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Sample records for submaximal exercise capacity

  1. Iron Status in Chronic Heart Failure: Impact on Symptoms, Functional Class and Submaximal Exercise Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enjuanes, Cristina; Bruguera, Jordi; Grau, María; Cladellas, Mercé; Gonzalez, Gina; Meroño, Oona; Moliner-Borja, Pedro; Verdú, José M; Farré, Nuria; Comín-Colet, Josep

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the effect of iron deficiency and anemia on submaximal exercise capacity in patients with chronic heart failure. We undertook a single-center cross-sectional study in a group of stable patients with chronic heart failure. At recruitment, patients provided baseline information and completed a 6-minute walk test to evaluate submaximal exercise capacity and exercise-induced symptoms. At the same time, blood samples were taken for serological evaluation. Iron deficiency was defined as ferritin < 100 ng/mL or transferrin saturation < 20% when ferritin is < 800 ng/mL. Additional markers of iron status were also measured. A total of 538 heart failure patients were eligible for inclusion, with an average age of 71 years and 33% were in New York Heart Association class III/IV. The mean distance walked in the test was 285 ± 101 meters among those with impaired iron status, vs 322 ± 113 meters (P=.002). Symptoms during the test were more frequent in iron deficiency patients (35% vs 27%; P=.028) and the most common symptom reported was fatigue. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that increased levels of soluble transferrin receptor indicating abnormal iron status were independently associated with advanced New York Heart Association class (P < .05). Multivariable analysis using generalized additive models, soluble transferrin receptor and ferritin index, both biomarkers measuring iron status, showed a significant, independent and linear association with submaximal exercise capacity (P=.03 for both). In contrast, hemoglobin levels were not significantly associated with 6-minute walk test distance in the multivariable analysis. In patients with chronic heart failure, iron deficiency but not anemia was associated with impaired submaximal exercise capacity and symptomatic functional limitation. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Prognostic value of treadmill stress echocardiography at extremes of exercise performance: submaximal high exercise capacity ≥ 10 metabolic equivalents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Siu-Sun; Agarwal, Vikram; Chaudhry, Farooq A

    2014-03-01

    Submaximal stress testing or achieving High exercise capacity (≥ 10 metabolic equivalents, METS) is a predictor of favorable prognosis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of submaximal or high exercise capacity stress echocardiography. We evaluated 1781 patients (55 ± 13 years; 59% male) undergoing treadmill stress echocardiography divided into 811 patients with submaximal (high exercise capacity (≥ 10 METS). Resting left ventricular ejection fraction and regional wall motion were assessed. The left ventricle was divided into 16 segments and scored on 5-point scale of wall motion. Abnormal stress echocardiography was defined as stress-induced ischemia (wall-motion score of ≥ 1 grade). Follow-up (3.3 ± 1.5 years) for nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI) (n = 40) and cardiac death (n = 52) were obtained. By univariate analysis, echocardiographic variables of ejection fraction, peak wall-motion score index (WMSI) and number of new ischemic wall-motion abnormalities were significant predictors of cardiac events. Cumulative survival was significantly worse in patients with abnormal (ischemic) versus normal (nonischemic) stress echocardiography in submaximal (4.4%/year vs. 1.3%/year, P high exercise capacity (1.5%/year vs. 0.2%/year, P high exercise capacity studies. © 2013, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. [Submaximal exercise capacity and quality of life in exclusive water-pipe smokers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Saad, H; Babba, M; Boukamcha, R; Latiri, I; Knani, J; Slama, R; Bougmiza, I; Zbidi, A; Tabka, Z

    2010-05-01

    It is well known that oxidative stress is increased significantly by regular water-pipe smoking (WPS). This could lead to muscle dysfunction and thus to impairments of exercise and quality of life (QOL). Considering the impressive number of WP smokers, we intend to investigate the potential effect of WPS on submaximal exercise capacity and QOL. (1). To evaluate the submaximal exercise capacity by the 6-minutes walking test (6-MWT). (2). To compare the deficiency, incapacity and QOL data of exclusive WPS with those of two control groups (never smokers and exclusive cigarette smokers). (3). To determine the factors influencing the 6-minutes walk distance (6-MWD) of WPS subjects. A multicentre study including 180 exclusive WPS [> or =5 WP-year] men aged > or =40 years. Cigar or cigarette smoking, contraindications to the 6-MWT or cortico-steroid therapy will be exclusion criteria. QOL evaluation, spirometry, electrocardiogram and two 6-MWT will be performed. Signs of exercise impairment will be: 6-MWD or =5/10, haemoglobin saturation fall > or =5 points. Data from WPS subjects will be compared with those from 90 never smoking subjects and 90 exclusives cigarettes smokers. (1). WPS will affect significantly the submaximal exercise capacity. (2). Resting spirometric, 6-MWT and QOL data of exclusive WPS subjects will be significantly reduced compared to never smoking subjects. (3). The 6-MWD's of exclusive WPS subjects will be significantly influenced by cumulative WP consumption, by resting spirometric data, by obesity and by physical activity score. Copyright 2010 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Oxygen uptake efficiency slope, a new submaximal parameter in evaluating exercise capacity in chronic heart failure patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Laethem, Christophe; Bartunek, Jozef; Goethals, Marc; Nellens, Paul; Andries, Erik; Vanderheyden, Marc

    2005-01-01

    The oxygen uptake efficiency slope (OUES) is a new submaximal parameter which objectively predicts the maximal exercise capacity in children and healthy subjects. However, the usefulness of OUES in adult patients with and without advanced heart failure remains undetermined. The present study investigates the stability and the usefulness of OUES in adult cardiac patients with and without heart failure. Forty-five patients with advanced heart failure (group A) and 35 patients with ischemic heart disease but normal left ventricular ejection fraction (group B) performed a maximal exercise test. PeakVO2 and percentage of predicted peakVO2 were markers of maximal exercise capacity, whereas OUES, ventilatory anaerobic threshold (VAT), and slope VE/VCO2 were calculated as parameters of submaximal exercise. Group A patients had lower peakVO2 (P slope VE/VCO2 (P slope VE/VCO2, and OUES (all P slope VE/VCO2 (r = -.492, P failure patients unable to perform a maximal exercise test. Further studies are needed to confirm our hypothesis.

  5. The effect of submaximal exercise on fibrinolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fras, Zlatko; Keber, Dusan; Chandler, Wayne L

    2004-04-01

    We studied the relationship between sustained submaximal exercise, increased tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) levels and decreased hepatic clearance of t-PA. Six healthy male volunteers exercised for 35 min while receiving constant rate infusions of either saline or two different doses of recombinant t-PA for 90 min (40 min before, 35 min during and 15 min after exercise). Liver blood flow was estimated simultaneously by constant rate indocyanine green infusion. Since t-PA is cleared rapidly by the liver in direct proportion to liver blood flow, it was expected that a significant decrease in liver blood flow during sustained submaximal exercise would be associated with a proportional increase in plasma t-PA. During submaximal exercise with a saline (placebo) infusion, steady-state t-PA antigen increased from a resting baseline of 6.3 +/- 3.1 to 15.1 +/- 5.1 ng/ml; with a 20 microg/min t-PA infusion, t-PA antigen increased from 33 +/- 12 to 84 +/- 25 ng/ml during exercise; and with a 40 microg/min t-PA infusion, t-PA antigen increased from 77 +/- 38 to 166 +/- 42 ng/ml during exercise. During submaximal exercise, liver blood flow fell on average 71, 68 and 70%, respectively, during the three procedures, while calculated t-PA clearance decreased on average 59, 59 and 53%. t-PA concentration versus time curves, displayed in proportional units, were similar. The comparable relative increases in endogenous and exogenous t-PA with simultaneous proportional decreases in liver blood flow suggests that diminished hepatic t-PA clearance is the major cause of increased t-PA concentration and blood fibrinolytic activity enhancement during sustained submaximal exercise.

  6. Recruitment of single muscle fibers during submaximal cycling exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altenburg, T.M.; Degens, H.; van Mechelen, W.; Sargeant, A.J.; de Haan, A.

    2007-01-01

    In literature, an inconsistency exists in the submaximal exercise intensity at which type II fibers are activated. In the present study, the recruitment of type I and II fibers was investigated from the very beginning and throughout a 45-min cycle exercise at 75% of the maximal oxygen uptake, which

  7. Reliability of oscillometric central blood pressure responses to submaximal exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Weijie; Faulkner, James; Lambrick, Danielle; Stoner, Lee

    2016-06-01

    Central blood pressure responses to exercise may provide clinicians with a superior diagnostic and prognostic tool. However, to be of value in a clinical setting these assessments must be simple to conduct and reliable. Using oscillometric pulse wave analysis (PWA), determine the upper limit for between-day reliability of central SBP (cSBP) and central pressure augmentation (AIx) responses to three progressive stages of submaximal exercise in a cohort of young, healthy participants. Fifteen healthy males [25.8 years (SD 5.7), 23.9 kg/m (SD 2.5)] were tested on three different mornings in a fasted state, separated by a maximum of 14 days. Central hemodynamic variables were assessed on the left upper arm. Participants underwent three progressive stages of submaximal cycling at 50 W (low), 100 W (moderate) and 150 W (moderate-hard). During low and moderate-intensity exercise the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) values for cSBP (0.79-0.80) and AIx (0.81-0.85) indicated excellent reliability (ICC > 0.75). For the moderate-hard intensity AIx could not be computed, and the ICC for cSBP was adequate (0.72). Findings from this study suggest that, at least in a young, healthy cohort, oscillometric PWA can be used to reliably assess central blood pressure measurements during exercise, up to a moderate intensity. Although further work is required to verify these findings in clinical cohorts, these measurements may potentially provide clinicians with a practical option for obtaining important hemodynamic information beyond that provided by resting peripheral blood pressure.

  8. Acclimatization improves submaximal exercise economy at 5533 m.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latshang, T D; Turk, A J; Hess, T; Schoch, O D; Bosch, M M; Barthelmes, D; Merz, T M; Hefti, U; Hefti, J Pichler; Maggiorini, M; Bloch, K E

    2013-08-01

    We tested whether the better subjective exercise tolerance perceived by mountaineers after altitude acclimatization relates to enhanced exercise economy. Thirty-two mountaineers performed progressive bicycle exercise to exhaustion at 490 m and twice at 5533 m (days 6-7 and day 11), respectively, during an expedition to Mt. Muztagh Ata. Maximal work rate (W(max)) decreased from mean ± SD 356 ± 73 watts at 490 m to 191 ± 49 watts and 193 ± 45 watts at 5533 m, days 6-7 and day 11, respectively; corresponding maximal oxygen uptakes (VO2max ) were 50.7 ± 9.5, 26.3 ± 5.6, 24.7 ± 7.0 mL/min/kg (P = 0.0001 5533 m vs 490 m). On days 6-7 (5533 m), VO(2) at 75% W(max) (152 ± 37 watts) was 1.75 ± 0.45 L/min, oxygen saturation 68 ± 8%. On day 11 (5533 m), at the same submaximal work rate, VO(2) was lower (1.61 ± 0.47 L/min, P scale 50 ± 15 vs 57 ± 20, P = 0.006) and reduced symptoms of acute mountain sickness. We conclude that the better performance and subjective exercise tolerance after acclimatization were related to regression of acute mountain sickness and improved submaximal exercise economy because of lower metabolic demands for non-external work-performing functions. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. VO2@RER1.0: a novel submaximal cardiopulmonary exercise index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Clifford; Kazmucha, Jeffrey; Kim, Nancy; Suryani, Reny; Olson, Inger

    2010-01-01

    Maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) is the "gold standard" by which to assess functional capacity; however, it is effort dependent. VO2@RER1.0 is defined when VO2 = VCO2. Between December 22, 1997 and November 9, 2004, 305 pediatric subjects underwent cycle ergometer cardiopulmonary exercise testing, exercised to exhaustion, and reached a peak respiratory exchange ratio > or = 1.10. Group 1 subjects achieved a peak VO2 > or = 80% of predicted VO2max; group 2 subjects achieved a peak VO2 subjects achieved a peak VO2 between 61 and 79% of predicted VO2max. Linear regression analysis was performed for VO2@RER1.0 as a function of predicted VO2 for group 1 subjects. A -2 SD regression line and equation was created. VO2@RER1.0 data from groups 2 and 3 were plotted onto the normative graph. Contingency table and relative-risk analysis showed that an abnormal VO2@RER1.0 predicted an abnormal peak VO2(positive-predictive value 83%, negative-predictive value 85%, sensitivity 84%, and specificity 84%). VO2@RER1.0 is a highly sensitive, specific, and predictive submaximal index of functional capacity. This submaximal index is easy to identify without subjectivity. This index may aid in the evaluation of subjects who cannot exercise to maximal parameters.

  10. Cardiac Autonomic Function during Submaximal Treadmill Exercise in Adults with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonca, Goncalo V.; Pereira, Fernando D.; Fernhall, Bo

    2011-01-01

    This study determined whether the cardiac autonomic function of adults with Down syndrome (DS) differs from that of nondisabled persons during submaximal dynamic exercise. Thirteen participants with DS and 12 nondisabled individuals performed maximal and submaximal treadmill tests with metabolic and heart rate (HR) measurements. Spectral analysis…

  11. Effect of the Canadian Air Force training programme on a submaximal exercise test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappagoda, C T; Linden, R J; Newell, J P

    1979-07-01

    Validation of the submaximal heart rate/oxygen consumption relationship as an index of 'cardiorespiratory fitness' requires the demonstration of systematic alterations in this relationship concomitant with interventions designed to alter physical fitness. To fulfil those criteria a longitudinal training/de-training study was undertaken. Previously sedentary adult subjects undertook the Canadian Airforce 5BX-XBX exercise programme. Submaximal exercise tests were performed before and after training, and following several weeks cessation of training. A regression line of submaximal heart rate on submaximal oxygen consumption was calculated from the data of each submaximal exercise test. Alterations in the regression lines were examined for each subject individually by testing statistically for difference in slope and elevation between any pair of lines. Subjects who undertook the training/de-training study demonstrated significant systematic alterations in the elevation of the regression lines concomitant with periods of training and de-training. The reproducibility of the submaximal heart rate/oxygen consumption relationship was examined in two additional groups of subjects. Group A repeated a submaximal test on 3 or 4 successive days; Group B were tested before and after 16 weeks of normal activity. Subjects in Group A demonstrated non significant, random alterations in the regression lines on repeated testing and subjects in Group B demonstrated random, though on occasion significant, alterations in the regression lines. The elevation of the submaximal heart rate/oxygen consumption relationship is therefore a valid index for detecting sequential changes in 'cardiorespiratory fitness' in individual subjects.

  12. Cardiovascular responses during a submaximal exercise test in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speelman, Arlène D; Groothuis, Jan T; van Nimwegen, Marlies; van der Scheer, Ellis S; Borm, George F; Bloem, Bastiaan R; Hopman, Maria T E; Munneke, Marten

    2012-01-01

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) are physically less active than controls, and autonomic dysfunction may contribute to this sedentary lifestyle. Specifically, an altered cardiovascular response to physical effort may restrict physical activities. To assess the cardiovascular responses to a submaximal exercise test in PD patients and controls, 546 sedentary PD patients and 29 sedentary healthy controls performed the Åstrand-Rhyming submaximal cycle exercise test. Average heart rate was used to estimate maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max). Variables that may affect submaximal activity in PD patients, including disease severity, fatigue, and level of physical activity in daily life, were recorded. Fewer PD patients (46%) completed the submaximal exercise test successfully than the controls (86%). The estimated VO2max of patients with a successful test was 34% lower than the controls (p physical activities further.

  13. Live high:train low increases muscle buffer capacity and submaximal cycling efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, C J; Hahn, A G; Aughey, R J; Martin, D T; Ashenden, M J; Clark, S A; Garnham, A P; Roberts, A D; Slater, G J; McKenna, M J

    2001-11-01

    This study investigated whether hypoxic exposure increased muscle buffer capacity (beta(m)) and mechanical efficiency during exercise in male athletes. A control (CON, n=7) and a live high:train low group (LHTL, n=6) trained at near sea level (600 m), with the LHTL group sleeping for 23 nights in simulated moderate altitude (3000 m). Whole body oxygen consumption (VO2) was measured under normoxia before, during and after 23 nights of sleeping in hypoxia, during cycle ergometry comprising 4 x 4-min submaximal stages, 2-min at 5.6 +/- 0.4 W kg(-1), and 2-min 'all-out' to determine total work and VO(2peak). A vastus lateralis muscle biopsy was taken at rest and after a standardized 2-min 5.6 +/- 0.4 W kg(-1) bout, before and after LHTL, and analysed for beta(m) and metabolites. After LHTL, beta(m) was increased (18%, P buffer capacity. Further, reduced VO2 during normoxic exercise after LHTL suggests that improved exercise efficiency is a fundamental adaptation to LHTL.

  14. A submaximal test for the assessment of knee extensor endurance capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ruiter, Cornelis J; Mallee, Max I P; Leloup, Lara E C; De Haan, Arnold

    2014-02-01

    We aimed to develop an undemanding test for endurance capacity of the knee extensor muscles, which can also be applied to frail participants. We hypothesized 1) that the first objective indications for peripheral fatigue during incremental unilateral repetitive isometric knee extensor contractions could be used to assess a fatigue threshold (FT), 2) that torque at FT would depend on training status, and 3) that this torque could easily be sustained for 30 min. Five trained and five untrained participants performed 5-min bouts of 60 repetitive contractions (3-s on and 2-s off). Torque, set at 25% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), was increased by 5% MVC in subsequent bouts. The highest torque for which rectified surface EMG remained stable during the bout was defined as the FT. On separate occasions, 30-min bouts were performed at and above the FT to assess sustainable torque. Changes in gas exchange parameters, HR, and RPE were monitored to corroborate FT. At FT (RPE = 5.7 ± 1.7), torque was higher (P MVC) than in untrained participants (30.5% ± 1.8% MVC). Sustainable torque was ∼4% higher than (P MVC, significant increases in rectified surface EMG and V˙O2 were found. During incremental knee extensor contractions, FT could be assessed at a submaximal exercise intensity. FT was higher in trained than in untrained participants and was related to exercise sustainability. With the use of FT, changes in endurance capacity of single muscle groups can potentially also be determined in frail participants for whom exercise performed until exhaustion is unwarranted.

  15. THE INFLUENCE OF OBESITY AND AMBIENT TEMPERATURE ON PHYSIOLOGICAL AND OXIDATIVE RESPONSES TO SUBMAXIMAL EXERCISE

    OpenAIRE

    Ahn, N.; Kim, K.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of obesity and ambient temperature on physiological responses and markers of oxidative stress to submaximal exercise in obese and lean people. Sixteen healthy males were divided into an obese group (n=8, %fat: 27.00±3.00%) and a lean group (n=8, %fat: 13.85±2.45%). Study variables were measured during a 60 min submaximal exercise test at 60% VO2max in a neutral (21±1°C) and a cold (4±1°C) environment. Heart rate, blood lactate, rectal temperature, serum lev...

  16. Variation in heart rate during submaximal exercise: Implications for monitoring training : Implications for monitoring training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamberts, R.P.; Lemmink, K.A.P.M.; Durandt, J.J.; Lambert, M.I.

    2004-01-01

    A change in heart rate at a controlled submaximal exercise intensity is used as a marker of training status. However, the standard error of measurement has not been studied systematically, and therefore a change in heart rate, which can be considered relevant, has not been determined. Forty-four

  17. Systolic blood pressure reactivity during submaximal exercise and acute psychological stress in youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Studies in youth show an association between systolic blood-pressure (SBP) reactivity to acute psychological stress and carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT). However, it has not yet been determined whether SBP reactivity during submaximal exercise is also associated with CIMT i...

  18. Prolonged administration of recombinant human erythropoietin increases submaximal performance more than maximal aerobic capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, J J; Rentsch, R L; Robach, P

    2007-01-01

    The effects of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEpo) treatment on aerobic power (VO2max) are well documented, but little is known about the effects of rHuEpo on submaximal exercise performance. The present study investigated the effect on performance (ergometer cycling, 20-30 min at 80......HuEpo treatment VO2max increased (PVO2max) was increased by 54.0 and 54.3% (P... week 11), TTE was decreased by 26.8% as compared to pre rHuEpo administration. In conclusion, in healthy non-athlete subjects rHuEpo administration prolongs submaximal exercise performance by about 54% independently of the approximately 12% increase in VO2max....

  19. Exercise capacity in lean versus obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulens, M; Vansant, G; Lysens, R; Claessens, A L; Muls, E

    2001-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the nature and magnitude of the differences in submaximal and maximal exercise capacity parameters between lean and obese women. A total of 225 healthy obese women 18-65 years (BMI> or=30 kg/m(2)) and 81 non-athletic lean women (BMI< or=26 kg/m(2)) were selected. Anthropometric measurements (weight and height), body composition assessment (bioelectrical impedance method) and a maximal exercise capacity test on a bicycle ergometer were performed. Oxygen uptake (VO(2)), carbon dioxide production (VCO(2)), expired ventilation (VE), respiratory quotient (RQ), breathing efficiency (VE/VO(2)), mechanical efficiency (ME) and anaerobic threshold (AT) were calculated. At a submaximal intensity load of 70 W, VO(2) (l/min) was larger in the obese women and was already 78% of their peak VO(2), whereas in the non-obese it was only 69% (P=0.0001). VE (l/min) was larger, VE/VO(2) did not differ and ME was lower in obese compared to the lean women. AT occurred at the same percentage of peak VO(2) in both lean and obese women. At peak effort, achieved load, terminal VO(2) (l min(-1) kg(-1)), VE, heart rate, RQ respiratory exchange ratio and perceived exertion were lower in obese subjects compared to the non-obese. Obese subjects mentioned significantly more musculoskeletal pain as a reason to end the test, whereas in lean subjects it was leg fatigue. Lean women recovered better as after 2 min they were already at 35% of the peak VO(2), whereas in the obese women it was 47% (P=0.0001). Our results confirm that exercise capacity is decreased in obesity, both at submaximal and peak intensity, and during recovery. Moreover, at peak effort musculoskeletal pain was an important reason to end the test and not true leg fatigue. These findings are important when designing exercise programs for obese subjects.

  20. THE INFLUENCE OF OBESITY AND AMBIENT TEMPERATURE ON PHYSIOLOGICAL AND OXIDATIVE RESPONSES TO SUBMAXIMAL EXERCISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ahn

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of obesity and ambient temperature on physiological responses and markers of oxidative stress to submaximal exercise in obese and lean people. Sixteen healthy males were divided into an obese group (n=8, %fat: 27.00±3.00% and a lean group (n=8, %fat: 13.85±2.45%. Study variables were measured during a 60 min submaximal exercise test at 60% VO2max in a neutral (21±1°C and a cold (4±1°C environment. Heart rate, blood lactate, rectal temperature, serum levels of malondialdehyde (MDA and superoxide dismutase (SOD were measured at rest, during exercise and in recovery. Heart rate of both groups was significantly lower (P<0.05 in the cold than the warm environment, but there were no significant differences between the two groups. Serum SOD activity increased to a significantly greater extent (P<0.05 in the cold than the neutral environment, and remained elevated for longer during exercise in the obese group than the lean group. Serum MDA level during submaximal exercise was not significantly different between conditions or groups. Cold stress in exercise may challenge antioxidant defence mechanisms in obese subjects, but lipid peroxidation remains unchanged.

  1. The Usefulness of Submaximal Exercise Gas Exchange in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension: A Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul R. Woods

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Submaximal exercise gas exchange may be a useful tool to track responses to therapy in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH patients. Methods Three patients diagnosed with idiopathic PAH, on differing therapies, were included. Standard clinical tests (echocardiography; 6 minute walk were performed pre and 3-5 months after treatment. Gas exchange was measured during 3 minutes of step exercise at both time points. Results Gas exchange variables, end tidal CO 2 (P ET CO 2 and the ratio of ventilation to CO 2 production (V E /VCO 2 , during submaximal exercise were able to track patient responses to therapy over a 3-5 month period. Two patients demonstrated positive improvements, with an increased P ET CO 2 and decreased V E /VCO 2 during light exercise, in response to an altered therapeutic regime. The third patient had a worsening of gas exchange (decreased P ET CO 2 and increased V E /VCO 2 following no changes in the medical regime from the baseline visit. Conclusion Gas exchange variables measured during light submaximal exercise, such as P ET CO 2 and V E /VCO 2 , may be able to better detect small changes in functional status following treatment and could, therefore, be a useful tool to track disease severity in PAH patients. Further study is required to determine the clinical usefulness of these gas exchange variables.

  2. Monitoring Training Progress During Exercise Training in Cancer Survivors : A Submaximal Exercise Test as an Alternative for a Maximal Exercise Test?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    May, Anne M.; van Weert, Ellen; Korstjens, Irene; Hoekstra-Weebers, Josette E.; van der Schans, Cees P.; Zonderland, Maria L.; Mesters, Ilse; van den Borne, Bart; Ros, Wynand J.

    May AM, van Weert E, Korstjens 1, Hoekstra-Weebers JE, van der Schans CP, Zonderland ML, Mesters 1, van den Borne B, Ros WJ. Monitoring training progress during exercise training in cancer survivors: a submaximal exercise test as an alternative for a maximal exercise test? Arch Phys Med Rehabil

  3. Effects of submaximal exercise and noise exposure on hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessio, H M; Hutchinson, K M

    1991-12-01

    A recent Scandinavian study reported that persons cycling at moderate intensity for 10 min suffered hearing loss when the exercise was accompanied by noise. The noise consisted of a 1/3 octave band-filtered noise with a 2000 Hz center frequency at 104 dB SPL. In the present study, adults cycled at 50 rev.min-1 against a force that elicited an oxygen cost equal to 70% of VO2max--an intensity frequently recommended in exercise prescriptions--with and without noise administered via headphones. Repeated measures ANOVA with three factors revealed that although a temporary hearing loss occurred following exercise-and-noise, a similar and slightly greater hearing loss occurred following noise-only. Hearing sensitivity was not significantly altered by exercise-only (p greater than .05). In general, hearing loss values were greatest between 3000 and 4000 Hz. In conclusion, temporary hearing loss was driven by noise exposure, not exercise. However, persons who choose to exercise with personal headphones or in a noisy environment should be aware of potential premature hearing loss.

  4. Altitude Acclimatization Attentuates Plasma Ammonia during Submaximal Exercise,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-05-01

    citrulline synthesis in rat liver mitochondria : The effect of ammonia and energy. Int. J. Biochem. 10:235-239, 1979. 14 9. Buono, M.J., T.R. Clancy, and J.R...Mole, P.A., L.B. Oscal, and J.0. Holloszy. Adaptation of muscle to exercise. Increase in levels of palmityl CoA synthetase, carnitine

  5. Haemodynamic changes induced by submaximal exercise before a dive and its consequences on bubble formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatteau, Jean‐Eric; Boussuges, Alain; Gempp, Emmanuel; Pontier, Jean‐Michel; Castagna, Olivier; Robinet, Claude; Galland, Francois‐Michel; Bourdon, Lionel

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the effects of a submaximal exercise performed 2 h before a simulated dive on bubble formation and to observe the haemodynamic changes and their influence on bubble formation. Participants and methods 16 trained divers were compressed in a hyperbaric chamber to 400 kPa for 30 min and decompressed at a rate of 100 kPa/min with a 9 min stop at 130 kPa (French Navy MN90 procedure). Each diver performed two dives 3 days apart, one without exercise and one with exercise before the dive. All participants performed a 40 min constant‐load submaximal and calibrated exercise, which consisted of outdoor running 2 h before the dive. Circulating bubbles were detected with a precordial Doppler at 30, 60 and 90 min after surfacing. Haemodynamic changes were evaluated with Doppler echocardiography. Results A single bout of strenuous exercise 2 h before a simulated dive significantly reduced circulating bubbles. Post‐exercise hypotension (PEH) was observed after exercise with reductions in diastolic and mean blood pressure (DBP and MBP), but total peripheral resistance was unchanged. Stroke volume was reduced, whereas cardiac output was unchanged. Simulated diving caused a similar reduction in cardiac output independent of pre‐dive exercise, suggesting that pre‐dive exercise only changed DBP and MBP caused by reduced stroke volume. Conclusion A single bout of strenuous exercise 2 h before a dive significantly reduced the number of bubbles in the right heart of divers and protected them from decompression sickness. Declining stroke volume and moderate dehydration induced by a pre‐dive exercise might influence inert gas load and bubble formation. PMID:17138641

  6. Variation in heart rate during submaximal exercise: implications for monitoring training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberts, Robert P; Lemmink, Koen A P M; Durandt, Justin J; Lambert, Michael I

    2004-08-01

    A change in heart rate at a controlled submaximal exercise intensity is used as a marker of training status. However, the standard error of measurement has not been studied systematically, and therefore a change in heart rate, which can be considered relevant, has not been determined. Forty-four subjects (26.5 +/- 5.4 years; mean +/- standard deviation) participated in a submaximal running test at the same time of day for 5 consecutive days. Heart rates were determined during each of the 4 exercise intensities (2 minutes each) of increasing intensity and during the 1-minute recovery period after each stage. The repeatability of the heart rate on a day-to-day basis during the stages and recovery periods were high (intraclass correlation coefficient: 95% confidence interval R = 0.94- 0.99). The lowest variation in heart rate occurred in the fourth stage ( approximately 90% maximum heart rate) with heart rate varying 5 +/- 2 b.min(-1) (95% confidence interval for coefficient of variation = 1.1-1.4%). In conclusion, the standard error of measurement of submaximal heart rate is 1.1-1.4%. This magnitude of measurement error needs to be considered when heart rate is used as a marker of training status.

  7. Cognitive Performance Enhancement Induced by Caffeine, Carbohydrate and Guarana Mouth Rinsing during Submaximal Exercise

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    Laura Pomportes

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of serial mouth rinsing (MR with nutritional supplements on cognitive performance (i.e., cognitive control and time perception during a 40-min submaximal exercise. Twenty-four participants completed 4 counterbalanced experimental sessions, during which they performed MR with either placebo (PL, carbohydrate (CHO: 1.6 g/25 mL, guarana complex (GUAc: 0.4 g/25 mL or caffeine (CAF: 67 mg/25 mL before and twice during exercise. The present study provided some important new insights regarding the specific changes in cognitive performance induced by nutritional supplements. The main results were: (1 CHO, CAF and GUA MR likely led participants to improve temporal performance; (2 CAF MR likely improved cognitive control; and (3 CHO MR led to a likely decrease in subjective perception of effort at the end of the exercise compared to PL, GUA and CAF. Moreover, results have shown that performing 40-min submaximal exercise enhances information processing in terms of both speed and accuracy, improves temporal performance and does not alter cognitive control. The present study opens up new perspectives regarding the use of MR to optimize cognitive performance during physical exercise.

  8. Test retest reliability and minimal detectable change of a novel submaximal graded exercise test in the measurement of graded exercise test duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, James D; Bandy, William D; Whittemore, Joe D

    2011-05-01

    Measurement of graded exercise test duration is clinically important and can be assessed by maximal graded exercise testing. Yet, limitations of maximal graded exercise testing exist. An alternative to maximal graded exercise testing is submaximal graded exercise testing. However, no studies have investigated the reliability of a submaximal graded exercise test in the measurement of graded exercise test duration. The purpose of this study was to determine the test-retest reliability and minimal detectable change (MDC) of a novel submaximal graded exercise test in the measurement of graded exercise test duration. Fifteen people (4 men, 11 women) with a mean age of 26.20 years (SD = 9.04) participated in this study. A novel submaximal graded exercise test was used to measure graded exercise test duration for each participant. Endpoints of the test were either 85% of age-predicted maximum heart rate or voluntarily stopping the test, whichever endpoint occurred first. Heart rate and graded exercise test duration were constantly measured throughout the test. Graded exercise test duration was defined as the total duration (minutes) of the test. For all participants, the submaximal graded exercise test was conducted at baseline and 48-72 hours thereafter. The intraclass correlation coefficient for the test-retest reliability of the test in determining graded exercise test duration was 0.94 (95% CI = 0.83-0.98). The MDC of the test in the measurement of graded exercise test duration was 0.86 minutes. The results suggest that clinicians can use this novel submaximal graded exercise test to reliably measure graded exercise test duration with a measurement error, as expressed by the MDC, of 0.86 minutes.

  9. Evaluation of Exercise Response in a Young, High Risk Population: Submaximal Invasive Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing (ICPET) in Active Duty Soldiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-17

    Submaximal Invasive Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing iCPET in AD Soldiers presented at/published to American College of Cardiology’s 661h Annual...disclaimer statement for research involving animals . as required by AFMAN 40-401 IP : " The experiments reported herein were conducted according to the...principles set forth in the National Institute of Health Publication No. 80-23, Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals and the Animal

  10. The physiology of submaximal exercise: The steady state concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferretti, Guido; Fagoni, Nazzareno; Taboni, Anna; Bruseghini, Paolo; Vinetti, Giovanni

    2017-12-01

    The steady state concept implies that the oxygen flow is invariant and equal at each level along the respiratory system. The same is the case with the carbon dioxide flow. This condition has several physiological consequences, which are analysed. First, we briefly discuss the mechanical efficiency of exercise and the energy cost of human locomotion, as well as the roles played by aerodynamic work and frictional work. Then we analyse the equations describing the oxygen flow in lungs and in blood, the effects of ventilation and of the ventilation - perfusion inequality, and the interaction between diffusion and perfusion in the lungs. The cardiovascular responses sustaining gas flow increase in blood are finally presented. An equation linking ventilation, circulation and metabolism is developed, on the hypothesis of constant oxygen flow in mixed venous blood. This equation tells that, if the pulmonary respiratory quotient stays invariant, any increase in metabolic rate is matched by a proportional increase in ventilation, but by a less than proportional increase in cardiac output. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. [Sub-maximal aerobic capacity and quality of life of patients with rheumatoid arthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lataoui, S; Belghali, S; Zeglaoui, H; Bouajina, E; Ben Saad, H

    2017-01-01

    Studies about sub-maximal aerobic capacity of patients with rheumatoid arthritis are scarce. To assess the sub-maximal aerobic capacity of these patients through the 6-min walk test, estimated age of the "muscular and cardiorespiratory" chain. Thirty-seven consecutive patients (aged 20 to 60 years) with newly diagnosed rheumatoid arthritis will be included. Non-inclusion criteria will be: use of drugs (e.g.; methotrexate, beta-blockers), orthopaedic or rheumatologic conditions (other than rheumatoid arthritis) that may alter walking ability and recent infections. Exclusion criteria will be: 6-min walking test contra-indications and imperfect performance of the required lung function and walking maneuvers. Signs of walking intolerance will be: test interruption, distance ≤lower limit of normal, dyspnea score ≥5/10 (visual analogue scale) at the end of the test, haemoglobin oxygen saturation (SpO2) drop ≥5%, cardiac frequency at the end of the test ≤60% of maximum predicted. An estimated "muscular and cardiorespiratory chain" age higher than the chronological one will be considered as a sign of accelerated ageing. A high percentage of patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis would show evidences of walking limitation and accelerated "muscular and cardiorespiratory chain" ageing. There would be a significant correlation between the walking test and clinical, biological, radiological and pulmonary function data and the patients' quality-of-life status. Copyright © 2016 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. The Impact of a Submaximal Level of Exercise on Balance Performance in Older Persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of a submaximal level of exercise on balance performance under a variety of conditions. Material and Method. Thirteen community-dwelling older persons with intact foot sensation (age = 66.69 ± 8.17 years, BMI = 24.65 ± 4.08 kg/m2, female, n = 6) volunteered to participate. Subjects' balance performances were measured using the Modified Clinical Test of Sensory Integration of Balance (mCTSIB) at baseline and after test, under four conditions of stance: (1) eyes-opened firm-surface (EOF), (2) eyes-closed firm-surface (ECF), (3) eyes-opened soft-surface (EOS), and (4) eyes-closed soft-surface (ECS). The 6-minute walk test (6MWT) protocol was used to induce the submaximal level of exercise. Data was analyzed using the Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Test. Results. Balance changes during EOF (z = 0.00, P = 1.00) and ECF (z = −1.342, P = 0.180) were not significant. However, balance changes during EOS (z = −2.314, P = 0.021) and ECS (z = −3.089, P = 0.02) were significantly dropped after the 6MWT. Conclusion. A submaximal level of exercise may influence sensory integration that in turn affects balance performance, particularly on an unstable surface. Rehabilitation should focus on designing intervention that may improve sensory integration among older individuals with balance deterioration in order to encourage functional activities. PMID:25383386

  13. Hypotension and heart rate variability after resistance exercise performed maximal and submaximal order

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    Victor Gonçalves Corrêa Neto

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was verified the blood pressure responses and the cardiac autonomic modulation after the strength exercise in two different conditions (maximal and submaximal. The subjects were divided in three groups, such as: maximal repetitions (age: 20.5 ± 0.6 years, weight: 63.7 ± 14.8, height: 1.7 ± 0.1, body mass index: 22.8 ± 4.5 Kilogram per square meter (kg/m², submaximal repetitions (age: 25 ± 4.1 years, weight: 69.1 ± 12.8, height: 1.8 ± 0.1, body mass index: 22.2 ± 1.7 (kg/m²  and a control group (age: 23.7 ± 3.8 years, weight: 64.2 ± 15, height: 1.7 ± 0.1, body mass index: 21.8 ± 1.9 (kg/m². The blood pressure and the Heart Rate R-R intervals were measured before and during one hour after the session, with 10-minutes intervals length between measurements. The analyze of variance did not showed significant differences between experimental protocols to blood pressure (p > 0.05. However, the effect size was able to show that the most intense training caused a reduction in systolic blood pressure at times. Regarding cardiac autonomic response, the group that exercised the submaximal form exhibited a significant increase in LF / HF (p = 0.022 when 20 minutes’ post-exercise. There was a not significant difference in cardiac autonomic modulation between protocols. The high intensity protocol has caused blood pressure reductions in more moments and it was over safer in relation to cardiac autonomic modulation, since it did not cause increased sympathetic activity during recovery.

  14. Comparison of the YMCA and a Custom Submaximal Exercise Test for Determining VO2max.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamnick, Nicholas A; By, Savanny; Pettitt, Cherie D; Pettitt, Robert W

    2016-02-01

    The maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) is deemed the highest predictor for all-cause mortality, and therefore, an ability to assess VO2max is important. The YMCA submaximal test is one of the most widely used tests to estimate VO2max; however, it has questionable validity. We validated a customized submaximal test that accounts for the nonlinear rise in VO2 relative to power output and compared its accuracy against the YMCA protocol. Fifty-six men and women performed a graded exercise test with a subsequent exhaustive, square wave bout for the verification of "true" VO2max. In counterbalanced order, subjects then completed the YMCA test and our new Mankato submaximal exercise test (MSET). The MSET consisted of a 3-min stage estimated at 35% VO2max and a second 3-min stage estimated at either 65% or 70% VO2max, where VO2max was estimated with a regression equation using sex, body mass index, age, and self-reported PA-R. VO2 values from the graded exercise test and square wave verification bout did not differ with the highest value used to identify "true" VO2max (45.1 ± 8.89 mL · kg(-1) · min(-1)). The MSET (43.6 ± 8.6 mL · kg(-1) · min(-1)) did not differ from "true" VO2max, whereas the YMCA test (41.1 ± 9.6 mL · kg(-1) · min(-1)) yielded an underestimation (P = 0.002). The MSET was moderately correlated with "true" VO2max (ICC = 0.73, CV of 11.3%). The YMCA test was poorly correlated with "true" VO2max (ICC = 0.29, CV of 15.1%). To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine submaximal exercise protocols versus a verified VO2max protocol. The MSET yielded better estimates of VO2max because of the protocol including a stage exceeding gas exchange threshold.

  15. Brief note about plasma catecholamines kinetics and submaximal exercise in untrained standardbreds

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    Paolo Baragli

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Four untrained standardbred horses performed a standardized exercise test on the treadmill and an automated blood collection system programmed to obtain blood samples every 15 s was used for blood collection in order to evaluate the kinetics of adrenaline and noradrenaline. The highest average values obtained for adrenaline and noradrenaline were 15.0 ± 3.0 and 15.8 ± 2.8 nmol/l respectively, with exponential accumulation of adrenaline (r = 0.977 and noradrenaline (r = 0.976 during the test. Analysis of the correlation between noradrenaline and adrenaline for each phase of the test shows that correlation coefficient decreases as the intensity of exercise increases (from r = 0.909 to r = 0.788. This suggests that during submaximal exercise, the process for release, distribution and clearance of adrenaline into blood circulation differs from that of noradrenaline.

  16. Blunted Maximal and Submaximal Responses to Cardiopulmonary Exercise Tests in Patients With Parkinson Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanegusuku, Hélcio; Silva-Batista, Carla; Peçanha, Tiago; Nieuwboer, Alice; Silva, Natan D; Costa, Luiz A; de Mello, Marco T; Piemonte, Maria E; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos; Forjaz, Cláudia L

    2016-05-01

    To investigate submaximal and maximal responses during maximal cardiopulmonary exercise tests in subjects with Parkinson disease (PD). Cross-sectional. A PD association. A sample (N=68) of subjects with PD (n=48; mean age, 66±8y; modified Hoehn and Yahr stage between 2 and 3; "on" state of medication) and age-matched controls without PD (n=20; mean age, 64±9y). Maximal cardiopulmonary exercise test on a cycle ergometer. Oxygen uptake (V˙o2), systolic blood pressure (SBP), and heart rate assessed at rest, submaximal intensities (ie, anaerobic threshold [AT] and respiratory compensation point), and maximal intensity (peak exercise). Compared with control subjects, subjects with PD had lower V˙o2, heart rate, and SBP at respiratory compensation point and peak exercise (V˙o2: 14.6±3.6mL⋅kg⋅min vs 17.9±5.5mL⋅kg⋅min and 17.7±4.8mL⋅kg⋅min vs 21.5±6.6mL⋅kg⋅min; heart rate: 119±17beats/min vs 139±12beats/min and 132±20beats/min vs 158±13beats/min; SBP: 151±17mmHg vs 172±20mmHg and 166±21mmHg vs 187±24mmHg; P≤.05). They also had lower heart rate at AT (102±14beats/min vs 110±13beats/min; P≤.05), whereas V˙o2 and SBP at this intensity were similar to those of control subjects. Subjects with PD demonstrated blunted metabolic and cardiovascular responses to submaximal and maximal exercise tests, especially at intensities above AT, which are in line with autonomic disturbances present in patients with PD. Future studies need to determine how this affects performance, participation, and responses of these patients to exercise training at different intensities. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of environmental temperature on physiological responses during submaximal and maximal exercises in soccer players

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    MiHyun No

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: It is concluded that physiological responses and endurance exercise capacity are impaired under cool or hot conditions compared with moderate conditions, suggesting that environmental temperature conditions play an important role for exercise performance.

  18. Is the ventilatory threshold coincident with maximal fat oxidation during submaximal exercise in women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astorino, T A

    2000-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to detect the fraction of peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) that elicits maximal rates of fat oxidation during submaximal treadmill exercise. It was hypothesized that this point would appear at a work rate just below the ventilatory threshold. subjects completed a protocol requiring them to exercise for 15 min on a treadmill at six different workloads, 25, 40, 55, 65, 75, and 85% VO2peak, over two separate visits. nine healthy, moderately-trained eumenorrheic females (age = 28.8+/-5.99 yrs, VO2peak = 47.20 +/-2.57 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)) volunteered for the study. a one-way ANOVA with repeated measures was used to test for differences across exercise intensities in the metabolic variables (i.e. substrate oxidation, blood lactate concentration ([La-]), RER, and the contribution of fat to total energy expenditure). Following significant F ratios, post-hoc tests were used to detect differences between the means for various exercise intensities. Exercise at 75% VO2peak elicited the greatest rate of fat oxidation (4.75+/-0.49 kcal x min(-1)), and this intensity was coincident with the ventilatory threshold (76+/-7.41% VO2peak). Moreover, a significant difference (t(8) = -3.98, ppopulation has application in exercise prescription and refutes the belief that low-intensity exercise is preferred for fat metabolism.

  19. Reliability of heart rate variability threshold and parasympathetic reactivation after a submaximal exercise test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Janssen Gomes da Cruz

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate reproducibility of heart rate variability threshold (HRVT and parasympathetic reactivation in physically active men (n= 16, 24.3 ± 5.1 years. During the test, HRVT was assessed by SD1 and r-MSSD dynamics. Immediately after exercise, r-MSSD was analyzed in segments of 60 seconds for a period of five minutes. High absolute and relatively reproducible analysis of HRVT were observed, as assessed by SD1 and r-MSSD dynamics (ICC = 0.92, CV = 10.8, SEM = 5.8. During the recovery phase, a moderate to high reproducibility was observed for r-MSSD from the first to the fifth minute (ICC = 0.69-0.95, CV = 7.5-14.2, SEM = 0.07-1.35. We conclude that HRVT and r-MSSD analysis after a submaximal stress test are highly reproducible measures that might be used to assess the acute and chronic effects of exercise training on cardiac autonomic modulation during and/or after a submaximal stress test.

  20. The Effects of Caffeine Supplementation on Physiological Responses to Submaximal Exercise in Endurance-Trained Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaister, Mark; Williams, Benjamin Henley; Muniz-Pumares, Daniel; Balsalobre-Fernández, Carlos; Foley, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of caffeine on physiological responses to submaximal exercise, with a focus on blood lactate concentration ([BLa]). Using a randomised, single-blind, crossover design; 16 endurance-trained, male cyclists (age: 38 ± 8 years; height: 1.80 ± 0.05 m; body mass: 76.6 ± 7.8 kg; [Formula: see text]: 4.3 ± 0.6 L∙min-1) completed four trials on an electromagnetically-braked cycle ergometer. Each trial consisted of a six-stage incremental test (3 minute stages) followed by 30 minutes of passive recovery. One hour before trials 2-4, participants ingested a capsule containing 5 mg∙kg-1 of either caffeine or placebo (maltodextrin). Trials 2 and 3 were designed to evaluate the effects of caffeine on various physiological responses during exercise and recovery. In contrast, Trial 4 was designed to evaluate the effects of caffeine on [BLa] during passive recovery from an end-exercise concentration of 4 mmol∙L-1. Relative to placebo, caffeine increased [BLa] during exercise, independent of exercise intensity (mean difference: 0.33 ± 0.41 mmol∙L-1; 95% likely range: 0.11 to 0.55 mmol∙L-1), but did not affect the time-course of [BLa] during recovery (p = 0.604). Caffeine reduced ratings of perceived exertion (mean difference: 0.5 ± 0.7; 95% likely range: 0.1 to 0.9) and heart rate (mean difference: 3.6 ± 4.2 b∙min-1; 95% likely range: 1.3 to 5.8 b∙min-1) during exercise, with the effect on the latter dissipating as exercise intensity increased. Supplement × exercise intensity interactions were observed for respiratory exchange ratio (p = 0.004) and minute ventilation (p = 0.034). The results of the present study illustrate the clear, though often subtle, effects of caffeine on physiological responses to submaximal exercise. Researchers should be aware of these responses, particularly when evaluating the physiological effects of various experimental interventions.

  1. Aerobic interval training reduces vascular resistances during submaximal exercise in obese metabolic syndrome individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora-Rodriguez, Ricardo; Fernandez-Elias, V E; Morales-Palomo, F; Pallares, J G; Ramirez-Jimenez, M; Ortega, J F

    2017-08-12

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of high-intensity aerobic interval training (AIT) on exercise hemodynamics in metabolic syndrome (MetS) volunteers. Thirty-eight, MetS participants were randomly assigned to a training (TRAIN) or to a non-training control (CONT) group. TRAIN consisted of stationary interval cycling alternating bouts at 70-90% of maximal heart rate during 45 min day(-1) for 6 months. CONT maintained baseline physical activity and no changes in cardiovascular function or MetS factors were detected. In contrast, TRAIN increased cardiorespiratory fitness (14% in VO2PEAK; 95% CI 9-18%) and improved metabolic syndrome (-42% in Z score; 95% CI 83-1%). After TRAIN, the workload that elicited a VO2 of 1500 ml min(-1) increased 15% (95% CI 5-25%; P < 0.001). After TRAIN when subjects pedaled at an identical submaximal rate of oxygen consumption, cardiac output increased by 8% (95% CI 4-11%; P < 0.01) and stroke volume by 10% (95% CI, 6-14%; P < 0.005) being above the CONT group values at that time point. TRAIN reduced submaximal exercise heart rate (109 ± 15-106 ± 13 beats min(-1); P < 0.05), diastolic blood pressure (83 ± 8-75 ± 8 mmHg; P < 0.001) and systemic vascular resistances (P < 0.01) below CONT values. Double product was reduced only after TRAIN (18.2 ± 3.2-17.4 ± 2.4 bt min(-1) mmHg 10(-3); P < 0.05). The data suggest that intense aerobic interval training improves hemodynamics during submaximal exercise in MetS patients. Specifically, it reduces diastolic blood pressure, systemic vascular resistances, and the double product. The reduction in double product, suggests decreased myocardial oxygen demands which could prevent the occurrence of adverse cardiovascular events during exercise in this population. CLINICALTRIALS. NCT03019796.

  2. The Effect of Acute Sub-Maximal Endurance Exercise on Serum Angiogenic Indices in Sedentary Men

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    Kamal Ranjbar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Endurance training increases capillary density of skeletal muscle, but the molecular mechanism of this process is not yet clear. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of acute sub maximal endurance exercise on serum levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and matrix metaloproteinases 2 and 9 (MMP-2 and MMP-9 in sedentary men. Materials and Methods: Twelve healthy men (22.37±2.30 years, BMI=23.16 ±2.61 kg/mP 2 P participated in this study. Subjects exercised for 1h at 70% of VOR2R max, 3 days after the VOR2R max determination. Antecubital vein blood was collected at rest, immediately and 2h after the exercise. Serum VEGF, MMP-2 and MMP-9 were measured by ELISA methods5T. Results: Serum levels of VEGF and MMP-2 decreased immediately after the exercise. 2 hours after the exercise, serum levels of VEGF remained at a lower level but serum MMP-2 returned to its basal level. Also, serum levels of MMP-9 did not change significantly in response to exercise5T. Conclusion: Acute sub-maximal endurance exercise decreased the main factors involved in development of capillary density in sedentary men. This might to due to the fact that, sub maximal exercise could not provide the two main stimulating factors of angiogenesis, i.e. Shear stress and hypoxia. It could also be explained by the fact that the mechanism of development of capillary network following regular endurance training is different from that following an acute exercise5T.5T

  3. Translation of submaximal exercise test responses to exercise prescription using the Talk Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Carl; Porcari, John P; Gibson, Mark; Wright, Glenn; Greany, John; Talati, Neepa; Recalde, Pedro

    2009-12-01

    The exercise intensity at the Talk Test (TT) has been shown to be highly correlated with objective physiological markers, a useful outcome marker in patients with heart disease, a useful tool for avoiding exertional ischemia, and responsive to both positive and negative changes in exercise capacity. This randomized observational study evaluated the ability of the intensity at the TT during exercise testing to define absolute training workloads. Sedentary adults (n = 14) performed an incremental Balke type exercise test (3.0-3.5 mph at 0% grade, +2% grade every 2 minutes). Heart rate (HR), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), and TT were evaluated at each stage. Subsequently, the subjects performed 3 x 20-minute exercise bouts with the workload over the last 10 minutes of each bout equal to the absolute intensity at the stage preceding the LP (LP-1), at the last positive stage of the TT (LP), and at the first equivocal stage of the TT (EQ). During LP-1, LP, and EQ, HR was 140 +/- 23, 151 +/- 20, and 160 +/- 21 bpm, or 73 +/- 11, 79 +/- 9, and 82 +/- 9 % HRmax; RPE (CR scale) was 3.6 +/- 1.5, 4.4 +/- 1.8, and 6.3 +/- 2.2. The TT Score-ranked as 1 = comfortable speech, 2 = slightly uncomfortable speech, and 3 = speech not comfortable-was 1.4 +/- 0.5, 1.8 +/- 0.4, and 2.6 +/- 0.5 LP-1, LP, and at EQ, LP, respectively. The results suggest that to prescribe absolute training intensity from the TT and to get appropriate HR, RPE, and TT responses in sedentary individuals during training, the workload needs to be based on the intensity approximately 1 stage (approximately 1.0-1.2 metabolic equivalents) below the LP stage observed during an incremental test.

  4. Effects of a helium/oxygen mixture on individuals' lung function and metabolic cost during submaximal exercise for participants with obstructive lung diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häussermann, Sabine; Schulze, Anja; Katz, Ira M; Martin, Andrew R; Herpich, Christiane; Hunger, Theresa; Texereau, Joëlle

    2015-01-01

    Helium/oxygen therapies have been studied as a means to reduce the symptoms of obstructive lung diseases with inconclusive results in clinical trials. To better understand this variability in results, an exploratory physiological study was performed comparing the effects of helium/oxygen mixture (78%/22%) to that of medical air. The gas mixtures were administered to healthy, asthmatic, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) participants, both moderate and severe (6 participants in each disease group, a total of 30); at rest and during submaximal cycling exercise with equivalent work rates. Measurements of ventilatory parameters, forced spirometry, and ergospirometry were obtained. There was no statistical difference in ventilatory and cardiac responses to breathing helium/oxygen during submaximal exercise. For asthmatics, but not for the COPD participants, there was a statistically significant benefit in reduced metabolic cost, determined through measurement of oxygen uptake, for the same exercise work rate. However, the individual data show that there were a mixture of responders and nonresponders to helium/oxygen in all of the groups. The inconsistent response to helium/oxygen between individuals is perhaps the key drawback to the more effective and widespread use of helium/oxygen to increase exercise capacity and for other therapeutic applications.

  5. Effects of a helium/oxygen mixture on individuals’ lung function and metabolic cost during submaximal exercise for participants with obstructive lung diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häussermann, Sabine; Schulze, Anja; Katz, Ira M; Martin, Andrew R; Herpich, Christiane; Hunger, Theresa; Texereau, Joëlle

    2015-01-01

    Background Helium/oxygen therapies have been studied as a means to reduce the symptoms of obstructive lung diseases with inconclusive results in clinical trials. To better understand this variability in results, an exploratory physiological study was performed comparing the effects of helium/oxygen mixture (78%/22%) to that of medical air. Methods The gas mixtures were administered to healthy, asthmatic, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) participants, both moderate and severe (6 participants in each disease group, a total of 30); at rest and during submaximal cycling exercise with equivalent work rates. Measurements of ventilatory parameters, forced spirometry, and ergospirometry were obtained. Results There was no statistical difference in ventilatory and cardiac responses to breathing helium/oxygen during submaximal exercise. For asthmatics, but not for the COPD participants, there was a statistically significant benefit in reduced metabolic cost, determined through measurement of oxygen uptake, for the same exercise work rate. However, the individual data show that there were a mixture of responders and nonresponders to helium/oxygen in all of the groups. Conclusion The inconsistent response to helium/oxygen between individuals is perhaps the key drawback to the more effective and widespread use of helium/oxygen to increase exercise capacity and for other therapeutic applications. PMID:26451096

  6. Normobaric Hypoxia and Submaximal Exercise Effects on Running Memory and Mood State in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Yongsuk; Gerhart, Hayden D; Stavres, Jon; Fennell, Curtis; Draper, Shane; Glickman, Ellen L

    2017-07-01

    An acute bout of exercise can improve cognitive function in normoxic and hypoxic conditions. However, limited research supports the improvement of cognitive function and mood state in women. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of hypoxia and exercise on working memory and mood state in women. There were 15 healthy women (age = 22 ± 2 yr) who completed the Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics-4th Edition (ANAM), including the Running Memory Continuous Performance Task (RMCPT) and Total Mood Disturbance (TMD) in normoxia (21% O2), at rest in normoxia and hypoxia (12.5% O2), and during cycling exercise at 60% and 40% Vo2max in hypoxia. RMCPT was not significantly impaired at 30 (100.3 ± 17.2) and 60 (96.6 ± 17.3) min rest in hypoxia compared to baseline in normoxia (97.0 ± 17.0). However, RMCPT was significantly improved during exercise (106.7 ± 20.8) at 60% Vo2max compared to 60 min rest in hypoxia. Following 30 (-89.4 ± 48.3) and 60 min of exposure to hypoxia (-79.8 ± 55.9) at rest, TMD was impaired compared with baseline (-107.1 ± 46.2). TMD was significantly improved during exercise (-108.5 ± 42.7) at 40% Vo2max compared with 30 min rest in hypoxia. Also, RMCPT was significantly improved during exercise (104.0 ± 19.1) at 60% Vo2max compared to 60 min rest in hypoxia (96.6 ± 17.3). Hypoxia and an acute bout of exercise partially influence RMCPT and TMD. Furthermore, a moderate-intensity bout of exercise (60%) may be a more potent stimulant for improving cognitive function than low-intensity (40%) exercise. The present data should be considered by aeromedical personnel performing cognitive tasks in hypoxia.Seo Y, Gerhart HD, Stavres J, Fennell C, Draper S, Glickman EL. Normobaric hypoxia and submaximal exercise effects on running memory and mood state in women. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(7):627-632.

  7. Reduced peripheral arterial blood flow with preserved cardiac output during submaximal bicycle exercise in elderly heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leng Xiaoyan

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Older heart failure (HF patients exhibit exercise intolerance during activities of daily living. We hypothesized that reduced lower extremity blood flow (LBF due to reduced forward cardiac output would contribute to submaximal exercise intolerance in older HF patients. Methods and Results Twelve HF patients both with preserved and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF (aged 68 ± 10 years without large (aorta or medium sized (iliac or femoral artery vessel atherosclerosis, and 13 age and gender matched healthy volunteers underwent a sophisticated battery of assessments including a peak exercise oxygen consumption (peak VO2, b physical function, c cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR submaximal exercise measures of aortic and femoral arterial blood flow, and d determination of thigh muscle area. Peak VO2 was reduced in HF subjects (14 ± 3 ml/kg/min compared to healthy elderly subjects (20 ± 6 ml/kg/min (p = 0.01. Four-meter walk speed was 1.35 ± 0.24 m/sec in healthy elderly verses 0.98 ± 0.15 m/sec in HF subjects (p p ≤ 0.03. Conclusion During CMR submaximal bike exercise in the elderly with heart failure, mechanisms other than low cardiac output are responsible for reduced lower extremity blood flow.

  8. Effects of a helium/oxygen mixture on individuals’ lung function and metabolic cost during submaximal exercise for participants with obstructive lung diseases

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    Häussermann S

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sabine Häussermann,1 Anja Schulze,1 Ira M Katz,2,3 Andrew R Martin,4 Christiane Herpich,1 Theresa Hunger,1 Joëlle Texereau2 1Inamed GmbH, Gauting, Germany; 2Medical R&D, Air Liquide Santé International, Centre de Recherche Paris-Saclay, Les Loges-en-Josas, France; 3Department of Mechanical Engineering, Lafayette College, Easton, PA, USA; 4Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, CanadaBackground: Helium/oxygen therapies have been studied as a means to reduce the symptoms of obstructive lung diseases with inconclusive results in clinical trials. To better understand this variability in results, an exploratory physiological study was performed comparing the effects of helium/oxygen mixture (78%/22% to that of medical air.Methods: The gas mixtures were administered to healthy, asthmatic, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD participants, both moderate and severe (6 participants in each disease group, a total of 30; at rest and during submaximal cycling exercise with equivalent work rates. Measurements of ventilatory parameters, forced spirometry, and ergospirometry were obtained.Results: There was no statistical difference in ventilatory and cardiac responses to breathing helium/oxygen during submaximal exercise. For asthmatics, but not for the COPD participants, there was a statistically significant benefit in reduced metabolic cost, determined through measurement of oxygen uptake, for the same exercise work rate. However, the individual data show that there were a mixture of responders and nonresponders to helium/oxygen in all of the groups.Conclusion: The inconsistent response to helium/oxygen between individuals is perhaps the key drawback to the more effective and widespread use of helium/oxygen to increase exercise capacity and for other therapeutic applications. Keywords: helium/oxygen, inspiratory capacity, oxygen uptake, COPD, asthma, obstructive airway diseases, exercise, heliox

  9. Antioxidant capacity and physical exercise

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    A Marciniak

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is a presentation of current knowledge regarding the changes of plasma antioxidant capacity observed in response to physical exercise. Human body created the enzymatic and non-enzymatic systems, which play a protective role in the harmful impact of free radicals. Those two systems constitute what is known as the plasma total antioxidant capacity. The amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS and reactive nitrogen species (NOS in combination with oxidation processes increases in some tissues during physiological response to physical exercise. These changes are observed after single bout of exercise as well as after regular training. The response of human body to physical exercise can be analysed using various models of exercise test. Application of repeated type of exhaustion allows for characterizing the ability of human body to adjust to the increased energy loss and increased oxygen consumption. This article presents the characteristics of components of plasma antioxidant capacity, the mechanisms of free radicals production and their role in human body. It discusses also the currently used methods of detecting changes in total antioxidant capacity and its individual elements in response to single bout of exercise and regular training. It presents the review of literature about research performed in groups of both regularly training and low exercise activity individuals as well as in group of healthy subjects and patients with circulation diseases.

  10. Several submaximal exercise tests are reliable, valid and acceptable in people with chronic pain, fibromyalgia or chronic fatigue: a systematic review

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    Julia Ratter

    2014-09-01

    [Ratter J, Radlinger L, Lucas C (2014 Several submaximal exercise tests are reliable, valid and acceptable in people with chronic pain, fibromyalgia or chronic fatigue: a systematic review. Journal of Physiotherapy 60: 144–150

  11. Substrate utilization during submaximal exercise in children with a severely obese parent

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    Eaves Audrey D

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have reported a reduction in fatty acid oxidation (FAO at the whole-body level and in skeletal muscle in severely obese (BMI ≥ 40 kg/m2 individuals; this defect is retained in cell culture suggesting an inherent component. The purpose of the current study was to determine if an impairment in whole-body fatty acid oxidation (FAO was also evident in children with a severely obese parent. Methods Substrate utilization during submaximal exercise (cycle ergometer was determined in children ages 8–12 y with a severely obese parent (OP, n = 13 or two lean/non-obese (BMI range of 18 to 28 kg/m2 parents (LP, n = 13. A subgroup of subjects (n = 3/group performed 4 weeks of exercise training with substrate utilization measured after the intervention. Results The children did not differ in age (LP vs. OP, respectively (10.7 ± 0.5 vs. 10.2 ± 0.5 y, BMI percentile (65.3 ± 5.2 vs. 75.9 ± 7, Tanner Stage (1.4 ± 0.2 vs. 1.5 ± 0.2, VO2peak (40.3 ± 2.7 vs. 35.6 ± 2.6 ml/kg/min or physical activity levels (accelerometer. At the same absolute workload of 15 W (~38% VO2peak, RER was significantly (P ≤ 0.05 lower in LP vs. OP (0.83 ± 0.02 vs. 0.87 ± 0.01 which was reflected in a reduced reliance on FAO for energy production in the OP group (58.6 ± 5.1 vs. 43.1 ± 4.0% of energy needs during exercise from FAO. At a higher exercise intensity (~65% VO2peak there were no differences in substrate utilization between LP and OP. After exercise training RER tended to decrease (P = 0.06 at the 15 W workload, suggesting an increased reliance on FAO regardless of group. Conclusions These findings suggest that the decrement in FAO with severe obesity has an inherent component that may be overcome with exercise training.

  12. Application of "living high-training low" enhances cardiac function and skeletal muscle oxygenation during submaximal exercises in athletes.

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    Park, Hun-Young; Nam, Sang-Seok

    2017-03-31

    The aim of this study was to determine the efficiency of the application of living high-training low (LHTL) on cardiac function and skeletal muscle oxygenation during submaximal exercises compared with that of living low-training low (LLTL) in athletes. Male middle- and long-distance runners (n = 20) were randomly assigned into the LLTL group (n = 10, living at 1000-m altitude and training at 700-1330-m altitude) and the LHTL group (n = 10, living at simulated 3000-m altitude and training at 700-1330-m altitude). Their cardiac function and skeletal muscle oxygenation during submaximal exercises at sea level before and after training at each environmental condition were evaluated. There was a significant interaction only in the stroke volume (SV); however, the heart rate (HR), end-diastolic volume (EDV), and end-systolic volume (ESV) showed significant main effects within time; HR and SV significantly increased during training in the LHTL group compared with those in the LLTL group. EDV also significantly increased during training in both groups; however, the LHTL group had a higher increase than the LLTL group. ESV significantly increased during training in the LLTL group. There was no significant difference in the ejection fraction and cardiac output. The skeletal muscle oxygen profiles had no significant differences but improved in the LHTL group compared with those in the LLTL group. LHTL can yield favorable effects on cardiac function by improving the HR, SV, EDV, and ESV during submaximal exercises compared with LLTL in athletes.

  13. Analysing visual pattern of skin temperature during submaximal and maximal exercises

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    Balci, Gorkem Aybars; Basaran, Tahsin; Colakoglu, Muzaffer

    2016-01-01

    Aims of this study were to examine our hypotheses assuming that (a) skin temperature patterns would differ between submaximal exercise (SE) and graded maximal exercise test (GXT) and (b) thermal kinetics of Tskin occurring in SE and GXT might be similar in a homogenous cohort. Core temperature (Tcore) also observed in order to evaluate thermoregulatory responses to SE and GXT. Eleven moderately to well-trained male athletes were volunteered for the study (age: 22.2 ± 3.7 years; body mass: 73.8 ± 6.9 kg; height: 181 ± 6.3 cm; body surface area 1.93 ± 0.1 m2; body fat: 12.6% ± 4.2%; V ˙ O2max: 54 ± 9.9 mL min-1 kg-1). Under stabilized environmental conditions in climatic chamber, GXT to volitional exhaustion and 20-min SE at 60% of VO2max were performed on cycle ergometer. Thermal analyses were conducted in 2-min intervals throughout exercise tests. Tskin was monitored by a thermal camera, while Tcore was recorded via an ingestible telemetric temperature sensor. Thermal kinetic analyses showed that Tskin gradually decreased till the 7.58 ± 1.03th minutes, and then initiated to increase till the end of SE (Rsqr = 0.97), while Tskin gradually decreased throughout the GXT (Rsqr = 0.89). Decrease in the level of Tskin during the GXT was significantly below from the SE [F (4, 40) = 2.67, p = 0.07, ηp2 = 0.211]. In the meantime, Tcore continuously increased throughout the SE and GXT (p 0.05). However, total heat energies were calculated as 261.5 kJ/m2 and 416 kJ/m2 for GXT and SE, respectively (p exercises as expected. Tskin curves patterns found to be associated amongst participants at both GXT and SE. Therefore, Tskin kinetics may ensure an important data for monitoring thermoregulation in exercise.

  14. TEST-RETEST RELIABILITY OF THE AEROBIC POWER INDEX SUBMAXIMAL EXERCISE TEST IN CANCER PATIENTS

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    Bonnie J. Furzer

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability of the Aerobic Power Index (API submaximal cardiorespiratory exercise test, as well as associated variables of oxygen uptake (ml·kg-1·min-1 and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE in cancer patients who are generally unable to complete maximal or lengthy aerobic fitness tests. Twenty male and female participants (11 male; 9 female aged between 18 and 70 y (mean = 53.28 ± 11. 82 y were recruited with medical consent within 4 weeks of completing chemotherapy treatment for a lymphohaematopoietic cancer (LHC. Of the twenty recruited participants' 2 were excluded from analysis due to disease relapse or complications unrelated to testing occurring within the month following testing. Intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC scores for power output (W·kg-1 and oxygen uptake (ml·kg-1·min-1 were highly reliable (R1 = 0.96 and 0.96, respectively and the ICC for RPE was moderately reliable (R1 = 0.83. Technical error of measurement results for power output (W·kg-1, oxygen uptake (ml·kg-1·min-1 and RPE were 0.11W·kg-1, 1.18 ml·kg-1·min-1 and 1.0 respectively. A Pearson's product-moment correlation demonstrated a strong relationship between power output (W·kg-1 and oxygen uptake (ml·kg-1·min-1 for both trials (r = 0.93 and 0.89, respectively. Results demonstrate that the API test is a highly reliable protocol for use with a LHC population and can be considered a clinically feasible, safe and tolerable exercise test

  15. Inspiratory muscle training improves exercise capacity with thoracic load carriage.

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    Shei, Ren-Jay; Chapman, Robert F; Gruber, Allison H; Mickleborough, Timothy D

    2018-02-01

    Thoracic load carriage (LC) exercise impairs exercise performance compared to unloaded exercise, partially due to impaired respiratory mechanics. We investigated the effects of LC on exercise and diaphragmatic fatigue in a constant-load exercise task; and whether inspiratory muscle training (IMT) improved exercise capacity and diaphragmatic fatigue with LC. Twelve recreationally active males completed three separate running trials to exhaustion (T lim ) at a fixed speed eliciting 70% of their V˙O 2max . The first two trials were completed either unloaded (UL) or while carrying a 10 kg backpack (LC). Subjects then completed 6 weeks of either true IMT or placebo-IMT. Posttraining, subjects completed an additional LC trial identical to the pretraining LC trial. Exercise metabolic and ventilatory measures were recorded. Diaphragm fatigue was assessed as the difference between preexercise and postexercise twitch diaphragmatic pressure (P di, tw ), assessed by bilateral stimulation of the phrenic nerve with esophageal balloon-tipped catheters measuring intrathoracic pressures. T lim was significantly shorter (P  0.05). Minute ventilation and breathing mechanics were unchanged post-IMT (P > 0.05). Six weeks of flow-resistive IMT improved exercise capacity, but did not mitigate diaphragmatic fatigue following submaximal, constant-load running to volitional exhaustion with LC. © 2018 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  16. Comparing the Effects of Rest and Massage on Return to Homeostasis Following Submaximal Aerobic Exercise: a Case Study.

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    Resnick, Portia B

    2016-03-01

    Postexercise massage can be used to help promote recovery from exercise on the cellular level, as well as systemically by increasing parasympathetic activity. No studies to date have been done to assess the effects of massage on postexercise metabolic changes, including excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC). The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of massage recovery and resting recovery on a subject's heart rate variability and selected metabolic effects following a submaximal treadmill exercise session. One healthy 24-year-old female subject performed 30 minutes of submaximal treadmill exercise prior to resting or massage recovery sessions. Metabolic data were collected throughout the exercise sessions and at three 10 minute intervals postexercise. Heart rate variability was evaluated for 10 minutes after each of two 30-minute recovery sessions, either resting or massage. Heart rate returned to below resting levels (73 bpm) with 30 and 60 minutes of massage recovery (72 bpm and 63 bpm, respectively) compared to 30 and 60 minutes of resting recovery (77 bpm and 74 bpm, respectively). Heart rate variability data showed a more immediate shift to the parasympathetic state following 30 minutes of massage (1.152 LF/HF ratio) versus the 30-minute resting recovery (6.91 LF/HF ratio). It took 60 minutes of resting recovery to reach similar heart rate variability levels (1.216 LF/HF) found after 30 minutes of massage. Ventilations after 30 minutes of massage recovery averaged 7.1 bpm compared to 17.9 bpm after 30 minutes of resting recovery. No differences in EPOC were observed through either the resting or massage recovery based on the metabolic data collected. Massage was used to help the subject shift into parasympathetic activity more quickly than rest alone following a submaximal exercise session.

