Sample records for submarine-launched ballistic missiles

  1. Ballistic missile defense effectiveness (United States)

    Lewis, George N.


    The potential effectiveness of ballistic missile defenses today remains a subject of debate. After a brief discussion of terminal and boost phase defenses, this chapter will focus on long-range midcourse defenses. The problems posed by potential countermeasures to such midcourse defenses are discussed as are the sensor capabilities a defense might have available to attempt to discriminate the actual missile warhead in a countermeasures environment. The role of flight testing in assessing ballistic missile defense effectiveness is discussed. Arguments made about effectiveness by missile defense supporters and critics are summarized.

  2. Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS) (United States)


    based Midcourse Defense (GMD) system to enhance our capability against Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles . We are currently sustaining 30...Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-362 Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS) As of FY 2017 President’s Budget Defense...Program Name Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS) DoD Component DoD Responsible Office References SAR Baseline (Planning Estimate) National Security

  3. Modeling Of Ballistic Missile Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salih Mahmoud Attiya


    Full Text Available Aerodynamic modeling of ballistic missile in pitch plane is performed and the open-loop transfer function related to the jet deflector angle as input and pitch rate, normal acceleration as output has been derived with certain acceptable assumptions. For typical values of ballistic missile parameters such as mass, velocity, altitude, moment of inertia, thrust, moment and lift coefficient show that, the step time response and frequency response of the missile is unstable. The steady state gain, damping ratio and undraped natural frequency depend on the missile parameters. To stabilize the missile a lead compensator must be added to the forward loop.

  4. Cost Effective Regional Ballistic Missile Defense (United States)


    missiles if the war had lasted six more months. With another two years, German research could have produced the first intercontinental ballistic missile ...consideration of missile defenses against strategic threats to the United States homeland (e.g. intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBM)) lies...AIR WAR COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY COST EFFECTIVE REGIONAL BALLISTIC MISSILE DEFENSE by Christopher M. Ford, Colonel, U.S. Army A Research

  5. Countering short range ballistic missiles


    Conner, George W.; Ehiers, Mark A.; Marshall, Kneale T.


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Concepts commonly found in ASW search are used to model the flow and detection of mobile launchers for short range ballistic missiles. Emphasis is on detection and destruction of the launcher before launch. The benefit of pre-hostility intelligence and pre-missile-launch prosecution, the backbone of successful ASW, is revealed through the analysis of a circulation model which reflects the standard operations of a third world mobile mi...

  6. Ballistic Missile Defense and the Atlantic Alliance


    Yost, David S.


    T h e Atlantic Alliance may be at the threshold of a new debate on the implications of ballistic missile defense (BMD) for European security. Secretary of Defense Caspar Weinberger and several U.S. Senators and Congressmen support a thorough review of U.S. BMD options, including possible revision of the 1972 Anti- Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty and its 1974 Protocol. Although active defense of intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs) seems the most likely application f...

  7. The Cooperative Ballistic Missile Defence Game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, L.; Barros, A.I.; Monsuur, H.


    The increasing proliferation of ballistic missiles and weapons of mass destruction poses new risks worldwide. For a threatened nation and given the characteristics of this threat a layered ballistic missile defence system strategy appears to be the preferred solution. However, such a strategy

  8. Frantic Third World quest for ballistic missiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karp, A.


    Belatedly, Western Nations are trying to staunch the flow of technology that has helped create a number of new ballistic missile forces in the Third World. Ballistic missiles already are being used in one Third World conflict. Since the end of February, Iran and Iraq have fired more than 100 short-range, inaccurate missiles at each other's cities, causing thousands of casualties. These events illustrate that ballistic missiles are becoming an ominous reality in the Third World. Indeed, 20 Third World countries, including Israel and Brazil, currently possess ballistic missiles or are striving to develop them. On one level, these missiles - which are propelled by rockets into the upper atmosphere, travel in a ballistic trajectory, and are pulled by gravity to their targets - are for these nations a logical step in building up their military forces. While the missiles vary in range and accuracy, they can reach many targets in regional conflicts. Unlike manned aircraft, the do not require large, vulnerable bases. They are not as easily intercepted as slow bombers. And they are easier to develop because they are less sophisticated than modern cruise missiles such as the U.S. air-launched cruise missiles. In terms of global security, the most worrisome aspect of Third World ballistic missiles is their potential as nuclear weapons delivery systems.

  9. Cooperative Monitoring Center Occasional Paper/9: De-Alerting Strategic Ballistic Missiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connell, Leonard W.; Edenburn, Michael W.; Fraley, Stanley K.; Trost, Lawrence C.


    This paper presents a framework for evaluating the technical merits of strategic ballistic missile de-alerting measures, and it uses the framework to evaluate a variety of possible measures for silo-based, land-mobile, and submarine-based missiles. De-alerting measures are defined for the purpose of this paper as reversible actions taken to increase the time or effort required to launch a strategic ballistic missile. The paper does not assess the desirability of pursuing a de-alerting program. Such an assessment is highly context dependent. The paper postulates that if de-alerting is desirable and is used as an arms control mechanism, de-alerting measures should satisfy specific cirteria relating to force security, practicality, effectiveness, significant delay, and verifiability. Silo-launched missiles lend themselves most readily to de-alerting verification, because communications necessary for monitoring do not increase the vulnerabilty of the weapons by a significant amount. Land-mobile missile de-alerting measures would be more challenging to verify, because monitoring measures that disclose the launcher's location would potentially increase their vulnerability. Submarine-launched missile de-alerting measures would be extremely challlenging if not impossible to monitor without increasing the submarine's vulnerability.

  10. 2015 Assessment of the Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS) (United States)


    Director, Operational Test and Evaluation 2015 Assessment of the Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS...Evaluation (DOT&E) as they pertain to the Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS). Congress specified these requirements in the fiscal year 2002 ( are the Ground-based Midcourse Defense (GMD), Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense (Aegis BMD), Terminal High-Altitude Area Defense (THAAD), and

  11. Ballistic Missile Silo Door Monitoring Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This paper compares the cost and effectiveness of several potential options that may be used to monitor silo-based ballistic missiles. Silo door monitoring can be used to verify that warheads removed to deactivate or download silo-based ballistic missiles have not been replaced. A precedent for monitoring warhead replacement using reentry vehicle on site inspections (RV-OSIs) and using satellites has been established by START-I and START-II. However, other monitoring options have the potential to be less expensive and more effective. Three options are the most promising if high verification confidence is desired: random monitoring using door sensors; random monitoring using manned or unmanned aircraft; and continuous remote monitoring using unattended door sensors.

  12. Air Force Intercontinental Ballistic Missile Fuze Modernization (ICBM Fuze Mod) (United States)


    Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-498 Air Force Intercontinental Ballistic Missile Fuze Modernization (ICBM Fuze Mod) As of FY...Assigned: June 27, 2013 Program Information Program Name Air Force Intercontinental Ballistic Missile Fuze Modernization (ICBM Fuze Mod) a memo dated August 18, 2013, titled "Air Force Intercontinental Ballistic Missile Fuze Program Phase 6.3 Development Engineering Authorization

  13. The Phantom Menace: Ballistic Missile Defense in Congress


    Jarvis, Matthew


    Recent successful tests of the Theater High-Altitude Air Defense System (THAAD) and the Exoatmospheric Kill Vehicle (EKV) against simulated incoming ballistic missiles have again thrust the issue of ballistic missile defense (BMD) into the policy spotlight. Scholars have typically included defense spending in studies of distributive politics. This paper studies the determinants of ballistic missile policy in Congress, distinguishing between the public sphere of floor voting and less-visible...

  14. 76 FR 14589 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Repeal of Restriction on Ballistic Missile... (United States)


    ... Regulation Supplement; Repeal of Restriction on Ballistic Missile Defense Research, Development, Test, and... Ballistic Missile Defense research, development, test, and evaluation from foreign sources. DATES: Effective...) repealed the restriction from foreign sources of acquisition of Ballistic Missile Defense research...

  15. North Korean Ballistic Missile Threat to the United States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hildreth, Steven A


    ... so. The Administration will ask the 110th Congress to fund a National Missile Defense (NMD) site in Europe, which some analysts argue is needed because of the threat of North Korean ballistic missiles to Europe...

  16. Pershing II - NATO's smart ballistic missile (United States)

    Richardson, D.


    A description is given of the novel design features, operational capabilities and development history of the Pershing II ballistic missile, with emphasis on its updated flight sequence and reentry vehicle terminal guidance. The use of digital target data allows the missile to be switched from one target to another by a quick change of software. Extensive tests have been conducted to determine the effect of electronic countermeasures, and it has been found that the correlation process used, involving data from more than 10 sq mi of terrain, makes the terminal-homing guidance radar seeker difficult to confuse. Attention is also given to such development possibilities for the missile as active target-acquisition sensors, an earth-penetration nuclear warhead, runway-destroying submunitions and range extensions to equal that of the Soviet SS-20 IRBM.

  17. Launch velocity requirements for interceptors of short range ballistic missiles (United States)

    Butler, Geoffrey S.

    The problem of estimating the performance requirements for interceptors of short range (less than 500 nm) ballistic missiles is addressed. Classical orbit determination methods are used to parametrically study the impulsive interceptor launch velocities required to intercept incoming ballistic missiles. Atmospheric and planetary rotational effects are neglected. Dependent variables include the relative positions of the interceptor and ballistic missile launch sites to the target point, interceptor acquisition delay time and depressed ballistic missile trajectories. The resulting data is reduced to a series of curves highlighting the relative impact of each parameter. Factors limiting the interceptor time of flight are shown to have the strongest influence on interceptor launch velocity requirements.

  18. Ballistic Missile Defense: New Plans, Old Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Zolotukhina


    Full Text Available On September 17, 2009—the 70th anniversary of the Soviet invasion of Poland in 1939 that marked the beginning of World War II—the Obama Administration announced its intention to shelve plans for the U.S. Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD that had been developed under former President George W. Bush. Pointing to a new intelligence assessment, President Obama argued that his predecessor's plan to deploy an X-band radar station outside of Prague, Czech Republic, and 10 two-stage interceptor missiles in Poland would not adequately protect America and its European allies from the Iranian threat and reiterated his opposition to utilizing unproven technology in any European BMD architecture.

  19. Cost of Space-Based Laser Ballistic Missile Defense (United States)

    Field, George; Spergel, David


    Orbiting platforms carrying infrared lasers have been proposed as weapons forming the first tier of a ballistic missile defense system under the President's Strategic Defense Initiative. As each laser platform can destroy a limited number of missiles, one of several methods of countering such a system is to increase the number of offensive missiles. Hence it is important to know whether the cost-exchange ratio, defined as the ratio of the cost to the defense of destroying a missile to the cost to the offense of deploying an additional missile, is greater or less than 1. Although the technology to be used in a ballistic missile defense system is still extremely uncertain, it is useful to examine methods for calculating the cost-exchange ratio. As an example, the cost of an orbiting infrared laser ballistic missile defense system employed against intercontinental ballistic missiles launched simultaneously from a small area is compared to the cost of additonal offensive missiles. If one adopts lower limits to the costs for the defense and upper limits to the costs for the offense, the cost-exchange ratio comes out substantially greater than 1. If these estimates are confirmed, such a ballistic missile defense system would be unable to maintain its effectiveness at less cost than it would take to proliferate the ballistic missiles necessary to overcome it and would therefore not satisfy the President's requirements for an effective strategic defense. Although the method is illustrated by applying it to a space-based infrared laser system, it should be straightforward to apply it to other proposed systems.

  20. Cost of space-based laser ballistic missile defense. (United States)

    Field, G; Spergel, D


    Orbiting platforms carrying infrared lasers have been proposed as weapons forming the first tier of a ballistic missile defense system under the President's Strategic Defense Initiative. As each laser platform can destroy a limited number of missiles, one of several methods of countering such a system is to increase the number of offensive missiles. Hence it is important to know whether the cost-exchange ratio, defined as the ratio of the cost to the defense of destroying a missile to the cost to the offense of deploying an additional missile, is greater or less than 1. Although the technology to be used in a ballistic missile defense system is still extremely uncertain, it is useful to examine methods for calculating the cost-exchange ratio. As an example, the cost of an orbiting infrared laser ballistic missile defense system employed against intercontinental ballistic missiles launched simultaneously from a small area is compared to the cost of additional offensive missiles. If one adopts lower limits to the costs for the defense and upper limits to the costs for the offense, the cost-exchange ratio comes out substantially greater than 1. If these estimates are confirmed, such a ballistic missile defense system would be unable to maintain its effectiveness at less cost than it would take to proliferate the ballistic missiles necessary to overcome it and would therefore not satisfy the President's requirements for an effective strategic defense. Although the method is illustrated by applying it to a space-based infrared laser system, it should be straightforward to apply it to other proposed systems.

  1. Nuclear dynamics in a multipolar strategic ballistic missile defense world


    Ferguson, Charles D.; MacDonald, Bruce W.


    We are focused on understanding the nuclear dynamics of a world in which more than one nation is developing and deploying ballistic missile defense systems for strategic purposes. Strategic purposes could mean for defense of a national territory, defending command and control centers, protecting nuclear-armed ballistic missiles to help ensure retaliatory forces, or providing political cover for development of anti-satellite weapons that could target strategic military communications as well ...

  2. Computation of the Different Errors in the Ballistic Missiles Range


    Abd El-Salam, F. A.; Abd El-Bar, S. E.


    The ranges of the ballistic missile trajectories are very sensitive to any kind of errors. Most of the missile trajectory is a part of an elliptical orbit. In this work, the missile problem is stated. The variations in the orbital elements are derived using Lagrange planetary equations. Explicit expressions for the errors in the missile range due to the in-orbit plane changes are derived. Explicit expressions for the errors in the missile range due to the out-of-orbit plane changes are derive...

  3. Design and Manufacturing Process for a Ballistic Missile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaharia Sebastian Marian


    Full Text Available Designing a ballistic missile flight depends on the mission and the stress to which the missile is subject. Missile’s requests are determined by: the organization of components; flight regime type, engine configuration and aerodynamic performance of the rocket flight. In this paper has been developed a ballistic missile with a smooth fuselage type, 10 control surfaces, 8 directional surfaces for cornering execution, 2 for maneuvers of execution to change the angle of incidence and 4 stabilizers direction. Through the technology of gluing and clamping of the shell and the use of titanium components, mass of ballistic missile presented a significant decrease in weight and a structure with high strength.

  4. Asian ballistic missiles and weapons of mass destruction: The impact of missile defense


    Møller, Bjørn


    The paper analyses critically the threat perceptions of the West, and especially the United States, regarding ballistic missiles and weapons of mass destruction in the hands of Asian states. Reviewing Southwest, South and Northeast Asia it finds these regions to be more stable as commonly assumed and little evidence to support the assumption that the states in these regions are undeterrable. A deployment by the United States of ballistic missile defences is thus found to be both superfluous a...

  5. A novel navigation method used in a ballistic missile (United States)

    Qian, Hua-ming; Sun, Long; Cai, Jia-nan; Peng, Yu


    The traditional strapdown inertial/celestial integrated navigation method used in a ballistic missile cannot accurately estimate the accelerometer bias. It might cause a divergence of navigation errors. To solve this problem, a new navigation method named strapdown inertial/starlight refractive celestial integrated navigation is proposed. To verify the feasibility of the proposed method, a simulated program of a ballistic missile is presented. The simulation results indicated that, when multiple refraction stars are used, the proposed method can accurately estimate the accelerometer bias, and suppress the divergence of navigation errors completely. Specifically, in order to apply this method to a ballistic missile, a novel measurement equation based on stellar refraction was developed. Furthermore a method to calculate the number of refraction stars observed by the stellar sensor was given. Finally, the relationship between the number of refraction stars used and the navigation accuracy is analysed.

  6. Navy Ohio Replacement (SSBN[X]) Ballistic Missile Submarine Program: Background and Issues for Congress (United States)


    Navy Ohio Replacement (SSBN[X]) Ballistic Missile Submarine Program: Background and Issues for Congress Ronald O’Rourke Specialist in Naval...Affairs April 5, 2016 Congressional Research Service 7-5700 R41129 Navy Ohio Replacement (SSBN[X]) Ballistic Missile Submarine...Replacement (SSBN[X]) Ballistic Missile Submarine Program Congressional Research Service Contents Introduction

  7. Missile Defense: Ballistic Missile Defense System Testing Delays Affect Delivery of Capabilities (United States)


    enemy missiles of various ranges , speeds, sizes, and performance characteristics in different phases of flight.3 Once an enemy missile has been...BMD SM-3 Block IB features capabilities to identify, discriminate, and track objects during flight to defend against short - and medium- range ballistic... missiles threats. • Aegis BMD SM-3 Block IIA Aegis BMD SM-3 Block IIA has increased range , more sensitive seeker technology, and an advanced

  8. Civilian casualties of Iraqi ballistic missile attack to

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaji Ali


    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: To determine the pattern of causalities of Iraqi ballistic missile attacks on Tehran, the capital of Iran, during Iraq-Iran war. Methods: Data were extracted from the Army Staff Headquarters based on daily reports of Iranian army units during the war. Results: During 52 days, Tehran was stroked by 118 Al-Hussein missiles (a modified version of Scud missile. Eighty-six missiles landed in populated areas. During Iraqi missile attacks, 422 civilians died and 1 579 injured (4.9 deaths and 18.3 injuries per missile. During 52 days, 8.1 of the civilians died and 30.4 injured daily. Of the cases that died, 101 persons (24% were excluded due to the lack of information. Among the remainders, 179 (55.8% were male and 142 (44.2% were female. The mean age of the victims was 25.3 years±19.9 years. Our results show that the high accuracy of modified Scud missiles landed in crowded ar-eas is the major cause of high mortality in Tehran. The pres-ence of suitable warning system and shelters could reduce civilian casualties. Conclusion: The awareness and readiness of civilian defense forces, rescue services and all medical facilities for dealing with mass casualties caused by ballistic missile at-tacks are necessary. Key words: Mortality; War; Mass casualty incidents; Wounds and injuries

  9. Quantifying Counterforce and Active Defense in Countering Theater Ballistic Missiles


    Marshall, Kneale T.


    This paper contains the formulation and analysis of a model to measure, compare, and contrast the effects of counterforce (pre-launch attack) and active defense (post-launch attack) against tactical ballistic missiles (TBM's). It is shown that without counterforce an active defense system could require an impractical number of weapons to counter incoming missiles and/or their warheads. This number is shown to decrease geometrically as effective counterforce is...

  10. Ballistic Missile Defense. Past and Future (United States)


    2 These flights took place in 2000, and the destruction was done by the tactical high-energy laser (THEL) at White Sands, New Mexico ...Defense Agency and the U.S. Navy launched a prototype Standard Missile-2 Bloc IVA from the “Desert Ship” complex at White Sands Missile Range, NM, on

  11. Ballistic Missile Defense Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (United States)


    United States began to evaluate ways to protect against ballistic missile attack. This study led to the development of the Nike- Zeus System, which...34 because they do Live o a resevation. in a VA my left temple . i believe I am part Cherokee Indian. I believe hospital, are handicapped. there was

  12. Aerodynamic heating of ballistic missile including the effects of gravity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The aerodynamic heating of a ballistic missile due to only convection is analysed taking into consideration the effects of gravity. The amount of heat transferred to the wetted area and to the nose region has been separately determined, unlike A Miele's treatise without consideration of gravity. The peak heating ratesto the ...

  13. Aerodynamic heating of ballistic missile including the effects of gravity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The aerodynamic heating of a ballistic missile due to only convection is analysed taking into consideration the effects of gravity. The amount of heat transferred to the wetted area and to the nose region has been separately determined, unlike A Miele's treatise without consideration of gravity. The peak heating rates ...

  14. The North Korean Ballistic Missile Program (United States)


    school of natural sciences has eight departments: atomic energy, automation (computer science), biology, chemistry, geography, geology , mathematics...with 15 Hwasŏng missiles destined for Yemen .176 Coalition forces let the shipment continue because there was no legal justification for...confiscating the cargo, and Yemeni President Ali Abdullah Saleh assured U.S. Vice President Dick Cheney that Yemen would cease its missile imports from the

  15. Ballistic Missile Defense: A National Priority (United States)


    N. Lewis and Theodore A. Postol , “European Missile Defense: The Technologi­ cal Basis of Russian Concerns,” Arms Control Today 37, no. 8 (October...PAC-3), and the Theater High-Altitude Area Defense ( THAAD ) system. As General Obering recently testified: “None of this capability existed as...East. PAC-3 and THAAD are theater defense systems, providing protection against short- and some medium-range missiles. PAC-3 engages short- range

  16. Status of the intercontinental ballistic missile modernization program (United States)


    The Department of Defense is taking three major actions to modernize the intercontinental ballistic missile component of the U.S. strategic forces. Specifically, DOD is: (1) developing a small ICBM and its hard mobile launcher, (2) researching other basing technology, and (3) deploying Peacekeeper (MX) missiles in Minuteman silos. Potential major issues of the small ICBM can now be identified. For instance, for a 500 missile force on hard mobile launchers: (1) life cycle cost would be about $44 billion in 1982 dollars, (2) personnel requirements would be about 20,000 people, and (3) up to 28,000 square miles of land would be required for wartime operations. The Peacekeeper program is in production while development testing continues. Results to date have been positive. Current congressional action to limit the number of missiles deployed will affect program cost and schedule.

  17. Exposure to ICBM (intercontinental ballistic missiles) and SLBM (Soviet Launched Ballistic Missiles) trajectories to sunlight (United States)

    Paterson, Thomas S.


    Due to the cost and complexity of infrared and radar sensors, visible sensors could be a useful alternative for strategic defense surveillance systems, provided the threat is exposed to sunlight for a significant portion of its trajectory. This paper examines the exposure of ballistic missile trajectories to sunlight as a function of solar latitude (time of year) and launch time. Nine representative trajectories were chosen to illustrate the effects of range, apogee, and maximum latitude on sunlight exposure. It was found that certain Soviet-to-CONUS trajectories would be completely in the Earth's shadow only when launched during a brief time window on or near the winter solstice. Certain SLBM trajectories had full-shadow launch windows from late fall to early spring. However, trajectories representing those of SS-18's flew very close to the pole, exposing most of their paths to sunlight regardless of launch time or solar latitude. Weighting the trajectories to represent aggregates of a Soviet spike attack, at least 69 percent of the threat was exposed to sunlight for at least 500 seconds on the winter solstice, and at least 95 percent was exposed on the spring/fall equinoxes. These percentages exceed the JCS requirements of a Phase One Strategic Defense System, particularly because of the susceptibility of SS-18 trajectories to sunlight exposure.

  18. [Ballistic approach in head injuries caused by missiles]. (United States)

    Jourdan, P; Billant, J B; Desgeorges, M


    If the missile head injury treatment is relatively well codified, wound ballistic, on the other hand, is not well known of neurosurgeons. Different means of study and tissue simulants are being listed. In face of numerous contradictory results, we shall only retain the M.L. Fackler method with 10% gelatin. Experimental results will depend on: 1. Missile parameters. For instance, in soft homogeneous tissue, one can discern shells with an uncertain path, full jacketed bullets which tumble after a variable "neck", and non jacketed missiles which cause wound through "mushrooming" and/or fragmentation effect. Buckshot wounds obey the rule "all or none". 2. Body reactions, particularly the clash with a hard material like bone, which can overturn everything described in soft tissues. These wound ballistic notions have lead us to formulate two pathogenic hypothesizes, allowing us to understand sometime case reports which had first seemed paradoxical: the brain structure, enclosed in the skull will not able to survive any major temporary cavity, the more or less deep missile pathway through the skull will be very different according to the type and energy of the missile, and to the hardness of pierced bone.

  19. The Directed Energy Program for Ballistic Missile Defense (United States)

    Marquet, L. C.


    Directed Energy Weapons (DEW) utilize a variety of techniques to concentrate destructive levels of energy over vast distances almost instantaneously. For this reason, directed energy systems are considered to be candidate weapons for intercepting intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBM's) as they are being launched, and before they are able to release their multiple, independently targeted reentry vehicles (MIRV'S bearing nuclear warheads. Considerable leverage is gained by the defense since a single missile killed during this boost phase will eliminate not only 6 to 10 RV's, but also perhaps hundreds of decoys which would otherwise be deployed to confuse and saturate subsequent defense layers.

  20. Ballistic missile precession frequency extraction by spectrogram's texture (United States)

    Wu, Longlong; Xu, Shiyou; Li, Gang; Chen, Zengping


    In order to extract precession frequency, an crucial parameter in ballistic target recognition, which reflected the kinematical characteristics as well as structural and mass distribution features, we developed a dynamic RCS signal model for a conical ballistic missile warhead, with a log-norm multiplicative noise, substituting the familiar additive noise, derived formulas of micro-Doppler induced by precession motion, and analyzed time-varying micro-Doppler features utilizing time-frequency transforms, extracted precession frequency by measuring the spectrogram's texture, verified them by computer simulation studies. Simulation demonstrates the excellent performance of the method proposed in extracting the precession frequency, especially in the case of low SNR.

  1. Ballistic Missile Defense Glossary Version 3.0. (United States)


    HOST Host Installation Host Interface Host Nation Support Hostile Environment Hostile Track hp HPA HPC HPCC HPG HPI HPIR HPL HPM HQ...NL NLO NLOS NLT nm NMA NMC NMCC NMCS NMD NMD 3+3 NMD GBR NMD HPT NMDJPO NTCS Intelligence Processing Service (USN term). OBSOLETE...Range Insensitive Axes . Reverse Illuminated Blocked Impurity Transducer. Retro Intercontinental Ballistic Missile. Royal Institute of International

  2. Sino-Japanese relations and ballistic missile defence


    Hughes, Christopher W.


    Since December 1998, the Japanese government has formally committed itself to undertake cooperative technological research with the US into Ballistic Missile Defence (BMD). Japanese government policy-makers stress that the BMD project remains at present purely at the research stage, and that separate government decisions will be necessary before any progression towards the stages of development, production and deployment. Nevertheless, even at the research phase it is clear that both Japanese...

  3. The future of the ballistic missile submarine force in the Russian nuclear triad


    Lesiw, Richard T.


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis analyzes the current status of the Russian Federation's ballistic missile submarine force. It reviews the history of the ballistic missile submarine force, its current status, and the implementation of plans currently in progress and as well as the advantages and disadvantages of maintaining a ballistic missile submarine force. This thesis also assesses the other two legs of the nuclear triad - the intercontinental balli...

  4. Defense Science Board Task Force on Defense Strategies for Advanced Ballistic and Cruise Missile Threats (United States)


    REPORT OF THE DEFENSE SCIENCE BOARD TASK FORCE ON Defense Strategies for Advanced Ballistic and Cruise Missile Threats January 2017 Office of...Science Board Task Force on Defense Strategies for Advanced Ballistic and Cruise Missile Threats completed its information-gathering in February 2016...Defense Strategies fo r Advanced Ballistic and Crui se Missile Threats l am pleased to forward the final report of the DSB Task Force on Defense

  5. Ballistic Missile Proliferation: An Emerging Threat 1992 (United States)


    1,500 Afghanistan* Scud B USSR Argentina Alacran Condor 2 Indigenous Brazil MB/EE-150 MB/EE-300 MB/EE-600 MB/EE-1000 Indigenous SS-150 SS-300 SS-1000...aroad-mobile Scud B deriv- dor program. The Alacran is a single-stage, solid- ative for which Avibras is receiving technical as- propellant missile that...Avibras has also been working sile is the Condor 2. since 1960 on the solid-propellant motors for the The Alacran is believed to be about 6.9 m long Sonda

  6. A Simplified Guidance for Target Missiles Used in Ballistic Missile Defence Evaluation (United States)

    Prabhakar, N.; Kumar, I. D.; Tata, S. K.; Vaithiyanathan, V.


    A simplified guidance scheme for the target missiles used in Ballistic Missile Defence is presented in this paper. The proposed method has two major components, a Ground Guidance Computation (GGC) and an In-Flight Guidance Computation. The GGC which runs on the ground uses a missile model to generate attitude history in pitch plane and computes launch azimuth of the missile to compensate for the effect of earth rotation. The vehicle follows the pre launch computed attitude (theta) history in pitch plane and also applies the course correction in azimuth plane based on its deviation from the pre launch computed azimuth plane. This scheme requires less computations and counters In-flight disturbances such as wind, gust etc. quite efficiently. The simulation results show that the proposed method provides the satisfactory performance and robustness.

  7. 48 CFR 225.7016 - Restriction on Ballistic Missile Defense research, development, test, and evaluation. (United States)


    ... Acquisition 225.7016 Restriction on Ballistic Missile Defense research, development, test, and evaluation. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Restriction on Ballistic Missile Defense research, development, test, and evaluation. 225.7016 Section 225.7016 Federal Acquisition...

  8. Analysis and optimization of trajectories for Ballistic Missiles Interception


    Montero Yéboles, Daniel


    Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles are capable of placing a nuclear warhead at more than 5,000 km away from its launching base. With the lethal power of a nuclear warhead a whole city could be wiped out by a single weapon causing millions of deaths. This means that the threat posed to any country from a single ICBM captured by a terrorist group or launched by a 'rogue' state is huge. This threat is increasing as more countries are achieving nuclear and advanced launcher capabilities. In orde...

  9. Dr. von Braun and Army Ballistics Missile Agency (ABMA) Group (United States)


    This photograph of Dr. von Braun, shown here to the left of General Bruce Medaris, was taken in the fall of 1959, immediately prior to Medaris' retirement from the Army. At the time, von Braun and his associates worked for the Army Ballistics Missile Agency in Huntsville, Alabama. Those in the photograph have been identified as Ernst Stuhlinger, Frederick von Saurma, Fritz Mueller, Hermarn Weidner, E.W. Neubert (partially hidden), W.A. Mrazek, Karl Heimburg, Arthur Rudolph, Otto Hoberg, von Braun, Oswald Lange, Medaris, Helmut Hoelzer, Hans Maus, E.D. Geissler, Hans Heuter, and George Constan.

  10. Navy Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) Program: Background and Issues for Congress (United States)


    Missile Defense Plan,” Arms Control Today, May 2010: 24-32. The quoted passage appears on p. 26. The associated white paper is George N. Lewis and...8217 new SMART -L long-range naval radar could be integrated into U.S. ballistic missile defense architectures, namely the Aegis Ashore system in Europe...upgraded and rearchitectured SMART -L D-band volume search radar that will give the ships a ballistic missile defence (BMD) early warning capability

  11. Characteristic extraction and matching algorithms of ballistic missile in near-space by hyperspectral image analysis (United States)

    Lu, Li; Sheng, Wen; Liu, Shihua; Zhang, Xianzhi


    The ballistic missile hyperspectral data of imaging spectrometer from the near-space platform are generated by numerical method. The characteristic of the ballistic missile hyperspectral data is extracted and matched based on two different kinds of algorithms, which called transverse counting and quantization coding, respectively. The simulation results show that two algorithms extract the characteristic of ballistic missile adequately and accurately. The algorithm based on the transverse counting has the low complexity and can be implemented easily compared to the algorithm based on the quantization coding does. The transverse counting algorithm also shows the good immunity to the disturbance signals and speed up the matching and recognition of subsequent targets.

  12. Passive millimetre wave imaging for ballistic missile launch detection (United States)

    Higgins, Christopher J.; Salmon, Neil A.


    QinetiQ has used a suite of modelling tools to predict the millimetric plume signatures from a range of ballistic missile types, based on the accepted theory that Bremsstrahlung emission, generated by the collision of free electrons with neutral species in a rocket motor plume, is the dominant signature mechanism. Plume signatures in terms of radiation temperatures varied from a few hundred Kelvin to over one thousand Kelvin, and were predicted to be dependent on emission frequency, propellant type and missile thrust. Two types of platform were considered for the passive mmw imager launch detection system; a High Altitude Platform Station (HAPS) and a satellite based platform in low, mid and geosynchronous earth orbits. It was concluded that the optimum operating frequency for a HAPS based imager would be 35GHz with a 4.5m aperture and a sensitivity of 20mK providing visibility through 500 vertical feet of cloud. For a satellite based platform with a nadir view, the optimum frequency is 220 GHz. With such a system, in a low earth orbit at an altitude of 320km, with a sensitivity of 20mK, a 29cm aperture would be desirable.

  13. Analysis of Ballistic Missile Defense Policy in East Asia: Implications for Sino-U.S. Relations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moentmann, James


    The vital U.S. national interests of protecting the homeland, citizens abroad and deployed military forces are significantly threatened by current and emerging ballistic missile-capable nations, states of concern...

  14. Ballistic Missile Defense: National Security and the High Frontier of Space. (United States)

    Adragna, Steven P.


    Ballistic missile defense is discussed, and the rationale behind the proposal to place defensive weapons in space is examined. Strategic defense is a national security, political, and moral imperative. (RM)

  15. Small Business Innovation Research Program at the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    The audit objective was to determine whether the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization complied with legislation and DoD policy covering commercial potential requirements for Phase 1 of the SBIR program...

  16. Radar signal analysis of ballistic missile with micro-motion based on time-frequency distribution (United States)

    Wang, Jianming; Liu, Lihua; Yu, Hua


    The micro-motion of ballistic missile targets induces micro-Doppler modulation on the radar return signal, which is a unique feature for the warhead discrimination during flight. In order to extract the micro-Doppler feature of ballistic missile targets, time-frequency analysis is employed to process the micro-Doppler modulated time-varying radar signal. The images of time-frequency distribution (TFD) reveal the micro-Doppler modulation characteristic very well. However, there are many existing time-frequency analysis methods to generate the time-frequency distribution images, including the short-time Fourier transform (STFT), Wigner distribution (WD) and Cohen class distribution, etc. Under the background of ballistic missile defence, the paper aims at working out an effective time-frequency analysis method for ballistic missile warhead discrimination from the decoys.

  17. Echoes That Never Were: American Mobile Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles, 1956-1983 (United States)


    It was heady stuff for a little boy. 2 ’Quoted in Jacob Neufeld, Ballistic Missiles in the United States Air Force: 1945-1960 (Washington, D.C...the Weapon that Changed the World (1991), Jacob Neufeld’s superb Ballistic Missiles in the United States Air Force, 1945-1960 (1990), Edmund Beard’s...Khrushchev, "Disarmament for Durable Peace and Friendship," in The Soviet Art of War: Doctrine, Strategy, and Tactics, ed. Harriet Fast Scott and

  18. The Close Aboard Bastion: a Soviet ballistic missile submarine deployment strategy


    Kreitler, Walter M


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis describes and analyzes a possible deployment posture for the Soviet ballistic missile submarine force. It examines the proposition that the Soviet Navy will establish a point defense, labeled "Close Aboard Bastions" (CABs), for its ballistic missile submarine fleet within the Soviet claimed 12 nautical mile territorial sea. This is a logical derivation of the currently widely held view that the Soviets will estab...

  19. The National Research Council study: "Making sense of ballistic missile defense" (United States)

    Wilkening, Dean A.


    This chapter explains and summarizes the main findings of a recent National Research Council study entitled Making Sense of Ballistic Missile Defense: An Assessment of Concepts and Systems for U.S. Boost-Phase Missile Defense in Comparison to Other Alternatives.

  20. Navy Columbia Class (Ohio Replacement) Ballistic Missile Submarine (SSBN[X]) Program: Background and Issues for Congress (United States)


    nuclear deterrent force, or “triad,” which also includes land-based intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs) and land-based long-range bombers. At any...any vessel owned, operated, or controlled by the Department of Defense that carries operational intercontinental ballistic missiles . Precedents for...Navy Columbia Class (Ohio Replacement) Ballistic Missile Submarine (SSBN[X]) Program: Background and Issues for Congress Ronald O’Rourke

  1. Civilian casualties of Iranian cities by ballistic missile attacks during the Iraq-Iran war (1980-1988). (United States)

    Khaji, Ali; Fallahdoost, Shoaodin; Soroush, Mohammad Reza


    To determine the nature and extent of Iranian casualties by ballistic missile attacks during the eight years of the Iraq-Iran war. The data collected about Iraqi missile strikes on Iranian cities included the following: date and time, number and type of missiles, cities targeted, and injuries and deaths resulting from impacts of missiles in civilian areas. The data were extracted from a database that was constructed by the army staff headquarters based on daily reports of Iranian army units during the war. Over a period of eight years (1980-1988), Iraqi army fired 533 ballistic missiles at Iranian territories. From those, 414 missiles (77.7%) landed on Iranian cities. The impacts of these missiles caused the deaths of 2,312 civilians and injured 11,625 others. Three types of ballistic missiles were used: FROG-7, Scud, and Al-Hussein (a modified version of the Scud missile). Twenty-seven cities in Iran were struck by Iraqi ballistic missiles. The highest mortalities from ballistic missiles were in Dezful and Tehran. Iraqi missile attacks continued for 90 months (2,748 days). Our results point to the necessity of investigating the psychological consequences of Iraqi ballistic missile attacks among survivors in 27 Iranian cities during the eight years of the Iraq-Iran war.

  2. China and ballistic missile defense: 1955 to 2002 and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brad, Roberts


    China's opposition to U.S. ballistic missile defense was forcefully articulated officially and unofficially between 1991 and 2001. Vociferous opposition gave way to near silence following U.S. ABM Treaty withdrawal, raising a question about precisely whether and how China will respond to future U.S. deployments in both the political and military-operational realms. To gauge likely future responses, it is useful to put the experience of the 1991-2001 period into historical context. China's attitudes toward BMD have passed through a series of distinct phases since the beginning of the nuclear era, as China has been concerned alternately with the problems of strategic defense by both the Soviet Union and United States (and others) around its periphery. Throughout this era it has also pursued its own strategic defense capabilities. There are important elements of continuity in China's attitudes concerns about the viability of its own force and about strategic stability. These suggest the likelihood of significant responses to U.S. BMD even in the absence of sharp rhetoric. (author)

  3. 15 CFR 744.3 - Restrictions on Certain Rocket Systems (including ballistic missile systems and space launch... (United States)


    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restrictions on Certain Rocket Systems (including ballistic missile systems and space launch vehicles and sounding rockets) and Unmanned Air...: END-USER AND END-USE BASED § 744.3 Restrictions on Certain Rocket Systems (including ballistic missile...

  4. Civilian casualties of Iraqi ballistic missile attack to Tehran, capital of Iran. (United States)

    Khaji, Ali; Fallahdoost, Shoaodin; Soroush, Mohammad-Reza; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa


    To determine the pattern of causalities of Iraqi ballistic missile attacks on Tehran, the capital of Iran, during Iraq-Iran war. Data were extracted from the Army Staff Headquarters based on daily reports of Iranian army units during the war. During 52 days, Tehran was stroked by 118 Al-Hussein missiles (a modified version of Scud missile). Eighty-six missiles landed in populated areas. During Iraqi missile attacks, 422 civilians died and 1 579 injured (4.9 deaths and 18.3 injuries per missile). During 52 days, 8.1 of the civilians died and 30.4 injured daily. Of the cases that died, 101 persons (24%) were excluded due to the lack of information. Among the remainders, 179 (55.8%) were male and 142 (44.2%) were female. The mean age of the victims was 25.3 years+/-19.9 years. Our results show that the high accuracy of modified Scud missiles landed in crowded areas is the major cause of high mortality in Tehran. The presence of suitable warning system and shelters could reduce civilian casualties. The awareness and readiness of civilian defense forces, rescue services and all medical facilities for dealing with mass casualties caused by ballistic missile attacks are necessary.

  5. Conventional Prompt Global Strike and Long-Range Ballistic Missiles: Background and Issues (United States)


    slab that had characteristics similar to reinforced concrete. Press reports indicate that the warhead entered the target at a 90 degree angle and... static test-firings of a prototype rocket engine in 2005. 39 According to the Defense Science Board Task Force, this missile might have delivered a 2,000... tracked the launches of hundreds of ballistic missiles over the years, and they had demonstrated the capability to “acquire sufficient data to determine

  6. Navy Ohio Replacement (SSBN[X]) Ballistic Missile Submarine Program: Background and Issues for Congress (United States)


    propulsion technology first occurred many years ago: To help jumpstart the UK’s nuclear - powered submarine program, the United States transferred to the UK a... nuclear - powered attack submarines (SSNs), nuclear - powered cruise missile submarines (SSGNs), and nuclear - powered ballistic missile submarines (SSBNs). 2...2 In the designations SSN, SSGN, SSBN, and SSBN(X), the SS stands for submarine, N stands for nuclear - powered (meaning the ship is

  7. Countering the third world mobile short range ballistic missile threat: an integrated approach


    Ehlers, Mark A.


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The Persian Gulf War introduced a new, highly effective threat in the form of the mobile short range ballistic missile (SRBM). The non-guided SCUD missile proved to be most effective in the political area as Iraq continually targeted Israel in an attempt to force them into the conflict through retaliation. Although this Iraqi objective ultimately failed, a price was paid by the Coalition forces. A significant percentage of Allied ai...

  8. Conventional Prompt Global Strike and Long Range Ballistic Missiles: Background and Issues (United States)


    mid-1990s. In August 1995 it launched an ICBM armed with a “pointy” front end (and no explosive warhead) against a granite slab that had...ballistic missile (SLIRBM). It requested industry participation in the study in mid-2003, and planned to conduct two static test-firings of a...eliminate pursuit of the program. The study noted that the United States and Russia had monitored and tracked the launches of hundreds of ballistic

  9. Trade-off study for the hit-to-kill interception of ballistic missiles in the boost phase


    Leong, Weng Wai.


    In recent military conflicts, ballistic missiles have been used to achieve military and psychological objectives. With the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD), the growing threat of ballistic missiles being used as a delivery platform for WMD by rogue nations or militant groups becomes a concern for many countries. Defense against such threats becomes increasingly important. There are different guidance laws for the missile interception of aerial targets. These include purs...

  10. Stability of spinning ICBM (intercontinental ballistic missile) in first stage boost phase (United States)

    Bandstra, R. W.


    A computer program is developed to model a spinning intercontinental Ballistic Missile (IICBM) during the first stage boost phase. The equations of motion are derived and presented and a full rotation matrix is used to show the relationship between a launch-centered, nonrotating earth inertial reference frame and the missile body reference frame. The moments of inertia and aerodynamic forces are derived and presented. A feedback controller is derived which proved to be a necessary additiion to the system in order to reduce the angle of attack. The angle of attack of the missile produced adverse effects on the burnout vector without the feedback controller, but the effects are reduced considerably with the controller included. Problem areas include possibly excessive nozzle gimbal rates caused by the feedback controller and the need to change the initial kick angle if the missile is spinning in order to achieve the same burnout conditions as a nonspinning missile.

  11. Estimation of ICBM (intercontinental ballistic missile) performance parameters (United States)

    Crumpton, Kenneth S.


    The estimation of launch vehicle performance parameters was explored through the use of a Bayes Filter. The missile dynamics were modeled using a seven state system consisting of the vehicle position and velocity vectors, and the acceleration due to thrust. An assumed solution was used in the model obviating the need for a numerical integration subroutine. The filter was run with two different missile flight profiles. The program produced good approximations of the missile thrust acceleration even through staging events. The results of the Bayes filter were improved with the use of fading memory. The fading memory values were adjusted until the filter closely approximated the missile acceleration values. The filter was able to handle the second missile flight profile without any adjustment in the fading memory and with no degradation of results.

  12. The science, technology, and politics of ballistic missile defense (United States)

    Coyle, Philip E.


    America's missile defense systems are deployed at home and abroad. This includes the Groundbased Missile Defense (GMD) system in Alaska and California, the Phased Adaptive Approach in Europe (EPAA), and regional systems in the Middle East and Asia. Unfortunately these systems lack workable architectures, and many of the required elements either don't work or are missing. Major review and reconsideration is needed of all elements of these systems. GMD performance in tests has gotten worse with time, when it ought to be getting better. A lack of political support is not to blame as the DoD spends about 10 billion per year, and proposes to add about 5 billion over the next five years. Russia objects to the EPAA as a threat to its ICBM forces, and to the extensive deployment of U.S. military forces in countries such as Poland, the Czech Republic and Romania, once part of the Soviet Union. Going forward the U.S. should keep working with Russia whose cooperation will be key to diplomatic gains in the Middle East and elsewhere. Meanwhile, America's missile defenses face an enduring set of issues, especially target discrimination in the face of attacks designed to overwhelm the defenses, stage separation debris, chaff, decoys, and stealth. Dealing with target discrimination while also replacing, upgrading, or adding to the many elements of U.S. missiles defenses presents daunting budget priorities. A new look at the threat is warranted, and whether the U.S. needs to consider every nation that possesses even short-range missiles a threat to America. The proliferation of missiles of all sizes around the world is a growing problem, but expecting U.S. missile defenses to deal with all those missiles everywhere is unrealistic, and U.S. missile defenses, effective or not, are justifying more and more offensive missiles.

