Glauche, Florian; Neubauer, Peter

    2014-12-01

    The enormous variation possibilities of bioprocesses challenge process development to fix a commercial process with respect to costs and time. Although some cultivation systems and some devices for unit operations combine the latest technology on miniaturization, parallelization, and sensing, the degree of automation in upstream and downstream bioprocess development is still limited to single steps. We aim to face this challenge by an interdisciplinary approach to significantly shorten development times and costs. As a first step, we scaled down analytical assays to the microliter scale and created automated procedures for starting the cultivation and monitoring the optical density (OD), pH, concentrations of glucose and acetate in the culture medium, and product formation in fed-batch cultures in the 96-well format. Then, the separate measurements of pH, OD, and concentrations of acetate and glucose were combined to one method. This method enables automated process monitoring at dedicated intervals (e.g., also during the night). By this approach, we managed to increase the information content of cultivations in 96-microwell plates, thus turning them into a suitable tool for high-throughput bioprocess development. Here, we present the flowcharts as well as cultivation data of our automation approach. © 2014 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  10. EAARL-B Submerged Topography - Saint Croix and Saint Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands, 2014

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Binary point-cloud data for part of the submerged environs of Saint Croix and Saint Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands, were produced from remotely sensed, geographically...

  11. Acclimation of a terrestrial plant to submergence facilitates gas exchange under water

    Mommer, L.; Pedersen, O.; Visser, E. J. W.

    2004-01-01

    Flooding imposes stress upon terrestrial plants since it severely hampers gas exchange rates between the shoot and the environment. The resulting oxygen deficiency is considered to be the major problem for submerged plants. Oxygen microelectrode studies have, however, shown that aquatic plants...... of this terrestrial plant species to submergence for gas exchange capacity is also shown. Shoot acclimation to submergence involved a reduction of the diffusion resistance to gases, which was not only functional by increasing diffusion of oxygen into the plant, but also by increasing influx of CO2, which enhances...... maintain relatively high internal oxygen pressures under water, and even may release oxygen via the roots into the sediment, also in dark. Based on these results, we challenge the dogma that oxygen pressures in submerged terrestrial plants immediately drop to levels at which aerobic respiration is impaired...

  12. Design procedure for sizing a submerged-bed scrubber for airborne particulate removal

    Ruecker, C.M.; Scott, P.A.

    1987-04-01

    Performance correlations to design and operate the submerged bed scrubber were developed for various applications. Structural design procedure outlined in this report focuses on off-gas scrubbing for HLW vitrification applications; however, the method is appropriate for other applications

  13. Does mechanical disturbance affect the performance and species composition of submerged macrophyte communities?

    Zhang, Qian; Xu, Ying-Shou; Huang, Lin; Xue, Wei; Sun, Gong-Qi; Zhang, Ming-Xiang; Yu, Fei-Hai

    2014-05-01

    Submerged macrophyte communities are frequently subjected to disturbance of various frequency and strength. However, there is still little experimental evidence on how mechanical disturbance affects the performance and species composition of such plant communities. In a greenhouse experiment, we constructed wetland communities consisting of five co-occurring clonal submerged macrophyte species (Hydrilla verticillata, Elodea canadensis, Ceratophyllum demersum, Chara fragilis, and Myriophyllum spicatum) and subjected these communities to three mechanical disturbance regimes (no, moderate and strong disturbance). Strong mechanical disturbance greatly decreased overall biomass, number of shoot nodes and total shoot length, and increased species diversity (evenness) of the total community. It also substantially decreased the growth of the most abundant species (H. verticillata), but did not affect growth of the other four species. Our data reveal that strong disturbance can have different effects on different submerged macrophyte species and thus alters the performance and species composition of submerged macrophyte communities.

  14. Satellite remote sensing of submerged aquatic vegetation distribution and status in the Currituck Sound, NC.

    2012-11-01

    Submerged Aquatic Vegetation (SAV) is an important component in any estuarine ecosystem. As such, it is regulated by federal and state agencies as a jurisdictional resource, where impacts to SAV are compensated through mitigation. Historically, tradi...

  15. Effects of stern-foil submerged elevation on the lift and drag of a hydrofoil craft

    Suastika, K.; Apriansyah

    2018-03-01

    Effects of the stern-foil submerged elevation on the lift and drag of a hydrofoil craft are studied by using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and by considering three alternative stern-foil submerged elevations. The submerged elevation of the front foil is kept constant in all the alternatives. From among the alternatives, the deepest stern-foil placement results in the highest stern-foil lift with the highest foil’s lift-to-drag ratio. However, considering the lift-to-drag ratio of the whole foil-strut-hull system, the shallowest stern-foil placement results in the highest lift-to-drag ratio. The struts and the foil’s submerged elevation significantly affects the drag of the whole foil-strut-hull system.

  16. Metal accumulation by submerged macrophytes in eutrophic lakes at the watershed scale.

    Xing, Wei; Wu, Haoping; Hao, Beibei; Liu, Guihua

    2013-10-01

    Metal concentrations (Al, Ba, Ca, K, Li, Mg, Na, Se, Sr and Ti) in submerged macrophytes and corresponding water and sediments were studied in 24 eutrophic lakes along the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River (China). Results showed that these eutrophic lakes have high metal concentrations in both water and sediments because of human activities. Average concentrations of Al and Na in tissues of submerged macrophytes were very high in sampled eutrophic lakes. By comparison, Ceratophyllum demersum and Najas marina accumulated more metals (e.g. Ba, Ca, K, Mg, Na, Sr and Ti). Strong positive correlations were found between metal concentrations in tissues of submerged macrophytes, probably because of co-accumulation of metals. The concentrations of Li, Mg, Na and Sr in tissues of submerged macrophytes significantly correlated with their corresponding water values, but not sediment values.

  17. Root transcript profiling of two Rorippa (brassicaceae) species reveals gene clusters associated with extreme submergence tolerance.

    Sasidharan, R.; Mustroph, A.; Boonman, A.; Akman, M.; Ammerlaan, A.M.H.; Breit, T.M.; Schranz, M.E.; Voesenek, L.A.C.J.; Tienderen, van P.H.

    2013-01-01

    Complete submergence represses photosynthesis and aerobic respiration, causing rapid mortality in most terrestrial plants. However, some plants have evolved traits allowing them to survive prolonged flooding, such as species of the genus Rorippa, close relatives of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis

  18. Large-Scale Submerged Aquatic Vegetation Restoration in Chesapeake Bay: Status Report, 2003-2006

    Shafer, Deborah J; Bergstrom, Peter

    2008-01-01

    In 2003, the U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Chesapeake Bay Office began a comprehensive research effort to restore submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV...

  19. Vertical Gradient Freezing Using Submerged Heater Growth With Rotation and With Weak Magnetic and Electric Fields

    Bliss, D. F; Holmes, A. M; Wang, X; Ma, N; Iseler, G. W

    2005-01-01

    ...) method utilizing a submerged heater. Electromagnetic stirring can be induced in the gallium-antimonide melt just above the crystal growth interface by applying a weak radial electric current in the melt together with a weak axial magnetic field...

  20. Mixotrophic cultivation of microalgae for biodiesel production: status and prospects.

    Wang, Jinghan; Yang, Haizhen; Wang, Feng

    2014-04-01

    Biodiesel from microalgae provides a promising alternative for biofuel production. Microalgae can be produced under three major cultivation modes, namely photoautotrophic cultivation, heterotrophic cultivation, and mixotrophic cultivation. Potentials and practices of biodiesel production from microalgae have been demonstrated mostly focusing on photoautotrophic cultivation; mixotrophic cultivation of microalgae for biodiesel production has rarely been reviewed. This paper summarizes the mechanisms and virtues of mixotrophic microalgae cultivation through comparison with other major cultivation modes. Influencing factors of microalgal biodiesel production under mixotrophic cultivation are presented, development of combining microalgal biodiesel production with wastewater treatment is especially reviewed, and bottlenecks and strategies for future commercial production are also identified.

  1. Multiple outcomes of cultivation in the Sahel

    Rasmussen, Laura Vang; Reenberg, Anette

    2015-01-01

    A default assumption about the Sahel is that farmers consider food provision for the family as the sole reason for cultivation. The degree to which this ‘cultivation for food’ assumption has been embedded in the scientific literature on land use changes is signified by the fact that hardly any...

  2. Shifting Cultivation : Promoting Innovative Policy and Development ...

    Shifting Cultivation : Promoting Innovative Policy and Development Options in the Eastern Himalayas. Shifting ... pressure and market forces. The idea is to share good policies and practices related to shifting cultivation and alternative options through regional exchange. ... Les chaînes de valeur comme leviers stratégiques.

  3. Submerged reef systems on the central western continental shelf of India

    Vora, K.H.; Almeida, F.

    -262 255 Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., Amsterdam -- Printed in the Netherlands Letter Section Submerged Reef Systems on the Central Western Continental Shelf of India K.H. VORA and F. ALMEIDA National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403... 004 (India) (Revision accepted October 26, 1989) Abstract Vora, K.H. and Almeida, F., 1990. Submerged reef systems on the central western continental shelf of India. Mar. Geol., 91: 255-262. Echosounding and sidescan sonar data from the western...

  4. Agenesis of premolar associated with submerged primary molar and a supernumerary premolar: An unusual case report

    S. V. S. G. Nirmala

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The combination of submerged primary molar, agenesis of permanent successor with a supernumerary in the same place is very rare. The purpose of this article is to report a case of submerged mandibular left second primary molar with supernumerary tooth in the same region along with agenesis of second premolar in an 11-year-old girl, its possible etiological factors, and a brief discussion on treatment options.

  5. Analysis of submerged implant towards mastication load using 3D finite element method (FEM)

    Widia Hafsyah Sumarlina Ritonga; Janti Rusjanti; Nunung Rusminah; Aldilla Miranda; Tatacipta Dirgantara

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The surgical procedure for implantation of a surgical implant comprising a stage for the implant design nonsubmerged and two stages for submerged. Submerged implant design often used in Faculty of Dentistry Universitas Padjadjaran because it is safer in achieving osseointegration. This study was conducted to evaluate the failure of dental implant based on location and the value of internal tensiones as well as supporting tissues when given mastication load by using the 3D Finite...

  6. Production of endoglucanase by the native strains of Streptomyces isolates in submerged fermentation

    P. Chellapandi

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Cellulase is a complex enzyme system, commercially produced by filamentous fungi under solid-state and submerged cultivation. It has wide applicability in textile, food and beverage industry for effective saccharification process. In this study, cellulolytic enzyme activity, particularly endoglucanase of 26 Streptomyces strains isolated from garden soil was examined, including two isolates selected on the basis of potential cellulolytic activity on Bennett's agar medium. To enhance the endoglucanase formation in broth culture, different conditions including carbon and nitrogen sources, and growth conditions were tested. The maximum endoglucanase activity (11.25-11.90 U/mL was achieved within 72-88 h in fermentation medium containing Tween-80, followed by phosphate sources. Both cellulolytic Streptomyces isolates gave almost equal quantity of enzyme in all trials. However the effect of medium ingredients on endoglucanase induction diverged with strains in some extent.A celulase é um sistema enzimático complexo, produzido comercialmente a partir de fungos filamentosos através de cultivo em estádio sólido e submerso. Tem uma grande aplicação na indústria têxtil e de alimentos e bebidas no processo de sacarificação. Nesse estudo, examinou-se a atividade celulolítica, especialmente de englucanase, de 26 cepas de Streptomyces isoladas de solo, incluindo duas cepas selecionadas por sua atividade celulolítica no ágar Bennett. Para estimular a produção de englucanase em meio de cultura, diferentes condições de cultivo, incluindo fonte de carbono e nitrogênio e condições de crescimento, foram avaliadas. A atividade máxima de glucanase (11,25 a 11,90 U/mL foi obtida em 72-88h em meio de cultura contendo Tween-80, seguido por fontes de fosfato. Ambas as cepas celulolíticas de Streptomyces produziram quase a mesma quantidade de enzima em todos os experimentos. Entretanto, o efeito dos ingredientes do meio na indução da glucanase

  7. Bioreactors for high cell density and continuous multi-stage cultivations: options for process intensification in cell culture-based viral vaccine production.

    Tapia, Felipe; Vázquez-Ramírez, Daniel; Genzel, Yvonne; Reichl, Udo

    2016-03-01

    With an increasing demand for efficacious, safe, and affordable vaccines for human and animal use, process intensification in cell culture-based viral vaccine production demands advanced process strategies to overcome the limitations of conventional batch cultivations. However, the use of fed-batch, perfusion, or continuous modes to drive processes at high cell density (HCD) and overextended operating times has so far been little explored in large-scale viral vaccine manufacturing. Also, possible reductions in cell-specific virus yields for HCD cultivations have been reported frequently. Taking into account that vaccine production is one of the most heavily regulated industries in the pharmaceutical sector with tough margins to meet, it is understandable that process intensification is being considered by both academia and industry as a next step toward more efficient viral vaccine production processes only recently. Compared to conventional batch processes, fed-batch and perfusion strategies could result in ten to a hundred times higher product yields. Both cultivation strategies can be implemented to achieve cell concentrations exceeding 10(7) cells/mL or even 10(8) cells/mL, while keeping low levels of metabolites that potentially inhibit cell growth and virus replication. The trend towards HCD processes is supported by development of GMP-compliant cultivation platforms, i.e., acoustic settlers, hollow fiber bioreactors, and hollow fiber-based perfusion systems including tangential flow filtration (TFF) or alternating tangential flow (ATF) technologies. In this review, these process modes are discussed in detail and compared with conventional batch processes based on productivity indicators such as space-time yield, cell concentration, and product titers. In addition, options for the production of viral vaccines in continuous multi-stage bioreactors such as two- and three-stage systems are addressed. While such systems have shown similar virus titers compared to

  8. Transcriptomic Analysis of Gibberellin- and Paclobutrazol-Treated Rice Seedlings under Submergence

    Jing Xiang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Submergence stress is a limiting factor for rice growing in rainfed lowland areas of the world. It is known that the phytohormone gibberellin (GA has negative effects on submergence tolerance in rice, while its inhibitor paclobutrazol (PB does the opposite. However, the physiological and molecular basis underlying the GA- and PB-regulated submergence response remains largely unknown. In this study, we reveal that PB could significantly enhance rice seedling survival by retaining a higher level of chlorophyll content and alcohol dehydrogenase activity, and decelerating the consumption of non-structure carbohydrate when compared with the control and GA-treated samples. Further transcriptomic analysis identified 3936 differentially expressed genes (DEGs among the GA- and PB-treated samples and control, which are extensively involved in the submergence and other abiotic stress responses, phytohormone biosynthesis and signaling, photosynthesis, and nutrient metabolism. The results suggested that PB enhances rice survival under submergence through maintaining the photosynthesis capacity and reducing nutrient metabolism. Taken together, the current study provided new insight into the mechanism of phytohormone-regulated submergence response in rice.

  9. [Influence of submerged macrophytes on phosphorus transference between sediment and overlying water in the growth period].