  17. Comparing the Effects of Rest and Massage on Return to Homeostasis Following Submaximal Aerobic Exercise: a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, Portia B.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Postexercise massage can be used to help promote recovery from exercise on the cellular level, as well as systemically by increasing parasympathetic activity. No studies to date have been done to assess the effects of massage on postexercise metabolic changes, including excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC). The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of massage recovery and resting recovery on a subject’s heart rate variability and selected metabolic effects following a submaximal treadmill exercise session. Methods One healthy 24-year-old female subject performed 30 minutes of submaximal treadmill exercise prior to resting or massage recovery sessions. Metabolic data were collected throughout the exercise sessions and at three 10 minute intervals postexercise. Heart rate variability was evaluated for 10 minutes after each of two 30-minute recovery sessions, either resting or massage. Results Heart rate returned to below resting levels (73 bpm) with 30 and 60 minutes of massage recovery (72 bpm and 63 bpm, respectively) compared to 30 and 60 minutes of resting recovery (77 bpm and 74 bpm, respectively). Heart rate variability data showed a more immediate shift to the parasympathetic state following 30 minutes of massage (1.152 LF/HF ratio) versus the 30-minute resting recovery (6.91 LF/HF ratio). It took 60 minutes of resting recovery to reach similar heart rate variability levels (1.216 LF/HF) found after 30 minutes of massage. Ventilations after 30 minutes of massage recovery averaged 7.1 bpm compared to 17.9 bpm after 30 minutes of resting recovery. Conclusions No differences in EPOC were observed through either the resting or massage recovery based on the metabolic data collected. Massage was used to help the subject shift into parasympathetic activity more quickly than rest alone following a submaximal exercise session. PMID:26977215

  18. Gender differences in substrate utilization during submaximal exercise in endurance-trained subjects.

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    Roepstorff, Carsten; Steffensen, Charlotte H; Madsen, Marianne; Stallknecht, Bente; Kanstrup, Inge-Lis; Richter, Erik A; Kiens, Bente

    2002-02-01

    Substrate utilization across the leg during 90 min of bicycle exercise at 58% of peak oxygen uptake (VO(2 peak)) was studied in seven endurance-trained males and seven endurance-trained, eumenorrheic females by applying arteriovenous catheterization, stable isotopes, and muscle biopsies. The female and male groups were matched according to VO(2 peak) per kilogram of lean body mass, physical activity level, and training history of the subjects. All subjects consumed the same diet, well controlled in terms of nutrient composition as well as energy content, for 8 days preceding the experiment, and all females were tested in the midfollicular phase of the menstrual cycle. During exercise, respiratory exchange ratio (RER) and leg respiratory quotient (RQ) were similar in females and males. Myocellular triacylglycerol (TG) degradation was negligible in males but amounted to 12.4 +/- 3.2 mmol/kg dry wt in females and corresponded to 25.0 +/- 6.0 and 5.0 +/- 7.3% of total oxygen uptake in females and males, respectively (P < 0.05). Utilization of plasma fatty acids (12.0 +/- 2.5 and 9.6 +/- 1.5%), blood glucose (13.6 +/- 1.5 and 14.3 +/- 1.5%), and glycogen (48.5 +/- 4.9 and 42.8 +/- 2.1%) were similar in females and males. Thus, in females, measured substrate oxidation accounted for 99% of the leg oxygen uptake, whereas in males 28% of leg oxygen uptake was unaccounted for in terms of measured oxidized lipid substrates. These findings may indicate that males utilized additional lipid sources, presumably very low density lipoprotein-TG or TG located between muscle fibers. On the basis of RER and leg RQ, it is concluded that no gender difference existed in the relative contribution from carbohydrate and lipids to the oxidative metabolism across the leg during submaximal exercise at the same relative workload. However, an effect of gender appears to occur in the utilization of the different lipid sources.

  19. Exercise capacity in pulmonary Tuberculosis

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    M. Hall

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To determine the exercise capacity of patients suffering from pulmonary tuberculosis infection and then compare thisvalue to the normal. To determine if the regression equation for TB is comparable to that of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD. To provide guidelines for clinical practice of physiotherapyshould exercise capacity be found to be reduced. Methods: Thirteen black, male subjects between the ages of 19 and 35 years were included in the study. Each subject completed the shuttle walking test in order to determine his VO2peak. This was then compared to historical data for VO2peak. A subgroup of five subjects took part in a treadmill test to calculate a regression equation for VO2peak for TB patients. Results: Exercise capacity, measured as VO2peak, is reduced by an average of 57% when compared to the normal.The mean (SD VO2peak for this group of thirteen patients is 19.09 (8.19ml/kg/min. The shuttle walking test is a validand reliable test to determine the VO2peak of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. Although a trend is evident the regression equation for pulmonary TB is based on a small sample size. Conclusion: Although the exercise capacity of patients with PTB is markedly reduced it does not seem to impact  on their function. Based on the above results, a preliminary recommendation is that a pulmonary rehabilitation program is not necessary for patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. Although not originally an aim of the study it isalso evident that the role of the physiotherapist with respect to pulmonary tuberculosis may be one of education.

  20. Effects of acute caffeinated coffee consumption on energy utilization related to glucose and lipid oxidation from short submaximal treadmill exercise in sedentary men.

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    Leelarungrayub, Donrawee; Sallepan, Maliwan; Charoenwattana, Sukanya

    2011-01-01

    Aim of this study was to evaluate the short term effect of coffee drinking on energy utilization in sedentary men. This study was performed in healthy sedentary men, who were randomized into three groups, control (n = 6), decaffeinated (n = 10), and caffeine (n = 10). The caffeine dose in coffee was rechecked and calculated for individual volunteers at 5 mg/kg. Baseline before drinking, complete blood count (CBC), glucose, antioxidant capacity, lipid peroxide, and caffeine in blood was evaluated. After drinking coffee for 1 hr, the submaximal exercise test with a modified Bruce protocol was carried out, and the VO2 and RER were analyzed individually at 80% maximal heart rate, then the blood was repeat evaluated. Three groups showed a nonsignificant difference in CBC results and physical characteristics. The caffeine group showed significant changes in all parameters; higher VO2 levels, (P = 0.037) and lower RER (P = 0.047), when compared to the baseline. Furthermore, the glucose level after exercise test increased significantly (P = 0.033) as well as lipid peroxide levels (P = 0.005), whereas antioxidant capacity did not change significantly (P = 0.759), when compared to the before exercise testing. In addition, the blood caffeine level also increased only in the caffeine group (P = 0.008). Short consumption of caffeinated coffee (5 mg/kg of caffeine), improves energy utilization and relates to glucose derivation and lipid oxidation.

  1. Identification of patients at low risk of dying after acute myocardial infarction, by simple clinical and submaximal exercise test criteria.

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    Campbell, S; A'Hern, R; Quigley, P; Vincent, R; Jewitt, D; Chamberlain, D

    1988-09-01

    A consecutive series of 559 hospital survivors of acute myocardial infarction aged less than 66 years were studied; 93 were designated prospectively as low-risk because they were suitable for early submaximal exercise testing and had none of the following clinical or exercise test 'risk factors': (1) angina for at least one month prior to infarction; (2) symptomatic ventricular arrhythmias, or (3) recurrent ischaemic pain, both after the first 24 h of infarction; (4) cardiac failure; (5) cardiomegaly; and (6) an abnormal exercise test (angina, ST-depression or poor blood pressure response). Altogether 301 patients were exercised; their mortality over a median follow-up of 2.4 years was 10.2%, versus 24.6% in the 258 patients not exercised (P = 0.0005). Absence of clinical 'risk factors' alone, in the exercised patients, identified 156 with a mortality of 5.4% versus 15.6% in the 145 with at least one clinical 'risk factor' (P = 0.004). The fully defined low-risk group comprised 93 of the former patients who had neither clinical nor exercise test 'risk factors'. None of these patients died compared with 19 of those with at least one 'risk factor' (mortality = 14.7%; P = 0.002). Their respective rates of non-fatal reinfarction were similar and never exceeded 5% per annum. Therefore, simple clinical and exercise test criteria can positively identify low-risk patients after infarction in whom secondary prevention may be inappropriate.

  2. Effects of Submaximal Aerobic Exercise on Regulatory T Cell Markers of Male Patients Suffering from Ischemic Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raygan, Fariba; Sayyah, Mansour; Janesar Qamsari, Seyed Mohammad Reza; Nikoueinejad, Hassan; Sehat, Mojtaba

    2017-02-01

    There are confirmed beneficiary effects of exercise on atherosclerotic inflammation of ischemia-associated heart diseases. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of aerobic exercise on T-regulatory cell markers of IL-35 as well as FoxP3 and T-helper2 marker of IL-33 in patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD). This research was performed on 44 asymptomatic male patients with ischemic heart disease. The participants were randomly assigned into two groups of submaximal aerobic exercise and control group. Blood samples were collected before and after the termination of the exercise protocol. Serum levels of IL-35 and IL-33 as well as the amount of FoxP3 gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were measured by Elisa and Real time PCR, respectively. Serum levels of IL-35 (p=0.001) as well as the amount of FoxP3 gene expression increased significantly (p=0.012)  in exercise group even after controlling the likely confounding effects of age, length of ischemia, duration of the disease, and the amount of such factors before exercise (p≤0.042). It seems that exercise may yield a better control of atherosclerotic inflammation in patients with ischemic heart disease through the induction of regulatory T cells.

  3. Interaction effects of time of day and sub-maximal treadmill exercise on the main determinants of blood fluidity.

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    Ahmadizad, Sajad; Bassami, Minoo

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of time of day on responses of the main determinants of blood rheology to acute endurance exercise. Ten healthy male subjects (age, 26.9 +/- 5.5 yr) performed two bouts of running at 65% of VO2peak for 45 min on a motorised treadmill in the morning (08:00 h) and evening (20:00 h), which were followed by 30 min recovery. The two exercise trials were performed in two separate days with 7 days intervening. Haemorheological variables were measured before, immediately after exercise and after recovery. Haematocrit, haemoglobin and RBC count were increased significantly (p evening trials and normalised following recovery, irrespective of time of day. Plasma viscosity increased significantly (F2,18 = 12.4, p exercise in both trials and returned to pre-exercise level at the end of recovery. Baseline values (p exercise were significantly affected by time of day. Neither a significant main effect of exercise nor a significant (p > 0.05) time-of-day effect was found for plasma proteins. It was concluded that sub-maximal running at 08:00 or 20:00 h does not induce different responses in the main determinant of blood rheology.

  4. Regadenoson in Europe: first-year experience of regadenoson stress combined with submaximal exercise in patients undergoing myocardial perfusion scintigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkert, M; Reyes, E; Walker, S; Latus, K; Maenhout, A; Mizumoto, R; Nkomo, C; Standbridge, K; Wechalekar, K; Underwood, S R

    2014-03-01

    Regadenoson was approved for clinical use in Europe in 2011. Since then, it has become the default form of stress at our institution. We have assessed the side-effect profile and tolerability of regadenoson in patients undergoing clinically indicated myocardial perfusion scintigraphy between July 2011 and July 2012. Clinical, stress and imaging data were recorded prospectively. Symptoms during stress were recorded and defined as mild, moderate or severe. An adverse event was defined as any symptom that persisted for more than 30 min or that required investigation or treatment. Of 1,764 consecutive patients, 1,581 (90%) received regadenoson combined with submaximal exercise unless contraindicated. Symptoms were common (63%) but transient and well-tolerated. The severity of symptoms was recorded in most patients as mild (84%). Dyspnoea (36%) and chest discomfort (12%) were the commonest side effects. Adverse events were reported in eight patients (0.5%), thought to be vasovagal in seven of these. All patients recovered fully without sequelae. There were no deaths, myocardial infarction or hospital admissions. Regadenoson stress was performed in 206 patients (12%) with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) without bronchospasm or any other major side effect. We studied the symptom profile of regadenoson in the largest European cohort to date. Regadenoson combined with submaximal exercise was well tolerated, notably also in patients with asthma or COPD. The majority of regadenoson-related adverse events were vasovagal episodes without sequelae.

  5. Estimating Neural Control from Concentric vs. Eccentric Surface Electromyographic Representations during Fatiguing, Cyclic Submaximal Back Extension Exercises

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    Gerold R. Ebenbichler

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To investigate the differences in neural control of back muscles activated during the eccentric vs. the concentric portions of a cyclic, submaximal, fatiguing trunk extension exercise via the analysis of amplitude and time-frequency parameters derived from surface electromyographic (SEMG data.Methods: Using back dynamometers, 87 healthy volunteers performed three maximum voluntary isometric trunk extensions (MVC's, an isometric trunk extension at 80% MVC, and 25 cyclic, dynamic trunk extensions at 50% MVC. Dynamic testing was performed with the trunk angular displacement ranging from 0° to 40° and the trunk angular velocity set at 20°/s. SEMG data was recorded bilaterally from the iliocostalis lumborum at L1, the longissimus dorsi at L2, and the multifidus muscles at L5. The initial value and slope of the root mean square (RMS-SEMG and the instantaneous median frequency (IMDF-SEMG estimates derived from the SEMG recorded during each exercise cycle were used to investigate the differences in MU control marking the eccentric vs. the concentric portions of the exercise.Results: During the concentric portions of the exercise, the initial RMS-SEMG values were almost twice those observed during the eccentric portions of the exercise. The RMS-SEMG values generally increased during the concentric portions of the exercise while they mostly remained unchanged during the eccentric portions of the exercise with significant differences between contraction types. Neither the initial IMDF-SEMG values nor the time-course of the IMDF-SEMG values significantly differed between the eccentric and the concentric portions of the exercise.Conclusions: The comparison of the investigated SEMG parameters revealed distinct neural control strategies during the eccentric vs. the concentric portions of the cyclic exercise. We explain these differences by relying upon the principles of orderly recruitment and common drive governing motor unit behavior.

  6. Dichloroacetate therapy attenuates the blood lactate response to submaximal exercise in patients with defects in mitochondrial energy metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, G E; Perkins, L A; Theriaque, D W; Neiberger, R E; Stacpoole, P W

    2004-04-01

    We determined acute and chronic effects of dichloroacetate (DCA) on maximal (MAX) and submaximal (SUB) exercise responses in patients with abnormal mitochondrial energetics. Subjects (n = 9) completed a MAX treadmill bout 1 h after ingesting 25 mg/kg DCA or placebo (PL). A 15-min SUB bout was completed the next day while receiving the same treatment. After a 1-d washout, MAX and SUB were repeated while receiving the alternate treatment (acute). Gas exchange and heart rate were measured throughout all tests. Blood lactate (Bla) was measured 0, 3, and 10 min after MAX, and 5, 10, and 15 min during SUB. MAX and SUB were repeated after 3 months of daily DCA or PL. After a 2-wk washout, a final MAX and SUB were completed after 3 months of alternate treatment (chronic). Average Bla during SUB was lower (P abnormal mitochondrial energetics.

  7. Cardiac autonomic dysfunction in chronic stroke women is attenuated after submaximal exercise test, as evaluated by linear and nonlinear analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francica, Juliana Valente; Bigongiari, Aline; Mochizuki, Luís; Scapini, Kátia Bilhar; Moraes, Oscar Albuquerque; Mostarda, Cristiano; Caperuto, Erico Chagas; Irigoyen, Maria Cláudia; De Angelis, Katia; Rodrigues, Bruno

    2015-09-29

    We evaluated cardiac autonomic modulation in women with chronic ischemic stroke (at least 4 years post-stroke) at rest and in response to submaximal exercise test. Fourteen post-stroke women (S group) and 10 healthy women (C group) participated in this study. Autonomic modulation (using linear and nonlinear analysis), blood pressure and metabolic variables at rest were evaluated immediately after the exercise test and during the recovery period (20 min). All participants underwent submaximal exercise test on cycle ergometer with gas analysis. At rest, the S group displayed higher lactate concentration, systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) values when compared to C group. Furthermore, the S group had lower heart rate variability (HRV) in time domain (SDNN: S = 30 ± 5 vs. 40 ± 8 ms; rMSSD: S = 14 ± 2 vs. C = 34 ± 3 ms), decreased high frequency band of pulse interval (S = 8.4 ± 2 vs. 33.1 ± 9 %) and 2V pattern of symbolic analysis (S = 17.3 ± 1 vs. 30 ± 3 %) (both indicators of cardiac vagal modulation) when compared to C group. Immediately after exercise, S group presented higher values of lactate, SBP, DBP and double product when compared to C group, as well as decreased heart rate recovery (HRR) measured at the first, second and third minutes. At recovery time, all HRV parameters in time and frequency domains improved in the S group; however, HF band remained lower when compared to C group. After the exercise test, women with chronic stroke presented reduced heart rate variability, reduced cardiac vagal modulation, as well as reduced HRR, while displayed an improvement of heart rate variability and cardiac vagal modulation when compared to their baseline. These results reinforce the importance of a physically active lifestyle for cardiovascular autonomic disorders observed in chronic stroke women.

  8. Human skeletal muscle type 1 fibre distribution and response of stress-sensing proteins along the titin molecule after submaximal exhaustive exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskinen, Satu O A; Kyröläinen, Heikki; Flink, Riina; Selänne, Harri P; Gagnon, Sheila S; Ahtiainen, Juha P; Nindl, Bradley C; Lehti, Maarit

    2017-11-01

    Early responses of stress-sensing proteins, muscle LIM protein (MLP), ankyrin repeat proteins (Ankrd1/CARP and Ankrd2/Arpp) and muscle-specific RING finger proteins (MuRF1 and MuRF2), along the titin molecule were investigated in the present experiment after submaximal exhaustive exercise. Ten healthy men performed continuous drop jumping unilaterally on a sledge apparatus with a submaximal height until complete exhaustion. Five stress-sensing proteins were analysed by mRNA measurements from biopsies obtained immediately and 3 h after the exercise from exercised vastus lateralis muscle while control biopsies were obtained from non-exercised legs before the exercise. Decreased maximal jump height and increased serum creatine kinase activities as indirect markers for muscle damage and HSP27 immunostainings on muscle biopsies as a direct marker for muscle damage indicated that the current exercised protocol caused muscle damage. mRNA levels for four (MLP, Ankrd1/CARP, MuRF1 and MuRF2) out of the five studied stress sensors significantly (p exercise. The magnitude of MLP and Ankrd2 responses was related to the proportion of type 1 myofibres. Our data showed that the submaximal exhaustive exercise with subject's own physical fitness level activates titin-based stretch-sensing proteins. These results suggest that both degenerative and regenerative pathways are activated in very early phase after the exercise or probably already during the exercise. Activation of these proteins represents an initial step forward adaptive remodelling of the exercised muscle and may also be involved in the initiation of myofibre repair.

  9. Met-enkephalin, beta-endorphin and cortisol responses to sub-maximal exercise after sleep disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mougin, F; Simon-Rigaud, M L; Mougin, C; Bourdin, H; Jacquier, M C; Henriet, M T; Davenne, D; Kantelip, J P; Magnin, P; Gaillard, R C

    1992-01-01

    The present study compared the effects of partial sleep deprivation and the effects of an intake of a hypnotic compound (zolpidem) prior to bedtime, on sleep and on hormonal and metabolic adaptations to subsequent exercise. Sleep deprivation consisted of a delayed bedtime and an early getting-up time. Eight young subjects, who slept well and were highly trained athletes, were enrolled in this study. Sleep was recorded polygraphically and the following afternoon exercise was performed on a cycle ergometer for 30 min at 75% of maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) after a 10-min warm up. Met-enkephalin, beta-endorphin, cortisol, and lactate concentrations were measured at rest and during exercise. The data obtained after experimental sleep, with and without medication were compared with those obtained in the reference condition with normal sleep. Both types of sleep reduction decreased the total sleep time, stage 2 sleep, and rapid eye movement sleep, whereas zolpidem administration did not modify either the duration of sleep or the sleep stages. After the reference night, plasma met-enkephalin did not show any significant change at the end of the submaximal exercise, whereas beta-endorphin, cortisol, and lactic acid concentrations increased significantly in all subjects. The changes in concentration in beta-endorphin were significantly related to the changes in cortisol (r = 0.78; P less than 0.01) and to the changes in plasma lactic acid (r = 0.58; P less than 0.05). Cortisol concentrations were also related to lactic acid values (r = 0.94; P less than 0.01).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Acute dietary nitrate supplementation does not augment submaximal forearm exercise hyperemia in healthy young men

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kim, Jin-Kwang; Moore, David J; Maurer, David G; Kim-Shapiro, Daniel B; Basu, Swati; Flanagan, Michael P; Skulas-Ray, Ann C; Kris-Etherton, Penny; Proctor, David N

    2015-01-01

    ... on exercising limb blood flow in humans. We hypothesized that acute dietary nitrate supplementation from beetroot juice would augment the increases in forearm blood flow, as well as the progressive dilation of the brachial artery...

  11. Prolonged submaximal eccentric exercise is associated with increased levels of plasma IL-6

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Thomas; MacLean, D A; Richter, Erik

    1997-01-01

    To study the relationship between exercise-related muscle proteolysis and the cytokine response, a prolonged eccentric exercise model of one leg was used. Subjects performed two trials [a branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) supplementation and a control trial]. The release of amino acids from muscle...... during and after the eccentric exercise was decreased in the BCAA trial, suggesting a suppression of net muscle protein degradation. The plasma concentrations of interleukin (IL)-6 increased from 0.75 +/- 0.19 (preexercise) to 5.02 +/- 0.96 pg/ml (2 h postexercise) in the control trial and in the BCAA...... supplementation trial from 1.07 +/- 0.41 to 4.15 +/- 1.21 pg/ml. Eccentric exercise had no effect on the concentrations of neutrophils, lymphocytes, CD16+/CD56+, CD4+, CD8+, CD14+/CD38+, lymphocyte proliferative response, or cytotoxic activities. BCAA supplementation reduced the concentration of CD14+/CD38+ cells...

  12. Predictors of exercise capacity in heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranvera Ibrahimi

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: In patients with HF, the limited exercise capacity assessed by 6-MWT, is multifactorial being related both to the severity of right ventricular systolic dysfunction as well as to raised LV filling pressures and global dyssynchrony.

  13. Cerebral blood flow during submaximal and maximal dynamic exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas, S N; Schroeder, T; Secher, N H

    1989-01-01

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF) in humans was measured at rest and during dynamic exercise on a cycle ergometer corresponding to 56% (range 27-85) of maximal O2 uptake (VO2max). Exercise bouts were performed by 16 male and female subjects, lasted 15 min each, and were carried out in a semisupine position....... CBF (133Xe clearance) was expressed as the initial slope index (ISI) and as the first compartment flow (F1). CBF at rest [ISI, 58 (range 45-73); F1, 76 (range 55-98) ml.100 g-1.min-1] increased during exercise [ISI to 79 (57-94) and F1 to 118 (75-164) ml.100 g-1.min-1, P less than 0.01]. CBF did...

  14. The Effect of Submaximal Exercise Preceded by Single Whole-Body Cryotherapy on the Markers of Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Blood of Volleyball Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celestyna Mila-Kierzenkowska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the effect of single whole-body cryotherapy (WBC session applied prior to submaximal exercise on the activity of antioxidant enzymes, the concentration of lipid peroxidation products, total oxidative status, and the level of cytokines in blood of volleyball players. The study group consisted of 18 male professional volleyball players, who were subjected to extremely cold air (−130∘C prior to exercise performed on cycloergometer. Blood samples were taken five times: before WBC, after WBC procedure, after exercise preceded by cryotherapy (WBC exercise, and before and after exercise without WBC (control exercise. The activity of catalase statistically significantly increased after control exercise. Moreover, the activity of catalase and superoxide dismutase was lower after WBC exercise than after control exercise (P<0.001. After WBC exercise, the level of IL-6 and IL-1β was also lower (P<0.001 than after control exercise. The obtained results may suggest that cryotherapy prior to exercise may have some antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The relations between the level of studied oxidative stress and inflammatory markers may testify to the contribution of reactive oxygen species in cytokines release into the blood system in response to exercise and WBC.

  15. Core Temperature Measurement During Submaximal Exercise: Esophageal, Rectal, and Intestinal Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Stuart M. C.; Williams, W. Jon; Schneider, Suzanne M.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if intestinal temperature (Tin) might be in acceptable alternative to esophageal (Tes) and rectal temperature (Trec) to assess thermoregulation during supine exercise. We hypothesized that Tin would have values similar to Tes and a response time similar to Trec, but the rate of temperature change across time would not be different between measurement sites. Seven subjects completed a continuous supine protocol of 20 min of rest, 20 min of cycle exercise at 40% peak oxygen consumption (VO2pk), 20 min of cycle exercise at 65% V02pk, and 20 min of recovery. Tes, Trec, and Tin were recorded each min throughout the test. Temperatures were not different after 20 min of rest, but Trec was less than the Tes and Tin at the end of the 40% and 65% VO2pk stages. After 20 min of recovery, Tes was less than either Trec or Tin, which were not different from each other. Time to threshold for increased temperature from rest was greater for Trec than Tes but not different from Tin. Time to reach peak temperature was greater for Tin and Trec than Tes. Similarly, time to a decrease in temperature after exercise was greater for Trec than Tes, but not different from Tin. The rate of temperature change from threshold to the end of the 40% VO2pk stage was not different between measurement sites. However, the rate of change during recovery was more negative for Tes than Tin and Trec, which were different from each other. Measurement of Tin may he an acceptable alternative to Tes and Trec with an understanding of its limitations.

  16. Responses of Plasma Atrial Natriuretic Peptide to High Intensity Submaximal Exercise in the Heat,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-06-01

    been demonstrated that in the rat , cow and human adrenal tumor. ANP decreases ALDO synthesis (Atarashi et al.1984, Delean et al. . 1984, Goodfriend et al...observed in this study (Collins and Weiner. 1986). It has recently been demonstrated that hypothyroidism is characterized by decreased plasma levels of...anesthetized rats . Can J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 62: 819-826. Armstrong LE. Dziados JE (1986). Effects of heat exposure on the exercising adult. In: Bernhardt

  17. Pulmonary and leg VO2 during submaximal exercise: implications for muscular efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, D. C.; Gaesser, G. A.; Hogan, M. C.; Knight, D. R.; Wagner, P. D.

    1992-01-01

    Insights into muscle energetics during exercise (e.g., muscular efficiency) are often inferred from measurements of pulmonary gas exchange. This procedure presupposes that changes of pulmonary O2 (VO2) associated with increases of external work reflect accurately the increased muscle VO2. The present investigation addressed this issue directly by making simultaneous determinations of pulmonary and leg VO2 over a range of work rates calculated to elicit 20-90% of maximum VO2 on the basis of prior incremental (25 or 30 W/min) cycle ergometry. VO2 for both legs was calculated as the product of twice one-leg blood flow (constant-infusion thermodilution) and arteriovenous O2 content difference across the leg. Measurements were made 3-5 min after each work rate imposition to avoid incorporation of the VO2 slow component above the lactate threshold. For all 17 subjects, the slope of pulmonary VO2 (9.9 +/- 0.2 ml O2.W-1.min-1) was not different (P greater than 0.05) from that for leg VO2 (9.2 +/- 0.6 ml O2.W-1.min-1). Estimation of "delta" efficiency (i.e., delta work accomplished divided by delta energy expended, calculated from slope of VO2 vs. work rate and a caloric equivalent for O2 of 4.985 cal/ml) using pulmonary VO2 measurements (29.1 +/- 0.6%) was likewise not significantly different (P greater than 0.05) from that made using leg VO2 measurements (33.7 +/- 2.4%). These data suggest that the net VO2 cost of metabolic "support" processes outside the exercising legs changes little over a relatively broad range of exercise intensities. Thus, under the conditions of this investigation, changes of VO2 measured from expired gas reflected closely those occurring within the exercising legs.

  18. Estimation of maximal oxygen uptake via submaximal exercise testing in sports, clinical, and home settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sartor, F.; Vernillo, G.; de Morree, H.M.; Bonomi, A.G.; La Torre, A.; Kubis, H.P.; Veicsteinas, A.

    2013-01-01

    Assessment of the functional capacity of the cardiovascular system is essential in sports medicine. For athletes, the maximal oxygen uptake (V˙O2max) provides valuable information about their aerobic power. In the clinical setting, the V˙O2max provides important diagnostic and prognostic information

  19. Ramadan fasting and the GH/IGF-1 axis of trained men during submaximal exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhlel, Ezzedine; Zaouali, Monia; Miled, Abdelhedi; Tabka, Zouhair; Bigard, Xavier; Shephard, Roy

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore possible changes in body composition, blood glucose regulation, plasma growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), and insulin concentrations of trained athletes in response to the intermittent fasting and dehydration of Ramadan observance. Nine trained male rugby players (age 19 +/- 2 years, height 1.78 +/- 0.74 m) were tested 3 times: before Ramadan (C), at the end of the first week (R1), and during the fourth week (R2). They performed a progressive cycle ergometer test at each visit. The work rate was increased in 6-min stages corresponding to 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60% of W max. Substrate oxidation was evaluated by indirect calorimetry. On each occasion, substrate and plasma hormone concentrations were measured at rest and at the end of the exercise. Ramadan fasting induced a significant decrease in body mass and body fat (R2 vs. C, p < 0.001). Plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, GH, IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 did not change significantly between C and R2, either at rest or following exercise. Ramadan fasting induces positive changes in body composition without disturbing glucose regulation or activity of the GH/IGF-1 system. 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. The Effect of Submaximal Exercise Preceded by Single Whole-Body Cryotherapy on the Markers of Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Blood of Volleyball Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mila-Kierzenkowska, Celestyna; Szpinda, Michał; Augustyńska, Beata; Woźniak, Bartosz

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effect of single whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) session applied prior to submaximal exercise on the activity of antioxidant enzymes, the concentration of lipid peroxidation products, total oxidative status, and the level of cytokines in blood of volleyball players. The study group consisted of 18 male professional volleyball players, who were subjected to extremely cold air (−130°C) prior to exercise performed on cycloergometer. Blood samples were taken five times: before WBC, after WBC procedure, after exercise preceded by cryotherapy (WBC exercise), and before and after exercise without WBC (control exercise). The activity of catalase statistically significantly increased after control exercise. Moreover, the activity of catalase and superoxide dismutase was lower after WBC exercise than after control exercise (P cryotherapy prior to exercise may have some antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The relations between the level of studied oxidative stress and inflammatory markers may testify to the contribution of reactive oxygen species in cytokines release into the blood system in response to exercise and WBC. PMID:24489985

  1. The effect of Sub-maximal exercise-rehabilitation program on cardio-respiratory endurance indexes and oxygen pulse in patients with spastic cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Izadi

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physical or cardio-respiratory fitness are of the best important physiological variables in children with cerebral palsy (CP, but the researches on exercise response of individuals with CP are limited. Our aim was to determine the effect of sub-maximal rehabilitation program (aerobic exercise on maximal oxygen uptake, oxygen pulse and cardio- respiratory physiological variables of children with moderate to severe spastic cerebral palsy diplegia and compare with able-bodied children. Methods: In a controlled clinical trial study, 15 children with diplegia spastic cerebral palsy, were recruited on a voluntarily basis (experimental group and 18 subjects without neurological impairments selected as control group. In CP group, aerobic exercise program performed on the average of exercise intensity (144 beat per minute of heart rate, 3 times a week for 3 months. The time of each exercise session was 20-25 minutes. Dependent variables were measured in before (pretest and after (post test of rehabilitation program through Mac Master Protocol on Tantories cycle ergometer in CP group and compared with the control group. Results: The oxygen pulse (VO2/HR during ergometery protocol was significantly lower in CP group than normal group (P<0.05. No significant statistical difference in maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max was found between groups. The rehabilitation program leads to little increase of this variable in CP group. After sub-maximal exercise in pretest and post test, the heart rate of patient group was greater than control group, and aerobic exercise leads to significant decrease in heart rate in CP patients(P<0.05. Conclusion: The patients with spastic cerebral palsy, because of high muscle tone, severe spasticity and involuntarily movements have higher energy cost and lower aerobic fitness than normal people. The rehabilitation exercise program can improve physiological function of muscle and cardio-respiratory endurance in these

  2. Evaluation of respiratory dynamics by volumetric capnography during submaximal exercise protocol of six minutes on treadmill in cystic fibrosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parazzi, Paloma L F; Marson, Fernando A L; Ribeiro, Maria A G O; Schivinski, Camila I S; Ribeiro, José D

    2017-11-29

    Volumetric capnography provides the standard CO2 elimination by the volume expired per respiratory cycle and is a measure to assess pulmonary involvement. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the respiratory dynamics of healthy control subjects and those with cystic fibrosis in a submaximal exercise protocol for six minutes on the treadmill, using volumetric capnography parameters (slope 3 [Slp3], Slp3/tidal volume [Slp3/TV], and slope 2 [Slp2]). This was a cross-sectional study with 128 subjects (cystic fibrosis, 64 subjects; controls, 64 subjects]. Participants underwent volumetric capnography before, during, and after six minutes on the treadmill. Statistical analysis was performed using the Friedman, Mann-Whitney, and Kruskal-Wallis tests, considering age and sex. An alpha=0.05 was considered. Six minutes on the treadmill evaluation: in cystic fibrosis, volumetric capnography parameters were different before, during, and after six minutes on the treadmill; the same was observed for the controls, except for Slp2. Regarding age, an Slp3 difference was observed in cystic fibrosis patients regardless of age, at all moments, and in controls for age≥12 years; a difference in Slp3/TV was observed in cystic fibrosis and controls, regardless of age; and an Slp2 difference in the cystic fibrosis, regardless of age. Regarding sex, Slp3 and Slp3/TV differences were observed in cystic fibrosis regardless of sex, and in controls in male participants; an Slp2 difference was observed in the cystic fibrosis and female participants. The analysis between groups (cystic fibrosis and controls) indicated that Slp3 and Slp3/TV has identified the CF, regardless of age and sex, while the Slp2 showed the CF considering age. Cystic fibrosis showed greater values of the parameters before, during, and after exercise, even when stratified by age and sex, which may indicate ventilation inhomogeneity in the peripheral pathways in the cystic fibrosis. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade

  3. Work capacity, exercise responses and body composition of professional pilots in relation to age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeppky, J A; Luft, U C

    1989-11-01

    Body composition and submaximal and maximal cardiorespiratory responses during a progressive upright bicycle ergometer test were measured in 410 professional male pilots, aged 20 to 68 years, and divided into four groups (30, 39, 49, and 59 years). Fat-free weight by hydrostatic weighing was not significantly different between groups and fat increased linearly with age, while height was lower and weight levelled off in the oldest group. Aerobic work capacity (VO2max) fell at a rate of 0.25 ml.min-1.kg-1 per year in this unique population of healthy, but generally sedentary men. A subgroup of 10 pilots, tested annually from age 31 to 47, demonstrated a reversal of the age-related decline in VO2max. This was attributable to regular physical activity, short of athletic training, and changes in personal health habits stimulated by self-assessment available from the repeated tests incorporated into the medical prevention program. These data considered in relation to more recent reports of stroke volume during similar maximal exercise protocols suggest that VO2max is limited during aging by a reduction in tissue diffusing capacity or increased maldistribution of perfusion in relation to O2 uptake in muscle and this can be partially prevented by training. Reference standards for heart rate, blood pressure and ventilation during submaximal and maximal exercise levels are presented in relation to energy requirements and work intensity at various ages.

  4. Submaximal exercise testing with near-infrared spectroscopy in Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome patients compared to healthy controls: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ruth R; Reid, W Darlene; Mattman, Andre; Yamabayashi, Cristiane; Steiner, Theodore; Parker, Shoshana; Gardy, Jennifer; Tang, Patrick; Patrick, David M

    2015-05-20

    Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) is a debilitating illness. Symptoms include profound fatigue and distinctive post-exertional malaise (PEM). We asked whether a submaximal exercise test would prove useful for identifying different patterns of tissue oxygen utilization in individuals with ME/CFS versus healthy subjects. Such a test has potential to aid with ME/CFS diagnosis, or to characterize patients' illness. A case-control study of 16 patients with ME/CFS compared to 16 healthy controls completing a 3-min handgrip protocol was performed. Response was measured using near-infrared spectroscopy, resulting in measurements of oxygenated (O2Hb) and deoxygenated hemoglobin (HHb) over wrist extensors and flexors. Changes in O2Hb (delta (d)O2Hb) and HHb (dHHb) absorbance between the first and last contraction were calculated, as were the force-time product of all contractions, measured as tension-time index (TTI), and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE). Individuals with ME/CFS demonstrated smaller dO2Hb and dHHb than controls. However, after adjusting for TTI and change in total hemoglobin (delta (d)tHb), differences in dO2Hb and dHHb were reduced, with large overlapping variances. RPE was significantly higher for cases than controls, particularly at rest. Relative to controls, participants with ME/CFS demonstrated higher RPE, lower TTI, and reduced dO2Hb and dHHb during repetitive handgrip exercise, although considerable variance was observed. With further study, submaximal exercise testing may prove useful for stratifying patients with a lower propensity for inducing PEM, and have the ability to establish baseline intensities for exercise prescription.

  5. Exercise capacity in polycystic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinecke, Natália Lopes; Cunha, Thulio Marquez; Heilberg, Ita Pfeferman; Higa, Elisa Mieko Suemitsu; Nishiura, José Luiz; Neder, José Alberto; Almeida, Waldemar Silva; Schor, Nestor

    2014-08-01

    Reports about exercise performance in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) are scarce. We aimed to evaluate exercise capacity and levels of nitric oxide and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) in normotensive patients with ADPKD. Prospective controlled cohort study. 26 patients with ADPKD and 30 non-ADPKD control participants (estimated glomerular filtration rate>60 mL/min/1.73 m2, aged 19-39 years, and blood pressure [BP]Exercise capacity and nitric oxide and ADMA levels in response to exercise. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing and serum and urinary nitric oxide, plasma ADMA, and BP levels before and after exercise. Mean basal systolic and diastolic BP, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and age did not differ between the ADPKD and control groups (116±12 vs. 110±11 mmHg, 76±11 vs 71±9 mmHg, 113±17 vs. 112±9.6 mL/min/1.73 m2, and 30±8 vs. 28.9±7.3 years, respectively). Peak oxygen uptake and anaerobic threshold were significantly lower in the ADPKD group than in controls (22.2±3.3 vs. 31±4.8 mL/kg/min [Pdifferent from baseline (45±5.1 vs. 48.3±4.6 μmol/L and 34.7±6.5 vs. 39.8±6.8 μmol/mg of creatinine, respectively), contrasting with increased postexercise values in controls (63.1±1.9 vs. 53.9±3.1 μmol/L [P=0.01] and 61.4±10.6 vs. 38.7±5.6 μmol/mg of creatinine [P=0.01], respectively). Similarly, whereas postexercise ADMA level did not change in the ADPKD group compared to those at rest (0.47±0.04 vs. 0.45±0.02 μmol/L [P=0.6]), it decreased in controls (0.39±0.02 vs. 0.47±0.02 μmol/L [P=0.006]), as expected. A negative correlation between nitric oxide and ADMA levels after exercise was found in only the control group (r = -0.60; Pexercise, suggesting the presence of early endothelial dysfunction in this disease. Copyright © 2014 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Coconut Water Does Not Improve Markers of Hydration During Sub-maximal Exercise and Performance in a Subsequent Time Trial Compared with Water Alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peart, Daniel J; Hensby, Andy; Shaw, Matthew P

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare markers of hydration during submaximal exercise and subsequent time trial performance when consuming water (PW) or coconut water (CW). There was also a secondary aim to assess the palatability of CW during exercise and voluntary intake during intense exercise. 10 males (age 27.9 ± 4.9 years, body mass 78.1 ± 10.1kg, average max minute power 300.2 ± 28.2W) completed 60-min of submaximal cycling followed by a 10-km time trial on two occasions. During these trials participants consumed either PW or CW in a randomized manner, drinking a 250 ml of the assigned drink between 10-15 min, 25-30 min and 40-45 min, and then drinking ad libitum from 55-min until the end of the time trial. Body mass and urine osmolality were recorded preexercise and then after 30-min, 60-min, and post time trial. Blood glucose, lactate, heart rate, rate of perceived exertion (RPE; 6-20) and ratings of thirst, sweetness, nausea, fullness and stomach upset (1 =very low/none, 5= very high) were recorded during each drink period. CW did not significantly improve time trial performance compared with PW (971.4 ± 50.5 and 966.6 ± 44.8 s respectively; p = .698) and there was also no significant differences between trials for any of the physiological variables measured. However there were subjective differences between the beverages for taste, resulting in a significantly reduced volume of voluntary intake in the CW trial (115 ± 95.41 ml and 208.7 ± 86.22 ml; p < .001).

  7. Vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA expression and arteriovenous balance in resonse to prolonged, submaximal exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hiscock, N.; Fischer, C.P.; Pilegaard, Henriette

    2003-01-01

    VEGF, regulation of gene expression, exercise, angiogensis, skeletal muscle, peripheral vascular function......VEGF, regulation of gene expression, exercise, angiogensis, skeletal muscle, peripheral vascular function...

  8. Lung function and exercise capacity in young adults born prematurely

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrijlandt, EJLE; Gerritsen, J; Boezen, HM; Grevink, RG; Duiverman, EJ

    2006-01-01

    Rationale: Limited information is available about the long-term outcome of lung function and exercise capacity in young adults born prematurely. Objective: To determine long-term effects of prematurity on lung function (volumes, diffusing capacity) and exercise capacity in expreterms compared with

  9. The effect of menstrual cycle phase on exercise capacity measured by treadmill exercise test

    OpenAIRE

    YAZAR, Sadan; Yazici, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the impact of the menstrual phases on exercise capacity parameters measured by a treadmill exercise test in sedentary premenaupausal women. Exercise capacity expressed in terms of metabolic equivalents (MET) and exercise duration was measured by performing treadmill exercise tests in 30 women (mean age: 29 ± 5.8 years) with regular menstrual cycles at two points during their menstrual cycles: the late-follicular (LF) phase and the mid-luteal (ML) phase. Th...

  10. Beta2-adrenergic stimulation increases energy expenditure at rest, but not during submaximal exercise in active overweight men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Onslev, Johan; Jacobson, Glenn A; Narkowicz, Christian K

    2017-01-01

    percentage and rac-formoterol-induced change in energy expenditure. During exercise, energy expenditure was not different between treatments, although carbohydrate oxidation was 15% higher (P = 0.021) for rac-formoterol than placebo. Rac-formoterol-induced shift in substrate choice from rest to exercise...

  11. Effect of acute exercise-induced fatigue on maximal rate of heart rate increase during submaximal cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Rebecca L; Rogers, Daniel K; Howe, Peter R C; Buckley, Jonathan D

    2016-01-01

    Different mathematical models were used to evaluate if the maximal rate of heart rate (HR) increase (rHRI) was related to reductions in exercise performance resulting from acute fatigue. Fourteen triathletes completed testing before and after a 2-h run. rHRI was assessed during 5 min of 100-W cycling and a sigmoidal (rHRIsig) and exponential (rHRIexp) model were applied. Exercise performance was assessed using a 5-min cycling time-trial. The run elicited reductions in time-trial performance (1.34 ± 0.19 to 1.25 ± 0.18 kJ · kg(-1), P exercise HR (73.0 ± 8.4 to 90.5 ± 11.4 beats · min(-1), P exercise and steady-state HR. rHRIsig was reduced following acute exercise-induced fatigue, and correlated with difference in performance.

  12. Neuromuscular blockade of slow twitch muscle fibres elevates muscle oxygen uptake and energy turnover during submaximal exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krustrup, Peter; Secher, Niels; Relu, Mihai U.

    2008-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that a greater activation of fast-twitch (FT) fibres during dynamic exercise leads to a higher muscle oxygen uptake (VO2 ) and energy turnover as well as a slower muscle on-kinetics. Subjects performed one-legged knee-extensor exercise for 10 min at an intensity of 30 W...... fibres, respectively. From 127 s of exercise, muscle VO2 was higher (P muscle VO2 response...... was slower (P muscle homogenate CP was lowered (P muscle lactate production was similar in CUR and CON (37.8 +/- 4.1 versus 35.2 +/- 6.2 mmol). Estimated total muscle ATP turnover was 19...

  13. Exercise haemodynamics and maximal exercise capacity during beta-adrenoceptor blockade in normotensive and hypertensive subjects.

    OpenAIRE

    Baak, M.A.; Koene, F M; Verstappen, F T

    1988-01-01

    1. The effects of atenolol administration on maximal exercise capacity and exercise haemodynamics have been compared in eight normotensive and eight mildly hypertensive subjects, matched for sex, age, body weight, and maximal oxygen uptake, and familiar with maximal exercise testing. 2. Supine and exercise blood pressure, and exercise total peripheral resistance were significantly higher, and exercise cardiac output was significantly lower in the hypertensive than in the normotensive subjects...

  14. Carbohydrate- and protein-rich diets in McArdle disease: effects on exercise capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, S T; Vissing, J

    2008-12-01

    Two single case studies suggest that a protein-rich diet may be beneficial for patients with McArdle disease, based on improvements in either endurance or muscle energetics, as assessed by phosphorous MR spectroscopy. In healthy subjects, proteins contribute very little to energy metabolism during exercise, which questions the effect of protein in McArdle disease. In a crossover, open design, we studied seven patients with McArdle disease, who were randomised to follow either a carbohydrate- or protein-rich diet for 3 days before testing. Calorific intake on each diet was identical, and was adjusted to the subject's weight, age and sex. After each diet, exercise tolerance and maximal work capacity were tested on a bicycle ergometer, using a constant workload for 15 minutes followed by an incremental workload to exhaustion. During the constant workload, heart rate and perceived exertion were consistently lower (pexercise tolerance to submaximal workloads by maintaining a diet high in carbohydrate instead of protein. The carbohydrate diet not only improves tolerance to everyday activities, but will probably also help to prevent exercise-induced episodes of muscle injury in McArdle disease.

  15. The Effect of 4 Weeks Fixed and Mixed Intermittent Hypoxic Training (IHT) on Respiratory Metabolic and Acid-base Response of Capillary Blood During Submaximal Bicycle Exercise in Male Elite Taekwondo Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hun-Young; Sunoo, Sub; Nam, Sang-Seok

    2016-12-31

    The purpose of our study was to determine the effectiveness of 4 weeks fixed and mixed intermittent hypoxic training (IHT) and its difference from exercise training at sea-level on exercise load, respiratory metabolic and acid-base response of capillary blood during 80% maximal heart rate (HRmax) bicycle exercise in male elite Taekwondo players. Male elite Taekwondo players (n = 25 out of 33) were randomly assigned to training at sea-level (n = 8, control group), training at 16.5%O 2 (2000 m) simulated hypoxic condition (n = 9, fixed IHT group), and training at 14.5%O 2 (3000 m) up to 2 weeks and 16.5%O 2 (2000 m) simulated hypoxic condition (n = 8, mixed IHT group) for 3 weeks. We compared their average exercise load, respiratory metabolic, and acid-base response of the capillary blood during 80% HRmax submaximal bicycle exercise before and after 4 weeks training. Fixed and mixed IHT groups showed positive improvement in respiratory metabolic and acid-base response of the capillary blood during 80% HRmax submaximal bicycle exercise after 4 weeks training. However, all dependent variables showed no significant difference between fixed IHT and mix IHT. Results suggested that mixed and fixed IHT is effective in improving respiratory metabolic and acid-base response of capillary blood in male elite Taekwondo players. Thus, IHT could be a novel and effective method for improving exercise performance through respiratory metabolic and acid-base response.

  16. Acute citrulline malate supplementation improves upper- and lower-body submaximal weightlifting exercise performance in resistance-trained females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Jordan M; Gray, Michelle; Wethington, Lauren N; Stone, Matthew S; Stewart, Rodger W; Moyen, Nicole E

    2017-03-01

    Citrulline malate (CM) is a nonessential amino acid that increases exercise performance in males. However, based on physiological differences between genders, these results cannot be extrapolated to females. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to evaluate effects of acute CM supplementation on upper- and lower-body weightlifting performance in resistance-trained females. Fifteen females (23 ± 3 years) completed two randomized, double-blind trials consuming either CM (8 g dextrose + 8 g CM) or a placebo (8 g dextrose). One hour after supplement consumption, participants performed six sets each of upper- (i.e., bench press) and lower-body (i.e., leg press) exercises to failure at 80 % of previously established one-repetition maximum. Immediately after each set, repetitions completed, heart rate and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded. Repeated-measures analysis of variance indicated that subjects completed significantly (p = .045) more repetitions throughout upper-body exercise when consuming CM versus placebo (34.1 ± 5.7 vs. 32.9 ± 6.0, respectively). When consuming CM, similar significant (p = .03) improvements in total repetitions completed were observed for lower-body exercise (66.7 ± 30.5 vs. 55.13 ± 20.64, respectively). Overall RPE score was significantly lower (p = .02) in upper-body exercise when subjects consumed CM versus placebo (7.9 ± 0.3 and 8.6 ± 0.2, respectively). The supplement consumed exhibited no significant effects on heart rate at any time point. Acute CM supplementation in females increased upper- and lower-body resistance exercise performance and decreased RPE during upper-body exercise. These data indicate that athletes competing in sports with muscular endurance-based requirements may potentially improve performance by acutely supplementing CM.

  17. Metformin improves performance in high-intensity exercise, but not anaerobic capacity in healthy male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learsi, S K; Bastos-Silva, V J; Lima-Silva, A E; Bertuzzi, R; De Araujo, G G

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the ergogenic effects of metformin in high-intensity exercise, as well as its effects on anaerobic capacity, in healthy and physically active men. Ten subjects (mean (± standard deviation) maximal oxygen uptake (V˙O2max ) 38.6 ± 4.5 mL/kg per min) performed the following tests in a cycle ergometer: (i) an incremental test; (ii) six submaximal constant workload tests at 40%-90% (V˙O2max ); and (iii) two supramaximal tests (110% (V˙O2max ). Metformin (500 mg) or placebo was ingested 60 min before the supramaximal test. There were no significant differences between the placebo and metformin groups in terms of maximum accumulated oxygen deficit (2.8 ± 0.6 vs 3.0 ± 0.8 L, respectively; P = 0.08), lactate concentrations (7.8 ± 2.6 vs 7.5 ± 3.0 mmol/L, respectively; P = 0.75) or O2 consumed in either the last 30 s of exercise (40.4 ± 4.4 vs 39.9 ± 4.0 mL/kg per min, respectively; P = 0.35) or the first 110 s of exercise (29.0 ± 2.5 vs 29.5 ± 3.0 mL/kg per min, respectively; P = 0.42). Time to exhaustion was significantly higher after metformin than placebo ingestion (191 ± 33 vs 167 ± 32 s, respectively; P = 0.001). The fast component of V˙O2 recovery was higher in the metformin than placebo group (12.71 vs 12.18 mL/kg per min, respectively; P = 0.025). Metformin improved performance and anaerobic alactic contribution during high-intensity exercise, but had no effect on overall anaerobic capacity in healthy subjects. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  18. Exercise training on chronotropic response and exercise capacity in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Li; Min, Gao; Wei, Chen; Min, He; Jie, Zhou

    2017-01-01

    The study was designed to observe the effects and relationship of exercise on chronotropic response (CR) and exercise capacity in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A total of 30 patients with T2DM underwent symptom-limited cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) after excluding contraindication. For each subject individualized exercise prescription was formulated, and they received 12 weeks of exercise training after CPET retest to complete the comparison of CR indicators, includ...

  19. The Effect of Lower-Body Positive Pressure on the Cardiorespiratory Response at Rest and during Submaximal Running Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Stucky

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Anti-gravity treadmills facilitate locomotion by lower-body positive pressure (LBPP. Effects on cardiorespiratory regulation are unknown. Healthy men (30 ± 8 y, 178.3 ± 5.7 cm, 70.3 ± 8.0 kg; mean ± SD stood upright (n = 10 or ran (n = 9 at 9, 11, 13, and 15 km.h−1 (5 min stages with LBPP (0, 15, 40 mmHg. Cardiac output (CO, stroke volume (SV, heart rate (HR, blood pressure (BP, peripheral resistance (PR, and oxygen uptake (VO2 were monitored continuously. During standing, LBPP increased SV [by +29 ± 13 (+41% and +42 ± 15 (+60% ml, at 15 and 40 mmHg, respectively (p < 0.05] and decreased HR [by −15 ± 6 (−20% and −22 ± 9 (−29% bpm (p < 0.05] resulting in a transitory increase in CO [by +1.6 ± 1.0 (+32% and +2.0 ± 1.0 (+39% l.min−1 (p < 0.05] within the first seconds of LBPP. This was accompanied by a transitory decrease in end-tidal PO2 [by −5 ± 3 (−5% and −10 ± 4 (−10% mmHg (p < 0.05] and increase in VO2 [by +66 ± 53 (+26% and +116 ± 64 (+46% ml.min−1 (p < 0.05], suggesting increased venous return and pulmonary blood flow. The application of LBPP increased baroreflex sensitivity (BRS [by +1.8 ± 1.6 (+18% and +4.6 ± 3.7 (+47% at 15 and 40 mmHg LBPP, respectively P < 0.05]. After reaching steady-state exercise CO vs. VO2 relationships remained linear with similar slope and intercept for each participant (mean R2 = 0.84 ± 0.13 while MAP remained unchanged. It follows that (1 LBPP affects cardiorespiratory integration at the onset of exercise; (2 at a given LBPP, once reaching steady-state exercise, the cardiorespiratory load is reduced proportionally to the lower metabolic demand resulting from the body weight support; (3 the balance between cardiovascular response, oxygen delivery to the exercising muscles and blood pressure regulation is maintained at exercise steady-state; and (4 changes in baroreflex sensitivity may be involved in the regulation of cardiovascular parameters during LBPP.

  20. One year of high-intensity interval training improves exercise capacity, but not left ventricular function in stable heart transplant recipients: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustad, Lene A; Nytrøen, Kari; Amundsen, Brage H; Gullestad, Lars; Aakhus, Svend

    2014-02-01

    Heart transplant recipients have lower exercise capacity and impaired cardiac function compared with the normal population. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) improves exercise capacity and cardiac function in patients with heart failure and hypertension, but the effect on cardiac function in stable heart transplant recipients is not known. Thus, we investigated whether HIIT improved cardiac function and exercise capacity in stable heart transplant recipients by use of comprehensive rest- and exercise-echocardiography and cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Fifty-two clinically stable heart transplant recipients were randomised either to HIIT (4 × 4 minutes at 85-95% of peak heart rate three times per week for eight weeks) or to control. Three such eight-week periods were distributed throughout one year. Echocardiography (rest and submaximal exercise) and cardiopulmonary exercise testing were performed at baseline and follow-up. One year of HIIT increased VO 2peak from 27.7 ± 5.5 at baseline to 30.9 ± 5.0 ml/kg/min at follow-up, while the control group remained unchanged (28.5 ± 7.0 vs. 28.0 ± 6.7 ml/kg per min, p cardiac systolic and diastolic function significantly. Thus, the observed augmentation in exercise capacity is best explained by extra-cardiac adaptive mechanisms.

  1. Isokinetic performance capacity of trunk muscles. Part II: Coefficient of variation in isokinetic measurement in maximal effort and in submaximal effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luoto, S; Hupli, M; Alaranta, H; Hurri, H

    1996-12-01

    It has been claimed that with the aid of isokinetic trunk strength measuring devices it is possible to distinguish true muscular weakness from submaximal effort in the test. This proposition is based on the presumption that in the isokinetic trunk strength test identical performances can only be reproduced by maximal effort. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether it is possible to distinguish maximal effort from submaximal with the aid of the coefficient of variation (CV) in an isokinetic trunk muscle strength test. The study group included 35 (21 male and 14 female) subjects of whom 12 were healthy, 10 had a mild low-back pain and 13 had a more severe chronic low-back pain. The subjects performed five consecutive bendings both with maximal (100%) and submaximal (50%) efforts at a speed of 90 degrees/second. In maximal effort only healthy subjects reached an average level of CV close to 10% both in extension and in flexion. In the chronic low-back pain group the average CV was close to 20%. The difference in CV was statistically significant (p < 0.05-0.02) between the healthy and the chronic low-back pain subjects. In the submaximal effort all health groups had a CV of approximately 20% or more and no significant differences were found. The group of slightly variable measurements (CV = 11-20%) was remarkably large in both the maximal and submaximal effort. The results suggest that an effort with a CV of 11-20% cannot be classified as definitely submaximal or maximal. When the CV is less than 10% the effort can be fairly certainly classified as maximal.

  2. Predictors of exercise capacity and symptoms in severe aortic stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Morten; Kjaergaard, Jesper; Pecini, Redi

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the association between invasive and non-invasive estimates of left ventricular (LV) filling pressure and exercise capacity, in order to find new potential candidates for risk markers in severe aortic valve stenosis (AS)....

  3. Heat storage in Asian elephants during submaximal exercise: behavioral regulation of thermoregulatory constraints on activity in endothermic gigantotherms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, M F; Bakken, G S; Ratliff, J J; Langman, V A

    2013-05-15

    Gigantic size presents both opportunities and challenges in thermoregulation. Allometric scaling relationships suggest that gigantic animals have difficulty dissipating metabolic heat. Large body size permits the maintenance of fairly constant core body temperatures in ectothermic animals by means of gigantothermy. Conversely, gigantothermy combined with endothermic metabolic rate and activity likely results in heat production rates that exceed heat loss rates. In tropical environments, it has been suggested that a substantial rate of heat storage might result in a potentially lethal rise in core body temperature in both elephants and endothermic dinosaurs. However, the behavioral choice of nocturnal activity might reduce heat storage. We sought to test the hypothesis that there is a functionally significant relationship between heat storage and locomotion in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus), and model the thermoregulatory constraints on activity in elephants and a similarly sized migratory dinosaur, Edmontosaurus. Pre- and post-exercise (N=37 trials) measurements of core body temperature and skin temperature, using thermography were made in two adult female Asian elephants at the Audubon Zoo in New Orleans, LA, USA. Over ambient air temperatures ranging from 8 to 34.5°C, when elephants exercised in full sun, ~56 to 100% of active metabolic heat production was stored in core body tissues. We estimate that during nocturnal activity, in the absence of solar radiation, between 5 and 64% of metabolic heat production would be stored in core tissues. Potentially lethal rates of heat storage in active elephants and Edmontosaurus could be behaviorally regulated by nocturnal activity.

  4. Predictors of exercise capacity and symptoms in severe aortic stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Morten; Kjaergaard, Jesper; Pecini, Redi

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the association between invasive and non-invasive estimates of left ventricular (LV) filling pressure and exercise capacity, in order to find new potential candidates for risk markers in severe aortic valve stenosis (AS).......This study investigated the association between invasive and non-invasive estimates of left ventricular (LV) filling pressure and exercise capacity, in order to find new potential candidates for risk markers in severe aortic valve stenosis (AS)....

  5. The effect of Bosentan on exercise capacity in Fontan patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hebert, Anders; Jensen, Annette S; Idorn, Lars

    2013-01-01

    and longer life expectancy of TCPC patients have raised new challenges. The survivors are often suffering complications such as arrhythmias, myocardial dysfunction, thromboembolic events, neuropsychological deficit, protein-losing enteropathy and reduced exercise capacity. Several causes for the reduced...... exercise capacity may be present e.g. impaired function of the single ventricle, valve dysfunction and chronotropic impairment, and perhaps also increased pulmonary vascular resistance. Thus, plasma endothelin-1 has been shown to correlate with increased pulmonary vascular resistance and the risk...

  6. Exercise Capacity in Type 2 Diabetes Patients: A Preliminary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To enhance glycaemic control and improve general well being, physical exercises, in addition to drugs and/or diet are usually prescribed to patients with Type 2 Diabetes mellitus (T2D). Assessment of the capacity of these patients to exercise based on the simple Six Minute Walk Test (6MWT) is however not sufficiently ...

  7. Clinical experience of a new reference material for exercise capacity in exercise stress testing in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindow, Thomas; Mosén, Henrik; Engblom, Henrik

    2017-09-21

    In 2014, the Swedish Association of Clinical Physiology recommended the use of a new reference material for exercise capacity in bicycle exercise stress testing, 'the Kalmar material'. Compared to the formerly used reference material, 'the Kristianstad material', an increase in the amount of patients being classified as having decreased exercise capacity was expected, but the extent of this in clinical practice is not known. Results of exercise capacity from 1449 bicycle exercise tests, in patients aged ≥20 years (656 women, 793 men) performed at two departments of Clinical Physiology before and after change of reference materials, were collected. Maximal workload was related to the predicted values of both reference materials. If made, recommendations for supplemental nuclear myocardial perfusion imaging study by the attending physician were noted. Using the new reference material, 31% of all patients were classified as having a decreased exercise capacity, compared to 17% using the formerly used reference material. The difference between the two reference materials was largest in the older age groups. In one of the departments, an increase in recommendations of supplemental myocardial perfusion studies was seen after introduction of the new reference material, whereas the opposite was seen at the other department. A large amount of patients are being classified as having decreased exercise capacity and very few as having good exercise capacity using the new reference material for exercise capacity. © 2017 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Eight weeks of intermittent hypoxic training improves submaximal physiological variables in highly trained runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliss, Ben A; Burden, Richard J; Jones, Andrew M; Pedlar, Charles R

    2014-08-01

    It is unclear whether intermittent hypoxic training (IHT) results in improvements in physiological variables associated with endurance running. Twelve highly trained runners (VO2peak 70.0 ± 3.5 ml·kg-1·min-1) performed incremental treadmill tests to exhaustion in normobaric normoxia and hypoxia (16.0% FIO2) to assess submaximal and maximal physiological variables and the limit of tolerance (T-Lim). Participants then completed 8 weeks of moderate to heavy intensity normoxic training (control [CONT]) or IHT (twice weekly 40 minutes runs, in combination with habitual training), in a single blinded manner, before repeating the treadmill tests. Submaximal heart rate decreased significantly more after IHT (-5 ± 5 b·min-1; p = 0.001) than after CONT ( -1 ± 5 b·min-1; p = 0.021). Changes in submaximal V[Combining Dot Above]O2 were significantly different between groups (p ≤ 0.05); decreasing in the IHT group in hypoxia (-2.6 ± 1.7 ml·kg-1·min-1; p = 0.001) and increasing in the CONT group in normoxia (+1.1 ± 2.1 ml·kg-1·min-1; p = 0.012). There were no VO2peak changes within either group, and while T-Lim improved post-IHT in hypoxia (p = 0.031), there were no significant differences between groups. Intermittent hypoxic training resulted in a degree of enhanced cardiovascular fitness that was evident during submaximal, but not maximal intensity exercise. These results suggest that moderate to heavy intensity IHT provides a mean of improving the capacity for submaximal exercise and may be useful for pre-acclimatization for subsequent exercise in hypoxia, but additional research is required to establish its efficacy for athletic performance at sea level.

  9. Effects of physical exercise in older adults with reduced physical capacity: meta-analysis of resistance exercise and multimodal exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chiung-Ju; Chang, Wen-Pin; Araujo de Carvalho, Islene; Savage, Katie E L; Radford, Lori W; Amuthavalli Thiyagarajan, Jotheeswaran

    2017-12-01

    Older adults with reduced physical capacity are at greater risk of progression to care dependency. Progressive resistance strength exercise and multimodal exercise have been studied to restore reduced physical capacity. To summarize the best evidence of the two exercise regimes, this meta-analysis study appraised randomized-controlled trials from published systematic reviews. Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Review and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Clinical Trials were searched for relevant systematic reviews. Two reviewers independently screened the relevant systematic reviews to identify eligible trials, assessed trial methodological quality, and extracted data. RevMan 5.3 software was used to analyze data on muscle strength, physical functioning, activities of daily living, and falls. Twenty-three eligible trials were identified from 22 systematic reviews. The mean age of the trial participants was 75 years or older. Almost all multimodal exercise trials included muscle strengthening exercise and balance exercise. Progressive resistance exercise is effective in improving muscle strength of the lower extremity and static standing balance. Multimodal exercise is effective in improving muscle strength of the lower extremity, dynamic standing balance, gait speed, and chair stand. In addition, multimodal exercise is effective in reducing falls. Neither type of exercise was effective in improving activities of daily living. For older adults with reduced physical capacity, multimodal exercise appears to have a broad effect on improving muscle strength, balance, and physical functioning of the lower extremity, and reducing falls relative to progressive resistance exercise alone.

  10. The effect of a standard whole blood donation on oxygen uptake and exercise capacity: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Remoortel, Hans; De Buck, Emmy; Compernolle, Veerle; Deldicque, Louise; Vandekerckhove, Philippe

    2017-02-01

    Blood is a life-saving product for many people worldwide. Voluntary blood donation serves the demand for blood but there are concerns among potential donors about the impact of blood loss on exercise performance. This systematic review aimed to collect the best available evidence of the effect of a standard whole blood donation on aerobic exercise performance. Studies from six databases dealing with a standard whole blood donation (400-500 mL) followed by (sub)maximal exercise were retained. The outcomes included exercise-related blood variables (hemoglobin [Hb] concentration, hematocrit, and red blood cell count) and endurance exercise variables ((sub)maximal oxygen uptake, peak work rate, and time to exhaustion). Overall effects at different time points postdonation were investigated by performing meta-analyses and calculating mean differences (and 95% confidence intervals). The GRADE methodology (Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation) was used to assess the quality of evidence. We identified 6237 references and finally included 18 before-after studies of low quality. Twenty-four to 48 hours after a blood donation, 1) Hb concentration was reduced (7% decrease) until 14 days after the blood donation (4% decrease), 2) maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max ) was lower (7% decrease), and 3) a reduction in maximal exercise capacity (10% decrease) was present. The best available evidence indicates that a standard whole blood donation (400-500 mL) leads to small but potentially physiologically important reductions in Hb levels, VO2max , and maximal exercise capacity in the first 2 days after the blood donation. © 2016 AABB.

  11. The Effect of Pre-Exercise Carbohydrate Feeding with Different Glycemic Index on Endurance Exercise Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Salarkia

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Although, it is known that feeding with carbohydrate (CHO during exercise improves endurance performance, the effects of glycemic index (GI of carbohydrate intake are less clear. This study was carried out to assess the effect of glycemic index of pre-exercise carbohydrate feeding on endurance exercise capacity. In a randomized clinical trial 52 endurance – trained men with mean age 21.7 ± 3 years, weight 69.3 ± 9 kg, height 178.4 ± 2 cm and BMI 22.6 ± 2 were studied. Subjects performed exercise treadmill at 70% VO2max after ingestion: Lentil, a low glycemic index; potato, a high glycemic index; glucose and water (as a control one hour before exercise. Blood samples were collected before and one hour after test meal and 30 minutes after exercise. To assess aerobic capacity VO2max (maximum oxygen uptake was measured at the end of the exercise trial. Endurance time was found to be longer after lentil than after the potato, glucose and control respectively (P < 0.05. At the end of exercise, the glucose group and control both gave lower plasma glucose concentrations. Changes of VO2max in lentil. Potato, glucose and control group which were not statistically significant. This study showed that a low GI meal eaten before an event increases endurance capacity during exercise. Furthermore, the low GI meal was found to maintain glucose at higher concentrations during the later stages of exercise.

  12. Community Capacity Building Exercise Maintenance Program for Frail Elderly Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sun Yi; Jun, Soo Young

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of community capacity building exercise maintenance program for frail elderly women. A quasiexperimental pretest-posttest design was used with nonequivalent control group. The experimental group (n = 22) received community capacity building exercise maintenance program, whereas the control group (n = 23) received health physical exercise program for 16 sessions over 8 weeks. The data of physical fitness, body compositions, self-efficacy, and health-related quality of life were collected three times for both group: before the intervention, immediately after the intervention, and 8 weeks after the intervention. Analyses were conducted using χ 2 test, t test, Fisher's exact test, and repeated measures analysis of variance. Compared to the control group, muscular strength (p = .002), static balance (p = .013), muscular endurance (p = .003), self-efficacy (p building exercise maintenance program. Theses results indicated that a community capacity building exercise maintenance program is feasible, and associated with exercise maintenance among frail elderly women. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. The predictors of exercise capacity impairment in diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina Frîngu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. The exercise capacity is a key issue in a diabetic patient’s management, due to its well-known beneficial effects in terms of glycemic control, cardiovascular risk reduction and quality of life improvement. However the exercise capacity of diabetic patients is decreased many times and its determinants are sometimes less known. Our study aimed to assess the effort capacity in a cohort of diabetic patients and to find the main causative factors of its impairment. Method: 61 patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus were enrolled and underwent and transthoracic echocardiography and a cycloergometer exercise testing. Exercise performance was calculated and the influence of clinical data and ultrasound parameters was assessed. Sedentary status of each patient was established from total time/week of at least moderate physical activity. Results: the study group consisted of 48.4 % women, mean age 61.4 (±8.4 years. Disease median duration was 5 years and 21.3 % of the patients presented neuropathy, 4.5 % retinopathy and 6.5 % nephropathy. Exercise capacity was moderately and severe decreased (<5 METs in 37.7 % of patients and in this subgroup the diastolic dysfunction, sedentary behavior and old age has a significantly higher prevalence. Interestingly, by multivariate regression, the sedentary lifestyle was the main determinant of decreased effort capacity (beta-coefficient 1.37, p<0.001, suggesting the potential benefits of physical training in these patients. Conclusion. Our study found a decreased effort capacity in at least one third of the patients and this is mainly due to sedentary lifestyle and deconditioning, the diastolic dysfunction also contributes to decreased effort capacity in diabetic patients.

  14. Effects of arotinolol on exercise capacity and humoral factors during exercise in normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, T; Handa, K; Terao, Y; Tanaka, H; Kiyonaga, A; Shindo, M; Matsunaga, A; Sasaki, J; Arakawa, K

    1992-08-01

    A placebo-controlled, double-blind crossover study was undertaken in 10 normal subjects to examine the effects of arotinolol (10 mg bid), a nonselective beta blocker with alpha-blocking activity, on exercise capacity and hormone levels during exercise after a 2-week treatment period. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) and blood lactic acid concentration (LA) were measured during progressive exercise testing. An exercise intensity equivalent to 4 mmol/l of LA was used for the constant workload exercise test. Humoral factors were measured after 20 minutes of constant workload exercise. The administration of arotinolol significantly decreased systolic blood pressure and heart rate at rest and during exercise, but diastolic blood pressure did not change. No significant difference was found between arotinolol and placebo with regard to VO2 max and maximal workload. Plasma renin activity (PRA), aldosterone (PAC), and norepinephrine (NE) levels at rest and during exercise did not differ between the two treatments. In contrast, plasma epinephrine (EN) levels at rest and during exercise were significantly greater with arotinolol. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) at rest did not differ between the two treatments. However, exercise caused a significant increase in ANP after arotinolol treatment. These findings suggest that arotinolol decreases blood pressure and heart rate without affecting exercise capacity.

