Sample records for submarine volcanic rocks

  1. Submarine silicic volcanism: Processes and products

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kalangutkar, N.G.; Iyer, S.D.

    The occurrence of submarine silicic volcanics is rare at the mid-oceanic ridges, abyssal depths, seamounts and fracture zones. Hydrothermal processes are active in submarine silicic environments and are associated with host ores of Cu, Au, Ag, Pb...

  2. Volcanic Rocks and Features (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Volcanoes have contributed significantly to the formation of the surface of our planet. Volcanism produced the crust we live on and most of the air we breathe. The...

  3. A submarine volcanic eruption leads to a novel microbial habitat. (United States)

    Danovaro, Roberto; Canals, Miquel; Tangherlini, Michael; Dell'Anno, Antonio; Gambi, Cristina; Lastras, Galderic; Amblas, David; Sanchez-Vidal, Anna; Frigola, Jaime; Calafat, Antoni M; Pedrosa-Pàmies, Rut; Rivera, Jesus; Rayo, Xavier; Corinaldesi, Cinzia


    Submarine volcanic eruptions are major catastrophic events that allow investigation of the colonization mechanisms of newly formed seabed. We explored the seafloor after the eruption of the Tagoro submarine volcano off El Hierro Island, Canary Archipelago. Near the summit of the volcanic cone, at about 130 m depth, we found massive mats of long, white filaments that we named Venus's hair. Microscopic and molecular analyses revealed that these filaments are made of bacterial trichomes enveloped within a sheath and colonized by epibiotic bacteria. Metagenomic analyses of the filaments identified a new genus and species of the order Thiotrichales, Thiolava veneris. Venus's hair shows an unprecedented array of metabolic pathways, spanning from the exploitation of organic and inorganic carbon released by volcanic degassing to the uptake of sulfur and nitrogen compounds. This unique metabolic plasticity provides key competitive advantages for the colonization of the new habitat created by the submarine eruption. A specialized and highly diverse food web thrives on the complex three-dimensional habitat formed by these microorganisms, providing evidence that Venus's hair can drive the restart of biological systems after submarine volcanic eruptions.

  4. New insights on the petrology of submarine volcanics from the Western Pontine Archipelago (Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy) (United States)

    Conte, A. M.; Perinelli, C.; Bianchini, G.; Natali, C.; Martorelli, E.; Chiocci, F. L.


    The Pontine Islands form a volcanic archipelago in the Tyrrhenian Sea. It consists of two edifices, the islands of Ponza, Palmarola and Zannone and the islands of Ventotene and Santo Stefano, respectively. The Archipelago developed during two main volcanic cycles in the Plio-Pleistocene: 1) the Pliocene episode erupted subalkaline, silica-rich volcanic units, which constitute the dominant products in the western edifice (Ponza and Zannone Islands); 2) the Pleistocene episode erupted more alkaline products, represented by evolved rocks (trachytes to peralkaline rhyolites) in the islands of Ponza and Palmarola and by basic to intermediate rocks in the eastern edifice (Ventotene and Santo Stefano Islands). In this paper we present new geochemical and petrological data from submarine rock samples collected in two oceanographic cruises and a scuba diving survey. The main result is the recovery of relatively undifferentiated lithotypes that provide further insights on the magmatic spectrum existing in the Pontine Archipelago, allowing modelling of the whole suite of rocks by fractional crystallization processes. New major and trace element data and thermodynamic constrains (by the software PELE) indicate the existence of three distinct evolutionary trends corresponding to a HK calcalkaline series in the Pliocene, followed by a transitional and then by a shoshonite series in the Pleistocene. In particular, the transitional series, so far overlooked in the literature, is required in order to explain the genesis of several peralkaline felsic rocks recognized in the Archipelago. On the whole, the new geochemical data i) confirm the orogenic signature of the suites, ii) allow to rule out an anatectic origin for both subalkaline and peralkaline rhyolites and iii) indicate highly heterogeneous mantle sources, due to crustal components variously recycled in the mantle via subduction.

  5. Volcanic rock properties control sector collapse events (United States)

    Hughes, Amy; Kendrick, Jackie; Lavallée, Yan; Hornby, Adrian; Di Toro, Giulio


    Volcanoes constructed by superimposed layers of varying volcanic materials are inherently unstable structures. The heterogeneity of weak and strong layers consisting of ash, tephra and lavas, each with varying coherencies, porosities, crystallinities, glass content and ultimately, strength, can promote volcanic flank and sector collapses. These volcanoes often exist in areas with complex regional tectonics adding to instability caused by heterogeneity, flank overburden, magma movement and emplacement in addition to hydrothermal alteration and anomalous geothermal gradients. Recent studies conducted on the faulting properties of volcanic rocks at variable slip rates show the rate-weakening dependence of the friction coefficients (up to 90% reduction)[1], caused by a wide range of factors such as the generation of gouge and frictional melt lubrication [2]. Experimental data from experiments conducted on volcanic products suggests that frictional melt occurs at slip rates similar to those of plug flow in volcanic conduits [1] and the bases of mass material movements such as debris avalanches from volcanic flanks [3]. In volcanic rock, the generation of frictional heat may prompt the remobilisation of interstitial glass below melting temperatures due to passing of the glass transition temperature at ˜650-750 ˚C [4]. In addition, the crushing of pores in high porosity samples can lead to increased comminution and strain localisation along slip surfaces. Here we present the results of friction tests on both high density, glass rich samples from Santaguito (Guatemala) and synthetic glass samples with varying porosities (0-25%) to better understand frictional properties underlying volcanic collapse events. 1. Kendrick, J.E., et al., Extreme frictional processes in the volcanic conduit of Mount St. Helens (USA) during the 2004-2008 eruption. J. Structural Geology, 2012. 2. Di Toro, G., et al., Fault lubrication during earthquakes. Nature, 2011. 471(7339): p. 494-498. 3

  6. Compositional Differences between Felsic Volcanic rocks from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pliocene felsic rift margin and Quaternary rift center volcanic rocks from the northern Main Ethiopian Rift (MER) exhibit contrasts in major and trace element contents and Sr-Nd isotopic ratios. Quaternary rift center felsic volcanic rocks are mainly peralkaline trachytes and rhyolites, whereas Pliocene felsic rift margin volcanic ...

  7. Geological Implications on the Different Products of Submarine Volcanism in Sangihe Waters : View from the Rov (Remotely Operated Vehicles) (United States)

    Priyadi, B.; Basuki, N.; Abidin, H.; Permana, H.; Handayani, L.; Wirasantosa, S.; Nganro, N.; Djamaluddin, R.; Ch. Kusuma, L.; Ratna Setyawidati, N.; Makarim, S.; Solihudin, T.


    Index Satal 2010, a joint marine research of Indonesia - USA, was realized in June-August 2010 to explore the deep sea of the Sangihe - Talaud Waters of Indonesia. This research was conducted by RV Baruna Jaya-4 and RV Okeanos Explorer of NOAA. Beside conducting multi beam imagery, RV Okeanos Explorer produced photos and video of the selected sites through high definition cameras mounted on an ROV operated from onboard RV Okeanos Explorer. The following discussion were based on ROV observation concerning the occurrence of volcanic products in the dive sites. Two submarine volcanoes (Naung and Kawio Barat), indicate various textures of submarine volcanic products from which magmatic composition and eruption types can be inferred. Lava is mostly observed around Kawio Barat and reflecting slightly coarse grained, thick and less structured, and in some spots flow textures could be observed especially in rough morphology. The overlying lavas show finer grain size with relatively shinny surface and darker color and supposedly having less contents of silica as it forms pillow and sheeting joint structures. The rock composition is presumably basaltic and is related with the subduction systems of the Sangihe arc. The coarser lavas might be more andesitic in composition, hence they are originated from the more differentiated magma chamber. This phenomenon indicates a change of magmatic composition from more differentiated magma to the less differentiated one. Geologically, this observation may indicate new formation of magma that may be related with the increasing intensity of subduction activity. Volcanic products around Naung are observed as pyroclastic covers on basaltic lavas. Pyroclastics present as lapilli deposit in light to dark brown colors forming stratification of 2 cm to 30 cm thick and unconsolidated clastic materials. The occurrence of pebble-size fragments of igneous rocks associated with pyroclastics indicate a phreatic to phreato-magmatic explosions of the

  8. Submarine Arc Volcanism in the Southern Mariana Arc: Results of Recent ROV studies (United States)

    Nichols, A. R.; Tamura, Y.; Stern, R. J.; Embley, R. W.; Hein, J. R.; Jordan, E.; Ribeiro, J. M.; Sica, N.; Kohut, E. J.; Whattam, S. A.; Hirahara, Y.; Senda, R.; Nunokawa, A.


    The submarine Diamante cross-arc volcanoes (~16°N) and the Sarigan-Zealandia Bank Multi-Volcano Complex (SZBMVC; ~16°45’N), north and south, respectively, of Anatahan Island in the southern Mariana Arc, were studied during several dives in June 2009 using the ROV Hyper-Dolphin, cruise NT09-08 (R/V Natsushima); neither has been studied in detail before. The data collected provide a new perspective on how the subduction factory operates to complement previous studies on other cross-arc volcanic chains in the Izu-Bonin-Mariana Arc. The Diamante complex consists of three major edifices, two cones (West and Central Diamante) and a more complex caldera-like edifice at the volcanic front (East Diamante). West and Central Diamante are basaltic volcanoes but East Diamante has a more complex history. Our studies indicate initial construction of a basaltic volcano. Magmatic evolution led to a violent caldera-forming and quieter dome-building events. Post-caldera quiescence allowed a carbonate platform to grow, now preserved on the eastern caldera wall. Felsic magma or hot rock provides a heat source for an active hydrothermal field associated with felsic domes in the caldera, which NOAA investigators discovered in 2004. A new type of hydrothermal deposit was discovered in the hydrothermal field, consisting of large sulfide-sulfate mounds topped by bulbous constructions of low-temperature Fe and Mn oxides. Vents on the mounds were observed to emit shimmering water. The SZBMVC consists of six closely spaced edifices whose loci are aligned along two parallel trends, one along the volcanic front (Zealandia Bank, Sarigan and South Sarigan), and one about 15 km west towards the rear-arc (Northwest Zealandia, West Zealandia and West Sarigan). Zealandia Bank dives revealed that, as with East Diamante, initial activity was basaltic and became more evolved with time. The western half of Zealandia Bank is dominated by felsic lavas centered on a small (~2 km diameter) caldera and

  9. Study on the locational criteria for submarine rock repositories of low and medium level radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, G. H.; Kang, W. J.; Kim, T. J. and others [Chungnam National Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    Submarine repositories have significant advantages over their land counterparts locating close to the areas of daily human activities. Consequently, the construction of submarine repositories on the vast continental shelves around Korean seas is considered to be highly positive. In this context, the development of locational criteria primarily targeting the safety of submarine rock repositories is very important.The contents of the present study are: analyzing characteristics of marine environment: Search of potential hazards to, and environmental impact by, the submarine repositories; Investigation of the oceanographic, geochemical, ecological and sedimentological characteristics of estuaries and coastal seas. Locating potential hazards to submarine repositories by: Bibliographical search of accidents leading to the destruction of submarine structures by turbidity currents and other potentials; Review of turbidity currents. Consideration of environmental impact caused by submarine repositories: Logistics to minimize the environmental impacts in site selection; Removal and dispersion processes of radionuclides in sea water. Analyses of oceanographical characteristics of, and hazard potentials in, the Korean seas. Evaluation of the MOST 91-7 criteria for applicability to submarine repositories and the subsequent proposition of additional criteria.

  10. Volcanic rocks cored on hess rise, Western Pacific Ocean (United States)

    Vallier, T.L.; Windom, K.E.; Seifert, K.E.; Thiede, Jorn


    Large aseismic rises and plateaus in the western Pacific include the Ontong-Java Plateau, Magellan Rise, Shatsky Rise, Mid-Pacific Mountains, and Hess Rise. These are relatively old features that rise above surrounding sea floors as bathymetric highs. Thick sequences of carbonate sediments overlie, what are believed to be, Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous volcanic pedestals. We discuss here petrological and tectonic implications of data from volcanic rocks cored on Hess Rise. The data suggest that Hess Rise originated at a spreading centre in the late early Cretaceous (Aptian-Albian stages). Subsequent off-ridge volcanism in the late Albian-early Cenomanian stages built a large archipelago of oceanic islands and seamounts composed, at least in part, of alkalic rocks. The volcanic platform subsided during its northward passage through the mid-Cretaceousequatorial zone. Faulting and uplift, and possibly volcanism, occurred in the latest Cretaceous (Campanian-Maastrichtian stages). Since then, Hess Rise continued its northward movement and subsidence. Volcanic rocks from holes drilled on Hess Rise during IPOD Leg 62 (Fig. 1) are briefly described here and we relate the petrological data to the origin and evolution of that rise. These are the first volcanic rocks reported from Hess Rise. ?? 1980 Nature Publishing Group.

  11. Interpretation of magnetic fabrics in the Dalma volcanic rocks and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    SE trending Dalma volcano-sedimentary range of the East Indian Shield, extending from. Belpahari (West Midnapore district, West Bengal) in the east up to Chandil (East Singhbhum district, Jharkhand) in the west (Figure 2). The rock units consist of thick sequences of mafic- ultramafic volcanic rocks, lenses of basaltic ...

  12. Assessment and Evaluation of Volcanic Rocks Used as Construction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Addis Ababa capital city of Ethiopia at an elevation of about 2000 m above mean sea level is entirely covered with volcanic rocks, basalt, trachyte, ignimbrite and rhyolite. Construction industry makes use these rocks extensively and indiscriminately for structural loading, pavements, wall cladding, fencing, as cobblestone ...

  13. Strength and deformation properties of volcanic rocks in Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Niels Nielsen; Andreassen, Katrine Alling


    Tunnelling work and preinvestigations for road traces require knowledge of the strength and de-formation properties of the rock material involved. This paper presents results related to tunnel-ling for Icelandic water power plants and road tunnels from a number of regions in Iceland. The volcanic...... rock from Iceland has been the topic for rock mechanical studies carried out by Ice-landic guest students at the Department of Civil Engineering at the Technical University of Den-mark over a number of years in cooperation with University of Iceland, Vegagerðin (The Icelandic Road Directorate......) and Landsvirkjun (The National Power Company of Iceland). These projects involve engineering geological properties of volcanic rock in Iceland, rock mechanical testing and parameter evaluation. Upscaling to rock mass properties and modelling using Q- or GSI-methods have been studied by the students...

  14. Elemental mercury at submarine hydrothermal vents in the Bay of Plenty, Taupo volcanic zone, New Zealand (United States)

    Stoffers, P.; Hannington, M.; Wright, I.; Herzig, P.; de Ronde, C.; Scientific Party, Shipboard


    Hot springs in active geothermal areas such as Yellowstone National Park, the Geysers geothermal field in California, and the Taupo volcanic zone in New Zealand are notably enriched in the trace metals Au, Ag, As, Sb, and Hg. Such near-surface hot springs have formed many of the world's important deposits of gold and silver and some of the largest deposits of mercury. The majority of these are associated with continental geothermal systems in subaerial environments. Here we report the discovery of active mercury-depositing hot springs in a submarine setting, at nearly 200 m water depth, within the offshore extension of the Taupo volcanic zone of New Zealand. These vents contain the first documented occurrence of elemental mercury on the sea floor and provide an important link between offshore hydrothermal activity and mercury-depositing geothermal systems on land. The discovery has implications for mercury transport in sea-floor hydrothermal systems and underscores the importance of submarine volcanic and geothermal activity as a source of mercury in the oceans.

  15. The 1998-2001 submarine lava balloon eruption at the Serreta ridge (Azores archipelago): Constraints from volcanic facies architecture, isotope geochemistry and magnetic data (United States)

    Madureira, Pedro; Rosa, Carlos; Marques, Ana Filipa; Silva, Pedro; Moreira, Manuel; Hamelin, Cédric; Relvas, Jorge; Lourenço, Nuno; Conceição, Patrícia; Pinto de Abreu, Manuel; Barriga, Fernando J. A. S.


    The most recent submarine eruption observed offshore the Azores archipelago occurred between 1998 and 2001 along the submarine Serreta ridge (SSR), 4-5 nautical miles WNW of Terceira Island. This submarine eruption delivered abundant basaltic lava balloons floating at the sea surface and significantly changed the bathymetry around the eruption area. Our work combines bathymetry, volcanic facies cartography, petrography, rock magnetism and geochemistry in order to (1) track the possible vent source at seabed, (2) better constrain the Azores magma source(s) sampled through the Serreta submarine volcanic event, and (3) interpret the data within the small-scale mantle source heterogeneity framework that has been demonstrated for the Azores archipelago. Lava balloons sampled at sea surface display a radiogenic signature, which is also correlated with relatively primitive (low) 4He/3He isotopic ratios. Conversely, SSR lavas are characterized by significantly lower radiogenic 87Sr/86Sr, 206Pb/204Pb and 208Pb/204Pb ratios than the lava balloons and the onshore lavas from the Terceira Island. SSR lavas are primitive, but incompatible trace-enriched. Apparent decoupling between the enriched incompatible trace element abundances and depleted radiogenic isotope ratios is best explained by binary mixing of a depleted MORB source and a HIMU­type component into magma batches that evolved by similar shallower processes in their travel to the surface. The collected data suggest that the freshest samples collected in the SSR may correspond to volcanic products of an unnoticed and more recent eruption than the 1998-2001 episode.

  16. Geochemistry of volcanic rocks in a traverse through Nicaragua


    Nyström, Jan Olov; Levy, Beatriz; Troëng, Björn; Ehrenborg, Jan; Carranza, Giovanni


    Major element composition and preliminar trace element data for 138 samples of mainly basic and intermediate volcanic rocks from a cross section between the Pacific and Atlantic coasts of Nicaragua suggests that the present tectonic setting-subdution of an oceanic plate below the western margin of Central American can be extrapolated back to the middle Tertiary. The samples can be divided into three groups with regard to their chemistry: (a) the Recent to Tertiary volcanics from the entire tr...

  17. Fluorine geochemistry in volcanic rock series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stecher, Ole


    A new analytical procedure has been established in order to determine low fluorine concentrations (30–100 ppm F) in igneous rocks, and the method has also proven successful for higher concentrations (100–4000 ppm F). Fluorine has been measured in a series of olivine tholeiites from the Reykjanes...... Peninsula, a tholeiite to rhyolitic rock series from Kerlingarfjöll, central Iceland, and an alkaline rock series from Jan Mayen that ranges from ankaramites to trachytes. Fluorine is not appreciably degassed during extrusion and appears to be insensitive to slight weathering. The olivine tholeiites from...... the Reykjanes Peninsula have F contents of 30–300 ppm and exhibit linear increases proportional to the incompatible elements K, P, and Ti. Such incompatible behaviour for F has been confirmed for the less evolved rocks of the other series. The tholeiites from Kerlingarfjöll (100–2000 ppm F) show a linear...

  18. Peralkaline silicic volcanic rocks in northwestern nevada. (United States)

    Noble, D C; Chipman, D W; Giles, D L


    Late Tertiary silicic ashflow tuffs and lavas peralkaline in chemical character (atomic Na + K greater than Al), mainly comendites, occur over wide areas in northwestern Nevada and appear to be widespread in southeastern Oregon. Such peralkaline rocks-which are not uncommon in the western United States-and other chemically unusual silicic rocks are found near the margins rather than toward the center of the Great Basin.

  19. Prodigious submarine landslides during the inception and early growth of volcanic islands. (United States)

    Hunt, James E; Jarvis, Ian


    Volcanic island inception applies large stresses as the ocean crust domes in response to magma ascension and is loaded by eruption of lavas. There is currently limited information on when volcanic islands are initiated on the seafloor, and no information regarding the seafloor instabilities island inception may cause. The deep sea Madeira Abyssal Plain contains a 43 million year history of turbidites among which many originate from mass movements in the Canary Islands. Here, we investigate the composition and timing of a distinctive group of turbidites that we suggest represent a new unique record of large-volume submarine landslides triggered during the inception, submarine shield growth, and final subaerial emergence of the Canary Islands. These slides are predominantly multi-stage and yet represent among the largest mass movements on the Earth's surface up to three or more-times larger than subaerial Canary Islands flank collapses. Thus whilst these deposits provide invaluable information on ocean island geodynamics they also represent a significant, and as yet unaccounted, marine geohazard.

  20. Compositional Differences between Felsic Volcanic Rocks from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Plateau unit is in fault contact with the overlying Intoto unit (22.2-22 Ma) (Morton et al. 1979;. Chernet et al. 1998). ... (1986). The alkaline-sub-alkaline boundary is from Irvine and Baragar (1971). .... Volume 1 (1): 4 – 35, 2009. Compositional differences exist between the rift margin and rift center volcanic rocks (Table 1;. Fig.

  1. The evolution of pore connectivity in volcanic rocks (United States)

    Colombier, Mathieu; Wadsworth, Fabian B.; Gurioli, Lucia; Scheu, Bettina; Kueppers, Ulrich; Di Muro, Andrea; Dingwell, Donald B.


    Pore connectivity is a measure of the fraction of pore space (vesicles, voids or cracks) in a material that is interconnected on the system length scale. Pore connectivity is fundamentally related to permeability, which has been shown to control magma outgassing and the explosive potential of magma during ascent in the shallowest part of the crust. Here, we compile a database of connectivity and porosity from published sources and supplement this with additional measurements, using natural volcanic rocks produced in a broad range of eruptive styles and with a range of bulk composition. The database comprises 2715 pairs of connectivity C and porosity ϕ values for rocks from 35 volcanoes as well as 116 products of experimental work. For 535 volcanic rock samples, the permeability k was also measured. Data from experimental studies constrain the general features of the relationship between C and ϕ associated with both vesiculation and densification processes, which can then be used to interpret natural data. To a first order, we show that a suite of rocks originating from effusive eruptive behaviour can be distinguished from rocks originating from explosive eruptive behaviour using C and ϕ. We observe that on this basis, a particularly clear distinction can be made between scoria formed in fire-fountains and that formed in Strombolian activity. With increasing ϕ, the onset of connectivity occurs at the percolation threshold ϕc which in turn can be hugely variable. We demonstrate that C is an excellent metric for constraining ϕc in suites of porous rocks formed in a common process and discuss the range of ϕc values recorded in volcanic rocks. The percolation threshold is key to understanding the onset of permeability, outgassing and compaction in shallow magmas. We show that this threshold is dramatically different in rocks formed during densification processes than in rocks formed in vesiculating processes and propose that this value is the biggest factor in

  2. First Use of an Autonomous Glider for Exploring Submarine Volcanism in the SW Pacific (United States)

    Matsumoto, H.; Embley, R. W.; Haxel, J. H.; Dziak, R. P.; Bohnenstiehl, D. R.; Stalin, S.; Meinig, C.


    A 1000-m Slocum glider® (Teledyne Webb Research Corporation) with CTD, turbidity, and hydrophone sensors was operated for two days in the Northeast Lau Basin. The survey was conducted near West Mata Volcano, where in November of 2008 the NOAA PMEL Vents program observed an active eruption at its 1207 m summit—the deepest submarine activity ever before witnessed. Our goal was to use the glider as a forensic tool to search for other nearby eruption sites with onboard sensors that detect the chemical and hydroacoustic signatures associated with the volcanic and hydrothermal plumes. The glider was launched approximately 40 km to the west of West Mata. It flew toward West Mata and was recovered near the summit of the volcano after repeating 13 yos during a 41-hour mission. Although the recordings were affected by mechanical noise from the glider’s rudder, the data demonstrate that the system can detect the wide-band noises (>1 kHz) associated with submarine volcanic and intense hydrothermal activity. The glider recorded complex acoustic amplitudes due to the multiple raypaths from West Mata as well as temporal variations in the volcano’s rate of activity, and demonstrated that these geologic processes contribute to the region’s high ambient noise levels. With the exception of the deployment and recovery, the mission was managed entirely by the shore teams in PMEL (Seattle, WA) and OSU labs (Newport, OR), ~5000 miles away without an engineer onboard. The dive cycle of the 950-m dives was ~3.5 hours and the average speed was ~0.27 cm/s. The CTD data were downloaded at every surface cycle and appeared to be of high quality. However we found that the sensitivity of the Wetlabs ECO flntu turbidity sensor was not adequate for the detection of volcanic plumes. The mission demonstrated PMEL’s ability to use autonomous gliders to monitor a variety of environmental parameters including ambient sound levels, temperature, salinity and turbidity for the purpose of finding

  3. Evidence from acoustic imaging for submarine volcanic activity in 2012 off the west coast of El Hierro (Canary Islands, Spain) (United States)

    Pérez, Nemesio M.; Somoza, Luis; Hernández, Pedro A.; de Vallejo, Luis González; León, Ricardo; Sagiya, Takeshi; Biain, Ander; González, Francisco J.; Medialdea, Teresa; Barrancos, José; Ibáñez, Jesús; Sumino, Hirochika; Nogami, Kenji; Romero, Carmen


    We report precursory geophysical, geodetic, and geochemical signatures of a new submarine volcanic activity observed off the western coast of El Hierro, Canary Islands. Submarine manifestation of this activity has been revealed through acoustic imaging of submarine plumes detected on the 20-kHz chirp parasound subbottom profiler (TOPAS PS18) mounted aboard the Spanish RV Hespérides on June 28, 2012. Five distinct "filament-shaped" acoustic plumes emanating from the flanks of mounds have been recognized at water depth between 64 and 88 m on a submarine platform located NW El Hierro. These plumes were well imaged on TOPAS profiles as "flares" of high acoustic contrast of impedance within the water column. Moreover, visible plumes composed of white rafts floating on the sea surface and sourcing from the location of the submarine plumes were reported by aerial photographs on July 3, 2012, 5 days after acoustic plumes were recorded. In addition, several geophysical and geochemical data support the fact that these submarine vents were preceded by several precursory signatures: (i) a sharp increase of the seismic energy release and the number of daily earthquakes of magnitude ≥2.5 on June 25, 2012, (ii) significant vertical and horizontal displacements observed at the Canary Islands GPS network (Nagoya University-ITER-GRAFCAN) with uplifts up to 3 cm from June 25 to 26, 2012, (iii) an anomalous increase of the soil gas radon activity, from the end of April until the beginning of June reaching peak values of 2.7 kBq/m3 on June 3, 2012, and (iv) observed positive peak in the air-corrected value of 3He/4He ratio monitored in ground waters (8.5 atmospheric 3He/4He ratio ( R A)) at the northwestern El Hierro on June 16, 2012. Combining these submarine and subaerial information, we suggest these plumes are the consequence of submarine vents exhaling volcanic gas mixed with fine ash as consequence of an event of rapid rise of volatile-rich magma beneath the NW submarine ridge

  4. A Geochemical Investigation of Volcanic Rocks from the San Rafael Volcanic Field, Utah (United States)

    Koebli, D. J.; Germa, A.; Connor, C.; Atlas, Z. D.


    A Geochemical Investigation of Volcanic Rocks from the San Rafael Volcanic Field, Utah Authors: Danielle Koebli, Dr. Aurelie Germa, Dr. Zackary Atlas, Dr. Charles Connor The San Rafael Volcanic Field (SRVF), Utah, is a 4Ma volcanic field located in the northwestern section of the Colorado Plateau. Alkaline magmas intruded into Jurassic sandstones , known as the Carmel, Entrada, Curtis and Summerville sandstone formations, and formed comagmatic dikes, sills and conduits that became uniquely well exposed as country rocks were eroded. The two rock types that formed from the melts are shonkinite (45.88 wt% SiO2) and syenite (50.84wt% SiO2); with dikes being predominantly shonkinite and sills exhibiting vertical alternation of shonkinite and syenite, a result of liquid immiscibility. The aim of this study is to determine magma temperatures, and mineral compositions which will be used for determining physical conditions for magma crystallization. Research is being conducted using an Electron Probe Micro Analyzer (EPMA) for single crystal analysis, and data were plotted using PINGU software through VHub cyberinfrastructure. EPMA data supports hydrated magma theories due to the large amounts of biotite and hornblende mixed in with olivine, feldspar and pyroxene. The data is also indicative of a calcium-rich magma which is further supported by the amount of pyroxene and plagioclase in the sample. Moreover, there are trace amounts orthoclase, quartz and k-feldspar due to sandstone inclusions from the magma intruding into the country rocks. The olivine crystals present in the samples are all chemically similar, having high Mg (Fo80-Fo90), which, coupled with a lower Fe content indicate a hotter magma. Comparison of mineral and whole-rock compositions using MELTs program will allow us to calculate magma viscosity and density so that the physical conditions for magma crystallization can be determined.

  5. Analysis of concentration patterns in volcanic rocks: Insights into dynamics of highly explosive volcanic eruptions (United States)

    Perugini, D.; Petrelli, M.; Poli, G.


    In this contribution we present new data resulting from the analysis of concentration patterns of mixed juvenile fragments ejected by a highly explosive volcanic eruption that occurred on Salina Island (Aeolian Islands, Italy) and our aim is to identify the fluid-dynamic regime characterizing the magma mixing process. Concentration patterns are studied by calculating the power spectrum of concentration variability along transects crossing the magma mixing structures. Results indicate that the slope of power spectrum has an average value of about -5/3, according to Kolmogorov law of turbulence, and suggest that the magma mixing process, in the studied conditions, can be approximated by considering the passive scalar mixing hypothesis in homogeneous isotropic turbulent flow. These results represent a first step towards a better understanding of magma mixing processes associated to highly explosive volcanic eruptions and this first step is taken by studying concentration patterns in volcanic rocks by coupling petrological and non-linear dynamics methods.

  6. Petrography, Geochemistry and Petrogenesis of Volcanic Rocks, NW Ghonabad, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigheh Zirjanizadeh


    Full Text Available Introduction The study area is located in NW Gonabad, Razavi Khorasan Province, northern Lut block and eastern Iran north of the Lut Block. Magmatism in NW Gonabad produced plutonic and volcanic rock associations with varying geochemical compositions. These rocks are related to the Cenozoic magmatic rocks in Iran and belong to the Lut Block volcanic–plutonic belt. In this study, petrogenesis of volcanic units in northwest Gonabad was investigated. The volcanic rocks are andesites/trachyandesites, rhyolites, dacites/ rhyodacites and pyroclastics.These rocks show porphyritic, trachytic and embayed textures in phenocrysts with plagioclase, sanidine and quartz (most notably in dacite and rhyolite, hornblende and rare biotite. The most important alteration zones are propylitic, silicification and argillic.Four kaolinite- bearing clay deposits have been located in areas affectedby hydrothermal alteration of Eocene rhyolite, dacite and rhyodacite. Analytical techniques Five samples were analyzed for major elements by wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence (XRF and six samples were analyzed for trace elements using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS in the Acme Laboratories, Vancouver (Canada.Sr and Nd isotopic compositions were determined for four whole-rock samples at the Laboratório de GeologiaIsotópica da Universidade de Aveiro, Portugal. Results Petrography. The rocks in this area are consist of trachyte, andesite/ trachyandesite, dacite/ rhyodacite, principally as ignimbrites and soft tuff. The textures of phenocrysts are mainly porphyritic, glomerophyric, trachytic and embayed textures in plagioclase, hornblende and biotite. The groundmasses consist of plagioclase and fine-grainedcrystals of hornblende. Plagioclase phenocrysts and microlitesare by far the most abundant textures in andesite - trachyandesites (>25% and in size from 0.01 to 0.1mm. Euhedral to subhedral hornblende phenocrysts areabundant (3-5%and 0.1 to 0

  7. Intermediate products of sulfur disproportional reaction and their physical role in effusive to explosive submarine volcanic activity (United States)

    Nakamura, K.; Takano, B.; Butterfield, D. A.; Resing, J.; Chadwick, W. W.; Embley, R. W.


    Recent direct observations of submarine volcanic activity in the Mariana Arc are giving us a chance to examine the role of volcanic gas in submarine volcanic conduits. Unlike subaerial volcanoes, where hydrogeologic conditions have different character from place to place, the overlying water mass above submarine volcanoes gives a uniform hydrographic setting. Currently, the places where we can directly observe submarine volcanic activity are located deeper than 400 m, which raises the boiling point of seawater to over 240 deg C. This situation allows us to examine the interaction of volcanic gases with ambient seawater at a shorter distance from the magma source than at subaerial volcanic settings. Arc volcano settings give us longer and more frequent opportunities to make observations and provide a more diverse range of submarine volcanism than ridge settings. Among the three major components of volcanic gases (i.e., H2O, CO2 and SO2), water follows a two phase boundary below the critical temperature after volatile components leave from the magmatic source. Milky sulfur sol bearing hydrothermal fluid is commonly observed throughout Mariana active sites. Most of the sulfur sol (colloidal elemental sulfur and polysulfides) might be formed by disproportional reaction of sulfur dioxide with seawater when water vapor shrinks to liquid water. The reaction creates not only sulfur sol but also various types of sulfite, which affects the pH of seawater. We detected short-lived sulfite species in the water column above several active Mariana volcanoes such as NW Rota-1, Daikoku and Nikko by on-board HPLC. Because most observations are made on the liquid phase side of H2O boundary, it is very hard to get data to investigate the physical and chemical sulfur sol forming process occurring on the vapor phase side or at the critical state (i.e., near the magma source process). Carbon dioxide behaves as a gas at a wide range of pressures and temperatures and carries heat and

  8. Volcanic red-bed copper mineralisation related to submarine basalt alteration, Mont Alexandre, Quebec Appalachians, Canada (United States)

    Cabral, Alexandre Raphael; Beaudoin, Georges


    Two types of native copper occur in Upper Silurian basaltic rocks in the Mont Alexandre area, Quebec Appalachians: (1) type 1 forms micrometric inclusions in plagioclase and is possibly magmatic in origin, whereas (2) type 2 occurs as coarse-grained patches rimmed by cuprite in altered porphyritic basalt. Type 1 has higher contents of sulphur (2,000-20,263 ppm) and arsenic (146-6,017 ppm), and a broader range of silver abundances (<65-2,186 ppm Ag) than type 2 (149-1,288 ppm S, <90-146 As, <65-928 ppm Ag). No mineral inclusions of sulphide or arsenide in native copper were observed at the electron-microprobe scale. Primary igneous fabrics are preserved, but the basaltic flows are pervasively oxidised and plagioclase is albitised. Chlorite replaces plagioclase and forms interstitial aggregates in the groundmass and has Fe/(Fe+Mg) ratios ranging from 0.29 to 0.36 with calculated temperatures between 155°C and 182°C. Copper sulphides in vacuoles and veinlets are associated with malachite, fibro-radiating albite and yarrowite (Cu9S8 with up to 0.3 wt% Ag). Bulk-rock concentrations of thallium and lithium range from 70 to 310 ppb and 10 to 22 ppm, respectively, and thallium is positively correlated with Fe2O3. Such concentrations of thallium and lithium are typical of spilitisation during heated seawater-basalt interaction. Spilitisation is consistent with the regional geological setting of deepwater-facies sedimentation, but is different from current models for volcanic red-bed copper, which indicate subaerial oxidation of volcanic flows. The volcanic red-bed copper model should be re-examined to account for native copper mineralisation in basalts altered by warm seawater.

  9. Transient changes in bacterioplankton communities induced by the submarine volcanic eruption of El Hierro (Canary Islands). (United States)

    Ferrera, Isabel; Arístegui, Javier; González, José M; Montero, María F; Fraile-Nuez, Eugenio; Gasol, Josep M


    The submarine volcanic eruption occurring near El Hierro (Canary Islands) in October 2011 provided a unique opportunity to determine the effects of such events on the microbial populations of the surrounding waters. The birth of a new underwater volcano produced a large plume of vent material detectable from space that led to abrupt changes in the physical-chemical properties of the water column. We combined flow cytometry and 454-pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons (V1-V3 regions for Bacteria and V3-V5 for Archaea) to monitor the area around the volcano through the eruptive and post-eruptive phases (November 2011 to April 2012). Flow cytometric analyses revealed higher abundance and relative activity (expressed as a percentage of high-nucleic acid content cells) of heterotrophic prokaryotes during the eruptive process as compared to post-eruptive stages. Changes observed in populations detectable by flow cytometry were more evident at depths closer to the volcano (~70-200 m), coinciding also with oxygen depletion. Alpha-diversity analyses revealed that species richness (Chao1 index) decreased during the eruptive phase; however, no dramatic changes in community composition were observed. The most abundant taxa during the eruptive phase were similar to those in the post-eruptive stages and to those typically prevalent in oceanic bacterioplankton communities (i.e. the alphaproteobacterial SAR11 group, the Flavobacteriia class of the Bacteroidetes and certain groups of Gammaproteobacteria). Yet, although at low abundance, we also detected the presence of taxa not typically found in bacterioplankton communities such as the Epsilonproteobacteria and members of the candidate division ZB3, particularly during the eruptive stage. These groups are often associated with deep-sea hydrothermal vents or sulfur-rich springs. Both cytometric and sequence analyses showed that once the eruption ceased, evidences of the volcano-induced changes were no longer observed.

  10. Segmentation and tracking of anticyclonic eddies during a submarine volcanic eruption using ocean colour imagery. (United States)

    Marcello, Javier; Eugenio, Francisco; Estrada-Allis, Sheila; Sangrà, Pablo


    The eruptive phase of a submarine volcano located 2 km away from the southern coast of El Hierro Island started on October 2011. This extraordinary event provoked a dramatic perturbation of the water column. In order to understand and quantify the environmental impacts caused, a regular multidisciplinary monitoring was carried out using remote sensing sensors. In this context, we performed the systematic processing of every MODIS and MERIS and selected high resolution Worldview-2 imagery to provide information on the concentration of a number of biological, physical and chemical parameters. On the other hand, the eruption provided an exceptional source of tracer that allowed the study a variety of oceanographic structures. Specifically, the Canary Islands belong to a very active zone of long-lived eddies. Such structures are usually monitored using sea level anomaly fields. However these products have coarse spatial resolution and they are not suitable to perform submesoscale studies. Thanks to the volcanic tracer, detailed studies were undertaken with ocean colour imagery allowing, using the diffuse attenuation coefficient, to monitor the process of filamentation and axisymmetrization predicted by theoretical studies and numerical modelling. In our work, a novel 2-step segmentation methodology has been developed. The approach incorporates different segmentation algorithms and region growing techniques. In particular, the first step obtains an initial eddy segmentation using thresholding or clustering methods and, next, the fine detail is achieved by the iterative identification of the points to grow and the subsequent application of watershed or thresholding strategies. The methodology has demonstrated an excellent performance and robustness and it has proven to properly capture the eddy and its filaments.

  11. Transient changes in bacterioplankton communities induced by the submarine volcanic eruption of El Hierro (Canary Islands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Ferrera

    Full Text Available The submarine volcanic eruption occurring near El Hierro (Canary Islands in October 2011 provided a unique opportunity to determine the effects of such events on the microbial populations of the surrounding waters. The birth of a new underwater volcano produced a large plume of vent material detectable from space that led to abrupt changes in the physical-chemical properties of the water column. We combined flow cytometry and 454-pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons (V1-V3 regions for Bacteria and V3-V5 for Archaea to monitor the area around the volcano through the eruptive and post-eruptive phases (November 2011 to April 2012. Flow cytometric analyses revealed higher abundance and relative activity (expressed as a percentage of high-nucleic acid content cells of heterotrophic prokaryotes during the eruptive process as compared to post-eruptive stages. Changes observed in populations detectable by flow cytometry were more evident at depths closer to the volcano (~70-200 m, coinciding also with oxygen depletion. Alpha-diversity analyses revealed that species richness (Chao1 index decreased during the eruptive phase; however, no dramatic changes in community composition were observed. The most abundant taxa during the eruptive phase were similar to those in the post-eruptive stages and to those typically prevalent in oceanic bacterioplankton communities (i.e. the alphaproteobacterial SAR11 group, the Flavobacteriia class of the Bacteroidetes and certain groups of Gammaproteobacteria. Yet, although at low abundance, we also detected the presence of taxa not typically found in bacterioplankton communities such as the Epsilonproteobacteria and members of the candidate division ZB3, particularly during the eruptive stage. These groups are often associated with deep-sea hydrothermal vents or sulfur-rich springs. Both cytometric and sequence analyses showed that once the eruption ceased, evidences of the volcano-induced changes were no longer

  12. Late Cretaceous intraplate silicic volcanic rocks from the Lake Chad region: An extension of the Cameroon volcanic line? (United States)

    Shellnutt, J. G.; Lee, T.-Y.; Torng, P.-K.; Yang, C.-C.; Lee, Y.-H.


    Silicic volcanic rocks at Hadjer el Khamis, near Lake Chad, are considered to be an extension of the Cameroon volcanic line (CVL) but their petrogenetic association is uncertain. The silicic rocks are divided into peraluminous and peralkaline groups with both rock types chemically similar to within-plate granitoids. In situ U/Pb zircon dating yielded a mean 206Pb/238U age of 74.4 ± 1.3 Ma indicating the magmas erupted ˜10 million years before the next oldest CVL rocks (i.e., ˜66 Ma). The Sr isotopes (i.e., ISr = 0.7021-0.7037) show a relatively wide range but the Nd isotopes (i.e., 143Nd/144Ndi = 0.51268-0.51271) are uniform and indicate that the rocks were derived from a moderately depleted mantle source. Thermodynamic modeling shows that the silicic rocks likely formed by fractional crystallization of a mafic parental magma but that the peraluminous rocks were affected by low temperature alteration processes. The silicic rocks are more isotopically similar to Late Cretaceous basalts identified within the Late Cretaceous basins (i.e., 143Nd/144Ndi = 0.51245-0.51285) of Chad than the uncontaminated CVL rocks (i.e., 143Nd/144Ndi = 0.51270-0.51300). The age and isotopic compositions suggest the silicic volcanic rocks of the Lake Chad region are related to Late Cretaceous extensional volcanism in the Termit basin. It is unlikely that the silicic volcanic rocks are petrogenetically related to the CVL but it is possible that magmatism was structurally controlled by suture zones that formed during the opening of the Central Atlantic Ocean and/or the Pan-African Orogeny.

  13. Gravitational, erosional and depositional processes on volcanic ocean islands: Insights from the submarine morphology of Madeira Archipelago (United States)

    Quartau, Rui; Ramalho, Ricardo S.; Madeira, José; Santos, Rúben; Rodrigues, Aurora; Roque, Cristina; Carrara, Gabriela; Brum da Silveira, António


    The submarine flanks of volcanic ocean islands are shaped by a variety of physical processes. Whilst volcanic constructional processes are relatively well understood, the gravitational, erosional and depositional processes that lead to the establishment of large submarine tributary systems are still poorly comprehended. Until recently, few studies have offered a comprehensive source-to-sink approach, linking subaerial morphology with near-shore shelf, slope and far-field abyssal features. In particular, few studies have addressed how different aspects of the subaerial part of the system (island height, climate, volcanic activity, wave regime, etc.) may influence submarine flank morphologies. We use multibeam bathymetric and backscatter mosaics of an entire archipelago - Madeira - to investigate the development of their submarine flanks. Crucially, this dataset extends from the nearshore to the deep sea, allowing a solid correlation between submarine morphologies with the physical and geological setting of the islands. In this study we also established a comparison with other island settings, which allowed us to further explore the wider implications of the observations. The submarine flanks of the Madeira Archipelago are deeply dissected by large landslides, most of which also affected the subaerial edifices. Below the shelf break, landslide chutes extend downslope forming poorly defined depositional lobes. Around the islands, a large tributary system composed of gullies and channels has formed where no significant rocky/ridge outcrops are present. In Madeira Island these were likely generated by turbidity currents that originated as hyperpycnal flows, whilst on Porto Santo and Desertas their origin is attributed to storm-induced offshore sediment transport. At the lower part of the flanks (-3000 to -4300 m), where seafloor gradients decrease to 0.5°-3°, several scour and sediment wave fields are present, with the former normally occurring upslope of the latter

  14. Fracture Detection in Geothermal Wells Drilled in Volcanic Rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonfalini, Mauro; Chelini, Walter; Cheruvier, Etienne; Suau, Jean; Klopf, Werner


    The Phlegrean Fields, close to Naples, are the site of important geothermal activity. The formations are volcanic and mostly tuffites. They are originally very tight but the geothermal alteration locally produces fractures with large increase in permeability. The lack of geological markers makes well-to-well correlation quite difficult. Thus the local detection of fractured zones in each well is very important for the evaluation of its potential. The Mofete 8 D well is a typical example. A rather complete logging program was run for fracture detection. Standard methods turned out to be disappointing. However several non-standard detectors were found to be very consistent and, later on, in excellent agreement with the analysis of cuttings. They are derived from the Dual Laterolog, the SP, the Temperature log and, most particularly, the Acoustic Waveforms from the Long Spacing Sonic. The Dual Laterolog and the Temperature Log indicate invasion by fresh and cold mud filtrate; the SP behaves as in a typical Sand-Shale sequence. Sonic Waveforms were first analyzed by a purely empirical method derived from consistent log patterns. A practical algorithm compares the total energy measured in each of the two fixed time windows located the one before, the other after the fluid arrivals. The altered zones (i.e. fractured and permeable) are clearly shown by a complete reversal of the relative energy of these two windows. A more scientific method was then applied to the Waveforms; it is based on both logging experiments and physical considerations. The energy carried by the tube wave is separated by a frequency discrimination: it correlates very well with formation alteration, thus also with the other indicators including the empirical Waveform method. It should have two advantages: – It should permit at least a semi quantitative permeability evaluation – It seems to be promising in other formations: non-volcanic geothermal wells and even hydrocarbon-bearing rocks. 10 refs

  15. Evolution and genesis of volcanic rocks from Mutnovsky Volcano, Kamchatka (United States)

    Simon, A.; Yogodzinski, G. M.; Robertson, K.; Smith, E.; Selyangin, O.; Kiryukhin, A.; Mulcahy, S. R.; Walker, J. D.


