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Sample records for submaximal exercise levels

  1. The Impact of a Submaximal Level of Exercise on Balance Performance in Older Persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of a submaximal level of exercise on balance performance under a variety of conditions. Material and Method. Thirteen community-dwelling older persons with intact foot sensation (age = 66.69 ± 8.17 years, BMI = 24.65 ± 4.08 kg/m2, female, n = 6) volunteered to participate. Subjects' balance performances were measured using the Modified Clinical Test of Sensory Integration of Balance (mCTSIB) at baseline and after test, under four conditions of stance: (1) eyes-opened firm-surface (EOF), (2) eyes-closed firm-surface (ECF), (3) eyes-opened soft-surface (EOS), and (4) eyes-closed soft-surface (ECS). The 6-minute walk test (6MWT) protocol was used to induce the submaximal level of exercise. Data was analyzed using the Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Test. Results. Balance changes during EOF (z = 0.00, P = 1.00) and ECF (z = −1.342, P = 0.180) were not significant. However, balance changes during EOS (z = −2.314, P = 0.021) and ECS (z = −3.089, P = 0.02) were significantly dropped after the 6MWT. Conclusion. A submaximal level of exercise may influence sensory integration that in turn affects balance performance, particularly on an unstable surface. Rehabilitation should focus on designing intervention that may improve sensory integration among older individuals with balance deterioration in order to encourage functional activities. PMID:25383386

  2. The effect of submaximal exercise on fibrinolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fras, Zlatko; Keber, Dusan; Chandler, Wayne L

    2004-04-01

    We studied the relationship between sustained submaximal exercise, increased tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) levels and decreased hepatic clearance of t-PA. Six healthy male volunteers exercised for 35 min while receiving constant rate infusions of either saline or two different doses of recombinant t-PA for 90 min (40 min before, 35 min during and 15 min after exercise). Liver blood flow was estimated simultaneously by constant rate indocyanine green infusion. Since t-PA is cleared rapidly by the liver in direct proportion to liver blood flow, it was expected that a significant decrease in liver blood flow during sustained submaximal exercise would be associated with a proportional increase in plasma t-PA. During submaximal exercise with a saline (placebo) infusion, steady-state t-PA antigen increased from a resting baseline of 6.3 +/- 3.1 to 15.1 +/- 5.1 ng/ml; with a 20 microg/min t-PA infusion, t-PA antigen increased from 33 +/- 12 to 84 +/- 25 ng/ml during exercise; and with a 40 microg/min t-PA infusion, t-PA antigen increased from 77 +/- 38 to 166 +/- 42 ng/ml during exercise. During submaximal exercise, liver blood flow fell on average 71, 68 and 70%, respectively, during the three procedures, while calculated t-PA clearance decreased on average 59, 59 and 53%. t-PA concentration versus time curves, displayed in proportional units, were similar. The comparable relative increases in endogenous and exogenous t-PA with simultaneous proportional decreases in liver blood flow suggests that diminished hepatic t-PA clearance is the major cause of increased t-PA concentration and blood fibrinolytic activity enhancement during sustained submaximal exercise.

  3. Prolonged submaximal eccentric exercise is associated with increased levels of plasma IL-6

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Thomas; MacLean, D A; Richter, Erik

    1997-01-01

    To study the relationship between exercise-related muscle proteolysis and the cytokine response, a prolonged eccentric exercise model of one leg was used. Subjects performed two trials [a branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) supplementation and a control trial]. The release of amino acids from muscle...... during and after the eccentric exercise was decreased in the BCAA trial, suggesting a suppression of net muscle protein degradation. The plasma concentrations of interleukin (IL)-6 increased from 0.75 +/- 0.19 (preexercise) to 5.02 +/- 0.96 pg/ml (2 h postexercise) in the control trial and in the BCAA...... supplementation trial from 1.07 +/- 0.41 to 4.15 +/- 1.21 pg/ml. Eccentric exercise had no effect on the concentrations of neutrophils, lymphocytes, CD16+/CD56+, CD4+, CD8+, CD14+/CD38+, lymphocyte proliferative response, or cytotoxic activities. BCAA supplementation reduced the concentration of CD14+/CD38+ cells...

  4. Cardiovascular responses during a submaximal exercise test in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speelman, Arlène D; Groothuis, Jan T; van Nimwegen, Marlies; van der Scheer, Ellis S; Borm, George F; Bloem, Bastiaan R; Hopman, Maria T E; Munneke, Marten

    2012-01-01

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) are physically less active than controls, and autonomic dysfunction may contribute to this sedentary lifestyle. Specifically, an altered cardiovascular response to physical effort may restrict physical activities. To assess the cardiovascular responses to a submaximal exercise test in PD patients and controls, 546 sedentary PD patients and 29 sedentary healthy controls performed the Åstrand-Rhyming submaximal cycle exercise test. Average heart rate was used to estimate maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max). Variables that may affect submaximal activity in PD patients, including disease severity, fatigue, and level of physical activity in daily life, were recorded. Fewer PD patients (46%) completed the submaximal exercise test successfully than the controls (86%). The estimated VO2max of patients with a successful test was 34% lower than the controls (p physical activities further.

  5. Recruitment of single muscle fibers during submaximal cycling exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altenburg, T.M.; Degens, H.; van Mechelen, W.; Sargeant, A.J.; de Haan, A.

    2007-01-01

    In literature, an inconsistency exists in the submaximal exercise intensity at which type II fibers are activated. In the present study, the recruitment of type I and II fibers was investigated from the very beginning and throughout a 45-min cycle exercise at 75% of the maximal oxygen uptake, which

  6. THE INFLUENCE OF OBESITY AND AMBIENT TEMPERATURE ON PHYSIOLOGICAL AND OXIDATIVE RESPONSES TO SUBMAXIMAL EXERCISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ahn

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of obesity and ambient temperature on physiological responses and markers of oxidative stress to submaximal exercise in obese and lean people. Sixteen healthy males were divided into an obese group (n=8, %fat: 27.00±3.00% and a lean group (n=8, %fat: 13.85±2.45%. Study variables were measured during a 60 min submaximal exercise test at 60% VO2max in a neutral (21±1°C and a cold (4±1°C environment. Heart rate, blood lactate, rectal temperature, serum levels of malondialdehyde (MDA and superoxide dismutase (SOD were measured at rest, during exercise and in recovery. Heart rate of both groups was significantly lower (P<0.05 in the cold than the warm environment, but there were no significant differences between the two groups. Serum SOD activity increased to a significantly greater extent (P<0.05 in the cold than the neutral environment, and remained elevated for longer during exercise in the obese group than the lean group. Serum MDA level during submaximal exercise was not significantly different between conditions or groups. Cold stress in exercise may challenge antioxidant defence mechanisms in obese subjects, but lipid peroxidation remains unchanged.

  7. Iron Status in Chronic Heart Failure: Impact on Symptoms, Functional Class and Submaximal Exercise Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enjuanes, Cristina; Bruguera, Jordi; Grau, María; Cladellas, Mercé; Gonzalez, Gina; Meroño, Oona; Moliner-Borja, Pedro; Verdú, José M; Farré, Nuria; Comín-Colet, Josep

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the effect of iron deficiency and anemia on submaximal exercise capacity in patients with chronic heart failure. We undertook a single-center cross-sectional study in a group of stable patients with chronic heart failure. At recruitment, patients provided baseline information and completed a 6-minute walk test to evaluate submaximal exercise capacity and exercise-induced symptoms. At the same time, blood samples were taken for serological evaluation. Iron deficiency was defined as ferritin < 100 ng/mL or transferrin saturation < 20% when ferritin is < 800 ng/mL. Additional markers of iron status were also measured. A total of 538 heart failure patients were eligible for inclusion, with an average age of 71 years and 33% were in New York Heart Association class III/IV. The mean distance walked in the test was 285 ± 101 meters among those with impaired iron status, vs 322 ± 113 meters (P=.002). Symptoms during the test were more frequent in iron deficiency patients (35% vs 27%; P=.028) and the most common symptom reported was fatigue. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that increased levels of soluble transferrin receptor indicating abnormal iron status were independently associated with advanced New York Heart Association class (P < .05). Multivariable analysis using generalized additive models, soluble transferrin receptor and ferritin index, both biomarkers measuring iron status, showed a significant, independent and linear association with submaximal exercise capacity (P=.03 for both). In contrast, hemoglobin levels were not significantly associated with 6-minute walk test distance in the multivariable analysis. In patients with chronic heart failure, iron deficiency but not anemia was associated with impaired submaximal exercise capacity and symptomatic functional limitation. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Reliability of oscillometric central blood pressure responses to submaximal exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Weijie; Faulkner, James; Lambrick, Danielle; Stoner, Lee

    2016-06-01

    Central blood pressure responses to exercise may provide clinicians with a superior diagnostic and prognostic tool. However, to be of value in a clinical setting these assessments must be simple to conduct and reliable. Using oscillometric pulse wave analysis (PWA), determine the upper limit for between-day reliability of central SBP (cSBP) and central pressure augmentation (AIx) responses to three progressive stages of submaximal exercise in a cohort of young, healthy participants. Fifteen healthy males [25.8 years (SD 5.7), 23.9 kg/m (SD 2.5)] were tested on three different mornings in a fasted state, separated by a maximum of 14 days. Central hemodynamic variables were assessed on the left upper arm. Participants underwent three progressive stages of submaximal cycling at 50 W (low), 100 W (moderate) and 150 W (moderate-hard). During low and moderate-intensity exercise the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) values for cSBP (0.79-0.80) and AIx (0.81-0.85) indicated excellent reliability (ICC > 0.75). For the moderate-hard intensity AIx could not be computed, and the ICC for cSBP was adequate (0.72). Findings from this study suggest that, at least in a young, healthy cohort, oscillometric PWA can be used to reliably assess central blood pressure measurements during exercise, up to a moderate intensity. Although further work is required to verify these findings in clinical cohorts, these measurements may potentially provide clinicians with a practical option for obtaining important hemodynamic information beyond that provided by resting peripheral blood pressure.

  9. Acclimatization improves submaximal exercise economy at 5533 m.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latshang, T D; Turk, A J; Hess, T; Schoch, O D; Bosch, M M; Barthelmes, D; Merz, T M; Hefti, U; Hefti, J Pichler; Maggiorini, M; Bloch, K E

    2013-08-01

    We tested whether the better subjective exercise tolerance perceived by mountaineers after altitude acclimatization relates to enhanced exercise economy. Thirty-two mountaineers performed progressive bicycle exercise to exhaustion at 490 m and twice at 5533 m (days 6-7 and day 11), respectively, during an expedition to Mt. Muztagh Ata. Maximal work rate (W(max)) decreased from mean ± SD 356 ± 73 watts at 490 m to 191 ± 49 watts and 193 ± 45 watts at 5533 m, days 6-7 and day 11, respectively; corresponding maximal oxygen uptakes (VO2max ) were 50.7 ± 9.5, 26.3 ± 5.6, 24.7 ± 7.0 mL/min/kg (P = 0.0001 5533 m vs 490 m). On days 6-7 (5533 m), VO(2) at 75% W(max) (152 ± 37 watts) was 1.75 ± 0.45 L/min, oxygen saturation 68 ± 8%. On day 11 (5533 m), at the same submaximal work rate, VO(2) was lower (1.61 ± 0.47 L/min, P scale 50 ± 15 vs 57 ± 20, P = 0.006) and reduced symptoms of acute mountain sickness. We conclude that the better performance and subjective exercise tolerance after acclimatization were related to regression of acute mountain sickness and improved submaximal exercise economy because of lower metabolic demands for non-external work-performing functions. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Cardiac Autonomic Function during Submaximal Treadmill Exercise in Adults with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonca, Goncalo V.; Pereira, Fernando D.; Fernhall, Bo

    2011-01-01

    This study determined whether the cardiac autonomic function of adults with Down syndrome (DS) differs from that of nondisabled persons during submaximal dynamic exercise. Thirteen participants with DS and 12 nondisabled individuals performed maximal and submaximal treadmill tests with metabolic and heart rate (HR) measurements. Spectral analysis…

  11. Effect of the Canadian Air Force training programme on a submaximal exercise test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappagoda, C T; Linden, R J; Newell, J P

    1979-07-01

    Validation of the submaximal heart rate/oxygen consumption relationship as an index of 'cardiorespiratory fitness' requires the demonstration of systematic alterations in this relationship concomitant with interventions designed to alter physical fitness. To fulfil those criteria a longitudinal training/de-training study was undertaken. Previously sedentary adult subjects undertook the Canadian Airforce 5BX-XBX exercise programme. Submaximal exercise tests were performed before and after training, and following several weeks cessation of training. A regression line of submaximal heart rate on submaximal oxygen consumption was calculated from the data of each submaximal exercise test. Alterations in the regression lines were examined for each subject individually by testing statistically for difference in slope and elevation between any pair of lines. Subjects who undertook the training/de-training study demonstrated significant systematic alterations in the elevation of the regression lines concomitant with periods of training and de-training. The reproducibility of the submaximal heart rate/oxygen consumption relationship was examined in two additional groups of subjects. Group A repeated a submaximal test on 3 or 4 successive days; Group B were tested before and after 16 weeks of normal activity. Subjects in Group A demonstrated non significant, random alterations in the regression lines on repeated testing and subjects in Group B demonstrated random, though on occasion significant, alterations in the regression lines. The elevation of the submaximal heart rate/oxygen consumption relationship is therefore a valid index for detecting sequential changes in 'cardiorespiratory fitness' in individual subjects.

  12. The Effect of Acute Sub-Maximal Endurance Exercise on Serum Angiogenic Indices in Sedentary Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Ranjbar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Endurance training increases capillary density of skeletal muscle, but the molecular mechanism of this process is not yet clear. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of acute sub maximal endurance exercise on serum levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and matrix metaloproteinases 2 and 9 (MMP-2 and MMP-9 in sedentary men. Materials and Methods: Twelve healthy men (22.37±2.30 years, BMI=23.16 ±2.61 kg/mP 2 P participated in this study. Subjects exercised for 1h at 70% of VOR2R max, 3 days after the VOR2R max determination. Antecubital vein blood was collected at rest, immediately and 2h after the exercise. Serum VEGF, MMP-2 and MMP-9 were measured by ELISA methods5T. Results: Serum levels of VEGF and MMP-2 decreased immediately after the exercise. 2 hours after the exercise, serum levels of VEGF remained at a lower level but serum MMP-2 returned to its basal level. Also, serum levels of MMP-9 did not change significantly in response to exercise5T. Conclusion: Acute sub-maximal endurance exercise decreased the main factors involved in development of capillary density in sedentary men. This might to due to the fact that, sub maximal exercise could not provide the two main stimulating factors of angiogenesis, i.e. Shear stress and hypoxia. It could also be explained by the fact that the mechanism of development of capillary network following regular endurance training is different from that following an acute exercise5T.5T

  13. Altitude Acclimatization Attentuates Plasma Ammonia during Submaximal Exercise,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-05-01

    citrulline synthesis in rat liver mitochondria : The effect of ammonia and energy. Int. J. Biochem. 10:235-239, 1979. 14 9. Buono, M.J., T.R. Clancy, and J.R...Mole, P.A., L.B. Oscal, and J.0. Holloszy. Adaptation of muscle to exercise. Increase in levels of palmityl CoA synthetase, carnitine

  14. THE INFLUENCE OF OBESITY AND AMBIENT TEMPERATURE ON PHYSIOLOGICAL AND OXIDATIVE RESPONSES TO SUBMAXIMAL EXERCISE

    OpenAIRE

    Ahn, N.; Kim, K.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of obesity and ambient temperature on physiological responses and markers of oxidative stress to submaximal exercise in obese and lean people. Sixteen healthy males were divided into an obese group (n=8, %fat: 27.00±3.00%) and a lean group (n=8, %fat: 13.85±2.45%). Study variables were measured during a 60 min submaximal exercise test at 60% VO2max in a neutral (21±1°C) and a cold (4±1°C) environment. Heart rate, blood lactate, rectal temperature, serum lev...

  15. Variation in heart rate during submaximal exercise: Implications for monitoring training : Implications for monitoring training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamberts, R.P.; Lemmink, K.A.P.M.; Durandt, J.J.; Lambert, M.I.

    2004-01-01

    A change in heart rate at a controlled submaximal exercise intensity is used as a marker of training status. However, the standard error of measurement has not been studied systematically, and therefore a change in heart rate, which can be considered relevant, has not been determined. Forty-four

  16. Systolic blood pressure reactivity during submaximal exercise and acute psychological stress in youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Studies in youth show an association between systolic blood-pressure (SBP) reactivity to acute psychological stress and carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT). However, it has not yet been determined whether SBP reactivity during submaximal exercise is also associated with CIMT i...

  17. Application of "living high-training low" enhances cardiac function and skeletal muscle oxygenation during submaximal exercises in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hun-Young; Nam, Sang-Seok

    2017-03-31

    The aim of this study was to determine the efficiency of the application of living high-training low (LHTL) on cardiac function and skeletal muscle oxygenation during submaximal exercises compared with that of living low-training low (LLTL) in athletes. Male middle- and long-distance runners (n = 20) were randomly assigned into the LLTL group (n = 10, living at 1000-m altitude and training at 700-1330-m altitude) and the LHTL group (n = 10, living at simulated 3000-m altitude and training at 700-1330-m altitude). Their cardiac function and skeletal muscle oxygenation during submaximal exercises at sea level before and after training at each environmental condition were evaluated. There was a significant interaction only in the stroke volume (SV); however, the heart rate (HR), end-diastolic volume (EDV), and end-systolic volume (ESV) showed significant main effects within time; HR and SV significantly increased during training in the LHTL group compared with those in the LLTL group. EDV also significantly increased during training in both groups; however, the LHTL group had a higher increase than the LLTL group. ESV significantly increased during training in the LLTL group. There was no significant difference in the ejection fraction and cardiac output. The skeletal muscle oxygen profiles had no significant differences but improved in the LHTL group compared with those in the LLTL group. LHTL can yield favorable effects on cardiac function by improving the HR, SV, EDV, and ESV during submaximal exercises compared with LLTL in athletes.

  18. Comparing the Effects of Rest and Massage on Return to Homeostasis Following Submaximal Aerobic Exercise: a Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, Portia B

    2016-03-01

    Postexercise massage can be used to help promote recovery from exercise on the cellular level, as well as systemically by increasing parasympathetic activity. No studies to date have been done to assess the effects of massage on postexercise metabolic changes, including excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC). The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of massage recovery and resting recovery on a subject's heart rate variability and selected metabolic effects following a submaximal treadmill exercise session. One healthy 24-year-old female subject performed 30 minutes of submaximal treadmill exercise prior to resting or massage recovery sessions. Metabolic data were collected throughout the exercise sessions and at three 10 minute intervals postexercise. Heart rate variability was evaluated for 10 minutes after each of two 30-minute recovery sessions, either resting or massage. Heart rate returned to below resting levels (73 bpm) with 30 and 60 minutes of massage recovery (72 bpm and 63 bpm, respectively) compared to 30 and 60 minutes of resting recovery (77 bpm and 74 bpm, respectively). Heart rate variability data showed a more immediate shift to the parasympathetic state following 30 minutes of massage (1.152 LF/HF ratio) versus the 30-minute resting recovery (6.91 LF/HF ratio). It took 60 minutes of resting recovery to reach similar heart rate variability levels (1.216 LF/HF) found after 30 minutes of massage. Ventilations after 30 minutes of massage recovery averaged 7.1 bpm compared to 17.9 bpm after 30 minutes of resting recovery. No differences in EPOC were observed through either the resting or massage recovery based on the metabolic data collected. Massage was used to help the subject shift into parasympathetic activity more quickly than rest alone following a submaximal exercise session.

  19. Comparing the Effects of Rest and Massage on Return to Homeostasis Following Submaximal Aerobic Exercise: a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, Portia B.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Postexercise massage can be used to help promote recovery from exercise on the cellular level, as well as systemically by increasing parasympathetic activity. No studies to date have been done to assess the effects of massage on postexercise metabolic changes, including excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC). The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of massage recovery and resting recovery on a subject’s heart rate variability and selected metabolic effects following a submaximal treadmill exercise session. Methods One healthy 24-year-old female subject performed 30 minutes of submaximal treadmill exercise prior to resting or massage recovery sessions. Metabolic data were collected throughout the exercise sessions and at three 10 minute intervals postexercise. Heart rate variability was evaluated for 10 minutes after each of two 30-minute recovery sessions, either resting or massage. Results Heart rate returned to below resting levels (73 bpm) with 30 and 60 minutes of massage recovery (72 bpm and 63 bpm, respectively) compared to 30 and 60 minutes of resting recovery (77 bpm and 74 bpm, respectively). Heart rate variability data showed a more immediate shift to the parasympathetic state following 30 minutes of massage (1.152 LF/HF ratio) versus the 30-minute resting recovery (6.91 LF/HF ratio). It took 60 minutes of resting recovery to reach similar heart rate variability levels (1.216 LF/HF) found after 30 minutes of massage. Ventilations after 30 minutes of massage recovery averaged 7.1 bpm compared to 17.9 bpm after 30 minutes of resting recovery. Conclusions No differences in EPOC were observed through either the resting or massage recovery based on the metabolic data collected. Massage was used to help the subject shift into parasympathetic activity more quickly than rest alone following a submaximal exercise session. PMID:26977215

  20. Prognostic value of treadmill stress echocardiography at extremes of exercise performance: submaximal high exercise capacity ≥ 10 metabolic equivalents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Siu-Sun; Agarwal, Vikram; Chaudhry, Farooq A

    2014-03-01

    Submaximal stress testing or achieving High exercise capacity (≥ 10 metabolic equivalents, METS) is a predictor of favorable prognosis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of submaximal or high exercise capacity stress echocardiography. We evaluated 1781 patients (55 ± 13 years; 59% male) undergoing treadmill stress echocardiography divided into 811 patients with submaximal (high exercise capacity (≥ 10 METS). Resting left ventricular ejection fraction and regional wall motion were assessed. The left ventricle was divided into 16 segments and scored on 5-point scale of wall motion. Abnormal stress echocardiography was defined as stress-induced ischemia (wall-motion score of ≥ 1 grade). Follow-up (3.3 ± 1.5 years) for nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI) (n = 40) and cardiac death (n = 52) were obtained. By univariate analysis, echocardiographic variables of ejection fraction, peak wall-motion score index (WMSI) and number of new ischemic wall-motion abnormalities were significant predictors of cardiac events. Cumulative survival was significantly worse in patients with abnormal (ischemic) versus normal (nonischemic) stress echocardiography in submaximal (4.4%/year vs. 1.3%/year, P high exercise capacity (1.5%/year vs. 0.2%/year, P high exercise capacity studies. © 2013, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. The Usefulness of Submaximal Exercise Gas Exchange in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension: A Case Series

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    Paul R. Woods

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Submaximal exercise gas exchange may be a useful tool to track responses to therapy in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH patients. Methods Three patients diagnosed with idiopathic PAH, on differing therapies, were included. Standard clinical tests (echocardiography; 6 minute walk were performed pre and 3-5 months after treatment. Gas exchange was measured during 3 minutes of step exercise at both time points. Results Gas exchange variables, end tidal CO 2 (P ET CO 2 and the ratio of ventilation to CO 2 production (V E /VCO 2 , during submaximal exercise were able to track patient responses to therapy over a 3-5 month period. Two patients demonstrated positive improvements, with an increased P ET CO 2 and decreased V E /VCO 2 during light exercise, in response to an altered therapeutic regime. The third patient had a worsening of gas exchange (decreased P ET CO 2 and increased V E /VCO 2 following no changes in the medical regime from the baseline visit. Conclusion Gas exchange variables measured during light submaximal exercise, such as P ET CO 2 and V E /VCO 2 , may be able to better detect small changes in functional status following treatment and could, therefore, be a useful tool to track disease severity in PAH patients. Further study is required to determine the clinical usefulness of these gas exchange variables.

  2. The physiology of submaximal exercise: The steady state concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferretti, Guido; Fagoni, Nazzareno; Taboni, Anna; Bruseghini, Paolo; Vinetti, Giovanni

    2017-12-01

    The steady state concept implies that the oxygen flow is invariant and equal at each level along the respiratory system. The same is the case with the carbon dioxide flow. This condition has several physiological consequences, which are analysed. First, we briefly discuss the mechanical efficiency of exercise and the energy cost of human locomotion, as well as the roles played by aerodynamic work and frictional work. Then we analyse the equations describing the oxygen flow in lungs and in blood, the effects of ventilation and of the ventilation - perfusion inequality, and the interaction between diffusion and perfusion in the lungs. The cardiovascular responses sustaining gas flow increase in blood are finally presented. An equation linking ventilation, circulation and metabolism is developed, on the hypothesis of constant oxygen flow in mixed venous blood. This equation tells that, if the pulmonary respiratory quotient stays invariant, any increase in metabolic rate is matched by a proportional increase in ventilation, but by a less than proportional increase in cardiac output. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Monitoring Training Progress During Exercise Training in Cancer Survivors : A Submaximal Exercise Test as an Alternative for a Maximal Exercise Test?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    May, Anne M.; van Weert, Ellen; Korstjens, Irene; Hoekstra-Weebers, Josette E.; van der Schans, Cees P.; Zonderland, Maria L.; Mesters, Ilse; van den Borne, Bart; Ros, Wynand J.

    May AM, van Weert E, Korstjens 1, Hoekstra-Weebers JE, van der Schans CP, Zonderland ML, Mesters 1, van den Borne B, Ros WJ. Monitoring training progress during exercise training in cancer survivors: a submaximal exercise test as an alternative for a maximal exercise test? Arch Phys Med Rehabil

  4. Effects of submaximal exercise and noise exposure on hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessio, H M; Hutchinson, K M

    1991-12-01

    A recent Scandinavian study reported that persons cycling at moderate intensity for 10 min suffered hearing loss when the exercise was accompanied by noise. The noise consisted of a 1/3 octave band-filtered noise with a 2000 Hz center frequency at 104 dB SPL. In the present study, adults cycled at 50 rev.min-1 against a force that elicited an oxygen cost equal to 70% of VO2max--an intensity frequently recommended in exercise prescriptions--with and without noise administered via headphones. Repeated measures ANOVA with three factors revealed that although a temporary hearing loss occurred following exercise-and-noise, a similar and slightly greater hearing loss occurred following noise-only. Hearing sensitivity was not significantly altered by exercise-only (p greater than .05). In general, hearing loss values were greatest between 3000 and 4000 Hz. In conclusion, temporary hearing loss was driven by noise exposure, not exercise. However, persons who choose to exercise with personal headphones or in a noisy environment should be aware of potential premature hearing loss.

  5. Substrate utilization during submaximal exercise in children with a severely obese parent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eaves Audrey D

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have reported a reduction in fatty acid oxidation (FAO at the whole-body level and in skeletal muscle in severely obese (BMI ≥ 40 kg/m2 individuals; this defect is retained in cell culture suggesting an inherent component. The purpose of the current study was to determine if an impairment in whole-body fatty acid oxidation (FAO was also evident in children with a severely obese parent. Methods Substrate utilization during submaximal exercise (cycle ergometer was determined in children ages 8–12 y with a severely obese parent (OP, n = 13 or two lean/non-obese (BMI range of 18 to 28 kg/m2 parents (LP, n = 13. A subgroup of subjects (n = 3/group performed 4 weeks of exercise training with substrate utilization measured after the intervention. Results The children did not differ in age (LP vs. OP, respectively (10.7 ± 0.5 vs. 10.2 ± 0.5 y, BMI percentile (65.3 ± 5.2 vs. 75.9 ± 7, Tanner Stage (1.4 ± 0.2 vs. 1.5 ± 0.2, VO2peak (40.3 ± 2.7 vs. 35.6 ± 2.6 ml/kg/min or physical activity levels (accelerometer. At the same absolute workload of 15 W (~38% VO2peak, RER was significantly (P ≤ 0.05 lower in LP vs. OP (0.83 ± 0.02 vs. 0.87 ± 0.01 which was reflected in a reduced reliance on FAO for energy production in the OP group (58.6 ± 5.1 vs. 43.1 ± 4.0% of energy needs during exercise from FAO. At a higher exercise intensity (~65% VO2peak there were no differences in substrate utilization between LP and OP. After exercise training RER tended to decrease (P = 0.06 at the 15 W workload, suggesting an increased reliance on FAO regardless of group. Conclusions These findings suggest that the decrement in FAO with severe obesity has an inherent component that may be overcome with exercise training.

  6. Haemodynamic changes induced by submaximal exercise before a dive and its consequences on bubble formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatteau, Jean‐Eric; Boussuges, Alain; Gempp, Emmanuel; Pontier, Jean‐Michel; Castagna, Olivier; Robinet, Claude; Galland, Francois‐Michel; Bourdon, Lionel

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the effects of a submaximal exercise performed 2 h before a simulated dive on bubble formation and to observe the haemodynamic changes and their influence on bubble formation. Participants and methods 16 trained divers were compressed in a hyperbaric chamber to 400 kPa for 30 min and decompressed at a rate of 100 kPa/min with a 9 min stop at 130 kPa (French Navy MN90 procedure). Each diver performed two dives 3 days apart, one without exercise and one with exercise before the dive. All participants performed a 40 min constant‐load submaximal and calibrated exercise, which consisted of outdoor running 2 h before the dive. Circulating bubbles were detected with a precordial Doppler at 30, 60 and 90 min after surfacing. Haemodynamic changes were evaluated with Doppler echocardiography. Results A single bout of strenuous exercise 2 h before a simulated dive significantly reduced circulating bubbles. Post‐exercise hypotension (PEH) was observed after exercise with reductions in diastolic and mean blood pressure (DBP and MBP), but total peripheral resistance was unchanged. Stroke volume was reduced, whereas cardiac output was unchanged. Simulated diving caused a similar reduction in cardiac output independent of pre‐dive exercise, suggesting that pre‐dive exercise only changed DBP and MBP caused by reduced stroke volume. Conclusion A single bout of strenuous exercise 2 h before a dive significantly reduced the number of bubbles in the right heart of divers and protected them from decompression sickness. Declining stroke volume and moderate dehydration induced by a pre‐dive exercise might influence inert gas load and bubble formation. PMID:17138641

  7. Variation in heart rate during submaximal exercise: implications for monitoring training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberts, Robert P; Lemmink, Koen A P M; Durandt, Justin J; Lambert, Michael I

    2004-08-01

    A change in heart rate at a controlled submaximal exercise intensity is used as a marker of training status. However, the standard error of measurement has not been studied systematically, and therefore a change in heart rate, which can be considered relevant, has not been determined. Forty-four subjects (26.5 +/- 5.4 years; mean +/- standard deviation) participated in a submaximal running test at the same time of day for 5 consecutive days. Heart rates were determined during each of the 4 exercise intensities (2 minutes each) of increasing intensity and during the 1-minute recovery period after each stage. The repeatability of the heart rate on a day-to-day basis during the stages and recovery periods were high (intraclass correlation coefficient: 95% confidence interval R = 0.94- 0.99). The lowest variation in heart rate occurred in the fourth stage ( approximately 90% maximum heart rate) with heart rate varying 5 +/- 2 b.min(-1) (95% confidence interval for coefficient of variation = 1.1-1.4%). In conclusion, the standard error of measurement of submaximal heart rate is 1.1-1.4%. This magnitude of measurement error needs to be considered when heart rate is used as a marker of training status.

  8. [Submaximal exercise capacity and quality of life in exclusive water-pipe smokers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Saad, H; Babba, M; Boukamcha, R; Latiri, I; Knani, J; Slama, R; Bougmiza, I; Zbidi, A; Tabka, Z

    2010-05-01

    It is well known that oxidative stress is increased significantly by regular water-pipe smoking (WPS). This could lead to muscle dysfunction and thus to impairments of exercise and quality of life (QOL). Considering the impressive number of WP smokers, we intend to investigate the potential effect of WPS on submaximal exercise capacity and QOL. (1). To evaluate the submaximal exercise capacity by the 6-minutes walking test (6-MWT). (2). To compare the deficiency, incapacity and QOL data of exclusive WPS with those of two control groups (never smokers and exclusive cigarette smokers). (3). To determine the factors influencing the 6-minutes walk distance (6-MWD) of WPS subjects. A multicentre study including 180 exclusive WPS [> or =5 WP-year] men aged > or =40 years. Cigar or cigarette smoking, contraindications to the 6-MWT or cortico-steroid therapy will be exclusion criteria. QOL evaluation, spirometry, electrocardiogram and two 6-MWT will be performed. Signs of exercise impairment will be: 6-MWD or =5/10, haemoglobin saturation fall > or =5 points. Data from WPS subjects will be compared with those from 90 never smoking subjects and 90 exclusives cigarettes smokers. (1). WPS will affect significantly the submaximal exercise capacity. (2). Resting spirometric, 6-MWT and QOL data of exclusive WPS subjects will be significantly reduced compared to never smoking subjects. (3). The 6-MWD's of exclusive WPS subjects will be significantly influenced by cumulative WP consumption, by resting spirometric data, by obesity and by physical activity score. Copyright 2010 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Cognitive Performance Enhancement Induced by Caffeine, Carbohydrate and Guarana Mouth Rinsing during Submaximal Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Pomportes

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of serial mouth rinsing (MR with nutritional supplements on cognitive performance (i.e., cognitive control and time perception during a 40-min submaximal exercise. Twenty-four participants completed 4 counterbalanced experimental sessions, during which they performed MR with either placebo (PL, carbohydrate (CHO: 1.6 g/25 mL, guarana complex (GUAc: 0.4 g/25 mL or caffeine (CAF: 67 mg/25 mL before and twice during exercise. The present study provided some important new insights regarding the specific changes in cognitive performance induced by nutritional supplements. The main results were: (1 CHO, CAF and GUA MR likely led participants to improve temporal performance; (2 CAF MR likely improved cognitive control; and (3 CHO MR led to a likely decrease in subjective perception of effort at the end of the exercise compared to PL, GUA and CAF. Moreover, results have shown that performing 40-min submaximal exercise enhances information processing in terms of both speed and accuracy, improves temporal performance and does not alter cognitive control. The present study opens up new perspectives regarding the use of MR to optimize cognitive performance during physical exercise.

  10. Effects of Submaximal Aerobic Exercise on Regulatory T Cell Markers of Male Patients Suffering from Ischemic Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raygan, Fariba; Sayyah, Mansour; Janesar Qamsari, Seyed Mohammad Reza; Nikoueinejad, Hassan; Sehat, Mojtaba

    2017-02-01

    There are confirmed beneficiary effects of exercise on atherosclerotic inflammation of ischemia-associated heart diseases. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of aerobic exercise on T-regulatory cell markers of IL-35 as well as FoxP3 and T-helper2 marker of IL-33 in patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD). This research was performed on 44 asymptomatic male patients with ischemic heart disease. The participants were randomly assigned into two groups of submaximal aerobic exercise and control group. Blood samples were collected before and after the termination of the exercise protocol. Serum levels of IL-35 and IL-33 as well as the amount of FoxP3 gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were measured by Elisa and Real time PCR, respectively. Serum levels of IL-35 (p=0.001) as well as the amount of FoxP3 gene expression increased significantly (p=0.012)  in exercise group even after controlling the likely confounding effects of age, length of ischemia, duration of the disease, and the amount of such factors before exercise (p≤0.042). It seems that exercise may yield a better control of atherosclerotic inflammation in patients with ischemic heart disease through the induction of regulatory T cells.

  11. Test retest reliability and minimal detectable change of a novel submaximal graded exercise test in the measurement of graded exercise test duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, James D; Bandy, William D; Whittemore, Joe D

    2011-05-01

    Measurement of graded exercise test duration is clinically important and can be assessed by maximal graded exercise testing. Yet, limitations of maximal graded exercise testing exist. An alternative to maximal graded exercise testing is submaximal graded exercise testing. However, no studies have investigated the reliability of a submaximal graded exercise test in the measurement of graded exercise test duration. The purpose of this study was to determine the test-retest reliability and minimal detectable change (MDC) of a novel submaximal graded exercise test in the measurement of graded exercise test duration. Fifteen people (4 men, 11 women) with a mean age of 26.20 years (SD = 9.04) participated in this study. A novel submaximal graded exercise test was used to measure graded exercise test duration for each participant. Endpoints of the test were either 85% of age-predicted maximum heart rate or voluntarily stopping the test, whichever endpoint occurred first. Heart rate and graded exercise test duration were constantly measured throughout the test. Graded exercise test duration was defined as the total duration (minutes) of the test. For all participants, the submaximal graded exercise test was conducted at baseline and 48-72 hours thereafter. The intraclass correlation coefficient for the test-retest reliability of the test in determining graded exercise test duration was 0.94 (95% CI = 0.83-0.98). The MDC of the test in the measurement of graded exercise test duration was 0.86 minutes. The results suggest that clinicians can use this novel submaximal graded exercise test to reliably measure graded exercise test duration with a measurement error, as expressed by the MDC, of 0.86 minutes.

  12. Evaluation of Exercise Response in a Young, High Risk Population: Submaximal Invasive Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing (ICPET) in Active Duty Soldiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-17

    Submaximal Invasive Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing iCPET in AD Soldiers presented at/published to American College of Cardiology’s 661h Annual...disclaimer statement for research involving animals . as required by AFMAN 40-401 IP : " The experiments reported herein were conducted according to the...principles set forth in the National Institute of Health Publication No. 80-23, Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals and the Animal

  13. Analysing visual pattern of skin temperature during submaximal and maximal exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balci, Gorkem Aybars; Basaran, Tahsin; Colakoglu, Muzaffer

    2016-01-01

    Aims of this study were to examine our hypotheses assuming that (a) skin temperature patterns would differ between submaximal exercise (SE) and graded maximal exercise test (GXT) and (b) thermal kinetics of Tskin occurring in SE and GXT might be similar in a homogenous cohort. Core temperature (Tcore) also observed in order to evaluate thermoregulatory responses to SE and GXT. Eleven moderately to well-trained male athletes were volunteered for the study (age: 22.2 ± 3.7 years; body mass: 73.8 ± 6.9 kg; height: 181 ± 6.3 cm; body surface area 1.93 ± 0.1 m2; body fat: 12.6% ± 4.2%; V ˙ O2max: 54 ± 9.9 mL min-1 kg-1). Under stabilized environmental conditions in climatic chamber, GXT to volitional exhaustion and 20-min SE at 60% of VO2max were performed on cycle ergometer. Thermal analyses were conducted in 2-min intervals throughout exercise tests. Tskin was monitored by a thermal camera, while Tcore was recorded via an ingestible telemetric temperature sensor. Thermal kinetic analyses showed that Tskin gradually decreased till the 7.58 ± 1.03th minutes, and then initiated to increase till the end of SE (Rsqr = 0.97), while Tskin gradually decreased throughout the GXT (Rsqr = 0.89). Decrease in the level of Tskin during the GXT was significantly below from the SE [F (4, 40) = 2.67, p = 0.07, ηp2 = 0.211]. In the meantime, Tcore continuously increased throughout the SE and GXT (p 0.05). However, total heat energies were calculated as 261.5 kJ/m2 and 416 kJ/m2 for GXT and SE, respectively (p exercises as expected. Tskin curves patterns found to be associated amongst participants at both GXT and SE. Therefore, Tskin kinetics may ensure an important data for monitoring thermoregulation in exercise.

  14. Interaction effects of time of day and sub-maximal treadmill exercise on the main determinants of blood fluidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadizad, Sajad; Bassami, Minoo

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of time of day on responses of the main determinants of blood rheology to acute endurance exercise. Ten healthy male subjects (age, 26.9 +/- 5.5 yr) performed two bouts of running at 65% of VO2peak for 45 min on a motorised treadmill in the morning (08:00 h) and evening (20:00 h), which were followed by 30 min recovery. The two exercise trials were performed in two separate days with 7 days intervening. Haemorheological variables were measured before, immediately after exercise and after recovery. Haematocrit, haemoglobin and RBC count were increased significantly (p evening trials and normalised following recovery, irrespective of time of day. Plasma viscosity increased significantly (F2,18 = 12.4, p exercise in both trials and returned to pre-exercise level at the end of recovery. Baseline values (p exercise were significantly affected by time of day. Neither a significant main effect of exercise nor a significant (p > 0.05) time-of-day effect was found for plasma proteins. It was concluded that sub-maximal running at 08:00 or 20:00 h does not induce different responses in the main determinant of blood rheology.

  15. Human skeletal muscle type 1 fibre distribution and response of stress-sensing proteins along the titin molecule after submaximal exhaustive exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskinen, Satu O A; Kyröläinen, Heikki; Flink, Riina; Selänne, Harri P; Gagnon, Sheila S; Ahtiainen, Juha P; Nindl, Bradley C; Lehti, Maarit

    2017-11-01

    Early responses of stress-sensing proteins, muscle LIM protein (MLP), ankyrin repeat proteins (Ankrd1/CARP and Ankrd2/Arpp) and muscle-specific RING finger proteins (MuRF1 and MuRF2), along the titin molecule were investigated in the present experiment after submaximal exhaustive exercise. Ten healthy men performed continuous drop jumping unilaterally on a sledge apparatus with a submaximal height until complete exhaustion. Five stress-sensing proteins were analysed by mRNA measurements from biopsies obtained immediately and 3 h after the exercise from exercised vastus lateralis muscle while control biopsies were obtained from non-exercised legs before the exercise. Decreased maximal jump height and increased serum creatine kinase activities as indirect markers for muscle damage and HSP27 immunostainings on muscle biopsies as a direct marker for muscle damage indicated that the current exercised protocol caused muscle damage. mRNA levels for four (MLP, Ankrd1/CARP, MuRF1 and MuRF2) out of the five studied stress sensors significantly (p exercise. The magnitude of MLP and Ankrd2 responses was related to the proportion of type 1 myofibres. Our data showed that the submaximal exhaustive exercise with subject's own physical fitness level activates titin-based stretch-sensing proteins. These results suggest that both degenerative and regenerative pathways are activated in very early phase after the exercise or probably already during the exercise. Activation of these proteins represents an initial step forward adaptive remodelling of the exercised muscle and may also be involved in the initiation of myofibre repair.

  16. Hypotension and heart rate variability after resistance exercise performed maximal and submaximal order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Gonçalves Corrêa Neto

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was verified the blood pressure responses and the cardiac autonomic modulation after the strength exercise in two different conditions (maximal and submaximal. The subjects were divided in three groups, such as: maximal repetitions (age: 20.5 ± 0.6 years, weight: 63.7 ± 14.8, height: 1.7 ± 0.1, body mass index: 22.8 ± 4.5 Kilogram per square meter (kg/m², submaximal repetitions (age: 25 ± 4.1 years, weight: 69.1 ± 12.8, height: 1.8 ± 0.1, body mass index: 22.2 ± 1.7 (kg/m²  and a control group (age: 23.7 ± 3.8 years, weight: 64.2 ± 15, height: 1.7 ± 0.1, body mass index: 21.8 ± 1.9 (kg/m². The blood pressure and the Heart Rate R-R intervals were measured before and during one hour after the session, with 10-minutes intervals length between measurements. The analyze of variance did not showed significant differences between experimental protocols to blood pressure (p > 0.05. However, the effect size was able to show that the most intense training caused a reduction in systolic blood pressure at times. Regarding cardiac autonomic response, the group that exercised the submaximal form exhibited a significant increase in LF / HF (p = 0.022 when 20 minutes’ post-exercise. There was a not significant difference in cardiac autonomic modulation between protocols. The high intensity protocol has caused blood pressure reductions in more moments and it was over safer in relation to cardiac autonomic modulation, since it did not cause increased sympathetic activity during recovery.

  17. Comparison of the YMCA and a Custom Submaximal Exercise Test for Determining VO2max.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamnick, Nicholas A; By, Savanny; Pettitt, Cherie D; Pettitt, Robert W

    2016-02-01

    The maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) is deemed the highest predictor for all-cause mortality, and therefore, an ability to assess VO2max is important. The YMCA submaximal test is one of the most widely used tests to estimate VO2max; however, it has questionable validity. We validated a customized submaximal test that accounts for the nonlinear rise in VO2 relative to power output and compared its accuracy against the YMCA protocol. Fifty-six men and women performed a graded exercise test with a subsequent exhaustive, square wave bout for the verification of "true" VO2max. In counterbalanced order, subjects then completed the YMCA test and our new Mankato submaximal exercise test (MSET). The MSET consisted of a 3-min stage estimated at 35% VO2max and a second 3-min stage estimated at either 65% or 70% VO2max, where VO2max was estimated with a regression equation using sex, body mass index, age, and self-reported PA-R. VO2 values from the graded exercise test and square wave verification bout did not differ with the highest value used to identify "true" VO2max (45.1 ± 8.89 mL · kg(-1) · min(-1)). The MSET (43.6 ± 8.6 mL · kg(-1) · min(-1)) did not differ from "true" VO2max, whereas the YMCA test (41.1 ± 9.6 mL · kg(-1) · min(-1)) yielded an underestimation (P = 0.002). The MSET was moderately correlated with "true" VO2max (ICC = 0.73, CV of 11.3%). The YMCA test was poorly correlated with "true" VO2max (ICC = 0.29, CV of 15.1%). To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine submaximal exercise protocols versus a verified VO2max protocol. The MSET yielded better estimates of VO2max because of the protocol including a stage exceeding gas exchange threshold.

  18. VO2@RER1.0: a novel submaximal cardiopulmonary exercise index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Clifford; Kazmucha, Jeffrey; Kim, Nancy; Suryani, Reny; Olson, Inger

    2010-01-01

    Maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) is the "gold standard" by which to assess functional capacity; however, it is effort dependent. VO2@RER1.0 is defined when VO2 = VCO2. Between December 22, 1997 and November 9, 2004, 305 pediatric subjects underwent cycle ergometer cardiopulmonary exercise testing, exercised to exhaustion, and reached a peak respiratory exchange ratio > or = 1.10. Group 1 subjects achieved a peak VO2 > or = 80% of predicted VO2max; group 2 subjects achieved a peak VO2 subjects achieved a peak VO2 between 61 and 79% of predicted VO2max. Linear regression analysis was performed for VO2@RER1.0 as a function of predicted VO2 for group 1 subjects. A -2 SD regression line and equation was created. VO2@RER1.0 data from groups 2 and 3 were plotted onto the normative graph. Contingency table and relative-risk analysis showed that an abnormal VO2@RER1.0 predicted an abnormal peak VO2(positive-predictive value 83%, negative-predictive value 85%, sensitivity 84%, and specificity 84%). VO2@RER1.0 is a highly sensitive, specific, and predictive submaximal index of functional capacity. This submaximal index is easy to identify without subjectivity. This index may aid in the evaluation of subjects who cannot exercise to maximal parameters.

  19. Brief note about plasma catecholamines kinetics and submaximal exercise in untrained standardbreds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Baragli

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Four untrained standardbred horses performed a standardized exercise test on the treadmill and an automated blood collection system programmed to obtain blood samples every 15 s was used for blood collection in order to evaluate the kinetics of adrenaline and noradrenaline. The highest average values obtained for adrenaline and noradrenaline were 15.0 ± 3.0 and 15.8 ± 2.8 nmol/l respectively, with exponential accumulation of adrenaline (r = 0.977 and noradrenaline (r = 0.976 during the test. Analysis of the correlation between noradrenaline and adrenaline for each phase of the test shows that correlation coefficient decreases as the intensity of exercise increases (from r = 0.909 to r = 0.788. This suggests that during submaximal exercise, the process for release, distribution and clearance of adrenaline into blood circulation differs from that of noradrenaline.

  20. Blunted Maximal and Submaximal Responses to Cardiopulmonary Exercise Tests in Patients With Parkinson Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanegusuku, Hélcio; Silva-Batista, Carla; Peçanha, Tiago; Nieuwboer, Alice; Silva, Natan D; Costa, Luiz A; de Mello, Marco T; Piemonte, Maria E; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos; Forjaz, Cláudia L

    2016-05-01

    To investigate submaximal and maximal responses during maximal cardiopulmonary exercise tests in subjects with Parkinson disease (PD). Cross-sectional. A PD association. A sample (N=68) of subjects with PD (n=48; mean age, 66±8y; modified Hoehn and Yahr stage between 2 and 3; "on" state of medication) and age-matched controls without PD (n=20; mean age, 64±9y). Maximal cardiopulmonary exercise test on a cycle ergometer. Oxygen uptake (V˙o2), systolic blood pressure (SBP), and heart rate assessed at rest, submaximal intensities (ie, anaerobic threshold [AT] and respiratory compensation point), and maximal intensity (peak exercise). Compared with control subjects, subjects with PD had lower V˙o2, heart rate, and SBP at respiratory compensation point and peak exercise (V˙o2: 14.6±3.6mL⋅kg⋅min vs 17.9±5.5mL⋅kg⋅min and 17.7±4.8mL⋅kg⋅min vs 21.5±6.6mL⋅kg⋅min; heart rate: 119±17beats/min vs 139±12beats/min and 132±20beats/min vs 158±13beats/min; SBP: 151±17mmHg vs 172±20mmHg and 166±21mmHg vs 187±24mmHg; P≤.05). They also had lower heart rate at AT (102±14beats/min vs 110±13beats/min; P≤.05), whereas V˙o2 and SBP at this intensity were similar to those of control subjects. Subjects with PD demonstrated blunted metabolic and cardiovascular responses to submaximal and maximal exercise tests, especially at intensities above AT, which are in line with autonomic disturbances present in patients with PD. Future studies need to determine how this affects performance, participation, and responses of these patients to exercise training at different intensities. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Is the ventilatory threshold coincident with maximal fat oxidation during submaximal exercise in women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astorino, T A

    2000-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to detect the fraction of peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) that elicits maximal rates of fat oxidation during submaximal treadmill exercise. It was hypothesized that this point would appear at a work rate just below the ventilatory threshold. subjects completed a protocol requiring them to exercise for 15 min on a treadmill at six different workloads, 25, 40, 55, 65, 75, and 85% VO2peak, over two separate visits. nine healthy, moderately-trained eumenorrheic females (age = 28.8+/-5.99 yrs, VO2peak = 47.20 +/-2.57 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)) volunteered for the study. a one-way ANOVA with repeated measures was used to test for differences across exercise intensities in the metabolic variables (i.e. substrate oxidation, blood lactate concentration ([La-]), RER, and the contribution of fat to total energy expenditure). Following significant F ratios, post-hoc tests were used to detect differences between the means for various exercise intensities. Exercise at 75% VO2peak elicited the greatest rate of fat oxidation (4.75+/-0.49 kcal x min(-1)), and this intensity was coincident with the ventilatory threshold (76+/-7.41% VO2peak). Moreover, a significant difference (t(8) = -3.98, ppopulation has application in exercise prescription and refutes the belief that low-intensity exercise is preferred for fat metabolism.

  2. Gender differences in substrate utilization during submaximal exercise in endurance-trained subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roepstorff, Carsten; Steffensen, Charlotte H; Madsen, Marianne; Stallknecht, Bente; Kanstrup, Inge-Lis; Richter, Erik A; Kiens, Bente

    2002-02-01

    Substrate utilization across the leg during 90 min of bicycle exercise at 58% of peak oxygen uptake (VO(2 peak)) was studied in seven endurance-trained males and seven endurance-trained, eumenorrheic females by applying arteriovenous catheterization, stable isotopes, and muscle biopsies. The female and male groups were matched according to VO(2 peak) per kilogram of lean body mass, physical activity level, and training history of the subjects. All subjects consumed the same diet, well controlled in terms of nutrient composition as well as energy content, for 8 days preceding the experiment, and all females were tested in the midfollicular phase of the menstrual cycle. During exercise, respiratory exchange ratio (RER) and leg respiratory quotient (RQ) were similar in females and males. Myocellular triacylglycerol (TG) degradation was negligible in males but amounted to 12.4 +/- 3.2 mmol/kg dry wt in females and corresponded to 25.0 +/- 6.0 and 5.0 +/- 7.3% of total oxygen uptake in females and males, respectively (P < 0.05). Utilization of plasma fatty acids (12.0 +/- 2.5 and 9.6 +/- 1.5%), blood glucose (13.6 +/- 1.5 and 14.3 +/- 1.5%), and glycogen (48.5 +/- 4.9 and 42.8 +/- 2.1%) were similar in females and males. Thus, in females, measured substrate oxidation accounted for 99% of the leg oxygen uptake, whereas in males 28% of leg oxygen uptake was unaccounted for in terms of measured oxidized lipid substrates. These findings may indicate that males utilized additional lipid sources, presumably very low density lipoprotein-TG or TG located between muscle fibers. On the basis of RER and leg RQ, it is concluded that no gender difference existed in the relative contribution from carbohydrate and lipids to the oxidative metabolism across the leg during submaximal exercise at the same relative workload. However, an effect of gender appears to occur in the utilization of the different lipid sources.

  3. Reliability of heart rate variability threshold and parasympathetic reactivation after a submaximal exercise test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Janssen Gomes da Cruz

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate reproducibility of heart rate variability threshold (HRVT and parasympathetic reactivation in physically active men (n= 16, 24.3 ± 5.1 years. During the test, HRVT was assessed by SD1 and r-MSSD dynamics. Immediately after exercise, r-MSSD was analyzed in segments of 60 seconds for a period of five minutes. High absolute and relatively reproducible analysis of HRVT were observed, as assessed by SD1 and r-MSSD dynamics (ICC = 0.92, CV = 10.8, SEM = 5.8. During the recovery phase, a moderate to high reproducibility was observed for r-MSSD from the first to the fifth minute (ICC = 0.69-0.95, CV = 7.5-14.2, SEM = 0.07-1.35. We conclude that HRVT and r-MSSD analysis after a submaximal stress test are highly reproducible measures that might be used to assess the acute and chronic effects of exercise training on cardiac autonomic modulation during and/or after a submaximal stress test.

  4. The Effects of Caffeine Supplementation on Physiological Responses to Submaximal Exercise in Endurance-Trained Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaister, Mark; Williams, Benjamin Henley; Muniz-Pumares, Daniel; Balsalobre-Fernández, Carlos; Foley, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of caffeine on physiological responses to submaximal exercise, with a focus on blood lactate concentration ([BLa]). Using a randomised, single-blind, crossover design; 16 endurance-trained, male cyclists (age: 38 ± 8 years; height: 1.80 ± 0.05 m; body mass: 76.6 ± 7.8 kg; [Formula: see text]: 4.3 ± 0.6 L∙min-1) completed four trials on an electromagnetically-braked cycle ergometer. Each trial consisted of a six-stage incremental test (3 minute stages) followed by 30 minutes of passive recovery. One hour before trials 2-4, participants ingested a capsule containing 5 mg∙kg-1 of either caffeine or placebo (maltodextrin). Trials 2 and 3 were designed to evaluate the effects of caffeine on various physiological responses during exercise and recovery. In contrast, Trial 4 was designed to evaluate the effects of caffeine on [BLa] during passive recovery from an end-exercise concentration of 4 mmol∙L-1. Relative to placebo, caffeine increased [BLa] during exercise, independent of exercise intensity (mean difference: 0.33 ± 0.41 mmol∙L-1; 95% likely range: 0.11 to 0.55 mmol∙L-1), but did not affect the time-course of [BLa] during recovery (p = 0.604). Caffeine reduced ratings of perceived exertion (mean difference: 0.5 ± 0.7; 95% likely range: 0.1 to 0.9) and heart rate (mean difference: 3.6 ± 4.2 b∙min-1; 95% likely range: 1.3 to 5.8 b∙min-1) during exercise, with the effect on the latter dissipating as exercise intensity increased. Supplement × exercise intensity interactions were observed for respiratory exchange ratio (p = 0.004) and minute ventilation (p = 0.034). The results of the present study illustrate the clear, though often subtle, effects of caffeine on physiological responses to submaximal exercise. Researchers should be aware of these responses, particularly when evaluating the physiological effects of various experimental interventions.

  5. Aerobic interval training reduces vascular resistances during submaximal exercise in obese metabolic syndrome individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora-Rodriguez, Ricardo; Fernandez-Elias, V E; Morales-Palomo, F; Pallares, J G; Ramirez-Jimenez, M; Ortega, J F

    2017-08-12

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of high-intensity aerobic interval training (AIT) on exercise hemodynamics in metabolic syndrome (MetS) volunteers. Thirty-eight, MetS participants were randomly assigned to a training (TRAIN) or to a non-training control (CONT) group. TRAIN consisted of stationary interval cycling alternating bouts at 70-90% of maximal heart rate during 45 min day(-1) for 6 months. CONT maintained baseline physical activity and no changes in cardiovascular function or MetS factors were detected. In contrast, TRAIN increased cardiorespiratory fitness (14% in VO2PEAK; 95% CI 9-18%) and improved metabolic syndrome (-42% in Z score; 95% CI 83-1%). After TRAIN, the workload that elicited a VO2 of 1500 ml min(-1) increased 15% (95% CI 5-25%; P < 0.001). After TRAIN when subjects pedaled at an identical submaximal rate of oxygen consumption, cardiac output increased by 8% (95% CI 4-11%; P < 0.01) and stroke volume by 10% (95% CI, 6-14%; P < 0.005) being above the CONT group values at that time point. TRAIN reduced submaximal exercise heart rate (109 ± 15-106 ± 13 beats min(-1); P < 0.05), diastolic blood pressure (83 ± 8-75 ± 8 mmHg; P < 0.001) and systemic vascular resistances (P < 0.01) below CONT values. Double product was reduced only after TRAIN (18.2 ± 3.2-17.4 ± 2.4 bt min(-1) mmHg 10(-3); P < 0.05). The data suggest that intense aerobic interval training improves hemodynamics during submaximal exercise in MetS patients. Specifically, it reduces diastolic blood pressure, systemic vascular resistances, and the double product. The reduction in double product, suggests decreased myocardial oxygen demands which could prevent the occurrence of adverse cardiovascular events during exercise in this population. CLINICALTRIALS. NCT03019796.

  6. The Effect of Submaximal Exercise Preceded by Single Whole-Body Cryotherapy on the Markers of Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Blood of Volleyball Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celestyna Mila-Kierzenkowska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the effect of single whole-body cryotherapy (WBC session applied prior to submaximal exercise on the activity of antioxidant enzymes, the concentration of lipid peroxidation products, total oxidative status, and the level of cytokines in blood of volleyball players. The study group consisted of 18 male professional volleyball players, who were subjected to extremely cold air (−130∘C prior to exercise performed on cycloergometer. Blood samples were taken five times: before WBC, after WBC procedure, after exercise preceded by cryotherapy (WBC exercise, and before and after exercise without WBC (control exercise. The activity of catalase statistically significantly increased after control exercise. Moreover, the activity of catalase and superoxide dismutase was lower after WBC exercise than after control exercise (P<0.001. After WBC exercise, the level of IL-6 and IL-1β was also lower (P<0.001 than after control exercise. The obtained results may suggest that cryotherapy prior to exercise may have some antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The relations between the level of studied oxidative stress and inflammatory markers may testify to the contribution of reactive oxygen species in cytokines release into the blood system in response to exercise and WBC.

  7. Normobaric Hypoxia and Submaximal Exercise Effects on Running Memory and Mood State in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Yongsuk; Gerhart, Hayden D; Stavres, Jon; Fennell, Curtis; Draper, Shane; Glickman, Ellen L

    2017-07-01

    An acute bout of exercise can improve cognitive function in normoxic and hypoxic conditions. However, limited research supports the improvement of cognitive function and mood state in women. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of hypoxia and exercise on working memory and mood state in women. There were 15 healthy women (age = 22 ± 2 yr) who completed the Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics-4th Edition (ANAM), including the Running Memory Continuous Performance Task (RMCPT) and Total Mood Disturbance (TMD) in normoxia (21% O2), at rest in normoxia and hypoxia (12.5% O2), and during cycling exercise at 60% and 40% Vo2max in hypoxia. RMCPT was not significantly impaired at 30 (100.3 ± 17.2) and 60 (96.6 ± 17.3) min rest in hypoxia compared to baseline in normoxia (97.0 ± 17.0). However, RMCPT was significantly improved during exercise (106.7 ± 20.8) at 60% Vo2max compared to 60 min rest in hypoxia. Following 30 (-89.4 ± 48.3) and 60 min of exposure to hypoxia (-79.8 ± 55.9) at rest, TMD was impaired compared with baseline (-107.1 ± 46.2). TMD was significantly improved during exercise (-108.5 ± 42.7) at 40% Vo2max compared with 30 min rest in hypoxia. Also, RMCPT was significantly improved during exercise (104.0 ± 19.1) at 60% Vo2max compared to 60 min rest in hypoxia (96.6 ± 17.3). Hypoxia and an acute bout of exercise partially influence RMCPT and TMD. Furthermore, a moderate-intensity bout of exercise (60%) may be a more potent stimulant for improving cognitive function than low-intensity (40%) exercise. The present data should be considered by aeromedical personnel performing cognitive tasks in hypoxia.Seo Y, Gerhart HD, Stavres J, Fennell C, Draper S, Glickman EL. Normobaric hypoxia and submaximal exercise effects on running memory and mood state in women. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(7):627-632.

  8. Reduced peripheral arterial blood flow with preserved cardiac output during submaximal bicycle exercise in elderly heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leng Xiaoyan

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Older heart failure (HF patients exhibit exercise intolerance during activities of daily living. We hypothesized that reduced lower extremity blood flow (LBF due to reduced forward cardiac output would contribute to submaximal exercise intolerance in older HF patients. Methods and Results Twelve HF patients both with preserved and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF (aged 68 ± 10 years without large (aorta or medium sized (iliac or femoral artery vessel atherosclerosis, and 13 age and gender matched healthy volunteers underwent a sophisticated battery of assessments including a peak exercise oxygen consumption (peak VO2, b physical function, c cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR submaximal exercise measures of aortic and femoral arterial blood flow, and d determination of thigh muscle area. Peak VO2 was reduced in HF subjects (14 ± 3 ml/kg/min compared to healthy elderly subjects (20 ± 6 ml/kg/min (p = 0.01. Four-meter walk speed was 1.35 ± 0.24 m/sec in healthy elderly verses 0.98 ± 0.15 m/sec in HF subjects (p p ≤ 0.03. Conclusion During CMR submaximal bike exercise in the elderly with heart failure, mechanisms other than low cardiac output are responsible for reduced lower extremity blood flow.

  9. The Effect of Submaximal Exercise Preceded by Single Whole-Body Cryotherapy on the Markers of Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Blood of Volleyball Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mila-Kierzenkowska, Celestyna; Szpinda, Michał; Augustyńska, Beata; Woźniak, Bartosz

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effect of single whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) session applied prior to submaximal exercise on the activity of antioxidant enzymes, the concentration of lipid peroxidation products, total oxidative status, and the level of cytokines in blood of volleyball players. The study group consisted of 18 male professional volleyball players, who were subjected to extremely cold air (−130°C) prior to exercise performed on cycloergometer. Blood samples were taken five times: before WBC, after WBC procedure, after exercise preceded by cryotherapy (WBC exercise), and before and after exercise without WBC (control exercise). The activity of catalase statistically significantly increased after control exercise. Moreover, the activity of catalase and superoxide dismutase was lower after WBC exercise than after control exercise (P cryotherapy prior to exercise may have some antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The relations between the level of studied oxidative stress and inflammatory markers may testify to the contribution of reactive oxygen species in cytokines release into the blood system in response to exercise and WBC. PMID:24489985

  10. Several submaximal exercise tests are reliable, valid and acceptable in people with chronic pain, fibromyalgia or chronic fatigue: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Ratter

    2014-09-01

    [Ratter J, Radlinger L, Lucas C (2014 Several submaximal exercise tests are reliable, valid and acceptable in people with chronic pain, fibromyalgia or chronic fatigue: a systematic review. Journal of Physiotherapy 60: 144–150

  11. TEST-RETEST RELIABILITY OF THE AEROBIC POWER INDEX SUBMAXIMAL EXERCISE TEST IN CANCER PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnie J. Furzer

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability of the Aerobic Power Index (API submaximal cardiorespiratory exercise test, as well as associated variables of oxygen uptake (ml·kg-1·min-1 and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE in cancer patients who are generally unable to complete maximal or lengthy aerobic fitness tests. Twenty male and female participants (11 male; 9 female aged between 18 and 70 y (mean = 53.28 ± 11. 82 y were recruited with medical consent within 4 weeks of completing chemotherapy treatment for a lymphohaematopoietic cancer (LHC. Of the twenty recruited participants' 2 were excluded from analysis due to disease relapse or complications unrelated to testing occurring within the month following testing. Intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC scores for power output (W·kg-1 and oxygen uptake (ml·kg-1·min-1 were highly reliable (R1 = 0.96 and 0.96, respectively and the ICC for RPE was moderately reliable (R1 = 0.83. Technical error of measurement results for power output (W·kg-1, oxygen uptake (ml·kg-1·min-1 and RPE were 0.11W·kg-1, 1.18 ml·kg-1·min-1 and 1.0 respectively. A Pearson's product-moment correlation demonstrated a strong relationship between power output (W·kg-1 and oxygen uptake (ml·kg-1·min-1 for both trials (r = 0.93 and 0.89, respectively. Results demonstrate that the API test is a highly reliable protocol for use with a LHC population and can be considered a clinically feasible, safe and tolerable exercise test

  12. Oxygen uptake efficiency slope, a new submaximal parameter in evaluating exercise capacity in chronic heart failure patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Laethem, Christophe; Bartunek, Jozef; Goethals, Marc; Nellens, Paul; Andries, Erik; Vanderheyden, Marc

    2005-01-01

    The oxygen uptake efficiency slope (OUES) is a new submaximal parameter which objectively predicts the maximal exercise capacity in children and healthy subjects. However, the usefulness of OUES in adult patients with and without advanced heart failure remains undetermined. The present study investigates the stability and the usefulness of OUES in adult cardiac patients with and without heart failure. Forty-five patients with advanced heart failure (group A) and 35 patients with ischemic heart disease but normal left ventricular ejection fraction (group B) performed a maximal exercise test. PeakVO2 and percentage of predicted peakVO2 were markers of maximal exercise capacity, whereas OUES, ventilatory anaerobic threshold (VAT), and slope VE/VCO2 were calculated as parameters of submaximal exercise. Group A patients had lower peakVO2 (P slope VE/VCO2 (P slope VE/VCO2, and OUES (all P slope VE/VCO2 (r = -.492, P failure patients unable to perform a maximal exercise test. Further studies are needed to confirm our hypothesis.

  13. Translation of submaximal exercise test responses to exercise prescription using the Talk Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Carl; Porcari, John P; Gibson, Mark; Wright, Glenn; Greany, John; Talati, Neepa; Recalde, Pedro

    2009-12-01

    The exercise intensity at the Talk Test (TT) has been shown to be highly correlated with objective physiological markers, a useful outcome marker in patients with heart disease, a useful tool for avoiding exertional ischemia, and responsive to both positive and negative changes in exercise capacity. This randomized observational study evaluated the ability of the intensity at the TT during exercise testing to define absolute training workloads. Sedentary adults (n = 14) performed an incremental Balke type exercise test (3.0-3.5 mph at 0% grade, +2% grade every 2 minutes). Heart rate (HR), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), and TT were evaluated at each stage. Subsequently, the subjects performed 3 x 20-minute exercise bouts with the workload over the last 10 minutes of each bout equal to the absolute intensity at the stage preceding the LP (LP-1), at the last positive stage of the TT (LP), and at the first equivocal stage of the TT (EQ). During LP-1, LP, and EQ, HR was 140 +/- 23, 151 +/- 20, and 160 +/- 21 bpm, or 73 +/- 11, 79 +/- 9, and 82 +/- 9 % HRmax; RPE (CR scale) was 3.6 +/- 1.5, 4.4 +/- 1.8, and 6.3 +/- 2.2. The TT Score-ranked as 1 = comfortable speech, 2 = slightly uncomfortable speech, and 3 = speech not comfortable-was 1.4 +/- 0.5, 1.8 +/- 0.4, and 2.6 +/- 0.5 LP-1, LP, and at EQ, LP, respectively. The results suggest that to prescribe absolute training intensity from the TT and to get appropriate HR, RPE, and TT responses in sedentary individuals during training, the workload needs to be based on the intensity approximately 1 stage (approximately 1.0-1.2 metabolic equivalents) below the LP stage observed during an incremental test.

  14. The effect of maximal vs submaximal exertion on postprandial lipid levels in individuals with and without coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronov, David M; Bubnova, Marina G; Perova, Natalia V; Orekhov, Alexander N; Bobryshev, Yuri V

    Decisions about fat consumption and levels of physical activity are among the everyday choices we make in life and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) can be affected by those choices. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of a standard fat load combined with physical exertion of different intensities on the plasma lipid profile of CHD patients and CHD-free individuals. This study looked at the influence of different intensities of physical exercise on postprandial lipid metabolism in 20 healthy men and 36 men with diagnosis of CHD. Venous blood samples were obtained after overnight fasting, 3 hours after standard fat load (before the physical load), and immediately after maximal or submaximal physical exercise on bicycle ergometer. After fat load total cholesterol (TC) concentration did not change in either group. However, after the addition of maximal exercise, TC, triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and apolipoprotein (Apo) B increased significantly (P < .01) in both groups. After fat load and maximal exercise, there was no change in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in healthy men, but in men with CHD, HDL-C fell significantly (P < .01); and Apo AI rose in healthy men (P < .01) but dropped significantly (P < .01) in men with CHD. Submaximal physical exercise (60% of max VO2 load for 40 minutes) after fat load decreased TG level in CHD patients (P < .01) and improved other lipid parameters in both groups significantly (↓LDL-C, ↑HDL-C, ↑Apo AI, ↓Apo B, P < .01). We observed a worsening of physical work capacity in men with CHD (significant reduction of duration and total amount of work performed, maximal VO2, oxygen pulse), during maximal stress test performed 3 hours after fat load. There was a doubling of the number of abnormal stress test results (P < .01). Healthy persons showed an increase in respiratory parameters (ventilation, CO2 production, maximal VO2, and oxygen

  15. Identification of patients at low risk of dying after acute myocardial infarction, by simple clinical and submaximal exercise test criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, S; A'Hern, R; Quigley, P; Vincent, R; Jewitt, D; Chamberlain, D

    1988-09-01

    A consecutive series of 559 hospital survivors of acute myocardial infarction aged less than 66 years were studied; 93 were designated prospectively as low-risk because they were suitable for early submaximal exercise testing and had none of the following clinical or exercise test 'risk factors': (1) angina for at least one month prior to infarction; (2) symptomatic ventricular arrhythmias, or (3) recurrent ischaemic pain, both after the first 24 h of infarction; (4) cardiac failure; (5) cardiomegaly; and (6) an abnormal exercise test (angina, ST-depression or poor blood pressure response). Altogether 301 patients were exercised; their mortality over a median follow-up of 2.4 years was 10.2%, versus 24.6% in the 258 patients not exercised (P = 0.0005). Absence of clinical 'risk factors' alone, in the exercised patients, identified 156 with a mortality of 5.4% versus 15.6% in the 145 with at least one clinical 'risk factor' (P = 0.004). The fully defined low-risk group comprised 93 of the former patients who had neither clinical nor exercise test 'risk factors'. None of these patients died compared with 19 of those with at least one 'risk factor' (mortality = 14.7%; P = 0.002). Their respective rates of non-fatal reinfarction were similar and never exceeded 5% per annum. Therefore, simple clinical and exercise test criteria can positively identify low-risk patients after infarction in whom secondary prevention may be inappropriate.