  15. Effect of metformin on exercise capacity in metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Abi Albon; Dkhar, Steven Aibor; Kamalanathan, Sadishkumar; Thabah, Molly Mary; George, Melvin; Chandrasekaran, Indumathi; Gunaseelan, Vikneswaran; Selvarajan, Sandhiya

    2017-11-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a constellation of risk factors with increased predilection towards occurrence of cardiovascular diseases. Currently physical exercise and management with metformin are the prevailing treatment modalities for metabolic syndrome. Patients with metabolic syndrome have been found to have reduced exercise capacity over a period of time. Likewise metformin has been shown to decrease exercise capacity among healthy volunteers. Hence this study aims to evaluate the effect of metformin on the exercise capacity of patients with metabolic syndrome. Prospective study with 6 weeks follow up. Newly diagnosed patients with metabolic syndrome and to be started on Table Metformin 500mg twice a day were recruited for the study after obtaining written informed consent. Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing (CPET) was done at baseline before the subjects were started on metformin and after 6 weeks of treatment using cardiopulmonary exercise testing apparatus (ZAN600). Fifteen treatment naïve patients with metabolic syndrome completed six weeks of therapy with metformin. In these patients oxygen uptake [VO2] showed statistically significant decrease from 1.10±0.44 at baseline to 0.9±0.39 (l/min) after six weeks of treatment with metformin [mean difference of -0.20 (-0.31 to -0.09); P=0.001]. Similarly oxygen uptake/kg body weight [VO2/Kg] showed a significant decrease from 14.10±4.73 to 11.44±3.81 (mlkg -1 min -1 ) at the end of six weeks of treatment [mean difference of -2.66 (-4.06 to -1.26); P=0.001]. Six weeks of treatment with metformin significantly decreases exercise capacity in newly diagnosed patients with metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Inspiratory Capacity during Exercise: Measurement, Analysis, and Interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan A. Guenette

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET is an established method for evaluating dyspnea and ventilatory abnormalities. Ventilatory reserve is typically assessed as the ratio of peak exercise ventilation to maximal voluntary ventilation. Unfortunately, this crude assessment provides limited data on the factors that limit the normal ventilatory response to exercise. Additional measurements can provide a more comprehensive evaluation of respiratory mechanical constraints during CPET (e.g., expiratory flow limitation and operating lung volumes. These measurements are directly dependent on an accurate assessment of inspiratory capacity (IC throughout rest and exercise. Despite the valuable insight that the IC provides, there are no established recommendations on how to perform the maneuver during exercise and how to analyze and interpret the data. Accordingly, the purpose of this manuscript is to comprehensively examine a number of methodological issues related to the measurement, analysis, and interpretation of the IC. We will also briefly discuss IC responses to exercise in health and disease and will consider how various therapeutic interventions influence the IC, particularly in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Our main conclusion is that IC measurements are both reproducible and responsive to therapy and provide important information on the mechanisms of dyspnea and exercise limitation during CPET.

  17. Exercise capacity in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiana Moreira Mortari

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The association between obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS and exercise capacity is still not well determined. However, it is known that many OSAS patients present limited response to physical exercise. Such limitation, among other reasons, may be associated to the poor sleep quality that leads, mainly, to excessive daytime sleepiness. The aim of this study was to perform a literature review about exercise capacity in OSAS patients. The search was performed at the data basis Pubmed, LILACS and SciELO. We performed 3 searches in each data basis, with the following terms combination: “apnea” and “exercise” and “capacity”, “apnea” and “exercise” and “CPAP” and “apnea” and “cardiopulmonary” and “test”. Articles in Portuguese, English and Spanish would be included; with samples composed by OSAS patients treated or not. From the 108 articles identified, 24 filled the inclusion criteria and were then analyzed. In conclusion, exercise capacity seems to be diminished in OSAS patients and CPAP is associated to an improvement in physical performance.

  18. Overweight predicts poorer exercise capacity in congenital heart disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehl, Karen; Tucker, Alicia; Khan, Munziba; Goldberg, Paula; Anne Greene, E; Smith, Megan

    2015-12-07

    Overweight (OW) and obesity (OB) are endemic in the United States and affect adolescents and adults with congenital heart disease (ACHD). Defining the burden of excess weight on the cardiovascular system in ACHD is the goal of this study. Limitation of exercise capacity due to overweight or obesity might be reversible with weight loss and improve quality of life for ACHD adults. Exercise tests performed using a Bruce protocol and measurement of maximum oxygen consumption were retrospectively reviewed on 418 CHD patients. OW and OB were defined as the 85-95 or > 95 percentile respectively for age and gender or by adult criteria. Severity of CHD was assigned based on criteria published in standard guidelines. 63 patients had mild, 198 moderate, and 157 severe heart disease. Each ACHD group was 32 to 34% OW or OB. Measured exercise time (ET) of CHD patients with moderate or severe heart disease was less than that of controls in each weight categories. However, OB or OW people have shorter ET than their normal weight peers with CHD. Multiple regression using ET as the dependent variable finds that female sex, relative BMI, and VE/VCO2 at peak exercise are all associated with lesser ET with high significance. Peak heart rate is associated with greater ET, with borderline significance. Severity of heart disease is not independently associated with ET. OW and OB are strongly associated with reduced ET in persons with congenital heart disease. Losing weight may improve exercise capacity in ACHD.

  19. Exercise training programs to improve hand rim wheelchair propulsion capacity: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwinkels, M.G.J.; Verschuren, O.W.; Janssen, T.; Ketelaar, M.; Takken, T.; Backx, F.J.G.; Groot, J.F. de; Smits, D.W.; Volman, MJM

    2014-01-01

    Objective: An adequate wheelchair propulsion capacity is required to perform daily life activities. Exercise training may be effective to gain or improve wheelchair propulsion capacity. This review investigates whether different types of exercise training programs are effective in improving

  20. Exercise training programs to improve hand rim wheelchair propulsion capacity: a systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwinkels, M.; Verschuren, O.; Janssen, T.W.J.; Ketelaar, M.; Takken, T.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: An adequate wheelchair propulsion capacity is required to perform daily life activities. Exercise training may be effective to gain or improve wheelchair propulsion capacity. This review investigates whether different types of exercise training programs are effective in improving

  1. Predictors of exercise capacity following exercise-based rehabilitation in patients with coronary heart disease and heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uddin, Jamal; Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe; Lewinter, Christian

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to undertake a comprehensive assessment of the patient, intervention and trial-level factors that may predict exercise capacity following exercise-based rehabilitation in patients with coronary heart disease and heart failure. DESIGN: Meta-analysis and meta...... of improvement in exercise capacity following exercise-based rehabilitation compared to control among patients with coronary heart disease or heart failure. Whilst higher exercise intensities were associated with a greater level of post-rehabilitation exercise capacity, there was no strong evidence to support...

  2. Cold drink ingestion improves exercise endurance capacity in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jason K W; Shirreffs, Susan M; Maughan, Ronald J

    2008-09-01

    To investigate the effect of drink temperature on cycling capacity in the heat. On two separate trials, eight males cycled at 66 +/- 2% VO2peak (mean +/- SD) to exhaustion in hot (35.0 +/- 0.2 degrees C) and humid (60 +/- 1%) environments. Participants ingested three 300-mL aliquots of either a cold (4 degrees C) or a warm (37 degrees C) drink during 30 min of seated rest before exercise and 100 mL of the same drink every 10 min during exercise. Rectal and skin temperatures, heart rate, and sweat rate were recorded. Ratings of thermal sensation and perceived exertion were assessed. Exercise time was longer (P drink (63.8 +/- 4.3 min) than with the warm drink (52.0 +/- 4.1 min). Rectal temperature fell by 0.5 +/- 0.1 degrees C (P drinks. There was no effect of drink temperature on mean skin temperature at rest (P = 0.870), but mean skin temperature was lower from 20 min during exercise with ingestion of the cold drink than with the warm drink (P drink than with the warm drink (P Drink temperature influenced sweat rate (1.22 +/- 0.34 and 1.40 +/- 0.41 L x h(-1) for the cold and the warm drink, respectively; P drink was ingested. Compared with a drink at 37 degrees C, the ingestion of a cold drink before and during exercise in the heat reduced physiological strain (reduced heat accumulation) during exercise, leading to an improved endurance capacity (23 +/- 6%).

  3. Chronic exercise keeps working memory and inhibitory capacities fit

    OpenAIRE

    Concepción ePadilla; Laura ePérez; Pilar eAndres

    2014-01-01

    Padilla et al. (2013) recently showed that chronic aerobic exercise in young adults is associated with better inhibitory control as measured by the strategic Stop Signal Task (SST). The aim of the current study was to explore whether better inhibitory abilities, associated with high levels of physical fitness, were also associated with higher working memory capacity (WMC) in young healthy adults. Participants aged between 18 and 30 years and showing different levels of fitness confirmed by th...

  4. Exercise capacity, muscle strength and fatigue in sarcoidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcellis, R G J; Lenssen, A F; Elfferich, M D P; De Vries, J; Kassim, S; Foerster, K; Drent, M

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this case-control study was to investigate the prevalence of exercise intolerance, muscle weakness and fatigue in sarcoidosis patients. Additionally, we evaluated whether fatigue can be explained by exercise capacity, muscle strength or other clinical characteristics (lung function tests, radiographic stages, prednisone usage and inflammatory markers). 124 sarcoidosis patients (80 males) referred to the Maastricht University Medical Centre (Maastricht, the Netherlands) were included (mean age 46.6±10.2 yrs). Patients performed a 6-min walk test (6MWT) and handgrip force (HGF), elbow flexor muscle strength (EFMS), quadriceps peak torque (QPT) and hamstring peak torque (HPT) tests. Maximal inspiratory pressure (P(I,max)) was recorded. All patients completed the Fatigue Assessment Scale (FAS) questionnaire. The 6MWT was reduced in 45% of the population, while HGF, EFMS, QPT and HPT muscle strength were reduced in 15, 12, 27 and 18%, respectively. P(I,max) was reduced in 43% of the population. The majority of the patients (81%) reported fatigue (FAS ≥22). Patients with reduced peripheral muscle strength of the upper and/or lower extremities were more fatigued and demonstrated impaired lung functions, fat-free mass, P(I,max), 6MWT and quality of life. Fatigue was neither predicted by exercise capacity, nor by muscle strength. Besides fatigue, exercise intolerance and muscle weakness are frequent problems in sarcoidosis. We therefore recommend physical tests in the multidisciplinary management of sarcoidosis patients, even in nonfatigued patients.

  5. Exercise increases the plasma antioxidant capacity of adolescent athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsohn, Anja; Rohn, Sascha; Bittmann, Frank; Raila, Jens; Mayer, Frank; Schweigert, Florian J

    2008-01-01

    The reactive oxygen species produced as a result of exercise might exceed an individual's antioxidant defence system. Various endogenous antioxidants are elevated in adult athletes, resulting in an improved antioxidant capacity. However, little is known about antioxidant defence in adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine presumed adaptations of antioxidant capacity in exercising adolescents. Trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), uric acid and nutritional antioxidants were measured in the plasma of 91 male and 98 female athletes (mean age 15.9 +/- 2.0 years) and compared to those of 18 male and 22 female sedentary controls (mean age 16.3 +/- 2.1 years). Antioxidant intake was calculated using 4-day dietary records. Neither male nor female athletes showed differences in alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene or ascorbate intake compared to controls. Plasma levels of alpha-tocopherol and carotenoids in athletes and controls did not differ either. Nevertheless, athletes of both sexes had higher TEAC values than their respective controls (male athletes 1.48 +/- 0.22 mmol/l vs. male controls 1.23 +/- 0.19 mmol/l, female athletes 1.47 +/- 0.20 mmol/l vs. female controls 1.15 +/- 0.04 mmol/l, p antioxidant capacity in adolescent athletes, independently of their dietary antioxidant intake, which indicates activity-related adaptations. 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel

  6. Myocardial oxygen consumption at rest and during submaximal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    2008-11-26

    Nov 26, 2008 ... Department of Physiology, JSS Medical College, Constituent College of JSS University, Mysore – 570015, ... determine the effect of increased adiposity on myocardial oxygen consumption at rest and during submaximal exercise in ... during exercise suggesting higher hemodynamic stress to the heart.

  7. Myocardial oxygen consumption at rest and during submaximal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    2008-11-26

    Nov 26, 2008 ... and myocardial fatty acid utilization has been showed to decrease after weight loss from gastric bypass surgery or diet in obese persons (Fei ho et al., 1995,). During submaximal exercise and immediately after exercise, all three groups showed an increase in. RPP. The percentage increase in RPP was.

  8. Transverse strain predicts exercise capacity in systemic right ventricle patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Salvo, Giovanni; Pacileo, Giuseppe; Rea, Alessandra; Limongelli, Giuseppe; Baldini, Luca; D'Andrea, Antonello; D'Alto, Michele; Sarubbi, Berardo; Russo, Maria Giovanna; Calabrò, Raffaele

    2010-11-19

    Because transposition of great arteries (TGA) patients who underwent atrial switch repair (AS) remain asymptomatic for decades before development of symptomatic heart failure, there may be some clinical value to preclinical detection of ventricular dysfunction. Detection of systemic right ventricular (RV) dysfunction in patients who are asymptomatic may prompt early initiation of heart failure therapy and more frequent clinical follow-up. The objective of this study was to characterize longitudinal and transverse systolic function of the systemic RV using two-dimensional (2D) strain in patients with TGA after AS repair and to correlate these parameters with their exercise capacity. The study population consisted of 26 patients (20±6 years) with TGA after AS operation. Conventional echocardiography and bidimensional strain were performed on consecutive patients reporting to the out patient congenital heart disease clinic. Twenty-four healthy, age-matched individuals were used as control subjects. Analysis was performed on the non-systemic RVs of the control group. All the studied patients underwent treadmill exercise testing according to the Bruce II protocol. RV longitudinal 2D-strain in controls showed a base to apex gradient, while in patients was homogeneously reduced. Also RV transverse strain (i.e the radial deformation assessed by the apical 4 chamber view) showed a base to apex gradient in controls, while in patients was significantly increased in the mid and apical segments. In the systemic RV free wall, transverse strain was greater than longitudinal strain (pexercise capacity (page, degree of tricuspid regurgitation, TAPSE, RV area fractional change, RV visually estimated ejection fraction, RV global longitudinal strain and RV global transverse strain) the best predictor of exercise capacity in AS-TGA patients was transverse 2D strain (pexercise capacity of these patients. In the follow up of AS-TGA patients the monitoring of RV transverse myocardial

  9. Chronic exercise keeps working memory and inhibitory capacities fit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concepción ePadilla

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Padilla et al. (2013 recently showed that chronic aerobic exercise in young adults is associated with better inhibitory control as measured by the strategic Stop Signal Task (SST. The aim of the current study was to explore whether better inhibitory abilities, associated with high levels of physical fitness, were also associated with higher working memory capacity (WMC in young healthy adults. Participants aged between 18 and 30 years and showing different levels of fitness confirmed by the Rockport 1-mile walking fitness test took part in this study. Active and passive participants were administered the SST to measure inhibitory control, and the Automatic Operation Span to measure verbal WMC. We first replicated Padilla et al.’s results showing that exercise specifically modulates strategic inhibitory processes. Our results also showed that active participants presented with better WMC than sedentary ones, showing a better capacity to manage simultaneously two verbal tasks and to inhibit interference. The results point to an association between chronic exercise, inhibitory abilities and WMC. The theoretical relationship between these variables will be discussed.

  10. Chronic exercise keeps working memory and inhibitory capacities fit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Concepción; Pérez, Laura; Andrés, Pilar

    2014-01-01

    Padilla et al. (2013) recently showed that chronic aerobic exercise in young adults is associated with better inhibitory control as measured by the strategic Stop Signal Task (SST). The aim of the current study was to explore whether better inhibitory abilities, associated with high levels of physical fitness, were also associated with higher working memory capacity (WMC) in young healthy adults. Participants aged between 18 and 30 years and showing different levels of fitness confirmed by the Rockport 1-mile walking fitness test took part in this study. Active and passive participants were administered the SST to measure inhibitory control, and the Automatic Operation Span (AOSPAN) to measure verbal WMC. We first replicated Padilla et al.'s results showing that exercise specifically modulates strategic inhibitory processes. Our results also showed that active participants presented with better WMC than sedentary ones, showing a better capacity to manage simultaneously two verbal tasks and to inhibit interference. The results point to an association between chronic exercise, inhibitory abilities, and WMC. The theoretical relationship between these variables will be discussed.

  11. Cardiopulmonary Exercise Capacity and Preoperative Markers of Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pervez Sultan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Explanatory mechanisms for the association between poor exercise capacity and infections following surgery are underexplored. We hypothesized that aerobic fitness—assessed by cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET—would be associated with circulating inflammatory markers, as quantified by the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR and monocyte subsets. The association between cardiopulmonary reserve and inflammation was tested by multivariable regression analysis with covariates including anaerobic threshold (AT and malignancy. In a first cohort of 240 colorectal patients, AT was identified as the sole factor associated with higher NLR (P=0.03 and absolute and relative lymphopenia (P=0.01. Preoperative leukocyte subsets and monocyte CD14+ expression (downregulated by endotoxin and indicative of chronic inflammation were also assessed in two further cohorts of age-matched elective gastrointestinal and orthopaedic surgical patients. Monocyte CD14+ expression was lower in gastrointestinal patients (n=43 compared to age-matched orthopaedic patients (n=31. The circulating CD14+CD16− monocyte subset was reduced in patients with low cardiopulmonary reserve. Poor exercise capacity in patients without a diagnosis of heart failure is independently associated with markers of inflammation. These observations suggest that preoperative inflammation associated with impaired cardiorespiratory performance may contribute to the pathophysiology of postoperative outcome.

  12. Exercise capacity assessment in patients undergoing lung resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobbio, Antonio; Chetta, Alfredo; Internullo, Eveline; Ampollini, Luca; Carbognani, Paolo; Bettati, Stefano; Rusca, Michele; Olivieri, Dario

    2009-03-01

    The value is examined of preoperative functional assessment, including exercise capacity measurement by a cycloergometric maximal exercise test, in the prediction of postoperative cardio-pulmonary complication after lobar resection. In a prospective study over a 3-year period, all patients who were candidates for lung resection underwent preoperative functional evaluation by means of resting pulmonary function tests, measurement of the lung diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide and cardio-pulmonary exercise test. Patients who had had pneumonectomy or less than anatomical segmentectomy were excluded. The study population consisted of 73 patients. The postoperative morbidity and mortality record was collected. Sixty-four patients underwent lobectomy, five bilobectomy and four segmentectomy. Indication for surgery was NSCLC in 71 cases. Two postoperative deaths were recorded (2.7%). A pulmonary (n=19) and/or cardiac (n=17) complication was scored in 30 patients (41%). Mean preoperative FEV(1) and VO(2)max of patients who developed pulmonary complications were significantly lower (p=0.013 and p=0.043 respectively) than those of patients without pulmonary complications. Logistic regression analysis found FEV(1) to be an independent factor in pulmonary complication (p=0.002). With regard to pulmonary complication occurrence, the receiver operating characteristic curve showed an area of 0.69 with VO(2)max expressed in ml/kg min and of 0.62 when VO(2)max was expressed as a percentage of the predicted value. The widest point of the curve was found at a VO(2)max value of 18.7 ml/kg min. Six out of the 14 patients (43%) with a preoperative VO(2)max equal to or lower than 15 ml/kg min had a pulmonary complication. No functional preoperative identifiers were found for the 16 patients who presented with postoperative new onset atrial fibrillation. The mean preoperative value of carbon monoxide lung diffusing capacity was significantly lower (p=0.037) in the 30 patients who had

  13. The Paroxetine Effect on Exercise Performance Depends on the Aerobic Capacity of Exercising Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Teixeira-Coelho, João Paulo Uendeles-Pinto, Ana Cláudia Alves Serafim, Samuel Penna Wanner, Márcio de Matos Coelho, Danusa Dias Soares

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the influence of aerobic capacity on the activation of the central serotonergic system and exercise fatigue in young men that ingested a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and were then subjected to moderate-intensity physical exercise. The maximal oxygen consumption of sixteen volunteers was measured during an incremental test. The volunteers were divided into two groups: subjects with higher (HAC and lower (LAC aerobic capacities. The volunteers were subjected to four experimental trials in which they ingested either placebo or paroxetine (10, 20 or 40 mg and, 4.5 h later, cycled at 60% of their maximal power output until reaching fatigue. None of the three paroxetine doses influenced the total exercise time in the LAC group. However, for the HAC group, the time to fatigue in the 20 mg paroxetine condition was 15% less than that in the placebo condition (76.3 ± 5.1 min vs. 90.0 ± 7.9 min; p < 0.05. The time to fatigue was higher in the HAC group than in the LAC group for all treatments. Our results provide additional evidence that aerobic capacity modulates the activity of the serotonergic system. However, contrary to what would be expected considering previous reports, the activation of the serotonergic system in exercising subjects in the HAC group was not less than that in the LAC group.

  14. Efeitos cardiovasculares da abstinência do fumo no repouso e durante o exercício submáximo em mulheres jovens fumantes Cardiovascular effects of smoking abstinence at rest and during submaximal exercise in young female smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demilto Yamaguchi da Pureza

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O objetivo do presente estudo foi verificar o efeito da abstinência do fumo nas respostas cardiovasculares ao exercício físico progressivo submáximo em mulheres sedentárias fumantes. MÉTODOS: A pressão arterial sistólica (PAS e diastólica (PAD e a freqüência cardíaca (FC foram medidas de forma não invasiva em mulheres jovens não fumantes (MNF, n = 7 e fumantes (MF, n = 7, sem e com abstinência do fumo por 24 horas, em repouso, durante a realização do teste submáximo em bicicleta ergométrica e na recuperação. RESULTADOS: Em repouso, a PAD e a FC foram maiores nas MF (76 ± 1mmHg e 86 ± 5bpm quando comparadas com as MNF (68 ± 2mmHg e 72 ± 2bpm. Após 24 horas sem o tabaco essas medidas foram normalizadas. Durante o exercício, a PAS e a FC aumentaram nos grupos estudados. A PAD foi maior nas MF (~15% em relação às MNF em todos os estágios do exercício. Na situação de abstinência, a PAD aumentou somente no último estágio de exercício. Na recuperação tanto a PAD quanto a FC foram maiores nas MF, na situação basal e com abstinência de 24h, quando comparadas as MNF. CONCLUSÃO: Estes resultados demonstram que mulheres jovens fumantes apresentam prejuízo em parâmetros hemodinâmicos em repouso e em resposta ao exercício submáximo, os quais, podem ser em parte revertidos pela abstinência em curto prazo do uso do tabaco.OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study was to verify the effect of tobacco smoking abstinence on cardiovascular responses to progressive submaximal physical exercise in sedentary female smokers. METHODS: Systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP and heart rate (HR were non-invasively measured in young non-smoking women (NSW, n = 7 and smoking women (SW, n = 7, with and without tobacco abstinence for 24 hours, at rest, during the accomplishment of a submaximal bicycle ergometric test and recovery period. RESULTS: At rest, DBP and HR were higher in the SW group

  15. Physical exercises, functional capacity and depressive symptoms in Brazilian elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Manuela Crispim Nascimento

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of our study was to investigate the effects of 16 weeks of multimodal exercise on functional capacity components, general functional fitness and depressive symptoms in the elderly. Fifty-five elderly (67.3 ± 5.8 years participated inthe study. The groups were distributed according to the participation on the proposed protocol: a trained group (TG composed of 27 participants who attended at least 75% of the total generalized physical exercise sessions for16 weeks; and b control group (CG, participants who did not attend any regular physical activity program. Functional capacity was assessed using theAAHPERD battery of motor tests for elderly, which consists of five tests: coordination, flexibility, muscular resistance, agility/dynamic balance, and overall aerobic endurance. Depressive symptoms were measured using the short version of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15. The results showed that elderly on TG had better performance on motor tests. Depressive symptoms did not change for both groups. Thus, our results indicate that 16 weeks is sufficient to improve general functional fitness in elderly, while those who remain sedentary tend to decrease their overall physical fitness. The proposed program could not induce significant changes in the elderly with low levels ofdepressive symptoms reported for this variable. The evidence of this study allows the prediction that a generalized program can help prevent chronic diseases, reduce functional decline and produce positive effects on quality oflife.

  16. Exercise capacity and mortality - a follow-up study of 3033 subjects referred to clinical exercise testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korpelainen, Raija; Lämsä, Jenni; Kaikkonen, Kaisu M; Korpelainen, Juha; Laukkanen, Jari; Palatsi, Ilkka; Takala, Timo E; Ikäheimo, Tiina M; Hautala, Arto J

    2016-08-01

    Exercise stress testing is used as a diagnostic and prognostic tool. We determined the prognostic significance of exercise test findings for cardiovascular (CVD) and all-cause mortality in men and women. 3033 subjects underwent a symptom-limited bicycle exercise test. Exercise capacity was defined as the mean of last four minutes of exercise workload. During an average follow-up of 19 years, 186 (11.6%) CVD and 370 (20.6%) all-cause deaths in men and 57 (5.0%) CVD and 155 (12.5%) all-cause deaths in women occurred. Among exercise test variables (workload, ECG, BP, HR), exercise capacity was the strongest predictor of mortality. Low exercise capacity (1st quartile) was associated with a hazard ratio of 4.2 (95% CI: 1.7, 10.8) for CVD and 4.0 (95% CI: 2.5, 6.4) for all-cause mortality compared with high exercise capacity (4th quartile) among men and in women with a 5.4-fold (95% CI: 1.2, 24.0) risk for CVD and 2.3-fold (95% CI: 1.2, 4.3) risk for all-cause mortality, respectively. The relationship between other exercise test variables and mortality was much weaker. Among exercise test variables exercise capacity was the strongest predictor of CVD and all-cause mortality in both genders, and especially CVD deaths in women. Key Messages Exercise capacity was the most powerful predictor of CVD and all-cause mortality in both men and women. Low exercise capacity is a strong predictor of CVD death, especially among women.

  17. Can endurance training improve physical capacity and quality of life in young Fontan patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedlund, Eva R; Lundell, Bo; Söderström, Liselott; Sjöberg, Gunnar

    2017-12-14

    Children after Fontan palliation have reduced exercise capacity and quality of life. Our aim was to study whether endurance training could improve physical capacity and quality of life in Fontan patients. Fontan patients (n=30) and healthy age- and gender-matched control subjects (n=25) performed a 6-minute walk test at submaximal capacity and a maximal cycle ergometer test. Quality of life was assessed with Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory Version 4.0 questionnaires for children and parents. All tests were repeated after a 12-week endurance training programme and after 1 year. Patients had decreased submaximal and maximal exercise capacity (maximal oxygen uptake 35.0±5.1 ml/minute per·kg versus 43.7±8.4 ml/minute·per·kg, ptraining, patients improved their submaximal exercise capacity in a 6-minute walk test (from 590.7±65.5 m to 611.8±70.9 m, ptraining. At follow-up, improvement of maximal exercise capacity was sustained. We believe that an individualised endurance training programme for Fontan patients improves submaximal exercise capacity and quality of life in Fontan patients and the effect on quality of life appears to be long-lasting.

  18. Systematic analysis of adaptations in aerobic capacity and submaximal energy metabolism provides a unique insight into determinants of human aerobic performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vollaard, Niels B J; Constantin-Teodosiu, Dimitru; Fredriksson, Katarina

    2009-01-01

    It has not been established which physiological processes contribute to endurance training-related changes (Delta) in aerobic performance. For example, the relationship between intramuscular metabolic responses at the intensity used during training and improved human functional capacity has...... Deltalactate (r(2) = 0.32; P humans are not related to altered maximal oxygen transport capacity. Altered muscle metabolism may provide the link between training...

  19. Four weeks of speed endurance training reduces energy expenditure during exercise and maintains muscle oxidative capacity despite a reduction in training volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iaia, F. Marcello; Hellsten, Ylva; Nielsen, Jens Jung

    2009-01-01

    We studied the effect of an alteration from regular endurance to speed endurance training on muscle oxidative capacity, capillarization, as well as energy expenditure during submaximal exercise and its relationship to mitochondrial uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) in humans. Seventeen endurance-trained...... runners were assigned to either a speed endurance training (SET; n = 9) or a control (Con; n = 8) group. For a 4-wk intervention (IT) period, SET replaced the ordinary training ( approximately 45 km/wk) with frequent high-intensity sessions each consisting of 8-12 30-s sprint runs separated by 3 min...... of rest (5.7 +/- 0.1 km/wk) with additional 9.9 +/- 0.3 km/wk at low running speed, whereas Con continued the endurance training. After the IT period, oxygen uptake was 6.6, 7.6, 5.7, and 6.4% lower (P

  20. Cigarette Smoking Decreases Dynamic Inspiratory Capacity during Maximal Exercise in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Kitahara, Yoshihiro; Hattori, Noboru; Yokoyama, Akihito; Yamane, Kiminori; Sekikawa, Kiyokazu; Inamizu, Tsutomu; Kohno, Nobuoki

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the influence of cigarette smoking on exercise capacity, respiratory responses and dynamic changes in lung volume during exercise in patients with type 2 diabetes. Forty-one men with type 2 diabetes without cardiopulmonary disease were recruited and divided into 28 non-current smokers and 13 current smokers. All subjects received lung function tests and cardiopulmonary exercise testing using tracings of the flow-volume loop. Exercise capacity was compared using the percenta...

  1. Effects of oral contraceptives on peak exercise capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casazza, Gretchen A; Suh, Sang-Hoon; Miller, Benjamin F; Navazio, Franco M; Brooks, George A

    2002-11-01

    We examined the effects of menstrual cycle phase and oral contraceptive (OC) use on peak oxygen consumption (VO(2 peak)). Six moderately active, eumenorrheic women (25.5 +/- 1.5 yr) were studied before and after 4 mo of OC. Subjects were tested during the follicular and luteal phases before OC and the inactive and high-dose phases after OC. Before OC, there were no significant differences between the follicular and luteal phases in any of the variables studied. There were also no differences between the inactive and high-dose phases. Dietary composition, exercise patterns, and peak heart rate, minute ventilation, and respiratory exchange ratio did not change with OC use. However, OC use significantly (P VO(2 peak) (-11%, 2.53 +/- 0.21 to 2.25 +/- 0.18 l/min). In conclusion, 1) endogenous ovarian steroids have little effect on VO(2 peak), but 2) the exogenous ovarian steroids in OC decrease peak exercise capacity in moderately physically active young women.

  2. Enhancement of exercise endurance capacity by fermented deer antler in BALB/c mice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jang, Seongho; Park, Eu Ddeum; Suh, Hyung Joo; Lee, Sang Hun; Kim, Jin Soo; Park, Yooheon

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the activity of fermented deer antler on exercise endurance capacity, we evaluated endurance capacity in five-week-old male BALB/c mice by administering the fermented deer antler extract (FA...

  3. Myocardial oxygen consumption at rest and during submaximal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Overweight and obesity are major risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of increased adiposity on myocardial oxygen consumption at rest and during submaximal exercise in young adults. The study consisted of 85 young adults (18-22years) grouped into 3 based on ...

  4. Influence of menstrual phase on ventilatory response to submaximal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. To determine whether an increase in respiratory drive, due to elevated progesterone and oestrogen concentration during various menstrual phases, persists throughout prolonged submaximal exercise and potentially contributes to fatigue. Furthermore, to determine whether the difference in the ventilatory ...

  5. Long-term effects of a very low-carbohydrate weight loss diet on exercise capacity and tolerance in overweight and obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wycherley, Thomas P; Buckley, Jonathan D; Noakes, Manny; Clifton, Peter M; Brinkworth, Grant D

    2014-01-01

    Compare the long-term effects of an energy-restricted very low-carbohydrate, high-fat (LC) diet with an isocaloric high-carbohydrate, low-fat (HC) diet on exercise tolerance and capacity in overweight and obese adults. Seventy-six adults (25 males; age 49.2 ± 1.1 years; BMI 33.6 ± 0.5 kg/m(2)) were randomized to either a hypocaloric (6-7 MJ/day) LC diet (35% protein, 4% carbohydrate, 61% fat) or isocaloric HC diet (24% protein, 46% carbohydrate, 30% fat) for 52 weeks. Pre- and postintervention, participants' body weight and composition, handgrip, and isometric knee extensor strength were assessed and participants performed an incremental exercise test to exhaustion. Forty-three participants completed the study (LC = 23; HC = 20). Overall, peak relative oxygen uptake increased (+11.3%) and reductions occurred in body weight (-14.6%), body fat percentage (-6.9% [absolute]), isometric knee extensor strength (-12.4%), handgrip strength (-4.5%), and absolute peak oxygen uptake (-5.2%; p ≤ 0.02 time for all) with no diet effect (p ≥ 0.18). During submaximal exercise, rating of perceived exertion did not change in either group (p = 0.16 time, p = 0.59 Time × Group). Compared to the HC diet, the LC diet had greater reductions in respiratory exchange ratio (LC -0.04 ± 0.01, HC -0.00 ± 0.01; p = 0.03), and increased fat oxidation (LC 15.0 ± 5.3% [of energy expenditure], HC 0.5 ± 3.9%; p = 0.04). In overweight and obese patients, an LC diet promoted greater fat utilization during submaximal exercise. Both an LC diet and an HC diet had similar effects on aerobic capacity and muscle strength, suggesting that long-term consumption of an LC weight loss diet does not adversely affect physical function or the ability to perform exercise.

  6. Aerobic and anaerobic exercise capacity in adolescents with juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lelieveld, Otto; van Brussel, Marco; Takken, Tim; van Weert, Ellen; van Leeuwen, Miek A.; Armbrust, Wineke

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the aerobic and anaerobic exercise capacity in adolescents with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) compared with age- and sex-matched healthy individuals, and to assess associations between disease-related variables and aerobic and anaerobic exercise capacity. METHODS: Of 25

  7. Aerobic and anaerobic exercise capacity in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Brussel, Marco; Lelieveld, O T H M; van der Net, J; Engelbert, R H H; Helders, P J M; Takken, T

    2007-01-01

    Objective. To compare the aerobic and anaerobic exercise capacity of children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) with healthy controls, to determine if there were differences based on disease onset type, and to examine the relationship between aerobic and anaerobic exercise capacity in

  8. Therapeutic validity and effectiveness of supervised physical exercise training on exercise capacity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vooijs, M.; Siemonsma, P.C.; Heus, I.; Sont, J.K.; Rövekamp, T.A.; Meeteren, N.L. van

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Our aim was to determine the effectiveness of supervised physical exercise training on exercise capacity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease taken into consideration indices such as therapeutic validity of interventions, methodological quality of studies, and exercise

  9. Prognostic capacity of a clinically indicated exercise test for cardiovascular mortality is enhanced by combined analysis of exercise capacity, heart rate recovery and T-wave alternans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkkinen, Mikko; Nieminen, Tuomo; Verrier, Richard L; Leino, Johanna; Lehtimäki, Terho; Viik, Jari; Lehtinen, Rami; Nikus, Kjell; Kööbi, Tiit; Turjanmaa, Väinö; Kähönen, Mika

    2015-09-01

    Exercise capacity, heart rate recovery and T-wave alternans are independent predictors of cardiovascular mortality. We tested whether these parameters contain supplementary prognostic information. A total of 3609 consecutive patients (2157 men) referred for a routine, clinically indicated bicycle exercise test were enrolled in the Finnish Cardiovascular Study (FINCAVAS). Exercise capacity was measured in metabolic equivalents, heart rate recovery as the decrease in heart rate from maximum to one minute post-exercise, and T-wave alternans by time-domain Modified Moving Average method. During 57-month median follow-up (interquartile range 35-78 months), 96 patients died of cardiovascular causes (primary endpoint) and 233 from any cause. All three parameters were independent predictors of cardiovascular mortality when analysed as continuous variables. Adding metabolic equivalents (p cardiovascular mortality. The combination of low exercise capacity (cardiovascular mortality of 16.5 (95% confidence interval 4.0-67.7, p cardiovascular mortality with previously defined cutpoints (exercise test is enhanced by combined analysis of exercise capacity, heart rate recovery and T-wave alternans. © The European Society of Cardiology 2014.

  10. SPORT EXERCISE CAPACITY OF SOCCER PLAYERS AT DIFFERENT LEVELS OF PERFORMANCE

    OpenAIRE

    Marcin Andrzejewski; Jan Chmura; Tomasz Dybek; Beata Pluta

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study is to compare the level of exercise capacities to the loads occurring at the lactate threshold among soccer players representing different levels of sport mastery. The research included 51 soccer players representing different levels of sport mastery. The research was conducted at the beginning of the preparatory period for the spring season. A field exercise test of increasing intensity was performed to check the players’ exercise capacities on the soccer pitch. The test...

  11. Addition of atropine to submaximal exercise stress testing in patients evaluated for suspected ischaemia with SPECT imaging: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manganelli, Fiore; Sauro, Rosario; Di Lorenzo, Emilio; Rosato, Giuseppe [San Giuseppe Moscati Hospital, Department of Cardiology and Heart Surgery, Avellino (Italy); Spadafora, Marco; Varrella, Paola; Peluso, Giuseppina [San Giuseppe Moscati Hospital, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Avellino (Italy); Daniele, Stefania [Institute of Diagnostic and Nuclear Development (SDN), Naples (Italy); Cuocolo, Alberto [Institute of Diagnostic and Nuclear Development (SDN), Naples (Italy); University Federico II, Department of Biomorphological and Functional Sciences, Naples (Italy); National Council of Research, Institute of Biostructures and Bioimages, Naples (Italy)

    2011-02-15

    To evaluate the effects of the addition of atropine to exercise testing in patients who failed to achieve their target heart rate (HR) during stress myocardial perfusion imaging with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The study was a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled design. Patients with suspected or known coronary artery disease who failed to achieve a target HR ({>=}85% of maximal predicted HR) during exercise SPECT imaging were randomized to receive intravenous atropine (n = 100) or placebo (n = 101). The two groups of patients did not differ with respect to demographic or clinical characteristics. A higher proportion of patients in the atropine group achieved the target HR compared to the placebo group (60% versus 3%, p < 0.0001). SPECT imaging was abnormal in a higher proportion of patients in the atropine group as compared to the placebo group (57% versus 42%, p < 0.05). Stress-induced myocardial ischaemia was present in more patients in the atropine group as compared to placebo (47% versus 29%, p < 0.01). In both groups of patients, no major side effects occurred. The addition of atropine at the end of exercise testing is more effective than placebo in raising HR to adequate levels, without additional risks of complications. The use of atropine in patients who initially failed to achieve their maximal predicted HR is associated with a higher probability of achieving a diagnostic myocardial perfusion study. (orig.)

  12. Muscular and pulmonary O2 uptake kinetics during moderate- and high-intensity sub-maximal knee-extensor exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krustrup, Peter; Jones, Andrew M.; Wilkerson, Daryl P.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the contribution of muscle O2 consumption (m O2) to pulmonary O2 uptake (p O2) during both low-intensity (LI) and high-intensity (HI) knee extension exercise, and during subsequent recovery, in humans. Seven healthy male subjects (age 20-25 years...... kinetics for LI (30 +/- 3 vs. 30 +/- 3 s) but was slightly higher (Pintensities. In recovery, agreement between the responses was more limited both for LI (36 +/- 4 vs. 18 +/- 4 s, P

  13. Effects of Exercise Training on Exercise Capacity in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension: A Systematic Review of Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Abraham Samuel; Padmakumar, Ramachandran; Maiya, Arun G; Mohapatra, Aswini Kumar; Kamath, R L

    2016-04-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) causes profound functional limitations and poor quality of life. Yet, there is only a limited literature available on the role of exercise training. This paper systematically reviews the effects of exercise training on exercise capacity in PAH. A systematic search of databases (PubMed, CINAHL, CENTRAL, Web of Science and PEDRo) was undertaken for English language articles published between 1(st) January 1980 and 31(st) March 2015. Quality rating for all articles was done using the Downs and Black scoring system. Fifteen articles of good (n=4), moderate (n=6) and poor (n=5) quality were included in the review. Exercise interventions included aerobic, resistance, inspiratory muscle training or a combination, for 6-18 weeks. Improvements were seen in exercise capacity (six minute walk distance (6MWD) and peak VO2) by 17-96m and 1.1-2.1ml/Kg/min, functional class by one class and quality of life, with minimal adverse events. There is evidence to recommend the use of exercise training as an adjunct to medical treatment in PAH. More clinical trials and research are required to assess the effects of different types of exercise programs in patients with PAH, while focussing on strong exercise endpoints to quantify the improvements seen with exercise training. Copyright © 2015 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. CETP Expression Protects Female Mice from Obesity-Induced Decline in Exercise Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappel, David A; Lantier, Louise; Palmisano, Brian T; Wasserman, David H; Stafford, John M

    2015-01-01

    Pharmacological approaches to reduce obesity have not resulted in dramatic reductions in the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Exercise, in contrast, reduces CHD risk even in the setting of obesity. Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein (CETP) is a lipid transfer protein that shuttles lipids between serum lipoproteins and tissues. There are sexual-dimorphisms in the effects of CETP in humans. Mice naturally lack CETP, but we previously reported that transgenic expression of CETP increases muscle glycolysis in fasting and protects against insulin resistance with high-fat diet (HFD) feeding in female but not male mice. Since glycolysis provides an important energy source for working muscle, we aimed to define if CETP expression protects against the decline in exercise capacity associated with obesity. We measured exercise capacity in female mice that were fed a chow diet and then switched to a HFD. There was no difference in exercise capacity between lean, chow-fed CETP female mice and their non-transgenic littermates. Female CETP transgenic mice were relatively protected against the decline in exercise capacity caused by obesity compared to WT. Despite gaining similar fat mass after 6 weeks of HFD-feeding, female CETP mice showed a nearly two-fold increase in run distance compared to WT. After an additional 6 weeks of HFD-feeding, mice were subjected to a final exercise bout and muscle mitochondria were isolated. We found that improved exercise capacity in CETP mice corresponded with increased muscle mitochondrial oxidative capacity, and increased expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α). These results suggest that CETP can protect against the obesity-induced impairment in exercise capacity and may be a target to improve exercise capacity in the context of obesity.

  15. Assessment of Pulmonary Capillary Blood Volume, Membrane Diffusing Capacity, and Intrapulmonary Arteriovenous Anastomoses During Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedjasaputra, Vincent; van Diepen, Sean; Collins, Sophie É; Michaelchuk, Wade M; Stickland, Michael K

    2017-02-20

    Exercise is a stress to the pulmonary vasculature. With incremental exercise, the pulmonary diffusing capacity (DLCO) must increase to meet the increased oxygen demand; otherwise, a diffusion limitation may occur. The increase in DLCO with exercise is due to increased capillary blood volume (Vc) and membrane diffusing capacity (Dm). Vc and Dm increase secondary to the recruitment and distension of pulmonary capillaries, increasing the surface area for gas exchange and decreasing pulmonary vascular resistance, thereby attenuating the increase in pulmonary arterial pressure. At the same time, the recruitment of intrapulmonary arteriovenous anastomoses (IPAVA) during exercise may contribute to gas exchange impairment and/or prevent large increases in pulmonary artery pressure. We describe two techniques to evaluate pulmonary diffusion and circulation at rest and during exercise. The first technique uses multiple-fraction of inspired oxygen (FIO2) DLCO breath holds to determine Vc and Dm at rest and during exercise. Additionally, echocardiography with intravenous agitated saline contrast is used to assess IPAVAs recruitment. Representative data showed that the DLCO, Vc, and Dm increased with exercise intensity. Echocardiographic data showed no IPAVA recruitment at rest, while contrast bubbles were seen in the left ventricle with exercise, suggesting exercise-induced IPAVA recruitment. The evaluation of pulmonary capillary blood volume, membrane diffusing capacity, and IPAVA recruitment using echocardiographic methods is useful to characterize the ability of the lung vasculature to adapt to the stress of exercise in health as well as in diseased groups, such as those with pulmonary arterial hypertension and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  16. Carbohydrate ingestion and pre-cooling improves exercise capacity following soccer-specific intermittent exercise performed in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, N D; Maclaren, D P M; Reilly, T; Drust, B

    2011-07-01

    Ingestion of carbohydrate and reducing core body temperature pre-exercise, either separately or combined, may have ergogenic effects during prolonged intermittent exercise in hot conditions. The aim of this investigation was to examine the effect of carbohydrate ingestion and pre-cooling on the physiological responses to soccer-specific intermittent exercise and the impact on subsequent high-intensity exercise performance in the heat. Twelve male soccer players performed a soccer-specific intermittent protocol for 90 min in the heat (30.5°C and 42.2% r.h.) on four occasions. On two occasions, the participants underwent a pre-cooling manoeuvre. During these sessions either a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution (CHOc) or a placebo was consumed at (PLAc). During the remaining sessions either the carbohydrate-electrolyte solution (CHO) or placebo (PLA) was consumed. At 15-min intervals throughout the protocol participants performed a mental concentration test. Following the soccer-specific protocol participants performed a self-chosen pace test and a test of high-intensity exercise capacity. The period of pre-cooling significantly reduced core temperature, muscle temperature and thermal sensation (P carbohydrate during exercise enhances exercise capacity and helps maintain mental performance during intermittent exercise in hot conditions.

  17. Submaximal arm crank ergometry : Effects of crank axis positioning on mechanical efficiency, physiological strain and perceived discomfort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Drongelen, S; Maas, J C; Scheel-Sailer, A; Van Der Woude, L H V

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of the spatial orientation of the crank axis on mechanical efficiency, physiological strain and perceived discomfort in submaximal synchronous arm crank ergometry. METHODS: Twelve able-bodied individuals performed 12 submaximal exercise bouts of 3 minutes (women: 20

  18. Do supervised weekly exercise programs maintain functional exercise capacity and quality of life, twelve months after pulmonary rehabilitation in COPD?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Jennifer A

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pulmonary rehabilitation programs have been shown to increase functional exercise capacity and quality of life in COPD patients. However, following the completion of pulmonary rehabilitation the benefits begin to decline unless the program is of longer duration or ongoing maintenance exercise is followed. Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine if supervised, weekly, hospital-based exercise compared to home exercise will maintain the benefits gained from an eight-week pulmonary rehabilitation program in COPD subjects to twelve months. Methods Following completion of an eight-week pulmonary rehabilitation program, COPD subjects will be recruited and randomised (using concealed allocation in numbered envelopes into either the maintenance exercise group (supervised, weekly, hospital-based exercise or the control group (unsupervised home exercise and followed for twelve months. Measurements will be taken at baseline (post an eight-week pulmonary rehabilitation program, three, six and twelve months. The exercise measurements will include two six-minute walk tests, two incremental shuttle walk tests, and two endurance shuttle walk tests. Oxygen saturation, heart rate and dyspnoea will be monitored during all these tests. Quality of life will be measured using the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Participants will be excluded if they require supplemental oxygen or have neurological or musculoskeletal co-morbidities that will prevent them from exercising independently. Discussion Pulmonary rehabilitation plays an important part in the management of COPD and the results from this study will help determine if supervised, weekly, hospital-based exercise can successfully maintain functional exercise capacity and quality of life following an eight-week pulmonary rehabilitation program in COPD subjects in Australia.

  19. Different determinants of exercise capacity in HFpEF compared to HFrEF

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arlind Batalli; Pranvera Ibrahimi; Ibadete Bytyci; Artan Ahmeti; Edmond Haliti; Shpend Elezi; Michael Y Henein; Gani Bajraktari

    2017-01-01

    Background Quality of life is as important as survival in heart failure (HF) patients. Controversies exist with regards to echocardiographic determinants of exercise capacity in HF, particularly in patients with preserved ejection fraction...

  20. The sustainability of exercise capacity changes in home versus center-based cardiac rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadi, Ailar; Haennel, Robert G; Stone, James A; Arena, Ross; Threlfall, Tyler G; Hitt, Elizabeth; Aggarwal, Sandeep G; Haykowsky, Mark; Martin, Billie-Jean

    2015-01-01

    Although participation in either center- or home-based cardiac rehabilitation (CR) can improve exercise capacity, the sustainability of this improvement following completion of the CR program is challenging. The purpose of this study was to compare the immediate and 1-year effectiveness of center- versus home-based CR on exercise capacity in cardiac patients who were given the choice of participating in a center-based or home-based CR program. This was a retrospective study, which relied on the database from a large multidisciplinary CR program. A sample of 3488 cardiac patients participated either in center-based (n = 2803) or home-based (n = 685) CR. Participants underwent exercise testing at baseline, after 12 weeks of CR and again 1 year after completion of the CR programs. Following CR, exercise capacity (ie, peak metabolic equivalents [METs]) increased significantly in both groups (P < .05). From post-CR to the 1-year followup, exercise capacity remained unchanged in home-based CR participants (P = .183), whereas the center-based CR group demonstrated a decline in exercise capacity (P < .05). Although at the 1-year followup exercise capacity decreased in the center-based group, the observed decline did not seem to be clinically significant. The present findings indicate that when the patients were given a choice as to the delivery model (center- vs home-based) used for their CR program, they were relatively successful in retaining the improvement in exercise capacity 1 year post-CR irrespective of the exact location for their exercise training.

  1. The AMPK activator R419 improves exercise capacity and skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity in obese mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Marcinko

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions: Treatment of obese mice with R419 improved skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity through a mechanism that is independent of skeletal muscle AMPK. R419 also increases exercise capacity and improves mitochondrial function in obese WT mice; effects that are diminished in the absence of skeletal muscle AMPK. These findings suggest that R419 may be a promising therapy for improving whole-body glucose homeostasis and exercise capacity.

  2. Preliminary Study of Exercise Capacity in Post-acute Stroke Survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    June-Kai Chen

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and exercise capacity of cycle ergometry exercise testing and exercise performance in patients with post-acute stroke. Nineteen male patients (mean age, 62.7 ± 9.2 years with a post stroke interval of 9.9 ± 2.0 days underwent symptom- limited cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Peak exercise capacity was measured by open-circuit spirometry during standard upright ergometer cycling. The mean peak oxygen uptake was 11.8 mL/kg/min, peak heart rate with age-predicted maximal heart rate was 67.9 ± 3.4%, and peak oxygen pulse was 7.5 mL/beat. The anaerobic threshold was achieved with a mean peak oxygen uptake of 73.4%. Mean peak minute ventilation was 42.1 L/min, and ventilatory reserve was 48.1 ± 16.8%. Our findings confirm that cycle ergometry exercise testing is feasible and exercise capacity is compromised in post-acute stroke survivors within 2 weeks after stroke. Respiratory impairments do not appear to contribute to the reduced exercise capacity post stroke.

  3. Echinochrome A Improves Exercise Capacity during Short-Term Endurance Training in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae Yun Seo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Echinochrome A (Echi A improves mitochondrial function in the heart; however, its effects on skeletal muscle are still unclear. We hypothesized that Echi A administration during short-term exercise may improve exercise capacity. Twenty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into the following groups: control group (CG, Echi A-treated group (EG, aerobic exercise group (AG, and aerobic exercise treated with Echi A group (AEG (n = 6 per group. Echi A was administered intra-peritoneally (0.1 mg/kg of Echi A in 300 µL phosphate-buffered saline daily 30 min before each exercise training. The AG and AEG groups performed treadmill running (20 m/min, 60 min/day five days/week for two weeks. The exercise capacity was significantly higher in the AG and AEG groups compared to other groups. Interestingly, the exercise capacity increased more effectively in the AEG group. The body weight in the EG tended to be slightly lower than that in the other groups. There were no significant changes in the plasma lipids among the groups. However, the gastrocnemius muscle mitochondria content was greater in the EG and AEG groups. These findings show that Echi A administration after short-term endurance training enhances exercise capacity, which was associated with an increase in skeletal muscle mitochondrial content.

  4. Cardiopulmonary exercise capacity, muscle strength, and physical activity in children and adolescents with achondroplasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takken, Tim; van Bergen, Monique W. M.; Sakkers, Ralph J. B.; Helders, Paul J. M.; Engelbert, Raoul H. H.

    2007-01-01

    To study in children with achondroplasia the response to exercise and muscle strength compared with healthy peers and to describe the relation between exercise capacity, anthropometric factors, and physical activity. Patients (7 boys and 10 girls; mean age, 11.8 +/- 3.3 years) with achondroplasia

  5. Exercise capacity and participation of children with a ventricular septal defect.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binkhorst, M.; Belt, T van de; Hoog, M. de; Dijk, Arie van; Schokking, M.; Hopman, M.

    2008-01-01

    Existing data on exercise performance in children with a ventricular septal defect (VSD) are scarce and inconclusive. We aimed to elucidate whether and why exercise capacity and physical activity level are decreased in children with VSD. Children 9 to 17 years of age with a surgically (operated, n =

  6. Effects of Combined Resistance and Endurance Training Versus Resistance Training Alone on Strength, Exercise Capacity, and Quality of Life in Patients With COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambom-Ferraresi, Fabrício; Cebollero, Pilar; Gorostiaga, Esteban M; Hernández, María; Hueto, Javier; Cascante, José; Rezusta, Lourdes; Val, Luis; Anton, María M

    2015-01-01

    To compare the effects of 12-week training periods (2 d·wk) involving resistance training only with the effects of 12-week training periods involving combined resistance (once weekly) and endurance (once weekly) training on strength, endurance performance, and quality of life. Thirty-six patients with moderate-to-severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were randomized to combined training (REG), resistance training alone (RG), or control (CG) groups. Patients were tested for maximal strength of the upper and lower extremities, power output of the lower extremities, maximal (Wmax) and submaximal exercise capacity, performance on a 6-minute walk test (6MWT), and quality of life. REG and RG induced similar maximal strength gains. Muscle power increased 19% (P ≤ .01) and Wmax improved 13% (P training groups. Compared with a twice-weekly resistance training program, the combination of once-weekly resistance and once-weekly endurance training not only produced similar gains in maximal strength, 6MWT performance, and quality of life but also produced improvements in muscle power and endurance performance. These findings may have implications for the prescription of resistance and endurance exercise for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  7. Effect of oral sucrose shortly before exercise on work capacity in McArdle disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, S.T.; Haller, R.G.; Vissing, J.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Oral sucrose (75 g) ingested 40 minutes before exercise improves exercise tolerance in McArdle disease. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether a lower dose of sucrose administered closer in time to exercise could have a similar beneficial effect on exercise capacity in patients with Mc......Ardle disease. DESIGN: Placebo-controlled crossover. SETTING: Neuromuscular Research Unit at the Department of Neurology, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark. PATIENTS: Six patients with biochemically and genetically diagnosed McArdle disease. INTERVENTIONS: On separate days, the patients were tested after...... the intestine and correspondingly higher circulating glucose levels later during exercise. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that 37 g of sucrose ingested shortly before exercise has a marked and prolonged effect on exercise tolerance in patients with McArdle disease. This treatment is more convenient...

  8. Aerobic and anaerobic exercise capacity in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Brussel, M; Lelieveld, O T H M; van der Net, J; Engelbert, R H H; Helders, P J M; Takken, T

    2007-08-15

    To compare the aerobic and anaerobic exercise capacity of children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) with healthy controls, to determine if there were differences based on disease onset type, and to examine the relationship between aerobic and anaerobic exercise capacity in children with JIA. Sixty-two patients with JIA (mean +/- SD age 11.9 +/- 2.2 years, range 6.7-15.9) participated in this study. Aerobic exercise capacity was measured using a cardiopulmonary exercise test. Anaerobic exercise capacity was measured using the Wingate Anaerobic Exercise Test (WAnT). All patients were able to perform the cardiopulmonary exercise test and WAnT without adverse events. On average, the maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2peak)) and VO(2peak/kg) were 69.8% and 74.8%, respectively, of that predicted compared with healthy controls. Mean +/- SD power was 66.7% +/- 37.2% of that predicted compared with healthy children. Mean +/- SD peak power was 65.5% +/- 43.1% of that predicted compared with healthy children. There were significant differences between subgroups of JIA; the oligoarticular-onset group values did not significantly differ from healthy control values; the polyarticular rheumatoid factor positive-onset subgroup had the greatest impairment in both aerobic and anaerobic exercise capacity. The correlations of mean power and peak power with VO(2peak) were r = 0.884 and r = 0.697, respectively (P anaerobic exercise capacity in children with JIA are significantly decreased. The WAnT might be a valuable adjunct to other assessment tools in the followup of patients with JIA.

  9. Relationships between respiratory parameters, exercise capacity and psychosocial factors in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awotidebe, T O; Awopeju, O F; Bisiriyu, L A; Ativie, R N; Oke, K I; Adedoyin, R A; Olusola, O D; Erhabor, G E

    2017-11-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) affects respiratory functioning and psychosocial factors. However, little is known about perceived ability of people with COPD to engage in a regular exercise program. This study assessed respiratory parameters, exercise capacity, psychosocial factors and their relations in people with COPD. This cross-sectional study involved patients with COPD recruited from a Nigerian university teaching hospital. Respiratory parameters including forced expiratory volume in 1sec (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) were assessed by using a spirometer and FEV1/FVC ratio was calculated. Participants were sitting upright in a comfortable chair and wearing a nose clip for measurements. The procedure was performed in accordance with the American Thoracic Society criteria. Exercise capacity was assessed by the 6-min walk test (6MWT). Gait speed was assessed by the distance covered in 6min. Perceived exercise self-efficacy (PESE) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were assessed by exercise self-efficacy and Borg scales, respectively. Data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Alpha level was set at Prespiratory parameters FEV1 (r=0.29; P=0.035), FVC (r=0.32; P=0.045) and FEV1/FVC ratio (r=0.37; P=0.007), and both exercise capacity and PESE were correlated with gait speed (r=0.96, P=0.001 and r=0.57; P=0.042) and RPE (r=0.42, P=0.050 and r=-0.44; P=0.032), but PESE was not correlated with respiratory parameter values (P>0.05). Participants with COPD demonstrated reduced respiratory parameter values and low exercise capacity but moderate PESE. We found significant correlations between exercise capacity and respiratory parameter values, but PESE was correlated with only gait speed and RPE. The study has implications for respiratory health promotion and exercise adherence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Relationship Between Functional Exercise Capacity and Lung Functions in Obese Chidren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özgen, İlker Tolga; Çakır, Erkan; Torun, Emel; Güleş, Alper; Hepokur, Merve Nur; Cesur, Yaşar

    2015-09-01

    Cardiovascular, respiratory and musculoskeletal system disorders which may affect the functional exercise capacity are common in obese patients. We aimed to investigate the functional exercise capacity and its relationship with functional pulmonary capacity in obese children. A total of 74 obese and 36 healthy children as a control group were enrolled in the study. Pulmonary functions and functional exercise capacity were measured by spirometry and six-minute walk test (6 MWT), respectively. The distances covered during the 6 MWT in obese and control groups were 570.9 ± 67.5 and 607.8 ± 72.5 meters, respectively (p=0.010). In spirometric pulmonary function tests (PFTs), forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1) and forced mid-expiratory flows (25-75) were lower in the obese group (p=0.048 and p=0.047, respectively), whereas forced vital capacity (FVC), the FEV1/FVC ratio and peak expiratory flow were not statistically different between the obese and control groups. Multiple regression analysis revealed that among all parameters of anthropometric measures and PFTs, only body mass index standard deviation score (BMI-SDS) was the independent factor influencing 6 MWT. Functional exercise and lung capacities of obese children were diminished as compared to those of non-obese children. The most important factor influencing functional exercise capacity was BMI-SDS.

  11. Exercise capacity in the heat is greater in the morning than in the evening in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, Ruth M; Clapp, Emma L; Watson, Phillip; Maughan, Ronald J

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of time of day on endurance exercise capacity in a warm environment. Nine males cycled to exhaustion at 65% .VO2peak in an ambient temperature of 35 degrees C (60% relative humidity) at 0645 h (AM) and 1845 h (PM). Rectal temperature (Tc), skin temperature (Tsk), and heart rate (HR) were recorded and blood and expired air samples collected at rest every 5 min during exercise and during recovery. Time to exhaustion was longer in the AM trial (45.8 +/- 10.7 min) than in the PM trial (40.5 +/- 9.0 min; P = 0.009). Resting Tc was lower in the AM trial and remained lower for the first 25 min of exercise (P exercise (P exercise capacity in the heat was significantly greater in the morning than the evening, possibly due to a lower initial Tc.

  12. Hot environments decrease exercise capacity and elevate multiple neurotransmitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jiexiu; Lai, Lili; Cheung, Stephen S; Cui, Shuqiang; An, Nan; Feng, Wenping; Lorenzo, Santiago

    2015-11-15

    This study aimed to test the hypothesis that different neurotransmitters and hormones are presented at exercise fatigue in hot temperatures with differing relative humidities (RH). Eight trained male athletes performed a graded maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max) test in five different environmental conditions, namely, 21°C/20% RH (Normal), 33°C/20% RH (Hot 20%), 33°C/40% RH (Hot 40%), 33°C/60% RH (Hot 60%), and 33°C/80% RH (Hot 80%). Blood samples were taken pre- and post-exercise and analyzed for noradrenaline (NA), adrenaline (ADR), dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT), 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), and prolactin (PRL). Weight and oral and skin temperatures were recorded pre- and post-exercise. Heart rate was continuously monitored throughout the exercise. Hot 20%, Hot 40%, and Hot 80% had lower VO2max levels compared with Normal (Pneurotransmitter level irrespective of the environmental conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Cigarette smoking decreases dynamic inspiratory capacity during maximal exercise in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitahara, Yoshihiro; Hattori, Noboru; Yokoyama, Akihito; Yamane, Kiminori; Sekikawa, Kiyokazu; Inamizu, Tsutomu; Kohno, Nobuoki

    2012-06-01

    To investigate the influence of cigarette smoking on exercise capacity, respiratory responses and dynamic changes in lung volume during exercise in patients with type 2 diabetes. Forty-one men with type, 2 diabetes without cardiopulmonary disease were recruited and divided into 28 non-current smokers and 13 current smokers. All subjects received lung function tests and cardiopulmonary exercise testing using tracings of the flow-volume loop. Exercise capacity was compared using the percentage of predicted oxygen uptake at maximal workload (%VO2max). Respiratory variables and inspiratory capacity (IC) were compared between the two groups at rest and at 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100% of maximum workload. Although there was no significant difference in lung function tests between the two groups, venous carboxyhemoglobin (CO-Hb) levels were significantly higher in current smokers. %VO2max was inversely correlated with CO-Hb levels. Changing patterns in respiratory rate, respiratory equivalent and IC were significantly different between the two groups. Current smokers had rapid breathing, a greater respiratory equivalent and a limited increase in IC during exercise. Cigarette smoking diminishes the increase in dynamic IC in patients with type 2 diabetes. As this effect of smoking on dynamic changes in lung volume will exacerbate dynamic hyperinflation in cases complicated by chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, physicians should consider smoking habits and lung function when evaluating exercise capacity in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  14. Home IV Antibiotic Therapy and Exercise Capacity in Children with CF: A Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Narelle S; McKay, Karen O; Follett, Jennifer M; Alison, Jennifer A

    2011-03-01

    This case series describes the effect of home intravenous (IV) antibiotic therapy on spirometry and exercise capacity in a group of children with cystic fibrosis (CF). Outcomes from 10 children with CF who were prescribed a 14-day course of home IV antibiotics for a respiratory exacerbation are reported. All children performed spirometry and a modified shuttle test (MST) before and after 14-days of home IV therapy. After 14 days, FEV(1) increased by mean (± SE) 12 ± 4 % (p < 0.05) but mean MST did not improve compared to baseline. All children improved or maintained spirometry values with treatment, however, only 5 improved MST distance. After 14 days of home IV antibiotic therapy, a significant improvement in spirometry, but not exercise capacity, was seen in this small series of children with CF. The lack of improvement in exercise capacity for all children following home IV antibiotic therapy suggests factors other than spirometry determine exercise capacity. Identifying and investigating the factors that influence exercise capacity during home IV antibiotic therapy requires further investigation.

  15. Voluntary stand-up physical activity enhances endurance exercise capacity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dae Yun; Lee, Sung Ryul; Kwak, Hyo-Bum; Seo, Kyo Won; McGregor, Robin A; Yeo, Ji Young; Ko, Tae Hee; Bolorerdene, Saranhuu; Kim, Nari; Ko, Kyung Soo; Rhee, Byoung Doo; Han, Jin

    2016-05-01

    Involuntary physical activity induced by the avoidance of electrical shock leads to improved endurance exercise capacity in animals. However, it remains unknown whether voluntary stand-up physical activity (SPA) without forced simulating factors improves endurance exercise capacity in animals. We examined the eff ects of SPA on body weight, cardiac function, and endurance exercise capacity for 12 weeks. Twelve male Sprague-Dawley rats (aged 8 weeks, n=6 per group) were randomly assigned to a control group (CON) or a voluntary SPA group. The rats were induced to perform voluntary SPA (lifting a load equal to their body weight), while the food height (18.0 cm) in cages was increased progressively by 3.5 every 4 weeks until it reached 28.5 cm for 12 weeks. The SPA group showed a lower body weight compared to the CON group, but voluntary SPA did not affect the skeletal muscle and heart weights, food intake, and echocardiography results. Although the SPA group showed higher grip strength, running time, and distance compared to the CON group, the level of irisin, corticosterone, genetic expression of mitochondrial biogenesis, and nuclei numbers were not affected. These findings show that voluntary SPA without any forced stimuli in rats can eff ectively reduce body weight and enhance endurance exercise capacity, suggesting that it may be an important alternative strategy to enhance endurance exercise capacity.

  16. Aerobic exercise capacity in post-polio syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorn, E.L.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to expand the body of knowledge on the diminished aerobic capacity of individuals with post-polio syndrome (PPS). The studies described in this thesis were based on the assumption that, besides a reduced muscle mass, deconditioning contributes to the severely diminished

  17. High Intensity Exercise in Multiple Sclerosis: Effects on Muscle Contractile Characteristics and Exercise Capacity, a Randomised Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inez Wens

    Full Text Available Low-to-moderate intensity exercise improves muscle contractile properties and endurance capacity in multiple sclerosis (MS. The impact of high intensity exercise remains unknown.Thirty-four MS patients were randomized into a sedentary control group (SED, n = 11 and 2 exercise groups that performed 12 weeks of a high intensity interval (HITR, n = 12 or high intensity continuous cardiovascular training (HCTR, n = 11, both in combination with resistance training. M.vastus lateralis fiber cross sectional area (CSA and proportion, knee-flexor/extensor strength, body composition, maximal endurance capacity and self-reported physical activity levels were assessed before and after 12 weeks.Compared to SED, 12 weeks of high intensity exercise increased mean fiber CSA (HITR: +21 ± 7%, HCTR: +23 ± 5%. Furthermore, fiber type I CSA increased in HCTR (+29 ± 6%, whereas type II (+23 ± 7% and IIa (+23 ± 6%, CSA increased in HITR. Muscle strength improved in HITR and HCTR (between +13 ± 7% and +45 ± 20% and body fat percentage tended to decrease (HITR: -3.9 ± 2.0% and HCTR: -2.5 ± 1.2%. Furthermore, endurance capacity (Wmax +21 ± 4%, time to exhaustion +24 ± 5%, VO2max +17 ± 5% and lean tissue mass (+1.4 ± 0.5% only increased in HITR. Finally self-reported physical activity levels increased 73 ± 19% and 86 ± 27% in HCTR and HITR, respectively.High intensity cardiovascular exercise combined with resistance training was safe, well tolerated and improved muscle contractile characteristics and endurance capacity in MS.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01845896.

  18. Effect of fuels on exercise capacity in muscle phosphoglycerate mutase deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vissing, John; Quistorff, Bjørn; Haller, Ronald G

    2005-01-01

    a second wind occurs during exercise and whether fuels that bypass the metabolic block can improve exercise and oxidative capacity. RESULTS: In contrast to patients with McArdle disease, with whom they share many clinical features, in patients with PGAMD, cycle exercise and oxidative capacity are virtually......, it is unknown whether PGAMD is associated with a second-wind phenomenon during exercise, as in McArdle disease, and whether patients with PGAMD, like patients with PFKD and McArdle disease, benefit from supplementation with fuels that bypass the metabolic block. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether fuels...... patients with McArdle disease (mean +/- SD age, 32 +/- 5 years) with 0% residual phosphorylase activity in muscle, and 6 healthy, untrained male volunteers (mean +/- SD age, 23 +/- 1 years) were studied. INTERVENTIONS: Using constant and variable workload protocols on a cycle ergometer, it was investigated...

  19. Detrimental impact of socioeconomic status on exercise capacity in adults with congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diller, Gerhard-Paul; Inuzuka, Ryo; Kempny, Aleksander; Alonso-Gonzalez, Rafael; Liodakis, Emmanouil; Borgia, Francesco; Lockhart, Christopher J; Prapa, Matina; Lammers, Astrid E; Swan, Lorna; Dimopoulos, Konstantinos; Gatzoulis, Michael A

    2013-04-30

    To evaluate the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES), access to physical activity resources, urban-rural dwelling, levels of pollution and exercise capacity in adult congenital heart disease (ACHD) patients. Exercise intolerance is prevalent in ACHD and the contributing factors are poorly understood. A total of 1268 ACHD patients living in England who underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing at our center were included. Neighborhood deprivation (English Indices of Deprivation), urban-rural dwelling, availability of green space, distance to the closest gym/fitness center and levels of pollution were estimated based on administrative data. Urban-rural dwelling, availability of green space and levels of pollution were unrelated to exercise capacity. Lower SES was associated with a significantly lower peak oxygen consumption (Plong-term prognostic implications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Atrial adaptive rate pacing in sick sinus syndrome: effects on exercise capacity and arrhythmias.

    OpenAIRE

    Haywood, G.A.; Katritsis, D; Ward, J; Leigh-Jones, M; Ward, D. E.; Camm, A. J.

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To test the hypotheses that adaptive rate atrial (AAIR) pacing: significantly increases maximal exercise capacity, and results in significant suppression of supraventricular and ventricular arrhythmia compared with fixed rate atrial (AAI) pacing. DESIGN--Prospective, randomised, single blind, crossover study with maximal treadmill exercise testing and 24 hour ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring in AAIR and AAI modes. SETTING--Regional pacing centre. PATIENTS--30 consecutive ...

  1. Training effects on endurance capacity in maximal intermittent exercise: comparison between continuous and interval training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanisho, Kei; Hirakawa, Kazufumi

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of 2 different training regimens, continuous (CT) and interval (IT), on endurance capacity in maximal intermittent exercise. Eighteen lacrosse players were divided into CT (n = 6), IT (n = 6), and nontraining (n = 6) groups. Both training groups trained for 3 days per week for 15 weeks using bicycle ergometers. Continuous training performed continuous aerobic training for 20-25 minutes, and IT performed high-intensity pedaling comprising 10 sets of 10-second maximal pedaling with 20-second recovery periods. Maximal anaerobic power, maximal oxygen uptake (V(O2max)), and intermittent power output were measured before and after the training period. The intermittent exercise test consisted of a set of ten 10-second maximal sprints with 40-second intervals. Maximal anaerobic power significantly increased in IT (p training groups (p intermittent exercise test, the average of the total mean power output (1-10 sets) increased in both training groups (p training reduced lactate production and increased the mean power output, but there was little effect on high-power endurance capacity in maximal intermittent exercise. In contrast, although lactate production did not decrease, IT improved fatigability and mean power output in the last stage. These results indicated that the endurance capacities for maximal intermittent and continuous exercises were not identical. Ball game players should therefore improve their endurance capacity with high-intensity intermittent exercise, and it is insufficient to assess their capacity with only V(O2max) or continuous exercise tests.

  2. Whole body hyperthermia, but not skin hyperthermia, accelerates brain and locomotor limb circulatory strain and impairs exercise capacity in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trangmar, Steven J; Chiesa, Scott T; Kalsi, Kameljit K

    2017-01-01

    with exercise capacity, blood temperature (TB), oxygen uptake (V̇O2), brain perfusion (MCA Vmean), locomotor limb hemodynamics, and hematological parameters were assessed during incremental cycling exercise with elevated skin (mild hyperthermia; HYPmild), combined core and skin temperatures (moderate......Cardiovascular strain and hyperthermia are thought to be important factors limiting exercise capacity in heat-stressed humans, however, the contribution of elevations in skin (Tsk) versus whole body temperatures on exercise capacity has not been characterized. To ascertain their relationships...... hyperthermia; HYPmod), and under control conditions. Both hyperthermic conditions increased Tsk versus control (6.2 ± 0.2°C; P exercise, Tsk remained elevated in both hyperthermic...