    This study presents new geochemical data for Mutnovsky Volcano, located on the volcanic front of the southern portion of the Kamchatka arc. Field relationships show that Mutnovsky Volcano is comprised of four distinct stratocones, which have grown over that past 80 ka. The youngest center, Mutnovsky IV, has produced basalts and basaltic andesites only. The three older centers (Mutnovsky I, II, III) are dominated by basalt and basaltic andesite (60-80% by volume), but each has also produced small volumes of andesite and dacite. Across centers of all ages, Mutnovsky lavas define a tholeiitic igneous series, from 48-70% SiO2. Basalts and basaltic andesites have relatively low K2O and Na2O, and high FeO* and Al2O3 compared to volcanic rocks throughout Kamchatka. The mafic lavas are also depleted in the light rare earth elements (REEs), with chondrite-normalized La/Sm rocks worldwide. Radiogenic isotope ratios (Sr, Nd, Pb, Hf) are similar for samples from all four eruptive centers, and indicate that all samples were produced by melting of a similar source mixture. No clear age-progressive changes are evident in the compositions of Mutnovsky lavas. Mass balance and assimilation-fractional crystallization (AFC) modeling of major and rare earth elements (REEs) indicate that basaltic andesites were produced by FC of plagioclase, clinopyroxene and olivine from a parental basalt, combined with assimilation of a melt composition similar to dacite lavas present at Mutnovsky. This modeling also indicates that andesites were produced by FC of plagioclase from basaltic andesite, combined with assimilation of dacite. Dacites erupted from Mutnovsky I and II have low abundances of REEs, and do not appear to be related to mafic magmas by FC or AFC processes. These dacites are modeled as the products of dehydration partial melting at mid-crustal levels of a garnet-free, amphibole-bearing basaltic rock, which itself formed in the mid-crust by emplacement of magma that originated from

  16. Influence of mesostasis in volcanic rocks on the alkali-aggregate reaction

    KAUST Repository

    Tiecher, Francieli


    Mesostasis material present in the interstices of volcanic rocks is the main cause of the alkali-aggregate reaction (AAR) in concretes made with these rock aggregates. Mesostasis often is referred to as volcanic glass, because it has amorphous features when analyzed by optical microscopy. However, this study demonstrates that mesostasis in the interstitials of volcanic rocks most often consists of micro to cryptocrystalline mineral phases of quartz, feldspars, and clays. Mesostasis has been identified as having different characteristics, and, thus, this new characterization calls for a re-evaluation of their influence on the reactivity of the volcanic rocks. The main purpose of this study is to correlate the characteristics of mesostasis with the AAR in mortar bars containing basalts and rhyolites. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Geochemical characteristics of volcanic rocks from selected locations located in Idaho, USA and the Korean Peninsula (United States)

    Kim, K. J.; Heldmann, J. L.; Lim, D. S. S.; van Gasselt, S.; Sun, C.; Yi, E.; Lee, Y.


    We have been investigating the geochemical characteristics of volcanic rocks of selected regions located in Idaho, USA and compared them to the geochemistry of those found on the Korean Peninsula. In particular, we compare volcanic rocks from the Craters of the Moon (COM) and the King's Bowl (KB) volcanic fields to those of Mt. Baekdu and Ulueng Island in order to gather an understanding about the source of magma that is revealed at the current surface of those volcanic fields. Our preliminary investigation confirmed that the geochemical characteristics of volcanic rocks from KB compare well with the geochemical characteristics of returned lunar samples with respect to both low K2O+Na2O and low SiO2 contents exhibiting the geochemical characteristics of a mantle origin. This mantle geochemistry is also clearly observed in both regions of Ulueng Island and Mt. Baekdu. The magma sources of Ulueng Island and Mt. Baekdu are known to be located in a depth of about 30 and 5 10 km, respectively, with initial eruption dates at approximately 1.4 and 28 million years ago, respectively. Volcanic core samples taken at a depth of 4 km at Uleung Island and mantle source rock of Mt. Baekdu reveal geochemical characteristics of lunar basalts confirming even more that both magma source of and evolutionary processes on the Earth's moon closely compare to terrestrial volcanic processes associated with mantle sources. The mantle rock of Mt. Baekdu is a picrite basalt which shows close similarities to lunar basalts. It was also found that volcanic rocks from the COM and Mt. Baekdu show quite similar geochemical evolutionary features while rocks from Uleung Island reveal more alkaline characteristics. This presentation introduces aspects of the relationship between mantle sources and evolutionary features from lunar and terrestrial rocks from selected location.

  18. Uranium mineralization in fluorine-enriched volcanic rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burt, D.M.; Sheridan, M.F.; Bikun, J.; Christiansen, E.; Correa, B.; Murphy, B.; Self, S.


    Several uranium and other lithophile element deposits are located within or adjacent to small middle to late Cenozoic, fluorine-rich rhyolitic dome complexes. Examples studied include Spor Mountain, Utah (Be-U-F), the Honeycomb Hills, Utah (Be-U), the Wah Wah Mountains, Utah (U-F), and the Black Range-Sierra Cuchillo, New Mexico (Sn-Be-W-F). The formation of these and similar deposits begins with the emplacement of a rhyolitic magma, enriched in lithophile metals and complexing fluorine, that rises to a shallow crustal level, where its roof zone may become further enriched in volatiles and the ore elements. During initial explosive volcanic activity, aprons of lithicrich tuffs are erupted around the vents. These early pyroclastic deposits commonly host the mineralization, due to their initial enrichment in the lithophile elements, their permeability, and the reactivity of their foreign lithic inclusions (particularly carbonate rocks). The pyroclastics are capped and preserved by thick topaz rhyolite domes and flows that can serve as a source of heat and of additional quantities of ore elements. Devitrification, vapor-phase crystallization, or fumarolic alteration may free the ore elements from the glassy matrix and place them in a form readily leached by percolating meteoric waters. Heat from the rhyolitic sheets drives such waters through the system, generally into and up the vents and out through the early tuffs. Secondary alteration zones (K-feldspar, sericite, silica, clays, fluorite, carbonate, and zeolites) and economic mineral concentrations may form in response to this low temperature (less than 200 C) circulation. After cooling, meteoric water continues to migrate through the system, modifying the distribution and concentration of the ore elements (especially uranium).

  19. Influence of the submarine volcanic eruption off El Hierro (Canary Islands) on the mesopelagic cephalopod's metal content. (United States)

    Lozano-Bilbao, Enrique; Gutiérrez, Ángel José; Hardisson, Arturo; Rubio, Carmen; González-Weller, Dailos; Aguilar, Natacha; Escánez, Alejandro; Espinosa, José María; Canales, Paula; Lozano, Gonzalo


    This work investigates whether a submarine volcanic eruption off El Hierro (Canary Islands) in October 2011 influenced the metal contents of two deep water cephalopod species: Abraliopsis morisii and Pyroteuthis margaritifera. This was assessed by comparing metal contents in specimens collected off the island of El Hierro and in the neighbouring islands of La Palma and Tenerife during an experimental deep water fishing trip. The concentration of 20 heavy metals was analyzed in 180 specimens of A. morisii and P. margaritifera collected around the three islands to test for inter-island differences for each species and metal. While both species showed geographical differences in metal concentrations, the main finding was that A. morisii could be a bioindicator species for metals such as Li, Sr and Ca. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Petrographic features of Middle-Late Triassic volcanic rocks of the Transdanubian Range and their comparison to contemporaneous volcanic rocks of the Southern Alps (United States)

    Farics, Éva; Józsa, Sándor; Haas, János


    During the early stage of the Alpine plate tectonic cycle, the Transdanubian Range Unit was located close to the area of the Southern Alps; they were situated at the western margin of the Neotethys. Ocean began opening in the Middle Triassic. Our aim is to present and evaluate the petrographic characteristics of the Middle to Late Triassic volcanic rocks of the Transdanubian Range formed in an extensional regime of the ocean margin and compare them to coeval volcanic formations of the Southern Alps formed in similar geodynamic settings. Andesite (porphyric pilotaxitic texture, with plagioclase and hypersthene, subordinately augite and biotite phenocrysts) is the dominant volcanic rock type in the NE part of the Transdanubian Range (Eastern Bakony - Balatonfő and Buda Hills, which occur as dikes (Buda Hills) and lava flows (Szár Hill). Other volcanic rocks occur only as pebble populations in Eocene basal conglomerates in Buda Hills or Middle-Late Triassic volcanoclastites in the Eastern Bakony and Zsámbék basin. We defined the following rock types: amafitic andesite/microdiorite (consist of two populations of oriented plagioclase and only small abundant glassy groundmass); microdiorite (microophitic texture with large hypersthene, which has plagioclase inclusions in it); trachyte or latite (more primary K-feldspar and less plagioclase phenocrysts with microphenocrysts of augite and biotite); basalt (vesicular texture with pseudomorph after plagioclase, pyroxene and olivine phenocrysts); microdolerite (intergranular texture with pseudomorph after xenomorphic mafic minerals and plagioclase); aplite (microholocrystalline and micropoikilite texture with well-crystallized groundmass; quartz, K-feldspar and biotite crystals); rhyolite (dark and light flow banding and has poorly-developed micropoikilite texture with quartz, K-feldspar and biotite crystals); rhyolite tuff (ignimbrit texture with plagioclase, K-feldspar and biotite as well as lithic fragments - andesite

  1. Development of micro-scale joints in volcanic rocks under thermal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging Solutions)

    mal stress induced joints under varying cooling conditions. 2. Micro-scale joints in the Rajmahal volcanics. To study the micro-scale joints in rock systems, fresh samples of olivine basalt were chosen from the Rajmahal Trap of eastern India. The rocks consist of phenocrysts of olivine, clino-pyroxene. (augite) and plagioclase ...

  2. Noble gas systematics of submarine alkalic lavas near the Hawaiian hotspot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanyu, T.; Clague, D.A.; Kaneoka, I.; Dunai, T.J.; Davies, G.R.


    Noble gas isotopic ratios were determined for submarine alkalic volcanic rocks distributed around the Hawaiian islands to constrain the origin of such alkalic volcanism and hence understand the details of mantle upwelling beneath Hawaii. Samples were collected by dredging or using submersibles from

  3. A Reconstruction of Paleo-Positions of Basin and Range Volcanic Rocks, and Implications for Tectonic Controls on Volcanism (United States)

    Platt, B. W.; Putirka, K. D.


    A key problem in understanding the tectonic triggers of Basin-and-Range magmatism relates to the fact that many volcanic rocks have been translated from the latitudes and longitudes at which they were erupted. We present a reconstruction of the paleo-latitudes and paleo-longitudes of volcanic rocks using the work of Snow and Wernicke (2000). These reconstructed volcanic rock positions are used to 1) test whether the formation and northward migration of the Mendocino Triple Junction (MTJ) may have initiated volcanism and 2) whether the demise of subduction processes may have affected volcanic compositions. We utilize Figure 13 from Snow and Wernicke (2000) in the reconstruction, which illustrates a deformation grid that covers the most extended parts of the Basin and Range in CA, NV and AZ. We apply deformation a vector to each grid point and assigned an age of initiation of deformation, which we allow to migrate from south to north based on field evidence for the initiation of extensional faulting in the map area (Anderson et al., 1988; Beratan and Nielsen, 1996; Fridrich et al., 1998; Faulds et al., 2002; Jacobsen et al., 2002; Busby and Putirka, 2009). Our model, derived from the field data, yields an initiation age (for extension) as a function of latitude: Age of initiation of deformation [Ma]=130.6 - 3.14[Latitude]. This reconstruction provides a consistency test for the extension model of Snow and Wernicke (2000) because our reconstruction yields strain rates for each grid point; we obtain a mean strain rate of 13 mm/year, which is consistent with strain rates obtained from field data. Interestingly, the latitudinal changes for volcanic rocks are mostly minimal; even though in the Walker Lane belt crustal components have experienced significant latitudinal displacement, most volcanic rocks erupted in the Walker Lane are too young to be greatly translated. However, many volcanic rocks are sufficiently old so that longitudinal positions are significantly

  4. Search for Magnetic Monopoles in Polar Volcanic Rocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtz, K.; Milstead, D.; Hächler, H. -P.


    following the passage of igneous rock samples through a SQUID-based magnetometer. A total of 24.6 kg of rocks from various selected sites, among which 23.4 kg are mantle-derived rocks from the Arctic and Antarctic areas, was analyzed. No monopoles were found, and a 90% confidence level upper limit of 9.8 x...

  5. Influence of hydrothermal venting on water column properties in the crater of the Kolumbo submarine volcano, Santorini volcanic field (Greece) (United States)

    Christopoulou, Maria E.; Mertzimekis, Theo J.; Nomikou, Paraskevi; Papanikolaou, Dimitrios; Carey, Steven; Mandalakis, Manolis


    The Kolumbo submarine volcano, located 7 km northeast of the island of Santorini, is part of Santorini's volcanic complex in the south Aegean Sea, Greece. Kolumbo's last eruption was in 1650 AD. However, a unique and active hydrothermal vent field has been revealed in the northern part of its crater floor during an oceanographic survey by remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) in 2006. In the present study, conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) data collected by ROV Hercules during three oceanographic surveys onboard E/V Nautilus in 2010 and 2011 have served to investigate the distribution of physicochemical properties in the water column, as well as their behavior directly over the hydrothermal field. Additional CTD measurements were carried out in volcanic cone 3 (VC3) along the same volcanic chain but located 3 km northeast of Kolumbo where no hydrothermal activity has been detected to date. CTD profiles exhibit pronounced anomalies directly above the active vents on Kolumbo's crater floor. In contrast, VC3 data revealed no such anomalies, essentially resembling open-sea (background) conditions. Steep increases of temperature (e.g., from 16 to 19 °C) and conductivity near the maximum depth (504 m) inside Kolumbo's cone show marked spatiotemporal correlation. Vertical distributions of CTD signatures suggest a strong connection to Kolumbo's morphology, with four distinct zones identified (open sea, turbid flow, invariable state, hydrothermal vent field). Additionally, overlaying the near-seafloor temperature measurements on an X-Y coordinate grid generates a detailed 2D distribution of the hydrothermal vent field and clarifies the influence of fluid discharges in its formation.

  6. Spatial variation of volcanic rock geochemistry in the Virunga Volcanic Province: Statistical analysis of an integrated database (United States)

    Barette, Florian; Poppe, Sam; Smets, Benoît; Benbakkar, Mhammed; Kervyn, Matthieu


    We present an integrated, spatially-explicit database of existing geochemical major-element analyses available from (post-) colonial scientific reports, PhD Theses and international publications for the Virunga Volcanic Province, located in the western branch of the East African Rift System. This volcanic province is characterised by alkaline volcanism, including silica-undersaturated, alkaline and potassic lavas. The database contains a total of 908 geochemical analyses of eruptive rocks for the entire volcanic province with a localisation for most samples. A preliminary analysis of the overall consistency of the database, using statistical techniques on sets of geochemical analyses with contrasted analytical methods or dates, demonstrates that the database is consistent. We applied a principal component analysis and cluster analysis on whole-rock major element compositions included in the database to study the spatial variation of the chemical composition of eruptive products in the Virunga Volcanic Province. These statistical analyses identify spatially distributed clusters of eruptive products. The known geochemical contrasts are highlighted by the spatial analysis, such as the unique geochemical signature of Nyiragongo lavas compared to other Virunga lavas, the geochemical heterogeneity of the Bulengo area, and the trachyte flows of Karisimbi volcano. Most importantly, we identified separate clusters of eruptive products which originate from primitive magmatic sources. These lavas of primitive composition are preferentially located along NE-SW inherited rift structures, often at distance from the central Virunga volcanoes. Our results illustrate the relevance of a spatial analysis on integrated geochemical data for a volcanic province, as a complement to classical petrological investigations. This approach indeed helps to characterise geochemical variations within a complex of magmatic systems and to identify specific petrologic and geochemical investigations

  7. Page 1 Geochemistry of Archaean volcanic rocks from Iron Ore ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    constitute a significant component of the Eastern cration. In the Eastern Indian Craton petrogenesis of. Indian Craton. Dunn (1940) identified the supracrus- the sialic rocks have been studied in detail. (Baksi et all tal rocks as belonging to one stratigraphic unit named 1987; Sengupta et al 1983; Sengupta et al 1991; Saha ,.

  8. Evidence of crustal contamination, sediment, and fluid components in the campanian volcanic rocks (United States)

    Paone, A.


    The Campanian Volcanic Subprovince is part of the classic western potassic volcanic province of the Italian Peninsula. The Campanian volcanic products show the effects of shallow assimilation and fractional crystallisation, and the contribution of regional crustal sources (e.g., Hercynian basement-Calabrian crust). The Roccamonfina, Campi Flegrei, and Ventotene volcanic rocks are characterised by wide isotopic and geochemical variations. Such variations appear to reflect both AFC processes and chemical heterogeneity in the upper mantle that may be linked to subduction processes. Mixing curves (Th/Ce-, Ba/K- and Eu/Eu*-143Nd/144Nd) linking sediments and mantle end-members account for the variations in the Campanian Subprovince volcanic rocks with a sediment contribution of 2-10%. The upper mantle sources for the low- and high-K rocks at Roccamonfina have been constrained on the basis of a multi-element normalised diagram. The two sources require different amounts of sediment in the mantle wedge (LK???2% versus HK???10%) and a fluid component probably from altered ocean crust to explain the fluid mobile elements. Low-K Roccamonfina rocks are geochemically similar to those from Campi Flegrei, Ventotene, and Somma-Vesuvius, suggesting a similar proportion of sediment in their upper mantle source regions. ?? 2004 B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Relationship between Los Angeles attrition test and Nordic abrasion test of volcanic rocks (United States)

    Krutilová, Kateřina; Prikryl, Richard


    Various volcanic rocks contribute significantly to the production of crushed stone in the Czech Republic. When used for road surfacing, results of Los Angeles attrition test (LA value below 25 or 30 depending on the mode of use) together with polished stone value are required. In the recent study, we have focused on the search for possible correlation between results obtained by Los Angeles attrition test and Nordic abrasion test, a test widely employed in Scandinavia. For the experimental study, a set of volcanic rocks from 36 active quarries was used. The rocks under study represent range of volcanic rocks from ultrabasic to acid members, formed form Neoproterozoic to Tertiary. The most favourable results of Los Angeles attrition test (i.e. the lowest LA values) were obtained for basalts (range of values 9.4-19.4) and spilites (range of values 8.4-14.9) which are in fact Neoproterozoic to Late Palaeozoic basalts affected by low grade metamorphism. Nordic abrasion test exhibited much broader range of values (6.4 to 36.9) with average value at 15.2 for basalts, resulting in weak coefficient of determination (0.19). . On contrary, narrow range of values from Nordic abrasion test of spilites (7.2-15.9), very similar to the range of LA values, is reflect in higher coefficient of determination (0.56). On contrary, the least favourable properties (LA values 12.3-29.2, Nordic abrasion 16.8-43.3) have been observed for a group of basic to intermediate rocks classified in older literature as melaphyres and diabases (ranging from basalts to trachyndesites and/or trachybasalts) of Palaeozoic age. However, in this specific group of volcanic rocks, the highest coefficient of determination (0.89) between both tests has been achieved. For volcanic rocks exhibiting acid composition (rhyolites and quartz porphyry), coefficient of determination between LA values (15.1-19.3) and Nordic abrasion test (7.3-21.9) is weak (0.42). The weakest relationship between LA values (14

  10. Response of key stress-related genes of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica in the vicinity of submarine volcanic vents (United States)

    Lauritano, C.; Ruocco, M.; Dattolo, E.; Buia, M. C.; Silva, J.; Santos, R.; Olivé, I.; Costa, M. M.; Procaccini, G.


    Submarine volcanic vents are being used as natural laboratories to assess the effects of increased ocean acidity and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration on marine organisms and communities. However, in the vicinity of volcanic vents other factors in addition to CO2, which is the main gaseous component of the emissions, may directly or indirectly confound the biota responses to high CO2. Here we used for the first time the expression of antioxidant and stress-related genes of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica to assess the stress levels of the species. Our hypothesis is that unknown factors are causing metabolic stress that may confound the putative effects attributed to CO2 enrichment only. We analyzed the expression of 35 antioxidant and stress-related genes of P. oceanica in the vicinity of submerged volcanic vents located in the islands of Ischia and Panarea, Italy, and compared them with those from control sites away from the influence of vents. Reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) was used to characterize gene expression patterns. Fifty-one percent of genes analyzed showed significant expression changes. Metal detoxification genes were mostly down-regulated in relation to controls at both Ischia and Panarea, indicating that P. oceanica does not increase the synthesis of heavy metal detoxification proteins in response to the environmental conditions present at the two vents. The up-regulation of genes involved in the free radical detoxification response (e.g., CAPX, SODCP and GR) indicates that, in contrast with Ischia, P. oceanica at the Panarea site faces stressors that result in the production of reactive oxygen species, triggering antioxidant responses. In addition, heat shock proteins were also activated at Panarea and not at Ischia. These proteins are activated to adjust stress-accumulated misfolded proteins and prevent their aggregation as a response to some stressors, not necessarily high temperature. This is the first

  11. Geochemical study of volcanic and associated granitic rocks from ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Geochemical studies and modelling show that both volcanic and granitic magmas from the western part of the Johor National Park, Endau Rompin are different and probably have different sources. The geo- chemical plot suggests that both dacite/rhyolite and andesite probably have a common origin as in many.

  12. Geochemical study of volcanic and associated granitic rocks from ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Geochemical studies and modelling show that both volcanic and granitic magmas from the western part of the Johor National Park, Endau Rompin are different and probably have different sources. The geochemical plot suggests that both dacite/rhyolite and andesite probably have a common origin as in many of the ...

  13. Geochemistry of intrusive rocks associated with the Latir volcanic field, New Mexico, and contrasts between evolution of plutonic and volcanic rocks (United States)

    Johnson, C.M.; Czamanske, G.K.; Lipman, P.W.


    Plutonic rocks associated with the Latir volcanic field comprise three groups: 1) ???25 Ma high-level resurgent plutons composed of monzogranite and silicic metaluminous and peralkaline granite, 2) 23-25 Ma syenogranite, and alkali-feldspar granite intrusions emplaced along the southern caldera margin, and 3) 19-23 Ma granodiorite and granite plutons emplaced south of the caldera. Major-element compositions of both extrusive and intrusive suites in the Latir field are broadly similar; both suites include high-SiO2 rocks with low Ba and Sr, and high Rb, Nb, Th, and U contents. Moreover, both intermediateto siliciccomposition volcanic and plutonic rocks contain abundant accessory sphene and apatite, rich in rare-earth elements (REE), as well as phases in which REE's are essential components. Strong depletion in Y and REE contents, with increasing SiO2 content, in the plutonic rocks indicate a major role for accessory mineral fractionation that is not observed in volcanic rocks of equivalent composition. Considerations of the rheology of granitic magma suggest that accessory-mineral fractionation may occur primarily by filter-pressing evolved magmas from crystal-rich melts. More limited accessory-mineral crystallization and fractionation during evolution of the volcanic magmas may have resulted from markedly lower diffusivities of essential trace elements than major elements. Accessory-mineral fractionation probably becomes most significant at high crystallinities. The contrast in crystallization environments postulated for the extrusive and intrusive rocks may be common to other magmatic systems; the effects are particularly pronounced in highly evolved rocks of the Latir field. High-SiO2 peralkaline porphyry emplaced during resurgence of the Questa caldera represents non-erupted portions of the magma that produced the Amalia Tuff during caldera-forming eruption. The peralkaline porphyry continues compositional and mineralogical trends found in the tuff. Amphibole

  14. Magmatic evolution of Panama Canal volcanic rocks: A record of arc processes and tectonic change. (United States)

    Farris, David W; Cardona, Agustin; Montes, Camilo; Foster, David; Jaramillo, Carlos


    Volcanic rocks along the Panama Canal present a world-class opportunity to examine the relationship between arc magmatism, tectonic forcing, wet and dry magmas, and volcanic structures. Major and trace element geochemistry of Canal volcanic rocks indicate a significant petrologic transition at 21-25 Ma. Oligocene Bas Obispo Fm. rocks have large negative Nb-Ta anomalies, low HREE, fluid mobile element enrichments, a THI of 0.88, and a H2Ocalc of >3 wt. %. In contrast, the Miocene Pedro Miguel and Late Basalt Fm. exhibit reduced Nb-Ta anomalies, flattened REE curves, depleted fluid mobile elements, a THI of 1.45, a H2Ocalc of rocks indicates 0.5-0.1 kbar crystallization depths of hot (1100-1190°C) magmas in which most compositional diversity can be explained by fractional crystallization (F = 0.5). However, the most silicic lavas (Las Cascadas Fm.) require an additional mechanism, and assimilation-fractional-crystallization can reproduce observed compositions at reasonable melt fractions. The Canal volcanic rocks, therefore, change from hydrous basaltic pyroclastic deposits typical of mantle-wedge-derived magmas, to hot, dry bi-modal magmatism at the Oligocene-Miocene boundary. We suggest the primary reason for the change is onset of arc perpendicular extension localized to central Panama. High-resolution mapping along the Panama Canal has revealed a sequence of inward dipping maar-diatreme pyroclastic pipes, large basaltic sills, and bedded silicic ignimbrites and tuff deposits. These volcanic bodies intrude into the sedimentary Canal Basin and are cut by normal and subsequently strike-slip faults. Such pyroclastic pipes and basaltic sills are most common in extensional arc and large igneous province environments. Overall, the change in volcanic edifice form and geochemistry are related to onset of arc perpendicular extension, and are consistent with the idea that Panama arc crust fractured during collision with South America forming the observed Canal extensional

  15. A preliminary evaluation of volcanic rock powder for application in agriculture as soil a remineralizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Claudete G., E-mail: [Laboratory of Environmental Researches and Nanotechnology Development, Centro Universitário La Salle, Mestrado em Avaliação de Impactos Ambientais, Victor Barreto, 2288 Centro, 92010-000 Canoas, RS (Brazil); Querol, Xavier [Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDÆA-CSIC), C/Luis Solé y Sabarís s/n, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Oliveira, Marcos L.S. [Laboratory of Environmental Researches and Nanotechnology Development, Centro Universitário La Salle, Mestrado em Avaliação de Impactos Ambientais, Victor Barreto, 2288 Centro, 92010-000 Canoas, RS (Brazil); Pires, Karen [Departamento Nacional de Produção Mineral (DNPM), Washington Luiz, 815, Centro, 90010-460 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Kautzmann, Rubens M. [Laboratory of Environmental Researches and Nanotechnology Development, Centro Universitário La Salle, Mestrado em Avaliação de Impactos Ambientais, Victor Barreto, 2288 Centro, 92010-000 Canoas, RS (Brazil); Oliveira, Luis F.S., E-mail: [Laboratory of Environmental Researches and Nanotechnology Development, Centro Universitário La Salle, Mestrado em Avaliação de Impactos Ambientais, Victor Barreto, 2288 Centro, 92010-000 Canoas, RS (Brazil)


    Mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of volcanic rock residue, from a crushing plant in the Nova Prata Mining District, State of Rio Grande do Sul (RS), Brazil, in this work named rock powder, were investigated in view of its potential application as soil ammendment in agriculture. Abaut 52,400 m{sup 3} of mining waste is generated annually in the city of Nova Prata without a proper disposal. The nutrients potentially available to plants were evaluated through leaching laboratory tests. Nutrient leaching tests were performed in Milli-Q water; citric acid solution 1% and 2% (AC); and oxalic acid solution 1% and 5% (AO). The bulk and leachable contents of 57 elements were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). Mining waste were made up by CaO, K{sub 2}O, SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and P{sub 2}O{sub 5}. The analysis by X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed the major occurence of quartz, anorthite, cristobalite, sanidine, and augite. The water leachable concentrations of all elements studied were lower than 1.0 mg/kg, indicating their low solubility. Leaching tests in acidic media yield larger leachable fractions for all elements being studied are in the leachate of the AO 1%. These date usefulness of volcanic rock powder as potential natural fertilizer in agriculture in the mining district in Nova Prata, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil to reduce the use of chemical fertilizers. - Highlights: • Volcanic rock powder as fertilizer in agriculture • Volcanic rock powder as a source of nutrients to plants • This technology may favor the use of volcanic rock in agriculture.

  16. The permeability of fractured rocks in pressurised volcanic and geothermal systems. (United States)

    Lamur, A; Kendrick, J E; Eggertsson, G H; Wall, R J; Ashworth, J D; Lavallée, Y


    The connectivity of rocks' porous structure and the presence of fractures influence the transfer of fluids in the Earth's crust. Here, we employed laboratory experiments to measure the influence of macro-fractures and effective pressure on the permeability of volcanic rocks with a wide range of initial porosities (1-41 vol. %) comprised of both vesicles and micro-cracks. We used a hand-held permeameter and hydrostatic cell to measure the permeability of intact rock cores at effective pressures up to 30 MPa; we then induced a macro-fracture to each sample using Brazilian tensile tests and measured the permeability of these macro-fractured rocks again. We show that intact rock permeability increases non-linearly with increasing porosity and decreases with increasing effective pressure due to compactional closure of micro-fractures. Imparting a macro-fracture both increases the permeability of rocks and their sensitivity to effective pressure. The magnitude of permeability increase induced by the macro-fracture is more significant for dense rocks. We finally provide a general equation to estimate the permeability of intact and fractured rocks, forming a basis to constrain fluid flow in volcanic and geothermal systems.

  17. Search for magnetic monopoles in polar volcanic rocks

    CERN Document Server

    Bendtz, K; Hächler, H -P; Hirt, A M; Mermod, P; Michael, P; Sloan, T; Tegner, C; Thorarinsson, S B


    For a broad range of values of magnetic monopole mass and charge, the abundance of monopoles trapped inside the Earth would be expected to be enhanced in the mantle beneath the geomagnetic poles. A search for magnetic monopoles was conducted using the signature of an induced persistent current following the passage of igneous rock samples through a SQUID-based magnetometer. A total of 24.6 kg of rocks from various selected sites, among which 23.4 kg are mantle-derived rocks from the Arctic and Antarctic areas, was analysed. No monopoles were found and a 90% confidence level upper limit of $1.6\\cdot 10^{-28}$ is set on the monopole to nucleon ratio in the search samples.

  18. Potentially Reactive Forms of Silica in Volcanic Rocks Using Different Analytical Approaches (United States)

    Esteves, Hugo; Fernandes, Isabel; Janeiro, Ana; Santos Silva, António; Pereira, Manuel; Medeiros, Sara; Nunes, João Carlos


    Several concrete structures show signs of deterioration resulting from internal chemical reactions, such as the alkali-silica reaction (ASR). It is well known that these swelling reactions occur in the presence of moisture, between some silica mineral phases present in the aggregates and the alkalis of the concrete, leading to the degradation of concrete structures and consequently compromising their safety. In most of the cases, rehabilitation, demolition or even rebuilding of such structures is needed and the effective costs can be very high. Volcanic rocks are commonly used as aggregates in concrete, and they are sometimes the only option due to the unavailability of other rock types. These rocks may contain different forms of silica that are deleterious to concrete, such as opal, chalcedony, cristobalite, tridymite and micro- to cryptocrystalline quartz, as well as Si-rich volcanic glass. Volcanic rocks are typically very finegrained and their constituting minerals are usually not distinguished under optical microscopy, thus leading to using complementary methods. The objective of this research is to find the more adequate analytical methods to identify silica phases that might be present in volcanic aggregates and cause ASR. The complementary methods used include X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), mineral acid digestion and Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectrometry (SEM/EDS), as well as Electron Probe Micro-Analysis (EPMA).

  19. Upper Cretaceous to Pleistocene melilitic volcanic rocks of the Bohemian Massif: Petrology and mineral chemistry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Skála, Roman; Ulrych, Jaromír; Krmíček, Lukáš; Fediuk, F.; Balogh, K.; Hegner, E.


    Roč. 66, č. 3 (2015), s. 197-216 ISSN 1335-0552 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Bohemian Massif * Cenozoic volcanism * isotope geochemistry * melilitic rock * mineralogy * petrology Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.523, year: 2015

  20. Assessment and Evaluation of Volcanic Rocks Used as Construction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    governed by petrographic composition, texture, particle shape, porosity, among others. ... Shaped and finished blocks, slabs, rough quarry blocks, and crushed and broken stones are embraced in construction stones. Construction stone has a wide variety of uses, but it is convenient ...... The role of rock and clast fabric in the.

  1. Isotopic composition of strontium in volcanic rocks from oahu. (United States)

    Powell, J L; Delong, S E


    Analysis of several well-documented specimens from each of the three volcanic series on Oahu gives the following mean ratios of Sr(87) to Sr(86): the Waianae series, 0.7030 +/- 0.00010 (sigma); the Koolau series, 0.70385+/- 0.00009 (sigma); and the Honolulu series, 0.7029 ++/- 0.00006 ( sigma). The mean ratio of Sr(87) to Sr(86) of the Koolau series specimens is significantly higher than the means of the other two series. With one exception, significant differences in Sr(87)/ Sr(86) within a series were not found, even though some large compositional differences existed.

  2. Mineral Chemistry and Geochemistry of Volcanic Rocks in The North of Pasinler (Erzurum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oktay KILIÇ


    Full Text Available In the north of Pasinler (Erzurum, Upper Miocene-Pliocene volcanic rocks crop out. These volcanites are composed of basaltic andesite, andesite, dacite, rhyolite lavas and rhyolitic pyroclastics. The rocks show porphyritic, microlitic porphyritic, hyalo-microlitic porphyritic, vitrophyric, glomeroporphyritic, pilotaxitic and hyalopilitic textures. The investigated volcanites contain plagioclase (An29-80, olivine (Fo65-82, clinopyroxene (augite, orthopyroxene (enstatite, amphibole (Mg#: 0.57-0.71, biotite (phlogopite: 0.44-0.47, annite: 0.33-0.37, sanidine, quartz and opaque mineral (titano-magnetite and ilmenite. The volcanic rocks are calc-alkaline in character and have medium to high-K contents. Major oxide and trace element variations point out open-system magmatic differentiation in the evolution of rocks. Geochemical data indicate an important role of fractionation of phenocryst phases in the rocks during differentiation process. However, it is considered that assimilation±magma mixing might have accompanied to the process. High LILE (K, Rb, Ba, Th and relatively low HFSE (Nb, Ta, Hf, Zr contents of the rocks indicate that these rocks derived from parental magmas carrying subduction signature.

  3. The determination of the acoustic parameters of volcanic rocks from compressional velocity measurements (United States)

    Carroll, R.D.


    A statistical analysis was made of the relationship of various acoustic parameters of volcanic rocks to compressional wave velocities for data obtained in a volcanic region in Nevada. Some additional samples, chiefly granitic rocks, were also included in the study to extend the range of parameters and the variety of siliceous rock types sampled. Laboratory acoustic measurements obtained on 62 dry core samples were grouped with similar measurements obtained from geophysical logging devices at several depth intervals in a hole from which 15 of the core samples had been obtained. The effects of lithostatic and hydrostatic load on changing the rock acoustic parameters measured in the hole were noticeable when compared with the laboratory measurements on the same core. The results of the analyses determined by grouping all of the data, however, indicate that dynamic Young's, shear and bulk modulus, shear velocity, shear and compressional characteristic impedance, as well as amplitude and energy reflection coefficients may be reliably estimated on the basis of the compressional wave velocities of the rocks investigated. Less precise estimates can be made of density based on the rock compressional velocity. The possible extension of these relationships to include many siliceous rocks is suggested. ?? 1969.

  4. Correlations between silicic volcanic rocks of the St Mary's Islands (southwestern India) and eastern Madagascar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melluso, Leone; Sheth, Hetu C.; Mahoney, John J.


    The St Mary's, Islands (southwestern India) expose silicic volcanic and sub-volcanic rocks (rhyolites and granophyric dacites) emplaced contemporaneously with the Cretaceous igneous province of Madagascar, roughly 88-90 Ma ago. I he St Mary's Islands rocks have phenocrysts of plagioclase...... and isotopic Compositions very close to those of rhyolites exposed between Vatomandry Ilaka and Mananjary in eastern Madagascar, and are distinctly different from rhyolites front other sectors of the Madagascan province. We therefore postulate that the St Mary's and the Vatomandry-Ilaka Mananjary silicic rock...... outcrops were adjacent before the Late Cretaceous rifting that split Madagascar from India, If so, they provide a valuable tool to check and aid traditional Cretaceous India Madagascar reconstructions based on palaeomagnetism, matching Precambrian geological features, and geometric fitting of continental...

  5. Petrography and petrology of Quaternary volcanic rocks from Ghezel Ghaleh, northwest Qorveh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Bajelan


    Full Text Available Introduction In the east and northeast of Sanandaj in the Qorveh-Bijar-Takab axis, there are series of basaltic composition volcanoes with Quaternary age. The study area is part of the Sanandaj-Sirjan zone and is located between 47°52' and 47°57' E longitudes and 35°26 and '35°30' N latitudes. Due to the location of the volcanic cone on Pliocene clastic sediments and Quaternary travertine, the age of these volcanoes is considered to be Quaternary. The cones mostly consist of low scoria, ash, volcanic bombs, lapilli deposits and basaltic lava (Moein Vaziri and Aminsobhani, 1985. Petrological and geochemical studies have been carried out to evaluate Quaternary magmatism in the area and to determine the nature of the lithological characteristics, such as the evaluation of source rocks and magma type, degree of partial melting and the tectonic setting of Ghezel Ghaleh rocks (Moein Vaziri, 1997. Simplified geological map of the study area is characterized by ER-Mapper software. Materials and methods In the course of field studies in the region, 40 samples were taken, 30 thin sections were prepared and polished. XRD analyses were performed on some whole rock samples. All major, minor and trace elements were assessed by ICP-MS at Lab Weft Laboratory in Australia. Results Based on the classification of structural zones, the area is located in the Sanandaj-Sirjan zone, hundred kilometers away from the main Zagros thrust along the NW-SE direction. After early Cimmerian orogeny, andesitic volcanic activity took place (Moein Vaziri and Aminsobhani, 1985. A major secondary mineral in these rocks is iddingsite, formed by hydration and oxidation of the olivine (Shelley, 1993. According to SiO2 against Na2O + K2O (TAS diagram (Irvine and Baragar , 1971 and cationic R1 and R2 diagram (De La Roche et el., 1980, volcanic rocks of the area indicate alkaline series. Discussion To obtain more information on the tectonic setting of these rocks, the Zr/Y-Zr diagram

  6. Analysis on weathering characteristics of volcanic rocks in Dokdo, Korea based on accelerated weatehring experiments (United States)

    Woo, Ik; Song, Won-Kyong; Kim, Bok-Chul; Kang, Jinseok


    Dokdo consists of small volcanic islands located in the southern part of the East Sea. Accelerated weathering tests was performed to examine the physico-mechanical characteristics of volcanic rocks in Dokdo. Rock core specimens of trachyandesite, andesitic dyke and ash tuff were prepared, and double soxhlet extractors(DSE) and peristatic pumps were used for accelerating the weathering processes. The DSE was designed to perform cyclic leaching tests for rock core specimen using distilled water at seventy degrees centigrade. The core specimens which are classified according to pre-test weathering grades placed in the lower part of the DSE, and periodically exposed to hot distilled water at every ninety minutes. On the other hand the peristatic pumps were utilized to induce leaching by distilled or brine water at normal temperature. The physico-mechanical property changes including rock surface appearance, microscopic structure and rock strength were analyzed with the results obtained from both experiments performed for 120 days. The conducted research in this study have shown that the methodologies of artificial weathering experiments have strong capability to understand the weathering characteristics of the rocks effectively.

  7. Spatial and temporal variations of diffuse CO2 degassing at El Hierro volcanic system: Relation to the 2011-2012 submarine eruption (United States)

    Melián, Gladys; Hernández, Pedro A.; Padrón, Eleazar; Pérez, Nemesio M.; Barrancos, José; Padilla, Germán.; Dionis, Samara; Rodríguez, Fátima; Calvo, David; Nolasco, Dacil


    We report herein the results of extensive diffuse CO2 emission surveys performed on El Hierro Island in the period 1998-2012. More than 17,000 measurements of the diffuse CO2 efflux were carried out, most of them during the volcanic unrest period that started in July 2011. Two significant precursory signals based on geochemical and geodetical studies suggest that a magma intrusion processes might have started before 2011 in El Hierro Island. During the preeruptive and eruptive periods, the time series of the diffuse CO2 emission released by the whole island experienced two significant increases. The first started almost 2 weeks before the onset of the submarine eruption, reflecting a clear geochemical anomaly in CO2 emission, most likely due to increasing release of deep-seated magmatic gases to the surface. The second one, between 24 October and 27 November 2011, started before the most energetic seismic events of the volcanic-seismic unrest. The data presented here demonstrate that combined continuous monitoring studies and discrete surveys of diffuse CO2 emission provide important information to optimize the early warning system in volcano monitoring programs and to monitor the evolution of an ongoing volcanic eruption, even though it is a submarine eruption.

  8. Geochemistry and geochronology of Hangay Dome volcanic rocks: exploring the source of high topography and volcanism in an intracontinental setting (United States)

    Ancuta, L. D.; Carlson, R. W.; Idleman, B. D.; Zeitler, P. K.


    The Hangay dome in central Mongolia is an anomalous uplifted continental interior that is partially covered by diffuse Cenozoic basaltic rocks. Here we present new data on the geochemistry, stratigraphy, geomorphology and 40Ar/39Ar ages of the basaltic rocks to help elucidate the cause of the uplift and 33 Ma of volcanism in the region. 187Os/188Os ratios for the basaltic rocks range from 0.1363-0.3440. The higher values implicate crustal contamination, but the less radiogenic values limit the amount of contamination to the point where the Sr, Nd and Hf isotopic composition of the lavas are little affected, allowing them to be used as reliable tracers of the initial melt source. 87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd ratios for the basaltic rocks from the region range from 0.7039-0.7050 and 0.5120-0.5127 respectively. These values are higher and lower, respectively, than Sr and Nd isotopic composition of the majority of spinel peridotite xenoliths contained in recent Hangay lavas, implicating a sub-lithospheric source for the magmas. The basalts have isotopic compositions approaching the EM-1 enriched mantle end member, similar to a number of other sites of young east Asian magmatism. An EM-1 type mantle source may have been generated regionally across East Asia by incorporation of pelagic sediments into the upper mantle during the protracted history of terrane accretion and subduction associated with the formation of the Central Asian orogenic system. New stratigraphically correlated 40Ar/39Ar ages for basalts from the Hangay region show that multiple episodes of laterally extensive flows occurred between 28.30×0.19 and 4.11×0.11 Ma. This first phase of volcanism was the most voluminous and long-lived. A later stage of valley-filling eruptions occurred between 3.28×0.50 Ma and 5 Ka. Flows across this range of ages occur in a number of locations within the Hangay, with no discernable age progression, indicating that the region has been the site of volcanism for over 30 Ma

  9. Upper Cretaceous to Pleistocene melilitic volcanic rocks of the Bohemian Massif: petrology and mineral chemistry

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    Skála Roman


    Full Text Available Upper Cretaceous to Pleistocene volcanic rocks of the Bohemian Massif represent the easternmost part of the Central European Volcanic Province. These alkaline volcanic series include rare melilitic rocks occurring as dykes, sills, scoria cones and flows. They occur in three volcanic periods: (i the Late Cretaceous to Paleocene period (80–59 Ma in northern Bohemia including adjacent territories of Saxony and Lusatia, (ii the Mid Eocene to Late Miocene (32.3–5.9 Ma period disseminated in the Ohře Rift, the Cheb–Domažlice Graben, Vogtland, and Silesia and (iii the Early to Late Pleistocene period (1.0–0.26 Ma in western Bohemia. Melilitic magmas of the Eocene to Miocene and Pleistocene periods show a primitive mantle source [(143Nd/144Ndt=0.51280–0.51287; (87Sr/86Srt=0.7034–0.7038] while those of the Upper Cretaceous to Paleocene period display a broad scatter of Sr–Nd ratios. The (143Nd/144Ndt ratios (0.51272–0.51282 of the Upper Cretaceous to Paleocene rocks suggest a partly heterogeneous mantle source, and their (87Sr/86Srt ratios (0.7033–0.7049 point to an additional late- to post-magmatic hydrothermal contribution. Major rock-forming minerals include forsterite, diopside, melilite, nepheline, sodalite group minerals, phlogopite, Cr- and Ti-bearing spinels. Crystallization pressures and temperatures of clinopyroxene vary widely between ~1 to 2 GPa and between 1000 to 1200 °C, respectively. Nepheline crystallized at about 500 to 770 °C. Geochemical and isotopic similarities of these rocks occurring from the Upper Cretaceous to Pleistocene suggest that they had similar mantle sources and similar processes of magma development by partial melting of a heterogeneous carbonatized mantle source.