  16. Regadenoson in Europe: first-year experience of regadenoson stress combined with submaximal exercise in patients undergoing myocardial perfusion scintigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkert, M; Reyes, E; Walker, S; Latus, K; Maenhout, A; Mizumoto, R; Nkomo, C; Standbridge, K; Wechalekar, K; Underwood, S R

    2014-03-01

    Regadenoson was approved for clinical use in Europe in 2011. Since then, it has become the default form of stress at our institution. We have assessed the side-effect profile and tolerability of regadenoson in patients undergoing clinically indicated myocardial perfusion scintigraphy between July 2011 and July 2012. Clinical, stress and imaging data were recorded prospectively. Symptoms during stress were recorded and defined as mild, moderate or severe. An adverse event was defined as any symptom that persisted for more than 30 min or that required investigation or treatment. Of 1,764 consecutive patients, 1,581 (90%) received regadenoson combined with submaximal exercise unless contraindicated. Symptoms were common (63%) but transient and well-tolerated. The severity of symptoms was recorded in most patients as mild (84%). Dyspnoea (36%) and chest discomfort (12%) were the commonest side effects. Adverse events were reported in eight patients (0.5%), thought to be vasovagal in seven of these. All patients recovered fully without sequelae. There were no deaths, myocardial infarction or hospital admissions. Regadenoson stress was performed in 206 patients (12%) with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) without bronchospasm or any other major side effect. We studied the symptom profile of regadenoson in the largest European cohort to date. Regadenoson combined with submaximal exercise was well tolerated, notably also in patients with asthma or COPD. The majority of regadenoson-related adverse events were vasovagal episodes without sequelae.

  17. Estimating Neural Control from Concentric vs. Eccentric Surface Electromyographic Representations during Fatiguing, Cyclic Submaximal Back Extension Exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerold R. Ebenbichler

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To investigate the differences in neural control of back muscles activated during the eccentric vs. the concentric portions of a cyclic, submaximal, fatiguing trunk extension exercise via the analysis of amplitude and time-frequency parameters derived from surface electromyographic (SEMG data.Methods: Using back dynamometers, 87 healthy volunteers performed three maximum voluntary isometric trunk extensions (MVC's, an isometric trunk extension at 80% MVC, and 25 cyclic, dynamic trunk extensions at 50% MVC. Dynamic testing was performed with the trunk angular displacement ranging from 0° to 40° and the trunk angular velocity set at 20°/s. SEMG data was recorded bilaterally from the iliocostalis lumborum at L1, the longissimus dorsi at L2, and the multifidus muscles at L5. The initial value and slope of the root mean square (RMS-SEMG and the instantaneous median frequency (IMDF-SEMG estimates derived from the SEMG recorded during each exercise cycle were used to investigate the differences in MU control marking the eccentric vs. the concentric portions of the exercise.Results: During the concentric portions of the exercise, the initial RMS-SEMG values were almost twice those observed during the eccentric portions of the exercise. The RMS-SEMG values generally increased during the concentric portions of the exercise while they mostly remained unchanged during the eccentric portions of the exercise with significant differences between contraction types. Neither the initial IMDF-SEMG values nor the time-course of the IMDF-SEMG values significantly differed between the eccentric and the concentric portions of the exercise.Conclusions: The comparison of the investigated SEMG parameters revealed distinct neural control strategies during the eccentric vs. the concentric portions of the cyclic exercise. We explain these differences by relying upon the principles of orderly recruitment and common drive governing motor unit behavior.

  18. Responses of Plasma Atrial Natriuretic Peptide to High Intensity Submaximal Exercise in the Heat,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-06-01

    been demonstrated that in the rat , cow and human adrenal tumor. ANP decreases ALDO synthesis (Atarashi et al.1984, Delean et al. . 1984, Goodfriend et al...observed in this study (Collins and Weiner. 1986). It has recently been demonstrated that hypothyroidism is characterized by decreased plasma levels of...anesthetized rats . Can J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 62: 819-826. Armstrong LE. Dziados JE (1986). Effects of heat exposure on the exercising adult. In: Bernhardt

  19. The Effect of 4 Weeks Fixed and Mixed Intermittent Hypoxic Training (IHT) on Respiratory Metabolic and Acid-base Response of Capillary Blood During Submaximal Bicycle Exercise in Male Elite Taekwondo Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hun-Young; Sunoo, Sub; Nam, Sang-Seok

    2016-12-31

    The purpose of our study was to determine the effectiveness of 4 weeks fixed and mixed intermittent hypoxic training (IHT) and its difference from exercise training at sea-level on exercise load, respiratory metabolic and acid-base response of capillary blood during 80% maximal heart rate (HRmax) bicycle exercise in male elite Taekwondo players. Male elite Taekwondo players (n = 25 out of 33) were randomly assigned to training at sea-level (n = 8, control group), training at 16.5%O 2 (2000 m) simulated hypoxic condition (n = 9, fixed IHT group), and training at 14.5%O 2 (3000 m) up to 2 weeks and 16.5%O 2 (2000 m) simulated hypoxic condition (n = 8, mixed IHT group) for 3 weeks. We compared their average exercise load, respiratory metabolic, and acid-base response of the capillary blood during 80% HRmax submaximal bicycle exercise before and after 4 weeks training. Fixed and mixed IHT groups showed positive improvement in respiratory metabolic and acid-base response of the capillary blood during 80% HRmax submaximal bicycle exercise after 4 weeks training. However, all dependent variables showed no significant difference between fixed IHT and mix IHT. Results suggested that mixed and fixed IHT is effective in improving respiratory metabolic and acid-base response of capillary blood in male elite Taekwondo players. Thus, IHT could be a novel and effective method for improving exercise performance through respiratory metabolic and acid-base response.

  20. Effects of acute caffeinated coffee consumption on energy utilization related to glucose and lipid oxidation from short submaximal treadmill exercise in sedentary men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leelarungrayub, Donrawee; Sallepan, Maliwan; Charoenwattana, Sukanya

    2011-01-01

    Aim of this study was to evaluate the short term effect of coffee drinking on energy utilization in sedentary men. This study was performed in healthy sedentary men, who were randomized into three groups, control (n = 6), decaffeinated (n = 10), and caffeine (n = 10). The caffeine dose in coffee was rechecked and calculated for individual volunteers at 5 mg/kg. Baseline before drinking, complete blood count (CBC), glucose, antioxidant capacity, lipid peroxide, and caffeine in blood was evaluated. After drinking coffee for 1 hr, the submaximal exercise test with a modified Bruce protocol was carried out, and the VO2 and RER were analyzed individually at 80% maximal heart rate, then the blood was repeat evaluated. Three groups showed a nonsignificant difference in CBC results and physical characteristics. The caffeine group showed significant changes in all parameters; higher VO2 levels, (P = 0.037) and lower RER (P = 0.047), when compared to the baseline. Furthermore, the glucose level after exercise test increased significantly (P = 0.033) as well as lipid peroxide levels (P = 0.005), whereas antioxidant capacity did not change significantly (P = 0.759), when compared to the before exercise testing. In addition, the blood caffeine level also increased only in the caffeine group (P = 0.008). Short consumption of caffeinated coffee (5 mg/kg of caffeine), improves energy utilization and relates to glucose derivation and lipid oxidation.

  1. Cycling on rollers: Kreitler fan resistance at submaximal levels of effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiser, R F; Hart, C R

    2008-03-01

    The goal of this investigation was to characterize the commercially available fan unit for the KreitlerAlloy rollers at submaximal levels of effort (cyclist rode six times at each of three fan inlet settings (closed, half, and full open) and five fan speeds (900, 1800, 2700, 3600, and 4500 rpm). Fan power requirements were isolated by subtracting roller resistance from separate trials. Power requirements relative to fan inlet and fan speed possessed a significant interaction with the main effects for each also significant (all p or = 0.997). Fan resistance was virtually non existent at 900 rpm. Fan resistance then significantly increased with increasing fan speed and inlet opening. At 4500 rpm power requirements of the fan reached 269 +/- 6, 352 +/- 7, and 406 +/- 9 W with the inlet closed, half, and fully open, respectively (p training and testing environments.

  2. Dichloroacetate therapy attenuates the blood lactate response to submaximal exercise in patients with defects in mitochondrial energy metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, G E; Perkins, L A; Theriaque, D W; Neiberger, R E; Stacpoole, P W

    2004-04-01

    We determined acute and chronic effects of dichloroacetate (DCA) on maximal (MAX) and submaximal (SUB) exercise responses in patients with abnormal mitochondrial energetics. Subjects (n = 9) completed a MAX treadmill bout 1 h after ingesting 25 mg/kg DCA or placebo (PL). A 15-min SUB bout was completed the next day while receiving the same treatment. After a 1-d washout, MAX and SUB were repeated while receiving the alternate treatment (acute). Gas exchange and heart rate were measured throughout all tests. Blood lactate (Bla) was measured 0, 3, and 10 min after MAX, and 5, 10, and 15 min during SUB. MAX and SUB were repeated after 3 months of daily DCA or PL. After a 2-wk washout, a final MAX and SUB were completed after 3 months of alternate treatment (chronic). Average Bla during SUB was lower (P abnormal mitochondrial energetics.

  3. Cardiac autonomic dysfunction in chronic stroke women is attenuated after submaximal exercise test, as evaluated by linear and nonlinear analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francica, Juliana Valente; Bigongiari, Aline; Mochizuki, Luís; Scapini, Kátia Bilhar; Moraes, Oscar Albuquerque; Mostarda, Cristiano; Caperuto, Erico Chagas; Irigoyen, Maria Cláudia; De Angelis, Katia; Rodrigues, Bruno

    2015-09-29

    We evaluated cardiac autonomic modulation in women with chronic ischemic stroke (at least 4 years post-stroke) at rest and in response to submaximal exercise test. Fourteen post-stroke women (S group) and 10 healthy women (C group) participated in this study. Autonomic modulation (using linear and nonlinear analysis), blood pressure and metabolic variables at rest were evaluated immediately after the exercise test and during the recovery period (20 min). All participants underwent submaximal exercise test on cycle ergometer with gas analysis. At rest, the S group displayed higher lactate concentration, systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) values when compared to C group. Furthermore, the S group had lower heart rate variability (HRV) in time domain (SDNN: S = 30 ± 5 vs. 40 ± 8 ms; rMSSD: S = 14 ± 2 vs. C = 34 ± 3 ms), decreased high frequency band of pulse interval (S = 8.4 ± 2 vs. 33.1 ± 9 %) and 2V pattern of symbolic analysis (S = 17.3 ± 1 vs. 30 ± 3 %) (both indicators of cardiac vagal modulation) when compared to C group. Immediately after exercise, S group presented higher values of lactate, SBP, DBP and double product when compared to C group, as well as decreased heart rate recovery (HRR) measured at the first, second and third minutes. At recovery time, all HRV parameters in time and frequency domains improved in the S group; however, HF band remained lower when compared to C group. After the exercise test, women with chronic stroke presented reduced heart rate variability, reduced cardiac vagal modulation, as well as reduced HRR, while displayed an improvement of heart rate variability and cardiac vagal modulation when compared to their baseline. These results reinforce the importance of a physically active lifestyle for cardiovascular autonomic disorders observed in chronic stroke women.

  4. Effects of environmental temperature on physiological responses during submaximal and maximal exercises in soccer players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MiHyun No

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: It is concluded that physiological responses and endurance exercise capacity are impaired under cool or hot conditions compared with moderate conditions, suggesting that environmental temperature conditions play an important role for exercise performance.

  5. Met-enkephalin, beta-endorphin and cortisol responses to sub-maximal exercise after sleep disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mougin, F; Simon-Rigaud, M L; Mougin, C; Bourdin, H; Jacquier, M C; Henriet, M T; Davenne, D; Kantelip, J P; Magnin, P; Gaillard, R C

    1992-01-01

    The present study compared the effects of partial sleep deprivation and the effects of an intake of a hypnotic compound (zolpidem) prior to bedtime, on sleep and on hormonal and metabolic adaptations to subsequent exercise. Sleep deprivation consisted of a delayed bedtime and an early getting-up time. Eight young subjects, who slept well and were highly trained athletes, were enrolled in this study. Sleep was recorded polygraphically and the following afternoon exercise was performed on a cycle ergometer for 30 min at 75% of maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) after a 10-min warm up. Met-enkephalin, beta-endorphin, cortisol, and lactate concentrations were measured at rest and during exercise. The data obtained after experimental sleep, with and without medication were compared with those obtained in the reference condition with normal sleep. Both types of sleep reduction decreased the total sleep time, stage 2 sleep, and rapid eye movement sleep, whereas zolpidem administration did not modify either the duration of sleep or the sleep stages. After the reference night, plasma met-enkephalin did not show any significant change at the end of the submaximal exercise, whereas beta-endorphin, cortisol, and lactic acid concentrations increased significantly in all subjects. The changes in concentration in beta-endorphin were significantly related to the changes in cortisol (r = 0.78; P less than 0.01) and to the changes in plasma lactic acid (r = 0.58; P less than 0.05). Cortisol concentrations were also related to lactic acid values (r = 0.94; P less than 0.01).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Acute dietary nitrate supplementation does not augment submaximal forearm exercise hyperemia in healthy young men

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kim, Jin-Kwang; Moore, David J; Maurer, David G; Kim-Shapiro, Daniel B; Basu, Swati; Flanagan, Michael P; Skulas-Ray, Ann C; Kris-Etherton, Penny; Proctor, David N

    2015-01-01

    ... on exercising limb blood flow in humans. We hypothesized that acute dietary nitrate supplementation from beetroot juice would augment the increases in forearm blood flow, as well as the progressive dilation of the brachial artery...

  7. Cerebral blood flow during submaximal and maximal dynamic exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas, S N; Schroeder, T; Secher, N H

    1989-01-01

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF) in humans was measured at rest and during dynamic exercise on a cycle ergometer corresponding to 56% (range 27-85) of maximal O2 uptake (VO2max). Exercise bouts were performed by 16 male and female subjects, lasted 15 min each, and were carried out in a semisupine position....... CBF (133Xe clearance) was expressed as the initial slope index (ISI) and as the first compartment flow (F1). CBF at rest [ISI, 58 (range 45-73); F1, 76 (range 55-98) ml.100 g-1.min-1] increased during exercise [ISI to 79 (57-94) and F1 to 118 (75-164) ml.100 g-1.min-1, P less than 0.01]. CBF did...

  8. Core Temperature Measurement During Submaximal Exercise: Esophageal, Rectal, and Intestinal Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Stuart M. C.; Williams, W. Jon; Schneider, Suzanne M.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if intestinal temperature (Tin) might be in acceptable alternative to esophageal (Tes) and rectal temperature (Trec) to assess thermoregulation during supine exercise. We hypothesized that Tin would have values similar to Tes and a response time similar to Trec, but the rate of temperature change across time would not be different between measurement sites. Seven subjects completed a continuous supine protocol of 20 min of rest, 20 min of cycle exercise at 40% peak oxygen consumption (VO2pk), 20 min of cycle exercise at 65% V02pk, and 20 min of recovery. Tes, Trec, and Tin were recorded each min throughout the test. Temperatures were not different after 20 min of rest, but Trec was less than the Tes and Tin at the end of the 40% and 65% VO2pk stages. After 20 min of recovery, Tes was less than either Trec or Tin, which were not different from each other. Time to threshold for increased temperature from rest was greater for Trec than Tes but not different from Tin. Time to reach peak temperature was greater for Tin and Trec than Tes. Similarly, time to a decrease in temperature after exercise was greater for Trec than Tes, but not different from Tin. The rate of temperature change from threshold to the end of the 40% VO2pk stage was not different between measurement sites. However, the rate of change during recovery was more negative for Tes than Tin and Trec, which were different from each other. Measurement of Tin may he an acceptable alternative to Tes and Trec with an understanding of its limitations.

  9. Pulmonary and leg VO2 during submaximal exercise: implications for muscular efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, D. C.; Gaesser, G. A.; Hogan, M. C.; Knight, D. R.; Wagner, P. D.

    1992-01-01

    Insights into muscle energetics during exercise (e.g., muscular efficiency) are often inferred from measurements of pulmonary gas exchange. This procedure presupposes that changes of pulmonary O2 (VO2) associated with increases of external work reflect accurately the increased muscle VO2. The present investigation addressed this issue directly by making simultaneous determinations of pulmonary and leg VO2 over a range of work rates calculated to elicit 20-90% of maximum VO2 on the basis of prior incremental (25 or 30 W/min) cycle ergometry. VO2 for both legs was calculated as the product of twice one-leg blood flow (constant-infusion thermodilution) and arteriovenous O2 content difference across the leg. Measurements were made 3-5 min after each work rate imposition to avoid incorporation of the VO2 slow component above the lactate threshold. For all 17 subjects, the slope of pulmonary VO2 (9.9 +/- 0.2 ml O2.W-1.min-1) was not different (P greater than 0.05) from that for leg VO2 (9.2 +/- 0.6 ml O2.W-1.min-1). Estimation of "delta" efficiency (i.e., delta work accomplished divided by delta energy expended, calculated from slope of VO2 vs. work rate and a caloric equivalent for O2 of 4.985 cal/ml) using pulmonary VO2 measurements (29.1 +/- 0.6%) was likewise not significantly different (P greater than 0.05) from that made using leg VO2 measurements (33.7 +/- 2.4%). These data suggest that the net VO2 cost of metabolic "support" processes outside the exercising legs changes little over a relatively broad range of exercise intensities. Thus, under the conditions of this investigation, changes of VO2 measured from expired gas reflected closely those occurring within the exercising legs.

  10. Ramadan fasting and the GH/IGF-1 axis of trained men during submaximal exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhlel, Ezzedine; Zaouali, Monia; Miled, Abdelhedi; Tabka, Zouhair; Bigard, Xavier; Shephard, Roy

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore possible changes in body composition, blood glucose regulation, plasma growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), and insulin concentrations of trained athletes in response to the intermittent fasting and dehydration of Ramadan observance. Nine trained male rugby players (age 19 +/- 2 years, height 1.78 +/- 0.74 m) were tested 3 times: before Ramadan (C), at the end of the first week (R1), and during the fourth week (R2). They performed a progressive cycle ergometer test at each visit. The work rate was increased in 6-min stages corresponding to 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60% of W max. Substrate oxidation was evaluated by indirect calorimetry. On each occasion, substrate and plasma hormone concentrations were measured at rest and at the end of the exercise. Ramadan fasting induced a significant decrease in body mass and body fat (R2 vs. C, p < 0.001). Plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, GH, IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 did not change significantly between C and R2, either at rest or following exercise. Ramadan fasting induces positive changes in body composition without disturbing glucose regulation or activity of the GH/IGF-1 system. 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Effects of a helium/oxygen mixture on individuals' lung function and metabolic cost during submaximal exercise for participants with obstructive lung diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häussermann, Sabine; Schulze, Anja; Katz, Ira M; Martin, Andrew R; Herpich, Christiane; Hunger, Theresa; Texereau, Joëlle

    2015-01-01

    Helium/oxygen therapies have been studied as a means to reduce the symptoms of obstructive lung diseases with inconclusive results in clinical trials. To better understand this variability in results, an exploratory physiological study was performed comparing the effects of helium/oxygen mixture (78%/22%) to that of medical air. The gas mixtures were administered to healthy, asthmatic, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) participants, both moderate and severe (6 participants in each disease group, a total of 30); at rest and during submaximal cycling exercise with equivalent work rates. Measurements of ventilatory parameters, forced spirometry, and ergospirometry were obtained. There was no statistical difference in ventilatory and cardiac responses to breathing helium/oxygen during submaximal exercise. For asthmatics, but not for the COPD participants, there was a statistically significant benefit in reduced metabolic cost, determined through measurement of oxygen uptake, for the same exercise work rate. However, the individual data show that there were a mixture of responders and nonresponders to helium/oxygen in all of the groups. The inconsistent response to helium/oxygen between individuals is perhaps the key drawback to the more effective and widespread use of helium/oxygen to increase exercise capacity and for other therapeutic applications.

  12. Effects of a helium/oxygen mixture on individuals’ lung function and metabolic cost during submaximal exercise for participants with obstructive lung diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häussermann, Sabine; Schulze, Anja; Katz, Ira M; Martin, Andrew R; Herpich, Christiane; Hunger, Theresa; Texereau, Joëlle

    2015-01-01

    Background Helium/oxygen therapies have been studied as a means to reduce the symptoms of obstructive lung diseases with inconclusive results in clinical trials. To better understand this variability in results, an exploratory physiological study was performed comparing the effects of helium/oxygen mixture (78%/22%) to that of medical air. Methods The gas mixtures were administered to healthy, asthmatic, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) participants, both moderate and severe (6 participants in each disease group, a total of 30); at rest and during submaximal cycling exercise with equivalent work rates. Measurements of ventilatory parameters, forced spirometry, and ergospirometry were obtained. Results There was no statistical difference in ventilatory and cardiac responses to breathing helium/oxygen during submaximal exercise. For asthmatics, but not for the COPD participants, there was a statistically significant benefit in reduced metabolic cost, determined through measurement of oxygen uptake, for the same exercise work rate. However, the individual data show that there were a mixture of responders and nonresponders to helium/oxygen in all of the groups. Conclusion The inconsistent response to helium/oxygen between individuals is perhaps the key drawback to the more effective and widespread use of helium/oxygen to increase exercise capacity and for other therapeutic applications. PMID:26451096

  13. The effect of Sub-maximal exercise-rehabilitation program on cardio-respiratory endurance indexes and oxygen pulse in patients with spastic cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Izadi

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physical or cardio-respiratory fitness are of the best important physiological variables in children with cerebral palsy (CP, but the researches on exercise response of individuals with CP are limited. Our aim was to determine the effect of sub-maximal rehabilitation program (aerobic exercise on maximal oxygen uptake, oxygen pulse and cardio- respiratory physiological variables of children with moderate to severe spastic cerebral palsy diplegia and compare with able-bodied children. Methods: In a controlled clinical trial study, 15 children with diplegia spastic cerebral palsy, were recruited on a voluntarily basis (experimental group and 18 subjects without neurological impairments selected as control group. In CP group, aerobic exercise program performed on the average of exercise intensity (144 beat per minute of heart rate, 3 times a week for 3 months. The time of each exercise session was 20-25 minutes. Dependent variables were measured in before (pretest and after (post test of rehabilitation program through Mac Master Protocol on Tantories cycle ergometer in CP group and compared with the control group. Results: The oxygen pulse (VO2/HR during ergometery protocol was significantly lower in CP group than normal group (P<0.05. No significant statistical difference in maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max was found between groups. The rehabilitation program leads to little increase of this variable in CP group. After sub-maximal exercise in pretest and post test, the heart rate of patient group was greater than control group, and aerobic exercise leads to significant decrease in heart rate in CP patients(P<0.05. Conclusion: The patients with spastic cerebral palsy, because of high muscle tone, severe spasticity and involuntarily movements have higher energy cost and lower aerobic fitness than normal people. The rehabilitation exercise program can improve physiological function of muscle and cardio-respiratory endurance in these

  14. Evaluation of respiratory dynamics by volumetric capnography during submaximal exercise protocol of six minutes on treadmill in cystic fibrosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parazzi, Paloma L F; Marson, Fernando A L; Ribeiro, Maria A G O; Schivinski, Camila I S; Ribeiro, José D

    2017-11-29

    Volumetric capnography provides the standard CO2 elimination by the volume expired per respiratory cycle and is a measure to assess pulmonary involvement. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the respiratory dynamics of healthy control subjects and those with cystic fibrosis in a submaximal exercise protocol for six minutes on the treadmill, using volumetric capnography parameters (slope 3 [Slp3], Slp3/tidal volume [Slp3/TV], and slope 2 [Slp2]). This was a cross-sectional study with 128 subjects (cystic fibrosis, 64 subjects; controls, 64 subjects]. Participants underwent volumetric capnography before, during, and after six minutes on the treadmill. Statistical analysis was performed using the Friedman, Mann-Whitney, and Kruskal-Wallis tests, considering age and sex. An alpha=0.05 was considered. Six minutes on the treadmill evaluation: in cystic fibrosis, volumetric capnography parameters were different before, during, and after six minutes on the treadmill; the same was observed for the controls, except for Slp2. Regarding age, an Slp3 difference was observed in cystic fibrosis patients regardless of age, at all moments, and in controls for age≥12 years; a difference in Slp3/TV was observed in cystic fibrosis and controls, regardless of age; and an Slp2 difference in the cystic fibrosis, regardless of age. Regarding sex, Slp3 and Slp3/TV differences were observed in cystic fibrosis regardless of sex, and in controls in male participants; an Slp2 difference was observed in the cystic fibrosis and female participants. The analysis between groups (cystic fibrosis and controls) indicated that Slp3 and Slp3/TV has identified the CF, regardless of age and sex, while the Slp2 showed the CF considering age. Cystic fibrosis showed greater values of the parameters before, during, and after exercise, even when stratified by age and sex, which may indicate ventilation inhomogeneity in the peripheral pathways in the cystic fibrosis. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade

  15. Effects of a helium/oxygen mixture on individuals’ lung function and metabolic cost during submaximal exercise for participants with obstructive lung diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Häussermann S

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sabine Häussermann,1 Anja Schulze,1 Ira M Katz,2,3 Andrew R Martin,4 Christiane Herpich,1 Theresa Hunger,1 Joëlle Texereau2 1Inamed GmbH, Gauting, Germany; 2Medical R&D, Air Liquide Santé International, Centre de Recherche Paris-Saclay, Les Loges-en-Josas, France; 3Department of Mechanical Engineering, Lafayette College, Easton, PA, USA; 4Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, CanadaBackground: Helium/oxygen therapies have been studied as a means to reduce the symptoms of obstructive lung diseases with inconclusive results in clinical trials. To better understand this variability in results, an exploratory physiological study was performed comparing the effects of helium/oxygen mixture (78%/22% to that of medical air.Methods: The gas mixtures were administered to healthy, asthmatic, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD participants, both moderate and severe (6 participants in each disease group, a total of 30; at rest and during submaximal cycling exercise with equivalent work rates. Measurements of ventilatory parameters, forced spirometry, and ergospirometry were obtained.Results: There was no statistical difference in ventilatory and cardiac responses to breathing helium/oxygen during submaximal exercise. For asthmatics, but not for the COPD participants, there was a statistically significant benefit in reduced metabolic cost, determined through measurement of oxygen uptake, for the same exercise work rate. However, the individual data show that there were a mixture of responders and nonresponders to helium/oxygen in all of the groups.Conclusion: The inconsistent response to helium/oxygen between individuals is perhaps the key drawback to the more effective and widespread use of helium/oxygen to increase exercise capacity and for other therapeutic applications. Keywords: helium/oxygen, inspiratory capacity, oxygen uptake, COPD, asthma, obstructive airway diseases, exercise, heliox

  16. Submaximal exercise testing with near-infrared spectroscopy in Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome patients compared to healthy controls: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ruth R; Reid, W Darlene; Mattman, Andre; Yamabayashi, Cristiane; Steiner, Theodore; Parker, Shoshana; Gardy, Jennifer; Tang, Patrick; Patrick, David M

    2015-05-20

    Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) is a debilitating illness. Symptoms include profound fatigue and distinctive post-exertional malaise (PEM). We asked whether a submaximal exercise test would prove useful for identifying different patterns of tissue oxygen utilization in individuals with ME/CFS versus healthy subjects. Such a test has potential to aid with ME/CFS diagnosis, or to characterize patients' illness. A case-control study of 16 patients with ME/CFS compared to 16 healthy controls completing a 3-min handgrip protocol was performed. Response was measured using near-infrared spectroscopy, resulting in measurements of oxygenated (O2Hb) and deoxygenated hemoglobin (HHb) over wrist extensors and flexors. Changes in O2Hb (delta (d)O2Hb) and HHb (dHHb) absorbance between the first and last contraction were calculated, as were the force-time product of all contractions, measured as tension-time index (TTI), and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE). Individuals with ME/CFS demonstrated smaller dO2Hb and dHHb than controls. However, after adjusting for TTI and change in total hemoglobin (delta (d)tHb), differences in dO2Hb and dHHb were reduced, with large overlapping variances. RPE was significantly higher for cases than controls, particularly at rest. Relative to controls, participants with ME/CFS demonstrated higher RPE, lower TTI, and reduced dO2Hb and dHHb during repetitive handgrip exercise, although considerable variance was observed. With further study, submaximal exercise testing may prove useful for stratifying patients with a lower propensity for inducing PEM, and have the ability to establish baseline intensities for exercise prescription.

  17. Coconut Water Does Not Improve Markers of Hydration During Sub-maximal Exercise and Performance in a Subsequent Time Trial Compared with Water Alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peart, Daniel J; Hensby, Andy; Shaw, Matthew P

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare markers of hydration during submaximal exercise and subsequent time trial performance when consuming water (PW) or coconut water (CW). There was also a secondary aim to assess the palatability of CW during exercise and voluntary intake during intense exercise. 10 males (age 27.9 ± 4.9 years, body mass 78.1 ± 10.1kg, average max minute power 300.2 ± 28.2W) completed 60-min of submaximal cycling followed by a 10-km time trial on two occasions. During these trials participants consumed either PW or CW in a randomized manner, drinking a 250 ml of the assigned drink between 10-15 min, 25-30 min and 40-45 min, and then drinking ad libitum from 55-min until the end of the time trial. Body mass and urine osmolality were recorded preexercise and then after 30-min, 60-min, and post time trial. Blood glucose, lactate, heart rate, rate of perceived exertion (RPE; 6-20) and ratings of thirst, sweetness, nausea, fullness and stomach upset (1 =very low/none, 5= very high) were recorded during each drink period. CW did not significantly improve time trial performance compared with PW (971.4 ± 50.5 and 966.6 ± 44.8 s respectively; p = .698) and there was also no significant differences between trials for any of the physiological variables measured. However there were subjective differences between the beverages for taste, resulting in a significantly reduced volume of voluntary intake in the CW trial (115 ± 95.41 ml and 208.7 ± 86.22 ml; p < .001).

  18. Vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA expression and arteriovenous balance in resonse to prolonged, submaximal exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hiscock, N.; Fischer, C.P.; Pilegaard, Henriette

    2003-01-01

    VEGF, regulation of gene expression, exercise, angiogensis, skeletal muscle, peripheral vascular function......VEGF, regulation of gene expression, exercise, angiogensis, skeletal muscle, peripheral vascular function...

  19. Effects of exercise in polluted air on the aerobic power, serum lactate level and cell blood count of active individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Kargarfard

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: Exercise in high-polluted air resulted in a significant reduction in the performance at submaximal levels of physical exertion. Therefore, the acute exposure to polluted air may cause a significant reduction in the performance of active individuals. The clinical importance of these findings should be assessed in longitudinal studies.

  20. Beta2-adrenergic stimulation increases energy expenditure at rest, but not during submaximal exercise in active overweight men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Onslev, Johan; Jacobson, Glenn A; Narkowicz, Christian K

    2017-01-01

    percentage and rac-formoterol-induced change in energy expenditure. During exercise, energy expenditure was not different between treatments, although carbohydrate oxidation was 15% higher (P = 0.021) for rac-formoterol than placebo. Rac-formoterol-induced shift in substrate choice from rest to exercise...

  1. Effect of acute exercise-induced fatigue on maximal rate of heart rate increase during submaximal cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Rebecca L; Rogers, Daniel K; Howe, Peter R C; Buckley, Jonathan D

    2016-01-01

    Different mathematical models were used to evaluate if the maximal rate of heart rate (HR) increase (rHRI) was related to reductions in exercise performance resulting from acute fatigue. Fourteen triathletes completed testing before and after a 2-h run. rHRI was assessed during 5 min of 100-W cycling and a sigmoidal (rHRIsig) and exponential (rHRIexp) model were applied. Exercise performance was assessed using a 5-min cycling time-trial. The run elicited reductions in time-trial performance (1.34 ± 0.19 to 1.25 ± 0.18 kJ · kg(-1), P exercise HR (73.0 ± 8.4 to 90.5 ± 11.4 beats · min(-1), P exercise and steady-state HR. rHRIsig was reduced following acute exercise-induced fatigue, and correlated with difference in performance.

  2. Neuromuscular blockade of slow twitch muscle fibres elevates muscle oxygen uptake and energy turnover during submaximal exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krustrup, Peter; Secher, Niels; Relu, Mihai U.

    2008-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that a greater activation of fast-twitch (FT) fibres during dynamic exercise leads to a higher muscle oxygen uptake (VO2 ) and energy turnover as well as a slower muscle on-kinetics. Subjects performed one-legged knee-extensor exercise for 10 min at an intensity of 30 W...... fibres, respectively. From 127 s of exercise, muscle VO2 was higher (P muscle VO2 response...... was slower (P muscle homogenate CP was lowered (P muscle lactate production was similar in CUR and CON (37.8 +/- 4.1 versus 35.2 +/- 6.2 mmol). Estimated total muscle ATP turnover was 19...

  3. Acute citrulline malate supplementation improves upper- and lower-body submaximal weightlifting exercise performance in resistance-trained females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Jordan M; Gray, Michelle; Wethington, Lauren N; Stone, Matthew S; Stewart, Rodger W; Moyen, Nicole E

    2017-03-01

    Citrulline malate (CM) is a nonessential amino acid that increases exercise performance in males. However, based on physiological differences between genders, these results cannot be extrapolated to females. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to evaluate effects of acute CM supplementation on upper- and lower-body weightlifting performance in resistance-trained females. Fifteen females (23 ± 3 years) completed two randomized, double-blind trials consuming either CM (8 g dextrose + 8 g CM) or a placebo (8 g dextrose). One hour after supplement consumption, participants performed six sets each of upper- (i.e., bench press) and lower-body (i.e., leg press) exercises to failure at 80 % of previously established one-repetition maximum. Immediately after each set, repetitions completed, heart rate and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded. Repeated-measures analysis of variance indicated that subjects completed significantly (p = .045) more repetitions throughout upper-body exercise when consuming CM versus placebo (34.1 ± 5.7 vs. 32.9 ± 6.0, respectively). When consuming CM, similar significant (p = .03) improvements in total repetitions completed were observed for lower-body exercise (66.7 ± 30.5 vs. 55.13 ± 20.64, respectively). Overall RPE score was significantly lower (p = .02) in upper-body exercise when subjects consumed CM versus placebo (7.9 ± 0.3 and 8.6 ± 0.2, respectively). The supplement consumed exhibited no significant effects on heart rate at any time point. Acute CM supplementation in females increased upper- and lower-body resistance exercise performance and decreased RPE during upper-body exercise. These data indicate that athletes competing in sports with muscular endurance-based requirements may potentially improve performance by acutely supplementing CM.

  4. The Effect of Lower-Body Positive Pressure on the Cardiorespiratory Response at Rest and during Submaximal Running Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Stucky

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Anti-gravity treadmills facilitate locomotion by lower-body positive pressure (LBPP. Effects on cardiorespiratory regulation are unknown. Healthy men (30 ± 8 y, 178.3 ± 5.7 cm, 70.3 ± 8.0 kg; mean ± SD stood upright (n = 10 or ran (n = 9 at 9, 11, 13, and 15 km.h−1 (5 min stages with LBPP (0, 15, 40 mmHg. Cardiac output (CO, stroke volume (SV, heart rate (HR, blood pressure (BP, peripheral resistance (PR, and oxygen uptake (VO2 were monitored continuously. During standing, LBPP increased SV [by +29 ± 13 (+41% and +42 ± 15 (+60% ml, at 15 and 40 mmHg, respectively (p < 0.05] and decreased HR [by −15 ± 6 (−20% and −22 ± 9 (−29% bpm (p < 0.05] resulting in a transitory increase in CO [by +1.6 ± 1.0 (+32% and +2.0 ± 1.0 (+39% l.min−1 (p < 0.05] within the first seconds of LBPP. This was accompanied by a transitory decrease in end-tidal PO2 [by −5 ± 3 (−5% and −10 ± 4 (−10% mmHg (p < 0.05] and increase in VO2 [by +66 ± 53 (+26% and +116 ± 64 (+46% ml.min−1 (p < 0.05], suggesting increased venous return and pulmonary blood flow. The application of LBPP increased baroreflex sensitivity (BRS [by +1.8 ± 1.6 (+18% and +4.6 ± 3.7 (+47% at 15 and 40 mmHg LBPP, respectively P < 0.05]. After reaching steady-state exercise CO vs. VO2 relationships remained linear with similar slope and intercept for each participant (mean R2 = 0.84 ± 0.13 while MAP remained unchanged. It follows that (1 LBPP affects cardiorespiratory integration at the onset of exercise; (2 at a given LBPP, once reaching steady-state exercise, the cardiorespiratory load is reduced proportionally to the lower metabolic demand resulting from the body weight support; (3 the balance between cardiovascular response, oxygen delivery to the exercising muscles and blood pressure regulation is maintained at exercise steady-state; and (4 changes in baroreflex sensitivity may be involved in the regulation of cardiovascular parameters during LBPP.

  5. Heat storage in Asian elephants during submaximal exercise: behavioral regulation of thermoregulatory constraints on activity in endothermic gigantotherms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, M F; Bakken, G S; Ratliff, J J; Langman, V A

    2013-05-15

    Gigantic size presents both opportunities and challenges in thermoregulation. Allometric scaling relationships suggest that gigantic animals have difficulty dissipating metabolic heat. Large body size permits the maintenance of fairly constant core body temperatures in ectothermic animals by means of gigantothermy. Conversely, gigantothermy combined with endothermic metabolic rate and activity likely results in heat production rates that exceed heat loss rates. In tropical environments, it has been suggested that a substantial rate of heat storage might result in a potentially lethal rise in core body temperature in both elephants and endothermic dinosaurs. However, the behavioral choice of nocturnal activity might reduce heat storage. We sought to test the hypothesis that there is a functionally significant relationship between heat storage and locomotion in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus), and model the thermoregulatory constraints on activity in elephants and a similarly sized migratory dinosaur, Edmontosaurus. Pre- and post-exercise (N=37 trials) measurements of core body temperature and skin temperature, using thermography were made in two adult female Asian elephants at the Audubon Zoo in New Orleans, LA, USA. Over ambient air temperatures ranging from 8 to 34.5°C, when elephants exercised in full sun, ~56 to 100% of active metabolic heat production was stored in core body tissues. We estimate that during nocturnal activity, in the absence of solar radiation, between 5 and 64% of metabolic heat production would be stored in core tissues. Potentially lethal rates of heat storage in active elephants and Edmontosaurus could be behaviorally regulated by nocturnal activity.

  6. Sub-maximal and maximal Yo-Yo intermittent endurance test level 2: heart rate response, reproducibility and application to elite soccer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bradley, Paul S; Mohr, Magni; Bendiksen, Mads

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were to (1) determine the reproducibility of sub-maximal and maximal versions of the Yo-Yo intermittent endurance test level 2 (Yo-Yo IE2 test), (2) assess the relationship between the Yo-Yo IE2 test and match performance and (3) quantify the sensitivity of the Yo-Yo IE2 te......) in Yo-Yo IE2 test performance and heart rate after 6 min were 3.9% (n = 37) and 1.4% (n = 32), respectively. Elite male senior and youth U19 players Yo-Yo IE2 performances were better (P ...

  7. Eight weeks of intermittent hypoxic training improves submaximal physiological variables in highly trained runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliss, Ben A; Burden, Richard J; Jones, Andrew M; Pedlar, Charles R

    2014-08-01

    It is unclear whether intermittent hypoxic training (IHT) results in improvements in physiological variables associated with endurance running. Twelve highly trained runners (VO2peak 70.0 ± 3.5 ml·kg-1·min-1) performed incremental treadmill tests to exhaustion in normobaric normoxia and hypoxia (16.0% FIO2) to assess submaximal and maximal physiological variables and the limit of tolerance (T-Lim). Participants then completed 8 weeks of moderate to heavy intensity normoxic training (control [CONT]) or IHT (twice weekly 40 minutes runs, in combination with habitual training), in a single blinded manner, before repeating the treadmill tests. Submaximal heart rate decreased significantly more after IHT (-5 ± 5 b·min-1; p = 0.001) than after CONT ( -1 ± 5 b·min-1; p = 0.021). Changes in submaximal V[Combining Dot Above]O2 were significantly different between groups (p ≤ 0.05); decreasing in the IHT group in hypoxia (-2.6 ± 1.7 ml·kg-1·min-1; p = 0.001) and increasing in the CONT group in normoxia (+1.1 ± 2.1 ml·kg-1·min-1; p = 0.012). There were no VO2peak changes within either group, and while T-Lim improved post-IHT in hypoxia (p = 0.031), there were no significant differences between groups. Intermittent hypoxic training resulted in a degree of enhanced cardiovascular fitness that was evident during submaximal, but not maximal intensity exercise. These results suggest that moderate to heavy intensity IHT provides a mean of improving the capacity for submaximal exercise and may be useful for pre-acclimatization for subsequent exercise in hypoxia, but additional research is required to establish its efficacy for athletic performance at sea level.

  8. Prediction of Maximum Oxygen Uptake Using Both Exercise and Non-Exercise Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, James D.; Paul, Samantha L.; Hyde, Annette; Bradshaw, Danielle I.; Vehrs, Pat R.; Hager, Ronald L.; Yanowitz, Frank G.

    2009-01-01

    This study sought to develop a regression model to predict maximal oxygen uptake (VO[subscript 2max]) based on submaximal treadmill exercise (EX) and non-exercise (N-EX) data involving 116 participants, ages 18-65 years. The EX data included the participants' self-selected treadmill speed (at a level grade) when exercise heart rate first reached…

  9. Addition of atropine to submaximal exercise stress testing in patients evaluated for suspected ischaemia with SPECT imaging: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manganelli, Fiore; Sauro, Rosario; Di Lorenzo, Emilio; Rosato, Giuseppe [San Giuseppe Moscati Hospital, Department of Cardiology and Heart Surgery, Avellino (Italy); Spadafora, Marco; Varrella, Paola; Peluso, Giuseppina [San Giuseppe Moscati Hospital, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Avellino (Italy); Daniele, Stefania [Institute of Diagnostic and Nuclear Development (SDN), Naples (Italy); Cuocolo, Alberto [Institute of Diagnostic and Nuclear Development (SDN), Naples (Italy); University Federico II, Department of Biomorphological and Functional Sciences, Naples (Italy); National Council of Research, Institute of Biostructures and Bioimages, Naples (Italy)

    2011-02-15

    To evaluate the effects of the addition of atropine to exercise testing in patients who failed to achieve their target heart rate (HR) during stress myocardial perfusion imaging with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The study was a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled design. Patients with suspected or known coronary artery disease who failed to achieve a target HR ({>=}85% of maximal predicted HR) during exercise SPECT imaging were randomized to receive intravenous atropine (n = 100) or placebo (n = 101). The two groups of patients did not differ with respect to demographic or clinical characteristics. A higher proportion of patients in the atropine group achieved the target HR compared to the placebo group (60% versus 3%, p < 0.0001). SPECT imaging was abnormal in a higher proportion of patients in the atropine group as compared to the placebo group (57% versus 42%, p < 0.05). Stress-induced myocardial ischaemia was present in more patients in the atropine group as compared to placebo (47% versus 29%, p < 0.01). In both groups of patients, no major side effects occurred. The addition of atropine at the end of exercise testing is more effective than placebo in raising HR to adequate levels, without additional risks of complications. The use of atropine in patients who initially failed to achieve their maximal predicted HR is associated with a higher probability of achieving a diagnostic myocardial perfusion study. (orig.)

  10. Myocardial oxygen consumption at rest and during submaximal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    2008-11-26

    Nov 26, 2008 ... Department of Physiology, JSS Medical College, Constituent College of JSS University, Mysore – 570015, ... determine the effect of increased adiposity on myocardial oxygen consumption at rest and during submaximal exercise in ... during exercise suggesting higher hemodynamic stress to the heart.

  11. Myocardial oxygen consumption at rest and during submaximal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    2008-11-26

    Nov 26, 2008 ... and myocardial fatty acid utilization has been showed to decrease after weight loss from gastric bypass surgery or diet in obese persons (Fei ho et al., 1995,). During submaximal exercise and immediately after exercise, all three groups showed an increase in. RPP. The percentage increase in RPP was.

  12. Efeitos cardiovasculares da abstinência do fumo no repouso e durante o exercício submáximo em mulheres jovens fumantes Cardiovascular effects of smoking abstinence at rest and during submaximal exercise in young female smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demilto Yamaguchi da Pureza

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O objetivo do presente estudo foi verificar o efeito da abstinência do fumo nas respostas cardiovasculares ao exercício físico progressivo submáximo em mulheres sedentárias fumantes. MÉTODOS: A pressão arterial sistólica (PAS e diastólica (PAD e a freqüência cardíaca (FC foram medidas de forma não invasiva em mulheres jovens não fumantes (MNF, n = 7 e fumantes (MF, n = 7, sem e com abstinência do fumo por 24 horas, em repouso, durante a realização do teste submáximo em bicicleta ergométrica e na recuperação. RESULTADOS: Em repouso, a PAD e a FC foram maiores nas MF (76 ± 1mmHg e 86 ± 5bpm quando comparadas com as MNF (68 ± 2mmHg e 72 ± 2bpm. Após 24 horas sem o tabaco essas medidas foram normalizadas. Durante o exercício, a PAS e a FC aumentaram nos grupos estudados. A PAD foi maior nas MF (~15% em relação às MNF em todos os estágios do exercício. Na situação de abstinência, a PAD aumentou somente no último estágio de exercício. Na recuperação tanto a PAD quanto a FC foram maiores nas MF, na situação basal e com abstinência de 24h, quando comparadas as MNF. CONCLUSÃO: Estes resultados demonstram que mulheres jovens fumantes apresentam prejuízo em parâmetros hemodinâmicos em repouso e em resposta ao exercício submáximo, os quais, podem ser em parte revertidos pela abstinência em curto prazo do uso do tabaco.OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study was to verify the effect of tobacco smoking abstinence on cardiovascular responses to progressive submaximal physical exercise in sedentary female smokers. METHODS: Systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP and heart rate (HR were non-invasively measured in young non-smoking women (NSW, n = 7 and smoking women (SW, n = 7, with and without tobacco abstinence for 24 hours, at rest, during the accomplishment of a submaximal bicycle ergometric test and recovery period. RESULTS: At rest, DBP and HR were higher in the SW group

  13. Which factors determine the freely chosen cadence during submaximal cycling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercruyssen, Fabrice; Brisswalter, Jeanick

    2010-03-01

    The present review of cycling science focuses on the identification of criteria that affect the freely chosen cadence (FCC) during submaximal exercise of short and prolonged durations. Cadence selection during submaximal cycling constitutes a potential parameter affecting the endurance performance in subjects of varying aerobic fitness level and experience. The activity constraints such as specificity (e.g. cycle bout of triathlon) and exercise duration may play an important role in the selection of cadence and must be taken into consideration in the task description. The 'holistic' approach of this review is based on a multifactorial analysis considering the cycling constraints, and the physiological and biomechanical factors of cadence selection so as to establish any interrelationships between these factors. During cycle bouts of short duration (<15 min), it has been well argued that experienced cyclists, trained runners and triathletes adopt high cadences (80-100 rpm) systematically above the energetically optimal cadence (EOC) at which the oxygen uptake is minimal (55-65 rpm). The choice of a high cadence has been shown to be dependent upon several factors, such as the aerobic fitness level, the reduction in forces applied to the cranks, the lower extremity net joint moments and minimal neuromuscular fatigue. However, with increasing exercise duration the FCC has been reported to be close to the EOC exclusively in endurance athletes practising a variety of activities, suggesting an impact of training mode on the muscular adaptations and the organisation of the movement pattern. Copyright 2009 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Heightened Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress at Simulated Moderate Level Altitude vs. Sea Level in Trained Cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J Wadley, Alex; S Svendsen, Ida; Gleeson, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Altitude exposure can exaggerate the transient increase in markers of oxidative stress observed following acute exercise. However, these responses have not been monitored in endurance-trained cyclists at altitudes typically experienced while training. Endurance trained males (n = 12; mean (± SD) age: 28 ± 4 years, V̇O2max 63.7 ± 5.3 ml/kg/min) undertook two 75-min exercise trials at 70% relative V̇O2max; once in normoxia and once in hypobaric hypoxia, equivalent to 2000m above sea level (hypoxia). Blood samples were collected before, immediately after and 2 h postexercise to assess plasma parameters of oxidative stress (protein carbonylation (PC), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and catalase activity (CAT)). Participants cycled at 10.5% lower power output in hypoxia vs. normoxia, with no differences in heart rate, blood lactate or rating of perceived exertion observed. PC increased and decreased immediately after exercise in hypoxia and normoxia respectively (nmol/mg/protein: Normoxia-0.3 ± 0.1, Hypoxia + 0.4 ± 0.1; both p stress following submaximal exercise under hypoxic vs. normoxic conditions.

  15. Myocardial oxygen consumption at rest and during submaximal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Overweight and obesity are major risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of increased adiposity on myocardial oxygen consumption at rest and during submaximal exercise in young adults. The study consisted of 85 young adults (18-22years) grouped into 3 based on ...

  16. Influence of menstrual phase on ventilatory response to submaximal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. To determine whether an increase in respiratory drive, due to elevated progesterone and oestrogen concentration during various menstrual phases, persists throughout prolonged submaximal exercise and potentially contributes to fatigue. Furthermore, to determine whether the difference in the ventilatory ...

  17. The Effect of Acute Exercise on Serum Vaspin Level and Its Relation to Insulin Sensitivity in Overweight Elderly Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jabbar Bashiri

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vaspin is a new discovered adipocytokine which is a member of serine protease inhibitor family secreted from adipose tissue and might play a role in insulin sensitivity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of acute exercise on serum vaspin levels and its relation to insulin sensitivity in overweight elderly men. Materials and Methods: In this semi-experimental study, 12 healthy elderly men volunteers randomly selected and performed one session aerobic exercise including 30 minutes of cycling at 70-75% of HRmax, which was followed by 30 minutes of recovery. Three blood samples were taken before exercise, immediately after exercise and after 30 minutes of recovery. Data were analyzed by repeated measure ANOVA and Bonferroni test and Pearson’s correlations were performed to identify possible relationship among the assessed variables. Statistical significance was set at p≤0.05. Results: There were no significant differences for vaspin across time. Insulin and glucose concentration and insulin resistance decreased immediately after exercise. However insulin concentration and insulin resistance returned to pre-exercise level at the end of recovery. Furthermore, no significant correlations were observed among the variables assessed except for the expected between insulin level and insulin resistance. Conclusion: These results indicate that a sub-maximal aerobic workout does not result in significant changes in vaspin levels in elderly men. Furthermore, we observed that vaspin is not associated with insulin sensitivity in this study.

  18. Low doses of caffeine reduce heart rate during submaximal cycle ergometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wetter Thomas J

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to examine the cardiovascular effects of two low-levels of caffeine ingestion in non habitual caffeine users at various submaximal and maximal exercise intensities. Methods Nine male subjects (19–25 yr; 83.3 ± 3.1 kg; 184 ± 2 cm, underwent three testing sessions administered in a randomized and double-blind fashion. During each session, subjects were provided 4 oz of water and a gelatin capsule containing a placebo, 1.5 mg/kg caffeine, or 3.0 mg/kg caffeine. After thirty minutes of rest, a warm-up (30 Watts for 2 min the pedal rate of 60 rpm was maintained at a steady-state output of 60 watts for five minutes; increased to 120 watts for five minutes and to 180 watts for five minutes. After a 2 min rest the workload was 180 watts for one minute and increased by 30 watts every minute until exhaustion. Heart rate (HR was measured during the last 15-seconds of each minute of submaximal exercise. Systolic blood pressure (BP was measured at rest and during each of the three sub-maximal steady state power outputs. Minute ventilation (VE, Tidal volume (VT, Breathing frequency (Bf, Rating of perceived exertion (RPE, Respiratory exchange ratio (RER, and Oxygen consumption (VO2 were measured at rest and during each minute of exercise. Results Caffeine at 1.5 and 3.0 mg/kg body weight significantly lowered (p E, VT, VO2, RPE, maximal power output or time to exhaustion. Conclusion In non habitual caffeine users it appears that consuming a caffeine pill (1.5 & 3.0 mg/kg at a dose comparable to 1–3 cups of coffee lowers heart rate during submaximal exercise but not at near maximal and maximal exercise. In addition, this caffeine dose also only appears to affect systolic blood pressure at rest but not during cycling exercise.

  19. Muscular and pulmonary O2 uptake kinetics during moderate- and high-intensity sub-maximal knee-extensor exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krustrup, Peter; Jones, Andrew M.; Wilkerson, Daryl P.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the contribution of muscle O2 consumption (m O2) to pulmonary O2 uptake (p O2) during both low-intensity (LI) and high-intensity (HI) knee extension exercise, and during subsequent recovery, in humans. Seven healthy male subjects (age 20-25 years...... kinetics for LI (30 +/- 3 vs. 30 +/- 3 s) but was slightly higher (Pintensities. In recovery, agreement between the responses was more limited both for LI (36 +/- 4 vs. 18 +/- 4 s, P

  20. Effect of inspiratory muscle warm-up on submaximal rowing performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arend, Mati; Mäestu, Jarek; Kivastik, Jana; Rämson, Raul; Jürimäe, Jaak

    2015-01-01

    Performing inspiratory muscle warm-up might increase exercise performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of inspiratory muscle warm-up to submaximal rowing performance and to find if there is an effect on lactic acid accumulation and breathing parameters. Ten competitive male rowers aged between 19 and 27 years (age, 23.1 ± 3.8 years; height, 188.1 ± 6.3 cm; body mass, 85.6 ± 6.6 kg) were tested 3 times. During the first visit, maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP) assessment and the incremental rowing test were performed to measure maximal oxygen consumption and maximal aerobic power (Pamax). A submaximal intensity (90% Pamax) rowing test was performed twice with the standard rowing warm-up as test 1 and with the standard rowing warm-up and specific inspiratory muscle warm-up as test 2. During the 2 experimental tests, distance, duration, heart rate, breathing frequency, ventilation, peak oxygen consumption, and blood lactate concentration were measured. The only value that showed a significant difference between the test 1 and test 2 was breathing frequency (52.2 ± 6.8 vs. 53.1 ± 6.8, respectively). Heart rate and ventilation showed a tendency to decrease and increase, respectively, after the inspiratory muscle warm-up (p < 0.1). Despite some changes in respiratory parameters, the use of 40% MIP intensity warm-up is not suggested if the mean intensity of the competition is at submaximal level (at approximately 90% maximal oxygen consumption). In conclusion, the warm-up protocol of the respiratory muscles used in this study does not have a significant influence on submaximal endurance performance in highly trained male rowers.

  1. Submaximal arm crank ergometry : Effects of crank axis positioning on mechanical efficiency, physiological strain and perceived discomfort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Drongelen, S; Maas, J C; Scheel-Sailer, A; Van Der Woude, L H V

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of the spatial orientation of the crank axis on mechanical efficiency, physiological strain and perceived discomfort in submaximal synchronous arm crank ergometry. METHODS: Twelve able-bodied individuals performed 12 submaximal exercise bouts of 3 minutes (women: 20

  2. Effect of forced exercise and exercise withdrawal on memory, serum and hippocampal corticosterone levels in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radahmadi, Maryam; Alaei, Hojjatallah; Sharifi, Mohammad Reza; Hosseini, Nasrin

    2015-10-01

    Evidence suggests that there are positive effects of exercise on learning and memory. Moreover, some studies have demonstrated that forced exercise plays the role of a stressor. This study was aimed at investigating the effects of different timing of exercise and exercise withdrawal on memory, and serum and hippocampal corticosterone (CORT) levels. Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups: control, sham, exercise-rest (exercise withdrawal), rest-exercise (exercised group), and exercise-exercise (continuous exercise). Rats were forced to run on a treadmill for 1 h/day at a speed 20-21-m/min. Memory function was evaluated by the passive avoidance test in different intervals (1, 7 and 21 days) after foot shock. Findings showed that after the exercise withdrawal, short-term and mid-term memories, had significant enhancement compared to the control group, while the long-term memory did not present this result. In addition, the serum and hippocampal CORT levels were at the basal levels after the rest period in the exercise-rest group. In the rest-exercise group, exercise improved mid- and long-term memories, whereas continuous exercise improved all types short-, mid- and long-term memories, particularly the mid-term memory. Twenty-one and forty-two days of exercise significantly decreased the serum and hippocampal CORT levels. It seems that exercise for at least 21 days with no rest could affect biochemical factors in the brain. Also, regular continuous exercise plays an important role in memory function. Hence, the duration and withdraw of exercise are important factors for the neurobiological aspects of the memory responses.

  3. Effect of exercise timing on elevated postprandial glucose levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatamoto, Yoichi; Goya, Ryoma; Yamada, Yosuke; Yoshimura, Eichi; Nishimura, Sena; Higaki, Yasuki; Tanaka, Hiroaki

    2017-08-01

    There is no consensus regarding optimal exercise timing for reducing postprandial glucose (PPG). The purpose of the present study was to determine the most effective exercise timing. Eleven participants completed four different exercise patterns 1 ) no exercise; 2 ) preprandial exercise (jogging); 3 ) postprandial exercise; and 4 ) brief periodic exercise intervention (three sets of 1-min jogging + 30 s of rest, every 30 min, 20 times total) in a random order separated by a minimum of 5 days. Preprandial and postprandial exercise consisted of 20 sets of intermittent exercise (1 min of jogging + 30 s rest per set) repeated 3 times per day. Total daily exercise volume was identical for all three exercise patterns. Exercise intensities were 62.4 ± 12.9% V̇o 2peak Blood glucose concentrations were measured continuously throughout each trial for 24 h. After breakfast, peak blood glucose concentrations were lower with brief periodic exercise (99 ± 6 mg/dl) than those with preprandial and postprandial exercise (109 ± 10 and 115 ± 14 mg/dl, respectively, P glucose concentrations were lower with brief periodic exercise than those with postprandial exercise (97 ± 5 and 108 ± 8 mg/dl, P glucose concentrations did not significantly differ among exercise patterns. Areas under the curve over 24 h and 2 h postprandially did not differ among exercise patterns. These findings suggest that brief periodic exercise may be more effective than preprandial and postprandial exercise at attenuating PPG in young active individuals. NEW & NOTEWORTHY This was the first study to investigate the effect of different exercise timing (brief periodic vs. preprandial vs. postprandial exercise) on postprandial glucose (PPG) attenuation in active healthy men. We demonstrated that brief periodic exercise attenuated peak PPG levels more than preprandial and postprandial exercise, particularly in the morning. Additionally, PPG rebounded soon after discontinuing postprandial

  4. Effects of Ramadan intermittent fasting on North African children's heart rate and oxy-haemoglobin saturation at rest and during sub-maximal exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenneni, Mohamed Amine; Latiri, Imed; Aloui, Asma; Rouatbi, Sonia; Chamari, Karim; Saad, Helmi Ben

    To examine the effects of Ramadan intermittent fasting (RIF) on the heart rate (HR) and oxyhaemoglobin saturation levels (oxy-sat) of boys at rest and during a six-minute walking test (6MWT). Eighteen boys (age: 11.9 ± 0.8 years, height: 153.00 ± 8.93 cm, body mass: 55.4 ± 18.2 kg), who fasted the entire month of Ramadan in 2012 for the first time in their lives, were included. The experimental protocol comprised four testing phases: two weeks before Ramadan (pre-R), the end of the second week of Ramadan (R-2), the end of the fourth week of Ramadan (R-4), and 10 to 12 days after the end of Ramadan (post-R). During each phase, participants performed the 6MWT at approximately 15:00. HR (expressed as percentage of maximal predicted HR) and oxy-sat (%) were determined at rest and in each minute of the 6MWT. R-4 HR values were lower than those of (1) pre-R (in the second minute), (2) R-2 (in the first and second minutes), and (3) post-R (in the first, second, fourth, fifth and sixth minutes). R-2 oxy-sat values were higher than those of pre-R (in the third minute) and those of post-R (in the fifth minute). Post-R oxy-sat values were lower than those of pre-R and R-4 in the fifth minute. These oxy-sat changes were not clinically significant since the difference was less than five points. In non-athletic children, their first RIF influenced their heart rate data but had a minimal effect on oxy-sat values.

  5. An Investigation into Submaximal Endurance in Children with Motor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the submaximal endurance levels of children with motor difficulties, using the six-minute walk test (6MWT). A prospective, cross-sectional study was conducted. Forty-eight children between ages seven and ten years were enrolled. They came from similar socio-economic backgrounds and attended ...

  6. Neuromuscular function of the quadriceps muscle during isometric maximal, submaximal and submaximal fatiguing voluntary contractions in knee osteoarthrosis patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anett Mau-Moeller

    and neuromuscular activation, but also with an impaired position and torque control at submaximal torque levels, an altered EMG-torque relationship and a higher performance fatigability of the quadriceps muscle. It is recommended that the rehabilitation includes strengthening and fatiguing exercises at maximal and submaximal force levels.

  7. Command Post Exercise Control at Division Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    1964-05-01

    con- duct of t raining, arranging for and conduct of briefings , liaison , con- fer enc es, pre- exercise 1-rar garnes and r ehearsals. During t !1e...Wl.-:-. n=-=--=b-e~d:-e-s- troyed ~LT l May 196~ SCP-4 -----. ·~ - ___ , _ - -- ---- ... ( ( 1.54 At each l evel of control a given type of

  8. Effect of exercise modality and intensity on post-exercise interleukin-6 and hepcidin levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sim, M.; Dawson, B.; Landers, G.; Swinkels, D.W.; Tjalsma, H.; Trinder, D.; Peeling, P.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of exercise modality and intensity on Interleukin-6 (IL-6), iron status, and hepcidin levels was investigated. Ten trained male triathletes performed 4 exercise trials including low-intensity continuous running (L-R), low-intensity continuous cycling (L-C), high-intensity interval running

  9. Effects of music during exercise on RPE, heart rate and the autonomic nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, S; Iwai, K; Akimoto, T; Sugawara, J; Kono, I

    2006-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the influence of music on RPE during sub-maximal exercise and on the autonomic nervous system before and after sub-maximal exercise. Heart rate (HR), HR variability (HRV) and rates of physical fatigue (RPE) during exercise at 60% and at 40% VO2max with and without music were measured. The exercise protocol consisted of a 30-min seated rest (control) period followed by a 30-min submaximal cycling exercise and a 35-min recovery period. Autonomic-nervous activity was measured before and after exercise. During exercise, RPE was recorded every 3 min and HR was recorded for every minute. Although RPE did not differ during exercise at 60% VO2max, this value was lower during exercise at 40% VO2max in the presence, than in the absence of a favorite piece music (P music. These findings suggested that music evokes a ''distraction effect'' during low intensity exercise, but might not influence the autonomic nervous system. Therefore, when jogging or walking at comparatively low exercise intensity, listening to a favorite piece of music might decrease the influence of stress caused by fatigue, thus increasing the ''comfort'' level of performing the exercise.

  10. A Systematic Review of Submaximal Cycle Tests to Predict, Monitor, and Optimize Cycling Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capostagno, Benoit; Lambert, Michael I; Lamberts, Robert P

    2016-09-01

    Finding the optimal balance between high training loads and recovery is a constant challenge for cyclists and their coaches. Monitoring improvements in performance and levels of fatigue is recommended to correctly adjust training to ensure optimal adaptation. However, many performance tests require a maximal or exhaustive effort, which reduces their real-world application. The purpose of this review was to investigate the development and use of submaximal cycling tests that can be used to predict and monitor cycling performance and training status. Twelve studies met the inclusion criteria, and 3 separate submaximal cycling tests were identified from within those 12. Submaximal variables including gross mechanical efficiency, oxygen uptake (VO2), heart rate, lactate, predicted time to exhaustion (pTE), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), power output, and heart-rate recovery (HRR) were the components of the 3 tests. pTE, submaximal power output, RPE, and HRR appear to have the most value for monitoring improvements in performance and indicate a state of fatigue. This literature review shows that several submaximal cycle tests have been developed over the last decade with the aim to predict, monitor, and optimize cycling performance. To be able to conduct a submaximal test on a regular basis, the test needs to be short in duration and as noninvasive as possible. In addition, a test should capture multiple variables and use multivariate analyses to interpret the submaximal outcomes correctly and alter training prescription if needed.

  11. Is an elevated submaximal heart rate associated with psychomotor slowness in young elite soccer players?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, Michel S.; Visscher, Chris; Schmikli, Sandor L.; Nederhof, E.; Lemmink, Koen A. P. M.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to find early markers for overreaching that are applicable in sport practice. In a group of elite soccer players aged 1518, the stressrecovery balance and reaction times before and after exercise were assessed. Overreaching was indicated by an elevated submaximal

  12. Modularity for Modulating Exercises and Levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik Hautop; Nielsen, Camilla Balslev

    2011-01-01

    The modular interactive tiles aim at engaging anybody (elderly, carer, hospital personnel, children) in performing playful and motivating physical activities. Inspired by modular robotics, each tile is a self-contained module with processing power and communication to neighbouring modules......, and a number of these can be put together in any physical shape by the user within a minute. The tiles light up in different colors and can perceive the pressure when people press them with their hands or jump on them with their feet. Numerous games (exercises) are running on the tiles, and these games aim...... at providing high motivation for people to engage physically with the tiles. Therapists may use the tiles to provide treatment for a large number of patients who receive hospital, municipality or home care, although the tiles can as well be used for prevention with elderly or for fitness with normal people...

  13. Effect of yogic exercise on superoxide dismutase levels in diabetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahapure Hemant

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Reactive oxygen species are known to aggravate disease progression. To counteract their harmful effects, the body produces various antioxidant enzymes, viz , superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase etc. Literature reviews revealed that exercises help to enhance antioxidant enzyme systems; hence, yogic exercises may be useful to combat various diseases. Aims: This study aims to record the efficacy of yoga on superoxide dismutase, glycosylated hemoglobin (Hb and fasting blood glucose levels in diabetics. Settings and Design: Forty diabetics aged 40-55 years were assigned to experimental (30 and control (10 groups. The experimental subjects underwent a Yoga program comprising of various Asanas (isometric type exercises and Pranayamas (breathing exercises along with regular anti-diabetic therapy whereas the control group received anti-diabetic therapy only. Methods and Material: Heparinized blood samples were used to determine erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD activity and glycosylated Hb levels and fasting blood specimens collected in fluoride Vacutainers were used for assessing blood glucose. Statistical analysis used: Data were analyzed by using 2 x 2 x 3 Factorial ANOVA followed by Scheffe′s posthoc test. Results: The results revealed that Yogic exercise enhanced the levels of Superoxide dismutase and reduced glycosylated Hb and glucose levels in the experimental group as compared to the control group. Conclusion: The findings conclude that Yogic exercises have enhanced the antioxidant defence mechanism in diabetics by reducing oxidative stress.

  14. Effects of Submaximal Endurance Training and Vitamin D3 Supplementation on Pain Threshold in Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Jalal Taherabadi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: According to beneficial effects of endurance training and vitamin D3 in diabetes mellitus, purpose of this study is effects submaximal endurance training and vitamin D3 supplementation on pain threshold in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats (250±20 g, N=40 were made diabetic by streptozotocin (60 mg/kg, subcutaneously. 72 h after injection diabetes induction was confirmed by tail vein blood glucose concentration (>300 mg/dl. Then animals were divided to five groups: diabetic control (DC, diabetic trained (DT, diabetic -vitamin D (DD, diabetic trained and vitamin D (DTD, and control (C. Animals were submitted to endurance training by treadmill and vitamin D3 treatment (twice aweek, intrapretonally for 4 weeks. 48 h after at the end of exercise and treatment protocol, we used tail-flick to assess the effects of training and vitamin D3 on thermal pain threshold. We used one way ANOVA statistical analysis to compare differences between groups, significance level of p<0.05 was considered.Results: Diabetic induced hyperalgesia were decreased significantly by vitamin D but not 4 weeks endurance exercise training. Concurrent effects of training and vitamin D on thermal pain threshold were not significantly higher than vitamin D effects alone.Conclusion: It is concluded that vitamin D administration given at the time of diabetes induction may be able to restore thermal hyperalgesia. But effects of endurance exercise training needs to more investigation in diabetic rats.

  15. Live high:train low increases muscle buffer capacity and submaximal cycling efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, C J; Hahn, A G; Aughey, R J; Martin, D T; Ashenden, M J; Clark, S A; Garnham, A P; Roberts, A D; Slater, G J; McKenna, M J

    2001-11-01

    This study investigated whether hypoxic exposure increased muscle buffer capacity (beta(m)) and mechanical efficiency during exercise in male athletes. A control (CON, n=7) and a live high:train low group (LHTL, n=6) trained at near sea level (600 m), with the LHTL group sleeping for 23 nights in simulated moderate altitude (3000 m). Whole body oxygen consumption (VO2) was measured under normoxia before, during and after 23 nights of sleeping in hypoxia, during cycle ergometry comprising 4 x 4-min submaximal stages, 2-min at 5.6 +/- 0.4 W kg(-1), and 2-min 'all-out' to determine total work and VO(2peak). A vastus lateralis muscle biopsy was taken at rest and after a standardized 2-min 5.6 +/- 0.4 W kg(-1) bout, before and after LHTL, and analysed for beta(m) and metabolites. After LHTL, beta(m) was increased (18%, P buffer capacity. Further, reduced VO2 during normoxic exercise after LHTL suggests that improved exercise efficiency is a fundamental adaptation to LHTL.

  16. Assessment of cardiorespiratory fitness using submaximal protocol in older adults with mood disorder and Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natacha Alves de Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evidence has shown benefits for mental health through aerobic training oriented in percentage of VO2max, indicating the importance of this variable for clinical practice. OBJECTIVE: To validate a method for estimating VO2max using a submaximal protocol in elderly patients with clinically diagnosis as major depressive disorder (MDD and Parkinson's disease (PD. METHODS: The sample comprised 18 patients (64.22 ± 9.92 years with MDD (n = 7 and with PD (n = 11. Three evaluations were performed: I disease staging, II direct measurement of VO2max and III submaximal exercise test. Linear regression was performed to verify the accuracy of estimation in VO2max established in ergospirometry and the predicted VO2max from the submaximal test measurement. We also analyzed the correlation between the Bland-Altman procedures. RESULTS: The regression analysis showed that VO2max values estimated by submaximal protocol associated with the VO2max measured, both in absolute values (R² = 0.65; SEE = 0.26; p < 0.001 and the relative (R² = 0.56; SEE = 3.70; p < 0.001. The Bland-Altman plots for analysis of agreement of showed a good correlation between the two measures. DISCUSSION: The VO2max predicted by submaximal protocol demonstrated satisfactory criterion validity and simple execution compared to ergospirometry.