  3. Heart rate recovery and aerobic endurance capacity in cancer survivors: interdependence and exercise-induced improvements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederer, Daniel; Vogt, Lutz; Gonzalez-Rivera, Javier; Schmidt, Katharina; Banzer, Winfried

    2015-12-01

    Whilst evidence supports beneficial effects of exercise on heart rate variability in cancer patients, its impact on heart rate recovery (HRR) and possible associations of exercise capacity and HRR have not yet been investigated. We aimed to evaluate the effects of an exercise intervention on HRR in relation to the baseline aerobic capacity. Cancer patients (n = 309, 178 females) performed a cardiopulmonary exercise test at baseline and at a 4-month interval follow-up with home-based and supervised exercise programs in-between. VO2 and heart rate were assessed during and HRR at 60 and 120 s after test termination. Based on a median split of the VO2 peak baseline values, participants were dichotomized into two groups: below median (47 female; 57.5 ± 10 years) and above median (48 female; 54.3 ± 12 years). In the baseline sample (n = 309), VO2 peak correlated significantly with HRR60 (r = .327, p  .05). These findings point toward a positive linear relationship between aerobic capacity and vagal reactivation in cancer patients. Patients with initial VO2 peak values below median showed improved VO2 peak, HRR60 and HRR120 following the moderate aerobic exercise intervention and differences to patients above median in all outcomes compared.

  4. Influence of knee osteoarthritis on exercise capacity and quality of life in obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutbeyaz, Serap Tomruk; Sezer, Nebahat; Koseoglu, Belma F; Ibrahimoglu, Faruk; Tekin, Demet

    2007-08-01

    The objective was to determine whether knee osteoarthritis (OA) reduces exercise ambulatory capacity and impairs quality of life (QOL) in obese individuals. There were 56 subjects, with and without knee OA, who were obese. The subjects were evaluated with anthropometric measurements, a body composition assessment, maximal cardiopulmonary exercise test, 6-minute walk test (6-MWT), perceived exertion (RPE), self-reported disability [Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC)], and the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 (SF-36). VO2peak was significantly higher in the controls when compared with the patients (mean +/- standard deviation, 1.584 +/- 0.23 L/kg per min vs. 0.986 +/- 0.20 L/kg per min; p Obese subjects without knee OA walked a significantly longer distance in the 6-MWT than obese patients with knee OA (p exercise and ambulatory capacity and impairs QOL in obese individuals. RPE, WOMAC pain, and SF-36 items might provide information about exercise capacity in the obese subjects with knee OA. Our study confirms that exercise capacity and QOL might be improved by energetic and intensive treatment of pain resulting from knee OA.

  5. Exercise capacity affects quality of life in patients with pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halank, Michael; Einsle, Franziska; Lehman, Stephanie; Bremer, Hinrich; Ewert, Ralf; Wilkens, Heinrike; Meyer, F Joachim; Grünig, Ekkehard; Seyfarth, Hans-Jürgen; Kolditz, Martin; Wieder, Gesine; Höffken, Gert; Köllner, Volker

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this prospective study was to evaluate the impact of exercise capacity, mental disorders, and hemodynamics on quality-of-life (QoL) parameters in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). Sixty-three patients with invasively diagnosed PAH (n = 48) or CTEPH (n = 15) underwent a broad panel of assessments, including cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET), 6-minute walking distance (6-MWD), World Health Organization functional class (WHO-FC), and assessment of hemodynamics. QoL was evaluated by the 36-item Medical Outcome Study Short Form Health Survey Questionnaire (SF-36). Exercise capacity, hemodynamics, age, gender, and mental disorders (anxiety and depression) were assessed for association with QoL subscores by uni- and multivariate regression analyses. Exercise capacity, WHO-FC, oxygen therapy, symptoms of right heart failure, right atrial pressure, and mental disorders were significantly associated with QoL (p Mental disorders, exercise capacity, long-term oxygen therapy, right heart failure, and age play important role in the quality of life in patients with PAH and CTEPH.

  6. The influence of intermittent altitude exposure to 4100 m on exercise capacity and blood variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby, C; Nielsen, T K; Dela, F

    2005-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effects of intermittent hypoxic exposure on blood and exercise parameters. Eight sea level residents were exposed to 2 h daily stimulus to 4100 m altitude in a hypobaric chamber for a total of 14 days. Exercise performance was evaluated at sea level......) ergometer exercise corresponded to a oxygen uptake of 1.9+/-0.1 and 1.9+/-0.1 L min(-1) before and after the intermittent altitude exposure, respectively. At maximal exercise the workloads attained were 343+/-17 and 354+/-27 W before and after the exposure, with corresponding oxygen uptakes of 4.......0+/-0.2 and 4.2+/-0.2 L min(-1). It is concluded that intermittent hypoxic exposure to 4100 m altitude for 2 h daily and a total of 14 days does not affect exercise capacity....

  7. Effects of erythropoietin administration on cerebral metabolism and exercise capacity in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter; Foged, Eva M; Krogh-Madsen, Rikke

    2010-01-01

    exercise capacity independent of erythropoiesis. To test this hypothesis, 15 healthy young males (18-34 yo., 74 +/- 7 kg) received either 3 days of high dose (30,000 IU day(-1), N=7) double-blinded placebo controlled or 3 months of low dose (5,000 IU week(-1), N=8) counter-balanced open but controlled...... activation by transcranial magnetic stimulation-induced twitch force were evaluated. Although EPO in a high dose increased cerebrospinal fluid EPO concentration ~20-fold and affected ventilation and cerebral glucose and lactate metabolism (P... on cognition, voluntary activation or exercise capacity but ratings of perceived exertion increased (P

  8. Feasibility, physical capacity, and health benefits of a multidimensional exercise program for cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamsen, Lis; Midtgaard, Julie; Rorth, Mikael

    2003-01-01

    Cancer patients frequently experience considerable loss of physical capacity and general wellbeing when diagnosed and treated for their disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility, physical capacity, and health benefits of a multidimensional exercise program for cancer patients...... during advanced stages of disease who are undergoing adjuvant or high-dose chemotherapy. The supervised program included high- and low-intensity activities (physical exercise, relaxation, massage, and body-awareness training). A total of 23 patients between 18 and 65 years of age (median 40 years...

  9. Aging and exercise performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, D A; Cunningham, L N; Curfman, G D

    1986-05-01

    Diverse physiologic changes occur in the oxygen transport system during the aging process. Physical performance and VO2max decline with age, but the changes may be attenuated by exercise training. Increased ventilation is required during exercise in order to compensate for reduced efficiency of gas exchange. Cardiovascular alterations include prolonged duration of myocardial contraction, a slightly reduced left ventricular ejection fraction during exercise, decreased heart rate during both submaximal and maximal exercise, and attenuation of myocardial response to beta-adrenergic stimulation. Cardiac output during exercise can be maintained in the elderly owing to a greater dependence on ventricular filling. Appropriate exercise training leads to enhanced efficiency of the lungs, heart, and skeletal muscles. These physiologic benefits contribute to an increase in functional capacity and an enhanced sense of well-being. Exercise testing is recommended for individuals who have cardiorespiratory symptoms and for those at risk for the development of coronary artery disease. Reasonable goals for an aerobic training program are continuous activity for 30 minutes at a moderate intensity of exertion at least 3 days per week. The intensity of exercise should be based on a prescribed training heart rate. The exercise prescription should be individualized and should incorporate one or more activities for optimal enjoyment and compliance. Opportunities and facilities for indoor exercise are important during inclement weather. Regular physical exercise is important at any age!

  10. Effects of exercise on fatigue and physical capacity in men with chronic widespread pain - a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Ericsson, Anna; Bremell, Tomas; Cider, ?sa; Mannerkorpi, Kaisa

    2016-01-01

    Background There is very limited knowledge about the effects of exercise on men with Chronic Widespread Pain (CWP), especially regarding fatigue. We wanted to investigate the effects of resistance exercise compared with pool exercise on multidimensional fatigue, psychological distress and physical capacity in men with CWP. Methods Thirty-four men with CWP, with a mean age of 49 (SD 8, range 26?59) years, were randomised to 12?weeks of standardised pool exercise (PE) or resistance exercise (RE...

  11. Ethnic differences in vascular responses to aerobic exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulds, Heather J A; Bredin, Shannon S D; Warburton, Darren E R

    2015-02-01

    Indigenous populations currently experience greater rates of cardiovascular disease. Although ethnic differences in cardiovascular responses to exercise have previously been identified, these responses among indigenous populations are unknown. This investigation aimed to evaluate the vascular responses to aerobic exercise of Canadian indigenous and European adults. Twelve age- and sex-matched indigenous and European adults completed a cycle ergometer maximal aerobic power test and submaximal 30 min of 60% maximal aerobic capacity on two separate days. Blood pressure, pulse wave velocity, baroreceptor sensitivity, arterial compliance, vascular resistance, and intima-media thickness were directly measured before and after aerobic exercises. Vascular responses to exercise were generally similar between indigenous and European adults including decreases in baroreceptor sensitivity and vascular resistance after maximal exercise. No changes in intima-media thickness, pulse wave velocity, and arterial compliance were observed after exercise in either group. However, after submaximal exercise, only European adults demonstrated reductions in baroreceptor sensitivity (spectral: 9.2 ± 4.3 to 11.5 ± 6.7 ms·mm Hg, P = 0.41, vs 15.8 ± 8.3 m·s to 8.9 ± 5.7 ms·mm Hg, P = 0.02; sequence: 14.6 ± 5.4 to 16.5 ± 11.0 ms·mm Hg, P = 0.48, vs 26.2 ± 10.5 m·s to 15.4 ± 9.4 ms·mm Hg, P = 0.02). Similarly, decreases in blood pressure after exercise were observed only among European adults. Indigenous adults demonstrated vascular responses similar to those demonstrated by European adults, although blood pressure was only observed to decrease among European adults after maximal and submaximal exercise, and baroreceptor sensitivity, after submaximal exercise.

  12. The effect of core stability exercises on functional capacity and fatigue in patients with multiple sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Hosein Shahrokhi; Amir Letafatkar; Amir Barati; Hasan Daneshmandi; Ali Ashraf Jamshidi

    2017-01-01

    Background : Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic progressive disease on the central nervous system with signs and symptoms such as fatigue and reduced functional capacity. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of core stability exercises on functional capacity and fatigue in patients with multiple sclerosis. Materials and Methods: The present quasi-experimental study used a pretest-posttest design. The subjects with the age of 20-40, expanded disability status scale (EDSS) 1...

  13. Low-dose propranolol and exercise capacity in postural tachycardia syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Amy C.; Okamoto, Luis E.; Diedrich, André; Paranjape, Sachin Y.; Raj, Satish R.; Biaggioni, Italo

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effect of low-dose propranolol on maximal exercise capacity in patients with postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS). Methods: We compared the effect of placebo vs a single low dose of propranolol (20 mg) on peak oxygen consumption (VO2max), an established measure of exercise capacity, in 11 patients with POTS and 7 healthy subjects in a randomized, double-blind study. Subjects exercised on a semirecumbent bicycle, with increasing intervals of resistance to maximal effort. Results: Maximal exercise capacity was similar between groups following placebo. Low-dose propranolol improved VO2max in patients with POTS (24.5 ± 0.7 placebo vs 27.6 ± 1.0 mL/min/kg propranolol; p = 0.024), but not healthy subjects. The increase in VO2max in POTS was associated with attenuated peak heart rate responses (142 ± 8 propranolol vs 165 ± 4 bpm placebo; p = 0.005) and improved stroke volume (81 ± 4 propranolol vs 67 ± 3 mL placebo; p = 0.013). In a separate cohort of POTS patients, neither high-dose propranolol (80 mg) nor metoprolol (100 mg) improved VO2max, despite similar lowering of heart rate. Conclusions: These findings suggest that nonselective β-blockade with propranolol, when used at the low doses frequently used for treatment of POTS, may provide a modest beneficial effect to improve heart rate control and exercise capacity. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class II evidence that a single low dose of propranolol (20 mg) as compared with placebo is useful in increasing maximum exercise capacity measured 1 hour after medication. PMID:23616163

  14. Tissue Doppler-derived indices predict exercise capacity in patients with apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Jong-Won; Cho, Jung-Rae; Kim, Jin-Mi; Ahn, Jeong-Ah; Choi, Eui-Young; Kang, Seok-Min; Rim, Se-Joong; Chung, Namsik

    2005-11-01

    Although impaired left ventricular (LV) diastolic function is a prominent feature of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), diastolic function and its relation to exercise capacity in apical HCM (ApHCM) has not been explored previously. This study was sought to determine the relationship between diastolic mitral annular velocities combined with conventional Doppler indexes and exercise capacity in patients with ApHCM. Twenty-nine patients with ApHCM (24 men; mean age +/- SD, 57 +/- 10 years) underwent supine bicycle exercise with simultaneous respiratory gas analysis and two-dimensional and Doppler echocardiographic study. The mitral inflow velocities (early filling [E], late filling, and deceleration time) were traced and measured. Early diastolic mitral annular velocity (E') was measured at the septal corner of mitral annulus by Doppler tissue imaging (DTI) from the apical four-chamber view. Pro-brain natriuretic peptide (proBNP) was measured at the time of echocardiography using a quantitative electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. E/E' ratio correlated inversely with maximal oxygen uptake (Vo(2)max) [r = - 0.47, p = 0.0106]. There was a significant positive correlation between E' and Vo(2)max (r = 0.41, p = 0.024). However, no correlation was found between conventional two-dimensional, Doppler indices, and proBNP and Vo(2)max). Of all the echocardiographic and clinical parameters assessed, E/E' ratio had the best correlation with exercise capacity (r - 0.47) and was the strongest independent predictor of Vo(2)max by multivariate analysis (p = 0.0106). DTI-derived indexes (E', E/E' ratio), an estimate of myocardial relaxation and LV filling pressures, correlate with exercise capacity in patients with ApHCM, suggesting that abnormal diastolic function may be a factor limiting exercise capacity.

  15. Safety and feasibility of regadenoson use for suboptimal heart rate response during symptom-limited standard Bruce exercise stress test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partington, Sara L; Lanka, Viswanatha; Hainer, Jon; Blankstein, Ron; Skali, Hicham; Forman, Daniel E; Di Carli, Marcelo F; Dorbala, Sharmila

    2012-10-01

    Regadenoson during exercise stress test (ETT) can provide maximal hyperemia for myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI), along with exercise information. Our aim was to study the feasibility and safety of regadenoson injection at peak ETT for submaximal heart rate (HR) response. Consecutive patients who underwent SPECT MPI with standard Bruce ETT or supine-regadenoson (Supine-Reg) were analyzed. ETT patients were grouped as ETT-Max [maximal HR > 0.85 * (220 - age), N = 1,522], ETT-Submax (submaximal HR no regadenoson, N = 504), ETT-Reg (submaximal HR and regadenoson, N = 211). The HR during ETT was submaximal in 715 (32%) patients. Of these, 211 patients (30%) underwent ETT-Reg (mean exercise duration: 5.5 ± 2.5 minutes). ETT-Reg patients had a higher frequency of hypertension, diabetes, smoking and beta-blocker use, similar rest systolic blood pressure (SBP), but lower rest and peak HR and peak SBP compared to ETT-Max patients. There were no serious complications with regadenoson. Side effects (49% vs 6%, P < .0001) were fewer and aminophylline use was lower with ETT-Reg compared to Supine-Reg (0.5% vs 8.1%, P = .001). Submaximal HR response to ETT is common. ETT-Reg is safe, feasible, and well-tolerated. ETT-Reg facilitates a diagnostic MPI with reporting of functional capacity, exercise ECG/hemodynamic changes and MPI at maximal hyperemia.

  16. [Relationship between E/Em ratio and exercise capacity in patients with atrial fibrillation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shaomin; He, Rong; Li, Weihong; Feng, Xinheng; Li, Zhaoping; Chen, Baoxia; Liu, Shuwang; Gao, Wei

    2014-09-23

    To explore the relationship between the ratio of early diastolic transmitral velocity to early diastolic mitral annular velocity (E/Em) and exercise capacity in patients with atrial fibrillation. A total of 94 consecutive patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation and preserved left ventricular ejection fraction admitted into our department from December 2011 to June 2013 were included. Echocardiography and cardiopulmonary exercise test were performed. According to E/Em, they were divided into two groups of normal E/Em (E/Em ≤ 9) and elevated E/Em (E/Em>9). The parameters of exercise capacity, including VO2max/kg, anaerobic threshold/kg (AT/kg) and exercise time duration were compared between two groups. And the determinants of VO2max/kg were identified by multivariate regression analysis. The number of patients was 57(60.6%) with normal E/Em and 37 (39.4%) with elevated E/Em. As compared to those with normal E/Em, the patients with elevated E/Em had lower VO₂max/kg [(26 ± 4) vs (20 ± 4) ml × min⁻¹ × kg⁻¹, P Em (r = -0.535, P Em was independently associated with exercise capacity in patients with atrial fibrillation.

  17. Are there sex differences in the capillary blood volume and diffusing capacity response to exercise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwsema, Melissa M; Tedjasaputra, Vincent; Stickland, Michael K

    2017-03-01

    Previous work suggests that women may exhibit a greater respiratory limitation in exercise compared with height-matched men. Diffusion capacity (DlCO) increases with incremental exercise, and the smaller lungs of women may limit membrane diffusing capacity (Dm) and pulmonary capillary blood volume (Vc) in response to the increased oxygen demand. We hypothesized that women would have lower DlCO, DlCO relative to cardiac output (DlCO/Q̇), Dm, Vc, and pulmonary transit time, secondary to lower Vc at peak exercise. Sixteen women (112 ± 12% predicted relative V̇o2peak) and sixteen men (118 ± 22% predicted relative V̇o2peak) were matched for height and weight. Hemoglobin-corrected diffusing capacity (DlCO), Vc, and Dm were determined via the multiple-[Formula: see text] DlCO technique at rest and during incremental exercise up to 90% of V̇o2peak Both groups increased DlCO, Vc, and Dm with exercise intensity, but women had 20% lower DlCO (P volume (Va), the between-sex difference was eliminated. The drop in DlCO/Q̇ was proportionally less in women than men, and mean pulmonary transit time did not drop below 0.3 s in either group. Women demonstrate consistently lower DlCO, Vc, and Dm compared with height-matched men during exercise; however, these differences disappear with correction for lung size. These results suggest that after differences in lung volume are accounted for there is no intrinsic sex difference in the DlCO, Vc, or Dm response to exercise.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Women demonstrate lower diffusing capacity-to-cardiac output ratio (DlCO/Q̇), pulmonary capillary blood volume (Vc), and membrane diffusing capacity (Dm) compared with height-matched men during exercise. However, these differences disappear after correction for lung size. The drop in DlCO/Q̇ was proportionally less in women, and pulmonary transit time did not drop below 0.3 s in either group. After differences in lung volume are accounted for, there is no intrinsic sex difference in DlCO, Vc, or

  18. Myogenin regulates exercise capacity and skeletal muscle metabolism in the adult mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse M Flynn

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Although skeletal muscle metabolism is a well-studied physiological process, little is known about how it is regulated at the transcriptional level. The myogenic transcription factor myogenin is required for skeletal muscle development during embryonic and fetal life, but myogenin's role in adult skeletal muscle is unclear. We sought to determine myogenin's function in adult muscle metabolism. A Myog conditional allele and Cre-ER transgene were used to delete Myog in adult mice. Mice were analyzed for exercise capacity by involuntary treadmill running. To assess oxidative and glycolytic metabolism, we performed indirect calorimetry, monitored blood glucose and lactate levels, and performed histochemical analyses on muscle fibers. Surprisingly, we found that Myog-deleted mice performed significantly better than controls in high- and low-intensity treadmill running. This enhanced exercise capacity was due to more efficient oxidative metabolism during low- and high-intensity exercise and more efficient glycolytic metabolism during high-intensity exercise. Furthermore, Myog-deleted mice had an enhanced response to long-term voluntary exercise training on running wheels. We identified several candidate genes whose expression was altered in exercise-stressed muscle of mice lacking myogenin. The results suggest that myogenin plays a critical role as a high-level transcriptional regulator to control the energy balance between aerobic and anaerobic metabolism in adult skeletal muscle.

  19. Effects of Exercise Therapy on Balance Capacity in Chronic Stroke: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijnhoven, H.J.R. van; Heeren, A.; Peters, M.A.; Veerbeek, J.M.; Kwakkel, G.; Geurts, A.C.H.; Weerdesteyn, V.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to investigate the effects of exercise training on balance capacity in people in the chronic phase after stroke. Furthermore, we aimed to identify which training regimen was most effective. METHODS: Electronic

  20. Aortic valve prosthesis-patient mismatch and exercise capacity in adult patients with congenital heart disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Slooten, Ymkje J.; Melle, van Joost P.; Freling, Hendrik G.; Bouma, Berto J.; van Dijk, Arie P. J.; Jongbloed, Monique R. M.; Post, Martijn C.; Sieswerda, Gertjan T.; in 't Veld, Anna Huis; Ebels, Tjark; Voors, Adriaan A.; Pieper, Petronella G.

    Objectives To report the prevalence of aortic valve prosthesis patient mismatch (PPM) in an adult population with congenital heart disease (CHD) and its impact on exercise capacity. Adults with congenital heart disease (ACHD) with a history of aortic valve replacement may outgrow their prosthesis

  1. Effect of lifelong resveratrol supplementation and exercise training on skeletal muscle oxidative capacity in aging mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringholm, Stine; Olesen, Jesper; Pedersen, Jesper Thorhauge

    2013-01-01

    The present study tested the hypothesis that lifelong resveratrol (RSV) supplementation counteracts an age-associated decrease in skeletal muscle oxidative capacity through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator (PGC)-1α and that RSV combined with lifelong exercise training (ET...

  2. A better response in exercise capacity after pulmonary rehabilitation in more severe COPD patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altenburg, Wytske A.; de Greef, Mathieu H. G.; ten Hacken, Nick H. T.; Wempe, Johan B.

    Purpose: Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) has positive effects on exercise capacity in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). However, not all COPD patients benefit from PR to the same extent. We investigated whether there is a patient profile, which is associated with the improvement in

  3. Pulmonary function and exercise capacity in survivors of congenital diaphragmatic hernia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peetsold, M. G.; Heij, H. A.; Nagelkerke, A. F.; Ijsselstijn, H.; Tibboel, D.; Quanjer, P. H.; Gemke, R. J. B. J.

    2009-01-01

    Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is associated with pulmonary hypoplasia and pulmonary hypertension. The objective of this study was to assess pulmonary function and exercise capacity and its early determinants in children and adolescents born with high-risk CDH (CDH-associated respiratory

  4. Does Improving Exercise Capacity and Daily Activity Represent the Holistic Perspective of a New COPD Approach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Marco, Fabiano; Santus, Pierachille; Sotgiu, Giovanni; Blasi, Francesco; Centanni, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    In COPD patients a reduced daily activity has been well documented, resulting from both respiratory and non-respiratory manifestations of the disease. An evaluation by multisensory armband has confirmed that daily physical activity is mainly associated with dynamic hyperinflation, regardless of COPD severity. This aspect is crucial, since exercise capacity is closely correlated to life expectancy. Notwithstanding the causal key role of lung impairment in the patient's symptoms, some authors have suggested that other factors, such as systemic inflammation and co-morbidities, have an important role, particularly as mortality risk factors. Many studies suggest the efficacy of bronchodilators and rehabilitation in improving exercise capacity, and, speaking in terms of daily life, in increasing the number of days in which patients are able to perform their usual activities. On this evidence, the first aim in the management of COPD should be to improve exercise capacity and daily activity since these outcomes have direct effects on patients' quality of life, co-morbidities (heart and metabolic diseases), and prognosis. Thus, improving physical activity represents a modern approach aimed at dealing with both pulmonary and systemic manifestations of the disease. It is however worth of notice to remember that in patients affected by COPD the relationship between the improvement of "potential" exercise capacity and daily physical activity has been found to be only moderate to weak. Obtaining a significant behavior modification with regard to daily physical activity, together with the optimization of therapy thus represents currently the true challenge.

  5. Aerobic and anaerobic exercise capacities in obstructive sleep apnea and associations with subcutaneous fat distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ucok, Kagan; Aycicek, Abdullah; Sezer, Murat; Genc, Abdurrahman; Akkaya, Muzaffer; Caglar, Veli; Fidan, Fatma; Unlu, Mehmet

    2009-01-01

    Obesity is a strong risk factor for the development and progression of sleep apnea. Responses to exercise by patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) are clinically relevant to reducing body weight and cardiovascular risk factors. This study aimed to clarify the aerobic and anaerobic exercise capacities and their possible relationships with other findings in patients with OSAS. Forty patients (30 males, 10 females) and 40 controls (30 males, 10 females) were enrolled in this study. Questionnaires (excessive daytime sleepiness, daytime tiredness, morning headache, waking unrefreshed, and imbalance), overnight polysomnography, indirect laryngoscopy, and aerobic and anaerobic exercise tests were performed. Triceps, subscapular, abdomen, and thigh skinfold thicknesses were measured. Subcutaneous abdominal fat (abdomen skinfold) was significantly higher in OSAS patients than in controls. Maximal anaerobic power and anaerobic capacity were not different significantly between the patients and controls. We found that aerobic capacity was significantly lower in OSAS patients than in controls. Aerobic capacity was negatively correlated with upper-body subcutaneous fat (triceps and subscapular skinfolds) but not correlated with subcutaneous abdominal fat in OSAS patients. In multivariate analyses using all patients, the apnea-hypopnea index remained a significant independent predictor of aerobic capacity after controlling for a variety of potential confounders including body mass index. Our data confirm that central obesity (subcutaneous abdominal fat) is prominent in patients with OSAS. Our results suggest that lower aerobic exercise capacity in patients with OSAS might be due to daily physical activity that is restricted by OSA itself. This study also suggests that the degree of subcutaneous abdominal fat cannot be used for predicting aerobic capacity level. We think that upper-body subcutaneous fat might be suitable for determining the physical fitness of

  6. Effect of aerobic fitness on capillary blood volume and diffusing membrane capacity responses to exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedjasaputra, Vincent; Bouwsema, Melissa M; Stickland, Michael K

    2016-08-01

    Endurance trained athletes exhibit enhanced cardiovascular function compared to non-athletes, although it is considered that exercise training does not enhance lung structure and function. An increased pulmonary capillary blood volume at rest is associated with a higher V̇O2 max . In the present study, we compared the diffusion capacity, pulmonary capillary blood volume and diffusing membrane capacity responses to exercise in endurance-trained males compared to non-trained males. Exercise diffusion capacity was greater in athletes, secondary to an increased membrane diffusing capacity, and not pulmonary capillary blood volume. Endurance-trained athletes appear to have differences within the pulmonary membrane that facilitate the increased O2 demand needed for high-level exercise. Endurance-trained athletes exhibit enhanced cardiovascular function compared to non-athletes, allthough it is generally accepted that exercise training does not enhance lung structure and function. Recent work has shown that an increased resting pulmonary capillary blood volume (VC ) is associated with a higher maximum oxygen consumption (V̇O2 max ), although there have been no studies to date examining how aerobic fitness affects the VC response to exercise. Based on previous work, we hypothesized that endurance-trained athletes will have greater VC compared to non-athletes during cycling exercise. Fifteen endurance-trained athletes (HI: V̇O2 max 64.6 ± 1.8 ml kg(-1)  min(-1) ) and 14 non-endurance trained males (LO: V̇O2 max 45.0 ± 1.2 ml kg(-1)  min(-1) ) were matched for age and height. Haemoglobin-corrected diffusion capacity (DLCO), VC and diffusing membrane capacity (DM ) were determined using the Roughton and Forster () multiple fraction of inspired O2 (FI O2 )-DLCO method at baseline and during incremental cycle exercise up to 90% of peak O2 consumption. During exercise, both groups exhibited increases in DLCO, DM and VC with exercise intensity. Athletes had a

  7. Evaluation of exercise capacity with cardiopulmonary exercise test and B-type natriuretic peptide in adults with congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trojnarska, Olga; Gwizdała, Adrian; Katarzyński, Sławomir; Katarzyńska, Agnieszka; Szyszka, Andrzej; Lanocha, Magdalena; Grajek, Stefan; Kramer, Lucyna

    2009-01-01

    Adult patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) usually find their exercise capacity satisfactory. However, objective evaluation is important for diagnostic and prognostic purposes. The aim of this study was to evaluate exercise capacity using cardiopulmonary exercise tests and measurement of serum B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels in adult patients with CHDs, both in the entire study cohort and in subjects with individual types of cardiac lesions, as well as to verify the relation between BNP level and cardiac performance. The study group included 265 patients (136 males; mean age 34.4 +/- 11.6 years) 173 of whom were operated on at the mean age of 9.2 +/- 7.3 years. They represented the following types of CHD: 72 patients--surgically corrected coarctation of the aorta, 62--surgically corrected tetralogy of Fallot, 28--Ebstein anomaly, 26--patent atrial septal defect, 24--Eisenmenger syndrome, 20--uncorrected or palliated complex cyanotic lesions, 11--corrected transposition of the great arteries (TGA), 14--TGA after Senning operation, and 8--common ventricle after Fontana operation. The control group consisted of 39 healthy individuals (17 males) with a mean age of 35.8 +/- 9.3 years. According to NYHA classification, 207 patients were recognized as representing class I symptoms, 47 subjects class II, and 11 class III. Cardiopulmonary exercise revealed significantly reduced exercise capacity in adults with CHD in general, compared to control subjects: maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) was 23.3 +/- 6.9 vs. 33.6 +/- 7.2 mL/kg/min, respectively (p = 0.00001); maximum heart rate at peak exercise (HRmax) -161.1 +/- 33.2 vs. 179.6 +/- 12.3 bpm (p = 0.00001); respiratory workload (VE/VCO2slope) - 35.7 +/- 9.7 vs. 26.3 +/- 3.1 (p = 0.00001); and forced vital capacity (FVC) - 3.8 +/- 1.1 vs. 4.6 +/- 0.7 L (p = 0.00003). Various degrees of peak VO2max reduction were observed across the spectrum of CHD. Patients after repair of aortic coarctation demonstrated the

  8. Effect of contrasting physical exercise interventions on rapid force capacity of chronically painful muscles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars L; Andersen, Jesper L; Suetta, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    torque increased 18-29% (P muscle fibers hypertrophied 20% (P muscles is highly responsive......Rapid force capacity of chronically painful muscles is inhibited markedly more than maximal force capacity and is therefore relevant to assess in rehabilitation settings. Our objective was to investigate the effect of two contrasting types of physical exercise on rapid force capacity, as well...... as neural and muscular adaptations in women with chronic neck muscle pain. A group of employed women (n = 42) with a clinical diagnosis of trapezius myalgia participated in a 10-wk randomized controlled trial; specific strength training of the neck/shoulder muscles, general fitness training performed as leg...

  9. Effects of exercise on functional aerobic capacity in lower limb osteoarthritis: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalante, Y; García-Hermoso, A; Saavedra, J M

    2011-05-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease. The reduced aerobic capacity of patients with lower limb osteoarthritis affects their independence in performing everyday activities. The purpose of this systematic review was to summarize evidence for the effectiveness and structure of exercise programs on functional aerobic capacity (ability to perform activities of daily living that require sustained aerobic metabolism) in patients with hip and knee osteoarthritis. A computerized search was made of seven databases. Effect sizes (ES) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated, and the heterogeneity of the studies was assessed using Cochran's Q statistic applied to the ES means. The 20 studies that satisfied the inclusion criteria were selected for analysis. These studies were grouped into five categories according to the characteristics of the exercise program: land-based interventions (strength programs, tai chi, aerobic programs, mixed exercise programs) and aquatic intervention (hydrotherapy). The functional aerobic capacity improved in tai chi programs (ES=0.66; 95% CI, 0.23-1.09), aerobic programs (ES=0.90; 95% CI, 0.70-1.10), and mixed programs (ES=0.47; 95% CI, -0.38-0.39). The conclusions were: (i) despite recommendations for the use of exercise programs for aerobic fitness in patients with hip and knee osteoarthritis, few randomized clinical trials have been conducted; (ii) the structure of the exercise programs (program content and duration, and session frequency and duration) is very heterogeneous; (iii) overall, exercise programs based on tai chi, aerobic, and mixed exercise seem to give better results than hydrotherapy programs, but without the differences being altogether clear. Copyright © 2010 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The association between right ventricular free wall strain and exercise capacity for health check-up subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wei-Ting; Liu, Yen-Wen; Liu, Ping-Yen; Hsu, Chih-Hsin; Tsai, Wei-Chuan

    2017-01-01

    Right ventricular (RV) function has been found to be a major factor of exercise capacity in patients with heart failure. However, the role of RV function in exercise capacity in healthy subjects has not been well studied. This study aims to validate the role of RV strain derived from speckle tracking echocardiography for exercise capacity for health check-up subjects. This study prospectively recruited subjects from a routine health examination. All of them were symptom free. RV function represented by RV strain was derived from speckle tracking echocardiography in addition to traditional echocardiography parameters. Functional capacity was determined by a symptom limited treadmill exercise test with the Bruce protocol. Among 164 recruited subjects (age 52.2 ±9.2 years, 66.4% male), 32 subjects represented impaired functional capacity (METexercise capacity for health check-up subjects. RV function is an important factor for functional capacity.

  11. Fit to Forgive: Effect of Mode of Exercise on Capacity to Override Grudges and Forgiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Ward Struthers

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Forgiveness is important for repairing relationships that have been damaged by transgressions. In this research we explored the notion that the mode of physical exercise that victims of transgressions engage in and their capacity to override grudges are important in the process of forgiveness. Two exploratory studies that varied in samples (community non-student adults, undergraduate students and research methods (non-experimental, experimental were used to test these predictions. Findings showed that, compared to anaerobic or no exercise, aerobic and flexibility exercise facilitated self-control over grudges and forgiveness (Studies 1 and 2, and self-control over grudges explained the relation between exercise and forgiveness (Study 2. Possible mechanisms for future research are discussed.

  12. Fit to Forgive: Effect of Mode of Exercise on Capacity to Override Grudges and Forgiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struthers, C. Ward; van Monsjou, Elizabeth; Ayoub, Mariam; Guilfoyle, Joshua R.

    2017-01-01

    Forgiveness is important for repairing relationships that have been damaged by transgressions. In this research we explored the notion that the mode of physical exercise that victims of transgressions engage in and their capacity to override grudges are important in the process of forgiveness. Two exploratory studies that varied in samples (community non-student adults, undergraduate students) and research methods (non-experimental, experimental) were used to test these predictions. Findings showed that, compared to anaerobic or no exercise, aerobic and flexibility exercise facilitated self-control over grudges and forgiveness (Studies 1 and 2), and self-control over grudges explained the relation between exercise and forgiveness (Study 2). Possible mechanisms for future research are discussed. PMID:28533758

  13. Bosentan Improves Exercise Capacity in Adolescents and Adults After Fontan Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hebert, Anders; Mikkelsen, Ulla Ramer; Thilen, Ulf

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Fontan procedure has improved survival in children with functionally univentricular hearts. With time, however, complications such as reduced exercise capacity are seen more frequently. Exercise intolerance is multifactorial, but pulmonary vascular resistance probably plays...... of this study was therefore to examine the efficacy and safety of bosentan in Fontan patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: Seventy-five adolescents and adults were randomized 1:1 to 14 weeks of treatment with bosentan or placebo. Cardiopulmonary exercise test, functional class, blood samples, and quality......)) in the placebo group (P=0.02). Cardiopulmonary exercise test time increased by 0.48 minute (from 6.79 to 7.27 minutes) versus 0.08 minute (from 6.94 to 7.02 minutes; P=0.04). Nine bosentan-treated patients improved 1 functional class, whereas none improved in the placebo group (P=0.0085). Side effects were mild...

  14. Aerobic and anaerobic exercise capacity in adolescents with juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelieveld, Otto T H M; van Brussel, Marco; Takken, Tim; van Weert, Ellen; van Leeuwen, Miek A; Armbrust, Wineke

    2007-08-15

    To examine the aerobic and anaerobic exercise capacity in adolescents with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) compared with age- and sex-matched healthy individuals, and to assess associations between disease-related variables and aerobic and anaerobic exercise capacity. Of 25 patients enrolled in a JIA transition outpatient clinic, 22 patients with JIA were included in this study (mean +/- SD age 17.1 +/- 0.7 years, range 16-18 years). Aerobic capacity was examined using a Symptom Limited Bicycle Ergometry test. Anaerobic capacity was assessed with the Wingate Anaerobic Test. Functional ability was assessed with the Childhood Health Assessment Questionnaire. Pain and overall well-being were measured using a visual analog scale. Disease duration and disease activity were also assessed. Absolute and relative maximal oxygen consumption in the JIA group were significantly impaired (85% and 83% for boys, respectively; 81% and 78% for girls, respectively) compared with healthy controls. Mean power was also significantly impaired (88% for boys and 74% for girls), whereas peak power was significantly impaired for girls and just failed significance for boys (67% for girls and 92% for boys). A post hoc analysis correcting for underweight and overweight demonstrated that body composition did not influence the results substantially. This study demonstrated that adolescents with JIA have an impaired aerobic and anaerobic exercise capacity compared with healthy age- and sex-matched peers. The likely cause for this significant impairment is multifactorial and needs to be revealed to improve treatment strategies.

  15. Exercise capacity and selected physiological factors by ancestry and residential altitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bianba; Berntsen, Sveinung; Andersen, Lars Bo

    2014-01-01

    AIM: Several physiological compensatory mechanisms have enabled Tibetans to live and work at high altitude, including increased ventilation and pulmonary diffusion capacity, both of which serve to increase oxygen transport in the blood. The aim of the present study was to compare exercise capacity...... (maximal power output) and selected physiological factors (arterial oxygen saturation and heart rate at rest and during maximal exercise, resting hemoglobin concentration, and forced vital capacity) in groups of native Tibetan children living at different residential altitudes (3700 vs. 4300 m above sea...... level) and across ancestry (native Tibetan vs. Han Chinese children living at the same altitude of 3700 m). METHODS: A total of 430 9-10-year-old native Tibetan children from Tingri (4300 m) and 406 native Tibetan- and 406 Han Chinese immigrants (77% lowland-born and 33% highland-born) from Lhasa (3700...

  16. Estimated Aerobic Capacity Changes in Adolescents with Obesity Following High Intensity Interval Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooke E. Starkoff

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Vigorous aerobic exercise may improve aerobic capacity (VO2max and cardiometabolic profiles in adolescents with obesity, independent of changes to weight. Our aim was to assess changes in estimated VO2max in obese adolescents following a 6-week exercise program of varying intensities. Adolescents with obesity were recruited from an American mid-west children’s hospital and randomized into moderate exercise (MOD or high intensity interval exercise (HIIE groups for a 6-week exercise intervention, consisting of cycle ergometry for 40 minutes, 3 days per week. Heart rate was measured every two minutes during each exercise session.  Estimated VO2max measured via Åstrand cycle test, body composition, and physical activity (PA enjoyment evaluated via questionnaire were assessed pre/post-intervention. Twenty-seven adolescents (age 14.7±1.5; 17 female, 10 male completed the intervention. Estimated VO2max increased only in the HIIE group (20.0±5.7 to 22.7±6.5 ml/kg/min, p=0.015. The HIIE group also demonstrated increased PA enjoyment, which was correlated with average heart rate achieved during the intervention (r=0.55; p=0.043. Six weeks of HIIE elicited improvements to estimated VO2max in adolescents with obesity. Furthermore, those exercising at higher heart rates demonstrated greater PA enjoyment, implicating enjoyment as an important determinant of VO2max, specifically following higher intensity activities.

  17. Prognostic value of exercise capacity in patients with coronary artery disease: the FIT (Henry Ford ExercIse Testing) project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Rupert K; Al-Mallah, Mouaz H; McEvoy, John W; Whelton, Seamus P; Blumenthal, Roger S; Nasir, Khurram; Schairer, John R; Brawner, Clinton; Alam, Mohsen; Keteyian, Steven J; Blaha, Michael J

    2014-12-01

    To examine the prognostic value of exercise capacity in patients with nonrevascularized and revascularized coronary artery disease (CAD) seen in routine clinical practice. We analyzed 9852 adults with known CAD (mean ± SD age, 61±12 years; 69% men [n=6836], 31% black race [n=3005]) from The Henry Ford ExercIse Testing (FIT) Project, a retrospective cohort study of patients who underwent physician-referred stress testing at a single health care system between January 1, 1991, and May 31, 2009. Patients were categorized by revascularization status (nonrevascularized, percutaneous coronary intervention [PCI], or coronary artery bypass graft [CABG] surgery) and by metabolic equivalents (METs) achieved on stress testing. Using Cox regression models, hazard ratios for mortality, myocardial infarction (MI), and downstream revascularizations were calculated after adjusting for potential confounders, including cardiac risk factors, pertinent medications, and stress testing indication. There were 3824 all-cause deaths during median follow-up of 11.5 years. In addition, 1880 MIs, and 1930 revascularizations were ascertained. Each 1-MET increment in exercise capacity was associated with a hazard ratio (95% CI) of 0.87 (0.85-0.89), 0.87 (0.85-0.90), and 0.86 (0.84-0.89) for mortality; 0.98 (0.96-1.01), 0.88 (0.84-0.92), and 0.93 (0.90-0.97) for MI; and 0.94 (0.92-0.96), 0.91 (0.88-0.95), and 0.96 (0.92-0.99) for downstream revascularizations in the nonrevascularized, PCI, and CABG groups, respectively. In each MET category, the nonrevascularized group had similar mortality risk as and higher MI and downstream revascularization risk than the PCI and CABG surgery groups (P<.05). Exercise capacity was a strong predictor of mortality, MI, and downstream revascularizations in this cohort. Furthermore, patients with similar exercise capacities had an equivalent mortality risk, irrespective of baseline revascularization status. Copyright © 2014 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education

  18. Predictors of exercise capacity and everyday activity in older heart failure patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witham, Miles D; Argo, Ishbel S; Johnston, Derek W; Struthers, Allan D; McMurdo, Marion E T

    2006-03-01

    Exercise capacity and daily activity are key outcomes for older, frail heart failure patients. Little is known about the determinants of these outcomes in this patient group. To explore predictors of exercise capacity and daily activity in older, frail heart failure patients. Analysis of prospectively collected data from a cohort of 82 patients aged 70 years and over, enrolled in a randomised controlled trial of exercise in heart failure patients. Pathophysiological, demographic, psychological and social factors were analysed by multivariate regression to determine predictors of exercise capacity (6-min walk distance) and daily activity (daily accelerometer counts). Between 49% and 55% of the variance in 6-min walk distance was explained by variables including New York Heart Association class, depression score, attitude to ageing and use of walking aids. Only 11% to 26% of the variance in accelerometer scores was explained by the model; 6-min walk distance was the only consistent predictor of daily activity. Physical, psychological and attitudinal variables contribute to variance of the 6-min walk. Six-minute walk distance predicts a small amount of the variance in daily activity, but the majority of variance in daily activity remains unexplained and requires further investigation.

  19. The Influence of Various Types of Water Gymnastics Upon the Exercise Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana BADAU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Between the components of the physiological capacity and the practice degree of the physical exercise is a direct interrelation, which is influenced by a number of factors, out of which deployment environment with its features has a leading role. Determining the relationship between the effort capacity by heart rate changes during recovery after exercise, determining the body aerobic resistance level, as a result of the entertaining and recreational activities, specifically, performed in different environments: terrestrial and aquatic, using adapted exercises and innovative materials, that require various and specific efforts. The study was conducted during the academic year 2012-2013, with the female students in the first year of the non-profile faculties and comprised two experimental groups of 24 subjects each, from UMF Tg. Mures, who carried out specific water gymnastics activities, during physical education classes and a control group composed of 47 female students from Transilvania University of Brasov, who carried out the following: entertaining and recreational activities, application exercises, overall physical development free exercises or with portable objects. During the research, the Ruffier test was applied with target on the body aerobic resistance level. Following the research performance, the Ruffier index recorded the biggest difference of the averages of 1.75, after practicing aqua-pullpush-gym activities.

  20. Exercise capacity in children with isolated congenital complete atrioventricular block: does pacing make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, A Christian; Hakim, Sara; Strengers, Jan L; Tanke, Ronald B; van Veen, Toon A; Vos, Marc A; Takken, Tim

    2012-04-01

    The management of patients with isolated congenital complete atrioventricular block (CCAVB) has changed during the last decades. The current policy is to pace the majority of patients based on a variety of criteria, among which is limited exercise capacity. Data regarding exercise capacity in this population stems from previous publications reporting small case series of unpaced patients. Therefore, we have investigated the exercise capacity of a group of contemporary children with CCAVB. Sixteen children (mean age 11.5 ± 4; seven boys, nine girls) with CCAVB were tested. In 13 patients, a median number of three pacemakers were implanted, whereas in three patients no pacemaker was given. All patients had an echocardiogram and completed a cardiopulmonary cycle exercise test. Exercise parameters were determined and compared with reference values obtained from healthy Dutch peers. The peak oxygen uptake/body mass was reduced to 34.4 ± 9.5 ml kg(-1) min(-1) (79 ± 24% of predicted) and the ventilatory threshold was reduced to 52 ± 17% of peak oxygen uptake (78 ± 21% of predicted), whereas the peak work load/body mass was 2.8 ± 0.6 W/kg (91 ± 24% of predicted), which was similar to controls. Importantly, 25% of the paced patients showed upper rate restriction by the pacemaker. In conclusion, children with CCAVB show a reduced peak oxygen uptake and ventilatory threshold, whereas they show normal peak work rates. This indicates that they generate more energy during exercise from anaerobic energy sources. Paced children with CCAVB do not perform better than unpaced children.

  1. Carbohydrate- and protein-rich diets in McArdle disease: Effects on exercise capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, S.T.; Vissing, J.

    2008-01-01

    metabolism during exercise, which questions the effect of protein in McArdle disease. METHODS: In a crossover, open design, we studied 7 patients with McArdle disease, who were randomised to follow either a carbohydrate- or protein-rich diet for three days before testing. Caloric intake on each diet...... was identical, and was adjusted to the subject's weight, age and sex. After each diet, exercise tolerance and maximal work capacity were tested on a bicycle ergometer, using a constant workload for 15 minutes followed by an incremental workload to exhaustion. RESULTS: During the constant workload, heart rate...

  2. Cardiopulmonary Function, Exercise Capacity, and Echocardiography Finding of Pediatric Patients With Kawasaki Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Tuan, Sheng-Hui; Li, Min-Hui; Hsu, Miao-Ju; Tsai, Yun-Jeng; Chen, Yin-Han; Liao, Tin-Yun; Lin, Ko-Long

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Coronary artery (CA) abnormalities influence exercise capacity (EC) of patients with Kawasaki disease (KD), and Z-score of CA is a well established method for detecting CA aneurysm. We studied the influence of KD on cardiopulmonary function and EC; meanwhile we analyzed echocardiographic findings of KD patients. We also assessed the correlation between CA Z-score and EC of KD patients to see if CA Z-score of KD patients could reflect EC during exercise. Sixty-three KD patients were r...

  3. Structured Exercise Program is Feasible and Improves Functional Capacity among Older Adults in Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo J Hernandez Soto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Physical inactivity is a major risk factor affecting overall health and functional capacity among older adults. In this study we evaluated functional capacity in 22 older adults in Puerto Rico (mean age ± standard deviation = 73.3 ± 8.2 years before, during and after eight weeks participation in a structured exercise program. Functional capacity was evaluated using a field test battery (body composition, flexibility, coordination, agility and balance, muscle endurance and cardiorespiratory endurance validated for this population. Also, cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max and blood lipid levels were evaluated in a sub-sample (n = 7. A repeated measures ANOVA was used to detect changes in functional capacity before, during and after the exercise program. A paired t-test was used to evaluate changes in VO2max and lipids before and after the program. Flexibility improved significantly during the exercise program (51.6 ± 12.2 vs. 57.7 ± 8.1 cm, p=0.04 and this change was sustained at the end of the program (54.4 ± 10.2 cm. At eight weeks into the program, time in the agility and balance test improved by two seconds and muscle endurance improved by five repetitions (p<0.05 for all. No changes were observed in body composition, coordination, VO2max and lipid levels (p>0.05. These results suggest that participation in a structured exercise program for eight weeks can positively impact factors that improve movement capacity in older adults.

  4. Arterial desaturation during exercise in man: implication for O2 uptake and work capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Henning Bay

    2003-12-01

    Exercise-induced arterial hypoxaemia is defined as a reduction in the arterial O2 pressure (PaO2) by more than 1 kPa and/or a haemoglobin O2 saturation (SaO2) below 95%. With blood gas analyses ideally reported at the actual body temperature, desaturation is a consistent finding during maximal ergometer rowing. Arterial desaturation is most pronounced at the end of a maximal exercise bout, whereas the reduction in PaO2 is established from the onset of exercise. Exercise-induced arterial hypoxaemia is multifactorial. The ability to maintain a high alveolar O2 pressure (PAO2) is critical for blood oxygenation and this appears to be difficult in large individuals. A large lung capacity and, in turn, diffusion capacity seem to protect PaO2. A widening of the PAO2-PaO2 difference does indicate that a diffusion limitation, a ventilation-perfusion mismatch and/or a shunt influence the transport of O2 from alveoli to the pulmonary capillaries. An inspired O2 fraction of 0.30 reduces the widened PAO2-PaO2 difference by 75% and prevents a reduction of PaO2 and SaO2. With a marked increase in cardiac output, diffusion limitation combined with a fast transit time dominates the O2 transport problem. Furthermore, a postexercise reduction in pulmonary diffusion capacity suggests that the alveolo-capillary membrane is affected. An antioxidant attenuates oxidative burst by neutrophilic granulocytes, but it does not affect PaO2, SaO2 or O2 uptake (VO2), and the ventilatory response to maximal exercise also remains the same. It is proposed, though, that increased concentration of certain cytokines correlates to exercise-induced hypoxaemia as cytokines stimulate mast cells and basophilic granulocytes to degranulate histamine. The basophil count increases during maximal rowing. Equally, histamine release is associated with hypoxaemia and when the release of histamine is prevented, the reduction in PaO2 is attenuated. During maximal exercise, an extreme lactate spill-over to blood

  5. Is an elevated submaximal heart rate associated with psychomotor slowness in young elite soccer players?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, Michel S.; Visscher, Chris; Schmikli, Sandor L.; Nederhof, E.; Lemmink, Koen A. P. M.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to find early markers for overreaching that are applicable in sport practice. In a group of elite soccer players aged 1518, the stressrecovery balance and reaction times before and after exercise were assessed. Overreaching was indicated by an elevated submaximal

  6. The effect of core stability exercises on functional capacity and fatigue in patients with multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosein Shahrokhi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background : Multiple sclerosis (MS is a chronic progressive disease on the central nervous system with signs and symptoms such as fatigue and reduced functional capacity. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of core stability exercises on functional capacity and fatigue in patients with multiple sclerosis. Materials and Methods: The present quasi-experimental study used a pretest-posttest design. The subjects with the age of 20-40, expanded disability status scale (EDSS 1-4 and purposefully and voluntarily selected and randomly allocated to the experimental and control groups. Training program for groups were carried out in eight weeks, three sessions per week and each session one hour. Functional reach test (FR was used to measure functional capacity and Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS was used to measure fatigue. The data were analyzed by paired and independent sample t-test at a significance level of 0.05. Results: The results showed that core stability training led to a significant increase in functional capacity and a significant reduction in fatigue (P≤ 0.05. Also significant differences observed in functional capacity and fatigue scale in post-test between experimental and control groups (P≤ 0.05. Conclusion: According to research findings, the core stability exercises can be factor for considerable improvement in functional capacity and reduced fatigue in patients with multiple sclerosis.   . Furthermore, the respective specialists can use these exercise as a complementary treatment along with the drug therapy for patients with multiple sclerosis.

  7. Impact of home-based aerobic exercise on the physical capacity of overweight patients with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoike, Danilo Takashi; Baria, Flavia; Kamimura, Maria Ayako; Ammirati, Adriano; de Mello, Marco Túlio; Cuppari, Lilian

    2015-02-01

    Home-based exercise has been shown to provide benefits in terms of physical capacity in the general population, but has been scarcely investigated in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). To evaluate the impact of a home-based aerobic training on the cardiopulmonary and functional capacities of overweight non-dialysis-dependent patients with CKD (NDD-CKD). Twenty-nine sedentary patients (55.1 ± 11.6 years, BMI = 31.2 ± 6.1 kg/m(2), eGFR = 26.9 ± 17.4 mL/min/1.73 m(2)) were randomly assigned to a home-based exercise group (n = 14) or to a control group (n = 15) that remained without performing exercise. Aerobic training was performed three times per week for 12 weeks. A cardiopulmonary exercise test, functional capacity and clinical parameters were evaluated. A significant increase, ranging from 8.3 to 17 %, was observed in the cardiopulmonary capacity parameters, such as maximal ventilation (p = 0.005), VO2peak (p = 0.049), ventilatory threshold (p = 0.040) and respiratory compensation point (p exercise group. A simultaneous improvement in the functional capacity tests [6-min walk test (p exercise. Exercised patients experienced a decrease in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, average 10.6 % (p aerobic exercise program was feasible, safe and effective for the improvement in the cardiopulmonary and functional capacities of overweight NDD-CKD patients.

  8. Association Between Exercise Capacity and Late Onset of Dementia, Alzheimer Disease, and Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Jan; Chan, Khin; Myers, Jonathan N

    2017-02-01

    To address the association between exercise capacity and the onset of dementia, Alzheimer disease, and cognitive impairment. For 6104 consecutive veteran patients (mean ± SD age: 59.2±11.4 years) referred for treadmill exercise testing, the combined end point of dementia, Alzheimer disease, and cognitive impairment was abstracted from the Veterans Affairs computerized patient record system. After mean ± SD follow-up of 10.3±5.5 years, 353 patients (5.8%) developed the composite end point at a mean ± SD age of 76.7±10.3 years. After correction for confounders in multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression, higher age at exercise testing (hazard ratio [HR]=1.08; 95% CI, 1.07-1.09; Pcare providers to promote physical activity. Copyright © 2016 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Diminished exercise capacity and mitochondrial bc1 complex deficiency in tafazzin-knockdown mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corey ePowers

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The phospholipid, cardiolipin, is essential for maintaining mitochondrial structure and optimal function. Cardiolipin-deficiency in humans, Barth syndrome, is characterized by exercise intolerance, dilated cardiomyopathy, neutropenia and 3-methyl-glutaconic aciduria. The causative gene is the mitochondrial acyl-transferase, tafazzin that is essential for remodeling acyl chains of cardiolipin. We sought to determine metabolic rates in tafazzin-deficient mice during resting and exercise, and investigate the impact of cardiolipin deficiency on mitochondrial respiratory chain activities. Tafazzin knockdown in mice markedly impaired oxygen consumption rates during an exercise, without any significant effect on resting metabolic rates. CL-deficiency resulted in significant reduction of mitochondrial respiratory reserve capacity in neonatal cardiomyocytes that is likely to be caused by diminished activity of complex-III, which requires CL for its assembly and optimal activity. Our results may provide mechanistic insights of Barth syndrome pathogenesis.

  10. Relationship Between Reverse Remodeling and Cardiopulmonary Exercise Capacity in Heart Failure Patients Undergoing Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mastenbroek, Mirjam H; Sant, Jetske Van't; Versteeg, Henneke

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies on the relationship between left ventricular reverse remodeling and cardiopulmonary exercise capacity in heart failure patients undergoing cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) are scarce and inconclusive. METHODS AND RESULTS: Eighty-four patients with a 1st-time CRT...... response (left ventricular end-systolic volume decrease ≥15%) and a comprehensive set of CPX results was examined. Echocardiographic responders (54%) demonstrated higher peak oxygen consumption and better exercise performance than nonresponders at baseline and at 6-month follow-up. Furthermore, only...... correlates of higher average oxygen consumption during exercise, and that nonischemic etiology and smaller pre-implantation QRS width were associated with better ventilatory efficiency over time. CONCLUSIONS: During the first 6 months of CRT there was a significant positive association between reverse...

  11. Effects of solar radiation on endurance exercise capacity in a hot environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Hidenori; Kaya, Mitsuharu; Tamaki, Akira; Watson, Phillip; Maughan, Ronald J

    2016-04-01

    The present study investigated the effects of variations in solar radiation on endurance exercise capacity and thermoregulatory responses in a hot environment. Eight male volunteers performed four cycle exercise trials at 70 % maximum oxygen uptake until exhaustion in an environmental chamber maintained at 30 °C and 50 % relative humidity. Volunteers were tested under four solar radiation conditions: 800, 500, 250 and 0 W/m(2). Exercise time to exhaustion was less on the 800 W/m(2) trial (23 ± 4 min) than on all the other trials (500 W/m(2) 30 ± 7 min; P 0.05). Mean skin temperature was higher on the 800 W/m(2) trial than the 250 and 0 W/m(2) trials (P solar radiation increases.

  12. Effects of exercise mode and participant sex on measures of anaerobic capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, D W; Vingren, J L

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare values of maximal accumulated oxygen deficit (MAOD; a measure of anaerobic capacity) and peak post-exercise blood lactate concentration ([lactate]; a reflection of glycolytic contribution) in running and cycling, in women and men. One hundred and nineteen women and 104 men performed an exhaustive treadmill test of ~5 min duration; 106 women and 110 men performed an exhaustive cycle ergometer test of ~5 min duration. Oxygen demands for the exhaustive exercise tests were estimated by extrapolation from steady state VO2 values. For running, an upwardly curvilinear relationship between demand and speed (i.e., with demand a function of speed1.05) was used. For cycling, a linear relationship between demand and work rate was used. The MAOD was 22% higher (Panaerobic capacity in running, and explains the relatively small difference in blood [lactate] in running compared to cycling.

  13. The effects of a pilates-aerobic program on maximum exercise capacity of adult women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Mikalački

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Physical exercise such as the Pilates method offers clinical benefits on the aging process. Likewise, physiologic parameters may be improved through aerobic exercise. Methods: In order to compare the differences of a Pilates-Aerobic intervention program on physiologic parameters such as the maximum heart rate (HRmax, relative maximal oxygen consumption (relative VO2max and absolute (absolute VOmax, maximum heart rate during maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max-HRmax, maximum minute volume (VE and forced vital capacity (FVC, a total of 64 adult women (active group = 48.1 ± 6.7 years; control group = 47.2 ± 7.4 years participated in the study. The physiological parameters, the maximal speed and total duration of test were measured by maximum exercise capacity testing through Bruce protocol. The HRmax was calculated by a cardio-ergometric software. Pulmonary function tests, maximal speed and total time during the physical test were performed in a treadmill (Medisoft, model 870c. Likewise, the spirometry analyzed the impact on oxygen uptake parameters, including FVC and VE. Results: The VO2max (relative and absolute, VE (all, P<0.001, VO2max-HRmax (P<0.05 and maximal speed of treadmill test (P<0.001 showed significant difference in the active group after a physical exercise interventional program. Conclusion: The present study indicates that the Pilates exercises through a continuous training program might significantly improve the cardiovascular system. Hence, mixing strength and aerobic exercises into a training program is considered the optimal mechanism for healthy aging.

  14. Capacity for Moderate Exercise in Obese Subjects after Adaptation to a Hypocaloric, Ketogenic Diet

    OpenAIRE

    Phinney, Stephen D.; Edward S Horton; Sims, Ethan A. H.; Hanson, John S.; Danforth, Elliot; Lagrange, Betty M.

    1980-01-01

    To study the capacity for moderate endurance exercise and change in metabolic fuel utilization during adaptation to a ketogenic diet, six moderately obese, untrained subjects were fed a eucaloric, balanced diet (base line) for 2 wk, followed by 6 wk of a protein-supplemented fast (PSF), which provided 1.2 g of protein/kg ideal body wt, supplemented with minerals and vitamins. The mean weight loss was 10.6 kg.

  15. Respiratory and skeletal muscle strength in COPD: Impact on exercise capacity and lower extremity function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Jonathan; Yelin, Edward H.; Katz, Patricia P.; Sanchez, Gabriela; Iribarren, Carlos; Eisner, Mark D.; Blanc, Paul D.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE We sought to quantify the impact of respiratory muscle and lower extremity strength on exercise capacity and lower extremity function in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). METHODS In 828 persons with COPD, we assessed the impact of reduced respiratory (maximum inspiratory pressure, MIP) and lower extremity muscle strength (quadriceps, QS) on exercise capacity (6 Minute Walk Distance, 6MWT) and lower extremity function (LEF, Short Physical Performance Battery). Multiple regression analyses taking into account key covariates, including lung function and smoking, tested the associations between muscle strength and exercise and functional capacity. RESULTS For each ½ standard deviation (0.5 SD) decrement in QS, men walked 18.3 meters less during 6MWT (95% CI −24.1 to −12.4); women 25.1 meters less (95% CI −31.1 to −12.4). For each 0.5 SD decrement in MIP, men walked 9.4 meters less during 6MWT (95% CI – 15.2 to −3.6); women 8.7 meters less (95% CI −14.1 to −3.4). For each 0.5 SD decrease in QS, men had a 1.32 higher odds (95% CI: 1.11 to 1.15) of poor LEF; women, 1.87 higher odds (95% CI: 1.54 to 2.27). Lower MIP (per 0.5 SD) was associated with increased odds of poor LEF in women (OR 1.18, 95% CI: 1.00 to 1.39), but not in men (OR 1.10, 95% CI: 0.93 to 1.31). CONCLUSION In COPD, reduced respiratory and lower extremity muscle strength are associated with decreased exercise and functional capacity. Muscle weakness is likely an important component of impairment and disability in patients with COPD. PMID:21240003

  16. Special Training of Inspiratory Muscles in Fitness Activities and Exercise Capacity in Young Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishchenko Viktor

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of the study was to determine if an 8-week-long endurance fitness training with elastic belts would increase the strength-endurance of the inspiratory muscles and lung function characteristics, and to assess whether these changes were consistent with an increase in aerobic power and exercise capacity in healthy young women. Methods. Twenty-two females aged 20-25 years were randomly allocated into 2 groups. The experimental group preformed 8-week-long exercises on stationary bikes with an elastic belt on the lower part of the chest. The control group underwent the same workout, without elastic belts. Vital capacity, forced vital capacity, maximal voluntary ventilation, maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressure, sustained maximal inspiratory pressure, physical activity status, and perceived exertion scores were measured. In the incremental exercise test, work capacity and maximal oxygen uptake were assessed. Tidal volume, minute ventilation (VE, oxygen uptake (VO2, VE/VO2, heart rate (HR, and VO2/HR were continuously monitored. The cycle performance at the power of the ventilatory threshold was evaluated on the following day. Results. The fitness training with elastic belts significantly improved the strength and strength-endurance of the inspiratory muscles, the functional cardio-respiratory capabilities, and aerobic work output. In the control group, the studied parameters were not significantly increased. Conclusions. Applying elastic belts to fitness endurance exercises improves the strength and strength-endurance of inspiratory muscles, cardio-respiratory capabilities, and aerobic power, which additionally raises aerobic work output in fitness training of young women.

  17. The effect of obesity on dyspnea, exercise capacity, walk work and workload in patients with COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şahin, Hülya; Naz, İlknur; Varol, Yelda; Kömürcüoğlu, Berna

    2017-09-01

    COPD and obesity are major public health problems that cause mortality and morbidity all over the world. The combined of COPD and obesity is predicted to increase further in the coming years. Obesity primarily affects the pulmonary system by altering respiratory functions, exercise capacity, pulmonary gas exchange, and endurance and power of respiratory muscles. In this study, we aimed to compare the dyspnea sensation, exercise capacity, walk work and workload in obese COPD patients compared to preobese and normal overweight COPD patients. 218 patients with COPD were included in the study. According to the WHO criteria for body mass index (BMI), the patients were classified as normal-weight (BMI=18.5-24.9 kg/m2), pre-obese (BMI= 25-29.9 kg/m2) and obese (BMI= 30-39.9 kg/m2). All patient respiratory function tests and arterial blood gas analysis were performed. The mMRC dyspnea scale was used to assess the dyspnoea of the patients. The exercise capacities of the patients were determined by the 6-min walking test. Walk work and workload were calculated based on 6 minutes walking distance. The obtained values were compared between the three groups. The FEV1/FVC ratio and TLCO value in pulmonary function tests are significantly higher in obese COPD patients than in other patients, while the VC value is significantly lower in patients with COPD (p= 0.001, pfunction tests of patients with COPD. At the same time, it increases walkwork and workload. Despite all these changes, it has no negative effect on dyspnea perception and exercise capacity.

  18. Sleep characteristics, exercise capacity and physical activity in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerenhouts, Dirk; Ickmans, Kelly; Clarys, Peter; Zinzen, Evert; Meersdom, Geert; Lambrecht, Luc; Nijs, Jo

    2015-01-01

    Unrefreshing sleep and lowered physical activity are commonly observed in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) patients, but how they might influence each other remains unexplored. Therefore, this study simultaneously examined the exercise capacity, sleep characteristics and physical activity in CFS patients. Handgrip strength and cycle exercise capacity were assessed in 42 female CFS patients and 24 inactive control subjects. During four consecutive days and nights, energy expenditure, activity and sleep-wake pattern were objectively registered using a Sensewear Armband. Exercise capacity was significantly lower in CFS patients. In both groups VO2peak correlated with the time subjects were physically active. In CFS patients only, VO2peak correlated negatively with sleeping during the day whilst physical activity level and energy expenditure correlated negatively with sleep latency and lying awake at night. In the present study, CFS patients with higher VO2peak tend to sleep less over day. Occupation in physical activities was negatively associated with sleep latency and lying awake at night. Increased physical activity potentially has beneficial effects on sleep quality in CFS. However, a close monitoring of the effects of increasing physical activity is essential to avoid negative effects on the health status of patients. Female patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) have normal sleep latency and sleep efficiency, but sleep more and spent more time in bed as compared to healthy inactive women. Female CFS patients have lower exercise capacity, and a lower physical activity level as compared to healthy inactive women. CFS patients appear to be more sensitive for sleep quality (sleep latency and lying awake at night), which is associated with a low physical activity level.

  19. Aortic valve prosthesis-patient mismatch and exercise capacity in adult patients with congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Slooten, Ymkje J; van Melle, Joost P; Freling, Hendrik G; Bouma, Berto J; van Dijk, Arie Pj; Jongbloed, Monique Rm; Post, Martijn C; Sieswerda, Gertjan T; Huis In 't Veld, Anna; Ebels, Tjark; Voors, Adriaan A; Pieper, Petronella G

    2016-01-01

    To report the prevalence of aortic valve prosthesis-patient mismatch (PPM) in an adult population with congenital heart disease (CHD) and its impact on exercise capacity. Adults with congenital heart disease (ACHD) with a history of aortic valve replacement may outgrow their prosthesis later in life. However, the prevalence and clinical consequences of aortic PPM in ACHD are presently unknown. From the national Dutch Congenital Corvitia (CONCOR) registry, we identified 207 ACHD with an aortic valve prosthesis for this cross-sectional cohort study. Severe PPM was defined as an indexed effective orifice area ≤0.65 cm2/m2 and moderate PPM as an indexed orifice area ≤0.85 cm2/m2 measured using echocardiography. Exercise capacity was reported as percentage of predicted exercise capacity (PPEC). Of the 207 patients, 68% was male, 71% had a mechanical prosthesis and mean age at inclusion was 43.9 years ±11.4. The prevalence of PPM was 42%, comprising 23% severe PPM and 19% moderate PPM. Prevalence of PPM was higher in patients with mechanical prostheses (pHeart Association (NYHA) class remained stable in most patients. PPM showed no significant effect on death or hospitalisation during follow-up (p=0.218). In this study we report a high prevalence (42%) of PPM in ACHD with an aortic valve prosthesis and an independent association of PPM with diminished exercise capacity. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  20. A new submaximal cycle ergometer test for prediction of VO2max.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekblom-Bak, E; Björkman, F; Hellenius, M-L; Ekblom, B

    2014-04-01

    Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) is an important, independent predictor of cardiovascular health and mortality. Despite this, it is rarely measured in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to create and evaluate a submaximal cycle ergometry test based on change in heart rate (HR) between a lower standard work rate and an individually chosen higher work rate. In a mixed population (n = 143) with regard to sex (55% women), age (21-65 years), and activity status (inactive to highly active), a model included change in HR per unit change in power, sex, and age for the best estimate of VO2max. The association between estimated and observed VO2max for the mixed sample was r = 0.91, standard error of estimate = 0.302 L/min, and mean measured VO2max = 3.23 L/min. The corresponding coefficient of variation was 9.3%, a significantly improved precision compared with one of the most commonly used submaximal exercise tests, the Åstrand test, which in the present study was estimated to be 18.1%. Test-retest reliability analysis over 1 week revealed no mean difference in the estimated VO2max (-0.02 L/min, 95% confidence interval: -0.07-0.03). The new test is low-risk, easily administered, and valid for a wide capacity range, and is therefore suitable in situations as health evaluations in the general population. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Application of a nomogram for exercise capacity in women with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazel, E M; Bernatsky, S; Da Costa, D; Dasgupta, K; Clarke, A E; Joseph, L; St Pierre, Y; Pineau, C A

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the exercise capacity in women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Women with SLE underwent exercise testing; their performance was compared to nomogram predictions. We assessed the potential effects of disease activity and cumulative damage on exercise capacity. We evaluated 52 female SLE patients aged >35 years. The mean workload achieved was somewhat higher than the nomogram predictions. However, over one fifth of the women performed at a very poor level, which in the general population is associated with a twofold increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Compared to other subjects, participants who did poorly tended toward higher disease activity, higher body mass index, and greater smoking prevalence, although the results were not definitive. Exercise testing may be used to identify a subpopulation of lupus patients with a low level of fitness. Extrapolating from general population data, these individuals are likely at particular risk for cardiovascular disease and may, therefore, benefit the most from aggressive cardiovascular risk factor reduction.

  2. Effects of exercise training on cardiac performance, exercise capacity and quality of life in patients with heart failure: a meta-analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, B.A. van; Huijsmans, R.J.; Kroon, D.W.; Schothorst, M.; Kwakkel, G.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite major advances in pharmacological treatment of chronic heart failure (CHF), a number of patients still suffer from dyspnoea, fatigue, diminished exercise capacity and poor quality of life. It is in this context that exercise training is being intensively evaluated for any

  3. The relationship between sleep quality and functional exercise capacity in COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rui; Tian, Jing-Wei; Zhou, Lu-Qian; Chen, Xin; Yan, Hai-Yan; Zeng, Bin; Zhang, Ming-Sheng

    2016-07-01

    Poor sleep is often associated with a series of health problems in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but the relationship between sleep quality and functional exercise capacity has not been previously investigated. To evaluate the relationship between quality of sleep and functional exercise capacity in clinically stable COPD. One hundred three consecutive subjects with stable COPD were recruited. The subjects were assessed with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and divided into poor sleep group (PSQI >5) and good sleep group (PSQI ≤5). Subjects were also assessed with spirometry, 6-min walk distance (6MWD), oxygen saturation (SP O2 ), the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, COPD Assessment Test (CAT), Modified Medical Research Council dyspnea scale and quadriceps muscle function. Poor sleep was present in 43.69% of the patients with COPD. Subjects with poor sleep had shorter 6MWD (t = -3.588, P quality of life (t = 5.487, P sleep quality and functional exercise capacity in patients with COPD. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Improved exercise capacity in the heat followed by coconut water consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Laitano

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of prior ingestion of coconut water on fluid retention and exercise capacity in the heat as well as signs of gastrointestinal distress. Eight physically active men were recruited (age 23 ± 3 years, height 176 ± 6 cm, body mass 78 ± 7 kg and performed three exercise capacity trials on a cycle ergometer in the heat (34 ± 1°C after the ingestion of one of the following drinks: a plain water (PW, b flavored drink (FD, and c coconut water (CW. Ingestion of CWresulted in a longer time to exhaustion (p=0.029. Likewise, participants achieved a higher heart rate in the CW session when compared to the other trials (PW 183 ± 5 bpm, FD 184 ± 8 bpm, and CW 189 ± 8 bpm, p<0.05 and a reduced urine output after the coconut water ingestion (PW 214 ± 85 ml, FD 267 ± 90 ml, and CW 161 ± 73 ml, p<0.05 indicating a higher fluid retention of coconut water in comparison to plain water and the flavored drink. These results demonstrate that previous ingestion of coconut water improves exercise capacity in the heat and provide a reduced urine output in comparison to plain water and flavored drink. Also there is no evidence for GI distress.