  13. The science, technology, and politics of ballistic missile defense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coyle, Philip E. [Center for Arms Control and Non-Proliferation, Washington, DC (United States)


    America's missile defense systems are deployed at home and abroad. This includes the Groundbased Missile Defense (GMD) system in Alaska and California, the Phased Adaptive Approach in Europe (EPAA), and regional systems in the Middle East and Asia. Unfortunately these systems lack workable architectures, and many of the required elements either don't work or are missing. Major review and reconsideration is needed of all elements of these systems. GMD performance in tests has gotten worse with time, when it ought to be getting better. A lack of political support is not to blame as the DoD spends about $10 billion per year, and proposes to add about $5 billion over the next five years. Russia objects to the EPAA as a threat to its ICBM forces, and to the extensive deployment of U.S. military forces in countries such as Poland, the Czech Republic and Romania, once part of the Soviet Union. Going forward the U.S. should keep working with Russia whose cooperation will be key to diplomatic gains in the Middle East and elsewhere. Meanwhile, America's missile defenses face an enduring set of issues, especially target discrimination in the face of attacks designed to overwhelm the defenses, stage separation debris, chaff, decoys, and stealth. Dealing with target discrimination while also replacing, upgrading, or adding to the many elements of U.S. missiles defenses presents daunting budget priorities. A new look at the threat is warranted, and whether the U.S. needs to consider every nation that possesses even short-range missiles a threat to America. The proliferation of missiles of all sizes around the world is a growing problem, but expecting U.S. missile defenses to deal with all those missiles everywhere is unrealistic, and U.S. missile defenses, effective or not, are justifying more and more offensive missiles.

  14. Navy Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) Program: Background and Issues for Congress (United States)


    continued) IOT &E With A Bang, Full-Rate Production Review,” Inside the Navy, October 7, 2013. 85...absence of adequate sensors/Ballistic Missile C3 to overcome this. The fact that this form of EI is not viable in shorter-range regional applications

  15. Signature analysis of ballistic missile warhead with micro-nutation in terahertz band (United States)

    Li, Ming; Jiang, Yue-song


    In recent years, the micro-Doppler effect has been proposed as a new technique for signature analysis and extraction of radar targets. The ballistic missile is known as a typical radar target and has been paid many attentions for the complexities of its motions in current researches. The trajectory of a ballistic missile can be generally divided into three stages: boost phase, midcourse phase and terminal phase. The midcourse phase is the most important phase for radar target recognition and interception. In this stage, the warhead forms a typical micro-motion called micro-nutation which consists of three basic micro-motions: spinning, coning and wiggle. This paper addresses the issue of signature analysis of ballistic missile warhead in terahertz band via discussing the micro-Doppler effect. We establish a simplified model (cone-shaped) for the missile warhead followed by the micro-motion models including of spinning, coning and wiggle. Based on the basic formulas of these typical micro-motions, we first derive the theoretical formula of micro-nutation which is the main micro-motion of the missile warhead. Then, we calculate the micro-Doppler frequency in both X band and terahertz band via these micro-Doppler formulas. The simulations are given to show the superiority of our proposed method for the recognition and detection of radar micro targets in terahertz band.

  16. Comparison of basing modes for land-based intercontinental ballistic missiles (United States)

    Zimmerman, Peter D.


    Intercontinental ballistic missiles based in silos have become relatively vulnerable, at least in theory, to counter-force attacks. This theoretical vulnerability may not, in fact, be a serious practical concern; it is nonetheless troubling both to policy-makers and to the public. Furthermore, the present generation of ICBMs is aging (the Minuteman II single warhead missile will exceed its operational life-span early in the next decade) and significant restructuring of the ballistic missile force may well be necessary if a Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START) is signed. This paper compares several proposed schemes for modernizing the ICBM force. Because the rail-garrison MIRVd mobile system is the least costly alternative to secure a large number of strategic warheads, it receives a comparatively large amount of attention.

  17. Deterrence of ballistic missile systems and their effects on today's air operations (United States)

    Durak, Hasan


    Lately, the effect-based approach has gained importance in executing air operations. Thus, it makes more successful in obtaining the desired results by breaking the enemy's determination in a short time. Air force is the first option to be chosen in order to defuse the strategic targets. However, the problems such as the defense of targets and country, radars, range…etc. becoming serious problems. At this level ballistic missiles emerge as a strategic weapon. Ultimate emerging technologies guided by the INS and GPS can also be embedded with multiple warheads and reinforced with conventional explosive, ballistic missiles are weapons that can destroy targets with precision. They have the advantage of high speed, being easily launched from every platform and not being easily detected by air defense systems contrary to other air platforms. While these are the advantages, there are also disadvantages of the ballistic missiles. The high cost, unavailability of nuclear, biological and chemical weapons, and its limited effect while using conventional explosives against destroying the fortified targets are the disadvantages. The features mentioned above should be considered as limitation to the impact of the ballistic missiles. The aim is to impose the requests on enemies without starting a war with all components and to ensure better implementation of the operation functions during the air operations. In this study, effects of ballistic missiles in the future on air battle theatre will be discussed in the beginning, during the process and at the end phase of air operations within the scope of an effect-based approach.

  18. "Head, Not Tails:" How Best to Engage Theater Ballistic Missiles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wiegand, Ronald C


    .... Heads, not tails sounds a call to the Missile Defense Agency, Strategic Command and all Services to commit to producing BPI capability (first kinetic, then directed energy), ahead of other systems and upgrades.

  19. Game theoretic target assignment approach in ballistic missile defense (United States)

    Wei, Mo; Chen, Genshe; Pham, Khanh; Blasch, Erik; Wu, Yingli


    In this paper, both Pareto game theory and learning theory algorithms are utilized in a resource management module for a practical missile interception system. The resource management module will determine how many and which antimissiles will be launched for interception. Such interception decisions are based on the number of invading missiles, availability of antimissiles, special capability of antimissiles, and realistic constraints on the movements of both invading missiles and antimissiles such as minimum turning radius, maximum velocity, fuel range, etc. Simulations demonstrate performance improvements when compared to existing strategies (i.e. random assignment), independent of guidance laws (i.e. Proportional Navigation (PN) or the Differential-Game-based Guidance Law (DGL) guidance laws) under end-game interception cases or midcourse interception situations.

  20. Missileer: The Dawn, Decline, and Reinvigoration of America’s Intercontinental Ballistic Missile Operators (United States)


    Program, 1997), 117. 14 Maj Thomas J. Gosling, Maj James W. Knapp, and Maj Kenneth R. Morrison, “Future Management Applications in the Minuteman...Canada: Hole in the Head Press, 2014), 194-198. 18 Figure 2: A Growing Missile Business Source: Maj Roger Tollerud, Maj Steve Kucynda...and Maj Don Karcewski, Guide for Minuteman Missile Maintenance Managers, 1970 ca. Provided by Association of Air Force Missileers. The Titan II

  1. Efficient multiple hypothesis track processing of boost-phase ballistic missiles using IMPULSE©-generated threat models


    Rakdham, Bert


    In this thesis, a multiple hypotheses tracking (MHT) algorithm is developed to successfully track multiple ballistic missiles within the boost phase. The success of previous work on the MHT algorithm and its application in other scientific fields enables this study to realize an efficient form of the algorithm and examine its feasibility in tracking multiple crossing ballistic missiles even though various accelerations due to staging are present. A framework is developed for the MHT, whi...

  2. Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty: Is it Still Relevant? A Primer on the Systems and Issues (United States)


    online:]. Lewis, George N. and Postol , Theodore A., �Future challenges to Ballistic Missile ( THAAD and Navy Theater-Wide) are capable of defending large areas from missiles with ranges up to 3,500 km. Lewis and Yingbo note that the...6. 13 The Army�s Patriot Advanced Capability-3 (PAC-3); the Theater High-Altitude Area Defense ( THAAD ); the Navy Area Defense; and the Navy Theater

  3. Organizational Structure for a Mobile ICBM (Intercontinental Ballistic Missile) Combat Unit\\ (United States)


    organizational structure that will create the optimal combat effectiveness for the system. This study reviews the present and past mobile systems and their organizational structures. This includes systems deployed by both the U.S. Army and Air Force. A proposed structure based on the analysis of those systems is presented for consideration. The deployment of rail garrison (RG) intercontinental Ballistic Missile (ICBM) systems within the Continental United States by the Strategic Air Command (SAC) has created a need for a review of current missile organizational structures

  4. Long-Range Ballistic Missile Defense in Europe

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hildreth, Steven A; Ek, Carl


    ...) in Europe to defend against an Iranian missile threat. The system would include 10 interceptors in Poland, and radar in the Czech Republic. Deployment of the European GMD capability is scheduled to be completed by 2013 at a cost of $4.04 billion.

  5. Thermomechanical effects of ground-based directed energy weapons on satellites and Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles


    Mantzouris, Georgios


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Thermo mechanical modeling and simulation of a satellite and intercontinental ballistic missile assumes importance due to the increased interest in assessing the potential of such attacks. Effective and innovative methods are sought in assessing the structural integrity of such structural components. In this study, we present modeling and simulation aspects of two generic models loaded by high energy laser beam. We present an applicati...

  6. Tactical unmanned aerial vehicles in a proposed joint infrastructure to counter theater ballistic missiles


    Junker, Vernon L.


    Proliferation of tactical ballistic missile (IBM) systems throughout the Third World represents a serious threat to American national interests. As demonstrated during operation Desert Storm in Iraq, countering this threat is a very difficult problem. A joint, multi-level infrastructure to counter the TBM threat is vital to American security. This thesis considers the joint infrastructure and tactics necessary to counter the TBM threat. During peacetime, infrastructure assets monitor TBM forc...

  7. A systems approach to finding cost-effective alternatives to European Ballistic Missile Defense


    Siddiqui, Irfan; Jacobus, Lucas; Navejas, Abel; Parker, Stephen; Harr, Cameron; Long, David; Wiehe, Blake; Chacon, Abbot; Mellroth, Chris; Adams, Eric; Gomes, John; Berthelotte, Brad


    SYSTEMS ENGINEERING CAPSTONE PROJECT REPORT Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Increasing political tensions between nations, coupled with advancements in technology, have resulted in the need for a Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) system, specifically in the European theater where ally nations are particularly vulnerable. This report focuses on defending Turkey with a solution that could be fielded by FY18. It includes the following mature technologies: Patriot Advan...

  8. Trident II (D-5) Sea-Launched Ballistic Missile UGM 133A (Trident II Missile) (United States)


    Guidance Only Flight Test (DASO- 24) N/A AUG 2012 FEB 2013 APR 2013 1 (Ch-1) First Missile Electronics Flight Test ( PTM - 1/DASO-25) N/A SEP 2013 MAR 2014...Program Manager was able to pull ahead the First Missile Electronics Flight Test ( PTM -1) flight that had been previously scheduled for DASO-25 (September...the First Missile Electronics Flight Test ( PTM -1) flight that had been previously scheduled for DASO-25 (September 2013) so that it was able to occur

  9. A method for simulating the atmospheric entry of long-range ballistic missiles (United States)

    Eggers, A J , Jr


    It is demonstrated with the aid of similitude arguments that a model launched from a hypervelocity gun upstream through a special supersonic nozzle should experience aerodynamic heating and resulting thermal stresses like those encountered by a long-range ballistic missile entering the earth's atmosphere. This demonstration hinges on the requirements that model and missile be geometrically similar and made of the same material, and that they have the same flight speed and Reynolds number (based on conditions just outside the boundary layer) at corresponding points in their trajectories. The hypervelocity gun provides the model with the required initial speed, while the nozzle scales the atmosphere, in terms of density variation, to provide the model with speeds and Reynolds numbers over its entire trajectory. Since both the motion and aerodynamic heating of a missile tend to be simulated in the model tests, this combination of hypervelocity gun and supersonic nozzle is termed an atmosphere entry simulator.

  10. Children's sleep under the threat of attack by ballistic missiles. (United States)

    Lavie; Amit; Epstein; Tzischinsky


    The present paper reports on the influence of the Scud missile attacks during the Gulf War on the sleep of Israeli children. Two studies were performed. In the first, sleep habits and sleep disturbances of 61 (mean age 20 months) infants were assessed by questionnaires completed by their parents 5 months before the war and immediately after the end of the War. Comparison of pre- and post-war data revealed no major changes in sleep habits or in sleep quality. In the second study, sleep of 55 children was monitored at home by actigraphs during the last month of the War. All children were aroused during missile attacks, but returned to sleep immediately, with no evidence of carry-over effects once the 'all clear' sign was given. Comparison of sleep quality measures obtained during the War with those of age- and sex-matched children monitored a year before the war did not reveal any significant differences apart from the immediate response to the attack.

  11. Determining the influence of past development experience on the cost of strategic ballistic missile development (United States)

    Whitney, Dwight E.

    The influence of learning in the form of past relevant experience was examined in data collected for strategic ballistic missiles developed by the United States. A total of twenty-four new missiles were developed and entered service between 1954 and 1990. Missile development costs were collected and analyzed by regression analysis using the learning curve model with factors for past experience and other relevant cost estimating relationships. The purpose of the study was to determine whether prior development experience was a factor in the development cost of these like systems. Of the twenty-four missiles in the population, development costs for twelve of the missiles were collected from the literature. Since the costs were found to be segmented by military service, a discrete input variable for military service was used as one of the cost estimating relationships. Because there were only two US Navy samples, too few to analyze for segmentation and learning rate, they were excluded from the final analysis. The final analysis was on a sample of ten out of eighteen US Army and US Air Force missiles within the population. The result of the analysis found past experience to be a statistically significant factor in describing the development cost of the US Army and US Air Force missiles. The influence equated to a 0.86 progress ratio, indicating prior development experience had a positive (cost-reducing) influence on their development cost. Based on the result, it was concluded that prior development experience was a factor in the development cost of these systems.

  12. Feature aided Monte Carlo probabilistic data association filter for ballistic missile tracking (United States)

    Ozdemir, Onur; Niu, Ruixin; Varshney, Pramod K.; Drozd, Andrew L.; Loe, Richard


    The problem of ballistic missile tracking in the presence of clutter is investigated. Probabilistic data association filter (PDAF) is utilized as the basic filtering algorithm. We propose to use sequential Monte Carlo methods, i.e., particle filters, aided with amplitude information (AI) in order to improve the tracking performance of a single target in clutter when severe nonlinearities exist in the system. We call this approach "Monte Carlo probabilistic data association filter with amplitude information (MCPDAF-AI)." Furthermore, we formulate a realistic problem in the sense that we use simulated radar cross section (RCS) data for a missile warhead and a cylinder chaff using Lucernhammer1, a state of the art electromagnetic signature prediction software, to model target and clutter amplitude returns as additional amplitude features which help to improve data association and tracking performance. A performance comparison is carried out between the extended Kalman filter (EKF) and the particle filter under various scenarios using single and multiple sensors. The results show that, when only one sensor is used, the MCPDAF performs significantly better than the EKF in terms of tracking accuracy under severe nonlinear conditions for ballistic missile tracking applications. However, when the number of sensors is increased, even under severe nonlinear conditions, the EKF performs as well as the MCPDAF.

  13. High performance dash on warning air mobile, missile system. [intercontinental ballistic missiles - systems analysis (United States)

    Levin, A. D.; Castellano, C. R.; Hague, D. S.


    An aircraft-missile system which performs a high acceleration takeoff followed by a supersonic dash to a 'safe' distance from the launch site is presented. Topics considered are: (1) technological feasibility to the dash on warning concept; (2) aircraft and boost trajectory requirements; and (3) partial cost estimates for a fleet of aircraft which provide 200 missiles on airborne alert. Various aircraft boost propulsion systems were studied such as an unstaged cryogenic rocket, an unstaged storable liquid, and a solid rocket staged system. Various wing planforms were also studied. Vehicle gross weights are given. The results indicate that the dash on warning concept will meet expected performance criteria, and can be implemented using existing technology, such as all-aluminum aircraft and existing high-bypass-ratio turbofan engines.

  14. The impact of the Type 094 ballistic missile submarine on China's nuclear policy


    Bell, Samuel D.


    Approved for public release, distribution unlimited This thesis examines the implication of China’s near completion of a viable nuclear triad. The objective is to determine first, how this submarine will fit into China’s no-first-use policy with regards to their nuclear weapons. And second, determine how advanced this weapon platform will be. With the introduction of multiple Type 094 “Jin” class ballistic missile submarines, has Beijing set the stage for a possible return to Cold War leve...

  15. Theater ballistic missile defense: low- and high-resolution multispectral phenomena (United States)

    Paiva, Clifford A.


    The U.S. Navy has been requested to provide insightful responses to questions regarding low and high resolution target discrimination and target classification capabilities for short medium range ballistic missiles (SRBM/MRBM). Specific targets studied for this paper include foreign solid booster exhaust plume and hardbody systems (PHS). Target gradient edge intensities were extracted for aimpoint selection and will be added to the pattern referencing library database at NSWC Dahlgren Division. The results of this study indicate an increasing requirement for advanced image processing on the focal plane array of a LEAP (light exoatmospheric projectile) type kill kinetic vehicle (KKV) in order to implement effective correlation matching routines.

  16. Ballistic missile precession frequency extraction based on the Viterbi & Kalman algorithm (United States)

    Wu, Longlong; Xie, Yongjie; Xu, Daping; Ren, Li


    Radar Micro-Doppler signatures are of great potential for target detection, classification and recognition. In the mid-course phase, warheads flying outside the atmosphere are usually accompanied by precession. Precession may induce additional frequency modulations on the returned radar signal, which can be regarded as a unique signature and provide additional information that is complementary to existing target recognition methods. The main purpose of this paper is to establish a more actual precession model of conical ballistic missile warhead and extract the precession parameters by utilizing Viterbi & Kalman algorithm, which improving the precession frequency estimation accuracy evidently , especially in low SNR.

  17. Optimization of Allocation and Launch Conditions of Multiple Missiles for Three-Dimensional Collaborative Interception of Ballistic Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burak Yuksek


    Full Text Available We consider the integrated problem of allocation and control of surface-to-air-missiles for interception of ballistic targets. Previous work shows that using multiple missile and utilizing collaborative estimation and control laws for target interception can significantly decrease the mean miss distance. However, most of these methods are highly sensitive to initial launch conditions, such as the initial pitch and heading angles. In this work we develop a methodology for optimizing selection of multiple missiles to launch among a collection of missiles with prespecified launch coordinates, along with their launch conditions. For the interception we use 3-DoF models for missiles and the ballistic target. The trajectory of the missiles is controlled using three-dimensional extensions of existing algorithms for planar collaborative control and estimation laws. Because the dynamics of the missiles and nature of the allocation problem is highly nonlinear and involves both discrete and continuous variables, the optimization problem is cast as a mixed integer nonlinear programming problem (MINP. The main contribution of this work is the development of a novel probabilistic search algorithm for efficiently solving the missile allocation problem. We verify the algorithm by performing extensive Monte-Carlo simulations on different interception scenarios and show that the developed approach yields significantly less average miss distance and more efficient use of resources compared to alternative methods.

  18. Optimization of Allocation and Launch Conditions of Multiple Missiles for Three-Dimensional Collaborative Interception of Ballistic Targets


    Yuksek, Burak; Ure, N. Kemal


    We consider the integrated problem of allocation and control of surface-to-air-missiles for interception of ballistic targets. Previous work shows that using multiple missile and utilizing collaborative estimation and control laws for target interception can significantly decrease the mean miss distance. However, most of these methods are highly sensitive to initial launch conditions, such as the initial pitch and heading angles. In this work we develop a methodology for optimizing selection ...

  19. A study of the motion and aerodynamic heating of ballistic missiles entering the earth's atmosphere at high supersonic speeds (United States)

    Allen, H Julian; Eggers, A J , Jr


    A simplified analysis of the velocity and deceleration history of ballistic missiles entering the earth's atmosphere at high supersonic speeds is presented. The results of this motion analysis are employed to indicate means available to the designer for minimizing aerodynamic heating. The heating problem considered involves not only the total heat transferred to a missile by convection, but also the maximum average and local time rates of convective heat transfer.

  20. Research on capability of detecting ballistic missile by near space infrared system (United States)

    Lu, Li; Sheng, Wen; Jiang, Wei; Jiang, Feng


    The infrared detection technology of ballistic missile based on near space platform can effectively make up the shortcomings of high-cost of traditional early warning satellites and the limited earth curvature of ground-based early warning radar. In terms of target detection capability, aiming at the problem that the formula of the action distance based on contrast performance ignores the background emissivity in the calculation process and the formula is only valid for the monochromatic light, an improved formula of the detecting range based on contrast performance is proposed. The near space infrared imaging system parameters are introduced, the expression of the contrastive action distance formula based on the target detection of the near space platform is deduced. The detection range of the near space infrared system for the booster stage ballistic missile skin, the tail nozzle and the tail flame is calculated. The simulation results show that the near-space infrared system has the best effect on the detection of tail-flame radiation.

  1. Ionospheric holes made by ballistic missiles from North Korea detected with a Japanese dense GPS array (United States)

    Ozeki, Masaru; Heki, Kosuke


    A dense array of global positioning system (GPS) receivers is a useful tool to study ionospheric disturbances. Here we report observations by a Japanese GPS array of ionospheric holes, i.e., localized electron depletion. They were made by neutral molecules in exhaust plumes (e.g., water) of ballistic missiles from North Korea, Taepodong-1 and -2, launched on 31 August, 1998, and 5 April, 2009, respectively. Negative anomaly of electron density emerged ˜6 min after the launches in the middle of the Japan Sea, and extended eastward along the missile tracks. By comparing the numerical simulation of electron depletion and the observed change in ionospheric total electron content, we suggest that the exhaust plumes from the Taepodong-2 second stage effused up to ˜1.5 × 1026 water molecules per second. The ionospheric hole signature was used to constrain the Taepodong-2 trajectory together with other information, e.g., coordinates of the launch pad, time and coordinates of the first stage splashdown, and height and time of the second stage passage over Japan. The Taepodong-2 is considered to have reached the ionospheric F region in ˜6 min, flown above northeastern Japan ˜7 min after the launch, and crashed to the Pacific Ocean without attaining the first astronautical velocity. The ionospheric hole in the 1998 Taepodong-1 launch was much less in size, but it is difficult to compare directly the thrusts of the two missiles due to uncertainty of the Taepodong-1 trajectory.

  2. Attacking the Mobile Ballistic Missile Threat in the Post-Cold War Environment. New Rules to an Old Game (United States)


    was established, and Korolev was named its chief constructor for long-range ballistic missiles. His col- league Glushko, who was now serving as...provoking concept, see John W. Kingdon, Agendas , Alternatives, and Public Policies (New York: Long- man Press, 1995), 172–73. 45. Armacost, The

  3. Determination of the Trajectory of Ballistic Missiles Using a Dense GPS Array (United States)

    Heki, K.; Ozeki, M.


    The dense array of ~1000 Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers in Japan provides useful information on atmosphere and ionosphere in terms of delays of microwaves in propagation media. Here we introduce its brand-new application, determination of the trajectories of ballistic missiles by using their electron depletion signatures in ionosphere. Booker (1961) first detected F-region ion depletion associated with a missile passage. Later, formation of an ionospheric hole by the launch of Skylab was observed, and Mendillo et al. (1975) attributed the electron depletion to the water molecules in the rocket exhaust. In Japan, ionospheric depletion after the launch of the H-IIA rocket was observed at GPS receivers in southern Japan using differences in phases between the two carrier frequencies L1 and L2 (Furuya & Heki, 2008). The so-called Taepodong-1, and -2 (the North Korean government claims that they successfully launched satellites), ballistic missiles with liquid fuel engines, were launched from Musudanri, North Korea, in August 1998, and April 2009, respectively. Their first stage engines splashed down onto the Japan Sea, and their second stage engines flew over northeastern Japan and reached the Pacific Ocean. We investigated GPS data before and after the launches, and detected that linear electron depletion areas appear in the northern part of the Japan Sea (~300 km east of the launch pad) approximately six minutes after the launch. Such electron depletion occurs as a result of exchange of positive charges between oxygen ions and water molecules, and dissociative recombination of water with electrons. The ionospheric hole rapidly grows and gradually decays as the water molecules diffuse. By comparing the numerical simulation results of ionospheric hole formation (water diffusion and chemical reaction) and the observed change in ionospheric total electron content (TEC), we conclude that the Taepodong-1 exhaust included water molecules ~0.5 percent of those in

  4. MEDUSA: A concept for countering multiple targets from theater ballistic missiles. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peglow, S.G.


    We feel that the concept of intercepting a fractionated threat from a tactical ballistic missile is potentially feasible and would have very high payoff for the defense. Many other concepts have been suggested to solve this problem, although they have mostly been more futuristic approaches, e.g. aircrafty based lasers. We also believe that current technologies are not likely to be adequate for the expected types of very small submunition payloads, especially in the presence of relatively simple countermeasures. The MEDUSA concept, or its clones, may very well provide a vehicle for the study of less stressing threats, e.g. separating warheads and provide a lethality enhancement for non-deployed payloads. An opportunity also exists to investigate alternative technologies, such as the explosively-formed ``disk`` idea. The use of high-precision, limited field-of-view sensor-fuzed munitions is a subject of interest in other Defense Department programs and may have application to the important area of theater missile defense.

  5. The US ballistic missile defence policy in the Baltic and Nordic regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konyshev Valery


    Full Text Available This article examines the implications of the deployment of the US ballistic missile defense (BMD system in the Baltic and Nordic regions. These implications are to be considered to ensure Russia’s military security. Using the structural-functional method, the authors analyse the internal structure of the US BMD in Europe, stages of its implementation, and its influence on the military equilibrium in the region. Being similar to other regional missile defence systems of the Pentagon, BMD in Europe increases the offensive capabilities of the US armed forces and its allies and in doing so, it stops performing a purely defensive mission declared by Washington. It is stressed that the deployment of mobile sea- and land-based BMD elements in the Baltic Sea region and Nordic countries will inevitably destabilize the strategic situation and may lead to a new round of arms race in the region. The efficacy of BMD in Europe is evaluated from the perspective of military technology. The system’s potential threats to Russia’s military security and its armed forces are assessed. The article considers measures to enhance national security that could be taken by Russia provided the US plans to deploy BMD in Europe are fully implemented.

  6. Evaluation of appropriate sensor specifications for space based ballistic missile detection (United States)

    Schweitzer, Caroline; Stein, Karin; Wendelstein, Norbert


    The detection and tracking of ballistic missiles (BMs) during launch or cloud break using satellite based electro-optical (EO) sensors is a promising possibility for pre-instructing early warning and fire control radars. However, the successful detection of a BM is depending on the applied infrared (IR)-channel, as emission and reflection of threat and background vary in different spectral (IR-) bands and for different observation scenarios. In addition, the spatial resolution of the satellite based system also conditions the signal-to-clutter-ratio (SCR) and therefore the predictability of the flight path. Generally available satellite images provide data in spectral bands, which are suitable for remote sensing applications and earth surface observations. However, in the fields of BM early warning, these bands are not of interest making the simulation of background data essential. The paper focuses on the analysis of IR-bands suitable for missile detection by trading off the suppression of background signature against threat signal strength. This comprises a radiometric overview of the background radiation in different spectral bands for different climates and seasons as well as for various cloud types and covers. A brief investigation of the BM signature and its trajectory within a threat scenario is presented. Moreover, the influence on the SCR caused by different observation scenarios and varying spatial resolution are pointed out. The paper also introduces the software used for simulating natural background spectral radiance images, MATISSE ("Advanced Modeling of the Earth for Environment and Scenes Simulation") by ONERA [1].

  7. North Korea’s Military Threat: Pyongyang’s Conventional Forces, Weapons of Mass Destruction, and Ballistic Missiles (United States)


    560 grams (20 oz) of rice, 240 grams (8.5 oz) of other grain, 100 grams of meat (3.5 oz), 1 KG of vegetables (2.2 lbs), 20 grams of soy sauce , and 10...exports of ballistic missiles and related technology. North Korea’s missile program also became important as a status symbol to bolster the prestige... important — if not more important —than the performance of conventional KPA forces along the DMZ would be the execution of numerous Second Front

  8. Ballistic Missile Defense System Transition and Transfer Process from Missile Defense Agency to the Army - Innovative or Dysfunctional? (United States)


    learned after the war that the Nazis had also completed fabrication of a container to transport V-2s across the Atlantic, towed by snorkel-equipped U-Boats...2002). 2 ―Missile Defense: The First Sixty Years.‖ (Washington, DC: Missile Defense Agency, August 15, 2008), 1. 3 ― V2 ,‖ in Wikipedia. 2010. http

  9. Missiles for Asia The Need for Operational Analysis of U.S. Theater Ballistic Missiles in the Pacific (United States)


    PLA and could play a key enabling role in Chinese counter- intervention campaigns (Hagen, 2010; Vick , 2011).9 The topic holds particular importance for...capabilities ( Vick et al., 2001, pp. 57–81). A TEL can begin moving soon after it has launched a missile, meaning that the target location error...States detects a missile launch, it could be anywhere within a 35-km2 circle after 10 minutes ( Vick et al., 2001, p. 73). Even if the TEL has to wait

  10. X-ray lasers: Strategic problems and potential as an in-orbit exoatmospheric ballistic missile defense system (United States)

    Perusich, Karl Anthony


    The problems and potential of a single proposed ballistic missile defense system, the X-ray laser-armed satellite, are examined in this research. Specifically, the X-ray laser satellite system is examined to determine its impact on the issues of cost-effectiveness and crisis stability. To examime the cost-effectiveness and the crisis stability of the X-ray laser satellites, a simulation of a nuclear exchange was constructed. The X-ray laser satellites were assumed to be vulnerable to attack from energy satellites with limited satellite-to-satellite lethal ranges. Symmetric weapons and force postures were used. Five principal weapon classes were used in the model: ICMBs, SLBMs, X-ray laser satellites, bombers, and endo-atmospheric silo defenses. Also, the orbital dynamics of the ballistic missiles and satellites were simulated. The cost-effectiveness of the X-ray laser satellites was determined for two different operational capabilities, damage-limitation and assured destruction. The following conclusions were reached. The effects of deployment of a new weapon system on the Triad as a whole should be examined. The X-ray laser was found to have little effectiveness as a damage-limiting weapon for a defender. For an assured destruction capability, X-ray laser satellites could be part of a minimum-cost force mix with that capability.

  11. Motion of a ballistic missile angularly misaligned with the flight path upon entering the atmosphere and its effect upon aerodynamic heating, aerodynamic loads, and miss distance (United States)

    Allen, Julian H


    An analysis is given of the oscillating motion of a ballistic missile which upon entering the atmosphere is angularly misaligned with respect to the flight path. The history of the motion for some example missiles is discussed from the point of view of the effect of the motion on the aerodynamic heating and loading. The miss distance at the target due to misalignment and to small accidental trim angles is treated. The stability problem is also discussed for the case where the missile is tumbling prior to atmospheric entry.

  12. Nuclear Weapons: DOD Assessed the Need for Each Leg of the Strategic Triad and Considered Other Reductions to Nuclear Forces (United States)


    intercontinental ballistic missiles ...triad. The triad comprises the sea- based leg (submarine-launched ballistic missiles ), ground-based leg ( intercontinental ballistic missiles ), and... ballistic missiles carried on ballistic missile submarines), the ground-based strategic deterrent ( intercontinental ballistic missiles ), and the

  13. NATO and U.S. Ballistic Missile Defense Programs: Divergent or Convergent Paths? (United States)


    making framework. It is common for TMD systems to be developed and deployed via bilateral negotiations. The only TMD project that has been subject to...sol-air moyenne portée- terrestre , that is, a ground based surface- to-air medium-range missile. 52 “Aster 30 SAMP/T – Surface-to-Air Missile Platform...alone rather than via a joint development with Alliance members that have expressed interest. Additionally, some European members of the Alliance

  14. The famous son of Ukrainian people V.I. Voznyuk who has provided launch of all ballistic missiles of the cosmodrome Kapustin Yar (United States)

    Prisniakov, V. F.; Platonov, V. P.


    The history of the life of V.I. Voznyuk is a history of the phenomenon of the Soviet rocket progress when the engineers with experience of launch of military rocket of small radius of action were testing the ballistic missiles. The remarkable and little-known destiny of Voznuk is the history of the Soviet rocket technology experts who had a severe practical schooling of command by the military forces of the first combat missiles "Katucha" during the grim military years (including the grandiose fight in Stalingrad) and then they have continued to launch the ballistic missiles. V.I. Voznyuk worked as the chief of the first Soviet cosmodrome Kapustin Yar for almost 30 years—since the most difficult moment of its organization. He organized a launch of the first Soviet ballistic missiles R-1, R-2, R-5M of S. Korolev. This report is about the outstanding achievement of the organizing ability of V.I. Voznyuk—about the launch of a missile with a nuclear warhead in 1956. V.I. Voznyuk closes a unique chain in the world of outstanding figures of space-rocket technology who were born or lived in Ukraine from designers of missile up to the organizers of its manufacture and now up to the organizers of the tests of rockets—J. Aizenberg, V. Budnik, O. Baclanov, V. Dogujiev, M. Galasj, N. Gerasuta, V. Gluschko, B. Gubanov, A. Gudimenko, I. Ivanov, G. Kesunjko, B. Konoplev, S. Korolev, V. Kovtunenko, V. Kukuschkin, O. Makarov, A. Nedaivoda, M. Reshetniyov, Yu. Semenov, V. Sergeev, Yu. Smetanin, V. Tchelomey, D. Torchiy, V. Utkin and M. Yangel.

  15. Sea-Based Ballistic Missile Defense - Background and Issues for Congress (United States)


    4479. 39 Demetri Sevastopulo, Guy Dinmore, and Neil Buckley, “Experts Sceptical [sic] On Chances For Missile Deal,” Financial Times, June 21, 2007...Institute, a Washington think tank , held at the National Press Club. “Certainly by the near-term capability, between now and 2015, that’s a lot of

  16. The Future of the Ballistic Missile Submarine Force in the Russian Nuclear Triad (United States)


    financial setbacks, missile technology failures, and the Kursk sinking in 2000, the SSBN force has slipped back to a lesser prominence.9 B. MAJOR...range category. In the battle for survival, the SLBMs and ALCMs are the most likely potential losers. When the two platforms – submarines and

  17. Ballistic Missile Defense and Offensive Arms Reductions: A Review of the Historical Record (United States)


    policy disaster.” See “A Flawed and Dangerous U.S. Missile Defense Plan, George N. Lewis and Theodore A. Postol , Arms Control Today, May 2010, pp. 24...demand. The PAA would be based primarily on existing BMD sensors and Patriot, THAAD , and Aegis BMD interceptors. Secretary Gates argued the PAA would

  18. Navy Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) Program: Background and Issues for Congress (United States)


    Aerospace Industry Association-sponsored event on Capitol Hill yesterday. Obering, currently an executive with Booz Allen Hamilton [BAH], served as...The Chokai test failure cost Japan a $55 million loss, he said, adding, “It wasn’t cheap .”... In the Chokai test, the target missile was launched

  19. A model to calculate effectiveness of a submarine-launched nuclear ASW weapon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnoli, D.E.


    LLNL's Navy Tactical Applications Group (NTAG) has produced a computer model to calculate the probability of kill of a submarine-launched nuclear ASW standoff-weapon. Because of the uncertainties associated with target position and motion and with weapon delivery, this is a problem appropriately treated statistically. The code is a Monte Carlo's simulation which follows the engagement from localization through optional evasive maneuvers of the target to attack and damage assessment. For a given scenario (weapon characteristics, target characteristics, firing platform depth and hardness, etc.) the code produces a table and ultimately a plot of Pk as a function of range. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Ballistic Missile Defense, ICBM Modernization, and Small Strategic Attacks: Out of the Frying Pan? (United States)


    success; (2) the size and effects of an attack must be formally constrained; and (3) [18] Since, as noted above, the Soviets have tended to deprecate ...34limited nuclear employment" as a bourgeois self -delusion, the West undeniably runs the risk that its attempts at discriminating nuclear use would...parameters, and flying missiles on depressed trajectories we might also degrade defensive performance. Some of these capabilities are, however, not now

  1. Ballistic Missile Defense in the European Theater: Political, Military and Technical Considerations (United States)


    in a ground-based system, called the Sol-Air Moyen Portee/ Terrestre (SAMP/T) that uses the Aster 15 and the Aster 30 missiles with a range of up to...development processes “ via a spiral pathway culminating in an operator-in-the- 107 COL Tim Polaske Chief...Reentry Vehicle SAMP/T Sol-Air Moyen Portee/ Terrestre SBI Space Based Interceptor SBIRS Space Based Infrared Satellite SHAPE

  2. Debris from Ballistic Missile Defence: An Analysis Tool for Policy/Planning Studies (United States)


    Defence (U), Operational Research and Analysis Project Report 723 (SECRET/RELCANUS) (in preparation). 14. Postol , Theodore A., Lessons of the Gulf War...PAC-2 system used in the Gulf War used a proximity fuzed blast fragmentation warhead, systems such as the PAC-3 upgrade and THAAD Theatre Missile...contingency scenarios, using TMD systems such as Patriot, THAAD and Boost-Phase Intercept systems; and c. use of the model in support of scientific studies

  3. Conventional Prompt Global Strike and Long-Range Ballistic Missiles: Background and Issues (United States)


    intelligence demands of the PGS mission. The Obama Administration’s description of the prompt global strike mission focuses more on regional 15A description of some of these scenarios can be found in the National Academies Study on Prompt Global Strike. See...DOD conducted a second test of the HTV-2 vehicle on August 10, 2011. According to DARPA, the Minotaur missile successfully boosted the HPV -2 vehicle

  4. The Impact on Strategic Stability of Ballistic Missile Defense in Eastern Europe (United States)


    study from 2002 is about! It‘s not cost- free. And of course some people argue, okay, this is of the cost of one tank . Look how difficult it is to...get the European politicians to pay for one tank . For the U.S. it may sound ridiculous but for Europeans it‘s not ridiculous. But this is a...12, 2008). Staff Writers. 2006. ―Europe sceptical about U.S. missile shield plans.‖ Space War. May 26.

  5. Missile defence : An overview


    Weimar, P.W.L.


    At the present day, an unparalleled number of international actors, be it national governments or non-state groups, have acquired or are seeking to acquire both weapons of mass destruction and the means to deliver them. Those means of delivery can be Ballistic Missiles that can bridge vast – even intercontinental – distances. The use of Ballistic Missiles with conventional warheads is also an evolving threat as witnessed by the Chinese anti-ship ballistic missile. The defence of land forces a...

  6. A Feasibility Study of the Flare-Cylinder Configuration as a Reentry Body Shape for an Intermediate Range Ballistic Missile (United States)

    Garland, B. J.; Hall, J. R.


    A study has been made of a flare-cylinder configuration to investigate its feasibility as a reentry body of an intermediate range ballistic missile. Factors considered were heating, weight, stability, and impact velocity. A series of trajectories covering the possible range of weight-drag ratios were computed for simple truncated nose shapes of varying pointedness, and hence varying weight-drag ratios. Four trajectories were chosen for detailed temperature computation from among those trajectories estimated to be possible. Temperature calculations were made for both "conventional" (for example, copper, Inconel, and stainless steel) and "unconventional" (for example, beryllium and graphite) materials. Results of the computations showed that an impact Mach number of 0.5 was readily obtainable for a body constructed from conventional materials. A substantial increase in subsonic impact velocity above a Mach number of 0.5 was possible without exceeding material temperature limits. A weight saving of up to 134 pounds out of 822 was possible with unconventional materials. This saving represents 78 percent of the structural weight. Supersonic impact would require construction of the body from unconventional materials but appeared to be well within the range of attainability.

  7. X-ray lasers: strategic problems and potential as an in-orbit exoatmospheric ballistic missile defense system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perusich, K.A.


    The problems and potential of a single proposed ballistic missile defense system, the x-ray laser-armed satellite, are examined in this research. Specifically, the x-ray laser satellite system is examined to determine its impact on the issues of cost-effectiveness and crisis stability. To examine the cost-effectiveness and the crisis stability of the x-ray laser satellites, a simulation of a nuclear exchange was constructed. Two versions of this model were used in this analysis, a deterministic version of a Monte Carlo version. The x-ray laser satellites were assumed to be vulnerable to attack from enemy satellites with limited satellite-to-satellite lethal ranges. Symmetric weapons and force postures were used. Five principal weapon classes were used in the model: ICBMs, SLBMs, x-ray laser satellites, bombers, and endo-atmospheric silo defenses. The cost-effectiveness of the x-ray laser satellites was determined for two different operational capabilities, damage-limitation and assured destruction. The following conclusions were reached. The effects of deployment of a new weapon system on the Triad as a whole should be examined. The x-ray laser was found to have little effectiveness as a damage-limiting weapon for a defender. For an assured destruction capability, x-ray laser satellites could be part of a minimum-cost force mix with that capability.

  8. Precise terrestrial time: A means for improved ballistic missile guidance analysis (United States)

    Ehrsam, E. E.; Cresswell, S. A.; Mckelvey, G. R.; Matthews, F. L.


    An approach developed to improve the ground instrumentation time tagging accuracy and adapted to support the Minuteman ICBM program is desired. The Timing Insertion Unit (TIU) technique produces a telemetry data time tagging resolution of one tenth of a microsecond, with a relative intersite accuracy after corrections and velocity data (range, azimuth, elevation and range rate) also used in missile guidance system analysis can be correlated to within ten microseconds of the telemetry guidance data. This requires precise timing synchronization between the metric and telemetry instrumentation sites. The timing synchronization can be achieved by using the radar automatic phasing system time correlation methods. Other time correlation techniques such as Television (TV) Line-10 and the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GEOS) terrestial timing receivers are also considered.

  9. Experimental Study of Ballistic-Missile Base Heating with Operating Rocket (United States)

    Nettle, J. Cary


    A rocket of the 1000-pound-thrust class using liquid oxygen and JP-4 fuel as propellant was installed in the Lewis 8- by 6-foot tunnel to permit a controlled study of some of the factors affecting the heating of a rocket-missile base. Temperatures measured in the base region are presented from findings of three motor extension lengths relative to the base. Data are also presented for two combustion efficiency levels in the rocket motor. Temperature as high as 1200 F was measured in the base region because of the ignition of burnable rocket gases. combustibles that are dumped into the base by accessories seriously aggravate the base-burning temperature rise.

  10. The Peak of Rocket Production: The Designer of Ballistic Missiles V.F. Utkin (1923-2000) (United States)

    Prisniakov, V.; Sitnikova, N.


    achievements V. Utkin and his pupils are crea- tion unique "mortar" launching of a heavy liquid rocket from shaft, the decision of a complex of prob- lems on maintenance ready for military action (continuous attendance) of liquid rockets in the filled condi-tion for many years, maintenance of stability of rockets at action on them of striking factors of nuclear explosion. With personal participation of academician IAA V. Utkin the following large scien- tific and technical results were received: (a) a military railway rocket complex with intercontinental solid-propellant rocket with starting weight of 105 tons and with 10 warheads; (b) a method of war manage-ment with the help of command rockets; (c) a method of definition of characteristics of means of overcoming of antimissile defense; (d) war intercontinental rockets with the increased accuracy, with the survivability, with the availability for action; (e) a commanding rocket. Design' decisions not ha- ving the analogues in world: (a) managements of flight solid-propellant an intercontinental ballistic missiles by means of a deviating head part; (b) managements solid-propellant rocket by method of inje- ction of gas in supercritical part of nozzle; (c) industrial introduction of the newest materials etc.V. Ut- kin is the active participant of works in the field of the international cooperation in research and deve- lopment of a space. In 1990 V. Utkin hold a high post of the director of ZSNIIMACH which is leading organization of a space-rocket industry of Russia. Under manual V. Utkin the Federal space program of Russia was developed. V. Utkin had huge authority as the chairman of Advice of the Main designers of the USSR. He was the co-chairman combined commission of experts V. Utkin - T. Stafford" on problems of maintenance joint manned flights. He was the chairman of Coordination advice under the program of researches on manned space complexes. V. Utkin dreamed to be the active participant of a new stage of the outer

  11. Navy theater ballistic missile defense boost multispectral discrimination requirements for low-resolution detection, classification, and high-resolution aimpoint selection (United States)

    Paiva, Clifford A.