  10. Petrogenesis of volcanic rocks that host the world-class Agsbnd Pb Navidad District, North Patagonian Massif: Comparison with the Jurassic Chon Aike Volcanic Province of Patagonia, Argentina (United States)

    Bouhier, Verónica E.; Franchini, Marta B.; Caffe, Pablo J.; Maydagán, Laura; Rapela, Carlos W.; Paolini, Marcelo


    We present the first study of the volcanic rocks of the Cañadón Asfalto Formation that host the Navidad world-class Ag + Pb epithermal district located in the North Patagonian Massif, Patagonia, Argentina. These volcanic and sedimentary rocks were deposited in a lacustrine environment during an extensional tectonic regime associated with the breakup of Gondwana and represent the mafic to intermediate counterparts of the mainly silicic Jurassic Chon Aike Volcanic Province. Lava flows surrounded by autobrecciated carapace were extruded in subaerial conditions, whereas hyaloclastite and peperite facies suggest contemporaneous subaqueous volcanism and sedimentation. LA-ICPMS Usbnd Pb ages of zircon crystals from the volcanic units yielded Middle Jurassic ages of 173.9 ± 1.9 Ma and 170.8 ± 3 Ma. In the Navidad district, volcanic rocks of the Cañadón Asfalto Formation show arc-like signatures including high-K basaltic-andesite to high-K dacite compositions, Rb, Ba and Th enrichment relative to the less mobile HFS elements (Nb, Ta), enrichment in light rare earth elements (LREE), Ysbnd Ti depletion, and high Zr contents. These characteristics could be explained by assimilation of crustal rocks in the Jurassic magmas, which is also supported by the presence of zircon xenocrysts with Permian and Middle-Upper Triassic ages (281.3 Ma, 246.5, 218.1, and 201.3 Ma) and quartz xenocrysts recognized in these volcanic units. Furthermore, Sr and Nd isotope compositions suggest a contribution of crustal components in these Middle Jurassic magmas. High-K basaltic andesite has initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios of 0.70416-0.70658 and ξNd(t) values of -5.3 and -4. High-K dacite and andesite have initial 87Sr/86Sr compositions of 0.70584-0.70601 and ξNd(t) values of -4,1 and -3,2. The range of Pb isotope values (206Pb/204Pb = 18.28-18.37, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.61-15.62, and 208Pb/204Pb = 38.26-38.43) of Navidad volcanic rocks and ore minerals suggest mixing Pb sources with contributions of

  11. Paralavas in the Cretaceous Paraná volcanic province, Brazil - A genetic interpretation of the volcanic rocks containing phenocrysts and glass. (United States)

    Baggio, Sérgio B; Hartmann, Léo A; Bello, Rosa M S


    The occurrences of glassy rocks containing long and curved phenocrysts in the Paraná volcanic province, South America, are here interpreted as paralavas. The large number of thin (0.1-0.5 m) dikes and sills of glassy volcanic rocks with hopper, hollow or curved, large crystals of clinopyroxene (up to 10 cm), plagioclase (up to 1 cm), magnetite and apatite are contained in the core of thick (>70 m) pahoehoe flows. They are strongly concentrated in the state of Paraná, coincident with the presence of the large number of dikes in the Ponta Grossa arch. These rocks were previously defined as pegmatites, although other names have also been used. A paralava is here interpreted as the product of melting of basaltic rocks following varied, successive processes of sill emplacement in high-kerogen bituminous shale and ascent of the resultant methane. As the gas reached the lower portion of the most recent lava flow of the volcanic pile, the methane reacted with the silicate and oxide minerals of the host volcanic rock (1,000 ºC) and thus elevated the local temperature to 1,600 ºC. The affected area of host rock remelted (possibly 75 wt.%) and injected buoyantly the central and upper portion of the core. This methane-related mechanism explains the evidence found in the paralavas from this volcanic province, one of the largest in the continents.

  12. Paralavas in the Cretaceous Paraná volcanic province, Brazil - A genetic interpretation of the volcanic rocks containing phenocrysts and glass

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    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The occurrences of glassy rocks containing long and curved phenocrysts in the Paraná volcanic province, South America, are here interpreted as paralavas. The large number of thin (0.1-0.5 m dikes and sills of glassy volcanic rocks with hopper, hollow or curved, large crystals of clinopyroxene (up to 10 cm, plagioclase (up to 1 cm, magnetite and apatite are contained in the core of thick (>70 m pahoehoe flows. They are strongly concentrated in the state of Paraná, coincident with the presence of the large number of dikes in the Ponta Grossa arch. These rocks were previously defined as pegmatites, although other names have also been used. A paralava is here interpreted as the product of melting of basaltic rocks following varied, successive processes of sill emplacement in high-kerogen bituminous shale and ascent of the resultant methane. As the gas reached the lower portion of the most recent lava flow of the volcanic pile, the methane reacted with the silicate and oxide minerals of the host volcanic rock (1,000 ºC and thus elevated the local temperature to 1,600 ºC. The affected area of host rock remelted (possibly 75 wt.% and injected buoyantly the central and upper portion of the core. This methane-related mechanism explains the evidence found in the paralavas from this volcanic province, one of the largest in the continents.

  13. Saturated Zone Plumes in Volcanic Rock: Implications for Yucca Mountain

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    S. Kelkar; R. Roback; B. Robinson; G. Srinivasan; C. Jones; P. Reimus


    This paper presents a literature survey of the occurrences of radionuclide plumes in saturated, fractured rocks. Three sites, Idaho National laboratory, Hanford, and Oak Ridge are discussed in detail. Results of a modeling study are also presented showing that the length to width ratio of a plume starting within the repository footprint at the Yucca Mountain Project site, decreases from about 20:1 for the base case to about 4:1 for a higher value of transverse dispersivity, indicating enhanced lateral spreading of the plume. Due to the definition of regulatory requirements, this lateral spreading does not directly impact breakthrough curves at the 18 km compliance boundary, however it increases the potential that a plume will encounter reducing conditions, thus significantly retarding the transport of sorbing radionuclides.

  14. Submarine landslides: processes, triggers and hazard prediction. (United States)

    Masson, D G; Harbitz, C B; Wynn, R B; Pedersen, G; Løvholt, F


    Huge landslides, mobilizing hundreds to thousands of km(3) of sediment and rock are ubiquitous in submarine settings ranging from the steepest volcanic island slopes to the gentlest muddy slopes of submarine deltas. Here, we summarize current knowledge of such landslides and the problems of assessing their hazard potential. The major hazards related to submarine landslides include destruction of seabed infrastructure, collapse of coastal areas into the sea and landslide-generated tsunamis. Most submarine slopes are inherently stable. Elevated pore pressures (leading to decreased frictional resistance to sliding) and specific weak layers within stratified sequences appear to be the key factors influencing landslide occurrence. Elevated pore pressures can result from normal depositional processes or from transient processes such as earthquake shaking; historical evidence suggests that the majority of large submarine landslides are triggered by earthquakes. Because of their tsunamigenic potential, ocean-island flank collapses and rockslides in fjords have been identified as the most dangerous of all landslide related hazards. Published models of ocean-island landslides mainly examine 'worst-case scenarios' that have a low probability of occurrence. Areas prone to submarine landsliding are relatively easy to identify, but we are still some way from being able to forecast individual events with precision. Monitoring of critical areas where landslides might be imminent and modelling landslide consequences so that appropriate mitigation strategies can be developed would appear to be areas where advances on current practice are possible.

  15. Magmatic evolution of Panama Canal volcanic rocks: A record of arc processes and tectonic change.

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    David W Farris

    Full Text Available Volcanic rocks along the Panama Canal present a world-class opportunity to examine the relationship between arc magmatism, tectonic forcing, wet and dry magmas, and volcanic structures. Major and trace element geochemistry of Canal volcanic rocks indicate a significant petrologic transition at 21-25 Ma. Oligocene Bas Obispo Fm. rocks have large negative Nb-Ta anomalies, low HREE, fluid mobile element enrichments, a THI of 0.88, and a H2Ocalc of >3 wt. %. In contrast, the Miocene Pedro Miguel and Late Basalt Fm. exhibit reduced Nb-Ta anomalies, flattened REE curves, depleted fluid mobile elements, a THI of 1.45, a H2Ocalc of <1 wt. %, and plot in mid-ocean ridge/back-arc basin fields. Geochemical modeling of Miocene rocks indicates 0.5-0.1 kbar crystallization depths of hot (1100-1190°C magmas in which most compositional diversity can be explained by fractional crystallization (F = 0.5. However, the most silicic lavas (Las Cascadas Fm. require an additional mechanism, and assimilation-fractional-crystallization can reproduce observed compositions at reasonable melt fractions. The Canal volcanic rocks, therefore, change from hydrous basaltic pyroclastic deposits typical of mantle-wedge-derived magmas, to hot, dry bi-modal magmatism at the Oligocene-Miocene boundary. We suggest the primary reason for the change is onset of arc perpendicular extension localized to central Panama. High-resolution mapping along the Panama Canal has revealed a sequence of inward dipping maar-diatreme pyroclastic pipes, large basaltic sills, and bedded silicic ignimbrites and tuff deposits. These volcanic bodies intrude into the sedimentary Canal Basin and are cut by normal and subsequently strike-slip faults. Such pyroclastic pipes and basaltic sills are most common in extensional arc and large igneous province environments. Overall, the change in volcanic edifice form and geochemistry are related to onset of arc perpendicular extension, and are consistent with the

  16. Carbon storage potential in Pleistocene volcanic rocks of the Magnesia area (Central Greece) (United States)

    Koutsovitis, Petros; Koukouzas, Nikolaos; Magganas, Andreas


    The Porfyrio and Mikrothives volcanoes in the Magnesia area (SE Thessaly, Central Greece) are located a few km (˜8 and 12 km respectively) south-southwest of the industrial area of Volos city and are relatively small in size (˜3 and 10 km2 respectively). They are closely associated with other scattered volcanic centers of Late-Pleistocene-Quaternary age, appearing at the western shores of Pagasitikos gulf and at the Northern Euboikos gulf (e.g. Achilleion, Lichades, Agios Ioannis). This volcanic activity is attributed to back-arc extensional volcanism and may be further associated with propagation tectonics of the North Anatolian fault [1,2,3]. Volcanic rocks from the Porfyrio and Mikrothives mostly consist of basaltic and trachyandesitic lavas and pyroclastic tuffs. Porous basaltic lavas (10-15% porosity) exhibit porphyritic textures with a holocrystalline trachytic groundmass. The groundmass consists of lath-shaped plagioclase crystals, alkali feldspar, clinopyroxene, olivine, oxide minerals (ilmenite, titanomagnetite and magnetite), along with other accessory minerals such as quartz, calcite, apatite and pyrite. Phenocrysts are mostly subhedral and anhedral clinopyroxene crystals (mostly augite and less often diopside), olivine and less often plagioclase and quartz. Cr-spinel crystals have been identified within olivine phenocrysts. Pyroclastic tuffs exhibit vesicular textures, with their porosity varying between 20 and 40%. Their groundmass is hypocrystalline vesicular being either trachytic or aphanitic, often enriched in oxide minerals. Phenocrysts are less frequent compared to the lava samples, most often being feldspars. In some samples, pores are partially filled with secondary calcite. From recent literature it is well known that CO2 can be injected, trapped and retained within the pore spaces of volcanic rocks, forming chemically stable carbonate minerals [4,5,6,7]. The Porfyrio and Mikrothives volcanics can be considered as potential sites for

  17. Submarine seismic monitoring of El Hierro volcanic eruption with a 3C-geophone string: applying new acquisition and data processing techniques to volcano monitoring (United States)

    Jurado, Maria Jose; Ripepe, Maurizio; Lopez, Carmen; Blanco, Maria Jose; Crespo, Jose


    A submarine volcanic eruption took place near the southernmost emerged land of the El Hierro Island (Canary Islands, Spain), from October 2011 to February 2012. The Instituto Geografico Nacional (IGN) seismic stations network evidenced seismic unrest since July 2011 and was a reference also to follow the evolution of the seismic activity associated with the volcanic eruption. Right after the eruption onset, in October 2011 a geophone string was deployed by the CSIC-IGN to monitor seismic activity. Monitoring with the seismic array continued till May 2012. The array was installed less than 2 km away from the new vol¬cano, next to La Restinga village shore in the harbor from 6 to 12m deep into the water. Our purpose was to record seismic activity related to the volcanic activity, continuously and with special interest on high frequency events. The seismic array was endowed with 8, high frequency, 3 component, 250 Hz, geophone cable string with a separation of 6 m between them. Each geophone consists on a 3-component module based on 3 orthogonal independent sensors that measures ground velocity. Some of the geophones were placed directly on the seabed, some were buried. Due to different factors, as the irregular characteristics of the seafloor. The data was recorded on the surface with a seismometer and stored on a laptop computer. We show how acoustic data collected underwater show a great correlation with the seismic data recorded on land. Finally we compare our data analysis results with the observed sea surface activity (ash and lava emission and degassing). This evidence is disclosing new and innovative tecniques on monitoring submarine volcanic activity. Reference Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN), "Serie El Hierro." Internet: /volcanologia/HIERRO.html [May, 17. 2013

  18. Constraining the Origin of Basaltic Volcanic Rocks Observed by Opportunity Along the Rim of Endeavour Crater (United States)

    Bouchard, M. C.; Jolliff, B. L.; Farrand, W. H.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.


    The Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Opportunity continues its exploration along the rim of Endeavour Crater. While the primary focus for investigation has been to seek evidence of aqueous alteration, Opportunity has observed a variety of rock types, including some that are hard and relatively unaltered. These rocks tend to occur most commonly as "float rocks" or "erratics" where the geologic setting does not clearly reveal their origin. Along the rim of Endeavour crater (Fig. 1), such rocks, commonly noted in Panoramic Camera (Pancam) left eye composites as "blue rocks", are abundant components of some of the Endeavour crater rim deposits, scree slopes, and colluvium deposits. In this abstract, we examine the similarity of several of these rocks analyzed using Opportunity's Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS), images and color from the Pancam, and textures observed with the Microscopic Imager (MI. At issue is the blue rocks origin; are they impact melt or volcanic, what is their age relative to Endeavour crater, and how they are related to each other?

  19. Mineral chemistry and petrogenesis of the Gurgur Mount volcanic rocks (Northeast Takab

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    Dariush Esmaeily


    Full Text Available Andesitic and andesitic-basaltic lavas are widespread over most of the ground surface of the Gurgur area altered mostly by the hydrothermal solutions. The main rock forming minerals in these rocks are plagioclase, pyroxene and olivine affected by the hydrothermal solutions. The altered rocks do contain minerals including calcite, sericite and chlorite. Given the results obtained and the mineral chemistry studies, the clinopyroxenes formed in the area are, chemically, calkalkaline and of diopside-augite type formed in subvolcanic to near surface levels contemporaneous with magma ascending. Plagioclase minerals show zoning textures and lie within the two andesine and albite-oligoclase fields. These units, in terms of total rock chemistry, are classified as the calk-alkaline volcanic rocks formed in the continental arcs. On the other hand, on the trace elements chondrite-normalized diagrams and enriched mantle-normalized multi- element diagrams, the LREE enrichment relative to the HREE is observed. The LILE (i.e. Rb, K and Th and the LREE (e.g. La, Ce and Nd show an enrichment in comparison to the HFSE (Zr, Hf, Nb, Yb, Y and Sm. Given the Nd/Th (1.42-1.15, Zr/Nb (12.27-21.22, Ba/La (18.64-29.77 as well as LILE enrichment associated with depletion in Nb, Ta and Ti, an environment related to the subduction zones can be proposed for the area under study. Moreover, the similarity between the REE distribution pattern and the incompatible elements point to the genetic relationship between these rocks. Finally, on the base of the obtained data, it can be concluded that the volcanic rocks in the Gurgur Mountain were likely formed during the extended magmatism of the Urumieh-Dokhtar in the Cenozoic.

  20. Determination of trace elements in volcanic rock samples collected from cenozoic lava eruption sites using LIBS. (United States)

    Gondal, Mohammed A; Nasr, Mohamed M; Ahmed, Zulfiqar; Yamani, Zain H


    Trace elements of environmental significance present in the volcanic rock samples collected from sites of the Cenozoic era flood basalt flows and eruptions were detected using locally developed laser-induced breakdown spectrometer. For spectro-chemical analysis of these samples, the plasma was generated by focusing a pulsed Nd: YAG laser radiation at 1064 nm wavelength on the target rock samples. These samples were collected from four widely separated locations surrounding the volcanic eruption sites belonging to the Harrat Hutaymah volcanic field in the vicinity of Taba town, situated to the east of Hail city of northern Saudi Arabia. These samples represent the scoria basalt lava flows as well as a large tuff-ring crater and it contains xenoliths. These flows occur widespread over the Earth's surface in this region, and their contained xenoliths are brought up from depths of a few tens of kilometers. This volcanic field has received much less attention in the previous geological studies; and consequently, its effects on the environment are not well defined. The concentration of different elements of environmental significance like Cr, Pb, Mn, Cd, Sr and other trace metals like Cu, Al, Ca, Mg, Zn, Ti and Fe in these rock samples were determined by spectral analysis. Parametric dependence for improvement of LIBS sensitivity for detection of these elements was also carried out. The highest concentration detected of environmentally significant elements like Cr, Mn, Pb, Sr and Ni are 1910, 1399, 90.5, 12412 and 461.5 ppm, respectively in four different lava samples which are considered to be much higher than the safe permissible limits. The LIBS results were compared with the results obtained using other analytical techniques such as the inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES).

  1. Tertiary volcanic rocks and the potassium content of Gulf Coast shales—The smoking gun (United States)

    Bloch, John; Hutcheon, Ian E.; de Caritat, Patrice


    The majority of Tertiary volcanic rocks of the western United States and Mexico are alkaline in composition and may contain as much as 50 wt% equivalent K-feldspar. Emplacement of these volcanic strata is coeval with Tertiary shale deposition in the Texas Gulf Coast, and they previously have been identified as likely sources of sediment for Gulf Coast shales. Evaluation of chemical trends in Gulf Coast shales, particularly K2O, indicates changes in sediment composition in the lower Eocene, Oligocene, and near the Oligocene-Miocene boundary. In particular, there is a 250% increase in K2O content from ˜2 wt% to ˜5 wt% from the late Eocene to the early Oligocene. Gulf Coast shale bulk-rock compositions are consistent with a Tertiary volcanic source. Estimates of erosion and mass balance calculations suggest that in the south Texas Gulf Coast, the Oligocene Frio Formation may contain between 60% and 85% volcanic detritus, and coeval Frio shales to the north contain ˜25%. Vertical and lateral compositional variations highlight variable abundances of source detritus and the effects of weathering and depositional processes on Gulf Coast shale composition. Trends of increasing K2O content with depth in Gulf Coast shales previously have been interpreted to result from open-system diagenesis and K-metasomatism at depth. The data presented herein suggest instead that these trends result from variable provenance and the influx of large volumes of Tertiary alkaline volcanic material. Therefore, diagenetic models that invoke a homogeneous initial shale composition and open-system behavior may be invalid.

  2. Petrogenesis and tectonic implications of Early Jurassic volcanic rocks of the Raohe accretionary complex, NE China (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-Hui; Ge, Wen-Chun; Yang, Hao; Bi, Jun-Hui; Ji, Zheng; Dong, Yu; Xu, Wen-Liang


    The Raohe accretionary complex, located at the border between the Russian Far East and Northeastern China, is a significant part of the western Pacific Oceanic tectonic regime. Due to lack of precise age and geochemical constraints, the tectonic setting and petrogenesis of the magmatic rocks in this area remain undefined, resulting in debate about crustal growth mechanisms and subduction-related accretionary processes in Northeastern China. Here, we report whole-rock major and trace element and Sr-Nd isotope data, together with zircon U-Pb ages and in situ zircon Hf isotope data for calc-alkaline andesites, dacites, rhyolites, rhyolitic crystal tuffs, Nb-enriched andesites and basaltic andesites, and high-Mg andesites of the Raohe accretionary complex in NE China. Samples were collected from Late Triassic to Early Jurassic strata. However, geochronological results in this study indicated that the studied magmatism occurred in the Early Jurassic (187-174 Ma). The calc-alkaline volcanic rocks possess geochemical characteristics typical of arc magmas that form at active continental margins, such as moderate enrichments in large ion lithophile elements (LILEs) and light rare earth elements (LREEs), and depletions in high field strength elements (HFSEs). They have positive εHf(t) values of +3.4 to +10.6 and relatively high (87Sr/86Sr)i values of 0.7047-0.7102. While the Nb-enriched andesites and basaltic andesites have higher TiO2, Hf, Nb, and Zr contents and higher Nb/Ta (24.0-87.6), Nb/U (11.9-75.9), (Nb/Th)PM (0.67-2.70), and (Nb/La)PM (1.95-5.00) ratios than typical arc basalts. They have negative εNd(t) values (-5.5 to -6.0) and relatively variable (87Sr/86Sr)i values of 0.7047-0.7114, suggesting an origin via the partial melting of mantle wedge peridotite that had been metasomatized by slab-derived melt. The high-Mg volcanic rocks, characterized by high MgO and Mg#, TiO2, Al2O3, Cr, Ni, (La/Yb)N and (La/Sm)N, but low Ba/Th ratios, are geochemically similar to

  3. Quaternary Basanitic Rocks within the Eastern Anatolian Volcanism (Turkey): Petrological and Geochemical Constrains (United States)

    Özdemir, Yavuz; Mercan, Çaǧrı; Oyan, Vural; Atakul-Özdemir, Ayşe


    The Eastern Anatolian Cenozoic continental intraplate volcanism was initiated in Middle Miocene as a result of the convergence between the Arabian and Anatolian plates. The origin of Eastern Anatolian volcanism has been the focus of many petrological studies that have aimed to resolve the relative contributions of asthenospheric mantle and/or lithospheric mantle with/without subduction component in the genesis of magmas that compositionally have many affinities to ocean island basalts (OIB) and volcanic arcs. Volcanism in the region characterized by mainly stratovolcanoes, basaltic lava plateaus and are dominantly spread at the northern parts of Bitlis Pötürge Massif (BPM). Our study focuses on a small scale Quaternary basaltic system that firstly observed within the BPM. The volcanic rocks of our study located 50 km to the south of Lake Van and are basanitic in composition. They exposed along K-G striking tensional fissures and crosscut the Upper unit of the Bitlis Massif. Initial products of the volcanism are scoria fall deposits. Thick basanitic lava flows overly the pyroclastics and formed columnar structures. The basanites are generally fine-grained with phenocrysts of olivine+clinopyroxene. The groundmass is typically of clinopyroxene, olivine and Ti magnetite and Cr spinel with interstitial nepheline. The olivine phenocrysts are typically euhedral to subhedral with Forsterite contents of Fo73-83. Clinopyroxenes are highly calcic and show modest variations in Wo47-52-En34-42-Fs10-15 and are weakly zoned with mg# 89-87 at cores to 86-84 at rims. Nephelines occur as minor minerals within the networks of other groundmass minerals. Ti rich and Fe-Cr spinels occur as inclusions in olivine and clinopyroxenes as well as within the groundmass. LILE and LREE enrichments over HFSE and HREE suggest similarities with magmas generated from enriched mantle sources. EC-AFC modeling of trace element and isotope compositions indicates that assimilation of crustal

  4. Petrography, geochemistry and tectonic setting of Salmabad Tertiary volcanic rocks, southeast of Sarbisheh, eastern Iran

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    Masoumeh Goodarzi


    Full Text Available Introduction The area reviewed and studied in this paper is located 5 km southeast of Sarbisheh city at eastern border of the Lut block (Jung et al., 1983; Karimpour et al., 2011; Richards et al., 2012 in eastern Iran between 59° 47′ and 59° 53′ E longitude and 32°30′ and 32°34′ N latitude. The magmatic activity in the Lut block began in middle Jurassic (165-162 Ma and reached its peak in Tertiary (Jung et al., 1983. Volcanic and subvolcanic rocks of Tertiary age cover over half of Lut block with up to 2000 m thickness and formed due to subduction prior to the collision of the Arabian and Asian plates (Camp and Griffis, 1982; Tirrul et al., 1983; Berberianet et al., 1982. Most of magmatic activity in the Lut block formed in middle Eocene (Karimpour et al., 2011 The andesitic volcanics were erupted together with the dacites and rhyodacites during a time interval of some 50 Ma from early Cretaceous to early Neogene. It can be assumed that the intensity of the volcanic activity was varying significantly during this time span (Jung et al., 1983.Tertiary volcanic rocks (Eocene-Oligocene to Pliocene with intermediate composition associated with pyroclastic rocks cropped out in eastern parts of Salmabad village, southeast of Sarbisheh. The main purpose of this paper is better understand the tectono-magmatic setting of the Tertiary volcanic rocks in southeast of Sarbisheh, eastern Iran based on geochemical characteristics. Materials and methods Eleven samples were analyzed for major elements by inductively coupled plasma (ICP technologies and trace elements were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS, following a lithium metaborate/tetraborate fusion and nitric acid total digestion, at the SGS Laboratories, Toronto, Canada. Results In the Salmabad area, Tertiary volcanic rocks with mainly intermediate (andesitic composition are exposed associated with pyroclastic deposits such as tuff, breccia and agglomerate

  5. Research on isotope geology: Isotopes ages of volcanic rocks from Ryeongnam Massif, Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Seong Cheon; Chi, Se Jung; Kim, Yoo Sook [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    Chronostratigraphy of most volcanic rocks in the Ryeongnam Massif have been undefined or mis-classified in different geological maps due to total absence of reported isotope ages. Twenty-four new isotope ages are given for age-undefined volcanic units and some related igneous bodies. Most of volcanic rocks show high [La/Yb]n ratios and LREE enrichments which are characteristics of subduction-related high-K calc-alkali volcanic rocks occurred in the active continental margin. Preliminary results on carbon and oxygen stable isotope ratios({delta}{sup 13}C=-1.7{approx}-6.2 per mil; {delta}{sup 18} O=-21.6{approx}-24.7 per mil) of druse- or phenocryst-calcite from andesitic and basaltic rocks in the southern coastal region indicate a magmatic origin. Based on new K-Ar whole-rock ages, chronological guidelines are established as follows: 1) Gayasan andesite (78{+-}4Ma) - Gurye andesitic tuff (81{+-}4Ma); 2) Gurye andesite (68{+-}4Ma) - Suncheon andesitic tuff (67{+-}3Ma) - Yeosu basaltic andesite (67{+-}3Ma) - Narodo andesite (70{+-}3Ma); 3) Taebaeg Baegbyeongsan basaltic andesite (62{+-}3Ma) - Gurye Obongsan andesite (64{+-}3Ma) - Yeosu dacite (63{+-}3Ma) - Dolsando andesite (62{+-}3Ma) - Jangheung Buyongsan andesite (65{+-}3Ma); 4) Suncheon Joryedong andesite (55{+-}2Ma) - Goheung andesite (56{+-}3Ma); 5) Taebaeg Baegbyeonsan basaltic andesite (48{+-}2Ma) - Yeosu basalt (51{+-}3Ma). Resetted age (49{+-}2Ma) of an intrusive rhyolite implies the timing of thermal alteration in the Wondong Fe-Mine of the Taebaegsan Mineralized Belt. K-Ar hornblende ages of two hornblendite stocks in the southern Jangsu suggests apparent emplacement-ages of late Triassic (210{+-}9Ma) and early Permian (274{+-}10Ma), independently. K-Ar hornblende age (1023{+-}37Ma) of the Ogbang amphibolite implies a reduction of original age due to later thermal effect probably attributed to either later intrusion or regional metamorphism. (author). 56 refs., 19 tabs., 14 figs.

  6. Fracturing Fluid Leak-off for Deep Volcanic Rock in Zhungeer Basin: Mechanism and Control Method

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    Huang Bo


    Full Text Available The deep volcanic reservoir in Zhungeer Basin is buried in over 4000m depth, which is characterized by complex lithology (breccia, andesite, basalt, etc., high elastic modulus and massive natural fractures. During hydraulic fracturing, hydraulic fracture will propagate and natural fractures will be triggered by the increasing net pressure. However, the extension of fractures, especially natural fractures, would aggravate the leak-off effect of fracturing fluid, and consequently decrease the fracturing success rate. 4 out of 12 fracturing wells in the field have failed to add enough proppants due to fluid loss. In order to increase the success rate and efficiency of hydraulic fracturing for deep volcanic reservoir, based on theoretical and experimental method, the mechanism of fracturing fluid leak-off is deeply studied. We propose a dualistic proppant scheme and employ the fluid loss reducer to control the fluid leak-off in macro-fractures and micro-fractures respectively. The proposed technique remarkably improved the success rate in deep volcanic rock fracturing. It bears important theoretical value and practical significance to improve the hydraulic fracturing design for deep volcanic reservoir.

  7. Neogene seismites and seismic volcanic rocks in the Linqu area, Shandong Province, E China

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    Tian H.S.


    Full Text Available The Yishu Fault Zone runs through the centre of Shandong Province (E China; it is a deep-seated large fault system that still is active. Two volcanic faulted basins (the Shanwang and Linqu Basins in the Linqu area, west of the fault zone, are exposed to rifting, which process is accompanied by a series of tectonic and volcanic earthquakes with a magnitude of 5-8. Lacustrine sediments in the basins were affected by these earthquakes so that seismites with a variety of soft-sediment deformation structures originated. The seismites form part of the Shanwang Formation of the Linqu Group. Semi-consolidated fluvial conglomerates became deformed in a brittle way; these seismites are present at the base of the Yaoshan Formation. Intense earthquakes triggered by volcanic activity left their traces in the form of seismic volcanic rocks associated with liquefied-sand veins in the basalt/sand intercalations at the base of the Yaoshan Formation. These palaeo-earthquake records are dated around 14-10 Ma; they are responses to the intense tectonic extension and the basin rifting in this area and even the activity of the Yishu Fault Zone in the Himalayan tectonic cycle.

  8. Magma mixing: origin of intermediate rocks and ``enclaves'' from volcanism to plutonism (United States)

    Cantagrel, Jean-Marie; Didier, Jean; Gourgaud, Alain


    Intermediate magmatic rocks are rarely homogeneous; a common example is the presence of magmatic "enclaves" Volcanic examples show that they are indications of magma mixing processes. Mixing events in the trachyandesitic suites from the Sancy Volcano (France). The volcanic activity from Sancy consists of several brief trachyandesitic cycles. Each of them begins with the eruption of highly heterogeneous benmoreites, followed by more homogeneous mugearites. Light porphyritic trachyandesites enclose numerous inclusions of varied darker lavas. The crenulated geometry of the contacts, the presence of chilled margins, the vesiculation of the core of the basic parts, suggest that these different rock types were magmatic at the same time although under marked thermal disequilibrium. Xenocrysts are common: partly resorbed sanidine rimmed with plagioclase in a basic matrix, reactional olivines in tridymite-bearing trachytes. This shows that the mixing occurred between partially crystallized and fractionated magmas. Chemical compositions are continuously variable from basalts to trachytes within the same eruptive cycle. All these facts might be interpreted as the result of a mechanical intermingling, more or less achieved, between two end-members of contrasting composition in the reservoir. In the Sancy Volcano this phenomenon occurred at least, 4 or 5 times during a 600 000 y span. Mixing evidence in Hercynian granodiorites from France. Similar observations may be described in granodioritic rocks. The more widespread "enclaves" exhibit the same characteristics as their volcanic equivalents. Although most of them are small, more important volumes of basic rocks may be associated in the same massif. In the neighbourhood of such large bodies, swarms of smaller enclaves recall the generation of basic pillows. The nature of the contact between small "microgranular enclaves" and their host rocks, the occurrence of xenocrysts with reaction rims (rapakivi feldspars and quartz ocelli

  9. A Backarc Basin Origin for the Eocene Volcanic Rocks North of Abbas Abad, East of Shahrud, Northeast Iran (United States)

    Khalatbari Jafari, M.; Mobasher, K.; Davarpanah, A.; Babaie, H.; La Tour, T.


    The region in northeastern Iran, bordered by the Miami fault and the Doruneh fault, mainly exposes the Eocene volcanic and Tertiary sedimentary rocks and sporadic outcrops of pre- Jurassic metamorphic rocks such as gneiss and mica-schist. We have divided the volcanic and volcanic-sedimentary rocks into six main units: E1 through the youngest E6. North of Abbas Abad, the Lower Eocene is conglomerate, sandstone, and red shale with lenses of nummulite-bearing limestone at the base, and dacitic lava (E1) at the top. The nummulites give an Early Eocene age for the limestone lenses. The E2 unit includes vesicular basalt, intercalated, intraformational conglomerate, and lenses of nummulite-bearing limestone. E3 is volcanic- sedimentary, and is made of green tuff, tuffite, shale, and nummulite bearing limestone. E4 includes basalt and vesicular trachy-basalt, and E5 is mostly sedimentary, made of tan marl, sandstone, shale, and lenses of Middle Eocene nummulite-bearing limestone. The E6 unit is the most extensive, with at least three levels of nummulite-bearing limestone lenses which give a Middle to Early Eocene age. The volcanic rocks of the E6 unit include few hundred meters of epiclastic to hyaloclastic breccia, with intercalations of lava at the base. These are overlain by four horizons of aphyric olivine basalt and basalt, and phyric trachy-andesite and trachy-basalt. The volume of the aphyric lavas decreases, and that of the phyric lavas increases upsection. The Eocene volcanic sequence is covered by turbidite; the marl washings give an Eocene-Oligocene age range. Chondrite-normalized multi-element plots indicate enrichment of the Eocene Abbas Abad volcanic rocks in the LILE elements, with variable ratios of La/Yb (4.36-19.33) and La/Sm (3.10-7.91). These plots show a gentle slope, and the volcanic rocks in the E1 to E4 units are less enriched than those in the E6 unit, probably reflecting the difference in the original source for the melt. The multi-element plots

  10. Clinopyroxene application in petrogenesis identification of volcanic rocks associated with salt domes from Shurab (Southeast Qom

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    Somayeh Falahaty


    Full Text Available Introduction The study area is located in the Shurab area that is about 50 Km Southeast of Qom. Volcanic rocks of the Shurab area have basaltic composition that is associated with salt and marl units. Igneous rocks of the Shurab area have not been comprehensively studied thus far. Clinopyroxene composition of volcanic rocks, and especially the phenocrysts show Magma chemistry and can help to identify magma series (Lebas, 1962; Verhooge, 1962; Kushiro, 1960, Leterrier et al., 1982, tectonic setting (Leterrier et al., 1982; Nisbet and Pearce, 1977 as well as temperature formation and pressure of rock formation. Some geologists have estimated temperature of clinopyroxene formation by clinopyroxene composition (Adams and Bishop, 1986 and clinopyroxene-olivine couple. So, clinopyroxene is used in this study in order to identify magma series, tectonic setting, plus the temperature and pressure of volcanic rocks of the Shurab. Material and method Clinopyroxene analyses were conducted by wavelength-dispersive EPMA (JEOL JXA-8800R at the Cooperative Centre of Kanazawa University (Japan. The analyses were performed under an accelerating voltage of 15 kV and a beam current of 20 nA. The ZAF program was used for data corrections. Natural and synthetic minerals of known composition were used as standards. The Fe3+ content in minerals was estimated by Droop method (Droop, 1987. Discussion In the Shurab area, the volcanic rocks area with basaltic composition are located 50 km Southeast of Qom. Their age is the early Oligocene and they are associated with the salty marl units of the Lower Red Formation (LRF. The hand specimens of the studied rocks look green. These rocks are intergranular, microlitic, porphyric, vitrophyric and amygdaloidal and they consist of olivine, pyroxene and plagioclase. Accessory minerals contain sphene, apatite and opaque. According to Wo-En-Fs diagram (Morimoto, 1988, clinopyroxenes indicate diopside composition. Clinopyroxenes are

  11. Paleomagnetism of Late Paleozoic and Mesozoic volcanic rocks of Southern Siberia (United States)

    Fedyukin, I.; Shatsillo, A.


    The main objects of the present study are late Permian and Mesozoic volcanic rocks from Selengin-Vitim volcano-plutonic belt (South Siberia). The belt was formed in the back area of Siberian continent active margin. Volcanic rocks are presented by contrastive volcanites more than 5 km thick. The deposits are subdivided into three suits: Ungurkuy (basalts and andesites), Chernoyar (basalts, andesites and tuffs) and Hilok (basalts, pyroclastic flows and tuffs). The age of Ungurkuy suite is deemed to be between Late Carboniferous and Late Permian. The age of Chernoyar suite is Middle-late Triassic. The age og Hilok suite is Late Jurassic. Volcanic deposits of the three suits were studied to create APWP for the Siberian craton. 250 oriented samples from 40 sites were collected from the Chikoy river valley within South Siberia. All samples were characterized by interpretable paleomagnetic signal. The Ungurkuy suite has different dip and strike: from subhorizontal to 40 degrees inclination and NE course. Chernoyar rocks were collected from monoclinal structure with the dip and strike around NW declination and 5-10 degrees inclination. Hilok suite represents large subhorizontal eruptive bodies. Volcanic rocks of Ungurkuy suite show mostly monopolar (normal polarity) magnetization direction between Early Permian and Permian-Triassic Siberian poles, which indicates its Late Permian age. The normal polarity of the deposits indicates its formation in the period between Kiama superchron, characterized by reversal polarity, and Illavara hyperchron with mixed polarity - 265 Ma. Direction from Chernoyar suite is well-correlated with Late Triassic APWP of Europe, directions of magnetization are bipolar. From Hilok suite several sites show direction of magnetization similar to directions revealed from Early Cretaceous volcanites from nearby area. The magnetization is metachronous. In the other sites the directions of magnetization well-correlated with Late Jurassic APWP of Europe

  12. A study on the characteristics of site-scale fracture system in granite and volcanic rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyung Su; Kim, Chun Soo; Bae, Dae Seok; Park, Byoung Yoon; Koh, Young Kown [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)


    The safety of waste disposal can be achieved by a complete isolation of radioactive wastes from biosphere or by a retardation of nuclide migration to reach an acceptable dose level. For the deep geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste, the potential pathways of nuclide primarily depend on the spatial distribution characteristics of conductive fractures. Major key issues in the quantification of fracture system for a disposal site are involved in classification criteria, hydraulic parameters, geometry, field investigation methods etc. This research aims to characterize the spatial distribution characteristics of conductive fractures in granite and volcanic rock mass. 10 refs., 32 figs., 13 tabs. (Author)

  13. Origin of metaluminous and alkaline volcanic rocks of the Latir volcanic field, northern Rio Grande rift, New Mexico (United States)

    Johnson, C.M.; Lipman, P.W.


    Volcanic rocks of the Latir volcanic field evolved in an open system by crystal fractionation, magma mixing, and crustal assimilation. Early high-SiO2 rhyolites (28.5 Ma) fractionated from intermediate compositionmagmas that did not reach the surface. Most precaldera lavas have intermediate-compositions, from olivine basaltic-andesite (53% SiO2) to quartz latite (67% SiO2). The precaldera intermediate-composition lavas have anomalously high Ni and MgO contents and reversely zoned hornblende and augite phenocrysts, indicating mixing between primitive basalts and fractionated magmas. Isotopic data indicate that all of the intermediate-composition rocks studied contain large crustal components, although xenocrysts are found only in one unit. Inception of alkaline magmatism (alkalic dacite to high-SiO2 peralkaline rhyolite) correlates with, initiation of regional extension approximately 26 Ma ago. The Questa caldera formed 26.5 Ma ago upon eruption of the >500 km3 high-SiO2 peralkaline Amalia Tuff. Phenocryst compositions preserved in the cogenetic peralkaline granite suggest that the Amalia Tuff magma initially formed from a trace element-enriched, high-alkali metaluminous magma; isotopic data suggest that the parental magmas contain a large crustal component. Degassing of water- and halogen-rich alkali basalts may have provided sufficient volatile transport of alkalis and other elements into the overlying silicic magma chamber to drive the Amalia Tuff magma to peralkaline compositions. Trace element variations within the Amalia Tuff itself may be explained solely by 75% crystal fractionation of the observed phenocrysts. Crystal settling, however, is inconsistent with mineralogical variations in the tuff, and crystallization is thought to have occurred at a level below that tapped by the eruption. Spatially associated Miocene (15-11 Ma) lavas did not assimilate large amounts of crust or mix with primitive basaltic magmas. Both mixing and crustal assimilation processes

  14. Comparison of geochemical characteristics and forming environment of volcanic rocks in Northern Xinjiang and the Songliao Basin, China

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    Yanzhao Wei


    Full Text Available The tectonic settings of Northern Xinjiang, Songliao Basin, and its peripheral areas all belong to the Paleoasian orogenic region. Their main structures are all composed of multiple continental segments and peripheral fold belts. Similar tectonic setting and complicated basement structure give rise to the similarities and differences in the forming environment and geochemical characteristics of volcanic rocks in the two regions. The similarities include lack of typical calc-alkalic volcanic rocks, inconsistent covariant relationship between oxide content and SiO2 with that of calc-alkalic volcanic rock in the consuming zone, the distribution pattern of trace elements featuring the enrichment of highly incompatible elements, Nb negative anomaly, La positive anomaly, Ba partially positive anomaly, as well as different enrichment degrees of light rare earth. The differences between the Northern Xinjiang and Songliao Basin are characterized by the developed alkalic basalt, rich highly incompatible elements and light rare earth. Volcanic rocks in Northern Xinjiang shows an increase in both total rare earth and light rare earth enrichment from south to north, whereas the total rare earth and light rare earth enrichment in Songliao Basin are also higher than the adjacent Daxing'anling. Generally, both the Carboniferous-Lower Permian volcanic rock in Northern Xinjiang and Mesozoic volcanic rock in Songliao Basin and its peripheral areas developed in the post-collision intracontinental extensional tectonic environment, indicating that the post-collision extensional basin in Junggar-Xingmeng Paleoasian Ocean orogenic region has promising oil-gas exploration potential for volcanic reservoirs.

  15. A Comprehensive Study on Dielectric Properties of Volcanic Rock/PANI Composites (United States)

    Kiliç, M.; Karabul, Y.; Okutan, M.; İçelli, O.


    Basalt is a very well-known volcanic rock that is dark colored and relatively rich in iron and magnesium, almost located each country in the world. These rocks have been used in the refused rock industry, to produce building tiles, construction industrial, highway engineering. Powders and fibers of basalt rocks are widely used of radiation shielding, thermal stability, heat and sound insulation. This study examined three different basalt samples (coded CM-1, KYZ-13 and KYZ-24) collected from different regions of Van province in Turkey. Polyaniline (PANI) is one of the representative conductive polymers due to its fine environmental stability, huge electrical conductivity, as well as a comparatively low cost. Also, the electrical and thermal properties of polymer composites containing PANI have been widely studied. The dielectric properties of Basalt/Polyaniline composites in different concentrations (10, 25, 50 wt.% PANI) have been investigated by dielectric spectroscopy method at the room temperature. The dielectric parameters (dielectric constants, loss and strength) were measured in the frequency range of 102 Hz-106 Hz at room temperature. The electrical mechanism change with PANI dopant. A detailed dielectrically analysis of these composites will be presented.

  16. Hot climate inhibits volcanism on Venus: Constraints from rock deformation experiments and argon isotope geochemistry (United States)

    Mikhail, Sami; Heap, Michael J.


    The disparate evolution of sibling planets Earth and Venus has left them markedly different. Venus' hot (460 °C) surface is dry and has a hypsometry with a very low standard deviation, whereas Earth's average temperature is 4 °C and the surface is wet and has a pronounced bimodal hypsometry. Counterintuitively, despite the hot Venusian climate, the rate of intraplate volcano formation is an order of magnitude lower than that of Earth. Here we compile and analyse rock deformation and atmospheric argon isotope data to offer an explanation for the relative contrast in volcanic flux between Earth and Venus. By collating high-temperature, high-pressure rock deformation data for basalt, we provide a failure mechanism map to assess the depth of the brittle-ductile transition (BDT). These data suggest that the Venusian BDT likely exists between 2 and 12 km depth (for a range of thermal gradients), in stark contrast to the BDT for Earth, which we find to be at a depth of ∼25-27 km using the same method. The implications for planetary evolution are twofold. First, downflexing and sagging will result in the sinking of high-relief structures, due to the low flexural rigidity of the predominantly ductile Venusian crust, offering an explanation for the curious coronae features on the Venusian surface. Second, magma delivery to the surface-the most efficient mechanism for which is flow along fractures (dykes; i.e., brittle deformation)-will be inhibited on Venus. Instead, we infer that magmas must stall and pond in the ductile Venusian crust. If true, a greater proportion of magmatism on Venus should result in intrusion rather than extrusion, relative to Earth. This predicted lower volcanic flux on Venus, relative to Earth, is supported by atmospheric argon isotope data: we argue here that the anomalously unradiogenic present-day atmospheric 40Ar/36Ar ratio for Venus (compared with Earth) must reflect major differences in 40Ar degassing, primarily driven by volcanism. Indeed

  17. Tectonic implications of paleomagnetic poles from Lower Tertiary Volcanic Rocks, south central Alaska (United States)

    Hillhouse, John W.; Grommé, C. Sherman; Csejtey, Bela, Jr.