    Wang, Li-Zhi; Wang, Guo-Xiang; Yu, Zhen-Fei; Zhou, Bei-Bei; Chen, Qiu-Min; Li, Zhen-Guo

    2012-02-01

    In order to study the process of phosphorus transfer between sediment and overlying water, Hydrilla verticillata and Vallisneria natans were cultured in spring, Potamogeton crispus was cultured in winter. Changes of environmental factors and phosphorus concentrations in water and sediment were investigated. The results indicated that: submerged macrophytes could reduce all phosphorus fractions in the overlying water. Phosphorus concentrations in overlying water maintained in a relative low level in the growth period of submerged macrophytes. The concentrations of total phosphorus (TP) in overlying water of H. verticillata, V. natans and P. crispus were 0.03-0.05, 0.04-0.12, 0.02-0.11 mg x L(-1), respectively. All phosphorus fractions in sediment were reduced. The maximum value between submerged macrophyte and control of H. verticillata, V. natans and P. crispus were 35.34, 60.67 and 25.92 mg x kg(-1), respectively. Dissolved oxygen (DO), redox potential (Eh) and pH in overlying water increased (DO 10.0-14.0 mg x L(-1), Eh 185-240 mV, pH 8.0-11.0) in the submerged macrophytes groups. Submerged macrophytes increased Eh( -140 - -23 mV) and maintained pH(7.2-8.0) in neutral range. The results indicated that submerged macrophytes affected phosphorus transferring between sediment and overlying water through increasing DO, Eh and pH in overlying water, and Eh in sediment.

  10. Underwater Photosynthesis of Submerged Plants – Recent Advances and Methods

    Pedersen, Ole; Colmer, Timothy D.; Sand-Jensen, Kaj

    2013-01-01

    We describe the general background and the recent advances in research on underwater photosynthesis of leaf segments, whole communities, and plant dominated aquatic ecosystems and present contemporary methods tailor made to quantify photosynthesis and carbon fixation under water. The majority of studies of aquatic photosynthesis have been carried out with detached leaves or thalli and this selectiveness influences the perception of the regulation of aquatic photosynthesis. We thus recommend assessing the influence of inorganic carbon and temperature on natural aquatic communities of variable density in addition to studying detached leaves in the scenarios of rising CO2 and temperature. Moreover, a growing number of researchers are interested in tolerance of terrestrial plants during flooding as torrential rains sometimes result in overland floods that inundate terrestrial plants. We propose to undertake studies to elucidate the importance of leaf acclimation of terrestrial plants to facilitate gas exchange and light utilization under water as these acclimations influence underwater photosynthesis as well as internal aeration of plant tissues during submergence. PMID:23734154

  11. Mineralization of surfactants by the microbiota of submerged plant detritus.

    Federle, T W; Ventullo, R M

    1990-02-01

    In wetlands and canopied bodies of water, plant detritus is an important source of carbon and energy. Detrital materials possess a large surface area for sorption of dissolved organics and are colonized by a large and diverse microbiota. To examine the biodegradation of surfactants by these microorganisms, submerged oak leaves were obtained from a laundromat wastewater pond, its overflow, and a pristine control pond. Leaves were cut into disks and incubated in sterile water amended with 50 mug of C-labeled linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS), linear alcohol ethoxylate, stearyltrimethyl ammonium chloride, distearyldimethyl ammonium chloride, benzoic acid, or mixed amino acids per liter. Sorption of the test compounds to the detritus and evolution of CO(2) were followed with time. All of the compounds sorbed to the detritus to various degrees, with LAS and stearyltrimethyl ammonium chloride the most sorptive and benzoic acid the least. All compounds were mineralized without a lag. With leaves from the laundromat wastewater pond, half-lives were 12.6 days for LAS, 8.4 days for linear alcohol ethoxylate, 14.2 days for stearyltrimethyl ammonium chloride, 1.0 days for benzoic acid, and 2.7 days for mixed amino acids. Mineralization of LAS and linear alcohol ethoxylate by control pond leaves was slower and exhibited an S-shaped rather than a typical first-order pattern. This study shows that detritus represents a significant site of surfactant removal in detritus-rich systems.

  12. Mineralization of surfactants by the microbiota of submerged plant detritus

    Federle, T.W.; Ventullo, R.M.

    1990-01-01

    In wetlands and canopied bodies of water, plant detritus is an important source of carbon and energy. Detrital materials possess a large surface area for sorption of dissolved organics and are colonized by a large and diverse microbiota. To examine the biodegradation of surfactants by these microorganisms, submerged oak leaves were obtained from a laundromat wastewater pond, its overflow, and a pristine control pond. Leaves were cut into disks and incubated in sterile water amended with 50 μg of 14 C-labeled linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS), linear alcohol ethoxylate, stearyltrimethyl ammonium chloride, distearyldimethyl ammonium chloride, benzoic acid, or mixed amino acids per liter. Sorption of the test compounds to the detritus and evolution of 14 CO 2 were followed with time. All of the compounds sorbed to the detritus to various degrees, with LAS and stearyltrimethyl ammonium chloride the most sorptive and benzoic acid the least. All compounds were mineralized without a lag. With leaves from the laundromat wastewater pond, half-lives were 12.6 days for LAS, 8.4 days for linear alcohol ethoxylate, 14.2 days for stearyltrimethyl ammonium chloride, 1.0 days for benzoic acid, and 2.7 days for mixed amino acids. Mineralization of LAS and linear alcohol ethoxylate by control pond leaves was slower and exhibited an S-shaped rather than a typical first-order pattern. This study shows that detritus represents a significant site of surfactant removal in detritus-rich systems

  13. The modelling of irradiation embrittlement in submerged-arc welds

    Bolton, C.J.; Buswell, J.T.; Jones, R.B.; Moskovic, R.; Priest, R.H.

    1996-01-01

    Until very recently, the irradiation embrittlement behavior of submerged-arc welds has been interpreted in terms of two mechanisms, namely a matrix damage component and an additional component due to the irradiation-enhanced production of copper-rich precipitates. However, some of the weld specimens from a recent accelerated re-irradiation experiment have shown high Charpy shifts which exceeded the values expected from the measured shift in yield stress. Microstructural examination has revealed the occurrence of intergranular fracture (IGF) in these specimens, accompanied by grain boundary segregation of phosphorus. Theoretical models were developed to predict the parametric dependence of irradiation-enhanced phosphorus segregation on experimental variables. Using these parametric forms, along with the concept of a critical level of segregation for the onset of IGF instead of cleavage, a three mechanism trend curve has been developed. The form of this trend curve, taking into account IGF as well as matrix and copper embrittlement, is thus mechanistically based. The constants in the equation, however, are obtained by a statistical fit to the actual Charpy shift database

  14. Production of tannase by Aspergillus tamarii in submerged cultures

    Andréa M. Costa

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The production of tannase by Aspergillus tamarii was studied in submerged cultures. The fungus produced an extracellular tannase after two days of growth in mineral medium containing tannic acid, gallic acid and methyl gallate as carbon source. The best result was obtained using gallic acid as inducer (20.6 U/ml. The production of enzyme was strongly repressed by the presence of glucose. Crude enzyme was optimally active at pH 5.0 and 30º C. The enzyme was stable in a large range of pH and up to the temperature of 45º C.A produção de tanase por um novo potencial produtor, o fungo filamentoso Aspergillus tamarii, foi parcialmente caracterizada neste estudo. O fungo produziu uma tanase extracelular em culturas submersas após 2 dias de crescimento em meio mineral contendo ácido tânico, ácido gálico ou metil galato como fonts de carbono. Os melhores resultados foram obtidos em culturas com ácido gálico (20,6 U/ml. A produção da enzima foi fortemente inibida por glicose. A enzima bruta foi otimamente ativa em pH 5,0 e a 30º C e estável em ampla faixa de pH e em temperaturas inferiores a 45ºC.

  15. Stainless steel submerged arc weld fusion line toughness

    Rosenfield, A.R.; Held, P.R.; Wilkowski, G.M.

    1995-04-01

    This effort evaluated the fracture toughness of austenitic steel submerged-arc weld (SAW) fusion lines. The incentive was to explain why cracks grow into the fusion line in many pipe tests conducted with cracks initially centered in SAWS. The concern was that the fusion line may have a lower toughness than the SAW. It was found that the fusion line, Ji. was greater than the SAW toughness but much less than the base metal. Of greater importance may be that the crack growth resistance (JD-R) of the fusion line appeared to reach a steady-state value, while the SAW had a continually increasing JD-R curve. This explains why the cracks eventually turn to the fusion line in the pipe experiments. A method of incorporating these results would be to use the weld metal J-R curve up to the fusion-line steady-state J value. These results may be more important to LBB analyses than the ASME flaw evaluation procedures, since there is more crack growth with through-wall cracks in LBB analyses than for surface cracks in pipe flaw evaluations

  16. Modeling Refuge Effect of Submerged Macrophytes in Lake System.

    Lv, Dongyu; Fan, Meng; Kang, Yun; Blanco, Krystal

    2016-04-01

    This paper considers a significant problem in biological control of algae issue in ecological environment. A four-dimensional dynamic model is carefully formulated to characterize the interactions among phytoplankton, submerged macrophyte, zooplankton, and general fish class in a lake ecosystem. The predation relationship is modeled by Beddington-DeAngelis functional responses derived from the classical Holling time budget arguments. Qualitative analyses of the global dynamics show that the system can generate very rich dynamics with potentially 10 different equilibria and several bistable scenarios. We perform analysis on the existence and local stability of equilibria and explore the refuge effect of macrophyte on the zooplankton with numerical simulations on aquatic ecosystems. We also discuss effective methods of biological control used to restrain the increase of phytoplankton. Our study shows the proposed model could have rich and complex dynamics including but not limited to bistable and chaotic phenomenon. Numerical simulation results demonstrate that both the refuge constant and the density of the macrophytes are two key factors where refuge effects take place. In addition, the intraspecific competition between the macrophyte and the phytoplankton can also affect the macrophyte's refuge effect. Our analytical and simulation results suggest that macrophytes provide structure and shelter against predation for zooplankton such that it could restore the zooplankton population, and that planting macrophyte properly might achieve the purpose of controlling algae growth.

  17. Wave forces on cylinder submerged horizontally in shallow water

    Mitani, H; Sasaki, K; Kobayashi, T; Nomura, N; Kawabe, H; Sugimoto, H

    1976-12-01

    To estimate the wave forces on offshore and/or coastal structures, the ideal method is undoubtedly to obtain the more accurate solution of hydrodynamic equations under suitable boundary conditions. However, in practice, it is difficult to introduce precise solutions under present technical levels because some important problems still remain. Among them is the unsteady boundary layers with separation around the objects. Consequently, every effort is being made in this field to approximate these conditions. Among these approximations, the Diffraction Wave Theory and the Morrison's Method are the most famous means in practice, although both still have some problems. Some problems with the traditional Finite Amplitude Wave Theories such as Stokes and Cnoidal Wave Theories are examined, and by applying additional computed results to the Morrison's formula, the estimated formula for wave forces on a cylinder submerged horizontally in shallow water is introduced. Subsequently, the applicability of the formula and also the specific characteristics of wave forces on a horizontally settled cylinder are investigated in detail, attaching first importance to the distinctions from the vertically settled cylinder, based on the comparison of computed results with experimental results. The experiments were carried out on two different diameters of cylinder, 70 mm and 140 mm, and bottom slopes of the experimental tanks, /sup 1///sub 100/ and /sup 1///sub 30/, under various conditions varying water depth, wave period, wave height and also setting position of cylinder.

  18. Spatiotemporal dynamics of submerged macrophytes in a Mediterranean coastal lagoon

    Obrador, Biel; Pretus, Joan Lluís

    2010-03-01

    The seasonal and interannual dynamics of the biomass and spatial distribution of a macrophyte meadow were explored in a Mediterranean coastal lagoon (Albufera des Grau, Balearic Islands) from 2002 to 2007. The dynamics in the main physicochemical variables were also analysed to assess the factors involved in the spatiotemporal variability of the submerged macrophytes. The meadows were dominated by Ruppia cirrhosa, which showed a marked seasonal cycle with winter quiescence and complete annual regrowth. The annual production of R. cirrhosa had high interannual variability and was amongst the highest described for this species in the literature, ranging 327-919 gDW m -2. The spatial distribution of macrophytes was determined by light availability and wave exposure, with the highest abundances found in shallow and gently sloped areas sheltered from the strong northerly winds. The interannual variations in macrophyte descriptors (area of occurrence, average depth of the meadows, and maximum biomass) were mainly related to water turbidity and salinity, but the effect of these variables was constrained to the spring and summer months, respectively. A significant negative correlation between the extent of coverage of R. cirrhosa and the water level at the end of the previous annual cycle was observed, suggesting a positive effect of desiccation on the extent of coverage of the macrophytes. After six years of apparent stability, the macrophytes abruptly disappeared from the lagoon. Although the mechanisms are not clear, this shift was likely attributable to a combination of several factors.

  19. Kinetics of growth and lipids accumulation in Chlorella vulgaris during batch heterotrophic cultivation: Effect of different nutrient limitation strategies.

    Sakarika, Myrsini; Kornaros, Michael

    2017-11-01

    The present study aimed at: (1) determining the effect of sulfur addition on biomass growth and (2) assessing the effect of sulfur, phosphorus and nitrogen limitation on lipid accumulation by C. vulgaris SAG 211-11b. The sulfur cellular content was more than two-fold higher under nitrogen and phosphorus limitation (0.52% and 0.54%ww -1 , respectively) compared to sulfur requirements (0.20%ww -1 ) under sulfur limiting conditions. The nitrogen needs are significantly lower (2.81-3.35%ww -1 ) when compared to other microalgae and become 23% lower under nitrogen or phosphorus limitation. The microalga exhibited substrate inhibition above 30gL -1 initial glucose concentration. Sulfur limitation had the most significant effect on lipid accumulation, resulting in maximum total lipid content of 53.43±3.93%gg DW -1 . In addition to enhancing lipid productivity, adopting the optimal nutrient limitation strategy can result in cost savings by avoiding unnecessary nutrient additions and eliminate the environmental burden due to wasted resources. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Kinetics of Batch Fermentation in the Cultivation of a Probiotic Strain Lactobacillus Delbrueckii Ssp. Bulgaricus B1

    Goranov Bogdan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study of kinetic models to describe the dynamics of the fermentation process of culturing of a probiotic strain Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus B1 was performed. The models of Monod, Aiba, Tiessier, Hinshelwood and the equation of the logistic curve combined with the model of Ludeking-Piret were used. It has been found that the different models described the observed fermentation dynamics differently. The conducted comparative study demonstrated that the models of Monod and the equation of the logistic curve combined with the model of Ludeking-Piret were suitable for the description of the fermentation dynamics. The mathematical models showed no significant product and/or substrate inhibition. The culture developed with a low specific growth rate, but nevertheless it accumulated 1012-1013 viable cells. The substrate was absorbed primarily from cells in the stationary growth phase rather than cells in the exponential growth phase

  1. Batch-to-batch uniformity of bacterial community succession and flavor formation in the fermentation of Zhenjiang aromatic vinegar.