    The U.S. Navy has been requested to provide insightful responses to questions regarding low and high resolution target discrimination and target classification capabilities for short and medium range ballistic missiles (SRBM/MRBM). Specific targets studied for this paper include the solid booster and the associated attitude control system (ACS) liquid divert thruster systems. Discriminants selected include booster and ACS separation debris, as well as fuel vent phenomena. Debris and vent cloud containment and elimination through Gaussian suppression techniques have been implemented for low resolution assessment for target detection and tracking. Target gradient edge intensities were extracted for aimpoint selection and will be added to the pattern referencing library database at NSWC. The results of this study indicate an increasing requirement for advanced image processing on the focal plane array of a generic LEAP (light exo-atmospheric projectile) type kill kinetic vehicle (KKV) in order to implement effective target and aimpoint detection/tracking correlation matching routines.

  12. Determining the Probability of Violating Upper-Level Wind Constraints for the Launch of Minuteman Ill Ballistic Missiles At Vandenberg Air Force Base (United States)

    Shafer, Jaclyn A.; Brock, Tyler M.


    The 30th Operational Support Squadron Weather Flight (30 OSSWF) provides comprehensive weather services to the space program at Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB) in California. One of their responsibilities is to monitor upper-level winds to ensure safe launch operations of the Minuteman Ill ballistic missile. The 30 OSSWF requested the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) analyze VAFB sounding data to determine the probability of violating (PoV) upper-level thresholds for wind speed and shear constraints specific to this launch vehicle, and to develop a graphical user interface (GUI) that will calculate the PoV of each constraint on the day of launch. The AMU suggested also including forecast sounding data from the Rapid Refresh (RAP) model. This would provide further insight for the launch weather officers (LWOs) when determining if a wind constraint violation will occur over the next few hours, and help to improve the overall upper winds forecast on launch day.

  13. Missile Defense: Assessment of DODs Reports on Status of Efforts and Options for Improving Homeland Missile Defense (United States)


    a limited intercontinental ballistic missile attack from countries such as North Korea and Iran. According to recent testimony from senior DOD...officials, the warfighter remains confident in its ability to protect the nation from a limited intercontinental ballistic missile attack.6 However...Defense The Missile Defense Agency (MDA) is developing the Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS) to defend the U.S. homeland and U.S. regional

  14. Determining the Probability of Violating Upper-Level Wind Constraints for the Launch of Minuteman III Ballistic Missiles at Vandenberg Air Force Base (United States)

    Shafer, Jaclyn A.; Brock, Tyler M.


    The 30th Operational Support Squadron Weather Flight (30 OSSWF) provides comprehensive weather services to the space program at Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB) in California. One of their responsibilities is to monitor upper-level winds to ensure safe launch operations of the Minuteman Ill ballistic missile. The 30 OSSWF tasked the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) to analyze VAFB sounding data with the goal of determining the probability of violating (PoV) their upper-level thresholds for wind speed and shear constraints specific to this launch vehicle, and to develop a tool that will calculate the PoV of each constraint on the day of launch. In order to calculate the probability of exceeding each constraint, the AMU collected and analyzed historical data from VAFB. The historical sounding data were retrieved from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Earth System Research Laboratory archive for the years 1994-2011 and then stratified into four sub-seasons: January-March, April-June, July-September, and October-December. The AMU determined the theoretical distributions that best fit the maximum wind speed and maximum wind shear datasets and applied this information when calculating the averages and standard deviations needed for the historical and real-time PoV calculations. In addition, the AMU included forecast sounding data from the Rapid Refresh model. This information provides further insight for the launch weather officers (LWOs) when determining if a wind constraint violation will occur over the next few hours on the day of launch. The AMU developed an interactive graphical user interface (GUI) in Microsoft Excel using Visual Basic for Applications. The GUI displays the critical sounding data easily and quickly for LWOs on day of launch. This tool will replace the existing one used by the 30 OSSWF, assist the LWOs in determining the probability of exceeding specific wind threshold values, and help to improve the overall upper winds forecast for

  15. Ballistic-Missile Defense Weapons, (United States)


    During the Spring Festival, kids always love to play with rocket fireworks. Rocket fireworks light up the night one after another, Even though these are...yellow, green, blue, indigo , and violet light, and radia- tion of other wavelengths. Man has utilized the above characteristics of stimulated emission

  16. Missile defence : An overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weimar, P.W.L.


    At the present day, an unparalleled number of international actors, be it national governments or non-state groups, have acquired or are seeking to acquire both weapons of mass destruction and the means to deliver them. Those means of delivery can be Ballistic Missiles that can bridge vast – even

  17. US strategic nuclear forces, end of 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norris, R.S.; Arkin, W.M. [NRDC, Washington, DC (United States)


    Quantitative data on operational nuclear weapons is tabulated and described in some detail in the article. Nuclear weapons categories reported include intercontinental ballistic missiles, nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarines, submarine-launched ballistic missiles, and bombers and weapons. The total number of warheads in the U.S. arsenal is approximately 7150, slightly lower than last year`s level of almost 8000 warheads. There are 1085 launchers and nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarines.

  18. Izbor faktora rotacije vektora potiska za balističku raketu sa Lambertovim vođenjem / Choice of the rotational factor of the thrust vector for the ballistic missile with Lambert guidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo V. Ćuk


    Full Text Available Predmet rada jeste primena Lambertovog vođenja na balističku raketu. Koristeći fundamentalnu jednačinu za upravljački vektor brzine razvijena je formula za određivanje ugla orijentacije vektora potiska u zavisnosti od faktora rotacije njegovog pravca. Izvedena formula zahteva Q-matricu koja povezuje diferencijalnu promenu vektora položaja rakete sa odgovarajućom diferencijalnom promenom korelisane brzine za fiksnu poziciju cilja i konstantno vreme slobodnog leta rakete. Izborom parametra rotacije vektora potiska dobijaju se različiti profili ugaonog položaja rakete i ugla njene brzine u zavisnosti od vremena. Podešavanjem parametra rotacije vektora potiska moguće je ostvariti prekid rada raketnog motora pri nultom napadnom uglu i, na taj način, smanjiti početne poremećaje slobodnog leta rakete. / This paper deals with the application of the Lambert guidance to the ballistic missile. By using the fundamental equation for the velocity-to-be-gained, the demanded command for the thrust angle is developed in terms of the rotational factor of its direction. The developed formula requires the Q-matrix which links a differential change in the missile position vector to the corresponding differential change in the correlated velocity for the fixed target position and the constant time of free flight. The choice of the rotational parameter provides different profiles of the missile attitude and flight path angle with time. By adjusting the rotational parameter for the thrust vector, the cut-off of the rocket engine can occur at zero angle of attack and the initial perturbations during free flight may be thus reduced.

  19. 75 FR 77849 - Closed Meeting of the Missile Defense Advisory Committee (United States)


    ... 2011 United States Ballistic Missile Defense Cooperation Study. Agenda: Topics tentatively scheduled... Portugal, announced a new Strategic Concept that focuses the Alliance on ballistic missiles. The timing of... Office of the Secretary Closed Meeting of the Missile Defense Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of...

  20. Diode Pumped Alkaline Laser System: A High Powered, Low SWaP Directed Energy Option for Ballistic Missile Defense High-Level Summary - April 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wisoff, P. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    The Diode-Pumped Alkali Laser (DPAL) system is an R&D effort funded by the Missile Defense Agency (MDA) underway at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). MDA has described the characteristics needed for a Boost Phase directed energy (DE) weapon to work against ICBM-class threat missiles. In terms of the platform, the mission will require a high altitude Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) that can fly in the “quiet” stratosphere and display long endurance – i.e., days on station. In terms of the laser, MDA needs a high power, low size and weight laser that could be carried by such a platform and deliver lethal energy to an ICBM-class threat missile from hundreds of kilometers away. While both the military and industry are pursuing Directed Energy for tactical applications, MDA’s objectives pose a significantly greater challenge than other current efforts in terms of the power needed from the laser, the low size and weight required, and the range, speed, and size of the threat missiles. To that end, MDA is funding two R&D efforts to assess the feasibility of a high power (MWclass) and low SWaP (size, weight and power) laser: a fiber combining laser (FCL) project at MIT’s Lincoln Laboratory, and LLNL’s Diode-Pumped Alkali Laser (DPAL) system.

  1. The North Korean Missile Program (United States)

    Wright, David


    In recent years, the development of ballistic missiles by North Korea has been a key motivation for US efforts to stem missile proliferation and to develop defenses against intermediate and long-range missiles. In the 1980s, North Korea reverse-engineered short-range Soviet Scud missiles and began to produce and sell them. In 1993, it flight-tested a missile reported to have a range of up to 1,300 kilometers, which would allow it to target most of Japan. In 1998, it launched a multi-stage missile over Japan; it later announced that the launch had been an attempt to place a satellite in orbit. An important question is what these tests imply for its current capability and its possible future missile development. Since North Korea has sold missiles to countries in the Middle East and South Asia and is reported to be assisting Iran's missile development program, understanding its capabilities is relevant to security concerns in several parts of the world. In this talk I will discuss my analysis of the publicly available information about North Korea's missile tests, and my conclusions about possible future developments. This includes estimates of ranges and payloads of its next potential generation of missiles, and comments about their potential military utility.

  2. Detection technique of targets for missile defense system (United States)

    Guo, Hua-ling; Deng, Jia-hao; Cai, Ke-rong


    Ballistic missile defense system (BMDS) is a weapon system for intercepting enemy ballistic missiles. It includes ballistic-missile warning system, target discrimination system, anti-ballistic-missile guidance systems, and command-control communication system. Infrared imaging detection and laser imaging detection are widely used in BMDS for surveillance, target detection, target tracking, and target discrimination. Based on a comprehensive review of the application of target-detection techniques in the missile defense system, including infrared focal plane arrays (IRFPA), ground-based radar detection technology, 3-dimensional imaging laser radar with a photon counting avalanche photodiode (APD) arrays and microchip laser, this paper focuses on the infrared and laser imaging detection techniques in missile defense system, as well as the trends for their future development.

  3. Options for Deploying Missile Defenses in Europe (United States)


    efforts at missile defense (such as the 1960s- era Nike -Zeus program) were aimed at countering the vast Soviet missile arsenal. Recent efforts are...on unclassified performance parameters for the various radars and interceptors and assumed that the systems would work “as advertised .” (A...develop defenses against ballistic missiles. Early U.S. efforts (such as the 1960s-era Nike -Zeus program) were aimed at countering the Soviet Union’s

  4. Strategic Missile Defense & Nuclear Deterrence (United States)

    Grego, Laura

    The United States has pursued defenses against nuclear-armed long-range ballistic missiles since at least the 1950s. At the same time, concerns that missile defenses could undermine nuclear deterrence and potentially spark an arms race led the United States and Soviet Union to negotiate limits on these systems. The 1972 Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty constrained strategic missile defenses for thirty years. After abandoning the treaty in 2002, President George W. Bush began fielding the Ground-based Midcourse Defense (GMD) homeland missile defense system on an extremely aggressive schedule, nominally to respond to threats from North Korea and Iran. Today, nearly fifteen years after its initial deployment, the potential and the limits of this homeland missile defense are apparent. Its test record is poor and it has no demonstrated ability to stop an incoming missile under real-world conditions. No credible strategy is in place to solve the issue of discriminating countermeasures. Insufficient oversight has not only exacerbated the GMD system's problems, but has obscured their full extent, which could encourage politicians and military leaders to make decisions that actually increase the risk of a missile attack against the United States. These are not the only costs. Both Russia and China have repeatedly expressed concerns that U.S. missile defenses adversely affect their own strategic capabilities and interests, particularly taken in light of the substantial US nuclear forces. This in turn affects these countries' nuclear modernization priorities. This talk will provide a technical overview of the US strategic missile defense system, and how it relates to deterrence against non-peer adversaries as well as how it affects deterrence with Russia and China and the long-term prospects for nuclear reductions

  5. On projectiles, missiles and history (United States)

    Strnad, J.


    The trajectories of projectiles are easily calculated and the way to the trajectories of intercontinental ballistic missiles is only a little more demanding. The first can be considered as limiting cases of the second. However, at the beginning of physics the two cases were taken as completely unrelated.

  6. Forensic ballistics


    Hoznour, Ondřej


    - 1 - 9. Abstract Forensic ballistics The goal of this thesis is to initiate readers into the branch of criminalistic or forensic ballistics and to its basic terminology. It is not possible to compile this theme at full length, there is no sufficient space for it, therefore I offer professional minimum of criminalistic ballistics. The fundamental purpose of my thesis is to afford the complex view of problems of modern forensic ballistics. The thesis is composed of introduction, six chapters, ...

  7. Hyper Velocity Missiles For Defence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faqir Minhas


    Full Text Available The paper reviews the history of technical development in the field of hypervelocity missiles. It highlights the fact that the development of anti-ballistic systems in USA, Russia, France, UK, Sweden, and Israel is moving toward the final deployment stage; that USA and Israel are trying to sell PAC 2 and Arrow 2 to India; and that India’s Agni and Prithvi missiles have improved their accuracy, with assistance from Russia. Consequently, the paper proposes enhanced effort for development in Pakistan of a basic hypersonic tactical missile, with 300 KM range, 500 KG payload, and multi-rolecapability. The author argues that a system, developed within the country, at the existing or upgraded facilities, will not violate MTCR restrictions, and would greatly enhance the country’s defense capability. Furthermore, it would provide high technology jobs toPakistani citizens. The paper reinforces the idea by suggesting that evolution in the field of aviation and electronics favors the development of ballistic, cruise and guided missile technologies; and that flight time of short and intermediate range missiles is so short that its interception is virtually impossible.

  8. Missile Defense Agency (MDA) Annual Small Business Conference (United States)


    global norm or treaty banning trade in ballistic missiles (the function of the Missile Technology Control Regime is to facilitate ad hoc coordination...No “one size fits all” – tailor your marketing literature to the prospective customer • Target your market within the Agency and do your homework

  9. Accomplishing the mission of National Missile Defense with current technology


    Criss, Michael.


    The Purpose of this thesis is to evaluate the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization's proposals for a National Missile Defense (NMD). This thesis compares the costs of missile systems that will provide a NMD, such as Patriot Advanced Capability - 3 (PAC-3), Navy Area (SM-2 Block WA), Theater High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD), Navy Theater-Wide (SM-3), and the Ground-Based Interceptor (GBI). The data gathered for this thesis included unclassified performance data and the gross cost data rele...

  10. Trajectory optimization of a deflectable nose missile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-yong Zhang


    Full Text Available The deflectable nose missile has a longer range by deflecting its nose to improve its aerodynamic feature. Based on detached eddy simulation (DES, the supersonic flow fields of a missile with deflectable nose are simulated numerically and its aerodynamic force coefficients are calculated under the condition of the deflection angles vary from 0° to 8°, angles of attack, 0°–8°, and mach numbers, 2 to 5. Coupling these aerodynamic coefficients with the plumb plane ballistic equations, the extended flight range has been calculated. Furthermore, the genetic algorithm (GA is employed for the solution of maximum range of the deflected missile.

  11. Russian Ballistic Missile Defense: Rhetoric and Reality (United States)


    Viktor Y esin, noted since retirement for his off-message commentary, offered a more reserved estimate. According to him, the Mos- cow system, "once it...great-power status, competitiveness on the global arms market, and, in Russian eyes , the flourishing of the Russian economy. This, together with

  12. The Development of the US National Missile Defense and its Impact on the International Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Yu. Parshkova


    Full Text Available The article reflects the US officials' point of view on the development of its national missile defense. The major threat to international security is the proliferation of ballistic missiles and weapons of mass destruction. The United States and the former Soviet Union made huge efforts to reduce and limit offensive arms. However, presently the proliferation of ballistic missiles spreads all over the world, especially in the Middle East, because of the ballistic missile technology falling into the hands of hostile non-state groups. Missile defenses can provide a permanent presence in a region and discourage adversaries from believing they can use ballistic missiles to coerce or intimidate the U.S. or its allies. With the possible attack regional missile defense systems will be promptly mobilized to enhance an effective deterrent. The ultimate goal of such large-scale missile defense deployment is to convince the adversaries that the use of ballistic missiles is useless in military terms and that any attack on the United States and its allies is doomed to failure. The United States has missile defense cooperative programs with a number of allies, including United Kingdom, Japan, Australia, Israel, Denmark, Germany, Netherlands, Czech Republic, Poland, Italy and many others. The Missile Defense Agency also actively participates in NATO activities to maximize opportunities to develop an integrated NATO ballistic missile defense capability. The initiative of the development of US BMD naturally belongs to the United States. That country has enormous technological, financial, economic, military and institutional capabilities, exceeding by far those of the other NATO members combined.

  13. Heat-Transfer and Pressure Measurements from a Flight Test of the Third 1/18-Scale Model of the Titan Intercontinental Ballistic Missile up to a Mach Number of 3.86 and Reynolds Number per Foot of 23.5 x 10(exp 6) and a Comparison with Heat Transfer (United States)

    Graham, John B., Jr.


    Heat-transfer and pressure measurements were obtained from a flight test of a 1/18-scale model of the Titan intercontinental ballistic missile up to a Mach number of 3.86 and Reynolds number per foot of 23.5 x 10(exp 6) and are compared with the data of two previously tested 1/18-scale models. Boundary-layer transition was observed on the nose of the model. Van Driest's theory predicted heat-transfer coefficients reasonably well for the fully laminar flow but predictions made by Van Driest's theory for turbulent flow were considerably higher than the measurements when the skin was being heated. Comparison with the flight test of two similar models shows fair repeatability of the measurements for fully laminar or turbulent flow.

  14. Terminal Ballistics

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenberg, Zvi


    This book covers the important issues of terminal ballistics in a comprehensive way combining experimental data, numerical simulations and analytical modeling. The first chapter reviews the experimental equipment which are used for ballistic tests and the diagnostics for material characterization under impulsive loading conditions. The second chapter covers essential features of the codes which are used for terminal ballistics such as the Euler vs. Lagrange schemes and meshing techniques, as well as the most popular material models. The third chapter, devoted to the penetration mechanics of rigid penetrators, brings the update of modeling in this field. The fourth chapter deals with plate perforation and the fifth chapter deals with the penetration mechanics of shaped charge jets and eroding long rods. The last two chapters discuss several techniques for the disruption and defeating of the main threats in armor design. Throughout the book the authors demonstrate the advantages of numerical simulations in unde...

  15. Multiple-Sensor Discrimination of Closely-Spaced Objects on a Ballistic Trajectory (United States)


    sensor array will be varied to assess their impact on system performance. 1 Jameson , Robert P...Ballistic Missile Defense System of Systems. Rand Corporation IP-181. Jameson , R. P. (2013). Armageddon’s Shortening Fuse: How Advances in Nuclear

  16. US-Led Cooperative Theater Missile Defense in Northeast Asia challenges and Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kiriah, Rex


    .... After maintaining four days of silence, North Korean officials stated that the Western labeled MRBM flight test was not the test firing of a ballistic missile but was a three-stage rocket launch...

  17. The manned penetrating bomber: time to reconsider?


    Toenyes, Shawn E.


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited During the Cold War, the United States constructed a nuclear triad, which consists of three components: strategic bombers, intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs), and submarine-launched ballistic missiles (SLBMs). The triad's mission was to ensure that the U.S. nuclear force would not be crippled or destroyed should an enemy attempt a first strike attack against the United States. This in turn offered a credible threat of a U.S.-l...

  18. Report of the Secretary of Defense Caspar W. Weinberger to the Congress on the FY 1987 Budget, FY 1988 Authorization Request and FY 1987-1991 Defense Programs, February 5, 1986 (United States)


    greater length in the final chapter of Part 1. Here, a brief paragraph sumnmary of each will suffice. PSecure Nucler Deterrence and the Strategic...Millions 4.6 5.5 67.5 221.9 Procurement: $Millions 119.9 126.7 105.6 133.4 (b) Sea-Based Strategic Nucler Forces Submarine-launched ballistic missiles

  19. Water-cooled spacecraft : DART to be launched by Russian Volna (Stingray) rocket

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Baten, T.; Buursink, J.; Hartmann, L.


    A25 September 2005, Barents Sea, near Murmansk.Ten metres under the surface of the sea, the launch tube of the Mstislav, a Rostropovich class nuclear submarine, grinds open. The countdown for the launch of a Volna R-29R slbm (Submarine-Launched Ballistic Missile) starts: For many years, satellites

  20. Impacts of Deflection Nose on Ballistic Trajectory Control Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zhang


    Full Text Available The deflection of projectile nose is aimed at changing the motion of the projectile in flight with the theory of motion control and changing the exterior ballistics so as to change its range and increase its accuracy. The law of external ballistics with the deflectable nose is considered as the basis of the design of a flight control system and an important part in the process of projectile development. Based on the existing rigid external ballistic model, this paper establishes an external ballistic calculation model for deflectable nose projectile and further establishes the solving programs accordingly. Different angle of attack, velocity, coefficients of lift, resistance, and moment under the deflection can be obtained in this paper based on the previous experiments and emulation researches. In the end, the author pointed out the laws on the impaction of external ballistic trajectory by the deflection of nose of the missile.

  1. Missile Defense: Mixed Progress in Achieving Acquisition Goals and Improving Accountability (United States)


    Missile-3 THAAD Terminal High Altitude Area Defense This is a work of the U.S. government and is not subject to copyright protection in the United... THAAD ) THAAD is a mobile, ground-based missile defense system designed to defend against short- and medium-range ballistic missiles in the late...middle and end of their flight. THAAD is organized as a battery, which includes interceptors, launchers, an AN/TPY-2 radar, a fire control and

  2. Terminal ballistics

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenberg, Zvi


    This book comprehensively discusses essential aspects of terminal ballistics, combining experimental data, numerical simulations and analytical modeling. Employing a unique approach to numerical simulations as a measure of sensitivity for the major physical parameters, the new edition also includes the following features: new figures to better illustrate the problems discussed; improved explanations for the equation of state of a solid and for the cavity expansion process; new data concerning the Kolsky bar test; and a discussion of analytical modeling for the hole diameter in a thin metallic plate impacted by a shaped charge jet. The section on thick concrete targets penetrated by rigid projectiles has now been expanded to include the latest findings, and two new sections have been added: one on a novel approach to the perforation of thin concrete slabs, and one on testing the failure of thin metallic plates using a hydrodynamic ram.

  3. The Impact of Missile Threats on the Reliability of U.S. Overseas Bases: A Framework for Analysis (United States)


    including long-range bombers and cruise missiles. The current Air Force concept for achieving this type of capability is the Global Strike Task Force ( GSTF ... GSTF is centered on early insertion of B-2 bombers equipped with conventional bombs, supported by F-22 escorts and advanced ISR to identify enemy...conventional cruise missiles. Plans to re- christen these ballistic missile submarines as SSGNs are underway, and may complement the GSTF program well

  4. Ballistics for the neurosurgeon. (United States)

    Jandial, Rahul; Reichwage, Brett; Levy, Michael; Duenas, Vincent; Sturdivan, Larry


    Craniocerebral injuries from ballistic projectiles are qualitatively different from injuries in unconfined soft tissue with similar impact. Penetrating and nonpenetrating ballistic injuries are influenced not only by the physical properties of the projectile, but also by its ballistics. Ballistics provides information on the motion of projectiles while in the gun barrel, the trajectory of the projectile in air, and the behavior of the projectile on reaching its target. This basic knowledge can be applied to better understand the ultimate craniocerebral consequences of ballistic head injuries.

  5. The Threat from European Missile Defence System to Russian National Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey I. Podberezkin


    Full Text Available The article analyses the political and military aspects of progress in the dialogue between Russia and the U.S./NATO on cooperation in missile defense; investigates the past experiences and current state of cooperation between Russia and the Alliance on missile defense issues; examines the technical features of American missile defence systems today; finds a solution to question whether or not the European Missile Defence Program actually threatens Russia's nuclear deterrent and strategic stability in general; identifies both potential benefits and possible losses for Russia stemming from the development of cooperation with the United States and NATO in countering ballistic missile threats, or from refusal to have such cooperation. Evidently, the initiative of creation of a missile defense in Europe surely belongs to the USA. Washington has enormous technological, financial, economic, military and institutional capabilities in the field of a missile defense, exceeding by far other NATO member-states. In February 2010, the President of the United States B. Obama adopted a project "European Phased Adaptive Approach" (EPAA as an alternative to G. Bush's global strategic missile defense plan. The first two stages of the Phased Adaptive Approach are focused on creating a system capable of intercepting small, medium and intermediate-range ballistic missiles. The possibility of intercepting long-range missiles is postponed to the third (2018 and forth phases (2020. Moscow finds especially troublesome the third and the fourth phases of Washington's project of creating a European segment of the global antiballistic missile system, considering prospective capabilities of the U.S. interceptor missiles 61 and the envisioned areas of their deployment. The U.S. counter-evidence is that phase four interceptors do not exist yet. Russia insists on getting the political and legal guarantees from the U.S. and NATO that their missile defense systems will not slash

  6. Model of ballistic targets' dynamics used for trajectory tracking algorithms (United States)

    Okoń-FÄ fara, Marta; Kawalec, Adam; Witczak, Andrzej


    There are known only few ballistic object tracking algorithms. To develop such algorithms and to its further testing, it is necessary to implement possibly simple and reliable objects' dynamics model. The article presents the dynamics' model of a tactical ballistic missile (TBM) including the three stages of flight: the boost stage and two passive stages - the ascending one and the descending one. Additionally, the procedure of transformation from the local coordinate system to the polar-radar oriented and the global is presented. The prepared theoretical data may be used to determine the tracking algorithm parameters and to its further verification.

  7. Ground-Based Midcourse Defense: Continue Testing, but Operational Fielding Must Take a Backseat to Theater Missile Defense and Homeland Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cepek, Robert J


    The Ground-Based Midcourse Defense (GMD) system has been rushed into operation in Alaska but does not yet provide any defense against the thousands of nuclear warheads of Russia's 700 inter-continental ballistic missiles (ICBMs...

  8. Advanced Missile Signature Center (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Advanced Missile Signature Center (AMSC) is a national facility supporting the Missile Defense Agency (MDA) and other DoD programs and customers with analysis,...

  9. Cruise Missile Defense

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hichkad, Ravi R; Bolkcom, Christopher


    Congress has expressed interest in cruise missile defense for years. Cruise missiles (CMs) are essentially unmanned attack aircraft -- vehicles composed of an airframe, propulsion system, guidance system, and weapons payload...

  10. Cruise Missile Defense

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hichkad, Ravi R; Bolkcom, Christopher


    Congress has expressed interest in cruise missile defense for years. Cruise missiles (CMs) are essentially unmanned attack aircraft -- vehicles composed of an airframe, propulsion system, guidance system, and weapons payload...

  11. Remote video assessment for missile launch facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, G.G.; Stewart, W.A.


    The widely dispersed, unmanned launch facilities (LFs) for land-based ICBMs (intercontinental ballistic missiles) currently do not have visual assessment capability for existing intrusion alarms. The security response force currently must assess each alarm on-site. Remote assessment will enhance manpower, safety, and security efforts. Sandia National Laboratories was tasked by the USAF Electronic Systems Center to research, recommend, and demonstrate a cost-effective remote video assessment capability at missile LFs. The project`s charter was to provide: system concepts; market survey analysis; technology search recommendations; and operational hardware demonstrations for remote video assessment from a missile LF to a remote security center via a cost-effective transmission medium and without using visible, on-site lighting. The technical challenges of this project were to: analyze various video transmission media and emphasize using the existing missile system copper line which can be as long as 30 miles; accentuate and extremely low-cost system because of the many sites requiring system installation; integrate the video assessment system with the current LF alarm system; and provide video assessment at the remote sites with non-visible lighting.

  12. Six-Degree-of-Freedom Digital Simulations for Missile Guidance and Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjie Xu


    Full Text Available Six-degree-of-freedom ballistic trajectory model can be used to verify design indicators, performance parameters, and correctness so they have been put forward in the missile argumentation and design process. Mathematical simulation is the basis of late semiphysical simulation and field firing testing, and it can greatly reduce the field shooting test time, which shortens the missile test cycle and so reduces costs.

  13. Study on the Mission, Roles, and Structure of the Missile Defense Agency (MDA) (United States)


    process, and transition and transfer of operations and sustainment of the Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS) elements to the Military Departments...reason why the defense-wide funding approach could not be immediately employed as an interim measure to facilitate the quick transfer of operations and

  14. Ballistic Test Facility (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Ballistic Test Facility is comprised of two outdoor and one indoor test ranges, which are all instrumented for data acquisition and analysis. Full-size aircraft...

  15. Environment Impact Analysis Process. Small Intercontinental Ballistic Missile Program (United States)


    considerations as the result of volcanic eruption in the Cascade Mountains. 0 Soils moderately to highly sensitive to sheet and wind erosion. 3 I I I m I m...Potholes and riparian wetlands occur near some of the launch facilities, and the Missouri and Yellowstone rivers and tributaries support wetland

  16. Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS) Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (United States)


    K.2.1 Jett Marshall DC_M2023 UCS K.2.1 Ji Angela DC_M7598 UCS K.2.1 Jijon Humberto DC_M7192 UCS K.2.1 Jimenez Salvador DC_M5059 UCS K.2.1 Jine Karen...DC_E0313 K.3.12 Mata Muriel DC_M4114 UCS K.2.1 Mateer Bob Bernie Mateer DC_M4059 UCS K.2.1 Matellaro Karen DC_M0757 K.2.1 Materna Gayle DC_M7594 UCS K.2.1

  17. System Architecture for Anti-Ship Ballistic Missile Defense (ASBMD) (United States)


    Attribute LCC Life Cycle Cost MCDM Multiple Criteria Decision Making MOE Measure of Effectiveness MOP Measure of Performance NPS Naval Postgraduate...describe the desirable characteristics of a given solution. Multiple Criteria Decision Making ( MCDM ) methodology such as min-max methods, min-max

  18. Ballistic Missile Propellant Evaluation Test Motor System (Super BATES) (United States)


    be optimized for perfornance accuracy, ease of Imadling, &ad minimum operating cost. However, each major para-eter alo Includes a such wider range to...thrust 4. 4. Iiinili Alit-et, Ti.- he rust ,wtvt: I-, Ins.iiAri 4\\ to al ig-nmenat er t hree or ;re Tolod ciiýs are locatod syvvŽ=trlc-ily about che

  19. Directed Energy Weapon System for Ballistic Missile Defense (United States)


    its civilian nuclear program since the 1990s, but revelations in 2002 and 2003 of clandestine research into fuel enrichment and conversion raised...weaponize its nuclear program.39 Since December 2007, Iran has built a stockpile of low- enriched uranium hexafluoride.40...development program, looking first at gas dynamic carbon dioxide lasers and then deuterium fluoride chemical lasers.88 Although the service experienced some

  20. Legislative Environmental Impact Statement: Small Intercontinental Ballistic Missile Program. (United States)


    stimulation and the trips gene - rated by inmigrants. Short-term impacts experienced during the construction phase are expected to be significant in some... Opuntia arenaria) and three additional species listed by New Mexico as endangered (Cor~phantha scheeri, Mammillaria wrightii var. wrightii, and Talinum...migration. Two federal -candidate plant species (Cereus greggii and Opuntia arenaria) may occur within the SDA, and seven federal -candidate wildlife species

  1. HSTSS Battery Development for Missile and Ballistic Telemetry Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Burke, Lawrence


    .... Along with improvements in energy density, temperature performance, and environmentally friendly materials, these batteries offer greater packaging options at a significantly lower development cost...

  2. 2014 Assessment of the Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS) (United States)


    lower than desired command, control, communications, computers, and intelligence hardware reliability and undesirable BMD Signal Processor stability...Limited User Test (LUT) between May 2012 and January 2013. The Army plans to field the Patriot Radar Digital Processor (RDP) upgrade with PDB-8 in...10  Space-Based Infrared System (SBIRS)/Defense Support Program ( DSP ) ........... 10  AN/SPY-1

  3. ICBM vulnerability: Calculations, predictions, and error bars (United States)

    Hobson, Art


    The theory of intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) silo vulnerability is reviewed, and the present and probable future (mid-1990s) vulnerability of US silos is analyzed. The analysis emphasizes methodology, sources of information, and uncertainties. US ICBMs might still be survivable today but they will certainly be vulnerable to ICBM attack, and perhaps even to submarine-launched ballistic missile attack, by the mid-1990s. These calculations are presented not only for their immediate importance but also to introduce other physicists to some of the quantitative methods that can be used to analyze international security topics.

  4. Ballistic Phosphorene Transistor (United States)


    satisfactory. W911NF-14-1-0572 -II 66414-EL-II.3 TO:(1) Electronics Division (Qiu, Joe) TITLE: Final Report: Ballistic Phosphorene Transistor (x) Material... Transistor ” as a STIP award for the period 09/1/2014 through 5/31/2015. The ARO program director responsible for the grant is Dr. Joe Qiu. The PI is Prof...UU 19-11-2015 1-Sep-2014 31-May-2015 Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited Final Report: Ballistic Phosphorene Transistor The views


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    The present invention pertains to a ballistic-resistant article comprising a stack of sheets comprising reinforcing linear tension members, the direction of the linear tension members within the stack being not unidirectionally, wherein some of the linear tension members are linear tension members

  6. The Iraqi Ballistic Missile Program: The Gulf War and the Future of the Missile Threat. (United States)


    London, 1985. In Antwerp an even worse event occurred on December 16, 1944 when a V-2 struck the Rex Cinema killing 271. See David Irving, The Mare’s...had a nuclear weapons program which was shut down by Brazilian President Fernando Collor de Mello as part of his efforts to bring the Brazilian ...a result, if the Brazilian government should change its mind, it will be easy for them to produce nuclear weapons. Although North Korea has signed

  7. Trident II (D-5) Sea Launched Ballistic Missile UGM 133A (Trident II Missile) (United States)


    chocks, Third Stage (TS) dollies and TS Motor Supports and completion of machining and welding for Aerospike Protective Caps ; 2) Early delivery of...accurate SWS. SSP’s " Cradle to Grave" responsibility requires a broad range of engineering knowledge and unique skill sets to support the Navy’s

  8. CMC occasional papers : a missile stability regime for South Asia.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Feroz Hassan (Pakistan Army, Islamabad, Pakistan); Vannoni, Michael Geoffrey; Rajen, Gaurav (Gaia Research Consulting, Albuquerque, NM)


    India and Pakistan have created sizeable ballistic missile forces and are continuing to develop and enlarge them. These forces can be both stabilizing (e.g., providing a survivable force for deterrence) and destabilizing (e.g., creating strategic asymmetries). Missile forces will be a factor in bilateral relations for the foreseeable future, so restraint is necessary to curtail their destabilizing effects. Such restraint, however, must develop within an atmosphere of low trust. This report presents a set of political and operational options, both unilateral and bilateral, that decreases tensions, helps rebuild the bilateral relationship, and prepares the ground for future steps in structural arms control. Significant steps, which build on precedents and do not require extensive cooperation, are possible despite strained relations. The approach is made up of three distinct phases: (1) tension reduction measures, (2) confidence building measures, and (3) arms control agreements. The goal of the first phase is to initiate unilateral steps that are substantive and decrease tensions, establish missiles as a security topic for bilateral discussion, and set precedents for limited bilateral cooperation. The second phase would build confidence by expanding current bilateral security agreements, formalizing bilateral understandings, and beginning discussion of monitoring procedures. The third phase could include bilateral agreements limiting some characteristics of national missile forces including the cooperative incorporation of monitoring and verification.

  9. Identification of missile guidance laws for missile warning systems applications (United States)

    Ralph, Jason F.; Smith, Moira I.; Heather, Jamie P.


    The reliable detection and tracking of missile plumes in sequences of infrared images is a crucial factor in developing infrared missile warning systems for use in military and civil aircraft. This paper discusses the development of a set of algorithms that allow missile plumes to be detected, tracked and classified according to their perceived motion in the image plane. The aim is to classify the missile motion so as to provide an indication of the guidance law which is being used and, hence, to determine the type of missile that may be present and allow the appropriate countermeasures to be deployed. The algorithms allow for the motion of the host platform and they determine the missile motion relative to the fixed background provided by the scene. The tracks produced contain sufficient information to allow good discrimination between several standard missile types.

  10. Firearms and Ballistics


    BOLTON-KING, Rachel; Schulze, Johan


    Chapter 7 of the book entitled 'Practical Veterinary Forensics' aims to introduce forensic veterinarians to the scientific concepts underpinning the field of firearms and ballistics. This introduction will enable practitioners to understand wound formation depending on the firearm and ammunition used. \\ud \\ud Various types of firearms, modern firing mechanisms and ammunition will be explained, together with an introduction to the physical concepts underpinning the four main constituents of th...

  11. Ballistic negatron battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, M.S.R. [Koneru Lakshmiah Univ.. Dept. of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Green fields, Vaddeswaram (India)


    If we consider the Statistics there is drastic increase in dependence of batteries from year to year, due to necessity of power storage equipment at homes, power generating off grid and on grid Wind, PV systems, etc.. Where wind power is leading in renewable sector, there is a need to look at its development. Considering the scenario in India, most of the wind resource areas are far away from grid and the remaining areas which are near to grid are of low wind currents which is of no use connecting these equipment directly to grid. So, there is a need for a power storage utility to be integrated, such as the BNB (Ballistic Negatron Battery). In this situation a country like India need a battery which should be reliable, cheap and which can be industrialized. So this paper presents the concept of working, design, operation, adaptability of a Ballistic Negatron Battery. Unlike present batteries with low energy density, huge size, more weight, more charging time and low resistant to wear level, this Ballistic Negatron Battery comes with, 1) High energy storage capability (many multiples more than the present most advanced battery). 2) Very compact in size. 3) Almost negligible in weight compared to present batteries. 4) Charges with in very less time. 5) Never exhibits a wear level greater than zero. Seems like inconceivable but adoptable with simple physics. This paper will explains in detail the principle, model, design, construction and practical considerations considered in making this battery. (Author)

  12. Ballistic thermophoresis on graphene (United States)

    Tosatti, Erio; Panizon, Emanuele; Guerra, Roberto

    The textbook thermophoretic force acting on a diffusing body in a fluid is proportional to the local temperature gradient. Not so for a diffusing physisorbed body on a submicron sized 2D suspended layer. A non-equilibrium Molecular Dynamics study of a test nanosystem - a gold nanocluster adsorbed on a single graphene sheet of length L clamped between two temperatures ΔT apart - reveals a phoretic force that is parallel to, but essentially independent of, the gradient magnitude ΔT / L up to a substantial L of up to 150 nm. This is argued to represent ballistic thermophoresis, where the force is provided by the flux of massively excited flexural phonons, whose flow is in turn known to be ballistic and distance-independent up to relatively long scattering lengths before the eventual onset of the more standard diffusive regime. The surprising thrust and real momentum provided by the flexural modes are analysed and understood in terms of the large mass non-uniformity involved with these modes. The ensuing surf-riding of adsorbates on the vibrating 2D hard sheet, and the resulting gradient independent thermophoretic force, are not unlikely to possess practical applications. ERC MODPHYSFRICT Advanced Grant No. 320796.

  13. Acquisition: Acquisition of the Evolved SEASPARROW Missile

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    .... The Evolved SEASPARROW Missile, a Navy Acquisition Category II program, is an improved version of the RIM-7P SEASPARROW missile that will intercept high-speed maneuvering, anti-ship cruise missiles...

  14. Ballistic Deposition of Nanoclusters. (United States)

    Ulbrandt, Jeffrey; Li, Yang; Headrick, Randall

    Nanoporous thin-films are an important class of materials, possessing a large surface area to volume ratio, with applications ranging from thermoelectric and photovoltaic materials to supercapacitors. In-Situ X-ray Reflectivity and Grazing Incidence Small Angle X-Ray Scattering (GISAXS) were used to monitor thin-films grown from Tungsten Silicide (WSi2) and Copper (Cu) nanoclusters. The nanoclusters ranged in size from 2 nm to 6 nm diameter and were made by high-pressure magnetron sputtering via plasma gas condensation (PGC). X-Ray Reflectivity (XRR) measurements of the films at various stages of growth reveal that the resulting films exhibit very low density, approaching 15% of bulk density. This is consistent with a simple off-lattice ballistic deposition model where particles stick at the point of first contact without further restructuring. DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences under contract DE-FG02-07ER46380.

  15. High Endoatmospheric Defense Interceptor (HEDI) technology testing program environmental assessment (United States)

    Barrineau, Dru


    The High Endoatmospheric Defense Interceptor (HEDI) is one of the many technologies being considered in the strategic defense initiative (SDI) technology research program and has the potential to support the requirements for the strategic defense system. The purpose of this environmental assessment (EA) is to analyze the environmental consequences of testing activities for the HEDI technology test program in compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act. The HEDI is a technology that would employ ground-based missiles to intercept and destroy hostile submarine-launched ballistic missiles and intercontinental ballistic missiles during that portion of flight that puts the target in the high endoatmosphere (the terminal portion of an attacking missile trajectory). The HEDI vehicle would consist of a two-stage launch vehicle (booster) and kill vehicle with a conventional warhead. The basic thrust of the efforts already accomplished has been to assess the operational utility of HEDI in the context of a complete strategic defense system.

  16. 15 CFR 742.5 - Missile technology. (United States)


    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Missile technology. 742.5 Section 742... BASED CONTROLS § 742.5 Missile technology. (a) License requirements. (1) In support of U.S. foreign... establish the existence of a contract. (d) Missile Technology Control Regime. Missile Technology Control...

  17. Optimizing Ballistic Imaging Operations. (United States)

    Wang, Can; Beggs-Cassin, Mardy; Wein, Lawrence M


    Ballistic imaging systems can help solve crimes by comparing images of cartridge cases, which are recovered from a crime scene or test-fired from a gun, to a database of images obtained from past crime scenes. Many U.S. municipalities lack the resources to process all of their cartridge cases. Using data from Stockton, CA, we analyze two problems: how to allocate limited capacity to maximize the number of cartridge cases that generate at least one hit, and how to prioritize the cartridge cases that are processed to maximize the usefulness (i.e., obtained before the corresponding criminal case is closed) of hits. The number of hits can be significantly increased by prioritizing crime scene evidence over test-fires, and by ranking calibers by their hit probability and processing only the higher ranking calibers. We also estimate that last-come first-served increases the proportion of hits that are useful by only 0.05 relative to first-come first-served. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  18. A Limited Study of a Hypothetical Winged Anti-ICBM Point-Defense Missile (United States)

    Brown, Clarence A., Jr.; Edwards, Frederick G.


    A preliminary investigation was conducted to determine whether a warhead stage of an antimissile missile could be placed within an arbitrary 2-nautical-mile-radius maneuver cylinder around an intercontinental-ballistic-missile (ICBM) flight path above an altitude of 140,000 feet, a horizontal range of 40 nautical miles, at a flight-path angle of approximately 20 deg, and within 50 seconds after take-off using only aerodynamic forces to turn the antimissile missile. The preliminary investigation indicated that an antimissile missile using aerodynamic forces for turning was capable of intercepting the ICBM for the stated conditions of this study although the turning must be completed below an altitude of approximately 70,000 feet to insure that the antimissile missile will be at the desired flight-path angle. Trim lift coefficients on the order of 2 to 3 and a maximum normal-acceleration force of from 25g to 35g were necessary to place the warhead stage in intercept position. The preliminary investigation indicated that for the two boosters investigated the booster having a burning time of 10 seconds gave greater range up the ICBM flight path than did the booster having a burning time of 15 seconds for the same trim lift coefficient and required the least trim lift coefficient for the same range.

  19. Comparison of different lateral acceleration autopilots for a surface-to-surface missile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo V. Ćuk


    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparison of three lateral acceleration autopilots for a surface-to-surface missile: three-loop conventional acceleration autopilot, and gamma-dot and three-loop acceleration autopilot based upon the inverse-dynamic control. The surface-to-surface missile motion is described by nonlinear differential equations whose parameters change rapidly over a very wide range due to variable velocity and altitude. The requirement for the accurate controlling of the missile in such an environment represents a challenge for the autopilot designer. The brief review of the calculation of the autopilot gains is given using the concept of the 'point' stability for the linear time-varying system with 'frozen' dynamic coefficients. The method of the inverse-dynamic control is presented in the next section for two types of the autopilots: gamma-dot and acceleration autopilot. Both of them require the design of the estimators for the variables used as inputs to the control law. Finally, six-degree-of-freedom simulation results of the missile response to the demanded command on the typical ballistic trajectory are presented. The comparison of three autopilots considers the steady state errors and the sensitivity of the response to the highly variable environment. It was shown that the inverse-dynamic control can be very effective in the controlling of the surface-to-surface missile.