  5. Exercise Capacity Long-Term after Arterial Switch Operation for Transposition of the Great Arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samos, Flávia; Fuenmayor, Gabriela; Hossri, Carlos; Elias, Patrícia; Ponce, Leandro; Souza, Rogério; Jatene, Ieda

    2016-01-01

    Transposition of the great arteries (TGA) is a congenital heart defect successfully corrected through arterial switch operation (ASO). Although this technique had significant impact in improving survival, little is known about the functional capacity of the operated patients long-term after surgery. The aim of this study was to compare the functional capacity of children with TGA long-term after ASO with that of healthy children. Retrospective study. All patients that performed cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) were included in the study. As a control group, healthy children in evaluation for physical activity that performed CPET during the same period were also enrolled. Thirty-one TGA patients (19 male) were compared with 29 age-matched controls (21 male). Maximum oxygen consumption was higher in the control group (45.47 ± 8.05 vs. 40.52 ± 7.19, P = .017), although within normal limits in both groups (above 90% of predicted value). The heart rate behavior during exercise was different in both groups, with a mean chronotropic index significantly lower in the TGA group (63% ± 14 vs. 81% ± 12, P exercise capacity long-term after ASO in TGA is well preserved although lower than in healthy children what might be explained by the presence of chronotropic incompetence in the TGA group. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Heart rate recovery in elite athletes: the impact of age and exercise capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzic Lazic, Jelena; Dekleva, Milica; Soldatovic, Ivan; Leischik, Roman; Suzic, Slavica; Radovanovic, Dragan; Djuric, Biljana; Nesic, Dejan; Lazic, Milivoje; Mazic, Sanja

    2017-03-01

    There is compelling evidence that postexercise heart rate recovery (HRR) is a valid indicator of sympaticovagal balance. It is also used in prescription and monitoring of athletic training. The purpose of our study was to determine HRR after maximal exercise among elite athletes with respect to age. A total of 274 elite male Caucasian athletes were randomly selected from the larger sample and divided into two groups: adolescent (group Y) and adult athletes (≥18 years; group A). They performed maximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing on a treadmill. Heart rate recovery was calculated as the rate of decline of HR from peak exercise to rates 1, 2 and 3 min after cessation of exercise (HRR1, HRR2 and HRR3). A significantly higher HRR1 was found in group A (29·5 ± 15·6 versus 22·4 ± 10·8, Pathletes. The HRR during 3 min postexercise should be reported for the purpose of better assessing functional adaptation to exercise among elite athletes as well as the age-associated differences in recovery. Higher values of HRR1 should be expected in older athletes, and HRR3 could be used as an index of aerobic capacity, irrespective of age. © 2015 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. The effects of hydralazine on exercise capacity in pulmonary hypertension secondary to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Nogare, A R; Rubin, L J

    1986-03-01

    Vasodilator therapy of pulmonary hypertension has been shown to improve hemodynamics in some patients, but the clinical benefits of this therapy have not been evaluated. We studied 14 patients who had pulmonary hypertension secondary to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease to determine the effect of hydralazine treatment on hemodynamics and maximal exercise. Baseline exercise in these subjects showed an abnormal pattern of excessive tachycardia and low stroke volumes, and the stroke volume correlated inversely with the pulmonary vascular resistance during exercise (r = -0.61, p less than 0.05). After 48 h of hydralazine there were decreases in the mean pulmonary artery pressure (43 +/- 8 to 38 +/- 8 mmHg, p less than 0.06) and pulmonary vascular resistance (3.97 +/- 0.97 to 2.88 +/- 1.28 units, p less than 0.05) measured at maximal exercise, and the maximal cardiac output was increased (8.05 +/- 2.57 to 10.13 +/- 2.79 L/min, p less than 0.05), but there was no change in symptom-limited maximal oxygen consumption (747 +/- 266 to 752 +/- 244 ml/min, p = NS). Significant increases in resting and maximal exercise values of minute ventilation and mixed venous oxygen tension were also noted with hydralazine. Repeat exercise testing after 2 to 4 months of chronic hydralazine therapy demonstrated no change in symptom-limited maximal oxygen consumption. We conclude that vasodilator therapy with hydralazine, although hemodynamically efficacious, does not increase exercise capacity in patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and secondary pulmonary hypertension.

  8. Effects of exercise on functional aerobic capacity in adults with fibromyalgia syndrome: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

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    García-Hermoso, Antonio; Saavedra, Jose M; Escalante, Yolanda

    2015-01-01

    Patients with fibromyalgia present a reduced capacity of upper and lower limb physical performance and affect their independence in performing everyday activities. The purpose of the present systematic review was to summarize evidence for the effectiveness and structure of exercise programs on functional aerobic capacity in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome. Keyword searches were made of seven databases. The systematic review was limited to English language studies of people with FM that evaluated the effects of exercise programs on functional aerobic capacity (6-minute walk test). The criteria for inclusion were satisfied by 12 randomized controlled trial (RCT) studies. The main cumulative evidence indicates that the programs based on aerobic exercise alone and on aquatic exercises have large (effect size = 0.85) and moderate (effect size = 0.44) effects. Aerobic and aquatic exercises at the proper intensity favour the increased functional aerobic capacity of fibromyalgia patients; however, most works do not adequately detail the intensity of the exercises. Moderate intensity exercise (aerobic and aquatic exercise) performed at least two times per week and 30-60 minutes a day is effective for increasing functional aerobic capacity, favouring the daily activities of daily living in this population.

  9. Restoration of Muscle Glycogen and Functional Capacity: Role of Post-Exercise Carbohydrate and Protein Co-Ingestion

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    Abdullah F. Alghannam

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The importance of post-exercise recovery nutrition has been well described in recent years, leading to its incorporation as an integral part of training regimes in both athletes and active individuals. Muscle glycogen depletion during an initial prolonged exercise bout is a main factor in the onset of fatigue and so the replenishment of glycogen stores may be important for recovery of functional capacity. Nevertheless, nutritional considerations for optimal short-term (3–6 h recovery remain incompletely elucidated, particularly surrounding the precise amount of specific types of nutrients required. Current nutritional guidelines to maximise muscle glycogen availability within limited recovery are provided under the assumption that similar fatigue mechanisms (i.e., muscle glycogen depletion are involved during a repeated exercise bout. Indeed, recent data support the notion that muscle glycogen availability is a determinant of subsequent endurance capacity following limited recovery. Thus, carbohydrate ingestion can be utilised to influence the restoration of endurance capacity following exhaustive exercise. One strategy with the potential to accelerate muscle glycogen resynthesis and/or functional capacity beyond merely ingesting adequate carbohydrate is the co-ingestion of added protein. While numerous studies have been instigated, a consensus that is related to the influence of carbohydrate-protein ingestion in maximising muscle glycogen during short-term recovery and repeated exercise capacity has not been established. When considered collectively, carbohydrate intake during limited recovery appears to primarily determine muscle glycogen resynthesis and repeated exercise capacity. Thus, when the goal is to optimise repeated exercise capacity following short-term recovery, ingesting carbohydrate at an amount of ≥1.2 g kg body mass−1·h−1 can maximise muscle glycogen repletion. The addition of protein to carbohydrate during post-exercise

  10. Reduction of exercise capacity in sarcoidosis in relation to disease severity

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    Kallianos A

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Anastasios Kallianos,1 Paul Zarogoulidis,2 Fotini Ampatzoglou,2 Georgia Trakada,2,3 Elias Gialafos,4 Georgia Pitsiou,2 Athanasia Pataka,2 Lemonia Veletza,2 Konstantinos Zarogoulidis,2 Wolfgang Hohenforst-Schmidt,5 Dimitris Petridis,6 Ioannis Kioumis,2 Aggeliki Rapti112nd Pulmonary Department, Sotiria Chest Diseases Hospital, Athens, 2Pulmonary Department-Oncology Unit, “G Papanikolaou” General Hospital, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, 3Pulmonary Laboratory, Therapeutic Clinic Alexandra Hospital, University of Athens, Athens, 4Heart Diseases Department Aiginitio Hospital, University of Athens, Athens, Greece; 5Medical Clinic I, “Fuerth” Hospital, University of Erlangen, Fuerth, Germany; 6Department of Food Technology, School of Food Technology and Nutrition, Alexander Technological Educational Institute, Thessaloniki, GreeceIntroduction: Pulmonary function tests (PFTs do not always predict functional limitations during exercise in sarcoidosis. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET may facilitate the recognition of exercise intolerance in these patients.Aim: As relevant data in sarcoid patients are limited, the aim of the study reported here was to assess exercise capacity impairment during a maximal CPET and to evaluate potential correlations with PFT measurements and radiological stages of the disease.Method: A total of 83 sarcoid patients consecutively referred for evaluation of exertional dyspnea over a 3-year period were studied retrospectively with PFTs, including spirometry, diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO and lung volumes, and CPET using standard protocol. Patients were grouped according to their radiological stages: Stage I (n=43, Stages II–III (n=31, and Stage IV (n=9.Results: Forced expiratory volume in 1 second, forced vital capacity, and total lung capacity were mildly impaired only in Stage IV (means ± standard deviation: 72.44±28.00, 71.33±26.70, and 59.78±21

  11. Erythrocyte membrane fluidity and indices of plasmatic oxidative damage after acute physical exercise in humans.

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    Berzosa, C; Gómez-Trullén, E M; Piedrafita, E; Cebrián, I; Martínez-Ballarín, E; Miana-Mena, F J; Fuentes-Broto, L; García, J J

    2011-06-01

    Optimal levels of membrane fluidity are essential for numerous cell functions including cell growth, solute transport and signal transduction. Since exercise enhances free radical production, our aim was to evaluate in healthy male subjects the effects of an acute bout of maximal and submaximal exercise on the erythrocyte membrane fluidity and its possible relation to the oxidative damage overproduction due to exercise. Subjects (n = 34) performed three cycloergometric tests: a continuous progressive exercise, a strenuous exercise until exhaustion and an acute bout of exercise at an intensity corresponding to 70% of maximal work capacity for 30 min. Venous blood samples were collected before and immediately after these exercises. Erythrocyte membrane fluidity was assessed by fluorescence spectroscopy. Plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4-hydroxyalkenals (4-HDA) concentrations and carbonyl content of plasmatic proteins were used as an index of lipid and protein oxidation, respectively. Exercise produced a dramatic drop in the erythrocyte membrane fluidity as compared to resting time, but this was not accompanied by significant changes in the plasmatic MDA and 4-HDA concentrations. The highest erythrocyte membrane rigidity was detected immediately after strenuous exercise until exhaustion was performed. Protein carbonyl levels were higher after exhaustive exercises than at rest. Continuous progressive and strenuous exercises until exhaustion, but not submaximal workload, resulted in a significant enhanced accumulation of carbonylated proteins in the plasma. These findings are consistent with the idea that exercise exaggerates oxidative damage, which may contribute, at least partially, to explain the rigidity in the membrane of the erythrocytes due to acute exercise.

  12. Exercise Combined with Rhodiola sacra Supplementation Improves Exercise Capacity and Ameliorates Exhaustive Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage through Enhancement of Mitochondrial Quality Control

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    Yaoshan Dun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mounting evidence has firmly established that increased exercise capacity (EC is associated with considerable improvements in the survival of patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD and that antistress capacity is a prognostic predictor of adverse cardiovascular events in patients with CVD. Previous studies have indicated that aerobic exercise (AE and supplementation with Rhodiola sacra (RS, a natural plant pharmaceutical, improve EC and enable resistance to stress; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. This study explored the ability of AE and RS, alone or combined, to improve EC and ameliorate exhaustive exercise- (EE- induced stress and elucidate the mechanism involved. We found that AE and RS significantly increased EC in mice and ameliorated EE-induced stress damage in skeletal and cardiac muscles (SCM; furthermore, a synergistic effect was detected for the first time. To our knowledge, the present work is the first to report that AE and RS activate mitophagy, mitochondrial dynamics, and biogenesis in SCM, both in the resting state and after EE. These data indicate that AE and RS synergistically improve EC in mice and protect SCM from EE-induced stress by enhancing mitochondrial quality control, including the activation of mitophagy, mitochondrial dynamics, and biogenesis, both at rest and after EE.

  13. Effects of respiratory exercises on the vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in children with cerebral palsy.

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    Rothman, J G

    1978-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if breathing exercises can increase the vital capacity in children with cerebral palsy. Ten children with spastic cerebral palsy, five in the experimental group and five in the control group, were the subjects for the study. A spirometer was used to measure vital capacity and the forced expiratory volume before and after the children performed a breathing exercise program. The pretest values for all 10 youngsters indicated a vital capacity lower than the normal predicted values. The breathing exercises selected emphasized strengthening of the muscles of inspiration and the muscles of expiration. In the breathing exercise program, the physical therapists also attempted to follow the Bobath treatment approach by inhibiting the abnormal breathing patterns and by teaching the child proper ways of breathing control. The results seem to indicate that a breathing exercise program can increase the vital capacity in youngsters with cerebral palsy. The vital capacity of the experimental group was increased by 0.46 liters after exercising for five to seven minutes each day for a period of eight weeks. The mean increase of the vital capacity was 31 percent over the pretest values. The control group showed no change in vital capacity. The pretest and posttest forced expiratory volumes of both groups were within normal limits.

  14. Improved cardiac function and exercise capacity following correction of pectus excavatum: a review of current literature

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    Heiberg, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Patients with pectus excavatum (PE) often describe improvements in exercise stamina following corrective surgery. Studies have investigated the surgical effect on physiological parameters; still, no consensus has yet been reached. Therefore, the aim of this literature review was to describe the cardiac outcome after surgical correction, both at rest and during exercise. In February 2016, a detailed search of the databases PubMed, Medline, and EMBASE was performed. We assessed clinical studies that described cardiac outcomes both before and after surgical correction of PE. We only included studies reporting either pre-defined echocardiographic or exercise test parameters. No exclusion criteria or statistical analyses were applied. Twenty-one full-text articles, published between 1972 and 2016, were selected, with cohort-ranges of 3–168 patients, mean age-ranges of 5–33 years, and mean follow-up-ranges from immediately to 4 years after surgery. Twelve studies described resting cardiac parameters. Four studies measured cardiac output, where one described 36% immediate increase after surgery, one reported 15% increase after Nuss-bar removal and two found no difference. Three studies demonstrated improvement in mean stroke volume ranges of 22–34% and two studies found no difference. Fifteen studies investigated exercise capacity, with 11 considering peak O2 pr. kg, where five studies demonstrated improvements with the mean ranging from 8% to 15% after surgery, five studies demonstrated no difference, and one saw a decrease of 19% 3 months after Nuss-bar implantation. A measurable increase in exercise capacity exists following surgery, which may be caused by multiple factors. This may be owed to the relief of compressed cardiac chambers with the increased anterior-posterior thoracic dimensions, which could facilitate an improved filling of the heart. With these results, the positive physiological impact of the surgery is emphasized and the potential gain in cardiac

  15. Interval and continuous exercise enhances aerobic capacity and hemodynamic function in CHF rats.

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    Nunes, Ramiro B; Alves, Jadson P; Kessler, Luíza P; Dornelles, André Z; Stefani, Giuseppe P; Lago, Pedro D

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of continuous versus interval aerobic exercise training on hemodynamic parameters, cardiac remodeling, and maximal exercise capacity (MEC) in chronic heart failure (CHF) rats. Twenty-four male Wistar rats were subjected to myocardial infarction (MI) surgery. Five weeks post MI, the animals were assigned to one of three groups: sedentary group (CHF-Sed, n=8), aerobic continuous training group (CHF-ACT, n=8), and aerobic interval training group (CHF-AIT, n=8). Treadmill training was performed five times a week for 8 weeks (ACT: 50 min/day at 15 m/min and AIT: 40 min/day with 8 min of warm-up at 10 m/min and exercise at 15 m/min 4×4 min interspersed with 4×4 min at 23 m/min). MEC was evaluated pre and post exercise program. Left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP), left ventricular mass/body mass ratio (LVM:BM), and total collagen volume fraction were lower in the trained groups compared with the sedentary group, but no difference was found between the trained groups. Systolic ventricular pressure (SVP) and maximum positive derivative of LV pressure (+dP/dtmax) were higher in the trained groups, but CHF-ACT showed higher +dP/dtmax compared to CHF-AIT. Both training regimens were able to increase MEC. However, the aerobic interval training was superior for improving MEC. Aerobic training is an important intervention to improve cardiac function and remodeling and physical capacity in CHF rats. Interval training is a potential strategy to maximize the results, but exercise type and intensity are still topics to be explored.

  16. Interval and continuous exercise enhances aerobic capacity and hemodynamic function in CHF rats

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    Ramiro B. Nunes

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of continuous versus interval aerobic exercise training on hemodynamic parameters, cardiac remodeling, and maximal exercise capacity (MEC in chronic heart failure (CHF rats.METHOD: Twenty-four male Wistar rats were subjected to myocardial infarction (MI surgery. Five weeks post MI, the animals were assigned to one of three groups: sedentary group (CHF-Sed, n=8, aerobic continuous training group (CHF-ACT, n=8, and aerobic interval training group (CHF-AIT, n=8. Treadmill training was performed five times a week for 8 weeks (ACT: 50 min/day at 15 m/min and AIT: 40 min/day with 8 min of warm-up at 10 m/min and exercise at 15 m/min 4×4 min interspersed with 4×4 min at 23 m/min. MEC was evaluated pre and post exercise program.RESULTS: Left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP, left ventricular mass/body mass ratio (LVM:BM, and total collagen volume fraction were lower in the trained groups compared with the sedentary group, but no difference was found between the trained groups. Systolic ventricular pressure (SVP and maximum positive derivative of LV pressure (+dP/dtmax were higher in the trained groups, but CHF-ACT showed higher +dP/dtmax compared to CHF-AIT. Both training regimens were able to increase MEC. However, the aerobic interval training was superior for improving MEC.CONCLUSION: Aerobic training is an important intervention to improve cardiac function and remodeling and physical capacity in CHF rats. Interval training is a potential strategy to maximize the results, but exercise type and intensity are still topics to be explored.

  17. Therapeutic validity and effectiveness of supervised physical exercise training on exercise capacity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

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    Vooijs, Martijn; Siemonsma, Petra C; Heus, Inge; Sont, Jacob K; Rövekamp, Ton Ajm; van Meeteren, Nico Lu

    2016-11-01

    Our aim was to determine the effectiveness of supervised physical exercise training on exercise capacity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease taken into consideration indices such as therapeutic validity of interventions, methodological quality of studies, and exercise volume. MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PEDro databases were searched from inception until 17 July 2015 for randomized controlled trials comparing the effect of supervised exercise training vs. usual care in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The references of included studies and review articles were hand searched for additional references and key authors of included trials were crosschecked in PubMed for any missed references. Two reviewers independently assessed therapeutic validity of exercise training and methodological quality of included studies. Overall effects were calculated using a random effects model. A total of 13 studies involving 756 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were included. Significant differences in maximal exercise capacity (standardized mean difference 0.52, 95% CI 0.31 to 0.74) and endurance exercise capacity (standardized mean difference 0.73, 95% CI 0.50 to 0.96) in favor of physical exercise training were found. The volume of physical exercise per week, the total volume of physical exercise, or their associations did not significantly influence the effect of training. Effects of supervised physical exercise was not significantly altered by therapeutic validity. A combination of aerobic exercise and strength training was found to be more effective than strength training or endurance training alone in increasing the 6-minute walking distance.

  18. Short term effects of exercise training on exercise capacity and quality of life in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension: protocol for a randomised controlled trial

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    Gain Kevin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Advances in the understanding and management of pulmonary arterial hypertension have enabled earlier diagnosis and improved prognosis. However, despite best available therapy, symptoms of exertional dyspnoea and fatigue are commonly reported and result in a reduced capacity to perform daily activities and impaired quality of life. Exercise training has demonstrated efficacy in individuals with other respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. Historically, however, exercise training has not been utilised as a form of therapy in pulmonary arterial hypertension due to the perceived risk of sudden cardiac death and the theoretical possibility that exercise would lead to worsening pulmonary vascular haemodynamics and deterioration in right heart function. Now, with the advances in pharmaceutical management, determining the safety and benefits of exercise training in this population has become more relevant. Only three studies of supervised exercise training in pulmonary arterial hypertension have been published. These studies demonstrated improvements in exercise capacity and quality of life, in the absence of adverse events or clinical deterioration. However, these studies have not utilised an outpatient-based, whole body exercise training program, the most common format for exercise programs within Australia. It is uncertain whether this form of training is beneficial and capable of producing sustained benefits in exercise capacity and quality of life in this population. Design/Methods This randomised controlled trial will determine whether a 12 week, outpatient-based, supervised, whole body exercise training program, followed by a home-based exercise program, is safe and improves exercise capacity and quality of life in individuals with pulmonary arterial hypertension. This study aims to recruit 34 subjects who will be randomly allocated to the exercise group (supervised exercise training 3 times a week for 12 weeks, followed by

  19. Assessment of cardiorespiratory fitness using submaximal protocol in older adults with mood disorder and Parkinson's disease

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    Natacha Alves de Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evidence has shown benefits for mental health through aerobic training oriented in percentage of VO2max, indicating the importance of this variable for clinical practice. OBJECTIVE: To validate a method for estimating VO2max using a submaximal protocol in elderly patients with clinically diagnosis as major depressive disorder (MDD and Parkinson's disease (PD. METHODS: The sample comprised 18 patients (64.22 ± 9.92 years with MDD (n = 7 and with PD (n = 11. Three evaluations were performed: I disease staging, II direct measurement of VO2max and III submaximal exercise test. Linear regression was performed to verify the accuracy of estimation in VO2max established in ergospirometry and the predicted VO2max from the submaximal test measurement. We also analyzed the correlation between the Bland-Altman procedures. RESULTS: The regression analysis showed that VO2max values estimated by submaximal protocol associated with the VO2max measured, both in absolute values (R² = 0.65; SEE = 0.26; p < 0.001 and the relative (R² = 0.56; SEE = 3.70; p < 0.001. The Bland-Altman plots for analysis of agreement of showed a good correlation between the two measures. DISCUSSION: The VO2max predicted by submaximal protocol demonstrated satisfactory criterion validity and simple execution compared to ergospirometry.

  20. Effects of Therapeutic Exercises on Functional Capacities of Patient with Rheumatoid Arthritis

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    E Haji Zadeh

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a chronic and systemic inflammatory disease of unknown etiology. It is characterized by symmetric joint involvement with progressive deformities. This leads to limitation of motion and reduction of activity daily living (ADL. Previous reports showed the beneficial effects of therapeutic exercises in these patients in the remission phase. Methods and Materials: A clinical trial as a self-control sequential control study was designed to determine the effectiveness of a range of motion (ROM exercise program in patients with RA, referring to Rheumatology Research Center between 1994-1995. ROM of the selected joints by Goniometer, and ADL by a questionnaire was assessed in all patients in 3 phases: when entering the program, after 6 weeks of observation, and then after another 6 weeks with the therapeutic exercises. The mean difference in these 2 period were compared by student paired t test. The analysis of differences between different subgroups (job, education, etc. was done by one way variance analysis. Results: Forty patients completed the program. The mean ADL increased from 0437±0.252 before exercise to 6.69±3.06 after exercise (P<0.001, and the mean scores of ROM increased from 0.278±0.28 to 8±3.57 (P<0.0001, both statistically significant. This was more pronounced in women and in those with ankle joints involvement. The type of disease onset and duration of the disease did not influence the effects of treatment. No increase in disease activity was seen. Conclusion: This study showed the effectiveness of our ROM exercises in increasing functional capacities of patients with RA in remission phase.

  1. Resveratrol improves exercise performance and skeletal muscle oxidative capacity in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Miranda M; Byrne, Nikole J; Robertson, Ian M; Kim, Ty T; Samokhvalov, Victor; Levasseur, Jody; Soltys, Carrie-Lynn; Fung, David; Tyreman, Neil; Denou, Emmanuel; Jones, Kelvin E; Seubert, John M; Schertzer, Jonathan D; Dyck, Jason R B

    2017-04-01

    We investigated whether treatment of mice with established pressure overload-induced heart failure (HF) with the naturally occurring polyphenol resveratrol could improve functional symptoms of clinical HF such as fatigue and exercise intolerance. C57Bl/6N mice were subjected to either sham or transverse aortic constriction surgery to induce HF. Three weeks postsurgery, a cohort of mice with established HF (%ejection fraction resveratrol (~450 mg·kg-1·day-1) or vehicle for 2 wk. Although the percent ejection fraction was similar between both groups of HF mice, those mice treated with resveratrol had increased total physical activity levels and exercise capacity. Resveratrol treatment was associated with altered gut microbiota composition, increased skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity, a switch toward greater whole body glucose utilization, and increased basal metabolic rates. Although muscle mass and strength were not different between groups, mice with HF had significant declines in basal and ADP-stimulated O2 consumption in isolated skeletal muscle fibers compared with sham mice, which was completely normalized by resveratrol treatment. Overall, resveratrol treatment of mice with established HF enhances exercise performance, which is associated with alterations in whole body and skeletal muscle energy metabolism. Thus, our preclinical data suggest that resveratrol supplementation may effectively improve fatigue and exercise intolerance in HF patients.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Resveratrol treatment of mice with heart failure leads to enhanced exercise performance that is associated with altered gut microbiota composition, increased whole body glucose utilization, and enhanced skeletal muscle metabolism and function. Together, these preclinical data suggest that resveratrol supplementation may effectively improve fatigue and exercise intolerance in heart failure via these mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Exercise-training-induced changes in metabolic capacity with age: the role of central cardiovascular plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Eivind; Næss, Morten Svendsen; Hoff, Jan; Albert, Tobias Lie; Pham, Quan; Richardson, Russell S; Helgerud, Jan

    2014-04-01

    Although aging is typically associated with a decline in maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), young and old subjects, of similar initial muscle metabolic capacity, increased quadriceps VO2max equally when this small muscle mass was trained in isolation. As it is unclear if this preserved exercise-induced plasticity with age is still evident with centrally challenging whole body exercise, we assessed maximal exercise responses in 13 young (24 ± 2 years) and 13 old (60 ± 3 years) males, matched for cycling VO2max (3.82 ± 0.66 and 3.69 ± 0.30 L min(-1), respectively), both before and after 8 weeks of high aerobic intensity cycle exercise training. As a consequence of the training both young and old significantly improved VO2max (13 ± 6 vs. 6 ± 7 %) and maximal power output (20 ± 6 vs. 10 ± 6 %, respectively) from baseline, however, the young exhibited a significantly larger increase than the old. Similarly, independently assessed maximal cardiac output (Q max) tended to increase more in the young (16 ± 14 %) than in the old (11 ± 12 %), with no change in a-vO2 difference in either group. Further examination of the components of Q max provided additional evidence of reduced exercise-induced plasticity in both maximal heart rate (young -3 %, old 0 %) and stroke volume (young 19 ± 15, old 11 ± 11 %) in the old. In combination, these findings imply that limited central cardiovascular plasticity may be responsible, at least in part, for the attenuated response to whole body exercise training with increasing age.

  3. Cardiovascular function and predictors of exercise capacity in patients with colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Larissa; Hildebrandt, Bert; Kung, Thomas; Wichmann, Kristin; Springer, Jochen; Doehner, Wolfram; Sandek, Anja; Valentova, Miroslava; Stojakovic, Tatjana; Scharnagl, Hubert; Riess, Hanno; Anker, Stefan D; von Haehling, Stephan

    2014-09-30

    Patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) often present with dyspnea and fatigue. These are also frequent symptoms in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). We hypothesized that similar patterns of cardiovascular perturbations are present in CRC and CHF. We prospectively studied 50 patients with CRC, 51 patients with CHF, and 51 control subjects. The CRC group was divided into 2 subgroups: patients who underwent chemotherapy (n = 26) and chemotherapy-naive patients (n = 24). We assessed exercise capacity (spiroergometry), cardiac function (echocardiography), heart rate variability (Holter electrocardiography), body composition (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry), and blood parameters. Compared with the control arm, the left ventricular ejection fraction (CRC group 59.4%; control group 62.5%) and exercise performance as assessed by peak oxygen consumption (peak VO2) (CRC group 21.8 ml/kg/min; control group 28.0 ml/kg/min) were significantly reduced in CRC patients (both p cardiovascular function were impaired in chemotherapy-treated patients and in the chemotherapy-naive patients, particularly with regard to exercise capacity, left ventricular ejection fraction, lean mass, and heart rate variability (all p cardiovascular function are impaired in patients with CRC. More importantly, our findings were evident independently of whether patients were undergoing chemotherapy. Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of low glycemic index food and postprandial exercise on blood glucose level, oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity

    OpenAIRE

    糟谷, 憲明; 太田, 昌一郎; 髙波, 嘉一; Kawai, Yukari; 井上, 裕; 村田, 勇; 金本, 郁男

    2015-01-01

    Low glycemic index (GI) food and postprandial exercise are non-drug therapies for improving postprandial hyperglycemia. The present randomized, crossover study investigated the effect of low GI food combined with postprandial exercise on postprandial blood glucose level, oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity. A total of 13 healthy subjects were each used in four experiments: i) rice only (control), ii) salad prior to rice (LGI), iii) exercise following rice (EX) and iv) salad prior to ric...

  5. Aerobic capacity, orthostatic tolerance, and exercise perceptions at discharge from inpatient spinal cord injury rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Chelsea A; Jones, Graham; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E; Warburton, Darren E; Hicks, Audrey L

    2013-10-01

    To describe physical capacity, autonomic function, and perceptions of exercise among adults with subacute spinal cord injury (SCI). Cross-sectional. Two inpatient SCI rehabilitation programs in Canada. Participants (N=41; mean age ± SD, 38.9 ± 13.7y) with tetraplegia (TP; n=19), high paraplegia (HP; n=8), or low paraplegia (LP; n=14) completing inpatient SCI rehabilitation (mean ± SD, 112.9 ± 52.5d postinjury). Not applicable. Peak exercise capacity was determined by an arm ergometry test. As a measure of autonomic function, orthostatic tolerance was assessed by a passive sit-up test. Self-efficacy for exercise postdischarge was evaluated by a questionnaire. There was a significant difference in peak oxygen consumption and heart rate between participants with TP (11.2 ± 3.4;mL·kg(-1)·min(-1) 113.9 ± 19.7 beats/min) and LP (17.1 ± 7.5 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1); 142.8 ± 22.7 beats/min). Peak power output was also significantly lower in the TP group (30.0 ± 6.9W) compared with the HP (55.5 ± 7.56W) and LP groups (62.5 ± 12.2W). Systolic blood pressure responses to the postural challenge varied significantly between groups (-3.0 ± 33.5 mmHg in TP, 17.8 ± 14.7 mmHg in HP, 21.6 ± 18.7 mmHg in LP). Orthostatic hypotension was most prevalent among participants with motor complete TP (73%). Results from the questionnaire revealed that although participants value exercise and see benefits to regular participation, they have low confidence in their abilities to perform the task of either aerobic or strengthening exercise. Exercise is well tolerated in adults with subacute SCI. Exercise interventions at this stage should focus on improving task-specific self-efficacy, and attention should be made to blood pressure regulation, particularly in individuals with motor complete TP. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The effect of maximal vs submaximal exertion on postprandial lipid levels in individuals with and without coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronov, David M; Bubnova, Marina G; Perova, Natalia V; Orekhov, Alexander N; Bobryshev, Yuri V

    Decisions about fat consumption and levels of physical activity are among the everyday choices we make in life and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) can be affected by those choices. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of a standard fat load combined with physical exertion of different intensities on the plasma lipid profile of CHD patients and CHD-free individuals. This study looked at the influence of different intensities of physical exercise on postprandial lipid metabolism in 20 healthy men and 36 men with diagnosis of CHD. Venous blood samples were obtained after overnight fasting, 3 hours after standard fat load (before the physical load), and immediately after maximal or submaximal physical exercise on bicycle ergometer. After fat load total cholesterol (TC) concentration did not change in either group. However, after the addition of maximal exercise, TC, triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and apolipoprotein (Apo) B increased significantly (P < .01) in both groups. After fat load and maximal exercise, there was no change in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in healthy men, but in men with CHD, HDL-C fell significantly (P < .01); and Apo AI rose in healthy men (P < .01) but dropped significantly (P < .01) in men with CHD. Submaximal physical exercise (60% of max VO2 load for 40 minutes) after fat load decreased TG level in CHD patients (P < .01) and improved other lipid parameters in both groups significantly (↓LDL-C, ↑HDL-C, ↑Apo AI, ↓Apo B, P < .01). We observed a worsening of physical work capacity in men with CHD (significant reduction of duration and total amount of work performed, maximal VO2, oxygen pulse), during maximal stress test performed 3 hours after fat load. There was a doubling of the number of abnormal stress test results (P < .01). Healthy persons showed an increase in respiratory parameters (ventilation, CO2 production, maximal VO2, and oxygen

  7. Effects of cardiac rehabilitation in diabetic patients: both cardiac and noncardiac factors determine improvement in exercise capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Clair, Mitchell; Mehta, Hardik; Sacrinty, Matthew; Johnson, Dominic; Robinson, Killian

    2014-04-01

    Diabetic patients have a worse prognosis than nondiabetic patients after myocardial infarction. Although exercise improves risk factors, exercise capacity, and mortality, it is still unclear if these benefits are the same as in nondiabetics. Furthermore, although exercise tolerance is predicted by systolic and diastolic dysfunction in nondiabetics, its role as a predictor of exercise capacity in diabetics remains unclear. Diabetics and nondiabetics see a similar improvement in their cardiac risk factors and exercise parameters from exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation (CR). A series of 370 diabetics and 942 nondiabetics entered a 36-session outpatient CR program after interventions for coronary heart disease or after bypass or cardiac valve surgery. The program consisted of physical exercise, lifestyle modification, and pharmacotherapy. Quality of life, weight, blood pressure, and lipid profiles improved significantly in both groups during the 12-week program. Baseline metabolic equivalents (METs) were lower in diabetics vs nondiabetics at the start of CR (2.4 vs 2.7, P diabetics had less improvement (change in METs 1.7 vs 2.6, P diabetes remained a significant predictor of reduced improvement in exercise capacity. Diabetics saw a significant benefit in quality of life, weight, exercise tolerance, and cardiac risk factors, but to a lesser extent when compared with nondiabetics. The mechanisms for poorer improvement in diabetics following CR also include noncardiac factors and require further study. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Influence of physical exercise on the functional capacity in institutionalized elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Covolo Scarabottolo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: With the rapid increase in life expectancy, systematic physical exercise programs can have a good influence on the functional capacity of the elderly, especially in relation to institutionalization. Objective: To analyze the association between a systematic physical exercise program and functional capacity in institu-tionalized elderly. Methods: The sample included 30 elderly subjects (16 women and 14 men aged 60 years or older (mean age = 74.43, divided into a control group (n=16 and a training group (n=14, residents in a long-stay institution. A training protocol of 12 weeks, two weekly sessions, was applied, and functional capa-city was assessed before and after the intervention, through chair lift tests (lower limb strength, upper limb strength, timed up and go and handgrip dynamometry. The analysis pre and post-training of intervention and control groups was performed using paired Student t test and the ANOVA test for repeated measures. The level of significance was set at 5%. Results: The main statistical significance were found for the following functional tests: upper limb strength (training 15.6±4.1 x control 10.7±6.6 rep, p<0.05 and chair lift test (training 11.0±4.0 x control 8.0±3.1 rep, p<0.05. Conclusion: The protocol used proved to be effective in improving some of the functional capabilities of the institutionalized elderly.

  9. Pulmonary Vascular Distensibility Predicts Pulmonary Hypertension Severity, Exercise Capacity, and Survival in Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Rajeev; Dhakal, Bishnu P; Eisman, Aaron S; Pappagianopoulos, Paul P; Dress, Ashley; Weiner, Rory B; Baggish, Aaron L; Semigran, Marc J; Lewis, Gregory D

    2016-06-01

    Pulmonary vascular (PV) distensibility, defined as the percent increase in pulmonary vessel diameter per mm Hg increase in pressure, permits the pulmonary vessels to increase in size to accommodate increased blood flow. We hypothesized that PV distensibility is abnormally low in patients with heart failure (HF) and serves as an important determinant of right ventricular performance and exercise capacity. Patients with HF with preserved ejection fraction (n=48), HF with reduced ejection fraction (n=55), pulmonary arterial hypertension without left heart failure (n=18), and control subjects (n=30) underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing with invasive hemodynamic monitoring and first-pass radionuclide ventriculography. PV distensibility was derived from 1257 matched measurements (mean±SD, 8.3±2.8 per subject) of pulmonary arterial pressure, pulmonary arterial wedge pressure and cardiac output. PV distensibility was lowest in the pulmonary arterial hypertension group (0.40±0.24% per mm Hg) and intermediate in the HF with preserved ejection fraction and HF with reduced ejection fraction groups (0.92±0.39 and 0.84±0.33% per mm Hg, respectively) compared to the control group (1.39±0.32% per mm Hg, Phypertension and is closely related to RV systolic function during exercise, maximal exercise capacity, and survival. Furthermore, PV distensibility is modifiable with selective pulmonary vasodilator therapy and may represent an important target for therapy in selected HF patients with pulmonary hypertension. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00309790. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. Improved exercise capacity and reduced systemic inflammation after adenoviral-mediated SERCA-2a gene transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Dipin; Palma, Jon; Molina, Ezequiel; Gaughan, John P; Long, Walter; Houser, Steven; Macha, Mahender

    2008-04-01

    We hypothesized that sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase pump (SERCA-2a) gene delivery would have beneficial effects upon exercise capacity and markers of inflammation in the setting of heart failure. A pressure-overload model of experimental heart failure was used in rats. Following a decrease in fractional shortening of >or=25%, animals underwent intracoronary adenoviral-mediated gene transfection using SERCA-2a. Heart failure animals were randomized to receive the SERCA-2a gene, the beta galactosidase (control) gene, or followed without any further intervention. Exercise and hemodynamic testing were performed, and myocardial and systemic markers of inflammation were assayed after 7 and 21 d. Animals receiving Ad.SERCA-2a showed an increase in exercise tolerance (499.0 +/- 14.9 versus 312.8 +/- 10.5 s, P SERCA-2a had significantly decreased serum levels of the inflammatory markers interleukin-1, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha compared with Ad.Gal-treated animals. Serum levels of atrial natriuretic peptide were decreased in animals receiving Ad.SERCA-2a compared with animals receiving Ad.Gal at day 7 (0.35 +/- 0.03 versus 0.52 +/- 0.11 pg/mL, P = 0.001). Myocardial levels of the proapoptotic protein bax were reduced in Ad.SERCA-2a -treated animals compared with those receiving Ad.Gal at day 7 (protein level/actin: 0.24 +/- 0.05 versus 0.33 +/- 0.04, P = 0.04) and day 21 (protein level/actin: 0.61 +/- 0.04 versus 0.69 +/- 0.01, P = 0.001). Genetic modulation of heart failure using the SERCA-2a gene was associated with improvement in cardiac function and exercise capacity as well as improvements in heart-failure associated inflammatory markers.

  11. Theoretical and Biological Evaluation of the Link between Low Exercise Capacity and Disease Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Lauren Gerard; Britton, Steven L

    2018-01-02

    Large-scale epidemiological studies show that low exercise capacity is the highest risk factor for all-cause morbidity and mortality relative to other conditions including diabetes, hypertension, and obesity. This led us to formulate the energy transfer hypothesis (ETH): Variation in capacity for energy transfer is the central mechanistic determinant of the divide between disease and health. As a test of this hypothesis, we predicted that two-way selective breeding of genetically heterogeneous rats for low and high intrinsic treadmill running capacity (a surrogate for energy transfer) would also produce rats that differ for disease risks. The lines are termed low-capacity runners (LCRs) and high-capacity runners (HCRs) and, after 36 generations of selection, they differ by more than eightfold in running capacity. Consistent with the ETH, the LCRs score high for developing disease risks, including metabolic syndrome, neurodegeneration, cognitive impairment, fatty liver disease, susceptibility to cancer, and reduced longevity. The HCRs are resistant to the development of these disease risks. Here we synthesize ideas on nonequilibrium thermodynamics and evolution from Ilya Prigogine, Hans Krebs, and Peter Mitchell to formulate theoretic explanations for the ETH. First, at every moment in time, the atoms and molecules of organisms are reorganizing to pursue avenues for energy transfer. Second, this continuous organization is navigating in a constantly changing environment such that "strategies" are perpetually in flux and do not leave a simple footprint (evolution). Third, as a consequence, human populations demonstrate a wide variation in capacity for energy transfer that mirrors mechanistically the divide between disease and health. Copyright © 2018 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  12. Effects of a multimodal exercise program on the functional capacity of Parkinson's disease patients considering disease severity and gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Orcioli-Silva

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a multimodal exercise program (MEP on the functional capacity of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD according to disease severity and gender. Fourteen patients with PD participated in the study and were distributed into groups according to 1 stage of disease and 2 gender. Functional capacity was evaluated before and after 6 months of intervention. The overall PD patient group improved their coordination and strength. Men and women improved in strength performance after exercise. Men also improved on coordination. For severity of disease, the unilateral group improved in strength, while the bilateral group improved in strength, balance, coordination and the UPDRS-functional score. In conclusion, a MEP is efficient in improving components of functional capacity in patients with PD, especially in strength. Gender may be considered in the exercise program. Individuals in the bilateral disease group appeared to benefit more from exercise.

  13. Effect of individualized worksite exercise training on aerobic capacity and muscle strength among construction workers - a randomized controlled intervention study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Bibi; Holtermann, Andreas; Søgaard, Karen

    2012-01-01

    tailored exercise programs on their physical fitness and muscular capacity. METHOD: The study was a randomized controlled trial of male constructions workers allocated to either an exercise or control group. The intervention lasted 12 weeks, and the exercise group trained 3 x 20 minutes a week....... The participants completed health checks before and after the intervention period. Data from the first health check were used to tailor the exercise in the interventions. RESULTS: At baseline, participants had maximal oxygen consumption (VO (2max)) of 2.9 [standard deviation (SD) 0.7L/min] and body mass index (BMI...

  14. Which factors determine the freely chosen cadence during submaximal cycling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercruyssen, Fabrice; Brisswalter, Jeanick

    2010-03-01

    The present review of cycling science focuses on the identification of criteria that affect the freely chosen cadence (FCC) during submaximal exercise of short and prolonged durations. Cadence selection during submaximal cycling constitutes a potential parameter affecting the endurance performance in subjects of varying aerobic fitness level and experience. The activity constraints such as specificity (e.g. cycle bout of triathlon) and exercise duration may play an important role in the selection of cadence and must be taken into consideration in the task description. The 'holistic' approach of this review is based on a multifactorial analysis considering the cycling constraints, and the physiological and biomechanical factors of cadence selection so as to establish any interrelationships between these factors. During cycle bouts of short duration (<15 min), it has been well argued that experienced cyclists, trained runners and triathletes adopt high cadences (80-100 rpm) systematically above the energetically optimal cadence (EOC) at which the oxygen uptake is minimal (55-65 rpm). The choice of a high cadence has been shown to be dependent upon several factors, such as the aerobic fitness level, the reduction in forces applied to the cranks, the lower extremity net joint moments and minimal neuromuscular fatigue. However, with increasing exercise duration the FCC has been reported to be close to the EOC exclusively in endurance athletes practising a variety of activities, suggesting an impact of training mode on the muscular adaptations and the organisation of the movement pattern. Copyright 2009 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Cardiopulmonary Function, Exercise Capacity, and Echocardiography Finding of Pediatric Patients With Kawasaki Disease: An Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuan, Sheng-Hui; Li, Min-Hui; Hsu, Miao-Ju; Tsai, Yun-Jeng; Chen, Yin-Han; Liao, Tin-Yun; Lin, Ko-Long

    2016-01-01

    Coronary artery (CA) abnormalities influence exercise capacity (EC) of patients with Kawasaki disease (KD), and Z-score of CA is a well established method for detecting CA aneurysm. We studied the influence of KD on cardiopulmonary function and EC; meanwhile we analyzed echocardiographic findings of KD patients. We also assessed the correlation between CA Z-score and EC of KD patients to see if CA Z-score of KD patients could reflect EC during exercise.Sixty-three KD patients were recruited as KD group 1 from children (aged 5-18 y) who received transthoracic echocardiographic examinations and symptom-limited treadmill exercise test for regular follow-up of KD from January 2010 to October 2014 in 1 medical center. We then divided KD group 1 into KD group 2 (LCA or RCA by Dalliarre equation or Fuse calculator.All routine parameters measured during standard exercise test were similar between KD and control groups, except that peak rate pressure products (PRPPs) in KD group 1 to 3 were all lower than corresponding control groups significantly (P = 0.010, 0.020, and 0.049, respectively). PRPPs correlated with Max-Z of CA by both equations modest inversely (by Dallaire, P = 0.017, Spearman rho = -0.301; by Fuse, P = 0.014, Spearman rho = -0.309).Our study recruited larger number of KD patients and provided a newer data of EC of KD patients. Our finding suggests that after acute stage of KD, patients could maintain normal cardiorespiratory fitness. Therefore, we believe that it is important to promote cardiovascular health to KD patients and KD patients should exercise as normal peers. However, since KD patients might still have compromised coronary perfusion during exercise, it remains crucial to assess and monitor cardiovascular risk of KD patients. Max-Z of CA correlates with PRPP modest inversely and might be used as a follow-up indicator of CA reserve during exercise after acute stage of KD.

  16. Cardiopulmonary Function, Exercise Capacity, and Echocardiography Finding of Pediatric Patients With Kawasaki Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuan, Sheng-Hui; Li, Min-Hui; Hsu, Miao-Ju; Tsai, Yun-Jeng; Chen, Yin-Han; Liao, Tin-Yun; Lin, Ko-Long

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Coronary artery (CA) abnormalities influence exercise capacity (EC) of patients with Kawasaki disease (KD), and Z-score of CA is a well established method for detecting CA aneurysm. We studied the influence of KD on cardiopulmonary function and EC; meanwhile we analyzed echocardiographic findings of KD patients. We also assessed the correlation between CA Z-score and EC of KD patients to see if CA Z-score of KD patients could reflect EC during exercise. Sixty-three KD patients were recruited as KD group 1 from children (aged 5–18 y) who received transthoracic echocardiographic examinations and symptom-limited treadmill exercise test for regular follow-up of KD from January 2010 to October 2014 in 1 medical center. We then divided KD group 1 into KD group 2 (LCA or RCA by Dalliarre equation or Fuse calculator. All routine parameters measured during standard exercise test were similar between KD and control groups, except that peak rate pressure products (PRPPs) in KD group 1 to 3 were all lower than corresponding control groups significantly (P = 0.010, 0.020, and 0.049, respectively). PRPPs correlated with Max-Z of CA by both equations modest inversely (by Dallaire, P = 0.017, Spearman rho = −0.301; by Fuse, P = 0.014, Spearman rho = −0.309). Our study recruited larger number of KD patients and provided a newer data of EC of KD patients. Our finding suggests that after acute stage of KD, patients could maintain normal cardiorespiratory fitness. Therefore, we believe that it is important to promote cardiovascular health to KD patients and KD patients should exercise as normal peers. However, since KD patients might still have compromised coronary perfusion during exercise, it remains crucial to assess and monitor cardiovascular risk of KD patients. Max-Z of CA correlates with PRPP modest inversely and might be used as a follow-up indicator of CA reserve during exercise after acute stage of KD. PMID:26765431

  17. Brain Activation Patterns at Exhaustion in Rats That Differ in Inherent Exercise Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Teresa E.; Brooks, Leah R.; Gilligan, Lori J.; Burghardt, Paul R.; Koch, Lauren G.; Britton, Steven L.; Fleshner, Monika

    2012-01-01

    In order to further understand the genetic basis for variation in inherent (untrained) exercise capacity, we examined the brains of 32 male rats selectively bred for high or low running capacity (HCR and LCR, respectively). The aim was to characterize the activation patterns of brain regions potentially involved in differences in inherent running capacity between HCR and LCR. Using quantitative in situ hybridization techniques, we measured messenger ribonuclease (mRNA) levels of c-Fos, a marker of neuronal activation, in the brains of HCR and LCR rats after a single bout of acute treadmill running (7.5–15 minutes, 15° slope, 10 m/min) or after treadmill running to exhaustion (15–51 minutes, 15° slope, initial velocity 10 m/min). During verification of trait differences, HCR rats ran six times farther and three times longer prior to exhaustion than LCR rats. Running to exhaustion significantly increased c-Fos mRNA activation of several brain areas in HCR, but LCR failed to show significant elevations of c-Fos mRNA at exhaustion in the majority of areas examined compared to acutely run controls. Results from these studies suggest that there are differences in central c-Fos mRNA expression, and potential brain activation patterns, between HCR and LCR rats during treadmill running to exhaustion and these differences could be involved in the variation in inherent running capacity between lines. PMID:23028992

  18. Exercise therapy improves aerobic capacity of inpatients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerling, Arno; von Bohlen, Anne; Kück, Momme; Tegtbur, Uwe; Grams, Lena; Haufe, Sven; Gützlaff, Elke; Kahl, Kai G

    2016-06-01

    Unipolar depression is one of the most common diseases worldwide and is associated with a higher cardiovascular risk partly due to reduced aerobic capacity. Therefore, the aim of our study was to examine whether a structured aerobic training program can improve aerobic capacity in inpatients with MDD (major depressive disorder). Overall, 25 patients (13 women, 12 men) diagnosed with MDD were included in the study. Parameters of aerobic capacity, such as maximum performance, maximum oxygen consumption, and VAT (ventilatory anaerobic threshold), were assessed on a bicycle ergometer before and 6 weeks after a training period (three times per week for 45 min on two endurance machines). In addition, a constant load test was carried out at 50% of the maximum performance prior to and after the training period. The performance data were compared with 25 healthy controls matched for sex, age, and body mass index before and after the training period. Compared to controls, patients with MDD had significantly lower aerobic capacity. After training, there was a significant improvement in their performance data. A significant difference remained only for VAT between patients with MDD and healthy controls. With regard to the coincidence of MDD with cardiovascular and cardiometabolic disorders, a structured supervised exercise program carried out during hospitalization is a useful supplement for patients with MDD.

  19. Effect of contrasting physical exercise interventions on rapid force capacity of chronically painful muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Lars L; Andersen, Jesper L; Suetta, Charlotte; Kjaer, Michael; Søgaard, Karen; Sjøgaard, Gisela

    2009-11-01

    Rapid force capacity of chronically painful muscles is inhibited markedly more than maximal force capacity and is therefore relevant to assess in rehabilitation settings. Our objective was to investigate the effect of two contrasting types of physical exercise on rapid force capacity, as well as neural and muscular adaptations in women with chronic neck muscle pain. A group of employed women (n = 42) with a clinical diagnosis of trapezius myalgia participated in a 10-wk randomized controlled trial; specific strength training of the neck/shoulder muscles, general fitness training performed as leg-bicycling; or a reference intervention without physical activity. Maximal voluntary shoulder abductions were performed at static angles of 35 degrees and 115 degrees with simultaneous recording of electromyography (EMG) in the trapezius and deltoid. Maximal muscle strength and activation (peak torque and peak EMG) as well as rapid muscle strength and activation [rate of torque development (RTD) and rate of EMG rise] were subsequently determined. Trapezius muscle fiber characteristics were determined with ATPase histochemistry. Significant changes were observed only in the specific strength training group. Whereas peak torque increased 18-29% (P muscle fibers hypertrophied 20% (P force capacity of chronically painful muscles is highly responsive to rehabilitation with specific strength training. The underlying mechanisms were related to both pain reduction and general neuromuscular adaptations to strength training. Potentially, the present method can be a useful clinical screening tool of muscle function in rehabilitation settings.

  20. Criterion-related validity of the short International Physical Activity Questionnaire against exercise capacity in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papathanasiou, George; Georgoudis, George; Georgakopoulos, Dimitris; Katsouras, Christos; Kalfakakou, Vasiliki; Evangelou, Angelos

    2010-08-01

    Self-reported physical activity (PA) is well associated with cardiorespiratory fitness and exercise capacity. The short International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ-short) is a frequently used instrument for cross-national assessments of PA in adults. The purpose of this study was to validate IPAQ-short against exercise capacity in Greek young adults. One hundred and thirteen men and 105 women, aged 20-29 years, were randomly selected from a larger population of young health-science students. A Greek version of IPAQ-short (IPAQ-Gr) was administered to all participants before their exercise capacity evaluation with a maximal Bruce treadmill test. Multiple regression and correlation analyses were used to examine the associations between all IPAQ-Gr outcomes with exercise capacity based on maximal treadmill time. Spearman's correlations for total and vigorous PA against maximal treadmill time were significant in all groups examined, ranging from 0.35 to 0.43. Moderate and walking PA correlations were poor and nonsignificant, ranging from near-zero values to 0.19. In multiple linear regression analysis, only sex, smoking, and vigorous PA from all personal and log-transformed IPAQ-Gr data were significantly associated with maximal treadmill time. Partial correlation analysis for the overall population, adjusted for sex and smoking, showed that total PA (r=0.37) and vigorous PA (r=0.47) were significantly associated with exercise capacity. IPAQ-Gr was tested against exercise capacity and showed acceptable validity properties in Greek young adults. Total and vigorous weekly PA expenditure were well associated with exercise capacity, presenting significant validity correlations against maximal treadmill time.

  1. Low-load high-velocity resistance exercises improve strength and functional capacity in diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Celes

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of low-load high-velocity resistance exercises on neuromuscular and functional outcomes in patients with Type 2 diabetes (T2D during the early-phase of resistance training. Thirty participants with T2D performed 18 training sessions (6 weeks – 3x week in one of two groups: low-load high-velocity exercises (LLHV, n=15, 62.1±10.5 years or recreational activities (RA, n=15 56.7 ± 19.4 years. LLHV performed resistance exercises with 3x 8reps as fast as possible with 50-60% 1RM. RA performed light activities. Strength, power, and functional tests were assessed. There was significant increasing in the knee extension peak-torque at 60º/s (7.6% and 180º/s (12.2%, rate of force development in the LLHV group (P<0.05, whereas there were no changes in the RA group. Significant increases in functional test were observed in the LLHV group (P<0.01 with no changes in the RA group. In conclusion, the LLHV induced marked improvements in neuromuscular parameters, as well as in the functional capacity of participants with T2D.

  2. Atrial adaptive rate pacing in sick sinus syndrome: effects on exercise capacity and arrhythmias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haywood, G A; Katritsis, D; Ward, J; Leigh-Jones, M; Ward, D E; Camm, A J

    1993-02-01

    To test the hypotheses that adaptive rate atrial (AAIR) pacing: significantly increases maximal exercise capacity, and results in significant suppression of supraventricular and ventricular arrhythmia compared with fixed rate atrial (AAI) pacing. Prospective, randomised, single blind, crossover study with maximal treadmill exercise testing and 24 hour ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring in AAIR and AAI modes. Regional pacing centre. 30 consecutive patients (mean SD age 65 (12) years) with sick sinus syndrome who required permanent pacing, without evidence of conduction disturbance on 12 lead electrocardiograms or 24 hour ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring and without other cardiovascular or systemic disease. Activity sensing or minute ventilation driven systems (AAI/AAIR) were implanted alternately. The mean (SD) peak heart rate in AAI mode was 122(28)v 130(22) in AAIR mode (p AAIR mode (NS) in the chronotropically incompetent patients. There were no significant differences in the Borg scores at peak exercise in AAI v AAIR mode in either group. The frequency per hour of atrial and ventricular arrhythmias showed no significant differences between the two modes in either the group as a whole or in the subgroups with chronotropic incompetence. AAIR pacing confers little benefit in sick sinus syndrome compared with AAI pacing.

  3. Impact of prematurity on exercise capacity and agility of children and youth aged 8 to 18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robič Pikel, Tatjana; Starc, Gregor; Strel, Janko; Kovač, Marjeta; Babnik, Janez; Golja, Petra

    2017-07-01

    Preterm (PT) birth and low birth mass (LBW) can impair growth and development of children and may therefore affect their physical performance up to adulthood. Our aim was to evaluate long-term consequences of prematurity, especially (an)aerobic exercise capacity and agility up to adulthood, by comparing premature and full-term (FT) individuals. From 474 subjects born in 1987, who were enrolled into a longitudinal study, 396 (178 PT and 218 FT (with 127 of them LBW)) were followed-up into their early adulthood. Their mass, respiratory status at birth, and results of SLOfit monitoring system (i.e. results of exercise capacity and agility) were monitored on a yearly basis from their age of 8 to 18years. Data were compared statistically with Student t-test or ANOVA. PT (or LBW) individuals performed aerobic (time of 600-meter run of females) and the majority of anaerobic tests (sit-ups, standing broad jump, and time of 60-meter run, but not bent arm hang) worse (pagility and fine motor tests (arm plate tapping, polygon backwards, and standing reach touch) were performed better (pagility on the long-term scale, therefore, PT children should be encouraged towards more regular participation in physical activities from early childhood onwards. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Mechanisms for decreased exercise capacity after bed rest in normal middle-aged men

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hung, J.; Goldwater, D.; Convertino, V.A.; McKillop, J.H.; Goris, M.L.; DeBusk, R.F.

    1983-01-15

    The mechanisms responsible for the decrease in exercise capacity after bed rest were assessed in 12 apparently healthy men aged 50 +/- 4 years who underwent equilibrium gated blood pool scintigraphy during supine and upright multistage bicycle ergometry before and after 10 days of bed rest. After bed rest, echocardiographically measured supine resting left ventricular end-diastolic volume decreased by 16% (p less than 0.05). Peak oxygen uptake during supine effort after bed rest was diminished by 6% (p . not significant (NS)), whereas peak oxygen uptake during upright effort declined by 15% (p less than 0.05). After bed rest, increases in heart rate were also greater during exercise in the upright than in the supine position (p less than 0.05). Values of left ventricular ejection fraction increased normally during both supine and upright effort after bed rest and were higher than corresponding values before bed rest (p less than 0.05). After bed rest, increased left ventricular ejection fraction and heart rate largely compensated for the reduced cardiac volume during supine effort, but these mechanisms were insufficient to maintain oxygen transport capacity at levels during upright effort before bed rest. These results indicate that orthostatically induced cardiac underfilling, not physical deconditioning or left ventricular dysfunction, is the major cause of reduced effort tolerance after 10 days of bed rest in normal middle-aged men.

  5. Myogenin regulates exercise capacity but is dispensable for skeletal muscle regeneration in adult mdx mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Meadows

    Full Text Available Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD is the most prevalent inherited childhood muscle disorder in humans. mdx mice exhibit a similar pathophysiology to the human disorder allowing for an in-depth investigation of DMD. Myogenin, a myogenic regulatory factor, is best known for its role in embryonic myogenesis, but its role in adult muscle maintenance and regeneration is still poorly understood. Here, we generated an mdx:Myog(flox/flox mouse harboring a tamoxifen-inducible Cre recombinase transgene, which was used to conditionally delete Myog during adult life. After tamoxifen treatment, three groups of mice were created to study the effects of Myog deletion: mdx:Myog(flox/flox mice (mdx, Myog(flox/flox mice (wild-type, and mdx:Myog(floxΔ/floxΔ:Cre-ER mice (mdx:Myog-deleted. mdx:Myog-deleted mice exhibited no adverse phenotype and behaved normally. When run to exhaustion, mdx:Myog-deleted mice demonstrated an enhanced capacity for exercise compared to mdx mice, running nearly as far as wild-type mice. Moreover, these mice showed the same signature characteristics of muscle regeneration as mdx mice. Unexpectedly, we found that myogenin was dispensable for muscle regeneration. Factors associated with muscle fatigue, metabolism, and proteolysis were significantly altered in mdx:Myog-deleted mice, and this might contribute to their increased exercise capacity. Our results reveal novel functions for myogenin in adult muscle and suggest that reducing Myog expression in other muscle disease models may partially restore muscle function.

  6. Skeletal muscle-specific expression of PGC-1α-b, an exercise-responsive isoform, increases exercise capacity and peak oxygen uptake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miki Tadaishi

    Full Text Available Maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2max predicts mortality and is associated with endurance performance. Trained subjects have a high VO(2max due to a high cardiac output and high metabolic capacity of skeletal muscles. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α, a nuclear receptor coactivator, promotes mitochondrial biogenesis, a fiber-type switch to oxidative fibers, and angiogenesis in skeletal muscle. Because exercise training increases PGC-1α in skeletal muscle, PGC-1α-mediated changes may contribute to the improvement of exercise capacity and VO(2max. There are three isoforms of PGC-1α mRNA. PGC-1α-b protein, whose amino terminus is different from PGC-1α-a protein, is a predominant PGC-1α isoform in response to exercise. We investigated whether alterations of skeletal muscle metabolism by overexpression of PGC-1α-b in skeletal muscle, but not heart, would increase VO(2max and exercise capacity.Transgenic mice showed overexpression of PGC-1α-b protein in skeletal muscle but not in heart. Overexpression of PGC-1α-b promoted mitochondrial biogenesis 4-fold, increased the expression of fatty acid transporters, enhanced angiogenesis in skeletal muscle 1.4 to 2.7-fold, and promoted exercise capacity (expressed by maximum speed by 35% and peak oxygen uptake by 20%. Across a broad range of either the absolute exercise intensity, or the same relative exercise intensities, lipid oxidation was always higher in the transgenic mice than wild-type littermates, suggesting that lipid is the predominant fuel source for exercise in the transgenic mice. However, muscle glycogen usage during exercise was absent in the transgenic mice.Increased mitochondrial biogenesis, capillaries, and fatty acid transporters in skeletal muscles may contribute to improved exercise capacity via an increase in fatty acid utilization. Increases in PGC-1α-b protein or function might be a useful strategy for sedentary subjects to perform exercise

  7. Does peripheral arterial occlusive disease influence muscle strength and exercise capacity in COPD patients?

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    Natacha Angélica da Fonseca Miranda

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pathophysiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is complex and understanding of it has been changing in recent years, with regard to its multisystemic manifestations, especially peripheral dysfunction and its influence on intolerance to exercise. Objectives To evaluate the relationship between peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD and peripheral muscle strength and exercise capacity in COPD patients. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of 35 patients with COPD who were evaluated with the Ankle-Brachial Index, handgrip strength test, 1 repetition maximum (1RM of knee extensors and flexors, and distance covered in the incremental shuttle walking test (dISWT. Results COPD patients with coexisting PAOD had lower dominant handgrip strength test results (33.00 vs. 26.66 kgf, p = 0.02 and worse performance in the dISWT (297.32 vs. 219.41 m, p = 0.02 when compared to the COPD patients without PAOD. Strong correlations were found between the result of the handgrip strength test and both the dISWT (r = 0.78; p < 0.001 and the 1RM/knee extension (r = 0.71; p = 0.03; and also between the dISWT and both the 1RM/knee extension (r = 0.72; p = 0.02 and the 1RM/knee flexion (r = 0.92; p < 0.001. The linear regression model showed that the dISWT variable alone explains 15.3% of the Ankle-Brachial Index result (p = 0.01. Conclusion COPD patients with PAOD exhibit reduced muscle strength and lower exercise capacity than COPD patients without PAOD.

  8. Effect of exercise-induced dehydration on circulatory markers of oxidative damage and antioxidant capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgescu, Vincent P; de Souza Junior, Tacito P; Behrens, Christian; Barros, Marcelo P; Bueno, Carlos Alves; Utter, Alan C; McAnulty, Lisa S; McAnulty, Steven R

    2017-07-01

    Dehydration is a common event associated with exercise. However, few studies have examined the effects of dehydration on plasma redox status in humans. Eighty-two athletes were recruited and baseline anthropometrics and blood samples were obtained. Athletes then engaged in a dehydration protocol, training until 3% of preweight body mass was lost. Athletes returned to the lab and had postdehydration blood collected. Athletes then consumed an isotonic drink until pre-exercise body weight was reestablished. Blood was then recollected (1 h post full rehydration (PFR)). Samples were centrifuged and the plasma snap frozen in liquid nitrogen and stored at -80 °C. Lipid and protein oxidative stress was determined by measuring F2-isoprostanes and protein carbonyls (PC), respectively. Antioxidant capacity was determined by the ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays. Plasma osmolality was determined using an osmometer. Statistical analysis utilized a 1-way ANOVA with posthoc testing. Values are reported as mean ± SD. Plasma osmolality was significantly elevated immediately postdehydration (p ≤ 0.001) but decreased to baseline at PFR. Plasma TEAC increased immediately postdehydration and at PFR (p ≤ 0.001). FRAP increased immediately postdehydration (p ≤ 0.001) and decreased to below baseline at PFR (p ≤ 0.05). Conversely, F2-isoprostanes declined significantly from baseline to immediately postdehydration and then significantly rose at PFR (p ≤ 0.001), whereas PC declined at PFR (p ≤ 0.01). This study indicates that dehydration and exercise cause a significant increase in plasma osmolality and antioxidant potential immediately postexercise. We propose dehydration significantly elevates antioxidant concentration which suppresses F2-isoprostanes and PC.

  9. SPORT EXERCISE CAPACITY OF SOCCER PLAYERS AT DIFFERENT LEVELS OF PERFORMANCE

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    Marcin Andrzejewski

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to compare the level of exercise capacities to the loads occurring at the lactate threshold among soccer players representing different levels of sport mastery. The research included 51 soccer players representing different levels of sport mastery. The research was conducted at the beginning of the preparatory period for the spring season. A field exercise test of increasing intensity was performed to check the players’ exercise capacities on the soccer pitch. The test enabled us to determine the 4 millimolar lactate threshold (TLA 4 mmol · l-1 on the basis of lactate concentration in blood (LA, and to define the threshold running speed and the threshold heart rate (HR. The lactate level in blood was measured using a Lactate Scout photometer with the enzyme-amperometric method from capillary blood for 20 seconds after each load. The threshold running speed at the level of the 4 millimolar lactate threshold was marked using the two-point form of the equation of a straight line. The conducted tests showed significant differentiation of the threshold running speed among individual teams. The soccer players of a leading first league club were expected to achieve the best result. The conducted tests did not confirm this assumption. Juniors reached the highest threshold running speed of 3.61 m · s-1. Lower values of the analysed indicator were acquired by players of the first league team (3.50 m · s-1 and the lowest by players of the second league team (3.28 m · s-1. Statistically significant differences were noted between the junior group and second league team (p≤ 0.01 and between the first and the second league soccer players (p<0.05.

  10. Effects of an exercise program on the functional capacity of patients with chronic Chagas' heart disease, evaluated by cardiopulmonary testing

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    Paloma Hargreaves Fialho

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Despite all efforts to restrict its transmission, Chagas' disease remains a severe public health problem in Latin America, affecting 8-12 million individuals. Chronic Chagas' heart disease, the chief factor in the high mortality rate associated with the illness, affects more than half a million Brazilians. Its evolution may result in severe heart failure associated with loss of functional capacity and quality of life, with important social and medical/labor consequences. Many studies have shown the beneficial effect of regular exercise on cardiac patients, but few of them have focused on chronic Chagas' heart disease. METHODS: This study evaluated the effects of an exercise program on the functional capacity of patients with chronic Chagas' disease who were treated in outpatient clinics at the Evandro Chagas Institute of Clinical Research and the National Institute of Cardiology, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The exercises were performed 3 times a week for 1 h (30 min of aerobic activity and 30 min of resistance exercises and extension over 6 months in 2010. Functional capacity was evaluated by comparing the direct measurement of the O2 uptake volume (VO2 obtained by a cardiopulmonary exercise test before and after the program (p 10% (p = 0.01949. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest a statistically significant improvement in functional capacity with regular exercise of the right intensity.

  11. Effects of an exercise program on the functional capacity of patients with chronic Chagas' heart disease, evaluated by cardiopulmonary testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fialho, Paloma Hargreaves; Tura, Bernardo Rangel; Sousa, Andréa Silvestre de; Oliveira, Claudia Rosa de; Soares, Carla Cristiane Santos; Oliveira, Juliana Rega de; Souza, Marcus Vinícius; Coelho, Marina Pereira; Souza, Fernando César de Castro e; Cunha, Ademir Batista da; Kopiler, Daniel Arkader

    2012-01-01

    Despite all efforts to restrict its transmission, Chagas' disease remains a severe public health problem in Latin America, affecting 8-12 million individuals. Chronic Chagas' heart disease, the chief factor in the high mortality rate associated with the illness, affects more than half a million Brazilians. Its evolution may result in severe heart failure associated with loss of functional capacity and quality of life, with important social and medical/labor consequences. Many studies have shown the beneficial effect of regular exercise on cardiac patients, but few of them have focused on chronic Chagas' heart disease. This study evaluated the effects of an exercise program on the functional capacity of patients with chronic Chagas' disease who were treated in outpatient clinics at the Evandro Chagas Institute of Clinical Research and the National Institute of Cardiology, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The exercises were performed 3 times a week for 1 h (30 min of aerobic activity and 30 min of resistance exercises and extension) over 6 months in 2010. Functional capacity was evaluated by comparing the direct measurement of the O₂ uptake volume (VO₂) obtained by a cardiopulmonary exercise test before and after the program (p maximum ages of 30 and 72 years, respectively. We observed an average increase of VO(2peak) > 10% (p = 0.01949). The results suggest a statistically significant improvement in functional capacity with regular exercise of the right intensity.

  12. Walking tests during the exercise training: Specific use for the cardiac rehabilitation

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    Casillas, J.-M.; Hannequin, A.; Besson, D.; Benaïm, S.; Krawcow, C.; Laurent, Y.; Gremeaux, V.

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Walk tests, principally the six-minute walk test (6mWT), constitute a safe, useful submaximal tool for exercise tolerance testing in cardiac rehabilitation (CR). The 6mWT result reflects functional status, walking autonomy and efficacy of CR on walking endurance, which is more pronounced in patients with low functional capacity (heart failure - cardiac surgery). The 6mWT result is a strong predictor of mortality. However, clinically significant changes and reliability ...