    Wang, Zong-Min; Lu, Zhen-Ming; Yu, Yong-Jian; Li, Guo-Quan; Shi, Jin-Song; Xu, Zheng-Hong

    2015-09-01

    Solid-state fermentation of traditional Chinese vinegar is a mixed-culture refreshment process that proceeds for many centuries without spoilage. Here, we investigated bacterial community succession and flavor formation in three batches of Zhenjiang aromatic vinegar using pyrosequencing and metabolomics approaches. Temporal patterns of bacterial succession in the Pei (solid-state vinegar culture) showed no significant difference (P > 0.05) among three batches of fermentation. In all the batches investigated, the average number of community operational taxonomic units (OTUs) decreased dramatically from 119 ± 11 on day 1 to 48 ± 16 on day 3, and then maintained in the range of 61 ± 9 from day 5 to the end of fermentation. We confirmed that, within a batch of fermentation process, the patterns of bacterial diversity between the starter (took from the last batch of vinegar culture on day 7) and the Pei on day 7 were similar (90%). The relative abundance dynamics of two dominant members, Lactobacillus and Acetobacter, showed high correlation (coefficient as 0.90 and 0.98 respectively) among different batches. Furthermore, statistical analysis revealed dynamics of 16 main flavor metabolites were stable among different batches. The findings validate the batch-to-batch uniformity of bacterial community succession and flavor formation accounts for the quality of Zhenjiang aromatic vinegar. Based on our understanding, this is the first study helps to explain the rationality of age-old artistry from a scientific perspective. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Algae Bioreactor Using Submerged Enclosures with Semi-Permeable Membranes

    Trent, Jonathan D (Inventor); Gormly, Sherwin J (Inventor); Embaye, Tsegereda N (Inventor); Delzeit, Lance D (Inventor); Flynn, Michael T (Inventor); Liggett, Travis A (Inventor); Buckwalter, Patrick W (Inventor); Baertsch, Robert (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Methods for producing hydrocarbons, including oil, by processing algae and/or other micro-organisms in an aquatic environment. Flexible bags (e.g., plastic) with CO.sub.2/O.sub.2 exchange membranes, suspended at a controllable depth in a first liquid (e.g., seawater), receive a second liquid (e.g., liquid effluent from a "dead zone") containing seeds for algae growth. The algae are cultivated and harvested in the bags, after most of the second liquid is removed by forward osmosis through liquid exchange membranes. The algae are removed and processed, and the bags are cleaned and reused.

  3. Batched Triangular DLA for Very Small Matrices on GPUs

    Charara, Ali; Keyes, David E.; Ltaief, Hatem

    2017-01-01

    linear algebra operations on very small matrix sizes (usually less than 100). Batched dense linear algebra kernels are becoming ubiquitous for such scientific computations. Within a single API call, these kernels are capable of simultaneously launching a

  4. Groundwater arsenic remediation using zerovalent iron: Batch and column tests

    Recently, increasing efforts have been made to explore the applicability and limitations of zerovalent iron (Fe0) for the treatment of arsenicbearing groundwater and wastewater. The experimental batch and column tests have demonstrated that arsenate and arsenite are removed effec...

  5. Batch Adsorption Study of Methylene Blue in Aqueous Solution ...

    PROF HORSFALL

    of methylene blue (azo dye) from the synthetic industrial wastewater was investigated in a batch system. Rice husk and coconut shell were ... the textiles, rubber, paper, plastics, cosmetic, and .... wastewater by. Fenton's oxidation: Kinetic study.

  6. Automated batch emulsion copolymerization of styrene and butyl acrylate

    Mballa Mballa, M.A.; Schubert, U.S.; Heuts, J.P.A.; Herk, van A.M.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a method for carrying out emulsion copolymerization using an automated synthesizer. For this purpose, batch emulsion copolymerizations of styrene and butyl acrylate were investigated. The optimization of the polymerization system required tuning the liquid transfer method,

  7. development of an automated batch-process solar water disinfection

    user

    This work presents the development of an automated batch-process water disinfection system ... Locally sourced materials in addition to an Arduinomicro processor were used to control ..... As already mentioned in section 3.1.1, a statistical.

  8. Numerical modeling of batch formation in waste incineration plants

    Obroučka Karel

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is a mathematical description of algorithm for controlled assembly of incinerated batch of waste. The basis for formation of batch is selected parameters of incinerated waste as its calorific value or content of pollutants or the combination of both. The numerical model will allow, based on selected criteria, to compile batch of wastes which continuously follows the previous batch, which is a prerequisite for optimized operation of incinerator. The model was prepared as for waste storage in containers, as well as for waste storage in continuously refilled boxes. The mathematical model was developed into the computer program and its functionality was verified either by practical measurements or by numerical simulations. The proposed model can be used in incinerators for hazardous and municipal waste.

  9. 40 CFR 63.462 - Batch cold cleaning machine standards.

    2010-07-01

    .... (a) Each owner or operator of an immersion batch cold solvent cleaning machine shall comply with the... cleaning machine complying with paragraph (a)(2) or (b) of this section shall comply with the work and...

  10. Dynamic Extensions of Batch Systems with Cloud Resources

    Hauth, T; Quast, G; Büge, V; Scheurer, A; Kunze, M; Baun, C

    2011-01-01

    Compute clusters use Portable Batch Systems (PBS) to distribute workload among individual cluster machines. To extend standard batch systems to Cloud infrastructures, a new service monitors the number of queued jobs and keeps track of the price of available resources. This meta-scheduler dynamically adapts the number of Cloud worker nodes according to the requirement profile. Two different worker node topologies are presented and tested on the Amazon EC2 Cloud service.

  11. Effect of glass-batch makeup on the melting process

    Hrma, Pavel R.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Humrickhouse, Carissa J.; Moody, J. Adam; Tate, Rachel M.; Rainsdon, Timothy T.; Tegrotenhuis, Nathan E.; Arrigoni, Benjamin M.; Marcial, Jose; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Tincher, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    The response of a glass batch to heating is determined by the batch makeup and in turn determines the rate of melting. Batches formulated for a high-alumina nuclear waste to be vitrified in an all-electric melter were heated at a constant temperature-increase rate to determine changes in melting behavior in response to the selection of batch chemicals and silica grain-size as well as the addition of heat-generating reactants. The type of batch materials and the size of silica grains determine how much, if any, primary foam occurs during melting. Small quartz grains, 5 (micro)m in size, caused extensive foaming because their major portion dissolved at temperatures 800 C when batch gases no longer evolved. The exothermal reaction of nitrates with sucrose was ignited at a temperature as low as 160 C and caused a temporary jump in temperature of several hundred degrees. Secondary foam, the source of which is oxygen from redox reactions, occurred in all batches of a limited composition variation involving five oxides, B 2 O 3 , CaO, Li 2 O, MgO, and Na 2 O. The foam volume at the maximum volume-increase rate was a weak function of temperature and melt basicity. Neither the batch makeup nor the change in glass composition had a significant impact on the dissolution of silica grains. The impacts of primary foam generation on glass homogeneity and the rate of melting in large-scale continuous furnaces have yet to be established via mathematical modeling and melter experiments.

  12. Effect Of Glass-Batch Makeup On The Melting Process

    Kruger, A.A.; Hrma, P.

    2010-01-01

    The response of a glass batch to heating is determined by the batch makeup and in turn determines the rate of melting. Batches formulated for a high-alumina nuclear waste to be vitrified in an all-electric melter were heated at a constant temperature-increase rate to determine changes in melting behavior in response to the selection of batch chemicals and silica grain-size as well as the addition of heat-generating reactants. The type of batch materials and the size of silica grains determine how much, if any, primary foam occurs during melting. Small quartz grains, 5 (micro)m in size, caused extensive foaming because their major portion dissolved at temperatures 800 C when batch gases no longer evolved. The exothermal reaction of nitrates with sucrose was ignited at a temperature as low as 160 C and caused a temporary jump in temperature of several hundred degrees. Secondary foam, the source of which is oxygen from redox reactions, occurred in all batches of a limited composition variation involving five oxides, B 2 O 3 , CaO, Li 2 O, MgO, and Na 2 O. The foam volume at the maximum volume-increase rate was a weak function of temperature and melt basicity. Neither the batch makeup nor the change in glass composition had a significant impact on the dissolution of silica grains. The impacts of primary foam generation on glass homogeneity and the rate of melting in large-scale continuous furnaces have yet to be established via mathematical modeling and melter experiments.

  13. Application of the fuzzy theory to simulation of batch fermentation

    Filev, D P; Kishimoto, M; Sengupta, S; Yoshida, T; Taguchi, H

    1985-12-01

    A new approach for system identification with a linguistic model of batch fermentation processes is proposed. The fuzzy theory was applied in order to reduce the uncertainty of quantitative description of the processes by use of qualitative characteristics. An example of fuzzy modeling was illustrated in the simulation of batch ethanol production from molasses after interpretation of the new method, and extension of the fuzzy model was also discussed for several cases of different measurable variables.

  14. Polynomial Batch Codes for Efficient IT-PIR

    Henry Ryan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Private information retrieval (PIR is a way for clients to query a remote database without the database holder learning the clients’ query terms or the responses they generate. Compelling applications for PIR are abound in the cryptographic and privacy research literature, yet existing PIR techniques are notoriously inefficient. Consequently, no such PIRbased application to date has seen real-world at-scale deployment. This paper proposes new “batch coding” techniques to help address PIR’s efficiency problem. The new techniques exploit the connection between ramp secret sharing schemes and efficient information-theoretically secure PIR (IT-PIR protocols. This connection was previously observed by Henry, Huang, and Goldberg (NDSS 2013, who used ramp schemes to construct efficient “batch queries” with which clients can fetch several database records for the same cost as fetching a single record using a standard, non-batch query. The new techniques in this paper generalize and extend those of Henry et al. to construct “batch codes” with which clients can fetch several records for only a fraction the cost of fetching a single record using a standard non-batch query over an unencoded database. The batch codes are highly tuneable, providing a means to trade off (i lower server-side computation cost, (ii lower server-side storage cost, and/or (iii lower uni- or bi-directional communication cost, in exchange for a comparatively modest decrease in resilience to Byzantine database servers.

  15. Method and electrochemical cell for synthesis and treatment of metal monolayer electrocatalysts metal, carbon, and oxide nanoparticles ion batch, or in continuous fashion

    Adzic, Radoslav; Zhang, Junliang; Sasaki, Kotaro

    2015-04-28

    An apparatus and method for synthesis and treatment of electrocatalyst particles in batch or continuous fashion is provided. In one embodiment, the apparatus comprises a sonication bath and a two-compartment chamber submerged in the sonication bath. The upper and lower compartments are separated by a microporous material surface. The upper compartment comprises a cover and a working electrode (WE) connected to a Pt foil contact, with the foil contact connected to the microporous material. The upper chamber further comprises reference counter electrodes. The lower compartment comprises an electrochemical cell containing a solution of metal ions. In one embodiment, the method for synthesis of electrocatalysts comprises introducing a plurality of particles into the apparatus and applying sonication and an electrical potential to the microporous material connected to the WE. After the non-noble metal ions are deposited onto the particles, the non-noble metal ions are displaced by noble-metal ions by galvanic displacement.

  16. Inhibiting effect of bioactive metabolites produced by mushroom cultivation on bacterial quorum sensing-regulated behaviors.

    Zhu, Hu; Wang, Shou-Xian; Zhang, Shuai-Shuai; Cao, Chun-Xu

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to search for novel quorum sensing (QS) inhibitors from mushroom and to analyze their inhibitory activity, with a view to their possible use in controlling detrimental infections. The bioactive metabolites produced by mushroom cultivation were tested for their abilities to inhibit QS-regulated behavior. All mushroom strains were cultivated in potato-dextrose medium by large-scale submerged fermentation. The culture supernatant was condensed into 0.2 vol by freeze-drying. The condensed supernatant was sterilized by filtration through a 0.22-μm membrane filter and added to Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 cultures, which were used to monitor QS inhibition. Inhibitory activity was measured by quantifying violacein production using a microplate reader. The results have revealed that, of 102 mushroom strains, the bioactive metabolites produced by 14 basidiomycetes were found to inhibit violacein production, a QS-regulated behavior in C. violaceum. Higher fungi can produce QS-inhibitory compounds. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Improving Former Shifted Cultivation Land Using Wetland Cultivation in Kapuas District, Central Kalimantan

    Wahyudi Wahyudi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Degraded forest area in Kalimantan could be caused by shifted cultivation activity that be conducted by local peoples in the surrounding forest areas. Efforts to improve the former shifted cultivation area (non productive land is developing the settled cultivation by use of irrigation system, better paddy seed, land processing, fertilizing, spraying pesticide, weeding, and better acces to the market.  Local peoples, especially in Kalimantan, has been depended their food on the shifted cultivation pattern since the long time ago.  This tradition could cause forest damage, forest fire, forest degradation, deforestation, and lose out of children education because they were following shifted cultivation activity although itsspace is very far from their home.  This research was aimed to improve former shifted cultivation lands using wetland cultivation in order to improve land productivity and to support food securityin the local community. This research was administratively located in Tanjung Rendan Village, Kapuas Hulu Sub-Ddistrict, Kapuas District, Central Kalimantan Province, Indonesia.  Data of rice yield from settled cultivation and shifted cultivation were got from 15 households that was taking by random at 2010 to 2011. Homogeneity test, analysis of variants, and least significant different (LSD test using SPSS 15.0 for Windows. Result of this research showed that     paddy yield at settled cultivation was significantly differentand better than shifted cultivation at 0.05 level. LSD test also indicated that all paddy yields from settled cultivation were significantly different compare to shifted cultivation at the 0.05 level.  The community in Tanjung Rendan Villages preferred settled cultivation than shifted cultivation, especially due to higher paddy production. Profit for settled cultivation was IDR10.95 million ha-1, meanwhile profit for shifted cultivation was just IDR 2.81 million ha-1 only.  Settled cultivation pattern could

  18. Application of Forward Osmosis Membrane in a Sequential Batch Reactor for Water Reuse

    Li, Qingyu

    2011-07-01

    Forward osmosis (FO) is a novel membrane process that potentially can be used as an energy-saving alternative to conventional membrane processes. The objective of this study is to investigate the performance of a FO membrane to draw water from wastewater using seawater as draw solution. A study on a novel osmotic sequential batch reactor (OsSBR) was explored. In this system, a plate and frame FO cell including two flat-sheet FO membranes was submerged in a bioreactor treating the wastewater. We found it feasible to treat the wastewater by the OsSBR process. The DOC removal rate was 98.55%. Total nitrogen removal was 62.4% with nitrate, nitrite and ammonium removals of 58.4%, 96.2% and 88.4% respectively. Phosphate removal was almost 100%. In this OsSBR system, the 15-hour average flux for a virgin membrane with air scouring is 3.103 LMH. After operation of 3 months, the average flux of a fouled membrane is 2.390 LMH with air scouring (23% flux decline). Air scouring can help to remove the loose foulants on the active layer, thus helping to maintain the flux. Cleaning of the FO membrane fouled in the active layer was probably not effective under the conditions of immersing the membrane in the bioreactor. LC-OCD results show that the FO membrane has a very good performance in rejecting biopolymers, humics and building blocks, but a limited ability in rejecting low molecular weight neutrals.