  20. Stability and Control of Tactical Missile Systems Held in Ankara (Turkey) on 9-12 May 1988 (United States)


    air, air-to-ground, and ground-to-air, but not ballistic missiles. Grice aux progris realisds rdcemment dans les domaines des totes chercheuses, et...that of an egg carton: the minima of xcp in Fig. 9 are the bottoms of valleys, and the maxima are the tops of peaks. Optimization. The following...variables A, This means that the optimization problem defined by (2.1) can have multiple local maxima which are not global. Doyle [31 derived the following

  1. A Study on: Exploring U.S. Missile Defense Requirements in 2010: What Are the Policy and Technology Challenges? (United States)


    military offi- cers, law enforcement personnel, and organized crime groups are willing to engage in illegal activ- ities for a price. This willingness...Interview with Gennady G. Yanpolsky, "A New Era for Russian Defense Export," Military Technology, December 1995, p. 33. Vago Muradian, "Russia Wants...34 that have hindered ballistic missile devel- opment in the past. For example, rocket- society papers on staging problems, discussions on guid- ance

  2. Computational Fluid Dynamics for Missiles (United States)


    MISSILES by J. Hodges November 1989 DL~M* !7!J’nTMN A Approv"d ir public teleaol Distnution Ur- datod Procurement Executive, Ministry of Defence...large computer resources. These methods depend on experimental data- bases as input to a simple theoretical framework. The more comprehensive the...practical difficulties of providing an experimental data- base covering all possible missile configurations, all semi-empirical methods are restricted to a

  3. Standard Missile-6 (SM-6) (United States)


    completed in order to validate deficiency discovered during IOT &E and support for FOC declaration in 2017. There are no significant software-related...General Notes The SM-6 Development was funded under PE 0604366N - Project 3092. The FY 2017 PB includes RDT&E funding for other STANDARD Missile...Spares are included in BLI 6120 P1-35. RDT&E Appn BA PE Navy 1319 05 0604366N Project Name 3092 Standard Missile 6 Program (Shared) (Sunk

  4. European Missile Defense and Russia (United States)


    Russian of meeting between then Prime Minister Putin and defence experts in Sarov, Russia , February 24, 2012. 64. Viktor Yesin and Yevgeniy Savostyanov... Putin Letter to Obama to Address Missile Defense, Security,” RIA-Novosti, May 15, 2013, available from russia /20130515/181170446.html...UNITED STATES · ARMY WAR COLLEGE PRESS Carlisle Barrac , ’A STR KNG T H ..,... WI SDOM EUROPEAN MISSILE DEFENSE AND RUSSIA Keir Giles with

  5. A simulation model for analyzing reentry vehicle/antiballistic missile engagements (United States)

    Critchlow, C. L.; Williams, R. C.


    The subject of this thesis is the system consisting of the engagements between attacking intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) reentry vehicles (RV) and a defending ballistic missile defense system. The thesis presents a brief overview of the actual system before proceeding with the development of a computer simulation model designed to aid analysis of the system. The primary language of the main program is SLAM; the supporting programs use FORTRAN V. The RV/Antiballistic missile (ABM) system is modeled as a network through which the RVs flow. The capabilities of the RV with regard to yield and accuracy can be set to the user's desires as can the vulnerabilities of the RV to the two primary kill mechanisms considered, X-ray and neutron radiation. The ABM system consists of a two-tiered, layered terminal defense system with high altitude (70,000 - 150,000 feet) and low altitude (10,000 - 70,000 feet) interceptors. Interceptor yield and accuracy are changeable. Either layer can be activated or deactivated, singly or together, to permit flexibility in the comparison of actual of hypothetical systems.

  6. Research of Short-range Missile Motion in Terms of Different Wind Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Klishin


    Full Text Available When modeling the aircraft motion it is advisable to choose a particular model of the Earth, depending both on the task and on the required accuracy of calculation. The article describes various models of the Earth, such as the flat Earth with a plane-parallel field of gravity, spherical and non-rotating Earth with a plane-parallel field of gravity, spherical and non-rotating Earth with a central gravitational field, spherical and non-rotating Earth, taking into account the polar flattening of the Earth, spherical Earth based compression and polar daily rotation. The article also considers the influence of these models on the motion of the selected aircraft.To date, there is technical equipment to provide highly accurate description of the Earthshape, gravitational field, etc. The improved accuracy of the Earth model description results in more correct description of the trajectory and motion parameters of a ballistic missile. However, for short ranges (10-20 km this accuracy is not essential, and, furthermore, it increases time of calculation. Therefore, there is a problem of choosing the optimal description of the Earth parameters.The motion in the model of the Earth, which takes into account a daily rotation of the planet and polar flattening, is discussed in more detail, and the geographical latitude impact on coordinates of the points of fall of a ballistic missile is analyzed on the basis of obtained graphs.The article individually considers a problem of the wind effect on the aircraft motion and defines dependences of the missile motion on the parameters of different wind loads, such as wind speed and height of its action.A mathematical model of the missile motion was built and numerically integrated, using the Runge-Kutta 4th order method, for implementation and subsequent analysis.Based on the analysis of the calculation results in the abovementioned models of the Earth, differences in impact of these models on the parameters of the

  7. Study on Ballistic Absorbing Energy Character of High Performance Polyethylene Needle Felt (United States)

    Kailiang, Zhu; Jianqiao, Fu


    The ballistic performance of polyethylene needle felt is tested and the failure morphology after test is also observed. The results showed that when the non-dimensionally non-stressed fibers in polyethylene needles are subjected to high-speed projectile, secondary movement such as stretching and twisting occurs first. This secondary movement is very full, it is the main way of ballistic absorbing energy of the polyethylene needle felt which can avoid the polyethylene fiber short-term rapid heating-up and destroyed. Analysis results show that under normal temperature and humidity conditions, the V50 of 6-layer forded polyethylene needle felt sample is 250m/s. At (450 ± 50) m/s speed range of the target missile, the mean value of the penetrative specific energy absorption for 3-layer forded polyethylene needle felt anti-1.1g simulated projectiles (tapered column) reaches 24.1J·m2/kg.

  8. Optimization theory for ballistic conversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xie, Yanbo; Versluis, Andreas Michel; van den Berg, Albert; Eijkel, Jan C.T.


    The growing demand of renewable energy stimulates the exploration of new materials and methods for clean energy. We recently demonstrated a high efficiency and power density energy conversion mechanism by using jetted charged microdroplets, termed as ballistic energy conversion. Hereby, we model and


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    The invention pertains to a ballistic-resistant moulded article comprising a compressed stack of sheets comprising reinforcing tapes having a tensile strength of at least 1.0 GPa, a tensile modulus of at least 40 GPa, and a tensile energy-to-break of at least 15 J/g, the direction of the tapes

  10. Ballistics examination of air rifle. (United States)

    Bogiel, G


    The aim of this paper is to determine the velocity, energy, maximum range and distance at which pellets fired from an air rifle of kinetic energy below 17 J can pose a threat to unprotected human skin. Doppler radar equipment and exterior ballistics software were used in this examination.

  11. Ballistics examination of air rifle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Bogiel


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to determine the velocity, energy, maximum range and distance at which pellets fired from an air rifle of kinetic energy below 17 J can pose a threat to unprotected human skin. Doppler radar equipment and exterior ballistics software were used in this examination.

  12. Ballistics examination of air rifle


    Grzegorz Bogiel


    The aim of this paper is to determine the velocity, energy, maximum range and distance at which pellets fired from an air rifle of kinetic energy below 17 J can pose a threat to unprotected human skin. Doppler radar equipment and exterior ballistics software were used in this examination.

  13. Modeling Jamming Effects on Rolling Airframe Missile

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yen, Chia-Chun


    .... This thesis describes the use of microelectronic-miniature (MEM) technologies to measure the strap down rates experienced by a rolling airframe missile and the model required to effectively determine the missile's attitude during its flight...

  14. 77 FR 3514 - Protection Against Turbine Missiles (United States)


    ... No: 2012-1335] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2009-0481] Protection Against Turbine Missiles... Against Turbine Missiles.'' This guide describes methods acceptable to the NRC staff for protecting safety-related structures, systems, and components against missiles resulting from turbine failure by the...

  15. Another Brick in the Wall: The Israeli Experience in Missile Defense (United States)


    region. In particular, the way the Is- raelis decapitated the Egyptian Air Force on June 5 in only 3 hours engendered tremendous awe among the Arab...reached our own soil or that of our allies?”2 Al- though Reagan’s speech made references to America’s allies, the international reactions were a memo, “Iraq has the most aggressive and advanced ballistic missile development program in the Arab World.”8 Like the Egyptians , the Iraqis

  16. Embedded Systems - Missile Detection/Interception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Cintron


    Full Text Available Missile defense systems are often related to major military resources aimed at shielding a specific region from incoming attacks. They are intended to detect, track, intercept, and destruct incoming enemy missiles. These systems vary in cost, efficiency, dependability, and technology. In present times, the possession of these types of systems is associated with large capacity military countries. Demonstrated here are the mathematical techniques behind missile systems which calculate trajectories of incoming missiles and potential intercept positions after initial missile detection. This procedure involved the use of vector-valued functions, systems of equations, and knowledge of projectile motion concepts.

  17. Ballistic Evaluation of 7056 Aluminum (United States)


    Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, ARL Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. ii REPORT...0188), 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway , Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202-4302. Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law...V50) for various thicknesses of material . The V50 was then compared with other ballistic-grade AAs, namely AA7085-T711 and AA7085-T721. The results of

  18. Ballistic food transport in toucans. (United States)

    Baussart, Sabine; Korsoun, Leonid; Libourel, Paul-Antoine; Bels, Vincent


    The basic mechanism of food transport in tetrapods is lingual-based. Neognathous birds use this mechanism for exploiting a large diversity of food resources, whereas paleognathous birds use cranioinertial mechanism with or without tongue involvement. Food transport in two neognathous species of toucans (Ramphastos toco and R. vitellinus) is defined as ballistic transport mechanism. Only one transport cycle is used for moving the food from the tip of the beak to the pharynx. The food is projected between jaws with similar initial velocity in both species. At the time of release, the angle between trajectory of food position and horizontal is higher in R. vitellinus with a shorter beak than in R. toco. The tongue never makes contact with the food nor is it used to expand the buccal cavity. Tongue movement is associated with throat expansion, permitting the food to reach the entrance of the esophagus at the end of the ballistic trajectory. Selection of large food items in the diet may explain the evolutionary trend of using ballistic transport in the feeding behavior of toucans, which plays a key role in ecology of tropical forest. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Ballistics and anatomical modelling - A review. (United States)

    Humphrey, Caitlin; Kumaratilake, Jaliya


    Ballistics is the study of a projectiles motion and can be broken down into four stages: internal, intermediate, external and terminal ballistics. The study of the effects a projectile has on a living tissue is referred to as wound ballistics and falls within terminal ballistics. To understand the effects a projectile has on living tissues the mechanisms of wounding need to be understood. These include the permanent and temporary cavities, energy, yawing, tumbling and fragmenting. Much ballistics research has been conducted including using cadavers, animal models and simulants such as ballistics ordnance gelatine. Further research is being conducted into developing anatomical, 3D, experimental and computational models. However, these models need to accurately represent the human body and its heterogeneous nature which involves understanding the biomechanical properties of the different tissues and organs. Further research is needed to accurately represent the human tissues with simulants and is slowly being conducted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Missile Defense Agency Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS): Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 2. Appendices A - J (United States)


    13 delivery systems. It’s only in videogames that the U.S. 14 could protect itself from nuclear conflagration...intercept geometries. Based on results of a Military Sealift Command market survey, the agency, through Military Sealift Command, will acquire a...location. The Defense Reutilization and Marketing Office (DRMO) in Groton, Connecticut, or Portsmouth, New Hampshire, acts as the principal agent for

  1. Missile Defense Agency Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS): Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 1 Final BMDS PEIS (United States)


    for months or longer. The NRC reported results of longer term studies that found that to cause hypothyroidism in adults would require them to be...children, and people with low iodide intake or pre-existing thyroid dysfunction, the dose required to cause hypothyroidism may be lower...infants. The NRC study considered the applicability of animal toxicology studies to human health and found that although studies in rats provide

  2. Missile Defense Agency Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS): Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 3 Appendices K - N (United States)


    Marshall DC_M2023 UCS K.2.1 Ji Angela DC_M7598 UCS K.2.1 Jijon Humberto DC_M7192 UCS K.2.1 Jimenez Salvador DC_M5059 UCS K.2.1 Jine Karen DC_M3257 UCS K...Masters Dale Lee DC_M1681 UCS K.2.1 Mastrella Elizabeth DC_M0429 K.2.1 Mastrogiovanni Jessica DC_M4828 UCS K.2.1 Masuret Dorothea DC_E0313 K.3.12 Mata

  3. 26th International Symposium on Ballistics (United States)


    Evaluation, Dr. Ing Nils Kubberud, Norway; Dr. Ing Ivar Øye TERMINAL BALLISTICS & IMPACT PHYSICS - ASHE AUDITORIUM CHAIRED BY MATHIAS WICKERT & CHARLIE ...Ballistics & Impact Physics - Ashe Auditorium Chaired by Mathias Wickert & Charlie Anderson 3:40 PM - 4:00 PM 11487 - Development of a Novel Ceramic...Lagrangian Methods in the Finite Element Analysis of Small Caliber Thick Plate Penetration Events Mr. Raymond Chaplin , USA EXTERIOR BALLISTICS POSTER


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    powerful weapon being rendered useless instantly. It is also not mentioned in current general literature how the electronic communi- cations (including those of RPV's)would fare if nuclear weapons were to be used.41. It would appear, however, that the Israelis consider the. American Lance surface-to-surface missiles,.

  5. Ballistics for physicians: myths about wound ballistics and gunshot injuries. (United States)

    Santucci, Richard A; Chang, Yao-Jen


    Wound ballistics is a difficult subject. The behavior of all bullets is unpredictable but the specific effect of high velocity projectiles has been a particular source of confusion in the literature. This confusion has resulted in the likely incorrect conclusion that all high velocity wounds require massive débridement. We reviewed the entirety of the literature on this subject and concluded that high velocity weapons do not reliably create massive wounds, and judicious débridement and staged explorations may be the best treatment method for these patients. A MEDLINE search and retrieval were done of all pertinent references from 1966 to May 2003 concerning the field of wound ballistics. Articles initially missed in this search were obtained from the bibliography of retrieved studies. More than 70 articles and book chapters were reviewed. Five common myths about the tissue effects of gunshot wounds were reviewed as well as the data that dispel these myths. Information on the effects of different bullet types, and the intended and actual effect of military rifle wounds were assessed. For the majority of high velocity gunshot wounds, especially military rifles that generally fire a projectile that is meant to stay intact after impact, wound severity can be limited, even much less than that from a civilian rifle, shotgun or handgun. Judicious use of débridement during surgical exploration limits the extent of iatrogenic injury in the surgical care of these patients.

  6. Constrained ballistics and geometrical optics

    CERN Document Server

    Epstein, Marcelo


    The problem of constant-speed ballistics is studied under the umbrella of non-linear non-holonomic constrained systems. The Newtonian approach is shown to be equivalent to the use of Chetaev's rule to incorporate the constraint within the initially unconstrained formulation. Although the resulting equations are not, in principle, obtained from a variational statement, it is shown that the trajectories coincide with those of geometrical optics in a medium with a suitably chosen refractive index, as prescribed by Fermat's principle of least time. This fact gives rise to an intriguing mechano-optical analogy. The trajectories are further studied and discussed.

  7. Fast Reaction Missile Control for Point Defense (United States)


    my education here in Naval Postgraduate School. vi I. INTRODUCTION The expectation of any missile system is to hit the target with high probability; in...sqrt(xm(2,i)A2+xm(4,i)-2); % Missile velocity gaia -mis(i)=atan2(xm(4,i),xm(2,i)); % Missile vel. angle sigma(l,i)=atan2((xt(3,i)-XM(3,i)),(xt(l,i)-xm

  8. Ballistic superconductivity in semiconductor nanowires. (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Gül, Önder; Conesa-Boj, Sonia; Nowak, Michał P; Wimmer, Michael; Zuo, Kun; Mourik, Vincent; de Vries, Folkert K; van Veen, Jasper; de Moor, Michiel W A; Bommer, Jouri D S; van Woerkom, David J; Car, Diana; Plissard, Sébastien R; Bakkers, Erik P A M; Quintero-Pérez, Marina; Cassidy, Maja C; Koelling, Sebastian; Goswami, Srijit; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Kouwenhoven, Leo P


    Semiconductor nanowires have opened new research avenues in quantum transport owing to their confined geometry and electrostatic tunability. They have offered an exceptional testbed for superconductivity, leading to the realization of hybrid systems combining the macroscopic quantum properties of superconductors with the possibility to control charges down to a single electron. These advances brought semiconductor nanowires to the forefront of efforts to realize topological superconductivity and Majorana modes. A prime challenge to benefit from the topological properties of Majoranas is to reduce the disorder in hybrid nanowire devices. Here we show ballistic superconductivity in InSb semiconductor nanowires. Our structural and chemical analyses demonstrate a high-quality interface between the nanowire and a NbTiN superconductor that enables ballistic transport. This is manifested by a quantized conductance for normal carriers, a strongly enhanced conductance for Andreev-reflecting carriers, and an induced hard gap with a significantly reduced density of states. These results pave the way for disorder-free Majorana devices.

  9. Ballistic representation for kinematic access (United States)

    Alfano, Salvatore


    This work uses simple two-body orbital dynamics to initially determine the kinematic access for a ballistic vehicle. Primarily this analysis was developed to assess when a rocket body might conjunct with an orbiting satellite platform. A family of access opportunities can be represented as a volume for a specific rocket relative to its launch platform. Alternately, the opportunities can be represented as a geographical footprint relative to aircraft or satellite position that encompasses all possible launcher locations for a specific rocket. A thrusting rocket is treated as a ballistic vehicle that receives all its energy at launch and follows a coasting trajectory. To do so, the rocket's burnout energy is used to find its equivalent initial velocity for a given launcher's altitude. Three kinematic access solutions are then found that account for spherical Earth rotation. One solution finds the maximum range for an ascent-only trajectory while another solution accommodates a descending trajectory. In addition, the ascent engagement for the descending trajectory is used to depict a rapid access scenario. These preliminary solutions are formulated to address ground-, sea-, or air-launched vehicles.

  10. Two-colour infrared missile warning sensors


    Neele, F.


    Current missile-warning sensors on aircraft mostly operate in the ultraviolet wavelength band. Aimed primarily at detecting short-range, shoulder-fired surface-to-air missiles, the detection range of the sensors is of the same order as the threat range, which is 3-5 km. However, this range is only attained against older missiles, with bright exhaust flames. Modern missile developments include the use of new propellants, which generate low-intensity plumes. These threats are detected at much s...

  11. Missile Electro-Optical Countermeasures Simulation Laboratory (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory comprises several hardware-in-the-loop missile flight simulations designed specifically to evaluate the effectiveness of electro-optical air defense...

  12. Assessment of Ballistic Performance for Transparent Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basim M. Fadhil


    Full Text Available A finite element method was used to investigate the ballistic behavior of Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA under impact loading by spherical steel projectile with different ranges of velocities. Three different target thicknesses were used in the experimental and the numerical works. A mathematical model has been used for the ballistic limit based on the experimental results. It has been found that projectile velocity and target thickness play an important role in the ballistic behavior of PMMA. A good agreement was found between the numerical, experimental, and the analytical result.

  13. Preservation and storage of prepared ballistic gelatine. (United States)

    Mattijssen, E J A T; Alberink, I; Jacobs, B; van den Boogaard, Y


    The use of ballistic gelatine, generally accepted as a human muscle tissue simulant in wound ballistic studies, might be improved by adding a preservative (Methyl 4-hydroxybenzoate) which inhibits microbial growth. This study shows that replacing a part of the gelatine powder by the preservative does not significantly alter the penetration depth of projectiles. Storing prepared blocks of ballistic gelatine over time decreased the penetration depth of projectiles. Storage of prepared gelatine for 4 week already showed a significant effect on the penetration depth of projectiles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A ballistics module as a part of the fire control system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branka R. Luković


    Full Text Available This article presents a ballistics module as a part of the fire control system of weapons for fire support (mortars, artillery weapons and rocket launchers. The software is "open" with the prominence of autonomy work. It can be modulated and adapted on the user demand. Moreover, it is independent of the hardware base. Introduction: The fire control system is based on a ballistic module (BM which determines the firing data for each weapon tool in the battery. Ballistic calculations, for the given position of the target in relation to the position of tools in the given weather conditions, determine firing data (elevation, direction, timing and locating devices so that the missile seems to cause the desired effect. This paper gives the basic information about the features the BM performs and the manner of their implementation in the fire control system without going into algorithmic solution procedures. Ballistic problem in the fire control system: Ballistic calculation is based on a trajectory calculation of all kinds of projectiles (current, time-fuze, illuminating, smoke, with conventional propulsion, rocket, with built-in gas generator, etc.. Instead of previous solutions, where a trajectory calculation of the fire control system was done by approximate methods, in this BM the trajectory calculation is made by the same model with the same data as for a weapon and ammunition in the process of creating a firing table. The data used in the fire control system are made simultaneously with the preparation of firing tables for a particular tool and associated ammunition,. A modified model of particle, standardized at the NATO level, is also used. Taking into account the meteorological situation, before the trajectory calculation is done, a relative position of the target in relation to the position of the tool should be determined. A selection or loading check is carried out (possibility of reaching a given target as well as the point at which the

  15. Wave propagation in ballistic gelatine. (United States)

    Naarayan, Srinivasan S; Subhash, Ghatu


    Wave propagation characteristics in long cylindrical specimens of ballistic gelatine have been investigated using a high speed digital camera and hyper elastic constitutive models. The induced transient deformation is modelled with strain rate dependent Mooney-Rivlin parameters which are determined by modelling the stress-strain response of gelatine at a range of strain rates. The varying velocity of wave propagation through the gelatine cylinder is derived as a function of prestress or stretch in the gelatine specimen. A finite element analysis is conducted using the above constitutive model by suitably defining the impulse imparted by the polymer bar into the gelatine specimen. The model results are found to capture the experimentally observed wave propagation characteristics in gelatine effectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Principles of Guided Missiles and Nuclear Weapons. (United States)

    Naval Personnel Program Support Activity, Washington, DC.

    Fundamentals of missile and nuclear weapons systems are presented in this book which is primarily prepared as the second text of a three-volume series for students of the Navy Reserve Officers' Training Corps and the Officer Candidate School. Following an introduction to guided missiles and nuclear physics, basic principles and theories are…

  17. Sherborne Missile Fire Frequency with Unconstraint Parameters (United States)

    Dong, Shaquan


    For the modeling problem of shipborne missile fire frequency, the fire frequency models with unconstant parameters were proposed, including maximum fire frequency models with unconstant parameters, and actual fire frequency models with unconstant parameters, which can be used to calculate the missile fire frequency with unconstant parameters.

  18. Two-colour infrared missile warning sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neele, F.


    Current missile-warning sensors on aircraft mostly operate in the ultraviolet wavelength band. Aimed primarily at detecting short-range, shoulder-fired surface-to-air missiles, the detection range of the sensors is of the same order as the threat range, which is 3-5 km. However, this range is only

  19. Ballistic Thermal Transfer in Nanosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Barinov


    Full Text Available This work is concerned with analysis of cross-plane thermal transfer in nanofilms.The paper presents a developed general model of phonon radiation transfer (EPRT based on the Boltzmann transport equation. The EPRT model assumes that the thermal transfer inside a dielectric or metal medium between two metal walls is maintained at different temperatures. These walls are like heat reservoirs; their surfaces are blackbodies. The paper first presents a model of the phonon radiation transfer of the absolute blackbodies in a wide range of temperatures where a model of the ballistic thermal transfer is applicable. It conducts a comparative analysis between phonon radiation transfer and electromagnetic radiation.The basic equation is a formula to calculate a phonon radiation intensity of the absolute blackbody depending on the temperature. Therefore, the formula for the total intensity of phonons is similar to the Stefan-Boltzmann law. The main difference of phonon radiation transfer is that a value of the phonon Stefan-Boltzmann constant is affected by temperature and properties of materials (average acoustic waves in solid bodies and Debye temperature. This can be seen from the curves for Si, Ge, and Diamond.The paper presents a received analytical equation for effective thermal conductivity using a heat flux in a cross-plane direction. The results obtained show the size and temperature dependences of the effective thermal conductivity of silicon, germanium and diamond nanofilms for the ballistic transport in the cross-plane direction. Finally, the paper compares the calculated results with those of available models of different foreign authors, which are in good compliance.

  20. A new method of passive counting of nuclear missile warheads -a white paper for the Defense Threat Reduction Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, Christopher [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Durham, J. Matthew [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Guardincerri, Elena [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bacon, Jeffrey Darnell [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wang, Zhehui [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Fellows, Shelby [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Poulson, Daniel Cris [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Plaud-Ramos, Kenie Omar [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Daughton, Tess Marie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Johnson, Olivia Ruth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    Cosmic ray muon imaging has been studied for the past several years as a possible technique for nuclear warhead inspection and verification as part of the New Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty between the United States and the Russian Federation. The Los Alamos team has studied two different muon imaging methods for this application, using detectors on two sides and one side of the object of interest. In this report we present results obtained on single sided imaging of configurations aimed at demonstrating the potential of this technique for counting nuclear warheads in place with detectors above the closed hatch of a ballistic missile submarine.

  1. Ballistic Rail Gun Soft Recovery Facility (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Ballistic Rail Gun Soft Recovery Facility accommodates a 155mm Howitzer, fired horizontally into a 104-foot long water trough to slow the projectile and recover...

  2. An Anthology: Rationale for a U.S. Ballistic Missile Defense (1969-1984). (United States)


    sytem si~rltzillc a I’ilst i ll aill ht dtrii e of thile di litiof heID Ssoe- hc the r greter coneen otvimb4o Iouil -ill feititer of USo Wtrit󈧭 niiss h’ on iw I mtc St redee more reoan to -o Id Iiv to stfl the ir Io t)o’~ I ’sII iI’ (’ o l it ., r St5 w i ’ 111(1 do te wI I-lse erail...Robert C. "High Frontier: The Only Game In Town." Journal of Social , Political, and Economic Studies! (Spring-Summer 1982), p. 55 19. Robinson

  3. Environmental Impact Statement. Small Intercontinental Ballistic Missile Program Malmstrom Air Force Base, Montana. Appendix E (United States)


    Section 99 4 COMMENT: Section, paragraph 5, last sentence: EPA is uncertain that " state or federal ambient air standards will... ambient air standards will be violated" - with or If you need further EPA assistance, please feel free to contact Lee Last sentence without operate the system. The i2 temporary disrupt ion or impacto dun to sedimentation when 22 ruo of rtudents ounld be lens that would he imposed upon

  4. Origins of the Strategic Defense Initiative: Ballistic Missile Defense, 1944-1983 (United States)


    stories about various inventors who claimed to have developed "death rays" that could kill animals and people. One of the most famous was Nikola Testla...1 " Tesla , at 78, Bares New ’Death-Beam’," New York Times, 11 July 1934, p. 18. For other stories about death rays, see "Says He Sold ’Death Ray’: H

  5. The Impact of the Type 094 Ballistic Missile Submarine on China’s Nuclear Policy (United States)


    commanders, operating independently at sea, is a big step for Chinese leaders . How can this task be accomplished in China today? • How will China...partner, not a potential military adversary. Baladas Ghoshal , a professor of Southeast Asia studies at Jawaharlal Nehru University in India explains...Baladas Ghoshal , “India and China: Emerging Strategic Partnership in the Twenty-first Century?” The China-India Project, Occasional Paper Series, Paper

  6. China’s Growing Military Power: Perpectives on Security, Ballistic Missiles, and Conventional Capabilities (United States)


    y ear earlier, gras sroots units h ad to ov ercom e “ selfis h departm entalis m and ov erem p h asis of local interests” and m ov e forw ard w...reasons of strictly selfis h national interests w ere so strong th at th e “negativ e trend” w ould be arrested “at som e point,” th at pragm atis

  7. Environmental Impact Statement. Small Intercontinental Ballistic Missile Program. Malmstrom Air Force Base, Montana (United States)


    Representatives Honorable Larry Grindle Honorable Helen G. O’Connell Montana House of Representatives Montana House of Representatives Honorable Hal...Bill Jones Doug & Nancy Dear Robert F. Jorgensen, Jr. Gordon Dellwo Ed & Ruoy Kammerer Ronald W. Denzer John Kammerer Sue Dickenson Charley & Sally...Torgerson Stephen O’Brien David Treadway Jerry O’Connell Helen Trebesch Rowan Ogden Mitch Tropila David Oien Tim Troy Barbara Osbourne James R. Tucker

  8. Lithium/thionyl chloride batteries for the small intercontinental ballistic missile (United States)

    Chang, V. D. A.; Wilson, J. P.; Bruckner, J.; Inenaga, B.; Hall, J. C.

    The Small ICBM (SICBM) requires two batteries for flight testing; while power for the instrumentation and range safety system (IRSS) is furnished by a five-function battery set, the guidance and control system is powered by a three-function airborne power supply (APS). The activated stand requirements of the IRSS are met by the use of LiAlCl4/SOCl2 electrolyte in all cells. The APS cells employ a slightly acidic electrolyte. The SICBM's IRSS battery has already completed a formal certification program, and is accordingly the first spaceflight-qualified reserve Li battery.

  9. The Air Campaign vs. Ballistic Missiles: Seeking the Strategic Win in the 21st Century (United States)


    Economy (New York: Penguin USA , 2008), 341. 20 Muller, The German Air War in Russia, 4–7. 21 Muller, The German Air War in Russia, 9. 22 Muller, The...use of decoys, placing them in sight when they expected Scud patrols overhead. The higher-fidelity, inflatable decoys could fool even a close...Destruction: The Making and Breaking of the Nazi Economy. New York: Penguin USA , 2008. United States Air Force. Jane’s Sentinel Security Assessment

  10. The Future of the U.S. Intercontinental Ballistic Missile Force (United States)


    propellants, especially cryogenics , are much more efficient per pound of propellant than solid propellants. Liquid rocket engines are also more... Engineering of Rockets , 6th ed., New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1992; and Wiley J. Larson and James R. Wertz, eds., Space Mission Analysis and Design, 2nd ed...under- stand possible implications of reductions on the current organiza- tional structure . Our cost analysis is not meant to stand in for an AoA cost

  11. Optimizing Logistics Support for Ballistic Missile Defense Ships in Sixth Fleet (United States)


    commercial shipper (e.g., FedEx, DHL , UPS). In most cases, the material is shipped via one of the Navy’s logistics hubs—in Rota, Naples, Sigonella...Systems Support (WSS) determined that PUK parts should be placed on every BMD ship, regardless of deployment status. As a result, a custom -made...derived the average transit time and customer wait time for ships to receive CAT 3 and 4 CASREP materials related to ship systems at a specific port

  12. Environmental Statement. Small Intercontinental Ballistic Missile Program, Malmstrom Air Force Base, Montana. Appendix E (United States)


    activities in 39 2)Wtseon eroedothwde? th matae .2 Wha rou total usedtnthremodamtiels ftetoept-upt pstii3to sodt job theor roless for tthtee...idea of tie 22 Salvador and terrorist squads operating in Los Angeles, 21 limited, tuossibly strategical, strike on Malentrne or 0ocr 23 California. I

  13. Regional Power Ballistic Missiles. An Emerging Threat to Deployed US forces? (United States)


    have a range of 2,700 km. the longest range of any currently operational RPBIs , but they are relatively Inaccurate. (37:744-745) The CSS-2s were...coverage by apoc.pciatei oar"etting the RPbI aimpoint. Appropriate data on prevaiina iir obase winos ana current meteorologicai conaitions are generally

  14. Navy Ohio Replacement (SSBN[X]) Ballistic Missile Submarine Program: Background and Issues for Congress (United States)


    Procurement and Replacement Schedule Table 2 shows the Navy’s proposed schedule for procuring 12 SSBN(X)s, and for having SSBN(X)s replace Ohio- class ...Table 2. Navy Schedule for Procuring SSBN(X)s and Replacing Ohio- Class SSBNs Schedule in FY2012 Budget Schedule Under Subsequent Budgets Fiscal Year...program’s acquisition costs are expected to exceed $135,000,000,000, with the first ship of the class scheduled for procurement in fiscal year 2021

  15. A Systems Approach to Finding Cost-Effective Alternatives to European Ballistic Missile Defense (United States)


    tools like Microsoft’s Visio . The greatest advantage was the ability to change one portion or view of the model, and see that change propagate...edited for communication purposes without changing the actual details of the model. This cannot be done in Microsoft’s Visio or similar products

  16. Reducing the Intercontinental Ballistic Missile Alert Rate and the Impact on Maintenance Utilization (United States)


    Communications System (SLFCS), ICBM SHF Satellite Terminal ( ISST ) and UHF Radio System) which will seriously jeopardize alert notification to two or...Voice Channel (HVC), ISST or UHF Radio System All PMC conditions not specifically identified as Priority 4 A hardness/survivability PMC discrepancy

  17. U.S. Joint Theater Ballistic Missile Defense: Seeking Optimal Command and Control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kinslow, Kevin E


    .... The vision for this capability presents an interesting question on command organization since the conventional military structure is based on warfighting in distinct geographic areas of responsibility...

  18. Human Factors Engineering Program for Intercontinental Ballistic Missile Systems, (MIL-STD-1794(USAF)) (United States)


    screws# bolts , or other fasteners, requiring more than 14 Kom (10 lb-ft) torque. When external wrenching fasteners cannot meet the mechanical function...H 0i 9199111 0036297 3" t muL-ffrD-1it4 ( uSAin "APPINDI A 0 Colors display coding Task 207 39 Confirm 3.1.2 3 Connectors Task 20? 3? Contract data

  19. The Ballistic Missile as a Symbol of Asymmetry in East Asia (United States)


    size/tonnage/number of battleships Japan could produce. Clairvoyant naval planners at the Navy’s War College in Newport, Rhode Island recognized as...Storey, “Living with the Colossus : How Southeast Asian Countries Cope with China”, Parameters, US Army War College Quarterly, No. 4, Winter 1999-2000

  20. Ballistic Missile Defense: Let's Look Again before We Leap into Star Wars. (United States)

    Morrison, David C.


    Americans must look beyond the superficial allure of President Reagan's Strategic Defense Initiative; they must search out the facts. Five pernicious myths on which this ill-considered proposal is founded are discussed. (RM)

  1. Physics of a ballistic missile defense - The chemical laser boost-phase defense (United States)

    Grabbe, Crockett L.


    The basic physics involved in proposals to use a chemical laser based on satellites for a boost-phase defense are investigated. After a brief consideration of simple physical conditions for the defense, a calculation of an equation for the number of satellites needed for the defense is made along with some typical values of this for possible future conditions for the defense. Basic energy and power requirements for the defense are determined. A sumary is made of probable minimum conditions that must be achieved for laser power, targeting accuracy, number of satellites, and total sources for power needed.

  2. A Two-Stage Intercontinental Ballistic Missile (ICBM) Design Optimization Study and Life Cycle Cost Analysis (United States)


    CDT/(B1+B2) )*CCTC2*(TECX+1)-TECX))/DY)- + (TCI* CTE (X)-TE(X-.1))/DX)) C TEMPERATURE BETWEEN NODE X AID Y DO 40,J=X+1,NODEY-1 TENCJ)=TE(J)+CA2*DT/DY**2...TE(J+1)-2*TE(J)+TE(J-1)) 40 CONTINUE C C TEMPERATURE AT NODE Y TENCNODEY)=TECNODEY).CDT/(B2+B3))*( CTC3* CTE (NODEY+1)- + TE(NODEY))/DZ)-(TC2*(TE(NODEY...College where he was named Co- Captain of the football team and received a Bachelor of Arts degree in 1975. Af- ter teaching and coaching track and

  3. Peacekeeper Ballistic Missile System Fiscal Impact Analysis of Deployment in Wyoming and Nebraska (United States)


    wheelchair . The bulk of the food produced by the Greenhouse is distributed to local low-income and senior feeding programs. Solar greenhouse production yields...Inc., and STRIDE Learning Center). The remaining agencies studied were Community Action of Laramie County, the Cheyenne Community Solar Greenhouse, the...and referral. Community Action also acts as the administrative agency for the Cheyenne Community Solar Greenhouse. Community Action has five full-time

  4. James Bond, North Korea and the shadow of intercontinental ballistic missiles


    Gardner, John


    This article links Britain, America and the USSR racing towards creating an ICBM in the 1950s with North Korea's present nuclear policy. It argues that Ian Fleming's third Bond novel, Moonraker (1955), which comes out two years before the world's first ICBM is tested by Russia, examines these cold war pursuits that the world has not yet grown out of.

  5. Failure analysis of high performance ballistic fibers


    Spatola, Jennifer S


    High performance fibers have a high tensile strength and modulus, good wear resistance, and a low density, making them ideal for applications in ballistic impact resistance, such as body armor. However, the observed ballistic performance of these fibers is much lower than the predicted values. Since the predictions assume only tensile stress failure, it is safe to assume that the stress state is affecting fiber performance. The purpose of this research was to determine if there are failure mo...

  6. Thermocouples for Interior Ballistic Temperature Measurements (United States)


    l On the other hand, the entire junction region of a junction temperature measurement device (hereafter referred to simply as a thermocouple ) is... Thermocouples for Interior Ballistic Temperature Measurements ARL-MR-146 Stephen L. Howard Lang-Mann Chang Douglas E. Kooker APPROVED FOR PUBUC...COVERED August 1994 · Final, Oct 1991- Sept 1993 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Thermocouples for Interior Ballistic Temperature

  7. Linking crime guns: the impact of ballistics imaging technology on the productivity of the Boston Police Department's Ballistics Unit. (United States)

    Braga, Anthony A; Pierce, Glenn L


    Ballistics imaging technology has received national attention as a potent tool for moving the law enforcement response to violent gun criminals forward by linking multiple crime scenes to one firearm. This study examines the impact of ballistics imaging technology on the productivity of the Boston Police Department's Ballistics Unit. Using negative binomial regression models to analyze times series data on ballistics matches, we find that ballistics imaging technology was associated with a more than sixfold increase in the monthly number of ballistics matches made by the Boston Police Department's Ballistics Unit. Cost-effectiveness estimates and qualitative evidence also suggest that ballistics imaging technology allows law enforcement agencies to make hits that would not have been possible using traditional ballistics methods.

  8. Air Drag Effects on the Missile Trajectories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. Abd El-Salam


    Full Text Available The equations of motion of a missile under the air drag effects are constructed. The modified TD88 is surveyed. Using Lagrange's planetary equations in Gauss form, the perturbations, due to the air drag in the orbital elements, are computed between the eccentric anomalies of the burn out and the reentry points [Ebo,2π−Ebo], respectively. The range equation is expressed as an infinite series in terms of the eccentricity e and the eccentric anomaly E. The different errors in the missile-free range due to the drag perturbations in the missile trajectory are obtained.

  9. Secondary missile injury from lightning strike. (United States)

    Blumenthal, Ryan


    A 48-year-old-woman was struck dead by lightning on October 24, 2010, in Pretoria, South Africa. The cause of death was due to direct lightning strike. Examination showed secondary missile injury on her legs. This secondary missile (shrapnel) injury was caused by the lightning striking the concrete pavement next to her. Small pieces of concrete were located embedded within the shrapnel wounds. This case report represents the first documented case of secondary missile formation (shrapnel injury) due to lightning strike in the literature.

  10. Two-color infrared missile warning sensors (United States)

    Neele, Filip


    Current missile-warning sensors on aircraft mostly operate in the ultraviolet wavelength band. Aimed primarily at detecting short-range, shoulder-fired surface-to-air missiles, the detection range of the sensors is of the same order as the threat range, which is 3-5 km. However, this range is only attained against older missiles, with bright exhaust flames. Modern missile developments include the use of new propellants, which generate low-intensity plumes. These threats are detected at much shorter ranges by current ultraviolet warning sensors, resulting in short reaction times. Infrared sensors are able to detect targets at a much longer range. In contrast with the ultraviolet band, in which a target is observed against an almost zero background, infrared sensors must extract targets from a complex background. This leads to a much higher false-alarm rate, which has thus far prevented the deployment of infrared sensors in a missile warning system. One way of reducing false-alarms levels is to make use of the spectral difference between missile plumes and the background. By carefully choosing two wavelength bands, the contrast between missile plume and background can be maximised. This paper presents a method to search for the best possible combination of two bands in the mid-wave infrared, that leads to the longest detection ranges and that works for a wide range of missile propellants. Detection ranges predicted in the infrared will be compared with those obtained in the ultraviolet, to demonstrate the increased range and, therefore, the increased reaction time for the aircraft.

  11. Colour contrast in ballistic gelatine. (United States)

    Schyma, Christian Walter Albert


    Gelatine is a reliable tissue simulant in wound ballistic experiments. The projectile penetrating the gelatine transfers energy and causes radial cracks according to the temporary cavity. Thus the crack length is a function of the energy spent in the medium. In practice the fissures are poorly contrasted for which reason an enhancement of contrast was searched. A series of six shoots with expanding bullets (9 mm x 19 Action-5, 9 mm x 19 Quick Defense 1, 5.56 mm x 45 Styx Action) was realized on 10% gelatine blocks at 4 degrees C temperature. Three blocks were marked with acryl paint on the front, three blocks were shot native. The blocks were cut in slices of 1cm thickness and optically scanned. The evaluation was performed according to Fackler's wound profile, the total crack length method and the polygon method. The paint was soaked into the block by the collapse of the temporary cavity and transported with diminishing intensity to the end of the trajectory. Colour contrast was successfully realized in all the shots which made easier to measure the length of the fissures. The comparison of the shots with and without paint gave a better reproducibility of measures with colour contrast. Using paint the energy transfer began earlier so that the curve of the wound profile was shifted by 1cm to the entry which is explicated by the paint pad put on the block. The maximum crack lengths did not significantly differ with and without paint. All evaluation methods profited from colour contrast but the total crack length method the most of all. Further experiments showed that colour contrast is also successful in 20% gelatine and is not dependent of the type of projectile. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Simulation of depth of penetration during ballistic impact on thick ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    dimensional models; ballistic impact; thick target; depth of penetration. 1. Introduction. Ballistic impact is the study which deals with projectile hitting the target and observing its effects in terms of deformation and fragmentation of the target. The need ...

  13. Ballistic Response of Fabrics: Model and Experiments (United States)

    Orphal, Dennis L.; Walker Anderson, James D., Jr.


    Walker (1999)developed an analytical model for the dynamic response of fabrics to ballistic impact. From this model the force, F, applied to the projectile by the fabric is derived to be F = 8/9 (ET*)h^3/R^2, where E is the Young's modulus of the fabric, T* is the "effective thickness" of the fabric and equal to the ratio of the areal density of the fabric to the fiber density, h is the displacement of the fabric on the axis of impact and R is the radius of the fabric deformation or "bulge". Ballistic tests against Zylon^TM fabric have been performed to measure h and R as a function of time. The results of these experiments are presented and analyzed in the context of the Walker model. Walker (1999), Proceedings of the 18th International Symposium on Ballistics, pp. 1231.

  14. Earth-Mars transfers with ballistic capture (United States)

    Topputo, F.; Belbruno, E.


    We construct a new type of transfer from the Earth to Mars, which ends in ballistic capture. This results in substantial savings in capture from that of a classical Hohmann transfer under certain assumptions as well as an alternate way for spacecraft to transfer to Mars. This is accomplished by first becoming captured at Mars, very distant from the planet, and then from there, following a ballistic capture transfer to a desired altitude within a ballistic capture set. This is achieved by using stable sets, which are sets of initial conditions whose orbits satisfy a definition of orbital stability. This transfer type may be of interest for Mars missions because of low capture , flexibility of launch period from the Earth, moderate flight time, and the benign nature of the capture process.

  15. Ballistics: a primer for the surgeon. (United States)

    Volgas, David A; Stannard, James P; Alonso, Jorge E


    The purpose of this paper is to review the literature on ballistics and to sort through the plethora of myth and popular opinion. The trauma surgeon is increasingly faced with gunshot wounds. Knowledge of ballistics is important to help in assessing the patterns of wounds that are seen. There are many factors that affect the flight of a bullet to its target. Many of these factors also affect the behaviour of the bullet after it strikes the target. It is primarily these factors that interest the surgeon.