    We have determined the paleolatitude of lower Tertiary volcanic rocks in southern Alaska to measure possible poleward translation of the Wrangellia and the Peninsular terranes after 50 m.y. ago. Previous paleomagnetic studies have shown that in Triassic and Jurassic time these terranes were located near the equator and have moved at least 3000 km poleward relative to the North American craton. Our sample localities are in the northern Talkeetna Mountains in mildly deformed andesite and dacite flows (50.4, 51.3, 53.9, and 56.3 m.y. by K-Ar) that overlap Lower Cretaceous flysch, Lower Permian volcanic rocks of Wrangellia, and Upper Triassic pillow basalt of the Susitna terrane. Results from 26 cooling units (23 of reversed polarity and 3 of normal polarity) give a mean paleomagnetic pole at 69.5°N, 179.6°E, α95 = 12.2°. Stratigraphic sections from opposite limbs of a syncline yield directional paths that pass the fold test, satisfying a necessary condition for primary origin of the magnetization. The corresponding mean paleolatitude (76°N) of the northern Talkeetna Mountains is 8°±10° higher than the latitude predicted from the Eocene reference pole for North America. Therefore, northward drift of the Talkeetna superterrane, which is the amalgamation of the Wrangellia and Peninsular terranes during and after Middle Jurassic time, was probably complete by 50 m.y. ago. Our results are consistent with paleomagnetic poles from uppermost Cretaceous and Paleocene volcanic sequences in Denali National Park, the Lake Clark region, northern Bristol Bay region, and near McGrath. These poles generally lie south of the cratonic poles, suggesting that the region between the Kaltag, Bruin Bay, and Castle Mountain faults has rotated counterclockwise relative to North America since the early Eocene.

  18. Petrology, Magnetic susceptibility, Tectonic setting and mineralization associated with Plutonic and Volcanic Rocks, Eastern Bajestan and Taherabad, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malihe Ghoorchi


    Full Text Available Study area is located in district of Bajestan and Ferdows cities, NE of Iran. Structurally, this area is part of Lut block. The oldest exposed rocks, to the north of intrusive rocks and in Eastern Bajestan, are meta-chert, slate, quartzite, thin-bedded crystalline limestone and meta-argillite. The sedimentary units are: Sardar Formation (Carboniferous, Jamal Formation (Permian, Sorkh Shale and Shotori Formations (Triassic, carbonateous rocks (Cretaceous and lithostratigraphically equivalent to Kerman conglomerate (Cretaceous-Paleocene are exposed in this area. Based on relative age, magmatism in eastern Bajestan and Taherabad started after Late Cretaceous and it has been active and repeated during Tertiary time. At least, three episodes of volcanic activities are recognized in this area. The first stage was mainly volcanic flow with mafic composition and minor intermediate. The second episode was mainly intermediate in composition. The third stage was changed to acid-intermediate in composition. Since the plutonic rocks intruded the volcanic rocks, therefore they may be Oligo-Miocene age. Bajestan intrusive rocks are granite-granodiorite-quartz monzonite. Taherabad intrusive rocks are diorite-quartz diorite- monzonite-latite. Bajestan intrusive rocks are reduced type (ilmenite series and Taherabad intrusive rocks are oxidized type (magnetite series.Based on geochemical analysis including trace elements, REE and isotopic data, Bajestan intrusive rocks formed in continental collision zone and the magma has crustal origin. Taherabad intrusive rocks were formed in subduction zone and magma originated from oceanic crust. Taherabad intrusive rock has exploration potential for Cu-Au and pb.

  19. Comparison of geochemical characteristics and forming environment of volcanic rocks in Northern Xinjiang and the Songliao Basin, China


    Yanzhao Wei; Xia Zhao; Shan Lu; Zhongying Zhao


    The tectonic settings of Northern Xinjiang, Songliao Basin, and its peripheral areas all belong to the Paleoasian orogenic region. Their main structures are all composed of multiple continental segments and peripheral fold belts. Similar tectonic setting and complicated basement structure give rise to the similarities and differences in the forming environment and geochemical characteristics of volcanic rocks in the two regions. The similarities include lack of typical calc-alkalic volcanic r...

  20. Geochemistry and mineral chemistry of pyroxenite xenoliths and host volcanic alkaline rocks from north west of Marand (NW Iran) (United States)

    Khezerlou, Ali Akbar; Amel, Nasir; Gregoire, Michel; Moayyed, Mohsen; Jahangiri, Ahmad


    The Plio-Quaternary alkaline volcanic rocks from the northwest of Marand (NW Iran) consist of trachy-andesites, trachy-basaltic andesites, leucite-tephrites and tephrites. They display a distinct LILE and LREE enrichment, a HFSE depletion (Ta, Ti, and Nb) and high Ba/Ta and Ba/Nb ratios, which are among the characteristics of subduction-derived magmatic rocks. The investigated clinopyroxenite xenoliths mostly occur within the trachy-andesites and more rarely within the trachy-basaltic andesite rocks. These xenoliths, which have a cumulate texture, are classified into four groups based on their mineralogical and chemical features. Group 1 contains clinopyroxene and amphibole as the main minerals. This group does not indicate a clear enrichment in incompatible trace elements in contrast with the Groups 2 and 4, where Ba, Th and U are enriched. Major element contents of clinopyroxenes and amphiboles of Group 1 xenoliths are similar to those of their counterparts of intermediate volcanic rocks. In addition, their contents of compatible elements such as Cr and Ni (whole rock) are also the same, implying a similar magmatic origin. Group 2 contains clinopyroxene and phlogopite as the main minerals. This group, similarly to potassic and ultrapotassic volcanic rocks, is enriched in LREE compared to HREE and unlike the intermediate volcanic rocks, does not contain amphibole. Their 143Nd/144Nd and 86Sr/87Sr ratios are also different. Given the Cr and Ni contents, the REE pattern shape and the chemical composition of clinopyroxene and phlogopite, it seems that the parental melt of this group is similar to the one of potassic and ultrapotassic volcanic rocks. Group 3 contains clinopyroxene and biotite as the main minerals. The REE pattern of this group, unlike those of Groups 1, 2 and 4, has a relatively flat slope. In addition, the content of compatible elements, such as Cr and Ni, also differ as well as the chemical composition of clinopyroxene and mica, which are also

  1. A preliminary evaluation of volcanic rock powder for application in agriculture as soil a remineralizer. (United States)

    Ramos, Claudete G; Querol, Xavier; Oliveira, Marcos L S; Pires, Karen; Kautzmann, Rubens M; Oliveira, Luis F S


    Mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of volcanic rock residue, from a crushing plant in the Nova Prata Mining District, State of Rio Grande do Sul (RS), Brazil, in this work named rock powder, were investigated in view of its potential application as soil ammendment in agriculture. Abaut 52,400 m(3) of mining waste is generated annually in the city of Nova Prata without a proper disposal. The nutrients potentially available to plants were evaluated through leaching laboratory tests. Nutrient leaching tests were performed in Milli-Q water; citric acid solution 1% and 2% (AC); and oxalic acid solution 1% and 5% (AO). The bulk and leachable contents of 57 elements were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). Mining waste were made up by CaO, K2O, SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, and P2O5. The analysis by X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed the major occurence of quartz, anorthite, cristobalite, sanidine, and augite. The water leachable concentrations of all elements studied were lower than 1.0mg/kg, indicating their low solubility. Leaching tests in acidic media yield larger leachable fractions for all elements being studied are in the leachate of the AO 1%. These date usefulness of volcanic rock powder as potential natural fertilizer in agriculture in the mining district in Nova Prata, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil to reduce the use of chemical fertilizers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Early Cretaceous bimodal volcanic rocks in the southern Lhasa terrane, south Tibet: Age, petrogenesis and tectonic implications (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Ding, Lin; Liu, Zhi-Chao; Zhang, Li-Yun; Yue, Ya-Hui


    Limited geochronological and geochemical data from Early Cretaceous igneous rocks of the Gangdese Belt have resulted in a dispute regarding the subduction history of Neo-Tethyan Ocean. To approach this issue, we performed detailed in-situ zircon U-Pb and Hf isotopic, whole-rock elemental and Sr-Nd isotopic analyses on Late Mesozoic volcanic rocks exposed in the Liqiongda area, southern Lhasa terrane. These volcanic rocks are calc-alkaline series, dominated by basalts, basaltic andesites, and subordinate rhyolites, with a bimodal suite. The LA-ICPMS zircon U-Pb dating results of the basaltic andesites and rhyolites indicate that these volcanic rocks erupted during the Early Cretaceous (137-130 Ma). The basaltic rocks are high-alumina (average > 17 wt.%), enriched in large ion lithophile elements (LILEs) and light rare earth elements (LREEs), and depleted in high field strength elements (HFSEs), showing subduction-related characteristics. They display highly positive zircon εHf(t) values (+ 10.0 to + 16.3) and whole-rock εNd(t) values (+ 5.38 to + 7.47). The silicic suite is characterized by low Al2O3 (oceanic lithosphere was flat-lying beneath the Lhasa terrane during the Early Cretaceous.

  3. Following the kinetics: iron-oxidizing microbial mats in cold icelandic volcanic habitats and their rock-associated carbonaceous signature. (United States)

    Cockell, Charles S; Kelly, Laura C; Summers, Stephen; Marteinsson, Viggo


    Icelandic streams with mean annual temperatures of less than 5 °C, which receive the cationic products of basaltic rock weathering, were found to host mats of iron-cycling microorganisms. We investigated two representative sites. Iron-oxidizing Gallionella and iron-reducing Geobacter species were present. The mats host a high bacterial diversity as determined by culture-independent methods. β-Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, α-Proteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes were abundant microbial taxa. The mat contained a high number of phototroph sequences. The carbon compounds in the mat displayed broad G and D bands with Raman spectroscopy. This signature becomes incorporated into the weathered oxidized surface layer of the basaltic rocks and was observed on rocks that no longer host mats. The presence of iron-oxidizing taxa in the stream microbial mats, and the lack of them in previously studied volcanic rocks in Iceland that have intermittently been exposed to surface water flows, can be explained by the kinetic limitations to the extraction of reduced iron from rocks. This type of ecosystem illustrates key factors that control the distribution of chemolithotrophs in cold volcanic environments. The data show that one promising sample type for which the hypothesis of the existence of past life on Mars can be tested is the surface of volcanic rocks that, previously, were situated within channels carved by flowing water. Our results also show that the carbonaceous signatures of life, if life had occurred, could be found in or on these rocks.

  4. Submarine geology and geomorphology of active Sub-Antarctic volcanoes: Heard and McDonald Islands (United States)

    Watson, S. J.; Coffin, M. F.; Whittaker, J. M.; Lucieer, V.; Fox, J. M.; Carey, R.; Arculus, R. J.; Bowie, A. R.; Chase, Z.; Robertson, R.; Martin, T.; Cooke, F.


    Heard and McDonald Islands (HIMI) are World Heritage listed sub-Antarctic active volcanic islands in the Southern Indian Ocean. Built atop the Kerguelen Plateau by Neogene-Quaternary volcanism, HIMI represent subaerial exposures of the second largest submarine Large Igneous Province globally. Onshore, processes influencing island evolution include glaciers, weathering, volcanism, vertical tectonics and mass-wasting (Duncan et al. 2016). Waters surrounding HIMI are largely uncharted, due to their remote location. Hence, the extent to which these same processes shape the submarine environment around HIMI has not been investigated. In early 2016, we conducted marine geophysical and geologic surveys around HIMI aboard RV Investigator (IN2016_V01). Results show that volcanic and sedimentary features prominently trend east-west, likely a result of erosion by the eastward flowing Antarctic Circumpolar Current and tidal currents. However, spatial patterns of submarine volcanism and sediment distribution differ substantially between the islands. >70 sea knolls surround McDonald Island suggesting substantial submarine volcanism. Geophysical data reveals hard volcanic seafloor around McDonald Island, whereas Heard Island is characterised by sedimentary sequences tens of meters or more thick and iceberg scours - indicative of glacial processes. Differences in submarine geomorphology are likely due to the active glaciation of Heard Island and differing rock types (Heard: alkali basalt, McDonald: phonolite), and dominant products (clastics vs. lava). Variations may also reflect different magmatic plumbing systems beneath the two active volcanoes (Heard produces larger volumes of more focused lava, whilst McDonald extrudes smaller volumes of more evolved lavas from multiple vents across the edifice). Using geophysical data, corroborated with new and existing geologic data, we present the first geomorphic map revealing the processes that shape the submarine environment around HIMI.

  5. Early Paleozoic intracontinental orogeny and post-orogenic extension in the South China Block: Insights from volcanic rocks (United States)

    Zhang, Xi-Song; Xu, Xi-Sheng; Xia, Yan; Liu, Lei


    The early Paleozoic orogeny represents the first extensive Phanerozoic tectono-thermal event in the South China Block (SCB). Two distinct orogeny models, subduction-collision orogeny and intracontinental orogeny, have been proposed, and one of the key controversies is the nature and the tectonic implications of the associated early Paleozoic volcanic rocks in the SCB, which have not yet been systematically investigated. Zircon U-Pb dating results show that these volcanic rocks formed at 445-435 Ma, coeval with large-scale intrusive magmatism (446-420 Ma). The felsic volcanic rocks, which include the Mashan and Hekou dacites and rhyolites, show high SiO2, low MgO and low Fe2O3 contents. Whole-rock trace-element and isotopic compositions of the felsic volcanic rocks suggest that they were generated by partial melting of a Paleoproterozoic crustal component. The mafic volcanic rocks are represented by the Chayuanshan basalts, which are characterized by low SiO2, high MgO, Cr and Ni contents, enrichment in LILEs and depletion in HFSEs. The low Nb/La ratios, high Th/Yb ratios and negative whole-rock ɛNd(t) values suggest that the basalts were derived from partial melting of a metasomatized subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM). The ;subduction signature; (calc-alkaline affinity, enriched LILEs and depleted HFSEs) of the Chayuanshan basalts was supposed to be inherited from the source and it didn't reflect their generation in a subduction-related arc setting. Asthenospheric mantle upwelling and basaltic magma underplating may have been responsible for the partial melting of the crust and the metasomatized SCLM, which produced the Hekou and Mashan dacites and rhyolites and Chayuanshan basalts, respectively. Activation of the pre-existing suture zones, asthenospheric mantle upwelling and extensive partial melting of the crust caused the intensive magmatism of the SCB in early Paleozoic.

  6. Textural and Mineralogical Analysis of Volcanic Rocks by µ-XRF Mapping. (United States)

    Germinario, Luigi; Cossio, Roberto; Maritan, Lara; Borghi, Alessandro; Mazzoli, Claudio


    In this study, µ-XRF was applied as a novel surface technique for quick acquisition of elemental X-ray maps of rocks, image analysis of which provides quantitative information on texture and rock-forming minerals. Bench-top µ-XRF is cost-effective, fast, and non-destructive, can be applied to both large (up to a few tens of cm) and fragile samples, and yields major and trace element analysis with good sensitivity. Here, X-ray mapping was performed with a resolution of 103.5 µm and spot size of 30 µm over sample areas of about 5×4 cm of Euganean trachyte, a volcanic porphyritic rock from the Euganean Hills (NE Italy) traditionally used in cultural heritage. The relative abundance of phenocrysts and groundmass, as well as the size and shape of the various mineral phases, were obtained from image analysis of the elemental maps. The quantified petrographic features allowed identification of various extraction sites, revealing an objective method for archaeometric provenance studies exploiting µ-XRF imaging.

  7. Petrochemistry of late miocene peraluminous silicic volcanic rocks from the Morococala field, Bolivia (United States)

    Morgan, VI G.B.; London, D.; Luedke, R.G.


    Late Miocene peraluminous volcanic rocks of the Morococala field, Bolivia, define a layered stratigraphy of basal andalusite-, biotite-(?? Muscovite)-bearing rhyolite tuffs (AR), overlain by cordierite-, biotite-bearing rhyolite tuffs (CR), and capped by biotite-beanng quartz latite tuffs, lavas, and late domal flows (QL). Mineral and whole-rock compositions become more evolved from top to bottom, with differentiation reflected by decreasing Ca, Ba, Mg, Fe, and rare earth elements (REE) versus increasing F, Na/K, and aluminosity from QL to AR. Mineral, whole-rock, and glass inclusion compositions are consistent with derivation of all three rock types from a single stratified magma reservoir, but age and spatial relations between the three units make this unlikely. Genesis of the QL involved biotite-dehydration melting of an aluminous source at T > 750??C and P ??? 4-6 kbar. If not co-magmatic with QL, the other units were generated primarily by muscovite-dehydration melting at T = 730-750??C and P ??? 3??5-4??5 kbar for CR, and T ??? 750??C for AR with pre-emptive residence at low pressure (1??5-3??0 kbar). Low hematite contents (XHem ??? 0??06) of ilmenite grains in AR, CR, and early grains (as inclusions in plagioclase and sanidine cores) in QL indicate reduced conditions imposed by a graphite-bearing source. Compositional variability among texturally later oxides (ilmenite with XHem = 0??06-0??50, primary magnetite), however, apparently records progressive increases in pre-eruptive f(O2) in QL. Plagioclase-melt equilibria and electron microprobe analysis difference for quartz-hosted glass inclusions suggest pre-emptive melt H2O contents ??? 5-7 wt % for the AR, ???4-6 wt % for the CR, and ???3-5 wt % for the QL.

  8. Volcanological, petrographical and geochemical characteristics of Late Cretaceous volcanic rocks around Borçka-Artvin region (NE Turkey) (United States)

    Baser, Rasim; Aydin, Faruk; Oguz, Simge


    This study presents volcanological, petrographical and geochemical data for late Cretaceous volcanic rocks from the Borçka-Artvin region (NE Turkey) in order to investigate their origin and magmatic evolution. Based on the previous ages and recent field studies, the late Cretaceous time in the study area is characterized by two different bimodal volcanic periods. The first bimodal period of the late Cretaceous volcanism is mainly represented by mafic rock series (basaltic-basaltic andesitic pillow lavas and hyaloclastites) in the lower part, and felsic rock series (dacitic lavas, hyaloclastites, and pyrite-bearing tuffs) in the upper part. The second bimodal period of the late Cretaceous volcanism begins with mafic rock suites (basaltic-andesitic lavas and dikes-sills) and grades upward into felsic rock suites (biotite-bearing rhyolitic lavas and hyaloclastites), which are intercalated with hyaloclastites and red pelagic limestones. All volcano-sedimentary units are covered by Late Campanian-Paleocene clayey limestones and biomicrites with lesser calciturbidites. The mafic volcanic series of the study area, which comprise basaltic and andesitic rocks, generally show amygdaloidal and aphyric to porphyritic texture with phenocrysts of calcic to sodic plagioclase and augite in a hyalopilitic matrix of plag+cpx+mag. Zircon and magnetite are sometimes observed as accessory minerals, whereas chlorite, epidote and calcite are typical alteration products. On the other hand, the felsic volcanic series consisting of dacitic and rhyolitic rocks mostly display porphyritic and glomeroporphyritic textures with predominant feldspar, quartz and some biotite phenocrysts. The microgranular to felsophyric groundmass is mainly composed of aphanitic plagioclase, K-feldspar and quartz. Accessory minerals such as zircon, apatite and magnetite are common. Typical alteration products are sericite and clay minerals. Late Cretaceous Artvin-Borçka bimodal rock series generally display a

  9. Alteration of volcanic rocks: A new non-intrusive indicator based on induced polarization measurements (United States)

    Revil, A.; Murugesu, M.; Prasad, M.; Le Breton, M.


    Induced polarization is a geophysical method investigating the ability of rocks to store reversibly electrical charges under a slowly alternating electrical field. The material property of interest is a complex-valued electrical conductivity with an in-phase component associated with conduction and a quadrature component associated with polarization. We investigated the relationship between complex conductivity spectra over the frequency range 1 mHz-45 kHz and the specific surface area (SSA) of 28 volcanic core samples extracted from a wellbore drilled for the Humu´ula Groundwater Research Project in Hawaii. The specific surface area of these samples was determined through the Brunauer, Emmett and Teller (BET) method. Subcritical nitrogen adsorption experiments were conducted using two different instruments and the samples were prepared in both pellets and powder forms. The BET specific surface area is found to be highly correlated to the cation exchange capacity of the core samples measured by the cobalthexamine method. The in-phase conductivity itself can be decomposed as the sum of a bulk contribution associated with conduction in the bulk pore water and a surface conductivity associated with conduction in the electrical double layer coating the grains. The surface conductivity, the quadrature conductivity, and the normalized chargeability (defined as the difference between the in-phase conductivity at high and low frequencies) are observed to be linearly correlated to the specific surface area or the surface per volume ratio of the core samples, which can be considered as proxy of alteration. These trends are consistent with those shown by sedimentary rocks. This new data set demonstrates that the induced polarization method can be potentially used to image alteration in volcanic environments.

  10. Paleomagnetism of Late Permian volcanic rocks from South Transbaikalia: preliminary results (United States)

    Fedyukin, I.; Shatsillo, A.


    Tamir volcano-tectonic structure (VTS) is one of the largest Late Paleozoic rift related features within Selengin-Vitim volcano-plutonic belt. The belt was formed in the back area of Siberian continent active margin (Gordienko et al., 2010). Igneous-sedimentary rocks within Tamir VTS are presented by contrastive volcanites more than 5 km thick. The deposits are subdivided into three suits: Ungurkuy (mostly basaltic), Tamir (acidic volcanics and tuffs) and Chernoyar (presented mostly by basalts, andesites and tuffs, sandstones and conglomerates). The age of youngest suits (Tamir and Chernoyar) is Late Permian, Middle-late Triassic accordingly. The age of Ungurkuy suit is deemed to be between Late Carboniferous and Late Permian (Gordienko et al., 1998; Popeko et al., 2005). Volcanic deposits of the three suits were studied to create APWP for the Siberian craton. 200 oriented samples from 31 sites were collected from the Tamir, Shazaga, Kiret, Ungurkuy and Ara-Kiret river valleys within South Transbaikalia. A number of samples were characterized by interpretable paleomagnetic signal. Tamir and Chernoyar rocks were collected from monoclinal structure within Tamir river valley. 5 sites show direction of magnetization similar to directions revealed from Early Cretaceous volcanites from nearby area (Metelkin et al., 2004). The magnetization is metachronous. In the other 8 sites the directions of magnetization are bipolar. The magnetization direction is well-correlated with Triassic APWP of Europe (Torsvik, Cocks, 2005). The volcanites of Ungurkuy suite show mostly monopolar (normal polarity) magnetization direction (formed before crustal folding) between Early Permian and Permian-Triassic Siberian poles, which indicates its Late Permian age. The normal polarity of the deposits indicates its formation in the period between Kiama superchron, characterized by reversal polarity, and Illavara hyperchron with mixed polarity - 265 Ma. This work was supported by the Russian

  11. Physical Volcanology and Hazard Analysis of a Young Volcanic Field: Black Rock Desert, Utah, USA (United States)

    Hintz, A. R.


    The Black Rock Desert volcanic field, located in west-central Utah, consists of ~30 small-volume monogenetic volcanoes with compositions ranging from small rhyolite domes to large basaltic lava flow fields. The field has exhibited bimodal volcanism for > 9 Ma with the most recent eruption of Ice Springs volcano ˜ 600 yrs ago. Together this eruptive history along with ongoing geothermal activity attests to the usefulness of a hazard assessment. The likelihood of a future eruption in this area has been calculated to be ˜ 8% over the next 1 Ka (95% confidence). However, many aspects of this field such as the explosivity and nature of many of these eruptions are not well known. The physical volcanology of the Tabernacle Hill volcano, suggests a complicated episodic eruption that may have lasted up to 50 yrs. The initial phreatomagmatic eruptions at Tabernacle Hill are reported to have begun ~14 Ka. This initial eruptive phase produced a tuff cone approximately 150 m high and 1.5 km in diameter with distinct bedding layers. Recent mapping and sampling of Tabernacle Hill's lava field, tuff cone and intra-crater deposits were aimed at better constraining the eruptive history, physical volcanology, and explosive energy associated with this eruption. Blocks ejected during the eruption were mapped and analyzed to yield minimum muzzle velocities of 60 - 70 meters per second. These velocities were used in conjunction with an estimated shallow depth of explosion to calculate an energy yield of ˜ 0.5 kT.

  12. Volcanic sequence in Late Triassic – Jurassic siliciclastic and evaporitic rocks from Galeana, NE Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz-Gómez, E.M.; Velasco-Tapia, F.; Ramírez-Fernández, J.A.; Jenchen, U.; Rodríguez-Saavedra, P.; Rodríguez-Díaz, A.A.; Iriondo, A.


    In northeastern Mexico, volcanic rocks interbedded with Late Triassic–Jurassic siliciclastic and evaporitic strata have been linked to magmatic arcs developed in the Pangea western margin during its initial phase of fragmentation. This work provides new petrographic and geochemical data for volcanism included in the El Alamar and Minas Viejas formations outcropping in the Galeana region. Andesitic dykes and sills (n= 10) in the El Alamar redbeds show SiO2= 47.5–59.1% and MgO= 1.2–4.2%, as well as a geochemical affinity to island arc magmas. This work represents the first report of this tectonic setting in the region. Geological and petrographic evidence suggest that this arc system likely developed after ~220 and before ~193Ma. Trachy-andesitic and rhyodacitic domes (n= 20) associated with the Minas Viejas gypsum-carbonates sequence show SiO2= 61.8–82.7% and MgO= 0.1–4.0% with a tectonic affinity to continental arc. A rhyodacite sample from this region has been dated by U-Pb in zircon, yielding an age of 149.4 ± 1.2Ma (n= 21), being the youngest age related to this arc. Finally, we propose a threestep model to explain the tectonic evolution from Late Triassic island arc to Jurassic continental arc system in the northeastern Mexico.

  13. Kolumbo submarine volcano (Greece): An active window into the Aegean subduction system. (United States)

    Rizzo, Andrea Luca; Caracausi, Antonio; Chavagnac, Valèrie; Nomikou, Paraskevi; Polymenakou, Paraskevi N; Mandalakis, Manolis; Kotoulas, Georgios; Magoulas, Antonios; Castillo, Alain; Lampridou, Danai


    Submarine volcanism represents ~80% of the volcanic activity on Earth and is an important source of mantle-derived gases. These gases are of basic importance for the comprehension of mantle characteristics in areas where subaerial volcanism is missing or strongly modified by the presence of crustal/atmospheric components. Though, the study of submarine volcanism remains a challenge due to their hazardousness and sea-depth. Here, we report (3)He/(4)He measurements in CO2-dominated gases discharged at 500 m below sea level from the high-temperature (~220 °C) hydrothermal system of the Kolumbo submarine volcano (Greece), located 7 km northeast off Santorini Island in the central part of the Hellenic Volcanic Arc (HVA). We highlight that the mantle below Kolumbo and Santorini has a (3)He/(4)He signature of at least 7.0 Ra (being Ra the (3)He/(4)He ratio of atmospheric He equal to 1.39×10(-6)), 3 Ra units higher than actually known for gases-rocks from Santorini. This ratio is also the highest measured across the HVA and is indicative of the direct degassing of a Mid-Ocean-Ridge-Basalts (MORB)-like mantle through lithospheric faults. We finally highlight that the degassing of high-temperature fluids with a MORB-like (3)He/(4)He ratio corroborates a vigorous outgassing of mantle-derived volatiles with potential hazard at the Kolumbo submarine volcano.

  14. Characteristics of Fault Zones in Volcanic Rocks Near Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donald Sweetkind; Ronald M. Drake II


    During 2005 and 2006, the USGS conducted geological studies of fault zones at surface outcrops at the Nevada Test Site. The objectives of these studies were to characterize fault geometry, identify the presence of fault splays, and understand the width and internal architecture of fault zones. Geologic investigations were conducted at surface exposures in upland areas adjacent to Yucca Flat, a basin in the northeastern part of the Nevada Test Site; these data serve as control points for the interpretation of the subsurface data collected at Yucca Flat by other USGS scientists. Fault zones in volcanic rocks near Yucca Flat differ in character and width as a result of differences in the degree of welding and alteration of the protolith, and amount of fault offset. Fault-related damage zones tend to scale with fault offset; damage zones associated with large-offset faults (>100 m) are many tens of meters wide, whereas damage zones associated with smaller-offset faults are generally a only a meter or two wide. Zeolitically-altered tuff develops moderate-sized damage zones whereas vitric nonwelded, bedded and airfall tuff have very minor damage zones, often consisting of the fault zone itself as a deformation band, with minor fault effect to the surrounding rock mass. These differences in fault geometry and fault zone architecture in surface analog sites can serve as a guide toward interpretation of high-resolution subsurface geophysical results from Yucca Flat.

  15. Crystallisation condition of the Quaternary basanites of volcanic centre Black Rock, monogenetic field Lunar Crater (United States)

    Turova, Mariia; Plechov, Pavel; Scherbakov, Vasily; Larin, Nikolay


    The Lunar Crater volcanic field is located in a tension zone Basin and Range Province (USA). This tension is connected with dives oceanic plate under the continental plate [1]. Lunar Crater consists of flows basalt, basanite, trachybasalt has a different age [2]. In this work we investigate the youngest rock - basanite. The basanite is highly crystalline consisting of about megacrysts (3-10 cm) 30-60 wt% phenocrysts ( 800-1500 µm) and microphenocrysts (100-800 µm) and 40-60% microlites (Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences. - 1981. - T. 300. - №. 1454. - C. 407-434. 2. Wood, X., and Keinle, Y., 1990, Volcanoes of North America: Cambridge,United Kingdom, Cambridge University Press, 354 p. 3. Nimis P. Clinopyroxene geobarometry of magmatic rocks. Part 2. Structural geobarometers for basic to acid, tholeiitic and mildly alkaline magmatic systems //Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology. - 1999. - T. 135. - №. 1. - C. 62-74. 4. Ballhaus C., Berry R. F., Green D. H. High pressure experimental calibration of the olivine-orthopyroxene-spinel oxygen geobarometer: implications for the oxidation state of the upper mantle //Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology. - 1991. - T. 107. - №. 1. - C. 27-40.

  16. Effect of the specimen length on ultrasonic P-wave velocity in some volcanic rocks and limestones (United States)

    Karaman, Kadir; Kaya, Ayberk; Kesimal, Ayhan


    Ultrasonic P-wave velocity (UPV) is commonly used in different fields such as civil, mining, geotechnical, and rock engineering. One of the significant parameters which affect the UPV of rock materials is likely to be the length of test cores although it is not mentioned in the literature. In this study, in order to explore the influence of the specimen length on the UPV, rock samples were collected from eight different locations in Turkey. The NX-sized core specimens having different length of 50, 75, 100, 125, and 150 mm were prepared. Before the analyses, rocks were divided into two groups in terms of their geological origins such as volcanic and chemical sedimentary (limestone) rocks. The UPV tests were carried out under dry and saturated conditions for each 200 core specimens. By evaluating the test results, it was shown that the length of the specimens significantly affects the UPV values. Based on the regression analyses, a method was developed to determine the threshold specimen length of studied rocks. Fluctuations in UPVdry and UPVsat values were generally observed for cores smaller than the threshold specimen length. In this study, the threshold specimen length was determined as 79 mm for volcanic rocks and 109 mm for limestones.

  17. Mineral chemistry, Thermo-barometry and Crystal Size Distribution of volcanic rocks from Shirinak: Implication for genesis of volcanic rocks in the southeast of Urumieh-Dokhtar (Kerman province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Sepidbar


    Full Text Available The Shirinak volcanic rocks, known as Dahaj-Sarduieh belt in Kerman province, are exposed southeast of Urumieh-Dokhtar volcanic belt. Petrographically, the volcanic rocks are basalts and andesite, which consist mainly of plagioclase, clinopyroxene, olivine as well as calcite, quartz and chlorite as the secondary minerals.  All of these minerals set in fine grain matrix with porphyric and glomeroporphyric textures. Based on mineral chemistry data, plagioclases range from labradorite to bytownite and have been undergone compositional and thermal mixing. They mostly show sieve texture.  CSD (crystal size distribution study shows that the shape of plagioclase microlites is tablet with aspect ratio of 1:7:10 for short:intermediate:long axes, respectively. Moreover, three-dimensional shape of plagioclase crystals, nucleation and growth time were estimated 40.27 years, which is completely consistent with the nature of basalt. Based on dip of CSD diagram, magma mixing process has been clearly involved in the magma genesis. The pyroxenes studied are augite in composition that were physically crystalized in moderate to high pressure and temperature of 550-1110 ̊ C. They crystallized from a magma likely with about 10% fluid and in variable fO2 condition. On the base of pyroxene chemistry, the basic rocks from Shirinak belong to tholeiitic to calcalkaline series in volcanic arc setting (Neo-Tethys subduction.

  18. Paleomagnetism and Rock Magnetic Properties from Quaternary Lavas and Tuffs of the Yellowstone Plateau Volcanic Field (United States)

    Harlan, S. S.; Morgan, L. A.


    We report paleomagnetic and rock magnetic from rhyolite lava flows, ignimbrites, and basalt flows associated with the Yellowstone Caldera, within and surrounding Yellowstone National Park. These data were collected in order to understand sources of magnetic variations observed in high resolution aeromagnetic data reported by Finn and Morgan (2002), and to better understand the evolution of the Yellowstone magmatic system. Most paleomagnetic samples are from volcanic rocks of the third eruptive cycle (1.2 Ma to 0.070 Ma), including the ca. 0.640 Ma Lava Creek Tuff, postcaldera rhyolite flows, and contemporaneous marginal or post-caldera basalt flows. Magnetic intensities for samples ranged from 0.12 A/m to 5.9 A/m, with volume susceptibilities of 2.14x10-4 to 1.45x10-3 SI; Q ratios range from 0.67 to 23.8. As expected, most sites yield well-defined paleomagnetic directions of north declination and moderate positive inclination consistent with remanence acquisition during the Brunhes polarity chron. However, a few sites from older units such as the rhyolites of the Harlequin Lake (0.839 ± 0.007 Ma) and Lewis Canyon (0.853 ± 0.008 Ma) flows, and the basalts from the Junction Butte flow (at Tower Falls, 2.16 ± 0.04 Ma) and Hepburn Mesa (2.2 Ma) yield reverse polarity magnetizations (40Ar/39Ar dates from Obradovich, 1992, and Harlan, unpublished (Hepburn Mesa flow)). Rock magnetic behavior, including high coercivities during AF demagnetization, high laboratory unblocking temperatures, and susceptibility vs. temperature determinations indicate that remanence in the rhyolitic samples is carried by a combination of single or pseudo-single domain magnetite and/or hematite; in the basalt flows magnetite and high-Ti titanomagnetite carrys the remanence. Paleomagnetic results from 46 sites in 27 separate flows yields a grand mean direction with a declination of 356.9° and inclination of 61.9° (k = 35.2, α95 = 4.8°). VGPs calculated from the site-mean directions yield a

  19. Characterizing Volcanic Processes using Near-bottom, High Resolution Magnetic Mapping of the Caldera and Inner Crater of the Kick'em Jenny Submarine Volcano (United States)

    Ruchala, T. L.; Chen, M.; Tominaga, M.; Carey, S.


    Kick'em Jenny (KEJ) is an active submarine volcano located in the Lesser Antilles subduction zone, 7.5 km north of the Caribbean island Grenada. KEJ, known as one of the most explosive volcanoes in Caribbean, erupted 12 times since 1939 with recent eruptions in 2001 and possibly in 2015. Multiple generations of submarine landslides and canyons have been observed in which some of them can be attributed to past eruptions. The structure of KEJ can be characterized as a 1300 m high conical profile with its summit crater located around 180 m in depth. Active hydrothermal venting and dominantly CO2 composition gas seepage take place inside this 250m diameter crater, with the most activity occurring primarily within a small ( 70 x 110 m) depression zone (inner crater). In order to characterize the subsurface structure and decipher the processes of this volcanic system, the Nautilus NA054 expedition in 2014 deployed the underwater Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) Hercules to conduct near-bottom geological observations and magnetometry surveys transecting KEJ's caldera. Raw magnetic data was corrected for vehicle induced magnetic noise, then merged with ROV to ship navigation at 1 HZ. To extract crustal magnetic signatures, the reduced magnetic data was further corrected for external variations such as the International Geomagnetic Reference Field and diurnal variations using data from the nearby San Juan Observatory. We produced a preliminary magnetic anomaly map of KEJ's caldera for subsequent inversion and forward modeling to delineate in situ magnetic source distribution in understanding volcanic processes. We integrated the magnetic characterization of the KEJ craters with shipboard multibeam, ROV visual descriptions, and photomosaics. Initial observations show the distribution of short wavelength scale highly magnetized source centered at the north western part of the inner crater. Although locations of gas seeps are ubiquitous over the inner crater area along ROV

  20. Supracrustal rocks in the Kuovila area, Southern Finland: structural evolution, geochemical characteristics and the age of volcanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietari Skyttä


    Full Text Available The supracrustal rocks of the Kuovila area in the Palaeoproterozoic Svecofennian Uusimaa Belt, southern Finland, consist mainly of volcaniclastic rocks associated with banded iron formations (BIFs and marbles. Small ZnS and PbS mineralizations are occasionally located within the marbles. Some primary features are well preserved in the sedimentary and volcanic rocks, including lamination in tuffites and banded iron formations. Geochemical results show that the volcanism was bimodal and it mainly had volcanic arc affinity. Specific geochemical indicators suggesting a volcanic arc origin for the Kuovila volcanic rocks include: 1 Enrichment of LILE over the HFSE elements and 2 Distinctly low Nb and Ta contents in relation to Th, Ce and LREE. Geochemistry of the Kuovila area volcanic rocks is very similar to those of the Orijärvi and Kisko formations, located ~15 km NE of Kuovila. Felsic tuff in the Kuovila area was dated at 1891±4 Ma by the U-Pb system on zircons. Consequently volcanism was contemporaneous with magmatism in the adjacent Orijärvi area, thus representing the earliest identified volcanic stage in the southern Svecofennian Uusimaa Belt. Early deformation structures within the Kuovila area are suggested to relate to low-metamorphic or localized low-angle thrusting during D1. F1 folds were recumbent and the S1 cleavages are generally weak. Thrusting was followed by approximately N–S contraction with upright, peak-metamorphic F2 folding overprinting D1 structures and defining the Kuovila synform. Two separate intrusive phases include a synvolcanic granodiorite-diorite-gabbro association and a weakly S2-foliated syn-D2 granodiorite. Anatectic granites and associated migmatizing veins are absent, therefore suggesting that D2 pre-dates the ~1.84–1.82 Ga metamorphic event in the Southern Svecofennian Arc Complex (SSAC. D2 structuresin the Kuovila area are suggested to correlate with the early structures with associated axial planar

  1. Spectral characterization of volcanic rocks in the VIS-NIR for martian exploration (United States)

    De Angelis, Simone; Carli, Cristian; Manzari, Paola; De Sanctis, Maria Cristina; Capaccioni, Fabrizio


    Igneous effusive rocks cover much of the surface of Mars [1,2,3]. Initially only two types of lithologies were thought to constitute the Martian crust, i.e. a basaltic one and a more andesitic one [1,2], while more evolved lithologies were ruled out.Nevertheless a more complex situation is appearing in the last years. Recently several observations have highlighted the presence of evolved, acidic rocks. High-silica dacite units were identified in Syrtis Major caldera by thermal IR data [4]. Outcrops in Noachis Terra were interpreted as constituted of felsic (i.e. feldspar-rich) rocks essentially by the observation of a 1.3-µm spectral feature in CRISM data, attributed to Fe2+ in feldspars [5]. However different interpretations exist, invoking plagioclase-enriched basalts [6] rather than felsic products.The increasing of high-resolution and in-situ rover-based observations datasets and the changing of the initial paradigm justify a new systematic spectral study of igneous effusive rocks. In this work we focus on the spectral characterization of volcanic effusive rocks in the 0.35-2.5-µm range. We are carrying out measurements and spectral analyses on a wide ensemble of effusive samples, from mafic to sialic, with variable alkali contents, following the classification in the Total-Alkali-Silica diagram, and discussing the influence on spectral characteristics of different mineral assemblages and/or texture ([7], [8]). [1] Bandfield J.L., et al., Science, 287, 1626, 2000; [2] Christensen P.R., et al., J. Geophys. Res., 105, N.E4, 9609-9621, 2000; [3] Ehlmann B.L. & Edwards C.S., Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci., 42, 291-315, 2014; [4] Christensen P.R., et al., Nature, 436, 504-509, 2005; [5] Wray J.J., et al., 44th LPSC, abs. n.3065, 2013; [6] Rogers A.D. & Nekvasil H., Geophys. Res. Lett., 42, 2619-2626, 2015; [7] Carli C. and Sgavetti M.,Icarus, 211, 1034-1048, 2011; [7] Carli C. et al., SGL, doi 10.1144/SP401.19, 2015.

  2. Submarine basaltic fountain eruptions in a back-arc basin during the opening of the Japan Sea (United States)

    Hosoi, Jun; Amano, Kazuo


    Basaltic rock generated during the middle Miocene opening of the Japan Sea, is widely distributed on the back-arc side of the Japanese archipelago. Few studies have investigated on submarine volcanism related to opening of the Japan Sea. The present study aimed to reconstruct details of the subaqueous volcanism that formed the back-arc basin basalts (BABB) during this event, and to discuss the relationship between volcanism and the tectonics of back-arc opening, using facies analyses based on field investigation. The study area of the southern Dewa Hills contains well-exposed basalt related to the opening of the Japan Sea. Five types of basaltic rock facies are recognized: (1) coherent basalt, (2) massive platy basalt, (3) jigsaw-fit monomictic basaltic breccia, (4) massive or stratified coarse monomictic basaltic breccia with fluidal clasts, and (5) massive or stratified fine monomictic basaltic breccia. The basaltic rocks are mainly hyaloclastite. Based on facies distributions, we infer that volcanism occurred along fissures developed mainly at the center of the study area. Given that the rocks contain many fluidal clasts, submarine lava fountaining is inferred to have been the dominant eruption style. The basaltic rocks are interpreted as the products of back-arc volcanism that occurred by tensional stress related to opening of the Japan Sea, which drove strong tectonic subsidence and active lava fountain volcanism.

  3. Age, petrogenesis, and tectonic setting of the Permian bimodal volcanic rocks in the eastern Jiamusi Massif, NE China (United States)

    Bi, Jun-Hui; Ge, Wen-Chun; Yang, Hao; Wang, Zhi-Hui; Dong, Yu; Liu, Xi-Wen; Ji, Zheng


    We present new in situ zircon U-Pb and Hf isotope, whole-rock geochemical, and Sr-Nd isotopic data for volcanic rocks from the Jiejinkou and Baoqing areas in the eastern Jiamusi Massif. These volcanic rocks are bimodal and consist of basalts, basaltic andesites, rhyolites, and rhyolitic tuffs that can be subdivided into mafic and silicic groups. Zircon U-Pb dating by LA-ICP-MS indicates that these volcanic rocks were erupted between the Early and Middle Permian (290-267 Ma). The mafic rocks in this area have positive εNd(t) (+0.07 to +6.43) values, and are enriched in light rare earth elements (LREEs) and depleted in heavy REE, Nb, and Ta. From these rocks, the meta-basalt of Jinlu and basaltic andesite of Taipinggou and Haojiatun were derived from parental magmas generated by the partial melting of depleted mantle wedge material that was metasomatized by subduction-related melts. These magmas then underwent variable degrees of fractional crystallization and assimilated insignificant amounts of crustal material. The meta-basalt of Liming likely originated from the metasomatized mantle-derived melts hybridized by the convective asthenosphere during the evolution of the magmas. In comparison, the silicic rocks have negative εNd(t) and variable zircon εHf(t) values, are enriched in the large-ion lithophile elements (LILEs) and LREE, and are depleted in high-field-strength elements (e.g., Nb, Ta, and Ti), yielding arc-like geochemical signatures. The geochemical and zircon εHf(t) characteristics of Jiangfeng and Longtouqiao rhyolites are indicative of formation from magmas generated by the partial melting of mafic lower crustal material, whereas the Liming meta-rhyolite was probably produced from a source involving some depleted mantle components. The bimodal volcanic rocks provide convincing evidence that the Early-Middle Permian volcanism in the Jiamusi Massif occurred in an extensional environment probably associated with slab break-off during the westward

  4. Unravelling the magmatic system beneath a monogenetic volcanic complex (Jagged Rocks Complex, Hopi Buttes, AZ, USA) (United States)

    Re, G.; Palin, J. M.; White, J. D. L.; Parolari, M.