  19. A parametric study ot protease production in batch and fed-batch cultures of Bacillus firmus.

    Moon, S H; Parulekar, S J

    1991-03-05

    Proteolytic enzymes produced by Bacillus species find a wide variety of applications in brewing, detergent, food, and leather industries. Owing to significant differences normally observed in culture conditions promoting cell growth and those promoting production of metabolites such as enzymes, for increased efficacy of bioreactor operations it is essential to identify these sets of conditions (including medium formulation). This study is focused on formulation of a semidefined medium that substantially enhances synthesis and secretion of an alkaline protease in batch cultures of Bacillus firmus NRS 783, a known superior producer of this enzyme. The series of experiments conducted to identify culture conditions that lead to improved protease production also enables investigation of the regulatory effects of important culture parameters including pH, dissolved oxygen, and concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorous sources and yeast extract in the medium on cell growth, synthesis and secretion of protease, and production of two major nonbiomass products, viz., acetic acid and ethanol. Cell growth and formation of the three nonbiomass products are hampered significantly under nitrogen, phosphorous, or oxygen limitation, with the cells being unable to grow in an oxygen-free environment. Improvement in protease production is achieved with respect to each culture parameter, leading in the process to 80% enhancement in protease activity over that attained using media reported in the literature. Results of a few fed-batch experiments with constant feed rate, conducted to examine possible enhancement in protease production and to further investigate repression of protease synthesis by excess of the principal carbon and nitrogen sources, are also discussed. The detailed investigation of stimulatory and repressory effects of simple and complex nutrients on protease production and metabolism of Bacillus firmus conducted in this study will provide useful guidelines for design

  20. Sludge Batch Variability Study With Frit 418

    Johnson, F.; Edwards, T.

    2010-01-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) initiated processing Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) in the summer of 2010. In support of processing, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) provided a recommendation to utilize Frit 418 to process SB6. This recommendation was based on assessments of the compositional projections for SB6 available at the time from the Liquid Waste Organization (LWO) and SRNL (using a model-based approach). To support qualification of SB6, SRNL executed a variability study to assess the applicability of the current durability models for SB6. The durability models were assessed over the expected Frit 418-SB6 composition range. Seventeen glasses were selected for the variability study based on the sludge projections used in the frit recommendation. Five of the glasses are based on the centroid of the compositional region, spanning a waste loading (WL) range of 32 to 40%. The remaining twelve glasses are extreme vertices (EVs) of the sludge region of interest for SB6 combined with Frit 418 and are all at 36% WL. These glasses were fabricated and characterized using chemical composition analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the Product Consistency Test (PCT). After initiating the SB6 variability study, the measured composition of the SB6 Tank 51 qualification glass produced at the SRNL Shielded Cells Facility indicated that thorium was present in the glass at an appreciable concentration (1.03 wt%), which made it a reportable element for SB6. This concentration of ThO 2 resulted in a second phase of experimental studies. Five glasses were formulated that were based on the centroid of the new sludge compositional region combined with Frit 418, spanning a WL range of 32 to 40%. These glasses were fabricated and characterized using chemical composition analysis and the PCT. Based on the measured PCT response, all of the glasses (with and without thorium) were acceptable with respect to the Environmental Assessment (EA) reference glass regardless of

  1. Batch-to-Batch Quality Consistency Evaluation of Botanical Drug Products Using Multivariate Statistical Analysis of the Chromatographic Fingerprint

    Xiong, Haoshu; Yu, Lawrence X.; Qu, Haibin

    2013-01-01

    Botanical drug products have batch-to-batch quality variability due to botanical raw materials and the current manufacturing process. The rational evaluation and control of product quality consistency are essential to ensure the efficacy and safety. Chromatographic fingerprinting is an important and widely used tool to characterize the chemical composition of botanical drug products. Multivariate statistical analysis has showed its efficacy and applicability in the quality evaluation of many ...

  2. Differential Response of Floating and Submerged Leaves of Longleaf Pondweed to Silver Ions

    Nisha Shabnam

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have investigated variations in the potential of floating and submerged leaves of longleaf pondweed (Potamogeton nodosus to withstand silver ion (Ag+-toxicity. Both floating and submerged leaves changed clear colorless AgNO3 solutions to colloidal brown in the presence of light. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the presence of distinct crystalline Ag-nanoparticles (Ag-NPs in these brown solutions. Powder X-ray diffraction pattern showed that Ag-NPs were composed of Ag0 and Ag2O. Photosystem (PS II efficiency of leaves declined upon exposure to Ag+ with a significantly higher decline in the submerged leaves than in the floating leaves. Similarly, Ag+ treatment caused a significant reduction in the carboxylase activity of the ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase in leaves. The reduction in this carboxylase activity was significantly higher in the submerged than in the floating leaves. Ag+ treatment also resulted in a significant decline in the levels of non-enzymatic and enzymatic antioxidants; the decline was significantly lower in the floating than in submerged leaves. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed the presence of Ag2O in these leaves. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis revealed a three-fold higher Ag content in the submerged than in floating leaves. Our study demonstrates that floating leaves of longleaf pondweed have a superior potential to counter Ag+-toxicity compared with submerged leaves, which could be due to superior potential of floating leaves to reduce Ag+ to less/non-toxic Ag0/Ag2O-nanoparticles/nanocomplexes. We suggest that modulating the genotype of longleaf pondweed to bear higher proportion of floating leaves would help in cleaning fresh water bodies contaminated with ionic forms of heavy metals.

  3. Fatigue assessment of a double submerged arc welded gas pipeline

    Fazzini, Pablo; Otegui, Jose Luis [Universidad Nacional Mar del Plata, Mar del Plata (Argentina). Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnologia de Materiales (INTEMA); Teutonico, Mauricio; Manfredi, Carlos [GIE S.A., Mar del Plata (Argentina)

    2005-07-01

    An uncommon blowout in a 24'' diameter, 7 mm thick API 5L X52 gas pipeline was due to fracture at the longitudinal double submerged arc weld. Oddly enough for gas pipelines, it was found that fatigue cracks had propagated from a large embedded weld defect of lack of fusion resulting from severe geometrical mismatch between inner and outer weld passes. What makes this failure particularly interesting is that: previous in line inspections failed to detect any defect, no evidence of third party damage was found, and very few large pressure cycles had been recorded during the last 5 years of service, which were believed to be representative of the entire service life of the pipeline. Fatigue tests were carried out to characterize propagation of fatigue cracks in weld metal, it was found that a large Paris exponent made the few large amplitude cycles most contributing to crack propagation. Crack growth path and striation patterns were studied. Fatigue growth was modelled by integrating experimental results and by extrapolating striation spacing in the fracture surface of the failed pipe. Crack growth path and striation patterns were studied. It was found that microstructure discontinuities govern propagation at low {delta}K, but one striation per cycle was produced at large {delta}K, due to a mostly ductile propagation mode. Fatigue growth was modelled by integrating experimental results and by extrapolating striation spacing in the fracture surface of the failed pipe. It was found that in the early life of the line many more large pressure cycles than expected had occurred. Good correspondence between predicted and actual fatigue lives was in this way obtained (author)

  4. Challenges for mass production of nematodes in submerged culture.

    de la Torre, Mayra

    2003-08-01

    Nematodes of Steinernema and Heterorhabditis genera are used as agents in insect biocontrol programs. They are associated with specific bacteria which are also involved in the mechanism of pathogenicity and which are consumed by nematodes as living food. S. feltiae has various developmental stages in its life cycle, including four juvenile stages, adults and the free living form. During mating, males coil themselves around the female, which is around 1 cm long. Successful commercialization of nematode-bacteria biocontrol products depends on the ability to produce sufficient quantities of these products at competitive prices for a full pest control program. This could be feasible if high cell density submerged cultures are designed and implemented; however, major problems related to nematodes mass production in a bioreactor remain unsolved due to the lack of knowledge about the physiological aspects of the nematode, bacteria and nematode-bacteria association, interaction between the three phases present in the bioreactor (liquid, gas, nematodes-bacteria), possibility of mating under hydrodynamic stress conditions, etc. We have found that the two most important engineering aspects to take into account the mass propagation of nematodes are oxygen transfer rate and hydrodynamics to allow mating and to avoid mechanical damage of juveniles in stage 2. This article focuses on several aspects related to the fermentation system such as kinetics of growth, shear stress, hydrodynamics fields in the bioreactor and oxygen demand. Also, results published by other groups, together with those of our own, will be discussed in relation to the main challenges found during the fermentation process.

  5. Fatigue assessment of a double submerged arc welded gas pipeline

    Fazzini, Pablo; Otegui, Jose Luis [Universidad Nacional Mar del Plata, Mar del Plata (Argentina). Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnologia de Materiales (INTEMA); Teutonico, Mauricio; Manfredi, Carlos [GIE S.A., Mar del Plata (Argentina)

    2005-07-01

    An uncommon blowout in a 24'' diameter, 7 mm thick API 5L X52 gas pipeline was due to fracture at the longitudinal double submerged arc weld. Oddly enough for gas pipelines, it was found that fatigue cracks had propagated from a large embedded weld defect of lack of fusion resulting from severe geometrical mismatch between inner and outer weld passes. What makes this failure particularly interesting is that: previous in line inspections failed to detect any defect, no evidence of third party damage was found, and very few large pressure cycles had been recorded during the last 5 years of service, which were believed to be representative of the entire service life of the pipeline. Fatigue tests were carried out to characterize propagation of fatigue cracks in weld metal, it was found that a large Paris exponent made the few large amplitude cycles most contributing to crack propagation. Crack growth path and striation patterns were studied. Fatigue growth was modelled by integrating experimental results and by extrapolating striation spacing in the fracture surface of the failed pipe. Crack growth path and striation patterns were studied. It was found that microstructure discontinuities govern propagation at low {delta}K, but one striation per cycle was produced at large {delta}K, due to a mostly ductile propagation mode. Fatigue growth was modelled by integrating experimental results and by extrapolating striation spacing in the fracture surface of the failed pipe. It was found that in the early life of the line many more large pressure cycles than expected had occurred. Good correspondence between predicted and actual fatigue lives was in this way obtained (author)

  6. Nonlinear interaction and wave breaking with a submerged porous structure

    Hsieh, Chih-Min; Sau, Amalendu; Hwang, Robert R.; Yang, W. C.

    2016-12-01

    Numerical simulations are performed to investigate interactive velocity, streamline, turbulent kinetic energy, and vorticity perturbations in the near-field of a submerged offshore porous triangular structure, as Stokes waves of different heights pass through. The wave-structure interaction and free-surface breaking for the investigated flow situations are established based on solutions of 2D Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations in a Cartesian grid in combination with K-ɛ turbulent closure and the volume of fluid methodology. The accuracy and stability of the adopted model are ascertained by extensive comparisons of computed data with the existing experimental and theoretical findings and through efficient predictions of the internal physical kinetics. Simulations unfold "clockwise" and "anticlockwise" rotation of fluid below the trough and the crest of the viscous waves, and the penetrated wave energy creates systematic flow perturbation in the porous body. The interfacial growths of the turbulent kinetic energy and the vorticity appear phenomenal, around the apex of the immersed structure, and enhanced significantly following wave breaking. Different values of porosity parameter and two non-porous cases have been examined in combination with varied incident wave height to reveal/analyze the nonlinear flow behavior in regard to local spectral amplification and phase-plane signatures. The evolution of leading harmonics of the undulating free-surface and the vertical velocity exhibits dominating roles of the first and the second modes in inducing the nonlinearity in the post-breaking near-field that penetrates well below the surface layer. The study further suggests the existence of a critical porosity that can substantially enhance the wave-shoaling and interface breaking.

  7. Shifting Cultivation : Promoting Innovative Policy and Development ...

    ... if improved and rationalized as an agroforestry system, has high potential for poverty ... with the livelihood issues of the cultivators and the health of the ecosystem, and assess the ... International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development.

  8. Soilless cultivation system for functional food crops

    Ahamad Sahali Mardi; Shyful Azizi Abdul Rahman; Ahmad Nazrul Abd Wahid; Abdul Razak Ruslan; Hazlina Abdullah

    2007-01-01

    This soilless cultivation system is based on the fertigation system and cultivation technologies using Functional Plant Cultivation System (FPCS). EBARA Japan has been studying on the cultivation conditions in order to enhance the function of decease risk reduction in plants. Through the research and development activities, EBARA found the possibilities on the enhancement of functions. Quality and quantity of the products in term of bioactive compounds present in the plants may be affected by unforeseen environmental conditions, such as temperature, strong light and UV radiation. The main objective to develop this system is, to support? Functional Food Industry? as newly emerging field in agriculture business. To success the system, needs comprehensive applying agriculture biotechnologies, health biotechnologies and also information technologies, in agriculture. By this system, production of valuable bioactive compounds is an advantage, because the market size of functional food is increasing more and more in the future. (Author)

  9. Cultivation of parasitic leptospires: effect of pyruvate.

    Johnson, R C; Walby, J; Henry, R A; Auran, N E

    1973-07-01

    Sodium pyruvate (100 mug/ml) is a useful addition to the Tween 80-albumin medium for the cultivation of parasitic serotypes. It is most effective in promoting growth from small inocula and growth of the nutritionally fastidious serotypes.

  10. Advancing gut microbiome research using cultivation

    Sommer, Morten OA

    2015-01-01

    Culture-independent approaches have driven the field of microbiome research and illuminated intricate relationships between the gut microbiota and human health. However, definitively associating phenotypes to specific strains or elucidating physiological interactions is challenging for metagenomic...... approaches. Recently a number of new approaches to gut microbiota cultivation have emerged through the integration of high-throughput phylogenetic mapping and new simplified cultivation methods. These methodologies are described along with their potential use within microbiome research. Deployment of novel...... cultivation approaches should enable improved studies of xenobiotic tolerance and modification phenotypes and allow a drastic expansion of the gut microbiota reference genome catalogues. Furthermore, the new cultivation methods should facilitate systematic studies of the causal relationship between...

  11. How to Cultivate the Student's Cultural Awareness

    tian xiu ying

    2008-01-01

    Language and culture are inseparable and cultural awareness must be integrated with language teaching. How to cultivate the learners' cultural awareness is an important issue that we have to carry out in teaching practice in China.