  16. Missile captive carry monitoring using a capacitive MEMS accelerometer (United States)

    Hatchell, Brian; Mauss, Fred; Santiago-Rojas, Emiliano; Amaya, Ivan; Skorpik, Jim; Silvers, Kurt; Marotta, Steve


    Military missiles are exposed to many sources of mechanical vibration that can affect system reliability, safety, and mission effectiveness. One of the most significant exposures to vibration occurs when the missile is being carried by an aviation platform, which is a condition known as captive carry. If the duration of captive carry exposure could be recorded during the missile's service life, several advantages could be realized. Missiles that have been exposed to durations outside the design envelop could be flagged or screened for maintenance or inspection; lightly exposed missiles could be selected for critical mission applications; and missile allocation to missions could be based on prior use to avoid overuse. The U. S. Army Aviation and Missile Research Development and Engineering Center (AMRDEC) has been developing health monitoring systems to assess and improve reliability of missiles during storage and field exposures. Under the direction of AMRDEC staff, engineers at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory have developed a Captive Carry Health Monitor (CCHM) for the HELLFIRE II missile. The CCHM is an embedded usage monitoring device installed on the outer skin of the HELLFIRE II missile to record the cumulative hours the host missile has been in captive carry mode and thereby assess the overall health of the missile. This paper provides an overview of the CCHM electrical and package design, describes field testing and data analysis techniques used to identify captive carry, and discusses the potential application of missile health and usage data for real-time reliability analysis and fleet management.

  17. Ballistic transport in semiconductor nanostructures: From quasi ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    By suitable design it is possible to achieve quasi-ballistic transport in semiconductor nanostructures over times up to the ps-range. Monte-Carlo simulations reveal that under these conditions phase-coherent real-space oscillations of an electron ensemble, generated by fs-pulses become possible in wide potential wells.

  18. Characterization of dynamic properties of ballistic clay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carton, E.P.; Roebroeks, G.H.J.J.; Broos, J.P.F.; Halls, V.; Zheng, J.


    In order use material models in (numerical) calculations, the mechanical properties of all materials involved should be known. At TNO an indirect method to determine the dynamic flow stress of materials has been generated by a combination of ballistic penetration tests with an energy-based

  19. The Internal Ballistics of an Air Gun (United States)

    Denny, Mark


    The internal ballistics of a firearm or artillery piece considers the pellet, bullet, or shell motion while it is still inside the barrel. In general, deriving the muzzle speed of a gunpowder firearm from first principles is difficult because powder combustion is fast and it very rapidly raises the temperature of gas (generated by gunpowder…

  20. The National Ballistics Imaging Comparison (NBIC) project. (United States)

    Song, J; Vorburger, T V; Ballou, S; Thompson, R M; Yen, J; Renegar, T B; Zheng, A; Silver, R M; Ols, M


    In response to the guidelines issued by the American Society of Crime Laboratory Directors/Laboratory Accreditation Board (ASCLD/LAB-International) to establish traceability and quality assurance in U.S. crime laboratories, a NIST/ATF joint project entitled National Ballistics Imaging Comparison (NBIC) was initialized in 2008. The NBIC project aims to establish a National Traceability and Quality System for ballistics identifications in crime laboratories within the National Integrated Ballistics Information Network (NIBIN) of the U.S. NIST Standard Reference Material (SRM) 2460 bullets and 2461 cartridge cases are used as reference standards. 19 ballistics examiners from 13 U.S. crime laboratories participated in this project. They each performed 24 periodic image acquisitions and correlations of the SRM bullets and cartridge cases over the course of a year, but one examiner only participated in Phase 1 tests of SRM cartridge case. The correlation scores were collected by NIST for statistical analyses, from which control charts and control limits were developed for the proposed Quality System and for promoting future assessments and accreditations for firearm evidence in U.S. forensic laboratories in accordance with the ISO 17025 Standard. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  1. Ballistic transport in semiconductor nanostructures: From quasi ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. By suitable design it is possible to achieve quasi-ballistic transport in semi- conductor nanostructures over times up to the ps-range. Monte-Carlo simulations reveal that under these conditions phase-coherent real-space oscillations of an electron ensem- ble, generated by fs-pulses become possible in wide ...

  2. Electron Interference in Ballistic Graphene Nanoconstrictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baringhaus, Jens; Settnes, Mikkel; Aprojanz, Johannes


    We realize nanometer size constrictions in ballistic graphene nanoribbons grown on sidewalls of SiC mesa structures. The high quality of our devices allows the observation of a number of electronic quantum interference phenomena. The transmissions of Fabry-Perot-like resonances are probed...

  3. Optimization theory for ballistic energy conversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xie, Yanbo; Versluis, Michel; Van Den Berg, Albert; Eijkel, Jan C.T.


    The growing demand of renewable energy stimulates the exploration of new materials and methods for clean energy. We recently demonstrated a high efficiency and power density energy conversion mechanism by using jetted charged microdroplets, termed as ballistic energy conversion. Hereby, we model and

  4. The Ballistic Cart on an Incline Revisited. (United States)

    Serway, Raymond A.; And Others


    Presents the theory behind the mechanics demonstration that involves projecting a ball vertically upward from a ballistic cart moving along an inclined plane. The measured overshoot is believed to be due, in part, to the presence of rolling friction and the inertial properties of the cart wheels. (JRH)

  5. The role of maxillofacial radiologists in gunshot injuries: a hypothesized missile trajectory in two case reports. (United States)

    Sansare, K; Khanna, V; Karjodkar, F


    Gunshot injuries are an emerging form of trauma that oral radiologists increasingly have to deal with. There are two main types of gunshot injuries: high-velocity and low-velocity bullet injuries. The outcome of high-velocity gunshot injury is usually fatal; however, a non-fatal low-velocity injury to the maxillofacial region is more likely to be encountered by the oral and maxillofacial radiologist. It is therefore important to up-to-date knowledge of ballistic science and its implications in the field of maxillofacial radiology. The ability of oral and maxillofacial radiologists to predict the missile trajectory will aid the assessment and localization of the damage caused by the bullet and its splinters. Predicting the missile trajectory may also be of help to law enforcement agencies and forensic scientists in determining the type of firearm used and direction of fire. This article, which examines two cases, attempts to highlight to the oral radiologist this emerging form of trauma and its implications.

  6. The Regional Dimension of Romania's Participation to the Anti-Missile Defense System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Iftode


    Full Text Available The current security environment is characterized by a high degree of instability and unpredictability, through the manifestation of new risks and threats, especially those with asymmetrical nature, by redefining the relations between the great powers, and increasing freedom of action of the regional actors (state and non-state. At the international level, the end of the Cold War has led to a fragmentation of efforts in the security field, with direct implications on the need for further efforts of the international community coordination. In this era of profound change and transformation it is not possible the adoption of an isolationist policy of security, but only in a broader context of interdependencies and relationships between general trends, threats or challenges specific to a particular area or geographic areas. Swift operationalization of the anti-missile system will strengthen the national security both directly, through the protection it provides for the entire national territory, and indirectly, as the system will have a deterrent important role, able to mitigate risks of possible attacks by ballistic missiles. The role of deterrence will remove the risk of attack against any Allied territory on which, by virtue of membership in NATO and obligations involved according to article 5 of the Washington Treaty, Romania has also responsibilities.

  7. Is there ballistic transport in metallic nano-objects? Ballistic versus diffusive contributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, N [Laboratorio de Fisica de Sistemas Pequenos y NanotecnologIa, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones CientIficas (CSIC), Madrid 28006 (Spain); Bai Ming [Laboratorio de Fisica de Sistemas Pequenos y NanotecnologIa, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones CientIficas (CSIC), Madrid 28006 (Spain); Lu Yonghua [Laboratorio de Fisica de Sistemas Pequenos y NanotecnologIa, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones CientIficas (CSIC), Madrid 28006 (Spain); Munoz, M [Laboratorio de Fisica de Sistemas Pequenos y NanotecnologIa, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones CientIficas (CSIC), Madrid 28006 (Spain); Cheng Hao [Laboratorio de Fisica de Sistemas Pequenos y NanotecnologIa, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones CientIficas (CSIC), Madrid 28006 (Spain); Levanyuk, A P [Fisintec Innovacion Tecnologica, Miraflores 65, Alcobendas, Madrid 28100 (Spain)


    When discussing the resistance of an atomic-or nanometre-size contact we should consider both its ballistic and its diffusive contributions. But there is a contribution of the leads to the resistance of the contact as well. In this context, the geometry and the roughness of the surfaces limiting the system will contribute to the resistance, and these contributions should be added to the ideal ballistic resistance of the nanocontact. We have calculated, for metallic materials, the serial resistance of the leads arising from the roughness, and our calculations show that the ohmic resistance is as important as the ballistic resistance of the constriction. The classical resistance is a lower limit to the quantum resistance of the leads. Many examples of earlier experiments show that the mean free path of the transport electrons is of the order of the size of the contacts or the leads. This is not compatible with the idea of ballistic transport. This result may put in serious difficulties the current, existing interpretation of experimental data in metals where only small serial resistances compared with the ballistic component of the total resistance have been taken into account. The two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) is also discussed and the serial corrections appear to be smaller than for metals. Experiments with these last systems are proposed that may reveal new interesting aspects in the physics of ballistic and diffusive transport.

  8. Computer modeling of jamming effects on roll stabilized missiles


    Hill, Craig Alan.


    Development of countermeasures against infrared missiles is enhanced by an ability to quantify the effects of the countermeasure. Analysts must be capable of accurately determining the attitude of the missile throughout its flight. This thesis describes the use of micro-miniature technologies to measure the rates experienced by a missile and the model required to effectively determine the missile's attitude. The Applied Technology Associates ARS-04E and the Tokin America CG-16D sensors were e...

  9. Historical review of tactical missile airframe developments (United States)

    Spearman, M. L.


    A comprehensive development history of missile airframe aerodynamics is presented, encompassing ground-, ground vehicle-, ship-, and air-launched categories of all ranges short of strategic. Emphasis is placed on the swift acceleration of missile configuration aerodynamics by German researchers in the course of the Second World War and by U.S. research establishments thereafter, often on the foundations laid by German workers. Examples are given of foundational airframe design criteria established by systematic researches undertaken in the 1950s, regarding L/D ratios, normal force and pitching moment characteristics, minimum drag forebodies and afterbodies, and canard and delta winged configuration aerodynamics.

  10. Evaluation of wind/tornado-generated missile impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singhal, M.K.; Walls, J.C.


    Simplified empirical formulae and some tabular data for the design/evaluation of structure barriers to resist wind/tornado generated missiles impact are presented in this paper. The scope is limited to the missiles defined by UCRL-15910 which are to be considered for moderate and high hazard facilities only. The method presented herein are limited to consideration of local effects on the barrier, i.e., the barrier must be capable of stopping the missile, and the barrier must no cause the generation of secondary missiles due to scabbing. Overall structural response to missile impact and structural effects derived from wind pressure are not addressed in this paper.

  11. Storage Reliability of Missile Materiel Program. Missile Hydraulic and Pneumatic Systems Actuator Analysis (United States)


    RELIABILITY OF / MISSILE MATERIEL PROGRANI MISSILE gYDRAULIC AND NEUMATIC SYSTEMS ACTUATOR ANALYSIS .. 7 ." Joe C. Mitchell Approved by: Donald R. Earles...amplifier. 3-5 - M77777,77-7WT7 SECTION 4 ACTUATOR CLASSIFICATION Actuators have been classified in accordance with the mechanism and type. Figure 4-1...definition of the data already on hdrnd. More detailed identification of those units classified only by their generic names should be attempted. A more

  12. Quantum ballistic transport in strained epitaxial germanium (United States)

    Gul, Y.; Holmes, S. N.; Newton, P. J.; Ellis, D. J. P.; Morrison, C.; Pepper, M.; Barnes, C. H. W.; Myronov, M.


    Large scale fabrication using Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor compatible technology of semiconductor nanostructures that operate on the principles of quantum transport is an exciting possibility now due to the recent development of ultra-high mobility hole gases in epitaxial germanium grown on standard silicon substrates. We present here a ballistic transport study of patterned surface gates on strained Ge quantum wells with SiGe barriers, which confirms the quantum characteristics of the Ge heavy hole valence band structure in 1-dimension. Quantised conductance at multiples of 2e2/h is a universal feature of hole transport in Ge up to 10 × (2e2/h). The behaviour of ballistic plateaus with finite source-drain bias and applied magnetic field is elucidated. In addition, a reordering of the ground state is observed.

  13. Ballistic Diffusion in Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons on Graphite. (United States)

    Calvo-Almazán, Irene; Sacchi, Marco; Tamtögl, Anton; Bahn, Emanuel; Koza, Marek M; Miret-Artés, Salvador; Fouquet, Peter


    This work presents an experimental picture of molecular ballistic diffusion on a surface, a process that is difficult to pinpoint because it generally occurs on very short length scales. By combining neutron time-of-flight data with molecular dynamics simulations and density functional theory calculations, we provide a complete description of the ballistic translations and rotations of a polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) adsorbed on the basal plane of graphite. Pyrene, C16H10, adsorbed on graphite is a unique system, where at relative surface coverages of about 10-20% its mean free path matches the experimentally accessible time/space scale of neutron time-of-flight spectroscopy (IN6 at the Institut Laue-Langevin). The comparison between the diffusive behavior of large and small PAHs such as pyrene and benzene adsorbed on graphite brings a strong experimental indication that the interaction between molecules is the dominating mechanism in the surface diffusion of polyaromatic hydrocarbons adsorbed on graphite.

  14. [Wound Ballistics – a Brief Overview]. (United States)

    Bolliger, Stephan A; Eggert, Sebastian; Thali, Michael J


    Wound ballistics examines the specific effect, namely the wound profile, of bullets on the body by firing at synthetic models made of ordnance gelatine, glycerin soap and synthetic bones, validated with real cases from (battlefield) surgery and forensic pathology. Wound profile refers to the penetration depth, the bullet deformation/ fragmentation, the diameter of the permanent and the temporary wound cavity. Knowing these features and the used ammunition a surgeon can rapidly assess the amount damage within a patient. The forensic pathologist can draw conclusions as to the used ammunition based on the wound profile. By measuring of the destructive capability of different ammunition types, wound ballistics lays the foundation for guidelines concerning the maximum effect of military ammunition.

  15. Initial Validation of Ballistic Shock Transducers (United States)


    VALIDATION OF BALLISTIC SHOCK ACCELEROMETERS Page Paragraph 1. SCOPE ................................................................................... 2...Table 2, the smack bar as originally described in Paragraph 4.3 will be used. To begin, the LDV should be positioned overhead as displayed in Figure...output from full-spectrum event. l. Once full-spectrum testing is complete, the methods described in Paragraph 4.3 should be used to determine

  16. Electron Interference in Ballistic Graphene Nanoconstrictions


    Baringhaus, Jens; Settnes, Mikkel; Aprojanz, Johannes; Power, Stephen; Jauho, Antti-Pekka; Tegenkamp, Christoph


    We realize nanometer size constrictions in ballistic graphene nanoribbons grown on sidewalls of SiC mesa structures. The high quality of our devices allows the observation of a number of electronic quantum interference phenomena. The transmissions of Fabry-Perot-like resonances are probed by in situ transport measurements at various temperatures. The energies of the resonances are determined by the size of the constrictions, which can be controlled precisely using STM lithography. The tempera...

  17. Modeling internal ballistics of gas combustion guns. (United States)

    Schorge, Volker; Grossjohann, Rico; Schönekess, Holger C; Herbst, Jörg; Bockholdt, Britta; Ekkernkamp, Axel; Frank, Matthias


    Potato guns are popular homemade guns which work on the principle of gas combustion. They are usually constructed for recreational rather than criminal purposes. Yet some serious injuries and fatalities due to these guns are reported. As information on the internal ballistics of homemade gas combustion-powered guns is scarce, it is the aim of this work to provide an experimental model of the internal ballistics of these devices and to investigate their basic physical parameters. A gas combustion gun was constructed with a steel tube as the main component. Gas/air mixtures of acetylene, hydrogen, and ethylene were used as propellants for discharging a 46-mm caliber test projectile. Gas pressure in the combustion chamber was captured with a piezoelectric pressure sensor. Projectile velocity was measured with a ballistic speed measurement system. The maximum gas pressure, the maximum rate of pressure rise, the time parameters of the pressure curve, and the velocity and path of the projectile through the barrel as a function of time were determined according to the pressure-time curve. The maximum gas pressure was measured to be between 1.4 bar (ethylene) and 4.5 bar (acetylene). The highest maximum rate of pressure rise was determined for hydrogen at (dp/dt)max = 607 bar/s. The muzzle energy was calculated to be between 67 J (ethylene) and 204 J (acetylene). To conclude, this work provides basic information on the internal ballistics of homemade gas combustion guns. The risk of injury to the operator or bystanders is high, because accidental explosions of the gun due to the high-pressure rise during combustion of the gas/air mixture may occur.

  18. Integrated Air and Missile Defense (IAMD) (United States)


    program will integrate the Patriot and Improved Sentinel components to support the engagement of air breathing targets, cruise missiles, unmanned aerial...was to demonstrate a 2013 “ snap -shot” of development efforts focused on achieving common AAMDC capability from the Brigade Combat Teams Air Defense Air

  19. Sustainability Of The 21M Missile Maintainer (United States)


    PROFESSIONAL STUDIES PAPER: SUSTAINABILITY OF THE 21M MISSILE MAINTAINER LIEUTENANT COLONEL DAVID S. MILLER AIR...of the health and sustainability of the ICBM maintenance officer career field will reveal conclusions and recommendations that could assist the...maintenance career field as healthy and sustainable , and ready to flourish. However, the evidence presented in this paper will show otherwise. To

  20. Missile flight control using active flexspar actuators (United States)

    Barrett, Ronald M.; Gross, R. Steven; Brozoski, Fred


    A new type of subsonic missile flight control surface using piezoelectric flexspar actuators is presented. The flexspar design uses an aerodynamic shell which is pivoted at the quarter-chord about a graphite main spar. The shell is pitched up and down by a piezoelectric bender element which is rigidly attached to a base mount and allowed to rotate freely at the tip. The element curvature, shell pitch deflection and torsional stiffness are modeled using laminated plate theory. A one-third scale TOW 2B missile model was used as a demonstration platform. A static wing of the missile was replaced with an active flexspar wing. The 1' X 2.7' active flight control surface was powered by a bi-morph bender with 5-mil PZT-5H sheets. Bench and wind tunnel testing showed good correlation between theory and experiment and static pitch deflections in excess of +/- 14 degree(s). A natural frequency of 78.5 rad/s with a break frequency of 157 rad/s was measured. Wind tunnel tests revealed no flutter or divergence tendencies. Maximum changes in lift coefficient were measured at (Delta) CL equals +/- .73 which indicates that terminal and initial missile load factors may be increased by approximately 3.1 and 12.6 g's respectively, leading to a greatly reduced turn radius of only 2,400 ft.

  1. The Evolution of the Cruise Missile (United States)


    Systems Company patented a system called TERCOM* as part of the " fingerprint " guidance for Chance Vought’s strategic attack missile called SLAM...Force Base, New York. USAF selected it because of its location relative to Soviet targets and initial TERCOM nmapping restrictions. The unit received

  2. High velocity missile injuries of the liver

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    exsanguination six hours after surgery. The second patient died of septicaemia on the fifth postoperative clay (Table 111). TABLE Ill Outcome of treatment of patients with high velocity missile injuries of the liver. Discussion. The diagnosis of penetrating abdominal injury is usually straightforward. Injury to the liver m:ly be.

  3. Historical overview of wound ballistics research. (United States)

    Maiden, Nick


    Ballistics involves the study of the scientific properties of projectiles, their behavior and their terminal effects on biological tissues and other materials. Wound ballistics deals with the analysis of injuries caused by projectiles and the behavior of projectiles within human or other biological tissues. The nineteenth century witnessed the development of both of these areas with Kocher's hydrodynamic theory and the understanding of the significance of bullet deformation in causing tissue injury. The degree of traumatic disruption of tissues and organs was also related to direct energy transfer from projectiles. While subsequent research has concentrated on elucidating further mechanisms of injury, the exact cause of remote tissue damage from high energy projectiles is still the subject of ongoing research. Much of the contemporary literature regarding wound ballistics concentrates on the forensic aspects and their application for legal purposes, in particular the investigation of shooting scenes. There have been many advances in this area, particularly in relation to the identification of various types of gunshot wounds and how their appearance can be used to establish if a shooting was accidental, deliberate (homicidal) or self inflicted (suicidal).

  4. Targeting Low-Energy Ballistic Lunar Transfers (United States)

    Parker, Jeffrey S.


    Numerous low-energy ballistic transfers exist between the Earth and Moon that require less fuel than conventional transfers, but require three or more months of transfer time. An entirely ballistic lunar transfer departs the Earth from a particular declination at some time in order to arrive at the Moon at a given time along a desirable approach. Maneuvers may be added to the trajectory in order to adjust the Earth departure to meet mission requirements. In this paper, we characterize the (Delta)V cost required to adjust a low-energy ballistic lunar transfer such that a spacecraft may depart the Earth at a desirable declination, e.g., 28.5(white bullet), on a designated date. This study identifies the optimal locations to place one or two maneuvers along a transfer to minimize the (Delta)V cost of the transfer. One practical application of this study is to characterize the launch period for a mission that aims to launch from a particular launch site, such as Cape Canaveral, Florida, and arrive at a particular orbit at the Moon on a given date using a three-month low-energy transfer.

  5. Characteristics of ballistic and blast injuries. (United States)

    Powers, David B; Delo, Robert I


    Ballistic injury wounds are formed by variable interrelated factors, such as the nature of the tissue, the compositional makeup of the bullet, distance to the target, and the velocity, shape, and mass of the of the projectile. This complex arrangement, with the ultimate outcome dependent on each other, makes the prediction of wounding potential difficult to assess. As the facial features are the component of the body most involved in a patient's personality and interaction with society, preservation of form, cosmesis, and functional outcome should remain the primary goals in the management of ballistic injury. A logical, sequential analysis of the injury patterns to the facial complex is an absolutely necessary component for the treatment of craniomaxillofacial ballistic injuries. Fortunately, these skill sets should be well honed in all craniomaxillofacial surgeons through their exposure to generalized trauma, orthognathic, oncologic, and cosmetic surgery patients. Identification of injured tissues, understanding the functional limitations of these injuries, and preservation of both hard and soft tissues minimizing the need for tissue replacement are paramount.

  6. Experimental observation of ballistic nanofriction on graphene (United States)

    Blue, Brandon; Lodge, Michael; Tang, Chun; Hubbard, William; Martini, Ashlie; Dawson, Ben; Ishigami, Masa

    Recent calculations have predicted that gold nanocrystals slide on graphite with two radically different friction coefficients depending on their speeds. At high sliding speeds in the range of 100?m/s, nanocrystals are expected to behave radically differently in what is known as the ballistic nanofriction regime. In this work, we present a direct measurement of ballistic nanofriction for gold nanocrystals on graphene. Nanocrystals are deposited onto an oscillating graphene-coated quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) in-situ under UHV and allowed to periodically ring down. After deposition, frictional parameters are measured as a function of oscillatory velocity to investigate the predicted velocity dependence of friction. Lubricity beyond even the predictions of ballistic nanofriction is observed at much lower surface velocities than expected, with drag coefficients approaching 8.65*10-14 kg/s. In comparison to the theoretically-predicted value of 2.0*10-13 kg/s, our results suggest a much lower interaction strength than proposed in contemporary models of nanoscopic sliding contacts even at relatively low speeds. This work is based on research supported by the National Science Foundation, Grant No. 0955625 (MLS, BTB, BDD and MI) and Grant No. CMMI-1265594 (CT and AM). BDD and MI were also supported by the Intelligence Community Postdoctoral Fellowship.

  7. Impacts of Deflection Nose on Ballistic Trajectory Control Law


    Bo Zhang; Shushan Wang; Mengyu Cao; Yuxin Xu


    The deflection of projectile nose is aimed at changing the motion of the projectile in flight with the theory of motion control and changing the exterior ballistics so as to change its range and increase its accuracy. The law of external ballistics with the deflectable nose is considered as the basis of the design of a flight control system and an important part in the process of projectile development. Based on the existing rigid external ballistic model, this paper establishes an external b...

  8. Predicting ballistic strength of life-saving aramid fiber composites for personal protection


    Dimeski, Dimko; Srebrenkoska, Vineta


    The purpose of the study is to access the applicability of full factorial experimental design in predicting ballistic strength of aramid fiber/phenolic ballistic composites for personal protection. When designing ballistic composites,two major factors are the most important: the ballistic strength and the weight of the protection. The ultimate target is to achieve the required ballistic strength with the lowest possible weight of the protection. The hard ballistic aramid/phenolic composite...

  9. Predicting the ballistic strength of aramid fiber composites by implementing full factorial experimental design


    Dimeski, Dimko; Srebrenkoska, Vineta


    The purpose of the study is to predict the ballistic strength of hard aramid fiber/phenolic ballistic composites by implementing the full factorial experimental design. When designing ballistic composites two major factors are the most important: the ballistic strength and the weight of the protection. The ultimate target is to achieve the required ballistic strength with the lowest possible weight of protection. The hard ballistic aramid/phenolic composites were made by open mold...

  10. Analysis of behind the armor ballistic trauma. (United States)

    Wen, Yaoke; Xu, Cheng; Wang, Shu; Batra, R C


    The impact response of body armor composed of a ceramic plate with an ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fiber-reinforced composite and layers of UHMWPE fibers shielding a block of ballistic gelatin has been experimentally and numerically analyzed. It is a surrogate model for studying injuries to human torso caused by a bullet striking body protection armor placed on a person. Photographs taken with a high speed camera are used to determine deformations of the armor and the gelatin. The maximum depth of the temporary cavity formed in the ballistic gelatin and the peak pressure 40mm behind the center of the gelatin front face contacting the armor are found to be, respectively, ~34mm and ~15MPa. The Johnson-Holmquist material model has been used to simulate deformations and failure of the ceramic. The UHMWPE fiber-reinforced composite and the UHMWPE fiber layers are modeled as linear elastic orthotropic materials. The gelatin is modeled as a strain-rate dependent hyperelastic material. Values of material parameters are taken from the open literature. The computed evolution of the temporary cavity formed in the gelatin is found to qualitatively agree with that seen in experiments. Furthermore, the computed time histories of the average pressure at four points in the gelatin agree with the corresponding experimentally measured ones. The maximum pressure at a point and the depth of the temporary cavity formed in the gelatin can be taken as measures of the severity of the bodily injury caused by the impact; e.g. see the United States National Institute of Justice standard 0101.06-Ballistic Resistance of Body Armor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Aerodynamics of missiles with slotted fin configurations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abate, G.L.; Winchenbach, G.L. (USAF, Armament Laboratory, Eglin AFB, FL (USA))


    Subsonic and transonic aerodynamic data for missiles with solid and slotted wrap around fin configurations are presented. Free-flight aeroballistic tests to obtain this data were conducted at atmospheric pressure over a Mach number range of 0.8 to 1.6. The aerodynamic coefficients and derivatives presented were extracted from the position-attitude-time histories of the experimentally measured trajectories using non-linear numerical integration data reduction routines. Results of this testing and analysis show the static and dynamic stability variations for solid and slotted wrap around fin configurations. The presence of a side moment dependent on pitch angle, inherent to wrap around fin configurations, is measured for both configurations. Results indicate a reduction in the magnitude of this side-moment for missiles with slotted fins. Also, roll dependence with Mach number effects are not present with the slotted fin configurations. Designers should consider these factors whenever wrap around fins are utilized. 14 refs.

  12. Vehicle concept for a robotic missile launcher (United States)

    Evces, C. R.; Fearing, P. D.


    This report presents preliminary work on the vehicle concept for a robotic missile launcher. A computerized literature search is documented, and important mobility and control concepts from the search are discussed. A survey of commercially available roving vehicles, both remotely and manually controlled, is also presented. Design concepts are evaluated for application to a robotic missile launcher vehicle based on constraining design criteria. Conceptual designs are based on a commercially available vehicle (the Emerson Electric Fast Attack Vehicle), and a proposed special purpose vehicle are presented. Recommendations are made for further research and/or testing in the areas of feasibility of candidate control links and payloads, maneuverability versus armor, cost versus survivability, and applications in reconnaissance.

  13. MD Test of a Ballistic Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Tabares Valdivieso, Ana; Salvachua Ferrando, Belen Maria; Skowronski, Piotr Krzysztof; Solfaroli Camillocci, Matteo; Tomas Garcia, Rogelio; Wenninger, Jorg; Coello De Portugal - Martinez Vazquez, Jaime Maria; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department


    The ballistic optics is designed to improve the understanding of optical errors and BPM systematic effects in the critical triplet region. The particularity of that optics is that the triplet is switched off, effectively transforming the triplets on both sides of IR1 and IR5 into drift spaces. Advantage can be taken from that fact to localize better errors in the Q4-Q5-triplet region. During this MD this new optics was tested for the first time at injection with beam 2.

  14. Expert systems and ballistic range data analysis (United States)

    Hathaway, Wayne; Steinhoff, Mark; Whyte, Robert; Brown, David; Choate, Jeff; Adelgren, Russ


    A program aimed at the development of an expert system for the reduction of ballistic range data is described. The program applies expert system and artificial intelligence techniques to develop a mathematically complex state-of-the-art spark range data reduction procedure that includes linear theory and six-degree-of-freedom analysis. The scope of the knowledge base includes both spin and statically stable vehicles. The expert system is expected to improve the quality of the data reduction process while reducing the work load on the senior range engineer.

  15. Contemporary management of maxillofacial ballistic trauma. (United States)

    Breeze, J; Tong, D; Gibbons, A


    Ballistic maxillofacial trauma in the UK is fortunately relatively rare, and generally involves low velocity handguns and shotguns. Civilian terrorist events have, however, shown that all maxillofacial surgeons need to understand how to treat injuries from improvised explosive devices. Maxillofacial surgeons in the UK have also been responsible for the management of soldiers evacuated from Iraq and Afghanistan, and in this review we describe the newer types of treatment that have evolved from these conflicts, particularly that of damage-control maxillofacial surgery. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. An integrated approach towards future ballistic neck protection materials selection. (United States)

    Breeze, John; Helliker, Mark; Carr, Debra J


    Ballistic protection for the neck has historically taken the form of collars attached to the ballistic vest (removable or fixed), but other approaches, including the development of prototypes incorporating ballistic material into the collar of an under body armour shirt, are now being investigated. Current neck collars incorporate the same ballistic protective fabrics as the soft armour of the remaining vest, reflecting how ballistic protective performance alone has historically been perceived as the most important property for neck protection. However, the neck has fundamental differences from the thorax in terms of anatomical vulnerability, flexibility and equipment integration, necessitating a separate solution from the thorax in terms of optimal materials selection. An integrated approach towards the selection of the most appropriate combination of materials to be used for each of the two potential designs of future neck protection has been developed. This approach requires evaluation of the properties of each potential material in addition to ballistic performance alone, including flexibility, mass, wear resistance and thermal burden. The aim of this article is to provide readers with an overview of this integrated approach towards ballistic materials selection and an update of its current progress in the development of future ballistic neck protection.

  17. Development and testing of a flexible ballistic neck protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roebroeks, G.H.J.J.; Rensink, P.


    Sufficient ballistic protection of the neck area would significantly reduce the vulnerability of an infantry soldier. So far this protection is offered by extensions on the ballistic vest or combat helmet. However, the requirements for head agility and the various body to head positions combined

  18. Towards reliable simulations of ballistic impact on concrete structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khoe, Y.S.; Tyler Street, M.D.; Maravalalu Suresh,, R.S.; Weerheijm, J.


    Protection against weapon effects like ballistic impacts, fragmenting shells and explosions is the core business of the Explosions, Ballistics and Protection department of TNO (The Netherlands). Experimental and numerical research is performed to gain and maintain the knowledge to support the Dutch

  19. Generic Surface-to-Air Missile Model. (United States)


    types of aircraft sensors are considered: radar, launch and missile approach detectors. Their limits are also defined by geometric shapes within the...E FOIZC OPLP- IZELE’A% Q CLAST D 6 I AQ3 f v r RATE Commeme I Lj%-vljtK EVA- CoMMMLF 51 ok) MA Lsu- A vwwov GV A Vc-k I m4uE A FIGURE 3-22 erVAD 3

  20. Integrated Air and Missile Defense (IAMD) (United States)


    Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-205 Integrated Air and Missile Defense (IAMD) As of FY 2017 President’s Budget Defense...Mission and Description 6 Executive Summary 7 Threshold Breaches 8 Schedule 9 Performance 10 Track to Budget 15 Cost and...Funding 16 Low Rate Initial Production 24 Foreign Military Sales 25 Nuclear Costs 25 Unit Cost 26 Cost Variance 29 Contracts 32

  1. MissileLab User’s Guide (United States)


    TECHNICAL REPORT RDMR-SS-12-08 MISSILELAB USER’S GUIDE Lamar M. Auman System Simulation and Development Directorate...MissileLab User’s Guide 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Lamar M. Auman and Kristina Kirby-Brown 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND...of the user-defined body point cells are colored yellow, while some are colored white . Yellow shaded cells indicate points that do not have a

  2. Countermeasures to the US National Missile Defense (United States)

    Gronlund, Lisbeth


    One of the key technical questions about national missile defenses is whether they can be expected to work under real-world conditions if the attacker takes steps to defeat the defense. This talk will discuss steps that an emerging missile state could take to confuse, overwhelm, or otherwise defeat the planned US NMD system developed by the Clinton administration. It will consider three such ``countermeasures" that would be within the technical capability of a state that could develop and deploy a long-range missile capable of reaching the United States, which is the threat the NMD system is intended to defend against. The talk will be based on the April 2000 report ``Countermeasures: A Technical Evaluation of the Operational Effectiveness of the Planned US National Missile Defense System," which was co-authored by the speaker and 10 other physicists and engineers. Although the talk will refer to the ground-based NMD system under development, the conclusions are applicable to any mid-course NMD system using hit-to-kill infrared-homing interceptors, regardless of their basing mode. The three countermeasures considered are: (1) biological weapons deployed on 100 or more small bomblets, or submunitions, that would be released shortly after the boost phase; (2) nuclear warheads with anti-simulation balloon decoys, in which the attacker disguises the warhead by enclosing it in an aluminum-coated mylar balloon and releasing it along with a large number of otherwise similar but empty balloons; and (3) nuclear warheads with cooled shrouds, in which the attacker foils the kill vehicle's homing process by covering each nuclear warhead with a double-walled cone containing liquid nitrogen.

  3. Field mapping of ballistic pressure pulse sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rad Abtin Jamshidi


    Full Text Available Ballistic pressure pulse sources are used since late 1990s for the extracorporeal treatment of chronic Enthesitis. Newly indications are found in trigger-point-therapy for the treatment of musculoskeletal disorders. In both applications excellent results without relevant side effects were found in clinical trials. The technical principle of pressure pulse source is based on the same techniques used in air guns. A projectile is accelerated by pressurized air and hits the applicator with high kinetic energy. By this a compression wave travels through the material and induces a fast (4..5μs, almost singular pressure pulse of 2..10 MPa, which is followed by an equally short rarefaction phase of about the same amplitude. It is assumed that the pressure pulse accounts for the biomedical effects of the device. The slower inertial motion of the waveguide is damped by elastic stoppers, but still can be measured several micro seconds after the initial pressure pulse. In order to characterize the pressure pulse devices, field mapping is performed on several radial pressure pulse sources using the fiber optic hydrophone and a polyvinylidenfluorid (PVDF piezoelectric hydrophone. It could be shown that the current standard (IEC 61846 is not appropriate for characterization of ballistic pressure pulse sources.

  4. Materials Database Development for Ballistic Impact Modeling (United States)

    Pereira, J. Michael


    A set of experimental data is being generated under the Fundamental Aeronautics Program Supersonics project to help create and validate accurate computational impact models of jet engine impact events. The data generated will include material property data generated at a range of different strain rates, from 1x10(exp -4)/sec to 5x10(exp 4)/sec, over a range of temperatures. In addition, carefully instrumented ballistic impact tests will be conducted on flat plates and curved structures to provide material and structural response information to help validate the computational models. The material property data and the ballistic impact data will be generated using materials from the same lot, as far as possible. It was found in preliminary testing that the surface finish of test specimens has an effect on measured high strain rate tension response of AL2024. Both the maximum stress and maximum elongation are greater on specimens with a smoother finish. This report gives an overview of the testing that is being conducted and presents results of preliminary testing of the surface finish study.

  5. IR sensor design insight from missile-plume prediction models (United States)

    Rapanotti, John L.; Gilbert, Bruno; Richer, Guy; Stowe, Robert


    Modern anti-tank missiles and the requirement of rapid deployment have significantly reduced the use of passive armour in protecting land vehicles. Vehicle survivability is becoming more dependent on sensors, computers and countermeasures to detect and avoid threats. An analysis of missile propellants suggests that missile detection based on plume characteristics alone may be more difficult than anticipated. Currently, the passive detection of missiles depends on signatures with a significant ultraviolet component. This approach is effective in detecting anti-aircraft missiles that rely on powerful motors to pursue high-speed aircraft. The high temperature exhaust from these missiles contains significant levels of carbon dioxide, water and, often, metal oxides such as alumina. The plumes emits strongest in the infrared, 1 to 5micrometers , regions with a significant component of the signature extending into the ultraviolet domain. Many anti-tank missiles do not need the same level of propulsion and radiate significantly less. These low velocity missiles, relying on the destructive force of shaped-charge warhead, are more difficult to detect. There is virtually no ultraviolet component and detection based on UV sensors is impractical. The transition in missile detection from UV to IR is reasonable, based on trends in imaging technology, but from the analysis presented in this paper even IR imagers may have difficulty in detecting missile plumes. This suggests that the emphasis should be placed in the detection of the missile hard body in the longer wavelengths of 8 to 12micrometers . The analysis described in this paper is based on solution of the governing equations of plume physics and chemistry. These models will be used to develop better sensors and threat detection algorithms.

  6. Aerodynamic performances of cruise missile flying above local terrain (United States)

    Ahmad, A.; Saad, M. R.; Che Idris, A.; Rahman, M. R. A.; Sujipto, S.


    Cruise missile can be classified as a smart bomb and also Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) due to its ability to move and manoeuvre by itself without a pilot. Cruise missile flies in constant velocity in cruising stage. Malaysia is one of the consumers of cruise missiles that are imported from other nations, which can have distinct geographic factors including their local terrains compared to Malaysia. Some of the aerodynamic performances of missile such as drag and lift coefficients can be affected by the local geographic conditions in Malaysia, which is different from the origin nation. Therefore, a detailed study must be done to get aerodynamic performance of cruise missiles that operate in Malaysia. The effect of aerodynamic angles such as angle of attack and side slip can be used to investigate the aerodynamic performances of cruise missile. Hence, subsonic wind tunnel testings were conducted to obtain the aerodynamic performances of the missile at various angle of attack and sideslip angles. Smoke visualization was also performed to visualize the behaviour of flow separation. The optimum angle of attack found was at α=21° and side slip, β=10° for optimum pitching and yawing motion of cruise missile.

  7. Ballistic transport in graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calado, V. E.; Goswami, S.; Xu, Q.; Vandersypen, L. M. K., E-mail: [Kavli Institute of Nanoscience, Delft University of Technology, 2600 GA Delft (Netherlands); Zhu, Shou-En; Janssen, G. C. A. M. [Micro and Nano Engineering Laboratory, Precision and Microsystems Engineering, Delft University of Technology, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Watanabe, K.; Taniguchi, T. [Advanced Materials Laboratory, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan)


    In this letter, we report the observation of ballistic transport on micron length scales in graphene synthesised by chemical vapour deposition (CVD). Transport measurements were done on Hall bar geometries in a liquid He cryostat. Using non-local measurements, we show that electrons can be ballistically directed by a magnetic field (transverse magnetic focussing) over length scales of ∼1 μm. Comparison with atomic force microscope measurements suggests a correlation between the absence of wrinkles and the presence of ballistic transport in CVD graphene.

  8. A Novel Binarization Algorithm for Ballistics Firearm Identification (United States)

    Li, Dongguang

    The identification of ballistics specimens from imaging systems is of paramount importance in criminal investigation. Binarization plays a key role in preprocess of recognizing cartridges in the ballistic imaging systems. Unfortunately, it is very difficult to get the satisfactory binary image using existing binary algorithms. In this paper, we utilize the global and local thresholds to enhance the image binarization. Importantly, we present a novel criterion for effectively detecting edges in the images. Comprehensive experiments have been conducted over sample ballistic images. The empirical results demonstrate the proposed method can provide a better solution than existing binary algorithms.

  9. Ballistic flexion movements of the human thumb. (United States)

    Hallett, M; Marsden, C D


    1. In response to an auditory stimulus normal subjects made ballistic flexion movements of the top joint of the thumb against a lever attached to the spindle of a low-inertia electric motor. 2. Electromyographic (e.m.g.) activity was recorded from pairs of fine wire electrodes inserted into flexor pollicis longus and extensor pollicis longus, respectively the sole flexor and extensor of the joint. 3. Movements of 5 degrees, 10 degrees and 20 degrees were made from initial angles of 10 degrees, 20 degrees and 30 degrees flexion against torques of 0.04, 0.08 and 0.16 Nm. 4. The e.m.g. activity initiating such movements was characterized by a 'triphasic' pattern of sequential bursts of activity in the agonist (flexor pollicis longus), then in the antagonist (extensor pollicis longus), and then in the agonist again. 5. The duration of the first agonist and first antagonist bursts ranged from about 50 to 90 ms and there was no significant change of burst length in the different mechanical conditions. 6. In movements of differing angular distance, the rectified and integrated e.m.g. activity of the first agonist burst could be correlated with the distance moved. The rectified and integrated e.m.g. activity of the first antagonist burst could not be correlated with the distance moved. 7. Responses of the muscles to perturbations either before or during the ballistic movements were studied. Current in the motor could be altered so to extend the thumb ('stretch'), to allow it to accelerate ('release'), or to prevent further movement ('halt'). 8. Suitably timed stretch increased the e.m.g. activity of the first agonist burst while release decreased it. 9. There was a small response of the agonist to stretch or halt timed to act during the interval between the first two agonist bursts; the major response was an augmentation of the second agonist burst. 10. Stretch, timed to act between the first two agonist bursts which released the antagonist, diminished the activity of the

  10. Ballistic energy transport in PEG oligomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kireev Victor V.


    Full Text Available Energy transport between the terminal groups of the azido-PEG-succinimide ester compounds with a number of repeating PEG units of 0, 4, 8, and 12 was studied using relaxation-assisted two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy. The through-bond energy transport time, evaluated as the waiting time at which the cross peak maximum is reached, Tmax, was found to be linearly dependent on the chain length for chain lengths up to 60 Å suggesting a ballistic energy transport regime. The through-bond energy transport speed is found to be ca. 500 m/s. The cross-peak amplitude at the maximum decays exponentially with the chain length with a characteristic decay distance of 15.7 ± 1 Å. Substantial mode delocalization across the PEG bridge is found, which can support the energy propagation as a wavepacket.

  11. Ultimately short ballistic vertical graphene Josephson junctions. (United States)

    Lee, Gil-Ho; Kim, Sol; Jhi, Seung-Hoon; Lee, Hu-Jong


    Much efforts have been made for the realization of hybrid Josephson junctions incorporating various materials for the fundamental studies of exotic physical phenomena as well as the applications to superconducting quantum devices. Nonetheless, the efforts have been hindered by the diffusive nature of the conducting channels and interfaces. To overcome the obstacles, we vertically sandwiched a cleaved graphene monoatomic layer as the normal-conducting spacer between superconducting electrodes. The atomically thin single-crystalline graphene layer serves as an ultimately short conducting channel, with highly transparent interfaces with superconductors. In particular, we show the strong Josephson coupling reaching the theoretical limit, the convex-shaped temperature dependence of the Josephson critical current and the exceptionally skewed phase dependence of the Josephson current; all demonstrate the bona fide short and ballistic Josephson nature. This vertical stacking scheme for extremely thin transparent spacers would open a new pathway for exploring the exotic coherence phenomena occurring on an atomic scale.

  12. Heterogeneous propellant internal ballistics: criticism and regeneration (United States)

    Glick, R. L.