  13. Smoking and Early COPD as Independent Predictors of Body Composition, Exercise Capacity, and Health Status.

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    Laura Miranda de Oliveira Caram

    Full Text Available The effects of tobacco smoke, mild/moderate COPD disease and their combined effect on health status (HS, body composition (BC, and exercise capacity (EC impairment are still unclear. We hypothesized that smoking and early COPD have a joint negative influence on these outcomes. We evaluated 32 smokers (smoking history >10 pack/years, 32 mild/moderate COPD (current smokers or former smokers, and 32 never smokers. All individuals underwent medical and smoking status evaluations, pre and post-bronchodilator spirometry, BC [fat-free mass (FFM and FFM index (FFMI], EC [six-minute walk distance (6MWD] and HS [Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36]. FFM (p = 0.02 and FFMI (p = 0.008 were lower in COPD than never smokers. 6MWT, as a percentage of reference values for the Brazilian population, was lower in COPD and smokers than never smokers (p = 0.01. Smokers showed worse SF-36 score for functional capacity than never smokers (p<0.001. SF-36 score for physical functioning (p<0.001 and role-emotional (p<0.001 were impaired in COPD patients than smokers. SF-36 scores for physical functioning (p<0.001, role-physical (p = 0.01, bodily pain (p = 0.01, vitality (p = 0.04 and role-emotional (p<0.001 were lower in COPD than never smokers. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that both COPD diagnosis and smoking were inversely associated with FFMI, 6MWD and HS. Smoking and early COPD have a joint negative influence on body composition, exercise capacity and health status.

  14. CHA2DS2-VASc score and exercise capacity of patients with coronary artery disease participating in cardiac rehabilitation programs.

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    Haskiah, Feras; Shacham, Yacov; Minha, Saar; Rozenbaum, Zach; Pereg, David

    2017-12-01

    Exercise based cardiac rehabilitation improves prognosis and quality of life in patients with coronary artery disease. We aimed to investigate whether the CHA2DS2-VASc score may be a predictor of improvement in exercise capacity in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients participating in a cardiac rehabilitation program. Included were patients following a hospital admission due to ACS and were subsequently referred for an exercise based cardiac rehabilitation during 2010-2015. Participants were divided into three groups of low (1-2), intermediate (3) and high (4≤) CHA2DS2-VASc score. Exercise capacity was evaluated by a treadmill stress test at baseline and following 9 months. The primary endpoint was the percent of patients who achieved at least 25% improvement in exercise capacity. The 597 patients included in the study had a mean age of 65.5±9.3 years and consisted of 22.5% women. The primary endpoint of at least 25% improvement in exercise capacity following 9 months of cardiac rehabilitation occurred more frequently in patients in the high CHA2DS2-VASc group compared to the intermediate and low CHA2DS2-VASc score groups (47.3, 29.9 and 36.1% in the high, intermediate and low CHA2DS2-VASc score groups respectively, P=0.002). The CHA2DS2-VASc score may serve as a predictor of exercise capacity improvement. Its use for tailoring specific cardiac rehabilitation programs for ACS patients may yield further improvement in functional capacity and better utilization of resources.

  15. Exercise capacity, daily activity, and severity of fatigue in term born young adults after neonatal respiratory failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Cammen-van Zijp, M H M; Spoel, M; Laas, R; Hop, W C J; de Jongste, J C; Tibboel, D; van den Berg-Emons, R J G; IJsselstijn, H

    2014-02-01

    Little is known about long-term effects of neonatal intensive care on exercise capacity, physical activity, and fatigue in term borns. We determined these outcomes in 57 young adults, treated for neonatal respiratory failure; 27 of them had congenital diaphragmatic hernia with lung hypoplasia (group 1) and 30 had normal lung development (group 2). Patients in group 2 were age-matched, with similar gestational age and birth weight, and similar neonatal intensive care treatment as patients in group 1. All patients were born before the era of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, nitric oxide administration, and high frequency ventilation. Exercise capacity was measured by cycle ergometry, daily physical activity with an accelerometry-based activity monitor, and fatigue by the fatigue severity scale. Median (range) VO2peak in mL/kg/min was 35.4 (19.6-55.0) in group 1 and 37.6 (15.7-52.7) in group 2. There was a between-group P-value of 0.65 for exercise capacity. Daily activity and fatigue were also similar in both groups. So, residual lung hypoplasia did not play an important role in this cohort. There were no significant associations between exercise capacity and perinatal characteristics. Future studies need to elucidate whether exercise capacity is impaired in patients with more severe lung hypoplasia who nowadays survive. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Cardiorespiratory parameters of exercise capacity in a healthy Lithuanian population: the pilot study.

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    Grigaliūnienė, Asta; Ramonas, Andrius; Celutkienė, Jelena; Sileikienė, Virginija; Rudys, Alfredas; Juocevičius, Alvydas; Laucevičius, Aleksandras

    2013-01-01

    The normative values of exercise capacity used for the interpretation of exercise testing results are influenced by a variety of internal and external factors specific to certain populations. Therefore, in clinical practice it is recommended that population-specific reference values be employed. Cardiorespiratory fitness norms have not yet been established for a healthy Lithuanian population over a wide age span. The purpose of the present study was to determine the main cardiorespiratory fitness parameters for healthy adults living in Lithuania and to compare these parameters with the reference values established for different foreign populations. This was a cross-sectional, community-based study involving 168 healthy adults aged from 20 to 60 years who were randomly selected from the general population. All subjects performed a progressive incremental exercise test on the cycle ergometer. The main cardiorespiratory fitness parameters analysed were peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak), ventilatory anaerobic threshold, and peak heart rate (HRpeak). The average estimated VO2peak was 35.02 ± 7.37 mL.kg(-1).min(-1) for men and 28.27 ± 6.33 mL.kg(-1).min(-1) for women. According to the results presented by other authors, this parameter is approximately 9-22% lower compared to other populations in all age groups, with the exception of the 20-29 year old group who alone satisfied fair aerobic fitness criteria. The average age-related decline in VO2peak was 0.016 L.min(-1) per year for men and 0.011 L.min(-1) per year for women. However, age itself explained only 12-14% of the variance. After VO2peak was adjusted relative to body mass, the difference in the decline between men and women remained insignificant: VO2peak decrease was 0.34 mL.kg(-1).min(-1) per year for men (coefficient of determination R(2) 0.250) and 0.32 mL.kg(-1).min(-1) per year for women (R(2) 0.330). A decline in peak heart rate of approximately 9 beats per minute was observed in each following age

  17. The Effect of Eccentric Exercise on Total Anti-Oxidant Capacity, Reduced Glutathione and Malondialdehyde Levels in Active Women

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    Sekineh Norouziyan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although exercise can increase free radicals by generating oxidative stress, it also can decrease them by increasing the antioxidant enzymes in the body as well. The purpose of this study is to investigate the eccentric activity on some oxidative and anti-oxidative factors pertaining to blood plasma of PE women immediately after the exercise. Materials and Methods: Sixteen female students have been volunteered in this study randomly divided into two groups including eccentric training group and control group. The blood samples were drawn from the subjects one hour before and immediately after the exercise to measure the reduced Glutathione (GSH, Malondialdehyde (MDA and total anti-oxidant capacity (TAC levels. The data were analyzed by SPSS-13 software using the one-way analysis of variance, one-way ANOVA test, (to determine the differences between groups at the confidence level of 90% (p<0.05. Results: The results has shown that the TAC, MDA, GSH levels after the eccentric exercise increased significantly compared to pre-exercise (p=0.001, p=0.001, p=0.033. The GSH and MDA levels also after the eccentric exercise were significantly higher than the pre-exercise compared to control group. Conclusion: It seems that sever eccentric exercise is an important stimulus making significant changes in body’s anti-oxidative system and has the ability to improve the anti-oxidant capacities too.

  18. Effects of combined physical exercise training on DNA damage and repair capacity: role of oxidative stress changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Jorge Pinto; Silva, Amélia M; Oliveira, Maria Manuel; Peixoto, Francisco; Gaivão, Isabel; Mota, Maria Paula

    2015-06-01

    Regular physical exercise has been shown to be one of the most important lifestyle influences on improving functional performance, decreasing morbidity and all causes of mortality among older people. However, it is known that acute physical exercise may induce an increase in oxidative stress and oxidative damage in several structures, including DNA. Considering this, the purpose of this study was to identify the effects of 16 weeks of combined physical exercise in DNA damage and repair capacity in lymphocytes. In addition, we aimed to investigate the role of oxidative stress involved in those changes. Fifty-seven healthy men (40 to 74 years) were enrolled in this study. The sample was divided into two groups: the experimental group (EG), composed of 31 individuals, submitted to 16 weeks of combined physical exercise training; and the control group (CG), composed of 26 individuals, who did not undergo any specifically orientated physical activity. We observed an improvement of overall physical performance in the EG, after the physical exercise training. A significant decrease in DNA strand breaks and FPG-sensitive sites was found after the physical exercise training, with no significant changes in 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase enzyme activity. An increase was observed in antioxidant activity, and a decrease was found in lipid peroxidation levels after physical exercise training. These results suggest that physical exercise training induces protective effects against DNA damage in lymphocytes possibly related to the increase in antioxidant capacity.

  19. Impaired aerobic exercise capacity and cardiac autonomic control in primary antiphospholipid syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, C B; Perandini, L A; Seguro, L P C; Gualano, B; Roschel, H; Bonfa, E; Borba, E F; Sá-Pinto, A L

    2013-08-01

    Primary antiphospholipid syndrome (PAPS) is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality. Aerobic capacity and cardiac autonomic control are also associated with these risks. The aim of our study was to assess aerobic capacity and cardiac autonomic control in PAPS patients. Thirteen women with PAPS and 13 healthy controls matched for age, gender, and body mass index were enrolled for the study. Both groups were sedentary and were not under chronotropic, antidepressants and hypolipemiant drugs. All subjects performed a treadmill-graded maximal exercise. Aerobic capacity was assessed by peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), time at anaerobic ventilatory threshold (VAT) and respiratory compensation point (RCP) and time-to-exhaustion, whereas cardiac autonomic control was assessed by chronotropic reserve (CR) and heart rate recovery at the first and second minutes after graded exercise (HRR1min and HRR2min, respectively). All aerobic capacity indexes were reduced more in PAPS patients than in healthy subjects: VO2peak (30.2 ± 4.7 vs 34.6 ± 4.3 ml.kg(-1).min(-1), p = 0.021), time at VAT (3.0 ± 1.5 vs 5.0 ± 2.0 min, p = 0.016), time at RCP (6.5 ± 2.0 vs 8.0 ± 2.0 min, p = 0.050), time-to-exhaustion (8.5 ± 2.0 vs 11.0 ± 2.5 min, p = 0.010). HRR1min (22 ± 9 vs 30 ± 7 bpm, p = 0.032) and HRR2min (33 ± 9 vs 46 ± 8 bpm, p = 0.002) were delayed in PAPS patients compared to healthy controls but CR was not significantly different (p = 0.272). In conclusion, an impaired aerobic capacity and cardiac autonomic control was identified in PAPS.

  20. Physiological markers of exercise capacity and lung disease severity in cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Laurie; Reilly, Charles C; MacBean, Victoria; Jolley, Caroline J; Elston, Caroline; Moxham, John; Rafferty, Gerrard F

    2017-05-01

    Peak aerobic capacity (VO2 peak) is an important outcome measure in cystic fibrosis (CF), but measurement is not widely available and can be influenced by patient motivation, pain and fatigue. Alternative markers of disease severity would be helpful. Neural respiratory drive, measured using parasternal intercostal muscle electromyography (EMGpara), reflects the load to capacity balance of the respiratory system and provides a composite measure of pulmonary function impairment in CF. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between exercise capacity, EMGpara and established measures of pulmonary function in clinically stable adult CF patients. Twenty CF patients (12 males, median (range) age: 22.3 (17.0-43.1) years) performed the 10-m incremental shuttle walk test (ISWT) maximally with contemporaneous measures of aerobic metabolism. EMGpara was recorded from second intercostal space at rest and normalized using peak electromyogram activity obtained during maximum respiratory manoeuvres and expressed as EMGpara%max (EMGpara expressed as a percentage of maximum). VO2 peak was strongly correlated with ISWT distance (r = 0.864, P disease progression. © 2016 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  1. Nutrition Supplements to Stimulate Lipolysis: A Review in Relation to Endurance Exercise Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jisu; Park, Jonghoon; Lim, Kiwon

    2016-01-01

    Athletes make great efforts to increase their endurance capacity in many ways. Using nutrition supplements for stimulating lipolysis is one such strategy to improve endurance performance. These supplements contain certain ingredients that affect fat metabolism; furthermore, in combination with endurance training, they tend to have additive effects. A large body of scientific evidence shows that nutrition supplements increase fat metabolism; however, the usefulness of lipolytic supplements as ergogenic functional foods remains controversial. The present review will describe the effectiveness of lipolytic supplements in fat metabolism and as an ergogenic aid for increasing endurance exercise capacity. There are a number of lipolytic supplements available on the market, but this review focuses on natural ingredients such as caffeine, green tea extract, L-carnitine, Garcinia cambogia (hydroxycitric acid), capsaicin, ginseng, taurine, silk peptides and octacosanol, all of which have shown scientific evidence of enhancing fat metabolism associated with improving endurance performance. We excluded some other supplements owing to lack of data on fat metabolism or endurance capacity. Based on the data in this review, we suggest that a caffeine and green tea extract improves endurance performance and enhances fat oxidation. Regarding other supplements, the data on their practical implications needs to be gathered, especially for athletes.

  2. Correlations between aerobic capacity, pulmonary and cognitive functioning in the older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, B; Pinar, L; Uğur, F; Oğuz, M

    2005-04-01

    Regular aerobic exercise improves aerobic capacity and increases brain blood flow and oxygenation. Exercise also stimulates the reticular activating system and leads to a centrally excited state thereby makes the brain active and alert. In the present study, an aerobic exercise program consisting of submaximal level calisthenic exercises was devised for relatively healthy women between 60 and 80 years old, attending a solidarity center for the aged for daily activities. The effects of exercise on aerobic fitness, and the correlations between aerobic capacities, pulmonary functions and cognition were evaluated. Following a general health examination, 45 female volunteers fulfilling the international criteria of exercising standards for the aged were included in the program. The rhythmic and entertaining calisthenic exercises were performed by the older women for four months, three days a week, 40 or 50 minutes a day. Tests for aerobic capacities, pulmonary functions, and some neuropsychologic performances were carried out during the sedentary period and after the exercise program. The results revealed significant improvements in aerobic capacity, pulmonary functions, and some of the cognitive functions after the 4-month exercise program. We found strong relationships between aerobic capacities and cognitive functioning. Overall, the subjects expressed their happiness and well being on every occasion, during and after the exercise program.

  3. Passive Leg Raising Correlates with Future Exercise Capacity after Coronary Revascularization.

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    Shu-Chun Huang

    Full Text Available Hemodynamic properties affected by the passive leg raise test (PLRT reflect cardiac pumping efficiency. In the present study, we aimed to further explore whether PLRT predicts exercise intolerance/capacity following coronary revascularization. Following coronary bypass/percutaneous coronary intervention, 120 inpatients underwent a PLRT and a cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET 2-12 days during post-surgery hospitalization and 3-5 weeks after hospital discharge. The PLRT included head-up, leg raise, and supine rest postures. The end point of the first CPET during admission was the supra-ventilatory anaerobic threshold, whereas that during the second CPET in the outpatient stage was maximal performance. Bio-reactance-based non-invasive cardiac output monitoring was employed during PLRT to measure real-time stroke volume and cardiac output. A correlation matrix showed that stroke volume during leg raise (SVLR during the first PLRT was positively correlated (R = 0.653 with the anaerobic threshold during the first CPET. When exercise intolerance was defined as an anaerobic threshold < 3 metabolic equivalents, SVLR / body weight had an area under curve value of 0.822, with sensitivity of 0.954, specificity of 0.593, and cut-off value of 1504·10-3mL/kg (positive predictive value 0.72; negative predictive value 0.92. Additionally, cardiac output during leg raise (COLR during the first PLRT was related to peak oxygen consumption during the second CPET (R = 0.678. When poor aerobic fitness was defined as peak oxygen consumption < 5 metabolic equivalents, COLR / body weight had an area under curve value of 0.814, with sensitivity of 0.781, specificity of 0.773, and a cut-off value of 68.3 mL/min/kg (positive predictive value 0.83; negative predictive value 0.71. Therefore, we conclude that PLRT during hospitalization has a good screening and predictive power for exercise intolerance/capacity in inpatients and early outpatients following coronary

  4. Assessment of exercise capacity in African patients with chronic heart failure using six minutes walk test

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    Rufus A Adedoyin

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Rufus A Adedoyin1, Samuel A Adeyanju2, Michael O Balogun3, Anthony O Akintomide3, Rasaaq A Adebayo3, Patience O Akinwusi4, Taofeek O Awotidebe11Department of Medical Rehabilitation, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria; 2Department of Physical and Health Education, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria; 3Department of Medicine, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria; 4Department of Medicine, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Osogbo, NigeriaBackground: The purpose of this study was to assess the functional capacity during a 6-minute corridor walk and a 6-minute bicycle ergometry exercise in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF.Method: Thirty five patients with stable CHF were recruited for the study. Each subject performed six minutes corridor walk and 6-minute bicycle ergometry testing. The 6-minute walk required the subjects to walk at a self selected speed on a 20 meter marked level ground for 6-minute. All the subjects also performed a 6-minute exercise on a stationary bicycle ergometer with initial resistance of 20 watts and increased by 10 watts after 3-minutes. The perceived rate of exertion was assessed using a modified Borg Scale after each exercise mode. The maximum oxygen consumption was derived using American College of Sport Medicine equations.Results: Result showed high positive correlation between distance walked in the 6-minute and the maximum volume of oxygen (VO2 max (r = 0.65, P < 0.01. The average distance walked was 327 m ± 12.03 m. The VO2 max estimated during bicycle ergometry was higher (13.7 ± 1.9 L than during the six minutes walk (8.9 ± 1.2 L.Conclusion: Six minutes walk could be useful to evaluate exercise tolerance in patients with chronic heart failure, while the bicycle ergometer could be more appropriate in the assessment of maximum functional capacity in these patients.Keywords: 6-minute walk, CHF, bicycle ergometer

  5. Benefits of short inspiratory muscle training on exercise capacity, dyspnea, and inspiratory fraction in COPD patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barakat Shahin

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Barakat Shahin1, Michele Germain2, Alzahouri Kazem3, Guy Annat41Department of Physiology, University of Claude Bernard Lyon I, Lyon, France; 2Chef of the Service of EFR, Hospital of the Croix-Rousse at Lyon, France; 3Department of Medical Informatics, Hospital of St. Julien, Nancy, France; 4Department of Physiology, UFR Médecine Lyon Grange-Blanche Université Claude Bernard Lyon I, INSERM ESPRI ERI 22, Lyon, FranceAbstract: Static lung hyperinflation has important clinical consequences in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Given that most of these patients have respiratory and peripheral muscle weakness, dyspnea and functional exercise capacity may improve as a result of inspiratory muscle training (IMT. The present study is designed to investigate the benefits of a short outpatient program of IMT on inspiratory muscle performance, exercise capacity, perception of dyspnea, and the inspiratory fraction (IF. Thirty patients (24 males, 6 females with significant COPD (forced expiratory volume in one second [FEV1] = 46.21% ± 6.7% predicted, FEV1 = 33.6% ± 8.04% predicted were recruited for this study and had 3 months of IMT (30 minutes/day for 6 days/week in an outpatient clinic. Following IMT, there was a statistically significant increase in inspiratory muscle performance (an increase of the maximal inspiratory pressure from 59% ± 19.1% to 79% ± 21.85% predicted; p = 0.0342, a decrease in dyspnea (from 5.8 ± 0.78 to 1.9 ± 0.57; p = 0.0001, an increase in the distance walked during the 6 minute walk test, from 245 ± 52.37 m to 302 ± 41.30 m, and finally an increase in the IF (the new prognostic factor in COPD from 27.6 ± 9.7% to 31.4% ± 9.8%. The present study concludes that in patients with significant COPD, IMT results in improvement in performance, exercise capacity, sensation of dyspnea, and moreover an improvement in the IF prognostic factor.Keywords: inspiratory muscle training, dyspnea, inspiratory

  6. Effect of caffeine ingestion on anaerobic capacity quantified by different methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcoverde, Lucyana; Silveira, Rodrigo; Tomazini, Fabiano; Sansonio, André; Bertuzzi, Romulo; Lima-Silva, Adriano Eduardo; Andrade-Souza, Victor Amorim

    2017-01-01

    We investigated whether caffeine ingestion before submaximal exercise bouts would affect supramaximal oxygen demand and maximal accumulated oxygen deficit (MAOD), and if caffeine-induced improvement on the anaerobic capacity (AC) could be detected by different methods. Nine men took part in several submaximal and supramaximal exercise bouts one hour after ingesting caffeine (5 mg·kg-1) or placebo. The AC was estimated by MAOD, alternative MAOD, critical power, and gross efficiency methods. Caffeine had no effect on exercise endurance during the supramaximal bout (caffeine: 131.3 ± 21.9 and placebo: 130.8 ± 20.8 s, P = 0.80). Caffeine ingestion before submaximal trials did not affect supramaximal oxygen demand and MAOD compared to placebo (7.88 ± 1.56 L and 65.80 ± 16.06 kJ vs. 7.89 ± 1.30 L and 62.85 ± 13.67 kJ, P = 0.99). Additionally, MAOD was similar between caffeine and placebo when supramaximal oxygen demand was estimated without caffeine effects during submaximal bouts (67.02 ± 16.36 and 62.85 ± 13.67 kJ, P = 0.41) or when estimated by alternative MAOD (56.61 ± 8.49 and 56.87 ± 9.76 kJ, P = 0.91). The AC estimated by gross efficiency was also similar between caffeine and placebo (21.80 ± 3.09 and 20.94 ± 2.67 kJ, P = 0.15), but was lower in caffeine when estimated by critical power method (16.2 ± 2.6 vs. 19.3 ± 3.5 kJ, P = 0.03). In conclusion, caffeine ingestion before submaximal bouts did not affect supramaximal oxygen demand and consequently MAOD. Otherwise, caffeine seems to have no clear positive effect on AC.

  7. The association between right ventricular free wall strain and exercise capacity for health check-up subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Ting Chang

    Full Text Available Right ventricular (RV function has been found to be a major factor of exercise capacity in patients with heart failure. However, the role of RV function in exercise capacity in healthy subjects has not been well studied. This study aims to validate the role of RV strain derived from speckle tracking echocardiography for exercise capacity for health check-up subjects.This study prospectively recruited subjects from a routine health examination. All of them were symptom free. RV function represented by RV strain was derived from speckle tracking echocardiography in addition to traditional echocardiography parameters. Functional capacity was determined by a symptom limited treadmill exercise test with the Bruce protocol.Among 164 recruited subjects (age 52.2 ±9.2 years, 66.4% male, 32 subjects represented impaired functional capacity (MET<8, which was significantly correlated with age, left ventricular mass index, left ventricular filling pressure (E/e', global longitudinal strain of the left ventricle (LVGLS (-16.0±2.5% vs. -18.9±3.8%, p < 0.001 and RV free wall strain (RVLS_FW (-17.0±4.9% vs. -21.9±3.2%, p <0.001. After multivariate logistic regression, RVS_FW was an independent predictor for impaired functional capacity (OR 1.62, CI 1.32-1.98; p <0.001.In conclusion, RV strain is independently associated with exercise capacity for health check-up subjects. RV function is an important factor for functional capacity.

  8. THE EFFECT OF A 12-WEEK PHYSIOTHERAPY PROGRAM WITH RESPIRATORY EXERCISES ON THE VITAL CAPACITY AND FORCED VITAL CAPACITY IN ADULT MALES AND FEMALES WITH CEREBRAL PALSY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kitsios A

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine if breathing exercises can improve specific respiratoryparameters in adult males and females with cerebral palsy. 18 adults (11males/7 females with spastic cerebralpalsy consisted the experimental group and 18 (11males/7 females serving as control group took part in thestudy. A spirometer was used to measure vital capacity (VC and the forced vital capacity (FVC before and afterthe exercising protocol. The breathing exercises selected, emphasized strengthening of the muscles of inspirationand the muscles of expiration. The study revealed that a breathing exercise program can increase the VC andFVC in people with cerebral palsy. The pre-test and post-test examined variables of both groups were withinnormal limits The VC of the experimental group was increased by 0.20 litres and this of FVC increased by 0,25litres after exercising for five to seven minutes each day for a period of twelve weeks. The mean increase of theVC and FVC was 6% and 7% respectively over the baseline values. The control group showed no change in VCneither in FVC. The results support application and development of the treatment concept with respiratoryexercises and highlight that physical activity at its simple status can improve function and quality of life in adultswith cerebral palsy when added to standard care.

  9. Comparison of Watermelon and Carbohydrate Beverage on Exercise-Induced Alterations in Systemic Inflammation, Immune Dysfunction, and Plasma Antioxidant Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanely, R Andrew; Nieman, David C; Perkins-Veazie, Penelope; Henson, Dru A; Meaney, Mary P; Knab, Amy M; Cialdell-Kam, Lynn

    2016-08-22

    Consuming carbohydrate- and antioxidant-rich fruits during exercise as a means of supporting and enhancing both performance and health is of interest to endurance athletes. Watermelon (WM) contains carbohydrate, lycopene, l-citrulline, and l-arginine. WM may support exercise performance, augment antioxidant capacity, and act as a countermeasure to exercise-induced inflammation and innate immune changes. Trained cyclists (n = 20, 48 ± 2 years) participated in a randomized, placebo controlled, crossover study. Subjects completed two 75 km cycling time trials after either 2 weeks ingestion of 980 mL/day WM puree or no treatment. Subjects drank either WM puree containing 0.2 gm/kg carbohydrate or a 6% carbohydrate beverage every 15 min during the time trials. Blood samples were taken pre-study and pre-, post-, 1 h post-exercise. WM ingestion versus no treatment for 2-weeks increased plasma l-citrulline and l-arginine concentrations (p Exercise performance did not differ between WM puree or carbohydrate beverage trials (p > 0.05), however, the rating of perceived exertion was greater during the WM trial (p > 0.05). WM puree versus carbohydrate beverage resulted in a similar pattern of increase in blood glucose, and greater increases in post-exercise plasma antioxidant capacity, l-citrulline, l-arginine, and total nitrate (all p exercise, and increased post-exercise blood levels of WM nutritional components (l-citrulline and l-arginine), antioxidant capacity, and total nitrate, but without an influence on post-exercise inflammation and changes in innate immune function.

  10. Comparison of Watermelon and Carbohydrate Beverage on Exercise-Induced Alterations in Systemic Inflammation, Immune Dysfunction, and Plasma Antioxidant Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Andrew Shanely

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Consuming carbohydrate- and antioxidant-rich fruits during exercise as a means of supporting and enhancing both performance and health is of interest to endurance athletes. Watermelon (WM contains carbohydrate, lycopene, l-citrulline, and l-arginine. WM may support exercise performance, augment antioxidant capacity, and act as a countermeasure to exercise-induced inflammation and innate immune changes. Trained cyclists (n = 20, 48 ± 2 years participated in a randomized, placebo controlled, crossover study. Subjects completed two 75 km cycling time trials after either 2 weeks ingestion of 980 mL/day WM puree or no treatment. Subjects drank either WM puree containing 0.2 gm/kg carbohydrate or a 6% carbohydrate beverage every 15 min during the time trials. Blood samples were taken pre-study and pre-, post-, 1 h post-exercise. WM ingestion versus no treatment for 2-weeks increased plasma l-citrulline and l-arginine concentrations (p < 0.0125. Exercise performance did not differ between WM puree or carbohydrate beverage trials (p > 0.05, however, the rating of perceived exertion was greater during the WM trial (p > 0.05. WM puree versus carbohydrate beverage resulted in a similar pattern of increase in blood glucose, and greater increases in post-exercise plasma antioxidant capacity, l-citrulline, l-arginine, and total nitrate (all p < 0.05, but without differences in systemic markers of inflammation or innate immune function. Daily WM puree consumption fully supported the energy demands of exercise, and increased post-exercise blood levels of WM nutritional components (l-citrulline and l-arginine, antioxidant capacity, and total nitrate, but without an influence on post-exercise inflammation and changes in innate immune function.

  11. Assessment of physiological capacities of elite athletes & respiratory limitations to exercise performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Greg D; Norris, Stephen R

    2009-09-01

    Physiological assessment of athletes is an important process for the characterization of the athlete, monitoring progress and the trained state or 'level of preparedness' of an athlete, as well as aiding the process of training program design. Interestingly, the majority of physiological assessments performed on athletes can also be performed on children with disease, and therefore clinicians can learn a great deal about physiology and assessment of patient populations through the examination of the physiological responses of elite athletes. This review describes typical physiological responses of elite athletes to tests of aerobic and anaerobic metabolism and provides a specific focus upon respiratory limitations to exercise performance. Typical responses of elite athletes are described to provide the scientist and clinician with a perspective of the upper range of physiological capacities of elite athletes.

  12. "Weighing" the effects of exercise and intrinsic aerobic capacity: are there beneficial effects independent of changes in weight?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyfault, John P; Wright, David C

    2016-09-01

    It has been known for centuries that regularly performed exercise has beneficial effects on metabolic health. Owing to its central role in locomotion and the fact that it accounts for a large majority of whole-body glucose disposal and fatty acid oxidation, the effects of exercise on skeletal muscle has been a central focus in exercise physiology research. With this being said it is becoming increasingly well recognized that both adipose tissue and liver metabolism are robustly modified by exercise, especially in conditions of obesity and insulin resistance. One of the difficult questions to address is if the effects of exercise are direct or occur secondary to exercise-induced weight loss. The purpose of this review is to highlight recent work that has attempted to tease out the protective effects of exercise, or intrinsic aerobic capacity, against metabolic and inflammatory challenges as it relates to the treatment and prevention of obesity and insulin resistance. Recent studies reporting improvements in liver and adipose tissue insulin action following a single bout of exercise will also be discussed. The research highlighted in this review sheds new insight into protective, anti-inflammatory effects of exercise that occur largely independent of changes in adiposity and body weight.

  13. Are substrate use during exercise and mitochondrial respiratory capacity decreased in arm and leg muscle in type 2 diabetes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Steen; Ara, I; Rabøl, R

    2009-01-01

    AIM/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of the study was to investigate mitochondrial function, fibre type distribution and substrate oxidation in arm and leg muscle during exercise in patients with type 2 diabetes and in obese and lean controls. METHODS: Indirect calorimetry was used to calculate fat...... and carbohydrate oxidation during both progressive arm-cranking and leg-cycling exercises. Muscle biopsies from arm and leg were obtained. Fibre type, as well as O(2) flux capacity of saponin-permeabilised muscle fibres were measured, the latter by high resolution respirometry, in patients with type 2 diabetes......, age- and BMI-matched obese controls, and age-matched lean controls. RESULTS: Fat oxidation was similar in the groups during either arm or leg exercise. During leg exercise at higher intensities, but not during arm exercise, carbohydrate oxidation was lower in patients with type 2 diabetes compared...

  14. Pulmonary rehabilitation improves exercise capacity in subjects with kyphoscoliosis and severe respiratory impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuschillo, Salvatore; De Felice, Alberto; Martucci, Michele; Gaudiosi, Carlo; Pisano, Viviana; Vitale, Dino; Balzano, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Patients with kyphoscoliosis and severe respiratory impairment frequently experience reduction in exercise tolerance, limitation in daily life activities, and deterioration in health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) as an add-on treatment to long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT) was shown to improve symptoms and HRQOL in these patients. Pulmonary rehabilitation can increase exercise capacity and HRQOL in patients with COPD, but its role in patients with restrictive thoracic disease, such as kyphoscoliosis, is uncertain. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of combining pulmonary rehabilitation with LTOT and NIV treatments on arterial blood gases and the 6-min walk test (6MWT) in a homogeneous group of subjects with kyphoscoliosis. Twenty-three subjects with kyphoscoliosis and respiratory failure who were being treated with both LTOT and NIV and who had been referred to a pulmonary rehabilitation program were retrospectively analyzed. Eighteen subjects were included, and there was no control group. Pulmonary rehabilitation involved educational and physical training sessions and was carried out daily for 4-6 weeks. Exercise intensity was personalized based on individual tolerance, physiologic parameters, or physiotherapist judgment. Upon completion of pulmonary rehabilitation, a significant improvement in 6-min walk distance was observed (P = .04). The dyspnea score at the end of the 6MWT improved as well, although the improvement did not reach statistical significance (P = .06). These changes were not confirmed at a 12-month follow-up visit. No significant effects of pulmonary rehabilitation on arterial blood gases were observed. A combined intervention including a tailored pulmonary rehabilitation program together with LTOT and NIV seems to be of short-term benefit in subjects with kyphoscoliosis and severe respiratory impairment. Copyright © 2015 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  15. Motor skills and exercise capacity are associated with objective measures of cognitive functions and academic performance in preadolescent children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geertsen, Svend Sparre; Thomas, Richard; Larsen, Malte Nejst

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate associations between motor skills, exercise capacity and cognitive functions, and evaluate how they correlate to academic performance in mathematics and reading comprehension using standardised, objective tests. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 423 Danish...... these measures and the relationship with standard tests of academic performance in mathematics and reading comprehension. RESULTS: Both fine and gross motor skills were associated with better performance in all five tested cognitive domains (all P... comprehension. CONCLUSIONS: The data demonstrate that fine and gross motor skills are positively correlated with several aspects of cognitive functions and with academic performance in both mathematics and reading comprehension. Moreover, exercise capacity was associated with academic performance...

  16. Is Walking Capacity in Subjects with Multiple Sclerosis Primarily Related to Muscle Oxidative Capacity or Maximal Muscle Strength? A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Hansen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose. Walking capacity is reduced in subjects with multiple sclerosis (MS. To develop effective exercise interventions to enhance walking capacity, it is important to determine the impact of factors, modifiable by exercise intervention (maximal muscle strength versus muscle oxidative capacity, on walking capacity. The purpose of this pilot study is to discriminate between the impact of maximal muscle strength versus muscle oxidative capacity on walking capacity in subjects with MS. Methods. From 24 patients with MS, muscle oxidative capacity was determined by calculation of exercise-onset oxygen uptake kinetics (mean response time during submaximal exercise bouts. Maximal muscle strength (isometric knee extension and flexion peak torque was assessed on dynamometer. All subjects completed a 6-minute walking test. Relationships between walking capacity (as a percentage of normal value and muscle strength (of knee flexors and extensors versus muscle oxidative capacity were assessed in multivariate regression analyses. Results. The expanded disability status score (EDSS showed a significant univariate correlation (r=-0.70, P<0.004 with walking capacity. In multivariate regression analyses, EDSS and mean response time, but not muscle strength, were independently related to walking capacity (P<0.05. Conclusions. Walking distance is, next to disability level and not taking neurologic symptoms/deficits into account, primarily related to muscle oxidative capacity in subjects with MS. Additional study is needed to further examine/verify these findings.

  17. Changes in iron levels, total iron binding capacity, transferrin saturation in race horses, before and after of physical exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gláucia Abramovitc

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Abramovitc G., Parra A.C. & Fernandes W.R. [Changes in iron levels, total iron binding capacity, transferrin saturation in race horses, before and after of physical exercise]. Variação de níveis séricos de ferro, da capacidade total de ligação do ferro e da saturação da transferrina em equinos de corrida, antes e após exercício físico. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 36(3:289-293, 2014. Departamento de Clínica Médica, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Universidade de São Paulo, Rua Prof. Dr. Orlando Marques de Paiva 87, Cidade Universitária, Butantã, São Paulo, SP 05508-270, Brasil. Email: wilsonrf@usp.br The preparation of the horse for physical activities in competition is directly related to important factors such as nutrition, muscle adaptation and blood profile, related to the concentration of serum iron, total capacity total iron binding capacity (TIBC and saturation of transferrin. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of exercise in iron levels, the total iron and transferrin saturation in race horses. One hundred and eleven samples of blood serum were collected from Thoroughbred horses, from the Jockey Club of São Paulo, aged between 3 and 4 years old, male and female, clinically healthy, practitioners turf competition, in sand or grass. The samples were obtained before exercise (control time and 30 minutes after exercise (post exercise. These animals were submitted to gallop training, of high intensity and short duration for this research. As a result, it was observed that the serum concentration of iron (Fe showed a statistically significant lowering post-exercise, due to organic re-balance of iron, while TIBC (total iron binding capacity showed a clear and significant increase in their serum levels due to increased needs of iron during and after exercise. The percentage of transferrin saturation in serum was shown to be lower post-exercise, probably due to the recruitment of

  18. Pulmonary rehabilitation improves exercise capacity and dyspnea in air pollution-related respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Naomi; Senjyu, Hideaki; Tanaka, Takako; Asai, Masaharu; Yanagita, Yorihide; Yano, Yudai; Nishinakagawa, Tsuyoshi; Kotaki, Kenji; Kitagawa, Chika; Rikitomi, Naoto; Kozu, Ryo; Honda, Sumihisa

    2014-01-01

    Air pollution in Japan caused respiratory disease, such as chronic bronchitis and asthma, in many individuals in the 1960s. Although air pollution has decreased, many victims of air pollution-related respiratory disease are limited in their activities of daily living because of respiratory symptoms. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of pulmonary rehabilitation in victims of air pollution-related chronic bronchitis or asthma. Subjects were enrolled in a 12-week (2-week inpatient followed by 10-week outpatient) pulmonary rehabilitation program. The program comprised conditioning, strength training, endurance training, and patient education. We assessed the Modified Medical Research Council (MMRC) dyspnea grade, pulmonary function, peripheral muscle force, incremental shuttle walk distance (ISWD), and physical activity at baseline and immediately after the program. Twenty-nine subjects (mean age 74.2 ± 10.1 years, 11 males) completed the program, including 11 subjects with COPD and 18 subjects with asthma. Following rehabilitation, the participants (n = 29) showed significant improvements in MMRC dyspnea grade, vital capacity % predicted, quadriceps force and ISWD (all P rehabilitation is an effective method of improving exercise capacity and dyspnea in officially acknowledged victims of air pollution-related asthma. In conclusion, we recommend that patients with chronic bronchitis or asthma, resulting from exposure to air pollution, are referred for pulmonary rehabilitation.

  19. Aerobic exercise capacity at long-term follow-up after paediatric allogeneic haematopoietic SCT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, S; Uhlving, H H; Buchvald, F

    2014-01-01

    characteristics, transplantation factors, pulmonary function and self-reported sports activity. In this cross-sectional, population-based study, we measured VO2peak, spirometry and diffusion capacity of the lung (DLCO) 3-10 years post HSCT. Z-scores were calculated by reference values from healthy subjects. Self......Peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), a measure of aerobic exercise capacity, predicts mortality and morbidity in healthy and diseased individuals. Our aim was to determine VO2peak years after paediatric allogeneic haematopoietic SCT (HSCT) and to identify associations with baseline patient and donor.......96 z-score. Low VO2peak was associated with reduced forced expiratory volume in 1 s (R(2)=0.11, P=0.009), reduced DLCO/VA (R(2)=0.09, P=0.01) and low physical activity (mean VO2peak z-score inactive group: -2.1 vs most active group: -1.1, P=0.02). No associations between VO2peak and diagnosis, donor...

  20. Ex vivo measures of muscle mitochondrial capacity reveal quantitative limits of oxygen delivery by the circulation during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boushel, Robert; Saltin, Bengt

    2013-01-01

    Muscle mitochondrial respiratory capacity measured ex vivo provides a physiological reference to assess cellular oxidative capacity as a component in the oxygen cascade in vivo. In this article, the magnitude of muscle blood flow and oxygen uptake during exercise involving a small-to-large fracti...... capacity measured ex vivo underestimates the maximal in vivo oxygen uptake of muscle by up to ∼2-fold. This article is part of a Directed Issue entitled: Bioenergetic dysfunction, adaptation and therapy.......Muscle mitochondrial respiratory capacity measured ex vivo provides a physiological reference to assess cellular oxidative capacity as a component in the oxygen cascade in vivo. In this article, the magnitude of muscle blood flow and oxygen uptake during exercise involving a small-to-large fraction...... of the body mass will be discussed in relation to mitochondrial capacity measured ex vivo. These analyses reveal that as the mass of muscle engaged in exercise increases from one-leg knee extension, to 2-arm cranking, to 2-leg cycling and x-country skiing, the magnitude of blood flow and oxygen delivery...

  1. Sustained effects of integrated COPD management on health status and exercise capacity in primary care patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annemarije L Kruis

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Annemarije L Kruis1, Joan van Adrichem2, Magda R Erkelens2, Huub Scheepers3, Hans in ’t Veen4, Jean WM Muris5, Niels H Chavannes11Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, 2Physiotherapy Center De Beweging, Rotterdam, 3Well-being Medical Center, Bocholtz-Simpelveld, 4Department of Pulmonary Diseases, Sint Franciscus Gasthuis, Rotterdam, 5Department of General Practice, Maastricht University Medical Center, The NetherlandsBackground: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD constitutes a growing health care problem worldwide. Integrated disease management (IDM of mild to moderate COPD patients has been demonstrated to improve exercise capacity and health status after one year, but long-term results are currently lacking in primary care.Methods: Long-term data from the Bocholtz study, a controlled clinical trial comparing the effects of IDM versus usual care on health status in 106 primary care COPD patients during 24 months of follow-up, were analyzed using the Clinical COPD Questionnaire (CCQ. In addition, the Kroonluchter IDM implementation program has treated 216 primary care patients with mild to moderate COPD since 2006. Longitudinal six-minute walking distance (6MWD results for patients reaching 24 months of follow-up were analyzed using paired-sample t-tests. In prespecified subgroup analyses, the differential effects of baseline CCQ score, Medical Research Council (MRC dyspnea score, and 6MWD were investigated.Results: In the Bocholtz study, subjects were of mean age 64 years, with an average postbronchodilator forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 of 63% predicted and an FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC ratio of 0.56. No significant differences existed between groups at baseline. CCQ improved significantly and in a clinically relevant manner by 0.4 points over 24 months; effect sizes were doubled in patients with CCQ > 1 at baseline and tripled in patients with MRC dyspnea score

  2. The Manual Diaphragm Release Technique improves diaphragmatic mobility, inspiratory capacity and exercise capacity in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a randomised trial

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha, Taciano; Souza, Helga; Brandão, Daniela Cunha; Rattes,Catarina; Ribeiro, Luana; Campos, Shirley Lima; Aliverti, Andrea; Andrade,Armèle Dornelas de

    2015-01-01

    Questions: In people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, does the Manual Diaphragm Release Technique improve diaphragmatic mobility after a single treatment, or cumulatively? Does the technique also improve exercise capacity, maximal respiratory pressures, and kinematics of the chest wall and abdomen? Design: Randomised, controlled trial with concealed allocation, intention-to-treat analysis, and blinding of participants and assessors. Participants: Twenty adults aged over 60 years wi...

  3. Separate and combined effects of exercise training and weight loss on exercise efficiency and substrate oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amati, Francesca; Dubé, John J; Shay, Chris; Goodpaster, Bret H

    2008-09-01

    Perturbations in body weight have been shown to affect energy expenditure and efficiency during physical activity. The separate effects of weight loss and exercise training on exercise efficiency or the proportion of energy derived from fat oxidation during physical activity, however, are not known. The purpose of this study was to determine the separate and combined effects of exercise training and weight loss on metabolic efficiency, economy (EC), and fat oxidation during steady-state moderate submaximal exercise. Sixty-four sedentary older (67 +/- 0.5 yr) overweight to obese (30.7 +/- 0.4 kg/m(2)) volunteers completed 4 mo of either diet-induced weight loss (WL; n = 11), exercise training (EX; n = 36), or the combination of both interventions (WLEX; n = 17). Energy expenditure, gross efficiency (GE), EC, and proportion of energy expended from fat (EF) were determined during a 1-h submaximal (50% of peak aerobic capacity) cycle ergometry exercise before the intervention and at the same absolute work rate after the intervention. We found that EX increased GE by 4.7 +/- 2.2%. EC was similarly increased by 4.2 +/- 2.1% by EX. The addition of concomitant WL to EX (WLEX) resulted in greater increases in GE (9.0 +/- 3.3%) compared with WL alone but not compared with EX alone. These effects remained after adjusting for changes in lean body mass. The proportion of energy derived from fat during the bout of moderate exercise increased with EX and WLEX but not with WL. From these findings, we conclude that exercise training, either alone or in combination with weight loss, increases both exercise efficiency and the utilization of fat during moderate physical activity in previously sedentary, obese older adults. Weight loss alone, however, significantly improves neither efficiency nor utilization of fat during exercise.

  4. Effect of Ambrotose AO® on resting and exercise-induced antioxidant capacity and oxidative stress in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomer, Richard J; Canale, Robert E; Blankenship, Megan M; Fisher-Wellman, Kelsey H

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of a dietary supplement (Ambrotose AO®) on resting and exercise-induced blood antioxidant capacity and oxidative stress in exercise-trained and untrained men and women. 25 individuals (7 trained and 5 untrained men; 7 trained and 6 untrained women) received Ambrotose AO® (4 capsules per day = 2 grams per day) or a placebo for 3 weeks in a random order, double blind cross-over design (with a 3 week washout period). Blood samples were collected at rest, and at 0 and 30 minutes following a graded exercise treadmill test (GXT) performed to exhaustion, both before and after each 3 week supplementation period. Samples were analyzed for Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC), Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC), malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and nitrate/nitrite (NOx). Quality of life was assessed using the SF-12 form and exercise time to exhaustion was recorded. Resting blood samples were analyzed for complete blood count (CBC), metabolic panel, and lipid panel before and after each 3 week supplementation period. Dietary intake during the week before each exercise test was recorded. No condition effects were noted for SF-12 data, for GXT time to exhaustion, or for any variable within the CBC, metabolic panel, or lipid panel (p > 0.05). Treatment with Ambrotose AO® resulted in an increase in resting levels of TEAC (p = 0.02) and ORAC (p 0.05). Exercise resulted in an acute increase in TEAC, MDA, and H2O2 (p 0.05), with the exception of ORAC (p = 0.0005) which was greater at 30 minutes post exercise for Ambrotose AO® compared to placebo. Ambrotose AO® at a daily dosage of 4 capsules per day increases resting blood antioxidant capacity and may enhance post exercise antioxidant capacity. However, no statistically detected difference is observed in resting or exercise-induced oxidative stress biomarkers, in quality of life, or in GXT time to exhaustion.

  5. Effect of Ambrotose AO® on resting and exercise-induced antioxidant capacity and oxidative stress in healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blankenship Megan M

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of a dietary supplement (Ambrotose AO® on resting and exercise-induced blood antioxidant capacity and oxidative stress in exercise-trained and untrained men and women. Methods 25 individuals (7 trained and 5 untrained men; 7 trained and 6 untrained women received Ambrotose AO® (4 capsules per day = 2 grams per day or a placebo for 3 weeks in a random order, double blind cross-over design (with a 3 week washout period. Blood samples were collected at rest, and at 0 and 30 minutes following a graded exercise treadmill test (GXT performed to exhaustion, both before and after each 3 week supplementation period. Samples were analyzed for Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC, Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC, malondialdehyde (MDA, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, and nitrate/nitrite (NOx. Quality of life was assessed using the SF-12 form and exercise time to exhaustion was recorded. Resting blood samples were analyzed for complete blood count (CBC, metabolic panel, and lipid panel before and after each 3 week supplementation period. Dietary intake during the week before each exercise test was recorded. Results No condition effects were noted for SF-12 data, for GXT time to exhaustion, or for any variable within the CBC, metabolic panel, or lipid panel (p > 0.05. Treatment with Ambrotose AO® resulted in an increase in resting levels of TEAC (p = 0.02 and ORAC (p 2O2, or NOx (p > 0.05. Exercise resulted in an acute increase in TEAC, MDA, and H2O2 (p 0.05, with the exception of ORAC (p = 0.0005 which was greater at 30 minutes post exercise for Ambrotose AO® compared to placebo. Conclusion Ambrotose AO® at a daily dosage of 4 capsules per day increases resting blood antioxidant capacity and may enhance post exercise antioxidant capacity. However, no statistically detected difference is observed in resting or exercise-induced oxidative stress biomarkers, in

  6. Impairment of exercise capacity and peak oxygen consumption in patients with mild left ventricular dysfunction and coronary artery disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwland, W; Berkhuysen, MA; van Veldhuisen, DJ; van Sonderen, E; Viersma, JW; Lie, KI; Rispens, P

    1998-01-01

    Aims Most studies in chronic heart failure have only included patients with marked left ventricular systolic dysfunction (i.e. ejection fraction less than or equal to 0.35), and patients with mild left ventricular dysfunction are usually excluded. Further, exercise capacity strongly depends on age,

  7. Impaired glucose metabolism and exercise capacity with muscle-specific glycogen synthase 1 (gys1 deletion in adult mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrysovalantou E. Xirouchaki

    2016-03-01

    In brief: This study demonstrates why the body prioritises muscle glycogen storage over liver glycogen storage despite the critical role of the liver in supplying glucose to the brain in the fasting state and shows that glycogen deficiency results in impaired glucose metabolism and reduced exercise capacity.

  8. Motor Skills and Exercise Capacity Are Associated with Objective Measures of Cognitive Functions and Academic Performance in Preadolescent Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Richard; Larsen, Malte Nejst; Dahn, Ida Marie; Andersen, Josefine Needham; Krause-Jensen, Matilde; Korup, Vibeke; Nielsen, Claus Malta; Wienecke, Jacob; Ritz, Christian; Krustrup, Peter; Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate associations between motor skills, exercise capacity and cognitive functions, and evaluate how they correlate to academic performance in mathematics and reading comprehension using standardised, objective tests. Methods This cross-sectional study included 423 Danish children (age: 9.29±0.35 years, 209 girls). Fine and gross motor skills were evaluated in a visuomotor accuracy-tracking task, and a whole-body coordination task, respectively. Exercise capacity was estimated from the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 children's test (YYIR1C). Selected tests from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) were used to assess different domains of cognitive functions, including sustained attention, spatial working memory, episodic and semantic memory, and processing speed. Linear mixed-effects models were used to investigate associations between these measures and the relationship with standard tests of academic performance in mathematics and reading comprehension. Results Both fine and gross motor skills were associated with better performance in all five tested cognitive domains (all Pperformance in mathematics and reading comprehension. Conclusions The data demonstrate that fine and gross motor skills are positively correlated with several aspects of cognitive functions and with academic performance in both mathematics and reading comprehension. Moreover, exercise capacity was associated with academic performance and performance in some cognitive domains. Future interventions should investigate associations between changes in motor skills, exercise capacity, cognitive functions, and academic performance to elucidate the causality of these associations. PMID:27560512

  9. Badminton Specific Testing and Development of Physical On-Court Exercise Capacity in Elite Youth Badminton Players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Christian Ole Møller

    specific on-court actions. It can distinguish between groups of players with different badminton skills, but similar sprint abilities The badminton-specific endurance test (B-ENDURANCE) is applicable for evaluation of badminton-specific endurance. Previous studies have tended to examine exercise capacity...

  10. Motor Skills and Exercise Capacity Are Associated with Objective Measures of Cognitive Functions and Academic Performance in Preadolescent Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geertsen, Svend Sparre; Thomas, Richard; Larsen, Malte Nejst; Dahn, Ida Marie; Andersen, Josefine Needham; Krause-Jensen, Matilde; Korup, Vibeke; Nielsen, Claus Malta; Wienecke, Jacob; Ritz, Christian; Krustrup, Peter; Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    To investigate associations between motor skills, exercise capacity and cognitive functions, and evaluate how they correlate to academic performance in mathematics and reading comprehension using standardised, objective tests. This cross-sectional study included 423 Danish children (age: 9.29±0.35 years, 209 girls). Fine and gross motor skills were evaluated in a visuomotor accuracy-tracking task, and a whole-body coordination task, respectively. Exercise capacity was estimated from the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 children's test (YYIR1C). Selected tests from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) were used to assess different domains of cognitive functions, including sustained attention, spatial working memory, episodic and semantic memory, and processing speed. Linear mixed-effects models were used to investigate associations between these measures and the relationship with standard tests of academic performance in mathematics and reading comprehension. Both fine and gross motor skills were associated with better performance in all five tested cognitive domains (all Pperformance in mathematics and reading comprehension. The data demonstrate that fine and gross motor skills are positively correlated with several aspects of cognitive functions and with academic performance in both mathematics and reading comprehension. Moreover, exercise capacity was associated with academic performance and performance in some cognitive domains. Future interventions should investigate associations between changes in motor skills, exercise capacity, cognitive functions, and academic performance to elucidate the causality of these associations.

  11. Ex vivo measures of muscle mitochondrial capacity reveal quantitative limits of oxygen delivery by the circulation during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boushel, Robert; Saltin, Bengt

    2013-01-01

    Muscle mitochondrial respiratory capacity measured ex vivo provides a physiological reference to assess cellular oxidative capacity as a component in the oxygen cascade in vivo. In this article, the magnitude of muscle blood flow and oxygen uptake during exercise involving a small-to-large fraction of the body mass will be discussed in relation to mitochondrial capacity measured ex vivo. These analyses reveal that as the mass of muscle engaged in exercise increases from one-leg knee extension, to 2-arm cranking, to 2-leg cycling and x-country skiing, the magnitude of blood flow and oxygen delivery decrease. Accordingly, a 2-fold higher oxygen delivery and oxygen uptake per unit muscle mass are seen in vivo during 1-leg exercise compared to 2-leg cycling indicating a significant limitation of the circulation during exercise with a large muscle mass. This analysis also reveals that mitochondrial capacity measured ex vivo underestimates the maximal in vivo oxygen uptake of muscle by up to ∼2-fold. This article is part of a Directed Issue entitled: Bioenergetic dysfunction, adaptation and therapy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Internet Program for Physical Activity and Exercise Capacity in Children With Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis: A Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Armbrust, Wineke; Bos, G J F Joyce; Wulffraat, Nico M.; van Brussel, Marco; Cappon, Jeannette; Dijkstra, Pieter U; Geertzen, Jan H B; Legger, G. Elizabeth; van Rossum, Marion A. J. J.; Sauer, Pieter J. J.; Lelieveld, Otto T. H. M.

    Objective To determine the effects of Rheumates@Work, an internet-based program supplemented with 4 group sessions, aimed at improving physical activity, exercise capacity, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and participation in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Methods Patients were

  13. Internet Program for Physical Activity and Exercise Capacity in Children With Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis : A Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Armbrust, Wineke; Bos, G.J.F. Joyce; Wulffraat, Nico M; van Brussel, Marco; Cappon, Jeannette; Dijkstra, Pieter U; Geertzen, Jan H B; Legger, G Elizabeth; van Rossum, Marion A J; Sauer, Pieter J J; Lelieveld, Otto T H M

    Objective. To determine the effects of Rheumates@Work, an internet-based program supplemented with 4 group sessions, aimed at improving physical activity, exercise capacity, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and participation in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Methods. Patients

  14. Effects of an 8-weeks erythropoietin treatment on mitochondrial and whole body fat oxidation capacity during exercise in healthy males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guadalupe-Grau, Amelia; Plenge, Ulla; Helbo, Signe

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The present investigation was performed to elucidate if the non-erythropoietic ergogenic effect of a recombinant erythropoietin treatment results in an impact on skeletal muscle mitochondrial and whole body fatty acid oxidation capacity during exercise, myoglobin concentration and angiog...

  15. Coronary microvascular function, insulin sensitivity and body composition in predicting exercise capacity in overweight patients with coronary artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jürs, Anders; Pedersen, Lene Rørholm; Olsen, Rasmus Huan

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Coronary artery disease (CAD) has a negative impact on exercise capacity. The aim of this study was to determine how coronary microvascular function, glucose metabolism and body composition contribute to exercise capacity in overweight patients with CAD and without diabetes. METHODS...... by a cardiopulmonary exercise test. Body composition was determined by whole body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan and magnetic resonance imaging. Coronary flow reserve (CFR) assessed by transthoracic Doppler echocardiography was used as a measure of microvascular function. RESULTS: Median BMI was 31.3 and 72...... metabolism and body composition. CFR, EDV and LVEF remained independent predictors of VO2peak in multivariable regression analysis. CONCLUSION: The study established CFR, EDV and LVEF as independent predictors of VO2peak in overweight CAD patients with no or only mild functional symptoms and a LVEF > 35...

  16. Impact of menstrual cycle phase on the exercise status of young, sedentary women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redman, Leanne M; Scroop, Garry C; Norman, Robert J

    2003-11-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare exercise status during the follicular (FP) and luteal (LP) phases of the menstrual cycle of a single group of young, sedentary women, where the marked differential in the blood concentrations of 17beta-oestradiol ([E(2)]) and progesterone ([P(4)]) has the potential to alter the metabolic response to exercise. Fourteen females [21.8 (4.0) years, peak oxygen uptake ( VO(2peak)) cycle ergometer exercise while measurements were made of several metabolic and hormonal variables. With the incremental exercise test, time to exhaustion, maximal power output and total work done were not different between the two phases, nor were the absolute values for VO(2peak) or the corresponding values for ventilation ( VE), respiratory frequency ( f(R)) and heart rate (HR). Resting, end-exercise and peak (post-exercise) plasma lactate concentrations and the lactate threshold were not different between the two phases either. However, as the workloads increased during the incremental protocol, plasma lactate concentration, carbon dioxide output ( VCO(2)) and the respiratory exchange ratio (RER) all were lower during LP, while oxygen uptake ( VO(2)) was higher. With steady-state submaximal exercise, at workloads corresponding to 25% and 75% of menstrual cycle phase-specific VO(2peak), VO(2) and the oxygen pulse ( VO(2)/HR) were higher and RER and plasma lactate concentration lower during LP. Regardless of phase, [E(2)] increased with both incremental and steady-state submaximal exercise, while [P(4)] was unchanged. It is concluded that while exercise capacity, as defined by VO(2peak) and the lactate threshold, is unaffected by cycle phase in young, sedentary women, the metabolic responses in the LP during both incremental and steady-state submaximal exercise suggest a greater dependence on fat as an energy source.

  17. Internet Program for Physical Activity and Exercise Capacity in Children With Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis: A Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armbrust, Wineke; Bos, G J F Joyce; Wulffraat, Nico M; van Brussel, Marco; Cappon, Jeannette; Dijkstra, Pieter U; Geertzen, Jan H B; Legger, G Elizabeth; van Rossum, Marion A J; Sauer, Pieter J J; Lelieveld, Otto T H M

    2017-07-01

    To determine the effects of Rheumates@Work, an internet-based program supplemented with 4 group sessions, aimed at improving physical activity, exercise capacity, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and participation in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Patients were recruited from 3 pediatric rheumatology centers in The Netherlands for an observer-blinded, randomized controlled multicenter trial. Physical activity level, time spent in rest, light, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) were recorded in a diary and with an accelerometer, before intervention, after intervention, and at followup after 3 and 12 months (intervention group only). Exercise capacity was assessed using the Bruce treadmill protocol, HRQoL was assessed with the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory generic core scale, and participation in school and in physical education classes were assessed by questionnaire. The intervention group consisted of 28 children, and there were 21 children in the control group. MVPA, exercise capacity, and participating in school and physical education classes improved significantly in the intervention group. HRQoL improved in the control group. No significant differences were found between groups. The effect of Rheumates@Work on physical activity and exercise capacity lasted during the 12 months of followup. Improvements in physical activity were significantly better for the cohort starting in winter compared to the summer cohort. Rheumates@Work had a positive, albeit small, effect on physical activity, exercise capacity, and participation in school and physical education class in the intervention group. Improvements lasted for 12 months. Participants who started in winter showed the most improvement. Rheumates@Work had no effect on HRQoL. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  18. Relation of exercise capacity with lung volumes before and after 6-minute walk test in subjects with COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibmer, Thomas; Rüdiger, Stefan; Kropf-Sanchen, Cornelia; Stoiber, Kathrin M; Rottbauer, Wolfgang; Schumann, Christian

    2014-11-01

    There is growing evidence that exercise-induced variation in lung volumes is an important source of ventilatory limitation and is linked to exercise intolerance in COPD. The aim of this study was to compare the correlations of walk distance and lung volumes measured before and after a 6-min walk test (6MWT) in subjects with COPD. Forty-five subjects with stable COPD (mean pre-bronchodilator FEV1: 47 ± 18% predicted) underwent a 6MWT. Body plethysmography was performed immediately pre- and post-6MWT. Correlations were generally stronger between 6-min walk distance and post-6MWT lung volumes than between 6-min walk distance and pre-6MWT lung volumes, except for FEV1. These differences in Pearson correlation coefficients were significant for residual volume expressed as percent of total lung capacity (-0.67 vs -0.58, P = .043), percent of predicted residual volume expressed as percent of total lung capacity (-0.68 vs -0.59, P = .026), inspiratory vital capacity (0.65 vs 0.54, P = .019), percent of predicted inspiratory vital capacity (0.49 vs 0.38, P = .037), and percent of predicted functional residual capacity (-0.62 vs -0.47, P = .023). In subjects with stable COPD, lung volumes measured immediately after 6MWT are more closely related to exercise limitation than baseline lung volumes measured before 6MWT, except for FEV1. Therefore, pulmonary function testing immediately after exercise should be included in future studies on COPD for the assessment of exercise-induced ventilatory constraints to physical performance that cannot be adequately assessed from baseline pulmonary function testing at rest. Copyright © 2014 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  19. The Benefits of Exercise Training on Aerobic Capacity in Patients with Heart Failure and Preserved Ejection Fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Prado, Danilo Marcelo Leite; Rocco, Enéas Antônio

    2017-01-01

    Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is defined as an inability of the ventricles to optimally accept blood from atria with blunted end- diastolic volume response by limiting the stroke volume and cardiac output. The HEpEF prevalence is higher in elderly and women and may be associated to hypertension, diabetes mellitus and atrial fibrillation. Severe exercise intolerance, manifested by dyspnea and fatigue during physical effort is the important chronic symptom in HFpEF patients, in which is the major determinant of their reduced quality of life. In this sense, several studies demonstrated reduced aerobic capacity in terms of lower peak oxygen consumption (peak VO2) in patients with HFpEF. In addition, the lower aerobic capacity observed in HFpEF may be due to impaired both convective and diffusive O2 transport (i.e. reduced cardiac output and arteriovenous oxygen difference, respectively).Exercise training program can help restore physiological function in order to increase aerobic capacity and improve the quality of life in HFpEF patients. Therefore, the primary purpose of this chapter was to clarify the physiological mechanisms associated with reduced aerobic capacity in HFpEF patients. Secondly, special focus was devoted to show how aerobic exercise training can improve aerobic capacity and quality of life in HFpEF patients.

  20. Time course of change in vasodilator function and capacity in response to exercise training in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinken, Toni M; Thijssen, Dick H J; Black, Mark A; Cable, N Timothy; Green, Daniel J

    2008-10-15

    Studies of the impact of exercise training on arterial adaptation in healthy subjects have produced disparate results. It is possible that some studies failed to detect changes because functional and structural adaptations follow a different time course and may therefore not be detected at discrete time points. To gain insight into the time course of training-induced changes in artery function and structure, we examined conduit artery flow mediated dilatation (FMD), an index of nitric oxide (NO)-mediated artery function, and conduit dilator capacity (DC), a surrogate marker for arterial remodelling, in the brachial and popliteal arteries of 13 healthy male subjects (21.6 +/- 0.6 years) and seven non-active controls (22.8 +/- 0.2 years) studied at 2-week intervals across an 8-week cycle and treadmill exercise training programme. Brachial and popliteal artery FMD and DC did not change in control subjects at any time point. FMD increased from baseline (5.9 +/- 0.5%) at weeks 2 and 4 (9.1 +/- 0.6, 8.5 +/- 0.6%, respectively, P < 0.01), but returned towards baseline levels again by week 8 (6.9 +/- 0.7%). In contrast, brachial artery DC progressively increased from baseline (8.1 +/- 0.4%) at weeks 2, 4, 6 and 8 (9.2 +/- 0.6, 9.9 +/- 0.6, 10.0 +/- 0.5, 10.5 +/- 0.8%, P < 0.05). Similarly, popliteal artery FMD increased from baseline (6.2 +/- 0.7%) at weeks 2, 4 and 6 (9.1 +/- 0.6, 9.5 +/- 0.6, 7.8 +/- 0.5%, respectively, P < 0.05), but decreased again by week 8 (6.5 +/- 0.6%), whereas popliteal DC progressively increased from baseline (8.9 +/- 0.4%) at week 4 and 8 (10.5 +/- 0.7, 12.2 +/- 0.6%, respectively, P < 0.05). These data suggest that functional changes in conduit arteries occur rapidly and precede arterial remodelling in vivo. These data suggest that complimentary adaptations occur in arterial function and structure and future studies should adopt multiple time point assessments to comprehensively assess arterial adaptations to interventions such as exercise

  1. Exercise training to improve exercise capacity and quality of life in people with non-malignant dust-related respiratory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Marita T; McKeough, Zoe J; Troosters, Thierry; Bye, Peter; Alison, Jennifer A

    2015-11-05

    Non-malignant dust-related respiratory diseases, such as asbestosis and silicosis, are similar to other chronic respiratory diseases and may be characterised by breathlessness, reduced exercise capacity and reduced health-related quality of life. Some non-malignant dust-related respiratory diseases are a global health issue and very few treatment options, including pharmacological, are available. Therefore, examining the role of exercise training is particularly important to determine whether exercise training is an effective treatment option in non-malignant dust-related respiratory diseases. To assess the effects of exercise training for people with non-malignant dust-related respiratory diseases compared with control, placebo or another non-exercise intervention on exercise capacity, health-related quality of life and levels of physical activity. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, PEDro and AMED (all searched from inception until February 2015), national and international clinical trial registries, reference lists of relevant papers and we contacted experts in the field for identification of suitable studies. We included only randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared exercise training of at least four weeks duration with no exercise training, placebo or another non-exercise intervention. We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. Two review authors independently assessed study eligibility and risk of bias, and extracted data. We employed the GRADE approach to assess the overall quality of evidence for each outcome and to interpret findings. We synthesized study results using a random-effects model based on the assessment of heterogeneity. We conducted subgroup analyses on participants with dust-related interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) and participants with asbestos related pleural disease (ARPD). Two RCTs including a combined total of 40 participants (35 from

  2. Hybrid functional electrical stimulation exercise training alters the relationship between spinal cord injury level and aerobic capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J Andrew; Picard, Glen; Porter, Aidan; Morse, Leslie R; Pronovost, Meghan F; Deley, Gaelle

    2014-11-01

    To test the hypothesis that hybrid functional electrical stimulation (FES) row training would improve aerobic capacity but that it would remain strongly linked to level of spinal cord lesion because of limited maximal ventilation. Longitudinal before-after trial of 6 months of FES row training. Exercise for persons with disabilities program in a hospitaL. Volunteers (N=14; age range, 21-63y) with complete spinal cord injury (SCI) (T3-11) who are >2 years postinjury. Six months of FES row training preceded by a variable period of FES strength training. Peak aerobic capacity and peak exercise ventilation before and after 6 months of FES row training. FES row training significantly increased peak aerobic capacity and peak minute ventilation (both Pinjury and peak minute ventilation was comparable before and after FES row training (adjusted R(2)=.38 vs .32, both Pinjury. Copyright © 2014 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Compromised Cardiopulmonary Exercise Capacity in Patients Early After Endoscopic Atraumatic Coronary Artery Bypass Graft: Implications for Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Dominique; Roijakkers, Ruben; Jackmaert, Lore; Robic, Boris; Hendrikx, Marc; Yilmaz, Alaaddin; Frederix, Ines; Rosseel, Michael; Dendale, Paul

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this work was to test the hypothesis that cardiopulmonary exercise tolerance is better preserved early after endoscopic atraumatic coronary artery bypass graft (endo-ACAB) surgery versus coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Twenty endo-ACAB surgery patients, 20 CABG surgery patients, and 15 healthy subjects executed a maximal cardiopulmonary exercise test, with assessment and comparison of cycling power output, O2 uptake, CO2 output, respiratory gas exchange ratio, end-tidal O2 and CO2 pressures, equivalents for O2 uptake and CO2 output, heart rate, O2 pulse, expiratory volume, tidal volume, respiratory rate, at peak exercise and ventilatory threshold. In patients, forced expiratory volume and forced vital capacity were measured. Oxygen uptake, CO2 output, expiratory and tidal volume, equivalents for O2 uptake and CO2 output, end-tidal O2 and CO2 pressures at peak exercise (matched peak respiratory gas exchange ratio between patient groups), and ventilatory threshold were significantly worse in patients versus healthy controls (P power, >0.80). All these parameters, and lung function, were, however, comparable between CABG and endo-ACAB surgery patients (P > 0.10). Exercise tolerance and ventilatory function during exercise seems, in contrast to expectation, equally compromised early after endo-ACAB surgery as opposed to after CABG surgery. These data may signify the need for exercise-based rehabilitation intervention early after endo-ACAB surgery.

  4. Interstitial lung disease increases mortality in systemic sclerosis patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension without affecting hemodynamics and exercise capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelfelder, M; Becker, M; Riedlinger, A; Siegert, E; Drömann, D; Yu, X; Petersen, F; Riemekasten, G

    2017-02-01

    Published data suggest that coexisting interstitial lung disease (ILD) has an impact on mortality in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), but there is scarce knowledge if this is reflected by hemodynamics, exercise capacity, autoantibody profile, or pulmonary function. In this partially retrospective study, 27 SSc-PAH patients were compared to 24 SSc-PAH patients with coexisting ILD respecting to survival, pulmonary function, hemodynamics, exercise capacity, and laboratory parameters. Survival was significantly worse in SSc-PAH-ILD patients than in SSc patients with isolated PAH (1, 5, and 10-year survival rates 86, 54, and 54% versus 96, 92, and 82%, p = 0.013). Compared to isolated SSc-PAH patients, patients with SSc-PAH-ILD revealed lower forced expiratory volume after 1 s (FEV1) values at the time of PAH diagnosis as well as 1 and 2 years later (p = 0.002) without significant decrease in the PAH course in both groups. At PAH diagnosis, diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) values were lower in the ILD-PAH group. Coexisting ILD was not associated with lower exercise capacity, different FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC) ratio, higher WHO functional class, or reduced hemodynamics. Higher levels of antibodies against angiotensin and endothelin receptors predict mortality in all SSc-PAH patients but could not differentiate between PAH patients with and without ILD. Our study confirmed an impact of ILD on mortality in SSc-PAH patients. Pulmonary function parameters can be used to distinguish PAH from PAH-ILD. The higher mortality rate cannot be explained by differences in hemodynamics, exercise capacity, or autoantibody levels. Mechanisms of mortality remain to be studied.

  5. Effects of Combined Aerobic and Resistance Exercise on Exercise Capacity, Muscle Strength and Quality of Life in HIV-Infected Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansueto Gomes Neto

    Full Text Available Many HIV-infected patients demonstrate disability and lower aerobic capacity. The inclusion of resistance training combined with aerobic exercise in a single program is known as combined aerobic and resistance exercise (CARE and seems to be an effective strategy to improve muscle weakness, as well as aerobic capacity in HIV-infected patients. We performed a meta-analysis to investigate the effects of CARE in HIV-infected patients.We searched MEDLINE, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, EMBASE, CINAHL (from the earliest date available to august 2014 for controlled trials that evaluated the effects of CARE in HIV-infected patients. Weighted mean differences (WMD and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated, and heterogeneity was assessed using the I2 test.Seven studies met the study criteria. CARE resulted in improvement in Peak VO2 WMD (4.48 mL·kg-1·min-1 95% CI: 2.95 to 6.0, muscle strength of the knee extensors WMD (25.06 Kg 95% CI: 10.46 to 39.66 and elbow flexors WMD (4.44 Kg 95% CI: 1.22 to 7.67 compared with no exercise group. The meta-analyses also showed significant improvement in Health status, Energy/Vitality and physical function domains of quality of life for participants in the CARE group compared with no exercise group. A nonsignificant improvement in social function domain of quality of life was found for participants in the CARE group compared with no exercise group.Combined aerobic and resistance exercise may improve peak VO2, muscle strength and health status, energy and physical function domains of quality of life and should be considered as a component of care of HIV-infected individuals.