  17. Exercise responses in patients with chronically high creatine kinase levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Christopher B; Dolezal, Brett A; Neufeld, Eric V; Shieh, Perry; Jenner, John R; Riley, Marshall

    2017-08-01

    Elevated serum creatine kinase (CK) is often taken to reflect muscle disease, but many individuals have elevated CK without a specific diagnosis. How elevated CK reflects muscle metabolism during exercise is not known. Participants (46 men, 48 women) underwent incremental exercise testing to assess aerobic performance, cardiovascular response, and ventilatory response. Serum lactate, ammonia, and CK were measured at rest, 4 minutes into exercise, and 2 minutes into recovery. High-CK and control subjects demonstrated similar aerobic capacities and cardiovascular responses to incremental exercise. Those with CK ≥ 300 U/L exhibited significantly higher lactate and ammonia levels after maximal exercise, together with increased ventilatory responses, whereas those with CK ≥200 U/L but ≤ 300 U/L did not. We recommend measurement of lactate and ammonia profiles during a maximal incremental exercise protocol to help identify patients who warrant muscle biopsy to rule out myopathy. Muscle Nerve 56: 264-270, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Aerobic Dance Exercise Improves Blood Glucose Level in Pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aerobic Dance Exercise Improves Blood Glucose Level in Pregnant Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus. ... Thirty (30) of the participants completed the study and so only their data were analysed using Repeated Measure ANOVA and Independent t-test. Results of the study showed significant improvement in the ...

  19. Low dose of dichloroacetate infusion reduces blood lactate after submaximal exercise in horses Baixa dose de infusão de dicloroacetato reduz o lactato sanguíneo após exercício submáximo em cavalos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme C. Ferraz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The acute administration of an indirect activator of the enzyme pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH in human athletes causes a reduction in blood lactate level during and after exercise. A single IV dose (2.5m.kg-1 of dichloroacetate (DCA was administered before a submaximal incremental exercise test (IET with five velocity steps, from 5.0 m.s-1 for 1 min to 6.0, 6.5, 7.0 and 7.5m.s-1 every 30s in four untrained mares. The blood collections were done in the period after exercise, at times 1, 3, 5, 10, 15 and 20 min. Blood lactate and glucose (mM were determined electro-enzymatically utilizing a YSI 2300 automated analyzer. There was a 15.3% decrease in mean total blood lactate determined from the values obtained at all assessment times in both trials after the exercise. There was a decrease in blood lactate 1, 3, 5, 10, 15 and 20 min after exercise for the mares that received prior DCA treatment, with respective mean values of 6.31±0.90 vs 5.81±0.50, 6.45±1.19 vs 5.58±1.06, 6.07±1.56 vs 5.26±1.12, 4.88±1.61 vs 3.95±1.00, 3.66±1.41 vs 2.86±0.75 and 2.75±0.51 vs 2.04±0.30. There was no difference in glucose concentrations. By means of linear regression analysis, V140, V160, V180 and V200 were determined (velocity at which the rate heart is 140, 160, 180, and 200 beats/minute, respectively. The velocities related to heart rate did not differ, indicating that there was no ergogenic effect, but prior administration of a relatively low dose of DCA in mares reduced lactatemia after an IET.A administração aguda de um ativador indireto da enzima piruvato desidrogenase (PD em atletas da espécie humana provoca redução na concentração de lactato sanguíneo durante e após exercício. Uma dose única, intravenosa de 2.5m.kg-1 de dicloroacetato (DCA foi administrada antes de um exercício teste incremental submáximo (ETI com cinco etapas de velocidade sendo 5,0 ms-1 por 1 minuto e 6,0, 6,5, 7,0, e 7,5 ms-1 a cada 30 segundos em quatro

  20. Decline in Executive Control during Acute Bouts of Exercise as a Function of Exercise Intensity and Fitness Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labelle, Veronique; Bosquet, Laurent; Mekary, Said; Bherer, Louis

    2013-01-01

    Studies on the effects of acute bouts of cardiovascular exercise on cognitive performances show contradictory findings due to methodological differences (e.g., exercise intensity, cognitive function assessed, participants' aerobic fitness level, etc.). The present study assessed the acute effect of exercise intensity on cognition while controlling…

  1. Comparing VO2max determined by using the relation between heart rate and accelerometry with submaximal estimated VO2max.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tönis, T M; Gorter, K; Vollenbroek-Hutten, M M R; Hermens, H

    2012-08-01

    An exploratory study to identify parameters that can be used for estimating a subject's cardio-respiratory physical fitness level, expressed as VO2max, from a combination of heart rate and 3D accelerometer data. Data were gathered from 41 healthy subjects (23 male, 18 female) aged between 20 and 29 years. The measurement protocol consisted of a sub-maximal single stage treadmill walking test for VO2max estimation followed by a walking test at two different speeds (4 and 5.5 kmh-1) for parameter determination. The relation between measured heart rate and accelerometer output at different walking speeds was used to get an indication of exercise intensity and the corresponding heart rate at that intensity. Regression analysis was performed using general subject measures (age, gender, weight, length, BMI) and intercept and slope of the relation between heart rate and accelerometer output during walking as independent variables to estimate the VO2max. A linear regression model using a combination of the slope and intercept parameters, together with gender revealed the highest percentage of explained variance (R2 = 0.90) and had a standard error of the estimate (SEE) of 2.052 mL O2kg-1min-1 with VO2max. Results are comparable with current commonly used sub-maximal laboratory tests to estimate VO2max. The combination of heart rate and accelerometer data seems promising for ambulant estimation of VO2max-.

  2. Exposure to a combination of heat and hyperoxia during cycling at submaximal intensity does not alter thermoregulatory responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Zinner

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we tested the hypothesis that breathing hyperoxic air (FinO2 = 0.40 while exercising in a hot environment exerts negative effects on the total tissue level of haemoglobin concentration (tHb; core (Tcore and skin (Tskin temperatures; muscle activity; heart rate; blood concentration of lactate; pH; partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2 and carbon dioxide; arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2; and perceptual responses. Ten well-trained male athletes cycled at submaximal intensity at 21°C or 33°C in randomized order: first for 20 min while breathing normal air (FinO2 = 0.21 and then 10 min with FinO2 = 0.40 (HOX. At both temperatures, SaO2 and PaO2, but not tHb, were increased by HOX. Tskin and perception of exertion and thermal discomfort were higher at 33°C than 21°C (p 0.07. Blood lactate and heart rate were higher at 33°C than 21°C. In conclusion, during 30 min of submaximal cycling at 21°C or 33°C, Tcore, Tskin and Tbody, tHb, muscle activity and ratings of perceived exertion and thermal discomfort were the same under normoxic and hyperoxic conditions. Accordingly, breathing hyperoxic air (FinO2 = 0.40 did not affect thermoregulation under these conditions.

  3. Erythrocyte membrane fluidity and indices of plasmatic oxidative damage after acute physical exercise in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berzosa, C; Gómez-Trullén, E M; Piedrafita, E; Cebrián, I; Martínez-Ballarín, E; Miana-Mena, F J; Fuentes-Broto, L; García, J J

    2011-06-01

    Optimal levels of membrane fluidity are essential for numerous cell functions including cell growth, solute transport and signal transduction. Since exercise enhances free radical production, our aim was to evaluate in healthy male subjects the effects of an acute bout of maximal and submaximal exercise on the erythrocyte membrane fluidity and its possible relation to the oxidative damage overproduction due to exercise. Subjects (n = 34) performed three cycloergometric tests: a continuous progressive exercise, a strenuous exercise until exhaustion and an acute bout of exercise at an intensity corresponding to 70% of maximal work capacity for 30 min. Venous blood samples were collected before and immediately after these exercises. Erythrocyte membrane fluidity was assessed by fluorescence spectroscopy. Plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4-hydroxyalkenals (4-HDA) concentrations and carbonyl content of plasmatic proteins were used as an index of lipid and protein oxidation, respectively. Exercise produced a dramatic drop in the erythrocyte membrane fluidity as compared to resting time, but this was not accompanied by significant changes in the plasmatic MDA and 4-HDA concentrations. The highest erythrocyte membrane rigidity was detected immediately after strenuous exercise until exhaustion was performed. Protein carbonyl levels were higher after exhaustive exercises than at rest. Continuous progressive and strenuous exercises until exhaustion, but not submaximal workload, resulted in a significant enhanced accumulation of carbonylated proteins in the plasma. These findings are consistent with the idea that exercise exaggerates oxidative damage, which may contribute, at least partially, to explain the rigidity in the membrane of the erythrocytes due to acute exercise.

  4. Prolonged administration of recombinant human erythropoietin increases submaximal performance more than maximal aerobic capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, J J; Rentsch, R L; Robach, P

    2007-01-01

    The effects of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEpo) treatment on aerobic power (VO2max) are well documented, but little is known about the effects of rHuEpo on submaximal exercise performance. The present study investigated the effect on performance (ergometer cycling, 20-30 min at 80......HuEpo treatment VO2max increased (PVO2max) was increased by 54.0 and 54.3% (P... week 11), TTE was decreased by 26.8% as compared to pre rHuEpo administration. In conclusion, in healthy non-athlete subjects rHuEpo administration prolongs submaximal exercise performance by about 54% independently of the approximately 12% increase in VO2max....

  5. Changes in Cognitive Function, Response Preparation, and Arousal Level Following Moderate Exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Takuro, HIGASHIURA; Yoshiaki, NISHIHIRA; Seung-Ryol, KIM; Kuninori, HAYASHI; Yuuka, HAYASHI; Arihiro, HATTA; Kazuo, KUROIWA; Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba; Yokohama College of Pharmacy; Yaizu Municipal Wada Junior High School

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the patterns of changes in cognitive function, response preparation, and arousal level following moderate exercise using the event-related brain potentials (ERPs). In the exercise condition, 14 participants (24.2±1.3yrs) performed a Go/NoGo reaction time task before cycling (pre-exercise), immediately after (post-exercise 1), and after their esophageal temperature (Tes) and heart rate (HR) had returned to pre-exercise values (post-exercise 2). Exercise...

  6. Acute endurance exercise lowers serum fibroblast growth factor 21 levels in Japanese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Hirokazu; Tanisawa, Kumpei; Sun, Xiaomin; Higuchi, Mitsuru

    2016-12-01

    The independent effects of acute endurance exercise on FGF21 metabolism are poorly understood. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether acute endurance exercise modulates serum postprandial FGF21 levels in an age-dependent manner. Exercise intervention trial. Twenty-eight subjects participated in the experiment, of whom 13 were excluded mainly because of a serum FGF21 level below the limit of detection. Thus, data from seven young (age: 18-22 years) and eight elderly male subjects (age: 62-69 years) were analysed. Participants were asked to perform a cycling exercise for 30 min at 70% maximal oxygen uptake, following carbohydrate intake. Blood samples were collected pre-exercise and 0 min, 30 min, 1 h, 3 h and 24 h after the cessation of exercise. Serum FGF21 levels were measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Higher serum FGF21 was observed in the elderly subjects group throughout the experiment (P exercise, whereas serum FGF21 levels were significantly lower 24 h after the exercise compared with those pre-exercise, 0 min, 30 min and 1 h after the cessation of exercise in both groups (P exercise lowers serum FGF21 levels 24 h following exercise. The results suggest that acute endurance exercise modulates postprandial FGF21 metabolism regardless of age. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Investigation of Intensity Levels during Video Classroom Exercise Sessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Thad; Ratliffe, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Classroom Exercises for the Body and Brain was developed in the state of Georgia by the HealthMPowers organization to help classroom teachers provide structured physical activity for their elementary students in their classrooms. These brief video exercises were designed for students to participate at their desks as exercise breaks, as energy…

  8. The Effect of Oncologists’ Exercise Recommendation on the Level of Exercise and Quality of Life in Breast and Colorectal Cancer Survivors: Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji-Hye; Lee, Junga; Oh, Minsuk; Park, Hyuna; Chae, Jisuk; Kim, Dong-Il; Lee, Mikyoung; Yoon, Yong Jin; Lee, Chulwon; Kim, Nam Kyu; Jones, Lee W.; Kim, Seung Il; Park, Se Ho; Jeon, Justin Y.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of an oncologists’ exercise recommendation with and without exercise motivation package on the amount of exercise participation and quality of life (QOL) in breast and colon cancer survivors. Methods A total of 162 early stage breast and colorectal cancer survivors who completed primary and adjuvant treatments were recruited for this study. Participants were randomly assigned into one of three groups: 1) control (N=59), 2) Oncologists’ exercise recommendation (N=53), and 3) Oncologists’ exercise recommendation with exercise motivation package (N=50). At baseline and after 4 weeks, the level of exercise participation and QOL were assessed. Results A total of 130 (80.7%) participants completed the 4-week assessment. The result showed that participants who only received oncologists’ exercise recommendation did not increase their exercise participation level. But participants who received oncologist’s exercise recommendation with motivation package significantly increased the level of exercise participation [4.30±7.84 Metabolic Equivalent of Task (MET) hour per week, pexercise recommendation may not be enough to increase exercise participation.. Exercise motivation package with oncologists’ exercise recommendation may be ideal to increase exercise participation to cancer survivor Implications of cancer survivors The providence of exercise motivation package in addition to oncologists’ exercise recommendation to increase the level of exercise among breast and colorectal cancer survivors should be considered. PMID:25965782

  9. Effect of Physical and Flexibility Exercise on Plasma Levels of Some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of physical and flexibility exercise on plasma levels of some liver enzymes and biomolecules of young Nigerian adults. Methods: Participants were subjected to a 2-h daily continuous physical and flexibility exercise for 6 weeks. Pre- and post-exercise blood samples were obtained and the ...

  10. Different Intensities of Treadmill Running Exercise do Not Alter Melatonin Levels in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionara Rodrigues Siqueira

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Regular and moderate exercise has been considered an interesting neuroprotective strategy. Our research group demonstrated that a protocol of moderate exercise on a treadmill reduced, while a protocol of high-intensity exercise increased in vitro ischemic cell damage in Wistar rats. The molecular mechanisms by which physical exercise exerts neuroprotective effects remain unclear. Accumulating evidence suggests that exercise may have short- and long-term effects on melatonin secretion in humans. Melatonin, the main product of the pineal gland, has been shown to have neuroprotective effects in models of brain and spinal cord injury and cerebral ischemia. A dual modulation of melatonin secretion by physical activity has also been demonstrated. This study aimed to investigate the effect of different exercise intensities, moderate- and high-intensity exercise, on serum melatonin levels in rats. Methods: Thirty-five adult male Wistar rats were divided into non-exercised (sedentary and exercised (20- or 60-min sessions groups. The exercise protocols consisted of two weeks of daily treadmill training. Blood samples were collected approximately 16 hours after the last training session (8:00-10:00 and melatonin levels were assayed by ELISA. Results: The exercise protocols, two weeks of 20 min/day or 60 min/day of treadmill running, did not affect serum melatonin levels. Conclusion: Our data demonstrated that melatonin levels may not be directly involved in the exercise-induced, intensity-dependent dual effect on in vitro ischemia.

  11. Exercise thermoregulation after 14 days of bed rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Reese, R. D.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of bed rest and exercise training during bed rest on body temperature and thermoregulatory responses at rest and during exercise are investigated. Seven male subjects underwent three two-week periods of bed rest during which isometric, isotonic, or no exercises were performed, separated by two ambulatory control periods and preceded by a two-week control period, during which they exercised regularly. Rectal and mean skin temperatures and sweating responses were determined during 70-min submaximal supine exercise during the bed rest and recovery periods. Measurements reveal a reduction in basal oral temperature during the control-recovery periods, with a relatively constant level during bed rest periods, and a significant increase in the rectal temperature elavation brought on by exercise following all three bed-rest regimes. It is concluded that the excessive increase in rectal temperature could be influenced by changes in skin heat conductance or the inhibition of sweating.

  12. [Comparison of submaximal front crawl and breast stroke swimming in relation to energy expenditure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, K; Katamoto, S

    1992-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the energy expenditure during submaximal front crawl (Fr) and breast stroke (Br) swimming. Six male college swimmers performed submaximal and maximal exercise tests in both styles in a swimming flume. In submaximal exercise tests, they swam at the following given velocities for 5 min, Br: 0.3, 0.5 and 0.7 m/sec; Fr: 0.3, 0.5, 0.7 and 0.9 m/sec. In maximal exercise tests, following submaximal swimming at 0.9 m/sec in Br and 1.1 m/sec in Fr, swimming velocity was increased progressively by 0.1 m/sec every 1 min until the subjects reached to voluntary exhaustion. VO2max obtained from the maximal swimming tests in Br and Fr were 4.27 and 4.18 l/min, respectively. And there was no significant difference between these two values. VO2 during Br and Fr swimming at four and five submaximal velocities were 1.06, 1.30, 1.79, 2.65 l/min and 1.17, 1.34, 1.63, 2.04, 3.05 l/min, respectively. And, it was found that VO2 at 0.3 and 0.9 m/sec were significantly different (p styles curvilinearly increased with swimming velocity, and these relationships were well fitted for the regression equation of the second order (Br: y = 3.84625x2 - 1.95914x + 1.310463,r2 = 0.999 (p < 0.05), Fr: y = 3.233446x2 - 2.28136x + 1.611524, r2 = 0.979 (p < 0.05)). It was calculated that the two curves crossed at a point on 0.49 m/sec, and that VO2 at this point was 1.27 l/min. This value equivalented to 30.4% VO2max in Br and 29.7% VO2max in Fr.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Effects of Yogic Exercises on Life Stress and Blood Glucose Levels in Nursing Students

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sang Dol

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was performed to investigate the effects of yogic exercises on life stress and blood glucose levels in nursing students. [Subjects and Methods] The study was a randomized controlled trial. Twenty-seven undergraduate nursing students were randomly selected, with 12 assigned to an exercise group and 15 assigned to a control group. The yogic exercises intervention was undertaken for 60 minutes one day a week for 12 weeks. It consisted of physical exercise (surya namaskara) c...

  14. Exercise thermoregulation with bed rest, confinement, and immersion deconditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, J E

    1997-03-15

    Altered thermoregulation following exposure to prolonged (12-14 days) of bed rest and 6 hr of head-down thermoneutral water immersion in humans, and cage confinement (8 weeks) in male, mongrel dogs resulted in occasional increased core temperature (Tcore) at rest, but consistent "excessive" increase in Tcore during submaximal exercise. This excessive increase in Tcore in nonexercising and exercising subjects was independent of the mode (isometric or isotonic) of exercise training during bed rest, and was associated with the consistent hypovolemia in men but not in women taking estrogen supplementation (1.25 mg premarin/ day) which restored plasma volume during bed rest to ambulatory control levels. Post-bed rest exercise sweating (evaporative heat loss) was unchanged or higher than control levels; however, calculated tissue heat conductance was significantly lower in men, and forearm venoconstriction was greater (venous volume was reduced) in women during exercise after bed rest. Because sweating appeared proportional to the increased level of Tcore, these findings suggest that one major factor for the excessive hyperthermia is decreased core to periphery heat conduction. Exercising dogs respond like humans with excessive increase in both rectal (Tre) and exercising muscle temperatures (Tmu) after confinement and, after eight weeks of exercise training on a treadmill following confinement, they had an attenuated rate of increase of Tre even below ambulatory control levels. Intravenous infusion of glucose also attenuated not only the rise in Tre during exercise in normal dogs, but also the excessive rise in Tre and exercising Tmu after confinement. Oral glucose also appeared to reduce the rate of increase in excessive Tre in men after immersion deconditioning. There was a greater rate of rise in Tcore in two cosmonauts during supine submaximal exercise (65% VO2 max) on the fifth recovery day after the 115-day Mir 18 mission. Thus, the excessive rise in core

  15. Exercise thermoregulation with bed rest, confinement, and immersion deconditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, J. E.

    1997-01-01

    Altered thermoregulation following exposure to prolonged (12-14 days) of bed rest and 6 hr of head-down thermoneutral water immersion in humans, and cage confinement (8 weeks) in male, mongrel dogs resulted in occasional increased core temperature (Tcore) at rest, but consistent "excessive" increase in Tcore during submaximal exercise. This excessive increase in Tcore in nonexercising and exercising subjects was independent of the mode (isometric or isotonic) of exercise training during bed rest, and was associated with the consistent hypovolemia in men but not in women taking estrogen supplementation (1.25 mg premarin/ day) which restored plasma volume during bed rest to ambulatory control levels. Post-bed rest exercise sweating (evaporative heat loss) was unchanged or higher than control levels; however, calculated tissue heat conductance was significantly lower in men, and forearm venoconstriction was greater (venous volume was reduced) in women during exercise after bed rest. Because sweating appeared proportional to the increased level of Tcore, these findings suggest that one major factor for the excessive hyperthermia is decreased core to periphery heat conduction. Exercising dogs respond like humans with excessive increase in both rectal (Tre) and exercising muscle temperatures (Tmu) after confinement and, after eight weeks of exercise training on a treadmill following confinement, they had an attenuated rate of increase of Tre even below ambulatory control levels. Intravenous infusion of glucose also attenuated not only the rise in Tre during exercise in normal dogs, but also the excessive rise in Tre and exercising Tmu after confinement. Oral glucose also appeared to reduce the rate of increase in excessive Tre in men after immersion deconditioning. There was a greater rate of rise in Tcore in two cosmonauts during supine submaximal exercise (65% VO2 max) on the fifth recovery day after the 115-day Mir 18 mission. Thus, the excessive rise in core

  16. Non-exercise estimation of VO2max using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schembre, Susan M.; Riebe, Deborah A.

    2011-01-01

    Non-exercise equations developed from self-reported physical activity can estimate maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) as well as submaximal exercise testing. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) is the most widely used and validated self-report measure of physical activity. This study aimed to develop and test a VO2max estimation equation derived from the IPAQ-Short Form (IPAQ-S). College-aged males and females (n = 80) completed the IPAQ-S and performed a maximal exercise test. The estimation equation was created with multivariate regression in a gender-balanced subsample of participants, equally representing five levels of fitness (n = 50) and validated in the remaining participants (n = 30). The resulting equation explained 43% of the variance in measured VO2max (SEE = 5.45 ml·kg-1·min-1). Estimated VO2max for 87% of individuals fell within acceptable limits of error observed with submaximal exercise testing (20% error). The IPAQ-S can be used to successfully estimate VO2max as well as submaximal exercise tests. Development of other population-specific estimation equations is warranted. PMID:21927551

  17. SPORT EXERCISE CAPACITY OF SOCCER PLAYERS AT DIFFERENT LEVELS OF PERFORMANCE

    OpenAIRE

    Marcin Andrzejewski; Jan Chmura; Tomasz Dybek; Beata Pluta

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study is to compare the level of exercise capacities to the loads occurring at the lactate threshold among soccer players representing different levels of sport mastery. The research included 51 soccer players representing different levels of sport mastery. The research was conducted at the beginning of the preparatory period for the spring season. A field exercise test of increasing intensity was performed to check the players’ exercise capacities on the soccer pitch. The test...

  18. Using heart rate variability for automated identification of exercise exertion levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Joseph; Jeong, In Cheol

    2015-01-01

    Heart rate monitoring is being used to estimate activity of autonomous nervous system by analysing heart rate variability (HRV). HRV has been recently shown to be effective means to monitor efficacy of exercise in patients with cardiovascular conditions and older adults. Whether HRV can be used to identify exercise exertion levels is unknown. There are multiple approaches to analyse HRV however it is not clear which approach is optimal in assessing cycling exercise. Previous studies demonstrated potential of analysis of short-term sequences of beat-by-beat heart rate data in a time domain for continuous monitoring of levels of physiological stress. The goal of this study was to assess the potential value of short-term HRV analysis during cycling exercise for automated identification of exercise exertion level. HRV indices were compared during rest, height of exercise exertion, and exercise recovery. Comparative analysis of HRV during cycling exercise demonstrated responsiveness of time-domain indices to different phases of an exercise program. Using discriminant analysis, canonical discriminant functions were built which correctly identified 100% of 'highest level of exertion' and 80.0% of 'rest' episodes. HRV demonstrated high potential in monitoring autonomic balance and exercise exertion during cycling exercise program.

  19. Effort regulation in rowing races depends on performance level and exercise mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Morgan R; Delau, Simon; Desgorces, François D

    2010-11-01

    This study investigated the influence of performance level and exercise mode on the rowers' pacing strategies. On-water and indoor split times and placements (every 500-m) were obtained from individual 2000-m performances set at the elite, national and sub-elite competitive levels. The data was sorted into indoor (n=580) and on-water exercises (n=507). Indoor and on-water strategies statistically differed, whatever the competition level (prowing. Training exercise may account for these paces differences, according to the athletes' competitive level and to exercise mode. Copyright © 2010 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Exercise thermoregulation in men after 6 hours of immersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Spaul, W. A.; Kravik, S. E.; Wong, N.; Elder, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    The present investigation is concerned with thermoregulation at rest and during exercise after water-immersion deconditioning, giving particular attention to the effects of fluid shifts and negative water balance on sweat rate and rectal temperature. Six healthy males 20-35 years old were used in the experiments. Rectal and mean skin temperature, skin heat conductance, heart rate, and total body sweat rate were measured during 70 min of supine leg exercise at 50 percent of peak O2 uptake. The data were taken after a 6-h control period in air and after immersion to the neck in water (34.5 C) for 6 h after overnight food and fluid restriction. Attention is given to end exercise heart rates and data during exercise. The obtained results suggest that, compared with control responses, the equilibrium level of core temperature during submaximal exercise is regulated at a higher level after immersion.

  1. Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... exercising. Count out loud as you do the exercises. View Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Home Techniques to ... Intimacy Importance of Being Together Body Changes with Age Communicating with Your Partner Exercise and Sexual Activity Less Strenuous Positions for Sexual ...

  2. Effects of music tempo upon submaximal cycling performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterhouse, J; Hudson, P; Edwards, B

    2010-08-01

    In an in vivo laboratory controlled study, 12 healthy male students cycled at self-chosen work-rates while listening to a program of six popular music tracks of different tempi. The program lasted about 25 min and was performed on three occasions--unknown to the participants, its tempo was normal, increased by 10% or decreased by 10%. Work done, distance covered and cadence were measured at the end of each track, as were heart rate and subjective measures of exertion, thermal comfort and how much the music was liked. Speeding up the music program increased distance covered/unit time, power and pedal cadence by 2.1%, 3.5% and 0.7%, respectively; slowing the program produced falls of 3.8%, 9.8% and 5.9%. Average heart rate changes were +0.1% (faster program) and -2.2% (slower program). Perceived exertion and how much the music was liked increased (faster program) by 2.4% and 1.3%, respectively, and decreased (slower program) by 3.6% and 35.4%. That is, healthy individuals performing submaximal exercise not only worked harder with faster music but also chose to do so and enjoyed the music more when it was played at a faster tempo. Implications of these findings for improving training regimens are discussed.

  3. Acute Warm-up Effects in Submaximal Athletes: An EMG Study of Skilled Violinists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrary, J Matt; Halaki, Mark; Sorkin, Evgeny; Ackermann, Bronwen J

    2016-02-01

    Warm-up is commonly recommended for injury prevention and performance enhancement across all activities, yet this recommendation is not supported by evidence for repetitive submaximal activities such as instrumental music performance. The objective of this study is to quantify the effects of cardiovascular, core muscle, and musical warm-ups on muscle activity levels, musical performance, and subjective experience in skilled violinists. Fifty-five undergraduate, postgraduate, or professional violinists performed five randomly ordered 45-s musical excerpts of varying physical demands both before and after a randomly assigned 15-min, moderate-intensity cardiovascular, core muscle, musical (technical violin exercises), or inactive control warm-up protocol. Surface EMG data were obtained for 16 muscles of the trunk, shoulders, and right arm during each musical performance. Sound recording and perceived exertion (RPE) data were also obtained. Sound recordings were randomly ordered and rated for performance quality by blinded adjudicators. Questionnaire data regarding participant pain sites and fitness levels were used to stratify participants according to pain and fitness levels. Data were analyzed using two- and three-factor ANCOVA (surface EMG and sound recording) and Wilcoxon matched pairs tests (RPE). None of the three warm-up protocols had significant effects on muscle activity levels (P ≥ 0.10). Performance quality did not significantly increase (P ≥ 0.21). RPE significantly decreased (P 0.23). Acute physiological and musical benefits from cardiovascular, core muscle, and musical warm-ups in skilled violinists are limited to decreases in RPE. This investigation provides data from the performing arts in support of sports medical evidence suggesting that warm-up only effectively enhances maximal strength and power performance.

  4. Effects of yogic exercises on life stress and blood glucose levels in nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Dol

    2014-12-01

    [Purpose] This study was performed to investigate the effects of yogic exercises on life stress and blood glucose levels in nursing students. [Subjects and Methods] The study was a randomized controlled trial. Twenty-seven undergraduate nursing students were randomly selected, with 12 assigned to an exercise group and 15 assigned to a control group. The yogic exercises intervention was undertaken for 60 minutes one day a week for 12 weeks. It consisted of physical exercise (surya namaskara) combined with relaxation and meditation (shavasana and yoga nidra). Life stress was measured by the Life Stress Scale for College Students, and postprandial blood glucose levels were measured with a digital glucometer. [Results] The exercise group measurements were significantly decreased in both life stress and postprandial blood glucose levels compared with the control group. [Conclusion] These findings indicate that yogic exercises would reduce life stress and lower postprandial blood glucose levels in nursing students.

  5. The alteration of NTproCNP plasma levels following anaerobic exercise in physically active young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akseki Temür, Hilal; Vardar, Selma Arzu; Demir, Muzaffer; Palabıyık, Orkide; Karaca, Aziz; Guksu, Zuhal; Ortanca, Arif; Süt, Necdet

    2015-02-01

    Amino-terminal propeptide of C-type natriuretic peptide (NTproCNP) is a synthesis product of C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP). In this study, plasma levels of NTproCNP were compared before and after exercise in healthy young subjects who are physically active (PA) or not physically active (NPA). The study was carried on PA group (n=10) who defined the exercise duration more than 2.5 hours per week for at least one year and NPA group (n = 10) whose exercise duration was lower than 1.5 hours per week. The level of maximal oxygen consumption was determined. Wingate exercise test was applied on the following day. Plasma NTproCNP levels were measured before the exercise and at the 1st, 5th and 30th minute after the exercise. Exercise duration of physically active group was reported as 11.3 ± 5.0 hours per week. Basal NTproCNP levels of the groups were found to be comparable. NTproCNP levels in the 5th minute (0.93 ± 0.23 pmol/L; pexercise were higher than the levels before exercise (0.64 ± 0.29 pmol/L) in PA group. Additionally, the plasma levels of NTproCNP after 5th minute of exercise were higher in PA group (0.93 ± 0.23 pmol/L) than NPA group (0.74 ± 0.16 pmol/L, pexercise.

  6. Exhaled nitric oxide predicts exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in asthmatic school children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchvald, Frederik; Hermansen, Mette N; Nielsen, Kim G

    2005-01-01

    to a standardized submaximal exercise test on the treadmill were measured in 111 school children with asthma. EIB could be excluded with a probability of 90% in asthmatic children with FeNO levels ... reducing the need for exercise testing. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to estimate the value of FeNO as a predictor of EIB in asthmatic children. METHODS: Stable outpatient asthmatic school children performed standard exercise challenge tests and measurement of FeNO. RESULTS: FeNO and response...

  7. Exercise Addiction in Men Is Associated With Lower Fat-Adjusted Leptin Levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lichtenstein, Mia B; Andries, Alin; Hansen, Stinus

    2015-01-01

    and resting conditions. Body composition was assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Eating disorder symptoms were identified by the Eating Disorder Inventory 2. RESULTS: The exercise addiction group had significantly (P .... None of the exercisers seemed to suffer from an eating disorder. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study showing that excessive training in exercise addiction is associated with low levels of body fat-adjusted leptin levels. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Hypoleptinemia could be involved in the pathogenesis...

  8. EFFECTS OF DIURNAL AND NOCTURNAL STRENUOUS EXERCISE ON SERUM MELATONIN LEVELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Kilic

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: There are reports of a possible relationship between melatonin, a hormone secreted by the pineal gland, and exercise. Objective: The present study aims to investigate how diurnal and nocturnal strenuous exercise affects melatonin levels. Methods: The study enrolled 10 healthy sedentary males who did not actively exercise. The subjects had a mean age of 22.20±0.24 years, a mean height of 174.60±2.33 cm, and a mean weight of 69.70±2.42 kg. Two blood samples were collected from the subjects, one at rest, at 10:00 am, and the other immediately after strenuous exercise. Likewise, blood samples were taken from the same group of subjects after 48 hours: at 24:00 hours at rest and immediately after strenuous exercise. Samples were analyzed using the ELISA method to determine the serum melatonin levels (pg/ml. Results: By comparing the values at rest and after exercise, it was found that serum melatonin values remained unchanged with exercise. Serum melatonin values at rest or post-exercise measured at night were higher when compared with those measured during the day (p<0.05. Conclusions: Higher levels of melatonin found in the study appear to result from the increased release of melatonin at night, and not from exercise. The results of this study indicate that strenuous exercise carried out day or night, did not significantly influence serum melatonin levels.

  9. Designing Peace and Conflict Exercises: Level of Analysis, Scenario, and Role Specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Elizabeth; McCown, Margaret; Wilkie, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    Attentiveness to and transparency about the methodological implications of the level of analysis selected for peace and conflict exercises constitute essential elements of good game design. The article explores the impact of level of analysis choices in the context of two key portions of exercises, scenario construction and role specification. It…

  10. High-intensity interval training evokes larger serum BDNF levels compared with intense continuous exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saucedo Marquez, Cinthia Maria; Vanaudenaerde, Bart; Troosters, Thierry; Wenderoth, Nicole

    2015-12-15

    Exercise can have a positive effect on the brain by activating brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-related processes. In healthy humans there appears to be a linear relationship between exercise intensity and the positive short-term effect of acute exercise on BDNF levels (i.e., the highest BDNF levels are reported after high-intensity exercise protocols). Here we performed two experiments to test the effectiveness of two high-intensity exercise protocols, both known to improve cardiovascular health, to determine whether they have a similar efficacy in affecting BDNF levels. Participants performed a continuous exercise (CON) protocol at 70% of maximal work rate and a high-intensity interval-training (HIT) protocol at 90% of maximal work rate for periods of 1 min alternating with 1 min of rest (both protocols lasted 20 min). We observed similar BDNF kinetics in both protocols, with maximal BDNF concentrations being reached toward the end of training (experiment 1). We then showed that both exercise protocols significantly increase BDNF levels compared with a rest condition (CON P = 0.04; HIT P high intensity exercise are slightly more effective than continuous high-intensity exercise for elevating serum BDNF. Additionally, 73% of the participants preferred the HIT protocol (P = 0.02). Therefore, we suggest that the HIT protocol might represent an effective and preferred intervention for elevating BDNF levels and potentially promoting brain health. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  11. The effect of lifelong exercise dose on cardiovascular function during exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrick-Ranson, Graeme; Hastings, Jeffrey L.; Bhella, Paul S.; Fujimoto, Naoki; Shibata, Shigeki; Palmer, M. Dean; Boyd, Kara; Livingston, Sheryl; Dijk, Erika

    2014-01-01

    An increased “dose” of endurance exercise training is associated with a greater maximal oxygen uptake (V̇o2max), a larger left ventricular (LV) mass, and improved heart rate and blood pressure control. However, the effect of lifelong exercise dose on metabolic and hemodynamic response during exercise has not been previously examined. We performed a cross-sectional study on 101 (69 men) seniors (60 yr and older) focusing on lifelong exercise frequency as an index of exercise dose. These included 27 who had performed ≤2 exercise sessions/wk (sedentary), 25 who performed 2–3 sessions/wk (casual), 24 who performed 4–5 sessions/wk (committed) and 25 who performed ≥6 sessions/wk plus regular competitions (Masters athletes) over at least the last 25 yr. Oxygen uptake and hemodynamics [cardiac output, stroke volume (SV)] were collected at rest, two levels of steady-state submaximal exercise, and maximal exercise. Doppler ultrasound measures of LV diastolic filling were assessed at rest and during LV loading (saline infusion) to simulate increased LV filling. Body composition, total blood volume, and heart rate recovery after maximal exercise were also examined. V̇o2max increased in a dose-dependent manner (P exercise, cardiac output and SV were largest in committed exercisers and Masters athletes (P exercise, effective arterial elastance, an index of ventricular-arterial coupling, was lower in committed exercisers and Masters athletes (P exercise frequency. These data suggest that performing four or more weekly endurance exercise sessions over a lifetime results in significant gains in V̇o2max, SV, and heart rate regulation during exercise; however, improved SV regulation during exercise is not coupled with favorable effects on LV filling, even when the heart is fully loaded. PMID:24458750

  12. Assessment Of Physiological Cardio respiratory Parameters During Sub maximal Exercise On Acute Exposure To Normobaric Hypoxia In Healthy Young Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bipin K Shrestha

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To estimate changes in SBP, DBP, HR, RR and Lactate Level at Near Sea Level (NSL and at Simulated altitude (3000meters at rest and during sub-maximal exercise.Mean Resting values at NSL vs. Hypoxic Chamber were: SBP (1276vs1325mmHg, DBP (703vs786mmHg, HR (725vs806bpm, RR (254vs293/min and LL (2.10.35vs2.50.42mmol/l. Similarly, mean values at the end of exercise were: SBP (1529vs16913mmHg, DBP (836vs926mmHg, HR (13412vs1557bpm, RR (356vs516/min and LL (7.110.89vs8.011.03mmol/l.  A significant difference exists in mean resting values of SBP, DBP, HR and RR at NSL and on acute exposure to Normobaric Hypoxia. Sub-maximal exercise in hypoxic conditions appears to depend more on anaerobic metabolism and results in greater sympathetic activity. Keywords: Cardiorespiratory parameters, Normobaric hypoxia, Sub-maximal exercise, Near Sea Level

  13. Impact of acute aerobic exercise and cardiorespiratory fitness on visuospatial attention performance and serum BDNF levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chia-Liang; Chen, Fu-Chen; Pan, Chien-Yu; Wang, Chun-Hao; Huang, Tsang-Hai; Chen, Tzu-Chi

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of the current study was to explore various behavioral and neuroelectric indices after acute aerobic exercise in young adults with different cardiorespiratory fitness levels when performing a cognitive task, and also to gain a mechanistic understanding of the effects of such exercise using the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) biochemical index. Sixty young adults were separated into one non-exercise-intervention and two exercise intervention (EI) (i.e., EIH: higher-fit and EIL: lower-fit) groups according to their maximal oxygen consumption. The participants' cognitive performances (i.e., behavioral and neuroelectric indices via an endogenous visuospatial attention task test) and serum BDNF levels were measured at baseline and after either an acute bout of 30min of moderate intensity aerobic exercise or a control period. Analyses of the results revealed that although acute aerobic exercise decreased reaction times (RTs) and increased the central Contingent Negative Variation (CNV) area in both EI groups, only the EIH group showed larger P3 amplitude and increased frontal CNV area after acute exercise. Elevated BDNF levels were shown after acute exercise for both EI groups, but this was not significantly correlated with changes in behavioral and neuroelectric performances for either group. These results suggest that both EI groups could gain response-related (i.e., RT and central CNV) benefits following a bout of moderate acute aerobic exercise. However, only higher-fit individuals could obtain particular cognition-process-related efficiency with regard to attentional resource allocation (i.e., P3 amplitude) and cognitive preparation processes (i.e., frontal CNV) after acute exercise, implying that the mechanisms underlying the effects of such exercise on neural functioning may be fitness dependent. However, the facilitating effects found in this work could not be attributed to the transient change in BDNF levels after acute exercise. Copyright

  14. The effect of acute physical exercise on cytokine levels in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, A E; dos Reis-Neto, E Torres; da Silva, N P; Sato, E I

    2013-12-01

    Acute exercise increases IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α levels in healthy subjects. There is no study evaluating the effect of exercise on cytokines level in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients. Our aim was to assess IL-10, IL-6 and TNF-α levels at baseline and after acute physical exercise in patients with SLE. In total, 27 female SLE patients and 30 healthy controls were evaluated. Serum levels of IL-10, IL-6 and TNF-α at baseline and soon after the ergospirometric test were measured by ELISA test. Student's t-tests and Mann-Whitney test were used for intra- and inter-group comparisons; p values exercise in controls increased IL-6 level (1.71 ± 0.29 vs. 2.01 ± 0.27 pg/ml, p = 0.003) without change in IL-10 and TNF-α levels. However, no significant change in cytokine levels was observed in SLE patients after acute exercise. This is the first study evaluating the effect of acute exercise on cytokine levels in patients with SLE. In contrast to healthy controls, acute physical exercise did not increase the levels of IL-6 in patients with SLE, and seems to be safe in those patients with inactive or mild active disease.

  15. Effect of music on submaximal cycling

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Boutcher SH, Trenske M. The effects of sensory deprivation and music on perceived exertion and affect during exercise. Journal of Sport and Exercise. Psychology 1990; 12: 167-76. 4. Grant S, Aitchison T, Henderson E, et al. A comparison of the reproduc- ibility and the sensitivity to change of visual analogue scales, Borg ...

  16. DHEA, DHEA-S and cortisol responses to acute exercise in older adults in relation to exercise training status and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaney, Jennifer L J; Carroll, Douglas; Phillips, Anna C

    2013-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate resting measures of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEA-S) and cortisol, and the response and recovery of these hormones to acute exercise, in male and female older adults of different exercise training status. Participants were 49 community-dwelling older adults (23 females) aged between 60 and 77 years who were either sedentary (n=14), moderately active (n=14) or endurance trained (n=21). Participants undertook an acute bout of exercise in the form of an incremental submaximal treadmill test. The exercise lasted on average 23 min 49 s (SD=2 min 8 s) and participants reached 76.5% (SD=5.44) of the predicted maximal heart rate. Blood samples were collected prior to exercise, immediately, and 1 h post-exercise. DHEA levels significantly increased immediately post-exercise; however, DHEA-S levels only significantly increased in females. Cortisol significantly decreased immediately post-exercise and 1 h post-exercise compared to pre-exercise. There were no significant differences in resting hormone levels or hormonal responses to exercise between training status groups. The findings suggest that exercise can stimulate DHEA production in older adults and that hormonal responses to exercise differ between male and female older adults.

  17. Cardiovascular adaptation in people with multiple sclerosis following a twelve week exercise programme suggest deconditioning rather than autonomic dysfunction caused by the disease. Results from a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feltham, M G; Collett, J; Izadi, H; Wade, D T; Morris, M G; Meaney, A J; Howells, K; Sackley, C; Dawes, H

    2013-12-01

    Guidelines for optimal exercise doses in people with multiple sclerosis (MS) have to be established. We need to ascertain the basic physiological and perceptual response and adaptation to different exercise doses in this clinical population. The aim of this paper was to explore the response during maximal and sub-maximal exercise in people with MS prior to and following two different twelve week exercise programmes. Sub-analysis of per protocol exercise data of a two group, single blinded, randomised control trial. Multicentre (community leisure and rehabilitation centres). Participants with MS assigned to a continuous (N.=12; mean±SE age=52.3±2.08; Barthel index median & range=19&13-20) or interval (N.=9; mean±SE age=49.3±3.5; Barthel index median & range=19&18-20) exercise programme. Cardiovascular, respiratory and perceptual exercise response and adaption was measured at maximal and sub-maximal levels of physical exercise prior to and following a twelve week exercise programme, delivered at different intensities. Irrespective of the type of exercise programme followed, there was a significant increase in peak power (z=-1.98; P=0.05) and normalised oxygen uptake during unloaded cycling (z =-2.00; P=0.05). At discharge from the exercise programmes, the cardiovascular response to sub-maximal exercise had significantly changed (t(360) =-4.62; pphysical exercise following a twelve week programme is analogous to non-diseased adults. Cardiovascular adaptation in people with MS following a twelve week exercise programme suggests deconditioning rather than autonomic dysfunction caused by the disease.

  18. The effect of oncologists' exercise recommendations on the level of exercise and quality of life in survivors of breast and colorectal cancer: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji-Hye; Lee, Junga; Oh, Minsuk; Park, Hyuna; Chae, Jisuk; Kim, Dong-Il; Lee, Mi Kyung; Yoon, Yong Jin; Lee, Chul Won; Park, Seho; Jones, Lee W; Kim, Nam Kyu; Kim, Seung Il; Jeon, Justin Y

    2015-08-15

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the effect of an oncologist's exercise recommendation with and without an exercise motivation package on the amount of exercise participation and quality of life (QOL) in survivors of breast and colorectal cancer. A total of 162 survivors of early-stage breast and colorectal cancer who completed primary and adjuvant treatments were recruited for the current study. Participants were randomly assigned into 1 of 3 groups: 1) control (59 patients); 2) those receiving an oncologist's exercise recommendation (53 patients); and 3) those receiving an oncologist's exercise recommendation with an exercise motivation package (50 patients). At baseline and after 4 weeks, the level of exercise participation and QOL were assessed. Of the 162 participants, 130 (80.2%) completed the trial. Intention-to-treat analysis indicated that participants who received an oncologist's exercise recommendation with an exercise motivation package significantly increased their level of exercise participation in terms of minutes (47.57 added minutes per week; 95% confidence interval, 9.62-85.52 minutes [P =.022] vs control) and in Metabolic Equivalent of Task (MET)-hours per week (4.14 additional MET-hours per week; 95% confidence interval, 1.70-6.58 MET-hours [P =.004] vs control) compared with the control group. Participants who received only their oncologist's exercise recommendation did not increase their exercise participation level. Further analysis demonstrated that role functioning was significantly improved among participants who received an oncologist's exercise recommendation with an exercise motivation package. Providing an exercise motivation package in addition to the oncologist's exercise recommendation to increase the level of exercise among survivors of breast and colorectal cancer should be considered. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  19. The effect of recreational physical exercise on depression and assertiveness levels of university students

    OpenAIRE

    Gülcan Tekin; M. Tayfun Amman; Ali Tekin

    2009-01-01

     The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the recreational physical exercise on depression and assertiveness levels of the university students who had never participated in regular physical exercise before. There were 15 male and 15 female totally 30 students in control group and 15 male and 15 female students in exercise group of research. The students in control group carried on their usual life during the research while the students in exercise group participated in a 8 week...

  20. The effects of carbohydrate ingestion during endurance running on post-exercise inflammation and hepcidin levels.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sim, M.; Dawson, B.; Landers, G.; Wiegerinck, E.T.G.; Swinkels, D.W.; Townsend, M.A.; Trinder, D.; Peeling, P.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of carbohydrate (CHO) consumption during prolonged endurance running on post-exercise inflammation and hepcidin levels was investigated. Eleven well-trained male endurance athletes completed a graded exercise test, followed by two experimental running trials in a randomized order. The two

  1. Alteration of Plasma Brain Natriuretic Peptide Level After Acute Moderate Exercise in Professional Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homa Sheikhani

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiac fatigue or myocardial damage following exercise until complete exhaustion can increase blood levels of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP in athletes. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of resistance and acute moderate aerobic exercise on alterations in BNP levels in professional athletes. Materials and Methods: Forty professional athletes who had at least 3 years of a championship background in track and field (aerobic group or body building (resistance group volunteered to participate in the present study. Track and field athletes (n = 20 were requested to run 8 km at 60% to 70% of maximum heart rate. Body building athletes (n = 20 performed a resistance training session of 5 exercises in 3 sets of 10 repetitions at 75% of 1 RM (bench press, seated row, leg extension, leg curl, and leg press. Before and immediately after the exercise, plasma BNP levels of both groups of athletes were measured by PATHFASTTM NT-proBNP assay, an immunochemiluminescent assay using two polyclonal antibodies in sandwich test format, on a PATHFASTTM automated analyzer. Results: Plasma BNP levels immediately following exercise increased significantly as compared with baseline values. Plasma BNP concentrations in the aerobic group were significantly higher than in the resistance group before and after exercise. Moreover, the increase in mean BNP concentrations in aerobic athletes was 7 times more than in resistance athletes. Conclusions: BNP levels in athlete who performed distance exercises increased significantly compared with resistance training. Possibly exercise program type, intensity of exercise, volume of exercise program, and field sport can be factors of changes in BNP levels

  2. Exercise addiction in men is associated with lower fat-adjusted leptin levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenstein, Mia B; Andries, Alin; Hansen, Stinus; Frystyk, Jan; Støving, René K

    2015-03-01

    To test a hypothesized association between resting leptin levels (adjusted for body fat percentage) and symptoms of primary exercise addiction. Cross-sectional design. Habitual amateur exercisers participating in running, fitness, weight training, and biking. Twenty men with exercise addiction as defined by the Exercise Addiction Inventory (EAI scores 24-30) and 20 men in an exercise control group (EAI scores 6-16) matched on body mass index. Plasma leptin and sex hormones were measured in blood samples collected under fasting and resting conditions. Body composition was assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Eating disorder symptoms were identified by the Eating Disorder Inventory 2. The exercise addiction group had significantly (P < 0.001) lower leptin levels (1.1 μg/L, SD = 1.3) than controls (4.3 μg/L, SD = 2.9). Even when adjusted for body fat percentage, the addiction group had significantly (P < 0.001) lower leptin levels (0.1 μg/L, SD = 0.1) than the controls (0.2 μg/L, SD = 0.1). Body fat-adjusted leptin correlated with free bioavailable testosterone, but it was only significant in nonaddictive exercisers. None of the exercisers seemed to suffer from an eating disorder. This is the first study showing that excessive training in exercise addiction is associated with low levels of body fat-adjusted leptin levels. Hypoleptinemia could be involved in the pathogenesis of exercise addiction. However, further studies are needed to explore the potential causal relationship.

  3. Effects of an additional pressure support level on exercise duration in patients on prolonged mechanical ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yen-Huey; Lin, Hui-Ling; Hsiao, Hsiu-Feng; Huang, Ching-Tzu; Kao, Kuo-Chin; Li, Li-Fu; Huang, Chung-Chi; Tsai, Ying-Huang

    2015-12-01

    Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation has been regarded as a strategy for improving exercise performance. Whether an increase in the ventilatory support level improves exercise performance in patients who have received invasive ventilation is unknown. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of an additional level of pressure support (PS) ventilation on exercise tolerance in patients undergoing prolonged mechanical ventilation (PMV). This study examined 15 patients who were undergoing PMV. All patients performed an upper-arm exercise test at three PS levels: the baseline PS level (PS), a level 2 cmH2O higher than the baseline level (PS+2), and a level 4 cmH2O higher than the baseline level (PS+4). The physiological response, reasons for discontinuing the exercise test, and exercise duration were recorded and analyzed. The tidal volume increased significantly from 271.7 ± 54.7 mL to 398.3 ± 88.7 mL at the PS+4 level (p = 0.01). Significant differences in exercise duration were observed at different PS levels. The exercise duration was significantly longer at the PS+4 level than at the PS and PS+2 levels (146.3 ± 139.9 seconds vs. 108.5 ± 85.9 seconds vs. 72.8 ± 43.9 seconds, p = 0.038) as their corresponding order. There were significant relationships between resting respiratory rate and exercise duration at the PS (r = -0.639, p = 0.034) and PS+2 levels (r = -0.668, p = 0.025). In patients undergoing PMV, an additional PS level of up to 4 cmH2O compared with the baseline setting may help to improve exercise tolerance by prolonging exercise duration. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Effect of oxygen on postoperative cardiovascular response to exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaersgaard, M; Lie, C; Bisgaard, T

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of supplemental oxygen on postoperative cardiovascular response to submaximal exercise. DESIGN: Randomised, controlled study. SETTING: University hospital, Denmark. SUBJECTS: 16 patients having major abdominal operations. INTERVENTIONS: A submaximal exercise test...... in non-surgical patients and surgical patients not taking exercise. These findings do not suggest that decreased peripheral tissue oxygenation is responsible for the impaired cardiovascular response to exercise in postoperative patients....... oximeter. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Heart rate during exercise. RESULTS: At similar workloads there were significantly lower heart rates (median decrease 3 min(-1)) during exercise tests with oxygen compared with air (p

  5. A candidate syntenic genetic locus is associated with voluntary exercise levels in mice and humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kostrzewa, E.; Brandys, M. K.; van Lith, H. A.; Kas, M. J H|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/185967019

    2015-01-01

    Individual levels of physical activity, and especially of voluntary physical exercise, highly contribute to the susceptibility for developing metabolic, cardiovascular diseases, and potentially to psychiatric disorders. Here, we applied a cross-species approach to explore a candidate genetic region

  6. Plasma lactate, GH and GH-binding protein levels in exercise following BCAA supplementation in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Palo, E F; Gatti, R; Cappellin, E; Schiraldi, C; De Palo, C B; Spinella, P

    2001-01-01

    Branched chain amino acids (BCAA) stimulate protein synthesis, and growth hormone (GH) is a mediator in this process. A pre-exercise BCAA ingestion increases muscle BCAA uptake and use. Therefore after one month of chronic BCAA treatment (0.2 gkg(-1) of body weight), the effects of a pre-exercise oral supplementation of BCAA (9.64 g) on the plasma lactate (La) were examined in triathletes, before and after 60 min of physical exercise (75% of VO2 max). The plasma levels of GH (pGH) and of growth hormone binding protein (pGHBP) were also studied. The end-exercise La of each athlete was higher than basal. Furthermore, after the chronic BCAA treatment, these end-exercise levels were lower than before this treatment (8.6+/-0.8 mmol L(-1) after vs 12.8+/-1.0 mmol L(-1) before treatment; p BCAA chronic treatment, this end-exercise pGHBP was 738+/-85 pmol L(-1) before vs 1691+/-555 pmol L(-1) after. pGH/pGHBP ratio was unchanged in each athlete and between the groups, but a tendency to increase was observed at end-exercise. The lower La at the end of an intense muscular exercise may reflect an improvement of BCAA use, due to the BCAA chronic treatment. The chronic BCAA effects on pGH and pGHBP might suggest an improvement of muscle activity through protein synthesis.

  7. Plasma levels of beta-endorphin and serotonin in response to specific spinal based exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Sokunbi

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Exercises as the primary mode of treatment for low back disorders aim to achieve pain reduction, improvement in functional abilityand quality of life of for low back disorder sufferers. However the bio-chemical events associated with the use of these exercises in terms of theireffects on pain relieving neuropeptides have not been well established. Thisstudy was carried out to investigate the effects of spinal stabilisation, backextension and treadmill walking exercises on plasma levels of serotonin andbeta-endorphin.Twenty volunteers (10 males and 10 females without low back pain participated in the study. They were randomly allocated either to one of theexercise groups, where participants carried out one of the spinal stabilisation, back extension and treadmill walkingexercises or the control (no exercise group. The main outcome measures used in this study were plasma levels of serotonin and beta-endorphin measured with Enzyme linked immuno absorbent assay (ELISA technique.The results of this study showed that spinal stabilisation and treadmill walking exercises produced significantincrease in plasma serotonin levels (P < 0.05 however there were no significant changes in the plasma levels of beta-endorphin in all the exercise groups (P > 0.05.It could be that biochemical effects associated with stabilisation and treadmill walking exercises therefore mayinvolve production of serotonin and its release into the plasma.

  8. Acute Exercise Decreases Tribbles Homolog 3 Protein Levels in the Hypothalamus of Obese Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Barbara De Almeira; Pauli, Luciana Santos Souza; DE Souza, Claudio Teodoro; DA Silva, Adelino Sanchez Ramos; Cintra, Dennys Esper Correa; Marinho, Rodolfo; DE Moura, Leandro Pereira; Ropelle, Eloize Cristina Chiarreotto; Botezelli, José Diego; Ropelle, Eduardo Rochete; Pauli, José Rodrigo

    2015-08-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effects of acute exercise on tribbles homolog 3 (TRB3) protein levels and on the interaction between TRB3 and Akt proteins in the hypothalamus of obese rats. In addition, we evaluated the relationship between TRB3 and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and verified whether an acute exercise session influences them. In the first part of the study, the rats were divided into three groups: control (lean), fed standard rodent chow; DIO, fed a high-fat diet; and DIO-EXE, fed a high-fat diet and submitted to a swimming acute exercise protocol. In the second part of the study, we used three other groups: control (lean) group receiving an intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) infusion of vehicle, lean group receiving an i.c.v. infusion of thapsigargin, and lean group receiving an i.c.v. infusion of thapsigargin and performing an acute exercise session. Four hours after the exercise session, food intake was measured, and the hypothalamus was dissected and separated for subsequent protein analysis by immunoblotting and real-time polymerase chain reaction. The acute exercise session reduced TRB3 protein levels, disrupted the interaction between TRB3 and Akt proteins, increased the phosphorylation of Foxo1, and restored the anorexigenic effects of insulin on the hypothalamus of DIO rats. Interestingly, the suppressive effects of acute exercise on TRB3 protein levels may be related, at least in part, to decreased ER stress (evaluated though pancreatic ER kinase phosphorylation and C/EBP homologous protein levels) in the hypothalamus. Exercise-mediated reduction of hypothalamic TRB3 protein levels may be associated with reduction of ER stress. These data provide a new mechanism by which an acute exercise session improves insulin sensitivity in the hypothalamus and restores food intake control in obesity.

  9. Skeletal muscle metabolism during prolonged exercise in Pompe disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolai Preisler

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Pompe disease (glycogenosis type II is caused by lysosomal alpha-glucosidase deficiency, which leads to a block in intra-lysosomal glycogen breakdown. In spite of enzyme replacement therapy, Pompe disease continues to be a progressive metabolic myopathy. Considering the health benefits of exercise, it is important in Pompe disease to acquire more information about muscle substrate use during exercise. Methods: Seven adults with Pompe disease were matched to a healthy control group (1:1. We determined (1 peak oxidative capacity (VO2peak and (2 carbohydrate and fatty acid metabolism during submaximal exercise (33 W for 1 h, using cycle-ergometer exercise, indirect calorimetry and stable isotopes. Results: In the patients, VO2peak was less than half of average control values; mean difference −1659 mL/min (CI: −2450 to −867, P = 0.001. However, the respiratory exchange ratio increased to >1.0 and lactate levels rose 5-fold in the patients, indicating significant glycolytic flux. In line with this, during submaximal exercise, the rates of oxidation (ROX of carbohydrates and palmitate were similar between patients and controls (mean difference 0.226 g/min (CI: 0.611 to −0.078, P = 0.318 and mean difference 0.016 μmol/kg/min (CI: 1.287 to −1.255, P = 0.710, respectively. Conclusion: Reflecting muscle weakness and wasting, Pompe disease is associated with markedly reduced maximal exercise capacity. However, glycogenolysis is not impaired in exercise. Unlike in other metabolic myopathies, skeletal muscle substrate use during exercise is normal in Pompe disease rendering exercise less complicated for e.g. medical or recreational purposes.

  10. Skeletal muscle metabolism during prolonged exercise in Pompe disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preisler, Nicolai; Laforêt, Pascal; Madsen, Karen Lindhardt; Husu, Edith; Vissing, Christoffer Rasmus; Hedermann, Gitte; Galbo, Henrik; Lindberg, Christopher; Vissing, John

    2017-08-01

    Pompe disease (glycogenosis type II) is caused by lysosomal alpha-glucosidase deficiency, which leads to a block in intra-lysosomal glycogen breakdown. In spite of enzyme replacement therapy, Pompe disease continues to be a progressive metabolic myopathy. Considering the health benefits of exercise, it is important in Pompe disease to acquire more information about muscle substrate use during exercise. Seven adults with Pompe disease were matched to a healthy control group (1:1). We determined (1) peak oxidative capacity (VO2peak) and (2) carbohydrate and fatty acid metabolism during submaximal exercise (33 W) for 1 h, using cycle-ergometer exercise, indirect calorimetry and stable isotopes. In the patients, VO2peak was less than half of average control values; mean difference -1659 mL/min (CI: -2450 to -867, P = 0.001). However, the respiratory exchange ratio increased to >1.0 and lactate levels rose 5-fold in the patients, indicating significant glycolytic flux. In line with this, during submaximal exercise, the rates of oxidation (ROX) of carbohydrates and palmitate were similar between patients and controls (mean difference 0.226 g/min (CI: 0.611 to -0.078, P = 0.318) and mean difference 0.016 µmol/kg/min (CI: 1.287 to -1.255, P = 0.710), respectively). Reflecting muscle weakness and wasting, Pompe disease is associated with markedly reduced maximal exercise capacity. However, glycogenolysis is not impaired in exercise. Unlike in other metabolic myopathies, skeletal muscle substrate use during exercise is normal in Pompe disease rendering exercise less complicated for e.g. medical or recreational purposes. © 2017 The authors.

  11. Validated Predictions of Metabolic Energy Consumption for Submaximal Effort Movement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George A Tsianos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Physical performance emerges from complex interactions among many physiological systems that are largely driven by the metabolic energy demanded. Quantifying metabolic demand is an essential step for revealing the many mechanisms of physical performance decrement, but accurate predictive models do not exist. The goal of this study was to investigate if a recently developed model of muscle energetics and force could be extended to reproduce the kinematics, kinetics, and metabolic demand of submaximal effort movement. Upright dynamic knee extension against various levels of ergometer load was simulated. Task energetics were estimated by combining the model of muscle contraction with validated models of lower limb musculotendon paths and segment dynamics. A genetic algorithm was used to compute the muscle excitations that reproduced the movement with the lowest energetic cost, which was determined to be an appropriate criterion for this task. Model predictions of oxygen uptake rate (VO2 were well within experimental variability for the range over which the model parameters were confidently known. The model's accurate estimates of metabolic demand make it useful for assessing the likelihood and severity of physical performance decrement for a given task as well as investigating underlying physiologic mechanisms.

  12. Acute aerobic exercise increases brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in elderly with Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Flávia Gomes de Melo; Vital, Thays Martins; Stein, Angelica Miki; Arantes, Franciel José; Rueda, André Veloso; Camarini, Rosana; Teodorov, Elizabeth; Santos-Galduróz, Ruth Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    Studies indicate the involvement of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Decreased BDNF levels may constitute a lack of trophic support and contribute to cognitive impairment in AD. The benefits of acute and chronic physical exercise on BDNF levels are well-documented in humans, however, exercise effects on BDNF levels have not been analyzed in older adults with AD. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of acute aerobic exercise on BDNF levels in older adults with AD and to verify associations among BDNF levels, aerobic fitness, and level of physical activity. Using a controlled design, twenty-one patients with AD (76.3 ± 6.2 years) and eighteen healthy older adults (74.6 ± 4.7 years) completed an acute aerobic exercise. The outcomes included measures of BDNF plasma levels, aerobic fitness (treadmill grade, time to exhaustion, VO2, and maximal lactate) and level of physical activity (Baecke Questionnaire Modified for the Elderly). The independent t-test shows differences between groups with respect to the BDNF plasma levels at baseline (p = 0.04; t = 4.53; df = 37). In two-way ANOVA, a significant effect of time was found (p = 0.001; F = 13.63; df = 37), the aerobic exercise significantly increased BDNF plasma levels in AD patients and healthy controls. A significant correlation (p = 0.04; r = 0.33) was found between BDNF levels and the level of physical activity. The results of our study suggest that aerobic exercise increases BDNF plasma levels in patients with AD and healthy controls. In addition to that, BDNF levels had association with level of physical activity.

  13. Effects of submaximal and supramaximal interval training on determinants of endurance performance in endurance athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquette, M; Le Blanc, O; Lucas, S J E; Thibault, G; Bailey, D M; Brassard, P

    2017-03-01

    We compared the effects of submaximal and supramaximal cycling interval training on determinants of exercise performance in moderately endurance-trained men. Maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max ), peak power output (Ppeak ), and peak and mean anaerobic power were measured before and after 6 weeks (3 sessions/week) of submaximal (85% maximal aerobic power [MP], HIIT85 , n = 8) or supramaximal (115% MP, HIIT115 , n = 9) interval training to exhaustion in moderately endurance-trained men. High-intensity training volume was 47% lower in HIIT115 vs HIIT85 (304 ± 77 vs 571 ± 200 min; P training was generally associated with increased VO2max (HIIT85 : +3.3 ± 3.1 mL/kg/min; HIIT115 : +3.3 ± 3.6 ml/kg/min; Time effect P = 0.002; Group effect: P = 0.95), Ppeak (HIIT85 : +18 ± 9 W; HIIT115 : +16 ± 27 W; Time effect P = 0.045; Group effect: P = 0.49), and mean anaerobic power (HIIT85 : +0.42 ± 0.69 W/kg; HIIT115 : +0.55 ± 0.65 W/kg; Time effect P = 0.01; Group effect: P = 0.18). Six weeks of submaximal and supramaximal interval training performed to exhaustion seems to equally improve VO2max and anaerobic power in endurance-trained men, despite half the accumulated time spent at the target intensity. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Vascular Dynamics and Peripheral Oxygen Uptake in Obese Individuals during Progressive Physical Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunani, Amelia; Lanzi, Stefano; Codecasa, Franco; Cornacchia, Mauro; Maestrini, Sabrina; Soranna, Davide; Zambon, Antonella; Cattaldo, Stefania; Fanari, Paolo; Malatesta, Davide; Salvadori, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    Obese men show higher O2 consumption than lean men during physical exercise, with a trend toward higher peripheral O2 extraction; this is probably due to their larger muscle mass. The aim of this study was to examine this phenomenon by measuring 2 vasoactive substances, endothelin-1 (ET-1) and nitric oxide (NO), during a progressive submaximal exercise. Seventeen obese (body mass index [BMI] 38.6) and 15 lean (BMI 22.5) men performed a maximal progressive cycle ergometer exercise to determine peak power output (PPO) and peak O2 consumption (V∙O2peak); thereafter, they performed a submaximal cycle ergometer incremental test (every 6 min) at the same percentage of V∙O2peak until they reached 57.5% PPO. Blood samples were collected at rest and at the end of every step to measure ET-1 and NO concentrations. At rest, the ET-1 and NO concentrations in obese men and lean controls were the same. However, during exercise, the ET-1 concentration at each step was significantly lower (p < 0.05) in the obese group. There was no significant difference in NO concentration between the 2 groups, although the increase at the beginning of the exercise session was faster in obese individuals. During submaximal exercise, end-tidal O2 pressure (PETO2) was lower in the obese group, with a significant difference in the PETO2/fat-free mass ratio at each step. ET-1 and NO levels during physical exercise are different in obese versus lean men. This may support the notion that increased O2 consumption in obesity is due to different behaviors of the cardiorespiratory and circulatory systems. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. F-door spaces and F-submaximal spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lobna Dridi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Submaximal spaces and door spaces play an enigmatic role in topology. In this paper, reinforcing this role, we are concerned with reaching two main goals: The first one is to characterize topological spaces X such that F(X is a submaximal space (resp., door space for some covariant functor Ff rom the category Top to itself. T0, and FH functors are completely studied. Secondly, our interest is directed towards the characterization of maps f given by a flow (X, f in the category Set, such that (X,P(f is submaximal (resp., door where P(f is a topology on X whose closed sets are exactly the f-invariant sets.

  16. The validity of submaximal ratings of perceived exertion to predict one repetition maximum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eston, Roger; Evans, Harrison James Llewelyn

    2009-01-01

    The One Repetition Maximum (1-RM) test is commonly used to assess strength. However, direct assessments of 1-RM are time consuming and unsafe for novice lifters. Whilst various equations exist to predict 1-RM, there is limited research on the validity of these equations. The purpose of this study was to assess the validity of using sub-maximal ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) to predict 1-RM in young adults, using the Borg 6-20 RPE Scale. Twenty healthy participants (ten male (Mean ± SD, 20.8 ± 0.6 y, 75.7 ± 9.3 kg, 1.8 ± 0.07 m) and ten female (20.3 ± 0.7 y, 68.4 ± 10.0 kg, 1.68 ± 0.03 m)) completed two trials involving resistance exercises for both the upper and lower body. In the first trial the 1-RM for the bilateral biceps curl (BC) and the bilateral knee extension (KE) were determined for each participant. In the second trial, participants performed blinded repetitions which were equivalent to 20, 40 and 60 % of 1-RM for both exercises. The RPE was recorded immediately after two repetitions had been completed at each intensity. The order of intensity of the repetitions was randomly assigned with participants wearing blindfolds to exclude the possibility of pre-determined judgments about load and RPE. Individual RPE recorded at each intensity was subjected to linear regression analysis and the line of best fit was extrapolated to RPE 20 to predict 1-RM in both exercises. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) between the 1-RM predicted from RPE 20 and measured 1-RM for both exercises for the men and women. Measured and predicted values for men were 46.0 ± 4.6 and 45.2 ± 6. 1 kg for biceps curl, and 46.3 ± 3.8 and 43.0 ± 7.1 kg for knee extension, respectively. Measured and predicted values for women were 18.6 ± 5.7 and 19.3 ± 5.6 kg for biceps curl, and 25.5 ± 9.6 and 27.2 ± 12.6 kg for knee extension, respectively. Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients between actual and predicted 1-RM for the BC and KE were 0.97 and 0

  17. Effects of parental smoking on exercise systolic blood pressure in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacke, Claudia; Weisser, Burkhard

    2015-05-11

    In adults, exercise blood pressure seems to be more closely related to cardiovascular risk than resting blood pressure; however, few data are available on the effects of familial risk factors, including smoking habits, on exercise blood pressure in adolescents. Blood pressure at rest and during exercise, parental smoking, and other familial risk factors were investigated in 532 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years (14.6±1.5 years) in the Kiel EX.PRESS. (EXercise PRESSure) Study. Exercise blood pressure was determined at 1.5 W/kg body weight using a standardized submaximal cycle ergometer test. Mean resting blood pressure was 113.1±12.8/57.2±7.1 mm Hg, and exercise blood pressure was 149.9±19.8/54.2±8.6 mm Hg. Parental smoking increased exercise systolic blood pressure (+4.0 mm Hg, 3.1 to 4.9; P=0.03) but not resting blood pressure of the subjects (adjusted for age, sex, height, body mass index percentile, fitness). Parental overweight and familial hypertension were related to both higher resting and exercise systolic blood pressure values, whereas associations with an inactive lifestyle and a low educational level of the parents were found only with adolescents' blood pressure during exercise. The cumulative effect of familial risk factors on exercise systolic blood pressure was more pronounced than on blood pressure at rest. Parental smoking might be a novel risk factor for higher blood pressure, especially during exercise. In addition, systolic blood pressure during a submaximal exercise test was more closely associated with familial risk factors than was resting blood pressure, even in adolescents. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  18. Skeletal Muscle Sorbitol Levels in Diabetic Rats with and without Insulin Therapy and Endurance Exercise Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Sánchez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Sorbitol accumulation is postulated to play a role in skeletal muscle dysfunction associated with diabetes. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of insulin and of endurance exercise on skeletal muscle sorbitol levels in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Rats were assigned to one of five experimental groups (control sedentary, control exercise, diabetic sedentary, diabetic exercise, diabetic sedentary no-insulin. Diabetic rats received daily subcutaneous insulin. The exercise-trained rats ran on a treadmill (1 hour, 5X/wk, for 12 weeks. Skeletal muscle sorbitol levels were the highest in the diabetic sedentary no-insulin group. Diabetic sedentary rats receiving insulin had similar sorbitol levels to control sedentary rats. Endurance exercise did not significantly affect sorbitol levels. These results indicate that insulin treatment lowers sorbitol in skeletal muscle; therefore sorbitol accumulation is probably not related to muscle dysfunction in insulin-treated diabetic individuals. Endurance exercise did not influence intramuscular sorbitol values as strongly as insulin.