  12. Agmatine Production by Aspergillus oryzae is Elevated by Low pH During Solid-State Cultivation.

    Akasaka, Naoki; Kato, Saori; Kato, Saya; Hidese, Ryota; Wagu, Yutaka; Sakoda, Hisao; Fujiwara, Shinsuke

    2018-05-25

    Sake (rice wine) produced by multiple parallel fermentation (MPF) involving Aspergillus oryzae (strain RW) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae under solid-state cultivation conditions contained 3.5 mM agmatine, while that produced from enzymatically saccharified rice syrup by S. cerevisiae contained oryzae under solid-state cultivation (3.1 mM) but not under submerged cultivation, demonstrating that A. oryzae in solid-state culture produces agmatine. The effect of cultivation conditions on agmatine production was examined. Agmatine production was boosted at 30°C and reached the highest level (6.3 mM) at pH 5.3. The addition of l-lactic, succinic, and citric acids reduced the initial culture pH to 3.0, 3.5, and 3.2, respectively, resulting in further increase in agmatine accumulation (8.2, 8.7, and 8.3 mM, respectively). Homogenate from a solid-state culture exhibited a maximum l-arginine decarboxylase (ADC) activity (74 pmol min -1 μg -1 ) at pH 3.0 at 30°C; that from a submerged culture exhibited an extremely low activity (oryzae , even though A. oryzae lacks ADC orthologs and, instead, possesses four ornithine decarboxylases (ODC1-4). Recombinant ODC1 and ODC2 exhibited no ADC activity at acidic pH (pH 4.0>), suggesting that other decarboxylases or an unidentified ADC is involved in agmatine production. IMPORTANCE It has been speculated that, in general, fungi do not synthesize agmatine from l-arginine because they do not possess genes encoding for arginine decarboxylase. Numerous preclinical studies have shown that agmatine exerts pleiotropic effects on various molecular targets, leading to an improved quality of life. In the present study, we first demonstrated that l-arginine was a feasible substrate for agmatine production by the fungus Aspergillus oryzae RW. We observed that the productivity of agmatine by A. oryzae RW was elevated at low pH only during solid-state cultivation. A. oryzae is utilized in the production of various oriental fermented foods. The

  13. Effectiveness of Training Programme on Mushroom Cultivation

    Rahman, Md. Sazzadur; Hossain, Kh. Zulfikar; Ali, Md. Sekender; Afroz, Fauzia

    2017-01-01

    Effectiveness is one of the key parameters to assess success of any programs. However, the effectiveness of training programme on mushroom cultivation was not well addressed. The purposes of this study were to investigate the effectiveness of training programme on mushroom cultivation and to explore the relationships of each of the selected characteristics of the trained mushroom farmers with their effectiveness of training programme. Data were collected from the trained mushroom farmers of s...

  14. The Cultivation of Human Granulosa Cells

    Lenka Brůčková

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The major functions of granulosa cells (GCs include the production of steroids, as well as a myriad of growth factors to interact with the oocyte during its development within the ovarian follicle. Also FSH stimulates GCs to convert androgens (coming from the thecal cells to estradiol by aromatase. However, after ovulation the GCs produce progesterone that may maintain a potential pregnancy. Experiments with human GCs are mainly focused on the purification of GCs from ovarian follicular fluid followed by FACS analysis or short-term cultivation. The aim of our study was to cultivate GCs for a long period, to characterize their morphology and phenotype. Moreover, we have cultivated GCs under gonadotropin stimulation in order to simulate different pathological mechanisms during folliculogenesis (e.g. ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. GCs were harvested from women undergoing in vitro fertilization. Complex oocyte-cumulus oophorus was dissociated by hyaluronidase. The best condition for transport of GCs was optimized as short transport in follicular fluid at 37 °C. GCs expansion medium consisted of DMEM/F12, 2 % FCS, ascorbic acid, dexamethasone, L-glutamine, gentamycine, penicillin, streptomycin and growth factors (EGF, bFGF. GCs transported in follicular fluid and cultivated in 2 % FCS containing DMEM/F12 medium supplemented with follicular fluid presented increased adhesion, proliferation, viability and decreased doubling time. Cell viability was 92 % and mean cell doubling time was 52 hrs. We have optimized transport and cultivation protocols for long-term cultivation of GCs.

  15. Submergible barge retrievable storage and permanent disposal system for radioactive waste

    Goldsberry, Fred L.; Cawley, William E.

    1981-01-01

    A submergible barge and process for submerging and storing radioactive waste material along a seabed. A submergible barge receives individual packages of radwaste within segregated cells. The cells are formed integrally within the barge, preferably surrounded by reinforced concrete. The cells are individually sealed by a concrete decking and by concrete hatch covers. Seawater may be vented into the cells for cooling, through an integral vent arrangement. The vent ducts may be attached to pumps when the barge is bouyant. The ducts are also arranged to promote passive ventilation of the cells when the barge is submerged. Packages of the radwaste are loaded into individual cells within the barge. The cells are then sealed and the barge is towed to the designated disposal-storage site. There, the individual cells are flooded and the barge will begin descent controlled by a powered submarine control device to the seabed storage site. The submerged barge will rest on the seabed permanently or until recovered by a submarine control device.

  16. Submerged karst landforms observed by multibeam bathymetric survey in Nagura Bay, Ishigaki Island, southwestern Japan

    Kan, Hironobu; Urata, Kensaku; Nagao, Masayuki; Hori, Nobuyuki; Fujita, Kazuhiko; Yokoyama, Yusuke; Nakashima, Yosuke; Ohashi, Tomoya; Goto, Kazuhisa; Suzuki, Atsushi

    2015-01-01

    Submerged tropical karst features were discovered in Nagura Bay on Ishigaki Island in the southern Ryukyu Islands, Japan. The coastal seafloor at depths shallower than ~ 130 m has been subjected to repeated and alternating subaerial erosion and sedimentation during periods of Quaternary sea-level lowstands. We conducted a broadband multibeam survey in the central area of Nagura Bay (1.85 × 2.7 km) and visualized the high-resolution bathymetric results over a depth range of 1.6-58.5 m. Various types of humid tropical karst landforms were found to coexist within the bay, including fluviokarst, doline karst, cockpit karst, polygonal karst, uvalas, and mega-dolines. Although these submerged karst landforms are covered by thick postglacial reef and reef sediments, their shapes and sizes are distinct from those associated with coral reef geomorphology. The submerged landscape of Nagura Bay likely formed during multiple glacial and interglacial periods. According to our bathymetric results and the aerial photographs of the coastal area, this submerged karst landscape appears to have developed throughout Nagura Bay (i.e., over an area of approximately 6 × 5 km) and represents the largest submerged karst in Japan.

  17. Modified Application of Nitrogen Fertilizer for Increasing Rice Variety Tolerance toward Submergence Stress

    Gribaldi Gribaldi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted from July to October 2015, using Randomized Block Design with two treatment factors and three replications for each treatment. The first factor was rice varieties (V: V1 = IR 64; V2 = Inpara 5. The second factor was fertilizer (N: N0: without submergence, all N fertilizer was given during planting; N1: all N fertilizer dose was given during planting; and N2: 1/2 dose of N fertilizer was given during planting; the rest was given at 42 days after planting. The submergence was during 7–14 days after planting; N3 = the entire dose of N fertilizer that was given during planting, N4 = 1/2 the dose of N fertilizer that was given during planting, and the rest was given at 42 days after planting. The submergence was during 7–14 and 28–35 days after planting. The results showed that the management of nitrogen fertilizer application had effect on rice growth and production which experienced dirty water submergence stress; the application of 1/2 dose of N fertilizer given during planting had the best effect on rice growth and production; the longer the submergence period for rice variety, the higher the effect on rice growth and production.

  18. Vegetative Propagule Pressure and Water Depth Affect Biomass and Evenness of Submerged Macrophyte Communities.

    Li, Hong-Li; Wang, Yong-Yang; Zhang, Qian; Wang, Pu; Zhang, Ming-Xiang; Yu, Fei-Hai

    2015-01-01

    Vegetative propagule pressure may affect the establishment and structure of aquatic plant communities that are commonly dominated by plants capable of clonal growth. We experimentally constructed aquatic communities consisting of four submerged macrophytes (Hydrilla verticillata, Ceratophyllum demersum, Elodea nuttallii and Myriophyllum spicatum) with three levels of vegetative propagule pressure (4, 8 and 16 shoot fragments for communities in each pot) and two levels of water depth (30 cm and 70 cm). Increasing vegetative propagule pressure and decreasing water level significantly increased the growth of the submerged macrophyte communities, suggesting that propagule pressure and water depth should be considered when utilizing vegetative propagules to re-establish submerged macrophyte communities in degraded aquatic ecosystems. However, increasing vegetative propagule pressure and decreasing water level significantly decreased evenness of the submerged macrophyte communities because they markedly increased the dominance of H. verticillata and E. nuttallii, but had little impact on that of C. demersum and M. spicatum. Thus, effects of vegetative propagule pressure and water depth are species-specific and increasing vegetative propagule pressure under lower water level can facilitate the establishment success of submerged macrophyte communities.

  19. Vegetative Propagule Pressure and Water Depth Affect Biomass and Evenness of Submerged Macrophyte Communities.

    Hong-Li Li

    Full Text Available Vegetative propagule pressure may affect the establishment and structure of aquatic plant communities that are commonly dominated by plants capable of clonal growth. We experimentally constructed aquatic communities consisting of four submerged macrophytes (Hydrilla verticillata, Ceratophyllum demersum, Elodea nuttallii and Myriophyllum spicatum with three levels of vegetative propagule pressure (4, 8 and 16 shoot fragments for communities in each pot and two levels of water depth (30 cm and 70 cm. Increasing vegetative propagule pressure and decreasing water level significantly increased the growth of the submerged macrophyte communities, suggesting that propagule pressure and water depth should be considered when utilizing vegetative propagules to re-establish submerged macrophyte communities in degraded aquatic ecosystems. However, increasing vegetative propagule pressure and decreasing water level significantly decreased evenness of the submerged macrophyte communities because they markedly increased the dominance of H. verticillata and E. nuttallii, but had little impact on that of C. demersum and M. spicatum. Thus, effects of vegetative propagule pressure and water depth are species-specific and increasing vegetative propagule pressure under lower water level can facilitate the establishment success of submerged macrophyte communities.

  20. Suspension of Egg Hatching Caused by High Humidity and Submergence in Spider Mites.

    Ubara, Masashi; Osakabe, Masahiro

    2015-08-01

    We tested the effects of high humidity and submergence on egg hatching of spider mites. In both the high humidity and submergence treatments, many Tetranychus and Panonychus eggs did not hatch until after the hatching peak of the lower humidity or unsubmerged controls. However, after humidity decreased or water was drained, many eggs hatched within 1-3 h. This was observed regardless of when high humidity or submergence treatments were implemented: either immediately after oviposition or immediately before hatching was due. Normal eyespot formation was observed in most eggs in the high humidity and submergence treatments, which indicates that spider mite embryos develop even when eggs are underwater. Therefore, delays in hatching are not caused by delayed embryonic development. A delay in hatching was always observed in Panonychus citri (McGregor) but was more variable in Tetranychus urticae Koch and Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida. The high humidity and submergence treatments affected but did not suppress larval development in these species. In contrast, many Oligonychus eggs died following the high humidity treatments. In Tetranychus and Panonychus spider mites, suspension of egg hatching may mitigate the adverse effects of rainfall. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Responses of bacterial community structure and denitrifying bacteria in biofilm to submerged macrophytes and nitrate

    Zhang, Songhe; Pang, Si; Wang, Peifang; Wang, Chao; Guo, Chuan; Addo, Felix Gyawu; Li, Yi

    2016-10-01

    Submerged macrophytes play important roles in constructed wetlands and natural water bodies, as these organisms remove nutrients and provide large surfaces for biofilms, which are beneficial for nitrogen removal, particularly from submerged macrophyte-dominated water columns. However, information on the responses of biofilms to submerged macrophytes and nitrogen molecules is limited. In the present study, bacterial community structure and denitrifiers were investigated in biofilms on the leaves of four submerged macrophytes and artificial plants exposed to two nitrate concentrations. The biofilm cells were evenly distributed on artificial plants but appeared in microcolonies on the surfaces of submerged macrophytes. Proteobacteria was the most abundant phylum in all samples, accounting for 27.3-64.8% of the high-quality bacterial reads, followed by Chloroflexi (3.7-25.4%), Firmicutes (3.0-20.1%), Acidobacteria (2.7-15.7%), Actinobacteria (2.2-8.7%), Bacteroidetes (0.5-9.7%), and Verrucomicrobia (2.4-5.2%). Cluster analysis showed that bacterial community structure can be significantly different on macrophytes versus from those on artificial plants. Redundancy analysis showed that electrical conductivity and nitrate concentration were positively correlated with Shannon index and operational taxonomic unit (OTU) richness (log10 transformed) but somewhat negatively correlated with microbial density. The relative abundances of five denitrifying genes were positively correlated with nitrate concentration and electrical conductivity but negatively correlated with dissolved oxygen.

  2. Submerged macrophytes modify bacterial community composition in sediments in a large, shallow, freshwater lake.

    Zhao, Da-Yong; Liu, Peng; Fang, Chao; Sun, Yi-Meng; Zeng, Jin; Wang, Jian-Qun; Ma, Ting; Xiao, Yi-Hong; Wu, Qinglong L

    2013-04-01

    Submerged aquatic macrophytes are an important part of the lacustrine ecosystem. In this study, the bacterial community compositions in the rhizosphere sediments from three kinds of submerged macrophytes (Ceratophyllum demersum, Potamogeton crispus, and Vallisneria natans) were investigated to determine whether submerged macrophytes could drive the variation of bacterial community in the eutrophic Taihu Lake, China. Molecular techniques, including terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene and clone libraries, were employed to analyze the bacterial community compositions. Remarkable differences of the T-RFLP patterns were observed among the different samples, and the results of LIBSHUFF analysis also confirmed that the bacterial community compositions in the rhizosphere sediments of three kinds of submerged macrophytes were statistically different from that of the unvegetated sediment. Acidobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, and Betaproteobacteria were the dominant bacterial groups in the rhizosphere sediments of Ceratophyllum demersum, Potamogeton crispus, and Vallisneria natans, respectively, accounting for 15.38%, 29.03%, and 18.00% of the total bacterial abundances. Our study demonstrated that submerged macrophytes could influence the bacterial community compositions in their rhizosphere sediments, suggesting that macrophytes have an effect on the cycling and transportation of nutrients in the freshwater lake ecosystem.

  3. Effects of Cultivation Techniques and Processing on Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Hericium erinaceus (Bull.:Fr. Pers. Extracts

    Kah Hui Wong

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Hericium erinaceus, a temperate mushroom, is currently cultivated in Malaysia. As cultivation and processing conditions may affect the medicinal properties, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of locally grown H. erinaceus have been investigated. The fruitbodies that were fresh, oven-dried or freeze-dried were extracted with methanol. Their properties were compared to those exhibited by mycelium extract of the same mushroom. Various extracts of H. erinaceus inhibited the growth of pathogenic bacteria but not of the tested fungus. Mycelium extract contained the highest total phenolic content and the highest ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP. The fresh fruitbody extract showed the most potent 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity. However, oven-dried fruitbody extract was excellent in reducing the extent of β-carotene bleaching. The total phenolic content and total antioxidant activity in the oven-dried fruitbody extract was high compared to the freeze-dried or fresh fruitbody extract. This may be due to generation and accumulation of Maillard’s reaction products (MRPs, which are known to have antioxidant properties. Thus, the consumption of H. erinaceus fruitbody grown in tropical conditions may have health promoting benefits. Furthermore, the production of H. erinaceus mycelium in submerged cultures may result in standardized antioxidant formulation for either human nutrition or therapy. Hence, it has been shown that the processing of fruitbody and not the cultivation conditions affects the selected bioactive properties of H. erinaceus.

  4. Cloning, multicopy expression and fed-batch production of Rhodotorula araucariae epoxide hydrolase in yarrowia lipolytica

    Ramduth, D

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available demonstrated a 4 fold enhanced EH activity over the transformant. The transformant was then evaluated in batch and fed batch fermentations, where the batch fermentations resulted in - 50% improved EH activity from flask evaluations. In fed batch fermentations...

  5. Production of inulinase by Xanthomonas campestris pv phaseoli using onion (Allium cepa) and garlic (Allium sativum) peels in solid state cultivation.