  6. Exercise therapy for functional capacity in chronic diseases: an overview of meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasanen, Tero; Tolvanen, Samppa; Heinonen, Ari; Kujala, Urho M

    2017-10-01

    To summarise all meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials that have evaluated the effects of exercise therapy on functional capacity in patients with chronic diseases. Umbrella review of meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials. We systematically searched the CENTRAL, CINAHL, DARE, Medline, OTSeeker, PEDro, SPORTDiscus, ProQuest Nursing & Allied Health Database, Web of Science, Scopus, OpenGrey and BMC Proceedings from database inception to 1 September 2016. We included meta-analyses that compared the effects of exercise therapy with no treatment or usual care in adults with non-communicable chronic diseases and included outcomes related to functional capacity. We excluded meta-analyses with less than 100 patients. Eighty-five meta-analyses with 22 different chronic diseases were included. The exercise interventions resulted in statistically significant (pmeta-analyses. Exercise therapy appears to be a safe way to improve functional capacity and reduce disability in individuals with chronic disease. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. [Impact of exercise on the body composition and aerobic capacity of elderly with obesity through three models of intervention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Jose Antonio; Del Valle, Miguel; Nistal, Paloma; Méndez, David; Abelairas-Gómez, Cristian; Barcala-Furelos, Roberto

    2014-12-17

    The objective of this study was to analyze the influence of aerobic exercise on body composition and aerobic capacity of a sample of older, sedentary adults with obesity rates by three different models of intervention (recommendation, prescription at home and monitoring). A total of 76 older adults with a mean age 67.1+/-1.2 years, sedentary, with a BMI> 30 kg/ m2 were randomized in to four groups: Control (CON) recommendation (REC), prescription home (PRES) and monitoring in a sports center (MON). The same program of aerobic exercise for groups of home and sports center for 24 weeks, 3 days a week was developed. It was determined before and after the intervention BMI, Waist- Hip-index (ICC), the% fat ( Σ folds) and aerobic capacity (T6M) throughout the sample. MON and PRES groups showed significant improvements in the ICC, Σ folds and T 6M variables, not the case in BMI. However the MON group presented significant differences from group PRES between-group analysis (p exercise programs in adults with obesity methodology. However the exercise prescription at home since early intervention is an important approach for people with physical and/ or psychological reasons such as obesity cannot access the sports centers to participate in activities led by a monitor. Unknowns of aerobic exercise are cleared in the home that are of great impact for social policies regarding the health of the elderly population. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  8. Coronary microvascular function, insulin sensitivity and body composition in predicting exercise capacity in overweight patients with coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jürs, Anders; Pedersen, Lene Rørholm; Olsen, Rasmus Huan; Snoer, Martin; Chabanova, Elizaveta; Haugaard, Steen Bendix; Prescott, Eva

    2015-11-27

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) has a negative impact on exercise capacity. The aim of this study was to determine how coronary microvascular function, glucose metabolism and body composition contribute to exercise capacity in overweight patients with CAD and without diabetes. Sixty-five non-diabetic, overweight patients with stable CAD, BMI 28-40 kg/m(2) and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) above 35 % were recruited. A 3-hour oral glucose tolerance test was used to evaluate glucose metabolism. Peak aerobic exercise capacity (VO2peak) was assessed by a cardiopulmonary exercise test. Body composition was determined by whole body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan and magnetic resonance imaging. Coronary flow reserve (CFR) assessed by transthoracic Doppler echocardiography was used as a measure of microvascular function. Median BMI was 31.3 and 72 % had impaired glucose tolerance or impaired fasting glucose. VO2peak adjusted for fat free mass was correlated with CFR (r = 0.41, p = 0.0007), LVEF (r = 0.33, p = 0.008) and left ventricular end-diastolic volume (EDV) (r = 0.32, p = 0.01) while it was only weakly linked to measures of glucose metabolism and body composition. CFR, EDV and LVEF remained independent predictors of VO2peak in multivariable regression analysis. The study established CFR, EDV and LVEF as independent predictors of VO2peak in overweight CAD patients with no or only mild functional symptoms and a LVEF > 35 %. Glucose metabolism and body composition had minor impact on VO2peak. The findings suggest that central hemodynamic factors are important in limiting exercise capacity in overweight non-diabetic CAD patients.

  9. The effect of home-based inspiratory muscle training on exercise capacity, exertional dyspnea and pulmonary function in COPD patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavarsad, Maryam Bakhshandeh; Shariati, Abdolali; Eidani, Esmaeil; Latifi, Mahmud

    2015-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is currently the fourth cause of mortality worldwide. Patients with COPD experience periods of dyspnea, fatigue, and disability, which impact on their life. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of short-term inspiratory muscle training on exercise capacity, exertional dyspnea, and pulmonary lung function. A randomized, controlled trial was performed. Thirty patients (27 males, 3 females) with mild to very severe COPD were randomly assigned to a training group (group T) or to a control group (group C). Patients in group T received training for 8 weeks (15 min/day for 6 days/week) with flow-volumetric inspiratory exerciser named (Respivol). Each patient was assessed before and after 8 weeks of training for the following clinical parameters: exercise capacity by 6-min walking test (6MWT), exertional dyspnea by Borg scale, and pulmonary lung function by spirometry. Patients used training together with medical treatment. The data were analyzed using paired t-test and independent t-test. Results showed statistically significant increase in 6MWT at the end of the training from 445.6 ± 22.99 to 491.06 ± 17.67 meters? (P training group but not in the control group. The values for exercise capacity and dyspnea improved after 8 weeks in group T in comparison with group C (P = 0.001 and P = 0.0001, respectively). No changes were observed in any measure of pulmonary function in both groups. Short-term inspiratory muscle training has beneficial effects on exercise capacity and exertional dyspnea in COPD patients.

  10. Exercise capacity independently predicts bone mineral density and proximal femoral geometry in patients with acute decompensated heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn, J-C; Lee, S J; Lee, H S; Oh, J; Hong, N; Park, S; Lee, S-H; Choi, D; Rhee, Y; Kang, S-M

    2015-08-01

    Heart failure is associated with increased risk of osteoporosis. We evaluated the prevalence and predictors of osteoporosis in hospitalized patients with ADHF using quantitative computed tomography. Osteoporosis and vertebral fracture are prevalent in patients with ADHF and exercise capacity independently predicts bone mass and femoral bone geometry. Heart failure is associated with reduced bone mass and increased risk of osteoporotic fractures. However, the prevalence and predictors of osteoporosis in hospitalized patients with acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) are not well understood. Sixty-five patients (15 postmenopausal females and 50 males) with ADHF were prospectively and consecutively enrolled. After stabilization of heart failure symptoms, quantitative computed tomography for bone mineral density (BMD) and femoral geometry as well as biochemical, echocardiographic, and cardiopulmonary exercise tests were performed. Fifteen postmenopausal female showed a high prevalence of osteoporosis (40%) and vertebral fracture (53%). Among 50 male patients, 12% had osteoporosis and 32% had osteopenia, while vertebral fracture was found in 12%. Lumbar volumetric BMD (vBMD) was significantly lower in ischemic patients than non-ischemic patients (107.9 ± 47.5 vs. 145.4 ± 40.9 mg/cm(3), p = 0.005) in male. Exercise capacity, indicated by peak oxygen consumption (VO2), was significantly associated with lumbar vBMD (r = 0.576, p fracture are prevalent, and exercise capacity independently predicts bone mass and geometry. Given that heart failure patients with reduced exercise capacity carry a substantial increased risk of fracture, proper osteoporosis evaluation is important in these patients.

  11. Dietary intake is independently associated with the maximal capacity for fat oxidation during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Gareth; Eves, Frank F; Glover, Elisa I; Robinson, Scott L; Vernooij, Carlijn A; Thompson, Janice L; Wallis, Gareth A

    2017-04-01

    .1 mg · kg FFM(-1) · min(-1) (3.5-19.9 mg · kg FFM(-1) · min(-1)); women: 11.2 ± 3.3 mg · kg FFM(-1) · min(-1) (4.6-20.7 mg · kg FFM(-1) · min(-1)); P carbohydrate and fat intake make modest but independent contributions to the interindividual variability in the capacity to oxidize fat during exercise. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02070055.

  12. Effects of ingested fluids on exercise capacity and on cardiovascular and metabolic responses to prolonged exercise in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, R J; Bethell, L R; Leiper, J B

    1996-09-01

    It is well established that the ingestion of carbohydrate-containing drinks can improve the performance of prolonged exercise. The present study examined the effects of ingestion of water and two dilute glucose-electrolyte drinks on exercise performance and on cardiovascular and metabolic responses to exercise. Twelve subjects exercised to exhaustion on a cycle ergometer at a workload corresponding to 70% of maximum oxygen uptake (VO2,max) on five occasions each separated by 1 week. The first trial served to accustom subjects to experimental conditions. On one trial, no drinks were given and on the others subjects drank 100 ml every 10 min. Drinks consisted of water, an isotonic glucose-electrolyte solution (I: 200 mmol/l glucose; 35 mmol/l NA2; 310 mosmol/kg) and a hypotonic glucose-electrolyte solution (H: 90 mmol/l glucose; 60 mmol/l Na+; 240 mosmol/kg). Treatment order was randomized. Blood and expired air samples were taken and heart rate and rectal temperature measured at intervals during exercise. Median exercise time was greatest for treatment H (110.3 min) followed by treatment I (107.3 min), water (93.1) and no drink (80.7). Endurance times differed significantly overall, and for pairwise comparisons (P drink trial and both treatments H and I: a difference between water and no drink was seen at the 5% level. At exhaustion, a significant treatment difference was found for the change in plasma volume, with the greatest decrease (6.7%) on the no-drink trial and the smallest decrease (0.5%) on treatment H. Significant treatment effects were also observed for heart rate, rectal temperature and serum osmolality. The results suggest that the ingestion of glucose-electrolyte drinks can improve exercise performance even when the amount of added glucose is small, and that performance may also be enhanced, albeit to a lesser degree, by ingestion of water.

  13. Skeletal muscle metabolism during prolonged exercise in Pompe disease

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    Nicolai Preisler

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Pompe disease (glycogenosis type II is caused by lysosomal alpha-glucosidase deficiency, which leads to a block in intra-lysosomal glycogen breakdown. In spite of enzyme replacement therapy, Pompe disease continues to be a progressive metabolic myopathy. Considering the health benefits of exercise, it is important in Pompe disease to acquire more information about muscle substrate use during exercise. Methods: Seven adults with Pompe disease were matched to a healthy control group (1:1. We determined (1 peak oxidative capacity (VO2peak and (2 carbohydrate and fatty acid metabolism during submaximal exercise (33 W for 1 h, using cycle-ergometer exercise, indirect calorimetry and stable isotopes. Results: In the patients, VO2peak was less than half of average control values; mean difference −1659 mL/min (CI: −2450 to −867, P = 0.001. However, the respiratory exchange ratio increased to >1.0 and lactate levels rose 5-fold in the patients, indicating significant glycolytic flux. In line with this, during submaximal exercise, the rates of oxidation (ROX of carbohydrates and palmitate were similar between patients and controls (mean difference 0.226 g/min (CI: 0.611 to −0.078, P = 0.318 and mean difference 0.016 μmol/kg/min (CI: 1.287 to −1.255, P = 0.710, respectively. Conclusion: Reflecting muscle weakness and wasting, Pompe disease is associated with markedly reduced maximal exercise capacity. However, glycogenolysis is not impaired in exercise. Unlike in other metabolic myopathies, skeletal muscle substrate use during exercise is normal in Pompe disease rendering exercise less complicated for e.g. medical or recreational purposes.

  14. Skeletal muscle metabolism during prolonged exercise in Pompe disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preisler, Nicolai; Laforêt, Pascal; Madsen, Karen Lindhardt; Husu, Edith; Vissing, Christoffer Rasmus; Hedermann, Gitte; Galbo, Henrik; Lindberg, Christopher; Vissing, John

    2017-08-01

    Pompe disease (glycogenosis type II) is caused by lysosomal alpha-glucosidase deficiency, which leads to a block in intra-lysosomal glycogen breakdown. In spite of enzyme replacement therapy, Pompe disease continues to be a progressive metabolic myopathy. Considering the health benefits of exercise, it is important in Pompe disease to acquire more information about muscle substrate use during exercise. Seven adults with Pompe disease were matched to a healthy control group (1:1). We determined (1) peak oxidative capacity (VO2peak) and (2) carbohydrate and fatty acid metabolism during submaximal exercise (33 W) for 1 h, using cycle-ergometer exercise, indirect calorimetry and stable isotopes. In the patients, VO2peak was less than half of average control values; mean difference -1659 mL/min (CI: -2450 to -867, P = 0.001). However, the respiratory exchange ratio increased to >1.0 and lactate levels rose 5-fold in the patients, indicating significant glycolytic flux. In line with this, during submaximal exercise, the rates of oxidation (ROX) of carbohydrates and palmitate were similar between patients and controls (mean difference 0.226 g/min (CI: 0.611 to -0.078, P = 0.318) and mean difference 0.016 µmol/kg/min (CI: 1.287 to -1.255, P = 0.710), respectively). Reflecting muscle weakness and wasting, Pompe disease is associated with markedly reduced maximal exercise capacity. However, glycogenolysis is not impaired in exercise. Unlike in other metabolic myopathies, skeletal muscle substrate use during exercise is normal in Pompe disease rendering exercise less complicated for e.g. medical or recreational purposes. © 2017 The authors.

  15. Diet and exercise effects on aerobic fitness and body composition in seriously mentally ill adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannopoulou, Ifigenia; Botonis, Petros; Kostara, Christina; Skouroliakou, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Low exercise capacity and high obesity levels are the main characteristics of people with serious mental illness (SMI). We conducted a pilot study on the effects of a 3-month exercise and dietary intervention on the aerobic capacity and body composition of obese adults with SMI taking Olanzapine, a second generation antipsychotic medication known to induce weight increments. Fifty adults with SMI (15 males and 35 females) followed a 3-month weight loss intervention programme based on exercise and diet. Pre- and post-intervention, a submaximal [Formula: see text]O2 exercise test was performed in order to assess [Formula: see text]O2max anthropometric and body composition measurements were also performed. All participants were obese (body mass index (BMI): 33.61 ± 0.91 kg/m(2)). Pre- and post-intervention, a submaximal [Formula: see text]O2 exercise test on the treadmill was performed in order to assess [Formula: see text]O2max anthropometric and body composition measurements were also performed. Significant reductions in body weight, BMI, body fat and waist circumference were found from pre to post (p diet improves the aerobic capacity and body composition of obese adults with SMI, despite the use of Olanzapine.

  16. The effect of aging and cardiorespiratory fitness on the lung diffusing capacity response to exercise in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffman, Kirsten E; Carlson, Alex R; Miller, Andrew D; Johnson, Bruce D; Taylor, Bryan J

    2017-06-01

    Aging is associated with deterioration in the structure and function of the pulmonary circulation. We characterized the lung diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO), alveolar-capillary membrane conductance (DmCO), and pulmonary-capillary blood volume (Vc) response to discontinuous incremental exercise at 25, 50, 75, and 90% of peak work (Wpeak) in four groups: 1) Young [27 ± 3 yr, maximal oxygen consumption (V̇o2max): 110 ± 18% age predicted]; 2) Young Highly Fit (27 ± 3 yr, V̇o2max: 147 ± 8% age predicted); 3) Old (69 ± 5 yr, V̇o2max: 116 ± 13% age predicted); and 4) Old Highly Fit (65 ± 5 yr, V̇o2max: 162 ± 18% age predicted). At rest and at 90% Wpeak, DLCO, DmCO, and Vc were decreased with age. At 90% Wpeak, DLCO, DmCO, and Vc were greater in Old Highly Fit vs. Old adults. The slope of the DLCO-cardiac output (Q̇) relationship from rest to end exercise at 90% Wpeak was not different between Young, Young Highly Fit, Old, and Old Highly Fit (1.35 vs. 1.44 vs. 1.10 vs. 1.35 mlCO·mmHg-1·liter blood-1, P = 0.388), with no evidence of a plateau in this relationship during exercise; this was also true for DmCO-Q̇ and Vc-Q̇. V̇o2max was positively correlated with 1) DLCO, DmCO, and Vc at rest; and 2) the rest to end exercise change in DLCO, DmCO, and Vc. In conclusion, these data suggest that despite the age-associated deterioration in the structure and function of the pulmonary circulation, expansion of the pulmonary capillary network does not become limited during exercise in healthy individuals regardless of age or cardiorespiratory fitness level.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Healthy aging is a crucial area of research. This article details how differences in age and cardiorespiratory fitness level affect lung diffusing capacity, particularly during high-intensity exercise. We conclude that highly fit older adults do not experience a limit in lung diffusing capacity during high-intensity exercise. Interestingly, however, we

  17. Deconditioning, fatigue and impaired quality of life in long-term survivors after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation : Altered exercise capacity in allo-HSCT survivors

    OpenAIRE

    Dirou, Stéphanie; Chambellan, Arnaud; Chevallier, Patrice; Germaud, Patrick; Guillaume, Guillaume; Gourraud, Antoine; Perrot, Bastien; Delasalle, Béatrice; Forestier, Bastien; Guillaume, Thierry; Peterlin, Pierre; Garnier, Alice; Magnan, Antoine; Blanc, François-Xavier; Lemarchand, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Long-term survivors after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) are at high risk for treatment-related adverse events, that may worsen physical capacity and may induce fatigue and disability. The aims of this prospective study were to evaluate exercise capacity in allotransplant survivors and its relationship with fatigue and disability. Patient-reported outcomes and exercise capacity were evaluated in 71 non-relapse patients 1 year after allo-...

  18. Impact of exercise on the functional capacity and pain of patients with knee osteoarthritis: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Aline Mizusaki Imoto de; Peccin, Maria Stella; Silva, Kelson Nonato Gomes da; Teixeira, Lucas Emmanuel Pedro de Paiva; Trevisani, Virgínia Fernandes Moça

    2012-12-01

    Muscle weakness, especially of the quadriceps muscle, is one of the major musculoskeletal effects of knee osteoarthritis. Exercises are considered one of the main interventions in the conservative treatment of those patients. To assess the effectiveness of quadriceps strengthening exercises on functional capacity and symptoms related of knee osteoarthritis by use of the Timed Up and Go test (TUG), the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), and the Lequesne Index. One hundred patients were randomized into two groups: 1) Exercise Group (n = 50), which included stationary bicycle, hamstrings stretching, and quadriceps strengthening; 2) Instruction Group (n = 50), which received a manual with information about knee osteoarthritis and instructions on how to deal with knee symptoms in daily activities. The manual did not include exercise instructions. The Exercise Group showed statistically significant improvement regarding the TUG test, the WOMAC aspects of pain, function, and stiffness, and the Lequesne Index, as compared with the Instruction Group. Quadriceps strengthening exercises for eight weeks are effective to improve pain, function, and stiffness in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

  19. Effects of amiodarone on erect and supine exercise haemodynamics and exercise capacity in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenneaux, M P; Counihan, P J; Porter, A; Lipkin, D P; McKenna, W J

    1992-05-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a primary heart muscle disease associated with a high incidence of sudden death. Amiodarone is of benefit in those patients with a high risk profile for sudden death. Amiodarone has also been reported to improve symptoms dramatically in some patients with HCM but to cause functional deterioration in others. In the acute phase of oral amiodarone therapy there are few discernable changes in cardiovascular haemodynamics and the mechanisms of any beneficial effects on symptoms remain unclear. To determine the effect of amiodarone on exercise responses we measured haemodynamic indices in 10 patients during maximal supine- and symptom-limited erect treadmill exercise before and 6 weeks after amiodarone therapy. Following amiodarone therapy there was a significant reduction in resting and peak heart rate during erect exercise (76 +/- 13 vs 97 +/- 19 b.min-1; P = 0.001 and 114 +/- 26 vs 146 +/- 21 b.min-1; P = 0.001 respectively). Despite increases in peak pulmonary and systemic artery pressures with amiodarone therapy there was no difference in the peak left ventricular filling pressure or maximum cardiac output achieved. Similarly, during supine exercise the resting and peak heart rates were less following the 6 weeks amiodarone therapy. Comparison of supine and erect exercise haemodynamic indices demonstrated higher peak LV filling and higher peak systolic and pulmonary artery pressures during supine than during erect exercise (29 +/- 10 vs 25 +/- 12; P less than 0.04; 151 +/- 42 vs 126 +/- 48; P = 0.01 and 66 +/- 27 vs 62 +/- 21; P = 0.08 respectively).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. The Manual Diaphragm Release Technique improves diaphragmatic mobility, inspiratory capacity and exercise capacity in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taciano Rocha

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Questions: In people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, does the Manual Diaphragm Release Technique improve diaphragmatic mobility after a single treatment, or cumulatively? Does the technique also improve exercise capacity, maximal respiratory pressures, and kinematics of the chest wall and abdomen? Design: Randomised, controlled trial with concealed allocation, intention-to-treat analysis, and blinding of participants and assessors. Participants: Twenty adults aged over 60 years with clinically stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Intervention: The experimental group received six treatments with the Manual Diaphragm Release Technique on non-consecutive days within a 2-week period. The control group received sham treatments following the same regimen. Outcome measures: The primary outcome was diaphragmatic mobility, which was analysed using ultrasonography. The secondary outcomes were: the 6-minute walk test; maximal respiratory pressures; and abdominal and chest wall kinematics measured by optoelectronic plethysmography. Outcomes were measured before and after the first and sixth treatments. Results: The Manual Diaphragm Release Technique significantly improved diaphragmatic mobility over the course of treatments, with a between-group difference in cumulative improvement of 18 mm (95% CI 8 to 28. The technique also significantly improved the 6-minute walk distance over the treatment course, with a between-group difference in improvement of 22 m (95% CI 11 to 32. Maximal expiratory pressure and sniff nasal inspiratory pressure both showed significant acute benefits from the technique during the first and sixth treatments, but no cumulative benefit. Inspiratory capacity estimated by optoelectronic plethysmography showed significant cumulative benefit of 330 ml (95% CI 100 to 560. The effects on other outcomes were non-significant or small. Conclusion: The Manual Diaphragm Release Technique improves diaphragmatic mobility

  1. Low doses of caffeine reduce heart rate during submaximal cycle ergometry

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    Wetter Thomas J

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to examine the cardiovascular effects of two low-levels of caffeine ingestion in non habitual caffeine users at various submaximal and maximal exercise intensities. Methods Nine male subjects (19–25 yr; 83.3 ± 3.1 kg; 184 ± 2 cm, underwent three testing sessions administered in a randomized and double-blind fashion. During each session, subjects were provided 4 oz of water and a gelatin capsule containing a placebo, 1.5 mg/kg caffeine, or 3.0 mg/kg caffeine. After thirty minutes of rest, a warm-up (30 Watts for 2 min the pedal rate of 60 rpm was maintained at a steady-state output of 60 watts for five minutes; increased to 120 watts for five minutes and to 180 watts for five minutes. After a 2 min rest the workload was 180 watts for one minute and increased by 30 watts every minute until exhaustion. Heart rate (HR was measured during the last 15-seconds of each minute of submaximal exercise. Systolic blood pressure (BP was measured at rest and during each of the three sub-maximal steady state power outputs. Minute ventilation (VE, Tidal volume (VT, Breathing frequency (Bf, Rating of perceived exertion (RPE, Respiratory exchange ratio (RER, and Oxygen consumption (VO2 were measured at rest and during each minute of exercise. Results Caffeine at 1.5 and 3.0 mg/kg body weight significantly lowered (p E, VT, VO2, RPE, maximal power output or time to exhaustion. Conclusion In non habitual caffeine users it appears that consuming a caffeine pill (1.5 & 3.0 mg/kg at a dose comparable to 1–3 cups of coffee lowers heart rate during submaximal exercise but not at near maximal and maximal exercise. In addition, this caffeine dose also only appears to affect systolic blood pressure at rest but not during cycling exercise.

  2. Effects of exercise prescription on daily physical activity and maximal exercise capacity in coronary artery disease patients with and without type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karjalainen, Jaana J; Kiviniemi, Antti M; Hautala, Arto J; Niva, Jarkko; Lepojärvi, Samuli; Mäkikallio, Timo H; Piira, Olli-Pekka; Huikuri, Heikki V; Tulppo, Mikko P

    2012-11-01

    Promotion of and adherence to increased physical activity (PA) is an important part of the prevention and treatment of coronary artery disease (CAD). We hypothesized that individually tailored home-based exercise prescriptions will increase long-term PA and maximal exercise capacity among CAD patients without and with type 2 diabetes (CAD+T2D). Physical activity of patients with CAD (n = 44) and CAD+T2D (n = 39), matched by age, sex and ejection fraction, was measured over 5 days with an accelerometer pre- and postexercise prescription. PA was assessed as the average time per day of moderate (METs = 2-5) and high (METs > 5) intensities. Six-month exercise prescriptions were introduced based on individual maximal heart rate reserve. At the baseline, patients with CAD+T2D engaged in less moderate-intensity PA (2:40 ± 1:23 versus 3:24 ± 1:17 h, P = 0·014) and exhibited a non-significant trend to reduced high-intensity PA (2:08 ± 2:57 versus 5:02 ± 9:19 min, P = 0·091) compared with patients with CAD. High-intensity PA increased markedly in CAD (5:02 ± 9:19 versus 9:59 ± 15:03 min) and patients with CAD+T2D (2:08 ± 2:57 versus 6:14 ± 10:18 min) after exercise prescription (main effect for time P = 0·001). Also maximal exercise capacity increased in both groups (main effect for time Pexercise prescriptions are an effective way to promote more active lifestyles and improve fitness in both patient groups. © 2012 The Authors Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging © 2012 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine.

  3. Health benefits of exercise in an aging society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, E B; Bruce, R A

    1987-02-01

    The effects of regular aerobic exercise are important to an aging society increasingly preoccupied with exercise. Traditionally, most attention has been directed to the relationship between a physically active life-style and cardiovascular mortality. In an aging society, however, active life expectancy and maintenance of independence may be as important as effects of regular exercise on longevity. Regular exercise results in increased maximum aerobic capacity due to peripheral changes in muscle (increased capacity for aerobic metabolism and improved substrate and oxygen extraction with a widened arteriovenous oxygen difference) and also due to cardiovascular changes with increased stroke volume and cardiac output in normal persons. "Therapeutic benefits" of conditioning probably occur at submaximal work loads common to everyday activity, when cardiac work and myocardial oxygen consumption are less for any given work load, muscles are more efficient, and relative oxygen requirements are less. Aging is associated with a linear decline in maximum aerobic capacity. The rate of decline is twofold greater when comparing sedentary with physically active middle-aged men. Thus, regular exercise could conceivably lower functional aerobic age by slowing this functional decline. Exercise, particularly excessive exercise, is also associated with serious hazards, including sudden death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, excessive fatigue, hyperthermia, and significant musculoskeletal problems. Accounts of the health effects of exercise should consider a wide range of risks and benefits, especially those related to improving function, minimizing disability, and prolonging independent living.

  4. Diffusion capacity of carbon monoxide (DLCO) pre- and post-exercise in children in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Nicholas M; Kennedy, Brendan; Fitzgerald, Dominic A; Selvadurai, Hiran

    2014-08-01

    A decrease in diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) after exercise has been reported in healthy adults. There is limited information for post-exercise DLCO available in children either in health or in disease. To evaluate (1) reproducibility of DLCO measures in children, (2) differences in DLCO between elite athletic swimmers (AS), stable cystic fibrosis patients (CF), and healthy controls (Con) at rest; and (3) after a maximal treadmill exercise test. Participants performed spirometry and DLCO at baseline, a maximal treadmill exercise test and repeated DLCO measures for 2 hr after cessation of exercise. The mean (SD) co-efficient of variation between baseline DLCO tests was 2.49% (1.86%). In girls, the mean baseline DLCO (ml/min/mmHg) was 18.61 (4.15) in CF, 22.32 (4.79) in controls and 27.18 (5.33) in AS. In boys: 23.68 (5.31) in CF, 28.09 (9.95) in controls and 37.75 (9.46) in AS. Baseline DLCO was significantly higher in AS than in CF patients (P exercise, the greatest mean decrease in DLCO from baseline was -7.50% to -12.83% and in boys -6.92% to -17.71%. The decline in DLCO was less important in the athletes than the other groups (P exercise DLCO and while there are disease-specific differences, the general pattern of change in DLCO measures after exercise is similar in children to adults. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. [Comparison of submaximal front crawl and breast stroke swimming in relation to energy expenditure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, K; Katamoto, S

    1992-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the energy expenditure during submaximal front crawl (Fr) and breast stroke (Br) swimming. Six male college swimmers performed submaximal and maximal exercise tests in both styles in a swimming flume. In submaximal exercise tests, they swam at the following given velocities for 5 min, Br: 0.3, 0.5 and 0.7 m/sec; Fr: 0.3, 0.5, 0.7 and 0.9 m/sec. In maximal exercise tests, following submaximal swimming at 0.9 m/sec in Br and 1.1 m/sec in Fr, swimming velocity was increased progressively by 0.1 m/sec every 1 min until the subjects reached to voluntary exhaustion. VO2max obtained from the maximal swimming tests in Br and Fr were 4.27 and 4.18 l/min, respectively. And there was no significant difference between these two values. VO2 during Br and Fr swimming at four and five submaximal velocities were 1.06, 1.30, 1.79, 2.65 l/min and 1.17, 1.34, 1.63, 2.04, 3.05 l/min, respectively. And, it was found that VO2 at 0.3 and 0.9 m/sec were significantly different (p styles curvilinearly increased with swimming velocity, and these relationships were well fitted for the regression equation of the second order (Br: y = 3.84625x2 - 1.95914x + 1.310463,r2 = 0.999 (p < 0.05), Fr: y = 3.233446x2 - 2.28136x + 1.611524, r2 = 0.979 (p < 0.05)). It was calculated that the two curves crossed at a point on 0.49 m/sec, and that VO2 at this point was 1.27 l/min. This value equivalented to 30.4% VO2max in Br and 29.7% VO2max in Fr.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. High-intensity intermittent exercise training with chlorella intake accelerates exercise performance and muscle glycolytic and oxidative capacity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horii, Naoki; Hasegawa, Natsuki; Fujie, Shumpei; Uchida, Masataka; Miyamoto-Mikami, Eri; Hashimoto, Takeshi; Tabata, Izumi; Iemitsu, Motoyuki

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of chronic chlorella intake alone or in combination with high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE) training on exercise performance and muscle glycolytic and oxidative metabolism in rats. Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to the four groups: sedentary control, chlorella intake (0.5% chlorella powder in normal feed), HIIE training, and combination of HIIE training and chlorella intake for 6 wk ( n = 10 each group). HIIE training comprised 14 repeats of a 20-s swimming session with a 10-s pause between sessions, while bearing a weight equivalent to 16% of body weight, 4 days/week. Exercise performance was tested after the interventions by measuring the maximal number of HIIE sessions that could be completed. Chlorella intake and HIIE training significantly increased the maximal number of HIIE sessions and enhanced the expression of monocarboxylate transporter (MCT)1, MCT4, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α concomitantly with the activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), phosphofructokinase, citrate synthase (CS), and cytochrome- c oxidase (COX) in the red region of the gastrocnemius muscle. Furthermore, the combination further augmented the increased exercise performance and the enhanced expressions and activities. By contrast, in the white region of the muscle, MCT1 expression and LDH, CS, and COX activities did not change. These results showed that compared with only chlorella intake and only HIIE training, chlorella intake combined with HIIE training has a more pronounced effect on exercise performance and muscle glycolytic and oxidative metabolism, in particular, lactate metabolism. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  7. Physical activity and exercise capacity in patients with moderate COPD exacerbations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alahmari, Ayedh D; Kowlessar, Beverly S; Patel, Anant R C; Mackay, Alex J; Allinson, James P; Wedzicha, Jadwiga A; Donaldson, Gavin C

    2016-08-01

    Little is known about changes in physical activity during moderate (out-patient managed) exacerbations.6-min walking distance (6MWD) was measured during 50 exacerbations when the patients were stable, and at 3 and 7 days post-exacerbation presentation. At similar time points, quadriceps maximum voluntary contraction (QMVC) was measured during 47 different exacerbations. Physical activity (SenseWear; Bodymedia Inc., Pittsburgh, PA, USA) was recorded over 2 consecutive-week periods post-presentation.6MWD fell from a median 422 m when stable to 373 m on day 3 (p=0.001). Similarly, QMVC fell from 32.6 versus 29.7 kg (p=0.026). Falls in 6MWD were associated with a rise in C-reactive protein (r= -0.364; p=0.041) and increased Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue (FACIT-F) (r= -0.44; p=0.013). Light physical activity was 2.18 h·day(-1) during the first week post-exacerbation and was less over week 2 (1.98 h·day(-1); p=0.009). Patients who had attended pulmonary rehabilitation had smaller changes in 6MWD than those who had not attended (-35.0 versus -114.9 m; p=0.013). Falls in physical activity were correlated with higher depression scores (rho= -0.51; p=0.006).These findings indicate that exercise capacity and muscle strength fall at exacerbation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients who are treated at home and are free to maintain normal activity. Copyright ©ERS 2016.

  8. Ice ingestion with a long rest interval increases the endurance exercise capacity and reduces the core temperature in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Takashi; Iribe, Yuka; Ogaki, Tetsuro

    2017-01-05

    The timing in which ice before exercise should be ingested plays an important role in optimizing its success. However, the effects of differences in the timing of ice ingestion before exercise on cycling capacity, and thermoregulation has not been studied. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of length of time after ice ingestion on endurance exercise capacity in the heat. Seven males ingested 1.25 g kg body mass-1 of ice (0.5 °C) or cold water (4 °C) every 5 min, six times. Under three separate conditions after ice or water ingestion ([1] taking 20 min rest after ice ingestion, [2] taking 5 min rest after ice ingestion, and [3] taking 5 min rest after cold water ingestion), seven physically active male cyclists exercised at 65% of their maximal oxygen uptake to exhaustion in the heat (35 °C, 30% relative humidity). Participants cycled significantly longer following both ice ingestion with a long rest interval (46.0 ± 7.7 min) and that with a short rest interval (38.7 ± 5.7 min) than cold water ingestion (32.3 ± 3.2 min; both p Heat storage under condition of ice ingestion with a long rest interval during the pre-exercise period was significantly lower than that observed with a short rest interval (-4.98 ± 2.50 W m-2; p heat, which is suggested to be driven by a reduced rectal temperature and heat storage before the start of exercise.

  9. Respiratory and skeletal muscle strength in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: impact on exercise capacity and lower extremity function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Jonathan; Yelin, Edward H; Katz, Patricia P; Sanchez, Gabriela; Iribarren, Carlos; Eisner, Mark D; Blanc, Paul D

    2011-01-01

    We sought to quantify the impact of respiratory muscle and lower extremity strength on exercise capacity and lower extremity function (LEF) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In 828 persons with COPD, we assessed the impact of reduced respiratory (maximum inspiratory pressure, MIP) and lower extremity muscle strength (quadriceps strength, QS) on exercise capacity (6-minute walk test, 6MWT), and LEF (short physical performance battery). Multiple regression analyses taking into account key covariates, including lung function and smoking, tested the associations between muscle strength and exercise and functional capacity. For each 0.5 SD decrement in QS, men walked 18.3 m less during 6MWT (95% confidence interval [CI], -24.1 to -12.4); women 25.1 m less (95% CI, -31.1 to -12.4). For each 0.5 SD decrement in MIP, men walked 9.4 m less during 6MWT (95% CI, -15.2 to -3.6); women 8.7 m less (95% CI, -14.1 to -3.4). For each 0.5 SD decrease in QS, men had a 1.32 higher odds (95% CI, 1.11-1.15) of poor LEF; women had a 1.87 higher odds (95% CI, 1.54-2.27). Lower MIP (per 0.5 SD) was associated with increased odds of poor LEF in women (odds ratio = 1.18; 95% CI, 1.00-1.39), but not in men (odds ratio = 1.10; 95% CI, 0.93-1.31). In COPD, reduced respiratory and lower extremity muscle strength are associated with decreased exercise and functional capacity. Muscle weakness is likely an important component of impairment and disability in patients with COPD.

  10. Improvement in Exercise Capacity by Exercise Training Associated With Favorable Clinical Outcomes in Advanced Heart Failure With High B-Type Natriuretic Peptide Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Michio; Nakao, Kazuhiro; Kumasaka, Leon; Arakawa, Tetsuo; Fukui, Shigefumi; Ohara, Takahiro; Yanase, Masanobu; Noguchi, Teruo; Yasuda, Satoshi; Goto, Yoichi

    2017-08-25

    The efficacy of exercise training (ET) programs and its relationship with long-term clinical outcomes in advanced heart failure (HF) patients with high levels of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) remain uncertain.Methods and Results:We studied 340 consecutive HF patients with ejection fraction (EF) High-BNP, n=170) had more advanced HF characteristics, including lower EF (25.0±8.6% vs. 28.1±8.0%, P=0.0008), than those with BNP High-BNP patients, peak oxygen uptake (V̇O2) was significantly increased by 8.3±16.2% during the ET program, and changes in peak V̇O2inversely correlated with changes in BNP (R=-0.453, Phigh BNP level, an ET program significantly improved exercise capacity, and a greater improvement in exercise capacity was associated with greater decreases in BNP level and V̇E/V̇CO2slope and more favorable long-term clinical outcomes.

  11. The Manual Diaphragm Release Technique improves diaphragmatic mobility, inspiratory capacity and exercise capacity in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Taciano; Souza, Helga; Brandão, Daniela Cunha; Rattes, Catarina; Ribeiro, Luana; Campos, Shirley Lima; Aliverti, Andrea; de Andrade, Armèle Dornelas

    2015-10-01

    In people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, does the Manual Diaphragm Release Technique improve diaphragmatic mobility after a single treatment, or cumulatively? Does the technique also improve exercise capacity, maximal respiratory pressures, and kinematics of the chest wall and abdomen? Randomised, controlled trial with concealed allocation, intention-to-treat analysis, and blinding of participants and assessors. Twenty adults aged over 60 years with clinically stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The experimental group received six treatments with the Manual Diaphragm Release Technique on non-consecutive days within a 2-week period. The control group received sham treatments following the same regimen. The primary outcome was diaphragmatic mobility, which was analysed using ultrasonography. The secondary outcomes were: the 6-minute walk test; maximal respiratory pressures; and abdominal and chest wall kinematics measured by optoelectronic plethysmography. Outcomes were measured before and after the first and sixth treatments. The Manual Diaphragm Release Technique significantly improved diaphragmatic mobility over the course of treatments, with a between-group difference in cumulative improvement of 18mm (95% CI 8 to 28). The technique also significantly improved the 6-minute walk distance over the treatment course, with a between-group difference in improvement of 22 m (95% CI 11 to 32). Maximal expiratory pressure and sniff nasal inspiratory pressure both showed significant acute benefits from the technique during the first and sixth treatments, but no cumulative benefit. Inspiratory capacity estimated by optoelectronic plethysmography showed significant cumulative benefit of 330ml (95% CI 100 to 560). The effects on other outcomes were non-significant or small. The Manual Diaphragm Release Technique improves diaphragmatic mobility, exercise capacity and inspiratory capacity in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. This

  12. The functional exercise capacity and its correlates in obese treatment-seeking people with binge eating disorder: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancampfort, Davy; De Herdt, Amber; Vanderlinden, Johan; Lannoo, Matthias; Adriaens, An; De Hert, Marc; Stubbs, Brendon; Soundy, Andrew; Probst, Michel

    2015-01-01

    The primary aim was to compare the functional exercise capacity between obese treatment-seeking people with and without binge eating disorder (BED) and non-obese controls. The secondary aim was to identify clinical variables including eating and physical activity behaviour, physical complaints, psychopathology and physical self-perception variables in obese people with BED that could explain the variability in functional exercise capacity. Forty people with BED were compared with 20 age-, gender- and body mass index (BMI)-matched obese persons without BED and 40 age and gender matched non-obese volunteers. A 6-minute walk test (6MWT), the Baecke physical activity questionnaire, the Symptom Checklist-90, the Physical Self-Perception Profile and the Eating Disorder Inventory were administered. Physical complaints before and after the 6MWT were also documented. The distance achieved on the 6MWT was significantly lower in obese participants with BED (512.1 ± 75.8 m versus 682.7 ± 98.4, p binge eating disorder should incorporate a functional exercise capacity assessment. Clinicians involved in the rehabilitation of people with binge eating disorder should consider depression and lower self-esteem as potential barriers. Clinicians should take into account the frequently observed physical discomfort when developing rehabilitation programmes for people with binge eating disorder.

  13. Comparison of Predicted Exercise Capacity Equations and the Effect of Actual versus Ideal Body Weight among Subjects Undergoing Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Reza Ahmadian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Oxygen uptake at maximal exercise (VO2 max is considered the best available index for assessment of exercise capacity. The purpose of this study is to determine if the use of actual versus ideal body weight in standard regression equations for predicted VO2 max results in differences in predicted VO2 max. Methods. This is a retrospective chart review of patients who were predominantly in active military duty with complaints of dyspnea or exercise tolerance and who underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET from 2007 to 2009. Results. A total of 230 subjects completed CPET on a bicycle ergometer with a male predominance (62% and an average age of 37 ± 15 years. There was significant discordance between the measured VO2 max and predicted VO2 max when measured by the Hansen and Wasserman reference equations (P<0.001. Specifically, there was less overestimation when predicted VO2 max was based on ideal body weight as opposed to actual body weight. Conclusion. Our retrospective analysis confirmed the wide variations in predicted versus measured VO2 max based on varying prediction equations and showed the potential advantage of using ideal body weight as opposed to actual body weight in order to further standardize reference norms.

  14. Novel, high-intensity exercise prescription improves muscle mass, mitochondrial function, and physical capacity in individuals with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Neil A; Ford, Matthew P; Standaert, David G; Watts, Ray L; Bickel, C Scott; Moellering, Douglas R; Tuggle, S Craig; Williams, Jeri Y; Lieb, Laura; Windham, Samuel T; Bamman, Marcas M

    2014-03-01

    We conducted, in persons with Parkinson's disease (PD), a thorough assessment of neuromotor function and performance in conjunction with phenotypic analyses of skeletal muscle tissue, and further tested the adaptability of PD muscle to high-intensity exercise training. Fifteen participants with PD (Hoehn and Yahr stage 2-3) completed 16 wk of high-intensity exercise training designed to simultaneously challenge strength, power, endurance, balance, and mobility function. Skeletal muscle adaptations (P exercise training in PD included myofiber hypertrophy (type I: +14%, type II: +36%), shift to less fatigable myofiber type profile, and increased mitochondrial complex activity in both subsarcolemmal and intermyofibrillar fractions (I: +45-56%, IV: +39-54%). These adaptations were accompanied by a host of functional and clinical improvements (P Parkinson's Disease Quality of Life Scale (PDQ-39, -7.8pts); Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) total (-5.7 pts) and motor (-2.7 pts); and fatigue severity (-17%). Additionally, PD subjects in the pretraining state were compared with a group of matched, non-PD controls (CON; did not exercise). A combined assessment of muscle tissue phenotype and neuromuscular function revealed a higher distribution and larger cross-sectional area of type I myofibers and greater type II myofiber size heterogeneity in PD vs. CON (P exercise training with favorable changes in skeletal muscle at the cellular and subcellular levels that are associated with improvements in motor function, physical capacity, and fatigue perception.

  15. Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... exercising. Count out loud as you do the exercises. View Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Home Techniques to ... Intimacy Importance of Being Together Body Changes with Age Communicating with Your Partner Exercise and Sexual Activity Less Strenuous Positions for Sexual ...

  16. Effect of theophylline on exercise capacity in COPD patients treated with combination long-acting bronchodilator therapy: a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voduc, Nha; Alvarez, Gonzalo G; Amjadi, Kayvan; Tessier, Caroline; Sabri, Elham; Aaron, Shawn D

    2012-01-01

    Background Many patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease continue to experience significant functional limitation despite the use of both long-acting anticholinergic and beta-agonist inhalers. Theophylline is a widely available medication which may further improve lung function and exercise performance. Previous studies evaluating the effects of theophylline on exercise capacity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have demonstrated heterogeneous results. Methods We performed a randomized placebo-controlled double-blind pilot study assessing the effects of theophylline on constant load exercise duration and lung function, involving 24 COPD patients already treated with long-acting inhaled beta-agonist and long-acting anti-cholinergic bronchodilator therapy. Results Analyzable data was available in 10 of 12 subjects in the treatment arm and 11 of 12 subjects in the control arm. Theophylline was associated with a 26.1% (95% confidence interval [CI]: −17.3–69.5) improvement in exercise duration compared to placebo. Four of 10 treated patients demonstrated an improvement in exercise duration exceeding the minimum clinically important difference of 33%, compared to 1 of 11 controls (P = 0.15). Furthermore, peak ventilation was reduced by 11.1%, (95% CI: 0.77–21.5) which may suggest improvements in gas exchange. There were no significant observed differences in resting lung function nor measures of dyspnea between the two treatment groups. Conclusions Our study demonstrated a trend, but not a statistically significant improvement in exercise duration and a reduction in peak ventilation with theophylline. Based on the observed mean differences and standard deviations in this pilot study, a randomized controlled trial would require 45 subjects in each arm to detect a significant change in exercise duration. PMID:22563244

  17. Effect of Surgical Curve Correction on Exercise Tolerance and Physical Capacities in Patients of Severe Spinal Deformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Prateek C; Rathod, Ashok K; Borde, Mandar; Singh, Vishwajeet; Singh, Hemant U

    2016-12-01

    Traditionally, surgical intervention for patients with a spinal deformity has been considered for cosmetic benefits, but surgical intervention can alter the lung physiology or volumes and in turn leads to increase in physical capacity and exercise tolerance. Therefore, we conducted this to determine whether a surgical correction would restore the lung physiology, physical capacity and exercise tolerance in patients with kyphoscoliosis. To evaluate the usage of six-minute walk test scores and modified Borg scores as tools/measures for exercise tolerance in patients with spinal deformity and to study the effects of surgical correction of spinal deformity on exercise tolerance with above parameters as the measures. Thirty patients with spinal deformity, who had undergone surgery for deformity correction, were evaluated. All patients were investigated pre-operatively with x-rays of the spine (anteroposterior and lateral views). Clinical tests like breath holding time (after full inspiration) in number of seconds, modified Borg scores, six-minute walk test scores (heart rate, respiratory rate, maximum distance walked); were recorded as measures of exercise tolerance. The patients were followed up on the first, third, sixth and twelfth month post-operatively and tested clinically for breath holding time, modified Borg scores, six-minute walk test scores (heart rate, respiratory rate, maximum distance walked) and x-rays of the spine (anteroposterior and lateral views). In our study, breath holding time (p-value = 0.001) and modified Borg scores (p-value = 0.012) showed a significant improvement at 12 months post-operatively. We noted similar findings with heart rate, respiratory rate and maximum distance walked after a six-minute walk test. Improvements were noted in all the parameters, especially in the group of patients with greater than 60 degrees of cobb angle. However, the differences between the two groups (pre-operative cobb angle less than 60 degrees and pre

  18. Exercise capacity in the Bidirectional Glenn physiology: Coupling cardiac index, ventricular function and oxygen extraction ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallecilla, Carolina; Khiabani, Reza H; Trusty, Phillip; Sandoval, Néstor; Fogel, Mark; Briceño, Juan Carlos; Yoganathan, Ajit P

    2015-07-16

    In Bi-directional Glenn (BDG) physiology, the superior systemic circulation and pulmonary circulation are in series. Consequently, only blood from the superior vena cava is oxygenated in the lungs. Oxygenated blood then travels to the ventricle where it is mixed with blood returning from the lower body. Therefore, incremental changes in oxygen extraction ratio (OER) could compromise exercise tolerance. In this study, the effect of exercise on the hemodynamic and ventricular performance of BDG physiology was investigated using clinical patient data as inputs for a lumped parameter model coupled with oxygenation equations. Changes in cardiac index, Qp/Qs, systemic pressure, oxygen extraction ratio and ventricular/vascular coupling ratio were calculated for three different exercise levels. The patient cohort (n=29) was sub-grouped by age and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) at rest. It was observed that the changes in exercise tolerance are significant in both comparisons, but most significant when sub-grouped by PVR at rest. Results showed that patients over 2 years old with high PVR are above or close to the upper tolerable limit of OER (0.32) at baseline. Patients with high PVR at rest had very poor exercise tolerance while patients with low PVR at rest could tolerate low exercise conditions. In general, ventricular function of SV patients is too poor to increase CI and fulfill exercise requirements. The presented mathematical model provides a framework to estimate the hemodynamic performance of BDG patients at different exercise levels according to patient specific data. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. The effect of a multicomponent dual-modality exercise program targeting osteoporosis on bone health status and physical function capacity of postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolomio, Silvia; Ermolao, Andrea; Lalli, Alberto; Zaccaria, Marco

    2010-01-01

    Exercise is important for the prevention of osteoporosis and the reduction of fracture risk because it improves muscle mass and strength, besides improving balance. We evaluated the effect of a specific exercise program on bone mass and quality and physical function capacity in postmenopausal women with low bone mineral density. Participants (N = 125) underwent a bone mass (Dual X-ray Absorptiometry), bone quality (osteosonography), and physical functional capacity assessment. Fifty-eight of them took part in an 11-month exercise program (E), that included a multicomponent (strength, aerobic capacity, balance, joint mobility) dual-modality (on ground and in the water; alternating group and home-based exercise periods) exercise regimen. The others represented a control group (C) that did not exercise. After the exercise program all participants were reevaluated. After the training program: femoral neck T-score significantly improved in E; C significantly decreased all bone quality (osteosonography) parameters, whereas E showed no differences; E significantly improved all the physical function capacity parameters, while most of them decreased or did not change in C. A specific exercise program targeting osteoporosis improves physical function capacity, reduces physiological bone loss, and maintains bone quality in low bone mineral density postmenopausal women.

  20. Effects of music tempo upon submaximal cycling performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterhouse, J; Hudson, P; Edwards, B

    2010-08-01

    In an in vivo laboratory controlled study, 12 healthy male students cycled at self-chosen work-rates while listening to a program of six popular music tracks of different tempi. The program lasted about 25 min and was performed on three occasions--unknown to the participants, its tempo was normal, increased by 10% or decreased by 10%. Work done, distance covered and cadence were measured at the end of each track, as were heart rate and subjective measures of exertion, thermal comfort and how much the music was liked. Speeding up the music program increased distance covered/unit time, power and pedal cadence by 2.1%, 3.5% and 0.7%, respectively; slowing the program produced falls of 3.8%, 9.8% and 5.9%. Average heart rate changes were +0.1% (faster program) and -2.2% (slower program). Perceived exertion and how much the music was liked increased (faster program) by 2.4% and 1.3%, respectively, and decreased (slower program) by 3.6% and 35.4%. That is, healthy individuals performing submaximal exercise not only worked harder with faster music but also chose to do so and enjoyed the music more when it was played at a faster tempo. Implications of these findings for improving training regimens are discussed.

  1. Effect of changes in fat availability on exercise capacity in McArdle disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, S.T.; Jeppesen, T.D.; Taivassalo, T.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The major fuel for exercising muscle at low exercise intensities is fat. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of fat metabolism in McArdle disease (also known as glycogen storage disease type V), an inborn error of muscle glycogenolysis, by manipulating free fatty acid availability...... for oxidation during exercise. DESIGN: Randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. SETTING: Hospitalized care. PATIENTs: Ten patients (8 men and 2 women) with McArdle disease. INTERVENTIONS: Patients cycled at a constant workload corresponding to 70% of their maximum oxygen consumption. In random order...... exercise in the Intralipid infusion and nicotinic acid trials compared with the placebo and glucose infusion trials, an effect that was observed before and after the patients had experienced the second wind phenomenon. CONCLUSIONS: Lipids are an important source of fuel for exercising muscle in Mc...

  2. Upper and lower extremity muscle strength levels associated with an exercise capacity of 5 metabolic equivalents in male patients with heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izawa, Kazuhiro P; Watanabe, Satoshi; Oka, Koichiro; Hiraki, Koji; Morio, Yuji; Kasahara, Yusuke; Watanabe, Yosuke; Katata, Hironobu; Osada, Naohiko; Omiya, Kazuto

    2012-01-01

    Exercise capacity of fewer than 5 metabolic equivalents (METs) has been associated with high risk of death and poor physical functioning in male patients with heart failure (HF). Therefore, we aimed to determine upper and lower extremity muscle strength levels required to attain an exercise capacity of 5 or more METs in male outpatients with HF. We enrolled 148 male HF patients (age 60.1 ± 1.0 years). Peak oxygen uptake (peak (Equation is included in full-text article.)o2) was assessed by cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX). After CPX, we further divided the patients into groups according to exercise capacity: 5 or more METs (group A, n = 85) and fewer than 5 METs (group B, n = 63). Handgrip strength and knee extensor and flexor muscle strengths were assessed as indices of upper and lower extremity muscle strength, respectively. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to select cutoff values for upper and lower extremity muscle strength resulting in an exercise capacity of 5 or more METs in these patients. Exercise capacity of 5 or more METs in male HF patients was equivalent to approximately 35.2 kgf of handgrip strength and 1.70 Nm/kg of knee extensor and 0.90 Nm/kg of knee flexor muscle strengths. These upper and lower extremity muscle strength values may be useful target goals for improvement of exercise capacity, risk management, and activities of daily living in male HF patients.

  3. High-intensity exercise decreases muscle buffer capacity via a decrease in protein buffering in human skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, David; Edge, Johann; Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto; Thomas, Claire; Schneiker, Knut

    2009-09-01

    We have previously reported an acute decrease in muscle buffer capacity (betam(in vitro)) following high-intensity exercise. The aim of this study was to identify which muscle buffers are affected by acute exercise and the effects of exercise type and a training intervention on these changes. Whole muscle and non-protein betam(in vitro) were measured in male endurance athletes (VO(2max) = 59.8 +/- 5.8 mL kg(-1) min(-1)), and before and after training in male, team-sport athletes (VO(2max) = 55.6 +/- 5.5 mL kg(-1) min(-1)). Biopsies were obtained at rest and immediately after either time-to-fatigue at 120% VO(2max) (endurance athletes) or repeated sprints (team-sport athletes). High-intensity exercise was associated with a significant decrease in betam(in vitro) in endurance-trained males (146 +/- 9 to 138 +/- 7 mmol H(+) x kg d.w.(-1) x pH(-1)), and in male team-sport athletes both before (139 +/- 9 to 131 +/- 7 mmol H(+) x kg d.w.(-1) x pH(-1)) and after training (152 +/- 11 to 142 +/- 9 mmol H(+) x kg d.w.(-1) x pH(-1)). There were no acute changes in non-protein buffering capacity. There was a significant increase in betam(in vitro) following training, but this did not alter the post-exercise decrease in betam(in vitro). In conclusion, high-intensity exercise decreased betam(in vitro) independent of exercise type or an interval-training intervention; this was largely explained by a decrease in protein buffering. These findings have important implications when examining training-induced changes in betam(in vitro). Resting and post-exercise muscle samples cannot be used interchangeably to determine betam(in vitro), and researchers must ensure that post-training measurements of betam(in vitro) are not influenced by an acute decrease caused by the final training bout.

  4. Effect of inspiratory muscle warm-up on submaximal rowing performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arend, Mati; Mäestu, Jarek; Kivastik, Jana; Rämson, Raul; Jürimäe, Jaak

    2015-01-01

    Performing inspiratory muscle warm-up might increase exercise performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of inspiratory muscle warm-up to submaximal rowing performance and to find if there is an effect on lactic acid accumulation and breathing parameters. Ten competitive male rowers aged between 19 and 27 years (age, 23.1 ± 3.8 years; height, 188.1 ± 6.3 cm; body mass, 85.6 ± 6.6 kg) were tested 3 times. During the first visit, maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP) assessment and the incremental rowing test were performed to measure maximal oxygen consumption and maximal aerobic power (Pamax). A submaximal intensity (90% Pamax) rowing test was performed twice with the standard rowing warm-up as test 1 and with the standard rowing warm-up and specific inspiratory muscle warm-up as test 2. During the 2 experimental tests, distance, duration, heart rate, breathing frequency, ventilation, peak oxygen consumption, and blood lactate concentration were measured. The only value that showed a significant difference between the test 1 and test 2 was breathing frequency (52.2 ± 6.8 vs. 53.1 ± 6.8, respectively). Heart rate and ventilation showed a tendency to decrease and increase, respectively, after the inspiratory muscle warm-up (p < 0.1). Despite some changes in respiratory parameters, the use of 40% MIP intensity warm-up is not suggested if the mean intensity of the competition is at submaximal level (at approximately 90% maximal oxygen consumption). In conclusion, the warm-up protocol of the respiratory muscles used in this study does not have a significant influence on submaximal endurance performance in highly trained male rowers.

  5. Effect of contrasting physical exercise interventions on rapid force capacity of chronically painful muscles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Andersen, Lars L; Andersen, Jesper L; Suetta, Charlotte; Kjaer, Michael; Sogaard, Karen; Sjogaard, Gisela

    2009-01-01

    ... ; accepted in final form 10 September 2009 Rapid force capacity of chronically painful muscles is inhibited markedly more than maximal force capacity and is therefore relevant to assess in rehabilitation settings...

  6. The effects of an exercise training program on body composition and aerobic capacity parameters in Tunisian obese children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofien Regaieg

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of children obesity is rising alarmingly in both developed and developing countries. Developing effective exercise programs is a strategy for decreasing this prevalence and limiting obesity-associated long-term comorbidities. Objectives: To determine whether a 16-week training program; in addition to the school physical education and without dietary intervention; could have beneficial effects on body composition and aerobic capacity of obese children. Materials and Methods: Twenty-eight obese children (16 boys, 12 girls; aged 12-14 years were enrolled and were divided into either the exercise group (EG, n = 14 or the control group (CG, n = 14. EG participated in a 16-week aerobic exercises (four 60-min sessions per week at 70-85% of HRmax (maximum heart rate, in addition to the school physical education. Fat-Free Mass (FFM and Fat Mass (FM were assessed with bioelectrical impedance equipment. To assess aerobic capacity, maximal metabolic equivalent of task (METmax and maximal workload (Wmax were estimated with an electronically braked cycle ergometer (type Ergoline 500® . Results: At baseline, there were no differences between the two groups. After the training program, only the EG showed significant reduction in BMI (body mass index and waist circumference compared with the baseline values (P < 0.001. Exercise training significantly decreased FM only in the EG. A significant increase in FFM was seen in both groups; more marked in the EG. There was a significant increase in METmax (P < 0.05 and Wmax (P = 0.02 in the EG, and no significant changes in these parameters were seen in the CG. HRmax significantly decreased only in the EG (P < 0.05. Conclusion: This training program has beneficial effects on body composition and aerobic capacity parameters in obese children. Our intervention has the advantage of providing a sustainable and reproducible school and community approach for the management of children obesity.

  7. Low-Volume Whole-Body Vibration Training Improves Exercise Capacity in Subjects With Mild to Severe COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielmanns, Marc; Boeselt, Tobias; Gloeckl, Rainer; Klutsch, Anja; Fischer, Henrike; Polanski, Henryk; Nell, Christoph; Storre, Jan H; Windisch, Wolfram; Koczulla, Andreas R

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the benefits of a low-volume out-patient whole-body vibration training (WBVT) program on exercise capacity in comparison with a calisthenics training program in subjects with COPD. In this single-center randomized controlled trial, 29 subjects with mild to severe COPD were randomized to WBVT or to calisthenics training, including relaxation and breathing retraining in combination with calisthenics exercises. Both groups equally exercised for a duration of 3 months with 2 sessions of 30 min/week. Outcome parameters were 6-min walk distance (6MWD, primary outcome), 5-repetition sit-to-stand test, leg press peak force, Berg balance scale, St George Respiratory Questionnaire, and COPD assessment test. Twenty-seven subjects completed the study (WBVT, n = 14; calisthenics training program, n = 13). Baseline characteristics between groups were comparable. Subjects in the WBVT group significantly improved median (interquartile range) 6MWD (+105 [45.5-133.5] m, P = .001), sit-to-stand test (-2.3 [-3.1 to -1.3] s, P = .001), peak force (28.7 [16.7-33.3] kg, P = .001), and Berg balance scale (1.5 [0.0-4.0] points, P = .055). Changes in 6MWD, sit-to-stand test, and leg press peak force were also found to be significantly different between groups in favor of the WBVT group. Only the between-group difference of the COPD assessment test score was in favor of the calisthenics training group (P = .02). A low-volume WBVT program resulted in significantly and clinically relevant larger improvements in exercise capacity compared with calisthenics exercises in subjects with mild to severe COPD. (ClinicalTrials.gov registration DRKS9706.). Copyright © 2017 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  8. Mental fatigue does not affect maximal anaerobic exercise performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Kristy; Thompson, Kevin G; Keegan, Richard; Ball, Nick; Rattray, Ben

    2015-04-01

    Mental fatigue can negatively impact on submaximal endurance exercise and has been attributed to changes in perceived exertion rather than changes in physiological variables. The impact of mental fatigue on maximal anaerobic performance is, however, unclear. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to induce a state of mental fatigue to examine the effects on performance, physiological and perceptual variables from subsequent tests of power, strength and anaerobic capacity. Twelve participants took part in the single-blind, randomised, crossover design study. Mental fatigue was induced by 90 min of the computer-based Continuous Performance Task AX version. Control treatment consisted of 90 min of watching emotionally neutral documentaries. Participants consequently completed countermovement jump, isometric leg extension and a 3-min all-out cycling tests. Results of repeated measures analysis of variance and paired t tests revealed no difference in any performance or physiological variable. Rating of perceived exertion tended to be greater when mentally fatigued (mental fatigue = 19 ± 1 vs control = 18 ± 1, p = 0.096, [Formula: see text] = .232) and intrinsic motivation reduced (mental fatigue = 11 ± 4 vs control = 13 ± 6, p = 0.063, d = 0.597) in the mental fatigue condition. Near identical responses in performance and physiological parameters between mental fatigue and control conditions suggest that peripheral mechanisms primarily regulate maximal anaerobic exercise. Whereas mental fatigue can negatively impact submaximal endurance exercise, it appears that explosive power, voluntary maximal strength and anaerobic work capacity are unaffected.

  9. Maximal exercise capacity is related to cardiovascular structure in patients with longstanding hypertension. A LIFE substudy. Losartan Intervention For Endpoint-Reduction in Hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, M H; Wachtell, K; Hermann, K L

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular hypertrophy and remodeling in patients with never-treated hypertension has been associated with impaired exercise capacity, but whether this relationship remains in patients with longstanding hypertension and target organ damage is less elucidated. METHODS: In 43 unmedi...

  10. Onset of exercise and diet program in obese women: metabolic and anorexigenic responses related to weight loss and physical capacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desgorces, F D; Le Page, C; Police, C; Neveux, N; Cottart, C H; Blanc, M C; Raison, J; Toussaint, J F; Noirez, P

    2015-06-01

    Perturbations of energy balance induce compensatory processes that may alter expected weight loss. In obese patients, our aim was to investigate the relationships that occurred between fasting plasma concentrations of anorexigenic peptides and metabolic parameters, appetite, physical capacity, and weight loss in the 5 first days of a program associating exercise and caloric reduction. Thirteen obese women were monitored from day 1 to day 5 with 2 exercise sessions in day 2 and day 4. We measured, in a fasted state, changes in body weight, hunger ratings, and plasma concentrations of fatty acids, triglycerides, leptin, insulin, amylin, peptide YY, and insulin-resistance index. Physical performance was assessed by a 6-min walking test. The program resulted in significantly reduced body weight (0.75±0.4 kg; p=0.001), of plasma concentrations of triglycerides, insulin, amylin, peptide YY, and the insulin-resistance index, and also increased fatty acids (pweight loss (r(2)=0.65, 0.57, 0.55; pweight loss, improved lipid profile, and decreased insulin resistance while hunger ratings increased. Subjects with higher physical capacity lost more weight, presented higher increases in fatty acids and lower changes of leptin and insulin concentrations suggesting a better metabolic flexibility. To reduce the compensatory responses that can occur with energy imbalances, our study supports to account for individual activity level before prescribing weight-loss program associating diet and exercise. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. The relationship of aerobic capacity, anaerobic peak power and experience to performance in in CrossFit exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Bellar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available CrossFit is becoming increasingly popular as a method to increase fitness and as a competitive sport in both the Unites States and Europe. However, little research on this mode of exercise has been performed to date. The purpose of the present investigation involving experienced CrossFit athletes and naïve healthy young men was to investigate the relationship of aerobic capacity and anaerobic power to performance in two representative CrossFit workouts: the first workout was 12 minutes in duration, and the second was based on the total time to complete the prescribed exercise. The participants were 32 healthy adult males, who were either naïve to CrossFit exercise or had competed in CrossFit competitions. Linear regression was undertaken to predict performance on the first workout (time with age, group (naïve or CrossFit athlete, VO 2 max and anaerobic power, which were all significant predictors (p<0.05 in the model. The second workout (repetitions, when examined similarly using regression, only resulted in CrossFit experience as a significant predictor (p<0.05. The results of the study suggest that a history of participation in CrossFit competition is a key component of performance in CrossFit workouts which are representative of those performed in CrossFit, and that, in at least one these workouts, aerobic capacity and anaerobic power are associated with success.

  12. The relationship of aerobic capacity, anaerobic peak power and experience to performance in CrossFit exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellar, D; Hatchett, A; Judge, L W; Breaux, M E; Marcus, L

    2015-11-01

    CrossFit is becoming increasingly popular as a method to increase fitness and as a competitive sport in both the Unites States and Europe. However, little research on this mode of exercise has been performed to date. The purpose of the present investigation involving experienced CrossFit athletes and naïve healthy young men was to investigate the relationship of aerobic capacity and anaerobic power to performance in two representative CrossFit workouts: the first workout was 12 minutes in duration, and the second was based on the total time to complete the prescribed exercise. The participants were 32 healthy adult males, who were either naïve to CrossFit exercise or had competed in CrossFit competitions. Linear regression was undertaken to predict performance on the first workout (time) with age, group (naïve or CrossFit athlete), VO2max and anaerobic power, which were all significant predictors (p CrossFit experience as a significant predictor (p CrossFit competition is a key component of performance in CrossFit workouts which are representative of those performed in CrossFit, and that, in at least one these workouts, aerobic capacity and anaerobic power are associated with success.

  13. Effects of caffeine on endurance capacity and psychological state in young females and males exercising in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suvi, Silva; Timpmann, Saima; Tamm, Maria; Aedma, Martin; Kreegipuu, Kairi; Ööpik, Vahur

    2017-01-01

    Acute caffeine ingestion is considered effective in improving endurance capacity and psychological state. However, current knowledge is based on the findings of studies that have been conducted on male subjects mainly in temperate environmental conditions, but some physiological and psychological effects of caffeine differ between the sexes. The purpose of this study was to compare the physical performance and psychological effects of caffeine in young women and men exercising in the heat. Thirteen male and 10 female students completed 2 constant-load walks (60% of thermoneutral peak oxygen consumption on a treadmill until volitional exhaustion) in a hot-dry environment (air temperature, 42 °C; relative humidity, 20%) after caffeine (6 mg·kg -1 ) and placebo (wheat flour) ingestion in a double-blind, randomly assigned, crossover manner. Caffeine, compared with placebo, induced greater increases (p Caffeine decreased (p caffeine was associated with a shorter time to exhaustion. In conclusion, acute caffeine ingestion increases HR and blood lactate levels during exercise in the heat, but it has no impact on thermoregulation or endurance capacity in either gender. Under exercise-heat stress, caffeine reduces ratings of perceived exertion and fatigue in males but not in females.

  14. Maximal heart rate does not limit cardiovascular capacity in healthy humans: insight from right atrial pacing during maximal exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munch, G D W; Svendsen, J H; Damsgaard, R; Secher, N H; González-Alonso, J; Mortensen, S P

    2014-01-15

    In humans, maximal aerobic power (VO2 max ) is associated with a plateau in cardiac output (Q), but the mechanisms regulating the interplay between maximal heart rate (HRmax) and stroke volume (SV) are unclear. To evaluate the effect of tachycardia and elevations in HRmax on cardiovascular function and capacity during maximal exercise in healthy humans, 12 young male cyclists performed incremental cycling and one-legged knee-extensor exercise (KEE) to exhaustion with and without right atrial pacing to increase HR. During control cycling, Q and leg blood flow increased up to 85% of maximal workload (WLmax) and remained unchanged until exhaustion. SV initially increased, plateaued and then decreased before exhaustion (P rate pressure product and RAP (P heart can be paced to a higher HR than observed during maximal exercise, suggesting that HRmax and myocardial work capacity do not limit VO2 max in healthy individuals. A limited left ventricular filling and possibly altered contractility reduce SV during atrial pacing, whereas a plateau in LVFP appears to restrict Q close to VO2 max .

  15. The Effect of Colostrum along with Aerobic and Anaerobic Exercise on Lipid Peroxidation and Total Antioxidant Capacity of Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mogharnasi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: The consumption of food supplements in order to eliminate oxidative damages induced by exercise are common among athletes. Previous studies have shown that bovine colostrum has antioxidant properties, but no study has ever been done to evaluate its effectiveness on Oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity. The aim of study was to investigate the effects of bovine colostrum along with aerobic and anaerobic exercise on Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant capacity in male Wistar rats.   Methods: In the present experimental study, 48 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups (control, colostrum supplement, aerobic exercise, anaerobic exercise, colostrum supplements and aerobic exercise, colostrum supplements and anaerobic exercise. Colostrum group received daily for ten weeks dosing 300 mg /kg bovine colostrum powder orally. Exercising groups worked out three times a week for a period of 10 weeks on a custom-made treadmill for rodents. Blood samples were taken before and 24 hours after the last exercise session on an empty stomach. Data were analyzed using Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests, One Way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey at α<0.05.   Results: The plasma levels of oxidative stress index (MDA in all groups except colostrum supplement and anaerobic exercise compared with the control group was significantly reduced (p<0.05. The antioxidant capacity in all groups except anaerobic exercise group compared with the control group was significant increased (p<0.05.   Conclusions: The results indicated that colostrum supplementation with ten weeks of aerobic exercise had better effect on the control of oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity compared to anaerobic exercise.    

  16. Systematic review: Carbohydrate supplementation on exercise performance or capacity of varying durations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stellingwerff, Trent; Cox, Gregory R

    2014-09-01

    This systematic review examines the efficacy of carbohydrate (CHO) supplementation on exercise performance of varying durations. Included studies utilized an all-out or endurance-based exercise protocol (no team-based performance studies) and featured randomized interventions and placebo (water-only) trial for comparison against exclusively CHO trials (no other ingredients). Of the 61 included published performance studies (n = 679 subjects), 82% showed statistically significant performance benefits (n = 50 studies), with 18% showing no change compared with placebo. There was a significant (p = 0.0036) correlative relationship between increasing total exercise time and the subsequent percent increase in performance with CHO intake versus placebo. While not mutually exclusive, the primary mechanism(s) for performance enhancement likely differs depending on the duration of the exercise. In short duration exercise situations (∼1 h), oral receptor exposure to CHO, via either mouthwash or oral consumption (with enough oral contact time), which then stimulates the pleasure and reward centers of the brain, provide a central nervous system-based mechanism for enhanced performance. Thus, the type and (or) amount of CHO and its ability to be absorbed and oxidized appear completely irrelevant to enhancing performance in short duration exercise situations. For longer duration exercise (>2 h), where muscle glycogen stores are stressed, the primary mechanism by which carbohydrate supplementation enhances performance is via high rates of CHO delivery (>90 g/h), resulting in high rates of CHO oxidation. Use of multiple transportable carbohydrates (glucose:fructose) are beneficial in prolonged exercise, although individual recommendations for athletes should be tailored according to each athlete's individual tolerance.