  19. Heart Rate and Lactate Levels during Weight-Training Exercise in Trained and Untrained Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Michael H.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    A study of effects of squatting exercise on heart rate and blood lactate levels in trained and untrained males indicated that trained subjects performed more work and had higher heart rates and lactate levels at exhaustion untrained subjects, though heart rate and lactate levels were lower for trained subjects at a given bar mass or submaximal…

  20. Cardiorespiratory response to exercise on a large therapeutic roll.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gappmaier, Eduard; Tavazoie, Sima F; Jacketta, Michael G

    2013-09-01

    Large therapeutic rolls (LTR) and balls are popular rehabilitation tools and have also been advertised as cardiovascular training devices. The aim of this study was to determine if individuals of varying fitness levels would reach aerobic training levels by evidence-based standards as described in American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) publications. Fourteen volunteers performed a maximal exercise test and on subsequent days, two submaximal exercise tests on the LTR (LTR-A and -B). LTR-A consisted of four 5-minute stages of exercise at progressive intensity levels. LTR-B included 20 minutes of continuous exercise. Oxygen consumption (VO2) and heart rate (HR) during exercise on the LTR were compared with ACSM recommended standards. The average (range) peak intensity achieved during LTR-A was 66.8% (51.7-82.7%) of maximal VO2 reserve (VO2R) and 82.9% (70.7%-91.2%) of maximal heart rate (HRmax). During LTR-B, HR and VO2 of all participants was maintained at moderate exercise intensity and averaged 56% of VO2R and 78% of HRmax during the 20 minute exercise period. These findings suggest that individuals with a wide range of aerobic fitness are able to reach and maintain aerobic training levels with appropriate exercise on a large therapeutic roll or ball.

  1. Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal: An Exercise in Dealing with Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krow, Grant R.; Krow, Jessica B.

    1998-12-01

    A problem-based learning exercise based upon the need for society to dispose of low-level radioactive waste is presented. The exercise is structured as a classroom-centered group problem-based learning module, whose exploration will occupy at least two-three weeks of class time. The goals are to increase student understanding of chemistry and its relationship to ethics and political decision-making. The problem exploration uses information cards to facilitate peer-group teaching and learning.

  2. Physical activity levels determine exercise-induced changes in brain excitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lulic, Tea; El-Sayes, Jenin; Fassett, Hunter J; Nelson, Aimee J

    2017-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that regular physical activity can impact cortical function and facilitate plasticity. In the present study, we examined how physical activity levels influence corticospinal excitability and intracortical circuitry in motor cortex following a single session of moderate intensity aerobic exercise. We aimed to determine whether exercise-induced short-term plasticity differed between high versus low physically active individuals. Participants included twenty-eight young, healthy adults divided into two equal groups based on physical activity level determined by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire: low-to-moderate (LOW) and high (HIGH) physical activity. Transcranial magnetic stimulation was used to assess motor cortex excitability via motor evoked potential (MEP) recruitment curves for the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle at rest (MEPREST) and during tonic contraction (MEPACTIVE), short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) and facilitation (SICF), and intracortical facilitation (ICF). All dependent measures were obtained in the resting FDI muscle, with the exception of AMT and MEPACTIVE recruitment curves that were obtained during tonic FDI contraction. Dependent measures were acquired before and following moderate intensity aerobic exercise (20 mins, ~60% of the age-predicted maximal heart rate) performed on a recumbent cycle ergometer. Results indicate that MEPREST recruitment curve amplitudes and area under the recruitment curve (AURC) were increased following exercise in the HIGH group only (p = 0.002 and p = 0.044, respectively). SICI and ICF were reduced following exercise irrespective of physical activity level (p = 0.007 and p = 0.04, respectively). MEPACTIVE recruitment curves and SICF were unaltered by exercise. These findings indicate that the propensity for exercise-induced plasticity is different in high versus low physically active individuals. Additionally, these data highlight that a single session of

  3. Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it can lead to weakness of muscles, decreased bone density with an increased risk of fracture, and shallow, inefficient breathing. An exercise program needs to fit the capabilities and limitations ...

  4. Effect of acute and regular exercise on antioxidative enzymes, tissue damage markers and membran lipid peroxidation of erythrocytes in sedentary students

    OpenAIRE

    Aslan, Recep

    2014-01-01

    15 healthy sedentary men, 19-25 years old an did not have any programmed physical activity, were studied. The subjects were asked to run submaximal 15-20 min every day for 5 weeks. Erythrocyte lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities and glucose and uric acid levels were determined in blood samples which were taken before and immediately after acute exercise and after the end of 5-week training program. Malonaldialdehyde (MDA), sing...

  5. Ammonium Chloride Ingestion Attenuates Exercise-Induced mRNA Levels in Human Muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann Edge

    Full Text Available Minimizing the decrease in intracellular pH during high-intensity exercise training promotes greater improvements in mitochondrial respiration. This raises the intriguing hypothesis that pH may affect the exercise-induced transcription of genes that regulate mitochondrial biogenesis. Eight males performed 10x2-min cycle intervals at 80% VO2speak intensity on two occasions separated by ~2 weeks. Participants ingested either ammonium chloride (ACID or calcium carbonate (PLA the day before and on the day of the exercise trial in a randomized, counterbalanced order, using a crossover design. Biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis muscle before and after exercise. The mRNA level of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor co-activator 1α (PGC-1α, citrate synthase, cytochome c and FOXO1 was elevated at rest following ACID (P0.05; the difference in PGC-1α mRNA content 2 h post-exercise between ACID and PLA was not significant (P = 0.08. Thus, metabolic acidosis abolished the early post-exercise increase of PGC-1α mRNA and the mRNA of downstream mitochondrial and glucose-regulating proteins. These findings indicate that metabolic acidosis may affect mitochondrial biogenesis, with divergent responses in resting and post-exercise skeletal muscle.

  6. Submaximal cardiopulmonary thresholds on a robotics-assisted tilt table, a cycle and a treadmill: a comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saengsuwan, Jittima; Nef, Tobias; Laubacher, Marco; Hunt, Kenneth J

    2015-11-10

    The robotics-assisted tilt table (RATT), including actuators for tilting and cyclical leg movement, is used for rehabilitation of severely disabled neurological patients. Following further engineering development of the system, i.e. the addition of force sensors and visual bio-feedback, patients can actively participate in exercise testing and training on the device. Peak cardiopulmonary performance parameters were previously investigated, but it also important to compare submaximal parameters with standard devices. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of the RATT for estimation of submaximal exercise thresholds by comparison with a cycle ergometer and a treadmill. 17 healthy subjects randomly performed six maximal individualized incremental exercise tests, with two tests on each of the three exercise modalities. The ventilatory anaerobic threshold (VAT) and respiratory compensation point (RCP) were determined from breath-by-breath data. VAT and RCP on the RATT were lower than the cycle ergometer and the treadmill: oxygen uptake (V'O2) at VAT was [mean (SD)] 1.2 (0.3), 1.5 (0.4) and 1.6 (0.5) L/min, respectively (p < 0.001); V'O2 at RCP was 1.7 (0.4), 2.3 (0.8) and 2.6 (0.9) L/min, respectively (p = 0.001). High correlations for VAT and RCP were found between the RATT vs the cycle ergometer and RATT vs the treadmill (R on the range 0.69-0.80). VAT and RCP demonstrated excellent test-retest reliability for all three devices (ICC from 0.81 to 0.98). Mean differences between the test and retest values on each device were close to zero. The ventilatory equivalent for O2 at VAT for the RATT and cycle ergometer were similar and both were higher than the treadmill. The ventilatory equivalent for CO2 at RCP was similar for all devices. Ventilatory equivalent parameters demonstrated fair-to-excellent reliability and repeatability. It is feasible to use the RATT for estimation of submaximal exercise thresholds: VAT and RCP on the RATT were lower than the

  7. Responses of blood pressure and lactate levels to various aquatic exercise movements in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, K-Y; Chen, W-C; Kan, N-W; Hsu, M-C; Lee, S-L

    2015-12-01

    Middle-aged and elderly women represent the main attending group in head-out aquatic exercise (HOAE). Blood pressure (BP) significantly increases both during water immersion and aquatic walking. Based on risk concerns, it is important to evaluate BP responses in postmenopausal women doing HOAE. The aim of this study was to determine BP, lactate levels, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) changes associated with performing 3 different movements at 3 levels of exercise intensity in water. Twelve postmenopausal women (59.9±0.6 years old) participated in 3 aquatic trials involving running (RU), rocking (RO), and scissor kicks (SK) on separate days. Systolic BP, mean arterial pressure (MAP), lactate levels, RPE, and motion cadence were measured at rest; upon reaching 50%, 65%, and 80% of heart rate reserve for 6 minutes; and 10 and 30 minutes after exercise. Under similar RPE responses at 3 levels of intensity, SK resulted in higher systolic BP, MAP, and lactate levels than RO at 10 minutes after exercise (Pexercise (Pexercise intensity (Pexercise. These findings suggest that RO movement in aquatic exercises is more suitable for people at high risk for cardiovascular disease.

  8. Differential contributions of ankle plantarflexors during submaximal isometric muscle action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masood, Tahir; Bojsen-Møller, Jens; Kalliokoski, Kari K

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relative contributions of superficial and deep ankle plantarflexors during repetitive submaximal isometric contractions using surface electromyography (SEMG) and positron emission tomography (PET). Myoelectric signals were obtained from twelve....... The findings of this study provide valuable reference for studies where individual muscle contributions are estimated using models and simulations....

  9. The effects of music tempo and loudness level on treadmill exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edworthy, Judy; Waring, Hannah

    2006-12-15

    This study examined the effects of loudness and tempo of background music on exercise performance. A total of 30 volunteers performed five 10-min exercise sessions on a treadmill. The music listened to whilst exercising was either fast/loud, fast/quiet, slow/loud, slow/quiet or absent. Measures of running speed, heart rate, perceived exertion and affect were taken. Significant effects and interactions were found for running speed and heart rate across the different music tempo and loudness levels. More positive affect was observed during the music condition in comparison to the 'no music' condition. No significant differences for perceived exertion were found across conditions. These results confirm that fast, loud music might be played to enhance optimal exercising, and show how loudness and tempo interact.

  10. Man vs. Machine: A Junior-level Laboratory Exercise Comparing Human and Instrumental Detection Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Ryan J.; Hopfer, Helene; Hofstaedter, Amanda N.; Hayes, John E.

    2017-01-01

    The human nose is a very sensitive detector and is able to detect potent aroma compounds down to low ng/L levels. These levels are often below detection limits of analytical instrumentation. The following laboratory exercise is designed to compare instrumental and human methods for the detection of volatile odor active compounds. Reference…

  11. Regular Exercise and Plasma Lipid Levels Associated with the Risk of Coronary Heart Disease: A 20-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teramoto, Masaru; Golding, Lawrence A.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the effects of regular exercise on the plasma lipid levels that contribute to coronary heart disease (CHD), of 20 sedentary men who participated in an exercise program over 20 consecutive years. The men, whose initial ages ranged from 30-51 years, participated in the University of Nevada-based exercise program for an average of 45…

  12. The Effect of Rast Exercise on Plasma Levels of Apelin and Blood Pressure in Elite Women Runner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaibani Sh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Intense exercise increases heart susceptibility to the disorder in this physiological factor.The purpose of this study is to study the effect of sprint interval training on plasma levels of apelin, blood pressure and heart rate in elite female runner. Methods: Plasma levels of apelin, Heart rate (HR & blood pressure (BP, analyzed before, after and 24 hours after exercise. 15 elite female runner, whom were playing in Shiraz track & field league, selected for this study. They all were homogenized according to any kind of disease.Results: Rast exercise made plasma level of Apelin decrease after exercise compared with plasma level before exercise and this decrease was significant (p=0.001. Also, plasma level of apelin increased significantly 24 hrs after finishing exercise (p=0.001, but there were no significant differences before exercise (p=0.375. Systolic blood pressure and heart rate increased immediately after exercise and decreased significantly after 24 hrs (p=0.001. However, significant difference was not observed in diastolic pressure before and after exercise (p=0.338.Conclusion: The finding of this study shows that sprint interval training decreases plasma levels of apelin, so we can say that apelin and blood pressure must be in balance in natural position. With knowing the role of apelin, changes in this peptide during exercise can be an alarm to cardiovascular risk factor, during or after exercise in elite athletes.

  13. Prediction of VO2max in Children and Adolescents Using Exercise Testing and Physical Activity Questionnaire Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Nate E; Vehrs, Pat R; Fellingham, Gilbert W; George, James D; Hager, Ron

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of a treadmill walk-jog-run exercise test previously validated in adults and physical activity questionnaire data to estimate maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max) in boys (n = 62) and girls (n = 66) aged 12 to 17 years old. Data were collected from Physical Activity Rating (PA-R) and Perceived Functional Ability (PFA) questionnaires, a walk-jog-run submaximal treadmill exercise test, and a maximal graded exercise test. Regression analysis resulted in the development of 2 models to predict VO2max. Submaximal exercise test data were used to build the following model (R2 = .73; SEE = 4.59 mL + kg(- 1) + min(- 1)): VO2max (mL + kg(- 1) + min(- 1)) = 26.890+(5.877 × Gender; 0 = female; 1 = male) - (0.782 × Body Mass Index [BMI])+(0.438 × PFA Score) +(2.712 × Treadmill Speed; mph) +(0.746 × Age) +(0.449 × PA-R Score). Maximal exercise test data were used to build the following model (R2 = .83; SEE = 3.63 mL + kg(- 1) + min(- 1)): VO2max (mL + kg(- 1) + min(- 1)) = 10.716+(1.334 × Maximal Treadmill Grade) +(5.203 × Treadmill Speed; mph) +(3.494 × Gender; 0 = female; 1 = male) - (0.413 × BMI) +(0.249 × PFA). The results of this study demonstrate, for the first time, that regression equations that use both exercise data and physical activity questionnaire data can accurately predict VO2max in youth. The submaximal and maximal exercise tests that use self-selected treadmill speeds can be used to assess cardiorespiratory fitness of youth with a wide range of fitness levels.

  14. Effects of voluntary and involuntary exercise on cognitive functions, and VEGF and BDNF levels in adolescent rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, N; Kiray, M; Sisman, A R; Camsari, U M; Gencoglu, C; Baykara, B; Cetinkaya, C; Aksu, I

    2015-01-01

    Regular treadmill running during adolescence improves learning and memory in rats. During adolescence, the baseline level of stress is thought to be greater than during other periods of life. We investigated the effects of voluntary and involuntary exercise on the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels, and spatial learning, memory and anxiety in adolescent male and female rats. The voluntary exercise group was given free access to a running wheel for 6 weeks. The involuntary exercise group was forced to run on a treadmill for 30 min at 8 m/min 5 days/week for 6 weeks. Improved learning was demonstrated in both exercise groups compared to controls. Neuron density in the CA1 region of the hippocampus, dentate gyrus and prefrontal cortex were increased. Hippocampal VEGF and BDNF levels were increased in both exercise groups compared to controls. In females, anxiety and corticosterone levels were decreased; BDNF and VEGF levels were higher in the voluntary exercise group than in the involuntary exercise group. The adolescent hippocampus is affected favorably by regular exercise. Although no difference was found in anxiety levels as a result of involuntary exercise in males, females showed increased anxiety levels, and decreased VEGF and BDNF levels in the prefrontal cortex after involuntary exercise.

  15. Aspartame in conjunction with carbohydrate reduces insulin levels during endurance exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siegler Jason

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As most sport drinks contain some form of non-nutritive sweetener (e.g. aspartame, and with the variation in blood glucose regulation and insulin secretion reportedly associated with aspartame, a further understanding of the effects on insulin and blood glucose regulation during exercise is warranted. Therefore, the aim of this preliminary study was to profile the insulin and blood glucose responses in healthy individuals after aspartame and carbohydrate ingestion during rest and exercise. Findings Each participant completed four trials under the same conditions (45 min rest + 60 min self-paced intense exercise differing only in their fluid intake: 1 carbohydrate (2% maltodextrin and 5% sucrose (C; 2 0.04% aspartame with 2% maltodextrin and 5% sucrose (CA; 3 water (W; and 4 aspartame (0.04% aspartame with 2% maltodextrin (A. Insulin levels dropped significantly for CA versus C alone (43% between pre-exercise and 30 min, while W and A insulin levels did not differ between these time points. Conclusions Aspartame with carbohydrate significantly lowered insulin levels during exercise versus carbohydrate alone.

  16. Shoulder muscle activation levels during four closed kinetic chain exercises with and without Redcord slings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Mey, Kristof; Danneels, Lieven; Cagnie, Barbara; Borms, Dorien; TʼJonck, Zilke; Van Damme, Eline; Cools, Ann M

    2014-06-01

    During resistance training protocols, people are often encouraged to target the scapular stabilizing musculature (middle and lower trapezius and serratus anterior) while minimizing shoulder prime mover activation (upper trapezius and large glenohumeral muscles) in their training regime, especially in overhead athletes with scapular dyskinesis. To increase the activation levels in the stabilizing muscles without drastically increasing the activation in the prime movers, unstable surfaces are frequently used during closed kinetic chain (CKC) exercises. However, the specific influence of Redcord slings (RS) as an unstable surface tool on the shoulder muscle activation levels has rarely been investigated, despite these results may be used for adequate exercise selection. Therefore, a controlled laboratory study was performed on 47 healthy subjects (age, 22 ± 4.31 years; height, 176 ± 0.083 cm; weight, 69 ± 8.57 kg) during 4 CKC exercises without and with RS: half push-up (HPU), knee push-up (KPU), knee prone bridging plus (KPBP), and pull-up. When using RS, serratus anterior muscle activation decreased during the KPU and KPBP exercise. In addition, a drastic increase in pectoralis major muscle activation was found during the HPU and KPBP exercise. Consequently, the use of RS does not necessarily imply that higher levels of scapular stabilizer muscle activation will be attained. These findings suggest that RS might be an appropriate training tool when used within a general strengthening program but should not be preferred over a stable base of support when training for specific scapular stabilization purposes.

  17. Exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Idorn, Manja; thor Straten, Eivind Per

    2016-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that voluntary exercise leads to an influx of immune cells in tumors and a greater than 60% reduction in tumor incidence and growth across several mouse models. Improved immunological control of tumor progression may have important clinical implications in the prevention...... and treatment of cancer in humans....

  18. Prevalence of Exercise-Induced Arterial Hypoxemia in Distance Runners at Sea Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantini, Keren; Tanner, David A; Gavin, Timothy P; Harms, Craig A; Stager, Joel M; Chapman, Robert F

    2017-05-01

    It has been reported that ~50% of endurance-trained men demonstrate exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia (EIAH) during heavy exercise. However, this often-cited prevalence rate comes from a single study using a cohort of 25 highly trained men who completed maximal cycle ergometry. As arterial oxyhemoglobin saturation (SpO2) during maximal exercise is reported to be significantly lower during treadmill versus cycle ergometry in the same subjects, we hypothesized that the prevalence of EIAH would be greater than previously reported (and commonly referenced) in a larger cohort of highly endurance-trained men during maximal treadmill running. Data from 124 highly trained male distance runners (V˙O2max range = 60.3-84.7 mL·kg·min) were retrospectively examined from previously published studies completed in the Indiana University Human Performance Laboratory. Subjects completed a constant speed, progressive-grade treadmill exercise test to volitional exhaustion, and arterial oxyhemoglobin saturation (SaO2ear) in all subjects was estimated using the same oximeter (Hewlett Packard 47201A). Using similar inclusion criteria as previously published for highly trained (V˙O2max > 68 mL·kg·min) and for EIAH (SaO2ear ≤ 91%), 55 of 79 subjects (70%) exhibited exercise-induced arterial desaturation. Across all 124 subjects, 104 (84%) demonstrated at least moderate EIAH (SaO2ear ≤ 93%) during maximal treadmill exercise. SaO2ear was significantly yet weakly correlated with V˙E/V˙O2 (P < 0.01, r = 0.28) and V˙E/V˙CO2 (P < 0.001, r = 0.33) but not with V˙O2max. These results indicate that the prevalence of EIAH in highly trained men during maximal treadmill exercise at sea level is greater compared with previously suggested data, with exercise mode perhaps playing a factor in the number of athletes who experience EIAH.

  19. Perceived Barriers to Exercise in Hispanic Adults by Level of Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, Lorraine; Reininger, Belinda; Gay, Jennifer L.; Barroso, Cristina S.; McCormick, Joseph B.

    2011-01-01

    Background National data show that Hispanics report low levels of physical activity. Limited information on barriers to exercise in this population exists in the literature. Methods Surveys were administered to 398 Hispanic participants from two colonias in South Texas to investigate self-reported levels of and perceived barriers to exercise. One-way ANOVA by level of activity and t tests by gender were conducted. Exploratory factor analysis was used to examine patterns by level of activity. Results Results sho w that 67.6% of respondents did not meet physical activity recommendations of at least 150 minutes per week, as compared with 55.6% nationally. Overall, the most frequently reported barriers included “lack of time,” “very tired,” and “lack of self-discipline” to exercise. An exploratory factor analysis of the barriers reported by participants not meeting physical activity recommendations resulted in a 3-factor structure. A unidimensional scale was found for participants meeting recommendations. Conclusions Fin dings suggest that future interventions should be specific to gender and exercise level to address the high prevalence of inactivity in this population. PMID:21885882

  20. Maternal obesity and physical activity and exercise levels as pregnancy advances: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, N; Mitchell, C; Farren, M; Kennelly, M M; Hussey, J; Turner, M J

    2016-05-01

    Increases in clinical complications associated with maternal obesity have generated interest in increasing physical activity (PA) and exercise levels as an intervention to improve pregnancy outcomes. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between BMI categorisation and PA and exercise levels as pregnancy advances. This was an observational study in a large university maternity hospital. Women were recruited at their convenience before they left hospital after delivering a baby weighing 500 g or more. They completed a detailed customised physical activity and exercise questionnaire. BMI categorisation was based on the measurement of weight and height in early pregnancy. Of the 155 women recruited, 42.5 % (n = 66) were primigravidas and 10.3 % (n = 16) were smokers. Mean Body Mass Index (BMI) was 24.6 kg/m(2) and 14.2 % (n = 22) were obese, based on a BMI >29.9 kg/m(2). Overall, women decreased their exercise from an average 194 min (range 0-650 min) per week pre-pregnancy to 98 min antenatally (range 0-420 min) (p exercised least pre-pregnancy and antenatally at 187.5 and 75 min per week, respectively, compared with 193.2 and 95.5 min per week in the normal BMI group and 239.3 and 106.7 min per week in the overweight group. The mean gestation at which all women reduced their activity levels was 29 weeks. We found that women decreased their PA  and exercise levels significantly in the third trimester and, thus, in the absence of a medical contra-indication there is considerable scope for an exercise intervention to improve activity  and exercise levels as pregnancy advances. However, an increase in PA levels in obese women needs further studies to determine whether it will improve the clinical outcomes for the woman and her offspring.

  1. Diet and exercise effects on aerobic fitness and body composition in seriously mentally ill adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannopoulou, Ifigenia; Botonis, Petros; Kostara, Christina; Skouroliakou, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Low exercise capacity and high obesity levels are the main characteristics of people with serious mental illness (SMI). We conducted a pilot study on the effects of a 3-month exercise and dietary intervention on the aerobic capacity and body composition of obese adults with SMI taking Olanzapine, a second generation antipsychotic medication known to induce weight increments. Fifty adults with SMI (15 males and 35 females) followed a 3-month weight loss intervention programme based on exercise and diet. Pre- and post-intervention, a submaximal [Formula: see text]O2 exercise test was performed in order to assess [Formula: see text]O2max anthropometric and body composition measurements were also performed. All participants were obese (body mass index (BMI): 33.61 ± 0.91 kg/m(2)). Pre- and post-intervention, a submaximal [Formula: see text]O2 exercise test on the treadmill was performed in order to assess [Formula: see text]O2max anthropometric and body composition measurements were also performed. Significant reductions in body weight, BMI, body fat and waist circumference were found from pre to post (p diet improves the aerobic capacity and body composition of obese adults with SMI, despite the use of Olanzapine.

  2. The effect of quercetin administration on exercise, free radical and antioxidant enzym levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet GÖKTEPE

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the effect of quercetin administration on exercise, free radical and antioxidant enzym levels. Material and Method: The research was conducted on 12 male Wistar rats weighing 300 - 350 gr. Rats were divided into two groups as control group(n=6 and test group(n=6. After the rats were quarantined for 10 days; each rat was heart bled on day 1 of the test, and bled again after they were made to exercise on day 2 of testing . Between day 3 and 12 of testing(for 10 days, each rat in test group was given 20 ml/kg of quercetin once daily, and each rat in control group was given 1ml/kg of 0.05% Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO by gavage. On day 13, each rat was made to exercise and hea rt bled. On day 14, the animals were allowed to rest and on day 15, they were heart bled under anesthesia. Two independent sample t test was used to analyze data. The changes before and after quercetin administration were studied, the lactat levels during exercise, antioxidant enzym levels (SOD, CAT, GPx, GST and malondialdehit (MDA levels, the last product of lipid peroxidation, were investigated between control group and experimental group in comparation. No significant difference was detected between c ontrol group and experimental group on the 1st day during the rest and on the 2nd day during exercise. Between 3rd and 12th day of experiment, significant changes were observed according to the results in which the rats were administered with quercetin aft er the exercise. A significant decrease in MDA and lactat measures existed( P0,05. When the antioxidant enzym levels (SOD, CAT, GPx, GST were tested, a significant increase was detected again( P<0,05. I t was detected that the Qu ercetin administration helps to increase performance by breaking lactat levels during the exercise; has protective effect against free radicals by decreasing MDA levels, the last product of lipid peroxidation, and strengthens the cell’ s antioxidant defens e

  3. Effects of Caffeine Supplementation on Plasma and Blood Mononuclear Cell Interleukin-10 Levels After Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauler, Pedro; Martinez, Sonia; Martinez, Pau; Lozano, Leticia; Moreno, Carlos; Aguiló, Antoni

    2016-02-01

    This study compared the response of interleukin (IL)-10, and also of IL-6 and IL-12 p40, to exercise and caffeine supplementation between plasma and blood mononuclear cells (BMNCs). Participants in the study (n = 28) were randomly allocated in a double-blind fashion to either caffeine (n = 14) or placebo (n = 14) treatments. One hour before completing a 15-km run competition, athletes took 6 mg/kg body mass of caffeine or a placebo. Plasma and BMNCs were purified from blood samples taken before and after competition. Concentrations of interleukins (IL-10, IL-6, and IL-12 p40), cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), caffeine, adrenaline, and cortisol were measured in plasma. IL-10, IL-6, and IL-12 p40 and cAMP levels were also determined in BMNCs. Exercise induced significant increases in IL-6 and IL-10 plasma levels, with higher increases in the caffeine-supplemented group. After 2-hr recovery, these levels returned to almost preexercise values. However, no effect of caffeine on BMNC cytokines was observed. IL-10, IL-6, and IL-12 p40 levels in BMNCs increased mainly at 2 hr postexercise. cAMP levels increased postexercise in plasma and after recovery in BMNCs, but no effects of caffeine were observed. In conclusion, caffeine did not modify cytokine levels in BMNCs in response to exercise. However, higher increases of IL-10 were observed in plasma after exercise in the supplemented participants, which could suppose an enhancement of the anti-inflammatory properties of exercise.

  4. Systemic Glucose Level Changes with a Carbohydrate-Restricted and Higher Protein Diet Combined with Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, Rodney G.; Lanning, Beth A.; Doyle, Eva I.; Slonaker, Becky; Johnston, Holly M.; Scanes, Georgene

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The authors' purpose in this study was to compare the effects of macronutrient intake on systemic glucose levels in previously sedentary participants who followed 1 of 4 diets that were either higher protein or high carbohydrate, while initiating an exercise program. Participants and Methods: The authors randomly assigned 94 sedentary…

  5. The Effectiveness of an Additional Stretching Exercise Program in Improving Flexibility Level among Preschool Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wee Akina Sia Seng; Rengasamy, Shabeshan A/L; Raju, Subramaniam A/L

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effectiveness of a two minutes' additional stretching exercise program in a 30 minutes games teaching lesson in improving the flexibility level of 6 year old preschool boys (M = 5.92, SD = 0.27) in a preschool in Malaysia. Fifty (50) preschool boys were selected for the study based on the intact sampling…

  6. Increases in myeloperoxidase levels after exercise in myocardial perfusion scintigraphy are not induced by myocardial ischemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee, P. M.; Meuwese, M. C.; Verberne, H. J.; de Ruijter, M.; van Straalen, J. P.; Fischer, J. C.; Sturk, A.; van Eck-Smit, B. L. F.; Stroes, E. S. G.; de Winter, R. J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Increased systemic levels of myeloperoxidase (MPO) have been reported in patients with acute myocardial ischemia. We studied the association between exercise-induced myocardial ischemia measured by myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) and the magnitude and time course of changes in

  7. Stability Ball Sitting versus Chair Sitting During Sub-maximal Arm Ergometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Charles R C; Hylland, Kristina E; Terrell, Jacob

    It was predicted that sitting on a stability ball during arm ergometry would elevate cardiovascular parameters when compared to sitting on a chair and that this would be associated with greater recruitment of trunk and leg skeletal muscles. Open-circuit spirometry, videotaping, blood pressure, heart rate, and EMG were conducted during rest and four minute stages of 15 W, 30 W, and 45 W using a Monark arm ergometer. Twenty-six apparently healthy adults exercised twice, once sitting on a stability ball and the other sitting on a chair (order randomized), with 45 to 60 minutes of rest between. ANOVA for repeated measures and paired-t testing were used for analysis. Oxygen consumption was significantly 10 to 16% higher during exercise while sitting on the stability ball. There were no significant differences between sitting modes for heart rate, SBP, and DBP. Also, resting and exercise rectus femoris and 45 W external oblique EMGs were significantly higher on the stability ball. Finally, the knee was significantly more extended with the feet farther apart and more forward on the stability ball. The stability ball significantly elevates oxygen consumption during sub-maximal arm cranking without significantly increasing heart rate or blood pressure and this is associated with increased thigh muscle activation and lower leg repositioning.

  8. Review and analysis of physical exercise at hormonal and brain level, and its influence on appetite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Escribano, Laura; Gálvez Casas, Arancha; Escribá Fernández-Marcote, Antonio R; Tárraga López, Pedro; Tárraga Marcos, Loreto

    Due to the currently growing rate of obesity, it is important to maintain good control of food intake. The main purpose of the present study is to determine the influence of physical exercise on appetite, changes in hormone concentrations, and changes in certain neuronal regions. To achieve this, a literature search was conducted using different data bases. The results show how exercise produces changes in the appetite perception, in the amount of energy intake, and in different weight-control related hormones, as well as in specific neuronal responses. In conclusion, it can be shown that exercise leads to changes in appetite, hunger, and energy intake. In addition, exercise decreases the ghrelin levels and increases concentrations of leptin. Likewise, it is shown how physical exercise alters the responses of certain neuronal regions after visualizing specific food elements decreasing so the appetite or the intake of them. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Substrate utilization in sea level residents during exercise in acute hypoxia and after 4 weeks of acclimatization to 4100 m

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby, C; Van Hall, Gerrit

    2002-01-01

    To investigate the effect of acclimatization to hypoxia on substrate utilization, eight sea level residents were studied during exercise at the same relative (rel) and absolute (abs) work rate as at sea level (SL), under acute (AH), and after 4 weeks exposure to 4100 m altitude (CH). Carbohydrate...... (CHO) and fat oxidation during exercise at SL were 2.0 +/- 0.2 and 0.3 +/- 0.0 g min(-1), respectively. At AHabs and CHabs CHO oxidation increased (P Exercise...

  10. THE VALIDITY OF SUBMAXIMAL RATINGS OF PERCEIVED EXERTION TO PREDICT ONE REPETITION MAXIMUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harrison James Llewelyn Evans

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The One Repetition Maximum (1-RM test is commonly used to assess strength. However, direct assessments of 1-RM are time consuming and unsafe for novice lifters. Whilst various equations exist to predict 1-RM, there is limited research on the validity of these equations. The purpose of this study was to assess the validity of using sub-maximal ratings of perceived exertion (RPE to predict 1-RM in young adults, using the Borg 6-20 RPE Scale. Twenty healthy participants (ten male (Mean ± SD, 20.8 ± 0.6 y, 75.7 ± 9.3 kg, 1.8 ± 0.07 m and ten female (20.3 ± 0.7 y, 68.4 ± 10.0 kg, 1.68 ± 0.03 m completed two trials involving resistance exercises for both the upper and lower body. In the first trial the 1-RM for the bilateral biceps curl (BC and the bilateral knee extension (KE were determined for each participant. In the second trial, participants performed blinded repetitions which were equivalent to 20, 40 and 60 % of 1-RM for both exercises. The RPE was recorded immediately after two repetitions had been completed at each intensity. The order of intensity of the repetitions was randomly assigned with participants wearing blindfolds to exclude the possibility of pre-determined judgments about load and RPE. Individual RPE recorded at each intensity was subjected to linear regression analysis and the line of best fit was extrapolated to RPE 20 to predict 1-RM in both exercises. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05 between the 1-RM predicted from RPE 20 and measured 1-RM for both exercises for the men and women. Measured and predicted values for men were 46.0 ± 4.6 and 45.2 ± 6. 1 kg for biceps curl, and 46.3 ± 3.8 and 43.0 ± 7.1 kg for knee extension, respectively. Measured and predicted values for women were 18.6 ± 5.7 and 19.3 ± 5.6 kg for biceps curl, and 25.5 ± 9.6 and 27.2 ± 12.6 kg for knee extension, respectively. Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients between actual and predicted 1-RM for the BC and KE were 0

  11. Physical exercise during adolescence versus adulthood: differential effects on object recognition memory and brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, M E; Nitecki, R; Bucci, D J

    2011-10-27

    It is well established that physical exercise can enhance hippocampal-dependent forms of learning and memory in laboratory animals, commensurate with increases in hippocampal neural plasticity (brain-derived neurotrophic factor [BDNF] mRNA/protein, neurogenesis, long-term potentiation [LTP]). However, very little is known about the effects of exercise on other, non-spatial forms of learning and memory. In addition, there has been little investigation of the duration of the effects of exercise on behavior or plasticity. Likewise, few studies have compared the effects of exercising during adulthood versus adolescence. This is particularly important since exercise may capitalize on the peak of neural plasticity observed during adolescence, resulting in a different pattern of behavioral and neurobiological effects. The present study addressed these gaps in the literature by comparing the effects of 4 weeks of voluntary exercise (wheel running) during adulthood or adolescence on novel object recognition and BDNF levels in the perirhinal cortex (PER) and hippocampus (HP). Exercising during adulthood improved object recognition memory when rats were tested immediately after 4 weeks of exercise, an effect that was accompanied by increased BDNF levels in PER and HP. When rats were tested again 2 weeks after exercise ended, the effects of exercise on recognition memory and BDNF levels were no longer present. Exercising during adolescence had a very different pattern of effects. First, both exercising and non-exercising rats could discriminate between novel and familiar objects immediately after the exercise regimen ended; furthermore there was no group difference in BDNF levels. Two or four weeks later, however, rats that had previously exercised as adolescents could still discriminate between novel and familiar objects, while non-exercising rats could not. Moreover, the formerly exercising rats exhibited higher levels of BDNF in PER compared to HP, while the reverse was

  12. Attenuation of alcohol withdrawal syndrome and blood cortisol level with forced exercise in comparison with diazepam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motaghinejad, Majid; Bangash, Mohammad Yasan; Motaghinejad, Ozra

    2015-01-01

    Relieving withdrawal and post-abstinence syndrome of alcoholism is one of the major strategies in the treatment of alcohol addicted patients. Diazepam, chlordiazepoxide, and topiramate are the approved medications that were used for this object. To assess the role of non-pharmacologic therapy in the management of alcohol withdrawal syndrome, we analyzed effects of forced exercise by treadmill on alcohol dependent mice as an animal model. A total of 60 adult male mice were divided into 5 groups, from which 4 groups became dependent to alcohol (2 g/kg/day) for 15 days. From day 16, treatment groups were treated by diazepam (0.5mg/kg), forced exercise, and diazepam (0.5 mg/kg) concurrent with forced exercise for two weeks; And the positive control group received same dose of alcohol (2 g/kg/day) for two weeks. The negative control group received normal saline for four weeks. Finally, on day 31, all animals were observed for withdrawal signs, and Alcohol Total Withdrawal Score (ATWS) was determined. Blood cortisol levels were measured in non-fasting situations as well. Present findings showed that ATWS significantly decrease in all treatment groups in comparison with positive control group (Pdiazepam and treated by forced exercise and Pdiazepam + forced exercise). Moreover, blood cortisol level significantly decreased in all treatment groups (P<0.001). This study suggested that forced exercise and physical activity can be useful as adjunct therapy in alcoholism and can ameliorate side effects and stress situation of withdrawal syndrome periods.

  13. VO2 kinetics of constant-load exercise following bed-rest-induced deconditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convertino, V. A.; Goldwater, D. J.; Sandler, H.

    1984-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the oxygen uptake kinetics during exercise and recovery may be changed by alterations in work intensity, prior exercise, muscle group involvement, ambient conditions, posture, disease state, and level of physical conditioning. However, the effects of detraining on oxygen uptake kinetics have not been determined. The present investigation has the objective to determine the effects of deconditioning following seven days of continuous head-down bed rest on changes in steady-state oxygen uptake, O2 deficit, and recovery oxygen uptake during the performance of constant-load exercise. The obtained results may provide support for previous proposals that submaximal oxygen uptake was significantly reduced following bed rest. The major finding was that bed-rest deconditioning resulted in a reduction of total O2 transport/utilization capacity during the transient phase of upright but not supine exercise.

  14. The impact of brief high-intensity exercise on blood glucose levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adams OP

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O Peter AdamsFaculty of Medical Sciences, the University of the West Indies, Cave Hill Campus, St Michael, BarbadosBackground: Moderate-intensity exercise improves blood glucose (BG, but most people fail to achieve the required exercise volume. High-intensity exercise (HIE protocols vary. Maximal cycle ergometer sprint interval training typically requires only 2.5 minutes of HIE and a total training time commitment (including rest and warm up of 25 minutes per session. The effect of brief high-intensity exercise on blood glucose levels of people with and without diabetes is reviewed.Methods: HIE (≥80% maximal oxygen uptake, VO2max studies with ≤15 minutes HIE per session were reviewed.Results: Six studies of nondiabetics (51 males, 14 females requiring 7.5 to 20 minutes/week of HIE are reviewed. Two weeks of sprint interval training increased insulin sensitivity up to 3 days postintervention. Twelve weeks near maximal interval running (total exercise time 40 minutes/week improved BG to a similar extent as running at 65% VO2max for 150 minutes/week. Eight studies of diabetics (41 type 1 and 22 type 2 subjects were reviewed. Six were of a single exercise session with 44 seconds to 13 minutes of HIE, and the others were 2 and 7 weeks duration with 20 and 2 minutes/week HIE, respectively. With type 1 and 2 diabetes, BG was generally higher during and up to 2 hours after HIE compared to controls. With type 1 diabetics, BG decreased from midnight to 6 AM following HIE the previous morning. With type 2 diabetes, a single session improved postprandial BG for 24 hours, while a 2-week program reduced the average BG by 13% at 48 to 72 hours after exercise and also increased GLUT4 by 369%.Conclusion: Very brief HIE improves BG 1 to 3 days postexercise in both diabetics and nondiabetics. HIE is unlikely to cause hypoglycemia during and immediately after exercise. Larger and longer randomized studies are needed to determine the safety, acceptability, long

  15. The effects of relaxation exercises on anxiety levels in psychiatric inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, S

    1996-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of relaxation exercises on anxiety levels in an inpatient general psychiatric unit. The conceptual framework used was holism. A convenience sample of 39 subjects was studied. Anxiety levels were measured prior to and post interventions with the state portion of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Progressive muscle relaxation, meditative breathing, guided imagery, and soft music were employed to promote relaxation. A significant reduction in anxiety level was obtained on the post-test. The findings of this study can be incorporated by holistic nurses to help reduce anxiety levels of general psychiatric inpatients by using relaxation interventions.

  16. Basal and exercise-induced neuroendocrine activation in patients with heart failure and in normal subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Andreas; Appel, Jon; Hildebrandt, Per

    2004-01-01

    : Twenty-three newly-diagnosed CHF patients and 18 age- and gender-matched healthy subjects were exercised at two workloads, which were calculated to correspond to 50 and 75% of each individual's heart rate response. RESULTS: In CHF patients, baseline levels of ANP, BNP, AVP, PRA and ET-1 were elevated...... compared to healthy subjects. Exercise induced an increase in ANP, A and NA in both CHF patients and in normal subjects, however BNP was only increased in CHF patients and not in normal subjects. CONCLUSION: When CHF patients exercise at the same relative and submaximal level as age-matched healthy...... subjects, the relative increases in ANP, A and NA were similar, however, BNP levels only increased in the CHF group....

  17. Exercise as a vital sign: a quasi-experimental analysis of a health system intervention to collect patient-reported exercise levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Richard W; Schmittdiel, Julie A; Neugebauer, Romain S; Uratsu, Connie S; Sternfeld, Barbara

    2014-02-01

    Lack of regular physical activity is highly prevalent in U.S. adults and significantly increases mortality risk. To examine the clinical impact of a newly implemented program ("Exercise as a Vital Sign" [EVS]) designed to systematically ascertain patient-reported exercise levels at the beginning of each outpatient visit. The EVS program was implemented in four of 11 medical centers between April 2010 and October 2011 within a single health delivery system (Kaiser Permanente Northern California). We used a quasi-experimental analysis approach to compare visit-level and patient-level outcomes among practices with and without the EVS program. Our longitudinal observational cohort included over 1.5 million visits by 696,267 adults to 1,196 primary care providers. Exercise documentation in physician progress notes; lifestyle-related referrals (e.g. exercise programs, nutrition and weight loss consultation); patient report of physician exercise counseling; weight change among overweight/obese patients; and HbA1c changes among patients with diabetes. EVS implementation was associated with greater exercise-related progress note documentation (26.2 % vs 23.7 % of visits, aOR 1.12 [95 % CI: 1.11-1.13], p exercise counseling (88 % vs. 76 %, p  7.0 % (n = 30,487) had greater relative HbA1c decline (0.1 % [0.07 %-0.13 %], p exercise information during outpatient visits is associated with small but significant changes in exercise-related clinical processes and outcomes, and represents a valuable first step towards addressing the problem of inadequate physical activity.

  18. Physiologic considerations for exercise performance in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charkoudian, Nisha; Joyner, Michael J

    2004-06-01

    Women exhibit several anatomic and physiologic characteristics that distinguish their responses to exercise from those of men. Women are smaller than men, have less muscle mass, and more fat mass for a given body size. Blood volume, stroke volume, and cardiac output are all lower in women than in men. These and other factors contribute to lower maximal aerobic power (even for similar training status) in women. The reproductive hormones, estrogen and progesterone, can influence ventilation, substrate metabolism, and thermoregulation during exercise. Women have a greater tendency for EIAH, which can limit VO2max as well as submaximal exercise performance at higher intensities. Women tend to use a greater percentage of fats during exercise, but also rely on CHOs. Thermoregulatory control is altered significantly over the course of the menstrual cycle by fluctuations in circulating levels of progesterone and estrogen. It is important for women to include regular exercise in their daily routines, particularly because regular physical activity has been implicated in the prevention of osteoporosis, breast cancer, heart disease, and depression.

  19. A new submaximal cycle ergometer test for prediction of VO2max.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekblom-Bak, E; Björkman, F; Hellenius, M-L; Ekblom, B

    2014-04-01

    Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) is an important, independent predictor of cardiovascular health and mortality. Despite this, it is rarely measured in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to create and evaluate a submaximal cycle ergometry test based on change in heart rate (HR) between a lower standard work rate and an individually chosen higher work rate. In a mixed population (n = 143) with regard to sex (55% women), age (21-65 years), and activity status (inactive to highly active), a model included change in HR per unit change in power, sex, and age for the best estimate of VO2max. The association between estimated and observed VO2max for the mixed sample was r = 0.91, standard error of estimate = 0.302 L/min, and mean measured VO2max = 3.23 L/min. The corresponding coefficient of variation was 9.3%, a significantly improved precision compared with one of the most commonly used submaximal exercise tests, the Åstrand test, which in the present study was estimated to be 18.1%. Test-retest reliability analysis over 1 week revealed no mean difference in the estimated VO2max (-0.02 L/min, 95% confidence interval: -0.07-0.03). The new test is low-risk, easily administered, and valid for a wide capacity range, and is therefore suitable in situations as health evaluations in the general population. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Middle cerebral artery blood velocity and plasma catecholamines during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pott, F; Jensen, K; Hansen, H

    1996-01-01

    During dynamic exercise, mean blood velocity (Vmean) in the middle cerebral artery (MCA) demonstrates a graded increase to work rate and reflects regional cerebral blood flow. At a high work rate, however, vasoactive levels of plasma catecholamines could mediate vasoconstriction of the MCA...... and thereby elevate Vmean at a given volume flow. To evaluate transcranial Doppler-determined Vmean at high plasma catecholamine levels, seven elite cyclists performed a maximal performance test on a bicycle ergometer. Results were compared with those elicited during five incremental exercise bouts and during...... rhythmic handgrip when plasma catecholamines are low. During rhythmic handgrip the Vmean was elevated by 21 +/- 3% (mean +/- SE), which was not statistically different from that established during moderate cycling. However, at the highest submaximal and maximal work intensities on the bicycle ergometer...

  1. Single dose of intra-muscular platelet rich plasma reverses the increase in plasma iron levels in exercise-induced muscle damage: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zekine Punduk

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: Acute exhaustive exercise increased muscle damage markers, including plasma iron, IBC, and ferritin levels, indicating muscle damage induced by exercise. PRP administration improves inflammation by reversing the increase in the iron levels post-exercise without displaying any myotoxicity and may have a role to play in the recovery of exercise-induced muscle damage.

  2. Cold exposure increases exercise-induced oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martarelli, D; Cocchioni, M; Scuri, S; Spataro, A; Pompei, P

    2011-06-01

    We determined the combined effects of cold and exercise on oxidative stress during submaximal exercise. Sixteen amateur male cyclists pedaled at a constant speed corresponding to 85% of maximal HR as determined in normal conditions. Eight athletes pedaled indoors at 23 °C while 8 athletes pedaled outdoors at a temperature of 4-6 °C. We then evaluated the levels of reactive oxygen metabolites and plasma levels of antioxidants after exercise. Performing a physical task in cold conditions increased the free radical production, as demonstrated by the augmented levels of reactive oxygen metabolites and the concomitant decrease of plasma levels of antioxidants in outdoors cyclists as compared to indoors cyclists. The overall ANOVA and the post-hoc comparisons revealed a significant exercise and temperature effect. The mean level of reactive oxygen metabolites in athletes who exercised indoors was significantly lower than that of the outdoor athletes. Moreover, the outdoors group presented plasma levels of antioxidants significantly lower than those of the indoors group. Since several sports are performed outdoors during the winter season, the increased risk of oxidative stress in cold conditions must be considered in these disciplines. Cyclists, football and rugby players, and runners are all affected by the elevation in oxygen radicals induced by cold and should take appropriate precautions, such as specific antioxidant integration.

  3. Effect of low glycemic index food and postprandial exercise on blood glucose level, oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity

    OpenAIRE

    糟谷, 憲明; 太田, 昌一郎; 髙波, 嘉一; Kawai, Yukari; 井上, 裕; 村田, 勇; 金本, 郁男

    2015-01-01

    Low glycemic index (GI) food and postprandial exercise are non-drug therapies for improving postprandial hyperglycemia. The present randomized, crossover study investigated the effect of low GI food combined with postprandial exercise on postprandial blood glucose level, oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity. A total of 13 healthy subjects were each used in four experiments: i) rice only (control), ii) salad prior to rice (LGI), iii) exercise following rice (EX) and iv) salad prior to ric...

  4. Cardiovascular responses in older adults with total knee arthroplasty at rest and with exercise on a positive pressure treadmill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Sandra C; Horvey, Karla J; Yurach Pikaluk, Madison T; Butcher, Scott J

    2014-03-01

    We investigated cardiovascular responses at rest and during submaximal exercise on a lower body positive pressure treadmill in older adults with total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Twenty-four adults (mean age 64.6 ± 7.9 SD) with unilateral TKA participated (median time since surgery 8.0 weeks). Heart rate and blood pressure responses were measured at rest standing on the positive pressure treadmill with 0, 10, 20, and 30 mmHg applied. Heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen consumption, minute ventilation, knee pain and perceived exertion were measured during submaximal exercise tests (0 and 40% body weight support) conducted 1 week apart. At rest there were no differences in blood pressure across different treadmill pressures, but heart rate was significantly lower when 30 mmHg was applied compared to ambient pressure conditions (P exercise test stages with 0% body weight support (maximum speed 2.5 mph, 0% incline) and 6.4 stages with 40% body weight support (maximum speed 3.0 mph, 10% incline). During exercise, heart rate, systolic blood pressure, oxygen consumption, and minute ventilation were lower when 40% body weight support was provided for a given test stage (P exercise test stages (P < 0.05). Provision of body weight support allowed TKA patients to walk at faster speeds and/or to tolerate greater incline with relatively lower levels of heart rate, blood pressure, and oxygen consumption.

  5. Exercise-induced changes in circulating levels of transforming growth factor-beta-1 in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinemeier, Katja; Langberg, Henning; Kjaer, Michael

    2003-01-01

    eight healthy resting subjects. Plasma was sampled from each subject on five successive days according to a procedure designed to minimize activation of platelets, as platelet alpha-granules contain large amounts of transforming growth factor-beta-1. The mean plasma level was relatively low [1155 (30......Mechanical loading of cells induces the expression of transforming growth factor-beta-1, and acute exercise, which involves mechanical loading of several tissues, could thus increase its circulating level in humans. However, no consensus exists regarding the plasma concentration of this cytokine...... in resting subjects (reported values range from 500 to 18,300 pg ml(-1)) and also the extent of intra-individual variation is unknown. As a basis for detecting exercise-induced changes in transforming growth factor-beta-1, we measured its concentration, by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, in plasma from...

  6. Isokinetic performance capacity of trunk muscles. Part II: Coefficient of variation in isokinetic measurement in maximal effort and in submaximal effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luoto, S; Hupli, M; Alaranta, H; Hurri, H

    1996-12-01

    It has been claimed that with the aid of isokinetic trunk strength measuring devices it is possible to distinguish true muscular weakness from submaximal effort in the test. This proposition is based on the presumption that in the isokinetic trunk strength test identical performances can only be reproduced by maximal effort. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether it is possible to distinguish maximal effort from submaximal with the aid of the coefficient of variation (CV) in an isokinetic trunk muscle strength test. The study group included 35 (21 male and 14 female) subjects of whom 12 were healthy, 10 had a mild low-back pain and 13 had a more severe chronic low-back pain. The subjects performed five consecutive bendings both with maximal (100%) and submaximal (50%) efforts at a speed of 90 degrees/second. In maximal effort only healthy subjects reached an average level of CV close to 10% both in extension and in flexion. In the chronic low-back pain group the average CV was close to 20%. The difference in CV was statistically significant (p < 0.05-0.02) between the healthy and the chronic low-back pain subjects. In the submaximal effort all health groups had a CV of approximately 20% or more and no significant differences were found. The group of slightly variable measurements (CV = 11-20%) was remarkably large in both the maximal and submaximal effort. The results suggest that an effort with a CV of 11-20% cannot be classified as definitely submaximal or maximal. When the CV is less than 10% the effort can be fairly certainly classified as maximal.

  7. DIFFERENT CIRCULATING BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR RESPONSES TO ACUTE EXERCISE BETWEEN PHYSICALLY ACTIVE AND SEDENTARY SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Nofuji

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Although circulating brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF level is affected by both acute and chronic physical activity, the interaction of acute and chronic physical activity was still unclear. In this study, we compared the serum and plasma BDNF responses to maximal and submaximal acute exercises between physically active and sedentary subjects. Eight active and 8 sedentary female subjects participated in the present study. Both groups performed 3 exercise tests with different intensities, i.e. 100% (maximal, 60% (moderate and 40% (low of their peak oxygen uptake. In each exercise test, blood samples were taken at the baseline and immediately, 30 and 60 min after the test. The serum BDNF concentration was found to significantly increase immediately after maximal and moderate exercise tests in both groups. In maximal exercise test, the pattern of change in the serum BDNF concentration was different between the groups. While the serum BDNF level for the sedentary group returned to the baseline level during the recovery phase, the BDNF levels for the active group decreased below the baseline level after the maximal exercise test. No group differences were observed in the pattern of plasma BDNF change for all exercise tests. These findings suggest that regular exercise facilitates the utilization of circulating BDNF during and/or after acute exercise with maximal intensity

  8. Exercise training normalizes skeletal muscle vascular endothelial growth factor levels in patients with essential hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ane Håkansson; Nielsen, Jens Jung; Saltin, Bengt

    2010-01-01

    METHODS: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) protein and capillarization were determined in muscle vastus lateralis biopsy samples in individuals with essential hypertension (n = 10) and normotensive controls (n = 10). The hypertensive individuals performed exercise training for 16 weeks......: Prior to training, the hypertensive individuals had 36% lower levels of VEGF protein and 22% lower capillary density in the muscle compared to controls. Training in the hypertensive group reduced (P

  9. The evaluation of BMI and serum beta-endorphin levels: the study of acute exercise intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinaei, M; Kargarfard, M

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare BMI and the effects of a session of acute exercise on serum beta-endorphin levels among the sprint swimmers and runners. In a semi-experimental study, 15 healthy skilled male swimmers (mean and SD of age: 21.64 ± 2.35, weight: 75.25 ± 9.81 kg, height: 180.31 ± 4.75 cm), and 14 healthy skilled runners (age: 21.38 ± 2.76, weight: 69.78 ± 6.86 kg, height: 182.21 ± 5.22 cm), purposefully and voluntarily participated in this study. Venous blood samples of the subjects were taken in three stages 1) basic conditions; 2) immediately after each field of specialized training, with an intensity equal to 80-85% VO(2max) 30 minutes after exercise in the fasting state. Data was analyzed using with repeated measures (ANOVA). The body composition and anthropometric variables assessed in the study were not significantly different between the 2 groups, except BMI, which was significant (Pdifferences between levels of beta-endorphin of male sprint runners and swimmers in the three periods before, immediately after and 30 minutes after exercise (P ≤ 0. 05). The results showed that Increased fat storage may underlie the higher BMI observed in swimmers compared to runners and B-Endorphin Serum Levels was in swimmers more than runners and an acute exercise session significantly increases the levels of beta-endorphin serum hormone in sprint swimmers and runners.

  10. The effect of physical exercise on postpartum fitness, hormone and lipid levels: a randomized controlled trial in primiparous, lactating women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zourladani, A; Zafrakas, M; Chatzigiannis, B; Papasozomenou, P; Vavilis, D; Matziari, C

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate the effect of an exercise training program combining low-impact dance aerobic, resistance and stretching exercise on physical fitness, hormone and lipid levels of postpartum, primiparous, lactating women. Thirty seven primiparous, lactating women were randomly assigned at 4-6 weeks postpartum to either follow an exercise training program of 50-60 min aerobic, strengthening and stretching exercise, 3 days a week, for 12 weeks (interventional group; n = 20) or no training program at all (control group; n = 17). The following parameters were measured at baseline and 12 weeks later: (1) for evaluation of physical fitness: VO2max, muscular endurance, joint mobility and body fat; (2) for evaluation of the lipidemic profile: triglyceride, total cholesterol, HDL and LDL levels, and (3) levels of hormones associated with lactation: prolactin, estradiol, cortisol, TSH, fT3 and fT4. After completion of the exercise training program, comparisons between the interventional and the control group showed statistically significant mean changes in VO2max (p = 0.003), muscular endurance of the upper extremities (p impact exercise training program appears to improve physical fitness of postpartum women, while it does not seem to affect lipid levels and lactation-associated hormone levels. Hence, implementation of an exercise training program combining low-impact dance aerobic, resistance and stretching exercise is feasible in postpartum, primiparous, lactating women.

  11. Effects of exercise on depressive behavior and striatal levels of norepinephrine, serotonin and their metabolites in sleep-deprived mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniele, Thiago Medeiros da Costa; de Bruin, Pedro Felipe Carvalhedo; Rios, Emiliano Ricardo Vasconcelos; de Bruin, Veralice Meireles Sales

    2017-08-14

    Exercise is a promising adjunctive therapy for depressive behavior, sleep/wake abnormalities, cognition and motor dysfunction. Conversely, sleep deprivation impairs mood, cognition and functional performance. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of exercise on anxiety and depressive behavior and striatal levels of norepinephrine (NE), serotonin and its metabolites in mice submitted to 6h of total sleep deprivation (6h-TSD) and 72h of Rapid Eye Movement (REM) sleep deprivation (72h-REMSD). Experimental groups were: (1) mice submitted to 6h-TSD by gentle handling; (2) mice submitted to 72h-REMSD by the flower pot method; (3) exercise (treadmill for 8 weeks); (4) exercise followed by 6h-TSD; (5) exercise followed by 72h-REMSD; (6) control (home cage). Behavioral tests included the Elevated Plus Maze and tail-suspension. NE, serotonin and its metabolites were determined in the striatum using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Sleep deprivation increased depressive behavior (time of immobilization in the tail-suspension test) and previous exercise hindered it. Sleep deprivation increased striatal NE and previous exercise reduced it. Exercise only was associated with higher levels of serotonin. Furthermore, exercise reduced serotonin turnover associated with sleep deprivation. In brief, previous exercise prevented depressive behavior and reduced striatal high NE levels and serotonin turnover. The present findings confirm the effects of exercise on behavior and neurochemical alterations associated with sleep deprivation. These findings provide new avenues for understanding the mechanisms of exercise. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Heart rate variability and blood pressure during dynamic and static exercise at similar heart rate levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weippert, Matthias; Behrens, Kristin; Rieger, Annika; Stoll, Regina; Kreuzfeld, Steffi

    2013-01-01

    Aim was to elucidate autonomic responses to dynamic and static (isometric) exercise of the lower limbs eliciting the same moderate heart rate (HR) response. 23 males performed two kinds of voluntary exercise in a supine position at similar heart rates: static exercise (SE) of the lower limbs (static leg press) and dynamic exercise (DE) of the lower limbs (cycling). Subjective effort, systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), rate pressure product (RPP) and the time between consecutive heart beats (RR-intervals) were measured. Time-domain (SDNN, RMSSD), frequency-domain (power in the low and high frequency band (LFP, HFP)) and geometric measures (SD1, SD2) as well as non-linear measures of regularity (approximate entropy (ApEn), sample entropy (SampEn) and correlation dimension D2) were calculated. Although HR was similar during both exercise conditions (88±10 bpm), subjective effort, SBP, DBP, MAP and RPP were significantly enhanced during SE. HRV indicators representing overall variability (SDNN, SD 2) and vagal modulated variability (RMSSD, HFP, SD 1) were increased. LFP, thought to be modulated by both autonomic branches, tended to be higher during SE. ApEn and SampEn were decreased whereas D2 was enhanced during SE. It can be concluded that autonomic control processes during SE and DE were qualitatively different despite similar heart rate levels. The differences were reflected by blood pressure and HRV indices. HRV-measures indicated a stronger vagal cardiac activity during SE, while blood pressure response indicated a stronger sympathetic efferent activity to the vessels. The elevated vagal cardiac activity during SE might be a response mechanism, compensating a possible co-activation of sympathetic cardiac efferents, as HR and LF/HF was similar and LFP tended to be higher. However, this conclusion must be drawn cautiously as there is no HRV-marker reflecting "pure" sympathetic cardiac activity.

  13. Effect of aerobic exercise on blood lipid levels in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martiem Mawi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available High blood total cholesterol (TC, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and triglycerides (TG, and low concentrations of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C are related to risk for coronary heart disease (CHD development. Growing evidence indicates that physical exercise can prevent at least some of the negative effects on health associated with post. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of regular aerobic exercise for 12 weeks on the levels of total cholesterol (TC, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, and triglycerides. An experimental study was conducted comprising 62 postmenopausal women, aged 50-70 years, not on hormonal therapy, consuming a regular diet, living in East and South Jakarta, and willing to perform aerobic exercises regularly. The results of this study showed that all four lipid levels differed significantly between the control group and the intervention group, the respective mean levels ± SD for TC being 228.0 ± 39.7 mg/dL vs. 171.6 ± 18.4 mg/dL, (p = 0.000; for LDL-C 149.0 ± 36.9 mg/dL vs. 97.7 ± 17.8 mg/dL, (p = 0.000; for HDL-C 50.9 ± 3.9 mg/dL vs. 71.5 ± 6.7 mg/dL, (p = 0.000; and for triglycerides 150.5 ± 67.5 mg/dL vs. 95.0 ± 37.8 mg/dL (p = 0.000. Thus practitioners recommending exercise for coronary artery disease risk reduction in postmenopausal women.

  14. Effect of aerobic exercise on blood lipid levels in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martiem Mawi

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available High blood total cholesterol (TC, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and triglycerides (TG, and low concentrations of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C are related to risk for coronary heart disease (CHD development. Growing evidence indicates that physical exercise can prevent at least some of the negative effects on health associated with post. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of regular aerobic exercise for 12 weeks on the levels of total cholesterol (TC, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, and triglycerides. An experimental study was conducted comprising 62 postmenopausal women, aged 50-70 years, not on hormonal therapy, consuming a regular diet, living in East and South Jakarta, and willing to perform aerobic exercises regularly. The results of this study showed that all four lipid levels differed significantly between the control group and the intervention group, the respective mean levels ± SD for TC being 228.0 ± 39.7 mg/dL vs. 171.6 ± 18.4 mg/dL, (p = 0.000; for LDL-C 149.0 ± 36.9 mg/dL vs. 97.7 ± 17.8 mg/dL, (p = 0.000; for HDL-C 50.9 ± 3.9 mg/dL vs. 71.5 ± 6.7 mg/dL, (p = 0.000; and for triglycerides 150.5 ± 67.5 mg/dL vs. 95.0 ± 37.8 mg/dL (p = 0.000. Thus practitioners recommending exercise for coronary artery disease risk reduction in postmenopausal women.

  15. The Effect of Eccentric Exercise on Total Anti-Oxidant Capacity, Reduced Glutathione and Malondialdehyde Levels in Active Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sekineh Norouziyan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although exercise can increase free radicals by generating oxidative stress, it also can decrease them by increasing the antioxidant enzymes in the body as well. The purpose of this study is to investigate the eccentric activity on some oxidative and anti-oxidative factors pertaining to blood plasma of PE women immediately after the exercise. Materials and Methods: Sixteen female students have been volunteered in this study randomly divided into two groups including eccentric training group and control group. The blood samples were drawn from the subjects one hour before and immediately after the exercise to measure the reduced Glutathione (GSH, Malondialdehyde (MDA and total anti-oxidant capacity (TAC levels. The data were analyzed by SPSS-13 software using the one-way analysis of variance, one-way ANOVA test, (to determine the differences between groups at the confidence level of 90% (p<0.05. Results: The results has shown that the TAC, MDA, GSH levels after the eccentric exercise increased significantly compared to pre-exercise (p=0.001, p=0.001, p=0.033. The GSH and MDA levels also after the eccentric exercise were significantly higher than the pre-exercise compared to control group. Conclusion: It seems that sever eccentric exercise is an important stimulus making significant changes in body’s anti-oxidative system and has the ability to improve the anti-oxidant capacities too.

  16. Individual assessment of intensity-level for exercise training in patients with coronary artery disease is necessary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwland, W; Berkhuysen, MA; Van Veldhuisen, DJ; Rispens, P

    Background: Target intensity-level of exercise training in patients with coronary artery disease is adjusted usually by a target heart rate (THR). This THR is aimed to be at or nearby the anaerobic threshold (AT) and is calculated commonly from parameters of regular exercise training, instead of an

  17. A comparison of pain level and entropy changes following core stability exercise intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Taero; Kim, Yoon Hyuk; Sung, Paul S

    2011-07-01

    As reported in our previous studies, the complexity of physiologic time series is a sensitive measure of muscle fatigability. This study compared the differences between 2 different analyses following 4 weeks of core stability exercises (CSE) in subjects with and without chronic low back pain (LBP). We examined whether the observed Shannon (information) entropy, as compared with median frequency (MF), was able to differentiate fatigability of the thoracic and lumbar parts of the erector spinae (ES) muscles following the intervention. In total, 32 subjects participated in this study. There were 13 subjects in the CSE intervention group (average age 50.4 ± 9.1 years) and 19 subjects in the control group (average age 46.6 ± 9.1 years). The CSE group performed the specific exercise intervention, but the control group was asked to maintain their current activity and/or exercise levels. The endurance of the back muscles was determined by using a modified version of the isometric fatigue test as originally introduced by Sorensen. Pain level decreased significantly for all subjects (F=25.29, p=0.001), but there was no difference between groups (F=0.42, p=0.52). The MF was not different between groups following treatment (F=0.81, p=0.37). Although there was no entropy level changes following treatment (F=0.01, p=0.93), the interactions between muscles and groups following treatment were significant (F=7.25, p=0.01). The entropy level decreased in both thoracic ES muscles following intervention in the exercise group, while remaining the same in the control group. Although the change in pain level was not different between groups, the Shannon entropy measure more sensitively differentiated the exercise intervention than did MF. In addition, the results also suggested that complexity is related to muscle fatigue, which corresponds to the values of entropy between groups. Further studies are needed to investigate the effectiveness of nonlinear time series of EMG data for

  18. Ventricular-Arterial Coupling and Exercise-Induced Pulmonary Hypertension During Low-Level Exercise in Heart Failure With Preserved or Reduced Ejection Fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obokata, Masaru; Nagata, Yasufumi; Kado, Yuichiro; Kurabayashi, Masahiko; Otsuji, Yutaka; Takeuchi, Masaaki

    2017-03-01

    Exercise-induced pulmonary hypertension (EIPH) may develop even at low workloads in heart failure (HF) patients. Ventricular-arterial stiffening plays an important role in the pathophysiology of HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). This study aimed to compare the response of ventricular-arterial coupling and PH during low-level exercise between HFpEF and HF with reduced EF (HFrEF). Echocardiography was performed at rest and during 10 W of bicycle exercise in HFpEF (n = 37) and HFrEF (n = 43). Load-independent contractility (end-systolic elastance [Ees], preload recruitable stroke work [PRSW], and peak power index [PWRI]), arterial afterload (arterial elastance [Ea]), and ventricular-arterial interaction (Ea/Ees) were measured with the use of a noninvasive single-beat technique. EIPH was defined as an estimated pulmonary arterial systolic pressure (PASP) of ≥50 mm Hg at 10 W of exercise. PASP was significantly increased during 10 W of exercise in both HF types, and ~50% of HFpEF patients developed EIPH. Arterial afterload was increased significantly during exercise in both groups. HFrEF and HFpEF patients showed a significant increase in LV contractility assessed by Ees, PRSW, and PWRI during exercise. Although Ea/Ees ratio decreased significantly in HFrEF, reduction in Ea/Ees was attenuated because of blunted Ees increases in patients with HFpEF compared with HFrEF. Even at low-level exercise, ~50% of HFpEF patients developed EIPH. Reduction in Ea/Ees was attenuated owing to less Ees increase in HFpEF compared with HFrEF. Further studies are needed to elucidate the association between ventricular-arterial coupling and EIPH in HFpEF. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The effects of an 'exercise and education' programme on exercise self-efficacy and levels of independent activity in adults with acquired neurological pathologies: an exploratory, randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haworth, Jo; Young, Carolyn; Thornton, Everard

    2009-04-01

    To evaluate the effects of an exercise and education programme on primary outcomes of exercise efficacy and activity levels; and on secondary outcomes including quality of life, mood and physical disability. Randomized, single blind trial. Specialist neurosciences centre. Forty-four patients with acquired neurological pathologies. Twenty-one participants undertook a four-week exercise and education programme alongside standard follow-up care. Twenty-three participants underwent standard follow-up care alone. Primary outcome measures included the Exercise Efficacy Scale and Human Activity Profile. Secondary outcomes were evaluated by the Short Form 36 Health Survey, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, UWIST Mood Adjective Checklist, Motricity Index, Frenchay Arm Test, Rivermead Mobility Index, 10-metre timed walk and a visual analogue scale. Data were collected at baseline and at 6, 12 and 24 weeks. At six weeks, significant improvements in exercise efficacy were found following the treatment but not the control (P= 0.001). Moderate improvements in activity levels were noted for both study groups with no between-group differences. Short Form 36 'physical health' and 'general health' domains showed trends towards increased positive change following the intervention, but these did not reach significant levels. Mood, physical impairment and physical disability remained unchanged within either study group. Longer term follow-up revealed that the improvements noted in exercise self-efficacy, activity levels and quality of life were maintained. The intervention resulted in improved exercise efficacy and may positively influence the physical and general health dimensions of health-related quality of life.