    The Jagged Rocks complex is the eroded remnant of the plumbing systems of closely spaced monogenetic alkaline volcanic centres in the southern Hopi Buttes Volcanic Field (AZ, USA). It contains different clinopyroxene populations with distinctive textures and geochemical patterns. In the Northwestern part of the complex, which exposes the best developed system of conduits, most of the clinopyroxenes consist of large- to medium-sized resorbed cores overgrown by euhedral rims (type 1), small moderately resorbed greenish cores with the same overgrown rims (type 2), and phlogopite as an accessory phase. By contrast, in the Southern part of the complex the majority of clinopyroxenes are euhedral with oscillatory zonation (type 3) and are accompanied by minor euhedral olivine. The differences between these mineral assemblages indicate a composite history of crystallization and magmatic evolution for the two parts of the complex, governed by different mechanisms and ascent patterns from a single source at 50 km depth (16 kbar). The Northwest system preserves a high-pressure assemblage that cooled rapidly from near-liquidus conditions, suggesting direct ascent from the source to the surface at high-to-moderate transport rates (average 1.25 m/s). By contrast, the Southern system represents magma that advanced upward at much lower overall ascent rates, stalling at times to form small-volume mid-crustal storage zones (e.g., sills or a network of sheeted intrusions); this allowed the re-equilibration of the magma at lower pressure ( 30 km; 8 kbar), and led to nucleation and growth of euhedral clinopyroxene and olivine phenocrysts.

  5. Mapping local singularities using magnetic data to investigate the volcanic rocks of the Qikou depression, Dagang oilfield, eastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Chen


    Full Text Available The spatial structural characteristics of geological anomaly, including singularity and self-similarity, can be analysed using fractal or multifractal modelling. Here we apply the multifractal methods to potential fields to demonstrate that singularities can characterise geological bodies, including rock density and magnetic susceptibility. In addition to enhancing weak gravity and magnetic anomalies with respect to either strong or weak background levels, the local singularity index (α ≈ 2 can be used to delineate the edges of geological bodies. Two models were established to evaluate the effectiveness of mapping singularities for extracting weak anomalies and delineating edges of buried geological bodies. The Qikou depression of the Dagang oilfield in eastern China has been chosen as a study area for demonstrating the extraction of weak anomalies of volcanic rocks, using the singularity mapping technique to analyse complex magnetic anomalies caused by complex geological background. The results have shown that the singularities of magnetic data mapped in the paper are associated with buried volcanic rocks, which have been verified by both drilling and seismic survey, and the S–N and E–W faults in the region. The targets delineated for deeply seated faults and volcanic rocks in the Qikou depression should be further investigated for the potential application in undiscovered oil and gas reservoirs exploration.

  6. Petrology, mineral chemistry and tectono-magmatic setting of volcanic rocks from northeast Farmahin, north of Arak

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    Reza Zarei Sahamieh


    Full Text Available Introduction The study area is a small part of the Urumieh-Dokhtar structural zone in the Markazi province, located in the northeastern part of the Farmahin, north of Arak (Hajian, 1970. The volcanic rocks studied from the area include andesite, dacite, rhyodacite, ignimbrite and tuff of Middle to Late Eocene age (middle Lutetian to upper Lutetian (Ameri et al., 2009. It seems that folding and faulting is caused in sedimentary basin and volcanic activities. On the other hand, except of orogeny maybe rifting had rule in eruption so that this case has seen in the other area such as Taft and Khezrabad in central Iran (Zarei Sahamieh et al., 2008. The oldest formation in the studied area is Triassic limestones. The dominant textures of these rocks are porphyritic, microlite porphyritic, microlitic and rarely sieve-texture. Sieve texture and dusty texture (dusty plagioclases indicates magma mixing. Mineralogically, they contain plagioclases, clinopyroxenes, amphiboles, quartz and biotite as the main constituents and zircon, apatite, and opaque minerals as accessories. Plagioclases in the andesitic and basaltic- andesite rocks are labradorite, bytownite and anorthite (based on electron microprobe .Moreover, plagioclases in andesitic rocks show that H2O is lesser than 2.5 precent. Amphibole is found in both plagioclases and groundmass. Materials and methods In this article are used different analyses methods such as XRF, ICP-MS and EPMA. Whole-rock major and trace element analyses were determined with ICP-MS method. The major and trace element composition of some rock was determined by electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA using a Cameca SX100 instrument in Iran Mineral Processing Research Center (IMPRC. Moreover, whole-rock major and some trace element analyses for some samples were obtained by X-ray fluorescence (XRF, using an ARL Advant-XP automated X-ray spectrometer. Results Chemical data based on electron micro probe studies of minerals indicate

  7. Petrology of the alkaline rocks of the Macau Volcanic Field, NE Brazil (United States)

    Ngonge, Emmanuel Donald; de Hollanda, Maria Helena Bezerra Maia; Pimentel, Márcio Martins; de Oliveira, Diógenes Custódio


    The Macau Volcanic Field (MVF) in the Borborema Province, NE Brazil, contains multiple centres of volcanic activity of Early to Late Cenozoic ages. We present element and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope geochemical data for four of the few most prominent basalt types of this volcanic field: Serrote Preto-type, Serra Aguda-type, Pico do Cabugi-type and Serra Preta-type, in order to assess their magmatic history from source to crystallization and the evolution of the mantle beneath the Borborema Province. The basalts are basically sodic nephelinitic-basanitic-alkali olivine basalts enriched in LILE and in Nb-Ta. The Serra Preta, Cabugi and Serra Aguda types demonstrate compositions close to primitive characteristics with 10% < MgO < 15 wt.% and 200 ppm < Ni < 500 ppm, and experienced limited fractional crystallization of olivine-clinopyroxene-plagioclase-oxides with negligible wall-rock assimilation. Rb/Sr and Ba/Rb constraints support the generation of SiO2-undersaturated magmas from mantle melting of amphibole-bearing peridotites with minor phlogopite. The source for the basanites and alkali basalts is estimated to be a garnet-bearing domain around the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (80-93 km deep), while the nephelinites are derived from the adiabatic asthenosphere at 105 km with temperatures of 1480 °C. Their incompatible trace element patterns and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic compositions are similar to FOZO and EM-type OIB magmas. From the comparison of data with those of the Ceará-Mirim dyke swarm we propose that there is a ubiquitous FOZO reservoir in the SCLM beneath the Borborema Province. This FOZO signature characterized the upwelling asthenosphere during the lithospheric extension and thinning at the opening of the Equatorial Atlantic and is clearly represented in the Mesozoic olivine tholeiites of Ceará-Mirim. The upwelled asthenosphere cooled as a rigid SCLM since the Cretaceous and has preserved its FOZO signature evident in the Macau Cenozoic basalts. The EM signatures

  8. Microbial community differentiation between active and inactive sulfide chimneys of the Kolumbo submarine volcano, Hellenic Volcanic Arc. (United States)

    Christakis, Christos A; Polymenakou, Paraskevi N; Mandalakis, Manolis; Nomikou, Paraskevi; Kristoffersen, Jon Bent; Lampridou, Danai; Kotoulas, Georgios; Magoulas, Antonios


    Over the last decades, there has been growing interest about the ecological role of hydrothermal sulfide chimneys, their microbial diversity and associated biotechnological potential. Here, we performed dual-index Illumina sequencing of bacterial and archaeal communities on active and inactive sulfide chimneys collected from the Kolumbo hydrothermal field, situated on a geodynamic convergent setting. A total of 15,701 OTUs (operational taxonomic units) were assigned to 56 bacterial and 3 archaeal phyla, 133 bacterial and 16 archaeal classes. Active chimney communities were dominated by OTUs related to thermophilic members of Epsilonproteobacteria, Aquificae and Deltaproteobacteria. Inactive chimney communities were dominated by an OTU closely related to the archaeon Nitrosopumilus sp., and by members of Gammaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Planctomycetes and Bacteroidetes. These lineages are closely related to phylotypes typically involved in iron, sulfur, nitrogen, hydrogen and methane cycling. Overall, the inactive sulfide chimneys presented highly diverse and uniform microbial communities, in contrast to the active chimney communities, which were dominated by chemolithoautotrophic and thermophilic lineages. This study represents one of the most comprehensive investigations of microbial diversity in submarine chimneys and elucidates how the dissipation of hydrothermal activity affects the structure of microbial consortia in these extreme ecological niches.

  9. Coexistence of pumice and manganese nodule fields-evidence for submarine silicic volcanism in the Central Indian Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Iyer, S.D.; Sudhakar, M.

    -Fe, black colour, broken 63.65 n.d Mn-Fe within vesicles, broken 55 26 n d Maltana, Indonesia 65.38 15 50 Krakatau, Indonesia 67.64 15 79 1883 Krakatoa eruption 69 40 15 90 Pumice-like ejecta from Krakatoa 68 99 16 07 Samples 1-10: present study, 11... by ferroman- ganese oxides. Analyses of a few samples show averages of 61.67% SiO2 and 12.86% AI20 3 (Table 1). Pumice, mainly derived from explosive silicic volcanism, has a low specific gravity, the shape and size of the vesicles allowing them...

  10. Use of terrestrial laser scanning for engineering geological applications on volcanic rock slopes – an example from Madeira island (Portugal

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    H. T. Nguyen


    Full Text Available This study focuses on the adoption of a modern, widely-used Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS application to investigate volcanic rock slopes in Ribeira de João Gomes valley (Funchal, Madeira island. The TLS data acquisition in May and December 2008 provided information for a characterization of the volcanic environment, detailed structural analysis and detection of potentially unstable rock masses on a slope. Using this information, it was possible to determine specific parameters for numerical rockfall simulations such as average block size, shape or potential sources. By including additional data, such as surface roughness, the results from numerical rockfall simulations allowed us to classify different hazardous areas based on run-out distances, frequency of impacts and related kinetic energy. Afterwards, a monitoring of hazardous areas can be performed in order to establish a rockfall inventory.

  11. Rocks of the Thirtynine Mile volcanic field as possible sources of uranium for epigenetic deposits in central Colorado, USA. (United States)

    Dickinson, K.A.


    The most likely volcanic source rock for uranium in epigenetic deposits of the Tallahassee Creek uranium district and nearby areas is the Wall Mountain Tuff. The widespread occurrence of the Tuff, its high apparent original uranium content, approx 11 ppm, and its apparent loss of uranium from devitrification and other alteration suggest its role in providing that element. An estimate of the original Th/U ratio is based on the present thorium and uranium contents of the basal vitrophyre of the Tuff from Castle Rock Gulch, Hecla Junction and other areas.-from Author

  12. Environmental monitoring of El Hierro Island submarine volcano, by combining low and high resolution satellite imagery (United States)

    Eugenio, F.; Martin, J.; Marcello, J.; Fraile-Nuez, E.


    El Hierro Island, located at the Canary Islands Archipelago in the Atlantic coast of North Africa, has been rocked by thousands of tremors and earthquakes since July 2011. Finally, an underwater volcanic eruption started 300 m below sea level on October 10, 2011. Since then, regular multidisciplinary monitoring has been carried out in order to quantify the environmental impacts caused by the submarine eruption. Thanks to this natural tracer release, multisensorial satellite imagery obtained from MODIS and MERIS sensors have been processed to monitor the volcano activity and to provide information on the concentration of biological, chemical and physical marine parameters. Specifically, low resolution satellite estimations of optimal diffuse attenuation coefficient (Kd) and chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentration under these abnormal conditions have been assessed. These remote sensing data have played a fundamental role during field campaigns guiding the oceanographic vessel to the appropriate sampling areas. In addition, to analyze El Hierro submarine volcano area, WorldView-2 high resolution satellite spectral bands were atmospherically and deglinted processed prior to obtain a high-resolution optimal diffuse attenuation coefficient model. This novel algorithm was developed using a matchup data set with MERIS and MODIS data, in situ transmittances measurements and a seawater radiative transfer model. Multisensor and multitemporal imagery processed from satellite remote sensing sensors have demonstrated to be a powerful tool for monitoring the submarine volcanic activities, such as discolored seawater, floating material and volcanic plume, having shown the capabilities to improve the understanding of submarine volcanic processes.

  13. The alkaline volcanic rocks of Craters of the Moon National Monument, Idaho and the Columbia Hills of Gusev Crater, Mars (United States)

    Neakrase, L. D.; Lim, D. S. S.; Haberle, C. W.; Hughes, S. S.; Kobs-Nawotniak, S. E.; Christensen, P. R.


    Idaho's Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) is host to extensive expressions of basaltic volcanism dominated by non evolved olivine tholeiites (NEOT) with localized occurrences of evolved lavas. Craters of the Moon National Monument (COTM) is a polygenetic lava field comprised of more than 60 lava flows emplaced during 8 eruptive periods spanning the last 15 kyrs. The most recent eruptive period (period A; 2500-2000 yr B.P.) produced flows with total alkali vs. silica classifications spanning basalt to trachyte. Coeval with the emplacement of the COTM period A volcanic pile was the emplacement of the Wapi and King's Bowl NEOT 70 km SSE of COTM along the Great Rift. Previous investigations have determined a genetic link between these two compositionally distinct volcanic centers where COTM compositions can be generated from NEOT melts through complex ascent paths and variable degrees of fractionation and assimilation of lower-middle crustal materials. The Mars Exploration Rover, Spirit, conducted a robotic investigation of Gusev crater from 2004-2010. Spirit was equipped with the Athena science payload enabling the determination of mineralogy (mini-Thermal Emission Spectrometer, Pancam multispectral camera, and Mössbauer spectrometer), bulk chemistry (Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer) and context (Pancam and Microscopic Imager). During sol 32 Spirit investigated an olivine basalt named Adirondack, the type specimen for a class of rock that composes much of the plains material within Gusev Crater and embays the Columbia Hills. Following the characterization of the plains material, Spirit departed the plains targeting the Columbia Hills and ascending at Husband Hill. During Spirit's ascent of Husband Hill three additional classes of volcanic rock were identified as distinct by their mini-TES spectra; Wishstone, Backstay and Irvine. These rocks are classified as tephrite, trachy-basalt and basalt, respectively, and are the first alkaline rocks observed on Mars. These

  14. Petrology and Geochemistry of Hydrothermally Altered Volcanic Rocks in the Iheya North Hydrothermal Field, Middle Okinawa Trough (United States)

    Yamasaki, T.


    The Iheya North hydrothermal field is located in the middle Okinawa Trough, a young and actively spreading back-arc basin extending behind the Ryukyu arc-trench system in the southeastern margin of the East China Sea. In this hydrothermal field, two scientific drilling expeditions (IODP Exp 331 and SIP CK14-04) were conducted using a deep-sea drilling vessel "Chikyu," and samples from a total of 27 holes were taken. Through these expeditions, Kuroko-type volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits (VMS), hydrothermally altered volcanic rocks, and pumiceous and pelagic sediments were recovered. The recovered core provided important information about the relationship between hydrothermal activity, alteration, and ore mineralization. Whole-rock major element composition and trace element (TE) patterns of pumices were very similar to those of rhyolites in the middle Okinawa Trough (RMO). However, pumices were relatively enriched in chalcophile elements Sr and Nb, which suggest incipient mineralization. Volcanic rock generally demonstrated strong silicification and was greenish pale gray in color. Regardless of severe alteration, some rock displayed major element composition broadly similar to the RMO. Alteration was evidenced by an increase in the content of SiO2 and MgO, and decrease in Al2O3, Na2O, and K2O content. The most striking geochemical feature of altered volcanic rock was the discordance between texture and the degree of modification of TEs. Some samples showed decussate texture occupied by petal-like quartz with severe silicification, but no prominent disturbance of concentration and patterns of TEs were observed. In contrast, samples with well-preserved igneous porphyritic texture showed very low TE content and modification of TE patterns. These results suggest that the modification of texture and composition of TEs, as well as silicification, do not occur by a uniform process, but several processes. This may reflect the differences in temperature and the

  15. Preliminary Results of Paleomagnetic Study on the Miocene - Quaternary Volcanic Rocks from the North of Lake Van, Turkey (United States)

    Kayın, Sercan; İşseven, Turgay


    Collision between the Arabian and the Eurasian plates initiated in Serravallian age (12-13 Ma). This collision caused a large plateau formation about 2 km elevation. Result of the collision, Eastern Anatolian Region still continious to evolve as a young mountain belt. East-West trending folds, thrust faults and strike-slip fault systems were developed due to the compressional tectonic regime in the region. After the formation of the plateau, volcanism took place occupying large areas. The thickness of this volcanic series reaches to 1 km. In order to determine tectonic evolution (rotational and latitudinal movements) of the North of the Lake Van, oriented paleomagnetic samples were collected from the volcanic rocks whose ages has already been determined from radiometric methods and ages range from Miocene to Quaternary times. The origin of the collected palaeomagnetic samples from different volcanic series were came from volcanic centers in this region such as the followings: Aladaǧ, Tendurek, Etrusk, Girekol Mounths and Pliocene plate basalts. Our preliminary results indicate that most of the clockwise and anticlockwise rotations and deformation occured during the Miocene- Pliocene times. However, in Pleistosene time there weren't any considerable rotations and deformations. The main reason of the deformations were related with the collision between the Arabian plate and the Eurasian plate and accomodated by regional faults and westards escape of Anatolia. Our results are in good agreement with previously done palaeomagnetic studies, seismological and GPS data in the region.

  16. Earthquakes and submarine volcanism in the Northeast Pacific: Exploration in the time domain based on 21-years of hydroacoustic monitoring (United States)

    Hammond, S. R.; Dziak, R. P.; Fox, C. G.


    Monitoring of regional seismic activity in the Northeast Pacific has been accomplished for the past 21 years using US Navy's Sound Surveillance System (SOSUS) hydrophone arrays. Seafloor seismic activity in this region occurs along the spreading center and transform boundaries between the Juan de Fuca, Pacific and North American plates. During the time span, from 1991 through 2011, nearly 50,000 earthquakes were detected and located. The majority of these events were associated with these tectonic boundaries but sections of several plate boundaries were largely aseismic during the this time span. While most of the earthquakes were associated with geological structures revealed in bathymetric maps of the region, there were also less easily explained intraplate events including a swarm of events within the interior of the southern portion of the Juan de Fuca plate. The location and sequential timing of events on portions of the plate boundaries also suggests ordered patterns of stress release. Among the most scientifically significant outcomes of acoustic monitoring was the discovery that deep seafloor magmatic activity can be accompanied by intense (> 1000 events/day) earthquake swarms. The first swarm detected by SOSUS, in 1993, was confirmed to have been associated with an extrusive volcanic eruption which occurred along a segment of the Juan de Fuca spreading center. Notably, this was the first deep spreading center eruption detected, located, and studied while it was active. Subsequently, two more swarms were confirmed to have been associated with volcanic eruptions, one on the Gorda spreading center in 1996 and the other at Axial volcano in 1998. One characteristic of these swarm events is migration of their earthquake locations 10s of km along the ridge axis tracking the movement of magma down-rift. The most rapid magma propagation events have been shown to be associated with seafloor eruptions and dramatic, transient changes in hydrothermal circulation as

  17. Geochemistry and petrogenesis of the late Cretaceous potassic-alkaline volcanic rocks from the Amasya Region (northern Turkey) (United States)

    Gülmez, Fatma; Genç, Can; Tüysüz, Okan; Karacık, Zekiye; Roden, Mike; Billor, Zeki; Hames, Willis


    The Cretaceous Lokman Formation (Alp, 1972) , is a volcano-sedimantary unit that comprises high- to ultra high-K alkaline volcanic rocks in Amasya Region (40°N, 35°E). The volcanic rocks expose as small outcrops and interfingered with pyroclastic and epiclastic rocks, and are classified as leucitite, tephriphonolite (LT), lamprophyres, trachytes and rarely andesites. LT and lamprophyres occur as dikes cutting each other, and rare lava flows. Trachytes are observed as small domes in the field and lots of pebbles and blocks within the clastic deposits derived from the domes. Samples of LT comprise lct+cpx (diopsite)+plg+mag+ap and classified as leucite-basanite mineralogically and tephri-phonolite geochemically. Ar-Ar age dating from leucites show that the leucite-bearing volcanic activity formed 75.6±3.7 Ma. The mineralogic composition of melanokratic lamprophyre dikes are represented by Kfs+cpx+mica+ap+mag. They defined geochemically as phono-tephrite and phonolite. The Ar-Ar plateau ages from the phlogopites from two different outcrops are 76.78 and 77.48 Ma. The main minerals of trachytic rocks are amp + bt + pl + Kfs + spn + ap +opq. They are classified as alkaline trachyandesite, geochemically. Radiometric age data from Kfs minerals reveal that the trachytic volcanism occurred 75.83±0.09 Ma. Except one andesitic sample, lamprophyres and trachytes of the Lokman Formation are the high- and ultra high-K and alkaline rocks. LT and lamprophyres are characterized by relatively high MgO (3.25-7.04 wt.%), K2O (4.34-6.54 wt.%), Na2O (3.42-5.74 wt.%). Total analcimization of leucite minerals let to decreasing its K2O, and increasing the Na2O contents. Therefore, K2O/Na2O values for LT and the lamprophyres (0.92-2.27) are relatively low. Trachytic suite is also high-K and alkaline in nature. On MORB normalized plots, all of the volcanic rocks from Lokman Formation display enrichment of LIL elements significantly relative to HFSE, and depletions of Nb-Ta and Ti

  18. Geochemical and Sr-Nd isotopic characteristics of Upper Cretaceous (calc-alkaline) and Miocene (alkaline) volcanic rocks: Elazığ, Eastern Taurides, Turkey (United States)

    Kürüm, Sevcan; Tanyıldızı, Özge


    The massive volcanic suite of Upper Cretaceous Elazığ Magmatic Complex, and Miocene basic volcanic rocks of crop out to the southern vicinity of Elazığ. The petrographical studies indicated that the massive volcanic suite of Upper Cretaceous are of basalt, spilitic basalt, basaltic andesite, andesite, trachite, dacite/ryolithe and dolerite in composition, and the Miocene volcanic rocks are basalt in composition. According to the geochemical data, which are conformable with the petrographical ones, Upper Cretaceous volcanic rocks are of low and medium-K contaning types and calc-alkalin in general, and enriched with respect to LILE and HREE contents. They also contain low Ti, have negative Nb and Ta anomaly and low 143Nd/147Nd and high 87Sr/86Sr ratios. Geochemical and isotopic data for the massive volcanic suite point out that these volcanic rocks were originated from an upper mantle source (lithospheric) which undergone fractional crystallisation and crustal contamination and enriched by these processes and metasomatized within a subduction zone. Miocene volcanic rocks are of high-K alkaline type, alkali basalt/basanite in composition and products of intraplate volcanism. These rocks are richer in some major oxide contents such as Na2O, K2O, MgO and trace element contents such as Nb, Sr, Zr compared to the massive volcanic rocks of Upper Cretaceous, and they are also enriched with respect to their LILE and HREE contents. The remarkable decrease from LREE towards HREE in the REE/Chondrite-normalized variation diagram indicates a magmatic differentiation process. The MgO and Ni ratios of Miocene volcanic rocks are not conformable with those of primitive basalt composition. However, all the chemical and isotopic (low 87Sr/86Sr ratio and positive (+) εNd values) data indicate that the source magma of these volcanic rocks was derived from a depleted garnet free magma (astenospheric mantle) and was modified once again by the post collosional geodynamical events and

  19. Mineralogy and geochemistry of a superhigh-organic-sulfur coal, Yanshan Coalfield, Yunnan, China: Evidence for a volcanic ash component and influence by submarine exhalation (United States)

    Dai, S.; Ren, D.; Zhou, Y.; Chou, C.-L.; Wang, X.; Zhao, L.; Zhu, Xudong


    The mineralogy and geochemistry of a superhigh-organic-sulfur (SHOS) coal of Late Permian age from the Yanshan Coalfield, Yunnan Province, southwestern China, have been studied using optical microscope, low-temperature ashing plus X-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscope equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer, a sequential chemical extraction procedure, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The M9 Coal from the Yanshan Coalfield is a SHOS coal that has a total sulfur content of 10.12%-11.30% and an organic sulfur content of 8.77%-10.30%. The minerals in the coal consist mainly of high-temperature quartz, sanidine, albite, muscovite, illite, pyrite, and trace amounts of kaolinite, plagioclase, akermanite, rutile, and dawsonite. As compared with ordinary worldwide (bituminous coals and anthracite) and Chinese coals, the M9 Coal is remarkably enriched in B (268????g/g), F (841????g/g), V (567????g/g), Cr (329????g/g), Ni (73.9????g/g), Mo (204????g/g), and U (153????g/g). In addition, elements including Se (25.2????g/g), Zr (262????g/g), Nb (20.1????g/g), Cd (2.07????g/g), and Tl (2.03????g/g) are also enriched in the coal. Occurrence of high-temperature quartz, sanidine, muscovite, and illite in the M9 Coal is evidence that there is a volcanic ash component in the coal that was derived from acid volcanic ashes fallen into the swamp during peat accumulation. Occurrence of albite and dawsonite in the coal and strong enrichment of some elements, including F, S, V, Cr, Ni, Mo and U, are attributed to the influence by submarine exhalation which invaded along with seawater into the anoxic peat swamp. Abundances of lithophile elements, including rare earth elements, Nb, Y, Zr, and TiO2, indicate that the silicate minerals in the coal were derived from the northern Vietnam Upland to the south of the basin. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Degassing of basaltic magma: decompression experiments and implications for interpreting the textures of volcanic rocks (United States)

    Le Gall, Nolwenn; Pichavant, Michel; Cai, Biao; Lee, Peter; Burton, Mike


    Decompression experiments were performed to simulate the ascent of basaltic magma, with the idea of approaching the textural features of volcanic rocks to provide insights into degassing processes. The experiments were conducted in an internally heated pressure vessel between NNO-1.4 and +0.9. H2O-only (4.9 wt%) and H2O-CO2-bearing (0.71-2.45 wt% H2O, 818-1094 ppm CO2) melts, prepared from Stromboli pumice, were synthesized at 1200°C and 200 MPa, continuously decompressed between 200 and 25 MPa at a rate of either 39 or 78 kPa/s (or 1.5 and 3 m/s, respectively), and rapidly quenched. Run products were characterized both texturally (by X-ray computed tomography and scanning electron microscopy) and chemically (by IR spectroscopy and electron microprobe analysis), and then compared with products from basaltic Plinian eruptions and Stromboli paroxysms (bubble textures, glass inclusions). The obtained results demonstrate that textures are controlled by the kinetics of nucleation, growth, coalescence and outgassing of the bubbles, as well as by fragmentation, which largely depend on the presence of CO2 in the melt and the achievement in chemical equilibrium. Textures of the H2O-only melts result from two nucleation events, the first at high pressure (200 X-ray imaging. The obtained 4D (3D + time) data will help us refine our understanding of magma ascent processes. This experimental programme requires first technology adaptation and development, which is in progress.

  1. The origin of volcanic rock fragments in Upper Pliocene Grad Member of the Mura Formation, North-Eastern Slovenia

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    Polona Kralj


    Full Text Available Fresh-water, coarse-grained and detritus-dominated Mura Formation in North Eastern Slovenia includes pyroclastic and volcaniclastic deposits originating from Upper Pliocene volcanic activity of basaltic geochemical character. Although localized in occurrence at the hamlet Grad, these pyroclastic and volcaniclastic sediments forma distinctive depositional unit, for which the term “Grad Member” is proposed and introduced in this paper.In the Grad area no lavas or cinder cones are preserved, and the origin of volcaniclastic fragments still uncertain. For this reason, chemical composition of basaltic rock fragments from the Grad Member volcaniclastics has been studied and compared with basaltic rocks from the neighboring locations at Klöch, Kindsberg, Dölling and Neuhaus. The Grad Member pyroclastic and volcaniclastic deposits seem to be fed from the same source which is different from the occurrences in Austria. That supports the idea about the existence of a local volcanic centre in the present Grad area. The old volcanic edificeswerepossiblydestroyed by the late-stage hydrovolcanic eruptions, and pyroclastic and volcaniclastic deposits subjected to constant reworking by fluvial currents in a dynamic sedimentary environment of alluvial fan and braided river systems.

  2. Dating and source determination of volcanic rocks from Khunik area (South of Birjand, South Khorasan using Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotopes

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    Somayeh Samiee


    Full Text Available The Khunik area is located in the south of Birjand, Khorasan province, in the eastern margin of Lut block. Tertiary volcanic rocks have andesite to trachy-andesite composition. Dating analyzing by Rb-Sr method on plagioclase and hornblende as well as whole-rock isochron method was performed on pyroxene-hornblende andesite rock unit. On this basis the emplacement age is Upper Paleocene (58±11 Ma. These rocks have initial 87Sr/86Sr and εNd 0.7046-0.7049 and 2.16-3.12, respectively. According to isotopic data, volcanic rocks originated from depleted mantle and have the least crust contamination while it was fractionated. Geochemically, Khunik volcanic rocks have features typical of calk-alkaline to shoshonite and are metaluminous. Enrichment in LILEs and typical negative anomalies of Nb and Ti are evidences that the volcanic rocks formed in a subduction zone and active continental margin. Modeling suggests that these rocks were derived dominantly from 1–5% partial melting of a mainly spinel garnet lherzolite mantle source that is metasomatized by slab-derived fluid.

  3. Experiments and Spectral Studies of Martian Volcanic Rocks: Implications for the Origin of Pathfinder Rocks and Soils (United States)

    Rutherford, Malcolm J.; Mustard, Jack; Weitz, Catherine


    The composition and spectral properties of the Mars Pathfinder rocks and soils together with the identification of basaltic and andesitic Mars terrains based on Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) data raised interesting questions regarding the nature and origin of Mars surface rocks. We have investigated the following questions: (1) are the Pathfinder rocks igneous and is it possible these rocks could have formed by known igneous processes, such as equilibrium or fractional crystallization, operating within SNC magmas known to exist on Mars? If it is possible, what P (depth) and PH2O conditions are required? (2) whether TES-based interpretations of plagioclase-rich basalt and andesitic terrains in the south and north regions of Mars respectively are unique. Are the surface compositions of these regions plagioclase-rich, possibly indicating the presence of old AI-rich crust of Mars, or are the spectra being affected by something like surface weathering processes that might determine the spectral pyroxene to plagioclase ratio?

  4. Submarine landslides: advances and challenges (United States)

    Locat, Jacques; Lee, Homa J.


    Due to the recent development of well-integrated surveying techniques of the sea floor, significant improvements were achieved in mapping and describing the morphology and architecture of submarine mass movements. Except for the occurrence of turbidity currents, the aquatic environment (marine and fresh water) experiences the same type of mass failure as that found on land. Submarine mass movements, however, can have run-out distances in excess of 100 km, so their impact on any offshore activity needs to be integrated over a wide area. This great mobility of submarinemass movements is still not very well understood, particularly for cases like the far-reaching debris flows mapped on the Mississippi Fan and the large submarine rock avalanches found around many volcanic islands. A major challenge ahead is the integration of mass movement mechanics in an appropriate evaluation of the hazard so that proper risk assessment methodologies can be developed and implemented for various human activities offshore, including the development of natural resources and the establishment of reliable communication corridors. Key words : submarine slides, hazards, risk assessment, morphology, mobility, tsunami. Le dveloppement rcent de techniques de levs hydrograhiques pour les fonds marins nous a permis d'atteindre une qualit ingale dans la cartographie et la description des glissements sous marins. l'exception des courants de turbidit, on retrouve dans le domaine aquatique les mmes types de mouvements de terrain que sur terre. Par contre, les glissements sous-marins peuvent atteindre des distances excdant 100 km de telle sorte que leur impact sur les activits offshore doit tre pris en compte sur degrandes tendues. La grande mobilit des glissements sous-marins n'est pas encore bien comprise, comme pour le cas des coules dedbris cartographies sur le cne du Mississippi ainsi que pour les grandes avalanches rocheuses sous-marines retrouves au pourtour des les volcaniques. Un dfi majeur

  5. Subaqueous early eruptive phase of the late Aptian Rajmahal volcanism, India: Evidence from volcaniclastic rocks, bentonite, black shales, and oolite

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    Naresh C. Ghose


    Full Text Available The late Aptian (118–115 Ma continental flood basalts of the Rajmahal Volcanic Province (RVP are part of the Kerguelen Large Igneous Province, and constitute the uppermost part of the Gondwana Supergroup on the eastern Indian shield margin. The lower one-third of the Rajmahal volcanic succession contains thin layers of plant fossil-rich inter-trappean sedimentary rocks with pyroclasts, bentonite, grey and black shale/mudstone and oolite, whereas the upper two-thirds consist of sub-aerial fine-grained aphyric basalts with no inter-trappean material. At the eastern margin and the north-central sector of the RVP, the volcanics in the lower part include rhyolites and dacites overlain by enstatite-bearing basalts and enstatite-andesites. The pyroclastic rocks are largely felsic in composition, and comprise ignimbrite as well as coarse-grained tuff with lithic clasts, and tuff breccia with bombs, lapilli and ash that indicate explosive eruption of viscous rhyolitic magma. The rhyolites/dacites (>68 wt.% are separated from the andesites (<60 wt.% by a gap in silica content indicating their formation through upper crustal anatexis with only heat supplied by the basaltic magma. On the other hand, partially melted siltstone xenoliths in enstatite-bearing basalts suggest that the enstatite-andesites originated through mixing of the upper crust with basaltic magma, crystallizing orthopyroxene at a pressure-temperature of ∼3 kb/1150 °C. In contrast, the northwestern sector of the RVP is devoid of felsic-intermediate rocks, and the volcaniclastic rocks are predominantly mafic (basaltic in composition. Here, the presence of fine-grained tuffs, tuff breccia containing sideromelane shards and quenched texture, welded tuff breccia, peperite, shale/mudstone and oolite substantiates a subaqueous environment. Based on these observations, we conclude that the early phase of Rajmahal volcanism occurred under predominantly subaqueous conditions. The presence

  6. Geochemistry of the volcanic rocks from Bioko Island (“Cameroon Hot Line”: Evidence for plume-lithosphere interaction

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    Fadimatou Ngounouno Yamgouot


    Full Text Available Bioko Island (3008 m a.s.l is located in the presently more active volcanic zone of the Cameroon Line and composed essentially of alkaline basalts and hawaiites, and lesser mugearites. The rocks show microlitic porphyritic texture with phenocrysts of olivine (83% < Fo < 87% and clinopyroxene in a matrix of plagioclase, clinopyroxene and oxides. Hawaiites and mugearites also include phenocrysts of plagioclase (An62-67Ab35-32Or3-1. Major element variation diagrams show an increase in SiO2, Al2O3, Na2O and K2O with increasing MgO for the studied rock groups. The rocks are characterized by low (86Sr/87Sri ratios (0.70320–0.70406, high ɛNd(t values (2.56–4.33 and high (206Pb/204Pbi ratios (20.032–20.035 values. Basalts are enriched in LILE and LREE, and have (Hf/SmN = 0.57–1.16. These geochemical signatures are similar to those of the Mount Cameroon rocks, and might be attributed to low degrees of partial melting from a garnet-amphibole-bearing mantle source. The trace elements and isotopic compositions suggest that the parental magma source might have involved HIMU- and EM1-components.

  7. Submarine Salt Karst Terrains

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    Nico Augustin


    Full Text Available Karst terrains that develop in bodies of rock salt (taken as mainly of halite, NaCl are special not only for developing in one of the most soluble of all rocks, but also for developing in one of the weakest rocks. Salt is so weak that many surface-piercing salt diapirs extrude slow fountains of salt that that gravity spread downslope over deserts on land and over sea floors. Salt fountains in the deserts of Iran are usually so dry that they flow at only a few cm/yr but the few rain storms a decade so soak and weaken them that they surge at dm/day for a few days. We illustrate the only case where the rates at which different parts of one of the many tens of subaerial salt karst terrains in Iran flows downslope constrains the rates at which its subaerial salt karst terrains form. Normal seawater is only 10% saturated in NaCl. It should therefore be sufficiently aggressive to erode karst terrains into exposures of salt on the thousands of known submarine salt extrusions that have flowed or are still flowing over the floors of hundreds of submarine basins worldwide. However, we know of no attempt to constrain the processes that form submarine salt karst terrains on any of these of submarine salt extrusions. As on land, many potential submarine karst terrains are cloaked by clastic and pelagic sediments that are often hundreds of m thick. Nevertheless, detailed geophysical and bathymetric surveys have already mapped likely submarine salt karst terrains in at least the Gulf of Mexico, and the Red Sea. New images of these two areas are offered as clear evidence of submarine salt dissolution due to sinking or rising aggressive fluids. We suggest that repeated 3D surveys of distinctive features (± fixed seismic reflectors of such terrains could measure any downslope salt flow and thus offer an exceptional opportunity to constrain the rates at which submarine salt karst terrains develop. Such rates are of interest to all salt tectonicians and the many

  8. Late Ediacaran volcano-sedimentary successions of southern Sinai (Egypt): tracing the evolution from late- to post-collisional volcanism and its relation to A-type rocks (United States)

    Azer, Mokhles; Asimow, Paul; Obeid, Mohamed; Price, Jason; Wang, Max


    The Late Ediacaran post-collisional volcano-sedimentary successions exposed in southern Sinai (Egypt) represent the last stage of magmatic activity associated with assembly of the northernmost segment of the Neoproterozoic Arabian-Nubian Shield. To clarify the age and tempo of post-collisional activity, three volcanic successions from southern Sinai were selected for the present study: the Sahiya, Iqna Shar'a and Meknas volcanics. They comprise a series of intermediate to silicic volcanic flows and their pyroclastic rocks. New zircon U-Pb dating by SIMS of the lava flows from the three successions yielded ages ranging between ca. 619 to 600 Ma. Combined with field evidence and the geochemical data, the obtained SIMS zircon ages enable us to recognize two phases of volcanic activity in southern Sinai at ca. 619-615 Ma and 606-600 Ma. Both age groups were found within the more northerly volcanic successions at Iqna Shar'a and Meknas and in both these sequences the younger phase uncomformably overlies the older phase. Only the older ages, ca. 615-619 Ma, were found in the Sahiya volcanics, exposed at the southern tip of Sinai. The ages of the youngest calc-alkaline volcanics in the study areas are similar to or slightly younger than the earliest phases of alkaline volcanism in southern Sinai, indicating coeval extrusion of calc-alkalic and alkalic A-type rocks. This observation corroborates similar observations documenting cogenetic calc-alkalic and alkalic plutons in the surrounding areas in southern Sinai. Geochemically, the volcanic rocks of the three successions display large silica variations and are mostly medium- to high-K calc-alkaline rocks. The first phase, from ca. 619-615 Ma, observed in all three volcanic suites, comprises basaltic andesite, andesite and dacite, whereas the second phase, from ca. 606-600 Ma and observed only in the northern volcanic suites (Iqna Shar'a and Meknas), comprises dacite, rhyodacite and rhyolite. In the Sahiya succession basal

  9. Submarine geothermal resources (United States)

    Williams, D.L.


    Approximately 20% of the earth's heat loss (or 2 ?? 1012 cal/s) is released through 1% of the earth's surface area and takes the form of hydrothermal discharge from young (Pleistocene or younger) rocks adjacent to active seafloor-spreading centers and submarine volcanic areas. This amount is roughly equivalent to man's present gross energy consumption rate. A sub-seafloor geothermal reservoir, to be exploitable under future economic conditions, will have to be hot, porous, permeable, large, shallow, and near an energy-deficient, populated land mass. Furthermore, the energy must be recoverable using technology achievable at a competitive cost and numerous environmental, legal and institutional problems will have to be overcome. The highest-temperature reservoirs should be found adjacent to the zones of the seafloor extension or volcanism that are subject to high sedimentation rates. The relatively impermeable sediments reduce hydrothermal-discharge flow rates, forcing the heat to be either conducted away or released by high-temperature fluids, both of which lead to reservoir temperatures that can exceed 300??C. There is evidence that the oceanic crust is quite permeable and porous and that it was amenable to deep (3-5 km) penetration by seawater at least some time in the early stages of its evolution. Most of the heat escapes far from land, but there are notable exceptions. For example, in parts of the Gulf of California, thermal gradients in the bottom sediments exceed 1??C/m. In the coastal areas of the Gulf of California, where electricity and fresh water are at a premium, this potential resource lies in shallow water (< 200 m) and within sight of land. Other interesting areas include the Sea of Japan, the Sea of Okhotsk and the Andaman Sea along the margins of the western Pacific, the Tyrrhenian Sea west of Italy, and the southern California borderland and west flank of the Juan de Fuca Ridge off the west coast of the United States. Many questions remain to be

  10. Mineral chemistry of clinopyroxene: guidance on geo- thermobarometry and tectonomagmatic setting of Nabar volcanic rocks, South of Kashan

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    Rezvan Mehvari


    Full Text Available Introduction The Nabar area that is a part of the Urumieh- Dokhtar volcano- plutonic belt is located in the south of Kashan. Research works such as Emami (Emami, 1993 and Abbasi (Abbasi, 2012 have been done about the geology of this area. Rock units in the study area contain middle- upper Eocene intermediate to acidic lavas and pyroclastic rocks, green marl, shale and sandy marls of Oligo- Miocene, limestones of Qom formation, intrusive granitoids with Oligo- Miocene age and quaternary travertine and recent alluvium (Emami, 1993. The volcanic and sub volcanic rocks of this area are composed of andesite, trachyandesite, dacite, rhyolite and porphyric pyroxene diorite along with pyroclastic rocks. Materials and methods In order to achieve the aims of this work, at first field surveying and sampling were done. Then, thin and polished thin sections were prepared. Some of the samples were selected for microprobe analysis and clinopyroxene minerals were analyzed by using JEOL- JXA-8800 analyzer with a voltage of 20 Kv and a current of 12 nA in the Kanazava University of Japan and Cameca-Sx100 analyzer with a voltage of 15 Kv and a current of 15 nA in the Iranian mineral processing research center, Karaj. Discussion On the basis of petrographic investigations, porphyritic, porphyroid, fluidal, amygdaloidal and porphyry with microlitic groundmass are common textures of these rocks. Also plagioclase, clinopyroxene, amphibole, biotite, sanidine and quartz are essential minerals, opaque, zircon and apatite as accessory minerals are observed in the studied rocks. Clinopyroxenes are observed with corona texture that resulted during the uralitization process. On the basis of minerals’ chemistry, pyroxenes are Fe- Mg- Ca type in composition (Morimoto et al., 1988. These clinopyroxenes are augite. Investigations indicate that mineral composition of clinopyroxene can be effectively used to evaluation the P-T conditions during crystallization. Previous research

  11. Geochemistry and tectonomagatic setting of Tertiary volcanic rocks of the Kangan area, northeast of Sarbisheh, southern Khorasan

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    Mahshid Malekian Dastjerdi


    Full Text Available Introduction The study area is located 12km away from the north east of Sarbisheh at the eastern border of the Lut block (Karimpour et al., 2011; Richards et al., 2012. The magmatic activity in the Lut blockhas begun in the middle Jurassic (165-162 Ma and reached its peak in the Tertiary age (Jung et al., 1983; Karimpour et al., 2011. Volcanic and subvolcanic rocks in the Tertiary age cover over half of the Lut block with up to 2000 m thickness and they were formed due to subduction prior to the collision of the Arabian and Asian plates (Jung et al., 1983; Karimpour et al., 2011. In the Kangan area, the basaltic lavas cropped out beyond the above intermediate to acid volcanic rocks. In this area, bentonite and perlite deposits have an economic importance. The main purpose of this paper is to present a better understanding of the tectono-magmatic settings of volcanic rocks in the northeast of Sarbisheh, east of Iran based on their geochemical characteristics. Materials and methods Fifteen samples were analyzed for major elements by inductively coupled plasma (ICP technologies and trace elements by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS, following a lithium metaborate/tetraborate fusion and nitric acid total digestion, at the Acme laboratories, Vancouver, Canada. Results The Kangan area is located at the northeast of Sarbishe, Southern Khorasan and the eastern border of the Lut block. In this area, basaltic lavas have cropped out above intermediate to acid lavas such as andesite, dacite, rhyolite (sometimes perlitic .The main minerals in the basalt are plagioclase, olivine and pyroxene, in andesite contain plagioclase, pyroxene, biotite and amphibole and in acid rocks include plagioclase, quartz, sanidine, biotite and amphibole. Intermediate to acid rocks have medium to high-K calc-alkaline nature and basalt is alkaline. Enrichment in LREE relative to HREE (Ce/Yb= 21.14-28.7, high ratio of Zr/Y(4.79- 10.81, enrichment in LILE

  12. Mineralogy of Rock Flour in Glaciated Volcanic Terrains: An Analog for a Cold and Icy Early Mars (United States)

    Rampe, E. B.; Horgan, B.; Scudder, N.; Smith, R. J.; Rutledge, A. M.


    Geomorphological and mineralogical data from early Martian surfaces indicate liquid water was present on ancient Mars. The relative surface temperatures, however, remain a subject of debate. Was early Mars warm and wet or cold and icy with punctuated periods of warmth and ice melt? By characterizing the mineralogy and geochemistry of modern icy mafic terrains on Earth, we can search for these characteristics in early Martian terrains to better constrain the early Martian climate. Here, we describe the mineralogy of glacial flour in a modern glaciated volcanic terrain in Oregon, USA. We are particularly interested in secondary phases that form in these environments, and we hypothesize that poorly crystalline phases may preferentially form in these terrains because of the low temperatures and the seasonality of melt water production. A description of the mineralogy of the moraines, the composition of the amorphous materials, and the geochemistry of the glacial melt waters are presented elsewhere. Glacial flour is made up of silt- and clay-sized particles that form from the physical weathering of rock underlying a wet-based glacier as the glacier slides over it. Flour is usually transported from underneath a glacier by melt water streams. The geochemistry of glacial melt water streams has been studied extensively and has been used to infer weathering reactions within glacial systems. However, the mineralogy of these environments, especially on mafic volcanic terrains, is not well studied. Rock flour is a ubiquitous physical weathering product in glaciated terrains and, therefore, affects microbial habitats, stream and lake chemistry, and chemical weathering processes. and by studying the mineralogy of glacial flour, we can better understand geochemical and microbiological processes in subglacial and proglacial terrains.