    Although heterogeneous propellant and its innately nondeterministic, chemically discrete morphology dominates applications, ballisticcharacterization deterministic time-mean burning rate and acoustic admittance measures' absence of explicit, nondeterministic information requires homogeneous propellant with a smooth, uniformly regressing burning surface: inadequate boundary conditions for heterogeneous propellant grained applications. The past age overcame this dichotomy with one-dimensional (1D) models and empirical knowledge from numerous, adequately supported motor developments and supplementary experiments. However, current cost and risk constraints inhibit this approach. Moreover, its fundamental science approach is more sensitive to incomplete boundary condition information (garbage-in still equals garbage-out) and more is expected. This work critiques this situation and sketches a path forward based on enhanced ballistic and motor characterizations in the workplace and approximate model and apparatus developments mentored by CSAR DNS capabilities (or equivalent).

  13. Ballistic thermoelectric transport in structured nanowires (United States)

    Wang, Biao; Zhou, Jun; Yang, Ronggui; Li, Baowen


    Thermoelectric (TE) devices are solid-state energy converters that can be used for power generation through the Seebeck effect and TE cooling through the Peltier effect. Nanostructures give great opportunities to engineer TE energy conversion efficiency. In this work, we investigate TE transport properties in structured nanowires (NWs) in the ballistic transport regime, where the NWs are bent, kinked, stubbed and segmented like a superlattice nanowire using the Green’s function method and the Landauer-Büttiker formula. A large Seebeck coefficient is found when the transmission gap appears due to the quantum interference effect of electrons. The sign of the Seebeck coefficient can be controlled by the geometries of these structured NWs. This finding is helpful for the design of nanoscale TE devices, such as thermocouple, with the same type of material doping rather than those comprised of n-type and p-type materials.

  14. Pathology of experimental traumatic craniocerebral missile injury. (United States)

    Finnie, J W


    The neuropathological alterations in sheep associated with head wounds inflicted by a .22 calibre rifle are reported. Brain damage was manifest as a permanent haemorrhagic wound cavity produced by crushing and laceration of tissue during missile penetration, secondary tracks due to bone and bullet fragments, widely distributed stretch injuries to blood vessels, nerve fibres and neurons as a consequence of the radial forces of the temporary cavity which develops as a bullet penetrates tissue, marked subarachnoid and intraventricular haemorrhage, and distortion and displacement of the brain.

  15. Wound ballistics of firearm-related injuries--part 1: missile characteristics and mechanisms of soft tissue wounding. (United States)

    Stefanopoulos, P K; Filippakis, K; Soupiou, O T; Pazarakiotis, V C


    Firearm-related injuries are caused by a wide variety of weapons and projectiles. The kinetic energy of the penetrating projectile defines its ability to disrupt and displace tissue, whereas the actual tissue damage is determined by the mode of energy release during the projectile-tissue interaction and the particular characteristics of the tissues and organs involved. Certain projectile factors, namely shape, construction, and stability, greatly influence the rate of energy transfer to the tissues along the wound track. Two zones of tissue damage can be identified, the permanent cavity created by the passage of the bullet and a potential area of contused tissue surrounding it, produced mainly by temporary cavitation which is a manifestation of effective high-energy transfer to tissue. Due to the complex nature of these injuries, wound assessment and the type and extent of treatment required should be based on an understanding of the various mechanisms contributing to tissue damage. Copyright © 2014 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Ballistic Missile Defense and China: China’s Past, Military Technologies, and Shaping the World’s Future (United States)


    the native population with transplanted Han (more genetically pure Chinese) until Tibetans have no ability to claim their political or ensure that the histories of genocidal maniacs, arms races, and Cold Wars are not repeated

  17. Building a Persian Gulf Ballistic Missile Defense Umbrella: A Comparative Case Study Analysis of Regional Phased Adaptive Approaches (United States)


    the Middle East as a thesis topic. To my “clique” and Fadjus, your friendship and support in all matters both inside and outside of the classroom ...goal that is coupled with on-going diversification efforts within the Gulf states’ oil-driven economies. In the near-term, the GCC members will rely

  18. Navy Columbia Class (Ohio Replacement) Ballistic Missile Submarine (SSBN[X]) Program: Background and Issues for Congress (United States)


    contract award will cause disruptions to both the shipbuilding design- build workforce and the supply base that will not be able to continue build than the Navy originally estimated. An October 2015 Congressional Budget Office (CBO) report on the cost of the Navy’s shipbuilding...Columbia-class boats more expensive to build than the Navy estimates. October 2015 CBO Report The October 2015 CBO report on the cost of the Navy’s

  19. Trade-off Study for the Hit-to-kill Interception of Ballistic Missiles in the Boost Phase (United States)


    8217nearest’,’ extrap ’); %interpolate the Cd data in the array for the new Mach number CL_curve = interp1(CL_data(:,1),CL_data(:,2:11),M,’nearest...8217,’ extrap ’); %interpolate the CL data in the array for the new Mach number p = polyfit(CL_curve,Cd_curve,2); % generate a new drag polar (CL_Cd

  20. Impacts of Deflection Nose on Ballistic Trajectory Control Law

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhang, Bo; Wang, Shushan; Cao, Mengyu; Xu, Yuxin


      The deflection of projectile nose is aimed at changing the motion of the projectile in flight with the theory of motion control and changing the exterior ballistics so as to change its range and increase its accuracy...

  1. Impacts of Deflection Nose on Ballistic Trajectory Control Law

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bo Zhang; Shushan Wang; Mengyu Cao; Yuxin Xu


    The deflection of projectile nose is aimed at changing the motion of the projectile in flight with the theory of motion control and changing the exterior ballistics so as to change its range and increase its accuracy...

  2. A Ballistics Examination of Firearm Injuries Involving Breast Implants. (United States)

    Pannucci, Christopher J; Cyr, Adam J; Moores, Neal G; Young, Jason B; Szegedi, Martin


    This ballistics study examines whether saline breast implants can decrease tissue penetration in firearm injuries. We hypothesize that the fluid column within a saline breast implant can alter bullet velocity and/or bullet pattern of mushrooming. The two experimental groups included saline implants with 7.4 cm projection and a no implant group. The experimental design allowed the bullet to pass-through an implant and into ballistics gel (n = 10) or into ballistics gel without passage through an implant (n = 11). Shots that passed through an implant had 20.6% decreased penetration distance when compared to shots that did not pass-through an implant; this difference was statistically significant (31.9 cm vs. 40.2 cm, p ballistics gel penetration. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  3. Mesospheric plasma irregularities caused by the missile destruction on 9 December 2009 (United States)

    Kozlovsky, Alexander; Shalimov, Sergey; Lester, Mark


    On 9 December 2009 at about 07 UT a solid propellant 36.8 t ballistic rocket was self-destroyed at an altitude of 170-260 km, at a distance of about 500 km to the east of Sodankylä Geophysical Observatory (SGO, 67°22'N, 26°38'E, Finland). After 2-3 h the SGO meteor radar (operating at a frequency 36.9 MHz) received unusual echoes, which indicate turbulence of ionospheric plasma (irregularities of electron density) with a temporal scale on the order of 0.1 s and a spatial scale of a few to tens of meters. The turbulence occurred at a height of about 80 km and was localized in several areas of about 60 km in horizontal scale. Line-of-sight velocity of the irregularities was up to a few tens of meters per second toward the radar. The event occurred in the winter high-latitude mesosphere during extremely low solar and geomagnetic activity. Aerosol particles caused by the missile explosion played a key role in producing the electron density irregularities. As a possible explanation, we suggest that sedimented by gravity and, hence, moving with respect to the air, charged aerosol particles (presumably composed of aluminum oxide) might produce meter-scale irregularities (electrostatic waves) via dissipative instability, which is a mechanism analogous to that of the resistive beam-plasma instability.

  4. Optics At White Sands Missile Range (United States)

    Fronczek, Ron C.; Hayslett, Charles R.


    We present an overview of the optics and optical data gathering programs conducted at White Sands Missile Range. Activities at White Sands Missile Range have always been diverse - the first test conducted there was the world's first nuclear explosion. In the forty years since that event the range has hosted a large assortment of vehicles including V2, Nike, Aerobee, Space Shuttle, Cruise, and the Copperhead. The last three of these devices illustrate the difficulty of the White Sands optical data gathering task. One is acquired in orbit, one as it crosses through a mountain pass, and one as it issues from the muzzle of a cannon. A combination of optical, radar, video, computer, and communications technology has produced a versatile system that can satisfy the data gathering requirements of most range users. Another example of the diverse optics programs at the range is the development of the High Energy Laser Systems Test Facility (HELSTF). Because of the nature of the systems being tested, the HELSTF is full of optics and optical systems including the TRW MIRACL laser and the Hughes SEA LITE Beam Director.

  5. Modelling cavitating flow around underwater missiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien Petitpas


    Full Text Available The diffuse interface model of Saurel et al. (2008 is used for the computation of compressible cavitating flows around underwater missiles. Such systems use gas injection and natural cavitation to reduce drag effects. Consequently material interfaces appear separating liquid and gas. These interfaces may have a really complex dynamics such that only a few formulations are able to predict their evolution. Contrarily to front tracking or interface reconstruction method the interfaces are computed as diffused numerical zones, that are captured in a routinely manner, as is done usually with gas dynamics solvers for shocks and contact discontinuity. With the present approach, a single set of partial differential equations is solved everywhere, with a single numerical scheme. This leads to very efficient solvers. The algorithm derived in Saurel et al. (2009 is used to compute cavitation pockets around solid bodies. It is first validated against experiments done in cavitation tunnel at CNU. Then it is used to compute flows around high speed underwater systems (Shkval-like missile. Performance data are then computed showing method ability to predict forces acting on the system.



    Chanchira Jubsilp; Pornnapa Kasemsiri; Somsiri Pathomsap; Sarawut Rimdusit; Sunan Tiptipakorn


    A light weight ballistic composites from KevlarTM-reinforcing fiber having polybenzoxazine (BA)/urethane prepolymer (PU) alloys as a matrix were investigated in this work. The effect of alloy compositions on the ballistic composite properties was determined. The results revealed that the enhancement in the glass transition temperature (Tg) of the KevlarTM-reinforced BA/PU composites compared to that of the KevlarTM-reinforced polybenzoxazine composite was observed. The increase of the elastom...

  7. Guidance and control for defense systems against ballistic threats




    A defense system against ballistic threat is a very complex system from the engineering point of view. It involves different kinds of subsystems and, at the same time, it presents very strict requirements. Technology evolution drives the need of constantly upgrading system’s capabilities. The guidance and control fields are two of the areas with the best progress possibilities. This thesis deals with the guidance and control problems involved in a defense system against ballistic threats. ...

  8. Time-to-impact estimation in passive missile warning systems (United States)

    Şahıngıl, Mehmet Cihan


    A missile warning system can detect the incoming missile threat(s) and automatically cue the other Electronic Attack (EA) systems in the suit, such as Directed Infrared Counter Measure (DIRCM) system and/or Counter Measure Dispensing System (CMDS). Most missile warning systems are currently based on passive sensor technology operating in either Solar Blind Ultraviolet (SBUV) or Midwave Infrared (MWIR) bands on which there is an intensive emission from the exhaust plume of the threatening missile. Although passive missile warning systems have some clear advantages over pulse-Doppler radar (PDR) based active missile warning systems, they show poorer performance in terms of time-to-impact (TTI) estimation which is critical for optimizing the countermeasures and also "passive kill assessment". In this paper, we consider this problem, namely, TTI estimation from passive measurements and present a TTI estimation scheme which can be used in passive missile warning systems. Our problem formulation is based on Extended Kalman Filter (EKF). The algorithm uses the area parameter of the threat plume which is derived from the used image frame.

  9. Innovation in Aerodynamic Design Features of Soviet Missiles (United States)

    Spearman, M. Leroy


    Wind tunnel investigations of some tactical and strategic missile systems developed by the former Soviet Union have been included in the basic missile research programs of the NACA/NASA. Studies of the Soviet missiles sometimes revealed innovative design features that resulted in unusual or unexpected aerodynamic characteristics. In some cases these characteristics have been such that the measured performance of the missile exceeds what might have been predicted. In other cases some unusual design features have been found that would alleviate what might otherwise have been a serious aerodynamic problem. In some designs, what has appeared to be a lack of refinement has proven to be a matter of expediency. It is a purpose of this paper to describe some examples of unusual design features of some Soviet missiles and to illustrate the effectiveness of the design features on the aerodynamic behavior of the missile. The paper draws on the experience of the author who for over 60 years was involved in the aerodynamic wind tunnel testing of aircraft and missiles with the NACA/NASA.

  10. Ballistic Coefficient Prediction for Resident Space Objects (United States)

    Russell, R.; Arora, N.; Vittaldev, V.; Gaylor, D.


    Recent improvements in atmospheric density modeling now provide more confidence in spacecraft ballistic coefficient (BC) estimations, which were previously corrupted by large errors in density. Without attitude knowledge, forecasting the true BC for accurate future state and uncertainty predictions remains elusive. In this paper, our objective is to improve this predictive capability for ballistic coefficients for Resident Space Objects (RSOs), thus improving the existing drag models and associated accuracy of the U.S. Space Object Catalog. To work towards this goal we implement a two-pronged strategy that includes elements of time series analysis and physics based simulations. State-of-the-art empirical time series prediction methods are applied and tested on BC time series in the context of both simulation data and actual data provided by the Air Force. An archive of simulated BC data is generated using custom 6DOF high fidelity simulations for RSOs using plate models for shapes. The simulator includes force and torque perturbations due to the nonspherical Earth, third-body perturbations, SRP, and atmospheric drag. The simulated BC profiles demonstrate significant variation over short time spans (due primarily to varying frontal areas), providing motivation to improve future BC estimation strategies. The 6DOF modeling is intended to provide a physics-based BC data set to complement the BC data set provided by the AF. For the ‘black-box' time series algorithms, a variety of approaches are considered, whereas two prediction models showed the most promising performance: a multi-tone harmonic model and an autoregressive (AR) model. Both the multi-tone harmonic model and the AR model are subjected to multiple levels of optimizations resulting in highly optimized final models that are tuned specifically with the 205 BC time series provided by the AF. Two versions of the AR model are developed based on the model prediction methodology. The second version of the AR

  11. Protective properties of a missile enclosure against electromagnetic influences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Fisahn


    Full Text Available In order to predict the immunity of a generic missile (GENEC, not only the electronic system but also the enclosure has to be taken into consideration. While a completely closed metallic missile enclosure shows a high electric shielding effectiveness, it is decreased substantially by apertures which could not be avoided by different reasons. The shielding effectiveness of the generic missile could be investigated by means of a hollow cylinder equipped with different apertures. Numerical simulations and measurements of this hollow cylinder will be carried out and analyzed.

  12. Organ models in wound ballistics: experimental study. (United States)

    Ozer, Mustafa Tahir; Oğünç, Gökhan; Eryilmaz, Mehmet; Yiğit, Taner; Menteş, Mustafa Oner; Dakak, Mehmet; Uzar, Ali Ihsan; Oner, Köksal


    Effects of various types and diameters of guns and related treatment principles are different. Our study was performed to experimentally demonstrate the effects of different gunshots in body tissues. 9x19 mm hand-gun and 7.62x51 mm G-3 infantry rifle were used in the study. Injury models were created through hand-gun and rifle shootings at isolated soft tissue, lower extremity, liver and intestine tissue simulants made of ballistic candle. High-speed cameras were used to capture 1000 frames per second. Images were examined and wound mechanisms were evaluated. It was observed that the colon content distributed more within the surrounding tissues by the rifle shootings comparing with hand-gun shootings and could be an infection source due to the large size of the cavity in the colon. Especially when the bullets hitting the bone were investigated, it was seen that much more tissue injury occurs with high speed bullets due to bullet deformation and fragmentation. However, no significant difference was found between the effect of hand-gun and rifle bullets passing through the extremity without hitting the bone. To know the type of the gun that caused the injury and its characteristics will allow to estimate severity and size of the injury before the treatment and to focus on different alternatives of treatment. Therefore, use of appropriate models is required in experimental studies.

  13. Rifle bullet penetration into ballistic gelatin. (United States)

    Wen, Yaoke; Xu, Cheng; Jin, Yongxi; Batra, R C


    The penetration of a rifle bullet into a block of ballistic gelatin is experimentally and computationally studied for enhancing our understanding of the damage caused to human soft tissues. The gelatin is modeled as an isotropic and homogeneous elastic-plastic linearly strain-hardening material that obeys a polynomial equation of state. Effects of numerical uncertainties on penetration characteristics are found by repeating simulations with minute variations in the impact speed and the angle of attack. The temporary cavity formed in the gelatin and seen in pictures taken by two high speed cameras is found to compare well with the computed one. The computed time histories of the hydrostatic pressure at points situated 60 mm above the line of impact are found to have "two peaks", one due to the bullet impact and the other due to the bullet tumbling. Contours of the von Mises stress and of the effective plastic strain in the gelatin block imply that a very small region adjacent to the cavity surface is plastically deformed. The angle of attack is found to noticeably affect the penetration depth at the instant of the bullet tumbling through 90°. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Health Management Issues and Strategy for Air Force Missiles (POSTPRINT)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ruderman, Gregory


    As so-called "wooden rounds," which are intended to sit stably in storage for extended periods and then function precisely as desired, at a moment's notice, Air Force missiles would appear to be an...

  15. Anti-Ship Missile Defense and the Free Electron Laser

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Herbert, Paul


    In order to improve ship self-defense against sea-skimming missiles, several concepts, such as the free electron laser, high-power microwaves, and the Phalanx gun system are reviewed and evaluated in this thesis...

  16. 22 CFR 121.16 - Missile Technology Control Regime Annex. (United States)


    ... missile systems, see § 121.1, Cat. VIII (a), target drones and reconnaissance drones (see § 121.1, Cat...) or terrain characteristics (see § 121.1, Category XI(b) and (d)); (c) Global Positioning System (GPS...

  17. Applying the "Principles of War" to Cruise Missile Defense

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carney, Robert


    The U.S. military must assume its future adversaries will possess arsenals that include sophisticated cruise missiles capable of being launched from multiple platforms and engaging both land and sea targets...

  18. The Joint Cruise Missiles Project: An Acquisition History (United States)


    information presented in this report. Xi . ....... --------- GLOSSARY ABL Armored box launcher ACE Alternate cruise engine ACSM Advanced conventional... guidelines previously provided to the DMA by letter of June 30, 1977, for the generation of data bases required by land-attack cruise missiles that...of Air Force and Navy studies, including the Air Force Strike Options Comparison Study and the Advanced Conventional Standoff Missile ( ACSM ) Study

  19. Veiled normalization the implications of Japanese missile defense


    Clarke, Timothy L.


    Japan's development of a missile defense system has been accompanied by the acquisition of potentially offensive military assets, an increased command and control capability, significant restructuring of the collective defense establishment, and doctrinal changes that allow pre-emption should an attack be deemed imminent. Regardless of the long-standing Japanese debate on the constitutionality of the use of force, the introduction of missile defense has institutionalized key structural el...



    Malmstrom AFB, Montana in June 2017. iv Abstract Most of the attention and scholarly analysis of the Cuban Missile Crisis focuses on 13 days...their constituents by accurately articulating what is an existential threat to a nation that spans approximately 3.8 million square miles with violate it. Most of the attention and scholarly analysis of the Cuban Missile Crisis focuses on 13 days, specifically 16-28 October 1962. However

  1. Transition to ballistic regime for heat transport in helium II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sciacca, Michele, E-mail: [Dipartimento Scienze Agrarie e Forestali, Università degli studi di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo (Italy); Departament de Física, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Catalonia (Spain); Sellitto, Antonio, E-mail: [Dipartimento di Matematica, Informatica ed Economia, Università della Basilicata, Campus Macchia Romana, 85100 Potenza (Italy); Jou, David, E-mail: [Departament de Física, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Catalonia (Spain); Institut d' Estudis Catalans, Carme 47, 08001 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain)


    The size-dependent and flux-dependent effective thermal conductivity of narrow capillaries filled with superfluid helium is analyzed from a thermodynamic continuum perspective. The classical Landau evaluation of the effective thermal conductivity of quiescent superfluid, or the Gorter–Mellinck regime of turbulent superfluids, is extended to describe the transition to ballistic regime in narrow channels wherein the radius R is comparable to (or smaller than) the phonon mean-free path ℓ in superfluid helium. To do so, we start from an extended equation for the heat flux incorporating non-local terms, and take into consideration a heat slip flow along the walls of the tube. This leads from an effective thermal conductivity proportional to R{sup 2} (Landau regime) to another one proportional to Rℓ (ballistic regime). We consider two kinds of flows: along cylindrical pipes and along two infinite parallel plates. - Highlights: • Heat transport in counterflow helium in the ballistic regime. • The one-fluid model based on the Extended Thermodynamics is used. • The transition from the Landau regime to the ballistic regime. • The transition from quantum turbulence to ballistic regime.

  2. Verification of models for ballistic movement time and endpoint variability. (United States)

    Lin, Ray F; Drury, Colin G


    A hand control movement is composed of several ballistic movements. The time required in performing a ballistic movement and its endpoint variability are two important properties in developing movement models. The purpose of this study was to test potential models for predicting these two properties. Twelve participants conducted ballistic movements of specific amplitudes using a drawing tablet. The measured data of movement time and endpoint variability were then used to verify the models. This study was successful with Hoffmann and Gan's movement time model (Hoffmann, 1981; Gan and Hoffmann 1988) predicting more than 90.7% data variance for 84 individual measurements. A new theoretically developed ballistic movement variability model, proved to be better than Howarth, Beggs, and Bowden's (1971) model, predicting on average 84.8% of stopping-variable error and 88.3% of aiming-variable errors. These two validated models will help build solid theoretical movement models and evaluate input devices. This article provides better models for predicting end accuracy and movement time of ballistic movements that are desirable in rapid aiming tasks, such as keying in numbers on a smart phone. The models allow better design of aiming tasks, for example button sizes on mobile phones for different user populations.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanchira Jubsilp


    Full Text Available A light weight ballistic composites from KevlarTM-reinforcing fiber having polybenzoxazine (BA/urethane prepolymer (PU alloys as a matrix were investigated in this work. The effect of alloy compositions on the ballistic composite properties was determined. The results revealed that the enhancement in the glass transition temperature (Tg of the KevlarTM-reinforced BA/PU composites compared to that of the KevlarTM-reinforced polybenzoxazine composite was observed. The increase of the elastomeric PU content in the BA/PU alloy resulted in samples with tougher characteristics. The storage modulus of the KevlarTM-reinforced BA/PU composites increased with increasing the mass fraction of polybenzoxazine. A ballistic impact test was also performed on the KevlarTM-reinforced BA/PU composites using a 9 mm handgun. It was found that the optimal contents of PU in the BA/PU alloys should be approximately 20wt%. The extent of the delaminated area and interfacial fracture were observed to change with the varied compositions of the matrix alloys. The appropriate thickness of KevlarTM-reinforced 80/20 BA/PU composite panel was 30 plies and 50 plies to resist the penetration from the ballistic impact equivalent to levels II-A and III-A of NIJ standard. The arrangement of composite panels with the higher stiffness panel at the front side also showed the best efficiency of ballistic penetration resistance.

  4. Feature extraction of micro-motion frequency and the maximum wobble angle in a small range of missile warhead based on micro-Doppler effect (United States)

    Li, M.; Jiang, Y. S.


    Micro-Doppler effect is induced by the micro-motion dynamics of the radar target itself or any structure on the target. In this paper, a simplified cone-shaped model for ballistic missile warhead with micro-nutation is established, followed by the theoretical formula of micro-nutation is derived. It is confirmed that the theoretical results are identical to simulation results by using short-time Fourier transform. Then we propose a new method for nutation period extraction via signature maximum energy fitting based on empirical mode decomposition and short-time Fourier transform. The maximum wobble angle is also extracted by distance approximate approach in a small range of wobble angle, which is combined with the maximum likelihood estimation. By the simulation studies, it is shown that these two feature extraction methods are both valid even with low signal-to-noise ratio.

  5. The expectation of applying IR guidance in medium range air-to-air missiles (United States)

    Li, Lijuan; Liu, Ke


    IR guidance has been widely used in near range dogfight air-to-air missiles while radar guidance is dominant in medium and long range air-to-air missiles. With the development of stealth airplanes and advanced electronic countermeasures, radar missiles have met with great challenges. In this article, the advantages and potential problems of applying IR guidance in medium range air-to-air missiles are analyzed. Approaches are put forward to solve the key technologies including depressing aerodynamic heating, increasing missiles' sensitivity and acquiring target after launch. IR medium range air-to-air missiles are predicted to play important role in modern battle field.

  6. [Bullet and shrapnel injuries in the face and neck regions. Current aspects of wound ballistics]. (United States)

    Hauer, T; Huschitt, N; Kulla, M; Kneubuehl, B; Willy, C


    A basic understanding of the ballistic behaviour of projectiles or fragments after entering the human body is essential for the head and neck surgeon in the military environment in order to anticipate the diagnostic and therapeutic consequences of this type of injury. Although a large number of factors influence the missile in flight and after penetration of the body, the most important factor is the amount of energy transmitted to the tissue. Long guns (rifles or shotguns) have a much higher muzzle energy compared to handguns, explaining why the remote effects beyond the bullet track play a major role. While most full metal jacket bullets release their energy after 12-20 cm (depending on the calibre), soft point bullets release their energy immediately after entry into the human body. This results in a major difference in extremity wounds, but not so much in injuries with long bullet paths (e.g. diagonal shots). Shrapnel wounds are usually produced with similarly high kinetic energy to those caused by hand- and long guns. However, fragments tend to dissipate the entire amount of energy within the body, which increases the degree of tissue disruption. Of all relevant injuries in the head and neck region, soft tissue injuries make up the largest proportion (60%), while injuries to the face are seen three times more often than injuries to the neck. Concomitant intracranial or spinal injury is seen in 30% of cases. Due to high levels of wound contamination, the infection rate is approximately 15%, often associated with a complicated and/or multiresistant spectrum of germs.

  7. High-throughput ballistic injection nanorheology to measure cell mechanics (United States)

    Wu, Pei-Hsun; Hale, Christopher M; Chen, Wei-Chiang; Lee, Jerry S H; Tseng, Yiider; Wirtz, Denis


    High-throughput ballistic injection nanorheology is a method for the quantitative study of cell mechanics. Cell mechanics are measured by ballistic injection of submicron particles into the cytoplasm of living cells and tracking the spontaneous displacement of the particles at high spatial resolution. The trajectories of the cytoplasm-embedded particles are transformed into mean-squared displacements, which are subsequently transformed into frequency-dependent viscoelastic moduli and time-dependent creep compliance of the cytoplasm. This method allows for the study of a wide range of cellular conditions, including cells inside a 3D matrix, cell subjected to shear flows and biochemical stimuli, and cells in a live animal. Ballistic injection lasts < 1 min and is followed by overnight incubation. Multiple particle tracking for one cell lasts < 1 min. Forty cells can be examined in < 1 h. PMID:22222790

  8. Improvised skeletal traction in the management of ballistic femoral fractures. (United States)

    Boyd, M C; Mountain, A J C; Clasper, J C


    Penetrating limb injuries are common during conflict, and in many there will be an associated fracture. Treatment of ballistic femoral fractures would usually be with by intramedullary nail; however, within the resource-constrained environment during conflict this is rarely possible. This report illustrates what can be achieved at a Role 2 facility to provide skeletal traction with the equipment and skills available. We discuss the history of skeletal traction and its use in ballistic femoral fractures, and believe that skeletal traction is still a valuable technique that we shouldn't ignore. Military surgeons should be able to use skeletal traction to manage ballistic femoral fractures in the spartan environment of a deployed forward hospital.

  9. Ballistic spin filtering across the ferromagnetic-semiconductor interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.H. Li


    Full Text Available The ballistic spin-filter effect from a ferromagnetic metal into a semiconductor has theoretically been studied with an intention of detecting the spin polarizability of density of states in FM layer at a higher energy level. The physical model for the ballistic spin filtering across the interface between ferromagnetic metals and semiconductor superlattice is developed by exciting the spin polarized electrons into n-type AlAs/GaAs superlattice layer at a much higher energy level and then ballistically tunneling through the barrier into the ferromagnetic film. Since both the helicity-modulated and static photocurrent responses are experimentally measurable quantities, the physical quantity of interest, the relative asymmetry of spin-polarized tunneling conductance, could be extracted experimentally in a more straightforward way, as compared with previous models. The present physical model serves guidance for studying spin detection with advanced performance in the future.

  10. Missile generated load effects in nuclear facilities; Missilgenererade lasteffekter i kaerntekniska anlaeggningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jovall, Ola; Larsson, Jan-Anders; Thunell, Bjoern [Scanscot Technology AB, Ideon Research Park, Lund (Sweden)


    Analysis of impact load effects to be accounted for in nuclear power plant engineering includes several complicated issues. During the expansive build up of the Swedish nuclear power plants in the 1970s and the beginning of the 1980s, no rational computer based analysis methods were available to handle these types of events. Simplified empirical methods, based on experiences from ballistic experiments within the American military industry, constituted the basic analysis tools. Modern analysis methods based on the finite element technique have during recent years been used more often within the nuclear power plant industry. These methods have made it possible to eliminate several of the shortages associated with the traditional methods of analysis. On behalf of the Swedish Nuclear Inspectorate, Scanscot Technology has performed a review of the traditional and modern analysis methods aimed at handling missile impact in nuclear power plants. Emphasis has been put on the advantages and possibilities that can be achieved by using modern analysis methods, but also to identify and define new uncertainties that may arise. Acceptance criteria regarding dynamic load effects have traditionally been focused on safety-related systems and components. Generally, corresponding demands on safety-related structures have been overlooked or treated on the basis of other acceptance criteria. Therefore, another aim of this commission is to create a comprehensive perspective for safety-related systems, components and structures regarding the acceptance criteria to be applied for evaluation of dynamic load effects in the case of accidental events. In this report the various types of impact loads, which should be regarded within the scope of postulated accidental events in nuclear power plants, are described. Furthermore, special issues regarding load effects and acceptance criteria for safety-related systems and structures are treated. The traditional methods of determining impact load

  11. Low-Energy Ballistic Transfers to Lunar Halo Orbits (United States)

    Parker, Jeffrey S.


    Recent lunar missions have begun to take advantage of the benefits of low-energy ballistic transfers between the Earth and the Moon rather than implementing conventional Hohmann-like lunar transfers. Both Artemis and GRAIL plan to implement low-energy lunar transfers in the next few years. This paper explores the characteristics and potential applications of many different families of low-energy ballistic lunar transfers. The transfers presented here begin from a wide variety of different orbits at the Earth and follow several different distinct pathways to the Moon. This paper characterizes these pathways to identify desirable low-energy lunar transfers for future lunar missions.

  12. Gunshot wounds: A review of ballistics related to penetrating trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis K. Stefanopoulos


    Full Text Available Civilian gunshot injuries from handgun and rifle ammunition vary in severity depending on the anatomic location involved and the different effects from the ballistic properties of the penetrating projectiles. Ballistic factors such as the impact velocity and energy should not be considered in isolation, as their specific effects are determined by the interaction between the projectile and tissues. Increased tissue damage can result from tumbling of non-deforming rifle bullets and deformation of expanding bullets. Both of these mechanisms increase substantially the energy transfer to the wound and its diameter, also producing a pulsating temporary cavity associated with pressure changes within tissue.

  13. Measuring the Blast and Ballistic Performance of Armor (United States)


    of IED Blast Shock Tube Simulations for mTBI Research,” Frontiers in Neurology 2, 58 (2011). 9. R.B. Bogoslovov, C.M. Roland, and R.M. Gamache...C.M. Roland R.M. GaMaChe Materials Chemistry Branch Chemistry Division Measuring the Blast and Ballistic Performance of Armor i REPORT... Blast and Ballistic Performance of Armor C.M. Roland and R.M. Gamache Naval Research Laboratory Chemistry Division, Code 6120 4555 Overlook Avenue, SW

  14. Passive ranging of boost-phase missiles (United States)

    Hawks, Michael; Perram, Glen


    The depth of absorption bands in observed spectra of distant, bright sources can be used to estimate range to the source. Previous efforts in this area relied on Beer's Law to estimate range from observations of infrared CO II bands, with disappointing results. A modified approach is presented that uses band models and observations of the O II absorption band near 762 nm. This band is spectrally isolated from other atmospheric bands, which enables direct estimation of molecular absorption from observed intensity. Range is estimated by comparing observed values of band-average absorption, (see manuscript), against predicted curves derived from either historical data or model predictions. Accuracy of better than 0.5% has been verified in short-range (up to 3km) experiments using a Fourier transform interferometer at 1cm -1 resolution. A conceptual design is described for a small, affordable passive ranging sensor suitable for use on tactical aircraft for missile attack warning and time-to-impact estimation. Models are used to extrapolate experimental results (using 1 cm -1 resolution data) to analyze expected performance of this filter-based system.

  15. The proliferation of missiles: Problems, prospects for control, and research agendas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domke, W.K. (ed.) (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); Krantz, S. (comp.) (California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (USA)); Stulberg, A. (comp.) (Rand Corp., Santa Monica, CA (USA))


    This report is an overview of the discussions and papers given at a workshop and brainstorming secession on missile proliferation. The relationship between missiles and nuclear and chemical weapons are also discussed. (JEF)

  16. Optimal Fixed-Interval Integrated Guidance-Control Laws for Hit-to-Kill Missiles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Menon, P. K; Sweriduk, G. D; Ohlmeyer, E. J


    Due to their potential for reducing the weapon size and efficiency, design methods for realizing hit-to- kill capabilities in missile systems are of significant research interest in the missile flight control community...

  17. Cooled and uncooled infrared detectors for missile seekers (United States)

    Fraenkel, Rami; Haski, Jacob; Mizrahi, Udi; Shkedy, Lior; Shtrichman, Itay; Pinsky, Ephi


    Electro-optical missile seekers pose exceptional requirements for infrared (IR) detectors. These requirements include: very short mission readiness (time-to-image), one-time and relatively short mission duration, extreme ambient conditions, high sensitivity, fast frame rate, and in some cases small size and cost. SCD is engaged in the development and production of IR detectors for missile seeker applications for many years. 0D, 1D and 2D InSb focal plane arrays (FPAs) are packaged in specially designed fast cool-down Dewars and integrated with Joule-Thomson (JT) coolers. These cooled MWIR detectors were integrated in numerous seekers of various missile types, for short and long range applications, and are combat proven. New technologies for the MWIR, such as epi-InSb and XBn-InAsSb, enable faster cool-down time and higher sensitivity for the next generation seekers. The uncooled micro-bolometer technology for IR detectors has advanced significantly over the last decade, and high resolution - high sensitivity FPAs are now available for different applications. Their much smaller size and cost with regard to the cooled detectors makes these uncooled LWIR detectors natural candidates for short and mid-range missile seekers. In this work we will present SCD's cooled and uncooled solutions for advanced electro-optical missile seekers.

  18. The SAC Mentality: The Origins of Strategic Air Command’s Organizational Culture, 1948-51 (United States)


    remained at SAC until 1957, making him the longest tenured four- star general to serve in any military command. He built the nation’s first nuclear...strategic mission. With the de- velopment of missile technology, it pursued the submarine-launched Polaris missile and be- came part of the United

  19. Magneto-ballistic transport in GaN nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santoruvo, Giovanni, E-mail:; Allain, Adrien; Ovchinnikov, Dmitry; Matioli, Elison, E-mail: [Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), CH 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)


    The ballistic filtering property of nanoscale crosses was used to investigate the effect of perpendicular magnetic fields on the ballistic transport of electrons on wide band-gap GaN heterostructures. The straight scattering-less trajectory of electrons was modified by a perpendicular magnetic field which produced a strong non-linear behavior in the measured output voltage of the ballistic filters and allowed the observation of semi-classical and quantum effects, such as quenching of the Hall resistance and manifestation of the last plateau, in excellent agreement with the theoretical predictions. A large measured phase coherence length of 190 nm allowed the observation of universal quantum fluctuations and weak localization of electrons due to quantum interference up to ∼25 K. This work also reveals the prospect of wide band-gap GaN semiconductors as a platform for basic transport and quantum studies, whose properties allow the investigation of ballistic transport and quantum phenomena at much larger voltages and temperatures than in other semiconductors.

  20. The ballistic performance of the bombard Mons Meg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Lewtas


    Full Text Available The bombard Mons Meg, located in Edinburgh Castle, with a diameter of 19 inches (48 cm, was one of the largest calibre cannons ever built. Constructed in 1449 and presented to King James II of Scotland in 1454, Mons Meg was used in both military and ceremonial roles in Scotland until its barrel burst in 1680. This paper examines the history, internal, external and terminal ballistics of the cannon and its shot. The likely muzzle velocity was estimated by varying the propellant type and the cannon profile was investigated to identify weak spots in the design that may have led to its failure. Using the muzzle velocity calculated from the internal ballistics, simulations were performed with granite and sandstone shot for varying launch angle and ground temperature. The likely trajectory and range of the cannonballs are described. The internal and external ballistics informed the initial conditions of the terminal ballistic impact scenarios. The performance of the cannonball against both period and modern targets, in the form of a pseudo-castle wall and a monolithic concrete target, respectively, were simulated and are presented and discussed.

  1. Ballistic transport in graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calado, V.E.; Zhu, S.E.; Goswami, S.; Xu, Q.; Watanabe, K.; Taniguchi, T.; Janssen, G.C.A.M.; Vandersypen, L.M.K.


    In this letter, we report the observation of ballistic transport on micron length scales in graphene synthesised by chemical vapour deposition (CVD). Transport measurements were done on Hall bar geometries in a liquid He cryostat. Using non-local measurements, we show that electrons can be

  2. Optimal control of the ballistic motion of Airy beams. (United States)

    Hu, Yi; Zhang, Peng; Lou, Cibo; Huang, Simon; Xu, Jingjun; Chen, Zhigang


    We demonstrate the projectile motion of two-dimensional truncated Airy beams in a general ballistic trajectory with controllable range and height. We show that the peak beam intensity can be delivered to any desired location along the trajectory as well as repositioned to a given target after displacement due to propagation through disordered or turbulent media.

  3. ballistic performance of a quenched and tempered steel against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



  4. Gate controlled high efficiency ballistic energy conversion system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xie, Yanbo; Bos, Diederik; de Boer, Hans L.; van den Berg, Albert; Eijkel, Jan C.T.; Zengerle, R.


    Last year we demonstrated the microjet ballistic energy conversion system[1]. Here we show that the efficiency of such a system can be further improved by gate control. With gate control the electrical current generation is enhanced a hundred times with respect to the current generated from the zeta

  5. 76 FR 70165 - Ballistic-Resistant Body Armor Standard Workshop (United States)


    ... of Justice Programs Ballistic-Resistant Body Armor Standard Workshop AGENCY: National Institute of... of Standards and Technology (NIST) are jointly hosting a workshop focused on NIJ Standard-0101.06... bodies, and test laboratories. This workshop is being held specifically to discuss with interested...

  6. Designing 3D Selection Techniques Using Ballistic and Corrective Movements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. van Liere (Robert)


    htmlabstractThe two-component model is a human movement model in which an aimed movement is broken into a voluntary ballistic movement followed by a corrective movement. Recently, experimental evidence has shown that 3D aimed movements in virtual environments can be modeled using the two-component

  7. The application of computed tomography in wound ballistics research (United States)

    Tsiatis, Nick; Moraitis, Konstantinos; Papadodima, Stavroula; Spiliopoulou, Chara; Kelekis, Alexis; Kelesis, Christos; Efstathopoulos, Efstathios; Kordolaimi, Sofia; Ploussi, Agapi


    In wound ballistics research there is a relationship between the data that characterize a bullet and the injury resulted after shooting when it perforates the human body. The bullet path in the human body following skin perforation as well as the damaging effect cannot always be predictable as they depend on various factors such as the bullet's characteristics (velocity, distance, type of firearm and so on) and the tissue types that the bullet passes through. The purpose of this presentation is to highlight the contribution of Computed Tomography (CT) in wound ballistics research. Using CT technology and studying virtual “slices” of specific areas on scanned human bodies, allows the evaluation of density and thickness of the skin, the subcutaneous tissue, the muscles, the vital organs and the bones. Density data taken from Hounsfield units can be converted in g/ml by using the appropriate software. By evaluating the results of this study, the anatomy of the human body utilizing ballistic gel will be reproduced in order to simulate the path that a bullet follows. The biophysical analysis in wound ballistics provides another application of CT technology, which is commonly used for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes in various medical disciplines.

  8. On the Trajectories of Projectiles Depicted in Early Ballistic Woodcuts (United States)

    Stewart, Sean M.


    Motivated by quaint woodcut depictions often found in many late 16th and 17th century ballistic manuals of cannonballs fired in air, a comparison of their shapes with those calculated for the classic case of a projectile moving in a linear resisting medium is made. In considering the asymmetrical nature of such trajectories, the initial launch…

  9. Simulation of depth of penetration during ballistic impact on thick ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Simulation of depth of penetration during ballistic impact on thick targets using a one-dimensional discrete element model. Rajesh P Nair C Lakshmana Rao. Volume 37 Issue 2 April 2012 ... Rajesh P Nair1 C Lakshmana Rao1. Applied Mechanics Department, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600 036, India ...

  10. Ballistic edge states in Bismuth nanowires revealed by SQUID interferometry (United States)

    Murani, Anil; Kasumov, Alik; Sengupta, Shamashis; Kasumov, Yu A.; Volkov, V. T.; Khodos, I. I.; Brisset, F.; Delagrange, Raphaëlle; Chepelianskii, Alexei; Deblock, Richard; Bouchiat, Hélène; Guéron, Sophie


    The protection against backscattering provided by topology is a striking property. In two-dimensional insulators, a consequence of this topological protection is the ballistic nature of the one-dimensional helical edge states. One demonstration of ballisticity is the quantized Hall conductance. Here we provide another demonstration of ballistic transport, in the way the edge states carry a supercurrent. The system we have investigated is a micrometre-long monocrystalline bismuth nanowire with topological surfaces, that we connect to two superconducting electrodes. We have measured the relation between the Josephson current flowing through the nanowire and the superconducting phase difference at its ends, the current-phase relation. The sharp sawtooth-shaped phase-modulated current-phase relation we find demonstrates that transport occurs selectively along two ballistic edges of the nanowire. In addition, we show that a magnetic field induces 0-π transitions and ϕ0-junction behaviour, providing a way to manipulate the phase of the supercurrent-carrying edge states and generate spin supercurrents.

  11. The Modeling and Application of Small Arms Wound Ballistics (United States)


    Systems Analysis Activity (AMSAA) Ms. Donna Querido AMSAA Dr. William Bruchey U.S. Army Ballistic Research Laboratory (BRL) Mr. Edward Davis BRL Mr. John ...Prnving Ornnnd SaOi Qzgni•atl Dir, USAMSAA 2 Commander ATTN: AMXSY-G (L. deLattre) US Army Armament Research, Development, AMXSY-G (D. Querido ) and

  12. Local damage to Ultra High Performance Concrete structures caused by an impact of aircraft engine missiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riedel, Werner [Fraunhofer Institute for High-Speed Dynamics, Ernst-Mach-Institute, Eckerstrasse 4, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Noeldgen, Markus, E-mail: mnoeldgen@schuessler-plan.d [Fraunhofer Institute for High-Speed Dynamics, Ernst-Mach-Institute, Eckerstrasse 4, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Schuessler-Plan Engineering Ltd., St.-Franziskus-Str. 148, D-40470 Duesseldorf (Germany); Strassburger, Elmar; Thoma, Klaus [Fraunhofer Institute for High-Speed Dynamics, Ernst-Mach-Institute, Eckerstrasse 4, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Fehling, Ekkehard [University of Kassel, Chair of Structural Concrete, Kurt-Wolters Str. 3, D-34109 Kassel (Germany)


    Research highlights: {yields} Experimental series on UHPC panels subjected to aircraft engine impact. {yields} Improved ballistic limit of fiber reinforced UHPC in comparison to conventional R/C. {yields} Detailed investigation of failure mechanisms of fiber reinforced UHPC panel. - Abstract: The impact of an aircraft engine missile causes high stresses, deformations and a severe local damage to conventional reinforced concrete. As a consequence the design of R/C protective structural elements results in components with rather large dimensions. Fiber reinforced Ultra High Performance Concrete (UHPC) is a concrete based material which combines ultra high strength, high packing density and an improved ductility with a significantly increased energy dissipation capacity due to the addition of fiber reinforcement. With those attributes the material is potentially suitable for improved protective structural elements with a reduced need for material resources. The presented paper reports on an experimental series of scaled aircraft engine impact tests with reinforced UHPC panels. The investigations are focused on the material behavior and the damage intensity in comparison to conventional concrete. The fundamental work of is taken as reference for the evaluation of the results. The impactor model of a Phantom F4 GE-J79 engine developed and validated by Sugano et al. is used as defined in the original work. In order to achieve best comparability, the experimental configuration and method are adapted for the UHPC experiments. With 'penetration', 'scabbing' and 'perforation' all relevant damage modes defined in are investigated so that a full set of results are provided for a representative UHPC structural configuration.