  20. Physical exercise associated with improved BMD independently of sex and vitamin D levels in young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Rune; Schwarz, Peter; Hovind, Peter Hambak

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Young men and women accrue the majority of their bone mass in their teens and twenties, where their bone mass peaks (PBM), yet little is known about the roles of physical exercise, vitamin D levels and bone mineral density (BMD) near PBM. METHODS: To comparatively examine the effect...... of physical exercise and two vitamin D levels (insufficient s-25[OH]D 80 nmol/L) on the BMD measured at the femoral neck, total hip (bilaterally) and the lumbar spine (L2-L4) in male and female participants approaching PBM. RESULTS: The insufficient s-25[OH]D group, median...... age 21.6 (19.8-22.8) years, and BMI 24.2 ± 5.0 kg/m(2) had BMD 0.10 (0.03, 0.17) g/cm(2) (p = 0.008) lower at all DXA-scan sites compared to the sufficient s-25[OH]D group, median age 19.5 (19.0-22.3) years, and BMI of 22.6 ± 1.8 kg/m(2). Exercise was positively associated with the BMD at all DXA...

  1. Anti-inflammatory effect of exercise, via reduced leptin levels, in obese women with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordoñez, Francisco J; Fornieles-Gonzalez, Gabriel; Camacho, Alejandra; Rosety, Miguel A; Rosety, Ignacio; Diaz, Antonio J; Rosety-Rodriguez, Manuel

    2013-06-01

    Recent studies have reported that obese young people with Down syndrome suffer from low-grade systemic inflammation. Whereas this condition may be improved in the general population by regular exercise, the problem has received no attention in the case of people with intellectual disability. Therefore, the authors' aim was to assess the influence of aerobic training on plasma adipokines in obese women with Down syndrome. Twenty obese young women with Down syndrome volunteered for this study, 11 of whom were randomly assigned to a 10-wk aerobic-training program. They attended 3 sessions/wk, which consisted of warm-up exercises followed by the main activity on a treadmill (30-40 min) at a work intensity of 55-65% of peak heart rate and ended with a cooling-down period. The control group included 9 women with Down syndrome matched for age, sex, and body-mass index. Fat-mass percentage and distribution were measured, and plasma adipokine levels (leptin and adiponectin) were assessed. In addition, each participant performed a maximal graded continuous treadmill exercise test. These parameters were assessed pre- and postintervention. Aerobic training produced a significant increase in participants' maximal oxygen uptake (20.2 ± 5.8 vs.23.7 ± 6.3 ml · kg-1 · min-1; p .05). None of the tested parameters changed in the control group. In conclusion, a 10-week training program reduced leptin levels in obese young women with Down syndrome.

  2. EFFECT OF EXERCISE ON LEARNING, MEMORY AND LEVELS OF EPINEPHRINE IN RATS' HIPPOCAMPUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojjatallah Alaei

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate effect of exercise on learning and memory, long-term potentiation and levels of epinephrine in the rat hippocampus. Treadmill trained (one hour at 17 m·min-1 for 10 days and corresponding control rats went through spatial learning process on a Morris water maze for 8 days. The time to reach the platform (latency, the length of swim path, and the swim speed were used for the evaluation of spatial learning. Our results showed that physical activity produced a significant enhancement in spatial learning, with a decreased path length (p<0.05 and latency (p<0.05 to the platform in Morris water maze, without affecting the swim speed. Furthermore, the levels of the epinephrine were significantly increased (p<0.05 in hippocampus of the exercised rats. In conclusion our findings suggest that the enhanced learning by exercise may be mediated through the activation of adrenoceptors in the hippocampus and epinephrine may play an important role in potentiation of learning

  3. Relationships between field performance tests in high-level soccer players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingebrigtsen, Jørgen; Brochmann, Marit; Castagna, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    In order to reduce athlete testing time, the aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1 (IR1) and 2 (IR2) test performances, maximal sprinting speed (10, 20 and 35 m), repeated sprint ability (RSA) (7x35 m), and sub-maximal heart rates...... using only one of the Yo-Yo tests and a RSA test, in a general soccer-specific field test protocol. The sub-maximal heart rate measures during Yo-Yo tests are reproducible and may be utilized for frequent, time-efficient and non-exhaustive testing of intermittent exercise capacity of high-level soccer...

  4. Swimming exercise increases serum irisin level and reduces body fat mass in high-fat-diet fed Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yun; Li, Hongwei; Shen, Shi-Wei; Shen, Zhen-Hai; Xu, Ming; Yang, Cheng-Jian; Li, Feng; Feng, Yin-Bo; Yun, Jing-Ting; Wang, Ling; Qi, Hua-Jin

    2016-05-13

    It has been shown that irisin levels are reduced in skeletal muscle and plasma of obese rats; however, the effect of exercise training on irisin level remains controversial. We aim to evaluate the association of swimming exercise with serum irisin level and other obesity-associated parameters. Forty healthy male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to 4 groups: a normal diet and sedentary group (ND group), normal diet and exercise group (NDE group), high-fat diet and sedentary group (HFD group), and high-fat diet and exercise group (HFDE group. After 8 consecutive weeks of swimming exercise, fat mass and serum irisin level was determined. Higher serum irisin levels were detected in the HFDE group (1.15 ± 0.28 μg/L) and NDE group (1.76 ± 0.17 μg/L) than in the HFD group (0.84 ± 0.23 μg/L) or the ND group (1.24 ± 0.29 μg/L), respectively (HFDE group vs. HFD group, P Swimming exercise decreases body fat mass in high-fat-fed Wistar rats, which may be attributable to elevated irisin levels induced by swimming exercise.

  5. Muscle activity levels in upper-body push exercises with different loads and stability conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calatayud, Joaquin; Borreani, Sebastien; Colado, Juan Carlos; Martin, Fernando; Rogers, Michael E

    2014-11-01

    Exercises that aim to stimulate muscular hypertrophy and increase neural drive to the muscle fibers should be used during rehabilitation. Thus, it is of interest to identify optimal exercises that efficiently achieve high muscle activation levels. The purpose of this study was to compare the muscle activation levels during push-up variations (ie, suspended push-ups with/without visual input on different suspension systems, and push-ups on the floor with/without additional elastic resistance) with the bench press exercise and the standing cable press exercise both performed at 50%, 70%, and 85% of the 1-repetition maximum. Young fit male university students (N = 29) performed 3 repetitions in all conditions under the same standardized procedures. Average amplitude of the electromyogram (EMG) root mean square for the rectus abdominis, external oblique, sternocostal head of the pectoralis major, anterior deltoid, long head of the triceps brachii, upper trapezius, anterior serratus, and posterior deltoid was recorded. The EMG signals were normalized to the maximum voluntary isometric contraction. The EMG data were analyzed with repeated-measures analysis of variance with a Bonferroni post hoc. Elastic-resisted push-ups induce similar EMG stimulus in the prime movers as the bench press at high loads while also providing a greater core challenge. Suspended push-ups are a highly effective way to stimulate abdominal muscles. Pectoralis major, anterior deltoid, and anterior serratus are highly elicited during more stable pushing conditions, whereas abdominal muscles, triceps brachii, posterior deltoid, and upper trapezius are affected in the opposite manner.

  6. Effect of Regular Exercise on Anxiety and Self-Esteem Level in College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Hamidah

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Regular exercise is often presented as an effective tool to influence the psychological aspect of a human being. Recent studies show that anxiety and self-esteem are the most important psychological aspects especially in college students. This study aimed to determine the differences of anxiety and self-esteem level between students who joined and did not join regular exercise program, Pendidikan Dasar XXI Atlas Medical Pioneer (Pendas XXI AMP, in the Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran. Methods: A cross-sectional comparative study was carried out to 64 students who joined and did not join Pendas XXI AMP. Thirty six students (12 females and 20 males who joined Pendas XXI AMP participated in aerobic and anaerobic exercise sessions lasting for 30 minutes per session, three times in 5 months. The control group was 32 students who did not join Pendas XXI AMP, with matching gender composition as the case group (12 females and 20 males. Two questionnaires, Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale questionnaire and Rosenberg’s Self-Esteem Scale questionnaire, were administered to both groups. The data were analyzed using chi-square test (α=0.05. Results: : There were statistically significant differences in anxiety level (p=0.016 and self-esteem level (p=0.039 between case and control groups. The students who joined Pendas XXI AMP have lower anxiety and higher self-esteem levels. Conclusions: Planned, structured, and repeated physical activities have a positive influence in anxiety and self-esteem levels.

  7. SPORT EXERCISE CAPACITY OF SOCCER PLAYERS AT DIFFERENT LEVELS OF PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Andrzejewski

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to compare the level of exercise capacities to the loads occurring at the lactate threshold among soccer players representing different levels of sport mastery. The research included 51 soccer players representing different levels of sport mastery. The research was conducted at the beginning of the preparatory period for the spring season. A field exercise test of increasing intensity was performed to check the players’ exercise capacities on the soccer pitch. The test enabled us to determine the 4 millimolar lactate threshold (TLA 4 mmol · l-1 on the basis of lactate concentration in blood (LA, and to define the threshold running speed and the threshold heart rate (HR. The lactate level in blood was measured using a Lactate Scout photometer with the enzyme-amperometric method from capillary blood for 20 seconds after each load. The threshold running speed at the level of the 4 millimolar lactate threshold was marked using the two-point form of the equation of a straight line. The conducted tests showed significant differentiation of the threshold running speed among individual teams. The soccer players of a leading first league club were expected to achieve the best result. The conducted tests did not confirm this assumption. Juniors reached the highest threshold running speed of 3.61 m · s-1. Lower values of the analysed indicator were acquired by players of the first league team (3.50 m · s-1 and the lowest by players of the second league team (3.28 m · s-1. Statistically significant differences were noted between the junior group and second league team (p≤ 0.01 and between the first and the second league soccer players (p<0.05.

  8. Exercise electrocardiographic responses and serum cystatin C levels among metabolic syndrome patients without overt diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanindi A

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Asli Tanindi1 Hilal Olgun1 Ayse Tuncel2 Bulent Celik3 Hatice Pasaoglu2 Bulent Boyaci11Department of Cardiology, 2Department of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, 3Department of Statistics, Faculty of Health Sciences, Gazi University, Ankara, TurkeyObjectives: An impaired heart rate response during exercise (chronotropic incompetence and an impaired heart rate recovery (HRR after exercise are predictors of cardiovascular risk and mortality. Cystatin C is a novel marker for cardiovascular disease. We aimed to investigate exercise electrocardiographic responses in patients with metabolic syndrome who were without overt diabetes mellitus, in addition to the association of serum cystatin C levels with the exercise electrocardiographic test results.Method: Forty-three consecutive patients admitted to a cardiology outpatient clinic without angina pectoris were recruited if they met criteria for metabolic syndrome but did not have overt diabetes mellitus. Serum cystatin C levels were measured, and all participants underwent exercise electrocardiographic testing. Patients who were found to have ischemia had a coronary angiography procedure.Results: The mean cystatin C level of patients was higher in metabolic syndrome group than healthy controls (610.1 ± 334.02 vs 337.3 ± 111.01 µg/L; P < 0.001. The percentage of patients with ischemia confirmed by coronary angiography was 13.9% in the metabolic syndrome group. Cystatin C levels in the ischemic patients of the metabolic syndrome group were higher than that in nonischemic patients (957.00 ± 375.6 vs 553.8 ± 295.3 µg /L; P = 0.005. Chronotropic incompetence was observed in 30.2% of the patients with metabolic syndrome compared with 16.7% in the control group (P = 0.186. Chronotropic response indices were 0.8 ± 0.18 versus 0.9 ± 0.10 for the two groups, respectively (P = 0.259. HRR was significantly lower in the metabolic syndrome patients compared with the controls (20.1 ± 8.01 vs 25.2

  9. Exercise intensity levels in children with cerebral palsy while playing with an active video game console.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Maxime; Ballaz, Laurent; Hart, Raphael; Lemay, Martin

    2013-08-01

    Children with cerebral palsy (CP) are prone to secondary complications related to physical inactivity and poor cardiorespiratory capacity. This problem could be greatly attenuated through the use of video games that incorporate physical activity for 2 reasons: Video games already represent an important component of leisure time in younger people, and such games can lead to a high level of exercise intensity in people who are healthy. The study objective was to evaluate exercise intensity in children with spastic diplegic CP and children who were typically developing while playing with an active video game console. This was a cross-sectional study. Ten children (7-12 years old) with spastic diplegic CP (Gross Motor Function Classification System level I or II) and 10 children who were age matched and typically developing were evaluated in a movement analysis laboratory. Four games were played with the active video game console (jogging, bicycling, snowboarding, and skiing) for 40 minutes. Heart rate was recorded during the entire playing period with a heart rate belt monitor. Exercise intensity was defined as the percentage of heart rate reserve (HRR). In addition, lower extremity motion analysis was carried out during the final minute of the playing period for the jogging and bicycling games. No difference between groups was observed for any variables. A main effect of games was observed for the amount of time spent at an intensity greater than 40% of HRR. Specifically, more than 50% of the playing time for the jogging game and more than 30% of the playing time for the bicycling game were spent at an intensity greater than 40% of HRR. In addition, the jogging game produced a larger range of motion than the bicycling game. A limitation of this study was the relatively small and heterogeneous sample. For all 4 games, similar exercise intensity levels were observed for children who were typically developing and children with CP, suggesting that children with CP could

  10. Extreme exercise enhances chromogranin A levels correlating with stress levels but not with cardiac burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickel, T; Vogeser, M; Emslander, I; David, R; Heilmeier, B; Op den Winkel, M; Schmidt-Trucksäss, A; Wilbert-Lampen, U; Hanssen, H; Halle, M

    2012-01-01

    Stress and heart failure are associated with increased systemic levels of chromogranin A (CGA). Here we analyzed the effects of marathon running on systemic CGA levels and the association with cardiac burden and stress. We recruited 47 lean and obese runners for a 10week training program aiming at running a marathon. Heart rates, individual fitness and marathon finishing times were monitored. CGA, proBNP and troponin T levels were analyzed by ELISA. We found a significant increase of CGA (+51%; prunners after marathon. The obese group showed the highest troponin T (0.22ng/ml; p<0.01) and proBNP (176.6ng/ml; p<0.01) levels. There were no correlations between proBNP, troponin T and CGA. An inverse correlation (r=-0.45; p<0.01) was found between CGA and finishing times. Marathon running is associated with increased CGA levels. However, this does not seem to reflect cardiac burden but rather marathon induced stress. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A submaximal test for the assessment of knee extensor endurance capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ruiter, Cornelis J; Mallee, Max I P; Leloup, Lara E C; De Haan, Arnold

    2014-02-01

    We aimed to develop an undemanding test for endurance capacity of the knee extensor muscles, which can also be applied to frail participants. We hypothesized 1) that the first objective indications for peripheral fatigue during incremental unilateral repetitive isometric knee extensor contractions could be used to assess a fatigue threshold (FT), 2) that torque at FT would depend on training status, and 3) that this torque could easily be sustained for 30 min. Five trained and five untrained participants performed 5-min bouts of 60 repetitive contractions (3-s on and 2-s off). Torque, set at 25% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), was increased by 5% MVC in subsequent bouts. The highest torque for which rectified surface EMG remained stable during the bout was defined as the FT. On separate occasions, 30-min bouts were performed at and above the FT to assess sustainable torque. Changes in gas exchange parameters, HR, and RPE were monitored to corroborate FT. At FT (RPE = 5.7 ± 1.7), torque was higher (P MVC) than in untrained participants (30.5% ± 1.8% MVC). Sustainable torque was ∼4% higher than (P MVC, significant increases in rectified surface EMG and V˙O2 were found. During incremental knee extensor contractions, FT could be assessed at a submaximal exercise intensity. FT was higher in trained than in untrained participants and was related to exercise sustainability. With the use of FT, changes in endurance capacity of single muscle groups can potentially also be determined in frail participants for whom exercise performed until exhaustion is unwarranted.

  12. Is energy expenditure taken into account in human sub-maximal jumping? - a simulation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanrenterghem, J.; Bobbert, M.F.; Casius, L.J.R.; de Clercq, D.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a simulation study that was conducted to investigate whether the stereotyped motion pattern observed in human sub-maximal jumping can be interpreted from the perspective of energy expenditure. Human sub-maximal vertical countermovement jumps were compared to jumps simulated with

  13. A New Submaximal Rowing Test to Predict 2,000-m Rowing Ergometer Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otter, Ruby T. A.; Brink, Michel S.; Lamberts, Robert P.; Lemmink, Koen A. P. M.

    Otter, RTA, Brink, MS, Lamberts, RP, and Lemmink, KAPM. A new submaximal rowing test to predict 2,000-m rowing ergometer performance. J Strength Cond Res 29(9): 2426-2433, 2015-The purpose of this study was to assess predictive value of a new submaximal rowing test (SmRT) on 2,000-m ergometer rowing

  14. Evaluation of the American College of Sports Medicine submaximal treadmill running test for predicting VO2max.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Clare E

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the validity of the American College of Sports Medicine's (ACSM's) submaximal treadmill running test in predicting VO2max. Twenty-one moderately well-trained men aged 18-34 years performed 1 maximal treadmill test to determine maximal oxygen uptake (M VO2max) and 2 submaximal treadmill tests using 4 stages of continuous submaximal exercise. Estimated VO2max was predicted by extrapolation to age-predicted maximal heart rate (HRmax) and calculated in 2 ways: using data from all submaximal stages between 110 b·min(-1) and 85% HRmax (P VO2max-All), and using data from the last 2 stages only (P VO2max-2). The measured VO2max was overestimated by 3% on average for the group but was not significantly different to predicted VO2max (1-way analysis of variance [ANOVA] p = 0.695; M VO2max = 53.01 ± 5.38; P VO2max-All = 54.27 ± 7.16; P VO2max-2 = 54.99 ± 7.69 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)), although M VO2max was not overestimated in all the participants--it was underestimated in 30% of observations. Pearson's correlation, standard error of estimate (SEE), and total error (E) between measured and predicted VO2max were r = 0.646, 4.35, 4.08 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1) (P VO2max-All) and r = 0.642, 4.21, 3.98 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1) (P VO2max-2) indicating that the accuracy in prediction (error) was very similar whether using P VO2max-All or P VO2max-2, with up to 70% of the participants predicted scores within 1 SEE (∼4 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) of M VO2max. In conclusion, the ACSM equation provides a reasonably good estimation of VO2max with no difference in predictive accuracy between P VO2max-2 and P VO2max-All, and hence, either approach may be equally useful in tracking an individual's aerobic fitness over time. However, if a precise knowledge of VO2max is required, then it is recommended that this be measured directly.

  15. Change in the level of strength and endurance development of 5-6 grades pupils under cheerleading exercises influence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetyana Bala

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: determine the degree of change in the level of strength and endurance development of 5-6 grades pupils under cheerleading exercises influence. Material and Methods: theoretical analysis and generalization of scientific and methodical literature, pedagogical testing, pedagogical experiment and mathematical statistics methods. Results: parameters of strength and endurance development level are presented with their degree of change under cheerleading exercises influence for 5-6 grades pupils of secondary school. Conclusions: cheerleading exercises usage has positive influence on demonstrated strength and endurance degree of secondary school children by all investigated parameters.

  16. Aging and exercise performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, D A; Cunningham, L N; Curfman, G D

    1986-05-01

    Diverse physiologic changes occur in the oxygen transport system during the aging process. Physical performance and VO2max decline with age, but the changes may be attenuated by exercise training. Increased ventilation is required during exercise in order to compensate for reduced efficiency of gas exchange. Cardiovascular alterations include prolonged duration of myocardial contraction, a slightly reduced left ventricular ejection fraction during exercise, decreased heart rate during both submaximal and maximal exercise, and attenuation of myocardial response to beta-adrenergic stimulation. Cardiac output during exercise can be maintained in the elderly owing to a greater dependence on ventricular filling. Appropriate exercise training leads to enhanced efficiency of the lungs, heart, and skeletal muscles. These physiologic benefits contribute to an increase in functional capacity and an enhanced sense of well-being. Exercise testing is recommended for individuals who have cardiorespiratory symptoms and for those at risk for the development of coronary artery disease. Reasonable goals for an aerobic training program are continuous activity for 30 minutes at a moderate intensity of exertion at least 3 days per week. The intensity of exercise should be based on a prescribed training heart rate. The exercise prescription should be individualized and should incorporate one or more activities for optimal enjoyment and compliance. Opportunities and facilities for indoor exercise are important during inclement weather. Regular physical exercise is important at any age!

  17. The Effects of an Exercise Program on Anxiety Levels and Metabolic Functions in Patients With Anxiety Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wei-Fen; Wu, Po-Lun; Su, Chia-Hsien; Yang, Tzu-Ching

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a home-based (HB) exercise program on anxiety levels and metabolic functions in patients with anxiety disorders in Taiwan. Purposive sampling was used to recruit 86 participants for this randomized, experimental study. Participants were asked to complete a pretest before the 3-month exercise program, a posttest at 1 week, and a follow-up test at 3 months after the exercise program. Study measures included four Self-Report Scales and biophysical assessments to collect and assess personal data, lifestyle behaviors, anxiety levels, and metabolic control functions. Of the 86 study participants, 83 completed the posttest and the 3-month follow-up test, including 41 in the experimental group and 42 in the control group. Participants in the experimental group showed significant improvements in body mass index, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, and the level of moderate exercise after the program relative to the control group, as analyzed by generalized estimating equations mixed-model repeated measures. State and trait anxiety levels were also significantly improved from pretest to follow-up test in the experimental group. Finally, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome declined for participants in the experimental group. The HB exercise program produced positive effects on the metabolic indicators and anxiety levels of Taiwanese adults with anxiety disorders. Health providers should consider using similar HB exercise programs to help improve the mental and physical health of patients with anxiety disorders in their communities.

  18. Assessment of muscle endurance of the knee extensor muscles in adolescents with spastic cerebral palsy using a submaximal repetitions-to-fatigue protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eken, Maaike M; Dallmeijer, Annet J; Doorenbosch, Caroline A; Dekkers, Hurnet; Becher, Jules G; Houdijk, Han

    2014-10-01

    To compare muscle endurance in adolescents with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) with typically developing (TD) peers using a submaximal repetitions-to-fatigue (RTF) protocol. Cross sectional. Human motion laboratory. Adolescents with spastic CP (n=16; Gross Motor Function Classification System levels I or II) and TD adolescents (n=18) within the age range of 12 to 19 years old. Not applicable. Each participant performed 3 RTF tests at different submaximal loads, ranging from 50% to 90% of their maximal voluntary knee extension torque. The relation between the number of repetitions (repetition maximum [RM]) and imposed submaximal relative (percent of maximal voluntary torque [%MVT]) and absolute (Nm/kg) torque was quantified. To compare adolescents with CP with TD adolescents, a mixed linear model was used to construct load endurance curves. Surface electromyography of quadriceps muscles was measured to assess changes in normalized amplitude and median frequency (MF) as physiological indicators of muscle fatigue. Adolescents with CP showed a larger decrease in %MVT per RM than TD adolescents (Pmuscles in all tests for both groups. Electromyographic MF decreased significantly (Pmuscle fatigue were reached. Adolescents with CP show slightly lower muscle endurance compared with TD adolescents on a submaximal RTF protocol, which is in contrast with earlier findings in a maximal voluntary fatigue protocol. Accordingly, adolescents with CP have a reduced capacity to endure activities at similar relative loads compared with TD adolescents. Copyright © 2014 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Physical efficiency and activity energy expenditure in term pregnancy females measured during cardiopulmonary exercise tests with a supine cycle ergometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jędrzejko, Maciej; Nowosielski, Krzysztof; Poręba, Ryszard; Ulman-Włodarz, Izabela; Bobiński, Rafał

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate physical efficiency and activity energy expenditure (AEE) in term pregnancy females during cardiopulmonary exercise tests with a supine cycle ergometer. The study comprised 22 healthy full-term pregnancy women with uncomplicated pregnancies hospitalized in the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Specialist Teaching Hospital in Tychy, Poland. All subjects underwent cardiopulmonary exercise tests (CPET) on a supine cycle ergometer. The 12-min, three-stage, progressive, symptom-limited submaximal test protocol (up to 80% HRmax) was used. Pulsometry was used to record HR on a beat-to-beat analysis and to calculate AEE. Respiratory responses were measured by ergospirometer and a computer system on a breath-by-breath basis at rest, during exercise and at restitution. In the studied population, VO2max was established at the level of 2.19 ± 0.33 L/min in ergospirometry and 2.04 ± 025 L/min in pulsometry. Physical efficiency calculated for sub-maximal exercise by use of the Davis equation was 30.52 ± 0.12%. AEE, based on VO2 in various phases of the CPET, was 0.47, 0.71 and 0.88 L/min for phases 25, 50 and 75 W. Based on ergospirometer readouts, AEE was 10.60, 16.11 and 20.94 kJ/min for phases 25, 50 and 75 W. Overall mean AEE (determined by pulsometry) was 10.59  kJ/min. CPET testing did not have any negative effect upon the health or life of the neonates involved in the study. Submaximal CPET up to 80% HRmax with a supine cycle ergometer is a safe and precise method for assessing work efficiency in term pregnancy women.

  20. The Effect of Two Different Modes of Exercise Swimming and Vitamin C Supplementation on Anemia Indices in Male Wistar Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Fatemeh Lashkari; Mohammad Ali Samavati Sharif; Kamal Ranjbar

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: It has been shown that long term swimming exercise leads to anemia. Therefore the aim of the present study was the effect of vitamin C supplement and maximal and submaximal swimming exercise on anemia in without iron deficiency rats.Methods: For this purpose, 60 male wistar rats (6-8 week age and 170 -190 g weight) were divided into 6 groups: 1: Control rats (Con, n=10) 2: Vitamin C supplementation (Con+C, n=10) 3: Submaximal swimming (S, n=10) 4: Submaximal swimming + Vitamin C...

  1. Response of Leptin and C-reactive Protein Serum Levels to 12 Weeks Moderate Intensity Aerobic Exercise in Obese Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Ghiasi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 12 weeks moderate intensity aerobic exercise on leptin and C-reactive protein serum levels in obese men. The study was conducted in Urmia- Iran in 2015. Twenty-four obese men with an aged range 40-50 yrs. were enrolled into the study. Subjects were randomized to one of 2 groups exercise (n=12 and control groups (n=12. The exercise group performed aerobic exercise training up to 50-70 % heart rate reserve, three times a week for 12 weeks. Leptin and CRP serum level was measured by ELISA method before and after the 12 weeks. After 12 weeks exercise training, leptin and CRP serum level in the exercise group compared to the control group, were decreased significantly (P<0.05. To sum up, 12 weeks moderate intensity aerobic exercise in the reduction of CRP and leptin concentration had a prominent role that might be effective in reducing weight and improving cardiovascular risk factors.

  2. The effect of prolonged aerobic exercise on serum adipokine levels during an ultra-marathon endurance race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roupas, Nikolaos D; Mamali, Irene; Maragkos, Spyros; Leonidou, Lydia; Armeni, Anastasia K; Markantes, George K; Tsekouras, Athanasios; Sakellaropoulos, George C; Markou, Kostas B; Georgopoulos, Neoklis A

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of prolonged intensive aerobic exercise and acute energy deficit (180 km ultra-marathon race) on serum leptin, adiponectin, resistin and visfatin levels and their association and interaction with serum cortisol and insulin levels in highly trained ultra-endurance runners. The study included 17 highly trained ultra-endurance male athletes (mean age 51.29±6.84 years and body mass index (ΒΜΙ) 23.51±1.90) participating in the 5th Olympian Race held in Greece on May 2010. Anthropometric values were assessed; Serum cortisol, insulin, leptin, adiponectin, resistin and visfatin levels were measured at baseline, post-exercise and ~20 hours after the end of the race. All hormonal values of the post-exercise and recovery status were corrected for plasma volume changes. The estimated energy deficit during the ultra-endurance event was about 5000 Kcal. At the end of the race serum resistin levels were elevated (p<0.001) and serum leptin levels were reduced (p<0.001) and failed to reach pre-exercise levels, although showing a tendency towards restoration. No significant changes were noted in serum adiponectin and visfatin levels. Ultra-endurance aerobic exercise and acute negative energy balance lead to an up-regulation of serum resistin levels and a down-regulation of serum leptin levels.

  3. The effect of combined exercise training on plasma Leptin levels and hormonal factors in overweight men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    saeed Emamdost

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a period of combined exercise training on the plasma leptin level and hormonal factors in overweight men.   Materials and Methods: The subjects of this research consisted of thirty males (22-42 years old, BMI ≥29 who randomly were divided into experimental (n=15 and control groups(n=15. The experimental group performed for 8 weeks aerobic and resistance training, 3 sessions per week and each session included 10-12 station strength training at 75-70% of One Repetition Maximum (1RM for the first 4 weeks and at 75-80% of 1RM for the second 4 weeks. At the end, 10 minutes aerobic runing training at 70-75% of MHR in the first 4 weeks and 13 minute at 75-80% of MHR in the second 4 weeks were conducted.   Results: Leptin, body weight, Body Mass Index (BMI and insulin significantly decreased after the training ((P<0.05. However, There were no significant differences in the serum levels of cortisol and testosteron after 8 weeks concurrent training. The ratio of testosteron to cortisol (T/C in the experimental group showed a slight increase.   Conclusion: Generally, it appears that decrease of leptin due to a period of combined exercise training is more associated with reduce of body fat, weight and BMI than the change of testosteron or cortisol. In contrast to most researches, it seems that combined exercise training is more effective.

  4. The effect of 1 year of Alagebrium and moderate-intensity exercise training on left ventricular function during exercise in seniors: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrick-Ranson, Graeme; Fujimoto, Naoki; Shafer, Keri M; Hastings, Jeffrey L; Shibata, Shigeki; Palmer, M Dean; Boyd, Kara; Levine, Benjamin D

    2016-08-01

    Sedentary aging leads to left ventricular (LV) and vascular stiffening due in part to advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) cross-linking of extracellular matrix proteins. Vigorous lifelong exercise ameliorates age-related cardiovascular (CV) stiffening and enhances exercise LV function, although this effect is limited when exercise is initiated later in life. We hypothesized that exercise training might be more effective at improving the impact of age-related CV stiffening during exercise when combined with an AGE cross-link breaker (Alagebrium). Sixty-two seniors (≥60 yr) were randomized into four groups: sedentary + placebo, sedentary + Alagebrium, exercise + placebo, and exercise + Alagebrium for 1 yr. Moderate-intensity aerobic exercise was performed 3-4 sessions/wk; controls underwent similar frequency of yoga/balance training. Twenty-four similarly-aged, lifelong exercisers (4-5 sessions/wk) served as a comparator for the effect of lifelong exercise on exercising LV function. Oxygen uptake (Douglas bags), stroke index (SI; acetylene rebreathing), and effective arterial elastance (Ea) were collected at rest and submaximal and maximal exercise. Maximum O2 uptake (23 ± 5 to 25 ± 6 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) increased, while SI (35 ± 11 to 39 ± 12 ml/m(2)) and Ea (4.0 ± 1.1 to 3.7 ± 1.2 mmHg·ml(-1)·m(-2)) were improved across all conditions with exercise, but remained unchanged in controls (exercise × time, P ≤ 0.018). SI or Ea were not affected by Alagebrium (medication × time, P ≥ 0.468) or its combination with exercise (interaction P ≥ 0.252). After 1 yr of exercise plus Alagebrium, exercise SI and Ea remained substantially below that of lifelong exercisers (15-24 and 9-22%, respectively, P ≤ 0.415). In conclusion, Alagebrium plus exercise had no synergistic effect on exercise LV function and failed to achieve levels associated with lifelong exercise, despite a similar exercise frequency.

  5. Long-term exercise training with constant energy intake. 1: Effect on body composition and selected metabolic variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, C; Tremblay, A; Nadeau, A; Dussault, J; Després, J P; Theriault, G; Lupien, P J; Serresse, O; Boulay, M R; Fournier, G

    1990-01-01

    The effects of long-term negative energy balance generated by exercise while maintaining a constant energy intake were studied in five healthy young males (25 +/- 3 years; mean +/- s.d.). After 2 weeks of monitoring to determine habitual energy intake, they were subjected to a 100-day experimental period during which they exercised on a cycle ergometer, 6 days a week, twice a day at 55 per cent of VO2 max. The daily energy deficit was 4.2 MJ for a total of 353 MJ for the duration of the treatment. Body weight decreased from 86.7 to 78.7 kg (P less than 0.001). More than 80 per cent of the weight loss was accounted for by the reductions in fat mass. Fat-free mass did not change significantly. The data suggest that subcutaneous fat was lost about evenly from the trunk and from the limbs as estimated from skinfolds. Cardiorespiratory and metabolic responses to submaximal work loads indicate that the low intensity exercise regimen was capable of inducing some of the known adaptations of exercise training such as a decrease in plasma insulin and norepinephrine concentrations during exercise, reductions in heart rate, pulmonary ventilation and blood lactate concentration at a given exercise intensity, and an increase in skeletal muscle oxidative capacity. The energy cost of sitting and standing was not decreased in spite of the loss in body mass. However, the energy cost of submaximal cycling and walking exercises was reduced considerably. These results clearly demonstrate that it is quite possible to lose fat while preserving fat-free mass through regular prolonged exercise of moderate intensity if energy intake is kept constant at baseline level. They also emphasize the importance of the individual differences in response to negative energy balance.

  6. Blood lactate level in Elite boy swimmers after lactate tolerance exercise test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghar Nikseresht

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To avoid injuries during high-intensity sports training, it is important to recognize conditions of bodily consumption and production of adequate energy; exercise increases the concentration of the blood lactate. This paper is an attempt to compare pre and post lactate tolerance exercise test - blood lactate concentrations - of elite boy swimmers. Methods: Blood lactates are measured by an enzymatic method on 12 subjects 30 minutes before and adjust and 24 hours after the test. Results: The mean lactate concentration of 30.35±12.16 mg/dl is observed in swimmers 30 minutes before the test. Swimmers adjust after the test show mean blood lactate concentration of 108.52±18.17 mg/dl that is significantly higher than 30 minutes before the test (p<0.001. Then blood lactate level decreases below baseline level at 24 hours after the test. Conclusion: Blood lactate increases with the test and decreases below baseline within 24 hours after the test.

  7. Narita target heart rate equation underestimates the predicted adequate exercise level in sedentary young boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siahkouhian, Marefat; Khodadadi, Davar

    2013-09-01

    Optimal training intensity and the adequate exercise level for physical fitness is one of the most important interests of coaches and sports physiologists. The aim of this study was to investigate the validity of the Narita et al target heart rate equation for the adequate exercise training level in sedentary young boys. Forty two sedentary young boys (19.07±1.16 years) undertook a blood lactate transition threshold maximal treadmill test to volitional exhaustion with continuous respiratory gas measurements according to the Craig method. The anaerobic threshold (AT) of the participants then was calculated using the Narita target heart rate equation. Hopkin's spreadsheet to obtain confidence limit and the chance of the true difference between gas measurements and Narita target heart rate equation revealed that the Narita equation most likely underestimates the measured anaerobic threshold in sedentary young boys (168.76±15 vs. 130.08±14.36) (Difference ±90% confidence limit: 38.1±18). Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) showed a poor agreement between the criterion method and Narita equation (ICC= 0.03). According to the results, the Narita equation underestimates the measured AT. It seems that the Narita equation is a good predictor of aerobic not AT which can be investigated in the future studies.

  8. Cardiovascular exercise in the U.S. space program: Past, present and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Alan D.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Stenger, Michael B.; Platts, Steven H.

    2010-04-01

    Exercise deconditioning during space flight may impact a crewmember's ability to perform strenuous or prolonged tasks during and after a spaceflight mission. In this paper, we review the cardiovascular exercise data from U.S. spaceflights from the Mercury Project through International Space Station (ISS) expeditions and potential implications upon current and future missions. During shorter spaceflights (exercise testing and maximum oxygen consumption (VO 2 max) are not changed. The submaximal exercise HR responses during longer duration flights are less consistent, and VO 2 max has not been measured. Skylab data demonstrated no change in the exercise HR response during flight which would be consistent with no change in VO 2 max; however, during ISS flight exercise HR is elevated early in the mission, but approaches preflight levels later during the missions, perhaps due to performance of exercise countermeasures. An elevated exercise HR is consistently observed after both short and long duration spaceflight, and crewmembers appear to recover at rates which are affected by the length of the mission.

  9. Exercise class participation among residents in low-level residential aged care could be enhanced: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerin, Michelle; Mackintosh, Shylie; Fryer, Caroline

    2008-01-01

    What do residents in low-level residential care perceive as motivators and barriers to participating in exercise classes at the facility? Qualitative study using focus groups. Residents, nursing staff and allied health staff of a low-level residential care facility. Key motivators for residents to attend the exercise classes included personal benefits, such as improved health and opportunities to socialise, and the support and encouragement that they received from family members and health professionals. The barriers to participating in the exercise classes included: health issues like pain, incontinence, and hearing impairments; external constraints such as the location of the classes and the early morning time; and internal constraints associated with a lack of knowledge about the classes and the benefits of exercising. While the key themes that arose from this study are consistent with findings from studies of community-dwelling adults, several of the barrier subthemes were unique. Recommendations from our findings to enhance exercise class participation include careful consideration of: class scheduling; class location; social aspects associated with exercise classes; support of social networks and health providers; health issues perceived to limit exercise; and marketing of classes.

  10. Developing new VO2max prediction models from maximal, submaximal and questionnaire variables using support vector machines combined with feature selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abut, Fatih; Akay, Mehmet Fatih; George, James

    2016-12-01

    Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) is an essential part of health and physical fitness, and refers to the highest rate of oxygen consumption an individual can attain during exhaustive exercise. In this study, for the first time in the literature, we combine the triple of maximal, submaximal and questionnaire variables to propose new VO2max prediction models using Support Vector Machines (SVM's) combined with the Relief-F feature selector to predict and reveal the distinct predictors of VO2max. For comparison purposes, hybrid models based on double combinations of maximal, submaximal and questionnaire variables have also been developed. By utilizing 10-fold cross-validation, the performance of the models has been calculated using multiple correlation coefficient (R) and root mean square error (RMSE). The results show that the best values of R and RMSE, with 0.94 and 2.92mLkg-1min-1 respectively, have been obtained by combining the triple of relevantly identified maximal, submaximal and questionnaire variables. Compared with the results of the rest of hybrid models in this study and the other prediction models in literature, the reported values of R and RMSE have been found to be considerably more accurate. The predictor variables gender, age, maximal heart rate (MX-HR), submaximal ending speed (SM-ES) of the treadmill and Perceived Functional Ability (Q-PFA) questionnaire have been found to be the most relevant variables in predicting VO2max. The results have also been compared with that of Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) and Tree Boost (TB), and it is seen that SVM significantly outperforms other regression methods for prediction of VO2max. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Preconditioning by light-load eccentric exercise is equally effective as low-level laser therapy in attenuating exercise-induced muscle damage in collegiate men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nausheen S

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Samar Nausheen,1 Jamal Ali Moiz,1 Shahid Raza,1 Mohammad Yakub Shareef,2 Shahnawaz Anwer,3,4 Ahmad H Alghadir3 1Centre for Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation Sciences, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi, India; 2Faculty of Dentistry, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi, India; 3Rehabilitation Research Chair, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 4Dr. D. Y. Patil College of Physiotherapy, Dr. D. Y. Patil Vidyapeeth, Pune, India Background/objective: Previous studies have already reported an independent effect of light-load eccentric exercise (10% eccentric exercise contraction [EEC] and low-level laser therapy (LLLT as a protective measure against more strenuous eccentric exercise. However, the difference between these two interventions is largely unknown. Therefore, the present study aimed to compare the preconditioning effect of 10% EEC vs. LLLT on subjective, physiological, and biochemical markers of muscle damage in elbow flexors in collegiate men.Methods: All 36 enrolled subjects were randomly assigned to either 10% EEC or LLLT group. Subjects in 10% EEC group performed 30 repetitions of an eccentric exercise with 10% maximal voluntary contraction strength 2 days prior to maximal eccentric exercise bout, whereas subjects in LLLT group were given LLLT. All the indirect markers of muscle damage were measured pre-exercise and at 24, 48, and 72 hours after the exercise-induced muscle damage protocol.Results: The muscle soreness was reduced in both groups (p = 0.024; however, soreness was attenuated more in LLLT group at 48 hours (33.5 vs. 42.7, p = 0.004. There was no significant difference between the effect of 10% EEC and LLLT groups on other markers of muscle damage like a maximum voluntary isometric contraction (p = 0.47, range of motion (p = 0.16, upper arm circumference (p = 0.70, creatine kinase (p = 0.42, and lactate dehydrogenase (p = 0.08. Within-group analysis showed both interventions provided

  12. Effect of a MAST Exercise Program on Anthropometric Parameters, Physical Fitness, and Serum Lipid Levels in Obese Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trabka Bartosz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine an influence of a mixed aerobic and strength training program (MAST on anthropometry, serum lipid levels, physical performance, and functional fitness in obese postmenopausal women. The MAST sessions were held three times per week, and the exercise program lasted for 10 weeks. The exercise group demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in maximal oxygen uptake, a waist/hip ratio, and strength of the upper and lower body. An increase in LDL-C levels was observed in the control group. A 10-week MAST program encompassing Nordic-walking as an aerobic component, and strength exercises, induces positive changes in functional fitness, HDL-C, LDL-C and a waist/hip ratio in obese postmenopausal women. The observed changes implicate an increase in a health-related quality of life among the women administered to the physical exercise program

  13. "Go4Life" exercise counseling, accelerometer feedback, and activity levels in older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Warren G; Kuhle, Carol L; Koepp, Gabriel A; McCrady-Spitzer, Shelly K; Levine, James A

    2014-01-01

    Older people are more sedentary than other age groups. We sought to determine if providing an accelerometer with feedback about activity and counseling older subjects using Go4Life educational material would increase activity levels. Participants were recruited from independent living areas within assisted living facilities and the general public in the Rochester, MN area. 49 persons aged 65-95 (79.5±7.0 years) who were ambulatory but sedentary and overweight participated in this randomized controlled crossover trial for one year. After a baseline period of 2 weeks, group 1 received an accelerometer and counseling using Go4Life educational material (www.Go4Life.nia.nih.gov) for 24 weeks and accelerometer alone for the next 24 weeks. Group 2 had no intervention for the first 24 weeks and then received an accelerometer and Go4Life based counseling for 24 weeks. There were no significant baseline differences between the two groups. The intervention was not associated with a significant change in activity, body weight, % body fat, or blood parameters (p>0.05). Older (80-93) subjects were less active than younger (65-79) subjects (p=0.003). Over the course of the 48 week study, an increase in activity level was associated with a decline in % body fat (p=0.008). Increasing activity levels benefits older patients. However, providing an accelerometer and a Go4Life based exercise counseling program did not result in a 15% improvement in activity levels in this elderly population. Alternate approaches to exercise counseling may be needed in elderly people of this age range. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Reliability and Seasonal Changes of Submaximal Variables to Evaluate Professional Cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Marroyo, Jose A; Pernía, Raúl; Villa, José G; Foster, Carl

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the reliability and validity of several submaximal variables that can be easily obtained by monitoring cyclists' performances. Eighteen professional cyclists participated in this study. In a first part (n = 15) the test-retest reliability of heart rate (HR) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) during a progressive maximal test was measured. Derived submaximal variables based on HR, RPE, and power output (PO) responses were analyzed. In a second part (n = 7) the pattern of the submaximal variables according to cyclists' training status was analyzed. Cyclists were assessed 3 times during the season: at the beginning of the season, before the Vuelta a España, and the day after this Grand Tour. Part 1: No significant differences in maximal and submaximal variables between test-retest were found. Excellent ICCs (0.81-0.98) were obtained in all variables. Part 2: The HR and RPE showed a rightward shift from early to peak season. In addition, RPE showed a left shift after the Vuelta a España. Submaximal variables based on RPE had the best relationship with both performance and changes in performance. The present study showed the reliability of different maximal and submaximal variables used to assess cyclists' performances. Submaximal variables based on RPE seem to be the best to monitor changes in training status over a season.

  15. Aspartame in conjunction with carbohydrate reduces insulin levels during endurance exercise

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Siegler, Jason; Howell, Keith; Vince, Rebecca; Bray, James; Towlson, Chris; Peart, Daniel; Mellor, Duane; Atkin, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    ... during exercise is warranted. Therefore, the aim of this preliminary study was to profile the insulin and blood glucose responses in healthy individuals after aspartame and carbohydrate ingestion during rest and exercise...

  16. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels and treadmill exercise test responses in men and women without overt heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Rafael Amorim Belo; Araújo, Fernando; Correia, Gustavo F; da Silva, Gisela T; Mansur, Alfredo J

    2013-01-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is a marker of systemic inflammatory activity and may be modulated by physical fitness. Treadmill exercise testing is used to evaluate cardiovascular health through different variables including exercise capacity, heart rate and blood pressure responses. It was hypothesized that CRP levels are associated with these variables in men and women without overt heart disease. A total of 584 asymptomatic subjects (317 [54.3%] women and 267 [45.7%] men) were enrolled in the present study and underwent clinical evaluation. CRP levels in men and women were examined relative to clinical characteristics and to variables of treadmill exercise testing: peak heart rate, exercise systolic blood pressure, exercise time, chronotropic reserve and heart rate recovery at the first and second minutes after exercise. Multivariate analysis was performed using a log-linear regression model. In women, exercise time on the treadmill exercise test (P=0.009) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (P=0.002) were inversely associated with CRP levels. Body mass index (Plevels (P=0.005) were positively associated with CRP levels. In men, exercise time on the treadmill exercise test was inversely associated with CRP levels (P=0.015). Body mass index (P=0.001) and leukocyte count (P=0.002) were positively associated with CRP levels. CRP levels were not associated with peak heart rate, chronotropic reserve, heart rate recovery at the first and second minutes, or exercise systolic blood pressure. These findings contribute to the evidence that CRP is lower in individuals with better exercise capacity and demonstrate that this relationship is also apparent in individuals without overt heart disease undergoing cardiovascular evaluation through the treadmill exercise test. Lowering inflammatory markers may be an additional reason to stimulate sedentary individuals with low exercise capacity in the treadmill exercise test to improve physical conditioning through regular

  17. Influence of BDNF Genotype and Exercise on BDNF Serum Levels and VO2 Max after Acute Exercise and Post Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-29

    across age and gender groups [12,13,14,15,16]. Exercise-based cognitive augmentation is thought to be mediated by BDNF [17,18]. BDNF is a...effectively discriminated since the results are consistent above the prior probabilities in a random guess. 17 Distribution A: Approved for public...significance of VO2 in discriminating between groups. Iteration B e ta 100 200 300 Intercept Allele VO_2 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 Iteration P -v a lu e

  18. Factors That Influence Exercise Among Adults With Arthritis in Three Activity Levels

    OpenAIRE

    Ananian, Cheryl Der; Wilcox, Sara; Saunders, Ruth; Watkins, Ken; Evans, Alexandra

    2006-01-01

    Introduction Recent public health objectives emphasize the importance of exercise for reducing disability among people with arthritis. Despite the documented benefits of exercise, people with arthritis are less active than those without arthritis. The purpose of this study was to examine the factors that influence exercise participation among insufficiently active individuals with arthritis and to compare these factors with those identified by nonexercisers and regular exercisers with arthrit...

  19. Serum levels of fatty acid binding protein 4 and fat metabolic markers in relation to catecholamines following exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iso, Tatsuya; Sunaga, Hiroaki; Matsui, Hiroki; Kasama, Shu; Oshima, Naomi; Haruyama, Hikari; Furukawa, Nozomi; Nakajima, Kiyomi; Machida, Tetsuo; Murakami, Masami; Yokoyama, Tomoyuki; Kurabayashi, Masahiko

    2017-11-01

    Lipolysis is stimulated by activation of adrenergic inputs to adipose tissues. Our recent study showed that serum concentrations of fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) are robustly elevated in patients with acute myocardial infarction and ventricular tachyarrhythmia, that display a marked activation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). However, it remains unknown whether circulating FABP4 concentrations are associated with exercise-induced SNS activation. Thirty one healthy volunteers underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing on a cycle ergometer up to the workload levels below and above anaerobic threshold, low- and high-intensity exercise, respectively. Serial blood samplings were performed before and after exercise. High-intensity exercise significantly increased serum concentrations of FABP4 and catecholamines, and their concentrations declined fast thereafter in a similar fashion. These changes were accompanied by little, if any, changes in other metabolic markers. Regardless of adiposity, percent change from baseline to peak FABP4 levels (%FABP4) was comparable in all subjects. Stepwise regression analysis revealed that %FABP4 was highly correlated with that in norepinephrine. Our study reveals the significant correlation between circulating FABP4 and norepinephrine levels during exercise testing. Together with the fact that FABP4 is secreted from adipocytes via β-adrenergic-mediated lipolytic mechanisms, this study suggests FABP4 as a potential biomarker for adrenergic overdrive. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Acute Aerobic Exercise and Plasma Levels of Orexin A, Insulin, Glucose, and Insulin Resistance in Males With Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alizadeh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background The endocrine system disruptions are the main factors in metabolic disorders which are due to lifestyle changes, obesity, and aging. Insulin resistance is impaired glucose homeostasis in the presence of insulin and is related to many diseases such as hypertension, coronary artery disease, and type 2 diabetes Objectives This study aimed to investigate the effect of acute aerobic exercise on plasma levels of orexin A, insulin, glucose, and insulin resistance in males with type 2 diabetes. Patients and Methods Twenty subjects (mean age = 45.40 ± 5.42 years, mean weight = 80.91 ± 6.35 kg, body mass index = 25.41 ± 2.76 kg/m2 were randomly assigned into control and experimental groups, involving 10 people in each group. The exercise protocol consisted of one session of acute aerobic exercise on a treadmill at 60% maximal oxygen uptake and the same energy expenditure (300 kcal, which were determined by gas analyzers. Subjects were subjected to samplings before, immediately after, and 24 hours after the acute aerobic exercise. Results The analysis of findings in P ≤ 0.05 indicated that acute aerobic exercise caused a significant increase in plasma levels of orexin A and a significant decrease in plasma levels of glucose immediately after the aerobic activity, but insignificantly affected the plasma levels of insulin and insulin resistance. Conclusions It seems that in people with type 2 diabetes, acute aerobic exercise can decrease the plasma levels of glucose, possibly through increasing orexin A. In addition, negative energy balance is necessary to decrease the levels of insulin and insulin resistance during acute aerobic exercise.

  1. Balance in seniors who exercise, considering different levels of fear of falling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Hauser

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The aging process brings changes to one’s body balance and may trigger a fear of falling. The aim of this study was to compare and verify correlation between different methods that assess body balance among elderly individuals who exercise, according to different levels of fear of falling. The sample was composed of 186 individuals (68.28±6.years who exercise. Balance assessment used Timed Up and Go, Unipedal Stance, Sitting-Rising and Functional Reach tests. A question about fear of falling was applied in the form of an interview. Statistical analysis used Spearman and Kruskall Wallis correlation. In results, Timed Up and Go (7.13±1.6s, Unipedal Stance (20.52±9.9s, Sitting-Rising (12.43s±3.2s and Functional Reach (29.51±6.5 showed significant correlation with fear of falling. Individuals less afraid of falling showed better balance performance when compared to those not afraid of falling. In conclusion, better balance performance can contribute to decreasing fear of falling.

  2. Trunk muscle activation levels during eight stabilization exercises used in the functional kinetics concept: A controlled laboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsak, Brian; Wunsch, Rüdiger; Bernhart, Philipp; Gorgas, Anna-Maria; Bichler, Romana; Lampel, Kerstin

    2017-01-01

    To ensure accurate implementation of stabilization exercises in rehabilitation, physical therapists need to understand the muscle activation patterns of prescribed exercise. Compare muscle activity during eight trunk and lumbar spine stabilization exercises of the Functional Kinetics concept by Klein-Vogelbach. A controlled laboratory study with a single-group repeated-measures design was utilized to analyze surface electromyographic intensities of 14 female and 6 male young healthy participants performing eight exercises. Data were captured from the rectus abdominis, external/internal oblique and lumbar paraspinalis. The normalized muscle activation levels (maximum voluntary isometric contraction, MVIC) for three repetitions during each exercise and muscle were analyzed. Side bridging (28 ± 20%MVIC) and advanced planking (29 ± 20%MVIC) reached the highest activity in the rectus abdominis. For external and internal oblique muscles, side bridging also showed the greatest activity of 99 ± 36%MVIC and 52 ± 25%MVIC, respectively. Apart from side bridging (52 ± 14%MVIC), the supine roll-out (31 ± 12%MVIC) and prone roll-out (31 ± 9%MVIC) showed the greatest activity for the paraspinalis. The advanced quadruped, seated back extension and flexion on chair/Swiss Ball, prone roll-out and advanced one-leg back bridging only yielded negligible muscle activities for the rectus abdominis (< 5%MVIC). Based on the data obtained, recommendations for selective trunk muscle activation during eight stabilization exercises were established, which will guide physical therapists in the development of exercises tailored to the needs of their patients.

  3. The effect of menstruation on chosen physiological and biochemical reactions caused by the physical effort with the submaximal intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Zieliński

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine the influence of the menstruation phase on changes of respective indicators of the gas exchange and on biochemical parameters of blood during physical efforts with the sub-maximal intensity. Fifteen female students of the Academy of Physical Education took part in the study. Girls were aged from 19 to 22 years old and did not practice sports. The effort tests were conducted in the follicular and luteal phase of two succeeding menstrual cycles. As far the aerobic capacity determination is concerned, one cyclo-ergometric test with graded effort was conducted and it was performed till the “refusal”. It allowed to mark a threshold (TDMA and a maximal level of physiological and biochemical indicators. Basing on the results of the graded test individual loads were determined for every next effort trial (repeated 4 times in every phase of the two succeeding menstrual cycles. The aim of this trial was to evaluate the reaction of women’s constitution on work with the sub-maximal intensity. The above trial consisted on two 10 min efforts divided with the 2 min pause (the first effort with the intensity of 80% of the TDMA threshold, second with the intensity bigger about 30-40% of difference between TDMA and a maximal load established by the graded test. The research did not reveal statistically significant differentiation as considering effort changes of basic physiological and biochemical indicators, determining reaction of women’s organisms on work with the sub- and over- threshold intensity (TDMA. It showed that menstruation has not significant effect on the level of changes of analysed parameters caused by the physical effort with the sub-maximal intensity.

  4. Effect of Training Exercise on Urinary Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor Levels and Cognitive Performances in Overweight and Obese Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Angelo; Buratta, Livia; Pippi, Roberto; Aiello, Cristina; Ranucci, Claudia; Reginato, Elisa; Santangelo, Valerio; DeFeo, Pierpaolo; Mazzeschi, Claudia

    2017-02-01

    Exercise-mediated, brain-derived neurotrophic factor induction benefits health and cognitive functions. The multifaceted interplay between physical activity, urinary brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels and cognitive functioning has been largely neglected in previous literature. In this pilot study, two bouts of training exercise (65% and 70% of heart rate reserve) influenced urinary brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels and cognitive performances in 12 overweight and obese participants. Percent heart rate reserve, expenditure energy, brain-derived neurotrophic factor urinary levels and cognitive performances were measured before and after the exercise. No significant variations in energy expenditure were observed, while differences of heart rate reserve between two groups were maintained. Both bouts of training exercise induced a similar reduction in urinary brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels. Only visuo-spatial working memory capacity at 65% of heart rate reserve showed a significant increase. These findings indicate a consistent effect of training exercise on urinary brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels and cognitive factors in overweight and obese participants.

  5. Heart rate variability during cycloergometric exercise or judo wrestling eliciting the same heart rate level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottin, François; Durbin, François; Papelier, Yves

    2004-03-01

    This study compared heart rate variability (HRV) in ten male judokas between two types of exercise eliciting the same near-maximal average heart rate (HR): judo wrestling vs. cycloergometric bout. Beat-to-beat RR intervals were recorded during (1) a 4-min judo randori (wrestling); (2) a 4-min cycloergometric exercise eliciting maximal oxygen consumption (VO(2MAX)). Time series were analyzed both by short term Fourier transform (STFT) and Poincaré plot (PP). The main results are as follows. First, despite the fact that the same maximal HR was reached during the two exercises, the spectral energy computed from the judo recordings was significantly higher than that recorded from the cycloergometric exercise. Second, according to the PP index of rapid HRV (SD1), the high-frequency spectral energy (HF) was significantly higher during judo than cycloergometric exercise as well. Third, judo spectra show chaotic harmonics in place of the precise HF peak observed during cycloergometric exercise. Fourth, the respective parts of normalized LFn and HFn are not different between the two exercise modes, suggesting that autonomic control during severe exercise cannot depend on the type of exercise. In conclusion, this study shows that it is possible, according to the observed kind of variability from RR time series, to differentiate between two types of effort: steady-state dynamic exercise or conversely exercise made of both isometric and irregular dynamic efforts (wrestling, collective sports, and others).

  6. Work capacity, exercise responses and body composition of professional pilots in relation to age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeppky, J A; Luft, U C

    1989-11-01

    Body composition and submaximal and maximal cardiorespiratory responses during a progressive upright bicycle ergometer test were measured in 410 professional male pilots, aged 20 to 68 years, and divided into four groups (30, 39, 49, and 59 years). Fat-free weight by hydrostatic weighing was not significantly different between groups and fat increased linearly with age, while height was lower and weight levelled off in the oldest group. Aerobic work capacity (VO2max) fell at a rate of 0.25 ml.min-1.kg-1 per year in this unique population of healthy, but generally sedentary men. A subgroup of 10 pilots, tested annually from age 31 to 47, demonstrated a reversal of the age-related decline in VO2max. This was attributable to regular physical activity, short of athletic training, and changes in personal health habits stimulated by self-assessment available from the repeated tests incorporated into the medical prevention program. These data considered in relation to more recent reports of stroke volume during similar maximal exercise protocols suggest that VO2max is limited during aging by a reduction in tissue diffusing capacity or increased maldistribution of perfusion in relation to O2 uptake in muscle and this can be partially prevented by training. Reference standards for heart rate, blood pressure and ventilation during submaximal and maximal exercise levels are presented in relation to energy requirements and work intensity at various ages.

  7. The Impact of Central and Peripheral Cyclooxygenase Enzyme Inhibition on Exercise-Induced Elevations in Core Body Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veltmeijer, Matthijs T W; Veeneman, Dineke; Bongers, Coen C C W; Netea, Mihai G; van der Meer, Jos W; Eijsvogels, Thijs M H; Hopman, Maria T E

    2017-05-01

    Exercise increases core body temperature (TC) due to metabolic heat production. However, the exercise-induced release of inflammatory cytokines including interleukin-6 (IL-6) may also contribute to the rise in TC by increasing the hypothalamic temperature set point. This study investigated whether the exercise-induced increase in TC is partly caused by an altered hypothalamic temperature set point. Fifteen healthy, active men age 36 ± 14 y were recruited. Subjects performed submaximal treadmill exercise in 3 randomized test conditions: (1) 400 mg ibuprofen and 1000 mg acetaminophen (IBU/APAP), (2) 1000 mg acetaminophen (APAP), and (3) a control condition (CTRL). Acetaminophen and ibuprofen were used to block the effect of IL-6 at a central and peripheral level, respectively. TC, skin temperature, and heart rate were measured continuously during the submaximal exercise tests. Baseline values of TC, skin temperature, and heart rate did not differ across conditions. Serum IL-6 concentrations increased in all 3 conditions. A significantly lower peak TC was observed in IBU/APAP (38.8°C ± 0.4°C) vs CTRL (39.2°C ± 0.5°C, P = .02) but not in APAP (38.9°C ± 0.4°C) vs CTRL. Similarly, a lower ΔTC was observed in IBU/APAP (1.7°C ± 0.3°C) vs CTRL (2.0°C ± 0.5°C, P skin temperature and heart-rate responses across conditions. The combined administration of acetaminophen and ibuprofen resulted in an attenuated increase in TC during exercise compared with a CTRL. This observation suggests that a prostaglandin-E2-induced elevated hypothalamic temperature set point may contribute to the exercise-induced rise in TC.

  8. Effect of whole body vibration on lactate level recovery and heart rate recovery in rest after intense exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seung Rok; Min, Jin-Young; Yu, Changho; Kwon, Tae-Kyu

    2017-07-20

    In this paper, we investigated the recovery of the lactate level, muscular fatigue, and heart rate recovery (HRR) with respect to whole body vibration (WBV) during the rest stage after a gait exercise. A total of 24 healthy subjects with no medical history of exercise injury participated. The participants were divided into a training group with vibration during rest and a control group with the same conditions but without vibration. The subjects performed a gait exercise with a slope of 15% and velocity of 4 km/h to consume 450 kcal in 30 min. Then, they rested on a vibrating chair or on a chair without vibrations for 30 min. The vibration protocol consists of a frequency of 10 Hz and amplitude of 5 mm. To estimate the recovery effect, we measured the lactate levels in blood, spectral edge frequency (SEF) of MVIC, and HRR before, immediately after exercise, and after rest. The results showed that the lactate level in the training group decreased more (93.8%) than in the control group (32.8%). Also, HRR showed a similar trend with a recovery of 88.39% in the training group but 64.72% in the control group. We considered that whole-body vibrations during rest would help remove lactic acid by improving the level of lactic acid oxidation with stimulated blood vessels in the muscles and by helping to maintain blood flow. Also, WBV would lead to compensation to actively decrease the fast excess post-exercise oxygen consumption from blood circulation. We suggest that whole-body vibrations during rest can provide fast, efficient fatigue recovery as a cool down exercise for women, the elderly, and patients without other activity after intense exercise.

  9. Effects of altitude on exercise level and heart rate in patients with coronary artery disease and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, S T; Komdeur, P; Aalbersberg, S; van Enst, G C; Breeman, A; van 't Hof, A W J

    2010-03-01

    Background. To evaluate the safety and effects of high altitude on exercise level and heart rate in patients with coronary artery disease compared with healthy controls.Methods. Eight patients with a history of an acute myocardial infarction (ejection fraction >5%) with a low-risk score were compared with seven healthy subjects during the Dutch Heart Expedition at the Aconcagua in Argentina in March 2007. All subjects underwent a maximum exercise test with a cycle ergometer at sea level and base camp, after ten days of acclimatisation, at an altitude of 4200 m. Exercise capacity and maximum heart rate were compared between groups and within subjects.Results. There was a significant decrease in maximum heart rate at high altitude compared with sea level in both the patient and the control group (166 vs. 139 beats/min, pheart rate between patients and healthy controls (-31 vs. -30%, p=0.673).Conclusion. Both patients and healthy controls showed a similar decrease in exercise capacity and maximum heart rate at 4200 m compared with sea level, suggesting that patients with a history of coronary artery disease may tolerate stay and exercise at high altitude similarly to healthy controls. (Neth Heart J 2010;18:118-21.).

  10. Improvement in Exercise Capacity by Exercise Training Associated With Favorable Clinical Outcomes in Advanced Heart Failure With High B-Type Natriuretic Peptide Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Michio; Nakao, Kazuhiro; Kumasaka, Leon; Arakawa, Tetsuo; Fukui, Shigefumi; Ohara, Takahiro; Yanase, Masanobu; Noguchi, Teruo; Yasuda, Satoshi; Goto, Yoichi

    2017-08-25

    The efficacy of exercise training (ET) programs and its relationship with long-term clinical outcomes in advanced heart failure (HF) patients with high levels of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) remain uncertain.Methods and Results:We studied 340 consecutive HF patients with ejection fraction (EF) High-BNP, n=170) had more advanced HF characteristics, including lower EF (25.0±8.6% vs. 28.1±8.0%, P=0.0008), than those with BNP High-BNP patients, peak oxygen uptake (V̇O2) was significantly increased by 8.3±16.2% during the ET program, and changes in peak V̇O2inversely correlated with changes in BNP (R=-0.453, Phigh BNP level, an ET program significantly improved exercise capacity, and a greater improvement in exercise capacity was associated with greater decreases in BNP level and V̇E/V̇CO2slope and more favorable long-term clinical outcomes.

  11. Effect of acute inspiratory muscle exercise on blood flow of resting and exercising limbs and glucose levels in type 2 diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula dos Santos Corrêa

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effects of inspiratory loading on blood flow of resting and exercising limbs in patients with diabetic autonomic neuropathy. Ten diabetic patients without cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (DM, 10 patients with cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (DM-CAN and 10 healthy controls (C were randomly assigned to inspiratory muscle load of 60% or 2% of maximal inspiratory pressure (PImax for approximately 5 min, while resting calf blood flow (CBF and exercising forearm blood flow (FBF were measured. Reactive hyperemia was also evaluated. From the 20 diabetic patients initially allocated, 6 wore a continuous glucose monitoring system to evaluate the glucose levels during these two sessions (2%, placebo or 60%, inspiratory muscle metaboreflex. Mean age was 58 ± 8 years, and mean HbA1c, 7.8% (62 mmol/mol (DM and DM-CAN. A PImax of 60% caused reduction of CBF in DM-CAN and DM (P<0.001, but not in C, whereas calf vascular resistance (CVR increased in DM-CAN and DM (P<0.001, but not in C. The increase in FBF during forearm exercise was blunted during 60% of PImax in DM-CAN and DM, and augmented in C (P<0.001. Glucose levels decreased by 40 ± 18.8% (P<0.001 at 60%, but not at 2%, of PImax. A negative correlation was observed between reactive hyperemia and changes in CVR (Beta coefficient = -0.44, P = 0.034. Inspiratory muscle loading caused an exacerbation of the inspiratory muscle metaboreflex in patients with diabetes, regardless of the presence of neuropathy, but influenced by endothelial dysfunction. High-intensity exercise that recruits the diaphragm can abruptly reduce glucose levels.

  12. Seven days of high carbohydrate ingestion does not attenuate post-exercise IL-6 and hepcidin levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badenhorst, Claire E; Dawson, Brian; Cox, Gregory R; Sim, Marc; Laarakkers, Coby M; Swinkels, Dorine W; Peeling, Peter

    2016-09-01

    This investigation examined if a high carbohydrate (CHO) diet, maintained across a seven-day training period, could attenuate post-exercise interleukin-6 (IL-6) and serum hepcidin levels. Twelve endurance-trained male athletes completed two seven-day running training blocks whilst consuming either a high (8 g kg(-1)) versus a low (3 g kg(-1)) CHO isoenergetic diet. Each training block consisted of five running sessions performed on days 1, 2, 4, 5, and 7, with the intensity and duration of each session matched between training weeks. Serum levels of Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and hepcidin were measured pre- and either immediately (IL-6) or 3-h (hepcidin) post-exercise on days 1 and 7 of each training week. During each training week, the immediate post-exercise IL-6 and 3-h post-exercise serum hepcidin levels were significantly elevated (both p = 0.001) from pre-exercise on days 1 and 7. These increases were not different between trials. These results suggest that the ingestion of a high (compared to low) CHO diet over a seven-day training period is ineffective in attenuating post-exercise IL-6 and hepcidin responses. Such results may be due to the modest training load, the increased protein intake in the low-CHO trial, and a 48 h recovery period prior to sample collection on day 7, allowing a full recovery of muscle glycogen status between exercise sessions.

  13. The effects of changing exercise levels on weight and age-relatedweight gain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Paul T.; Wood, Peter D.

    2004-06-01

    To determine prospectively whether physical activity canprevent age-related weight gain and whether changing levels of activityaffect body weight. DESIGN/SUBJECTS: The study consisted of 8,080 maleand 4,871 female runners who completed two questionnaires an average(+/-standard deviation (s.d.)) of 3.20+/-2.30 and 2.59+/-2.17 yearsapart, respectively, as part of the National Runners' Health Study.RESULTS: Changes in running distance were inversely related to changes inmen's and women's body mass indices (BMIs) (slope+/-standard error(s.e.): -0.015+/-0.001 and -0.009+/-0.001 kg/m(2) per Deltakm/week,respectively), waist circumferences (-0.030+/-0.002 and -0.022+/-0.005 cmper Deltakm/week, respectively) and percent changes in body weight(-0.062+/-0.003 and -0.041+/-0.003 percent per Deltakm/week,respectively, all P<0.0001). The regression slopes were significantlysteeper (more negative) in men than women for DeltaBMI and Deltapercentbody weight (P<0.0001). A longer history of running diminishedthe impact of changing running distance on men's weights. When adjustedfor Deltakm/week, years of aging in men and years of aging in women wereassociated with increases of 0.066+/-0.005 and 0.056+/-0.006 kg/m(2) inBMI, respectively, increases of 0.294+/-0.019 and 0.279+/-0.028 percentin Delta percentbody weight, respectively, and increases of 0.203+/-0.016and 0.271+/-0.033 cm in waist circumference, respectively (allP<0.0001). These regression slopes suggest that vigorous exercise mayneed to increase 4.4 km/week annually in men and 6.2 km/week annually inwomen to compensate for the expected gain in weight associated with aging(2.7 and 3.9 km/week annually when correct for the attenuation due tomeasurement error). CONCLUSIONS: Age-related weight gain occurs evenamong the most active individuals when exercise is constant.Theoretically, vigorous exercise must increase significantly with age tocompensate for the expected gain in weight associated withaging.