  13. Gravity and aeromagnetic constraints on the extent of Cenozoic volcanic rocks within the Nefza Tabarka region, northwestern Tunisia (United States)

    Jallouli, Chokri; Mickus, Kevin; Turki, Mohamed Moncef; Rihane, Chedly


    Bouguer gravity and aeromagnetic data are analyzed to determine the extent of Miocene magmatism in the Nefza and Tabarka regions of northwestern Tunisia. Construction of magnetic intensity and enhanced analytic signal (EAS) maps indicated the existence of at least two regions containing probable subsurface igneous bodies that correlate to the small scattered igneous outcrops in the Nefza and Tabarka regions. Because of the lack of lateral resolution of the EAS techniques, 3-D magnetic and 2.5-D gravity models were constructed over the anomalies at Nefza and Tabarka. The final models indicate that the maximum depths of the igneous bodies are between 2.5 and 2.7 km with maximum widths between 15 and 22 km. The final models also indicate that the bodies are tabular with a combination of laccolithic and lopolithic shapes and were probably emplaced in the shallow levels of the crust (at least 3 km). These widths greatly expand the region of known Miocene magmatism in northwestern Tunisia. Combined with geochemical and petrological data of the surface volcanic rocks, the gravity and magnetic models imply a wider range of Miocene volcanic activity in northern Tunisia, probably related to a subduction zone.

  14. Geochemical Evidence of Island-Arc Origin for Sumatra Island; A New Perspective based on Volcanic Rocks in Lampung Province, Indonesia

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    Iskandar Zulkarnain


    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v6i4.128Since decades, Sumatra Island is considered as the Eurasia continental margin where the Indian Ocean plate has been subducted oblique beneath the continental plate of Sumatra. But, the occurrences of volcanic rocks in almost all areas of Lampung Province in the southernmost of Sumatra Island, as the presence of the Quaternary Tanggamus Volcano in the western part of the province together with the Quaternary Rajabasa Volcano in the eastern area cannot be justified using the consideration. Spider diagrams of trace and rare earth elements of volcanic rocks from the western and eastern areas of the province reveal that the rocks come from three different tectonic settings, namely island-arc, active continental margin (ACM, and intra continental plate. All basalt and one dacite of western volcanic rocks show a character of island-arc origin, while the eastern volcanic rocks are reflecting characters of ACM and intra continental plate. Plot of the rocks in the diagram of Ta/Yb versus Ce/P and in Ta/Yb versus Th/Yb confirmed the tectonic environments and specifically classify the intra continental plate into Within Plate Volcanic Zone (WPVZ. The island-arc group is characterized by Ta/Yb ratio of less than 2.0 and Ce/P less than 1.8. The ACM group is recognized having Ta/Yb ratio between 2 and 4 with Ce/P more 1.8, while the WPVZ group is defined as a group having Ta/Yb more than 6 and Ce/P more than 1.0. The result indicates that the western part of Sumatra is an island-arc fragment and the eastern part belongs to the Eurasia continental margin. The concentration of volcanics having ACM character from areas around the Sumatra Fault System to the east indicates that the collision zone between the Sumatra island-arc fragments with the Eurasia continental margin is probably located along the SFS. More statistical data is still needed from other Sumatra volcanics to confirm this conclusion.

  15. Potassium metasomatism of volcanic and sedimentary rocks in rift basins, calderas and detachment terranes (United States)

    Chapin, C. E.; Lindley, J. I.

    The chemical, mineralogical, and oxygen-isotopic changes accompanying K-metasomatism are described. The similarities with diagenetic reactions in both deep marine and alkaline, saline-lake environments are noted. The common occurrence of K-metasomatism in upper-plate rocks of detachment terranes indicates that the early stage of severe regional extension causes crustal downwarping and, in arid to semi-arid regions, development of closed hydrographic basins.

  16. Geochemistry and Mineral Chemistry of Zeolites Bearing Basic Volcanic Rocks from the Boumehen-Roudehen Area, East of Tehran

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    Amir Ali Tabbakh Shabani


    Full Text Available Introduction The Upper Eocene basic volcanic rocks that have cropped out in Karaj formation in the Boumehen and Roudehen area in the east of Tehran are characterized by fibrous zeolites filling their vesicles, cavities and fractures creating amygdale texture. The study area is located structurally in the Central Alborz orogenic belt. The presence of large volumes of shoshonitic magma during the Middle to Late Eocene in southern–central Alborz implies that partial melting to produce shoshsonitic melts was not a local petrological event. Thus, their ages, formation processes, and interpretations are of regional tectonic significance. In this study, we present a detailed petrography, mineral chemistry, and whole-rock geochemistry of high-K (shoshonitic basic rocks to understand the petrogenesis and source region and to deduce the nature of the tectonomagmatic regime of the Alborz. Materials and methods In this study, we present new major and trace element data for a selection of 4 of the least altered samples by a combination of X-ray fluorescence (XRF and ICP-OES techniques at the Zarazma Mineral Studies Company. Mineral analyses were obtained by wavelength dispersive X-ray spectrometry on polished thin sections prepared from each rock sample described above for 12 elements using a Cameca SX-50 electron microprobe at the Istituto di Geologia e Geoingegneria Ambientale, C.N.R., University La Sapienza of Rome, Italy. Typical beam operating conditions were 15 kV and probe current of 15 nA. The accuracy of the analyses is 1% for major and 10% for minor elements. A total of 24 point analyses were collected. Results and Discussion The extent of alteration in the study rocks varies from slight to severe and shows porphyritic to glomeroporphyritic textures. Pyroxenes are generally subhedral to euhedral and occur as discrete crystals as well as aggregates. Olivine may occur only as relics filled with iddingsite, chlorite and calcite. Plagioclase is

  17. The Ediacaran volcanic rocks and associated mafic dykes of the Ouarzazate Group (Anti-Atlas, Morocco): Clinopyroxene composition, whole-rock geochemistry and Sr-Nd isotopes constraints from the Ouzellarh-Siroua salient (Tifnoute valley) (United States)

    Belkacim, Said; Gasquet, Dominique; Liégeois, Jean-Paul; Arai, Shoji; Gahlan, Hisham A.; Ahmed, Hassan; Ishida, Yoshito; Ikenne, Moha


    Belonging to the huge Ouarzazate volcanic Group that covered the whole Anti-Atlas during the late Ediacaran (580-545 Ma), the Tifnoute valley volcanic formations are mainly pyroclastic and show a large composition, from trachybasalt to rhyolite and are crosscut by dolerite dykes. The Tifnoute valley volcanic rocks are located within a rigid salient of the Anti-Atlas that gives them special extreme characteristics. Due to the heavy greenschist alteration that affects this volcanic group, we focused the more immobile elements, but as REE can also be affected, we used the composition of unaltered clinopyroxene crystals to determine the nature of these volcanic rocks. The clinopyroxene is an augite diopside in the basalt, an augite in the andesite and an augite-salite in the dolerite. Petrography of the Tifnoute mafic volcanic rocks and clinopyroxene compositions indicate the presence of two magmatic series: (i) older high-K calc-alkaline (alkali-calcic) andesite and basalt characterized by the early crystallization of Fe-Ti oxides and of the late fractionation of plagioclase, the modal proportion of the latter increasing from the basalt to the andesite and (ii) younger alkalic dolerite dykes. With clinopyroxene trace element compositions obtained using laser ablation ICP-MS, we calculated the composition of the melts in equilibrium with the pyroxenes. The volcanic rocks of the Tifnoute Valley have positive εNd570 (+1.7 to +5.0), low Sri (ages ranging from 0.80 to 1.14 Ga, indicating a mostly depleted Neoproterozoic source with limited involvement of the Eburnian lithosphere for the Tifnoute magmas. This depleted source is the young lithospheric mantle for the alkali-calcic series and the asthenosphere for the younger alkalic series. The Tifnoute Valley volcanic rocks emplaced in a Pan-African transtensive post-collisional environment that evolved towards the major rifting event that will give rise to the Rheic ocean, in a similar way to what occurred just after the

  18. Hawaiian submarine manganese-iron oxide crusts - A dating tool? (United States)

    Moore, J.G.; Clague, D.A.


    Black manganese-iron oxide crusts form on most exposed rock on the ocean floor. Such crusts are well developed on the steep lava slopes of the Hawaiian Ridge and have been sampled during dredging and submersible dives. The crusts also occur on fragments detached from bedrock by mass wasting, on submerged coral reefs, and on poorly lithified sedimentary rocks. The thickness of the crusts was measured on samples collected since 1965 on the Hawaiian Ridge from 140 dive or dredge localities. Fifty-nine (42%) of the sites were collected in 2001 by remotely operated vehicles (ROVs). The thinner crusts on many samples apparently result from post-depositional breakage, landsliding, and intermittent burial of outcrops by sediment. The maximum crust thickness was selected from each dredge or dive site to best represent crusts on the original rock surface at that site. The measurements show an irregular progressive thickening of the crusts toward the northwest-i.e., progressive thickening toward the older volcanic features with increasing distance from the Hawaiian hotspot. Comparison of the maximum crust thickness with radiometric ages of related subaerial features supports previous studies that indicate a crust-growth rate of about 2.5 mm/m.y. The thickness information not only allows a comparison of the relative exposure ages of two or more features offshore from different volcanoes, but also provides specific age estimates of volcanic and landslide deposits. The data indicate that some of the landslide blocks within the south Kona landslide are the oldest exposed rock on Mauna Loa, Kilauea, or Loihi volcanoes. Crusts on the floors of submarine canyons off Kohala and East Molokai volcanoes indicate that these canyons are no longer serving as channelways for downslope, sediment-laden currents. Mahukona volcano was approximately synchronous with Hilo Ridge, both being younger than Hana Ridge. The Nuuanu landslide is considerably older than the Wailau landslide. The Waianae

  19. Zircon geochronology of the Mashak volcanic rocks and the problem of the age of the lower-middle Riphean boundary (Southern Urals) (United States)

    Krasnobaev, A. A.; Kozlov, V. I.; Puchkov, V. N.; Busharina, S. V.; Sergeeva, N. D.; Paderin, I. P.


    In the type sections of the Riphean within the Bashkirian mega-anticlinorium (Southern Urals), the Mashak Formation represents a basal unit of the Middle Riphean erathem. The formation comprises throughout its area of distribution the alternation of volcanic, volcano-sedimentary, and sedimentary sequences and is divided into the lower, middle, and upper subformations. The volcanic rocks containing zircons (four samples, rhyodacite and rhyolite collected at Mashak, Berezyak, and Bolshoi Shatak ranges) are largely confined to the lower subformation. Analyses were performed using a SHRIMP II methodology, with special attention to the mineralogical characteristics of zircons, including their habit, morphology, preservation, and inclusions. All zircons show similarities in their mineral chemistry and geochemistry, which are indicative of the geochemical affinity of the volcanic rocks. At the same time, all zircon grains are characterized by specific typological parameters, which may equally reflect the parameters involved in the development of such volcanic rocks under different conditions. The integrated U-Pb age of zircons (SHRIMP II, VSEGEI, St. Petersbrug) from the four samples is 1383 ± 3 Ma. On the basis of the age of the Berdyaush gabbro-granitoid intrusion (up to 1410 Ma), the most likely age of this boundary is 1400 Ma, which is equated to the Calymmian and Ectasian of the International Stratigraphic Scale.

  20. Mobility of elements during K-metasomatism of volcanic rocks by alkaline, saline brines

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    Chapin, C.E. (New Mexico Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources, Socorro, NM (United States))


    Silicic ignimbrites and interbedded mafic lavas of Oligocene age were altered by alkaline, saline brines in the Popotosa basin of the Rio Grande rift near Socorro, New Mexico. Alteration was toward a fine-grained assemblage of adularia + hematite [+-] quartz irrespective of initial rock composition. Elevated [delta][sup 18]O and the occurrence of zeolites, gypsum, and salt casts in overlying play a deposits indicates that the altering fluids were basin brines. Preliminary analysis of secondary inclusions in fractured quartz phenocrysts indicates temperatures near 100 C and salinities near 20 wt. % NaCl equivalent. To test element mobility, pairs of fresh and altered samples from each of 7 ignimbrite units plus 4 samples of interbedded mafic lavas were analyzed by XRF, INAA, and AA. The elements showing the greatest mobility during alteration of ignimbrites are listed below along with their enrichment factors (altered rock/fresh rock). Ignimbrites: enriched--K[sub 2]O 1.99, Rb 1.89, Ba 1.43, As 12.14, Sb 18.30, Pb 1.23; depleted--Na[sub 2]O 0.25, MgO 0.57, CaO 0.27, MnO 0.50, P[sub 2]O[sub 5] 0.75, Sr 0.54, Li 0.57, U 0.78, Br 0.67, Cu 0.90, Zn 0.69. The dramatic enrichment of As and Sb in both ignimbrites and mafic lavas indicates that these elements are highly mobile in oxidizing basin brine systems. K-metasomatism is a common type of alteration in rift basins, detachment terranes, aquifers through which brines have migrated.

  1. New records of rare lichenicolous and lichen-forming fungi from volcanic rocks in SW Poland

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    Katarzyna Szczepańska


    Full Text Available Records of two lichenicolous and nine lichen-forming fungi found in the southwestern part of Poland are presented. All of the reported species are very rare and they have only a few scattered localities in the country. One of them, Lecanora pannonica, is reported for the second time from Poland. Additionally, the new, contemporary records of Cercidospora macrospora, Rhizocarpon disporum, R. viridiatrum and Stereocaulon pileatum in Lower Silesia were noted. These species were known only from historical collections in the study area. Furthermore, Lecidea fuscoatra has been found a new host for Sagediopsis barbara. All of the localities of recorded species were found on natural outcrops of basalt rocks.

  2. Petrogenesis and geodynamic setting of Early Cretaceous felsic rocks in the Gan-Hang Belt, Southeast China: Constraints from geochronology and geochemistry of the tuffs and trachyandesitic rocks in Shengyuan volcanic Basin (United States)

    Shu, Xun; Yang, Shui-Yuan; Jiang, Shao-Yong; Ye, Mao


    The Late Mesozoic geology of the Gan-Hang Belt is characterized by extensive magmatism forming a belt of volcanic-intrusive complex. The geochronology, petrogenesis, and geodynamic setting of the Late Mesozoic magmatic rocks in the Gan-Hang Belt are still controversial. The Shengyuan volcanic Basin is located in the NW region of the belt and mainly contains crystal tuff, welded tuff, and trachyandesitic rocks. We integrate geochronological and geochemical data for these tuffs and trachyandesitic rocks, to explore the origin of these rocks and improve our understanding of the Late Mesozoic magmatic and tectonic evolution of the region. Zircon U-Pb dating shows that these samples were formed in the Early Cretaceous (135-137 Ma). All the tuffs have a pronounced A2-type geochemical signature and their chemical compositions are controlled by crystal fractionation. All trachyandesitic rocks exhibit high K2O contents and were attributed to the shoshonite series; they are characterized by arc-like trace element distribution patterns, with significant enrichment in large ion lithophile elements (LILE) and light rare earth elements (LREE) but depletion in high field-strength elements (HFSE). Moreover, all the tuffs and trachyandesitic rocks were characterized by negative whole rock εNd(t) and zircon εHf(t). An integrated interpretation of all these geochemical data leads to the conclusion that the Shengyuan trachyandesitic rocks were primarily derived from mantle materials and oceanic crust-derived melt. The Shengyuan tuffs were formed by the partial melting of the Proterozoic orthometamorphic and parametamorphic rocks. Our studies together with previous published data suggest that the Early Cretaceous A-type felsic rocks, with ages between 138 Ma and 122 Ma, occurred along the Gan-Hang Belt, indicating an important Late Mesozoic extensional event in the Belt. This event represents a back-arc tectonic setting due to the rollback of the Paleo-Pacific plate.

  3. Determining magmatic series and oxygen fugacity of volcanic rocks in the east of Kamu, north of Isfahan, based on biotite chemistry

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    Mohammad Sayari


    Full Text Available Volcanic rocks of interest are situated in the middle part of the Urumieh-Dokhtar Magmatic Arc (UDMA. They are parts of a vast magmatic province located in the north of Bitlis-Zagros suture zone. Having a prevailing porphyritic texture, these rocks include phenocrysts of plagioclase, amphibole and biotite in a matrix composed of feldspar, quartz, opaque, glass and microlite and mineralogically show composition of dacite to andesite. Minerals are mostly fresh. Effects of alteration are limited to weak chloritization and saussuritization in some amphiboles and rim of plagioclases, respectively. All of the analyzed biotites in the Miocene-Pliocene volcanic rocks in the east of Kamu are of Mg-biotite. According to a widespread classification of micas to 6 general end-members, biotites of interest are averagely composed of 55.45% phlogopite, 15.90% talc, 12.72% Ti-phlogopite, 11.44% eastonite, 3.71% ferri-eastonite and 0.78% muscovite. Chemical composition of biotites indicates a calk-alkaline magmatic series for the magma from which biotites are crystallized. Estimation of the oxygen fugacity of magma, based on chemical composition and Fe3+ content of biotite, shows that the oxygen fugacity was limited to FMQ buffer in quality and was about 10-15 bar in quantity. This value accords the oxygen fugacity for intermediate-acidic volcanic rocks.

  4. A large landslide in volcanic rock: failure processes, geometry and propagation (United States)

    Putu Krishna Wijaya, I.; Zangerl, Christian; Straka, Wolfgang; Mergili, Martin; Prasad Pudasaini, Shiva; Arifianti, Yukni


    The Jemblung landslide in Banjarnegara, Indonesia was one of the most destructive landslides in the country since 2006. This landslide caused at least 90 deaths while more than 1300 people were evacuated to safer areas. Concerning the failure mechanisms and type of material, the event can be characterized as a complex landslide (earth slide to earth flow). It originated in volcaniclastic soil/rock, i.e. andesites and lapilli-tuffs of varying degrees of weathering that lie above tuffaceous sandstones, conglomerates, as well as an alternation of shale and brown coal layers. Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) data from a secondary database are processed by using photogrammetric software to obtain an overview of the landslide geometry before and after the failure event. Stratigraphic field data and geoelectrical measurements are compared and correlated to build a geological-geometrical model and to estimate the volume of the landslide. Petrographical and XRD analysis are conducted to explain the mineral composition of parent rock and its weathering products. Rainfall as well as seismologic data are collected to study potential trigger and failure mechanisms. The geological-geometrical model of the landslide, digital terrain models of the process area and geotechnical soil properties are combined to model the initial sliding process by applying limit-equilibrium software products. Furthermore, the landslide propagation is simulated with the novel, GIS-based, two-phase mass flow modelling tool r.avaflow in order to improve the understanding of the dynamics of the Jemblung landslide.

  5. Relative Roles of Source Composition, Fractional Crystallization and Crustal Contamination in the Petrogenesis of Andean Volcanic Rocks (United States)

    Thorpe, R. S.; Francis, P. W.; O'Callaghan, L.


    There are well established differences in the chemical and isotopic characteristics of the calc-alkaline basalt--andesite--decite--rhyolite association of the northern (n.v.z.), central (c.v.z.) and southern volcanic zones (s.v.z.) of the South American Andes. Volcanic rocks of the alkaline basalt--trachyte association occur within and to the east of these active volcanic zones. The chemical and isotopic characteristics of the n.v.z. basaltic andesites and andesites and the s.v.z. basalts, basaltic andesites and andesites are consistent with derivation by fractional crystallization of basaltic parent magmas formed by partial melting of the asthenospheric mantle wedge containing components from subducted oceanic lithosphere. Conversely, the alkaline lavas are derived from basaltic parent magmas formed from mantle of `within-plate' character. Recent basaltic andesites from the Cerro Galan volcanic centre to the SE of the c.v.z. are derived from mantle containing both subduction zone and within-plate components, and have experienced assimilation and fractional crystallization (a.f.c.) during uprise through the continental crust. The c.v.z. basaltic andesites are derived from mantle containing subduction-zone components, probably accompanied by a.f.c. within the continental crust. Some c.v.z. lavas and pyroclastic rocks show petrological and geochemical evidence for magma mixing. The petrogenesis of the c.v.z. lavas is therefore a complex process in which magmas derived from heterogeneous mantle experience assimilation, fractional crystallization, and magma mixing during uprise through the continental crust. Active Andean volcanoes of the calc-alkaline basalt--andesite--dacite rhyolite association occur within a northern (n.v.z.), central (c.v.z.) and southern volcanic zone (s.v.z.) (figure 9). Alkaline volcanic rocks occur within and to the east of these zones. The n.v.z. and s.v.z. lavas have chemical and isotope characteristics consistent with an origin by

  6. Submarine hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Renilson, Martin


    This book adopts a practical approach and presents recent research together with applications in real submarine design and operation. Topics covered include hydrostatics, manoeuvring, resistance and propulsion of submarines. The author briefly reviews basic concepts in ship hydrodynamics and goes on to show how they are applied to submarines, including a look at the use of physical model experiments. The issues associated with manoeuvring in both the horizontal and vertical planes are explained, and readers will discover suggested criteria for stability, along with rudder and hydroplane effectiveness. The book includes a section on appendage design which includes information on sail design, different arrangements of bow planes and alternative stern configurations. Other themes explored in this book include hydro-acoustic performance, the components of resistance and the effect of hull shape. Readers will value the author’s applied experience as well as the empirical expressions that are presented for use a...

  7. Geochemical and isotopic (Nd-Pb-Sr-O) variations bearing on the genesis of volcanic rocks from Vesuvius, Italy (United States)

    Ayuso, R.A.; de Vivo, B.; Rolandi, G.; Seal, R.R.; Paone, A.


    Alkaline volcanism produced by Monte Somma-Vesuvius volcano includes explosive plinian and subplinian activity in addition to effusive lava flows. Pumice, scoria, and lava (150 samples) exhibit major- and trace-element gradients as a function of SiO2 (58.9-47.2 wt%) and MgO (0-7.8 wt%); Mg value are ???50. Internally gradational chemical groups or cycles are distinguished by age: (1) 25 000 to 14 000 yr B.P.; (2) 8000 yr B.P. to A.D. 79; and (3) A.D. 79 to 1944. A small number of lavas, dikes and scora were also analysed from the Somma formation (~ 35 000 to 25 000 yr B.P.). Within each group, contents of Na2O + K2O increas with decreasing MgO along distinct rocks. Nb/Y values are variable from 0.66 to 3.14 (at SiO2 ??? 50 wt%) generally in the range of alkaline and ultra-alkaline rocks. Variations in contents of some majro elements (e.g., P and Ti), and trace elements (e.g., Th, Nb, Ta, Zr, Hf, Pb, La, and Sc), as well as contrasting trends in ratios of various elements (e.g., Ta/Yb, Hf/U, Th/Ta, Th/Hf, Th/Yb, etc.) are also generally consistent with the group subdivisions. For example, Th/Hf increases from ??? 5 to ??? 10 with decreasing age for the Vesuvius system as a whole, yielding similar compositions in the least evolved rocks (low-silica, high-MgO, imcompatible element-poor) erupted at the end of each cycle. Internal variations within individual eruptions also systematically changed generally towards a common mafic composition at the end of each cycle, thus reflecting the dominanit volume in the magma chamber. At the start of a new eruptive cycle, the rocks are relatively enriched in incompatible elements; younger groups also contain higher abundances than other groups. N-MORB-normalized multielement diagrams exhibit selective enrichments of Sr, K, Rb, Th, and the light rare-earth elements; deep Nb and Ta negative anomalies commonly seen in rocks generated at orogenic margins are absent in the light rare-earth elements; deep Nb and Ta netgative anomalies

  8. Volcanic Rocks Collected With ROV Tiburon From Rodriguez Seamount, Located at the Continental Slope of the California Borderland (United States)

    Davis, A. S.; Clague, D. A.; Paduan, J. B.


    Volcanic rocks were collected from Rodriguez Seamount at the outer margin off the Continental Borderland with MBARI's ROV Tiburon in October 2003 and April 2004. Six dives recovered lava and volcaniclastic samples from the deep flanks ( ˜2120 m) to the summit at 630 m. Whole rock compositions of plagioclase-olivine-clionpyroxene bearing lava samples are predominantly alkalic basalt (<8% MgO) and hawaiite with minor mugearite (MgO=1.5%). Glass compositions of pillow rims and of volcaniclastic fragments in breccia and bedded sandstone are predominantly hawaiite, mugearite and minor evolved alkalic basalt. The lava samples include one rhyolite and one basaltic andesite with subduction-related chemistry; they are probably erratics. Other clearly identifiable erratics include granite, quartzite, amphibolite, and bored, erosion-sculpted sandstone, resembling typical beach deposits. Most of these erratics are pebble- to small cobble-size and occur in conglomerate and crossbedded sandstone that surround the summit at a break in slope that most likely marks the shoreline when Rodriguez was an island. The lava outcrops on the gently domed platform of the summit are dense, oxidized àà-like flows without glassy rinds. Sulfur content of glass, collected from the flanks of the volcano, ranges from 1300 ppm of a glass inclusion in an olivine crystal to ˜160 ppm of volcaniclastic grains, indicating extensive degassing. Petrographically and chemically these lavas are virtually identical to those erupted on Miocene seamounts offshore central California (e.g. Davidson, Guide, Pioneer, Gumdrop seamounts, Davis et al, 2002) as well as Northeast Bank on the continental shelf south of Rodriguez and seamounts farther offshore from the Continental Borderland (e.g. Little Joe, San Marcos, San Juan seamounts, Clague et al, unpublished; Davis et al., 1995). Trace element abundances and ratios (e.g. LREE, Zr/Nb, Ta/Nb) also completely overlap with those from the other sites, suggesting

  9. A highly unradiogenic lead isotopic signature revealed by volcanic rocks from the East Pacific Rise. (United States)

    Mougel, Berengere; Agranier, Arnaud; Hemond, Christophe; Gente, Pascal


    Radiogenic isotopes in oceanic basalts provide a window into the different geochemical components defining the composition of Earth's mantle. Here we report the discovery of a novel geochemical signature in volcanic glasses sampled at a sub-kilometre scale along the East Pacific Rise between 15°37'N and 15°47'N. The most striking aspect of this signature is its unradiogenic lead ((206)Pb/(204)Pb=17.49, (207)Pb/(204)Pb=15.46 and (208)Pb/(204)Pb=36.83). In conjunction with enriched Sr, Nd and Hf signatures, Pb isotopes depict mixing lines that trend away from any known mantle end-members. We suggest that this unradiogenic lead component sampled by magmatic melts corresponds to a novel upper mantle reservoir that should be considered in the Pb isotope budget of the bulk silicate Earth. Major, trace element and isotope compositions are suggestive of an ancient and lower continental origin for this unradiogenic lead component, possibly sulphide-bearing pyroxenites that were preserved even after prolonged stirring within the ambient upper mantle.

  10. Late sodic metasomatism evidences in bimodal volcanic rocks of the Acampamento Velho Alloformation, Neoproterozoic III, southern Brazil

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    Delia Del Pilar M. de Almeida


    Full Text Available A mineralogical study was carried out in mafic and felsic volcanic rocks of the Acampamento Velho Alloformation at Cerro do Bugio, Perau and Serra de Santa Bárbara areas (Camaquã Basin in southern Brazil. The Acampamento Velho bimodal event consists of two associations: lower mafic at the base and upper felsic at the top. Plagioclase and alkali-feldspar were studied using an electronic microprobe, and magnetite, ilmenite, rutile, illite and alkali-feldspar were investigated through scanning electron microscopy. The rocks were affected by a process of late sodic autometasomatism. In mafic rocks, Ca-plagioclase was transformed to albite and pyroxenes were altered. In felsic rocks, sanidine was partially pseudomorphosed, generating heterogeneous alkali-feldspar. In this association, unstable Ti-rich magnetite was replaced by rutile and ilmenite. In mafic rocks, the crystallization sequence was: (1 Ti-rich magnetite (?, (2 pyroxene and Ca-plagioclase, (3 albite (alteration to Ca-plagioclase, (4 sericite, chlorite and calcite (alteration to pyroxene, and kaolinite (alteration to plagioclase/albite. In felsic rocks: (1 zircon, (2 Ti-rich magnetite, (3 sanidine, (4 quartz. The introduction of late Na-rich fluids, generated the formation of (5 heterogeneous alkali-feldspar, (6 ilmenite and rutile from the Ti-rich magnetite, (7 albite in the spherulites. Finally, alteration of sanidine, vitroclasts and pumice to (8 illite.Um estudo mineralógico de detalhe foi realizado nas rochas vulcânicas da Aloformação Acampamento Velho nos Cerros do Bugio, Perau e Serra de Santa Bárbara (Bacia do Camaquã, sudeste do Brasil. Este evento bimodal é constituído por duas associações: máfica inferior na base e félsica superior no topo. Foram estudados grãos de plagioclásio e feldspato alcalino com o uso de microssonda eletrônica, sendo que, magnetita,ilmenita, rutilo e ilita além de feldspato alcalino foram pesquisados através do microscópio eletr

  11. The Eldivan ophiolite and volcanic rocks in the İzmir-Ankara-Erzincan suture zone, Northern Turkey: Geochronology, whole-rock geochemical and Nd-Sr-Pb isotope characteristics (United States)

    Çelik, Ömer Faruk; Chiaradia, Massimo; Marzoli, Andrea; Billor, Zeki; Marschik, Robert


    Gabbros and dolerite dikes of the Eldivan ophiolite and basaltic volcanic rocks of the ophiolitic mélange in the central part of the İzmir-Ankara-Erzincan (IAE) suture zone were investigated for their 40Ar/39Ar age and whole-rock-major-trace element and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope compositions. Based on geological and geochemical characteristics basaltic volcanic rocks in the ophiolitic mélange are subdivided into two groups (Groups I and II) with ocean island basalts or enriched mid-ocean ridge basalt characteristics, respectively. Gabbros and dolerite dikes of the Eldivan ophiolite (Groups III and IV) have instead geochemical compositions indicative of a subduction-related environment. The volcanic rocks of Group I have 87Sr/86Sr(i) between 0.7037 and 0.7044, ƐNd(i)-DM of - 4.5 to - 5.6, and 206Pb/204Pb(i) ranging between 18.35 and 18.75. Group II volcanic rocks have higher 87Sr/86Sr(i) values (0.7049-0.7055), ƐNd(i)-DM ranging between - 5.4 and - 6.0, and 206Pb/204Pb(i) between 18.14 and 18.62. The Nd isotopic signatures and 207Pb/204Pb(i) values of the volcanic rocks of both groups point to a different source with respect to those of the Eldivan ophiolite. The low 206Pb/204Pb(i) values relative to the ophiolitic rocks seem to exclude a significant contribution from a HIMU reservoir, whereas the 207Pb/204Pb(i) values slightly above the NHRL might indicate some contribution from an EM2-type reservoir. Gabbros (Group III) of the Eldivan ophiolite and dolerite dikes (Group IV) cross-cutting the ultramafic part of the ophiolite show 87Sr/86Sr(i) between 0.7038 and 0.7053, ƐNd(i)-DM from - 2 to - 3.6 and 206Pb/204Pb(i) between 18.10 and 18.80. The gabbros yield ca. 150 Ma 40Ar/39Ar amphibole-plateau ages, which, together with the geochemical data, indicate that they were produced above subducted oceanic lithosphere in the IAE ocean domain in Late Jurassic times. Therefore, the Eldivan ophiolite in the IAE suture zone constitutes a link between the Hellenide

  12. Decolorization of textile dye RB19 using volcanic rock matrix immobilized Bacillus thuringiensis cells with surface displayed laccase. (United States)

    Wan, Juan; Sun, Xiaowen; Liu, Cheng; Tang, Mengjun; Li, Lin; Ni, Hong


    A triplicate volcanic rock matrix-Bacillus thuringiensis-laccase WlacD (VRMs-Bt-WlacD) dye decolorization system was developed. WlacD was displayed on the B. thuringiensis MB174 cell surface to prepare a whole-cell laccase biocatalyst by using two repeat N-terminal domains of autolysin Mbg (Mbgn)2 as the anchoring motif. Immunofluorescence microscopic assays confirmed that the fusion protein (Mbgn)2-WlacD was anchored on the surface of the recombinant B. thuringiensis MB174. After optimization by a single factor test, L 9(34)-orthogonal test, Plackett-Burman test, steepest ascent method, and Box-Behnken response surface methodology, the whole-cell specific laccase activity of B. thuringiensis MB174 was improved to 555.2 U L-1, which was 2.25 times than that of the primary culture condition. Optimized B. thuringiensis MB174 cells were further adsorbed by VRMs to prepare VRMs-Bt-WlacD, an immobilized whole-cell laccase biocatalyst. Decolorization capacity of as-prepared VRMs-Bt-WlacD toward an initial concentration of 500 mg L-1 of an textile dye reactive blue 19 (RB19) aqueous solution reached 72.36% at a solid-to-liquid ratio of 10 g-100 mL. Repeated decolorization-activation operations showed the high decolorization capacity of VRMs-Bt-WlacD and have the potential for large-scale or continuous operations.

  13. Quantifying effects of humans and climate on groundwater resources through modeling of volcanic-rock aquifers of Hawaii (United States)

    Rotzoll, K.; Izuka, S. K.; Nishikawa, T.; Fienen, M. N.; El-Kadi, A. I.


    The volcanic-rock aquifers of Kauai, Oahu, and Maui are heavily developed, leading to concerns related to the effects of groundwater withdrawals on saltwater intrusion and streamflow. A numerical modeling analysis using the most recently available data (e.g., information on recharge, withdrawals, hydrogeologic framework, and conceptual models of groundwater flow) will substantially advance current understanding of groundwater flow and provide insight into the effects of human activity and climate change on Hawaii's water resources. Three island-wide groundwater-flow models were constructed using MODFLOW 2005 coupled with the Seawater-Intrusion Package (SWI2), which simulates the transition between saltwater and freshwater in the aquifer as a sharp interface. This approach allowed relatively fast model run times without ignoring the freshwater-saltwater system at the regional scale. Model construction (FloPy3), automated-parameter estimation (PEST), and analysis of results were streamlined using Python scripts. Model simulations included pre-development (1870) and current (average of 2001-10) scenarios for each island. Additionally, scenarios for future withdrawals and climate change were simulated for Oahu. We present our streamlined approach and preliminary results showing estimated effects of human activity on the groundwater resource by quantifying decline in water levels, reduction in stream base flow, and rise of the freshwater-saltwater interface.

  14. Insights into Magmatic Degassing at Merapi Volcano, Indonesia from Uranium-Series Disequilibria in Recently Erupted Volcanic Rocks (United States)

    Handley, Heather; Reagan, Mark; Gertisser, Ralf; Preece, Katie; Berlo, Kim; Barclay, Jenni; Herd, Richard


    We present new uranium-series isotopic data for the volcanic products of the 2006 and 2010 eruptions at Merapi to investigate magmatic degassing and the driving forces behind the recent unusual explosive behavior in 2010. The 2006 and 2010 Merapi whole-rock samples and plagioclase separates have U excesses ((238U/230Th) activity ratios > 1) and excess Ra ((226Ra//230Th) > 1) with no significant difference between the 2006 and 2010 whole-rock samples. Two samples, one from 2006 and one from 2010 have apparent (228Ra/232Th) values in excess of secular equilibrium, suggesting that the process causing the 226Ra enrichments over 230Th (possibly the interaction of magma with carbonate material in the crust) might have continued to shortly before eruption at least for some magmas. The 2010 Merapi rocks were variably degassed of 210Po upon eruption, showing no systematic temporal evolution. The variation observed in (210Pb/226Ra)0 for the 2006 and 2010 eruptions is comparable to the full range of ratios measured in the time period from 1981 to 1995, previously reported for the volcano. The 2006 and 2010 samples are largely characterised by 210Pb deficits ((210Pb/226Ra)0 secular equilibrium. The observed variability in (210Pb/226Ra)0 is attributed to variations in magmatic source depth as well as potential variable speed of ascent. The range of 210Pb deficits observed in the 2006 Merapi samples imply approximately 2-4 years of degassing prior to eruption. In the main 2010 dome-building phase, the three samples analysed show small 210Pb deficits to a small 210Pb excess and lie within error of secular equilibrium. This likely represents the arrival of fast moving magma that did not stall and degas for any significant amount of time since its last stagnation point. The higher (210Pb/226Ra)0 in samples erupted between 1 to 4 Nov 2010, compared to 2006, supports the previous model that periods of magmatic recharge are linked to rapid dome extrusion and, ultimately, more

  15. Early to Middle Devonian granitic and volcanic rocks from the central Gulf of Maine (United States)

    Barr, Sandra M.; Mortensen, James K.; Thompson, Margaret D.; Hermes, O. Don; White, Chris E.


    Cashes Ledge igneous suite in the central Gulf of Maine is represented by 10 granitic and two felsic tuff samples collected from bedrock outcrops using the submersible Alvin in 1971-1972 and archived at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute. Laser ablation ICP-MS analyses of zircon grains yielded crystallization ages of 414.9 ± 1.1 Ma and 399.7 ± 1.5 Ma for two alkali feldspar granite samples, 407.0 ± 1.9 Ma for a syenogranite sample, and 384.4 ± 2.3 Ma and 383.9 ± 1.6 Ma for two felsic tuff samples. The samples contain iron-rich mafic minerals, including aegirine-augite, grunerite/ferroedenite, and annite. Most of the samples are alkaline to slightly peralkaline, with high concentrations of SiO 2, Y, Zr, Nb, and REE, strong negative Eu anomalies, and positive epsilon Nd values (1.8 to 3.7). The suite resembles part of a belt of similar Silurian-Devonian rocks with ages between 426 and 370 Ma now recognized in the central part of Avalonia in southeastern New England. They formed in a long-lived, likely extensional regime linked to subduction and subsequent complex transcurrent motions among Ganderia, Avalonia, and Meguma, culminating in the closure of the Rheic Ocean.

  16. Virgin volcanic rocks: Kinetics and equilibrium studies for the adsorption of cadmium from water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alemayehu, Esayas, E-mail: [Institute for Land Use, Rostock University, Justus-Von-Liebig-Weg 6, 18059 Rostock (Germany); Lennartz, Bernd [Institute for Land Use, Rostock University, Justus-Von-Liebig-Weg 6, 18059 Rostock (Germany)


    This study was initiated to investigate the adsorption of cadmium from aqueous solution by two different rock types-Pumice (VPum) and Scoria (VSco), which are readily available in Ethiopia and other countries. The influence of operational conditions, such as particle size, adsorbent/solution ratio, contact time, cadmium initial concentration, and pH was analyzed. The competition between metals was also evaluated. The Cd(II) removal capacity was predominantly affected by the pH conditions, being increased under alkaline conditions. For both adsorbents, when particle size was 0.075-0.425 mm, the maximum Cd(II) adsorption was observed at pH 6.0 (contact time = 24 h, shaking speed = 200 rpm, adsorbent dose = 50 g L{sup -1}). Adsorption process revealed that the initial uptake was very fast during the first 1 h. The kinetics of the interactions follows pseudo second-order. Equilibrium assays confirm that VPum has a larger capacity and affinity for Cd(II) adsorption than VSco. Both Langmuir and Freundlich models described equally well the experimental data. VPum and VSco were found to be promising material for the removal of cadmium from metal bearing water.

  17. Vulnerability of shallow ground water and drinking-water wells to nitrate in the United States: Model of predicted nitrate concentration in shallow, recently recharged ground water -- Input data set for basalt and volcanic rocks (gwava-s_vrox) (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the presence or absence of basalt and volcanic rocks in the conterminous United States. The data set was used as an input data layer for a...

  18. Paleomagnetism and rock magnetism of Quaternary volcanic rocks and Late Paleozoic strata, VC-1 core hole, Valles Caldera, New Mexico, with emphasis on remagnetization of Late Paleozoic strata (United States)

    Geissman, John W.


    Paleomagnetic and rock magnetic data obtained from azimuthally unoriented core samples, collected at approximately 1- to 3-m intervals, of Continental Scientific Drilling Program core hole VC-1 have prompted reinterpretations of the Quaternary volcanic stratigraphy intersected by the bore and have aided in evaluating the thermal regime within late Paleozoic strata attending fluid circulation and mineral deposition during and after development of the Toledo and Valles calderas. The results from Quaternary units (Banco Bonito Obsidian: I = +35.4°, a95 = 2.8° (inclination only determinations), n = 33; Battleship Rock Tuff: D = 359.6°, I = +42.4°, a95 = 2.8°, n = 5 site means (surface sites); VC-1 Rhyolite: I = +39.2°, a95 = 12.8°, n = 7; Upper VC-1 Tuff: I = +37.2°, a95 = 10.7°, n = 13; Middle VC-1 Tuff: I = +42.1°, a95 = 2.1°, n = 39; South Mountain Rhyolite: D = 350.9°, I = +49.9°, a95 = 3.4°, n = 10 (one surface site)) are consistent with isotopic age data, indicating that the entire moat volcanic sequence intersected is less than 650 kyr. Monitoring of natural remanent magnetization (NRM) intensity, NRM directions, directions of magnetizations isolated during progressive demagnetization, median destructive forces, and rock magnetization parameters has identified systematic variations within the thick Banco Bonito Obsidian and VC-1 Tuff units. The Permian Abo Formation, Pennsylvanian to earliest Permian Madera Limestone, and Pennsylvanian Sandia Formation typically contain a moderate positive inclination magnetization component (Abo Formation: I = +52.2°, a95 = 7.4°, n = 16; Madera Limestone: I = +58.4°, a95 = 2.8°, n = 105; Sandia Formation: I = +53.9°, a95 = 4.8°, n = 21); when residing in magnetite, it is usually unblocked in the laboratory by 350°C; when carried by hematite it is unblocked by 550°C. A moderate negative inclination (e.g., Madera and Abo strata: D = 173.1°, I = -46.6°, a95 = 5.5°; n = 47 samples; assuming a north seeking

  19. Matrix diffusion coefficients in volcanic rocks at the Nevada test site: Influence of matrix porosity, matrix permeability, and fracture coating minerals (United States)

    Reimus, Paul W.; Callahan, Timothy J.; Ware, S. Doug; Haga, Marc J.; Counce, Dale A.


    Diffusion cell experiments were conducted to measure nonsorbing solute matrix diffusion coefficients in forty-seven different volcanic rock matrix samples from eight different locations (with multiple depth intervals represented at several locations) at the Nevada Test Site. The solutes used in the experiments included bromide, iodide, pentafluorobenzoate (PFBA), and tritiated water ( 3HHO). The porosity and saturated permeability of most of the diffusion cell samples were measured to evaluate the correlation of these two variables with tracer matrix diffusion coefficients divided by the free-water diffusion coefficient ( Dm/ D*). To investigate the influence of fracture coating minerals on matrix diffusion, ten of the diffusion cells represented paired samples from the same depth interval in which one sample contained a fracture surface with mineral coatings and the other sample consisted of only pure matrix. The log of ( Dm/ D*) was found to be positively correlated with both the matrix porosity and the log of matrix permeability. A multiple linear regression analysis indicated that both parameters contributed significantly to the regression at the 95% confidence level. However, the log of the matrix diffusion coefficient was more highly-correlated with the log of matrix permeability than with matrix porosity, which suggests that matrix diffusion coefficients, like matrix permeabilities, have a greater dependence on the interconnectedness of matrix porosity than on the matrix porosity itself. The regression equation for the volcanic rocks was found to provide satisfactory predictions of log( Dm/ D*) for other types of rocks with similar ranges of matrix porosity and permeability as the volcanic rocks, but it did a poorer job predicting log( Dm/ D*) for rocks with lower porosities and/or permeabilities. The presence of mineral coatings on fracture walls did not appear to have a significant effect on matrix diffusion in the ten paired diffusion cell experiments.