    Ayyachamy, M; Khelawan, K; Pillay, D; Permaul, K; Singh, S

    2007-10-01

    To access inulinase production by Xanthomonas campestris pv phaseoli using the submerged and solid state cultivation (SSC) methods. Various carbon sources, inulin-rich solid substrates and pure synthetic inulin were tested for their efficiency in inulinase induction. The highest inulinase production (17.42 IU ml(-1)) in submerged cultures of X. campestris was observed with inulin as a carbon source with an initial pH, temperature and agitation of 7.0, 37 degrees C and 150 rev min(-1) respectively. Among the various substrates, garlic peels (117 IU gds(-1)) and onion peels (101 IU gds(-1)) were found to be the best for inulinase production. The inulinase production level of X. campestris was 6.7-fold higher in garlic and 5.8-fold in onion, under optimized SSC conditions compared with the submerged culture. This is the first report on inulinase production from garlic and onion peels by X. campestris using SSC. SSC is an efficient method for inulinase production by X. campestris for commercial applications.

  6. Semicontinuous cultivation of the Cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis in a closed photobioreactor

    Reichert, C.C.; Costa, J.A.V. [Fundacao Universidade Federal do Rio Grande (FURG), Rio Grande, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica], Email: dqmjorge@furg.br; Reinehr, C.O. [Universidade de Passo Fundo, RS (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisa em Alimentacao], Email: reinehr@upf.br

    2006-01-15

    The cultivation of photosynthetic microorganisms such as the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis has been studied by researchers in many countries because these organisms can produce products with industrial potential. We studied the specific growth rate ({mu}{sub x}, day{sup -1}) and productivity (P{sub x}, in mg/L/day of Spirulina platensis biomass, dry weight basis) of two S. platensis strains (LEB-52 and Paracas) growing in aerated semicontinuous culture in two-liter Erlenmeyer flasks for 90 days (2160 h) at 30 deg C under 2500 lux of illumination in a 12 h photoperiod. Independent of the S. platensis strain used we found that low biomass concentrations (0.50 g/L) and high renewal rates (50% v/v) resulted in a high specific growth rate ({mu}{sub x} = 0.111 day{sup -1}) and high productivity (P{sub x} = 42.3 mg/L/day). These values are two to four times higher than those obtained in simple batch cultivation and indicate that the semicontinuous cultivation of S. platensis is viable. (author)

  7. Semicontinuous cultivation of the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis in a closed photobioreactor

    C. C. Reichert

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The cultivation of photosynthetic microorganisms such as the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis has been studied by researchers in many countries because these organisms can produce products with industrial potential. We studied the specific growth rate (µx, day-1 and productivity (Px, in mg/L/day of Spirulina platensis biomass, dry weight basis of two S. platensis strains (LEB-52 and Paracas growing in aerated semicontinuous culture in two-liter Erlenmeyer flasks for 90 days (2160 h at 30°C under 2500 lux of illumination in a 12 h photoperiod. Independent of the S. platensis strain used we found that low biomass concentrations (0.50 g/L and high renewal rates (50% v/v resulted in a high specific growth rate (µx = 0.111 day-1 and high productivity (Px = 42.3 mg/L/day. These values are two to four times higher than those obtained in simple batch cultivation and indicate that the semicontinuous cultivation of S. platensis is viable.

  8. Tolerance of combined submergence and salinity in the halophytic stem-succulent Tecticornia pergranulata

    Colmer, T D; Vos, H; Pedersen, Ole

    2009-01-01

    pergranulata subsp. pergranulata (syn. Halosarcia pergranulata subsp. pergranulata). Growth and total sugars in succulent stems were assessed as a function of time after submergence. Underwater net photosynthesis, dark respiration, total sugars, glycinebetaine, Na(+), Cl(-) and K(+), in succulent stems, were...... assessed in a NaCl dose-response experiment. KEY RESULTS: Submerged plants ceased to grow, and tissue sugars declined. Photosynthesis by succulent stems was reduced markedly when underwater, as compared with in air. Capacity for underwater net photosynthesis (P(N)) was not affected by 10-400 mM Na......Cl, but it was reduced by 30 % at 800 mM. Dark respiration, underwater, increased in succulent stems at 200-800 mM NaCl, as compared with those at 10 mM NaCl. On an ethanol-insoluble dry mass basis, K(+) concentration in succulent stems of submerged plants was equal to that in drained controls, across all Na...

  9. Molecular characterization of the submergence response of Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Columbia

    Lee, S.C.; Mustroph, A.; Sasidaharan, R.

    2011-01-01

    partial pressure of the petiole and root had stabilized at c. 6 and 0.1 kPa, respectively. As controls, plants were untreated or exposed to darkness. Following quantitative profiling of cellular mRNAs with the Affymetrix ATH1 platform, changes in the transcriptome in response to submergence, early...... darkness, and O2-deprivation were evaluated by fuzzy k-means clustering. This identified genes co-regulated at the conditional, developmental or organ-specific level. Mutants for 10 differentially expressed HYPOXIA-RESPONSIVE UNKNOWN PROTEIN (HUP) genes were screened for altered submergence tolerance....... • The analysis identified 34 genes that were ubiquitously co-regulated by submergence and O2 deprivation. The biological functions of these include signaling, transcription, and anaerobic energy metabolism. HUPs comprised 40% of the co-regulated transcripts and mutants of seven of these genes were significantly...

  10. Application of gain scheduling to the control of batch bioreactors

    Cardello, Ralph; San, Ka-Yiu

    1987-01-01

    The implementation of control algorithms to batch bioreactors is often complicated by the inherent variations in process dynamics during the course of fermentation. Such a wide operating range may render the performance of fixed gain PID controllers unsatisfactory. In this work, a detailed study on the control of batch fermentation is performed. Furthermore, a simple batch controller design is proposed which incorporates the concept of gain-scheduling, a subclass of adaptive control, with oxygen uptake rate as an auxiliary variable. The control of oxygen tension in the biorector is used as a vehicle to convey the proposed idea, analysis and results. Simulation experiments indicate significant improvement in controller performance can be achieved by the proposed approach even in the presence of measurement noise.

  11. Batch variation between branchial cell cultures: An analysis of variance

    Hansen, Heinz Johs. Max; Grosell, M.; Kristensen, L.

    2003-01-01

    We present in detail how a statistical analysis of variance (ANOVA) is used to sort out the effect of an unexpected batch-to-batch variation between cell cultures. Two separate cultures of rainbow trout branchial cells were grown on permeable filtersupports ("inserts"). They were supposed...... and introducing the observed difference between batches as one of the factors in an expanded three-dimensional ANOVA, we were able to overcome an otherwisecrucial lack of sufficiently reproducible duplicate values. We could thereby show that the effect of changing the apical medium was much more marked when...... the radioactive lipid precursors were added on the apical, rather than on the basolateral, side. Theinsert cell cultures were obviously polarized. We argue that it is not reasonable to reject troublesome experimental results, when we do not know a priori that something went wrong. The ANOVA is a very useful...

  12. From Fed-batch to Continuous Enzymatic Biodiesel Production

    Price, Jason Anthony; Nordblad, Mathias; Woodley, John M.

    2015-01-01

    In this this paper, we use mechanistic modelling to guide the development of acontinuous enzymatic process that is performed as a fed-batch operation. In this workwe use the enzymatic biodiesel process as a case study. A mechanistic model developedin our previous work was used to determine...... measured components (triglycerides, diglycerides, monoglycerides, free fatty acid and fatty acid methyl esters(biodiesel)) much better than using fed-batch data alone given the smaller residuals. We also observe a reduction in the correlation between the parameters.The model was then used to predict that 5...... reactors are required (with a combined residence time of 30 hours) to reach a final biodiesel concentration within 2 % of the95.6 mass % achieved in a fed-batch operation, for 24 hours....

  13. Continuous flow technology vs. the batch-by-batch approach to produce pharmaceutical compounds.

    Cole, Kevin P; Johnson, Martin D

    2018-01-01

    For the manufacture of small molecule drugs, many pharmaceutical innovator companies have recently invested in continuous processing, which can offer significant technical and economic advantages over traditional batch methodology. This Expert Review will describe the reasons for this interest as well as many considerations and challenges that exist today concerning continuous manufacturing. Areas covered: Continuous processing is defined and many reasons for its adoption are described. The current state of continuous drug substance manufacturing within the pharmaceutical industry is summarized. Current key challenges to implementation of continuous manufacturing are highlighted, and an outlook provided regarding the prospects for continuous within the industry. Expert commentary: Continuous processing at Lilly has been a journey that started with the need for increased safety and capability. Over twelve years the original small, dedicated group has grown to more than 100 Lilly employees in discovery, development, quality, manufacturing, and regulatory designing in continuous drug substance processing. Recently we have focused on linked continuous unit operations for the purpose of all-at-once pharmaceutical manufacturing, but the technical and business drivers that existed in the very beginning for stand-alone continuous unit operations in hybrid processes have persisted, which merits investment in both approaches.

  14. A High-Fidelity Batch Simulation Environment for Integrated Batch and Piloted Air Combat Simulation Analysis

    Goodrich, Kenneth H.; McManus, John W.; Chappell, Alan R.

    1992-01-01

    A batch air combat simulation environment known as the Tactical Maneuvering Simulator (TMS) is presented. The TMS serves as a tool for developing and evaluating tactical maneuvering logics. The environment can also be used to evaluate the tactical implications of perturbations to aircraft performance or supporting systems. The TMS is capable of simulating air combat between any number of engagement participants, with practical limits imposed by computer memory and processing power. Aircraft are modeled using equations of motion, control laws, aerodynamics and propulsive characteristics equivalent to those used in high-fidelity piloted simulation. Databases representative of a modern high-performance aircraft with and without thrust-vectoring capability are included. To simplify the task of developing and implementing maneuvering logics in the TMS, an outer-loop control system known as the Tactical Autopilot (TA) is implemented in the aircraft simulation model. The TA converts guidance commands issued by computerized maneuvering logics in the form of desired angle-of-attack and wind axis-bank angle into inputs to the inner-loop control augmentation system of the aircraft. This report describes the capabilities and operation of the TMS.

  15. Elevation dynamics in a restored versus a submerging salt marsh in Long Island Sound

    Anisfeld, Shimon C.; Hill, Troy D.; Cahoon, Donald R.

    2016-01-01

    Accelerated sea-level rise (SLR) poses the threat of salt marsh submergence, especially in marshes that are relatively low-lying. At the same time, restoration efforts are producing new low-lying marshes, many of which are thriving and avoiding submergence. To understand the causes of these different fates, we studied two Long Island Sound marshes: one that is experiencing submergence and mudflat expansion, and one that is undergoing successful restoration. We examined sedimentation using a variety of methods, each of which captures different time periods and different aspects of marsh elevation change: surface-elevation tables, marker horizons, sediment cores, and sediment traps. We also studied marsh hydrology, productivity, respiration, nutrient content, and suspended sediment. We found that, despite the expansion of mudflat in the submerging marsh, the areas that remain vegetated have been gaining elevation at roughly the rate of SLR over the last 10 years. However, this elevation gain was only possible thanks to an increase in belowground volume, which may be a temporary response to waterlogging. In addition, accretion rates in the first half of the twentieth century were much lower than current rates, so century-scale accretion in the submerging marsh was lower than SLR. In contrast, at the restored marsh, accretion rates are now averaging about 10 mm yr−1 (several times the rate of SLR), much higher than before restoration. The main cause of the different trajectories at the two marshes appeared to be the availability of suspended sediment, which was much higher in the restored marsh. We considered and rejected alternative hypotheses, including differences in tidal flooding, plant productivity, and nutrient loading. In the submerging marsh, suspended and deposited sediment had relatively high organic content, which may be a useful indicator of sediment starvation.

  16. Production of tea vinegar by batch and semicontinuous fermentation

    Kaur, Pardeep; Kocher, G. S.; Phutela, R. P.

    2010-01-01

    The fermented tea vinegar combines the beneficial properties of tea and vinegar. The complete fermentation takes 4 to 5 weeks in a batch culture and thus can be shortened by semi continuous/ continuous fermentation using immobilized bacterial cells. In the present study, alcoholic fermentation of 1.0 and 1.5% tea infusions using Saccharomyces cerevisae G was carried out that resulted in 84.3 and 84.8% fermentation efficiency (FE) respectively. The batch vinegar fermentation of these wines wit...

  17. Stochastic growth logistic model with aftereffect for batch fermentation process

    Rosli, Norhayati; Ayoubi, Tawfiqullah; Bahar, Arifah; Rahman, Haliza Abdul; Salleh, Madihah Md

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, the stochastic growth logistic model with aftereffect for the cell growth of C. acetobutylicum P262 and Luedeking-Piret equations for solvent production in batch fermentation system is introduced. The parameters values of the mathematical models are estimated via Levenberg-Marquardt optimization method of non-linear least squares. We apply Milstein scheme for solving the stochastic models numerically. The effciency of mathematical models is measured by comparing the simulated result and the experimental data of the microbial growth and solvent production in batch system. Low values of Root Mean-Square Error (RMSE) of stochastic models with aftereffect indicate good fits.

  18. Stochastic growth logistic model with aftereffect for batch fermentation process

    Rosli, Norhayati; Ayoubi, Tawfiqullah; Bahar, Arifah; Rahman, Haliza Abdul; Salleh, Madihah Md

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the stochastic growth logistic model with aftereffect for the cell growth of C. acetobutylicum P262 and Luedeking-Piret equations for solvent production in batch fermentation system is introduced. The parameters values of the mathematical models are estimated via Levenberg-Marquardt optimization method of non-linear least squares. We apply Milstein scheme for solving the stochastic models numerically. The effciency of mathematical models is measured by comparing the simulated result and the experimental data of the microbial growth and solvent production in batch system. Low values of Root Mean-Square Error (RMSE) of stochastic models with aftereffect indicate good fits

  19. Stochastic growth logistic model with aftereffect for batch fermentation process

    Rosli, Norhayati; Ayoubi, Tawfiqullah [Faculty of Industrial Sciences and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Lebuhraya Tun Razak, 26300 Gambang, Pahang (Malaysia); Bahar, Arifah; Rahman, Haliza Abdul [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia); Salleh, Madihah Md [Department of Biotechnology Industry, Faculty of Biosciences and Bioengineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia)

    2014-06-19

    In this paper, the stochastic growth logistic model with aftereffect for the cell growth of C. acetobutylicum P262 and Luedeking-Piret equations for solvent production in batch fermentation system is introduced. The parameters values of the mathematical models are estimated via Levenberg-Marquardt optimization method of non-linear least squares. We apply Milstein scheme for solving the stochastic models numerically. The effciency of mathematical models is measured by comparing the simulated result and the experimental data of the microbial growth and solvent production in batch system. Low values of Root Mean-Square Error (RMSE) of stochastic models with aftereffect indicate good fits.

  20. Optimum heat storage design for heat integrated multipurpose batch plants

    Stamp, J

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available procedure is presented tha journal homepage: www All rights reserved. ajozi T, Optimum heat storage grated multipurpose batch plants , South Africa y usage in multipurpose batch plants has been in published literature most present methods, time... � 2pL?u?kins ? 1 h3A3?u?cu?U (36) The internal area for heat loss by convection from the heat transfer medium is given by Constraint (37) and the area for convective heat transfer losses to the environment is given in Constraint (38). A1?u? ? 2...