  14. Changes in iron levels, total iron binding capacity, transferrin saturation in race horses, before and after of physical exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gláucia Abramovitc

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Abramovitc G., Parra A.C. & Fernandes W.R. [Changes in iron levels, total iron binding capacity, transferrin saturation in race horses, before and after of physical exercise]. Variação de níveis séricos de ferro, da capacidade total de ligação do ferro e da saturação da transferrina em equinos de corrida, antes e após exercício físico. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 36(3:289-293, 2014. Departamento de Clínica Médica, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Universidade de São Paulo, Rua Prof. Dr. Orlando Marques de Paiva 87, Cidade Universitária, Butantã, São Paulo, SP 05508-270, Brasil. Email: wilsonrf@usp.br The preparation of the horse for physical activities in competition is directly related to important factors such as nutrition, muscle adaptation and blood profile, related to the concentration of serum iron, total capacity total iron binding capacity (TIBC and saturation of transferrin. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of exercise in iron levels, the total iron and transferrin saturation in race horses. One hundred and eleven samples of blood serum were collected from Thoroughbred horses, from the Jockey Club of São Paulo, aged between 3 and 4 years old, male and female, clinically healthy, practitioners turf competition, in sand or grass. The samples were obtained before exercise (control time and 30 minutes after exercise (post exercise. These animals were submitted to gallop training, of high intensity and short duration for this research. As a result, it was observed that the serum concentration of iron (Fe showed a statistically significant lowering post-exercise, due to organic re-balance of iron, while TIBC (total iron binding capacity showed a clear and significant increase in their serum levels due to increased needs of iron during and after exercise. The percentage of transferrin saturation in serum was shown to be lower post-exercise, probably due to the recruitment of

  15. The level of effort, rather than muscle exercise intensity determines strength gain following a six-week training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chang-Hao; Ranganathan, Vinoth K; Siemionow, Vlodek; Yue, Guang H

    2017-06-01

    This study investigated the effect of voluntary motor effort during a low-intensity (30% maximal voluntary contraction [MVC]) muscle exercise training program on increasing muscle strength. Eighteen young and healthy individuals were randomly assigned to one of three groups: high mental effort (HME), low mental effort (LME), or a no-training control (CTRL) group. Training lasted for 6weeks (15min/day, 5days/week). The participants' right-elbow flexor muscle strength was measured before and after the training program. After training, the HME group gained 20.47±8.33% (P=0.01) strength while the LME and CTRL groups had negligible strength changes (1.89±0.96% and -3.27±2.61%, respectively; P>0.05) despite muscle contraction intensity (30% MVC) sustained during training was the same for the HME and LME groups. These results suggest that the level of effort involved in resistance exercise training plays a critical role in determining the amount of strength augmentation. The finding that high effort combined with low-level physical exercise training can significantly increase muscle strength has rehabilitation applications as many patients and frail older adults have difficulties in participating in high-intensity exercise training such as lifting heavy weights. High effort plus low-level muscle exercise might serve as a safe training regimen for effective muscle strengthening in vulnerable populations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. SWIMMING EXERCISE STIMULATES NEURO-GENESIS IN THE SUBVENTRICULAR ZONE VIA INCREASE IN SYNAPSIN I AND NERVE GROWTH FACTOR LEVELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chae C-H

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the effects of 8-weeks of swimming exercise on neurogenesis in the subventricular zone (SVZ and on the levels of nerve growth factor (NGF and synapsin I protein in the olfactory bulb (OB of adult rats at a series of relevant time points (2 days, 1 week, 2 weeks, 4 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months. Ninety-six male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into 2 groups: (1 a control group (COG; n = 48, n = 8 for each time point and (2 a swimming exercise group (SEG; total n = 48; n = 8 for each time point. SEG performed swimming exercise for 5 days per week over a period of 8 weeks. We found that the number of 5-bromo-2’-deoxyuridine-5’-monophosphate (BrdU- and doublecortin (DCX-positive cells was significantly higher in SEG than in COG at all time points (Day 2, Week 1, Week 2, Week 4, Month 3, and Month 6; p < 0.001. Furthermore, NGF and synapsin I protein levels were significantly higher in SEG on Day 2, and Weeks 1, 2, and 4 than in COG (p < 0.05 for each time point. Our findings suggest that regular swimming exercise in adult rats increases neurogenesis, neuronal survival, and neuronal maintenance in the SVZ; furthermore, swimming exercise increases the levels of NGF and synapsin I in the OB.

  17. Effect of four weeks high intensity interval training versus aerobic exercise on metallothionein levels of myocardial tissue in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shabani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxidative species produced during exercise can cause damages to some tissues such as kidney, liver and skeletal muscle. It seems that metallothionein plays a protective role against these actions. Objective: To assess the effect of four weeks of high intensity interval training versus aerobic exercise on metallothionein levels of myocardial tissue in healthy male rats. Methods: This experimental study was done on 36 male Wistar rats (2 months of age with an average weight of 180±20 in 2015.The rats were randomly divided into three groups: control (n=12, high intensity interval training (n=12, and aerobic training (n=12 groups. The experimental groups exercised according to the training program 5 days a week for 4 weeks. During this period, the control group did not have any training programs. One-way ANOVA was used to analyze the data. Findings: The results indicate no significant difference among the mean metallothionein in control, aerobic exercise and high intensity interval training groups. However, the amount of myocardial metallothionein increased as a result of high intensity interval training and decreased during aerobic exercise. Conclusion: It seems that the duration and intensity of exercise need to be adjusted in order to obtain better results.

  18. Concordant lipoprotein and weight responses to dietary fat changein identical twins with divergent exercise levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Paul T.; Blanche, Patricia J.; Rawlings, Robin; Krauss, Ronald M.

    2004-06-01

    Background/Objective: The purpose of this study is to testthe extent that individual lipoprotein responses to diet can beattributed to genes in the presence of divergent exercise levels.Design:Twenty-eight pairs of male monozygotic twins (one mostly sedentary, theother running an average of 50 km/week more than the sedentary twin) wentfrom a 6-week 40 percent fat diet to a 6-week 20 percent fat diet in acrossover design. The diets reduced fat primarily by reducing saturatedand polyunsaturated fat (both from 14 percent to 4 percent), whileincreasing carbohydrate intake from 45 percent to 65 percent. Results:Despite the twins' differences in physical activity, the dietarymanipulation produced significantly correlated changes (P<0.05) in thetwin's total cholesterol (r=0.56), low-density lipoprotein(LDL)-cholesterol (r=0.70), large, buoyant LDL (Sf7-12, r=0.52), apo A-I(r=0.49), Lp(a) (r=0.49), electrophoresis measurements of LDL-I (LDLsbetween 26 and 28.5 nm diameter, r=0.48), LDL-IIB (25.2-24.6 nm, r=0.54),LDL-IV (22-24.1 nm, r=0.50), and body weights (r=0.41). Replacing fatswith carbohydrates significantly decreased the size and ultracentrifugeflotation rate of the major LDL, the LDL mass concentrations of Sf7-12,LDL-I, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol and apo A-I, andsignificantly increased LDL-IIIA (24.7-25.5 nm diameter) and Lp(a).Conclusions: Even in the presence of extreme exercise difference, genessignificantly affect changes in LDL, apo A-I, Lp(a) and body weight whendietary fats are replaced with carbohydrates.

  19. Exercise improves femoral whole-bone and tissue-level biomechanical properties in hyperphagic OLETF rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortinau, Laura C; Linden, Melissa A; Rector, R Scott; Hinton, Pamela S

    2017-08-01

    An often-overlooked comorbidity of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is increased fracture risk. Since traditional T2D therapies focus solely on glucose homeostasis, there is an increased need for effective treatment strategies that improve both metabolic and bone health. The current study evaluated if previously reported protective effects of exercise (EX) on cortical bone geometry and biomechanical properties are due to the prevention of obesity compared with obese Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats or the unique skeletal effects of exercise. Four-week-old male OLETF rats were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups, each fed a standard rodent chow diet until 40 weeks of age: ad libitum-fed sedentary (O-SED), ad libitum-fed EX (O-EX), or a control group body-weight-matched to the O-EX group by caloric restriction (O-CR). Ad libitum-fed sedentary Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (L-SED) rats were used as a lean control. EX or CR prevented the excess body mass accumulation and elevated HbA1c observed in O-SED. Total-body bone mineral density was greater in O-EX than O-CR, but similar to L-SED and O-SED. O-EX and O-CR had lower osteocalcin and TRAP5b than O-SED and L-SED. EX or CR prevented the ∼3-fold increase in CTx in O-SED versus L-SED. EX increased femoral cortical mass accumulation and expansion at the mid-diaphysis compared with O-CR. EX or CR significantly increased tissue-level stiffness and strength compared with O-SED and L-SED, but O-EX had greater whole-bone stiffness than all other groups. In summary, EX has distinct advantages over CR for improving bone biomechanical properties in hyperphagic OLETF rats.

  20. Inflight Exercise Regimen for the 2-Hour Prebreathe Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Philip P.; Gernhardt, Michael L.; Woodruff, Kristin K.; Schneider, Susan M.; Homick, Jerry L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A 10 min aerobic prebreathe exercise up to 75% V-O2(sub max) on a dual-cycle ergometer, included in the 2-hour prebreathe protocol, has been shown to dramatically reduce the incidence of decompression sickness (DCS) at altitude. In-flight only leg ergometry will be available. A balanced exercise was developed using surgical tubing with the ergometer on-orbit. We hypothesize that a 75% V02max workload, individually prescribed, would be achieved using a target heart rate to regulate the intensity of the arm exercise. VO2, heart rate (HR) / ECG, V-CO2 /V-O2, V(sub E), and V(sub T), and rate of perceived exertion (Borg scale) were measured in eleven healthy subjects who passed a US Air Force Class III Physical examination. A V-O2 peak test was performed to assess the sub-maximal exercise prescription. Two series of sub-maximal tests were performed: (1) leg ergometer/hand ergometer and (2) leg ergometer/surgical tubes. We found no significant differences (P > 0.05) in comparing the means for V-O2 and HR between the predicted and measured values during the final 4 minute-stage at "75% V-O2 workload" or between the two types of sub-maximal tests. The prescribed prebreathe sub-maximal exercise performed with flight certified surgical tubes was achieved using the target HR.

  1. Acute aerobic exercise reduces 24-h ambulatory blood pressure levels in long-term-treated hypertensive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel G. Ciolac

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Even with anti-hypertensive therapy, it is difficult to maintain optimal systemic blood pressure values in hypertensive patients. Exercise may reduce blood pressure in untreated hypertensive, but its effect when combined with long-term anti-hypertensive therapy remains unclear. Our purpose was to evaluate the acute effects of a single session of aerobic exercise on the blood pressure of long-term-treated hypertensive patients. METHODS: Fifty treated hypertensive patients (18/32 male/female; 46.5±8.2 years; Body mass index: 27.8±4.7 kg/m² were monitored for 24 h with respect to ambulatory (A blood pressure after an aerobic exercise session (post-exercise and a control period (control in random order. Aerobic exercise consisted of 40 minutes on a cycle-ergometer, with the mean exercise intensity at 60% of the patient's reserve heart rate. RESULTS: Post-exercise ambulatory blood pressure was reduced for 24 h systolic (126±8.6 vs. 123.1±8.7 mmHg, p=0.004 and diastolic blood pressure (81.9±8 vs. 79.8±8.5 mmHg, p=0.004, daytime diastolic blood pressure (85.5±8.5 vs. 83.9±8.8 mmHg, p=0.04, and nighttime S (116.8±9.9 vs. 112.5±9.2 mmHg, p<0.001 and diastolic blood pressure (73.5±8.8 vs. 70.1±8.4 mmHg, p<0.001. Post-exercise daytime systolic blood pressure also tended to be reduced (129.8±9.3 vs. 127.8±9.4 mmHg, p=0.06. These post-exercise decreases in ambulatory blood pressure increased the percentage of patients displaying normal 24h systolic blood pressure (58% vs. 76%, p=0.007, daytime systolic blood pressure (68% vs. 82%, p=0.02, and nighttime diastolic blood pressure (56% vs. 72%, p=0.02. Nighttime systolic blood pressure also tended to increase (58% vs. 80%, p=0.058. CONCLUSION: A single bout of aerobic exercise reduced 24h ambulatory blood pressure levels in long-term-treated hypertensive patients and increased the percentage of patients reaching normal ambulatory blood pressure values. These effects suggest that

  2. The effects of mindfulness eating and yoga exercise on blood sugar levels of pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngwanichsetha, Sununta; Phumdoung, Sasitorn; Ingkathawornwong, Thitiporn

    2014-11-01

    This randomized controlled trial was carried out to investigate the effect of mindfulness eating and yoga exercise on blood sugar levels among pregnant Thai women with GDM. Interventions promoting achievement of good glycemic control result in desired pregnancy outcomes. Little is known about the health benefits of mindfulness eating and yoga exercise on blood sugar levels among pregnant with GDM. A randomized controlled trial was carried out. Main outcome measures were capillary fasting plasma glucose, 2-h postprandial blood glucose, and hemoglobin A1c. The intervention group showed significantly reduced fasting plasma glucose, 2-h postprandial blood glucose, and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in the intervention group (pyoga exercise had health benefits on glycemic control in pregnant women with GDM. It should be recommended in clinical and community health services. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Cerebral Blood Flow Responses to Aquatic Treadmill Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parfitt, Rhodri; Hensman, Marianne Y; Lucas, Samuel J E

    2017-07-01

    Aquatic treadmills are used as a rehabilitation method for conditions such as spinal cord injury, osteoarthritis, and stroke, and can facilitate an earlier return to exercise training for athletes. However, their effect on cerebral blood flow (CBF) responses has not been examined. We tested the hypothesis that aquatic treadmill exercise would augment CBF and lower HR compared with land-based treadmill exercise. Eleven participants completed incremental exercise (crossover design) starting from walking pace (4 km·h, immersed to iliac crest [aquatic], 6 km·h [land]) and increasing 1 km·h every 2 min up to 10 km·h for aquatic (maximum belt speed) or 12 km·h for land. After this, participants completed two 2-min bouts of exercise immersed to midthigh and midchest at constant submaximal speed (aquatic), or were ramped to exhaustion (land; increased gradient 2° every min). Middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity (MCAv) and HR were measured throughout, and the initial 10 min of each protocol and responses at each immersion level were compared. Compared with land-based treadmill, MCAvmean increased more from baseline for aquatic exercise (21% vs 12%, P aquatic walking compared with land-based moderate intensity running (~10 cm·s, P = 0.56). Greater water immersion lowered HR (139 vs 178 bpm for midchest vs midthigh), whereas MCAvmean remained constant (P = 0.37). Findings illustrate the potential for aquatic treadmill exercise to enhance exercise-induced elevations in CBF and thus optimize shear stress-mediated adaptation of the cerebrovasculature.

  4. Promotion of the Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation to the international level based on journal metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Sun

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to use journal metrics to confirm that the Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation has been promoted to the international level after changing its language to English-only in April 2013. Journal metrics, including the number of articles per year, countries of authors, countries of the editorial board members, impact factor, total citations, and the Hirsch index, were counted or calculated based on the journal homepage and the Web of Science Core Collection in December 2016. The number of citable articles was 52, 62, 59, and 74 in 2013, 2014, 2015, and 2016, respectively. All authors were from Korea in 2013 and 2014, but the authors were from 11 countries in 2015 and from 16 countries in 2016. The editorial board members are currently from 11 countries. The impact factor without self-citations for 2015 was 0.912, corresponding to a Journal Citation Reports ranking of 32.9% out of 82 journals in the category of sport sciences. The total citations increased from 1 in 2013 to 130 in 2016. This journal was cited in 208 other source journals in the Web of Science. The citing authors were from 47 countries. The Hirsch index was 7, and review articles were the most frequently cited articles. The above results show a rapid development to the international level over 4 years. The introduction of digital technology to journals to improve their accessibility across multiple platforms is recommended.

  5. Influence of body mass index and type of low-level exercise on the side effect profile of regadenoson

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salgado-Garcia, Carlos; Jimenez-Heffernan, Amelia; Lopez-Martin, Juana; Molina-Mora, Manuela; Aroui, Tarik; Sanchez de Mora, Elena; Ramos-Font, Carlos [Hospital Juan Ramon Jimenez, Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Huelva, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Huelva (Spain); Rivera de los Santos, Francisco [University of Seville, Area of Methodology of Behavioural Sciences, Seville (Spain); Ruiz-Frutos, Carlos [University of Huelva, Department of Environmental and Public Health, Huelva (Spain)

    2017-10-15

    Regadenoson, an A{sub 2A} adenosine receptor pharmacologic stress agent for radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI), is administered as a single, fixed dose. We studied the side effect profile of regadenoson combined with two types of low-level exercise, according to body mass index (BMI). Three hundred and fifty-six patients (46.1% men, mean age 67.7±10.7 years, range 31-90 years) underwent regadenoson stress testing combined with low-level exercise. Subjects were classified according to BMI as normal, overweight, or obese, and the type of low-level exercise performed as walking on the treadmill (TE group, n=190) or forcefully swinging legs while sitting (SS group, n=166). Patients' demographics, medical history, clinical symptoms during stress, changes in ECG, oxygen saturation (SatO{sub 2}), systolic blood pressure (SBP), and heart rate (HR) were evaluated. Groups were comparable (p=ns) with regard to cardiovascular risks factors. The incidence of side effects was similar across BMI (p=ns), although the TE patients showed improved profiles over those with SS exercise, with a significantly lower incidence of flushing, dizziness and nausea/gastrointestinal discomfort (12.9% vs. 28.4%; 19.9% vs. 33.4%; 11.4% vs. 19.2%, respectively; all p<0.05). Regarding the hemodynamic response, we did not observe significant changes in SBP and HR after regadenoson administration across BMI categories. Comparing the TE and SS groups, no significant changes were observed in SBP, but there was a higher increase in HR in the TE group (p<0.05). Regadenoson in combination with low-level exercise is safe and well tolerated over a wide range of BMI, with TE exercise showing a better side effect profile than SS. (orig.)

  6. Influence of body mass index and type of low-level exercise on the side effect profile of regadenoson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado-Garcia, Carlos; Jimenez-Heffernan, Amelia; Lopez-Martin, Juana; Molina-Mora, Manuela; Aroui, Tarik; Sanchez de Mora, Elena; Ramos-Font, Carlos; Rivera de Los Santos, Francisco; Ruiz-Frutos, Carlos

    2017-10-01

    Regadenoson, an A 2A adenosine receptor pharmacologic stress agent for radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI), is administered as a single, fixed dose. We studied the side effect profile of regadenoson combined with two types of low-level exercise, according to body mass index (BMI). Three hundred and fifty-six patients (46.1% men, mean age 67.7±10.7 years, range 31-90 years) underwent regadenoson stress testing combined with low-level exercise. Subjects were classified according to BMI as normal, overweight, or obese, and the type of low-level exercise performed as walking on the treadmill (TE group, n=190) or forcefully swinging legs while sitting (SS group, n=166). Patients' demographics, medical history, clinical symptoms during stress, changes in ECG, oxygen saturation (SatO 2 ), systolic blood pressure (SBP), and heart rate (HR) were evaluated. Groups were comparable (p=ns) with regard to cardiovascular risks factors. The incidence of side effects was similar across BMI (p=ns), although the TE patients showed improved profiles over those with SS exercise, with a significantly lower incidence of flushing, dizziness and nausea/gastrointestinal discomfort (12.9% vs. 28.4%; 19.9% vs. 33.4%; 11.4% vs. 19.2%, respectively; all pregadenoson administration across BMI categories. Comparing the TE and SS groups, no significant changes were observed in SBP, but there was a higher increase in HR in the TE group (pRegadenoson in combination with low-level exercise is safe and well tolerated over a wide range of BMI, with TE exercise showing a better side effect profile than SS.

  7. [The effect of exercise on the pharmacokinetics of acetaminophen and acetylsalicylic acid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawrymowicz, M

    1997-01-01

    The influence of exercise on the pharmacokinetics of drugs is not sufficiently apparent. Therefore the purpose of my study was to evaluate the influence of standardized exercise on pharmacokinetics of acetaminophen and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and also to establish whether moderate (submaximal) exercise demands modification involving the doses of these drugs. That was studied in 20 healthy young (ranging in age 22-42 years) male subjects receiving acetaminophen or ASA, 1 g orally. All subjects were non-smokers who abstained from using caffeine and alcohol 2 weeks before and in the period of study, which consisted of two parts: resting trials and exercise trials. Exercise trials: treadmill walking--3 mph (4.8 km/h), 20 minutes per half an hour for 3 hours (50% VO2max). On the rest day volunteers stayed in the supine or sitting position for the same period. Blood samples were collected from a forearm (antecubital) vein through an indwelling cannula. Acetaminophen and ASA plasma concentrations were determined by FPIA. The plasma level-time curves were fitted according to one compartment open pharmacokinetic model. Plasma concentrations measured (7 days) before and after the physical exercise, did not demonstrate statistically significant differences (Fig. 1, 2). The results of this study indicate that the pharmacokinetics of single doses of acetaminophen and ASA are independent of submaximal physical exercise. There were no significant differences between the rest and the exercise day in the pharmacokinetic parameters of acetaminophen and ASA (Fig. 3). Since both drugs belong to the group whose elimination is not due to the liver flow, it is not surprising that its total body clearance, and its half-life of elimination were unaffected by physical exercise. The minor changes in haematocrit, plasma protein, free fatty acids, levels which were reported are probably not sufficient to modify the disposition of these drugs. Therefore, there is no need for dose adjustment

  8. Aerobic Physical Exercise Improved the Cognitive Function of Elderly Males but Did Not Modify Their Blood Homocysteine Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Karen M. Antunes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physical exercise influences homocysteine (Hcy concentrations, cognitive function and the metabolic profile. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of regular physical exercise on Hcy levels, the metabolic profile and cognitive function in healthy elderly males before and after an endurance exercise program. Methods: Forty-five healthy and sedentary volunteers were randomized into 2 groups: (1 a control group asked not to change their normal everyday activities and not to start any regular physical exercise program and (2 an experimental group trained at a heart rate intensity corresponding to ventilatory threshold 1 (VT-1 for 60 min/day 3 times weekly on alternate days for 6 months using a cycle ergometer. All volunteers underwent cognitive evaluations, blood sample analyses and ergospirometric assessments. Results: A significant improvement in cognitive function was observed in the experimental group compared with the control group (p 0.05, but there was a significant increase in peak oxygen consumption and workload at VT-1 as well as a significant improvement in cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, glucose, alkaline phosphatase, urea, T3, T4 and prostate-specific antigen compared with the control group (p Conclusion: The data suggest that a physical exercise program does not reduce Hcy levels in healthy elderly males, although it improves the cardiovascular and metabolic profile as well as cognitive function.

  9. Aerobic Physical Exercise Improved the Cognitive Function of Elderly Males but Did Not Modify Their Blood Homocysteine Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Hanna Karen M.; De Mello, Marco Túlio; de Aquino Lemos, Valdir; Santos-Galduróz, Ruth Ferreira; Camargo Galdieri, Luciano; Amodeo Bueno, Orlando Francisco; Tufik, Sergio; D'Almeida, Vânia

    2015-01-01

    Background Physical exercise influences homocysteine (Hcy) concentrations, cognitive function and the metabolic profile. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of regular physical exercise on Hcy levels, the metabolic profile and cognitive function in healthy elderly males before and after an endurance exercise program. Methods Forty-five healthy and sedentary volunteers were randomized into 2 groups: (1) a control group asked not to change their normal everyday activities and not to start any regular physical exercise program and (2) an experimental group trained at a heart rate intensity corresponding to ventilatory threshold 1 (VT-1) for 60 min/day 3 times weekly on alternate days for 6 months using a cycle ergometer. All volunteers underwent cognitive evaluations, blood sample analyses and ergospirometric assessments. Results A significant improvement in cognitive function was observed in the experimental group compared with the control group (p 0.05), but there was a significant increase in peak oxygen consumption and workload at VT-1 as well as a significant improvement in cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, glucose, alkaline phosphatase, urea, T3, T4 and prostate-specific antigen compared with the control group (p < 0.05). Conclusion The data suggest that a physical exercise program does not reduce Hcy levels in healthy elderly males, although it improves the cardiovascular and metabolic profile as well as cognitive function. PMID:25759715

  10. Exercise performance and activity level in children with transposition of the great arteries treated by the arterial switch operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beek, Elsje; Binkhorst, Mathijs; de Hoog, Marieke; de Groot, Patricia; van Dijk, Arie; Schokking, Michiel; Hopman, Maria

    2010-02-01

    The exercise capacity of children after arterial switch for transposition of the great arteries (TGA) is known to be at the lower limit of normal. We aimed to ascertain whether this results from compromised hemodynamics or deconditioning. A total of 17 children with TGA (12 male and 5 female children; age 12.1 + or - 2.0 years) treated with the arterial switch operation were compared with 20 age-matched controls (13 male and 7 female children; age 12.8 + or - 2.4 years) regarding their peak exercise capacity, peak workload, and peak heart rate, as assessed by cycle ergometry. The children's physical activity level was monitored for a 7-day period using a pedometer and diary, and a questionnaire was used to assess physical activity participation and overprotection. The results demonstrated that TGA children showed a significantly reduced peak exercise capacity (47.4 + or - 6.4 vs 41.1 + or - 6.6 ml/kg/min; p physical activity pattern or overprotection. In conclusion, given the comparable physical activity level, but reduced exercise capacity in the TGA children, these children most likely fall short in their exercise performance because of restrictive hemodynamics rather than deconditioning from reduced daily life activity. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of menstrual phase and amenorrhea on exercise performance in runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Souza, M J; Maguire, M S; Rubin, K R; Maresh, C M

    1990-10-01

    There are few well controlled studies in terms of subject selection, menstrual classification, and exercise protocol that have examined both maximal and submaximal exercise responses during different phases of the menstrual cycle in eumenorrheic runners and compared these runners to amenorrheic runners. Thus, the purpose of this study was to measure selected physiological and metabolic responses to maximal and submaximal exercise during two phases of the menstrual cycle in eumenorrheic runners and amenorrheic runners. Eight eumenorrheic runners (29.0 +/- 4.2 yr) and eight amenorrheic runners (24.5 +/- 5.7 yr) matched for physical, gynecological, and training characteristics were studied. The eumenorrheic runners performed one maximal and one submaximal (40 min at 80% VO2max) treadmill run during both the early follicular (days 2-4) and midluteal (6-8 d from LH surge) phases. The amenorrheic runners performed one maximal and one submaximal (40 min at 80% VO2max) treadmill run. Cycle phases were documented by urinary luteinizing hormone and progesterone assays and by plasma estradiol and progesterone assays. No differences were observed in oxygen uptake, minute ventilation, heart rate, respiratory exchange ratio, rating of perceived exertion, time to fatigue (maximal), and plasma lactate (following the maximal and submaximal exercise tests) between the follicular and luteal phases in the eumenorrheic runners and the amenorrheic runners. We conclude that neither menstrual phase (follicular vs luteal) nor menstrual status (eumenorrheic vs amenorrheic) alters or limits exercise performance in female athletes.

  12. Effects of acute exercise on plasma erythropoietin levels in trained runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodary, P F; Pate, R R; Wu, Q F; McMillan, G S

    1999-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate further the influence of exercise on erythropoietin. We observed the effects of high intensity running on plasma erythropoietin concentration in competitive distance runners. A repeated measures design was used to compare the responses of intermittent high intensity (HIGH) exercise to continuous moderate intensity (MOD) exercise and rest (REST). The HIGH treatment consisted of 60 min of exercise alternating 5 min of running at approximately 90% of VO2max with 5 min of brisk walking. The MOD treatment consisted of a continuous 60-min run on the treadmill at 60% of VO2max. Blood samples were collected immediately before the exercise (PRE), immediately following the exercise (POST), and 4 (heart rate (4HR), 12 (12HR), 24 (24HR), and 48 (48HR)) h following the exercise. The variables examined included plasma erythropoietin concentration ([EPO]), hemoglobin (Hb) concentration ([Hb]), hematocrit (Hct), red blood cell count (RBC), and mean corpuscular volume (MCV). ANOVA revealed the expected treatment-by-time interaction for Hct and [Hb] suggesting a hemodilution at 24 and 48 h postexercise for the MOD and HIGH treatments. However, no significant treatment-by-time interactions were observed for [EPO], RBC, or MCV. These results indicate that intermittent high intensity exercise does not have a significant effect on [EPO] in trained distance runners.

  13. A Literature Exercise Using Scifinder Scholar for the Sophomore-Level Organic Chemistry Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenstein, Ian J.

    2005-01-01

    An exercise developed for use in the sophomore organic course that introduces students to the process of searching "Chemical Abstracts" with SciFinder Scholar using chiral auxiliaries as example compounds is described. The exercise provides a direct introduction to the chemical literature for students at an early stage of their undergraduate…

  14. No effect of glycogen level on glycogen metabolism during high intensity exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandenberghe, Katleen; Hespel, P.; Eynde, Bart Vanden

    1995-01-01

    This study examined the effect of glycogen supercompensation on glycogen breakdown, muscle and blood lactate accumulation, blood-pH, and performance during short-term high-intensity exercise. Young healthy volunteers performed two supramaximal (125% of VO2max) exercise tests on a bicycle ergometer......, either for 1 min 45 s (protocol 1; N = 18) or to exhaustion (protocol 2; N = 14). The exercise tests were preceded by either 5 d on a controlled normal (N) diet, or by 2 d of glycogen-depleting exercise accompanied by the normal diet followed by 3 d on a carbohydrate-rich (CHR) diet. In protocol 1......, preexercise muscle glycogen concentrations were 364 +/- 23 and 568 +/- 35 mumol.g-1 d.w. in the N and CHR condition, respectively (P glycogen concentration in the M. quadriceps decreased to the same extent in both groups. Accordingly, the exercise-induced increases in muscle...

  15. Whole-body fat oxidation increases more by prior exercise than overnight fasting in elite endurance athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson Hall, Ulrika; Edin, Fredrik; Pedersen, Anders; Madsen, Klavs

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare whole-body fat oxidation kinetics after prior exercise with overnight fasting in elite endurance athletes. Thirteen highly trained athletes (9 men and 4 women; maximal oxygen uptake: 66 ± 1 mL·min(-1)·kg(-1)) performed 3 identical submaximal incremental tests on a cycle ergometer using a cross-over design. A control test (CON) was performed 3 h after a standardized breakfast, a fasting test (FAST) 12 h after a standardized evening meal, and a postexercise test (EXER) after standardized breakfast, endurance exercise, and 2 h fasting recovery. The test consisted of 3 min each at 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, and 80% of maximal oxygen uptake and fat oxidation rates were measured through indirect calorimetry. During CON, maximal fat oxidation rate was 0.51 ± 0.04 g·min(-1) compared with 0.69 ± 0.04 g·min(-1) in FAST (P < 0.01), and 0.89 ± 0.05 g·min(-1) in EXER (P < 0.01). Across all intensities, EXER was significantly higher than FAST and FAST was higher than CON (P < 0.01). Blood insulin levels were lower and free fatty acid and cortisol levels were higher at the start of EXER compared with CON and FAST (P < 0.05). Plasma nuclear magnetic resonance-metabolomics showed similar changes in both EXER and FAST, including increased levels of fatty acids and succinate. In conclusion, prior exercise significantly increases whole-body fat oxidation during submaximal exercise compared with overnight fasting. Already high rates of maximal fat oxidation in elite endurance athletes were increased by approximately 75% after prior exercise and fasting recovery.

  16. Effects of an 18-week exercise programme started early during breast cancer treatment: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travier, Noémie; Velthuis, Miranda J; Steins Bisschop, Charlotte N; van den Buijs, Bram; Monninkhof, Evelyn M; Backx, Frank; Los, Maartje; Erdkamp, Frans; Bloemendal, Haiko J; Rodenhuis, Carla; de Roos, Marnix A J; Verhaar, Marlies; ten Bokkel Huinink, Daan; van der Wall, Elsken; Peeters, Petra H M; May, Anne M

    2015-06-08

    Exercise started shortly after breast cancer diagnosis might prevent or diminish fatigue complaints. The Physical Activity during Cancer Treatment (PACT) study was designed to primarily examine the effects of an 18-week exercise intervention, offered in the daily clinical practice setting and starting within 6 weeks after diagnosis, on preventing an increase in fatigue. This multi-centre controlled trial randomly assigned 204 breast cancer patients to usual care (n = 102) or supervised aerobic and resistance exercise (n = 102). By design, all patients received chemotherapy between baseline and 18 weeks. Fatigue (i.e., primary outcome at 18 weeks), quality of life, anxiety, depression, and physical fitness were measured at 18 and 36 weeks. Intention-to-treat mixed linear model analyses showed that physical fatigue increased significantly less during cancer treatment in the intervention group compared to control (mean between-group differences at 18 weeks: -1.3; 95 % CI -2.5 to -0.1; effect size -0.30). Results for general fatigue were comparable but did not reach statistical significance (-1.0, 95%CI -2.1; 0.1; effect size -0.23). At 18 weeks, submaximal cardiorespiratory fitness and several muscle strength tests (leg extension and flexion) were significantly higher in the intervention group compared to control, whereas peak oxygen uptake did not differ between groups. At 36 weeks these differences were no longer statistically significant. Quality of life outcomes favoured the exercise group but were not significantly different between groups. A supervised 18-week exercise programme offered early in routine care during adjuvant breast cancer treatment showed positive effects on physical fatigue, submaximal cardiorespiratory fitness, and muscle strength. Exercise early during treatment of breast cancer can be recommended. At 36 weeks, these effects were no longer statistically significant. This might have been caused by the control participants' high physical

  17. Effects of flunixin on cardiorespiratory, plasma lactate and stride length responses to intense treadmill exercise in Standardbred trotters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallings, P; Persson, S G B; Essén-Gustavsson, B

    2010-11-01

    Since nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as flunixin, on account of their anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties, are used in both racing and equestrian sport horses, the question has been raised as to whether these drugs affect the physiological responses to exercise and thus performance potential. The aims of this investigation were to study the effects of flunixin on cardiorespiratory, metabolic and locomotor parameters in horses during intense treadmill exercise. Six Standardbred trotters underwent an incremental treadmill exercise test to fatigue, without drug and then after administration of flunixin meglumine (1.1 mg/kg bwt i.m.). Heart rate (HR), oxygen uptake and stride length were measured and venous blood samples drawn repeatedly during the test. Heart rates were found to be significantly higher at submaximal speeds, while the velocity causing a HR of 200 beats/min was significantly decreased after treatment with flunixin. Maximal HR and plasma lactate concentration 5 min after exercise were unchanged after medication. Flunixin caused higher plasma lactate concentrations at all speeds and the lactate threshold was decreased, compared with baseline values. Oxygen uptake levelled off at the highest velocities and did not change after flunixin treatment. Stride length was increased after treatment, although not at the highest velocities. The increased HR and lactate responses to exercise after flunixin treatment indicate that it does influence physiological responses, but does not improve the performance potential of clinically healthy horses. However, the lengthened stride during submaximal exercise after medication could imply undetected subclinical lameness, masked in some of the horses, i.e. they have performed with a longer stride at the cost of a higher heart rate and an increased lactate concentration. © 2010 EVJ Ltd.

  18. Effects of exercise and supraphysiological dose of nandrolone decano-ate on the rat plasma opioid level: a brief report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Mohebi

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: In the present study we show that chronic nandrolone decanoate admin-istration attenuates effects of two weeks swimming exercise on serum opioid peptide and reduces the level of beta-endorphin and met-enkephalin. Keeping in mind that opi-oidergic system play an important role in behavior, athletes abusing anabolic steroid drugs may potentially experience changes in mood and behavior.

  19. The effect of time of day and exercise on platelet functions and platelet-neutrophil aggregates in healthy male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldemir, Hatice; Kiliç, Nedret

    2005-12-01

    Platelet activation state changes by exercise. The effect of exercise time on platelet activation state and formation of platelet-neutrophil aggregates are not known yet. In this study the effect of exercise and time of day were examined on platelet activity with platelet-neutrophil aggregates. Ten moderately active males aged 27+/- 1.63 (mean+/-S.D.) years completed sub-maximal (70% VO(2max)) exercise trials for 30 min. Blood pressure (BP) was recorded. Venous blood samples were obtained at rest, immediately post-exercise and after 30 min of recovery. Whole blood was analysed for haematocrit (Hct), haemoglobin (Hb), platelet count (PC), mean platelet count (MPV) and platelet aggregation (PA). Platelet-neutrophil aggregates and beta-thromboglobulin (beta-TG) levels were assayed. Platelet count showed significant increase after morning exercise ((236+/- 32)x10(9) l(-1) versus (202+/- 34)x10(9) l(-1) baseline, p Exercise resulted in significantly lower MPV after the evening exercise (9.16+/- 0.5 fl versus 9.65+/- 0.36 fl, p exercise and the recovery aggregation levels were significantly different at two different times of the day (68+/- 20% a.m. versus 80+/- 12% p.m., p exercises. Exercise-induced platelet-neutrophil aggregates were higher in the evening (10.7+/- 1.3% p.m. versus 6.4+/- 1.8% a.m., p exercise can cause platelet- neutrophil aggregates. In addition, time of day has an effect on platelet activation related events. Circadian variations of physiological parameters may have an effect on thrombus formation by platelet activation.

  20. Dissociation between lactate and proton exchange in muscle during intense exercise in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsbo, Jens; Juel, Carsten; Hellsten, Ylva

    1997-01-01

    , the difference between net proton and lactate release was positive throughout exercise and of similar magnitude in N and H. 5. The present data suggest that (1) H+ exchange in muscle during submaximal exercise can to a large extent occur through mechanisms other than via coupling to lactate; (2) muscle transport...

  1. Comparing the effect of resistance, aerobic, and concurrent exercise program on the level of resistin and high reactive protein C of overweight and obese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynab Shafiee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available History and Objective: Obesity is one of the health risks factors, and aerobic exercise is one of the means to prevent and control obesity. The research was designed to compare methods of resistance, aerobic, and concurrent exercises on resistin and C-reactive protein (CRP serum level of overweight and obese women. Research Methodology: In this semi-experimental research, 36 voluntary overweight or obese women were randomly assigned into three groups (n = 12 of aerobic, resistance, and concurrent exercise programs. The training included 8 weeks of exercise performed with 55%–75% of 1-repetition maximum weight lifting. The aerobic exercise was performed at 55%–75% of maximum oxygen consumption and concurrent training included both programs for 3 days/week. The resistin and CRP serum level of the participant was measured 48 h before the start and again 48 h after the termination of the exercise protocol. The statistical analysis was performed on data using SPSS 22.0 (Chicago, USA. One-way analysis of variance and paired t-test was employed to test the hypothesis at significance level set to 0.05. Results: The result indicated that exercise program significantly decreased CRP level of blood serum (P 0.05. Discussion: Aerobic exercise regardless of types has a beneficiary effect on CPR, but resistin level needs different types of exercise to change in overweight and obese women. Conclusion: Some aerobic exercises are beneficiary for overweight and obese women health.

  2. Cardiorespiratory fitness level correlates inversely with excess post-exercise oxygen consumption after aerobic-type interval training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Tomoaki; Ohkawara, Kazunori; Seino, Satoshi; Shimojo, Nobutake; Yamada, Shin; Ohshima, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Kiyoji; Mukai, Chiaki

    2012-11-21

    The purpose of this study was to reveal any association between cardiorespiratory fitness level and excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) using three cycling protocols with varying degrees of exercise intensity, i.e., sprint interval training (SIT), high-intensity interval aerobic training (HIAT), and continuous aerobic training (CAT). Ten healthy men, aged 20 to 31 years, attended a cross-over experiment and completed three exercise sessions: SIT consisting of 7 sets of 30-s cycling at 120% VO2max with a 15-s rest between sets; HIAT consisting of 3 sets of 3-min cycling at 80~90% VO2max with a 2-min active rest at 50% VO2max between sets; and CAT consisting of 40 min of cycling at 60~65% VO2max. During each session, resting VO2, exercise VO2, and a 180-min post-exercise VO2 were measured. The net exercise VO2 during the SIT, HIAT, and CAT averaged 14.7 ± 1.5, 31.8 ± 4.1, and 71.1 ± 10.0 L, and the EPOCs averaged 6.8 ± 4.0, 4.5 ± 3.3, and 2.9 ± 2.8 L, respectively. The EPOC with SIT was greater than with CAT (P EPOC to net exercise VO2 for SIT, HIAT, and CAT were -0.61 (P = 0.06), -0.79 (P EPOC, especially when performing aerobic-type interval training.

  3. Ethnic differences in vascular responses to aerobic exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulds, Heather J A; Bredin, Shannon S D; Warburton, Darren E R

    2015-02-01

    Indigenous populations currently experience greater rates of cardiovascular disease. Although ethnic differences in cardiovascular responses to exercise have previously been identified, these responses among indigenous populations are unknown. This investigation aimed to evaluate the vascular responses to aerobic exercise of Canadian indigenous and European adults. Twelve age- and sex-matched indigenous and European adults completed a cycle ergometer maximal aerobic power test and submaximal 30 min of 60% maximal aerobic capacity on two separate days. Blood pressure, pulse wave velocity, baroreceptor sensitivity, arterial compliance, vascular resistance, and intima-media thickness were directly measured before and after aerobic exercises. Vascular responses to exercise were generally similar between indigenous and European adults including decreases in baroreceptor sensitivity and vascular resistance after maximal exercise. No changes in intima-media thickness, pulse wave velocity, and arterial compliance were observed after exercise in either group. However, after submaximal exercise, only European adults demonstrated reductions in baroreceptor sensitivity (spectral: 9.2 ± 4.3 to 11.5 ± 6.7 ms·mm Hg, P = 0.41, vs 15.8 ± 8.3 m·s to 8.9 ± 5.7 ms·mm Hg, P = 0.02; sequence: 14.6 ± 5.4 to 16.5 ± 11.0 ms·mm Hg, P = 0.48, vs 26.2 ± 10.5 m·s to 15.4 ± 9.4 ms·mm Hg, P = 0.02). Similarly, decreases in blood pressure after exercise were observed only among European adults. Indigenous adults demonstrated vascular responses similar to those demonstrated by European adults, although blood pressure was only observed to decrease among European adults after maximal and submaximal exercise, and baroreceptor sensitivity, after submaximal exercise.

  4. Exercise performance, core temperature, and metabolism after prolonged restricted activity and retraining in dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazar, K.; Greenleaf, J. E.; Pohoska, E.; Turlejska, E.; Kaciuba-Uscilko, H.; Kozlowski, S.

    1992-01-01

    Physiological effects of restricted activity (RA) and subsequent retraining have been studied. Ten male mongrel dogs performed a submaximal exercise endurance test on a treadmill during kennel control, after 8 weeks of cage confinement and after eight weeks of retraining using the same treadmill protocol 1 h/d for 6 d/week. Data obtained show that RA reduces exercise endurance, the effectiveness of exercise thermoregulation, muscle glycogen stores, and the lipolytic response to exercise and to noradrenaline stimulation.

  5. Influence of performance level on exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia during prolonged and successive exercise in triathletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galy, Olivier; Hue, Olivier; Chamari, Karim; Boussana, Alain; Chaouachi, Anis; Préfaut, Christian

    2008-12-01

    To study the relationship between performance and exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia (EIAH), 5 internationally ranked (INT) and 8 regionally ranked (REG) triathletes performed cycle-run successions (CR) and control runs (R) in competition-like conditions: at approximately 75% VO2max. Ventilatory parameters and oxyhemoglobin saturation (SpO2) data were collected continuously. Arteriolized partial pressure in O2 (PaO2) and alveolar ventilation (VA) were measured before and after cycling (CRcycle), the successive run (CRrun), and R. Pulmonary diffusing capacity (DLco) was measured at rest and 10 minutes post-CR. Training and short-distance triathlon data were collected. INT showed significantly greater experience than REG in competition years (P>.05), training regimen (P>.05), and swimming (P>.05), and cycling (P>.05) volumes; running showed a trend (P.01). SpO2 during CR dropped significantly more in INT than in REG. Both groups showed significant inverse correlations between the magnitude of the SpO2 change from CRcycle to CRrun and the triathlon running time (r=-0.784; P<.05 and r=-0.699; P<.05; respectively). When compared with CRcycle, PaO2 significantly decreased and VA significantly increased after CRrun and R in both groups (P<.01). DLco significantly dropped between pre- and postexercise in CR and R with no between-group difference (P<.05). EIAH was aggravated in higher performers during simulated cycle-run segments, related to longer experience and heavier training regimens. Possibly, relative hypoventilation caused this aggravated EIAH in INT, although pulmonary diffusion limitation was observed in both groups. Beyond EIAH severity, the magnitude of SpO2 variations during the cycle-run transition may affect triathlon running performance.

  6. Actual Versus Predicted Cardiovascular Demands in Submaximal Cycle Ergometer Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoehn, Amanda M; Mullenbach, Megan J; Fountaine, Charles J

    The Astrand-Rhyming cycle ergometer test (ARCET) is a commonly administered submaximal test for estimating aerobic capacity. Whereas typically utilized in clinical populations, the validity of the ARCET to predict VO 2max in a non-clinical population, especially female, is less clear. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of the ARCET in a sample of healthy and physically active college students. Subjects (13 females, 10 males) performed a maximal cycle ergometer test to volitional exhaustion to determine VO 2max . At least 48 hours later, subjects performed the ARCET protocol. Predicted VO 2max was calculated following the ARCET format using the age corrected factor. There was no significant difference (p=.045) between actual (41.0±7.97 ml/kg/min) and predicted VO 2max (40.3±7.58 ml/kg/min). When split for gender there was a significant difference between actual and predicted VO 2 for males, (45.1±7.74 vs. 42.7±8.26 ml/kg/min, p=0.029) but no significant difference observed for females, (37.9±6.9 vs. 38.5±6.77 ml/kg/min, p=0.675). The correlation between actual and predicted VO 2 was r=0.84, phealthy college population of both male and female subjects. Implications of this study suggest the ARCET can be used to assess aerobic capacity in both fitness and clinical settings where measurement via open-circuit spirometry is either unavailable or impractical.

  7. Morphological and Microstructural Alterations of the Articular Cartilage and Bones during Treadmill Exercises with Different Additional Weight-Bearing Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiazi Gao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the morphological and microstructural alterations of the articular cartilage and bones during treadmill exercises with different exercise intensities. Sixty 5-week-old female rats were randomly divided into 10 groups: five additional weight-bearing groups (WBx and five additional weight-bearing with treadmill exercise groups (EBx, which were subjected to additional weight bearing of x% (x = 0, 5, 12, 19, and 26 of the corresponding body weight of each rat for 15 min/day. After 8 weeks of experiment, the rats were humanely sacrificed and their bilateral intact knee joints were harvested. Morphological analysis of the cartilages and microcomputed tomography evaluation of bones were subsequently performed. Results showed that increased additional weight bearing may lead to cartilage damage. No significant difference was observed among the subchondral cortical thicknesses of the groups. The microstructure of subchondral trabecular bone of 12% and 19% additional weight-bearing groups was significantly improved; however, the WB26 and EB26 groups showed low bone mineral density and bone volume fraction as well as high structure model index. In conclusion, effects of treadmill exercise on joints may be associated with different additional weight-bearing levels, and exercise intensities during joint growth and maturation should be selected reasonably.

  8. Increased extracellular dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine levels contribute to enhanced subthalamic nucleus neural activity during exhausting exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Hu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to explore the mechanism underlying the enhanced subthalamic nucleus (STN neural activity during exhausting exercise from the perspective of monoamine neurotransmitters and changes of their corresponding receptors. Rats were randomly divided into microdialysis and immunohistochemistry study groups. For microdialysis study, extracellular fluid of the STN was continuously collected with a microdialysis probe before, during and 90 min after one bout of exhausting exercise. Dopamine (DA and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT levels were subsequently detected with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. For immunohistochemistry study, the expression of DRD 2 and HT 2C receptors in the STN, before, immediately after and 90 min after exhaustion was detected through immunohistochemistry technique. Microdialysis study results showed that the extracellular DA and 5-HT neurotransmitters increased significantly throughout the procedure of exhausting exercise and the recovery period (P0.05. Our results suggest that the increased extracellular DA and 5-HT in the STN might be one important factor leading to the enhanced STN neural activity and the development of fatigue during exhausting exercise. This study may essentially offer useful evidence for better understanding of the mechanism of the central type of exercise-induced fatigue.

  9. Effects of methylprednisolone on exercise-induced increases of plasma levels of polymorphonuclear elastase and myeloperoxidase in man. Preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Camus

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to verify whether a single oral dose of methylprednisolone could modulate the exercise-induced release of polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN elastase and myeloperoxidase. Four healthy, male subjects were submitted to a 20 min downhill run (−20% at 60% VO2 max, 3 h after oral absorption of a placebo or a single dose of 32 mg methylprednisolone. A marked neutrophilia (+103% of basal PMN count; p < 0.02 was observed 3 h after methylprednisolone ingestion. During both exercise trials, placebo and methylprednisolone, PMN counts were increased by 46% and 19% (p < 0.05, respectively. The running test caused marked and significant (p < 0.05 increases in plasma myeloperoxidase concentration (MPO. The magnitude of MPO changes was the same in the two trials (+110%. Exercise also resulted in significant changes in plasma elastase concentration (EL in both experimental conditions (placebo: +104%, p < 0.05; methylprednisolone: +338%, p < 0.005. Plasma elastase levels reached at the end of exercise on methylprednisolone were significantly higher than after placebo (p < 0.05. A significant relationship was found between EL and PMN in methylprednisolone trial only (r = 0.72; l0 < 0.005. These results showed that the transient exercise-induced release of elastase and myeloperoxidase were not decreased by methylprednisolone.

  10. Effects of yoga exercise on maximum oxygen uptake, cortisol level, and creatine kinase myocardial bond activity in female patients with skeletal muscle pain syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Ha, Min-Sung; Baek, Yeong-Ho; Kim, Jong-Won; Kim, Do-Yeon

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study analyzed the effects of yoga exercise on maximum oxygen uptake, cortisol level, and creatine kinase myocardial bond activity in female patients with skeletal muscle pain syndrome. [Subjects] The subjects were 24 female patients with skeletal muscle pain syndrome. [Methods] The subjects were divided into 2 groups: a yoga exercise group (n = 12) and a non-exercise control group (n = 12). Body composition, maximum oxygen uptake, cortisol level, and creatine kinase myocardial...

  11. Effects of Three-Day Bed Rest on Physiological Responses to Graded Exercise in Endurance Athletes, Body Builders and Sedentary Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smorawinski, J.; Nazar, K.; Kaciuza-Uscilko, H.; Kaminska, E.; Cybulski, G.; Kodrzycka, A.; Bice, B.; Greenleaf, J. E.; Sun, Sid (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    To test the hypotheses that short-term bed rest (BR) deconditioning influences metabolic, cardiorespiratory and neurohormonal responses to exercise and that these effects depend on the subjects' training status 12 sedentary men, and 10 endurance- and 10 strength-trained athletes were submitted to three-day BR. Before and after BR they performed incremental exercise test until volitional exhaustion. Respiratory gas exchange and HR were recorded continuously and stroke volume (SV) was measured at submaximal loads. Blood was taken for lactate [LA], adrenaline [A], noradrenaline, [NA], renting activity (PRA), growth hormone [hGH], testosterone and cortisol determination. Reduction of peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) after BR was greater in the endurance athletes (than in the remaining groups (17 % vs. 100%). Decrements in VO2peak correlated positively with the initial values (r = 0.73, p less than 0.001). Resting and exercise respiratory exchange ratios were increased in athletes. Cardiac output was unchanged by BR in all groups, but exercise HR was increased and SV diminished in the sedentary subjects. The submaximal [LA] and [LA] thresholds were decreased the in endurance athletes from 71 to 60 %VO2 peak (p less than 0.001); they also had an earlier increase in [NA], and an attenuated increase in [hGH), and accentuated PRA and cortisol elevations during exercise. These effects were insignificant in the remaining subjects. In conclusion: reduction of exercise performance and modifications in neurohormonal response to exercise after BR depend on the previous level and mode of physical training, being the most pronounced in the endurance athletes.

  12. The effect of a standard whole blood donation on oxygen uptake and exercise capacity: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Remoortel, Hans; De Buck, Emmy; Compernolle, Veerle; Deldicque, Louise; Vandekerckhove, Philippe

    2017-02-01

    Blood is a life-saving product for many people worldwide. Voluntary blood donation serves the demand for blood but there are concerns among potential donors about the impact of blood loss on exercise performance. This systematic review aimed to collect the best available evidence of the effect of a standard whole blood donation on aerobic exercise performance. Studies from six databases dealing with a standard whole blood donation (400-500 mL) followed by (sub)maximal exercise were retained. The outcomes included exercise-related blood variables (hemoglobin [Hb] concentration, hematocrit, and red blood cell count) and endurance exercise variables ((sub)maximal oxygen uptake, peak work rate, and time to exhaustion). Overall effects at different time points postdonation were investigated by performing meta-analyses and calculating mean differences (and 95% confidence intervals). The GRADE methodology (Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation) was used to assess the quality of evidence. We identified 6237 references and finally included 18 before-after studies of low quality. Twenty-four to 48 hours after a blood donation, 1) Hb concentration was reduced (7% decrease) until 14 days after the blood donation (4% decrease), 2) maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max ) was lower (7% decrease), and 3) a reduction in maximal exercise capacity (10% decrease) was present. The best available evidence indicates that a standard whole blood donation (400-500 mL) leads to small but potentially physiologically important reductions in Hb levels, VO2max , and maximal exercise capacity in the first 2 days after the blood donation. © 2016 AABB.

  13. Effects of rhythmic aerobic exercise plus core stability training on serum chemerin levels and Glycemic index of overweight women

    OpenAIRE

    Z Taghavian; H Rabiee; Faramarzi, M; A Azamian

    2017-01-01

        Background & aim: Chemerin are novel adipokines that are secreted from adipose tissue and improved insulin sensitive. The purpose of this study was to examine the ffects of rhythmic aerobic exercise plus core stability training on serum chemerin levels and Insulin resistance, glucose levels and body composition of overweight women.   Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 40 healthy women aged 25-45, waist circumference equal to and above 88 cm, body mass in...

  14. The Effect of Ambient Temperature and Exercise to the Level of Exhaustion on

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    Somaye Kasharafifard

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The increase in the amount of heat shock protein and C-reactive protein occurring as a result of stress was done with the aims of returning cell homeostasis, successful restoration of cell injury and protection of cell against more injuries. Materials and Methods: Fifteen climber and 15 non athlete subjects were chosen. A selected aerobic test was done by the subjects using Monark bicycle under two different conditions. Before starting the test, the subjects were exposed to a normal condition with the temperature of 24±2°C for an hour and a blood sample was taken from all the subjects. Then immediately, the subjects took the selected aerobic test to the level of exhaustion and blood sample was taken again. A week later, these subjects were exposed to a heated environment with the temperature of 38±2°C, followed by blood sample taking. Finally, the test was done by the subjects to the level of exhaustion and the last blood sample was taken. Then, the amount of heat shock protein (HSP and C - reactive protein (CRP in blood samples was measured. Results: A meaningful difference was observed in the changes of heat shock proteins (p=0.012 and C-reactive protein (p=0.02 between athlete and non athlete subjects. There was no meaningful difference in CRP and HSP in normal and hot condition for non athlete subjects before and after the test. But the result of the study demonstrates that There was a meaningful difference for athletes in both conditions before and after the test (p=0.002. Conclusion: Based on the study, it is claimed that while an athlete is exposed to several stressful conditions (e.g. high temperature and physical exercise, compared to a non athlete, the reaction of his body cells is more significant in order to prevent the injury.

  15. Physical exercise in MCI elderly promotes reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines and improvements on cognition and BDNF peripheral levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Carla Manuela Crispim; Pereira, Jessica Rodrigues; de Andrade, Larissa Pires; Garuffi, Marcelo; Talib, Leda Leme; Forlenza, Orestes Vicente; Cancela, Jose Maria; Cominetti, Marcia Regina; Stella, Florindo

    2014-01-01

    The benefits of physical exercise to reduce low-grade inflammation and improve Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) levels and cognitive function became a growing field of interest. Low-grade inflammation is common during aging and seems to be linked to neurodegenerative process. Regular physical exercises can help to reduce pro-inflammatory cytokines levels and to improve BDNF peripheral concentrations. The main goal of this research was to analyze the effects of a 16-week multimodal physical exercise program on peripheral BDNF levels and on Tumor Necrosis-α (TNF-α) and Interleukin- 6 (IL-6) as pro-inflammatory markers in cognitive healthy elderly individuals and in elderly with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Cognitive functions were assessed by the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) prior to and after the intervention. Thirty cognitively healthy participants and thirty-seven MCI participants were assigned to the control (CG) and trained (TG) groups. The TG participated in a multimodal physical training program for a 16-week period. The results showed a significant between-subjects interaction, which indicates the beneficial contribution of training on the reduction of TNF-α (p=0.001) and IL-6 (pphysical exercise was effective to reduce pro-inflammatory cytokines and to improve BDNF peripheral levels, with positive reflexes on cognition. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that evaluated longitudinally the effects of a multimodal physical exercises protocol on peripheral concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines and cognition performance in elderly MCI individuals.

  16. Parent-of-origin effects on voluntary exercise levels and body composition in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, Scott A.; Nehrenberg, Derrick L.; Hua, Kunjie; Gordon, Ryan R.; Garland, Theodore; Pomp, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Despite the health-related benefits of exercise, many people do not engage in enough activity to realize the rewards, and little is known regarding the genetic or environmental components that account for this individual variation. We created and phenotyped a large G4 advanced intercross line originating from reciprocal crosses between mice with genetic propensity for increased voluntary exercise (HR line) and the inbred strain C57BL/6J. G4 females (compared to males) ran significantly more w...

  17. Blood lactate level in Elite boy swimmers after lactate tolerance exercise test

    OpenAIRE

    Asghar Nikseresht; Iman Yabande; Karamatollah Rahmanian; Abdolreza Sotoodeh Jahromi

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: To avoid injuries during high-intensity sports training, it is important to recognize conditions of bodily consumption and production of adequate energy; exercise increases the concentration of the blood lactate. This paper is an attempt to compare pre and post lactate tolerance exercise test - blood lactate concentrations - of elite boy swimmers. Methods: Blood lactates are measured by an enzymatic method on 12 subjects 30 minutes before and adjust and 24 hours after the t...

  18. Hemodynamic responses to single sessions of aerobic exercise and resistance exercise in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov Fieril, Karolina; Glantz, Anna; Fagevik Olsen, Monika

    2016-09-01

    Previous research on maternal hemodynamic responses to a single exercise session during pregnancy is sparse, especially considering immediate responses to resistance exercise. The aim of the study was to examine blood pressure, heart rate, body temperature, and Rating of Perceived Exertion in healthy pregnant women during single sessions of continuous submaximal exercise in pregnancy week 21. A cross-over design was used. Twenty healthy pregnant women from four prenatal clinics in Gothenburg, Sweden, were included. On day 1, the women did 30 min of aerobic exercise and on day 3 they did 30 min of resistance exercise. Blood pressure, heart rate, and Rating of Perceived Exertion were measured after 15 and 30 min of exercise. After 15 and 30 min of exercise, there was a significant increase in systolic blood pressure and heart rate (p exercise (p = 0.01) than resistance exercise (p = 0.03). Resistance exercise was perceived as more intense than aerobic exercise after 15 min (p = 0.02) and 30 min (p = 0.001) of exercise. Five minutes after completing the exercise, blood pressure quickly reverted to normal although heart rate was still increased (p = 0.001). There was no correlation between heart rate and Rating of Perceived Exertion (rs  = 0.05-0.43). Maternal hemodynamic responses were essentially the same, regardless of whether the exercise was submaximal aerobic or resistance exercise, although resistance exercise was perceived as more intense. Aerobic and resistance exercise corresponding to "somewhat hard" seems to have no adverse effect with regard to maternal hemodynamic responses in healthy pregnancy. © 2016 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  19. Effect of low-level laser therapy (808 nm) in skeletal muscle after resistance exercise training in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrocinio, Tatiane; Sardim, Andre Cabral; Assis, Livia; Fernandes, Kelly Rossetti; Rodrigues, Natalia; Renno, Ana Claudia Muniz

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of 808 nm laser applied after a resistance training protocol, on biochemical markers and the morphology of skeletal muscle in rats. Strenuous physical activity results in fatigue and decreased muscle strength, impaired motor control, and muscle pain. Many biochemical and biophysical interventions have been studied in an attempt to accelerate the recovery process of muscle fatigue. Among these, low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been demonstrated to be effective in increasing skeletal muscle performance in in vivo studies and in clinical trials. However, little is known about the effects of LLLT on muscle performance after resistance training. Thirty Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: control group (CG), trained group (TG), and trained and laser-irradiated group (TGL). The resistance training program was performed three times per week for 5 weeks, and consisted of a climbing exercise, with weights attached to the tail of the animal. Furthermore, laser irradiation was performed in the middle region of tibialis anterior (TA) muscle of both legs, after the exercise protocol. Analysis demonstrated that TGL demonstrated significantly reduced resting lactate level and decreased muscle glycogen depletion than the animals that were exercised only, and significantly increased the cross-section area of TA muscle fibers compared with thoseo in the other groups. These results suggest that LLLT could be an effective therapeutic approach in increasing muscle performance during a resistance exercise protocol.

  20. Effect of Exercise Training on Skeletal Muscle SIRT1 and PGC-1α Expression Levels in Rats of Different Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chi-Chang; Wang, Ting; Tung, Yu-Tang; Lin, Wan-Teng

    2016-01-01

    The protein deacetylase sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) pathway drives the muscular fiber-type switching, and can directly regulate the biophysiological functions of skeletal muscle. To investigate whether 12-week swimming exercise training modulates the SIRT1/PGC-1α pathway associated proteins expression in rats of different age. Male 3-month-old (3M), 12-month-old (12M) and 18-month-old (18M) Sprague-Dawley rats were used and assigned to sedentary control (C) or 12-week swimming exercise training (E) and divided into six groups: 3MC (n = 8), 12MC (n = 6), 18MC (n = 8), 3ME (n = 8), 12ME (n = 5) and 18ME (n = 6). Body weight, muscle weight, epididymal fat mass and muscle morphology were performed at the end of the experiment. The protein levels of SIRT1, PGC-1α, AMPK and FOXO3a in the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles were examined. The SIRT1, PGC-1α and AMPK levels in the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles were up-regulated in the three exercise training groups than three control groups. The FOXO3a level in the 12ME group significantly increased in the gastrocnemius muscles than 12MC group, but significantly decreased in the soleus muscles. In 3-, 12- and 18-month-old rats with and without exercise, there was a significant main effect of exercise on PGC-1α, AMPK and FOXO3a in the gastrocnemius muscles, and SIRT1, PGC-1α and AMPK in the soleus muscles. Our result suggests that swimming training can regulate the SIRT1/PGC-1α, AMPK and FOXO3a proteins expression of the soleus muscles in aged rats.

  1. Blunting of exercise-induced salivary testosterone in elite-level triathletes with a 10-day training camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hough, John; Robertson, Caroline; Gleeson, Michael

    2015-10-01

    This study examined the influence of 10 days of intensified training on salivary cortisol and testosterone responses to 30-min, high-intensity cycling (55/80) in a group of male elite triathletes. Seven elite male triathletes (age 19 ± 1 y, VO2max 67.6 ± 4.5 mL · kg-1 · min-1) completed the study. Swim distances increased by 45%. Running and cycling training hours increased by 25% and 229%, respectively. REST-Q questionnaires assessed mood status before, during, and after the training period. Unstimulated saliva samples were collected before, after, and 30 min after a continuous, high-intensity exercise test. Salivary cortisol and testosterone concentrations were assessed. Compared with pretraining, blunted exercise-induced salivary testosterone responses to the posttraining 55/80 were found (P = .004). The absolute response of salivary testosterone concentrations to the 55/80 decreased pretraining to posttraining from 114% to 85%. No changes were found in exercise-induced salivary cortisol concentration responses to the 55/80. REST-Q scores indicated no changes in the participants' psychological stress-recovery levels over the training camp. The blunted exercise-induced salivary testosterone is likely due to decreased testicular testosterone production and/or secretion, possibly attributable to hypothalamic dysfunction or reduced testicular blood flow. REST-Q scores suggest that the triathletes coped well with training-load elevations, which could account for the finding of no change in the exercise-induced salivary cortisol concentration. Overall, these findings suggest that the 55/80 can detect altered exercise-induced salivary testosterone concentrations in an elite athletic population due to increased training stress. However, this alteration occurs independently of a perceived elevation of training stress.

  2. PHYSIOLOGICAL AND LEUKOCYTE SUBSET RESPONSES TO EXERCISE AND COLD EXPOSURE IN COLD-ACCLIMATIZED SKATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kim

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We investigated physiological responses and changes in circulating immune cells following exercise in cold and thermoneutral conditions. Participants were short track skaters (n=9 who were acclimatized to cold conditions, and inline skaters (n=10 who were not acclimatized. All skaters were young, and skating at a recreational level three days per week for at least one year. Using a cross-over design, study variables were measured during 60 min of submaximal cycling (65% ·VO2max in cold (ambient temperature: 5±1°C, relative humidity: 41±9% and thermoneutral conditions (ambient temperature: 21±1°C, relative humidity: 35±5%. Heart rate, blood lactate and tympanic temperature were measured at rest, during exercise and recovery. Plasma cortisol, calprotectin and circulating blood cell numbers were measured before and after 60 min of cold or thermoneutral conditions, and during recovery from exercise. Heart rate was lower in both groups during exercise in cold versus thermoneutral conditions (P<0.05. The increase in total leukocytes during recovery was primarily due to an increase in neutrophils in both groups. The cold-acclimatized group activated neutrophils after exercise in cold exposure, whereas the non-acclimatized group activated lymphocyte and cortisol after exercise in cold exposure. Lymphocyte subsets significantly changed in both groups over time during recovery as compared to rest. Immediately after exercise in both groups, CD16+ and CD69+ cells were elevated compared to rest or before exercise in both conditions. Acclimatization to exercise in the cold does not appear to influence exercise-induced immune changes in cold conditions, with the possible exception of neutrophils, lymphocytes and cortisol concentration.

  3. Physiological and leukocyte subset responses to exercise and cold exposure in cold-acclimatized skaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K; Suzuki, K; Peake, J; Ahn, N; Ogawa, K; Hong, Ch; Kim, S; Lee, I; Park, J

    2014-03-01

    We investigated physiological responses and changes in circulating immune cells following exercise in cold and thermoneutral conditions. Participants were short track skaters (n=9) who were acclimatized to cold conditions, and inline skaters (n=10) who were not acclimatized. All skaters were young, and skating at a recreational level three days per week for at least one year. Using a cross-over design, study variables were measured during 60 min of submaximal cycling (65% [Formula: see text]O2max) in cold (ambient temperature: 5±1°C, relative humidity: 41±9%) and thermoneutral conditions (ambient temperature: 21±1°C, relative humidity: 35±5%). Heart rate, blood lactate and tympanic temperature were measured at rest, during exercise and recovery. Plasma cortisol, calprotectin and circulating blood cell numbers were measured before and after 60 min of cold or thermoneutral conditions, and during recovery from exercise. Heart rate was lower in both groups during exercise in cold versus thermoneutral conditions (Pcold-acclimatized group activated neutrophils after exercise in cold exposure, whereas the non-acclimatized group activated lymphocyte and cortisol after exercise in cold exposure. Lymphocyte subsets significantly changed in both groups over time during recovery as compared to rest. Immediately after exercise in both groups, CD16+ and CD69+ cells were elevated compared to rest or before exercise in both conditions. Acclimatization to exercise in the cold does not appear to influence exercise-induced immune changes in cold conditions, with the possible exception of neutrophils, lymphocytes and cortisol concentration.

  4. Reduced exercise time in competitive simulations consequent to low level ozone exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schelegle, E.S.; Adams, W.C.

    1986-08-01

    Ten highly trained endurance athletes were studied to determine the effects of exposure to low ozone (O/sub 3/) concentrations on simulated competitive endurance performance and associated physiological and subjective symptom responses. Each subject was randomly exposed to filtered air (FA), and to 0.12, 0.18, and 0.24 ppm O/sub 3/ while performing a 1 h competitive simulation protocol on a bicycle ergometer. Endurance performance was evaluated by the number of subjects unable to complete rides (last 30 min at an intense work load of approximately 86% VO/sub 2/max). All subjects completed the FA exposure, whereas one, five, and seven subjects did not complete the 0.12, 0.18, and 0.24 ppm O/sub 3/ exposures, respectively. Statistical analysis indicated a significant (P less than 0.05) increase in the inability of subjects to complete the competitive simulations with increasing O/sub 3/ concentration, including a significant difference between the 0.24 ppm O/sub 3/ and FA exposure. Significant decreases (P less than 0.05) were also observed following the 0.18 and 0.24 ppm O/sub 3/ exposures, respectively, in forced vital capacity (-7.8 and -9.9%), and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (-5.8 and -10.5%). No significant O/sub 3/ effect was observed for exercise respiratory metabolism or ventilatory pattern responses. However, the number of reported subjective symptoms increased significantly following the 0.18 and 0.24 ppm O/sub 3/ protocols. These data demonstrate significant decrements in simulated competitive endurance performance and in pulmonary function, with accompanying enhanced subjective symptoms, following exposure to low O/sub 3/ levels commonly observed in numerous metropolitan environments during the summer months.

  5. The effect of exercise training on the level of tissue IL-6 and vascular endothelial growth factor in breast cancer bearing mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadegh Amani Shalamzari

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: The goal of this study was assessing the prophylactic effect of exercise and its role as an adjuvant therapy on level of cytokines involved in angiogenesis in estrogen-dependent breast cancer. Materials and Methods: Forty female BALB/c mice were randomly assigned to exercise-tumor-exercise (ETE, exercise-tumor-rest (ETR, rest-tumor-exercise (RTE and rest-tumor-rest (RTR groups. After orientation in the environment, two groups of mice performed continuous endurance exercise for 8 weeks, and thereafter estrogen-dependent MC4L2 cancer cells were injected to them. Then, one group of each of trained and non-trained mice performed endurance exercise 5 days per week for 6 weeks. Tumor volume was measured by a digital caliper weekly. Finally, the mice were sacrificed; tumor tissue was removed, immediately frozen and kept in              -70°C. Tumor sample was homogenized; levels of cytokines were measured and quantified using ELISA. Results: There was significant reduction in the level of interlukin-6 (IL-6 (P=0.001, Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF (P=0.0001 and tumor volume (P=0.0001 among the groups performing endurance exercise after malignancy (RTE and ETE in comparison with groups not performing endurance exercise (ETR and RTR, and these results were in agreement with tumor growth rate. Conclusion: Exercise can cause reduction in levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in tumor tissue. Decreased IL-6 production could reduce the generation of VEGF, resulting in reduced intra-tumor angiogenesis. Due to reduction of the level of these cytokines in groups doing exercise before and after malignancy, exercise is presumed to be an adjuvant therapy in estrogen-receptor dependent tumors in addition to its effective prophylactic role.

  6. Effect of Exercise on Cardiorespiratory Function in Obese Children with Asthma in Different Moisture Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Pouyan Majd

    2014-09-01

    Methods: The present case-control study was carried out with ten obese asthmatic children and fifteen healthy children who performed an exercise protocol in different environments (relative humidity 65 ± 5% versus 35 ± 5%. During exercise, cardiorespiratory parameters were controlled using K4B2. Heart rate, systolic blood pressure and double product were measured with a digital sphygmomanometer and stethoscope polar. Data were analyzed with dependent T test and ANOVA with repeated measures analysis. Results: A significant increase was detected in the markers of HR, SP and DP after exercise in obese children with asthma and healthy children (P< 0.005. However, indexes of cardiorespiratory and exhaustion was significantly higher in obese children with asthma and healthy during exercise in the environment with 65 ± 5% relative humidity, as compared to 35 ± 5% relative humidity. Conclusion: These results indicated that cardiorespiratory function in children with asthma and healthy children were different. Cardiorespiratory responses to exercise in children are influenced by environmental conditions such as humidity, so that humidity has a negative impact on the duration of the activity and load on the heart muscle.

  7. Effect of orthostatic stress on exercise performance after bedrest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convertino, V. A.; Goldwater, D. J.; Sandler, H.