  20. High-resolution 40Ar/39Ar geochronology of volcanic rocks from the Siebengebirge (Central Germany)—Implications for eruption timescales and petrogenetic evolution of intraplate volcanic fields (United States)

    Przybyla, Thomas; Pfänder, Jörg A.; Münker, Carsten; Kolb, Melanie; Becker, Maike; Hamacher, Uli


    A key parameter in understanding mantle dynamics beneath continents is the temporal evolution of intraplate volcanism in response to lithospheric thinning and asthenospheric uplift. To contribute to a better understanding of how intraplate volcanic fields evolve through time, we present a high precision 40Ar/39Ar age dataset for volcanic rocks from the Siebengebirge volcanic field (SVF) from central Germany, one of the best studied and compositionally most diverse intraplate volcanic fields of the Cenozoic Central European Volcanic Province (CEVP). Petrological and geochemical investigations suggest that the formation of the different rock types that occur in the SVF can be explained by a combination of assimilation and fractional crystallisation processes, starting from at least two different parental magmas with different levels of silica saturation (alkali basaltic and basanitic), and originating from different mantle sources. These evolved along two differentiation trends to latites and trachytes, and to tephrites and tephriphonolites, respectively. In contrast to their petrogenesis, the temporal evolution of the different SVF suites is poorly constrained. Previous K/Ar ages suggested a time of formation between about 28 and 19 Ma for the mafic rocks, and of about 27 to 24 Ma for the differentiated rocks. Our results confirm at high precision that the differentiated lithologies of both alkaline suites (40Ar/39Ar ages from 25.3 ± 0.2 Ma to 25.9 ± 0.3 Ma) erupted contemporaneously within a very short time period of 0.6 Ma, whereas the eruption of mafic rocks (basanites) lasted at least 8 Ma (40Ar/39Ar ages from 22.2 ± 0.2 Ma to 29.5 ± 0.3 Ma). This implies that felsic magmatism in the central SVF was likely a single event, possibly triggered by an intense phase of rifting, and that ongoing melting and eruption of mostly undifferentiated mafic lavas dominate the > 8 Ma long magmatic history of this region. Among the mafic lavas, most basanites and tephrites

  1. Frictional processes during flank motion at Mount Etna (Italy): experimental characterisation of slip on similar and dissimilar volcanic and sedimentary rocks. (United States)

    Rozanski, Wojciech; Lavallee, Yan; Kendrick, Jackie; Castagna, Angela; Mitchell, Thomas; Heap, Michael; Vinciguerra, Sergio; Hirose, Takehiro; Dingwell, Donald


    The edifice of Mount Etna (Italy) is structurally unstable, exhibiting a near continuous ESE seaward sliding along a set of faults due to interplay between regional tectonics, gravity instability and magma intrusion. Continuous seismic and ground deformation monitoring reveals the resulting large-scale flank motion at variable rates. The mechanisms controlling this faulting kinetic remains, however, poorly constrained. Examination of the fault zones reveals a range of rock types along the different fault segments: fresh and altered basalt, clay and limestone. As lithological contrasts can jeopardise the structural stability of an edifice, we experimentally investigate the frictional properties of these rocks using low- to high-velocity-rotary shear tests on similar and dissimilar rocks to better understand episodes of slow flank motion as well as rapid and catastrophic sector collapse events. The first set of experiments was performed at velocities up to 1.2 m/s and at normal stresses of 1.5 MPa, commensurate with depths of the contacts seen in the Etna edifice. Friction experiments on clay gouge shows the strong rate-weakening dependence of slip in this material as well as the release of carbon dioxide. Friction experiments on solid rocks show a wider range of mechanical behaviour. At high velocity (>0.6 m/s) volcanic rocks tend to melt whereas the clay and limestone do not; rather they decarbonate, which prevents the rock from achieving the temperature required for melting. Experiments on dissimilar rocks clearly show that composition of host rocks affects the composition and viscosity of the resultant frictional melt, which can have a dramatic effect on shear stress leading to fault weakening or strengthening depending on the combination of host rock samples. A series of low- to moderate-slip velocity experiments is now being conducted to complement our dataset and provide a more complete rock friction model applicable to Mount Etna.

  2. Major element, REE, and Pb, Nd and Sr isotopic geochemistry of Cenozoic volcanic rocks of eastern China: implications for their origin from suboceanic-type mantle reservoirs (United States)

    Basu, A.R.; Wang, Junwen; Huang, Wankang; Xie, Guanghong; Tatsumoto, M.


    Major- and rare-earth-element (REE) concentrations and UThPb, SmNd, and RbSr isotope systematics are reported for Cenozoic volcanic rocks from northeastern and eastern China. These volcanic rocks, characteristically lacking the calc-alkaline suite of orogenic belts, were emplaced in a rift system which formed in response to the subduction of the western Pacific plate beneath the eastern Asiatic continental margin. The rocks sampled range from basanite and alkali olivine basalt, through olivine tholeiite and quartz tholeiite, to potassic basalts, alkali trachytes, pantellerite, and limburgite. These rock suites represent the volcanic centers of Datong, Hanobar, Kuandian, Changbaishan and Wudalianchi in northeastern China, and Mingxi in the Fujian Province of eastern China. The major-element and REE geochemistry is characteristic of each volcanic suite broadly evolving through cogenetic magmatic processes. Some of the outstanding features of the isotopic correlation arrays are as follows: (1) NdSr shows an anticorrelation within the field of ocean island basalts, extending from the MORB end-member to an enriched, time-averaged high Rb Sr and Nd Sr end-member (EM1), (2) SrPb also shows an anticorrelation, similar to that of Hawaiian and walvis Ridge basalts, (3) NdPb shows a positive correlation, and (4) the 207Pb 204Pb vs 206Pb 204Pb plot shows linear arrays parallel to the general trend (NHRL) for MORB on both sides of the geochron, although in the 208Pb 204Pb vs 206Pb 204Pb plot the linear array is significantly displaced above the NHRL in a pattern similar to that of the oceanic island basalts that show the Dupal signatures. In all isotope correlation patterns, the data arrays define two different mantle components-a MORB-like component and an enriched mantle component. The isotopic data presented here clearly demonstrate the existence of Dupal compositions in the sources of the continental volcanic rocks of eastern China. We suggest that the subcontinental mantle

  3. Geochronology and geochemistry of Permian bimodal volcanic rocks from central Inner Mongolia, China: Implications for the late Palaeozoic tectonic evolution of the south-eastern Central Asian Orogenic Belt (United States)

    Zhang, Zhicheng; Chen, Yan; Li, Ke; Li, Jianfeng; Yang, Jinfu; Qian, Xiaoyan


    Zircon U-Pb ages, geochemical data and Sr-Nd isotopic data are presented for volcanic rocks from the lower Permian Dashizhai Formation. These rocks are widely distributed in the south-eastern Central Asian Orogenic Belt in central Inner Mongolia, China. The volcanic rocks mainly consist of basaltic andesite and rhyolite, subordinate dacite and local andesite, and exhibit bimodal geochemical features. The results of zircon U-Pb dating indicate that the volcanic rocks formed during the early Permian (292-279 Ma). The mafic volcanic rocks belong to low-K tholeiitic to medium-K calc-alkaline series. These mafic volcanic rocks are also characterised by moderately enriched light rare earth element (LREE) patterns; high abundances of Th, U, Zr and Hf; negative Nb, Ta and Ti anomalies; initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios of 0.70514-0.70623; and positive εNd(t) values (+1.9 to +3.8). These features indicate that the mafic volcanic rocks were likely derived from the high-percentage partial melting of subduction-related metasomatised asthenospheric mantle. The felsic rocks show an A-type affinity, with enrichments in alkalis, Th, U and LREEs. The felsic rocks are depleted in Ba, Sr, Nb, Ta and Ti and exhibit moderately LREE-enriched patterns (LaN/YbN = 2.09-6.45) and strongly negative Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu∗ = 0.04-0.25). These features, along with the positive εNd(t) values (+2.6 to +7.7) and young TDM2 ages (TDM2 = 435-916 Ma), indicate that the felsic rocks were likely derived from a juvenile crustal source that mainly consisted of juvenile mid-ocean ridge basalt-related rocks. The volcanic association in this study and in previously published work widely distributed in central Inner Mongolia. The observations in this study suggest that the lower Permian volcanic rocks formed in an identical tectonic environment. The regional geological data indicate that the bimodal volcanic rocks from the lower Permian Dashizhai Formation in the study area formed in an extensional setting that was

  4. Numerical modelling of gas-water-rock interactions in volcanic-hydrothermal environment: the Ischia Island (Southern Italy) case study. (United States)

    Di Napoli, R.; Federico, C.; Aiuppa, A.; D'Antonio, M.; Valenza, M.


    Hydrothermal systems hosted within active volcanic systems represent an excellent opportunity to investigate the interactions between aquifer rocks, infiltrating waters and deep-rising magmatic fluids, and thus allow deriving information on the activity state of dormant volcanoes. From a thermodynamic perspective, gas-water-rock interaction processes are normally far from equilibrium, but can be represented by an array of chemical reactions, in which irreversible mass transfer occurs from host rock minerals to leaching solutions, and then to secondary hydrothermal minerals. While initially developed to investigate interactions in near-surface groundwater environments, the reaction path modeling approach of Helgeson and co-workers can also be applied to quantitative investigation of reactions in high T-P environments. Ischia volcano, being the site of diffuse hydrothermal circulation, is an ideal place where to test the application of reaction-path modeling. Since its last eruption in 1302 AD, Ischia has shown a variety of hydrothermal features, including fumarolic emissions, diffuse soil degassing and hot waters discharges. These are the superficial manifestation of an intense hydrothermal circulation at depth. A recent work has shown the existence of several superposed aquifers; the shallowest (near to boiling) feeds the numerous surface thermal discharges, and is recharged by both superficial waters and deeper and hotter (150-260°C) hydrothermal reservoir fluids. Here, we use reaction path modelling (performed by using the code EQ3/6) to quantitatively constrain the compositional evolution of Ischia thermal fluids during their hydrothermal flow. Simulations suggest that compositions of Ischia groundwaters are buffered by interactions between reservoir rocks and recharge waters (meteoric fluids variably mixed - from 2 to 80% - with seawater) at shallow aquifer conditions. A CO2 rich gaseous phase is also involved in the interaction processes (fCO2 = 0.4-0.6 bar

  5. The geochemistry of host arc volcanic rocks to the Co-O epithermal gold deposit, Eastern Mindanao, Philippines (United States)

    Sonntag, Iris; Kerrich, Robert; Hagemann, Steffen G.


    Mindanao is the second largest island of the Philippines and is located in the southern part of the archipelago. It comprises the suture zone between the Eurasian and the Philippine plate, which is displayed in the Philippine Mobile Belt. Eastern Mindanao is part of the Philippine Mobile Belt and outcropping rocks are mainly Eocene to Pliocene in age related to episodes of arc volcanism alternating with sedimentation. New high-precision elemental analysis of the Oligocene magma series, hosting the Co-O epithermal Au deposit, which represents an arc segment in the central part of Eastern Mindanao, revealed dominantly calc-alkaline rocks ranging in composition between basalt and dacites. Major element trends (MgO vs. TiO2 and Fe2O3) are comparable to other magmas in Central and Eastern Mindanao as well as other SW Pacific Islands such as Borneo. Rare earth and trace element distribution patterns display typical island arc signatures highlighted by the conjunction of LILE-enrichment with troughs at Nb, Ta, and Ti. Ratios of Zr/Nb in basalts vary between 17 and 39, signifying a depleted subarc mantle wedge comparable to the range of MORB, and other Indonesian island arc basalts. In basalts, Nb/Ta and Zr/Sm ratios are 12-37 and 14-27 respectively indicative of deep melts of rutile-eclogite subducted slab, as well as fluids, infiltrating the mantle wedge source of basalts. Moderate large ion lithophile element contents and low Th/La and Th/Ce ratios suggest no significant slab-derived components such as sediment or crustal fragments. The comparatively low Ce and Yb values in basalts, but also andesites and dacites, are consistent with a thin arc crust related to an intraoceanic convergent margin setting. This is further supported by Nb contents in basalts that range between 1 and 3 ppm and are within the range of modern oceanic convergent margin basalts. The range of HREE fractionation signifies that basaltic melts separated at deeper levels of the subarc wedge, possibly

  6. Origin and age of the Volcanic Rocks of Tláloc Volcano, Sierra Nevada, Central Mexico (United States)

    Meier, M.; Grobéty, B.; Arce, J. L.; Rueda, H.


    The Tláloc volcano (TV) is a 4125 m high stratovolcano of the Trans Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB) and is located in the northern end of the N-S trending Sierra Nevada, 30 km NE of Mexico City. Few data on the petrological and temporal evolution of TV have been published to date. Recently dated deposits gave ages between 32'000 and 34'500±500 years BP (Huddart and Gonzalez, 2004). Mapping and sampling of extrusive rocks in the summit region of TV revealed a dome structure with radiating lava flows consisting of dacitic rocks containing plagioclase and hornblende phenocrysts. Some flows, however, seem to be associated with a collapse structure E of the main summit. Crossing relationships indicate that this structure is older (“Paleo Tláloc”). A stratigraphy of the pyroclastic deposits was established along the northern slope of TV. From the numerous pyroclastic flows, separated by paleosoils and fluviatile deposits, only two pumice and one block and ash flow (BAF) have regional extent. Their thickness - distance relationship and their granulometry point to major explosive events. A carbonized wood sample from the BAF deposit gave ages similar to the previous ages (33'180±550 yr BP and 23'170±270 yr BP), a sample from a pyroclastic flow gave even a younger age (16'620±110 yr BP), suggesting that TV remained active also after the volcanoes Iztaccíhuatl and Popocatépetl further to the South started their activity. Based on these preliminary data it may be necessary to reconsider the accepted scenario of the temporal evolution of the central section of the TMVB, which assumes that the activity migrates from North to South with time. Huddart, D. and Gonzalez, S., 2004. Pyroclastic flows and associated sediments, Tláloc-Telapón, piedmont fringe of the eastern basin of Mexico. In: G.J. Aguirre-Diaz, Macías, J.L., and Siebe, C., (Editor), Penrose Conference. UNAM, Metepec, Puebla, Mexico, pp. 35.

  7. New unspiked K Ar ages of volcanic rocks of the central and western sector of the Aeolian Islands: reconstruction of the volcanic stages (United States)

    De Rosa, Rosanna; Guillou, Hervè; Mazzuoli, Roberto; Ventura, Guido


    A geochronological study of the Filicudi, Salina, Lipari and Vulcano Islands (Aeolian Archipelago) using the unspiked potassium-argon technique provides new age data which, combined with stratigraphic correlation, better constrain the temporal evolution of volcanism. The unspiked K-Ar age of the oldest exposed lavas on Filicudi, 219±5 ka, is significantly younger than the previous estimation of 1.02 Ma. In the general context of Aeolian volcanism, this new date suggests that the volcanism of the western sector of the Aeolian Archipelago is younger than previously thought. Geochronological data point out on the rapid transition from calc-alkaline to potassic volcanism. The distribution of the K-Ar ages within the Salina-Lipari-Vulcano group shows that the volcanism started on Lipari and propagated over time northward on Salina and southward on Vulcano. Geochronological and geophysical data suggest that the onset of volcanism in the central sector of the Aeolian Arc may be due to a mantle upwelling structure located below Lipari. A change in the style of the eruptions occurred in the Salina-Lipari-Vulcano system at about 100 ka from the present. Low-energy magmatic eruptions occurred between 188 and about 100 ka. From about 100 ka to the present, higher-energy eruptions and low-energy events due to magma-water interaction also occurred. This change in the style of activity, together with the appearance of evolved products (i.e. rhyolites) during the last 50 ka, is consistent with the formation of magmatic reservoirs located at shallower depth with respect to those of the 188-100-ka period. The new geochronological data and available petrological models reveal that a change in the deep source of the primary magmas occurred in a relatively short time interval.

  8. Volcanic rocks and processes of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge rift valley near 36 ° 49′ N (United States)

    Hekinian, R.; Moore, J.G.; Bryan, W.B.


    Eighty samples of submarine basaltic lava were sampled from an 8 km segment of the floor and walls of the inner rift valley of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge during the French American Mid-Ocean Undersea Study (project Famous). The samples were collected from outcrops and talus slopes by the three submersibles: Alvin, Archimede, and Cyana at water depths of about 2600 meters.

  9. Late Carboniferous bimodal volcanic rocks and coeval A-type granite in the Suman Khad area, Southwest Mongolia: Implications for the tectonic evolution (United States)

    Zhu, Mingshuai; Zhang, Fochin; Fan, Jingjing; Miao, Laicheng; Baatar, Munkhtsengel; Anaad, Chimedtseren; Yang, Shunhu; Li, Xingbo; Ganbat, Ariuntsetseg


    The volcanic rocks in the Suman Khad area in Southwest Mongolia form a bimodal suite consisting mainly of peralkaline rhyolites with subordinate basalts. The rhyolite sample collected from the bimodal suite yielded a SHRIMP zircon U-Pb age of 314 ± 5 Ma (MSWD = 1.41, n = 12), which was interpreted to represent formation time of the bimodal volcanic suite. The basalts were characterized by enrichment in LILE and LREE, and depletion in HFSE, indicating their formation was related to subduction processes. These features, together with their positive εNd (t) values (6.3-6.7), suggest that the basalts were likely derived from a depleted mantle source metasomatized by subduction-related fluids. In various tectonic discrimination diagrams, the basalts exhibited a transition from true arc basalts to intraplate basalts and thus were suggested to from in a back-arc tectonic setting. The rhyolites show a close affinity to A-type granites with enrichment in LILE and LREE, depletion in Nb, Ta and Ti and positive εNd (t) values (6.0-6.4). Considering the observed distinct compositional gap between the endmembers of the bimodal suite, the rhyolites are proposed to originate from partial melting of juvenile basaltic crustal rocks rather than fractional crystallization of basaltic melt. The granite associated with the bimodal volcanic rocks yielded a SHRIMP zircon U-Pb ages of 312 ± 5 Ma (MSWD = 0.75, n = 13), indicating that the granite is contemporaneous with the bimodal volcanic suite. The granite samples showed typical A-type granitic geochemical affinities and are considered to have been formed by partial melting of crustal rocks in a within-plate tectonic setting. Based on a combination of the available data, we suggest that the Late Carboniferous bimodal volcanic suite together with the coeval A-type granites in the Suman Khad region probably document a back-arc basin extensional environment, which probably related to the roll-back of the Paleo-Asian oceanic plate during

  10. Geochemistry and geochronology of late Mesozoic volcanic rocks in the northern part of the Eastern Pontide Orogenic Belt (NE Turkey): Implications for the closure of the Neo-Tethys Ocean (United States)

    Özdamar, Şenel


    This paper presents 40Ar/39Ar and U-Pb age data, Sr-Nd isotopes, whole-rock and mineral compositions of Upper Cretaceous volcanic rocks from the Ordu area of the Eastern Pontide Orogenic Belt (EPOB) in northeastern Turkey. The volcanic rocks exhibit a wide compositional range: basalt, basaltic-andesites, andesites and a rhyodacite suite; they are characterized by subparallel light rare earth element (LREE)-enrichment, relatively flat heavy rare earth element (HREE) patterns with Eu anomalies and moderate fractionation [average (La/Yb)N = 8.55]. The geochemical results show that the volcanic rocks have calc-alkaline affinity consistent with arc volcanic rocks erupted in an active continental margin. Initial 87Sr/86Sr values vary between 0.70569 and 0.70606, while initial 143Nd/144Nd values lie between 0.51244 and 0.51249. Crustal contamination affected the mantle-originated primary magma, as indicated by increased 87Sr/86Sr and decreased 143Nd/144Nd ratios with increasing SiO2. New precise laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (LA-ICP-MS) 206Pb-238U age analyses of zircon and 40Ar/39Ar age data of plagioclase from the volcanics enable a more precise reconstruction of the EBOP. The ages provide insight into the timing of arc formation in this region, constrain the volcanic activity between 86 My (Coniacian) and 75 My (Campanian) and constrain the timing of closure of the Neo-Tethys.

  11. The community of deep-sea decapod crustaceans between 175 and 2600 m in submarine canyons of a volcanic oceanic island (central-eastern Atlantic) (United States)

    Pajuelo, José G.; Triay-Portella, Raül; Santana, José I.; González, José A.


    The community structure and faunal composition of deep-sea decapod crustaceans in submarine canyons on the slope off Gran Canaria Island (Canary Islands, central-eastern Atlantic) were investigated. Samples were collected during five research cruises (115 stations) at depths between 175 and 2554 m. A total of 26387 decapod specimens, belonging to 24 families and 38 species, were collected with traps. A cluster analysis of the stations showed four distinct assemblages: (i) in the transition area between shelf and slope (175-302 m); (ii) on the upper slope (361-789 m); (iii) on the middle slope (803-1973 m); and iv) on the lower slope (2011-2554 m). The deep-sea decapod fauna of the Canary Islands is dominated by shrimp of the family Pandalidae, which make up more than 23% of the species. Within the Pandalidae, species of the genus Plesionika stand out as those of greatest abundance on the island slope. The greatest diversity of species was located on the upper slope. The standardized mean abundance and mean biomass for the transition zone between the shelf and slope and for the upper slope were nearly 5 times greater in abundance and 4 times greater in biomass than those estimated for the middle slope, and nearly 53 and 29 times greater for the lower slope, indicating a lower abundance and biomass at the shallower part of the insular slope. The mean weight per individual showed an increasing pattern with depth and an inverse pattern with the bottom temperature and salinity. The existence of depth boundaries around the Canary Islands is known to be closely linked to oceanographic conditions, determined by the water masses present in this archipelago explaining the discontinuities observed at depths of 800 and 2000 m. The boundary observed inside the bathymetric region of the Eastern North Atlantic Central Water can be related with the transition zone between the shelf and the slope of the island.

  12. Assessing hydraulic connections across a complex sequence of volcanic rocks - Analysis of U-20 WW multiple-well aquifer test, Pahute Mesa, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada (United States)

    Garcia, C. Amanda; Fenelon, Joseph M.; Halford, Keith J.; Reiner, Steven R.; Laczniak, Randell J.


    Groundwater beneath Pahute Mesa flows through a complexly layered sequence of volcanic rock aquifers and confining units that have been faulted into distinct structural blocks. Hydraulic property estimates of rocks and structures in this flow system are necessary to assess radionuclide migration near underground nuclear testing areas. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) used a 12 month (October 1, 2008— October 1, 2009) intermittent pumping schedule of well U-20 WW and continuously monitored water levels in observation wells ER-20-6 #3, UE-20bh 1, and U-20bg as a multi-well aquifer test to evaluate hydraulic connections across structural blocks, bulk hydraulic properties of volcanic rocks, and the hydraulic significance of a major fault. Measured water levels were approximated using synthetic water levels generated from an analytical model. Synthetic water levels are a summation of environmental water-level fluctuations and a Theis (1935) transform of the pumping signal from flow rate to water-level change. Drawdown was estimated by summing residual differences between measured and synthetic water levels and the Theis-transformed pumping signal from April to September 2009. Drawdown estimates were used in a three‑dimensional numerical model to estimate hydraulic properties of distinct aquifers, confining units, and a major fault.

  13. Paleomagnetic and rock-magnetic study on volcanic units of the Valsequillo Basin: implications for early human occupation in central Mexico (United States)

    Goguitchaichvili, Avto; Pozzo, Ana Lillian Martin-Del; Rocha-Fernandez, Jose Luis; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, Jaime; Soler-Arechalde, Ana Maria


    Alleged human and animal footprints were found within the upper bedding surfaces of the Xalnene volcanic ash layer that outcrops in the Valsequillo Basin, south of Puebla, Mexico (Gonzalez et al, 2005). The ash has been dated at 40 ka by optically stimulated luminescence analysis, thereby providing new evidence that America was colonized earlier than the Clovis culture (about 13.5 Ma). We carried out paleomagnetic and rock magnetic analysis on 18 Xalnene ash block and core samples collected at two distinct localities and 19 standard paleomagnetic cores belonging to nearby monogenetic volcanoes. Our data provide evidence that both the volcanic lava flow and Xalnene ash were emplaced during the Laschamp geomagnetic event spanning from about 45 to 39 ka.


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    Donghai Zhang


    Full Text Available We report a paleomagnetic investigation on Permian volcanic rocks in the middle-east Inner Mongolia, NE China, aiming to puzzle out the timing and position of the final closure of the eastern Paleo-Asian ocean (PAO and further to better understand tectonic evolution of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB. Two pre-folding characteristic components are isolated from the Sanmianjing and Elitu formations (~283–266 Ma in the northern margin of the North China block (NMNCB and the Dashizhai Formation (~280 Ma in the Songliao-Xilinhot block (SXB, respectively.

  15. The effect of Sinabung volcanic ash and rock phosphate nanoparticle on CEC (cation exchange capacity) base saturation exchange (K, Na, Ca, Mg) and base saturation at Andisol soils Ciater, West Java (United States)

    Yuniarti, Anni; Arifin, Mahfud; Sofyan, Emma Trinurasi; Natalie, Betty; Sudirja, Rija; Dahliani, Dewi


    Andisol, soil orders which covers an upland area dominantly. The aim of this research is to know the effect between the ameliorant of Sinabung volcanic ashes with the ameliorant of rock phosphatenanoparticle towards CEC and base saturation exchange (K, Na, Ca, Mg) and the base saturation on Ciater's Andisols, West Java. A randomized complete block design (RCBD) factorial with two factors was used in this research. The first factor is the volcanic ash and the second factor is rock phosphate which consists of four levels each amount of 0%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5% with three replications. The result showed that there was no interaction between volcanic ash and rock phosphate nanoparticle formed in first month and fourth month towards the improvement of CEC and saturation base exchange rate unless magnesium cation exchange increased in fourth month. There was independent effect of volcanic ash formed nanoparticles towards base saturation exchange increased for 5% dose. There was independent effect of rock phosphate formed nanoparticles towards base saturation exchange and increased for 5% dose. The dose combination of volcanic ashes 7.5% with phosphate rock, 5% increased the base saturation in the first month incubation.

  16. Carboniferous-Permian volcanic evolution in Central Europe-U/Pb ages of volcanic rocks in Saxony (Germany) and northern Bohemia (Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hoffmann, U.; Breitkreuz, Ch.; Breiter, Karel; Sergeev, S.; Stanek, K.; Tichomirowa, M.


    Roč. 102, č. 1 (2013), s. 73-99 ISSN 1437-3254 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : pyroclastic rocks * dykes * stratigraphy * SHRIMP U/Pb ages * Pb/Pb single zircon age * Variscides Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 2.084, year: 2013

  17. Sedimentary Mercury Enrichments as a Marker for Submarine Large Igneous Province Volcanism? Evidence From the Mid-Cenomanian Event and Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 (Late Cretaceous) (United States)

    Scaife, J. D.; Ruhl, M.; Dickson, A. J.; Mather, T. A.; Jenkyns, H. C.; Percival, L. M. E.; Hesselbo, S. P.; Cartwright, J.; Eldrett, J. S.; Bergman, S. C.; Minisini, D.


    Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 (OAE 2), during the Cenomanian-Turonian transition (˜94 Ma), was the largest perturbation of the global carbon cycle in the mid-Cretaceous and can be recognized by a positive carbon-isotope excursion in sedimentary strata. Although OAE 2 has been linked to large-scale volcanism, several large igneous provinces (LIPs) were active at this time (e.g., Caribbean, High Arctic, Madagascan, Ontong-Java) and little clear evidence links OAE 2 to a specific LIP. The Mid-Cenomanian Event (MCE, ˜96 Ma), identified by a small, 1‰ positive carbon-isotope excursion, is often referred to as a prelude to OAE 2. However, no underlying cause has yet been demonstrated and its relationship to OAE 2 is poorly constrained. Here we report sedimentary mercury (Hg) concentration data from four sites, three from the southern margin of the Western Interior Seaway and one from Demerara Rise, in the equatorial proto-North Atlantic Ocean. We find that, in both areas, increases in mercury concentrations and Hg/TOC ratios coincide with the MCE and the OAE 2. However, the increases found in these sites are of a lower magnitude than those found in records of many other Mesozoic events, possibly characteristic of a marine rather than atmospheric dispersal of mercury for both events. Combined, the new mercury data presented here are consistent with an initial magmatic pulse at the time of the MCE, with a second, greater pulse at the onset of OAE 2, possibly related to the emplacement of LIPs in the Pacific Ocean and/or the High Arctic.

  18. Petrography, mineral chemistry and geochemistry of post-ophiolitic volcanic rocks in the Ratouk area (south of Gazik, east of Iran

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    Zahra Vahedi Tabas


    Full Text Available Introduction Basaltic volcanoes are one of the volcanisms that have occurred in different parts of the world. The study of these lavas is important for petrologists, because they are seen in different tectonic settings and therefore diverse mechanisms affect their formation (Chen et al., 2007. Young volcanic rocks such as Quaternary basalts are one of latest products of magmatism in Iran that are related to deep fractures and active faults in Quaternary (Emami, 2000. The study area is located at 140km east of Birjand at Gazik 1:100000 geological map (Guillou et al., 1981 and have 60̊ 11' to 60̊ 15 '27" eastward longitude and 32̊ 33' 24" to 32̊ 39' 10" northward latitude. On the basis of structural subdivisions of Iran, this area is located in the northern part of the Sistan suture zone (Tirrul et al., 1983. Because of the importance of basaltic rocks in Sistan suture, this research is done with the aim of investigating the petrography and mineralogy of basaltic lavas, the nature of basaltic and intermediate magmatism and finally determination of tectonomagmatic regime. Materials and methods After field studies and sampling, 85 thin sections were prepared and carefully studied. Then ten samples with the lowest alteration were analyzed for major elements by inductively coupled plasma (ICP technologies and trace elements were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS, following a lithium metaborate/tetraborate fusion and nitric acid total digestion at the Acme laboratories, Vancouver, Canada. Electron probe micro analyses of clinopyroxene and olivine were done at the Iranian mineral processing research center (IMPRC by Cameca SX100 machine. X-ray diffraction analysis of minerals was done at the X-ray laboratory of the University of Birjand. Results In 60km south of GaziK at the east of the southern Khorasan province and the northern part of the Sistan suture zone, volcanic rocks with intermediate (Oligomiocene and

  19. Petrology and geochemistry of volcanic rocks from the island of Panarea: implications for mantle evolution beneath the Aeolian island arc (southern Tyrrhenian sea) (United States)

    Calanchi, N.; Peccerillo, A.; Tranne, C. A.; Lucchini, F.; Rossi, P. L.; Kempton, P.; Barbieri, M.; Wu, T. W.


    Major, trace element and radiogenic isotope (Sr, Nd, Pb) data are reported for a suite of rocks from the Panarea volcano, a large structure that is largely hidden below sea level and outcrops only as a group of small islands between Lipari-Vulcano and Stromboli in the eastern Aeolian arc. The exposed rocks mostly consist of high-potassium calc-alkaline (HKCA) andesites, dacites and some rhyolites; shoshonitic basalts have been collected from submarine centres; mafic calc-alkaline (CA) rocks occur as thin layers of late-erupted strombolian scoriae. Major and trace element data are scattered, but define generally linear trends on inter-element diagrams; Sr-isotope ratios do not display significant increase with evolution, although rough positive trends of 87Sr/86Sr versus SiO2 and Rb/Sr can be recognised within some units. The mafic rocks display varying enrichment in potassium, from CA to shoshonitic compositions, and are characterised by variable abundances of incompatible trace elements, which increase with potassium. There is an increase of 87Sr/86Sr ratios and a decrease of 143Nd/144Nd and 206Pb/204Pb ratios from CA to HKCA and shoshonitic mafic rocks. The scattered and incomplete nature of the outcrops make it difficult to constrain magmatic evolution at Panarea; geochemical and isotopic data suggest that AFC and mixing were important evolutionary processes. However, geochemical modelling does not support the possibility that the first-order compositional variations observed in the mafic rocks are the result of these processes, and suggests a genesis in a heterogeneous mantle source. Recent studies have highlighted strong differences in terms of incompatible trace element ratios and isotopic signatures, between the western-central and the eastern Aeolian arc. Rocks from the western islands (Alicudi, Filicudi, Salina, Vulcano) have typical magmatic arc geochemical signatures and relatively unradiogenic Sr-isotope compositions. By contrast, the eastern island of

  20. Petrogenesis of meta-volcanic rocks from the Maimón Formation (Dominican Republic): Geochemical record of the nascent Greater Antilles paleo-arc (United States)

    Torró, Lisard; Proenza, Joaquín A.; Marchesi, Claudio; Garcia-Casco, Antonio; Lewis, John F.


    Metamorphosed basalts, basaltic andesites, andesites and plagiorhyolites of the Early Cretaceous, probably pre-Albian, Maimón Formation, located in the Cordillera Central of the Dominican Republic, are some of the earliest products of the Greater Antilles arc magmatism. In this article, new whole-rock element and Nd-Pb radiogenic isotope data are used to give new insights into the petrogenesis of the Maimón meta-volcanic rocks and constrain the early evolution of the Greater Antilles paleo-arc system. Three different groups of mafic volcanic rocks are recognized on the basis of their immobile element contents. Group 1 comprises basalts with compositions similar to low-Ti island arc tholeiites (IAT), which are depleted in light rare earth elements (LREE) and resemble the forearc basalts (FAB) and transitional FAB-boninitic basalts of the Izu-Bonin-Mariana forearc. Group 2 rocks have boninite-like compositions relatively rich in Cr and poor in TiO2. Group 3 comprises low-Ti island arc tholeiitic basalts with near-flat chondrite-normalized REE patterns. Plagiorhyolites and rare andesites present near-flat to subtly LREE-depleted chondrite normalized patterns typical of tholeiitic affinity. Nd and Pb isotopic ratios of plagiorhyolites, which are similar to those of Groups 1 and 3 basalts, support that these felsic lavas formed by anatexis of the arc lower crust. Geochemical modelling points that the parental basic magmas of the Maimón meta-volcanic rocks formed by hydrous melting of a heterogeneous spinel-facies mantle source, similar to depleted MORB mantle (DMM) or depleted DMM (D-DMM), fluxed by fluids from subducted oceanic crust and Atlantic Cretaceous pelagic sediments. Variations of subduction-sensitive element concentrations and ratios from Group 1 to the younger rocks of Groups 2 and 3 generally match the geochemical progression from FAB-like to boninite and IAT lavas described in subduction-initiation ophiolites. Group 1 basalts likely formed at magmatic

  1. Crystal preferred orientations of minerals from mantle xenoliths in alkali basaltic rocks form the Catalan Volcanic Zone (NE Spain) (United States)

    Fernández-Roig, Mercè; Galán, Gumer; Mariani, Elisabetta


    Mantle xenoliths in alkali basaltic rocks from the Catalan Volcanic Zone, associated with the Neogene-Quaternary rift system in NE Spain, are formed of anhydrous spinel lherzolites and harzburgites with minor olivine websterites. Both peridotites are considered residues of variable degrees of partial melting, later affected by metasomatism, especially the harzburgites. These and the websterites display protogranular microstructures, whereas lherzolites show continuous variation between protogranular, porphyroclastic and equigranular forms. Thermometric data of new xenoliths indicate that protogranular harzburgites, lherzolites and websterites were equilibrated at higher temperatures than porphyroclastic and equigranular lherzolites. Mineral chemistry also indicates lower equilibrium pressure for porphyroclastic and equigranular lherzolites than for the protogranular ones. Crystal preferred orientations (CPOs) of olivine and pyroxenes from these new xenoliths were determined with the EBSD-SEM technique to identify the deformation stages affecting the lithospheric mantle in this zone and to assess the relationships between the deformation fabrics, processes and microstructures. Olivine CPOs in protogranular harzburgites, lherzolites and a pyroxenite display [010]-fiber patterns characterized by a strong point concentration of the [010] axis normal to the foliation and girdle distribution of [100] and [001] axes within the foliation plane. Olivine CPO symmetry in porphyroclastic and equigranular lherzolites varies continuously from [010]-fiber to orthorhombic and [100]-fiber types. The orthorhombic patterns are characterized by scattered maxima of the three axes, which are normal between them. The rare [100]-fiber patterns display strong point concentration of [100] axis, with normal girdle distribution of the other two axes, which are aligned with each other. The patterns of pyroxene CPOs are more dispersed than those of olivine, especially for clinopyroxene, but

  2. Explosive Volcanic Activity at Extreme Depths: Evidence from the Charles Darwin Volcanic Field, Cape Verdes (United States)

    Kwasnitschka, T.; Devey, C. W.; Hansteen, T. H.; Freundt, A.; Kutterolf, S.


    Volcanic eruptions on the deep sea floor have traditionally been assumed to be non-explosive as the high-pressure environment should greatly inhibit steam-driven explosions. Nevertheless, occasional evidence both from (generally slow-) spreading axes and intraplate seamounts has hinted at explosive activity at large water depths. Here we present evidence from a submarine field of volcanic cones and pit craters called Charles Darwin Volcanic Field located at about 3600 m depth on the lower southwestern slope of the Cape Verdean Island of Santo Antão. We examined two of these submarine volcanic edifices (Tambor and Kolá), each featuring a pit crater of 1 km diameter, using photogrammetric reconstructions derived from ROV-based imaging followed by 3D quantification using a novel remote sensing workflow, aided by sampling. The measured and calculated parameters of physical volcanology derived from the 3D model allow us, for the first time, to make quantitative statements about volcanic processes on the deep seafloor similar to those generated from land-based field observations. Tambor cone, which is 2500 m wide and 250 m high, consists of dense, probably monogenetic medium to coarse-grained volcaniclastic and pyroclastic rocks that are highly fragmented, probably as a result of thermal and viscous granulation upon contact with seawater during several consecutive cycles of activity. Tangential joints in the outcrops indicate subsidence of the crater floor after primary emplacement. Kolá crater, which is 1000 m wide and 160 m deep, appears to have been excavated in the surrounding seafloor and shows stepwise sagging features interpreted as ring fractures on the inner flanks. Lithologically, it is made up of a complicated succession of highly fragmented deposits, including spheroidal juvenile lapilli, likely formed by spray granulation. It resembles a maar-type deposit found on land. The eruption apparently entrained blocks of MORB-type gabbroic country rocks with

  3. Application of Clinopyroxene Chemistry to Interpret the Physical Conditions of Ascending Magma, a Case Study of Eocene Volcanic Rocks in the Ghohrud Area (North of Isfahan

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    Mohammad Sayari


    Full Text Available Introduction Volcanic rocks with a porphyritic texture have experienced two crystallization stages. The first is slow, resulting in phenocrysts, and the second, which took place at, or near the surface, or during intrusion into a cooler body of rock, result in a groundmass of glass, or fine crystals. The pressure and temperature history of a magma during crystallization is recorded in the chemical composition of the phenocrysts during both stages. These phenocrysts provide valuable data about the physicochemical conditions of the parent magma during the process of crystallization. The composition of clinopyroxene (cpx reflects not only the chemical condition and therefore the magmatic series, but also the physical conditions, i.e., temperature and pressure of a magma at the time when clinopyroxene crystallized. The Ghohrud area lies in the middle part of the Urumieh-Dokhtar Magmatic Arc , which is part of a much larger magmatic province extending in a vast region of convergence between Arabia and Eurasia north of the Zagros-Bitlis suture zone (Dilek et al., 2010. In the Ghohrud area, north of Isfahan, exposed Eocene volcanic rocks belong to the first pulse of Cenozoic volcanism of Iran (Sayari, 2015, ranging in composition from andesitic basalt to basalt. The basaltic rocks of the Ghohrud area are composed mainly of plagioclase phenocrysts surrounded by smaller crystals of clinopyroxene in a groundmass of microlites, glass and opaques. In this study, the clinopyroxene and plagioclase of these rocks were analyzed in order to estimate the physicochemical conditions of the parent magmas. Results Clinopyroxene and plagioclase phenocrysts of nineteen samples were analyzed with the electron microprobe. The chemical compositions of the clinopyroxenes were used to estimate both the chemical evolution and temperature and pressure conditions of the magmas during crystallization, using SCG, a specialized software for clinopyroxene thermobarometry (Sayari

  4. Geochemical, petrographic and physical characterizations and associated alterations of the volcanic rocks of the Romanesque San Nicola Church (Ottana, central Sardinia, Italy) (United States)

    Columbu, Stefano; Palomba, Marcella; Sitzia, Fabio


    In this research, the volcanic rocks belonging to the Sardinia Oligo-Miocene volcanic cycle (32 - 11 Ma) and building up the structure of the San Nicola church, one of the most representative churches of the Romanesque architecture, were studied. These stones were widely used in medieval architecture for the excellent workability, but they present some disadvantages, since they are greatly affected by alteration phenomena. The main objectives of this research are i) to focus the mineral, chemical and petrographic compositions of the San Nicola stones, ii) the chemical and physical alteration processes affecting these materials, and iii) to establish the exactly provenance of the volcanic rocks. Furthermore, a comparative study between the rocks from the ancient quarries and those forming the structure of the church was performed. In the ancient quarries, where presumably a more advanced alteration occurs due to the vertical alteration gradient, different facies of the same volcanic lithology, characterized by macroscopical evidences of chemical-physical degradation degree, were sampled. Petrographic, geochemical (both major elements that the traces) and physical-mechanical features of the collected samples were determined to highlight the compositional differences (density, porosity, water-absorption kinetics, mechanical resistance) as a function of the different alteration degree. Moreover, chemical-mineralogical analysis of the sample surfaces from the church, was performed, to highlight possible presence and nature of secondary newly-formed phases (e.g., salt efflorescence). Several methodologies were applied to carry out physical-chemical and petrographic analysis: X-Ray fluorescence (XRF) and Inductively Coupled Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), X-Ray Diffractometry (XRD) for chemical and mineral composition; Optical and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) for textures, mineral assemblages and microstructures studies; He-picnometry, water-absorption and mechanical

  5. The Quaternary calc-alkaline volcanism of the Patagonian Andes close to the Chile triple junction: geochemistry and petrogenesis of volcanic rocks from the Cay and Maca volcanoes (˜45°S, Chile) (United States)

    D'Orazio, M.; Innocenti, F.; Manetti, P.; Tamponi, M.; Tonarini, S.; González-Ferrán, O.; Lahsen, A.; Omarini, R.


    Major- and trace-element, Sr-Nd isotopes, and mineral chemistry data were obtained for a collection of volcanic rock samples erupted by the Cay and Maca Quaternary volcanoes, Patagonian Andes (˜45°S, Chile). Cay and Maca are two large, adjacent stratovolcanoes that rise from the Chiloe block at the southern end of the southern volcanic zone (SVZ) of the Andes. Samples from the two volcanoes are typical medium-K, calc-alkaline rocks that form two roughly continuous, largely overlapping series from subalkaline basalt to dacite. The overall geochemistry of the samples studied is very similar to that observed for most volcanoes from the southern SVZ. The narrow range of Sr-Nd isotope compositions ( 87Sr/ 86Sr=0.70389-0.70431 and 143Nd/ 144Nd=0.51277-0.51284) and the major- and trace-element distributions indicate that the Cay and Maca magmas differentiated by crystal fractionation without significant contribution by crustal contamination. This is in accordance with the thin (Maca magmas is investigated by means of the relative concentration of fluid mobile (e.g. Ba) and fluid immobile (e.g. Nb, Ta, Zr, Y) elements and other relevant trace-element ratios (e.g. Sr/Y). The results indicate that small amounts (Maca volcanoes and that, despite the very young age (Maca magma sources to the northern edge of the slab window generated by the subduction of the Chile ridge under the South American plate, we did not find any geochemical evidence for a contribution of a subslab asthenospheric mantle. However, this mantle has been used to explain the peculiar geochemical features (e.g. the mild alkalinity and relatively low ratios between large ion lithophile and high field strength elements) of the Hudson volcano, which is located even closer to the slab window than the Cay and Maca volcanoes are.

  6. New insights into landslide processes around volcanic islands from Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) observations offshore Montserrat

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Watt, S. F. L; Jutzeler, M; Talling, P. J; Carey, S. N; Sparks, R. S. J; Tucker, M; Stinton, A. J; Fisher, J. K; Wall‐Palmer, D; Hühnerbach, V; Moreton, S. G


    Submarine landslide deposits have been mapped around many volcanic islands, but interpretations of their structure, composition, and emplacement are hindered by the challenges of investigating deposits directly...

  7. Determination of volatiles in volcanic rocks and minerals with a Directly Coupled Evolved Gas Analyzing System (DEGAS -Part I: Interpretation of degassing profiles (DEGAS-profiles of minerals and rocks on the basis of melting experiments

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    C. M. Schmidt


    Full Text Available Volatile components in magma strongly influence many physical properties of melts and minerals. The temperature resolved degassing analysis of volcanic crystalline and vitreous rocks gives detailed information about volatile compounds in the melt. Aspecial high-temperature mass-spectrometry device in combination with a thermo-balance allows a quantitative determination of different volatile species. It enables a differentiation between the primary gas content in the magma and the gas released from decomposition of secondary alteration products. The gas release profiles give the following indications: i during the littoral explosions of Pahoehoe lava the content of volatiles is not changed by interaction with air or sea water; ii the degassing profiles of vitreous black sand verify the primary content of volatiles in the erupted melt, only CO2 was detected; iii the oxygen release profile gives significant indications for oxygen undersaturation of the erupted magma; iv remelting of black sand in air at 1450°C for 0.45 h causes an oxygen saturation of the basaltic melt; v remelting of black sand in argon atmosphere confirms the oxygen undersaturation of the melt; vi remelting of black sand-black shale mixtures affects a significant change in the degassing profiles, especially in CO2-release. With the first investigations we can demonstrate that gas release curves of volcanic rocks are qualified for a detection of the primary gas content of erupted magma; b detection of alteration processes of the igneous glass; c detection of contamination of the magma with adjacent rocks.

  8. Submarine Medicine Team (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Submarine Medicine Team conducts basic and applied research on biomedical aspects of submarine and diving environments. It focuses on ways to optimize the health...

  9. Mineral chemistry of clinopyroxene: guidance on geo- thermobarometry and tectonomagmatic setting of Nabar volcanic rocks, South of Kashan


    Rezvan Mehvari; Moussa Noghreyan; Mortaza Sharifi; Mohammad Ali Mackizadeh; Seyed Hassan Tabatabaei; Ghodrat Torabi


    Introduction The Nabar area that is a part of the Urumieh- Dokhtar volcano- plutonic belt is located in the south of Kashan. Research works such as Emami (Emami, 1993) and Abbasi (Abbasi, 2012) have been done about the geology of this area. Rock units in the study area contain middle- upper Eocene intermediate to acidic lavas and pyroclastic rocks, green marl, shale and sandy marls of Oligo- Miocene, limestones of Qom formation, intrusive granitoids with Oligo- Miocene age and quaternar...