  17. Tissue Taurine Depletion Alters Metabolic Response to Exercise and Reduces Running Capacity in Mice

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    Takashi Ito

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Taurine is a sulfur-containing amino acid found in very high concentration in skeletal muscle. Taurine deficient mice engineered by knocking out the taurine transporter gene exhibit skeletal muscle wasting, structural defects, and exercise intolerance. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism underlying the development of metabolic abnormalities and exercise intolerance in muscle of the TauTKO phenotype. Running speed and endurance time of TauTKO mice were lower than those of control mice. Blood lactate level was elevated by >3-fold during treadmill running in TauTKO mice but remained largely unaltered by exercise in WT mice. Blood glucose was cleared faster during treadmill running in TauTKO mice than WT mice. AMP-activated kinase (AMPK β-2 subunit was reduced in TauTKO muscle concomitant with a reduction in α1 and α2 subunits of AMPK. The level of PPARα and its targets, Gpx3, Cpt2, and Echs1, were also decreased in TauTKO muscle. Collectively, taurine depletion impairs metabolic adaptation to exercise in skeletal muscle, a phenomenon associated with a downregulation of AMPK and diminished NADH utilization by the mitochondrial respiratory chain. These findings suggest a crucial role of taurine in regulating energy metabolism in skeletal muscle of exercising TauTKO mice, changes that contribute to impaired exercise endurance.

  18. Effects of blood transfusion on exercise capacity in thalassemia major patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetto, Daniela; Rao, Carmelo Massimo; Cefalù, Claudia; Aguglia, Demetrio Oreste; Cattadori, Gaia; D'Ascola, Domenico Giuseppe; Benedetto, Frank Antonio; Agostoni, Piergiuseppe; Sciomer, Susanna

    2015-01-01

    Anemia has an important role in exercise performance. However, the direct link between rapid changes of hemoglobin and exercise performance is still unknown.To find out more on this topic, we studied 18 beta-thalassemia major patients free of relevant cardiac dysfunction (age 33.5±7.2 years,males = 10). Patients performed a maximal cardiopulmolmonary exercise test (cycloergometer, personalized ramp protocol, breath-by-breath measurements of expired gases) before and the day after blood transfusion (500 cc of red cell concentrates). After blood transfusion, hemoglobin increased from 10.5±0.8 g/dL to 12.1±1.2 (panaerobic threshold from 965 to 1024mL/min (pexercise or at anaerobic threshold. Similarly, no relevant changes were observed in ventilation efficiency, as evaluated by the ventilation vs. carbon dioxide production relationship, or in O2 delivery to the periphery as analyzed by the VO2 vs. workload relationship. The relationship between hemoglobin and VO2 changes showed, for each g/dL of hemoglobin increase, a VO2 increase = 82.5 mL/min and 35 mL/min, at peak exercise and at anaerobic threshold, respectively. In beta-thalassemia major patients, an acute albeit partial anemia correction by blood transfusion determinates a relevant increase of exercise performance, observed both at peak exercise and at anaerobic threshold.

  19. Neuromuscular function of the quadriceps muscle during isometric maximal, submaximal and submaximal fatiguing voluntary contractions in knee osteoarthrosis patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anett Mau-Moeller

    and neuromuscular activation, but also with an impaired position and torque control at submaximal torque levels, an altered EMG-torque relationship and a higher performance fatigability of the quadriceps muscle. It is recommended that the rehabilitation includes strengthening and fatiguing exercises at maximal and submaximal force levels.

  20. Impact of anaemia on lung function and exercise capacity in patients with stable severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jian; Zheng, Cong; Xiao, Qiang; Gong, Sugang; Zhao, Qinhua; Wang, Lan; He, Jing; Yang, Wenlan; Shi, Xue; Sun, Xingguo; Liu, Jinming

    2015-10-08

    This study intended to search for potential correlations between anaemia in patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; GOLD stage III) and pulmonary function at rest, exercise capacity as well as ventilatory efficiency, using pulmonary function test (PFT) and cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET). The study was undertaken at Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital, a tertiary-level centre affiliated to Tongji University. It caters to a large population base within Shanghai and referrals from centres in other cities as well. 157 Chinese patients with stable severe COPD were divided into 2 groups: the anaemia group (haemoglobin (Hb) 0.05). (2) Peak Load, Peak oxygen uptake (VO2), Peak VO2%pred, Peak VO2/kg, Peak O2 pulse and the ratio of VO2 increase to WR increase (ΔVO2/ΔWR) were significantly lower in the anaemia group (p0.05). (3) A strong positive correlation was found between Hb concentration and Peak VO2 in patients with anaemia (r=0.702, p<0.01). Anaemia has a negative impact on gas exchange and exercise tolerance during exercise in patients with severe COPD. The decrease in amplitude of Hb levels is related to the quantity of oxygen uptake. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. Effect of Beta-Blocker Therapy, Maximal Heart Rate, and Exercise Capacity During Stress Testing on Long-Term Survival (from The Henry Ford Exercise Testing Project).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Rupert K; Al-Mallah, Mouaz H; Whelton, Seamus P; Michos, Erin D; Blumenthal, Roger S; Ehrman, Jonathan K; Brawner, Clinton A; Keteyian, Steven J; Blaha, Michael J

    2016-12-01

    Whether lower heart rate thresholds (defined as the percentage of age-predicted maximal heart rate achieved, or ppMHR) should be used to determine chronotropic incompetence in patients on beta-blocker therapy (BBT) remains unclear. In this retrospective cohort study, we analyzed 64,549 adults without congestive heart failure or atrial fibrillation (54 ± 13 years old, 46% women, 29% black) who underwent clinician-referred exercise stress testing at a single health care system in Detroit, Michigan from 1991 to 2009, with median follow-up of 10.6 years for all-cause mortality (interquartile range 7.7 to 14.7 years). Using Cox regression models, we assessed the effect of BBT, ppMHR, and estimated exercise capacity on mortality, with adjustment for demographic data, medical history, pertinent medications, and propensity to be on BBT. There were 9,259 deaths during follow-up. BBT was associated with an 8% lower adjusted achieved ppMHR (91% in no BBT vs 83% in BBT). ppMHR was inversely associated with all-cause mortality but with significant attenuation by BBT (per 10% ppMHR HR: no BBT: 0.80 [0.78 to 0.82] vs BBT: 0.89 [0.87 to 0.92]). Patients on BBT who achieved 65% ppMHR had a similar adjusted mortality rate as those not on BBT who achieved 85% ppMHR (p >0.05). Estimated exercise capacity further attenuated the prognostic value of ppMHR (per-10%-ppMHR HR: no BBT: 0.88 [0.86 to 0.90] vs BBT: 0.95 [0.93 to 0.98]). In conclusion, the prognostic value of ppMHR was significantly attenuated by BBT. For patients on BBT, a lower threshold of 65% ppMHR may be considered for determining worsened prognosis. Estimated exercise capacity further diminished the prognostic value of ppMHR particularly in patients on BBT. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. [The effect of Tai-Chi-Qui-Gong exercises on patients' pulmonary function, exercise capacity, and quality of life after lobectomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jong, Shwu-Yuan; Fang, Ya-Yun; Chao, Yann-Fen

    2004-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of Tai-Chi-Qui-Gong (TCQG) practice on patients' pulmonary function, activity capacity, and quality of life after lobectomy. Subjects admitted at a chest surgical ward of a medical center in Taipei city were included voluntarily after signing informed consents. The first 20 subjects were assigned to the control group, and the next 20 were assigned to the experimental group. Subjects in the experimental group received a training class on 10 motions of TCQG two days before surgery. They began to practice the TCQG exercises twice per day from the first postoperative day. They started with three motions on the first day, increasing to 10 on the fifth day. The control group received standard post-lobectomy care, which did not include the TCQG exercises. All subjects received measures on pulmonary function and six-minutes walk distance (6MWD) two days prior to the operation, as well as one week, and one month after the operation. Quality of life was measured two days before the operation and one month after the operation. The major statistical procedures applied in data management included: Chi-square, two-way ANOVA, independent-T test, and repeated-measures ANOVA. The p value level of < .05 was used as the significant level. The results indicated that subjects in the experimental group had significant improvement in their tidal volume and 6MWD after lobectomy, while subjects in the control group did not. The 6MWD of the subjects in the experimental group reverted to the preoperative status at the end of the first week, and was even better one month later. The postoperative quality of life of the subjects in the experimental group was significantly better than that of in the control group. These findings indicate that 10 motions of TCQG exercise were effective in improving pulmonary function, activity capacity, and quality of life of patients after lobectomy.

  3. High Exercise Capacity Attenuates the Risk of Early Mortality After a First Myocardial Infarction: The Henry Ford Exercise Testing (FIT) Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaya, Gabriel E; Al-Mallah, Mouaz H; Hung, Rupert K; Nasir, Khurram; Blumenthal, Roger S; Ehrman, Jonathan K; Keteyian, Steven J; Brawner, Clinton A; Qureshi, Waqas T; Blaha, Michael J

    2016-02-01

    To examine the effect of objectively measured exercise capacity (EC) on early mortality (EM) after a first myocardial infarction (MI). This retrospective cohort study included 2061 patients without a history of MI (mean age, 62±12 years; 38% [n=790] women; 56% [n=1153] white) who underwent clinical treadmill stress testing in the Henry Ford Health System from January 1, 1991, through May 31, 2009, and suffered MI during follow-up (MI event proportion, 3.4%; mean time from the exercise test to MI, 6.1±4.3 years). Exercise capacity was categorized on the basis of peak metabolic equivalents (METs) achieved: less than 6, 6 to 9, 10 to 11, and 12 or more METs. Early mortality was defined as all-cause mortality within 28, 90, or 365 days of MI. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to assess the effect of EC on the risk of mortality at each time point post-MI adjusting for baseline demographic characteristics, cardiovascular risk factors, medication use, indication for stress testing, and year of MI. The 28-day EM rate was 10.6% overall, and 13.9%, 10.7%, 6.9%, and 6.0% in the less than 6, 6 to 9, 10 to 11, and 12 or more METs categories, respectively (Pmortality across all time points (28 days: odds ratio [OR], 0.92; 95% CI, 0.87-0.98; P=.006; 90 days: OR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.86-0.95; P<.001; 365 days: OR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.87-0.94; P<.001). Higher baseline EC was independently associated with a lower risk of early death after a first MI. Copyright © 2016 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Exercise capacity and blood pressure associations with left ventricular mass in prehypertensive individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkinos, Peter; Pittaras, Andreas; Narayan, Puneet; Faselis, Charles; Singh, Steven; Manolis, Athanasios

    2007-01-01

    Prehypertensive individuals are at increased risk for developing hypertension and cardiovascular disease compared with those with normal blood pressure. Early compromises in left ventricular structure may explain part of the increased risk. We assessed echocardiographic and exercise parameters in prehypertensive individuals (n=790) to determine associations between exercise blood pressure and left ventricular structure. The exercise systolic blood pressure at 5 metabolic equivalents (METs) and the change in blood pressure from rest to 5 METs were the strongest predictors of left ventricular hypertrophy. We identified the systolic blood pressure of 150 mm Hg at the exercise levels of 5 METs as the threshold for left ventricular hypertrophy. There was a 4-fold increase in the likelihood for left ventricular hypertrophy for every 10-mm Hg increment in systolic blood pressure beyond this threshold (OR: 1.15; 95% CI: 1.12 to 1.18). There was also a 42% reduction in the risk for left ventricular hypertrophy for every 1 MET increase in the workload (OR: 0.58; Pfit, moderate, and high-fit individuals exhibited significantly lower systolic blood pressure at an exercise workload of 5 METs (155+/-14 versus 146+/-10 versus 144+/-10; Phypertrophy (48.3% versus 18.7% versus 21.6%; Pfitness achieved by moderate intensity physical activity can improve hemodynamics and cardiac performance in prehypertensive individuals and reduce the work of the left ventricle, ultimately resulting in lower left ventricular mass.

  5. Physical Exercise Improves Total Antioxidant Capacity and Gene Expression in Rat Hippocampal Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzoni, F; Federighi, G; Fusi, J; Agosta, V; Cerri, E; Banducci, R; Petrocchi, A; Bernardi, R; Innocenti, A; Pruneti, C; Daniele, S; Pellegrini, S; Martini, C; Scuri, R; Galetta, F

    2017-07-01

    Exercise may exert beneficial effects on cognitive functions and play an important role in the prevention of neurodegenerative diseases. Such effects seem to be mediated by changes in anti-oxidative status, but limited information is available on the nature of molecular pathways supporting the antioxidant effects of exercise in the brain. In this study 3-5-month-old male Wistar albino rats were subjected to three times/week moderate intensity exercise on a rodent treadmill for a period of 6 weeks. The tissue antioxidant activity towards various reactive oxygen species (ROS) was determined in the hippocampus. In addition, to identify the molecular pathways that may be involved in ROS metabolism, the expression of nerve growth factor (NGF) and sirtuins (SIRT1 and SIRT3) were measured. Our results showed a higher antioxidant activity in the hippocampus of physically trained rats compared to sedentary controls. Furthermore, exercise induced an up-regulation of NGF, possibly related to an improved redox balance in the hippocampus. These results suggest that physical exercise might prevent age-induced oxidative damage in the hippocampus.

  6. Respiratory resistance and reactance in adults with sickle cell anemia: Correlation with functional exercise capacity and diagnostic use.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cirlene de Lima Marinho

    Full Text Available The improvement in sickle cell anemia (SCA care resulted in the emergence of a large population of adults living with this disease. The mechanisms of lung injury in this new population are largely unknown. The forced oscillation technique (FOT represents the current state-of-the-art in the assessment of lung function. The present work uses the FOT to improve our knowledge about the respiratory abnormalities in SCA, evaluates the associations of FOT with the functional exercise capacity and investigates the early detection of respiratory abnormalities.Spirometric classification of restrictive abnormalities resulted in three categories: controls (n = 23, patients with a normal exam (n = 21 and presenting pulmonary restriction (n = 24. FOT analysis showed that, besides restrictive changes (reduced compliance; p<0.001, there is also an increase in respiratory resistance (p<0.001 and ventilation heterogeneity (p<0.01. FOT parameters are associated with functional exercise capacity (R = -0.38, pulmonary diffusion (R = 0.66, respiratory muscle performance (R = 0.41, pulmonary volumes (R = 0.56 and airway obstruction (R = 0.54. The diagnostic accuracy was evaluated by investigating the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC. A combination of FOT and machine learning (ML classifiers showed adequate diagnostic accuracy in the detection of early respiratory abnormalities (AUC = 0.82.In this study, the use of FOT showed that adults with SCA develop a mixed pattern of respiratory disease. Changes in FOT parameters are associated with functional exercise capacity decline, abnormal pulmonary mechanics and diffusion. FOT associated with ML methods accurately diagnosed early respiratory abnormalities. This suggested the potential utility of the FOT and ML clinical decision support systems in the identification of respiratory abnormalities in patients with SCA.

  7. Exercise stress testing. An overview of current guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lear, S A; Brozic, A; Myers, J N; Ignaszewski, A

    1999-05-01

    Exercise stress testing (ET) is an inexpensive noninvasive tool that provides valuable cardiopulmonary information in healthy and diseased populations. It is most commonly used for diagnosing coronary artery disease (CAD) and developing appropriate exercise prescriptions (EP). With its widespread use and application, it is imperative that safe and appropriate guidelines and procedures are used, as there are a number of risks associated with testing in a population with or suspected of having CAD. The focus should be on the patient's safety: personnel must be properly trained and aware of all emergency procedures, contra-indications for ET and indications for test termination must be strictly adhered to. Three main types of testing are prevalent: submaximal, maximal and maximal utilising gas exchange. The maximal test is most commonly used, and the submaximal is appropriate for hospitalised patients. Gas exchange data is essential when assessing congestive heart failure and timing for heart transplantation. ET is commonly performed using a treadmill or a bicycle ergometer. The treadmill provides a more familiar exercise modality and has been shown to have greater diagnostic sensitivity than the bicycle ergometer; it is, however, more expensive and requires more space in the testing room. The bicycle ergometer is more appropriate for those individuals who are severely obese or have problems with extended periods of walking. Regardless of the modality used, an appropriate exercise protocol should be used. In North America, the Bruce protocol is the most common. However, the Bruce protocol, and others that estimate exercise capacity based on equations, tend to overestimate exercise capacity. They may be too demanding for those with limited exercise capacity, and too long for those with high exercise capacity. For these people, an exercise protocol that reaches maximal capacity in 8 to 12 minutes using smaller increments in workload should be considered. Once completed

  8. Strength, endurance, and work capacity after muscle strengthening exercise in postpolio subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agre, J C; Rodriquez, A A; Franke, T M

    1997-07-01

    To determine whether a 12-week home quadriceps muscle strengthening exercise program would increase muscle strength, isometric endurance, and tension time index (TTI) in postpolio syndrome subjects without adversely affecting the surviving motor units or the muscle. A longitudinal study to investigate the effect of a 12-week exercise program on neuromuscular function and electromyographic variables. Neuromuscular laboratory of a university hospital. Seven subjects were recruited from a cohort of 12 subjects who had participated in a previous exercise study. All subjects had greater than antigravity strength of the quadriceps. Upon completion of a postpolio questionnaire, all acknowledged common postpolio syndrome symptoms such as new fatigue, pain, and weakness; 6 of the 7 acknowledged new strength decline. On Mondays and Thursdays subjects performed three sets of four maximal isometric contractions of the quadriceps held for 5 seconds each. On Tuesdays and Fridays subjects performed three sets of 12 dynamic knee extension exercises with ankle weights. Neuromuscular variables of the quadriceps muscles were measured at the beginning and completion of the exercise program and included: isokinetic peak torque (ISOKPT, at 60 degrees/sec angular velocity) and total work performed of four contractions (ISOKTW), isometric peak torque (MVC), endurance (EDUR, time subject could hold isometric contraction at 40% of the initial MVC), isometric tension time index (TTI, product of endurance time and torque at 40% of MVC), and initial and final ankle weight (WGT, kg) lifted. Electromyographic variables included: fiber density (FD), jitter (MCD), and blocking (BLK) from single fiber assessment and median macro amplitude (MACRO). Serum creatine kinase (CK) was also measured initially and at 4-week intervals throughout the study. The following variables significantly (p .05) change: FD, MCD, BLK, MACRO, and CK. This home exercise program significantly increased strength, endurance

  9. Impact of Exercise Training in Aerobic Capacity and Pulmonary Function in Children and Adolescents After Congenital Heart Disease Surgery: A Systematic Review with Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes-Neto, Mansueto; Saquetto, Micheli Bernardone; da Silva e Silva, Cassio Magalhães; Conceição, Cristiano Sena; Carvalho, Vitor Oliveira

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the effects of exercise training on aerobic capacity and pulmonary function in children and adolescents after congenital heart disease surgery. We searched MEDLINE, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, EMBASE, (from the earliest date available to January 2015) for controlled trials that evaluated the effects of exercise training on aerobic capacity and pulmonary function (forced expiratory volume in 1 s and forced vital capacity) in children and adolescents after congenital heart disease surgery. Weighted mean differences and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated,, and heterogeneity was assessed using the I (2) test. Eight trials (n = 292) met the study criteria. The results suggested that exercise training compared with control had a positive impact on peak VO2. Exercise training resulted in improvement in peak VO2 weighted mean difference (3.68 mL kg(-1) min(-1), 95 % CI 1.58-5.78). The improvement in forced expiratory volume in 1 s and forced vital capacity after exercise training was not significant. Exercise training may improve peak VO2 in children and adolescents after congenital heart disease surgery and should be considered for inclusion in cardiac rehabilitation. Further larger randomized controlled trials are urgently needed to investigate different types of exercise and its effects on the quality of life.

  10. Effect of music on submaximal cycling

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Boutcher SH, Trenske M. The effects of sensory deprivation and music on perceived exertion and affect during exercise. Journal of Sport and Exercise. Psychology 1990; 12: 167-76. 4. Grant S, Aitchison T, Henderson E, et al. A comparison of the reproduc- ibility and the sensitivity to change of visual analogue scales, Borg ...

  11. Low dose of dichloroacetate infusion reduces blood lactate after submaximal exercise in horses Baixa dose de infusão de dicloroacetato reduz o lactato sanguíneo após exercício submáximo em cavalos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme C. Ferraz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The acute administration of an indirect activator of the enzyme pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH in human athletes causes a reduction in blood lactate level during and after exercise. A single IV dose (2.5m.kg-1 of dichloroacetate (DCA was administered before a submaximal incremental exercise test (IET with five velocity steps, from 5.0 m.s-1 for 1 min to 6.0, 6.5, 7.0 and 7.5m.s-1 every 30s in four untrained mares. The blood collections were done in the period after exercise, at times 1, 3, 5, 10, 15 and 20 min. Blood lactate and glucose (mM were determined electro-enzymatically utilizing a YSI 2300 automated analyzer. There was a 15.3% decrease in mean total blood lactate determined from the values obtained at all assessment times in both trials after the exercise. There was a decrease in blood lactate 1, 3, 5, 10, 15 and 20 min after exercise for the mares that received prior DCA treatment, with respective mean values of 6.31±0.90 vs 5.81±0.50, 6.45±1.19 vs 5.58±1.06, 6.07±1.56 vs 5.26±1.12, 4.88±1.61 vs 3.95±1.00, 3.66±1.41 vs 2.86±0.75 and 2.75±0.51 vs 2.04±0.30. There was no difference in glucose concentrations. By means of linear regression analysis, V140, V160, V180 and V200 were determined (velocity at which the rate heart is 140, 160, 180, and 200 beats/minute, respectively. The velocities related to heart rate did not differ, indicating that there was no ergogenic effect, but prior administration of a relatively low dose of DCA in mares reduced lactatemia after an IET.A administração aguda de um ativador indireto da enzima piruvato desidrogenase (PD em atletas da espécie humana provoca redução na concentração de lactato sanguíneo durante e após exercício. Uma dose única, intravenosa de 2.5m.kg-1 de dicloroacetato (DCA foi administrada antes de um exercício teste incremental submáximo (ETI com cinco etapas de velocidade sendo 5,0 ms-1 por 1 minuto e 6,0, 6,5, 7,0, e 7,5 ms-1 a cada 30 segundos em quatro

  12. Exercise capacity, muscle strength, and fatigue in sarcoidosis : A follow-up study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcellis, R.G.; Lenssen, A.F.; Kleynen, S.; de Vries, J.; Drent, M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine changes in the prevalence of exercise intolerance, reduced muscle strength, and fatigue and the changes in these parameters in individual patients during a 2-year follow-up study. Methods Ninety sarcoidosis patients (62 males and 28 females; mean age:

  13. A systematic review of the effects of bronchodilators on exercise capacity in patients with COPD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liesker, JJW; Wijkstra, PJ; Ten Hacken, NHT; Koeter, GH; Postma, DS; Kerstjens, HAM

    One of the major goals of bronchodilator therapy in patients with COPD is to decrease airflow limitation in the airways and, as a consequence, improve dyspnea and exercise tolerance. The focus of this systematic review is to assess the effects of treatment with beta-agonists, anticholinergics, and

  14. Time course of change in vasodilator function and capacity in response to exercise training in humans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinken, T.M.; Thijssen, D.H.J.; Black, M.A.; Cable, N.T.; Green, D.J.

    2008-01-01

    Studies of the impact of exercise training on arterial adaptation in healthy subjects have produced disparate results. It is possible that some studies failed to detect changes because functional and structural adaptations follow a different time course and may therefore not be detected at discrete

  15. Effects of the Nordic Hamstring exercise on sprint capacity in male football players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ishøi, Lasse; Hölmich, Per; Aagaard, Per

    2018-01-01

    This assessor-blinded, randomized controlled superiority trial investigated the efficacy of the 10-week Nordic Hamstring exercise (NHE) protocol on sprint performance in football players. Thirty-five amateur male players (age: 17-26 years) were randomized to a do-as-usual control group (CG; n = 17...

  16. Exercise capacity in children after total cavopulmonary connection: Lateral tunnel versus extracardiac conduit technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossers, S.S.; Helbing, W.A.; Duppen, N.; Kuipers, I.M.; Schokking, M.; Hazekamp, M.G.; Bogers, A.J.; Harkel, A.D. Ten; Takken, T.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In patients with univentricular heart disease, the total cavopulmonary connection (TCPC) is the preferred treatment. TCPC can be performed using the intra-atrial lateral tunnel (ILT) or extracardiac conduit (ECC) technique. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate exercise

  17. A Classroom Exercise to Examine the Trade-off between Mission Capacity and Life Cycle Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Keebom; Doerr, Kenneth H.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a classroom exercise, centered on a simulation that has been used for 4 years in an MBA program to help students develop an understanding of the trade-offs involved in managing capital assets in the public sector. Though often ignored in business schools, "mission" is a key criterion that must be considered when…

  18. Actual Versus Predicted Cardiovascular Demands in Submaximal Cycle Ergometer Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoehn, Amanda M; Mullenbach, Megan J; Fountaine, Charles J

    The Astrand-Rhyming cycle ergometer test (ARCET) is a commonly administered submaximal test for estimating aerobic capacity. Whereas typically utilized in clinical populations, the validity of the ARCET to predict VO 2max in a non-clinical population, especially female, is less clear. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of the ARCET in a sample of healthy and physically active college students. Subjects (13 females, 10 males) performed a maximal cycle ergometer test to volitional exhaustion to determine VO 2max . At least 48 hours later, subjects performed the ARCET protocol. Predicted VO 2max was calculated following the ARCET format using the age corrected factor. There was no significant difference (p=.045) between actual (41.0±7.97 ml/kg/min) and predicted VO 2max (40.3±7.58 ml/kg/min). When split for gender there was a significant difference between actual and predicted VO 2 for males, (45.1±7.74 vs. 42.7±8.26 ml/kg/min, p=0.029) but no significant difference observed for females, (37.9±6.9 vs. 38.5±6.77 ml/kg/min, p=0.675). The correlation between actual and predicted VO 2 was r=0.84, phealthy college population of both male and female subjects. Implications of this study suggest the ARCET can be used to assess aerobic capacity in both fitness and clinical settings where measurement via open-circuit spirometry is either unavailable or impractical.

  19. Comparative effects of bisoprolol and nitrendipine on exercise capacity in hypertensive patients with regular physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brion, R; Carré, F; Verdier, J C; Poncelet, P; Douard, H; Page, E; Amoretti, R; Gauthier, J; Ducardonnet, A; Gressin, V; Dubanchet, A

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term effects of administering bisoprolol compared with nitrendipine on the duration of the exercise tolerated by male and female patients, aged 18-65 years, having mild to moderate hypertension and taking regular exercise. In this double-blind, randomized prospective study, 96 patients (85 men and 11 women, 48+/-10 years) formed two groups: 49 in the bisoprolol group, and 47 in the nitrendipine group. After a washout period of 14 days, either 10 mg of bisoprolol or 20 mg of nitrendipine was given daily over a treatment period of 12 weeks. During the treatment period, the stability of the physical training was monitored weekly by using a questionnaire. The results of two maximal triangular exercise tolerance tests (ETTs) on an ergometric bicycle performed at D0 under placebo and at D84 under active treatment were compared. No statistical difference was observed between both groups, concerning age, gender, morphologic characteristics, resting cardiovascular parameters, or physical training. Both groups maintained the same training level throughout the study. No significant differences between the groups were noted for duration of ETT [D0 892+/-284 s, D84, 919+/-267 s (NS) vs. D0 929+/-290 s, D84 904+/-324 s (NS)], or maximal work load [D0 190+/-49 W, D84 197+/-48 W (NS) vs. D0 198+/-49 W, D84 196+/-55 W (NS)]. On the other hand, both groups differed in maximal systolic blood pressure [D0 239+/-24 mm Hg, D84 215+/-22 mm Hg (pperception of the maximal effort (Borg scale) was not significantly different in either of the groups (placebo vs. treatment). Overall, in a population of hypertensive patients taking regular exercise, long-term treatment with bisoprolol produced no significant changes in the duration of peak effort, maximal workload, or the effort perceived by the patients themselves. The effects of regular exercise were comparable in both groups (bisoprolol or nitrendipine). Because previous studies have shown that

  20. Genetic Influences on Physiological and Subjective Responses to an Aerobic Exercise Session among Sedentary Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hollis C. Karoly

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine whether genetic variants suggested by the literature to be associated with physiology and fitness phenotypes predicted differential physiological and subjective responses to a bout of aerobic exercise among inactive but otherwise healthy adults. Method. Participants completed a 30-minute submaximal aerobic exercise session. Measures of physiological and subjective responding were taken before, during, and after exercise. 14 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs that have been previously associated with various exercise phenotypes were tested for associations with physiological and subjective response to exercise phenotypes. Results. We found that two SNPs in the FTO gene (rs8044769 and rs3751812 were related to positive affect change during exercise. Two SNPs in the CREB1 gene (rs2253206 and 2360969 were related to change in temperature during exercise and with maximal oxygen capacity (VO2 max. The SLIT2 SNP rs1379659 and the FAM5C SNP rs1935881 were associated with norepinephrine change during exercise. Finally, the OPRM1 SNP rs1799971 was related to changes in norepinephrine, lactate, and rate of perceived exertion (RPE during exercise. Conclusion. Genetic factors influence both physiological and subjective responses to exercise. A better understanding of genetic factors underlying physiological and subjective responses to aerobic exercise has implications for development and potential tailoring of exercise interventions.

  1. Physical exercise modifies the functional capacity of elderly patients on hemodialysis

    OpenAIRE

    Marchesan, Moane; Krug, Rodrigo de Rosso; Silva,José Raphael Leandro da Costa e; BARBOSA,Aline Rodrigues; Rombaldi, Airton José

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Patients on hemodialysis (HD) improve functional capacity after physical training. However, little is discussed about these effects in elderly patients, since these are usually excluded of studies, due to their physical disabilities and other deficits. Objective To analyze the effects of aerobic and resistance training in the functional capacity of elderly patients submitted to HD. Methods Studied participants were 15 patients, of both genders, and aged over 60 years...

  2. Combination of sago and soy-protein supplementation during endurance cycling exercise and subsequent high-intensity endurance capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Asok Kumar; Rahaman, A Abdul; Singh, Rabindarjeet

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate whether a combination of sago and soy protein ingested during moderate-intensity cycling exercise can improve subsequent high-intensity endurance capacity compared with a carbohydrate in the form of sago and with a placebo. The participants were 8 male recreational cyclists with age, weight, and VO2max of 21.5 +/- 1.1 yr, 63.3 +/- 2.4 kg, and 39.9 +/- 1.1 ml . kg(-1) . min(-1), respectively. The design of the study was a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled crossover comprising 60 min of exercise on a cycle ergometer at 60% VO2max followed by a time-to-exhaustion ride at 90% VO2max. The sago feeding provided 60 g of carbohydrate, and the sago-soy combination provided 52.5 g of carbohydrate and 15 g of protein, both at 20-min intervals during exercise. Times to exhaustion for the placebo, sago, and sago-soy supplementations were 4.09 +/- 1.28, 5.49 +/- 1.20, and 7.53 +/- 2.02 min, respectively. Sago-soy supplementation increased endurance by 84% (44-140%; p sago, respectively. The plasma insulin response was elevated above that with placebo during sago and sago-soy supplementations. The authors conclude that a combination of sago and soy protein can delay fatigue during high-intensity cycling.

  3. Effect of thyme extract supplementation on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant capacity, PGC-1α content and endurance exercise performance in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khani, Mostafa; Motamedi, Pezhman; Dehkhoda, Mohammad Reza; Dabagh Nikukheslat, Saeed; Karimi, Pouran

    2017-01-01

    Athletes have a large extent of oxidant agent production. In the current study, we aimed to determine the influence of thyme extract on the endurance exercise performance, mitochondrial biogenesis, and antioxidant status in rats. Twenty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups receiving either normal drinking water (non-supplemented group, n  = 10) or thyme extract, 400 mg/kg, (supplemented group, n  = 10). Rats in both groups were subjected to endurance treadmill training (27 m/min, 10% grade, 60 min, and 5 days/week for 8 weeks). Finally, to determine the endurance capacity, time to exhaustion treadmill running at 36 m/min speed was assessed. At the end of the endurance capacity test, serum and soleus muscle samples were collected and their superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, as well as malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration were measured. Protein expression of PGC-1α, as a marker of mitochondrial biogenesis, was also determined in the soleus muscle tissue by immunoblotting assay. Findings revealed that the exhaustive running time in the treatment group was significantly ( p  thyme extract supplemented group (t 18  = 8.11, p  thyme supplementation significantly ( p  Thyme extract supplementation increased endurance exercise tolerance in intact animals, although decrease of oxidative stress and regulation of the PGC-1α protein expression are not considered as underlying molecular mechanisms.

  4. Atrial septal defect in adults: echocardiography and cardiopulmonary exercise capacity associated with hemodynamics before and after surgical closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchon, Elzbieta; Tracz, Wieslawa; Podolec, Piotr; Sadowski, Jerzy

    2005-10-01

    The study aimed to evaluate pre and postoperative echocardiographic data and exercise capacity in relation to age and hemodynamics in adults with atrial septal defect (ASD). Fifty-two subjects with ASD (mean age: 38.6+/-15 years) were enrolled. Echocardiography and cardiopulmonary exercise test were performed before and a year after surgery. Pre and postoperative data were analyzed for the entire group and then compared in terms of age: or=40 years, right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP): 30 mmHg and pulmonary to systemic flow ratio (Qp/Qs): or=2.5. After surgery right ventricle dimension decreased in all patients, although it remained significantly larger in patients over 40 years. There was a negative correlation between peak oxygen uptake and preoperative RVSP (r=-0.69, PExercise capacity improved irrespective of the age at surgery, preoperative RVSP and Qp/Qs, although it failed to normalize in patients with RVSP >30 mmHg. Adults with ASD benefit from surgical closure irrespective of the actual age at surgery. Patient's age at surgery and pulmonary hypertension crucially impact the results of surgical intervention. Early defect correction is therefore highly recommendable, specifically with a view to preventing the hemodynamic consequences of ASD.

  5. Does Whole-Body Vibration Improve the Functional Exercise Capacity of Subjects With COPD? A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardim, Adriane B; Marinho, Patrícia Em; Nascimento, Jasiel F; Fuzari, Helen Kb; Dornelas de Andrade, Armèle

    2016-11-01

    Whole-body vibration (WBV) is considered a type of physical activity based on the assumption that it results in an increase in muscle strength and performance and, therefore, may be a promising way to exercise patients with COPD. A comprehensive database search (PubMed/MEDLINE, LILACS, CINAHL, Web of Science, Scopus, and COCHRANE Library) for randomized trials, including original articles, that compared WBV groups versus control groups was conducted and studies were selected for comparison. The effect of WBV treatment was compared for minimum clinically important differences. The statistical heterogeneity among the studies was assessed using the I2 statistic; the results are expressed as percentages. Inconsistencies of up to 25% were considered low, those between 50 and 75% were considerate moderate, and those > 75% were considered high. Risk of bias was classified based on the Cochrane Collaboration tool, the meta-analysis was conducted using RevMan 5.3 software, and the level of evidence was assessed using the GRADE system. The primary outcome was functional exercise capacity. Secondary outcomes were quality of life, performance in activities of daily living, muscle strength of the lower limbs, and possible adverse effects assessed clinically or by subject reports. We included 4 articles involving 185 subjects for analysis. All subjects in the groups undergoing WBV showed improvement in distance walked in the 6-min walk test compared with the control group (57.85 m, 95% CI 16.36-99.33 m). Regarding the secondary end points, just one article reported improved quality of life and activities of daily living. The only article that assessed muscle strength found no difference between the groups. The quality of evidence for functional exercise capacity outcome was considered moderate. WBV seems to benefit subjects with COPD by improving their functional exercise capacity, without producing adverse effects. The quality of evidence is moderate, but the degree of

  6. Changes in pulmonary function test and cardio-pulmonary exercise capacity in COPD patients after lobar pulmonary resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobbio, Antonio; Chetta, Alfredo; Carbognani, Paolo; Internullo, Eveline; Verduri, Alessia; Sansebastiano, Giulianoezio; Rusca, Michele; Olivieri, Dario

    2005-11-01

    Pulmonary Function Tests (PFT) and Cardio-Pulmonary Exercise Testing (C-PET) are useful to evaluate operability in functionally compromised patients. Although modifications of PFT and C-PET after lung surgery have been widely explored, little information exists as to modifications of exercise capacity in COPD patients undergoing lung resection. We prospectively analyzed the changes in PFT and C-PET in patients with COPD after a pulmonary lobar resection. From January 2003 to March 2004 all patients scheduled for lung resection were considered for participation in the study protocol. Those patients with a preoperative diagnosis of COPD on PFT were explored through a C-PET. Only patients who had undergone a lobar pulmonary resection were subsequently considered; these patients had a new complete cardio-respiratory evaluation 3 months after surgery. The pre- and postoperative values compared were those of FEV1, TLC, DLCO, VO2max, and VE/VCO2. Data are expressed as mean +/- standard deviation (SD). Statistic evaluation was made using the Wilcoxon test. During this period 11 patients completed the study protocol. Ten patients underwent surgery for NSCLC and one for a pulmonary aspergilloma. Nine lobectomies and two bilobectomies were performed. In the study population, the preoperative mean value of FEV1 resulted as being 53% (SD+/-20) of the predicted mean value, that of TLC 120% (SD+/-35) and that of DLCO 65% (SD+/-27). The preoperative mean value of VO2max resulted as being 17.8 ml/Kg/min (SD+/-3.25) and mean VE/VCO2 resulted as being 35.7 (SD+/-4). Three months after surgery the measured mean value of FEV1 was 53% (SD+/-18), that of TLC was 99% (SD+/-24) and that of DLCO 52% (SD+/-18). The mean value of VO2max resulted as being 14.1 ml/Kg/min (SD+/-3.04) and that of VE/VCO2 was 42.5 (SD+/-12.8). Statistical analysis of PFT values showed that FEV1 and DLCO were not significantly modified (P > 0.05); in contrast, TLC had significantly decreased (P = 0.008). VO2max had

  7. VO2 kinetics of constant-load exercise following bed-rest-induced deconditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convertino, V. A.; Goldwater, D. J.; Sandler, H.

    1984-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the oxygen uptake kinetics during exercise and recovery may be changed by alterations in work intensity, prior exercise, muscle group involvement, ambient conditions, posture, disease state, and level of physical conditioning. However, the effects of detraining on oxygen uptake kinetics have not been determined. The present investigation has the objective to determine the effects of deconditioning following seven days of continuous head-down bed rest on changes in steady-state oxygen uptake, O2 deficit, and recovery oxygen uptake during the performance of constant-load exercise. The obtained results may provide support for previous proposals that submaximal oxygen uptake was significantly reduced following bed rest. The major finding was that bed-rest deconditioning resulted in a reduction of total O2 transport/utilization capacity during the transient phase of upright but not supine exercise.

  8. Effects of leg strength and bicycle ergometry exercise on cardiovascular deconditioning after 30-day head-down bed rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bin; Liu, Yusheng; Sun, Hongyi; Zhao, Dongming; Wang, Yue; Wu, Ping; Ni, Chengzhi

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine if the intermittent leg muscular strength exercise and bicycle ergometry exercise could attenuate cardiovascular deconditioning induced by prolonged -6° head-down bed rest (HDBR). Fifteen male subjects were randomly allocated into group A ( n=5, 30 days HDBR without exercise), group B ( n=5, 30 days HDBR with leg muscular strength exercise) and group C ( n=5, 30 days HDBR with bicycle ergometry exercise). The orthostatic tolerance (OT) was determined by +75°/20 min head-up tilt (HUT) test and the submaximal exercise capacity was determined by bicycle ergometry before and after HDBR. The results were as follows: (1) Compared with that before HDBR, OT time decreased dramatically by 57.6% ( pexercise time decreased significantly by 17.7% ( p0.77) in group C. (3) compared with that before HDBR, the changes of heart rate (HR) and blood pressure were slightly improved in group B and C, while deteriorated in group A during orthostatic test and exercise test after HDBR. The results indicate that leg muscular strength exercise and bicycle ergometry exercise could partially attenuate the cardiovascular deconditioning induced by 30 d HDBR, and the latter exercise training could fully provide the protection for the loss of exercise capacity.

  9. The impact of 100 hours of exercise and sleep deprivation on cognitive function and physical capacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Samuel J E; Anson, J Greg; Palmer, Craig D; Hellemans, Ien J; Cotter, James D

    2009-05-01

    In this study, we examined the effect of 96-125 h of competitive exercise on cognitive and physical performance. Cognitive performance was assessed using the Stroop test (n = 9) before, during, and after the 2003 Southern Traverse adventure race. Strength (MVC) and strength endurance (time to failure at 70% current MVC) of the knee extensor and elbow flexor muscles were assessed before and after racing. Changes in vertical jump (n = 24) and 30-s Wingate performance (n = 27) were assessed in a different group of athletes. Complex response times were affected by the race (16% slower), although not significantly so (P = 0.18), and were dependent on exercise intensity (less so at 50% peak power output after racing). Reduction of strength (P < 0.05) of the legs (17%) and arms (11%) was equivalent (P = 0.17). Reductions in strength endurance were inconsistent (legs 18%, P = 0.09; arms 13%, P = 0.40), but were equivalent between limbs (P = 0.80). Similar reductions were observed in jump height (-8 +/- 9%, P < 0.01) and Wingate peak power (-7 +/- 15%, P = 0.04), mean power (-7 +/- 11%, P < 0.01), and end power (-10 +/- 11%, P < 0.01). We concluded that: moderate-intensity exercise may help complex decision making during sustained stress; functional performance was modestly impacted, and the upper and lower limbs were affected similarly despite being used disproportionately.

  10. Effects of pulmonary rehabilitation on exercise capacity in patients with COPD: A number needed to treat study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Galeazzo Riario-Sforza

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Gian Galeazzo Riario-Sforza1, Cristoforo Incorvaia1, Fulvia Paterniti1, Laura Pessina1, Roberta Caligiuri1, Chiara Pravettoni1, Fabiano Di Marco2, Stefano Centanni21Pulmonary Rehabilitation, Istituti Clinici di Perfezionamento, Milan, Italy; 2Unit of Respiratory Medicine, University of Milan, San Paolo Hospital, Milan, ItalyBackground: Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR is recognized as an evidence-based treatment in improving dyspnea and quality of life in patients with COPD. We evaluated the number needed to treat (NNT to achieve an increase in physical capacity, as defined by a significant improvement in the six-minute walk test (6MWT in patients with COPD undergoing PR.Methods: The study enrolled 284 patients aged 41 to 86 years (mean age 69.4 years divided into two groups: a study group (222 patients undergoing a PR program, and a control group (62 patients treated only with drugs. The study group included patients with COPD divided in four subgroups according to GOLD stages.Results: In the study group, 142 out of 222 patients (64% had an increase of at least 54 m in the 6MWT following PR versus 8 out of 62 patients (13% in the control group after the same time interval. The NNT in the overall study group was 2; the same NNT was obtained in GOLD stages 2, 3, and 4, but was 8 in stage 1.Conclusions: PR is highly effective in improving the exercise capacity of patients with COPD, as demonstrated by a valuable NNT, with better results in patients with a more severe disease.Keywords: chronic obstructive lung disease, exercise capacity, number needed to treat, pulmonary rehabilitation, six-minute walk test

  11. Left atrial mechanics strongly predict functional capacity assessed by cardiopulmonary exercise testing in subjects without structural heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Luís; Mendes, Sofia Lázaro; Baptista, Rui; Teixeira, Rogério; Oliveira-Santos, Manuel; Ribeiro, Nelson; Coutinho, Rosa; Monteiro, Victor; Martins, Rui; Castro, Graça; Ferreira, Maria João; Pego, Mariano

    2017-05-01

    Left atrium function is essential for cardiovascular performance and is evaluable by two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography (2D-STE). Our aim was to determine how echocardiographic parameters interrelate with exercise capacity and ventilatory efficiency in subjects with no structural heart disease. Asymptomatic volunteers, in sinus rhythm and with normal biventricular size and function, were recruited from a community-based population. Individuals with moderate-to-severe valvular disease, pulmonary hypertension, and history of cardiac disease were excluded. We performed a transthoracic echocardiogram and assessed left atrial (LA) and left ventricular (LV) mechanics via 2D-STE. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing by treadmill took place immediately thereafter. Peak oxygen uptake (VO2) served as measure of functional capacity and ventilation/carbon dioxide output (VE/VCO2) slope as surrogate of ventilation/perfusion mismatch. 20 subjects were included (age 51 ± 14 years, male gender 65%). Peak VO2 strongly correlated with age (r = -0.83; P mechanics, particularly with LA conduit strain rate (SR) (r = -0.82; P mechanics. A similar pattern of associations was identified for VE/VCO2 slope. In multivariate analysis, LA conduit SR (β = -0.69; P = 0.02) emerged as sole independent correlate of peak VO2, adjusted for age and for E/e' ratio (adjusted r 2  = 0.76; P mechanics displayed strong associations with peak VO2 and VE/VCO2 slope. LA conduit-phase SR seems best suited as echocardiographic marker of functional capacity in subjects with no structural heart disease.

  12. High-Density Lipoprotein Subfractions and Cholesterol Efflux Capacity Are Not Affected by Supervised Exercise but Are Associated with Baseline Interleukin-6 in Patients with Peripheral Artery Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albaghdadi, Mazen S; Wang, Zheng; Gao, Ying; Mutharasan, R Kannan; Wilkins, John

    2017-01-01

    To quantify the association between high-density lipoprotein (HDL) subfractions, efflux capacity, and inflammatory markers at baseline and the effect of supervised exercise on these HDL parameters in patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD). The study to improve leg circulation (SILC) was a randomized trial of supervised treadmill exercise, leg resistance training, or control in individuals with PAD. In a post hoc cross-sectional analysis, we quantified the associations between baseline HDL subfraction concentrations (HDL2 and HDL3), HDL-C efflux capacity, and inflammatory markers [C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6)]. We then examined the effect of supervised exercise on changes in these lipoprotein parameters and inflammatory markers in 88 patients from SILC. Baseline HDL-C efflux capacity was associated with baseline concentrations of HDL2 (β = 0.008, p = 0.0106), HDL3 (β = 0.013, p capacity, CRP, or IL-6 were not significantly different at 6 months following the structured exercise intervention. HDL efflux and HDL3 were inversely associated with IL-6 in PAD patients. Structured exercise was not associated with changes in HDL subfractions, HDL-C efflux capacity, CRP, and IL-6 in PAD patients. Our preliminary findings support the theory that inflammation may adversely affect HDL structure and function; however, further studies are needed to evaluate these findings.

  13. Effect of oxygen on postoperative cardiovascular response to exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaersgaard, M; Lie, C; Bisgaard, T

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of supplemental oxygen on postoperative cardiovascular response to submaximal exercise. DESIGN: Randomised, controlled study. SETTING: University hospital, Denmark. SUBJECTS: 16 patients having major abdominal operations. INTERVENTIONS: A submaximal exercise test...... in non-surgical patients and surgical patients not taking exercise. These findings do not suggest that decreased peripheral tissue oxygenation is responsible for the impaired cardiovascular response to exercise in postoperative patients....... oximeter. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Heart rate during exercise. RESULTS: At similar workloads there were significantly lower heart rates (median decrease 3 min(-1)) during exercise tests with oxygen compared with air (p

  14. Does recombinant human Epo increase exercise capacity by means other than augmenting oxygen transport?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby, C; Robach, P; Boushel, R

    2008-01-01

    before rHuEpo treatment). Blood buffer capacity remained unaffected by rHuEpo treatment and hemodilution. The augmented hematocrit did not compromise peak cardiac output. In summary, in healthy humans, rHuEpo increases maximal oxygen consumption due to augmented systemic and muscular peak oxygen delivery....

  15. Exercise Testing Reveals Everyday Physical Challenges of Bariatric Surgery Candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creel, David B; Schuh, Leslie M; Newton, Robert L; Stote, Joseph J; Cacucci, Brenda M

    2017-10-12

    Few studies have quantified cardiorespiratory fitness among individuals seeking bariatric surgery. Treadmill testing allows researchers to determine exercise capacity through metabolic equivalents. These findings can assist clinicians in understanding patients' capabilities to carry out various activities of daily living. The purpose of this study was to determine exercise tolerance and the variables associated with fitness, among individuals seeking bariatric surgery. Bariatric surgery candidates completed submaximal treadmill testing and provided ratings of perceived exertion. Each participant also completed questionnaires related to history of exercise, mood, and perceived barriers/benefits of exercise. Over half of participants reported that exercise was "hard to very hard" before reaching 70% of heart rate reserve, and one-third of participants reported that exercise was "moderately hard" at less than 3 metabolic equivalents (light activity). Body mass index and age accounted for the majority of the variance in exercise tolerance, but athletic history, employment status, and perceived health benefits also contributed. Perceived benefit scores were higher than barrier scores. Categories commonly used to describe moderate-intensity exercise (3-6 metabolic equivalents) do not coincide with perceptions of intensity among many bariatric surgery candidates, especially those with a body mass index of 50 or more.

  16. [The relationship between pulmonary function and exercise capacity and quality of life in patients with ankylosing spondylitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyol, Gonca; Özalevli, Sevgi; Uçan, Eyüp Sabri

    2013-01-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis causes restrictive respiratory disorder by limiting the expansion of the chest because of the costosternal and costovertebral joints. Our study is planned to evaluate the respiratory functions of the ankylosing spondylitis patients who have a high rate of pulmonary involvement, and to compare the results with the exercise capacity and life quality of these patients. There were 27 (18 male, 9 female) Norvegian patients who came to Turkey and had ankylosing spondylitis diagnose according to Modified New York criterias, to have a routine physical therapy and rehabilitation programme with an average age of 50.6 ± 6.6 years. The patients' clinical histories were taken. Pulmonary function tests were performed with spirometry and pulmonary muscle strength was measured with mouth pressure measure. 6 minute walk test was performed to determine exercise capacity and Short Form-36 Life Quality Questionairre was used to evaluate life quality of the patients. The patients had 18.85 ± 10.64 average diagnose duration and the expected FEV1 value of the patients was 3.75 ± 0.88 L/sec, FEV1/FVC ratio was 80.44 ± 6.42, MIP was 62.96 ± 20.61 and MEP was 80.22 ± 21.12. 40.7% of the patients had positive smoking history while 14.8 % had dyspnea and 11.1% had symptoms of caughing-sputum. Walking distance was 595.50 ± 83.20 metre. Life quality category scores were 42.82 ± 16.78 minimally, 83.58 ± 23.06 maximally. Pulmonary function and pulmonary muscle strength values were similar in smoking and non-smoking patients. But in smoking patients, physical function and social function categories of quality of life survey scores were found lower than non-smoking patients. Respiratory and other parameters were high related to high standarts in treatment and following and exercise habit of the patients in Norway. Accordingly, it is thought that an appropriate medical treatment and exercise as a lifestyle habits of the patients reduce the negative effects of

  17. Prediction of Maximum Oxygen Uptake Using Both Exercise and Non-Exercise Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, James D.; Paul, Samantha L.; Hyde, Annette; Bradshaw, Danielle I.; Vehrs, Pat R.; Hager, Ronald L.; Yanowitz, Frank G.

    2009-01-01

    This study sought to develop a regression model to predict maximal oxygen uptake (VO[subscript 2max]) based on submaximal treadmill exercise (EX) and non-exercise (N-EX) data involving 116 participants, ages 18-65 years. The EX data included the participants' self-selected treadmill speed (at a level grade) when exercise heart rate first reached…

  18. Clinical physiology of exercise in pregnancy: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Larry A; Weissgerber, Tracey L

    2003-06-01

    To review the existing literature on the physiology of exercise in pregnancy as a basis for clinical practice guidelines for prenatal exercise prescription. MEDLINE search for English language abstracts and articles published between 1966 and 2003 related to physiological adaptations to pregnancy, effects of pregnancy on responses to acute exercise and aerobic conditioning, effects of acute maternal exercise on indexes of fetal well-being, impact of physical conditioning on birth weight and other pregnancy outcomes, and use of exercise to prevent or treat gestational diabetes mellitus and preeclampsia. Maximal aerobic power (VO(2)max, L/min) is well-preserved in pregnant women who remain physically active, but anaerobic working capacity may be reduced in late gestation. The increase in resting heart rate, reduction in maximal heart rate, and resulting smaller heart rate reserve render heart rate a less precise way of estimating exercise intensity. As rating of perceived exertion (RPE) is not altered by pregnancy, the use of revised pulse rate target zones along with Borg's RPE scale is recommended to prescribe exercise intensity during pregnancy. Responses to prolonged submaximal exercise (>30 min) in late gestation include a moderate reduction in maternal blood glucose concentration, which may transiently reduce fetal glucose availability. The normal response to sustained submaximal exercise is an increase in fetal heart rate (FHR) baseline. Transient reductions in FHR reactivity, fetal breathing movements, and FHR variability may also occur in association with more strenuous exercise. Controlled prospective studies have demonstrated that moderate prenatal exercise during the second and third trimesters is useful to improve aerobic fitness and maternal-fetal physiological reserve without affecting fetal growth. The Physical Activity Readiness Medical Examination for Pregnancy is recommended for use by physicians and midwives to provide medical clearance for

  19. Maximal exercise capacity is related to cardiovascular structure in patients with longstanding hypertension. A LIFE substudy. Losartan Intervention For Endpoint-Reduction in Hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, M H; Wachtell, K; Hermann, K L

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular hypertrophy and remodeling in patients with never-treated hypertension has been associated with impaired exercise capacity, but whether this relationship remains in patients with longstanding hypertension and target organ damage is less elucidated. METHODS: In 43...... the predicted maximal workload. This impaired exercise capacity was associated with lower common carotid distensibility and lower oxygen reserve. The latter was independently related to LV hypertrophy, low systemic vascular compliance and peripheral vascular remodeling, suggesting that cardiovascular......[129-163] v 162[146-179] Watt, P = .01). This impaired exercise capacity, calculated as the ratio between achieved and predicted maximal workload, was in simple regression analyses related to lower distensibility of the common carotid artery (r = 0.38, P = .01) and lower oxygen reserve (r = 0.68, P

  20. Effects of submaximal and supramaximal interval training on determinants of endurance performance in endurance athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquette, M; Le Blanc, O; Lucas, S J E; Thibault, G; Bailey, D M; Brassard, P

    2017-03-01

    We compared the effects of submaximal and supramaximal cycling interval training on determinants of exercise performance in moderately endurance-trained men. Maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max ), peak power output (Ppeak ), and peak and mean anaerobic power were measured before and after 6 weeks (3 sessions/week) of submaximal (85% maximal aerobic power [MP], HIIT85 , n = 8) or supramaximal (115% MP, HIIT115 , n = 9) interval training to exhaustion in moderately endurance-trained men. High-intensity training volume was 47% lower in HIIT115 vs HIIT85 (304 ± 77 vs 571 ± 200 min; P training was generally associated with increased VO2max (HIIT85 : +3.3 ± 3.1 mL/kg/min; HIIT115 : +3.3 ± 3.6 ml/kg/min; Time effect P = 0.002; Group effect: P = 0.95), Ppeak (HIIT85 : +18 ± 9 W; HIIT115 : +16 ± 27 W; Time effect P = 0.045; Group effect: P = 0.49), and mean anaerobic power (HIIT85 : +0.42 ± 0.69 W/kg; HIIT115 : +0.55 ± 0.65 W/kg; Time effect P = 0.01; Group effect: P = 0.18). Six weeks of submaximal and supramaximal interval training performed to exhaustion seems to equally improve VO2max and anaerobic power in endurance-trained men, despite half the accumulated time spent at the target intensity. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Feedback-controlled robotics-assisted treadmill exercise to assess and influence aerobic capacity early after stroke: a proof-of-concept study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoller, Oliver; Schindelholz, Matthias; Bichsel, Lukas; Schuster, Corina; de Bie, Rob A; de Bruin, Eling D; Hunt, Kenneth J

    2014-07-01

    The majority of post-stroke individuals suffer from low exercise capacity as a secondary reaction to immobility. The aim of this study was to prove the concept of feedback-controlled robotics-assisted treadmill exercise (RATE) to assess aerobic capacity and guide cardiovascular exercise in severely impaired individuals early after stroke. Subjects underwent constant load and incremental exercise testing using a human-in-the-loop feedback system within a robotics-assisted exoskeleton (Lokomat, Hocoma AG, CH). Inclusion criteria were: stroke onset ≤8 weeks, stable medical condition, non-ambulatory status, moderate motor control of the lower limbs and appropriate cognitive function. Outcome measures included oxygen uptake kinetics, peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), gas exchange threshold (GET), peak heart rate (HRpeak), peak work rate (Ppeak) and accuracy of reaching target work rate (P-RMSE). Three subjects (18-42 d post-stroke) were included. Oxygen uptake kinetics during constant load ranged from 42.0 to 60.2 s. Incremental exercise testing showed: VO2peak range 19.7-28.8 ml/min/kg, GET range 11.6-12.7 ml/min/kg, and HRpeak range 115-161 bpm. Ppeak range was 55.2-110.9 W and P-RMSE range was 3.8-7.5 W. The concept of feedback-controlled RATE for assessment of aerobic capacity and guidance of cardiovascular exercise is feasible. Further research is warranted to validate the method on a larger scale. Aerobic capacity is seriously reduced in post-stroke individuals as a secondary reaction to immobility. Robotics-assisted walking devices may have substantial clinical relevance regarding assessment and improvement of aerobic capacity early after stroke. Feedback-controlled robotics-assisted treadmill exercise represents a new concept for cardiovascular assessment and intervention protocols for severely impaired individuals.

  2. Exercise Capacity and Functional Performance in Heart Failure Patients Supported by a Left Ventricular Assist Device at Discharge From Inpatient Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Thomas; Bjarnason-Wehrens, Birna; Bartsch, Petra; Deniz, Ezin; Schmitto, Jan; Schulte-Eistrup, Sebastian; Willemsen, Detlev; Reiss, Nils

    2017-06-16

    Adequate physical and functional performance is an important prerequisite for renewed participation and integration in self-determined private and (where appropriate) professional lives following left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation. During cardiac rehabilitation (CR), individually adapted exercise programs aim to increase exercise capacity and functional performance. A retrospective analysis of cardiopulmonary exercise capacity and functional performance in LVAD patients at discharge from a cardiac rehabilitation program was conducted. The results from 68 LVAD patients (59 males, 9 females; 55.9 ± 11.7 years; 47 HVAD, 2 MVAD, 15 HeartMate II, 4 HeartMate 3, and 4 different implanting centers) were included in the analysis. Exercise capacity was assessed using a cardiopulmonary exercise test on a bicycle ergometer (ramp protocol; 10 W/min). The 6-min walk test was used to determine functional performance. At discharge from CR (53 ± 17 days after implantation), the mean peak work load achieved was 62.2 ± 19.3 W (38% of predicted values) or 0.79 ± 0.25 W/kg body weight. The mean cardiopulmonary exercise capacity (relative peak oxygen uptake) was 10.6 ± 5.3 mL/kg/min (37% of predicted values). The 6-min walk distance improved significantly during CR (325 ± 106 to 405 ± 77 m; P exercise capacity remains considerably restricted. In contrast, functional performance, measured by the 6-min walk distance, reaches an acceptable level. Light everyday tasks seem to be realistically surmountable for patients, making discharge from inpatient rehabilitation possible. Long-term monitoring is required in order to evaluate the situation and how it develops further. © 2017 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. High-intensity exercise training increases the diversity and metabolic capacity of the mouse distal gut microbiota during diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denou, Emmanuel; Marcinko, Katarina; Surette, Michael G; Steinberg, Gregory R; Schertzer, Jonathan D

    2016-06-01

    Diet and exercise underpin the risk of obesity-related metabolic disease. Diet alters the gut microbiota, which contributes to aspects of metabolic disease during obesity. Repeated exercise provides metabolic benefits during obesity. We assessed whether exercise could oppose changes in the taxonomic and predicted metagenomic characteristics of the gut microbiota during diet-induced obesity. We hypothesized that high-intensity interval training (HIIT) would counteract high-fat diet (HFD)-induced changes in the microbiota without altering obesity in mice. Compared with chow-fed mice, an obesity-causing HFD decreased the Bacteroidetes-to-Firmicutes ratio and decreased the genetic capacity in the fecal microbiota for metabolic pathways such as the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. After HFD-induced obesity was established, a subset of mice were HIIT for 6 wk, which increased host aerobic capacity but did not alter body or adipose tissue mass. The effects of exercise training on the microbiota were gut segment dependent and more extensive in the distal gut. HIIT increased the alpha diversity and Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes ratio of the distal gut and fecal microbiota during diet-induced obesity. Exercise training increased the predicted genetic capacity related to the TCA cycle among other aspects of metabolism. Strikingly, the same microbial metabolism indexes that were increased by exercise were all decreased in HFD-fed vs. chow diet-fed mice. Therefore, exercise training directly opposed some of the obesity-related changes in gut microbiota, including lower metagenomic indexes of metabolism. Some host and microbial pathways appeared similarly affected by exercise. These exercise- and diet-induced microbiota interactions can be captured in feces. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  4. Effects of Running Shoes with Abrasion Resistant Rubber Sole on the Exercise Capacity of the Human Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available With the development of industrialization, rubber has been gradually used in the manufacture of sports equipment for its favourable properties. This study involved the addition of C5 petroleum resin into brominated isobutylene-isoprene rubber (BIIR and butadiene rubber (BR while manufacturing the sole of running shoes. The effects of running shoes with abrasion resistant rubber sole on the exercise capacity of the human body were investigated by analysing the skid resistance and abrasion resistance of the running shoes, and conducting biomechanical study on naked feet and feet wearing the shoes. The results demonstrated that the rubber sole had favourable slip resistance property and mechanical properties such as stretching, abrasion resistance, and hardness. Compared to naked feet, the peak pressure intensity of the whole step of feet wearing the newly developed shoes, was significantly lower than that of feet wearing ordinary shoes. In the future, rubber can bring more comfortable experience because of its favourable properties.

  5. Black tea high-molecular-weight polyphenol stimulates exercise training-induced improvement of endurance capacity in mouse via the link between AMPK and GLUT4.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoaki Eguchi

    Full Text Available Aerobic exercise can promote "fast-to-slow transition" in skeletal muscles, i.e. an increase in oxidative fibers, mitochondria, and myoglobin and improvement in glucose and lipid metabolism. Here, we found that mice administered Mitochondria Activation Factor (MAF combined with exercise training could run longer distances and for a longer time compared with the exercise only group; MAF is a high-molecular-weight polyphenol purified from black tea. Furthermore, MAF intake combined with exercise training increased phosphorylation of AMPK and mRNA level of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4. Thus, our data demonstrate for the first time that MAF activates exercise training-induced intracellular signaling pathways that involve AMPK, and improves endurance capacity.

  6. F-door spaces and F-submaximal spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lobna Dridi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Submaximal spaces and door spaces play an enigmatic role in topology. In this paper, reinforcing this role, we are concerned with reaching two main goals: The first one is to characterize topological spaces X such that F(X is a submaximal space (resp., door space for some covariant functor Ff rom the category Top to itself. T0, and FH functors are completely studied. Secondly, our interest is directed towards the characterization of maps f given by a flow (X, f in the category Set, such that (X,P(f is submaximal (resp., door where P(f is a topology on X whose closed sets are exactly the f-invariant sets.

  7. Insulin resistance, exercise capacity and body composition in subjects with two hypertensive parents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, U B; Dige-Petersen, H; Ibsen, H

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study insulin resistance in subjects with strong genetic predisposition to essential hypertension, compared with non-disposed subjects. SUBJECTS: Thirty normotensive subjects aged 18-35 years whose parents both had essential hypertension, and 30 age- and sex matched subjects whose...... parents were both normotensive, were studied. Subjects or parents with diabetes and morbid obesity were excluded. METHODS: The study comprised (1) a frequent sampling oral glucose tolerance test; (2) an isoglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp study; (3) an analysis of body composition by dual-energy X......-ray absorptiometry; (4) an exercise test with gas exchange analysis; and (5) investigation of composition of usual diet by diet registration for 5 days. RESULTS: The 24-h diastolic blood pressure was higher in subjects predisposed to hypertension compared with the controls: 78.1 versus 74.0 mmHg (confidence interval...

  8. Depression and its relationship with poor exercise capacity, BODE index and muscle wasting in COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-shair, Khaled; Dockry, Rachel; Mallia-Milanes, Brendan

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The prevalence of depression in stable COPD patients varies markedly, possibly because of use of different scales. We aimed to assess depression using 2 different depression scales and to examine the association between depression and poor exercise performance, BODE index and muscle...... wasting in clinically stable COPD patients. METHODS: 122 stable COPD patients were assessed with the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and the Brief Assessment Schedule Depression Cards (BASDEC). We also assessed patients with spirometry, bioelectrical impedance analysis, 6-minute...... walk distance (6MWD), St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) and MRC dyspnoea and Borg scales. RESULTS: The CES-D and BASDEC scales detected almost similar prevalence rates of depression (21% vs 17%) with a Kappa coefficient of 0.68, pdepression in women...

  9. Iron supplementation effectively suppresses gastrocnemius muscle lesions to improve exercise capacity in chronic heart failure rats with anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Peng; Li, Li; Zhang, Mu-Qing; Liu, Shu-Juan; Li, Wen-Ya; Wang, Na

    2015-01-01

    For patients with chronic heart failure (CHF), exertional fatigue is one of the most common and debilitating symptoms. However, the poor relationship between heart dysfunction and exercise capacity has been ascribed to peripheral abnormalities. Several previous studies confirmed that iron supplementation could significantly improve the exercise capacity of patients with CHF, although they did not analyze effects in the musculoskeletal system. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of iron treatment on gastrocnemius muscles of CHF rats with anemia. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to coronary ligation to induce heart failure. At the same time, blood (1-1.5 mL) was withdrawn from the retro-orbital plexus once every week to induce anemia. After 6 wk of this process, iron dextran was administered to the CHF rats with anemia (CHFa rats) at the dose of 8, 16, 32, or 64 mg/kg every 2 d for 2 wk. Iron dextran (8 mg/kg every 2 d) effectively improved hemodynamic parameters (P iron dextran significantly reduced the ratio of heart weight to body weight (P Iron dextran effectively inhibited sarcoplasmic vacuolation and muscle atrophy of gastrocnemius muscles in CHFa rats, as evaluated by pathologic examinations. Other iron treatments, however, were found to be ineffective on the same parameters, so particular focus was placed on the iron dextran (8 mg/kg every 2 d) group in subsequent analyses. Consistently, phospho-p38 in gastrocnemius muscles of CHFa rats was markedly suppressed by iron dextran. Additionally, iron dextran significantly decreased c-fos and c-jun and up-regulated cellular FLICE-inhibitory protein expression levels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of tiotropium on sympathetic activation during exercise in stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kitada S

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Kenji Yoshimura, Ryoji Maekura, Toru Hiraga, Seigo Kitada, Keisuke Miki, Mari Miki, Yoshitaka TateishiDepartment of Respiratory Medicine, Toneyama National Hospital, Osaka, JapanBackground: Tiotropium partially relieves exertional dyspnea and reduces the risk of congestive heart failure in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients. However, its effect on the sympathetic activation response to exercise is unknown.Aims: This study aimed to determine whether tiotropium use results in a sustained reduction in sympathetic activation during exercise.Methods: We conducted a 12-week, open-label (treatments: tiotropium 18 µg or oxitropium 0.2 mg × 3 mg, crossover study in 17 COPD patients. Treatment order was randomized across subjects. The subjects underwent a pulmonary function test and two modes of cardiopulmonary exercise (constant work rate and incremental exercise testing using a cycle ergometer, with measurement of arterial catecholamines after each treatment period.Results: Forced expiratory volume in 1 second and forced vital capacity were significantly larger in the tiotropium treatment group. In constant exercise testing, exercise endurance time was longer, with improvement in dyspnea during exercise and reduction in dynamic hyperinflation in the tiotropium treatment group. Similarly, in incremental exercise testing, exercise time, carbon dioxide production, and minute ventilation at peak exercise were significantly higher in the tiotropium treatment group. Plasma norepinephrine concentrations and dyspnea intensity were also lower during submaximal isotime exercise and throughout the incremental workload exercise in the tiotropium treatment group.Conclusion: Tiotropium suppressed the increase of sympathetic activation during exercise at the end of the 6-week treatment, as compared with the effect of oxipropium. This effect might be attributed to improvement in lung function and exercise capacity and reduction in exertional dyspnea

  11. Improvements in Functional Exercise Capacity after a Residential Behavioural Change, Diet and Fitness Program for Obese Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Errickson, Sadye Paez; Kolotkin, Ronette L; Skidmore, Megan Simmons; Endress, Gerald; Østbye, Truls; Crosby, Ross; Eisenson, Howard

    2016-06-01

    Obese adults are at an increased risk for mobility-related problems. National guidelines recommend calorie restrictions and exercise for obese adults as a means to improve functional fitness capacity and to increase mobility. Yet, lifestyle weight loss interventions often fail to measure fitness changes. The aim of this study was to assess whether a 1-month, intensive behavioural change, diet and fitness intervention for overweight and obese adults would result in statistically significant and clinically meaningful changes in functional exercise. A pre-post test design was used in this study. Seventy-two participants (40 women, 32 men; mean baseline body mass index (BMI) = 42.6 + 9.0; mean age = 45.8 + 16.8) completed a modified 6-minute walk test (6MWT), performed on a treadmill, at baseline and at end of treatment. Significant improvements included decreased BMI (2.7 + 1.7 kg m(-2) , p Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Proximal aortic stiffness is related to left ventricular function and exercise capacity in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrianakos, Alexandros P; Parthenakis, Fragiskos I; Karakitsos, Dimitrios; Nyktari, Eva; Vardas, Panos E

    2009-05-01

    Patients with heart failure (HF) show abnormal arterial stiffening. We examined 60 patients (52.1 +/- 12, 8 years) with non-ischaemic dilated cardiomyopathy (NIDC), New York Heart Association II-III, in sinus rhythm, left ventricular ejection fraction 30.1 +/- 8.6%, and 44 normals. All subjects underwent an echocardiographic study and a cardiopulmonary exercise test. We evaluated the segmental proximal aorta (AO) pulse wave velocity (PWV) in the region of aortic arch with a new echo-method: from the suprasternal view, the distance between ascending and descending AO was measured with two-dimensional ultrasound, and the aortic flow wave transit time (TT) was measured with pulsed-wave Doppler. Pulse wave velocity was calculated as aortic distance/TT. Patients showed increased PWV (7.4 +/- 2.9 vs. 4.8 +/- 1.1 m/s, P age, sex, and body mass) VO(2) (both P exercise capacity. The echocardiographic assessment of the regional aorta PWV seems to be clinically important.

  13. Global longitudinal strain by two-dimensional speckle tracking imaging predicts exercise capacity in patients with chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Seisyou; Suzuki, Kengo; Akashi, Yoshihiro J; Mizukoshi, Kei; Takai, Manabu; Izumo, Masaki; Shimozato, Takashi; Hayashi, Akio; Ohtaki, Eiji; Osada, Naohiko; Omiya, Kazuto; Nobuoka, Sachihiko; Miyake, Fumihiko

    2011-06-01