    1982-01-01

    The cardiorespiratory responses to supine against upright exercise were compared to determine the orthostatic effects of gravity on exercise performance following bedrest. Five healthy male subjects underwent seven days of continuous bedrest. A deconditioning effect was manifested by significant increases in ventilation volume, carbon dioxide production, respiratory exchange ratio, heart rate, heart rate-pressure product, and diastolic blood pressure during submaximal exercise following bedrest. The major finding from this study was that bedrest resulted in a general decrease in exercise tolerance, which was more stressful in the upright posture compared to the supine position, judging from specific submaximal cardiorespiratory responses to cycle ergometry. The data support the hypothesis that there is an orthostatic factor to the reduction in work tolerance following bedrest deconditioning, in addition to the effects caused by increased physical activity.

  8. The Effect of 12 Weeks Aerobic, Resistance, and Combined Exercises on Omentin-1 Levels and Insulin Resistance among Type 2 Diabetic Middle-Aged Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AminiLari, Zeinab; Fararouei, Mohammad; Amanat, Sasan; Sinaei, Ehsan; Dianatinasab, Safa; AminiLari, Mahmood; Daneshi, Nima; Dianatinasab, Mostafa

    2017-06-01

    Recent studies have shown that omentin-1 derived from adipokines can affect physiological regulations and some metabolic dis-eases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of 12 weeks of aerobic (cycle ergometer), resistance, and combined exercises on omentin-1 level, glucose and insulin resistance indices in overweight middle age women with T2DM. In this study, 60 overweight middle age diabetic women were selected using simple random sampling and they were assigned to three groups of aerobic exercise (n=12), resistant exercise (n=12) and combined exercise (n=13), and one control group (n=15). Exercises were done in a three times per week sessions for a total of 12 weeks. Blood samples were collected before each exercise session and 24 hours after of the last session. Present study showed that fasting blood sugar decreased significantly in all intervention groups, while homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) decreased only in the aerobic and combined exercises groups. Furthermore, there was a significant increase in the omentin-1 level only in the combined exercise group. Compared to aerobic and resistance exercises, 12 weeks of combined exercise was more efficient in improving HOMA-IR and increasing serum omentin-1 among women with T2DM.

  9. The Exercise-Induced Irisin Is Associated with Improved Levels of Glucose Homeostasis Markers in Pregnant Women Participating in 8-Week Prenatal Group Fitness Program: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Szumilewicz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Both exercise and pregnancy influence serum irisin concentration. Aim. To determine how the interaction of pregnancy and exercise affects irisin level and whether various patterns of exercise adherence had different effect on irisin concentration. Methods. It was a one-group pretest-posttest study among 9 Caucasian nulliparous healthy women in normal pregnancy (age 23±3 years, 21±2 weeks of gestation; mean ± SD who participated in 8-week group fitness program. Before and after exercise intervention, we determined serum concentrations of irisin and selected parameters of lipid profile and glucose homeostasis markers. Results. In active women, irisin slightly decreased with the development of pregnancy. After 8 weeks of exercising, irisin correlated negatively with fasting glucose (R = −0.922; p=0.001, glycated hemoglobin (R = −0.784; p=0.012, and insulin concentrations (R = −0.845; p=0.004. In women exercising below recommended level, we observed a significant drop in irisin concentration, whereas in women exercising at least three times a week this myokine slightly increased (31% difference; 90% confidence limits ±28; a large, clear effect. Conclusions. Irisin stimulated by prenatal exercise may improve glucose homeostasis markers in healthy women and compensate for metabolic changes induced by pregnancy. Moreover, the frequency of exercise may regulate the changes in exercise-induced irisin concentration.

  10. Effect of music on submaximal cycling | Schie | South African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. Athletes frequently report training to music, yet there have been relatively few studies that have addressed the benefit of exercising with music. Design. Volunteer men and women (N=30), aged between 18 and 40 years, performed an initial familiarisation session. Part of this session involved the measurement of ...

  11. Fasting and exercise increase plasma cannabinoid levels in THC pre-treated rats: an examination of behavioural consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Alexander; Keats, Kirily; Rooney, Kieron; Hicks, Callum; Allsop, David J; Arnold, Jonathon C; McGregor, Iain S

    2014-10-01

    Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive constituent of cannabis, accumulates in fat tissue where it can remain for prolonged periods. Under conditions of increased fat utilisation, blood cannabinoid concentrations can increase. However, it is unclear whether this has behavioural consequences. Here, we examined whether rats pre-treated with multiple or single doses of THC followed by a washout would show elevated plasma cannabinoids and altered behaviour following fasting or exercise manipulations designed to increase fat utilisation. Behavioural impairment was measured as an inhibition of spontaneous locomotor activity or a failure to successfully complete a treadmill exercise session. Fat utilisation was indexed by plasma free fatty acid (FFA) levels with plasma concentrations of THC and its terminal metabolite (-)-11-nor-9-carboxy-∆(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH) also measured. Rats given daily THC (10 mg/kg) for 5 days followed by a 4-day washout showed elevated plasma THC-COOH when fasted for 24 h relative to non-fasted controls. Fasted rats showed lower locomotor activity than controls suggesting a behavioural effect of fat-released THC. However, rats fasted for 20 h after a single 5-mg/kg THC injection did not show locomotor suppression, despite modestly elevated plasma THC-COOH. Rats pre-treated with THC (5 mg/kg) and exercised 20 h later also showed elevated plasma THC-COOH but did not differ from controls in their likelihood of completing 30 min of treadmill exercise. These results confirm that fasting and exercise can increase plasma cannabinoid levels. Behavioural consequences are more clearly observed with pre-treatment regimes involving repeated rather than single THC dosing.

  12. Does chronic physical activity level modify the airway inflammatory response to an acute bout of exercise in the postprandial period?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurti, Stephanie P; Rosenkranz, Sara K; Chapes, Stephen K; Teeman, Colby S; Cull, Brooke J; Emerson, Sam R; Levitt, Morton H; Smith, Joshua R; Harms, Craig A

    2017-02-01

    Recent studies have confirmed that a single high-fat meal (HFM) leads to increased airway inflammation. However, exercise is a natural anti-inflammatory and may modify postprandial airway inflammation. The postprandial airway inflammatory response is likely to be modified by chronic physical activity (PA) level. This study investigated whether chronic PA modifies the airway inflammatory response to an acute bout of exercise in the postprandial period in both insufficiently active and active subjects. Thirty-nine nonasthmatic subjects (20 active, 13 males/7 females) who exceeded PA guidelines (≥150 min moderate-vigorous PA/week) and 19 insufficiently active (6 males/13 females) underwent an incremental treadmill test to exhaustion to determine peak oxygen uptake. Subjects were then randomized to a condition (COND), either remaining sedentary (CON) or exercising (EX) post-HFM. Exercise was performed at the heart rate corresponding to 60% peak oxygen uptake on a treadmill for 1 h post-HFM (63% fat, 10 kcal/kg body weight). Blood lipids and exhaled nitric oxide (eNO: marker of airway inflammation) were measured at baseline and 2 h and 4 h post-HFM. Sputum differential cell counts were performed at baseline and 4 h post-HFM. The mean eNO response for all groups increased at 2 h post-HFM (∼6%) and returned to baseline by 4 h (p = 0.03). There was a time × COND interaction (p = 0.04), where EX had a greater eNO response at 4 h compared with CON. Sputum neutrophils increased at 4 h post-HFM (p < 0.05). These findings suggest that airway inflammation occurs after an HFM when exercise is performed in the postprandial period, regardless of habitual activity level.

  13. Effect of swiss ball exercises on some physical and physiological variables and their relationship with kata performance level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELTANAHI NAGLA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims to study the effect of Swiss ball exercises on the abdominal, back and leg muscles strength, hip and spine flexibility, static and dynamic balance and Vital Capacity in addition to their relationship of Gankaku Kata performance level. (12 Women Karateka aged (18-20 years from Zagazig University karate first- team participated in 8 weeks Swiss Ball exercises. The present study included Sit- Up legs- straight, Back Lift Strength, leg lift strength, grand car flexibility, Trunk Extension Flexibility, stroke Stand, Modified Bass Test of Dynamic Balance and Vital Capacity Tests, surface electromyography (EMG was used to assess abdominal and back muscles activity during kata skills, The level of performance was evaluated by five Judgers accredited by the Egyptian Federation of Karate. Results showed significant differences between the two measures of physical and physiological variables with improvement of Gankaku Kata performance

  14. Role of low-level laser therapy added to facial expression exercises in patients with idiopathic facial (Bell's) palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordahan, Banu; Karahan, Ali Yavuz

    2017-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of low-level laser therapy in conjunction with conventional facial exercise treatment on functional outcomes during the early recovery period in patients with facial paralysis. Forty-six patients (mean age 41 ± 9.7 years; 40 women and 6 men) were randomized into two groups. Patients in the first group received low-level laser treatment as well as facial exercise treatment, while patients in the second group participated in facial exercise intervention alone. Laser treatment was administered at a wavelength of 830 nm, output power of 100 Mw, and frequency of 1 KHz using a gallium-aluminum-arsenide (GaAIAs, infrared laser) diode laser. A mean energy density of 10 J/cm 2 was administered to eight points of the affected side of the face three times per week, for a total of 6 weeks. The rate of facial improvement was evaluated using the facial disability index (FDI) before, 3 weeks after, and 6 weeks after treatment. Friedman analysis of variance was performed to compare the data from the parameters repeatedly measured in the inner-group analysis. Bonferroni correction was performed to compare between groups as a post hoc test if the variance analysis test result was significant. To detect the group differences, the Bonferroni Student t test was used. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare numeric data between the groups. In the exercise group, although no significant difference in FDI scores was noted between the start of treatment and week 3 (p laser group, significant improvement in FDI scores relative to baseline was observed at 3 and 6 weeks (p laser group than those in the exercise group (p laser therapy (LLLT) and exercise therapy is associated with significant improvements in FDI when compared with exercise therapy alone.

  15. High exercise levels are related to favorable sleep patterns and psychological functioning in adolescents: a comparison of athletes and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Serge; Gerber, Markus; Beck, Johannes; Hatzinger, Martin; Pühse, Uwe; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith

    2010-02-01

    To investigate whether chronic vigorous exercising is related to improved sleep and psychological functioning, and whether this association varies with gender. Both lay and scientific opinions hold that physical activity is an efficient remedy and preventative measure for poor sleep. However, empirical evidence on adolescents is very limited. A total of 434 adolescents (258 athletes, 176 controls; mean age 17.2 years) took part in the study. Weekly hours spent exercising were 17.69 hours and 4.69 hours, respectively. To assess sleep patterns and psychological functioning, participants completed a sleep log for 7 consecutive days and several self-rating questionnaires. Compared with controls, athletes reported better sleep patterns including higher sleep quality, shortened sleep onset latency, and fewer awakenings after sleep onset, as well as less tiredness and increased concentration during the day. Athletes reported significantly lower anxiety and fewer depressive symptoms. Compared with males, females reported fewer variations in sleep. Male controls had particularly unfavorable scores related to sleep and psychological functioning. Findings suggest that chronic vigorous exercising is positively related to adolescents' sleep and psychological functioning. Results also indicate that males with low exercise levels are at risk for increased sleep complaints and poorer psychological functioning. Copyright 2010 Society for Adolescent Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Effects of Short-Term Intensive Exercise on Levels of Liver Enzymes and Serum Lipids in Kick Boxing Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer Kaynar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study, it was aimed to evaluate the ef­fects of short-term intensive exercise on liver enzymes and serum lipid levels with kick boxing athletes. Methods: 23 voluntary athletes who were between the ages of 15-46 and who engaged in kick–boxing have tak­en place this study. Athletes were made to do 45 minutes of warming-up, breathing, and stretching and 50 minutes of technical and tactical practices and then they were made to do a training match, which is equal to a 2 min­utes 3 circuits (1 minute rest kick-box match. In venous blood samples which were taken from athletes before and after training, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and gamma glutamine transpeptidase (GGT, enzyme activity and total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C and triglycerides serum levels were analyzed via spectropho­tometric method in Beckman Coulter AU 5800 auto ana­lyzer. Body composition measurements of athletes were made with Tanita TBF 300 brand device, which works with bio-impedance analysis (BIA system. Results: As a result of our study, statistically increases in serum ALT, AST, ALP and GGT enzyme activities and in serum total cholesterol, HDL-C and LDL-C levels were detected following short-term intensive exercise, but no significant difference was observed in TG levels after in­tensive exercise. Conclusion: The blows to the abdomen during kickbox­ing sports competitions result in increased liver enzymes and increased serum lipids may occur to meet energy de­mand of the body during exercise.

  17. Exercise addiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lichtenstein, Mia Beck; Christiansen, Erik; Elklit, Ask

    2014-01-01

    Exercise addiction is characterized by excessive exercise patterns with potential negative consequences such as overuse injuries. The aim of this study was to compare eating disorder symptoms, quality of life, personality traits and attachments styles in exercisers with and without indications...... of exercise addiction. A case-control study with 121 exercisers was conducted. The exercisers were categorized into an addiction group (n=41) or a control group (n=80) on the basis of their responses to the Exercise Addiction Inventory. The participants completed the Eating Disorder Inventory 2, the Short......-Form 36, the NEO Personality Inventory Revised and the Adult Attachment Scale. The addiction group scored higher on eating disorder symptoms, especially on perfectionism but not as high as eating disorder populations. The characteristic personality traits in the addiction group were high levels...

  18. Cardiovascular responses during a submaximal exercise test in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speelman, A.D.; Groothuis, J.T.; Nimwegen, M. van; Scheer, E.S. van der; Borm, G.F.; Bloem, B.R.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Munneke, M.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) are physically less active than controls, and autonomic dysfunction may contribute to this sedentary lifestyle. Specifically, an altered cardiovascular response to physical effort may restrict physical activities. OBJECTIVE: To assess the

  19. Sex and Exercise Intensity Do Not Influence Oxygen Uptake Kinetics in Submaximal Swimming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Joana F.; Millet, Gregoire P.; Bruno, Paula M.; Vleck, Veronica; Alves, Francisco B.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the oxygen uptake (V˙O2) kinetics in front crawl between male and female swimmers at moderate and heavy intensity. We hypothesized that the time constant for the primary phase V˙O2 kinetics was faster in men than in women, for both intensities. Nineteen well trained swimmers (8 females mean ± SD; age 17.9 ± 3.5 years; mass 55.2 ± 3.6 kg; height 1.66 ± 0.05 m and 11 male 21.9 ± 2.8 years; 78.2 ± 11.1 kg; 1.81 ± 0.08 m) performed a discontinuous maximal incremental test and two 600-m square wave transitions for both moderate and heavy intensities to determine the V˙O2 kinetics parameters using mono- and bi-exponential models, respectively. All the tests involved breath-by-breath analysis of front crawl swimming using a swimming snorkel. The maximal oxygen uptake (V˙O2max) was higher in men than in women [4,492 ± 585 ml·min−1 and 57.7 ± 4.4 ml·kg−1·min−1 vs. 2,752.4 ± 187.9 ml·min−1 (p ≤ 0.001) and 50.0 ± 5.7 ml·kg−1·min−1(p = 0.007), respectively]. Similarly, the absolute amplitude of the primary component was higher in men for both intensities (moderate: 1,736 ± 164 vs. 1,121 ± 149 ml·min−1; heavy: 2,948 ± 227 vs. 1,927 ± 243 ml·min−1, p ≤ 0.001, for males and females, respectively). However, the time constant of the primary component (τp) was not influenced by sex (p = 0.527) or swimming intensity (p = 0.804) (moderate: 15.1 ± 5.6 vs. 14.4 ± 5.1 s; heavy: 13.5 ± 3.3 vs. 16.0 ± 4.5 s, for females and males, respectively). The slow component in the heavy domain was not significantly different between female and male swimmers (3.2 ± 2.4 vs. 3.8 ± 1.0 ml·kg−1·min−1, p = 0.476). Overall, only the absolute amplitude of the primary component was higher in men, while the other V˙O2 kinetics parameters were similar between female and male swimmers at both moderate and heavy intensities. The mechanisms underlying these similarities remain unclear. PMID:28239356

  20. Estimation of maximal oxygen uptake via submaximal exercise testing in sports, clinical, and home settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sartor, F.; Vernillo, G.; de Morree, H.M.; Bonomi, A.G.; La Torre, A.; Kubis, H.P.; Veicsteinas, A.

    2013-01-01

    Assessment of the functional capacity of the cardiovascular system is essential in sports medicine. For athletes, the maximal oxygen uptake (V˙O2max) provides valuable information about their aerobic power. In the clinical setting, the V˙O2max provides important diagnostic and prognostic information

  1. Within- and Between-Day Repeatability and Variability in Children's Physiological Responses during Submaximal Treadmill Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, Paulo R. S.; Byrne, Nuala Mary; Hills, Andrew P.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to verify within- and between-day repeatability and variability in children's oxygen uptake (VO[subscript 2]), gross economy (GE; VO[subscript 2] divided by speed) and heart rate (HR) during treadmill walking based on self-selected speed (SS). Fourteen children (10.1 plus or minus 1.4 years) undertook three testing…

  2. Description of a standardized rehabilitation program based on sub-maximal eccentric following a platelet-rich plasma infiltration for jumper’s knee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaux, Jean-François; Forthomme, Bénédicte; Namurois, Marie-Hélène; Bauvir, Philippe; Defawe, Nathalie; Delvaux, François; Lehance, Cédric; Crielaard, Jean-Michel; Croisier, Jean-Louis

    2014-01-01

    Summary Introduction. Different series emphasized the necessity of rehabilitation program after infiltration of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in case of tendinopathy. However, most of them describe only briefly the reeducation protocol and these programs vary. Our aim was to extensively describe a specific standardized rehabilitation program. Methods. After a review of literature of post-PRP infiltration protocols, we had developed a standardized rehabilitation protocol. This protocol was evaluated by 30 subjects with chronic jumper’s knee who. A standardised progressive sub-maximal eccentric program supervised by a physical therapist for 6 weeks was started 1 week post-infiltration. The patient benefited also from electromyostimulation, isometric strengthening and stretching of the quadriceps, cycloergometer and cryotherapy. After the supervised program, the patient had to make an auto-reeducation added to the reathletisation protocol for 6 more weeks which was followed by maintenance exercises up to 1 year. The assessments were made using a VAS, IKDC and VISA-P scores. Results. The VAS, IKDC and VISA-P scores decreased very significantly with time. The compliance to auto-reeducation was good. Conclusions. We proposed a simple and efficient protocol based on sub-maximal eccentric reeducation to add to PRP infiltrations in case of patellar tendinopathy. PMID:24932453

  3. Price Elasticity of Demand: An A-Level Economics Revision Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Paul

    1992-01-01

    Presents a review exercise requiring students to sort diagrams and descriptions of price elasticity of demand. Reports that students are given jumbled diagrams and explanations that they must arrange in proper form. Reveals that some items are designed as distractors. (SG)

  4. Effect of Physical and Flexibility Exercise on Plasma Levels of Some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    produced by skeletal muscles that results in energy usage beyond resting energy expenditure. From these definitions, it is clear that physical activity exerts the body muscles and involves the expenditure of energy in form of. ATP. Depending on the overall effect physical exercise has on the body, it is grouped into three.

  5. Effect of motivational music on lactate levels during recovery from intense exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliakim, Michal; Bodner, Ehud; Eliakim, Alon; Nemet, Dan; Meckel, Yoav

    2012-01-01

    The effects of music played during an exercise task on athletic performance have been previously studied. Yet, these results are not applicable for competitive athletes, who can use music only during warm-up or recovery from exercise. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effect of motivational music (music that stimulates or inspires physical activity) during recovery from intense exercise, on activity pattern, rate of perceived exertion (RPE), and blood lactate concentration. Twenty young, active men (mean age 26.2 ± 2.1 years) performed a 6-minute run at peak oxygen consumption speed (predetermined from the VO(2) max test). The mean heart rate (HR), RPE, number of steps (determined by step counter), and blood lactate concentrations were determined at 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 minutes during the recovery from the exercise, with and without motivational music (2 separate sessions, at random order). There was no difference in the mean HR during the recovery with and without music. Listening to motivational music during the recovery was associated with increased voluntary activity of the participants, determined by increased number of steps (499.4 ± 220.1 vs. 413.2 ± 150.6 steps, with and without music, respectively; p ≤ 0.05). The increased number of steps during the recovery was accompanied by a significantly greater decrease in blood lactate concentration percentage (28.1 ± 12.2 vs. 22.8 ± 10.9%, with and without music, respectively, p ≤ 0.05). This was associated with a greater decrease in RPE (77.7 ± 14.4 vs. 73.1 ± 14.7% with and without music, respectively; p ≤ 0.05). Our results suggest that listening to motivational music during nonstructured recovery from intense exercise leads to increased activity, faster lactate clearance, and reduced RPE and therefore may be used by athletes in their effort to enhance recovery.

  6. EFFECT OF EXERCISE ON THE LEVEL OF IMMUNOGLOBULIN A IN SALIVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Trochimiak

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to describe the structure, production and function of secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA as well as changes of its concentration caused by exercise of various intensity and duration. Immunoglobulin A is the main class of antibodies present in the body secreted fluids such as saliva, tears or mucus from the intestines. It is generally recognized that IgA, due to its dominance in the immune system of mucous membranes, is the first line of defence against harmful environmental factors. The secretion and composition of saliva depends on the activity of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. Physical activity, stimulating the autonomous nervous system, may reduce the amount of saliva and/or inhibit its secretion. The relationship between physical activity and the suppression of the immune system is not fully understood, but it is known that moderate intensity exercise can improve immune defences, while extreme effort can reduce them by creating an increased risk of upper respiratory tract inflammation (URTI. In athletes, the lowest risk of upper tract infection was connected with the case of moderate intensity exercise. It is now believed that the relationship between exercise volume and the risk of URTI has the shape of the letter “J”. This means that both too little and too much physical activity may increase the risk of upper respiratory tract infection. Training optimization and correct balance between exercise and rest periods may reduce the risk of adverse changes in the immune system and decrease the frequency of URTI.

  7. The effect of exercise training modality on serum brain derived neurotrophic factor levels in individuals with type 2 diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damon L Swift

    Full Text Available Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF has been implicated in memory, learning, and neurodegenerative diseases. However, the relationship of BDNF with cardiometabolic risk factors is unclear, and the effect of exercise training on BDNF has not been previously explored in individuals with type 2 diabetes.Men and women (N = 150 with type 2 diabetes were randomized to an aerobic exercise (aerobic, resistance exercise (resistance, or a combination of both (combination for 9 months. Serum BDNF levels were evaluated at baseline and follow-up from archived blood samples.Baseline serum BDNF was not associated with fitness, body composition, anthropometry, glucose control, or strength measures (all, p>0.05. Similarly, no significant change in serum BDNF levels was observed following exercise training in the aerobic (-1649.4 pg/ml, CI: -4768.9 to 1470.2, resistance (-2351.2 pg/ml, CI:-5290.7 to 588.3, or combination groups (-827.4 pg/ml, CI: -3533.3 to 1878.5 compared to the control group (-2320.0 pg/ml, CI: -5750.8 to 1110.8. However, reductions in waist circumference were directly associated with changes in serum BDNF following training (r = 0.25, p = 0.005.Serum BDNF was not associated with fitness, body composition, anthropometry, glucose control, or strength measures at baseline. Likewise, serum BDNF measures were not altered by 9 months of aerobic, resistance, or combination training. However, reductions in waist circumference were associated with decreased serum BDNF levels. Future studies should investigate the relevance of BDNF with measures of cognitive function specifically in individuals with type-2 diabetes.

  8. Basal serum levels and reactivity of nerve growth factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor to standardized acute exercise in multiple sclerosis and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Stefan M; Schulz, Karl-Heinz; Hartmann, Sten; Mladek, Mila; Lang, Undine E; Hellweg, Rainer; Reer, Rüdiger; Braumann, Klaus-Michael; Heesen, Christoph

    2003-05-01

    Neurotrophins like brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) are thought to play an important role in neuronal repair and plasticity. Recent experimental evidence suggests neuroprotective effects of these proteins in multiple sclerosis (MS). We investigated the response of serum NGF and BDNF concentrations to standardized acute exercise in MS patients and controls. Basal NGF levels were significantly elevated in MS. Thirty minutes of moderate exercise significantly induced BDNF production in MS patients and controls, but no differential effects were seen. We conclude that moderate exercise can be used to induce neutrophin production in humans. This may mediate beneficial effects of physical exercise in MS reported recently.

  9. Comparison of Effect of One Course of Intense Exercise (Wingate test) on Serum Levels of Interleukin-17 in Different Groups of Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Tofighee, Asghar; Khazaei, Hossein Ali; Jalili, Arman

    2014-01-01

    Background: Research on the effects of exercise on immune function, has a wide range of sporting activities. Study on the long-term effects of regular exercise on serum levels of cytokines such as interleukin-17 have shown that moderate and regular exercise, has an important role in the prevention and treatment of many diseases. Objectives: Exhaustive exercise has a deep effect on cellular, humoral, innate immunity and the amount of cytokines of an athlete?s immune system. So this study was d...

  10. Maternal Exercise during Pregnancy Increases BDNF Levels and Cell Numbers in the Hippocampal Formation but Not in the Cerebral Cortex of Adult Rat Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes da Silva, Sérgio; de Almeida, Alexandre Aparecido; Fernandes, Jansen; Lopim, Glauber Menezes; Cabral, Francisco Romero; Scerni, Débora Amado; de Oliveira-Pinto, Ana Virgínia; Lent, Roberto; Arida, Ricardo Mario

    2016-01-01

    Clinical evidence has shown that physical exercise during pregnancy may alter brain development and improve cognitive function of offspring. However, the mechanisms through which maternal exercise might promote such effects are not well understood. The present study examined levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and absolute cell…

  11. Comparison of Effect of One Course of Intense Exercise (Wingate test) on Serum Levels of Interleukin-17 in Different Groups of Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofighee, Asghar; Khazaei, Hossein Ali; Jalili, Arman

    2014-12-01

    Research on the effects of exercise on immune function, has a wide range of sporting activities. Study on the long-term effects of regular exercise on serum levels of cytokines such as interleukin-17 have shown that moderate and regular exercise, has an important role in the prevention and treatment of many diseases. Exhaustive exercise has a deep effect on cellular, humoral, innate immunity and the amount of cytokines of an athlete's immune system. So this study was designed to compare the effect of one course of exhaustive exercise on serum levels of interleukin (IL)-17 in different groups of athletes. Forty professional athletes with a mean age of 25.1 ± 5.0 years, divided equally in 4 groups (handball, volleyball, Sepak-takraw and climbing) were selected for this purpose. 30 second Wingate test for each athlete was used to assess anaerobic power. Blood samples before, immediately after and 2 hours after exercise was collected and the amount of serum IL-17 was measured. The results showed that the level of IL-17 in the study groups before and after the two hours exercise did not significantly change in all four groups. The results showed that short anaerobic exercise has no effect on the level of IL-17.

  12. Utilizing small nutrient compounds as enhancers of exercise-induced mitochondrial biogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel M Craig

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Endurance exercise, when performed regularly as part of a training program, leads to increases in whole-body and skeletal muscle-specific oxidative capacity. At the cellular level, this adaptive response is manifested by an increased number of oxidative fibres (Type I and IIA myosin heavy chain, an increase in capillarity and an increase in mitochondrial biogenesis. The increase in mitochondrial biogenesis (increased volume and functional capacity is fundamentally important as it leads to greater rates of oxidative phosphorylation and an improved capacity to utilize fatty acids during sub-maximal exercise. Given the importance of mitochondrial biogenesis for skeletal muscle performance, considerable attention has been given to understanding the molecular cues stimulated by endurance exercise that culminate in this adaptive response. In turn, this research has led to the identification of pharmaceutical compounds, functional foods and small nutritional bioactive ingredients that appear able to amplify exercise-responsive signaling pathways in skeletal muscle. The aim of this review is to discuss these purported exercise mimetics and bioactive ingredients in the context of mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle. We will examine proposed modes of action, discuss evidence of application in skeletal muscle in vivo and finally comment on the feasibility of such approaches to support endurance-training applications in humans.

  13. Exercise responses during functional electrical stimulation cycling in individuals with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasnan, Nazirah; Ektas, Nalan; Tanhoffer, Aldre Izabel P; Tanhoffer, Ricardo; Fornusek, Che; Middleton, James W; Husain, Ruby; Davis, Glen M

    2013-06-01

    This study compared acute exercise responses during arm cranking, functional electrical stimulation (FES)-assisted leg cycling, and combined arm and leg ("hybrid") cycling in individuals with spinal cord injury during maximal and submaximal exercise. Nine male subjects with long-standing neurological lesions from C7 to T12 were recruited. All subjects performed arm crank ergometry (ACE), FES leg cycle exercise (FES-LCE), combined ACE + FES-LCE, and cycling on a hybrid FES tricycle (HYBRID). They were assessed for their peak exercise responses in all four modalities. Subsequently, their submaximal heart rates (HR), cardiac outputs (Q), stroke volumes (SV), and arteriovenous oxygen extractions (Ca-Cv)O2 were measured at 40%, 60%, and 80% of mode-specific V˙O2peak. Arm exercise alone and arm + leg exercise resulted in significantly higher V˙O2peak and HRpeak compared with FES-LCE (P spinal cord injury population.

  14. Dietary nitrate supplementation increases acute mountain sickness severity and sense of effort during hypoxic exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetti, Gabriella M K; Macdonald, Jamie H; Wylie, Lee J; Little, Samuel J; Newton, Victoria; Wood, Benjamin; Hawkins, Kieran A; Beddoe, Rhys; Davies, Hannah E; Oliver, Samuel J

    2017-10-01

    Dietary nitrate supplementation enhances sea level performance and may ameliorate hypoxemia at high altitude. However, nitrate may exacerbate acute mountain sickness (AMS), specifically headache. This study investigated the effect of nitrate supplementation on AMS symptoms and exercise responses with 6-h hypoxia. Twenty recreationally active men [age, 22 ± 4 yr, maximal oxygen consumption (V̇o2max), 51 ± 6 ml·min-1·kg-1, means ± SD] completed this randomized double-blinded placebo-controlled crossover study. Twelve participants were classified as AMS- on the basis of Environmental Symptoms Questionnaire [Acute Cerebral Mountain Sickness score (AMS-C)] five participants were classified as AMS+ on the basis of AMS-C ≥0.7 on placebo. Five days of nitrate supplementation (70-ml beetroot juice containing ~6.4 mmol nitrate daily) increased plasma NO metabolites by 182 µM compared with placebo but did not reduce AMS or improve exercise performance. After 4-h hypoxia [inspired O2 fraction ([Formula: see text]) = 0.124], nitrate increased AMS-C and headache severity (visual analog scale; whole sample ∆10 [1, 20] mm, mean difference [95% confidence interval]; P = 0.03) compared with placebo. In addition, after 5-h hypoxia, nitrate increased sense of effort during submaximal exercise (∆7 [-1, 14]; P = 0.07). In AMS-, nitrate did not alter headache or sense of effort. In contrast, in AMS+, nitrate increased headache severity (∆26 [-3, 56] mm; P = 0.07), sense of effort (∆14 [1, 28]; P = 0.04), oxygen consumption, ventilation, and mean arterial pressure during submaximal exercise. On the next day, in a separate acute hypoxic exercise test ([Formula: see text] = 0.141), nitrate did not improve time to exhaustion at 80% hypoxic V̇o2max In conclusion, dietary nitrate increases AMS and sense of effort during exercise, particularly in those who experience AMS. Dietary nitrate is therefore not recommended as an AMS prophylactic or ergogenic aid in

  15. Hybrid functional electrical stimulation exercise training alters the relationship between spinal cord injury level and aerobic capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J Andrew; Picard, Glen; Porter, Aidan; Morse, Leslie R; Pronovost, Meghan F; Deley, Gaelle

    2014-11-01

    To test the hypothesis that hybrid functional electrical stimulation (FES) row training would improve aerobic capacity but that it would remain strongly linked to level of spinal cord lesion because of limited maximal ventilation. Longitudinal before-after trial of 6 months of FES row training. Exercise for persons with disabilities program in a hospitaL. Volunteers (N=14; age range, 21-63y) with complete spinal cord injury (SCI) (T3-11) who are >2 years postinjury. Six months of FES row training preceded by a variable period of FES strength training. Peak aerobic capacity and peak exercise ventilation before and after 6 months of FES row training. FES row training significantly increased peak aerobic capacity and peak minute ventilation (both Pinjury and peak minute ventilation was comparable before and after FES row training (adjusted R(2)=.38 vs .32, both Pinjury. Copyright © 2014 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. SPILANTHES ACMELLA AND PHYSICAL EXERCISE INCREASED TESTOSTERONE LEVELS AND OSTEOBLAST CELLS IN GLUCOCORTICOID-INDUCED OSTEOPOROSIS MALE MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hening Laswati

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis is leading cause of secondary osteoporosis by decreasing formation activity and increasing resorption activity. Spilanthes acmella, is one of Indonesia medicinal plants that contain of polyphenol and flavonoids. Previously in vitro study showed that buthanol and water fraction from this plant have increased alkaline phosphatase that known as marker of bone formation. The objective of this study to analyze the effect of Spilanthes acmella  and physical exercise in increasing testosterone and  osteoblast cells of femoral’s trabecular glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis male mice. Method: This study using a posttest control group design, 36 male healthy mice (5 months old  were randomizely devided into 6 groups, there are : 1.Healthy control group (without induction dexamethaxone, 2.Osteoporosis groups (induction with dexamethaxone without treatment, 3.Positive control receive suspension alendronat, 4.70% Ethanol extract of Spilanthes acmella group, 5.Combination group of 70% extract ethanol of Spilanthes acmella and exercise, and 6.Exercise group  (walking using mice treadmill 10m/minute, 5-12 minutes 3 times a week. All of the intervention were given for 4 weeks. The serum levels of testosterone were determined using  immunoserology (ELISA and osteoblast cells were determined histomorphometry by light microscopy.  All statistical test were carried out using SPSS 23 and statistical significance was  set at p<0.05 for all analysis. The testosterone levels  between group were compared using Mann-Whitney test and osteoblast cells between group were compared with multiple comparison. Results: It showed that the alendronate group, combination group and the exercise group increasing testosterone level (p<0.05 from that osteoporotic group. There were also increasing osteoblast cells (p<0.05 in the alendronate group and combination group. There was no correlation between testosterone level and

  17. Parent-of-origin effects on voluntary exercise levels and body composition in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Scott A; Nehrenberg, Derrick L; Hua, Kunjie; Gordon, Ryan R; Garland, Theodore; Pomp, Daniel

    2010-01-08

    Despite the health-related benefits of exercise, many people do not engage in enough activity to realize the rewards, and little is known regarding the genetic or environmental components that account for this individual variation. We created and phenotyped a large G(4) advanced intercross line originating from reciprocal crosses between mice with genetic propensity for increased voluntary exercise (HR line) and the inbred strain C57BL/6J. G(4) females (compared to males) ran significantly more when provided access to a running wheel and were smaller with a greater percentage of body fat pre- and postwheel access. Change in body composition resulting from a 6-day exposure to wheels varied between the sexes with females generally regulating energy balance more precisely in the presence of exercise. We observed parent-of-origin effects on most voluntary wheel running and body composition traits, which accounted for 3-13% of the total phenotypic variance pooled across sexes. G(4) individuals descended from progenitor (F(0)) crosses of HRfemale symbol and C57BL/6Jmale symbol ran greater distances, spent more time running, ran at higher maximum speeds/day, and had lower percent body fat and higher percent lean mass than mice descended from reciprocal progenitor crosses (C57BL/6Jfemale symbol x HRmale symbol). For some traits, significant interactions between parent of origin and sex were observed. We discuss these results in the context of sex dependent activity and weight loss patterns, the contribution of parent-of-origin effects to predisposition for voluntary exercise, and the genetic (i.e., X-linked or mtDNA variations), epigenetic (i.e., genomic imprinting), and environmental (i.e., in utero environment or maternal care) phenomena potentially modulating these effects.

  18. Intensity-dependent EMG response for the biceps brachii during sustained maximal and submaximal isometric contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Joshua C; Beck, Travis W; Ye, Xin; Wages, Nathan P

    2016-09-01

    There have been recent attempts to characterize the mechanisms associated with fatigue-induced task failure. We compared the time to failure and the corresponding changes in the surface electromyogram (EMG) during sustained maximal and submaximal isometric force tasks. EMG activity was measured from the biceps brachii of 18 male participants as they sustained either a maximal or submaximal (60 % MVC) isometric contraction of the dominant elbow flexors until force could not be maintained above 55 % MVC. Intensity-dependent patterns of change were observed for EMG amplitude and mean power frequency (MNF) between the two force tasks. Interestingly, the only significant predictor of failure time was the rate of change in EMG MNF during the submaximal task (r (2) = 0.304). In addition, EMG amplitude at submaximal failure was significantly lower (p EMG response emphasize the basis of neuromuscular fatigue and task dependency. Additionally, our data suggest that the EMG MNF should be used when monitoring the progression of local muscle fatigue.

  19. THE EFFECT OF SUBMAXIMAL INHALATION ON MEASURES DERIVED FROM FORCED EXPIRATORY SPIROMETRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    THE EFFECT OF SUBMAXIMAL INHALATION ON MEASURES DERIVED FROM FORCED EXPIRATORY SPIROMETRY. William F. McDonnell Human Studies Division, NHEERL, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, RTP, NC 27711. Short-term exposure to ozone results in a neurally-mediated decrease in the ab...

  20. Calibration of EMG to force for knee muscles is applicable with submaximal voluntary contractions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorenbosch, C.A.M.; Joosten, A.; Harlaar, J.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the influence of using submaximal isokinetic contractions about the knee compared to maximal voluntary contractions as input to obtain the calibration of an EMG-force model for knee muscles is investigated. Methods: Isokinetic knee flexion and extension contractions were

  1. Variability of Respiration and Metabolism: Responses to Submaximal Cycling and Running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Lawrence E.; Costill, David L.

    1985-01-01

    This investigation examined day-to-day variations in metabolic measurements during submaximal running and cycling. Significant differences were found in the oxygen uptake (VO2) of runners and cyclists and the minute ventilation (VE) of cyclists while running, but blood lactic acid (HLA) did not differ day to day. (Author/MT)

  2. Effects of exercise therapy on knee joint function and synovial fluid cytokine levels in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shao-Lan; Liu, Hong-Qi; Xu, Xiao-Zu; Zhi, Juan; Geng, Jiao-Jiao; Chen, Jin

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this study were to observe the effect of exercise therapy on the function of the knee joint and the levels of cytokines and cytokine-related genes, specifically tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3), in the synovial joints of patients with knee osteoarthritis (KOA) and to explore its mechanism of action. A total of 100 KOA patients were divided into a treatment group (n=50) and a control group (n=50) according to the order of admission. The patients in the treatment group were treated with diclofenac sodium combined with exercise therapy and the patients in the control group were treated with diclofenac sodium only. The function of the knee joint and the therapeutic efficacy was evaluated and the TNF-α, hs-CRP and MMP-3 levels in the synovial fluid were measured following 4 weeks of treatment. The results revealed that the knee joint index score and the TNF-α, hs-CRP and MMP-3 levels in the synovial fluid decreased significantly in the KOA patients of the two groups following treatment (Pknee joint index score and the TNF-α, hs-CRP and MMP-3 levels in the synovial joints were lower and the therapeutic efficacy was increased in the patients of the treatment group (P<0.05). In brief, exercise therapy may decrease cytokine and cytokine-related gene levels in the synovial fluid and inhibit inflammatory factor-mediated cartilage degradation in KOA patients, thus, effectively improving the clinical symptoms of KOA.

  3. Physical exercise modulates peripheral levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF): a systematic review of experimental studies in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Flávia Gomes de Melo; Gobbi, Sebastião; Andreatto, Carla Andreza Almeida; Corazza, Danilla Icassati; Pedroso, Renata Valle; Santos-Galduróz, Ruth Ferreira

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review of studies that analyzed the effect of physical exercise on the peripheral levels of BDNF in elderly individuals. We conducted a search in PsycINFO, Biological Abstracts, Pubmed, Web of Science, and Science Direct from 1990 to 2011, using the following keywords: "physical exercise", "physical activity", "physical therapy", "training", "BDNF", "neuroplasticity", "neurotrophins", "neuroplasticity proteins", "aged", "older", "elderly". The articles were considered for inclusion in the review if they were studies with elderly, assessed peripheral (serum and/or plasma) BDNF and evaluated an acute exercise or chronic exercise (training). Five randomized controlled trial and one randomized non-controlled trial studies were analyzed. Five out of six studies reported a significantly higher BDNF response to aerobic acute exercise and to aerobic or strength training program in healthy elderly and elderly with different pathologies. It was not possible to establish a recommendation protocol for the type and intensity of physical exercise required to produce an increase in levels BDNF. However, physical exercise, particularly, moderate-intensity exercises seem to be more effective to promote increase the peripheral levels of BDNF in the elderly. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of Music Aerobic Exercise on Depression and Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Levels in Community Dwelling Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Hui Yeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A randomized clinical trial was utilized to compare the improvement of depression and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF levels between community women with and without music aerobic exercise (MAE for 12 weeks. The MAE group involved 47 eligible participants, whereas the comparison group had 59 participants. No significant differences were recorded in the demographic characteristics between the participants in the MAE group and the comparison group. Forty-one participants in the MAE group and 26 in the comparison group completed a pre- and posttest. The MAE group displayed significant improvement in depression scores (p = 0.016, decreased depression symptoms in crying (p = 0.03, appetite (p = 0.006, and fatigue (p = 0.011. The BDNF levels of the participants significantly increased after the 12-week MAE (p = 0.042. The parallel comparison group revealed no significant changes in depression scores or BDNF levels. In summary, the 12-week MAE had a significant impact on the enhancement of BDNF levels and improvement of depression symptoms. Middle-aged community women are encouraged to exercise moderately to improve their depression symptoms and BDNF levels.

  5. Effects of music aerobic exercise on depression and brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in community dwelling women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Shu-Hui; Lin, Li-Wei; Chuang, Yu Kuan; Liu, Cheng-Ling; Tsai, Lu-Jen; Tsuei, Feng-Shiou; Lee, Ming-Tsung; Hsiao, Chiu-Yueh; Yang, Kuender D

    2015-01-01

    A randomized clinical trial was utilized to compare the improvement of depression and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels between community women with and without music aerobic exercise (MAE) for 12 weeks. The MAE group involved 47 eligible participants, whereas the comparison group had 59 participants. No significant differences were recorded in the demographic characteristics between the participants in the MAE group and the comparison group. Forty-one participants in the MAE group and 26 in the comparison group completed a pre- and posttest. The MAE group displayed significant improvement in depression scores (p = 0.016), decreased depression symptoms in crying (p = 0.03), appetite (p = 0.006), and fatigue (p = 0.011). The BDNF levels of the participants significantly increased after the 12-week MAE (p = 0.042). The parallel comparison group revealed no significant changes in depression scores or BDNF levels. In summary, the 12-week MAE had a significant impact on the enhancement of BDNF levels and improvement of depression symptoms. Middle-aged community women are encouraged to exercise moderately to improve their depression symptoms and BDNF levels.

  6. Exercise training reduces high mobility group box-1 protein levels in women with breast cancer: findings from the DIANA-5 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giallauria, Francesco; Gentile, Marco; Chiodini, Paolo; Berrino, Franco; Mattiello, Amalia; Maresca, Luigi; Vitelli, Alessandra; Mancini, Maria; Grieco, Alessandra; Lucci, Rosa; Torella, Giorgio; Panico, Salvatore; Vigorito, Carlo

    2014-06-01

    To determine whether exercise training might exert anti-inflammatory effect by reducing HMGB1 levels in women with breast cancer (BC). We analyzed monocentric data from the DIANA (DIET AND ANDROGENS)-5 PROJECT. Study population consisted of 94 patients randomized into two groups: 61 patients (53 +/- 8 yrs, training group) were assigned to a structured exercise training intervention (3 times/week for the first 3 months, and once /week for the following 9 months); whereas 33 patients (52 +/- 7 yrs, control group) followed only the general indications to adhere to the life-style intervention suggestions of the DIANA protocol. At study entry and after 12 months, all patients underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing, biochemical as- sessment [HMGB1, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6)]; and lipid and glycemic profile. There were no significant differences between groups in baseline clinical and inflammatory profile. Among the training group, only 19/61 patients had high adherence to the exercise intervention. After stratifying the study population according to the level of adhesion to the exer- cise intervention, 1-year HMGB1 levels were lower among patients more adherent to exercise (p for trend = 0.001). Further adjusting for age, body mass index and baseline values, 1-year HMGB1 levels remained significantly and inversely associated to the level of adhesion to the exercise intervention (B = -0.97, SE = 0.43, p = 0.01). Moderate intensity exercise training in BC survivors is associated with reduced HMGB1 levels that are proportional to the level of adhesion to the exercise intervention, independently from other classical inflammatory molecules, suggesting an exercise-induced anti-inflammatory effect mediated by HMGB1.

  7. The effects of long-term resistance exercise on the relationship between neurocognitive performance and GH, IGF-1, and homocysteine levels in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Liang eTsai

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effects of a long-term resistance exercise intervention on executive functions in healthy elderly males, and to further understand the potential neurophysiological mechanisms mediating the changes. The study assessed forty-eight healthy elderly males randomly assigned to exercise (n=24 or control (n=24 groups. The assessment included neuropsychological and neuroelectric measures during a variant of the oddball task paradigm, as well as growth hormone (GH, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1, and homocysteine levels at baseline and after either a 12-month intervention of resistance exercise training or control period. The results showed that the control group had a significantly lower accuracy rate and smaller P3a and P3b amplitudes in the oddball condition after 12 months. The exercise group exhibited improved reaction times, sustained P3a and P3b amplitudes, increased levels of serum IGF-1, and decreased levels of serum homocysteine. The changes in IGF-1 levels were significantly correlated with the changes in reaction time and P3b amplitude of the oddball condition in the exercise group. In conclusion, significantly enhanced serum IGF-1 levels after 12 months of resistance exercise were inversely correlated with neurocognitive decline in the elderly. These findings suggest that regular resistance exercise might be a promising strategy to attenuate the trajectory of cognitive aging in healthy elderly individuals, possibly mediated by IGF-1.

  8. Attenuation of morphine withdrawal signs, blood cortisol and glucose level with forced exercise in comparison with clonidine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Motaghinejad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Morphine withdrawal usually results in undesired outcomes , despite partial benefits of alternative medication such as methadone, because of the lack of mental sedation during the withdrawal period, may not lead to the desired result. In this study, forced exercise by treadmill is used to manage morphine dependence in animal model. Materials and Methods: Forty adult male mice were divided into 5 groups, from which 4 groups became dependent by increasing daily doses of morphine for 6 days (20-45 mg/kg, SC. Afterwards, the animals were treated for 21 days by either of the following protocol: Positive control (dependent received once daily 45 mg/kg of morphine sulfate (SC for 21 day, group under treatment by clonidine (0.4 mg/kg, SC for 21 day group under treatment by forced exercise by treadmill for 21 day, group under treatment by combination of clonidine (0.4 mg/kg, SC and forced exercise by treadmill for 21day and the negative control group(independent received saline injection like other groups. Each of this administration was injected at 8 AM. Finally, in the test day (day 28, all animals received a single dose of naloxone (3 mg/kg, SC at 8 AM and then were observed for withdrawal signs, and Total Withdrawal Score (TWS was determined as described previously. After withdrawal sign evaluation for evaluation of stress level of dependent mice, blood cortisol and glucose level were measured in non-fasting situations well. Results: This study showed that TWS significantly decreased in all treatment groups in comparison with positive control group (P < 0.001. Moreover, blood cortisol and glucose level significantly decreased in group under treatment by clonidine (0.4 mg/kg and group under treatment by combination of clonidine (0.4 mg/kg and forced exercise by treadmill groups in comparison with control positive (dependent (P < 0.05. Conclusion: This study suggested that forced exercise can be useful as adjunct therapy in dependent people

  9. Safety and feasibility of regadenoson use for suboptimal heart rate response during symptom-limited standard Bruce exercise stress test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partington, Sara L; Lanka, Viswanatha; Hainer, Jon; Blankstein, Ron; Skali, Hicham; Forman, Daniel E; Di Carli, Marcelo F; Dorbala, Sharmila

    2012-10-01

    Regadenoson during exercise stress test (ETT) can provide maximal hyperemia for myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI), along with exercise information. Our aim was to study the feasibility and safety of regadenoson injection at peak ETT for submaximal heart rate (HR) response. Consecutive patients who underwent SPECT MPI with standard Bruce ETT or supine-regadenoson (Supine-Reg) were analyzed. ETT patients were grouped as ETT-Max [maximal HR > 0.85 * (220 - age), N = 1,522], ETT-Submax (submaximal HR no regadenoson, N = 504), ETT-Reg (submaximal HR and regadenoson, N = 211). The HR during ETT was submaximal in 715 (32%) patients. Of these, 211 patients (30%) underwent ETT-Reg (mean exercise duration: 5.5 ± 2.5 minutes). ETT-Reg patients had a higher frequency of hypertension, diabetes, smoking and beta-blocker use, similar rest systolic blood pressure (SBP), but lower rest and peak HR and peak SBP compared to ETT-Max patients. There were no serious complications with regadenoson. Side effects (49% vs 6%, P < .0001) were fewer and aminophylline use was lower with ETT-Reg compared to Supine-Reg (0.5% vs 8.1%, P = .001). Submaximal HR response to ETT is common. ETT-Reg is safe, feasible, and well-tolerated. ETT-Reg facilitates a diagnostic MPI with reporting of functional capacity, exercise ECG/hemodynamic changes and MPI at maximal hyperemia.

  10. THE RELATION OF EXERCISE TO BUBBLE FORMATION IN ANIMALS DECOMPRESSED TO SEA LEVEL FROM HIGH BAROMETRIC PRESSURES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Morgan; Berg, W. E.; Whitaker, D. M.; Twitty, V. C.

    1945-01-01

    1. Bullfrogs (Rana catesbiana) and rats have been subjected to high barometric pressures and studied for bubble formation on subsequent decompression to sea level. Pressures varying from 3 to 60 pounds per square inch, in excess of atmospheric pressure, were used. 2. Muscular activity after decompression is necessary for bubble formation in bullfrogs after pressure treatment throughout the above range. Anesthetized frogs remained bubble-free following decompression. Rats compressed at 15 to 45 pounds per square inch likewise did not contain bubbles unless exercised on return to sea level. 3. Bubbles form without voluntary muscular activity in anesthetized rats previously subjected to pressure of 60 pounds per square inch. Small movements involved in breathing and other vital activities are believed sufficient to initiate bubbles in the presence of very high supersaturations of N2. 4. Bubbles appear (with exercise) in rats previously compressed at 15 pounds per square inch, and in bullfrogs subjected to pressure at levels as low as 3 pounds per square inch above atmospheric pressure. The percentage drop in pressure necessary for bubble formation is less in compressed animals than in those decompressed from sea level to simulated altitudes. 5. The action of exercise on bubble formation in compressed frogs and rats is attributed to mechanical factors associated with muscular activity, combined with the high supersaturation of N2. CO2 probably is not greatly involved, since its concentration does not reach supersatuation, as it does at high altitude. 6. Anoxia following decompression from high barometric pressures has no observable facilitating effect on bubble formation. PMID:19873417

  11. Attitudes of Iranian Male University Students Toward Sport and Exercise with Reference to Age, Educational Level, and Field of Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirsafian Hamidreza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aimed to discover the attitudes of Iranian male university students toward sport and exercise. This study is based on the same research as another published paper regarding the attitudes of Iranian female students toward sport and exercise. Participants (N = 821 were selected from different educational levels and fields of study from among 12 public universities. Data were collected by a modified and developed version of Kenyon's scale (1968, which measures the attitudes of people toward physical activity. For the analysis of the data, independent sample t-test and multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA were employed (p < 0.05. The results indicated that the attitudes of the respondents can be identified as fitness (3.96 ± 1.02, catharsis (3.84 ± 0.80, social (3.82 ± 1.10, aesthetic (3.03 ± 1.14, vertigo (2.15 ± 1.16, and ascetic (2.07 ± 0.79. Furthermore, it was found that various demographic and social characteristics affected participants' attitudes toward sport and exercise (p < 0.05. Based on the results, it was concluded that the sport programs should be organized around students' dominant attitudes toward regular activities. In addition, planning and organizing sport programs with regard to the wide attitudinal differences between male and female students could be a big step toward improving students' participation rate in sporting activities at Iranian universities.

  12. Cortical and spinal mechanisms of task failure of sustained submaximal fatiguing contractions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra S Williams

    Full Text Available In this and the subsequent companion paper, results are presented that collectively seek to delineate the contribution that supraspinal circuits have in determining the time to task failure (TTF of sustained submaximal contractions. The purpose of this study was to compare adjustments in supraspinal and spinal excitability taken concurrently throughout the performance of two different fatigue tasks with identical mechanical demands but different TTF (i.e., force-matching and position-matching tasks. On separate visits, ten healthy volunteers performed the force-matching or position-matching task at 15% of maximum strength with the elbow flexors to task failure. Single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS, paired-pulse TMS, paired cortico-cervicomedullary stimulation, and brachial plexus electrical stimulation were delivered in a 6-stimuli sequence at baseline and every 2-3 minutes throughout fatigue-task performance. Contrary to expectations, the force-matching task TTF was 42% shorter (17.5 ± 7.9 min than the position-matching task (26.9 ± 15.11 min; p0.05. Therefore, failure occurred after a similar mean decline in motorneuron excitability developed (p0.10 and an index of upstream excitation of the motor cortex remained constant (p>0.40. Together, these results suggest that as fatigue develops prior to task failure, the increase in corticospinal excitability observed in relationship to the decrease in spinal excitability results from a combination of decreasing intracortical inhibition with constant levels of intracortical facilitation and upstream excitability that together eventually fail to provide the input to the motor cortex necessary for descending drive to overcome the spinal cord resistance, thereby contributing to task failure.

  13. Cortical and Spinal Mechanisms of Task Failure of Sustained Submaximal Fatiguing Contractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Petra S.; Hoffman, Richard L.; Clark, Brian C.

    2014-01-01

    In this and the subsequent companion paper, results are presented that collectively seek to delineate the contribution that supraspinal circuits have in determining the time to task failure (TTF) of sustained submaximal contractions. The purpose of this study was to compare adjustments in supraspinal and spinal excitability taken concurrently throughout the performance of two different fatigue tasks with identical mechanical demands but different TTF (i.e., force-matching and position-matching tasks). On separate visits, ten healthy volunteers performed the force-matching or position-matching task at 15% of maximum strength with the elbow flexors to task failure. Single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), paired-pulse TMS, paired cortico-cervicomedullary stimulation, and brachial plexus electrical stimulation were delivered in a 6-stimuli sequence at baseline and every 2–3 minutes throughout fatigue-task performance. Contrary to expectations, the force-matching task TTF was 42% shorter (17.5±7.9 min) than the position-matching task (26.9±15.11 min; pmuscle fatigue (p = 0.59). There were no task-specific differences for the total amount or rate of change in the neurophysiologic outcome variables over time (p>0.05). Therefore, failure occurred after a similar mean decline in motorneuron excitability developed (p0.10) and an index of upstream excitation of the motor cortex remained constant (p>0.40). Together, these results suggest that as fatigue develops prior to task failure, the increase in corticospinal excitability observed in relationship to the decrease in spinal excitability results from a combination of decreasing intracortical inhibition with constant levels of intracortical facilitation and upstream excitability that together eventually fail to provide the input to the motor cortex necessary for descending drive to overcome the spinal cord resistance, thereby contributing to task failure. PMID:24667484

  14. Influence of physical exercise on interleukin-17, cortisol and melatonin levels in serum, whole blood and mitogen activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarei M.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assay the effect of two months exercise and two months silent on the levels of interleukin-17 (IL-17, melatonin and cortisol in serum, whole blood (WB and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs cultures. Thirteen male non-athletic health volunteers participated in a two months moderate exercise program (running %50-%65 VO2 max. The blood samples were collected in three stages, 24 hours before to start exercise, 48 hours and two months after the last session of the training. WB and PBMCs were cultured with mitogens phytohemagglutinin and lipopolysaccharides for 48 hours. The serum and supernatants of WB and PBMCs were analyzed for IL-17, melatonin and cortisol by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Red blood cells (RBC variables were also measured. IL-17 secretion by PBMCs in the post-exercise stage (51.14±5.43 pg/ml compared with pre-exercise (36.74±6.98 pg/ml was increased. But, the amount of melatonin produced by PBMCs in the post- exercise (7.94±0.35 pg/ml, and 2-month silent (6.05±0.27 pg/ml stages compared with pre-exercise (9.16±0.19 pg/ml were decreased. Regardless of the effect of the exercise, PBMcs had more ability to produce IL-17 than WB. As well as, level of cortisol in WB was higher than in serum and PBMCs culture. Mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration RBCs were also increased in post- exercise stage. The other measured parameters were not changed during exercise and recovery. Moderate exercise caused to higher in vitro production of IL-17 and lower production of melatonin by PBMCs.

  15. Heavy strength training improves running and cycling performance following prolonged submaximal work in well-trained female athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikmoen, Olav; Rønnestad, Bent R; Ellefsen, Stian; Raastad, Truls

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of adding heavy strength training to female duathletes' normal endurance training on both cycling and running performance. Nineteen well-trained female duathletes ( V O 2max cycling: 54 ± 3 ml∙kg -1 ∙min -1 , VO 2max running: 53 ± 3 ml∙kg -1 ∙min -1 ) were randomly assigned to either normal endurance training ( E , n  = 8) or normal endurance training combined with strength training ( E+S , n  = 11). The strength training consisted of four lower body exercises [3 × 4-10 repetition maximum (RM)] twice a week for 11 weeks. Running and cycling performance were assessed using 5-min all-out tests, performed immediately after prolonged periods of submaximal work (3 h cycling or 1.5 h running). E+S increased 1RM in half squat (45 ± 22%) and lean mass in the legs (3.1 ± 4.0%) more than E Performance during the 5-min all-out test increased in both cycling (7.0 ± 4.5%) and running (4.7 ± 6.0%) in E+S, whereas no changes occurred in E The changes in running performance were different between groups. E+S reduced oxygen consumption and heart rate during the final 2 h of prolonged cycling, whereas no changes occurred in E No changes occurred during the prolonged running in any group. Adding strength training to normal endurance training in well-trained female duathletes improved both running and cycling performance when tested immediately after prolonged submaximal work. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  16. A clinical study of the efficacy of a single session of individual exercise for depressive patients, assessed by the change in saliva free cortisol level

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The efficacy of physical exercise as an augmentation to pharmacotherapy with antidepressants for depressive patients has been documented. However, to clarify the effectiveness of exercise in the treatment of depression, it is necessary to distinguish the effect of the exercise itself from the effect of group dynamics. Furthermore, an objective measurement for estimation of the effect is needed. Previous reports adopted a series of group exercises as the exercise intervention and mainly psychometric instruments for the measurement of effectiveness. Therefore, this clinical study was done to examine the effectiveness of a single session of individual exercise on depressive symptoms by assessing the change in saliva free cortisol level, which reflects hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis function that is disturbed in depressive patients. Method Eighteen medicated patients, who met the DSM-IV-TR criteria for major depressive disorder, were examined for the change in saliva free cortisol levels and the change in subjective depressive symptoms before and after pedaling a bicycle ergometer for fifteen minutes. Within a month after the exercise session, participants conducted a non-exercise control session, which was sitting quietly at the same time of day as the exercise session. Results Depressed patients who participated in this study were in remission or in mild depressive state. However, they suffered chronic depression and had disturbed quality of life. The saliva free cortisol level and subjective depressive symptoms significantly decreased after the exercise session. Moreover, the changes in these variables were significantly, positively correlated. On the other hand, although the subjective depressive symptoms improved in the control session, the saliva free cortisol level did not change. Conclusion For the first time in depressive patients, we were able to show a decrease in the saliva free cortisol level due to physical exercise, accompanied by

  17. Time to failure and neuromuscular response to intermittent isometric exercise at different levels of vascular occlusion: a randomized crossover study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Santos Cerqueira

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose this study was investigate the effects of different vascular occlusion levels (total occlusion (TO, partial occlusion (PO or free flow (FF during intermittent isometric handgrip exercise (IIHE on the time to failure (TF and the recovery of the maximum voluntary isometric force (MVIF, median frequency (EMGFmed and peak of EMG signal (EMGpeak after failure.  Methods: Thirteen healthy men (21 ± 1.71 year carried out an IIHE until the failure at 45% of MVIF with TO, PO or FF. Occlusion pressure was determined previously to the exercise. The MVIF, EMGFmed and EMGpeak were measured before and after exercise. Results: TF (in seconds was significantly different (p < 0.05 among all investigated conditions: TO (150 ± 68, PO (390 ± 210 and FF (510 ± 240. The MVIF was lower immediately after IIHE, remaining lower eleven minutes after failure in all cases (p <0.05, when compared to pre exercise. There was a greater force reduction (p <0.05 one minute after the failure in the PO (-45.8% and FF (-39.9% conditions, when compared to TO (-28.1%. Only the PO condition caused lower MVIF (p <0.05 than in the OT, eleven minutes after the task failure. PO caused a greater reduction in EMGFmed compared TO and greater increase in EMGpeak, when compared to TO and FF (p <0.05. Conclusions: TO during IIHE lead to a lower time to failure, but a faster MVIF recovery, while the PO seems to be associated to a slower neuromuscular recovery, when compared to other conditions.

  18. Metabolic rate and cardiorespiratory response during hybrid cycling versus handcycling at equal subjective exercise intensity levels in people with spinal cord injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakkum, Arjan J. T.; de Groot, Sonja; Onderwater, Mark Q.; de Jong, Jelle; Janssen, Thomas W. J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To compare the metabolic rate and cardiorespiratory response during hybrid cycling versus handcycling at equal subjective exercise intensity levels in people with spinal cord injury (SCI). Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Amsterdam Rehabilitation Research Centre vertical bar Reade,

  19. Effects of exercise at individual anaerobic threshold and maximal fat oxidation intensities on plasma levels of nesfatin-1 and metabolic health biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohebbi, Hamid; Nourshahi, Maryam; Ghasemikaram, Mansour; Safarimosavi, Saleh

    2015-03-01

    Exercise is recognized as an effective method of weight management and short-term appetite regulation tool. The effect of different exercise intensities on appetite regulation hormones in healthy overweight participants has not been intensively studied. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of exercise at individual anaerobic threshold (IAT) and maximal fat oxidation (Fatmax) intensities on the nesfatin-1 response and metabolic health biomarkers in overweight men. Nine healthy overweight males (age, 23.1 ± 1.1 years) volunteered in this study in a counterbalanced order. Blood samples were obtained before, immediately after, and following the first 45 min of recovery for measuring plasma variables. There was significant decrease in plasma levels of nesfatin-1 and leptin after exercise at the IAT intensity which remained lower than baseline following 45 min of recovery. However, nesfatin-1 and leptin levels did not change significantly in any time courses of Fatmax intensity (P > 0.09). Plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentration increased during exercise in both intensities (P exercise. These results indicate that IAT has a greater exercise-induced appetite regulation effect compared with Fat(max). Based on these data, the intensity of exercise may have an important role in changes of nesfatin-1, leptin, FFA, and epinephrine concentrations even though this was not the case for IL-6 and insulin resistance.

  20. A mathematical model of the cardiovascular system under graded exercise levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Zhang, Yi; Guo, Ying; Nguyen, Nghia; Zhang, Daoming; Celler, Branko G

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a nonlinear cardiovascular model for the study of cardiovascular response during graded exercise. There are two major innovations embedded in this model. Firstly, by tuning only three parameters, all major cardiovascular variables were accurately reproduced. Secondly, a robust and efficient function, which was built up using Support Vector Machine Regression, was added to the model to estimate metabolic demand. Experimental results for ten untrained males indicated that the established model is accurate in the sense that its predicted output was in good agreement with the measured data.

  1. Cardiovascular control during exercise in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Simon; Egaña, Mikel; Baldi, J Chris; Lamberts, Regis; Regensteiner, Judith G

    2015-01-01

    Controlled studies of male and female subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) of short duration (~3-5 years) show that DM reduces peak VO2 (L·min(-1) and mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) by an average of 12-15% and induces a greater slowing of the dynamic response of pulmonary VO2 during submaximal exercise. These effects occur in individuals less than 60 years of age but are reduced or absent in older males and are consistently associated with significant increases in the exercise pressor response despite normal resting blood pressure. This exaggerated pressor response, evidence of exertional hypertension in DM, is manifest during moderate submaximal exercise and coincides with a more constrained vasodilation in contracting muscles. Maximum vasodilation during contractions involving single muscle groups is reduced by DM, and the dynamic response of vasodilation during submaximal contractions is slowed. Such vascular constraint most likely contributes to exertional hypertension, impairs dynamic and peak VO2 responses, and reduces exercise tolerance. There is a need to establish the effect of DM on dynamic aspects of vascular control in skeletal muscle during whole-body exercise and to clarify contributions of altered cardiovascular control and increased arterial stiffness to exertional hypertension.

  2. Exercise-induced release of cytokines in patients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallberg, Ludvig; Janelidze, Shorena; Engstrom, Gunnar; Wisén, Anita G M; Westrin, Asa; Brundin, Lena

    2010-10-01

    Patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) may display elevated plasma levels of pro-inflammatory substances. Although the underlying mechanisms are unknown, inflammation has been proposed to play a direct role in the generation of depressive symptoms. Skeletal muscle is a potent producer of cytokines, and physical exercise has been suggested to alleviate symptoms of depression. In this study we therefore addressed the question of whether MDD patients display altered levels of pro-, anti-inflammatory and regulatory factors in the blood in response to acute exercise. Eighteen MDD patients and 18 healthy controls performed a maximal-workload exercise challenge. Blood samples were taken before the test, at sub-maximal and maximal workload, as well as 30 and 60 min after testing. The plasma levels of SAA, TNF-alpha, S-VCAM, S-ICAM, CRP, IFN-gamma, IL-1beta, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12 and IL-13 were assayed using multiplex sandwich ELISA. Exercise-induced significant changes in the plasma levels of inflammatory substances in both MDD patients and controls. IL-8, IL-6 and TNF-alpha increased, and IL-4 decreased during the challenge in both groups. In addition, IFN-gamma decreased in the controls. There was a significant difference in IL-6 reactivity between the groups at the sub-max timepoint. Group sizes are comparably limited. Exercise induces changes in the blood levels of cytokines in unmedicated MDD patients. Whether these changes affect symptoms of depression should be evaluated in long-term studies of the anti-depressive effects of exercise. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Mitochondrial efficiency and exercise economy following heat stress: a potential role of uncoupling protein 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, Roy M; Sheard, Ailish C; Vaughan, Roger A; Parker, Daryl L; Schneider, Suzanne M; Kenefick, Robert W; McCormick, James J; Gannon, Nicholas P; Van Dusseldorp, Trisha A; Kravitz, Len R; Mermier, Christine M

    2017-02-01

    Heat stress has been reported to reduce uncoupling proteins (UCP) expression, which in turn should improve mitochondrial efficiency. Such an improvement in efficiency may translate to the systemic level as greater exercise economy. However, neither the heat-induced improvement in mitochondrial efficiency (due to decrease in UCP), nor its potential to improve economy has been studied. Determine: (i) if heat stress in vitro lowers UCP3 thereby improving mitochondrial efficiency in C2C12 myocytes; (ii) whether heat acclimation (HA) in vivo improves exercise economy in trained individuals; and (iii) the potential improved economy during exercise at altitude. In vitro, myocytes were heat stressed for 24 h (40°C), followed by measurements of UCP3, mitochondrial uncoupling, and efficiency. In vivo, eight trained males completed: (i) pre-HA testing; (ii) 10 days of HA (40°C, 20% RH); and (iii) post-HA testing. Pre- and posttesting consisted of maximal exercise test and submaximal exercise at two intensities to assess exercise economy at 1600 m (Albuquerque, NM) and 4350 m. Heat-stressed myocytes displayed significantly reduced UCP3 mRNA expression and, mitochondrial uncoupling (77.1 ± 1.2%, P economy did not change at low and moderate exercise intensities. Our findings indicate that while heat-induced reduction in UCP3 improves mitochondrial efficiency in vitro, this is not translated to in vivo improvement of exercise economy at 1600 m or 4350 m. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  4. Fitness level of overweight/obese women after 8 weeks of aerobic exercise or mixed metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alexandre Fett

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Aerobic exercise or mixed metabolism is used for the treatment of obesity, but it is unclear which approach has a greater impact. Thus, two groups of overweight or obese women were submitted to either a circuit weight training (CWT, n=14 or jogging program (JOG, n=12, performed 1 hour x 3 days/week in the first month and 1 hour x 4 days/week in the second months. The exercises were adjusted based on heart rate and the Borg scale, and both groups consumed a low-calorie diet. The participants were evaluated regarding anthropometric data, resting energy expenditure, nitrogen balance, and performance in different physical tests. Weight and percent body fat were reduced and lean body mass (LBM was increased in the two groups (p < 0.05. Arm muscle circumference was significantly increased only in the CWT group and leg muscle circumference remained unchanged in either group. The CWT group showed improved results in six physical tests and the JOG group in three (p < 0.05. In both groups, the kcal/kg ratio was unchanged, kcal/LBM was decreased, kcal/fat mass was significantly increased, and the nitrogen balance continued to be positive. Similar body composition and metabolism variables were observed in the two groups. However, the CWT group showed a better physical performance, indicating a reduction of health risk factors

  5. Effects of intermittent hypoxic training performed at high hypoxia level on exercise performance in highly trained runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Anthony M J; Borrani, Fabio

    2018-02-02

    This study exanimated the effects of intermittent hypoxic training (IHT) conducted at a high level of hypoxia with recovery at ambient air on aerobic/anaerobic capacities at sea level and hematological variations. According to a double-blind randomized design, fifteen highly endurance-trained runners completed a 6-weeks regimented training with 3 sessions per week consisting of intermittent runs (6x work-rest ratio of 5':5') on a treadmill at 80-85% of maximal aerobic speed ([Formula: see text]). Nine athletes (hypoxic group, HG) performed the exercise bouts at FI0 2  = 10.6-11.4% while six athletes (normoxic group, NG) exercised at ambient air. Running time to exhaustion at a velocity corresponding to 95% [Formula: see text] significantly increased for HG while no effect was found for NG. Regarding [Formula: see text], no significant effects were found in either training group. In addition, the decline of jumping performances over a 45s-continuous maximal vertical jump test (i.e. anaerobic capacity index) tended to be lower in HG compared to NG. The levels of the studied hematological variables, including erythropoietin and hematocrit, did not significantly change for either HG or NG. These results highlight that our IHT protocol may induce additional effects on aerobic performance without compromising the anaerobic capacity index in highly-trained athletes.