  1. Wave energy absorption by a submerged air bag connected to a rigid float

    Kurniawan, Adi; Chaplin, J. R.; Hann, M. R.

    2017-01-01

    A new wave energy device features a submerged ballasted air bag connected at the top to a rigid float. Under wave action, the bag expands and contracts, creating a reciprocating air flow through a turbine between the bag and another volume housed within the float. Laboratory measurements are gene......A new wave energy device features a submerged ballasted air bag connected at the top to a rigid float. Under wave action, the bag expands and contracts, creating a reciprocating air flow through a turbine between the bag and another volume housed within the float. Laboratory measurements...

  2. Biological control of phytoplankton by the subtropical submerged macrophytes Egeria densa and Potamogeton illinoensis: a mesocosm study

    Vanderstukken, M.; Mazzeo, N.; Colen, W.; Declerck, S.A.J.; Muylaert, K.

    2011-01-01

    1. In temperate regions, submerged macrophytes can hamper phytoplankton blooms. Such an effect could arise directly, for instance via allelopathy, or indirectly, via competition for nutrients or the positive interaction between submerged macrophytes and zooplankton grazing. However, there is some

  3. Glycoprofiling effects of media additives on IgG produced by CHO cells in fed-batch bioreactors

    Kildegaard, Helene Faustrup; Fan, Yuzhou; Wagtberg Sen, Jette

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are mainly produced by heterogonous expression in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The glycosylation profile of the mAbs has major impact on the efficacy and safety of the drug and is therefore an important parameter to control during production. In this......Therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are mainly produced by heterogonous expression in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The glycosylation profile of the mAbs has major impact on the efficacy and safety of the drug and is therefore an important parameter to control during production....... In this study, the effect on IgG N-glycosylation from feeding CHO cells with eight glycosylation precursors during cultivation was investigated. The study was conducted in fed-batch mode in bioreactors with biological replicates to obtain highly controlled and comparable conditions. We assessed charge...

  4. Influence of initial L-asparagine and glycerol concentrations on the batch growth kinetics of Mycobacterium bovis BCG Influência das concentrações iniciais de asparagina e glicerol sobre a cinética de crescimento submerso de Mycobacterium bovis

    Maria Betania Batista Leal

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The influences of the L-asparagine and glycerol initial concentrations in Sauton medium on the productivities of biomass and colony forming units were studied. The submerged batch cultivations of Mycobacterium bovis were carried out in a 20 L bioreactor. The L-asparagine and glycerol initial concentrations of 4.54 g/L and 25 mL/L, respectively, corresponded to the best biomass productivity, namely 2.5 g/L.day. On the other hand, the concentrations of 2.27 g/L and 25 mL/L, respectively, led to the highest productivity in terms of colony forming units, namely 2.7·10(6 colonies/mg.day. In addition, by means of the relative consumption analysis of L-asparagine and glycerol (50 and 26% respectively, it was concluded that the concentrations of such components could be reduced, with respect to the original Sauton medium composition, aiming the obtainment of an optimal BCG vaccine production in the bioreactor.Estudou-se a influência das concentrações iniciais, no meio de Sauton, de asparagina e glicerol sobre as produtividades, expressas em unidades formadoras de colônias e biomassa microbiana, referentes aos cultivos submersos do Mycobacterium bovis, em biorreator de 20 mL. As concentrações iniciais de 2,27 e 25 mL/L de asparagina e glicerol, respectivamente, conduziram à maior produtividade, em unidades formadoras de colônias, a saber 2,7.10(6 colônias/mg.dia. Por outro lado, as concentrações de 4,54 e 25 mL/L dos mesmos componentes, corresponderam à melhor produtividade em biomassa, a saber: 2,5 g/dia. Através das análises dos consumos relativos de asparagina e glicerol (50 e 26% respectivamente, verificou-se também que as concentrações destes componentes podem ser reduzidas na composição original do meio de Sauton, com o objetivo de obter uma produção otimizada de vacina BCG em bioreator.

  5. Alternative substrates for higher mushrooms mycelia cultivation

    TETIANA KRUPODOROVA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cultivation of 29 species of higher mushroom mycelia on alternative substrates – wastes of Ukrainian oil-fat industry, has been investigated. The amount of mushroom mycelia obtaining on 12 investigated substrates varied significantly, from 1.0 g/L to 22.9 g/L on the 14th day of cultivation. The superficial cultivation adopted in this study allows for easy to choose appropriate medium (substrate for mycelia production. Alternative substrates (compared to glucose-peptone-yeast medium were selected for all studied species, from soybean cake – most suitable for the mycelial growth of 24 species, to walnut cake − suitable only for 2 species. The utilization of substrates has been evaluated by biological efficiency. The best index of biological efficiency varied from 19.0% to 41.6% depending on the mushroom species. It was established high biological efficiency of mycelia cultivation on substrates: wheat seed cake – Pleurotus djamor, Lyophyllum shimeji, Crinipellis schevczenkovi, Phellinus igniarius, Spongipellis litschaueri; oat seed cake – Ganoderma applanatum and G. lucidum; soybean cake – Hohenbuehelia myxotricha, Trametes versicolor, Morchella esculenta, Cordyceps sinensis, C. militaris, and Agrocybe aegerita; rape seed cake – Auriporia aurea; camelina seed cake – Fomes fomentarius. The cultivation of these species are perspective as a biotechnological process of agricultural wastes converted into mycelia, which could be used in different forms of products with therapeutic action: powder or tablets nutraceuticals or ingredients for functional foods.

  6. Environmental and nutritional requirements for tea cultivation

    Hajiboland Roghieh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Tea (Camellia sinensis is an important beverage crop cultivated in the tropics and subtropics under acid soil conditions. Increased awareness of the health-promoting properties of the tea beverage has led to an increase in its level of consumption over the last decades. Tea production contributes significantly to the economy of several tea-cultivating countries in Asia and Africa. Environmental constrains, particularly water deficiency due to inadequate and/or poorly distributed rainfall, seriously limit tea production in the majority of tea-producing countries. It is also predicted that global climate change will have a considerable adverse impact on tea production in the near future. Application of fertilizers for higher production and increased quality and quantity of tea is a common agricultural practice, but due to its environmental consequences, such as groundwater pollution, the rate of fertilizer application needs to be reconsidered. Cultivation of tea under humid conditions renders it highly susceptible to pathogens and pest attacks. Application of pesticides and fungicides adversely affects the quality of tea and increases health risks of the tea beverage. Organic cultivation as an agricultural practice without using synthetic fertilizers and other chemical additives such as pesticides and fungicides is a sustainable and eco-friendly approach to producing healthy tea. A growing number of tea-producing countries are joining organic tea cultivation programmes in order to improve the quality and to maintain the health benefits of the tea produced.

  7. Mass development of monospecific submerged macrophyte vegetation after the restoration of shallow lakes: Roles of light, sediment nutrient levels, and propagule density

    Verhofstad, M.J.J.M.; Alirangues Núñez, M. M.; Reichman, E. P.; van Donk, E.; Lamers, L. P.M.; Bakker, E. S.

    2017-01-01

    After restoration, eutrophicated shallow freshwaters may show mass development of only one or two submerged macrophyte species, lowering biodiversity and hampering recreation. It is unclear which environmental factors govern this high percentage of the volume inhabited (PVI2) by submerged

  8. Design of two-column batch-to-batch recirculation to enhance performance in ion-exchange chromatography.

    Persson, Oliver; Andersson, Niklas; Nilsson, Bernt

    2018-01-05

    Preparative liquid chromatography is a separation technique widely used in the manufacturing of fine chemicals and pharmaceuticals. A major drawback of traditional single-column batch chromatography step is the trade-off between product purity and process performance. Recirculation of impure product can be utilized to make the trade-off more favorable. The aim of the present study was to investigate the usage of a two-column batch-to-batch recirculation process step to increase the performance compared to single-column batch chromatography at a high purity requirement. The separation of a ternary protein mixture on ion-exchange chromatography columns was used to evaluate the proposed process. The investigation used modelling and simulation of the process step, experimental validation and optimization of the simulated process. In the presented case the yield increases from 45.4% to 93.6% and the productivity increases 3.4 times compared to the performance of a batch run for a nominal case. A rapid concentration build-up product can be seen during the first cycles, before the process reaches a cyclic steady-state with reoccurring concentration profiles. The optimization of the simulation model predicts that the recirculated salt can be used as a flying start of the elution, which would enhance the process performance. The proposed process is more complex than a batch process, but may improve the separation performance, especially while operating at cyclic steady-state. The recirculation of impure fractions reduces the product losses and ensures separation of product to a high degree of purity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Leaf gas films delay salt entry and enhance underwater photosynthesis and internal aeration of Melilotus siculus submerged in saline water

    Teakle, Natasha Lea; Colmer, Timothy David; Pedersen, Ole

    2014-01-01

    A combination of flooding and salinity is detrimental to most plants. We studied tolerance of complete submergence in saline water for Melilotus siculus, an annual legume with superhydrophobic leaf surfaces that retain gas films when under water. M. siculus survived complete submergence of 1 week...... at low salinity (up to 50 mol m(-3) NaCl), but did not recover following de-submergence from 100 mol m(-3) NaCl. The leaf gas films protected against direct salt ingress into the leaves when submerged in saline water, enabling underwater photosynthesis even after 3 d of complete submergence. By contrast......, leaves with the gas films experimentally removed suffered from substantial Na(+) and Cl(-) intrusion and lost the capacity for underwater photosynthesis. Similarly, plants in saline water and without gas films lost more K(+) than those with intact gas films. This study has demonstrated that leaf gas...

  10. Removal of nitrogen and phosphorus from dairy wastewater using constructed wetlands systems operating in batch

    Ronaldo Rocha Bastos

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the results of a study conducted for a period of seven months on the effectiveness of constructed wetland systems for the treatment of dairy wastewater aiming at removing, nitrogen and phosphorus. Six experimental systems were assembled with a net volume of 115 L using HDPE tanks, with length/width ratio of 2:1. In three of the systems, gravel 0 was used as substrate, while gravel 0 and sand was used in the three others, in the percentage of 80% and 20%, respectively. The systems were operated in batch cycles of 48 hours, applying 7.5 L of influent per cycle. Four of the experimental units were cultivated, and two kept as controls. The selected species chosen were the macrophytes, Typha domingensis and Hedychium coronarium. The removal efficiency concerning nitrogen compounds showed to be quite promising with values ranging from 29.4 to 73.4%, while phosphorus removal from the beds was lower, reaching efficiencies between 18.61 and 34.3%, considered good values, since the removal of these substances is quite difficult through conventional treatment.

  11. Comparison of some characteristics of aerobic granules and sludge flocs from sequencing batch reactors.

    Li, J; Garny, K; Neu, T; He, M; Lindenblatt, C; Horn, H

    2007-01-01

    Physical, chemical and biological characteristics were investigated for aerobic granules and sludge flocs from three laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactors (SBRs). One reactor was operated as normal SBR (N-SBR) and two reactors were operated as granular SBRs (G-SBR1 and G-SBR2). G-SBR1 was inoculated with activated sludge and G-SBR2 with granules from the municipal wastewater plant in Garching (Germany). The following major parameters and functions were measured and compared between the three reactors: morphology, settling velocity, specific gravity (SG), sludge volume index (SVI), specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR), distribution of the volume fraction of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and bacteria, organic carbon and nitrogen removal. Compared with sludge flocs, granular sludge had excellent settling properties, good solid-liquid separation, high biomass concentration, simultaneous nitrification and denitrification. Aerobic granular sludge does not have a higher microbial activity and there are some problems including higher effluent suspended solids, lower ratio of VSS/SS and no nitrification at the beginning of cultivation. Measurement with CLSM and additional image analysis showed that EPS glycoconjugates build one main fraction inside the granules. The aerobic granules from G-SBR1 prove to be heavier, smaller and have a higher microbial activity compared with G-SBR2. Furthermore, the granules were more compact, with lower SVI and less filamentous bacteria.

  12. Phenylhydrazines in the cultivated mushroom (Agaricus bisporus)

    Andersson, H. C.; Gry, Jørn

    2004-01-01

    In 1991, the Nordic Working Group on Food Toxicology and Risk Evaluation (NNT) reviewed the available data on phenylhydrazines naturally occurring in the cultivated mushroom. It was concluded that the mushroom may contain about 500 mg of the hydrazine derivatives per kg fresh weight. The hydrazine...... derivatives as well as extracts of the cultivated mushroom were mutagenic to a variable degree in most of the reported short-term tests. The raw mushroom and several of the hydrazines induced tumours when administered to Swiss mice as reported by American scientists. However, reservations were expressed...... as to the design of the studies. Based on this review, and due to the concern expressed, a Nordic project (coordinated by Jørn Gry, Danish Veterinary and Food Administration) was initiated dealing with toxicological and chemical studies on the cultivated mushroom and its phenylhydrazine derivatives in order...

  13. Zeolites as possible biofortifiers in Maitake cultivation

    Vunduk Jovana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The levels of Ni, Cu and Mg in Grifola frondosa (also known as Maitake mushroom fruit body produced on zeolite Minazel Plus (MG-supplemented substrate were measured with inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES. Two different concentrations of MG were added to the substrate for mushroom cultivation. Levels of selected metals were measured in cultivated dry carpophores. The content of Ni increased in fruit bodies produced on supplemented substrate, while in case of Cu, a pronounced decrease was observed. When two different concentrations of MG were implemented, the Mg level showed both positive and negative trend, depending on the applied concentration of zeolite. MG in a concentration of 1% showed the strongest influence on the observed elements in the cultivated fruiting body of Maitake mushroom. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 46010

  14. Adaptation to high throughput batch chromatography enhances multivariate screening.

    Barker, Gregory A; Calzada, Joseph; Herzer, Sibylle; Rieble, Siegfried

    2015-09-01

    High throughput process development offers unique approaches to explore complex process design spaces with relatively low material consumption. Batch chromatography is one technique that can be used to screen chromatographic conditions in a 96-well plate. Typical batch chromatography workflows examine variations in buffer conditions or comparison of multiple resins in a given process, as opposed to the assessment of protein loading conditions in combination with other factors. A modification to the batch chromatography paradigm is described here where experimental planning, programming, and a staggered loading approach increase the multivariate space that can be explored with a liquid handling system. The iterative batch chromatography (IBC) approach is described, which treats every well in a 96-well plate as an individual experiment, wherein protein loading conditions can be varied alongside other factors such as wash and elution buffer conditions. As all of these factors are explored in the same experiment, the interactions between them are characterized and the number of follow-up confirmatory experiments is reduced. This in turn improves statistical power and throughput. Two examples of the IBC method are shown and the impact of the load conditions are assessed in combination with the other factors explored. Copyright © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Control of polymer network topology in semi-batch systems

    Wang, Rui; Olsen, Bradley; Johnson, Jeremiah

    Polymer networks invariably possess topological defects: loops of different orders. Since small loops (primary loops and secondary loops) both lower the modulus of network and lead to stress concentration that causes material failure at low deformation, it is desirable to greatly reduce the loop fraction. We have shown that achieving loop fraction close to zero is extremely difficult in the batch process due to the slow decay of loop fraction with the polymer concentration and chain length. Here, we develop a modified kinetic graph theory that can model network formation reactions in semi-batch systems. We demonstrate that the loop fraction is not sensitive to the feeding policy if the reaction volume maintains constant during the network formation. However, if we initially put concentrated solution of small junction molecules in the reactor and continuously adding polymer solutions, the fractions of both primary loop and higher-order loops will be significantly reduced. There is a limiting value (nonzero) of loop fraction that can be achieved in the semi-batch system in condition of extremely slow feeding rate. This minimum loop fraction only depends on a single dimensionless variable, the product of concentration and with single chain pervaded volume, and defines an operating zone in which the loop fraction of polymer networks can be controlled through adjusting the feeding rate of the semi-batch process.