  13. The analysis of a generic air-to-air missile simulation model (United States)

    Kaplan, Joseph A.; Chappell, Alan R.; Mcmanus, John W.


    A generic missile model was developed to evaluate the benefits of using a dynamic missile fly-out simulation system versus a static missile launch envelope system for air-to-air combat simulation. This paper examines the performance of a launch envelope model and a missile fly-out model. The launch envelope model bases its probability of killing the target aircraft on the target aircraft's position at the launch time of the weapon. The benefits gained from a launch envelope model are the simplicity of implementation and the minimal computational overhead required. A missile fly-out model takes into account the physical characteristics of the missile as it simulates the guidance, propulsion, and movement of the missile. The missile's probability of kill is based on the missile miss distance (or the minimum distance between the missile and the target aircraft). The problems associated with this method of modeling are a larger computational overhead, the additional complexity required to determine the missile miss distance, and the additional complexity of determining the reason(s) the missile missed the target. This paper evaluates the two methods and compares the results of running each method on a comprehensive set of test conditions.

  14. Air and Missile Defense Intelligence Preparation of the Battlefield (AMD IPB) (United States)


    performing prelaunch missile operations (that is, launch site setup and missile erection and alignment), and degrading missile accuracy if the...employ long-term hide sites that are at greater distances from the launch areas but usually within tens of kilometers from support areas. Routine MEL

  15. 76 FR 63541 - Design-Basis Hurricane and Hurricane Missiles for Nuclear Power Plants (United States)


    ...-2010-0288] Design-Basis Hurricane and Hurricane Missiles for Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear... Hurricane Missiles for Nuclear Power Plants.'' This regulatory guide provides licensees and applicants with... hurricane and design-basis hurricane-generated missiles that a nuclear power plant should be designed to...

  16. Flexible missile autopilot design studies with PC-MATLAB/386 (United States)

    Ruth, Michael J.


    Development of a responsive, high-bandwidth missile autopilot for airframes which have structural modes of unusually low frequency presents a challenging design task. Such systems are viable candidates for modern, state-space control design methods. The PC-MATLAB interactive software package provides an environment well-suited to the development of candidate linear control laws for flexible missile autopilots. The strengths of MATLAB include: (1) exceptionally high speed (MATLAB's version for 80386-based PC's offers benchmarks approaching minicomputer and mainframe performance); (2) ability to handle large design models of several hundred degrees of freedom, if necessary; and (3) broad extensibility through user-defined functions. To characterize MATLAB capabilities, a simplified design example is presented. This involves interactive definition of an observer-based state-space compensator for a flexible missile autopilot design task. MATLAB capabilities and limitations, in the context of this design task, are then summarized.

  17. Lateral control strategy for a hypersonic cruise missile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghua Fan


    Full Text Available Hypersonic cruise missile always adopts the configuration of waverider body with the restraint of scramjet. As a result, the lateral motion exhibits serious coupling, and the controller design of the lateral lateral system cannot be conducted separately for yaw channel and roll channel. A multiple input and multiple output optimal control method with integrators is presented to design the lateral combined control system for hypersonic cruise missile. A hypersonic cruise missile lateral model is linearized as a multiple input and multiple output plant, which is coupled by kinematics and fin deflection between yaw and roll. In lateral combined controller, the integrators are augmented, respectively, into the loop of roll angle and lateral overload to ensure that the commands are tracked with zero steady-state error. Through simulation, the proposed controller demonstrates good performance in tracking the command of roll angle and lateral overload.

  18. Evaluation of Impact Force of Missile Filled with Fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyuk-Kee [Hyundai, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seung-Eock [Sejong University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    In this paper, the effect of the fluid on the impact force was evaluated using the commercial software LS-DYNA. In order to verify the proposed finite element (FE) models, the impact force and impulse of the missiles filled with the fluid (wet missile) were investigated, and the analysis results were compared with the force plate tests conducted by VTT laboratory in Finland. A parametric study was performed to evaluate the impulse as per the position filled with the fluid and the impact velocity. The impulses of the wet missiles obtained from the parametric study were compared with those calculated by the modified Riera function. The effect of the fluid on the impact force was evaluated in this study. Based on this study, the following conclusions have been obtained: (1) The impulse/momentum ratios of the wet missiles filled with fluid in the front part were larger than those filled with fluid in the middle part. The difference was 5.5%, 5.3%, 6.2%, 3.8%, 2.9% and 1.0% for the impact velocities of 100 m/s, 110 m/s, 120 m/s, 130 m/s, 140 m/s, and 150 m/s, respectively. (2) The impulse/momentum ratios of the wet missiles by the FE analysis was larger than those by the modified Riera function up to 23.1% and 20.8%, respectively, when the fluid was filled in the front and middle parts. The modified Riera function underestimated the impulses of the wet missiles.

  19. Robust control for snake maneuver design of missile (United States)

    Kun, Ya; Chen, Xin; Li, Chuntao


    For the performance of missile with high Mach number and strongly nonlinear dynamics, this paper uses robust control to design maneuver controller. Robust servomechanism linear quadratic regulator (RSLQR) control is used to form the inner loop and proportional-plus-integral (PI) control is used to provide yawing tracking with no error. Contrast simulations under three types of deviation have been done to confirm robustness of the RSLQR-plus-PI control. Simulation results shows that RSLQR-plus-PI control would resist the disturbance and maintain the properties of the controller, guarantee the robustness and stability of missile more effectively than pure PI control.

  20. Research on image fusion of missile team based on multi-agent cooperative blackboard model (United States)

    Sen, Guo; Munan, Li

    The target of cooperative engagement of missile teams is to furthest improve hit rate of target according to communication and cooperation among missiles. In this paper the problems of image fusion between missile teams in complex combat environment was analyzed, after which an muti-agent blackboard cooperative model was presented and a public information platform of missile team is built according to this model. Through these, the fusion of images taken from muti-sensor of missiles can be realized and the hit rate of attacking target will be improved. At last, an simulation experiment were performed, and the feasibility of the method is proved by simulation experiment.

  1. A Potent Vector: Assessing Chinese Cruise Missile Developments (United States)


    of Sydney. This article draws on the authors’ book A Low-Visibility Force Multiplier: Assessing China’s Cruise Missile Ambitions (NDU Press, 2014...infrastructure; didactic PLA discussions (Modern Navy and People’s Navy); generalist deliberations on the de- velopment trajectory and operational use of

  2. Craniocerebral missile injuries in civilian Kashmir – India | Rashid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    And the situation will continue to be so unless tertiary care hospitals are set up within and around the armed and conflict zones, war torn areas and battle fields, rather than risking transportation, time of resuscitation, intervention and the results. Key words: Craniocerebral, Kashmir, Missile Injuries, Outcome.

  3. Missiles and aircraft - Part 4 | Meyer | Scientia Militaria: South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 9, No 4 (1979) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Missiles and aircraft - Part 4. C Meyer. Abstract.

  4. Missiles and aircraft (Part 1) | Meyer | Scientia Militaria: South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 8, No 4 (1978) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Missiles and aircraft (Part 1).

  5. Missiles and aircraft (Part 3) | Meyer | Scientia Militaria: South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 9, No 3 (1979) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Missiles and aircraft (Part 3).

  6. Missiles and aircraft (part 2) | Meyer | Scientia Militaria: South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 9, No 1 (1979) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Missiles and aircraft (part 2).

  7. Free quantum motion exactly equals sub-quantum ballistic diffusion

    CERN Document Server

    Groessing, Gerhard; Pascasio, Johannes Mesa; Schwabl, Herbert


    By modelling quantum systems with the aid of (classical) non-equilibrium thermodynamics, the quantum mechanical "decay of the wave packet" is shown to simply result from sub-quantum diffusion with a specific diffusion coefficient varying in time due to a particle's changing thermal environment. It is thereby proven that free quantum motion strictly equals ballistic diffusion on the sub-quantum level. The exact quantum mechanical trajectory distributions and the velocity field of the Gaussian wave packet are thus derived solely from classical physics. Moreover, also quantum motion in a linear (e.g., gravitational) potential is shown to equal said sub-quantum ballistic diffusion. Quantitative statements on the trajectories' characteristic behaviour are obtained which cannot be formulated in any other existing model for quantum systems.

  8. HVI Ballistic Limit Charaterization of Fused Silica Thermal Pane (United States)

    Bohl, William E.; Miller, Joshua E.; Christiansen, Eric L.; Deighton, Kevin.; Davis, Bruce


    The Orion spacecraft's windows are exposed to the micrometeroid and orbital debris (MMOD) space environments while in space as well as the Earth entry environment at the mission's conclusion. The need for a low-mass spacecraft window design drives the need to reduce conservatism when assessing the design for loss of crew due to MMOD impact and subsequent Earth entry. Therefore, work is underway at NASA and Lockheed Martin to improve characterization of the complete penetration ballistic limit of an outer fused silica thermal pane. Hypervelocity impact tests of the window configuration at up to 10 km/s and hydrocode modeling have been performed with a variety of projectile materials to enable refinement of the fused silica ballistic limit equation.

  9. Rocketry investigate the science and technology of rockets and ballistics

    CERN Document Server

    Mooney, Carla


    Rocketry: Investigate the Science and Technology of Rockets and Ballistics introduces students to the fascinating world of rocketry and ballistics. Readers discover the history of rocket development, from the earliest fire arrows in China to modern-day space shuttles, as well as the main concepts of rocketry, including how rockets are launched, move through the atmosphere, and return to earth safely. Exploring the science behind rocket flight, kids learn how the forces of thrust, gravity, lift, and drag interact to determine a rocket's path, then imagine new uses and technologies in rocketry that are being developed today and for the future. Combining hands-on activities with physics, chemistry, and mathematics, Rocketry brings fun to learning about the world of rocket science. Entertaining illustrations and fascinating sidebars illuminate the topic, while Words to Know highlighted and defined within the text reinforce new vocabulary. Projects include building a pneumatic blast rocket and launcher, testing a ...

  10. Possible influences on bullet trajectory deflection in ballistic gelatine. (United States)

    Riva, Fabiano; Kerkhoff, Wim; Bolck, Annabel; Mattijssen, Erwin J A T


    The influence of the distance to the top and bottom of a gelatine block and to bullet tracks from previously fired shots on a bullet's trajectory, when passing through ballistic gelatine, was studied. No significant difference in deflection was found when trajectories of 9mm Luger bullets, fired at a 3.5cm distance to the top and bottom of a gelatine block and to bullet tracks from previously fired shots, were compared to trajectories of bullets fired 7cm or more away from any of the aforementioned aspects. A surprisingly consistent 6.5° absolute deflection angle was found when these bullets passed through 22.5 to 23.5cm of ballistic gelatine. The projection angle, determined by the direction of the deflection, appeared to be random. The consistent absolute angle, in combination with the random projection angle, resulted in a cone-like deflection pattern. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Superballistic characteristics in transient phonon ballistic-diffusive transport (United States)

    Tang, Dao-Sheng; Cao, Bing-Yang


    While diffusive, superdiffusive, and ballistic phonon transports have been widely investigated, the superballistic phenomenon, where the time index of the energy mean square displacement with respect to time is greater than 2, has been neither predicted nor observed. In this work, we report on the superballistic characteristics obtained from simulations of transient phonon ballistic-diffusive transport both during and after the input of a heat pulse into a nanoscale film. The superballistic behaviors are well described by a previously proposed model for electron wave packet spreading employing a point source and further explained by the superposition effect of heat pulses. The relative superposition time, a dimensionless parameter, is defined to describe the degree of the heat pulse superposition. The analysis of superballistic characteristics in this work is expected to guide experiments for detecting the phonon superballistic transport. Also, it provides a potential phenomenological description for the superballistic phenomena in more complex systems.

  12. Ballistic and snake photon imaging for locating optical endomicroscopy fibres (United States)

    Tanner, M. G.; Choudhary, T. R.; Craven, T. H.; Mills, B.; Bradley, M.; Henderson, R. K.; Dhaliwal, K.; Thomson, R. R.


    We demonstrate determination of the location of the distal-end of a fibre-optic device deep in tissue through the imaging of ballistic and snake photons using a time resolved single-photon detector array. The fibre was imaged with centimetre resolution, within clinically relevant settings and models. This technique can overcome the limitations imposed by tissue scattering in optically determining the in vivo location of fibre-optic medical instruments. PMID:28966848

  13. Ballistic limit curve regression for Freedom Station orbital debris shields (United States)

    Jolly, William H.; Williamsen, Joel W.


    A procedure utilized at Marshall Space Flight Center to formulate ballistic limit curves for the Space Station Freedom's manned module orbital debris shields is presented. A stepwise linear least squares regression method similar to that employed by Burch (1967) is used to relate a penetration parameter to various projectile and target descriptors. A stepwise regression was also conducted with the model reduced to lower forms, thus eliminating the effects of generalized assumptions.

  14. Physical Mechanisms of Soft Tissue Injury from Penetrating Ballistic Impact (United States)


    of pigs shot in the thigh [39, 40]. Ballistic pressure waves can cause vascular and visceral injuries and indirect bone fractures [27...with antibiotics prophylactically or at signs of infection, and delay closure of the wound [1, 26]. This general therapeutic approach assumes that...debridement and criteria for imaging and surgical intervention. A prevalent view is that surgery is indicated if there is vascular or nerve damage

  15. CT-based ballistic wound path identification and trajectory analysis in anatomic ballistic phantoms. (United States)

    Folio, Les R; Fischer, Tatjana V; Shogan, Paul J; Frew, Michael I; Kang, Pil S; Bunger, Rolf; Provenzale, James M


    To evaluate the accuracy of computed tomography (CT)-based ballistic wound path identification in phantoms by determining the agreement between actual shooting angles and both trajectory angles measured with a picture archiving and communication system (PACS) angle tool and angles calculated from x, y, z coordinates of the entrance and exit points. In this institutional review board-approved model study, two simulated legs were shot by a trained marksman from 50 yards at six clinometer-measured angles with a 0.30-06 rifle and then scanned at multidetector CT. Radiologists measured the wound path angles on paracoronal reformations by using a PACS angle tool. Observers determined the Cartesian coordinates of the entrance and exit points of the wound paths on axial CT images by using detailed instructions. Angles were calculated from these coordinates by using a computer arctangent function. Agreement between the angles was evaluated with Bland-Altman plots. Means, ranges, and standard deviations of the angles also were determined. Radiologists identified all six wound paths on the CT images. The PACS tool-based measured and coordinate-based calculated angles were within 5° of the shooting angles. Results indicated that in larger study populations, one can be 91% confident that future coordinate-based angle calculations will differ from the actual shooting angle by no more than 5° and 95% confident that PACS tool-based angle measurements will differ from the actual shooting angles by no more than 4.5°. One can be 95% confident that future coordinate-based angle calculations will differ from PACS angle measurements by no more than 4.02°. Study results demonstrated the feasibility of consistent wound path identification and the accuracy of trajectory angle determination in models with use of multidetector CT.

  16. Pivotal role of ballistic and quasi-ballistic electrons on LED efficiency (United States)

    Ni, X.; Li, X.; Lee, J.; Liu, S.; Avrutin, V.; Matulionis, A.; Özgür, Ü.; Morkoç, H.


    Significant progress in the power conversion efficiency and brightness of InGaN-based light emitting diodes (LEDs) has paved the way for these devices to be considered for LED lighting. In this realm, however, the efficiency must be retained at high injection levels in order to generate the lumens required. Unfortunately, LEDs undergo a monotonic efficiency degradation starting at current densities even lower than 50 A/cm 2 which would hinder LED insertion into the general lighting market. The physical origins for the loss of efficiency retention are at present a topic of intense debate given its enormous implications. This paper reviews the current status of the field regarding the mechanisms that have been put forward as being responsible for the loss of efficiency, such as Auger recombination, electron overflow (spillover), current crowding, asymmetric injection of electrons and holes, and poor transport of holes through the active region, the last one being applicable to multiple quantum well designs. While the Auger recombination received early attention, increasing number of researchers seem to think otherwise at the moment in that it alone (if any) cannot explain the progressively worsening loss of efficiency reduction as the InN mole fraction is increased. Increasing number of reports seems to suggest that the electron overflow is one of the major causes of efficiency degradation. The physical driving force for this is likely to be the relatively poor hole concentration and transport, and skewed injection favoring electrons owing to their relatively high concentration. Most intriguingly there is recent experimental convincing evidence to suggest that quasi-ballistic electrons in the active region, which are not able to thermalize within the residence time and possibly longitudinal optical phonon lifetime, contribute to the carrier overflow which would require an entirely new thought process in the realm of LEDs.

  17. Natural Curaua Fiber-Reinforced Composites in Multilayered Ballistic Armor (United States)

    Monteiro, Sergio Neves; Louro, Luis Henrique Leme; Trindade, Willian; Elias, Carlos Nelson; Ferreira, Carlos Luiz; de Sousa Lima, Eduardo; Weber, Ricardo Pondé; Miguez Suarez, João Carlos; da Silva Figueiredo, André Ben-Hur; Pinheiro, Wagner Anacleto; da Silva, Luis Carlos; Lima, Édio Pereira


    The performance of a novel multilayered armor in which the commonly used plies of aramid fabric layer were replaced by an equal thickness layer of distinct curaua fiber-reinforced composites with epoxy or polyester matrices was assessed. The investigated armor, in addition to its polymeric layer (aramid fabric or curaua composite), was also composed of a front Al2O3 ceramic tile and backed by an aluminum alloy sheet. Ballistic impact tests were performed with actual 7.62 caliber ammunitions. Indentation in a clay witness, simulating human body behind the back layer, attested the efficacy of the curaua-reinforced composite as an armor component. The conventional aramid fabric display a similar indentation as the curaua/polyester composite but was less efficient (deeper indentation) than the curaua/epoxy composite. This advantage is shown to be significant, especially in favor of the lighter and cheaper epoxy composite reinforced with 30 vol pct of curaua fiber, as possible substitute for aramid fabric in multilayered ballistic armor for individual protection. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the mechanism associated with the curaua composite ballistic performance.

  18. Upgrades and Modifications of the NASA Ames HFFAF Ballistic Range (United States)

    Bogdanoff, David W.; Wilder, Michael C.; Cornelison, Charles J.; Perez, Alfredo J.


    The NASA Ames Hypervelocity Free Flight Aerodynamics Facility ballistic range is described. The various configurations of the shadowgraph stations are presented. This includes the original stations with film and configurations with two different types of digital cameras. Resolution tests for the 3 shadowgraph station configurations are described. The advantages of the digital cameras are discussed, including the immediate availability of the shadowgraphs. The final shadowgraph station configuration is a mix of 26 Nikon cameras and 6 PI-MAX2 cameras. Two types of trigger light sheet stations are described visible and IR. The two gunpowders used for the NASA Ames 6.251.50 light gas guns are presented. These are the Hercules HC-33-FS powder (no longer available) and the St. Marks Powder WC 886 powder. The results from eight proof shots for the two powders are presented. Both muzzle velocities and piston velocities are 5 9 lower for the new St. Marks WC 886 powder than for the old Hercules HC-33-FS powder (no longer available). The experimental and CFD (computational) piston and muzzle velocities are in good agreement. Shadowgraph-reading software that employs template-matching pattern recognition to locate the ballistic-range model is described. Templates are generated from a 3D solid model of the ballistic-range model. The accuracy of the approach is assessed using a set of computer-generated test images.

  19. Length-dependent thermal transport and ballistic thermal conduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bor-Woei Huang


    Full Text Available Probing length-dependent thermal conductivity of a given material has been considered as an important experimental method to determine the length of ballistic thermal conduction, or equivalently, the averaged phonon mean free path (l. However, many previous thermal transport measurements have focused on varying the lateral dimensions of samples, rendering the experimental interpretation indirect. Moreover, deducing l is model-dependent in many optical measurement techniques. In addition, finite contact thermal resistances and variations of sample qualities are very likely to obscure the effect in practice, leading to an overestimation of l. We point out that directly investigating one-dimensional length-dependent (normalized thermal resistance is a better experimental method to determine l. In this regard, we find that no clear experimental data strongly support ballistic thermal conduction of Si or Ge at room temperature. On the other hand, data of both homogeneously-alloyed SiGe nanowires and heterogeneously-interfaced Si-Ge core-shell nanowires provide undisputed evidence for ballistic thermal conduction over several micrometers at room temperature.

  20. Ergonomic assessment of future methods of ballistic neck protection. (United States)

    Breeze, John; Clasper, Jon C


    Neck injuries from explosively propelled fragments are present in 11% of injured U.K. soldiers and result in significant mortality and long-term morbidity. U.S. forces in contrast sustain only neck wounds in 3 to 4% of those injured, which is believed to be because of their greater acceptance in the wearing of issued neck protection. A three-piece neck collar, two-piece neck collar, a nape pad, a ballistic scarf, and an enhanced protection under body armor shirt (EP-UBACS) reinforced at the collar were objectively compared during a treadmill test using physiological measurements. Designs were subjectively compared regarding their effect on soldier performance using representative military tasks. Both neck collars and the EP-UBACS prototype demonstrated 90% acceptability in terms of military task performance. No statistical difference in tympanic temperature and heart rate was found between prototypes. The statistically significant higher skin temperatures found for prototypes lying close to the skin (EP-UBACS and ballistic scarf) were unrelated to perceived comfort. Neck collars remain the most successful design in terms of military performance, comfort, and potential levels of ballistic protection. However the EP-UBACS concept should also be developed further, with future iterations potentially removing the zip and increasing skin standoff. Reprint & Copyright © 2013 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  1. The Second National Ballistics Imaging Comparison (NBIC-2). (United States)

    Vorburger, T V; Yen, J; Song, J F; Thompson, R M; Renegar, T B; Zheng, A; Tong, M; Ols, M


    In response to the guidelines issued by the American Society of Crime Laboratory Directors/Laboratory Accreditation Board (ASCLD/LAB-International) to establish traceability and quality assurance in U.S. crime laboratories, NIST and the ATF initiated a joint project, entitled the National Ballistics Imaging Comparison (NBIC). The NBIC project aims to establish a national traceability and quality system for ballistics identifications in crime laboratories utilizing ATF's National Integrated Ballistics Information Network (NIBIN). The original NBIC was completed in 2010. In the second NBIC, NIST Standard Reference Material (SRM) 2461 Cartridge Cases were used as reference standards, and 14 experts from 11 U.S. crime laboratories each performed 17 image acquisitions and correlations of the SRM cartridge cases over the course of about half a year. Resulting correlation scores were collected by NIST for statistical analyses, from which control charts and control limits were developed for the proposed quality system and for promoting future assessments and accreditations for firearm evidence in U.S. forensic laboratories in accordance with the ISO 17025 Standard.

  2. Excellent Ballistic Impact Properties Demonstrated By New Fabric (United States)

    Pereira, J. Michael; Revilock, Duane M.; Hopkins, Dale A.


    Recently, a relatively new industrial fiber known by the trade name Zylon has been under commercial development by Toyobo Co., Ltd., Japan. In ballistic impact tests conducted at the NASA Glenn Research Center, it was found that dry fabric braided of Zylon had greater ballistic impact capacity than comparable (braid style and weight) fabric braided of Kevlar. To study the potential use of Zylon fabric in jet engine containment systems, the fabric was tested in Glenn's Structures and Acoustics Division Ballistic Impact Facility under conditions simulating those which occur in a jet engine blade-out event. Circular ring test specimens were fabricated by wrapping five layers of braided Zylon or Kevlar fabric around an inner ring made of a thin sheet of aluminum and a 1-in.-thick layer of aluminum honeycomb. The test specimens had an inner diameter of 40 in., an axial length of 10 in., and a wall thickness of approximately 1.5in. A test specimen is shown in the photograph.

  3. Wound ballistic evaluation of the Taser® XREP ammunition. (United States)

    Kunz, Sebastian N; Adamec, Jiri; Zinka, Bettina; Münzel, Daniela; Noël, Peter B; Eichner, Simon; Manthei, Axel; Grove, Nico; Graw, M; Peschel, Oliver


    The Taser® eXtended Range Electronic Projectile (XREP®) is a wireless conducted electrical weapon (CEW) designed to incapacitate a person from a larger distance. The aim of this study was to analyze the ballistic injury potential of the XREP. Twenty rounds were fired from the Taser®X12 TM shotgun into ballistic soap covered with artificial skin and clothing at different shooting distances (1-25 m). One shot was fired at pig skin at a shooting distance of 10 m. The average projectile velocity was 67.0 m/s. The kinetic energy levels on impact varied from 28-52 J. Depending on the intermediate target, the projectiles penetrated up to 4.2 cm into the ballistic soap. On impact the nose assembly did not separate from the chassis, and no electrical activation was registered. Upon impact, a skin penetration of the XREP cannot be excluded. However, it is very unlikely at shooting distances of 10 m or more. Clothing and a high elasticity limit of the target body area can significantly reduce the penetration risk on impact.

  4. Determining the Equation of State (EoS) Parameters for Ballistic Gelatin (United States)


    ARL-TR-7467 ● SEP 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Determining the Equation of State (EoS) Parameters for Ballistic Gelatin ...EoS) Parameters for Ballistic Gelatin by Yolin Huang Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, ARL Approved for...State (EoS) Parameters for Ballistic Gelatin 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Yolin Huang 5d

  5. Development of Mortar Simulator with Shell-In-Shell System – Problem of External Ballistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fedaravicius


    Full Text Available The shell-in-shell system used in the mortar simulator raises a number of non-standard technical and computational problems starting from the requirement to distribute the propelling blast energy between the warhead and the ballistic barrel, finishing with the requirement that the length of warhead's flight path must be scaled to combat shell firing tables. The design problem of the simulator is split into two parts – the problem of external ballistics where the initial velocities of the warhead must be determined, and the problem of internal ballistics – where the design of the cartridge and the ballistic barrel must be performed.

  6. Multi-Mode Electric Actuator Dynamic Modelling for Missile Fin Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhimashankar Gurav


    Full Text Available Linear first/second order fin direct current (DC actuator model approximations for missile applications are currently limited to angular position and angular velocity state variables. Furthermore, existing literature with detailed DC motor models is decoupled from the application of interest: tail controller missile lateral acceleration (LATAX performance. This paper aims to integrate a generic DC fin actuator model with dual-mode feedforward and feedback control for tail-controlled missiles in conjunction with the autopilot system design. Moreover, the characteristics of the actuator torque information in relation to the aerodynamic fin loading for given missile trim velocities are also provided. The novelty of this paper is the integration of the missile LATAX autopilot states and actuator states including the motor torque, position and angular velocity. The advantage of such an approach is the parametric analysis and suitability of the fin actuator in relation to the missile lateral acceleration dynamic behaviour.

  7. Application of Pontryagin’s Minimum Principle in Optimum Time of Missile Manoeuvring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sari Cahyaningtias


    Full Text Available Missile is a guided weapon and designed to protect outermost island from a thread of other country. It, commonly, is used as self defense. This research presented surface-to-surface missile in final dive manoeuvre for fixed target. Furthermore, it was proposed manoeuvring based on unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV, autopilot system, which needs accuration and minimum both time and thrust of missile while attacking object. This paper introduced pontryagin’s Minimum Principle, which is useable to solve the problem. The numerical solution showed that trajectory of the missile is split it up in three sub-intervals; flight, climbing, and diving. The numerical simulation showed that the missile must climb in order to satisfy the final dive condition and the optimum time of a missile depend on initial condition of the altitude and the terminal velocity

  8. Ionospheric effects of the missile destruction on December 9, 2009 (United States)

    Kozlovsky, Alexander; Shalimov, Sergey; Lukianova, Renata


    We report on ionosonde and meteor radar observations made in Sodankyla Geophysical Observatory (SGO, 67N, 27E, Finland) on December 9, 2009 during a test launch of the Russian solid propellant military missile. Because of the technical problem the missile was self-destroyed around 07 UT at ionospheric height (170-260 km) over the Kola Peninsula (Russia), at a distance about 500 km to east from the observatory. Products of the explosion, including long-lived ionized aluminum oxides, were spread into the large area and reached the region of SGO meteor radar observations in about 2 hours (around 09 UT). After about 3 hours (around 10 UT) a sporadic E layer presumably composed of the remains was observed close to the zenith of the SGO ionosonde. We present the data and discuss possible mechanisms accounting for both vertical and horizontal transport of the remains. Theoretical estimations suggest that the observed transport could be likely due to thermospheric turbulence.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Robert L.; Boor, R.A.; Cole, W.M.; Elder, G.E.


    A brief statement of the mission of the White Sands Missile Range Nuclear Effects Laboratory is given. The new Nuclear Effects Laboratory Facility is described. This facility consists of two buildings-a laboratory and a reactor building. The White Sands Missile Range bare critical assembly, designated as the MoLLY-G, is described. The MoLLY-G, an unreflected, unmoderated right circular cylinder of uranium-molybdenum alloy designed for pulsed operation, will have a maximum burst capability of approximately 2 x 10/sup 17/ fissions with a burst width of 50 microseconds. The reactor construction and operating procedures are described. As designed, the MoLLY-G will provide an intense source of pulsed neutron and gamma radiation for a great variety of experimental and test arrangements. (auth)

  10. Discrete Sliding Mode Control for Hypersonic Cruise Missile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Hua Fan


    Full Text Available A discrete variable structure control (DVSC with sliding vector is presented to track the velocity and acceleration command for a hypersonic cruise missile. In the design an integrator is augmented to ensure the tracking with zero steady-state errors. Furthermore the sliding surface of acceleration is designed using the error of acceleration and acceleration rate to avoid the singularity of control matrix. A proper power rate reaching law is utilized in this proposal; therefore the state trajectory from any initial point can be driven into the sliding surface. Besides, in order to validate the robustness of controller, the unmolded dynamic and parameter disturbance of the missile are considered. Through simulation the proposed controller demonstrates good performance in tracking velocity and acceleration command.

  11. Have Adversary Missiles Become a Revolution in Military Affairs? (United States)


    no need to culti- vate missiles as an RMA since it had developed and deployed forward-based air forces and carrier battle groups for power projec...they were stopped cold by the Soviets at Kursk in 1943. The US RMA of global power projection based upon forward air bases and carriers has yet to...areas with minimal ability to conduct a battle damage assessment, except for that announced on public news broadcasts. Threat technical

  12. MISSILE DATA COMPENDIUM (DATCOM) User Manual 2014 Revision (United States)


    constrained) KARMAN - von Karman (L-D Haack; length-diameter constrained) • If DAFT < DCENTR the afterbody is a boattail. • If DAFT > DCENTR the...or 1> (tangent ogive) - CONICAL LAFT - Afterbody length L 0. DAFT - Afterbody diameter at base (must be > 0 and not equal to...DCENTR, LAFT, DAFT , and DEXIT should also be defined when using the AXIBOD option 2 input scheme. If they are not specified, Missile Datcom will use

  13. Joint Air-to-Surface Standoff Missile (JASSM) (United States)


    Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-555 Joint Air-to-Surface Standoff Missile (JASSM) As of FY 2017 President’s Budget Defense...6 Mission and Description 7 Executive Summary 8 Threshold Breaches 10 Schedule 11 Performance 14 Track to Budget 16 Cost...and Funding 17 Low Rate Initial Production 33 Foreign Military Sales 34 Nuclear Costs 34 Unit Cost 35 Cost Variance 41 Contracts

  14. Theater Missile Defenses and U.S. Foreign Policy (United States)


    6. 50Hughs, p. 38. For a discussion of the shortcomings of the Patriot defenses, see Theodore A. Postol , "Lessons of the Gulf War Experience with...34 December 1991. Postol , Theodore A. "Lessons of the Gulf War Experience with Patriot." International Security 16 (Winter 1991/1992): 119-171. Potter, William...Corps SAM, expected to have a missile defense footprint of about 40 kIn; --Theater High Altitude Area Defense ( THAAD ), expected to defend a

  15. Missile total and subsection weight and size estimation equations


    Nowell, John B., Jr.


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This study utilizes regression analysis to develop equations which relate missile overall and subsection weights and geometries, including wings and fins, to variables which are considered to be the input for a new design in the conceptual or preliminary design phase, These variables include packaging requirements such as maximum length, diameter and weight, as well as performance characteristics such as mission an range. Data for th...

  16. Patriot Advanced Capability-3 Missile Segment Enhancement (PAC-3 MSE) (United States)


    Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-492 Patriot Advanced Capability-3 Missile Segment Enhancement ( PAC -3 MSE) As of FY 2017...President’s Budget Defense Acquisition Management Information Retrieval (DAMIR) March 21, 2016 09:42:58 UNCLASSIFIED PAC -3 MSE December 2015 SAR March...ORD - Operational Requirements Document OSD - Office of the Secretary of Defense O&S - Operating and Support PAUC - Program Acquisition Unit Cost PAC

  17. A Numerical Method for Blast Shock Wave Analysis of Missile Launch from Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Heimbs


    Full Text Available An efficient empirical approach was developed to accurately represent the blast shock wave loading resulting from the launch of a missile from a military aircraft to be used in numerical analyses. Based on experimental test series of missile launches in laboratory environment and from a helicopter, equations were derived to predict the time- and position-dependent overpressure. The method was finally applied and validated in a structural analysis of a helicopter tail boom under missile launch shock wave loading.

  18. Counterforce and Theater Missile Defense: Can the Army Use an ASW approach to the Scud Hunt (United States)


    SUBTITLE S. FUNDING NUMBERS Counterforce and Theater Missile Defense: Can the Army Use an ASW Approach to the SCUD Hunt ? (U) B. AUTHOR(S) James J. Wirtz...ABSTRACT Unclassified Unclassified Unclassified I TL 0 COUNTERFORCE AND THEATER MISSILE DEFENSE: CAN THE ARMY USE AN ASW APPROACH TO THE SCUD HUNT ...alliance relations and deterrence. V COUNTERFORCE AND THEATER MISSILE DEFENSE: CAN THE ARMY USE AN ASW APPRO CH TO THE SCUD HUNT ? Introduction. As events

  19. Changing law of launching pitching angular velocity of rotating missile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Guang


    Full Text Available In order to provide accurate launching pitching angular velocity (LPAV for the exterior trajectory optimization design, multi-flexible body dynamics (MFBD technology is presented to study the changing law of LPAV of the rotating missile based on spiral guideway. An MFBD virtual prototype model of the rotating missile launching system is built using multi-body dynamics modeling technology based on the built flexible body models of key components and the special force model. The built model is verified with the frequency spectrum analysis. With the flexible body contact theory and nonlinear theory of MFBD technology, the research is conducted on the influence of a series of factors on LPAV, such as launching angle change, clearance between launching canister and missile, thrust change, thrust eccentricity and mass eccentricity, etc. Through this research, some useful values of the key design parameters which are difficult to be measured in physical tests are obtained. Finally, a simplified mathematical model of the changing law of LPAV is presented through fitting virtual test results using the linear regression method and verified by physical flight tests. The research results have important significance for the exterior trajectory optimization design.

  20. The art and science of missile defense sensor design (United States)

    McComas, Brian K.


    A Missile Defense Sensor is a complex optical system, which sits idle for long periods of time, must work with little or no on-­board calibration, be used to find and discriminate targets, and guide the kinetic warhead to the target within minutes of launch. A short overview of the Missile Defense problem will be discussed here, as well as, the top-level performance drivers, like Noise Equivalent Irradiance (NEI), Acquisition Range, and Dynamic Range. These top-level parameters influence the choice of optical system, mechanical system, focal plane array (FPA), Read Out Integrated Circuit (ROIC), and cryogenic system. This paper will not only discuss the physics behind the performance of the sensor, but it will also discuss the "art" of optimizing the performance of the sensor given the top level performance parameters. Balancing the sensor sub-­systems is key to the sensor's performance in these highly stressful missions. Top-­level performance requirements impact the choice of lower level hardware and requirements. The flow down of requirements to the lower level hardware will be discussed. This flow down directly impacts the FPA, where careful selection of the detector is required. The flow down also influences the ROIC and cooling requirements. The key physics behind the detector and cryogenic system interactions will be discussed, along with the balancing of subsystem performance. Finally, the overall system balance and optimization will be discussed in the context of missile defense sensors and expected performance of the overall kinetic warhead.

  1. Ballistic Characterization Of A Typical Military Steel Helmet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ali Maher


    Full Text Available In this study the ballistic limit of a steel helmet against a FMJ 919 mm caliber bullet is estimated. The helmet model is the typical polish helmet wz.31.The helmet material showed high strength low alloy steel material of 0.28 carbon content and 9.125 kgm2 areal density. The tensile test according to ASTM E8 showed a tensile strength of 1236.4 MPa .The average hardness value was about HV550. First shooting experiment has been executed using a 9 mm pistol based on 350 ms muzzle velocity at 5m against the simply supported helmet complete penetrations rose in this test were in the form of cracks on the helmet surface and partial penetrations were in the form of craters on the surface whose largest diameter and depth were 43 mm and 20.2 mm consequently .The second experiment was on a rifled gun arrangement 13 bullets of 919 mm caliber were shot on the examined simply supported steel helmet at a zero obliquity angle at different velocities to determine the ballistic limit velocity V50 according to MIL-STD-662F. Three major outcomes were revealed 1 the value V50 which found to be about 390 ms is higher than the one found in literature 360 ms German steel helmet model 1A1. 2 The smallest the standard deviation of the mixed results zone data the most accurate the ballistic limit is. 3Similar to the performance of blunt-ended projectiles impacting overmatching targets tD near 11 or larger It was found that the dominating failure mode of the steel helmet stuck by a hemispherical-nose projectile was plugging mode despite of having tD ratio of about 19 undermatching.

  2. Ballistic performance of polyurea-coated armor grade ceramic tiles (United States)

    Samiee, Ahsan; Isaacs, Jon; Nemat-Nasser, Sia


    The use of ceramics as energy absorbents has been studied by many researchers and some improvements in the ballistic performance of ceramic tiles have been made by coating them with different classes of materials (e.g. E-glass/epoxy, carbon-fiber/epoxy, etc.). Using ceramics for energy absorbing applications leads to a significant weight reduction of the system. Therefore, any modification to the ceramic configuration in the system which leads to more energy absorption with the same or less areal density is significant. On the other hand, polyurea has been proved to be an excellent energy dissipating agent in many applications. Inspired by this, we are studying the effect of coating ceramics with polyurea and other materials, on the energy absorption and ballistic performance of the resulting ceramic-based composites. In this study, we investigate the effect of polyurea on ballistic efficiency of ceramic tiles. To this end, we have performed a set of penetration tests on polyurea-ceramic composites. In our experiments, a high velocity projectile is propelled to impact and perforate the ceramic-polyurea composite. The velocity and mass of the projectile are measured before and after the penetration. The change in the kinetic energy of the projectile is evaluated and compared for different polyurea-ceramic configurations (e.g., polyurea on front face, polyurea on back face, polyurea between two ceramic tiles, etc.). The experimental results suggest that polyurea is not as effective as other restraining materials such as E-glass/epoxy and carbon-fiber/epoxy.

  3. Ballistic Aspects of Feasibility for Prospective Satellite Navigation Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. N. Lysenko


    Full Text Available When modeling the operating processes of ballistics and navigation support it is expedient to make decomposition of the general problem of coordinate-time and navigation support into the typical options of its engineering implementation.As the satellite navigation technologies the paper considers inter-satellite measurement and autonomous navigation mode of differential correction. It also assesses the possibility of their application to improve the accuracy of navigation determinations.Technologies using inter-satellite measurement tools such as GLONASS / GPS equipment, equipment of inter-satellite radio link, astro-optical space based devices are an independent class of navigation technologies.However, each of these options has both advantages and disadvantages that affect the eva luation of the appropriateness and feasibility of their use.The paper separately considers the problem of increasing survivability of space systems and conservation of ground control complex due to introduction of requirements to ensure the independent functioning of spacecraft and application of technologies of ballistics and navigation support, supposing to involve minimum means of automated ground control complex for these purposes.Currently, there is a completely developed theory of autonomous navigation based on astronomical positional gauges, which are used as onboard optical sensors of orientation and stabilization systems.To date, the differential navigation mode is, virtually, the only approach that can allow the olution of tasks in terms of increased accuracy, but with some restrictions.The implementation of differential mode of treatment is carried out through the creation of differential subsystems of the satellite navigation systems. These subsystems are usually divided into wide-range, regional and local ones.Analysis of ballistic aspects to implement discussed navigation technologies allowed us to identify constraints for improving accuracy to define

  4. Ballistic impact resistance of selected organic ophthalmic lenses. (United States)

    Chou, B Ralph; Yuen, Gloria S-C; Dain, Stephen J


    The aim was to assess the impact resistance of coated and uncoated mid-index spectacle lens materials using the ballistic impact test. Nominally plano lenses of each material in three thicknesses were obtained. The lenses were flat edged to a 50 mm diameter. Each lens was impacted by a 6.35 mm steel ball. Impact velocities were selected using the Zippy Estimation by Sequential Testing protocol to determine the threshold fracture impact velocity. Threshold fracture impact velocity generally increased with thickness; however, there was a wide variation in performance among the various lens materials at each thickness. In all but two instances, the differences in impact velocity at each thickness of lens material were significant. Comparison of the data for CR39 and Hoya Phoenix with the results of earlier studies showed that the lens mounting is a significant factor. The fracture velocities found in the present study were significantly lower than the fracture velocities found when the lens edge is restrained in the mounting. A scratch resistant coating reduced the impact resistance of CR39. The effect of the antireflection coating on the fracture velocity depended on the nature of the base scratch-resistant coating. Mid-index lens materials of the same thickness show widely varying levels of impact resistance under the ballistic test. Impact resistance increases non-linearly with centre thickness. The lens mounting might affect the results of the ballistic impact test. The presence of 'cushion coatings' might enhance impact resistance. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Optometry © 2011 Optometrists Association Australia.

  5. Optimal fibre architecture of soft-matrix ballistic laminates


    Karthikeyen, K.; Kazemahvazi, S.; Russell, B. P.


    This is the author accepted manuscript. The final version is available from Elsevier via Soft-matrix ballistic laminates (such as those composed of fibres of Ultra High Molecular-Weight Polyethylene, e.g. Dyneema® HB26 and Spectra Shield), find extensive use as catching type armour systems. The relationship between the lay-up of these laminates with respect to the observed failure mechanisms has not been empirically investigated in the open ...

  6. [Fundamental biological model for trials of wound ballistics]. (United States)

    Krajsa, J; Hirt, M


    The aim of our experiment was the testing of effects of common ammunition on usable and slightly accessible biological tissue thereby to create fundamental simple biological model for trials of wounded ballistic. Like objective tissue was elected biological material - pork and beef hind-limbs, pork head, pork bodily cavity. It was discovered that objective tissue is able to react to singles types of shots in all spectrum results namely simple smooth penetration wound as well as splintery fracture in dependence on kind of using ammunition. Pork hind-limb was evaluated like the most suitable biological material for given object.

  7. Firearms, bullets, and wound ballistics: an imaging primer. (United States)

    Hanna, Tarek N; Shuaib, Waqas; Han, Tatiana; Mehta, Ajeet; Khosa, Faisal


    Based on its intrinsic mass and velocity, a bullet has an upper limit of wounding potential. Actual wound severity is a function of the bullet construction and trajectory, as well as the properties of the tissues traversed. Interpreting physicians must evaluate the bullet trajectory and describe patterns of injury resulting from the effect of energy transfer from the projectile into living tissue. A basic understanding of firearms, projectiles, and wound ballistics can help the interpreting physicians in conceptualizing these injuries and interpreting these cases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A Survey of Ballistic Transfers to Low Lunar Orbit (United States)

    Parker, Jeffrey S.; Anderson, Rodney L.; Peterson, Andrew


    A simple strategy is identified to generate ballistic transfers between the Earth and Moon, i.e., transfers that perform two maneuvers: a trans-lunar injection maneuver to depart the Earth and a Lunar Orbit Insertion maneuver to insert into orbit at the Moon. This strategy is used to survey the performance of numerous transfers between varying Earth parking orbits and varying low lunar target orbits. The transfers surveyed include short 3-6 day direct transfers, longer 3-4 month low energy transfers, and variants that include Earth phasing orbits and/or lunar flybys.