  6. The effect of α1 -adrenergic blockade on post-exercise brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation at sea level and high altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tymko, Michael M; Tremblay, Joshua C; Hansen, Alex B; Howe, Connor A; Willie, Chris K; Stembridge, Mike; Green, Daniel J; Hoiland, Ryan L; Subedi, Prajan; Anholm, James D; Ainslie, Philip N

    2017-03-01

    Our objective was to quantify endothelial function (via brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation) at sea level (344 m) and high altitude (3800 m) at rest and following both maximal exercise and 30 min of moderate-intensity cycling exercise with and without administration of an α1 -adrenergic blockade. Brachial endothelial function did not differ between sea level and high altitude at rest, nor following maximal exercise. At sea level, endothelial function decreased following 30 min of moderate-intensity exercise, and this decrease was abolished with α1 -adrenergic blockade. At high altitude, endothelial function did not decrease immediately after 30 min of moderate-intensity exercise, and administration of α1 -adrenergic blockade resulted in an increase in flow-mediated dilatation. Our data indicate that post-exercise endothelial function is modified at high altitude (i.e. prolonged hypoxaemia). The current study helps to elucidate the physiological mechanisms associated with high-altitude acclimatization, and provides insight into the relationship between sympathetic nervous activity and vascular endothelial function. We examined the hypotheses that (1) at rest, endothelial function would be impaired at high altitude compared to sea level, (2) endothelial function would be reduced to a greater extent at sea level compared to high altitude after maximal exercise, and (3) reductions in endothelial function following moderate-intensity exercise at both sea level and high altitude are mediated via an α1 -adrenergic pathway. In a double-blinded, counterbalanced, randomized and placebo-controlled design, nine healthy participants performed a maximal-exercise test, and two 30 min sessions of semi-recumbent cycling exercise at 50% peak output following either placebo or α1 -adrenergic blockade (prazosin; 0.05 mg kg( -1) ). These experiments were completed at both sea-level (344 m) and high altitude (3800 m). Blood pressure (finger photoplethysmography

  7. Effect of acute and chronic whole-body vibration exercise on serum insulin-like growth factor-1 levels in women with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alentorn-Geli, Eduard; Moras, Gerard; Padilla, Jaume; Fernández-Solà, Joaquim; Bennett, Robert M; Lázaro-Haro, Cristina; Pons, Sebastià

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of acute and chronic whole-body vibration exercise on serum insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels in women with fibromyalgia. A randomized controlled two-factor mixed experimental design was used. Twenty-four women with fibromyalgia (age +/- standard error of the mean, 54.95 +/- 2.03) were randomized into the vibration group or the control group. The vibration group underwent a protocol of static and dynamic tasks with whole-body vibration exercise twice a week for a total of six weeks, whereas the control group performed the same protocol without vibratory stimulus. Both groups continued their usual pharmacological treatment. Serum IGF-1 levels were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). To test the effects of long-term whole-body vibration exercise, serum IGF-1 measurements were taken at baseline and at weeks 1, 3, and 6 of the intervention. To test the short-term effects, at week 1, serum IGF-1 measurements were taken before and immediately following a session of whole-body vibration exercise. Treatment adherence was 93% in the vibration group and 92% in the control group. None of the subjects dropped out of the study. There was an absence of change in IGF-1 at week 1 and week 6 of whole-body vibration exercise. Results show no change in serum IGF-1 levels in women with fibromyalgia undergoing whole-body vibration exercise. Although high-intensity exercise and whole-body vibration exercise have been shown to increase serum IGF-1 in healthy individuals, the effectiveness of whole-body vibration exercise as a strategy to produce improvements in serum IGF-1 levels in women with fibromyalgia could not be demonstrated.

  8. Effects of Relaxation Exercises and Music Therapy on the Psychological Symptoms and Depression Levels of Patients with Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavak, Funda; Ünal, Süheyla; Yılmaz, Emine

    2016-10-01

    This study aims to identify the effects of relaxation exercises and music therapy on the psychological symptoms and depression levels of patients with chronic schizophrenia. This semi-experimental study was conducted using pre- and post-tests with a control group. The study population consists of patients with schizophrenia who regularly attended community mental health centers in the Malatya and Elazığ provinces of Turkey between May 2015 and September 2015. The study's sample consists of 70 patients with schizophrenia (n=35 in the control group; n=35 in the experimental group) who were selected randomly based on power analysis. The "Patient Information Form," the "Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS)" and the "Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS)" were used for data collection. Patients in the experimental group participated in relaxation exercises and music therapy 5 times a week for 4 weeks. The experimental group of 35 persons was divided into three groups of approximately 10-12 individuals in order to enable all participants to attend the program. No intervention was applied to the patients in the control group. The data were evaluated using percentage distribution, arithmetic means, standard deviations, Chi-square and independent samples t-tests. The study found that patients in the experimental group showed a decrease in total mean scores on the BPRS and CDSS; the difference between the post-test scores of the experimental group and the post-test scores of the control group was statistically significant (pmusic therapy was proven to be effective in reducing schizophrenic patients' psychological symptoms and levels of depression. Relaxation exercises and music therapy can be used as a complementary therapy in the medical treatment of patients with chronic schizophrenia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Acute effects of intermittent hypoxia and acute aerobic exercise on Orexin-A level and blood pressure in pre-hypertensive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab Abdi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was aimed to compare the effects of acute aerobic exercise and intermittent hypoxia on blood pressure and Orexin-A levels in patients with prehypertension. Methods: To this end, 10 male and female volunteers with prehypertension (51.7±3.1 years old performed an aerobic exercise and an intermittent hypoxia session in separate days. The aerobic exercise consisted of 40 minutes of running on treadmill with intensity of 70% heart rate reserve. During intermittent hypoxia session, 5 minutes hypoxic air (11% oxygen and 5 minutes normoxic air (room air were inhaled intermittently at sitting position for an hour. Orexin-A levels, systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured before and after interventions. Results: Systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels reduced significantly after aerobic exercise and intermittent hypoxia (P≤0.05. However Orexin-A levels decreased significantly only in intermittent hypoxic and this reduction was significantly correlated with the decrease in systolic blood pressure (P≤0.05. Conclusion: Performing an aerobic exercise with moderate intensity as well as an intermittent hypoxic session can have beneficial effects on blood pressure in patients with prehypertension and can be advised for them. In addition, intermittent hypoxia can reduce Orexin-A levels in these people. Therefore, it can be proposed for those who cannot participate in aerobic exercise program.

  10. Orbital Fitness: An Overview of Space Shuttle Cardiopulmonary Exercise Physiology Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Alan D.

    2011-01-01

    Limited observations regarding the cardiopulmonary responses to aerobic exercise had been conducted during short-duration spaceflight before the Space Shuttle program. This presentation focuses on the findings regarding changes observed in the cardiopulmonary exercise responses during and following Shuttle flights. During flight, maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) remained unchanged as did the maximum work rate achievable during cycle exercise testing conducted during the last full flight day. Immediately following flight, the ubiquitous finding, confirmed by investigations conducted during the Spacelab Life Sciences missions 1 and 2 and by NASA Detailed Supplemental Objective studies, indicated that VO2max was reduced; however, the reduction in VO2max was transient and returned to preflight levels within 7 days following return. Studies regarding the influence of aerobic exercise countermeasures performed during flight on postflight performance were mostly limited to the examination of the heart rate (HR) response to submaximal exercise testing on landing day. These studies revealed that exercise HR was elevated in individuals who performed little to no exercise during their missions as compared to individuals who performed regular exercise. In addition, astronauts who performed little to no aerobic exercise during flight demonstrated an increased HR and lowered pulse pressure response to the standard stand test on landing day, indicating a decrease in orthostatic function in these individuals. With regard to exercise modality, four devices were examined during the Shuttle era: two treadmills, a cycle ergometer, and a rowing device. Although there were limited investigations regarding the use of these devices for exercise training aboard the Shuttle, there was no clear consensus reached regarding which proved to be a "superior" device. Each device had a unique operational or physiologic limitation associated with its use. In conclusion, exercise research conducted

  11. Exercise thermoregulation in men after 1 and 24-hours of 6 degrees head-down tilt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertl, A. C.; Dearborn, A. S.; Weidhofer, A. R.; Bernauer, E. M.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exercise thermoregulation is dependent on heat loss by increased skin blood flow (convective and conductive heat loss) and through enhanced sweating (evaporative heat loss). Reduction of plasma volume (PV), increased plasma osmolality, physical deconditioning, and duration of exposure to simulated and actual microgravity reduces the ability to thermoregulate during exercise. HYPOTHESIS: We hypothesized that 24 h of head down tilt (HDT24) would alter thermoregulatory responses to a submaximal exercise test and result in a higher exercise rectal temperature (Tre) when compared with exercise Tre after 1 h of head down tilt (HDT1). METHODS: Seven men (31+/-SD 6 yr, peak oxygen uptake (VpO2peak) of 44+/-6 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)) were studied during 70 min of supine cycling at 58+/-SE 1.5% VO2peak at 22.0 degrees C Tdb and 47% rh. RESULTS: Relative to pre-tilt sitting chair rest data, HDT1 resulted in a 6.1+/-0.9% increase and HDT24 in a 4.3+/-2.3% decrease in PV (delta = 10.4% between experiments, p<0.05) while plasma osmolality remained unchanged (NS). Pre-exercise Tre was elevated after HDT24 (36.71 degrees C +/-0.06 HDT1 vs. 36.93 degrees C+/-0.11 HDT24, p<0.05). The 70 min of exercise did not alter this relationship (p<0.05) with respective end exercise increases in Tre to 38.01 degrees C and 38.26 degrees C (degrees = 1.30 degrees C (HDT1) and 1.33 degrees C (HDT24)). While there were no pre-exercise differences in mean skin temperature (Tsk), a significant (p<0.05) time x treatment interaction occurred during exercise: after min 30 in HDT24 the Tsk leveled off at 31.1 degrees C, while it continued to increase reaching 31.5 degrees C at min 70 in HDT1. A similar response (NS) occurred in skin blood velocity. Neither local sweating rates nor changes in body weight during exercise of -1.63+/-0.24 kg (HDT1) or - 1.33+/-0.09 kg (HDT24) were different (NS) between experiments. CONCLUSION: While HDT24 resulted in elevated pre-exercise Tre, reduced PV

  12. Influence of cardiac stress protocol on myocardial perfusion imaging accuracy: The role of exercise level on the evaluation of ischemic burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimelli, Alessia; Liga, Riccardo; Pasanisi, Emilio Maria; Casagranda, Mirta; Coceani, Michele; Marzullo, Paolo

    2016-10-01

    Some specifics of cardiac stress protocols, i.e., stressor used or exercise level achieved, may impact myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) accuracy. Four-hundred and seventy-five patients were submitted to MPI and coronary angiography. MPI was performed after exercise (303 patients) or dipyridamole stress (172 patients). A coronary stenosis ≥70% was considered significant. In case of exercise test, a peak heart rate (HR) 75% and stress protocol adopted (AUC .76 for exercise vs .78 for vasodilator; P = NS). However, in case of an exercise stress test, a significant interaction between peak %HR and MPI diagnostic power was evident. While an elevated accuracy was still maintained in "Group 1" patients (AUC .79; P vs maximal exercise = NS), a significant drop was demonstrated in "Group 2" patients (AUC .66; P vs maximal exercise = .012, and P vs "Group 1" = .042). The accuracy of MPI is not influenced by the stress protocol adopted. Exercise MPI maintains an elevated accuracy as long as the %HR remains >75%.

  13. Effects of acute aerobic exercise on a task-switching protocol and brain-derived neurotrophic factor concentrations in young adults with different levels of cardiorespiratory fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chia-Liang; Pan, Chien-Yu; Chen, Fu-Chen; Wang, Chun-Hao; Chou, Feng-Ying

    2016-07-01

    What is the central question of this study? Neurocognitive functions can be enhanced by acute aerobic exercise, which could be associated with changes in serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) concentrations. We aimed to explore acute exercise-induced changes in BDNF concentrations, neuropsychological and neurophysiological performances when individuals with different levels of cardiorespiratory fitness performed a cognitive task. What is the main finding and its importance? Only young adults with higher cardiorespiratory fitness could attain switching cost and neurophysiological benefits via acute aerobic exercise. The mechanisms might be fitness dependent. Although acute aerobic exercise could enhance serum BDNF concentrations, changes in peripheral BDNF concentrations could not be the potential factor involved in the beneficial effects on neurocognitive performance. This study investigated the effects of acute aerobic exercise on neuropsychological and neurophysiological performances in young adults with different cardiorespiratory fitness levels when performing a task-switching protocol and explored the potential associations between acute aerobic exercise-induced changes in serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) concentrations and various neurocognitive outcomes. Sixty young adults were categorized into one control group (i.e. non-exercise-intervention; n = 20) and two exercise-intervention (EI) groups [i.e. higher (EIH , n = 20) and lower (EIL , n = 20) cardiorespiratory fitness] according to their maximal oxygen consumption. At baseline and after either an acute bout of 30 min of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise or a control period, the neuropsychological and neurophysiological performances and serum BDNF concentrations were measured when the participants performed a task-switching protocol involving executive control and greater demands on working memory. The results revealed that although acute aerobic exercise decreased reaction

  14. Dynamic cerebral autoregulation changes during sub-maximal handgrip maneuver.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo C Nogueira

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: We investigated the effect of handgrip (HG maneuver on time-varying estimates of dynamic cerebral autoregulation (CA using the autoregressive moving average technique. METHODS: Twelve healthy subjects were recruited to perform HG maneuver during 3 minutes with 30% of maximum contraction force. Cerebral blood flow velocity, end-tidal CO₂ pressure (PETCO₂, and noninvasive arterial blood pressure (ABP were continuously recorded during baseline, HG and recovery. Critical closing pressure (CrCP, resistance area-product (RAP, and time-varying autoregulation index (ARI were obtained. RESULTS: PETCO₂ did not show significant changes during HG maneuver. Whilst ABP increased continuously during the maneuver, to 27% above its baseline value, CBFV raised to a plateau approximately 15% above baseline. This was sustained by a parallel increase in RAP, suggestive of myogenic vasoconstriction, and a reduction in CrCP that could be associated with metabolic vasodilation. The time-varying ARI index dropped at the beginning and end of the maneuver (p<0.005, which could be related to corresponding alert reactions or to different time constants of the myogenic, metabolic and/or neurogenic mechanisms. CONCLUSION: Changes in dynamic CA during HG suggest a complex interplay of regulatory mechanisms during static exercise that should be considered when assessing the determinants of cerebral blood flow and metabolism.

  15. Effect of Physical Exercise on the Cardiorespiratory Response in Overweight Adolescents

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    Diego A S Silva

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the effects of an aerobic physical exercise program on the metabolic and cardiorespiratory response in overweight adolescents.Material and Method: This is a randomized study evaluating overweight adolescents divided into intervention and control groups before and after an aerobic exercise program. Pre- and post-intervention aerobic fitness was evaluated by a submaximal incremental test on a cycle ergometer. The training program lasted 12 weeks, when the intervention group exercised three times per week on a cycle ergometer at individual training intensities corresponding to lactate threshold (LT and onset of blood lactate accumulation (OBLA. The individual workload was increased by 10% at 2-week intervals.Results: After intervention, an increase in workload levels corresponding to LT (33.3% and OBLA (14.2% was observed in the intervention group. In addition, the intervention group reached LT training intensity at a heart rate higher than that observed before intervention and that of controls (p<0.05. Discussion: The program resulted in positive changes in aerobic fitness and heart rate, improving exercise tolerance. Turk Jem 2012; 16: 14-8

  16. Effects of nutrition and exercise health behaviors on predicted risk of cardiovascular disease among workers with different body mass index levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jui-Hua; Huang, Shu-Ling; Li, Ren-Hau; Wang, Ling-Hui; Chen, Yu-Ling; Tang, Feng-Cheng

    2014-04-29

    Workplace health promotion programs should be tailored according to individual needs and efficient intervention. This study aimed to determine the effects of nutrition and exercise health behaviors on predicted risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) when body mass index (BMI) is considered. In total, 3350 Taiwanese workers were included in this cross-sectional study. A self-reported questionnaire was used to measure their nutrition and exercise behaviors. Data on anthropometric values, biochemical blood determinations, and predicted CVD risk (using the Framingham risk score) were collected. In multiple regression analyses, the nutrition behavior score was independently and negatively associated with CVD risk. Exercise was not significantly associated with the risk. However, the interactive effect of exercise and BMI on CVD risk was evident. When stratified by BMI levels, associations between exercise and CVD risk were statistically significant for ideal weight and overweight subgroups. In conclusion, nutrition behavior plays an important role in predicting the CVD risk. Exercise behavior is also a significant predictor for ideal weight and overweight workers. Notably, for underweight or obese workers, maintaining health-promoting exercise seems insufficient to prevent the CVD. In order to improve workers' cardiovascular health, more specific health-promoting strategies should be developed to suit the different BMI levels.

  17. Effects of Nutrition and Exercise Health Behaviors on Predicted Risk of Cardiovascular Disease among Workers with Different Body Mass Index Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jui-Hua Huang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Workplace health promotion programs should be tailored according to individual needs and efficient intervention. This study aimed to determine the effects of nutrition and exercise health behaviors on predicted risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD when body mass index (BMI is considered. In total, 3350 Taiwanese workers were included in this cross-sectional study. A self-reported questionnaire was used to measure their nutrition and exercise behaviors. Data on anthropometric values, biochemical blood determinations, and predicted CVD risk (using the Framingham risk score were collected. In multiple regression analyses, the nutrition behavior score was independently and negatively associated with CVD risk. Exercise was not significantly associated with the risk. However, the interactive effect of exercise and BMI on CVD risk was evident. When stratified by BMI levels, associations between exercise and CVD risk were statistically significant for ideal weight and overweight subgroups. In conclusion, nutrition behavior plays an important role in predicting the CVD risk. Exercise behavior is also a significant predictor for ideal weight and overweight workers. Notably, for underweight or obese workers, maintaining health-promoting exercise seems insufficient to prevent the CVD. In order to improve workers’ cardiovascular health, more specific health-promoting strategies should be developed to suit the different BMI levels.

  18. Pilates versus resistance exercise on the serum levels of hs-CRP, in the abdominal circumference and body mass index (BMI in elderly individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Adesilda Silva Pestana

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that the elderly exhibit a subclinical state of inflammation associated with increased adipose tissue and several comorbidities. To compare the effects of mat Pilates based exercises and resistance exercise on the serum levels of reactive C protein of high sensitivity (hs-CRP, in the abdominal circumference (AC and the body mass index (BMI in the elderly. It is a randomised clinical trial with a sample of 78 elderly individuals (median age 69 years. The active independent variable investigated was nature of treatment intervention (Pilates mat based exercises vs resistance exercise, and the dependent variables were hs-CRP level, AC and BMI. The statistical analysis used Wilcoxon signed rank and Mann-Whitney tests. The correlation between the continuous variables was assessed using Spearman’s coefficient of correlation. The data were analysed using SPSS software version 17.0, and probability values lower than 5% (p< 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Mat Pilates based exercises exhibited reductions in serum hs-CPR level (Wilcoxon signed rank test; z = -2.466, p = 0.01, BMI (Wilcoxon signed rank test; z = -3.295, p = 0.001 and AC (Wilcoxon signed rank test; z = -3.398, p = 0.01. Mat Pilates based exercises promoted a significant reduction of the serum hs-CRP levels and anthropometric measurements in elderly individuals.

  19. Maternal Exercise during Pregnancy Increases BDNF Levels and Cell Numbers in the Hippocampal Formation but Not in the Cerebral Cortex of Adult Rat Offspring.

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    Sérgio Gomes da Silva

    Full Text Available Clinical evidence has shown that physical exercise during pregnancy may alter brain development and improve cognitive function of offspring. However, the mechanisms through which maternal exercise might promote such effects are not well understood. The present study examined levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and absolute cell numbers in the hippocampal formation and cerebral cortex of rat pups born from mothers exercised during pregnancy. Additionally, we evaluated the cognitive abilities of adult offspring in different behavioral paradigms (exploratory activity and habituation in open field tests, spatial memory in a water maze test, and aversive memory in a step-down inhibitory avoidance task. Results showed that maternal exercise during pregnancy increased BDNF levels and absolute numbers of neuronal and non-neuronal cells in the hippocampal formation of offspring. No differences in BDNF levels or cell numbers were detected in the cerebral cortex. It was also observed that offspring from exercised mothers exhibited better cognitive performance in nonassociative (habituation and associative (spatial learning mnemonic tasks than did offspring from sedentary mothers. Our findings indicate that maternal exercise during pregnancy enhances offspring cognitive function (habituation behavior and spatial learning and increases BDNF levels and cell numbers in the hippocampal formation of offspring.

  20. Single Dose of Intra-Muscular Platlet Rich Plasma Reverses the Increase in Plasma Iron Levels in Exercise Induced Muscle Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pündük, Zekine; Oral, Onur; Özkayın, Nadir; Rahman, Khalid

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Autologous Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) therapy, is considered to be a promising solution in accelerating the healing process of injured skeletal muscle tissue. In addition to the release of growth factors, PRP also promotes concentrated anti-inflammatory signals, including interleukins. However, the impact of the intramuscular administration of the PRP on hematologic and biochemical responses has not been fully elucidated in exercise induced muscle damage. Methods: Twelve healthy moderately active male volunteers, without previous experience with eccentric/concentric elbow flexors exercise, participated in this study. They were divided into two groups: control group (CONTROL, n=6) and platelet rich plasma administration group (PRP, n=6) group. To induce muscle damage, subjects in both groups performed concentric/eccentric contractions with load of (80 % 1RM) maximal voluntary contraction of the elbow flexors until point of exhaustion of the non-dominant arm. The non-dominant arms of the PRP group were treated with autologous PRP (Regen ACR-C, Regen Lab, Switzerland) post-24h exercise induced damage (DOMS). Subsequently, 4 ml PRP samples was injected using a 20-gauge needle into the region of the biceps brachii of the non-dominant arm under sterile aseptic conditions. Venous blood samples were collected pre-, and 4 days post-exercise, and analyzed for complete blood counts, serum ferritin, iron, iron binding capacity (IBC), creatinine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) as markers of muscle damage and inflammation. Results: We found that the baseline levels of iron, ferritin, IBC, CK, LDH, AST and ALT were similar in control and PRP groups. However, 24 h following exercise induced muscle damage a significant increase in these parameters was observed in both groups. Interestingly, PRP administration decreased plasma iron levels compared to the control group but this was only achieved on

  1. Caloric restriction and exercise increase plasma ANGPTL4 levels in humans via elevated free fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kersten, S.; Lichtenstein, L.; Steenbergen, E.; Mudde, K.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Hesselink, M.K.; Schrauwen, P.; Müller, M.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE-: Plasma lipoprotein levels are determined by the balance between lipoprotein production and clearance. Recently, angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4) was uncovered as a novel endocrine factor that potently raises plasma triglyceride levels by inhibiting triglyceride clearance. However,

  2. Caloric restriction and exercise increase plasma ANGPTL4 levels in humans via elevated free fatty acids.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kersten, S.; Lichtenstein, L.; Steenbergen, E.; Mudde, K.; Hendriks, H.F.; Hesselink, M.K.; Schrauwen, P.; Muller, M.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Plasma lipoprotein levels are determined by the balance between lipoprotein production and clearance. Recently, angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4) was uncovered as a novel endocrine factor that potently raises plasma triglyceride levels by inhibiting triglyceride clearance. However,

  3. Non-invasive measurement of adrenal response after standardized exercise tests in prepubertal children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijsman, Sigrid M.; Koers, Nicoline F.; Bocca, Gianni; van der Veen, Betty S.; Appelhof, Maaike; Kamps, Arvid W. A.

    Objective: To determine the feasibility of non-invasive evaluation of adrenal response in healthy prepubertal children by standardized exercise tests. Methods: On separate occasions, healthy prepubertal children performed a submaximal cycling test, a maximal cycling test, and a 20-m shuttle-run

  4. Racing Skiers and Swimmers’ Heart Electric Field during Ventricular Depolarization at Recovery Period after Moderate and Submaximal Physical Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana V. Strelnikova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of cardioelectrotopographic investigation of racing skiers and swimmers’ heart electric activity during ventricular depolarization at recovery period after moderate and submaximal physical load. Changes in ventricular depolarization time and ventricular depolarization phases ratio due to longer duration of the first and second cardioelectric potential inversions on the chest surface in racing skiers and less duration of the depolarization initial phase in swimmers were detected after moderate and submaximal load

  5. A Submaximal Running Test With Postexercise Cardiac Autonomic and Neuromuscular Function in Monitoring Endurance Training Adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesterinen, Ville; Nummela, Ari; Laine, Tanja; Hynynen, Esa; Mikkola, Jussi; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2017-01-01

    Vesterinen, V, Nummela, A, Laine, T, Hynynen, E, Mikkola, J, and Häkkinen, K. A submaximal running test with postexercise cardiac autonomic and neuromuscular function in monitoring endurance training adaptation. J Strength Cond Res 31(1): 233-243, 2017-The aim of this study was to investigate whether a submaximal running test (SRT) with postexercise heart rate recovery (HRR), heart rate variability (HRV), and countermovement jump (CMJ) measurements could be used to monitor endurance training adaptation. Thirty-five endurance-trained men and women completed an 18-week endurance training. Maximal endurance performance and maximal oxygen uptake were measured every 8 weeks. In addition, SRTs with postexercise HRR, HRV, and CMJ measurements were carried out every 4 weeks. Submaximal running test consisted of two 6-minute stages at 70 and 80% of maximum heart rate (HRmax) and a 3-minute stage at 90% HRmax, followed by a 2-minute recovery stage for measuring postexercise HRR, HRV, and CMJ test. The highest responders according to the change of maximal endurance performance showed a significant improvement in running speeds during stages 2 and 3 in SRT, whereas no changes were observed in the lowest responders. The strongest correlation was found between the change of maximal endurance performance and running speed during stage 3, whereas no significant relationships were found between the change of maximal endurance performance and the changes of postexercise HRR, HRV, and CMJ. Running speed at 90% HRmax intensity was the most sensitive variable to monitor adaptation to endurance training. The present submaximal test showed potential to monitor endurance training adaptation. Furthermore, it may serve as a practical tool for athletes and coaches to evaluate weekly the effectiveness of training program without interfering in the normal training habits.

  6. Characterization of Symmetry Properties of First Integrals for Submaximal Linearizable Third-Order ODEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Mahomed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between first integrals of submaximal linearizable third-order ordinary differential equations (ODEs and their symmetries is investigated. We obtain the classifying relations between the symmetries and the first integral for submaximal cases of linear third-order ODEs. It is known that the maximum Lie algebra of the first integral is achieved for the simplest equation and is four-dimensional. We show that for the other two classes they are not unique. We also obtain counting theorems of the symmetry properties of the first integrals for these classes of linear third-order ODEs. For the 5 symmetry class of linear third-order ODEs, the first integrals can have 0, 1, 2, and 3 symmetries, and for the 4 symmetry class of linear third-order ODEs, they are 0, 1, and 2 symmetries, respectively. In the case of submaximal linear higher-order ODEs, we show that their full Lie algebras can be generated by the subalgebras of certain basic integrals.

  7. Effects of continuous vs interval exercise training on oxygen uptake efficiency slope in patients with coronary artery disease

    OpenAIRE

    Prado, D.M.L.; Rocco,E.A.; SILVA, A. G.; Rocco, D.F.; Pacheco, M.T.; Silva,P.F.; Furlan, V

    2016-01-01

    The oxygen uptake efficiency slope (OUES) is a submaximal index incorporating cardiovascular, peripheral, and pulmonary factors that determine the ventilatory response to exercise. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of continuous exercise training and interval exercise training on the OUES in patients with coronary artery disease. Thirty-five patients (59.3±1.8 years old; 28 men, 7 women) with coronary artery disease were randomly divided into two groups: continuous exercis...

  8. Physical activity levels in children and adolescents are reduced after the Fontan procedure, independent of exercise capacity, and are associated with lower perceived general health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrindle, Brian W; Williams, Richard V; Mital, Seema; Clark, Bernard J; Russell, Jennifer L; Klein, Gloria; Eisenmann, Joey C

    2007-06-01

    To determine physical activity levels in paediatric patients who underwent the Fontan procedure, and their relationship to functional status and exercise capacity. We studied 147 patients (ages 7-18 years) at a median of 8.1 years after Fontan, as part of the Pediatric Heart Network cross-sectional study of Fontan survivors. Assessment included medical history, self-reported physical activity, parent-completed Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ), cardiopulmonary exercise testing and physical activity level measured by accelerometry (MTI Actigraph). Measured time spent in moderate and vigorous activity was markedly below normal at all ages, particularly in females, and was not significantly related to self-reported activity levels, or to maximum Vo2, Vo2 at anaerobic threshold or maximum work rate on exercise testing. Lower measured activity levels were significantly related to lower perceived general health but not to self-esteem, physical functioning, social impact of physical limitations or overall physical or psychosocial health summary scores. Reduced exercise capacity was more strongly related than measured activity levels to lower scores in general health, self-esteem and physical functioning. Physical activity levels are reduced after Fontan, independent of exercise capacity, and are associated with lower perceived general health but not other aspects of functional status.

  9. The effect of sesamine and aerobic exercise on plasma levels of total antioxidant capacity and glutathione peroxidase in athlete men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef Saberi

    2017-10-01

    Conclusion: Aerobic exercise and supplementation of sesamin is an effective method to improve the health of mens athlete's immune system. In addition, combining supplementation with aerobic exercise can increase some of the beneficial effects of exercise during a 10-week period.

  10. Effects of an aquatic-based exercise program to improve cardiometabolic profile, quality of life, and physical activity levels in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cugusi, Lucia; Cadeddu, Christian; Nocco, Silvio; Orrù, Fabio; Bandino, Stefano; Deidda, Martino; Caria, Alessandra; Bassareo, Pier Paolo; Piras, Alessandra; Cabras, Sergio; Mercuro, Giuseppe

    2015-02-01

    The role of structured exercise in improving cardiometabolic profile and quality of life in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (2DM) has been widely demonstrated. Little is known about the effects of an aquatic-based exercise program in patients with 2DM. To evaluate the effects of a supervised aquatic-based exercise program on cardiometabolic profile, quality of life, and physical activity levels in patients with 2DM. Observational study, community pre-post aquatic-based exercise program, primary care intervention. Eighteen men diagnosed with 2DM (52.2 ± 9.3 years). and Cardiometabolic profile, quality of life, and physical activity levels were assessed before and after 12 weeks of an aquatic-based exercise program. The results show a significant improvement of cardiometabolic assessments (maximum oxygen consumption: 24.1 versus 21.1 mL/kg/min, P aquatic-based exercise program produces benefits for the cardiovascular system and metabolic profile and appears to be safe and effective in improving quality of life and increasing physical activity levels in patients with 2DM. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of exhaustive exercise on the angular pedaling pattern: A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Joner Wiest

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2009v11n4p386   Considering biomechanical aspects such as kinematics, fatigue can be characterized as a loss of efficiency in maintaining a movement pattern, such as pedaling technique, during exercise. The objective of this preliminary study was to investigate the effects of 1-h exhaustive cycling exercise at intensity of 80% VO2max on pedaling technique. The pedaling technique was evaluated in four skilled mountain-bike cyclists by 2D kinematics. The main hypothesis of this study was that angular changes in response to fatigue would occur mainly in the ankle joint. After achievement of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max, the cyclists were submitted to a submaximal protocol at intensity corresponding to 80% VO2max for 1 h. The cyclists were filmed throughout 10 complete consecutive crank cycles at intervals of 10 min. Images were acquired from the right lower limb and the hip, knee and ankle joint angles were measured after kinematic processing. The Shapiro-Wilk test, ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey HSD test were used for statistical analysis, with the level of significance set at 0.05. Statistical analysis showed a significant difference only for ankle kinematics after 40 min of exercise, with an increase in the range of motion from 20° at the beginning of exercise to 35° at the end of exercise. This result confirms the hypothesis proposed and suggests that only the ankle joint was affected by the exercise. The characteristics of ankle movement suggest that this joint plays a compensatory role in an attempt to maintain the pedaling technique and to sustain the exercise workload.

  12. Effect of exhaustive exercise on the angular pedaling pattern: A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Joner Wiest

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Considering biomechanical aspects such as kinematics, fatigue can be characterized as a loss of efficiency in maintaining a movement pattern, such as pedaling technique, during exercise. The objective of this preliminary study was to investigate the effects of 1-h exhaustive cycling exercise at intensity of 80% VO2max on pedaling technique. The pedaling technique was evaluated in four skilled mountain-bike cyclists by 2D kinematics. The main hypothesis of this study was that angular changes in response to fatigue would occur mainly in the ankle joint. After achievement of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max, the cyclists were submitted to a submaximal protocol at intensity corresponding to 80% VO2max for 1 h. The cyclists were filmed throughout 10 complete consecutive crank cycles at intervals of 10 min. Images were acquired from the right lower limb and the hip, knee and ankle joint angles were measured after kinematic processing. The Shapiro-Wilk test, ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey HSD test were used for statistical analysis, with the level of significance set at 0.05. Statistical analysis showed a significant difference only for ankle kinematics after 40 min of exercise, with an increase in the range of motion from 20° at the beginning of exercise to 35° at the end of exercise. This result confirms the hypothesis proposed and suggests that only the ankle joint was affected by the exercise. The characteristics of ankle movement suggest that this joint plays a compensatory role in an attempt to maintain the pedaling technique and to sustain the exercise workload.

  13. The effects of exercise reminder software program on office workers' perceived pain level, work performance and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irmak, A; Bumin, G; Irmak, R

    2012-01-01

    In direct proportion to current technological developments, both the computer usage in the workplaces is increased and requirement of leaving the desk for an office worker in order to photocopy a document, send or receive an e-mail is decreased. Therefore, office workers stay in the same postures accompanied by long periods of keyboard usage. In recent years, with intent to reduce the incidence of work related musculoskeletal disorders several exercise reminder software programs have been developed. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of the exercise reminder software program on office workers' perceived pain level, work performance and quality of life. 39 healthy office workers accepted to attend the study. Participants were randomly split in to two groups, control group (n = 19) and intervention group (n = 20). Visual Analogue Scale to evaluate the perceived pain was administered all of the participants in the beginning and at the end of the study. The intervention group used the program for 10 weeks. Findings showed that the control group VAS scores remained the same, but the intervention group VAS scores decreased in a statistically significant way (p software programs may help to reduce perceived pain among office workers. Further long term studies with more subjects are needed to describe the effects of these programs and the mechanism under these effects.

  14. Upper and lower extremity muscle strength levels associated with an exercise capacity of 5 metabolic equivalents in male patients with heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izawa, Kazuhiro P; Watanabe, Satoshi; Oka, Koichiro; Hiraki, Koji; Morio, Yuji; Kasahara, Yusuke; Watanabe, Yosuke; Katata, Hironobu; Osada, Naohiko; Omiya, Kazuto

    2012-01-01

    Exercise capacity of fewer than 5 metabolic equivalents (METs) has been associated with high risk of death and poor physical functioning in male patients with heart failure (HF). Therefore, we aimed to determine upper and lower extremity muscle strength levels required to attain an exercise capacity of 5 or more METs in male outpatients with HF. We enrolled 148 male HF patients (age 60.1 ± 1.0 years). Peak oxygen uptake (peak (Equation is included in full-text article.)o2) was assessed by cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX). After CPX, we further divided the patients into groups according to exercise capacity: 5 or more METs (group A, n = 85) and fewer than 5 METs (group B, n = 63). Handgrip strength and knee extensor and flexor muscle strengths were assessed as indices of upper and lower extremity muscle strength, respectively. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to select cutoff values for upper and lower extremity muscle strength resulting in an exercise capacity of 5 or more METs in these patients. Exercise capacity of 5 or more METs in male HF patients was equivalent to approximately 35.2 kgf of handgrip strength and 1.70 Nm/kg of knee extensor and 0.90 Nm/kg of knee flexor muscle strengths. These upper and lower extremity muscle strength values may be useful target goals for improvement of exercise capacity, risk management, and activities of daily living in male HF patients.

  15. Effects of a 6-Month, Group-Based, Therapeutic Exercise Program for Childhood Cancer Outpatients on Motor Performance, Level of Activity, and Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beulertz, Julia; Prokop, Aram; Rustler, Vanessa; Bloch, Wilhelm; Felsch, Moritz; Baumann, Freerk T

    2016-01-01

    Exercise interventions in pediatric oncology are feasible and safe. However, scarce data are available with regard to the effectiveness of outpatient, group-based exercise interventions. As well, the potential role of exercise to improve motor performance has not been adequately explored despite being a meaningful outcome during childhood with important implications for physical activity behavior. No study has yet demonstrated significant changes in motor performance after an exercise intervention. This explorative, prospective study was designed to evaluate the effects of a 6-month, group-based, therapeutic exercise program for a mixed childhood cancer population on motor performance, level of activity, and quality of life. After cessation of inpatient medical treatment, childhood cancer outpatients aged 4-17 years exercised once a week during a 6-month period (IG). Comparison groups included childhood cancer outpatients receiving care as usual (CG(1)), as well as healthy peers (matched to IG by age and gender) (CG(2)). Overall motor performance, various motor dimensions, activity in sport clubs and school sports, as well as physical and emotional well-being were significantly reduced in the IG at baseline. Significant differences between the IG and CG(1) and/or CG(2) were identified in the change of overall motor performance, single motor dimensions, overall level of activity, and emotional well-being from baseline to post-intervention. The exercise intervention was beneficial in terms of motor performance, level of activity, and emotional well-being. As such, this study provides support for group-based exercise as a potential strategy to improve these outcomes after inpatient medical treatment. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. The influence of self-rated health on the development of change in the level of physical activity for participants in prescribed exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredahl, Thomas Viskum Gjelstrup; Singhammer, John

    2011-01-01

    with values of 28% and 79%, respectively. Conclusions: Exercise on Prescription (EoP) improves levels of physical activity (MET) of participants with good and poor self-rated health in the long term enough to accommodate national guidelines of levels of physical activity. Participants with poor self......Background: Knowledge is needed concerning whether intense prescribed exercise interventions are effective in regards to long-term effects on physical activity levels. A successful and lasting outcome of a behaviour-change intervention is believed to be contingent on the inclusion of psychological...... issues such as self-rated quality of life and self-rated health. This study extends previous research conducted on the long-term influence of prescribed exercise on psychosocial issues. Specifically, it was analysed if participants’ level of self-rated health (good or poor) at baseline would be decisive...

  17. Effects of physical exercise on plasma levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and depressive symptoms in elderly women--a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Daniele S; de Queiroz, Bárbara Z; Miranda, Aline S; Rocha, Natália P; Felício, Diogo C; Mateo, Elvis C; Favero, Michelle; Coelho, Fernanda M; Jesus-Moraleida, Fabianna; Gomes Pereira, Danielle A; Teixeira, Antonio L; Máximo Pereira, Leani S

    2013-08-01

    To investigate the effect of 2 standardized exercise programs, muscle strength exercises (SE) and aerobic exercises (AE), on the plasma levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and depressive symptoms in 451 elderly women. A randomized controlled trial. Belo Horizonte/MG-Brazil. Community-dwelling older women (N=451; age, 65-89y). The participants were divided into 2 groups: SE and AE. Both protocols lasted 10 weeks, and 30 sessions (1-h sessions) in total were performed 3 times a week under the direct supervision of physical therapists. Plasma levels of BDNF (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) and depressive symptoms (Geriatric Depression Scale). There was a significant difference for BDNF plasma levels between the SE and AE groups (P=.009). Post hoc analysis revealed a pre-post intervention difference in BDNF levels only for the SE group (P=.008). A statistically significant difference was found for the pre- and postintervention Geriatric Depression Scale scores in both groups (P=.001), showing that the effects of both exercise protocols were comparable regarding depressive symptoms (P=.185). The present findings have demonstrated the positive effect of muscle strengthening and aerobic intervention on depressive symptoms in community-dwelling elderly women. Interestingly, only SE significantly increased the plasma levels of BDNF in our sample. The positive effects of physical exercise on depressive symptoms in the elderly were not mediated by BDNF. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of a 6-Week Indoor Hand-Bike Exercise Program on Health and Fitness Levels in People With Spinal Cord Injury: A Randomized Controlled Trial Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Il; Lee, Hyelim; Lee, Bum-Suk; Kim, Jongbae; Jeon, Justin Y

    2015-11-01

    To investigate the effects of a 6-week indoor hand-bike exercise program on fasting insulin and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) levels and physical fitness in people with spinal cord injury (SCI). Randomized controlled trial. National rehabilitation center (outpatient). Participants with SCI (N=15; exercise group: n=8, control group: n=7). This study involved 60-minute exercise sessions on an indoor hand-bike. Participants in the exercise group exercised 3 times per week for 6 weeks. Health parameters (body mass index [BMI], waist circumference, percent body fat, insulin level, and HOMA-IR level) and fitness outcomes (peak oxygen consumption [Vo2peak], shoulder abduction and adduction, shoulder flexion and extension, and elbow flexion and extension). Participation in a 6-week exercise program using an indoor hand-bike significantly decreased BMI (baseline: 22.0±3.7 m/kg(2) vs postintervention: 21.7±3.5 m/kg(2), P=.028), fasting insulin (baseline: 5.4±2.9 μU/mL vs postintervention: 3.4±1.5 μU/mL, P=.036), and HOMA-IR (baseline: 1.0±0.6 vs postintervention: 0.6±0.3, P=.03) levels compared with those in the control group. Furthermore, this training program significantly increased Vo2peak and strength in shoulder abduction, adduction, flexion, and extension and elbow flexion and extension compared with those in the control group. Exercise using an indoor hand-bike appears to be an effective modality to improve body composition, fasting insulin, and HOMA-IR levels and fitness in people with an SCI. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The effect of acute and 7-days dietary nitrate on mechanical efficiency, exercise performance and cardiac biomarkers in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beijers, Rosanne J H C G; Huysmans, Stephanie M D; van de Bool, Coby; Kingma, Boris R M; Verdijk, Lex B; van Loon, Luc J C; Meex, Steven J R; Gosker, Harry R; Schols, Annemie M W J

    2017-10-31

    Many COPD patients have a reduced exercise capacity and mechanical efficiency and are at increased cardiometabolic risk. This study aimed to assess acute and 7-days effects of dietary nitrate on mechanical efficiency, exercise performance and cardiac biomarkers in patients with COPD. This double-blind, randomized cross-over placebo controlled trial included 20 mild-to-moderate COPD patients (66.6 ± 7.5 years) with moderate exercise impairments and decreased mechanical efficiency, normal BMI (26 ± 3 kg/m 2 ) but high prevalence of abdominal obesity (83.3%). Subjects were randomly allocated to the treatment order of 7 days sodium nitrate ingestion (∼8 mmol/day) and 7 days placebo (NaCl solution) or vice versa, separated by a washout period. Before (Day-1) and after (Day-7) both intervention periods resting metabolic rate and the metabolic response during submaximal cycle ergometry, cycling endurance time, plasma nitrate and nitrite levels, cardiac plasma biomarkers (e.g. cardiac troponin T, Nt-proBNP and creatinine kinase) and blood pressure were measured. Subsequently, gross, net and delta mechanical efficiency were calculated. Plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations increased at Day-1 and Day-7 after sodium nitrate but not after placebo ingestion. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure did not change following nitrate ingestion. Furthermore, no differences were observed in gross, net, and delta mechanical efficiency during submaximal exercise, cycling endurance time and cardiac biomarkers between nitrate and placebo on Day-1 and Day-7. Meta-analysis of all available studies in COPD also showed no beneficial effect of beetroot juice on systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Acute as well as 7-days sodium nitrate supplementation does not modulate mechanical efficiency, blood pressure or cardiac biomarkers in mild-to-moderate COPD patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  20. Are gender differences in upper-body power generated by elite cross-country skiers augmented by increasing the intensity of exercise?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Magdalen Hegge

    Full Text Available In the current study, we evaluated the impact of exercise intensity on gender differences in upper-body poling among cross-country skiers, as well as the associated differences in aerobic capacity, maximal strength, body composition, technique and extent of training. Eight male and eight female elite skiers, gender-matched for level of performance by FIS points, carried out a 4-min submaximal, and a 3-min and 30-sec maximal all-out test of isolated upper-body double poling on a Concept2 ski ergometer. Maximal upper-body power and strength (1RM were determined with a pull-down exercise. In addition, body composition was assessed with a DXA scan and training during the previous six months quantified from diaries. Relative to the corresponding female values (defined as 100%, the power output produced by the men was 88%, 95% and 108% higher during the submaximal, 3-min and 30-sec tests, respectively, and peak power in the pull-down strength exercise was 118% higher (all P<0.001. During the ergometer tests the work performed per cycle by the men was 97%, 102% and 91% greater, respectively, and the men elevated their cycle rate to a greater extent at higher intensities (both P<0.01. Furthermore, men had a 61% higher VO2peak, 58% higher 1RM, relatively larger upper-body mass (61% vs 56% and reported considerably more upper-body strength and endurance training (all P<0.05. In conclusion, gender differences in upper-body power among cross-country skiers augmented as the intensity of exercise increased. The gender differences observed here are greater than those reported previously for both lower- and whole-body sports and coincided with greater peak aerobic capacity and maximal upper-body strength, relatively more muscle mass in the upper-body, and more extensive training of upper-body strength and endurance among the male skiers.

  1. Exercise capacity in lean versus obese women.

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    Hulens, M; Vansant, G; Lysens, R; Claessens, A L; Muls, E

    2001-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the nature and magnitude of the differences in submaximal and maximal exercise capacity parameters between lean and obese women. A total of 225 healthy obese women 18-65 years (BMI> or=30 kg/m(2)) and 81 non-athletic lean women (BMI< or=26 kg/m(2)) were selected. Anthropometric measurements (weight and height), body composition assessment (bioelectrical impedance method) and a maximal exercise capacity test on a bicycle ergometer were performed. Oxygen uptake (VO(2)), carbon dioxide production (VCO(2)), expired ventilation (VE), respiratory quotient (RQ), breathing efficiency (VE/VO(2)), mechanical efficiency (ME) and anaerobic threshold (AT) were calculated. At a submaximal intensity load of 70 W, VO(2) (l/min) was larger in the obese women and was already 78% of their peak VO(2), whereas in the non-obese it was only 69% (P=0.0001). VE (l/min) was larger, VE/VO(2) did not differ and ME was lower in obese compared to the lean women. AT occurred at the same percentage of peak VO(2) in both lean and obese women. At peak effort, achieved load, terminal VO(2) (l min(-1) kg(-1)), VE, heart rate, RQ respiratory exchange ratio and perceived exertion were lower in obese subjects compared to the non-obese. Obese subjects mentioned significantly more musculoskeletal pain as a reason to end the test, whereas in lean subjects it was leg fatigue. Lean women recovered better as after 2 min they were already at 35% of the peak VO(2), whereas in the obese women it was 47% (P=0.0001). Our results confirm that exercise capacity is decreased in obesity, both at submaximal and peak intensity, and during recovery. Moreover, at peak effort musculoskeletal pain was an important reason to end the test and not true leg fatigue. These findings are important when designing exercise programs for obese subjects.

  2. Daily exercise prevents diastolic dysfunction and oxidative stress in a female mouse model of western diet induced obesity by maintaining cardiac heme oxygenase-1 levels.

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    Bostick, Brian; Aroor, Annayya R; Habibi, Javad; Durante, William; Ma, Lixin; DeMarco, Vincent G; Garro, Mona; Hayden, Melvin R; Booth, Frank W; Sowers, James R

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is a global epidemic with profound cardiovascular disease (CVD) complications. Obese women are particularly vulnerable to CVD, suffering higher rates of CVD compared to non-obese females. Diastolic dysfunction is the earliest manifestation of CVD in obese women but remains poorly understood with no evidence-based therapies. We have shown early diastolic dysfunction in obesity is associated with oxidative stress and myocardial fibrosis. Recent evidence suggests exercise may increase levels of the antioxidant heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Accordingly, we hypothesized that diastolic dysfunction in female mice consuming a western diet (WD) could be prevented by daily volitional exercise with reductions in oxidative stress, myocardial fibrosis and maintenance of myocardial HO-1 levels. Four-week-old female C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat/high-fructose WD for 16weeks (N=8) alongside control diet fed mice (N=8). A separate cohort of WD fed females was allowed a running wheel for the entire study (N=7). Cardiac function was assessed at 20weeks by high-resolution cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Functional assessment was followed by immunohistochemistry, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Western blotting to identify pathologic mechanisms and assess HO-1 protein levels. There was no significant body weight decrease in exercising mice, normalized body weight 14.3g/mm, compared to sedentary mice, normalized body weight 13.6g/mm (p=0.38). Total body fat was also unchanged in exercising, fat mass of 6.6g, compared to sedentary mice, fat mass 7.4g (p=0.55). Exercise prevented diastolic dysfunction with a significant reduction in left ventricular relaxation time to 23.8ms for exercising group compared to 33.0ms in sedentary group (pstress and myocardial fibrosis with improved mitochondrial architecture. HO-1 protein levels were increased in the hearts of exercising mice compared to sedentary WD fed females. This study provides seminal evidence that exercise

  3. Effect of strength training with blood flow restriction on muscle power and submaximal strength in eumenorrheic women.

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    Gil, Ana L S; Neto, Gabriel R; Sousa, Maria S C; Dias, Ingrid; Vianna, Jeferson; Nunes, Rodolfo A M; Novaes, Jefferson S

    2017-03-01

    Blood flow restriction (BFR) training stimulates muscle size and strength by increasing muscle activation, accumulation of metabolites and muscle swelling. This method has been used in different populations, but no studies have evaluated the effects of training on muscle power and submaximal strength (SS) in accounted for the menstrual cycle. The aim of this study was to analyse the effect of strength training (ST) with BFR on the muscle power and SS of upper and lower limbs in eumenorrheic women. Forty untrained women (18-40 years) were divided randomly and proportionally into four groups: (i) high-intensity ST at 80% of 1RM (HI), (ii) low-intensity ST at 20% of 1RM combined with partial blood flow restriction (LI + BFR), (iii) low-intensity ST at 20% of 1RM (LI) and d) control group (CG). Each training group performed eight training sessions. Tests with a medicine ball (MB), horizontal jump (HJ), vertical jump (VJ), biceps curls (BC) and knee extension (KE) were performed during the 1st day follicular phase (FP), 14th day (ovulatory phase) and 26-28th days (luteal phase) of the menstrual cycle. There was no significant difference among groups in terms of the MB, HJ, VJ or BC results at any time point (P>0·05). SS in the KE exercise was significantly greater in the LI + BFR group compared to the CG group (P = 0·014) during the LP. Therefore, ST with BFR does not appear to improve the power of upper and lower limbs and may be an alternative to improve the SS of lower limbs of eumenorrheic women. © 2015 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Upregulation of skeletal muscle PGC-1α through the elevation of cyclic AMP levels by Cyanidin-3-glucoside enhances exercise performance.

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    Matsukawa, Toshiya; Motojima, Hideko; Sato, Yuki; Takahashi, Shinya; Villareal, Myra O; Isoda, Hiroko

    2017-03-20

    Regular exercise and physical training enhance physiological capacity and improve metabolic diseases. Skeletal muscles require peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) in the process of their adaptation to exercise owing to PGC-1α's ability to regulate mitochondrial biogenesis, angiogenesis, and oxidative metabolism. Cyanidin-3-glucoside (Cy3G) is a natural polyphenol and a nutraceutical factor, which has several beneficial effects on human health. Here, the effect of Cy3G on exercise performance and the underlying mechanisms involved were investigated. ICR mice were given Cy3G (1 mg/kg, orally) everyday and made to perform weight-loaded swimming exercise for 15 days. The endurance of mice orally administered with Cy3G was improved, enabling them to swim longer (time) and while the levels of exercise-induced lactate and fatigue markers (urea nitrogen, creatinine and total ketone bodies) were reduced. Additionally, the expression of lactate metabolism-related genes (lactate dehydrogenase B and monocarboxylate transporter 1) in gastrocnemius and biceps femoris muscles was increased in response to Cy3G-induced PGC-1α upregulation. In vitro, using C2C12 myotubes, Cy3G-induced elevation of intracellular cyclic AMP levels increased PGC-1α expression via the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase pathway. This study demonstrates that Cy3G enhances exercise performance by activating lactate metabolism through skeletal muscle PGC-1α upregulation.

  5. Effects of Dietary Acid Load on Exercise Metabolism and Anaerobic Exercise Performance

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    Susan L. Caciano, Cynthia L. Inman, Elizabeth E. Gockel-Blessing, Edward P. Weiss

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dietary acid load, quantified as the potential renal acid load (PRAL of the diet, affects systemic pH and acid-base regulation. In a previous cross-sectional study, we reported that a low dietary PRAL (i.e. alkaline promoting diet is associated with higher respiratory exchange ratio (RER values during maximal exercise. The purpose of the present study was to confirm the previous findings with a short-term dietary intervention study. Additionally, we sought to determine if changes in PRAL affects submaximal exercise RER (as a reflection of substrate utilization and anaerobic exercise performance. Subjects underwent a graded treadmill exercise test (GXT to exhaustion and an anaerobic exercise performance test on two occasions, once after following a low-PRAL diet and on a separate occasion, after a high-PRAL diet. The diets were continued as long as needed to achieve an alkaline or acid fasted morning urine pH, respectively, with all being 4-9 days in duration. RER was measured during the GXT with indirect calorimetry. The anaerobic performance test was a running time-to-exhaustion test lasting 1-4 min. Maximal exercise RER was lower in the low-PRAL trial compared to the high-PRAL trial (1.10 ± 0.02 vs. 1.20 ± 0.05, p = 0.037. The low-PRAL diet also resulted in a 21% greater time to exhaustion during anaerobic exercise (2.56 ± 0.36 vs. 2.11 ± 0.31 sec, p = 0.044 and a strong tendency for lower RER values during submaximal exercise at 70% VO2max (0.88 ± 0.02 vs. 0.96 ± 0.04, p = 0.060. Contrary to our expectations, a short-term low-PRAL (alkaline promoting diet resulted in lower RER values during maximal-intensity exercise. However, the low-PRAL diet also increased anaerobic exercise time to exhaustion and appears to have shifted submaximal exercise substrate utilization to favor lipid oxidation and spare carbohydrate, both of which would be considered favorable effects in the context of exercise performance.

  6. Separate and combined effects of exercise training and weight loss on exercise efficiency and substrate oxidation.

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    Amati, Francesca; Dubé, John J; Shay, Chris; Goodpaster, Bret H

    2008-09-01

    Perturbations in body weight have been shown to affect energy expenditure and efficiency during physical activity. The separate effects of weight loss and exercise training on exercise efficiency or the proportion of energy derived from fat oxidation during physical activity, however, are not known. The purpose of this study was to determine the separate and combined effects of exercise training and weight loss on metabolic efficiency, economy (EC), and fat oxidation during steady-state moderate submaximal exercise. Sixty-four sedentary older (67 +/- 0.5 yr) overweight to obese (30.7 +/- 0.4 kg/m(2)) volunteers completed 4 mo of either diet-induced weight loss (WL; n = 11), exercise training (EX; n = 36), or the combination of both interventions (WLEX; n = 17). Energy expenditure, gross efficiency (GE), EC, and proportion of energy expended from fat (EF) were determined during a 1-h submaximal (50% of peak aerobic capacity) cycle ergometry exercise before the intervention and at the same absolute work rate after the intervention. We found that EX increased GE by 4.7 +/- 2.2%. EC was similarly increased by 4.2 +/- 2.1% by EX. The addition of concomitant WL to EX (WLEX) resulted in greater increases in GE (9.0 +/- 3.3%) compared with WL alone but not compared with EX alone. These effects remained after adjusting for changes in lean body mass. The proportion of energy derived from fat during the bout of moderate exercise increased with EX and WLEX but not with WL. From these findings, we conclude that exercise training, either alone or in combination with weight loss, increases both exercise efficiency and the utilization of fat during moderate physical activity in previously sedentary, obese older adults. Weight loss alone, however, significantly improves neither efficiency nor utilization of fat during exercise.

  7. Aerobic Exercise Training Selectively Changes Oxysterol Levels and Metabolism Reducing Cholesterol Accumulation in the Aorta of Dyslipidemic Mice.

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    Ferreira, Guilherme Silva; Pinto, Paula R; Iborra, Rodrigo T; Del Bianco, Vanessa; Santana, Monique Fátima Mello; Nakandakare, Edna Regina; Nunes, Valéria S; Negrão, Carlos E; Catanozi, Sergio; Passarelli, Marisa

    2017-01-01

    Background: Oxysterols are bioactive lipids that control cellular cholesterol synthesis, uptake, and exportation besides mediating inflammation and cytotoxicity that modulate the development of atherosclerosis. Aerobic exercise training (AET) prevents and regresses atherosclerosis by the improvement of lipid metabolism, reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) and antioxidant defenses in the arterial wall. We investigated in dyslipidemic mice the role of a 6-week AET program in the content of plasma and aortic arch cholesterol and oxysterols, the expression of genes related to cholesterol flux and the effect of the exercise-mimetic AICAR, an AMPK activator, in macrophage oxysterols concentration. Methods: Sixteen-week old male apo E KO mice fed a chow diet were included in the protocol. Animals were trained in a treadmill running, 15 m/min, 5 days/week, for 60 min (T; n = 29). A control group was kept sedentary (S; n = 32). Plasma lipids and glucose were determined by enzymatic techniques and glucometer, respectively. Cholesterol and oxysterols in aortic arch and macrophages were measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism was determined by RT-qPCR. The effect of AMPK in oxysterols metabolism was determined in J774 macrophages treated with 0.25 mM AICAR. Results: Body weight and plasma TC, TG, HDL-c, glucose, and oxysterols were similar between groups. As compared to S group, AET enhanced 7β-hydroxycholesterol (70%) and reduced cholesterol (32%) in aorta. In addition, exercise increased Cyp27a1 (54%), Cd36 (75%), Cat (70%), Prkaa1 (40%), and Prkaa2 (51%) mRNA. In macrophages, the activation of AMPK followed by incubation with HDL 2 increased Abca1 (52%) and Cd36 (220%) and decrease Prkaa1 (19%), Cyp27a1 (47%) and 7α-hydroxycholesterol level. Conclusion: AET increases 7β-hydroxycholesterol in the aortic arch of dyslipidemic mice, which is related to the enhanced expression of Cd36 . In addition, the increase

  8. Effect of 6-months of physical exercise on the nitrate/nitrite levels in hypertensive postmenopausal women

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    Moraes Camila

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidences have showed that the incidence of arterial hypertension is greater in postmenopausal women as compared to premenopausal. Physical inactivity has been implicated as a major contributor to weight gain and abdominal obesity in postmenopausal women and the incidence of cardiovascular disease increases dramatically after menopause. Additionally, more women than men die each year of coronary heart disease and are twice as likely as men to die within the first year after a heart attack. A healthy lifestyle has been strongly associated with the regular physical activity and evidences have shown that physically active subjects have more longevity with reduction of morbidity and mortality. Nitric oxide (NO produced by endothelial cells has been implicated in this beneficial effect with improvement of vascular relaxing and reduction in blood pressure in both laboratory animals and human. Although the effect of exercise training in the human cardiovascular system has been largely studied, the majority of these studies were predominantly conducted in men or young volunteers. Therefore, the aim of this work was to investigate the effects of 6 months of dynamic exercise training (ET on blood pressure and plasma nitrate/nitrite concentration (NOx- in hypertensive postmenopausal women. Methods Eleven volunteers were submitted to the ET consisting in 3 days a week, each session of 60 minutes during 6 months at moderate intensity (50% of heart rate reserve. Anthropometric parameters, blood pressure, NOx- concentration were measured at initial time and after ET. Results A significant reduction in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure values was seen after ET which was accompanied by markedly increase of NOx- levels (basal: 10 ± 0.9; ET: 16 ± 2 μM. Total cholesterol was significantly reduced (basal: 220 ± 38 and ET: 178 ± 22 mg/dl, whereas triglycerides levels were not modified after ET (basal: 141 ± 89 and ET: 147 ± 8 mg

  9. The relationship between heart rate recovery and brain natruretic Peptide in patients with chest discomfort: a study for relationship between heart rate recovery and pre-exercise, post-exercise levels of brain natruretic Peptide in patients with normal systolic function and chest discomfort.

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    Lee, Jae Eun; Kim, Bum Soo; Park, Wan; Huh, Jung Kwon; Kim, Byung Jin; Sung, Ki Chul; Kang, Jin Ho; Lee, Man Ho; Park, Jung Ro

    2010-04-01

    The correlation between brain natruretic peptide (BNP) level and cardiac autonomic function has been studied in type 2 diabetic patients. However, there is limited data from patients with normal systolic function. We evaluated the association between heart rate recovery (HRR) representing autonomic dysfunction and three plasma BNP levels: pre-exercise, post-exercise, and change during exercise in patients with normal systolic function. Subjects included 105 patients with chest pain and normal systolic function. HRR was defined as the difference between the peak heart rate and the rate measured two minutes after completion of a treadmill exercise test. We measured plasma BNP levels before exercise, 5 minutes after completion of exercise, and during exercise (absolute value of difference between pre- and post-exercise BNP levels). Patients with abnormal HRR values (heart rates, and higher pre- and post-exercise BNP levels than patients with normal HRR values. The patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) had abnormal HRR. However, no significant differences were found between the two groups in terms of history of hypertension (HTN), diabetes, and peak systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP). HRR was significantly associated with pre-exercise BNP (r=-0.36, p=0.004) and post-exercise BNP (r=-0.27, p=0.006), but not BNP changes. Further, pre-exercise BNP levels showed a greater association with HRR than post-exercise BNP levels. HRR is independently associated with pre-exercise and post-exercise BNP levels, even in patients with normal systolic function.

  10. The effects of aerobic exercises and 25(OH D supplementation on GLP1 and DPP4 level in Type II diabetic patients

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    Naser Rahimi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of an 8-week aerobic exercise and supplementation of 25(OHD3 on GLP1 and DDP4 levels in men with type II diabetes. Methods: In this semiexperimental research, among 40–60-year-old men with type II diabetes who were referred to the diabetic center of Isabn-E Maryam hospital in Isfahan; of whom, 48 patients were voluntarily accepted and then were randomly divided into 4 groups: aerobic exercise group, aerobic exercise with 25(OH D supplement group, 25(OH D supplement group, and the control group. An aerobic exercise program was conducted for 8 weeks (3 sessions/week, each session 60 to75 min with 60–80% HRmax. The supplement user group received 50,000 units of oral Vitamin D once weekly for 8 weeks. The GLP1, DPP4, and 25(OH D levels were measured before and after the intervention. At last, the data were statistically analyzed using the ANCOVA and post hoc test of least significant difference. Results: The results of ANCOVA showed a significant difference between the GLP1 and DPP4 levels in aerobic exercise with control group while these changes were not statistically significant between the 25(OH D supplement group with control group (P < 0.05. Conclusions: Aerobic exercises have resulted an increase in GLP1 level and a decrease in DPP4 level. However, consumption of Vitamin D supplement alone did not cause any changes in GLP1and DPP4 levels but led to an increase in 25-hydroxy Vitamin D level.

  11. Exercise-Induced Dose-Response Alterations in Adiponectin and Leptin Levels Are Dependent on Body Fat Changes in Women at Risk for Breast Cancer.

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    Sturgeon, Kathleen; Digiovanni, Laura; Good, Jerene; Salvatore, Domenick; Fenderson, Desiré; Domchek, Susan; Stopfer, Jill; Galantino, Mary Lou; Bryan, Cathy; Hwang, Wei-Ting; Schmitz, Kathryn

    2016-08-01

    Dysregulation of adipokines, such as adiponectin and leptin, is associated with a variety of chronic diseases, including cancer. Physical activity protects against breast cancer and one of the mechanisms which may underlie this association is exercise-induced changes in adipokine levels. The WISER Sister Trial was a three-armed randomized controlled trial in premenopausal women (n = 137) with an elevated risk for breast cancer. A 5-menstrual-cycle-long dosed aerobic exercise intervention compared low-dose exercise (150 min/wk; n = 44) or high-dose exercise (300 min/wk; n = 48) with a control group asked to maintain usual activity levels (n = 45). Exercise intensity progressed to and was maintained at 70% to 80% of age predicted heart rate max. Body composition and adipokine levels were measured at baseline and follow-up. We observed significant linear trends for increased fitness capacity (Δ%: -2.0% control, 10.1% low dose, 13.1% high dose), decreased fat tissue-to-total tissue mass (Δ%: 0.7% control, -2.9% low dose, -3.7% high dose), increased body fat adjusted adiponectin (Δ%: -0.6% control, 0.6% low dose, 0.9% high dose), and decreased body fat adjusted leptin (Δ%: 0.7% control, -8.2% low dose, -10.2% high dose). In this randomized clinical trial of premenopausal women at risk for breast cancer, we demonstrate a dose-response effect of exercise on adiponectin and leptin and that dose response is dependent on changes in body fat. Improved adipokine levels, achieved by aerobic exercise training-induced decreases in body fat, may decrease breast cancer risk for high-risk premenopausal women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 25(8); 1195-200. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  12. Chronic exercise increases plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels, pancreatic islet size, and insulin tolerance in a TrkB-dependent manner.

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    Jiménez-Maldonado, Alberto; de Álvarez-Buylla, Elena Roces; Montero, Sergio; Melnikov, Valery; Castro-Rodríguez, Elena; Gamboa-Domínguez, Armando; Rodríguez-Hernández, Alejandrina; Lemus, Mónica; Murguía, Jesús Muñiz

    2014-01-01

    Physical exercise improves glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) enhances insulin activity in diabetic rodents. Because physical exercise modifies BDNF production, this study aimed to investigate the effects of chronic exercise on plasma BDNF levels and the possible effects on insulin tolerance modification in healthy rats. Wistar rats were divided into five groups: control (sedentary, C); moderate- intensity training (MIT); MIT plus K252A TrkB blocker (MITK); high-intensity training (HIT); and HIT plus K252a (HITK). Training comprised 8 weeks of treadmill running. Plasma BDNF levels (ELISA assay), glucose tolerance, insulin tolerance, and immunohistochemistry for insulin and the pancreatic islet area were evaluated in all groups. In addition, Bdnf mRNA expression in the skeletal muscle was measured. Chronic treadmill exercise significantly increased plasma BDNF levels and insulin tolerance, and both effects were attenuated by TrkB blocking. In the MIT and HIT groups, a significant TrkB-dependent pancreatic islet enlargement was observed. MIT rats exhibited increased liver glycogen levels following insulin administration in a TrkB-independent manner. Chronic physical exercise exerted remarkable effects on insulin regulation by inducing significant increases in the pancreatic islet size and insulin sensitivity in a TrkB-dependent manner. A threshold for the induction of BNDF in response to physical exercise exists in certain muscle groups. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first results to reveal a role for TrkB in the chronic exercise-mediated insulin regulation in healthy rats.

  13. Chronic exercise increases plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels, pancreatic islet size, and insulin tolerance in a TrkB-dependent manner.

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    Alberto Jiménez-Maldonado

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Physical exercise improves glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF enhances insulin activity in diabetic rodents. Because physical exercise modifies BDNF production, this study aimed to investigate the effects of chronic exercise on plasma BDNF levels and the possible effects on insulin tolerance modification in healthy rats. METHODS: Wistar rats were divided into five groups: control (sedentary, C; moderate- intensity training (MIT; MIT plus K252A TrkB blocker (MITK; high-intensity training (HIT; and HIT plus K252a (HITK. Training comprised 8 weeks of treadmill running. Plasma BDNF levels (ELISA assay, glucose tolerance, insulin tolerance, and immunohistochemistry for insulin and the pancreatic islet area were evaluated in all groups. In addition, Bdnf mRNA expression in the skeletal muscle was measured. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Chronic treadmill exercise significantly increased plasma BDNF levels and insulin tolerance, and both effects were attenuated by TrkB blocking. In the MIT and HIT groups, a significant TrkB-dependent pancreatic islet enlargement was observed. MIT rats exhibited increased liver glycogen levels following insulin administration in a TrkB-independent manner. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Chronic physical exercise exerted remarkable effects on insulin regulation by inducing significant increases in the pancreatic islet size and insulin sensitivity in a TrkB-dependent manner. A threshold for the induction of BNDF in response to physical exercise exists in certain muscle groups. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first results to reveal a role for TrkB in the chronic exercise-mediated insulin regulation in healthy rats.

  14. Applying 1H NMR Spectroscopy to Detect Changes in the Urinary Metabolite Levels of Chinese Half-Pipe Snowboarders after Different Exercises

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    Fuqiu Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring physical training is important for the health and performance of athletes, and real-time assessment of fatigue is crucial to improve training efficiency. The relationship between key biomarkers and exercise has been reported. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of different levels of training exercises on the urine metabolome. 1H NMR-based metabolomics analysis was performed on urine samples from half-pipe snowboarders, and spectral profiles were subjected to PCA and PLS-DA. Our results show that metabolic profiles varied during different stages of exercises. Lactate, alanine, trimethylamine, malonate, taurine, and glycine levels decreased while TMAO and phenylalanine levels increased in the stage with higher amount and intensity of exercise. Although the amount of exercise was reduced in subsequent stage, no significant variations of metabolic profile were found. Metabolic changes induced by training level were analyzed with related metabolic pathway. Studying metabolome changes can provide a better understanding of the physiology of athletes and could aid in adjusting training.

  15. Does Stress Result in You Exercising Less? Or Does Exercising Result in You Being Less Stressed? Or Is It Both? Testing the Bi-directional Stress-Exercise Association at the Group and Person (N of 1) Level.

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    Burg, Matthew M; Schwartz, Joseph E; Kronish, Ian M; Diaz, Keith M; Alcantara, Carmela; Duer-Hefele, Joan; Davidson, Karina W

    2017-03-13

    Psychosocial stress contributes to heart disease in part by adversely affecting maintenance of health behaviors, while exercise can reduce stress. Assessing the bi-directional relationship between stress and exercise has been limited by lack of real-time data and theoretical and statistical models. This lack may hinder efforts to promote exercise maintenance. We test the bi-directional relationship between stress and exercise using real-time data for the average person and the variability-individual differences-in this relationship. An observational study was conducted within a single cohort randomized controlled experiment. Healthy young adults, (n = 79) who reported only intermittent exercise, completed 12 months of stress monitoring by ecological momentary assessment (at the beginning of, end of, and during the day) and continuous activity monitoring by Fitbit. A random coefficients linear mixed model was used to predict end-of-day stress from the occurrence/non-occurrence