  16. State and parameter estimation in biotechnical batch reactors

    Keesman, K.J.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper the problem of state and parameter estimation in biotechnical batch reactors is considered. Models describing the biotechnical process behaviour are usually nonlinear with time-varying parameters. Hence, the resulting large dimensions of the augmented state vector, roughly > 7, in

  17. Batch distillation column modeling for quality control program

    Betlem, Bernardus H.L.

    2000-01-01

    For batch distillation, the dynamic composition behaviour can be described by the dominant time constant and the bottom exhaustion. Its magnitude is determined by the change of the composition distribution and is maximal when the inflection point of the molar fraction profile is located in the

  18. Sequencing for Batch Production in a Group Flowline Machine Shop ...

    The purpose of the paper is to develop a useful technique for sequencing batches of components through machine shops arranged under the group flowline production system. The approach is to apply a modified version of Petrov's group flowline technique for machining components which follow a unidirectional route.

  19. Quality control for 12 batch of DTPA-Sn

    Isaac, M.; Gamboa, R.; Leyva, R.; Hernandez, I.; Turino, D.

    1994-01-01

    The quality control is carry out at 12 batch of DTPA-Sn for labeling with 99 m Tc. The instrumental methods of analysis and control charts were discussed in order to find a warranty time for the product. (author). 2 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  20. Flash chemistry: flow chemistry that cannot be done in batch.

    Yoshida, Jun-ichi; Takahashi, Yusuke; Nagaki, Aiichiro

    2013-11-04

    Flash chemistry based on high-resolution reaction time control using flow microreactors enables chemical reactions that cannot be done in batch and serves as a powerful tool for laboratory synthesis of organic compounds and for production in chemical and pharmaceutical industries.

  1. Adsorption of Arsenite onto Kemiron in a batch system

    doti

    This study investigated the effect of pH and coexisting ions on As(III) adsorption using batch experiment and discovered that pH strongly influenced As(III) adsorption. However, differences ... contamination by such heavy metals as arsenic (As). Arsenite ..... and then transition through point of zero charge (PZC) and then into ...

  2. Development of Production Control in Small Batch Production

    Németh Péter

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Our aim with this paper is to develop a new performance measurement and control system for small batch production in the automotive industry. For this reason, we present our previous research results for warehouse performance measurement and adopt its methodology to production control. The proposed method is based on artificial intelligence (neural networks.

  3. Shell of Planet Earth – Global Batch Bioreactor.

    Hanika, Jiří; Šolcová, Olga; Kaštánek, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 11 (2017), s. 1959-1965 ISSN 0930-7516 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TE01020080 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : critical raw materials * global batch bioreactor * planet earth Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering OBOR OECD: Chemical process engineering Impact factor: 2.051, year: 2016

  4. Design of common heat exchanger network for batch processes

    Anastasovski, Aleksandar

    2014-01-01

    Heat integration of energy streams is very important for the efficient energy recovery in production systems. Pinch technology is a very useful tool for heat integration and maximizing energy efficiency. Creating of heat exchangers network as a common solution for systems in batch mode that will be applicable in all existing time slices is very difficult. This paper suggests a new methodology for design of common heat exchanger network for batch processes. Heat exchanger network designs were created for all determined repeatable and non-repeatable time periods – time slices. They are the basis for creating the common heat exchanger network. The common heat exchanger network as solution, satisfies all heat-transfer needs for each time period and for every existing combination of selected streams in the production process. This methodology use split of some heat exchangers into two or more heat exchange units or heat exchange zones. The reason for that is the multipurpose use of heat exchangers between different pairs of streams in different time periods. Splitting of large heat exchangers would maximize the total heat transfer usage of heat exchange units. Final solution contains heat exchangers with the minimum heat load as well as the minimum need of heat transfer area. The solution is applicable for all determined time periods and all existing stream combinations. - Highlights: •Methodology for design of energy efficient systems in batch processes. •Common Heat Exchanger Network solution based on designs with Pinch technology. •Multipurpose use of heat exchangers in batch processes

  5. A fixed-size batch service queue with vacations

    Ho Woo Lee

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with batch service queues with vacations in which customers arrive according to a Poisson process. Decomposition method is used to derive the queue length distributions both for single and multiple vacation cases. The authors look at other decomposition techniques and discuss some related open problems.

  6. Optimization of heat-liberating batches for ash residue stabilization

    Karlina, O.K.; Varlackova, G.A.; Ojovan, M.I.; Tivansky, V.M.; Dmitriev, S.A.

    1999-01-01

    The ash residue obtained after incineration of solid radioactive waste is a dusting poly-dispersed powder like material that contains radioactive nuclides ( 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 239 Pu, hor ( ellipsis)). Specific radioactivity of the ash can be about 10 5 --10 7 Bq/kg. In order to dispose of the ash, residue shall be stabilized by producing a monolith material. The ash residue can be either vitrified or stabilized into a ceramic matrix. For this purpose the ash residue is mixed with fluxing agents followed by melting of obtained composition in the different type melters. As a rule this requires both significant energy consumption and complex melting equipment. A stabilization technology of ash residue was proposed recently by using heat liberating batches-compositions with redox properties. The ash residue is melted due to exothermic chemical reactions in the mixture with heat-liberating batch that occur with considerable release of heat. Stabilization method has three stages: (1) preparation of a mixture of heating batch and ash residue with or without glass forming batch (frit); (2) ignition and combustion of mixed composition; (3) cooling (quenching) of obtained vitreous material. Combustion of mixed composition occurs in the form of propagation of reacting wave. The heat released during exothermic chemical reactions provides melting of ash residue components and production of glass-like phase. The final product consists of a glass like matrix with embedded crystalline inclusions of infusible ash residue components

  7. Comparative Batch and Column Evaluation of Thermal and Wet ...

    The efficiency of regenerated spent commercial activated carbon for synthetic dye removal was studied using thermal and wet oxidative regeneration methods. Two types of experiments were carried out, batch adsorption experiments and continous flow (fixed bed) column experiment to study the mechanism of dye removal ...

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF AN AUTOMATED BATCH-PROCESS SOLAR ...

    One of the shortcomings of solar disinfection of water (SODIS) is the absence of a feedback mechanism indicating treatment completion. This work presents the development of an automated batch-process water disinfection system aimed at solving this challenge. Locally sourced materials in addition to an Arduinomicro ...

  9. Batch immunoextraction method for efficient purification of aromatic cytokinins

    Hauserová, Eva; Swaczynová, Jana; Doležal, Karel; Lenobel, René; Popa, Igor; Hajdúch, M.; Vydra, D.; Fuksová, Květoslava; Strnad, Miroslav

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 1100, č. 1 (2005), s. 116-125 ISSN 0021-9673 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS4055304 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511; MSM6198959216 Keywords : antibody * 6-benzylaminopurine * batch immunoextraction Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 3.096, year: 2005

  10. Tier 3 batch system data locality via managed caches

    Fischer, Max; Giffels, Manuel; Jung, Christopher; Kühn, Eileen; Quast, Günter

    2015-05-01

    Modern data processing increasingly relies on data locality for performance and scalability, whereas the common HEP approaches aim for uniform resource pools with minimal locality, recently even across site boundaries. To combine advantages of both, the High- Performance Data Analysis (HPDA) Tier 3 concept opportunistically establishes data locality via coordinated caches. In accordance with HEP Tier 3 activities, the design incorporates two major assumptions: First, only a fraction of data is accessed regularly and thus the deciding factor for overall throughput. Second, data access may fallback to non-local, making permanent local data availability an inefficient resource usage strategy. Based on this, the HPDA design generically extends available storage hierarchies into the batch system. Using the batch system itself for scheduling file locality, an array of independent caches on the worker nodes is dynamically populated with high-profile data. Cache state information is exposed to the batch system both for managing caches and scheduling jobs. As a result, users directly work with a regular, adequately sized storage system. However, their automated batch processes are presented with local replications of data whenever possible.

  11. modelling and simulation of the batch hydrolysis of acetic ing

    eobe

    The kinetic modelling of the batch synthesis of acetic acid from acetic. The kinetic modelling of ... integral method of analysis to determine the kinetic parameters .... Equation (5) is applied to all the components ... In common chemical engineering terminology, the degree of ..... of Physical Organic Chemistry, Vol. 25, Number ...

  12. Comparison of neptunium sorption results using batch and column techniques

    Triay, I.R.; Furlano, A.C.; Weaver, S.C.; Chipera, S.J.; Bish, D.L.

    1996-08-01

    We used crushed-rock columns to study the sorption retardation of neptunium by zeolitic, devitrified, and vitric tuffs typical of those at the site of the potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. We used two sodium bicarbonate waters (groundwater from Well J-13 at the site and water prepared to simulate groundwater from Well UE-25p No. 1) under oxidizing conditions. It was found that values of the sorption distribution coefficient, Kd, obtained from these column experiments under flowing conditions, regardless of the water or the water velocity used, agreed well with those obtained earlier from batch sorption experiments under static conditions. The batch sorption distribution coefficient can be used to predict the arrival time for neptunium eluted through the columns. On the other hand, the elution curves showed dispersivity, which implies that neptunium sorption in these tuffs may be nonlinear, irreversible, or noninstantaneous. As a result, use of a batch sorption distribution coefficient to calculate neptunium transport through Yucca Mountain tuffs would yield conservative values for neptunium release from the site. We also noted that neptunium (present as the anionic neptunyl carbonate complex) never eluted prior to tritiated water, which implies that charge exclusion does not appear to exclude neptunium from the tuff pores. The column experiments corroborated the trends observed in batch sorption experiments: neptunium sorption onto devitrified and vitric tuffs is minimal and sorption onto zeolitic tuffs decreases as the amount of sodium and bicarbonate/carbonate in the water increases

  13. Characterization and cultivation of Psilocybe barrerae

    E. Montiel; J. C. Barragán; I. Tello; V. M. Mora; I. León; D. Martínez

    2008-01-01

    A strain of Psilocybe barrerae (Strophariaceae) was isolated, characterized, and cultivated under laboratory conditions. Mycelial colonies were white to off-white, showing average growth rates of 3.9 mm/day on potato dextrose agar (PDA) and 3.6 mm/day on corn meal agar (CMA). The production of biomass varied from 0.2872 g dry weight/L/day (CMA) to 0.1353 g dry weight/L/day (PDA). One flush of fruit bodies, cultivated on a mixture of sand and compost as substrate, was produced reaching a biolo...

  14. Microgravity cultivation of cells and tissues

    Freed, L. E.; Pellis, N.; Searby, N.; de Luis, J.; Preda, C.; Bordonaro, J.; Vunjak-Novakovic, G.

    1999-01-01

    In vitro studies of cells and tissues in microgravity, either simulated by cultivation conditions on earth or actual, during spaceflight, are expected to help identify mechanisms underlying gravity sensing and transduction in biological organisms. In this paper, we review rotating bioreactor studies of engineered skeletal and cardiovascular tissues carried out in unit gravity, a four month long cartilage tissue engineering study carried out aboard the Mir Space Station, and the ongoing laboratory development and testing of a system for cell and tissue cultivation aboard the International Space Station.

  15. Identification of the submergence tolerance QTL Come Quick Drowning1 (CGD1) in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Akman, Melis; Kleine, Rogier; Tienderen, van Peter H.; Schranz, Eric M.

    2017-01-01

    Global climate change is predicted to increase water precipitation fluctuations and lead to localized prolonged floods in agricultural fields and natural plant communities. Thus, understanding the genetic basis of submergence tolerance is crucial in order to improve plant survival under these

  16. Conidiation of Neurospora crassa induced by treatment with natrium fluoride in submerged culture

    Timberlake, W E; Turian, G

    1975-01-01

    A transient treatment of pregerminated conidia of Neurospora crassa with NaF induced young, submerged cultures to prematurely differentiate conidia. The inductive treatment decreased the rate of respiration (with lower RQ), reduced the relative concentration of nucleoside triphosphates, and inhibited leucine incorporation into protein and adenosine incorporation into RNA.

  17. Acclimation of a terrestrial plant to submergence facilitates gas exchange under water

    Mommer, L.; Pedersen, O.; Visser, E.J.W.

    2004-01-01

    Flooding imposes stress upon terrestrial plants since it severely hampers gas exchange rates between the shoot and the environment. The resulting oxygen deficiency is considered to be the major problem for submerged plants. Oxygen microelectrode studies have, however, shown that aquatic plants

  18. Photosynthetic consequences of phenotypic plasticity in response to submergence: Rumex palustris as a case study

    Mommer, L.; Pons, T.L.; Visser, E.J.W.

    2006-01-01

    Survival and growth of terrestrial plants is negatively affected by complete submergence. This is mainly the result of hampered gas exchange between plants and their environment, since gas diffusion is severely reduced in water compared with air, resulting in O2 deficits which limit aerobic

  19. The mechanism of improved aeration due to gas films on leaves of submerged rice.

    Verboven, Pieter; Pedersen, Ole; Ho, Quang Tri; Nicolai, Bart M; Colmer, Timothy D

    2014-10-01

    Some terrestrial wetland plants, such as rice, have super-hydrophobic leaf surfaces which retain a gas film when submerged. O2 movement through the diffusive boundary layer (DBL) of floodwater, gas film and stomata into leaf mesophyll was explored by means of a reaction-diffusion model that was solved in a three-dimensional leaf anatomy model. The anatomy and dark respiration of leaves of rice (Oryza sativa L.) were measured and used to compute O2 fluxes and partial pressure of O2 (pO2 ) in the DBL, gas film and leaf when submerged. The effects of floodwater pO2 , DBL thickness, cuticle permeability, presence of gas film and stomatal opening were explored. Under O2 -limiting conditions of the bulk water (pO2  gas film significantly increases the O2 flux into submerged leaves regardless of whether stomata are fully or partly open. With a gas film, tissue pO2 substantially increases, even for the slightest stomatal opening, but not when stomata are completely closed. The effect of gas films increases with decreasing cuticle permeability. O2 flux and tissue pO2 decrease with increasing DBL thickness. The present modelling analysis provides a mechanistic understanding of how leaf gas films facilitate O2 entry into submerged plants. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. The structuring role of submerged macrophytes in a large subtropical shallow lake

    Finkler Ferreira, Tiago; Crossetti, Luciane O.; Motta Marques, David M.L.; Cardoso, Luciana; Fragoso, Carlos Ruberto; Nes, van Egbert H.

    2018-01-01

    It is well known that submerged macrophytes exert positive feedback effects that enhance the water transparency, stabilizing the clear-water state in shallow temperate lakes. However, the structuring effect of macrophytes on the food web of subtropical and tropical ecosystems is still poorly