  9. Debris Examination Using Ballistic and Radar Integrated Software (United States)

    Griffith, Anthony; Schottel, Matthew; Lee, David; Scully, Robert; Hamilton, Joseph; Kent, Brian; Thomas, Christopher; Benson, Jonathan; Branch, Eric; Hardman, Paul; hide


    The Debris Examination Using Ballistic and Radar Integrated Software (DEBRIS) program was developed to provide rapid and accurate analysis of debris observed by the NASA Debris Radar (NDR). This software provides a greatly improved analysis capacity over earlier manual processes, allowing for up to four times as much data to be analyzed by one-quarter of the personnel required by earlier methods. There are two applications that comprise the DEBRIS system: the Automated Radar Debris Examination Tool (ARDENT) and the primary DEBRIS tool.

  10. Ballistic Electron Quantum Transport in Presence of a Disordered Background


    Sokolov, Valentin V.


    Effect of a complicated many-body environment is analyzed on the electron random scattering by a 2D mesoscopic open ballistic structure. A new mechanism of decoherence is proposed. The temperature of the environment is supposed to be zero whereas the energy of the incoming particle $E_{in}$ can be close to or somewhat above the Fermi surface in the environment. The single-particle doorway resonance states excited in the structure via external channels are damped not only because of escape thr...

  11. Flowfield and Radiation Analysis of Missile Exhaust Plumes Using a Turbulent-Chemistry Interaction Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Calhoon, W. H; Kenzakowski, D. C


    ... components and missile defense systems. Current engineering level models neglect turbulent-chemistry interactions and typically underpredict the intensity of plume afterburning and afterburning burnout...

  12. Assessment of Turbulence-Chemistry Interactions in Missile Exhaust Plume Signature Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Calhoon, W


    ... components and missile defense systems. Current engineering level models neglect turbulence chemistry interactions and typically underpredict the intensity of plume afterburning and afterburning burnout...

  13. Results of a Round Robin ballistic load sensing headform test series

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Philippens, M.A.G.; Anctil, B.; Markwardt, K.C.


    The majority of methods to assess the behind armour blunt trauma (BABT) risk for ballistic helmets is based on plastic deformable headforms. An alternative, the Ballistic Load Sensing Headform (BLSH) can record the dynamic contact force between helmet back face and the skull. Helmet BABT methods are

  14. Unlocking Function of Aramid Fibers in Multilayered Ballistic Armor (United States)

    Monteiro, Sergio N.; Lima, Édio P.; Louro, Luis Henrique L.; da Silva, Luis Carlos; Drelich, Jaroslaw W.


    Aramid fabric plies were ballistic tested using high impact 7.62 × 51 mm ammunition in two distinct conditions: (1) as a common multilayered armor system (MAS) component backing a front Al2O3-based tile, and (2) with the same plies thickness, as a single target. Single targets of the ceramic tile and the aluminum sheet (MAS third layer) were also tested. In the MAS, the aramid dissipated more than 36 pct of the impact energy during the test compared with only ~2 pct when separated from the MAS. Microscopic examination of aramid fabric revealed many ceramic fragments with a size of a few micrometers that coated surfaces of fibers. It is shown for the first time that, in addition to already reported fabric rupture, debonding, and stretching, a massive incrustation of ceramic fragments onto the fabric fibers might be responsible for the comparatively high aramid ballistic performance as the MAS component. Besides the mechanical incrustation and van der Waals forces on the harder ceramic fragments, it is proposed that short-living surface static charges generated on the aramid fibers could contribute to the capturing process.

  15. Optimal dephasing for ballistic energy transfer in disordered linear chains (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Celardo, G. Luca; Borgonovi, Fausto; Kaplan, Lev


    We study the interplay between dephasing, disorder, and coupling to a sink on transport efficiency in a one-dimensional chain of finite length N , and in particular the beneficial or detrimental effect of dephasing on transport. The excitation moves along the chain by coherent nearest-neighbor hopping Ω , under the action of static disorder W and dephasing γ . The last site is coupled to an external acceptor system (sink), where the excitation can be trapped with a rate Γtrap. While it is known that dephasing can help transport in the localized regime, here we show that dephasing can enhance energy transfer even in the ballistic regime. Specifically, in the localized regime we recover previous results, where the optimal dephasing is independent of the chain length and proportional to W or W2/Ω . In the ballistic regime, the optimal dephasing decreases as 1 /N or 1 /√{N } , respectively, for weak and moderate static disorder. When focusing on the excitation starting at the beginning of the chain, dephasing can help excitation transfer only above a critical value of disorder Wcr, which strongly depends on the sink coupling strength Γtrap. Analytic solutions are obtained for short chains.

  16. Characterization of the ballistic limit curve for metallic Whipple shield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee M.


    Full Text Available It has been known that space debris or meteoroid impact damage can have significant effects on spacecraft. Experimental test has been conducted up to 7 km/s, and numerical simulations are performed at higher velocities. Studies on the hypervelocity impact onto single plate, double spaced plates (Whipple shield, and multiple plates (MS shield have been performed and ballistic limit curves (BLCs are proposed. Last 15 years SPH (Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics has been applied to the hypervelocity impact problems because of cost of test and numerical efficiency especially in the hypervelocity impact regime. Although most of the simulations captured the debris shape well, somehow they do not seem to match well with the empirical ballistic limit curves. We have recently developed a new axisymmetric SPH hydrocode. In order to assess the confidence that should be placed in such simulations we simulated the hypervelocity impacts on aluminum Whipple shields and compared with the empirical BLCs. The SPH simulations indicated an improved accuracy compared with the previously published SPH simulation results. Other effort we put was using different types of equation of state, however no further improvement was achieved.

  17. Current-Phase Relation of Ballistic Graphene Josephson Junctions. (United States)

    Nanda, G; Aguilera-Servin, J L; Rakyta, P; Kormányos, A; Kleiner, R; Koelle, D; Watanabe, K; Taniguchi, T; Vandersypen, L M K; Goswami, S


    The current-phase relation (CPR) of a Josephson junction (JJ) determines how the supercurrent evolves with the superconducting phase difference across the junction. Knowledge of the CPR is essential in order to understand the response of a JJ to various external parameters. Despite the rising interest in ultraclean encapsulated graphene JJs, the CPR of such junctions remains unknown. Here, we use a fully gate-tunable graphene superconducting quantum intereference device (SQUID) to determine the CPR of ballistic graphene JJs. Each of the two JJs in the SQUID is made with graphene encapsulated in hexagonal boron nitride. By independently controlling the critical current of the JJs, we can operate the SQUID either in a symmetric or asymmetric configuration. The highly asymmetric SQUID allows us to phase-bias one of the JJs and thereby directly obtain its CPR. The CPR is found to be skewed, deviating significantly from a sinusoidal form. The skewness can be tuned with the gate voltage and oscillates in antiphase with Fabry-Pérot resistance oscillations of the ballistic graphene cavity. We compare our experiments with tight-binding calculations that include realistic graphene-superconductor interfaces and find a good qualitative agreement.

  18. Graphene ballistic nano-rectifier with very high responsivity. (United States)

    Auton, Gregory; Zhang, Jiawei; Kumar, Roshan Krishna; Wang, Hanbin; Zhang, Xijian; Wang, Qingpu; Hill, Ernie; Song, Aimin


    Although graphene has the longest mean free path of carriers of any known electronic material, very few novel devices have been reported to harness this extraordinary property. Here we demonstrate a ballistic nano-rectifier fabricated by creating an asymmetric cross-junction in single-layer graphene sandwiched between boron nitride flakes. A mobility ∼200,000 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) is achieved at room temperature, well beyond that required for ballistic transport. This enables a voltage responsivity as high as 23,000 mV mW(-1) with a low-frequency input signal. Taking advantage of the output channels being orthogonal to the input terminals, the noise is found to be not strongly influenced by the input. Hence, the corresponding noise-equivalent power is as low as 0.64 pW Hz(-1/2). Such performance is even comparable to superconducting bolometers, which however need to operate at cryogenic temperatures. Furthermore, output oscillations are observed at low temperatures, the period of which agrees with the lateral size quantization.

  19. Clinical aspects of ballistic peripheral nerve injury: shrapnel versus gunshot. (United States)

    Rochkind, Shimon; Strauss, Ido; Shlitner, Zvi; Alon, Malvina; Reider, Evgeny; Graif, Moshe


    Ballistic injuries to peripheral nerves pose special challenges in terms of indications, timing and type of surgical intervention. The aim of the present work was to analyze our experience in the surgical treatment of peripheral nerve ballistic injuries with respect to the mechanism of injury (gunshot versus shrapnel), and identify common and dissimilar prognostic factors in both types of injury. This study was conducted on 42 patients totaling 58 nerves. Twenty-two patients (32 nerves) were injured by gunshot and 20 patients (26 nerves) by shrapnel. Median postoperative follow-up was 33 months (range 12 months to 14 years). Overall postoperative outcome appears to be more favorable for gunshot-wound (GSW) patients than shrapnel-injured patients, especially in terms of neuropathic pain relief (75 % vs. 58 % respectively, p injury) significantly relieved neuropathic pain in 83 % of shrapnel-injured patients compared to 58 % in patients operated later. This study suggests that shrapnel injury is more destructive for nerve tissue than gunshot injury. Our impression is that early surgical intervention in shrapnel injuries and split nerve grafting (especially when small fragments are recognized in the nerve) significantly improve the patient's functional activity and quality of life.

  20. Ballistic trauma from an exploding electronic cigarette: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Ban, DMD


    Full Text Available Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes first became available in the United States in 2007, and since that time, the number of e-cigarette users in the US has grown to over 2.5 million. During the period from 2010–2013 alone, the percentage of Americans who reported that they had ever used electronic cigarettes more than doubled from 3.3% to 8.5%. This number will continue to grow, as the use of electronic cigarettes as an alternative to smoking and in smoking cessation is being explored by the public and medical professionals alike. This article presents a case report involving a patient who was injured when the electronic cigarette he was smoking exploded in his face, causing a ballistic injury to his maxilla, as well as a series of other associated injuries. There have been several recent reports in the literature of exploding electronic cigarettes. This article presents a case of avulsive injury due to ballistic trauma with associated impaction of the vaporizing device.

  1. Problem of the reference height of the projectile trajectory as a reduced meteo-ballistic weighting factor


    Cech, Vladimir; Jedlicka, Ludek; Jevicky, Jiri


    This paper deals with the issue of preparation of the aiming angles with the use of tabular firing tables and needed determination of the ballistic elements μB (ballistic wind wB, wxB, wZB, ballistic (virtual) temperature τB, ballistic density ρB) from the standardized met messages. The weighting factors are used for the calculation of ballistic elements μB that are incorporated into the trajectory calculations characteristics of weapon and ammunition. Two different methodologies practically ...

  2. On the physics of momentum in ballistics: can the human body be displaced or knocked down by a small arms projectile? (United States)

    Karger, B; Kneubuehl, B P


    Shooting incidents are often portrayed as resulting in a sometimes violent backwards displacement of the victim. This opinion is also not infrequently held by expert witnesses. The physical force responsible for this would be momentum (mass x velocity). The physics of momentum in ballistic injury is explained in detail. The maximum momentum transferred from different small arms projectiles including large calibre rifles and a 12-gauge shotgun only results in a backwards motion of a 80 kg target body of 0.01-0.18 m/s, which is negligible compared to the velocity of a pedestrian (1-2 m/s). Furthermore, counterbalance is constantly maintained by neurophysiological reflexes. So the effect of the momentum transferred from the missile is virtually zero and there is no backwards motion of the person shot. Empirical evidence verifying these calculations can be obtained from hunting big game, from human gunshot victims and from a video documentary demonstrating the lack of any backwards motion of a person wearing body armour after hits from a centre fire rifle. So the alleged backwards hurling of a person shot is nothing but a myth which should be refuted not only because it is incorrect but also because it can result in miscarriages of justice.

  3. A laws of war review of contemporary land-based missile defence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Automated precise guided missile defence has been around for some years, and is a modern-day mechanism used frequently since 2011 to defend against rocket attacks penetrating national airspace. Israel's automated Iron Dome Missile Defence System has intercepted over 1 000 rockets during two recent military ...

  4. 75 FR 28587 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Missile Launch... (United States)


    ... to sound produced by the engines of all launch vehicles, and, in some cases, their booster rockets... Marine Mammals Incidental to Missile Launch Operations from San Nicolas Island, CA AGENCY: National... three species of seals and sea lions incidental to missile launch operations from San Nicolas Island...

  5. Opportunities and challenges for MEMS technology in Army missile systems applications (United States)

    Ruffin, Paul B.


    The military market drives the thrust for the development of robust, high performance MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) devices with applications such as: competent and smart munitions, aircraft and missile autopilots, tactical missile guidance, fire control systems, platform stabilization, smart structures with embedded inertial sensors, missile system health monitoring, aerodynamic flow control, and multiple intelligent small projectiles. Army missile applications will be a fertile market for MEMS products, such as MEMS-based inertial sensors. MEMS technology should significantly enhance performance and provide more robust mission capability in applications where arrays of MEMS devices are required. The Army Aviation and Missile Command Missile Research, Development, and Engineering Center is working diligently with other government agencies, academia, and industry to develop high performing MEMS devices to withstand shock, vibration, temperature, humidity, and long-term storage conditions often encountered by Army missile systems. The goals of the ongoing DARPA MEMS technology programs will meet a significant portion of the Army missile systems requirements. In lieu of presenting an all-inclusive review of Army MEMS applications, this paper addresses a number of opportunities and associated challenges for MEMS systems operating in military environments. Near term applications and the less mature, high-risk applications of MEMS devices are addressed.

  6. Zero-sum versus nonzero-sum differential game approach to missile guidance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trottemant, E.J.; Vermeulen, A.; Weiss, M.


    New developments and improvements on evasive missiles have led to a situation in which the current missile guidance laws have difficulties to intercept maneuvering targets. The nature of the interception problem with 2 non-cooperative players leads to the field of differential games. Recent studies

  7. Data fusion: applications to the tracking and guidance of defense missiles (United States)

    Maltese, Dominique; Lucas, Andre


    Nowadays, Combat Systems have to counter different kinds of threats including surface targets and air targets. In that last case, fast-moving incoming missiles such as BUNT missiles turn out to be the most threatening ones. Indeed, their maneuver capabilities are difficult to be managed by tracking processes. Plus, when a defense missile launched by the fire system is remote conrolled, threat maneuvers may decrease the interception capabilities of the Combat System i.e. the Probability to Kill (PK). The article addresses this situation. A practical aglorithm of data fusion is presented; the case studied is a short-range fire control platform. The Combat System features a dual-sensor system that combines a Track Radar and a Thermal Imager while a Missile Guidance Unit (MGU) takes into account the incoming target and the Defense Missile tracks to remote control the missile towards its target. Then, statistic results of tracking performances and interception sequences are given for different incoming missile scenarios and sensors suites (radar-alone configuration, combination of the active sensor with a Thermal Imager). They highlight how data fusion reacts with the overall anti-missiles fire system performances and especially its miss distance.

  8. 78 FR 39198 - Pacific Ocean Off the Pacific Missile Range Facility at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii... (United States)


    ... Part 334 Pacific Ocean Off the Pacific Missile Range Facility at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii... of the Pacific Ocean off the Pacific Missile Range Facility at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii... Pacific Missile Range Facility at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii by increasing the water area...

  9. Tangential low-velocity missile wound of the head with acute subdural hematoma: case report. (United States)

    Hadas, N; Schiffer, J; Rogev, M; Shperber, Y


    Tangential missile wounds of the head without skull fracture are a known entity. Usually, references in the literature indicate that this type of injury results from a high-velocity missile impact. We present a case of a tangential missile head wound caused by a low-velocity missile. As the range of fire was short, the quantity of energy that might be released could be equated with that released by a high-velocity missile fired from a much longer range. This possibility should be brought to the attention of clinicians as an essential element in this pre-treatment clinical evaluation. We propose a pathomechanical explanation for the development of the clinical state.

  10. Renewable Energy Opportunities at White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chvala, William D.; Solana, Amy E.; States, Jennifer C.; Warwick, William M.; Weimar, Mark R.; Dixon, Douglas R.


    The document provides an overview of renewable resource potential at White Sands Missile Range (WSMR) based primarily upon analysis of secondary data sources supplemented with limited on-site evaluations. The effort was funded by the U.S. Army Installation Management Command (IMCOM) as follow-on to the 2005 DoD Renewable Energy Assessment. This effort focuses on grid-connected generation of electricity from renewable energy sources and also ground source heat pumps (GSHPs) for heating and cooling buildings, as directed by IMCOM.

  11. Ballistic Resistance of Armored Passenger Vehicles: Test Protocols and Quality Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey M. Lacy; Robert E. Polk


    This guide establishes a test methodology for determining the overall ballistic resistance of the passenger compartment of assembled nontactical armored passenger vehicles (APVs). Because ballistic testing of every piece of every component of an armored vehicle is impractical, if not impossible, this guide describes a testing scheme based on statistical sampling of exposed component surface areas. Results from the test of the sampled points are combined to form a test score that reflects the probability of ballistic penetration into the passenger compartment of the vehicle.

  12. Influence of Material Properties on the Ballistic Performance of Ceramics for Personal Body Armour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Kaufmann


    Full Text Available In support of improved personal armour development, depth of penetration tests have been conducted on four different ceramic materials including alumina, modified alumina, silicon carbide and boron carbide. These experiments consisted of impacting ceramic tiles bonded to aluminum cylinders with 0.50 caliber armour piercing projectiles. The results are presented in terms of ballistic efficiency, and the validity of using ballistic efficiency as a measure of ceramic performance was examined. In addition, the correlation between ballistic performance and ceramic material properties, such as elastic modulus, hardness, spall strength and Hugoniot Elastic Limit, has been considered.

  13. The effect of intermediate clothing targets on shotgun ballistics. (United States)

    Cail, Kenneth; Klatt, Edward


    The ballistic properties of shotgun shells are complex because of multiple projectiles fired simultaneously that interact and spread out to affect their energy relayed to a human target. Intermediate targets such as clothing can affect penetration into tissues. We studied the effect of common clothing fabrics as intermediate targets on penetration of shotgun shell pellets, using ordnance gelatin to simulate soft tissue and thin cowhide to simulate skin. A standard 12-gauge shotgun with modified choke was used with no. 8 shot ammunition. We found that protection afforded by fabrics to reduce penetration of shotgun pellets into tissues was greater at increasing distance from the muzzle beyond 40 yd (36.6 m). The thicker denim and cotton fabrics provided slightly greater protection than polyester. This study demonstrates that clothing modifies the potential wound patterns to victims of shotgun injuries.

  14. HVI Ballistic Limit Characterization of Fused Silica Thermal Panes (United States)

    Miller, J. E.; Bohl, W. D.; Christiansen, E. L.; Davis, B. A.; Deighton, K. D.


    Fused silica window systems are used heavily on crewed reentry vehicles, and they are currently being used on the next generation of US crewed spacecraft, Orion. These systems improve crew situational awareness and comfort, as well as, insulating the reentry critical components of a spacecraft against the intense thermal environments of atmospheric reentry. Additionally, these materials are highly exposed to space environment hazards like solid particle impacts. This paper discusses impact studies up to 10 km/s on a fused silica window system proposed for the Orion spacecraft. A ballistic limit equation that describes the threshold of perforation of a fuse silica pane over a broad range of impact velocities, obliquities and projectile materials is discussed here.

  15. Learning without knowing: subliminal visual feedback facilitates ballistic motor learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper; Leukel, Christian; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    ). It is a well- described phenomenon that we may respond to features of our surroundings without being aware of them. It is also a well-known principle, that learning is reinforced by augmented feedback on motor performance. In the present experiment we hypothesized that motor learning may be facilitated...... by subconscious (subliminal) augmented visual feedback on motor performance. To test this, 45 subjects participated in the experiment, which involved learning of a ballistic task. The task was to execute simple ankle plantar flexion movements as quickly as possible within 200 ms and to continuously improve...... of the feedback) was assessed in a separate test prior to the actual experiment and additional perceptual tests were performed after the learning session. In all 3 intervention groups motor performance improved as a result of practice. Not surprisingly the learning effect was significantly larger if subjects...

  16. Design and Ballistic Performance of Hybrid Composite Laminates (United States)

    Ćwik, Tomasz K.; Iannucci, Lorenzo; Curtis, Paul; Pope, Dan


    This paper presents an initial design assessment of a series of novel, cost-effective, and hybrid composite materials for applications involving high velocity impacts. The proposed hybrid panels were designed in order to investigate various physical phenomenon occurring during high velocity impact on compliant laminates from a previous study on Dyneema® and Spectra®. In the first, screening phase of the study twenty different hybrid composite laminates were impacted with 20 mm Fragment Simulating Projectiles at 1 km/s striking velocity. The best performing concepts were put forward to phase II with other hybrid concepts involving shear thickening fluids, commonly used in low velocity impacts. The results indicated that it is possible to design hybrid laminates of similar ballistic performance as the reference Dyneema® laminate, but with lower material costs. The optimal hybrid concept involves a fibre reinforced Polypropylene front and a Dyneema® backing.

  17. Non-equilibrium ballistic phonon transport in microstructures (United States)

    Hertzberg, Jared; Otelaja, Obafemi; Robinson, Richard


    We demonstrate a method to locally excite and detect phonon modes in silicon microstructures. Decay of quasiparticles injected into an adjacent superconducting film excites phonons in a non-thermal spectral distribution. Phonons of frequency of order 100 GHz are detected by the excitations they cause in a second superconducting film, after ballistically traversing microstructures of 10 to 50 micron dimension. Measurements are made at temperatures of 0.3 to 1.2 K. Such a device advances the goal of building a nanoscale phonon spectrometer to study acoustic confinement and surface scattering effects. This work is supported by KAUST (KUS-C1-018-02), NSF (DMR 0520404), and DOE (DE-SC0001086).

  18. Anti-Weak Localization Measurements in the Ballistic Regime (United States)

    Jayathilaka, Dilhani; Dedigama, Aruna; Murphy, Sheena; Edirisooriya, Madhavie; Goel, Niti; Mishima, Tetsuya; Santos, Michael; Mullen, Kieran


    Anti-weak localization dominates at low fields in systems in which spin-orbit coupling is strong. The experimental results are well described by theory [1] in low mobility systems in which the magnetic length (lB) is greater than the mean free path; however high mobility systems with strong spin-orbit interactions, such the InSb based two dimensional systems (2DESs) examined here, are not in this diffusive regime. A recently developed theory [2] addresses both the diffusive and ballistic regimes taking into account both the backscattered and non-backscattered contributions to the conductivity. We will discuss the agreement of the new theory to measurements of InSb 2DESs prepared with both strong Dresselhaus and Rashba effects. [1] S.V. Iordanskii, Yu B. Lyanda-Geller, and G.E. Pikus, JETP Lett. 60, 206 (1994). [2] L.E. Golub, Phys. Rev. B. 71, 235310 (2005).

  19. A computational study of ballistic graphene nanoribbon field effect transistors (United States)

    Noei, Maziar; Moradinasab, Mahdi; Fathipour, Morteza


    A self-consistent solution of Schrödinger equation based on Green's function formalism coupled to a two-dimensional Poisson's equation for treating the electrostatics of the device is used to simulate and model the ballistic performance of an armchair edged GNRFET. Our results take into account interactions of third nearest neighbors, as well as relaxation of carbon-carbon bonds in the edges of nanoribbons. Performance of the I-V characteristics of GNRFETs for different widths and lengths is studied in terms of their subthreshold swing, saturation behavior, leakage current and on-current density. This can help in optimizing the fabricated GNRFET devices in terms of their geometrical dimensions as well as their supply voltage and bias point for optimum attainable performance. The impact of channel region's coupling to the source/drain leads is also studied in the last Section of our work.

  20. In-flight dynamics of volcanic ballistic projectiles (United States)

    Taddeucci, J.; Alatorre-Ibargüengoitia, M. A.; Cruz-Vázquez, O.; Del Bello, E.; Scarlato, P.; Ricci, T.


    Centimeter to meter-sized volcanic ballistic projectiles from explosive eruptions jeopardize people and properties kilometers from the volcano, but they also provide information about the past eruptions. Traditionally, projectile trajectory is modeled using simplified ballistic theory, accounting for gravity and drag forces only and assuming simply shaped projectiles free moving through air. Recently, collisions between projectiles and interactions with plumes are starting to be considered. Besides theory, experimental studies and field mapping have so far dominated volcanic projectile research, with only limited observations. High-speed, high-definition imaging now offers a new spatial and temporal scale of observation that we use to illuminate projectile dynamics. In-flight collisions commonly affect the size, shape, trajectory, and rotation of projectiles according to both projectile nature (ductile bomb versus brittle block) and the location and timing of collisions. These, in turn, are controlled by ejection pulses occurring at the vent. In-flight tearing and fragmentation characterize large bombs, which often break on landing, both factors concurring to decrease the average grain size of the resulting deposits. Complex rotation and spinning are ubiquitous features of projectiles, and the related Magnus effect may deviate projectile trajectory by tens of degrees. A new relationship is derived, linking projectile velocity and size with the size of the resulting impact crater. Finally, apparent drag coefficient values, obtained for selected projectiles, mostly range from 1 to 7, higher than expected, reflecting complex projectile dynamics. These new perspectives will impact projectile hazard mitigation and the interpretation of projectile deposits from past eruptions, both on Earth and on other planets.

  1. Attenuation of blast pressure behind ballistic protective vests. (United States)

    Wood, Garrett W; Panzer, Matthew B; Shridharani, Jay K; Matthews, Kyle A; Capehart, Bruce P; Myers, Barry S; Bass, Cameron R


    Clinical studies increasingly report brain injury and not pulmonary injury following blast exposures, despite the increased frequency of exposure to explosive devices. The goal of this study was to determine the effect of personal body armour use on the potential for primary blast injury and to determine the risk of brain and pulmonary injury following a blast and its impact on the clinical care of patients with a history of blast exposure. A shock tube was used to generate blast overpressures on soft ballistic protective vests (NIJ Level-2) and hard protective vests (NIJ Level-4) while overpressure was recorded behind the vest. Both types of vest were found to significantly decrease pulmonary injury risk following a blast for a wide range of conditions. At the highest tested blast overpressure, the soft vest decreased the behind armour overpressure by a factor of 14.2, and the hard vest decreased behind armour overpressure by a factor of 56.8. Addition of body armour increased the 50th percentile pulmonary death tolerance of both vests to higher levels than the 50th percentile for brain injury. These results suggest that ballistic protective body armour vests, especially hard body armour plates, provide substantial chest protection in primary blasts and explain the increased frequency of head injuries, without the presence of pulmonary injuries, in protected subjects reporting a history of blast exposure. These results suggest increased clinical suspicion for mild to severe brain injury is warranted in persons wearing body armour exposed to a blast with or without pulmonary injury.

  2. 75 FR 42722 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records (United States)


    ... System name: Cable Affairs Personnel/Agency Records System location: Intercontinental Ballistic Missile... 31793) Changes: * * * * * System location: Delete entry and replace with ``Intercontinental Ballistic Missile Cable Affairs Offices at missile bases reporting to Headquarters Air Global Strike Command...

  3. SAC (Strategic Air Command) Needs a Few Good Men and Women’ - A Guide to ICBM (Intercontinental Ballistic Missile) Operations Duty (United States)


    training, medical/ dental exams, records review, etc. (51:--; 23:21). This looks like a lot of training and it is, but it is also necessary because the job is...foods, and entertainment), and Pastaville USA (honoring the noodle and North Dakota farmers who produce the main ingredient in pasta ). Major

  4. The Rise and Fall of the 1972 Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty: A Study of U.S. Decision-Making

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Snyder, Thomas P


    .... Arms control advocates throughout Russia, Europe, and the U.S. had routinely referred to the ABM Treaty as the "cornerstone" of strategic stability and had predicted abrogation would trigger a new nuclear arms race...

  5. Ionospheric effects of the missile destruction on 9 December 2009 (United States)

    Kozlovsky, Alexander; Shalimov, Sergey; Lukianova, Renata; Lester, Mark


    We report on ionosonde and meteor radar observations made in Sodankylä Geophysical Observatory (SGO, 67°22'N, 26°38'E, Finland) on 9 December 2009, during a test launch of the Russian solid propellant military missile. Due to a technical problem, the missile was self-destroyed around 07 UT at an ionospheric height (near 200 km altitude) over the Kola Peninsula (Russia), at a distance about 500 km to east from the observatory. Products of the explosion were spread into a large area and reached the region of SGO meteor radar observations in about 2 h (around 09 UT). After about 3 h (around 10 UT), a sporadic E layer presumably composed of the remains including long-lived metallic (aluminum and its oxides) ions, was observed near the zenith of the SGO ionosonde. We discuss possible mechanisms accounting for transport of the remains. (1) Since the event occurred during a long-lasting period of extremely low solar and magnetic activity, the ionospheric electric field was unlikely to play a substantial role in the transport of the remains and sporadic E layer formation. (2) The horizontal transport of the remains cannot be explained by the neutral winds based on empirical models. (3) Theoretical estimations suggest that the observed transport could be due to thermospheric turbulence.

  6. Missile-Borne SAR Raw Signal Simulation for Maneuvering Target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijie Xia


    Full Text Available SAR raw signal simulation under the case of maneuver and high-speed has been a challenging and urgent work recently. In this paper, a new method based on one-dimensional fast Fourier transform (1DFFT algorithm is presented for raw signal simulation of maneuvering target for missile-borne SAR. Firstly, SAR time-domain raw signal model is given and an effective Range Frequency Azimuth Time (RFAT algorithm based on 1DFFT is derived. In this algorithm, the “Stop and Go” (SaG model is adopted and the wide radar scattering characteristic of target is taken into account. Furthermore, the “Inner Pulse Motion” (IPM model is employed to deal with high-speed case. This new RFAT method can handle the maneuvering cases, high-speed cases, and bistatic radar cases, which are all possible in the missile-borne SAR. Besides, this raw signal simulation adopts the electromagnetic scattering calculation so that we do not need a scattering rate distribution map as the simulation input. Thus, the multiple electromagnetic reflections can be considered. Simulation examples prove the effectiveness of our method.

  7. Gunshot injuries in the neck area: ballistics elements and forensic issues. (United States)

    Pinto, Antonio; Brunese, Luca; Scaglione, Mariano; Scuderi, Maria Giuseppina; Romano, Luigia


    The neck is an interesting structure as far as penetrating trauma is concerned because of the multiple vital structures that are concentrated in a small anatomic area. Gunshot wounding is an interaction between the penetrating projectile, the anatomy of the wounded subject, and the chance occurrences that determine the exact missile path. The mass and velocity of the projectile establish the upper limit of possible tissue damage. Management of gunshot neck injuries depends on a clear understanding of the anatomy of the neck. The radiologist can contribute substantially to the successful treatment of the patient with a gunshot wound. Important analysis includes the assessment of the missile path in emergency conditions by using plain film and multidetector row computed tomography. The radiologist further evaluates the extent of wounding by determining missile fragmentation and secondary missile paths.

  8. Natural Mallow Fiber-Reinforced Epoxy Composite for Ballistic Armor Against Class III-A Ammunition (United States)

    Nascimento, Lucio Fabio Cassiano; Holanda, Luane Isquerdo Ferreira; Louro, Luis Henrique Leme; Monteiro, Sergio Neves; Gomes, Alaelson Vieira; Lima, Édio Pereira


    Epoxy matrix composites reinforced with up to 30 vol pct of continuous and aligned natural mallow fibers were for the first time ballistic tested as personal armor against class III-A 9 mm FMJ ammunition. The ballistic efficiency of these composites was assessed by measuring the dissipated energy and residual velocity after the bullet perforation. The results were compared to those in similar tests of aramid fabric (Kevlar™) commonly used in vests for personal protections. Visual inspection and scanning electron microscopy analysis of impact-fractured samples revealed failure mechanisms associated with fiber pullout and rupture as well as epoxy cracking. As compared to Kevlar™, the mallow fiber composite displayed practically the same ballistic efficiency. However, there is a reduction in both weight and cost, which makes the mallow fiber composites a promising material for personal ballistic protection.

  9. Design Guide for Aerodynamics Testing of Earth and Planetary Entry Vehicles in a Ballistic Range (United States)

    Bogdanoff, David W.


    The purpose of this manual is to aid in the design of an aerodynamics test of an earth or planetary entry capsule in a ballistic range. In this manual, much use is made of the results and experience gained in 50 years of ballistic range aerodynamics testing at the NASA Ames Research Center, and in particular, that gained in the last 27 years, while the author was working at NASA Ames. The topics treated herein include: Data to be obtained; flight data needed to design test; Reynolds number and dynamic similarity of flight trajectory and ballistic range test; capabilities of various ballistic ranges; Calculations of swerves due to average and oscillating lift and of drag-induced velocity decreases; Model and sabot design; materials, weights and stresses; Sabot separation; Launches at angle of attack and slapping with paper to produce pitch/yaw oscillations.

  10. Live RB51 vaccine lyophilized hydrogel formulations with increased shelf life for practical ballistic delivery (United States)

    Ballistic delivery capability is essential to delivering vaccines and other therapeutics effectively to both livestock and wildlife in many global scenarios. Here, lyophilized poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-glycolide dimethacrylate crosslinked but degradable hydrogels were assessed as payload vehicles ...

  11. Understanding the ballistic event : Methodology and observations relevant to ceramic armour (United States)

    Healey, Adam

    The only widely-accepted method of gauging the ballistic performance of a material is to carry out ballistic testing; due to the large volume of material required for a statistically robust test, this process is very expensive. Therefore a new test, or suite of tests, that employ widely-available and economically viable characterisation methods to screen candidate armour materials is highly desirable; in order to design such a test, more information on the armour/projectile interaction is required. This work presents the design process and results of using an adapted specimen configuration to increase the amount of information obtained from a ballistic test. By using a block of ballistic gel attached to the ceramic, the fragmentation generated during the ballistic event was captured and analysed. In parallel, quasi-static tests were carried out using ring-on-ring biaxial disc testing to investigate relationships between quasi-static and ballistic fragment fracture surfaces. Three contemporary ceramic armour materials were used to design the test and to act as a baseline; Sintox FA alumina, Hexoloy SA silicon carbide and 3M boron carbide. Attempts to analyse the post-test ballistic sample non-destructively using X-ray computed tomography (XCT) were unsuccessful due to the difference in the density of the materials and the compaction of fragments. However, the results of qualitative and quantitative fracture surface analysis using scanning electron microscopy showed similarities between the fracture surfaces of ballistic fragments at the edges of the tile and biaxial fragments; this suggests a relationship between quasi-static and ballistic fragments created away from the centre of impact, although additional research will be required to determine the reason for this. Ballistic event-induced porosity was observed and quantified on the fracture surfaces of silicon carbide samples, which decreased as distance from centre of impact increased; upon further analysis this

  12. Evaluation of electronic jamming effect based on seeker captive flight test and missile flight simulation (United States)

    Gao, Wei; Tie, Weitao


    In order to test and evaluate the jamming effect of electronic warfare weapons on missiles, a method based on seeker captive flight jamming test and missile flight simulation test is put forward, in which real data for the jamming effect of the electronic warfare weapon on seekers is obtained by seeker captive flight jamming test, and immitted into a missile digital simulation system to perform large numbers of missile flight simulation tests under jamming, then one could evaluate the jamming effect of the electronic warfare weapon on missiles according to the simulation test results. The method is demonstrated and validated by test and evaluation of the jamming effect of a smokescreen jamming device on TV guidance missiles. The results show that, the method proposed here not only overcomes the shortcomings of both pure digital simulation test and field test, but also combines their advantages, thus could be taken as an easy, economical and reliable method for testing and evaluating electronic jamming effect on missiles.

  13. Aerodynamic shape optimization of guided missile based on wind tunnel testing and computational fluid dynamics simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ocokoljić Goran J.


    Full Text Available This paper presents modification of the existing guided missile which was done by replacing the existing front part with the new five, while the rear part of the missile with rocket motor and missile thrust vector control system remains the same. The shape of all improved front parts is completely different from the original one. Modification was performed based on required aerodynamic coefficients for the existing guided missile. The preliminary aerodynamic configurations of the improved missile front parts were designed based on theoretical and computational fluid dynamics simulations. All aerodynamic configurations were tested in the T-35 wind tunnel at the Military Technical Institute in order to determine the final geometry of the new front parts. The 3-D Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes numerical simulations were carried out to predict the aerodynamic loads of the missile based on the finite volume method. Experimental results of the axial force, normal force, and pitching moment coefficients are presented. The computational results of the aerodynamic loads of a guided missile model are also given, and agreed well with.

  14. KevlarTM Fiber-Reinforced Polybenzoxazine Alloys for Ballistic Impact Application


    Chanchira Jubsilp; Pornnapa Kasemsiri; Somsiri Pathomsap; Sarawut Rimdusit; Sunan Tiptipakorn


    A light weight ballistic composites from KevlarTM-reinforcing fiber having polybenzoxazine (BA)/urethane prepolymer (PU) alloys as a matrix were investigated in this work. The effect of alloy compositions on the ballistic composite properties was determined. The results revealed that the enhancement in the glass transition temperature (Tg) of the KevlarTM-reinforced BA/PU composites compared to that of the KevlarTM-reinforce...

  15. Multi Scale Modeling of Continuous Aramid Fiber Reinforced Polymer Matrix Composites Used in Ballistic Protection Applications (United States)


    Pandurangan, B., Yen, C-.F., Cheeseman, B. A., Wang, Y., Miao, Y. & Zheng, J. Q. “ Fiber -level Modeling of Dynamic Strength of Kevlar ® KM2 Ballistic...A. “Multi-Length Scale Enriched Continuum-Level Material Model for Kevlar ®- Fiber Reinforced Polymer- Matrix Composites” Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance 22 (2013): 681-695. ... Fiber Reinforced Polymer Matrix Composites Used in Ballistic Protection Applications Clemson University Clemson SC 242 Army Research Laboratory

  16. Analysis of the development of missile-borne IR imaging detecting technologies (United States)

    Fan, Jinxiang; Wang, Feng


    Today's infrared imaging guiding missiles are facing many challenges. With the development of targets' stealth, new-style IR countermeasures and penetrating technologies as well as the complexity of the operational environments, infrared imaging guiding missiles must meet the higher requirements of efficient target detection, capability of anti-interference and anti-jamming and the operational adaptability in complex, dynamic operating environments. Missileborne infrared imaging detecting systems are constrained by practical considerations like cost, size, weight and power (SWaP), and lifecycle requirements. Future-generation infrared imaging guiding missiles need to be resilient to changing operating environments and capable of doing more with fewer resources. Advanced IR imaging detecting and information exploring technologies are the key technologies that affect the future direction of IR imaging guidance missiles. Infrared imaging detecting and information exploring technologies research will support the development of more robust and efficient missile-borne infrared imaging detecting systems. Novelty IR imaging technologies, such as Infrared adaptive spectral imaging, are the key to effectively detect, recognize and track target under the complicated operating and countermeasures environments. Innovative information exploring techniques for the information of target, background and countermeasures provided by the detection system is the base for missile to recognize target and counter interference, jamming and countermeasure. Modular hardware and software development is the enabler for implementing multi-purpose, multi-function solutions. Uncooled IRFPA detectors and High-operating temperature IRFPA detectors as well as commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) technology will support the implementing of low-cost infrared imaging guiding missiles. In this paper, the current status and features of missile-borne IR imaging detecting technologies are summarized. The key

  17. Probabilistic Design Methodology and its Application to the Design of an Umbilical Retract Mechanism (United States)

    Onyebueke, Landon; Ameye, Olusesan


    A lot has been learned from past experience with structural and machine element failures. The understanding of failure modes and the application of an appropriate design analysis method can lead to improved structural and machine element safety as well as serviceability. To apply Probabilistic Design Methodology (PDM), all uncertainties are modeled as random variables with selected distribution types, means, and standard deviations. It is quite difficult to achieve a robust design without considering the randomness of the design parameters which is the case in the use of the Deterministic Design Approach. The US Navy has a fleet of submarine-launched ballistic missiles. An umbilical plug joins the missile to the submarine in order to provide electrical and cooling water connections. As the missile leaves the submarine, an umbilical retract mechanism retracts the umbilical plug clear of the advancing missile after disengagement during launch and retrains the plug in the retracted position. The design of the current retract mechanism in use was based on the deterministic approach which puts emphasis on factor of safety. A new umbilical retract mechanism that is simpler in design, lighter in weight, more reliable, easier to adjust, and more cost effective has become desirable since this will increase the performance and efficiency of the system. This paper reports on a recent project performed at Tennessee State University for the US Navy that involved the application of PDM to the design of an umbilical retract mechanism. This paper demonstrates how the use of PDM lead to the minimization of weight and cost, and the maximization of reliability and performance.

  18. Application of Super-Hydrophobic Coating for Enhanced Water Repellency of Ballistic Fabric

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Barton [ORNL; Rajic, Slobodan [ORNL; Hunter, Scott Robert [ORNL


    The objective of this work was to demonstrate that a superhydrophobic coating technology developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) increases the water repellency of ballistic fabric beyond that provided by existing water repellency treatments. This increased water repellency has the potential to provide durable ballistic fabric for body armor without adding significant weight to the armor or significant manufacturing cost. Specimens of greige and scoured ballistic fabric were treated with a superhydrophobic coating and their weights and degree of water repellency were compared to specimens of untreated fabric. Treatment of both greige and scoured ballistic fabrics yielded highly water repellent fabrics. Our measurements of the water droplet contact angles gave values of approximately 150 , near the lower limit of 160 for superhydrophobic surfaces. The coatings increased the fabric weights by approximately 6%, an amount that is many times less than the estimated weight increase in a conventional treatment of ballistic fabric. The treated fabrics retained a significant amount of water repellency following a basic abrasion test, with water droplet contact angles decreasing by 14 to 23 . Microscopic analysis of the coating applied to woven fabrics indicated that the coating adhered equally well to fibers of greige and scoured yarns. Future evaluation of the superhydrophobic water repellent treatment will involve the manufacture of shoot packs of treated fabric for ballistic testing and provide an analysis of manufacturing scale-up and cost-to-benefit considerations.

  19. Orientation Effects in Ballistic High-Strained P-type Si Nanowire FETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Yu


    Full Text Available In order to design and optimize high-sensitivity silicon nanowire-field-effect transistor (SiNW FET pressure sensors, this paper investigates the effects of channel orientations and the uniaxial stress on the ballistic hole transport properties of a strongly quantized SiNW FET placed near the high stress regions of the pressure sensors. A discrete stress-dependent six-band k.p method is used for subband structure calculation, coupled to a two-dimensional Poisson solver for electrostatics. A semi-classical ballistic FET model is then used to evaluate the ballistic current-voltage characteristics of SiNW FETs with and without strain. Our results presented here indicate that [110] is the optimum orientation for the p-type SiNW FETs and sensors. For the ultra-scaled 2.2 nm square SiNW, due to the limit of strong quantum confinement, the effect of the uniaxial stress on the magnitude of ballistic drive current is too small to be considered, except for the [100] orientation. However, for larger 5 nm square SiNW transistors with various transport orientations, the uniaxial tensile stress obviously alters the ballistic performance, while the uniaxial compressive stress slightly changes the ballistic hole current. Furthermore, the competition of injection velocity and carrier density related to the effective hole masses is found to play a critical role in determining the performance of the nanotransistors.

  20. Acute effect of a ballistic and a static stretching exercise bout on flexibility and maximal strength. (United States)

    Bacurau, Reury Frank Pereira; Monteiro, Gizele Assis; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos; Tricoli, Valmor; Cabral, Leonardo Ferreira; Aoki, Marcelo Saldanha


    Different stretching techniques have been used during warm-up routines. However, these routines may decrease force production. The purpose of this study was to compare the acute effect of a ballistic and a static stretching protocol on lower-limb maximal strength. Fourteen physically active women (169.3 +/- 8.2 cm; 64.9 +/- 5.9 kg; 23.1 +/- 3.6 years) performed three experimental sessions: a control session (estimation of 45 degrees leg press one-repetition maximum [1RM]), a ballistic session (20 minutes of ballistic stretch and 45 degrees leg press 1RM), and a static session (20 minutes of static stretch and 45 degrees leg press 1RM). Maximal strength decreased after static stretching (213.2 +/- 36.1 to 184.6 +/- 28.9 kg), but it was unaffected by ballistic stretching (208.4 +/- 34.8 kg). In addition, static stretching exercises produce a greater acute improvement in flexibility compared with ballistic stretching exercises. Consequently, static stretching may not be recommended before athletic events or physical activities that require high levels of force. On the other hand, ballistic stretching could be more appropriate because it seems less likely to decrease maximal strength.