  10. Volcanic ash in bare ice south of Sør Rondane Mountains, Antarctica: geochemistry, rock magnetism and nondestructive magnetic detection with SQUID gradiometer (United States)

    Oda, Hirokuni; Miyagi, Isoji; Kawai, Jun; Suganuma, Yusuke; Funaki, Minoru; Imae, Naoya; Mikouchi, Takashi; Matsuzaki, Takuya; Yamamoto, Yuhji


    Nondestructive magnetic detection of tephra layers in ice cores will be an important method to identify and correlate stratigraphic horizons of ice bearing volcanic ash particles. Volcanic ash particles were extracted from tephra-bearing ice samples collected from Nansen Ice Field south of the Sør Rondane Mountains, Antarctica. Particles are fresh glassy volcanic ash with diameters of ~50 μm, and chemical composition of the matrix glass belongs to a low-K basaltic andesite group, ranging from SiO2 60-62 wt% and K2O 0.40-0.50 wt%. Considering the grain size of ash particles and chemical composition of volcanic glass, the ash in tephra-bearing ice samples might be originated from the South Sandwich Islands located 2800 km northwest of the sampling sites. Correlations on major element concentrations with tephra layers associated with South Sandwich Islands in EPICA-Dome C, Vostok, and Dome Fuji ice cores show high similarity. Rock magnetic experiments show that the magnetic mineral is pseudo-single-domain titanomagnetite with ulvospinel content of 0.2-0.35 mixed with single-domain to superparamagnetic (titano)magnetite. Small blocks of the tephra-bering ice were measured with a SQUID gradiometer at 1-mm intervals with a spatial resolution of ~3 mm. With DC magnetic field of 25 mT, magnetic signal could be enhanced and detected for all the samples including the one with invisible amount of tephra particles. In order to simulate a thin ash layer in ice core, volcanic ash particles extracted from the tephra-bearing ice were used to fabricate a thin ash layer, which were subsequently magnetized, measured with the gradiometer. The noise level for Z axis gradiometer was about 0.6 pT. Detection limit for a half-cylinder with 29 mm radius and a thickness of 1 mm uniformly magnetized in X axis direction is ~9 × 10-5 A/m, which could be improved down to ~2 × 10-6 A/m by reducing the sensor-to-sample distance to 0.5 mm.

  11. Submarine earthquake rupture, active faulting and volcanism along the major Liquiñe-Ofqui Fault Zone and implications for seismic hazard assessment in the Patagonian Andes Ruptura sísmica submarina, tectónica y volcanismo activo a lo largo de la Falla Liquiñe-Ofqui e implicancias para el peligro sísmico en los Andes patagónicos


    Gabriel Vargas; Sofía Rebolledo; Sergio A Sepúlveda; Alfredo Lahsen; Ricardo Thiele; Brian Townley; Cristóbal Padilla; Rodrigo Rauld; Maria José Herrera; Marisol Lara


    The Liquiñe-Ofqui fault zone (LOFZ) in the Patagonian Andes is an active major transpressional intra-arc fault system along which Quaternary faulting and volcanism develop. Subaerial and submarine geomorphologic and structural characterization of latest Pleistocene-Holocene faults and monogenetic volcanoes allows us to assess geological cartography of active faults and the kinematic model for recent tectonics during postglacial times, since 12,000 cal. years BP. This allows increasing the bas...

  12. The Keelung Submarine Volcano in the near-shore area of northern Taiwan and its tectonic implication (United States)

    Tsai, Ching-Hui; Hsu, Shu-Kun; Lin, Shiao-Shan; Yang, Tsanyao F.; Wang, Shiou-Ya; Doo, Wen-Bin; Lee, Hsiao-Fen; Lan, Tefang; Huang, Jian-Cheng; Liang, Chin-Wei


    The Taiwan mountain belt has been created due to the collision between the Philippine Sea Plate and the Eurasian Plate. Northernmost Taiwan and its offshore area are now under post-collisional collapse. The post-collisional magmatism is distributed around northern Taiwan. Here we first report a submarine volcano, named Keelung Submarine Volcano, existing in the near-shore area of northern Taiwan. The high 3He/4He ratios in the collected seawater samples suggest that the magma of the Keelung Submarine Volcano is derived from a mantle source. Geometrically, both the Keelung Submarine Volcano and the Tatun Volcano Group are situated above the western border of the subducted Philippine Sea Plate and may have a same magma source. Both volcanic areas belong to the northern Taiwan volcanic zone, instead of the Ryukyu volcanic front. The Keelung Submarine Volcano has been rotated clockwise ∼48° after its formation, which implies that the Keelung Submarine Volcano has formed before the Luzon arc collided against northern Taiwan. Consequently, the post-collisional model to explain the formation of the northern Taiwan volcanic zone is questionable. As indicated by numerous shallow earthquakes and persistent emissions of the volcanic gases out of the seafloor around the volcanic cone, the Keelung Submarine Volcano is as active as the Tatun Volcano Group. For the sake of volcanic hazard assessment, it is essential to monitor the activity of the Keelung Submarine Volcano.

  13. Petrological and geochemical Highlights in the floating fragments of the October 2011 submarine eruption offshore El Hierro (Canary Islands): Relevance of submarine hydrothermal processes (United States)

    Rodriguez-Losada, Jose A.; Eff-Darwich, Antonio; Hernandez, Luis E.; Viñas, Ronaldo; Pérez, Nemesio; Hernandez, Pedro; Melián, Gladys; Martinez-Frías, Jesús; Romero-Ruiz, M. Carmen; Coello-Bravo, Juan Jesús


    This paper describes the main physical, petrological and geochemical features of the floating fragments that were emitted in the initial stages of the 2011-2012 submarine eruption off the coast of the Canarian island of El Hierro, located 380 km from the Northwest African Coast. It attempts to assess the potential of radiometric analyses to discern the intriguing origin of the floating fragments and the differences between their constituent parts. In this regard, the material that conforms the core of the fragments contains the largest concentration of uranium (U) ever found in volcanic rocks of the Canary Islands. This enrichment in U is not found in the content of thorium (Th), hence the floating fragments have an unusual U/Th ratio, namely equal to or larger than 3. Although the origin of this material is under discussion, it is proposed that the enrichment in U is the result of hydrothermal processes.

  14. Database for the geologic map of upper Eocene to Holocene volcanic and related rocks in the Cascade Range, Washington (United States)

    Barron, Andrew D.; Ramsey, David W.; Smith, James G.


    This geospatial database for a geologic map of the Cascades Range in Washington state is one of a series of maps that shows Cascade Range geology by fitting published and unpublished mapping into a province-wide scheme of lithostratigraphic units. Geologic maps of the Eocene to Holocene Cascade Range in California and Oregon complete the series, providing a comprehensive geologic map of the entire Cascade Range that incorporates modern field studies and that has a unified and internally consistent explanantion. The complete series will be useful for regional studies of volcanic hazards, volcanology, and tectonics.

  15. Submarine Landslides at Santa Catalina Island, California (United States)

    Legg, M. R.; Francis, R. D.


    Santa Catalina Island is an active tectonic block of volcanic and metamorphic rocks originally exposed during middle Miocene transtension along the evolving Pacific-North America transform plate boundary. Post-Miocene transpression created the existing large pop-up structure along the major strike-slip restraining bend of the Catalina fault that forms the southwest flank of the uplift. Prominent submerged marine terraces apparent in high-resolution bathymetric maps interrupt the steep submarine slopes in the upper ~400 meters subsea depths. Steep subaerial slopes of the island are covered by Quaternary landslides, especially at the sea cliffs and in the blueschist metamorphic rocks. The submarine slopes also show numerous landslides that range in area from a few hectares to more than three sq-km (300 hectares). Three or more landslides of recent origin exist between the nearshore and first submerged terrace along the north-facing shelf of the island's West End. One of these slides occurred during September 2005 when divers observed a remarkable change in the seafloor configuration after previous dives in the area. Near a sunken yacht at about 45-ft depth where the bottom had sloped gently into deeper water, a "sinkhole" had formed that dropped steeply to 100-ft or greater depths. Some bubbling sand was observed in the shallow water areas that may be related to the landslide process. High-resolution multibeam bathymetry acquired in 2008 by CSU Monterey Bay show this "fresh" slide and at least two other slides of varying age along the West End. The slides are each roughly 2 hectares in area and their debris aprons are spread across the first terrace at about 85-m water depth that is likely associated with the Last Glacial Maximum sealevel lowstand. Larger submarine slides exist along the steep Catalina and Catalina Ridge escarpments along the southwest flank of the island platform. A prominent slide block, exceeding 3 sq-km in area, appears to have slipped more than

  16. [Combination of phosphorus solubilizing and mobilizing fungi with phosphate rocks and volcanic materials to promote plant growth of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.)]. (United States)

    Velázquez, María S; Cabello, Marta N; Elíades, Lorena A; Russo, María L; Allegrucci, Natalia; Schalamuk, Santiago

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) increase the uptake of soluble phosphates, while phosphorus solubilizing fungi (S) promote solubilization of insoluble phosphates complexes, favoring plant nutrition. Another alternative to maintaining crop productivity is to combine minerals and rocks that provide nutrients and other desirable properties. The aim of this work was to combine AMF and S with pyroclastic materials (ashes and pumices) from Puyehue volcano and phosphate rocks (PR) from Rio Chico Group (Chubut) - to formulate a substrate for the production of potted Lactuca sativa. A mixture of Terrafertil®:ashes was used as substrate. Penicillium thomii was the solubilizing fungus and Rhizophagus intraradices spores (AMF) was the P mobilizer (AEGIS® Irriga). The treatments were: 1) Substrate; 2) Substrate+AMF; 3) Substrate+S; 4) Substrate+AMF+S; 5) Substrate: PR; 6) Substrate: PR+AMF; 7) Substrate: PR+S and 8) Substrate: PR+AMF+S. Three replicates were performed per treatment. All parameters evaluated (total and assimilable P content in substrate, P in plant tissue and plant dry biomass) were significantly higher in plants grown in substrate containing PR and inoculas with S and AMF. This work confirms that the combination of S/AMF with Puyehue volcanic ashes, PR from the Río Chico Group and a commercial substrate promote the growth of L. sativa, thus increasing the added value of national geomaterials. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Small-scale lithospheric foundering beneath the Peruvian Altiplano: evidence from back arc potassic volcanic rocks and lower crustal and mantle xenoliths (United States)

    Chapman, A. D.; Ducea, M. N.


    Small-volume, Pliocene to Quaternary back arc high-K calc-alkaline to shoshonitic volcanic rocks and entrained xenoliths of southeastern Peru permit evaluation of models for the removal of crustal and mantle lithosphere beneath the northwestern Altiplano. Two distinct subsets of volcanic samples are apparent based on sample location, eruption age, geochemistry, and xenolith types. Suite 1 Quaternary mafic extrusives show: high K2O (1.3-8.4%), steep rare earth element patterns with La/Yb ranging from 17 to 161 and lacking Eu anomalies, and Sr-Nd isotope decoupling with 143Nd/144Nd from 0.5124 to 0.5129 at 87Sr/86Sr of 0.7095 to 0.7038. A second Plio-Quaternary suite shows small Eu anomalies, lower K2O (2.3-3.4%), a lower and narrower range of La/Yb (from 28 to 50), and Nd and Sr isotopic data follow an array from 143Nd/144Nd = 0.5125 to 0.5123 with corresponding range in 87Sr/86Sr from 0.7059 to 0.7072. Xenoliths from suite 2 lavas consist almost exclusively of clinopyroxene and plagioclase, whereas suite 1 inclusions are more diverse, containing clinopyroxenite (× garnet × plagioclase), garnet-bearing gabbro and diorite, aluminous garnet granulite gneiss; and rare spinel harzburgite. Thermobarometric, geochronologic, and Sr-Nd isotopic relations suggest a melting link between suite 1 xenoliths and volcanic rocks. Geochemical differences between back arc suites and frontal arc volcanic rocks strongly suggest that each was derived from a different source. Most notably, higher Nd isotopic values, younger depleted mantle model ages, and higher La/Yb in suite 1 vs. suite 2 lavas suggest an increased contribution of asthenospheric material and an increase in the depth to melting in the back arc region from Pliocene to Quaternary time. Variations in transition element ratios from the back arc to the frontal arc suggest a larger contribution of pyroxenitic material in the source of the former. Interactions between a downgoing lower crustal drip structure and upwelling

  18. Submarine Warfare in the 20th & 21st Centuries: A Bibliography

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Huygen, Michaele


    There are constant motions in the sea caused by atmospheric and seabed activities volcanic disruptions marine animals ships and submarines -- all of which create what is called the ambient noise level of the oceans...

  19. Late Triassic Batang Group arc volcanic rocks in the northeastern margin of Qiangtang terrane, northern Tibet: partial melting of juvenile crust and implications for Paleo-Tethys ocean subduction (United States)

    Zhao, Shao-Qing; Tan, Jun; Wei, Jun-Hao; Tian, Ning; Zhang, Dao-Han; Liang, Sheng-Nan; Chen, Jia-Jie


    The Batang Group (BTG) volcanic rocks in the Zhiduo area, with NW-trending outcrops along the northeastern margin of the Qiangtang terrane (northern Tibet), are mainly composed of volcaniclastic rocks, dacite and rhyolite. Major and trace element, Sr and Nd isotope, zircon U-Pb and Hf isotope data are presented for the BTG dacites. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry zircon U-Pb dating constrains the timing of volcanic eruption as Late Triassic (221 ± 1 Ma). Major and trace element geochemistry shows that the BTG volcanic rocks are classified as calc-alkaline series. All samples are enriched in large-ion lithophile elements and light rare earth elements with negative-slightly positive Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu* = 0.47-1.15), and depleted in high field strength elements and heavy rare earth elements. In addition, these rocks possess less radiogenic Sr [(87Sr/86Sr) i = 0.7047-0.7078], much radiogenic Nd (ɛNd( t) = -4.2 to -1.3) and Hf (ɛHf( t) = 4.0-6.6) isotopes, suggesting that they probably originated from partial melting of a crustal source containing a mantle-derived juvenile component. The inferred magma was assimilated by crustal materials during ascending and experienced significant fractional crystallization. By combining previously published and the new data, we propose that the BTG volcanic rocks were genetically related to southwestward subduction of the Ganzi-Litang ocean (a branch of Paleo-Tethys) in the northeastern margin of the Qiangtang terrane. Given the coeval arc-affinity magmatic rocks in the region, we envisage that the Ganzi-Litang ocean may extend from the Zhongdian arc through the Yidun terrane to the Zhiduo area, probably even further northwest to the Tuotuohe area.

  20. Dual-porosity analysis of conservative tracer testing in saturated volcanic rocks at Yucca Mountain in Nye County, Nevada (United States)

    Fahy, M.F.


    A radially convergent conservative tracer injection test was conducted between boreholes UE-25 #2 and UE-25 c #3 of the C-hole complex at Yucca Mountain to determine effective porosity and longitudinal dispersivity. Approximately 47% of the tracer mass was recovered and a dual-porosity analytical model replicates the breakthrough curve. Fractured-rock analyses focus on the fracture-porosity and geometry as the controlling factors in transport.

  1. Magnetic fabrics and rock magnetism of the Xiong'er volcanic rocks and their implications for tectonic correlation of the North China Craton with other crustal blocks in the Nuna/Columbia supercontinent (United States)

    Xu, Huiru; Yang, Zhenyu; Peng, Peng; Ge, Kunpeng; Jin, Zhenmin; Zhu, Rixiang


    The tectonic background of the Paleoproterozoic Xiong'er volcanic rocks (XVR) is important for understanding the tectonic evolution of the North China Craton (NCC), as well as its paleogeographic position during the assembly of the Nuna/Columbia supercontinent. Here we report the results of the first anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) study of the XVR, and use the interpreted flow directions to constrain the emplacement mechanism and to assess its geological significance for the reconstruction of the Nuna/Columbia supercontinent. Thirty lavas were sampled from three sections in western Henan Province. Detailed rock magnetic analyses, including measurements of hysteresis loops, magnetization versus temperature curves and first order reverse curves, were performed to identify the main magnetic phases and grain sizes. The inferred directions from the AMS results reveal a radial flow pattern with an eruption center probably located near Xiong'er Mountain. Our data suggest that the XVR may have been emplaced in a triple-conjugated continental rift on the south margin of the NCC, probably initiated from a paleoplume. Based on this interpretation, a comparison of geological and paleomagnetic results among the proposed crustal blocks in the Nuna/Columbia supercontinent suggests a close linkage of the NCC with São Francisco-Congo, Rio de la Plate and Siberia.

  2. Trace Elements in Olivine in Italian Potassic Volcanic Rocks Distinguish Between Mantle Metasomatism by Carbonatitic and Silicate Melts (United States)

    Foley, S. F.; Ammannati, E.; Jacob, D. E.; Avanzinelli, R.; Conticelli, S.


    The Italian Peninsula is the site of intense subduction-related potassic magmatism with bimodal character in terms of silica activity: Ca-poor silica-saturated lamproitic rocks and Ca-enriched silica-undersaturated leucitites. Lamproitic magmas formed in the early phases of magmatic activity and were followed by leucititic magmas. The primary magmas are generated in the sub-continental lithospheric mantle at the destructive plate margin, and both series have olivine as the first crystallizing phenocrysts. Trace elements in olivine phenocrysts are important in recognizing metasomatic effects on the mineralogy of the mantle source. Since Ni is the most compatible trace element in olivine, particularly in alkaline melts, modal changes of olivine in the source strongly affect its bulk partition coefficient, and therefore its content in primary melts and in olivine that crystallizes from them.The concentration of other compatible trace elements (e.g. Mn, Co) in olivine phenocrysts also depends on the abundance of olivine in the magma source. Ni contents in olivine of the Italian rocks show a clear bimodal distribution. Olivine from lamproitic samples has systematically higher Fo and Ni contents, whereas olivine from leucititic rocks never exceeds Fo92 and has markedly lower Ni, reaching among the lowest levels ever observed in olivine phenocrysts in primitive melts. The Mn/Fe ratio of olivine is also sensitive to changes of the modal abundance of olivine in the source, 100*Mn/Fe of olivine from lamproitic rocks never exceeds 2, while it is always >1.8 in leucititic rocks, meaning that the leucitite source regions are much richer in olivine. Lithium is generally enriched in the crust and in sediments compared to the lithospheric mantle and to mantle-derived melts,so that Li in olivine above 10 ppm is suggested to indicate recycled sediments. Li contents are up to 35 ppm in leucititic olivines and up to >50 ppm in lamproitic olivines, confirming the recycling of crustal

  3. Attempts of whole-rock K/Ar dating of mesozoic volcanic and hypabissal igneous rocks from the Central Subbetic (Southern Spain: A case of differential Argon loss related to very low-grade metamorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanz de Galdeano, C.


    Full Text Available 12 samples of basic intrusives within Triassic rocks «ophites» and 11 samples of volcanic and associated intrusives within Jurassic to Early Cretaceous sequences of the Subbetic Zone were subjected to whole-rock K/Ar dating in combination with chemical/petrological analysis. Satisfactory results were obtained only from a number of samples of volcanic rocks, however, analytical ages commonly agree, within about 10 relative percent, with those deduced from stratigraphic location. «Ophite» samples, on the other hand, may reveal considerably lower analytic ages than the volcanics and show much stronger scattering, even among samples collected within a small area. It is argued that the inferred loss of Ar results from very-low-grade alpine metamorphic alteration, which affected the «ophites» more intensely than the higher volcanic rocks. Other post-emplacement chemical changes, such as the degree of secondary oxidation of Fe, are also distintive among the two groups of samples, and are to some extent consistent with the above view in that the alteration environment of the ophites should have produced conditions for more penetrative fluid-rock interactions and homogeneous recrystallization. Overall, the magmatic activity from which the ophitic rocks originated might have started in the Late Triassic and continued in the Lower Jurassic. 80th, the «ophites» and the volcanics are though to be the result of magmatic events Collowing tensional to transtensive crustal movements affecting the external basins of the Betic Cordilleras Crom Late Triassic to Early Cretaceous times.Doce muestras de cuerpos básicos intrusivos en rocas triásicas («ofitas» y 11 muestras de volcanitas y rocas intrusivas asociadas en secuencias jurásico-cretáceas de la zona Subbética han sido objeto de datación radiométrica K/Ar (roca total en combinación con análisis químico-petrográfico. Las edades analíticas obtenidas son 's

  4. Silicic volcanism on Mars evidenced by tridymite in high-SiO2 sedimentary rock at Gale crater (United States)

    Morris, Richard V.; Vaniman, David T.; Blake, David F.; Gellert, Ralf; Chipera, Steve J.; Rampe, Elizabeth B.; Ming, Douglas W.; Morrison, Shaunna M.; Downs, Robert T.; Treiman, Allan H.; Yen, Albert S.; Grotzinger, John P.; Achilles, Cherie N.; Bristow, Thomas F.; Crisp, Joy A.; Des Marais, David J.; Farmer, Jack D.; Fendrich, Kim V.; Frydenvang, Jens; Graff, Trevor G.; Morookian, John-Michael; Stolper, Edward M.; Schwenzer, Susanne P.


    Tridymite, a low-pressure, high-temperature (>870 °C) SiO2 polymorph, was detected in a drill sample of laminated mudstone (Buckskin) at Marias Pass in Gale crater, Mars, by the Chemistry and Mineralogy X-ray diffraction instrument onboard the Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity. The tridymitic mudstone has ˜40 wt.% crystalline and ˜60 wt.% X-ray amorphous material and a bulk composition with ˜74 wt.% SiO2 (Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer analysis). Plagioclase (˜17 wt.% of bulk sample), tridymite (˜14 wt.%), sanidine (˜3 wt.%), cation-deficient magnetite (˜3 wt.%), cristobalite (˜2 wt.%), and anhydrite (˜1 wt.%) are the mudstone crystalline minerals. Amorphous material is silica-rich (˜39 wt.% opal-A and/or high-SiO2 glass and opal-CT), volatile-bearing (16 wt.% mixed cation sulfates, phosphates, and chlorides-perchlorates-chlorates), and has minor TiO2 and Fe2O3T oxides (˜5 wt.%). Rietveld refinement yielded a monoclinic structural model for a well-crystalline tridymite, consistent with high formation temperatures. Terrestrial tridymite is commonly associated with silicic volcanism, and detritus from such volcanism in a “Lake Gale” catchment environment can account for Buckskin's tridymite, cristobalite, feldspar, and any residual high-SiO2 glass. These cogenetic detrital phases are possibly sourced from the Gale crater wall/rim/central peak. Opaline silica could form during diagenesis from high-SiO2 glass, as amorphous precipitated silica, or as a residue of acidic leaching in the sediment source region or at Marias Pass. The amorphous mixed-cation salts and oxides and possibly the crystalline magnetite (otherwise detrital) are primary precipitates and/or their diagenesis products derived from multiple infiltrations of aqueous solutions having variable compositions, temperatures, and acidities. Anhydrite is post lithification fracture/vein fill.

  5. Chlorine isotope composition of volcanic rocks and gases at Stromboli volcano (Aeolian Islands, Italy): Inferences on magmatic degassing prior to 2014 eruption (United States)

    Liotta, Marcello; Rizzo, Andrea L.; Barnes, Jaime D.; D'Auria, Luca; Martelli, Mauro; Bobrowski, Nicole; Wittmer, Julian


    Among the magmatic volatiles, chlorine (Cl) is degassed at shallow depths offering the opportunity to investigate the behavior of magmatic degassing close to the surface, and the possible occurrence of chemical and isotopic fractionation related to gas/melt partitioning. However, it is still unclear if the isotopic composition of Cl (δ37Cl) can be used as a proxy of magmatic degassing. In this work, we investigate the concentrations of chlorine and sulfur, and the Cl isotope composition of rocks and plume gases collected at Stromboli volcano, Aeolian Islands, Italy. This volcano was chosen because it is characterized by persistent eruptive activity (i.e., Strombolian explosions) and by the presence of magma at very shallow levels in the conduits. Rocks belonging to the different magmatic series erupted throughout the formation of the volcano have δ37Cl values ranging between - 1.0 and + 0.7‰. The isotopic composition seems independent of the Cl concentration of the rocks, but shows a negative correlation with SiO2 content. Plume gases have a greater isotopic compositional variability than the rocks (- 2.2‰ ≤ δ37Cl ≤ + 1.5‰) and the composition seems related to the level of volcanic activity at Stromboli. Gases collected in 2011-2013 during days of ordinary eruptive activity are characterized by δ37Cl values ranging from + 0.3 to + 1.5‰ and S/Cl molar ratios between 1.4 and 2.2, similar to previous S/Cl measurements performed at Stromboli with other techniques. Plume gases collected in July 2014, in days of high-level eruptive activity preceding the onset of the 2014 effusive eruption, have negative δ37Cl values (- 2.2‰ ≤ δ37Cl ≤ - 0.1‰) and S/Cl between 0.9 and 1.2, which are among the lowest S/Cl values measured at this volcano. The amplitude of the volcanic tremor and the variation in the inclination of very long period (VLP) seismic signal polarization clearly indicate that in July 2014 the intensity and frequency of Strombolian

  6. Geochemical and zircon isotopic evidence for extensive high level crustal contamination in Miocene to mid-Pleistocene intra-plate volcanic rocks from the Tengchong field, western Yunnan, China (United States)

    Li, Linlin; Shi, Yuruo; Williams, Ian S.; Anderson, J. Lawford; Wu, Zhonghai; Wang, Shubing


    SHRIMP zircon Pb/U dating of Cenozoic volcanic rocks in the Tengchong area, western Yunnan Province, China, shows that the dacite and andesitic breccia lavas from Qushi village were intruded at 480 ± 10 ka and 800 ± 40 ka, respectively. Moreover, Pb/U dating of trachyandesite from Tuantian village and olivine basalt from Wuhe village give weighted mean 206Pb/238U ages of 2.82 ± 0.08 Ma and 12.28 ± 0.30 Ma. Corrections for initial 230Th disequilibrium of zircon were used for the former two younger ages. The Tengchong volcanic rocks have a large range of SiO2 (48.6-66.9 wt.%) and mostly belong to a high-K calc-alkaline series. The lavas originated from heterogeneous sources and were modified by subsequent fractional crystallization. The REE and other trace element patterns of the Tengchong volcanic rocks resemble magmas having a large component of continental crust. All have similar degrees of LREE and HREE fractionation and are enriched in LILE, La, Ce and Pb, with depletions in Nb, Ta, Ti, Sr and P relative to primitive mantle. Zircon δ18O values of 6.96 ± 0.17 and 7.01 ± 0.24‰ and highly varied negative εHf(t) values of - 1.5 to - 11.0 and - 10.3 to - 13.7, as well as the presence of inherited zircon grains in the studied samples, indicate that the magmas contain crustal material on a large scale. The Tengchong volcanic rocks have HFSE ratios (e.g., Nb/Ta, La/Nb, Zr/Y) similar to continental flood basalts, indicative of an intra-plate extensional tectonic setting. Widespread distributed faults might have facilitated upwelling of mantle-derived melts and eruptions from shallow crustal magma chambers to form the large volcanic field.

  7. Hydraulic characterization of volcanic rocks in Pahute Mesa using an integrated analysis of 16 multiple-well aquifer tests, Nevada National Security Site, 2009–14 (United States)

    Garcia, C. Amanda; Jackson, Tracie R.; Halford, Keith J.; Sweetkind, Donald S.; Damar, Nancy A.; Fenelon, Joseph M.; Reiner, Steven R.


    An improved understanding of groundwater flow and radionuclide migration downgradient from underground nuclear-testing areas at Pahute Mesa, Nevada National Security Site, requires accurate subsurface hydraulic characterization. To improve conceptual models of flow and transport in the complex hydrogeologic system beneath Pahute Mesa, the U.S. Geological Survey characterized bulk hydraulic properties of volcanic rocks using an integrated analysis of 16 multiple-well aquifer tests. Single-well aquifer-test analyses provided transmissivity estimates at pumped wells. Transmissivity estimates ranged from less than 1 to about 100,000 square feet per day in Pahute Mesa and the vicinity. Drawdown from multiple-well aquifer testing was estimated and distinguished from natural fluctuations in more than 200 pumping and observation wells using analytical water-level models. Drawdown was detected at distances greater than 3 miles from pumping wells and propagated across hydrostratigraphic units and major structures, indicating that neither faults nor structural blocks noticeably impede or divert groundwater flow in the study area.Consistent hydraulic properties were estimated by simultaneously interpreting drawdown from the 16 multiple-well aquifer tests with an integrated groundwater-flow model composed of 11 well-site models—1 for each aquifer test site. Hydraulic properties were distributed across volcanic rocks with the Phase II Pahute Mesa-Oasis Valley Hydrostratigraphic Framework Model. Estimated hydraulic-conductivity distributions spanned more than two orders of magnitude in hydrostratigraphic units. Overlapping hydraulic conductivity ranges among units indicated that most Phase II Hydrostratigraphic Framework Model units were not hydraulically distinct. Simulated total transmissivity ranged from 1,600 to 68,000 square feet per day for all pumping wells analyzed. High-transmissivity zones exceeding 10,000 square feet per day exist near caldera margins and extend

  8. Exploring the submarine Graham Bank in the Sicily Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Coltelli


    Full Text Available In the Sicily Channel, volcanic activity has been concentrated mainly on the Pantelleria and Linosa islands, while minor submarine volcanism took place in the Adventure, Graham and Nameless banks. The volcanic activity spanned mostly during Plio-Pleistocene, however, historical submarine eruptions occurred in 1831 on the Graham Bank and in 1891 offshore Pantelleria Island. On the Graham Bank, 25 miles SW of Sciacca, the 1831 eruption formed the short-lived Ferdinandea Island that represents the only Italian volcano active in historical times currently almost completely unknown and not yet monitored. Moreover, most of the Sicily Channel seismicity is concentrated along a broad NS belt extending from the Graham Bank to Lampedusa Island. In 2012, the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV carried out a multidisciplinary oceanographic cruise, named “Ferdinandea 2012”, the preliminary results of which represent the aim of this paper. The cruise goal was the mapping of the morpho-structural features of some submarine volcanic centres located in the northwestern side of the Sicily Channel and the temporary recording of their seismic and degassing activity. During the cruise, three OBS/Hs (ocean bottom seismometer with hydrophone were deployed near the Graham, Nerita and Terribile submarine banks. During the following 9 months they have recorded several seismo-acoustic signals produced by both tectonic and volcanic sources. A high-resolution bathymetric survey was achieved on the Graham Bank and on the surrounding submarine volcanic centres. A widespread and voluminous gas bubbles emission was observed by both multibeam sonar echoes and a ROV (remotely operated vehicle along the NW side of the Graham Bank, where gas and seafloor samples were also collected.

  9. Mineralogy, Geochemistry and Fluid Inclusion Data from the Tumanpınarı Volcanic Rock-Hosted Fe-Mn-Ba Deposit, Balıkesir-Dursunbey, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Haydar Gultekin


    Full Text Available The Tumanpınarı mineralization is a volcanic rock-hosted epithermal Fe-Mn-Ba deposit located in the southwestern part of Dursunbey, Balıkesir, Turkey. The deposit constitutes one of the most important deposits of the Havran-Dursunbey metallogenic sub-province in which numerous Early Miocene Fe-Mn-Ba deposits are distributed. The ore occurs as open-space fillings in faults, fractures, and breccias in the andesite. Early hydrothermal activity was responsible for four types of hypogene alteration in decreasing intensity: silicification, sericitization, hematization and argillic alteration. The mineral assemblage includes pyrolusite, psilomelane, hematite, and barite as well as minor magnetite, manganite, poliannite, limonite, braunite, bixbyite, galena, pyrite, and goethite. Mineralogically, three ore types are recognized as pyrolusite + psilomelane + hematite + barite ore, pyrolusite + psilomelane + poliannite ore and barite + pyrolusite + psilomelane + hematite ore (barite-dominant ore. In addition to Fe, Mn and Ba, the ore contains substantial quantities of Pb, Zn, As. Chemically, the transition from fresh to altered rocks has little effect on the elemental levels for Si, Al, Fe, Ca, Mg, K, Rb, Sr and H2O. The homogenization temperature of fluid inclusions hosted in the main stage quartz and barite ranged from 113 to 410 °C with salinities ranging from 0.4 to 14.9 eq. wt % NaCl, respectively. Overall, the available data suggest that the deposits formed as the result of the interaction of two aqueous fluids: a higher-salinity fluid (probably magmatic and a dilute meteoric fluid.

  10. Elemental and Sr-Nd isotopic geochemistry of Cretaceous to Early Paleogene granites and volcanic rocks in the Sikhote-Alin Orogenic Belt (Russian Far East): implications for the regional tectonic evolution (United States)

    Zhao, Pan; Jahn, Bor-ming; Xu, Bei


    The Sikhote-Alin Orogenic Belt in Russian Far East is an important Late Mesozoic to Early Cenozoic accretionary orogen related to the subduction of the Paleo-Pacific Plate. This belt was generated by successive accretion of terranes made of accretionary prisms, turbidite basins and island arcs to the continental margin of northeastern Asia (represented by the Bureya-Jiamusi-Khanka Block) from Jurassic to Late Cretaceous. In order to study the tectonic and crustal evolution of this orogenic belt, we carried out zircon U-Pb dating, and whole-rock elemental and Sr-Nd isotopic analyses on granites and volcanic rocks from the Primorye region of southern Sikhote-Alin. Zircon dating revealed three episodes of granitoid emplacement: Permian, Early Cretaceous and Late Cretaceous to Early Paleogene. Felsic volcanic rocks (mainly rhyolite, dacite and ignimbrite) that overlay all tectonostratigraphic terranes were erupted during 80-57 Ma, postdating the accretionary process in the Sikhote-Alin belt. The Cretaceous-Paleogene magmatism represents the most intense tectonothermal event in the Sikhote-Alin belt. Whole-rock major and trace elemental data show arc-like affinity for granitoids and volcanic rocks, indicating that they were likely generated in a supra-subduction setting. Their initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios range from 0.7048 to 0.7114, and εNd(t) values vary from +1.7 to -3.8 (mostly Korean peninsula, Japanese islands and other areas of Russian Far East, particularly along the coastal regions of the Okhotsk and Bering Seas. These rocks constitute an extended magmatic belt along the continental margin of NE Asia. The generation of this belt was ascribed to subduction of the Paleo-Pacific Plate.

  11. Dissolved Nutrients from Submarine Groundwater in Flic en Flac ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract—The aim of this study was to investigate dissolved nutrients in a submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) in Flic en Flac lagoon on the west coast of the volcanic island of Mauritius. The SGD enters Flic en Flac lagoon through a thin blanket of unconsolidated sediment through a fracture system and is concentrated ...

  12. Dissolved Nutrients from Submarine Groundwater in Flic en Flac ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate dissolved nutrients in a submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) in Flic en Flac lagoon on the west coast of the volcanic island of Mauritius. The SGD enters Flic en Flac lagoon through a thin blanket of unconsolidated sediment through a fracture system and is concentrated along the ...

  13. Results of analyses performed on basalt adjacent to penetrators emplaced into volcanic rock at Amboy, California, April 1976 (United States)

    Blanchard, M.; Bunch, T.; Davis, A.; Shade, H.; Erlichman, J.; Polkowski, G.


    The physical and chemical modifications found in the basalt after impact of four penetrators were studied. Laboratory analyses show that mineralogical and elemental changes are produced in the powdered and crushed basalt immediately surrounding the penetrator. Optical microscopy studies of material next to the skin of the penetrator revealed a layer, 0-2 mm thick, of glass and abraded iron alloy mixed with fractured mineral grains of basalt. Elemental analysis of the 0-2 mm layer revealed increased concentrations of Fe, Cr, Ni, No, and Mn, and reduced concentrations of Mg, Al, Si, and Ca. The Fe, Cr, Ni, and Mo were in fragments abraded from the penetrator. Mineralogical changes occurring in the basalt sediment next to the penetrator include the introduction of micron-size grains of alpha-iron, magnetite, and hematite. The newly formed silicate minerals include metastable phases of silica (tridymite and cristobalite). An increased concentration of Fe, Cr, Ni, and Mo occurred in the 2-mm to 1-cm layer of penetrator no. 1, which impacted at the highest velocity. No elemental concentration increase was noted for penetrators nos. 2 and 3 in the 2-mm to 1-cm layer. Contaminants introduced by the penetrator occur up to 1 cm away from the penetrator's skin. Although volatile elements do migrate and new minerals are formed during the destruction of host minerals in the crushed rock, no changes were observed beyond the 1-cm distance.

  14. Database for the Geologic Map of Upper Eocene to Holocene Volcanic and Related Rocks of the Cascade Range, Oregon (United States)

    Nimz, Kathryn; Ramsey, David W.; Sherrod, David R.; Smith, James G.


    Since 1979, Earth scientists of the Geothermal Research Program of the U.S. Geological Survey have carried out multidisciplinary research in the Cascade Range. The goal of this research is to understand the geology, tectonics, and hydrology of the Cascades in order to characterize and quantify geothermal resource potential. A major goal of the program is compilation of a comprehensive geologic map of the entire Cascade Range that incorporates modern field studies and that has a unified and internally consistent explanation. This map is one of three in a series that shows Cascade Range geology by fitting published and unpublished mapping into a province-wide scheme of rock units distinguished by composition and age; map sheets of the Cascade Range in Washington (Smith, 1993) and California will complete the series. The complete series forms a guide to exploration and evaluation of the geothermal resources of the Cascade Range and will be useful for studies of volcano hazards, volcanology, and tectonics. This digital release contains all the information used to produce the geologic map published as U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Investigations Series I-2569 (Sherrod and Smith, 2000). The main component of this digital release is a geologic map database prepared using ArcInfo GIS. This release also contains files to view or print the geologic map and accompanying descriptive pamphlet from I-2569.

  15. Addressing submarine geohazards through scientific drilling (United States)

    Camerlenghi, A.


    Natural submarine geohazards (earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides, volcanic island flank collapses) are geological phenomena originating at or below the seafloor leading to a situation of risk for off-shore and on-shore structures and the coastal population. Addressing submarine geohazards means understanding their spatial and temporal variability, the pre-conditioning factors, their triggers, and the physical processes that control their evolution. Such scientific endeavour is nowadays considered by a large sector of the international scientific community as an obligation in order to contribute to the mitigation of the potentially destructive societal effects of submarine geohazards. The study of submarine geohazards requires a multi-disciplinary scientific approach: geohazards must be studied through their geological record; active processes must be monitored; geohazard evolution must be modelled. Ultimately, the information must be used for the assessment of vulnerability, risk analysis, and development of mitigation strategies. In contrast with the terrestrial environment, the oceanic environment is rather hostile to widespread and fast application of high-resolution remote sensing techniques, accessibility for visual inspection, sampling and installation of monitoring stations. Scientific Drilling through the IODP (including the related pre site-survey investigations, sampling, logging and in situ measurements capability, and as a platform for deployment of long term observatories at the surface and down-hole) can be viewed as the centre of gravity of an international, coordinated, multi-disciplinary scientific approach to address submarine geohazards. The IODP Initial Science Plan expiring in 2013 does not address openly geohazards among the program scientific objectives. Hazards are referred to mainly in relation to earthquakes and initiatives towards the understanding of seismogenesis. Notably, the only drilling initiative presently under way is the

  16. Sr, Nd, and Pb isotopes of ultramafic xenoliths in volcanic rocks of Eastern China: enriched components EMI and EMII in subcontinental lithosphere (United States)

    Tatsumoto, M.; Basu, A.R.; Wankang, H.; Junwen, W.; Guanghong, X.


    The UThPb, SmNd, and RbSr isotopic systematics of mafic and ultramafic xenolithic rocks and associated megacrystic inclusions of aluminous augite and garnet, that occur in three alkalic volcanic suites: Kuandian in eastern Liaoning Province, Hanluoba in Hebei Province, and Minxi in western Fujian Province, China are described. In various isotopic data plots, the inclusion data invariably fall outside the isotopic ranges displayed by the host volcanic rocks, testifying to the true xenolithic nature of the inclusions. The major element partitioning data on Ca, Mg, Fe, and Al among the coexisting silicate minerals of the xenoliths establish their growth at ambient mantle temperatures of 1000-1100??C and possible depths of 70-80 km in the subcontinental lithosphere. Although the partitioning of these elements reflects equilibrium between coexisting minerals, equilibria of the Pb, Nd, and Sr isotopic systems among the minerals were not preserved. The disequilibria are most notable with respect to the 206Pb 204Pb ratios of the minerals. On a NdSr isotopic diagram, the inclusion data plot in a wider area than that for oceanic basalts from a distinctly more depleted component than MORB with higher 143Nd 144Nd and a much broader range of 87Sr 86Sr values, paralleling the theoretical trajectory of a sea-water altered lithosphere in NdSr space. The garnets consistently show lower ?? and ?? values than the pyroxenes and pyroxenites, whereas a phlogopite shows the highest ?? and ?? values among all the minerals and rocks studied. In a plot of ??207 and ??208, the host basalts for all three areas show lower ??207 and higher ??208 values than do the xenoliths, indicating derivation of basalts from Th-rich (relative to U) sources and xenoliths from U-rich sources. The xenolith data trends toward the enriched mantle components, EMI and EMII-like, characterized by high 87Sr 86Sr and ??207 values but with slightly higher 143Nd 144Nd. The EMI trend is shown more distinctly by the host

  17. Hydrothermal alterations of the meta volcanic rocks associated to the gold deposits from Pontes e Lacerda region, Mato Grosso State, Brazil; Alteracao hidrotermal das metavulcanicas associadas aos depositos auriferos de Pontes e Lacerda, MT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geraldes, M.C.; Figueiredo, B.R. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias


    Geochemical changes due to hydrothermal alterations of volcanic rocks, which are associated with the gold deposits in the Pontes e Lacerda region, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil, are investigated in the present study. These rocks were analyzed for major and trace elements, including REE. Nd and Sr isotopes were used to trace the origin and tectonic environment of the magmatism. The volcanic rocks resemble ocean floor basalts in composition and their isotopic signature indicates a Sr depleted and Nd enriched source in the mantle. The hydrothermal process were responsible for enhanced concentration of K{sub 2} O, Rb, Ba and Fe{sub 2} O{sub 3} and for losses in Ca O, Sr, Mg O, and Fe O. The Zr; Y, Cr; Al{sub 2} O{sub 3} Si O{sub 2} and Ti O{sub 2} contents remained unchanged. Increasing REE contents in the altered volcanics may be due to a probable magmatic contribution to the fluids, which is also indicated by positive Ce anomalies in some altered basalts. The processes which were responsible for these geochemical changes are discussed. (author) 33 refs., 10 figs., 2 tab.

  18. Volcanic gas (United States)

    McGee, Kenneth A.; Gerlach, Terrance M.


    In Roman mythology, Vulcan, the god of fire, was said to have made tools and weapons for the other gods in his workshop at Olympus. Throughout history, volcanoes have frequently been identified with Vulcan and other mythological figures. Scientists now know that the “smoke" from volcanoes, once attributed by poets to be from Vulcan’s forge, is actually volcanic gas naturally released from both active and many inactive volcanoes. The molten rock, or magma, that lies beneath volcanoes and fuels eruptions, contains abundant gases that are released to the surface before, during, and after eruptions. These gases range from relatively benign low-temperature steam to thick hot clouds of choking sulfurous fume jetting from the earth. Water vapor is typically the most abundant volcanic gas, followed by carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide. Other volcanic gases are hydrogen sulfide, hydrochloric acid, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrofluoric acid, and other trace gases and volatile metals. The concentrations of these gas species can vary considerably from one volcano to the next.

  19. Magma storage conditions and differentiation of the mafic Lower Pollara volcanics, Salina Island, Aeolian Islands, Italy: implications for the formation conditions of shoshonites and potassic rocks (United States)

    Beermann, Oliver; Holtz, François; Duesterhoeft, Erik


    Crystallization experiments of basaltic andesite mafic endmember from the 24 ka Lower Pollara eruption (Salina, Aeolian Islands, Italy) were investigated at 200 MPa, 950-1100 °C, in the H2O activity ( aH2O) range 0.3 to 1, and at two ranges of oxygen fugacity ( fO2) between FMQ to FMQ+1 and FMQ+2 to FMQ+3.3 (log bars, FMQ is fayalite-magnetite-quartz). Comparison of the produced phase assemblages and phase compositions with the natural sample reveals that the storage conditions were 1050 °C, 2.8 wt% H2O in the melt ( aH2O 0.5), and relatively oxidizing ( FMQ+2.5). The composition of plagioclase in the groundmass indicates a period of cooling to ≤950 °C. The overall differentiation trends of the Salina volcanics can be explained by fractional crystallization close to H2O saturated conditions ( 5 wt% H2O in the melt at 200 MPa) and most likely by accumulation of plagioclase, i.e., in basaltic andesites, and by various degree of mixing-mingling between the corresponding differentiates. The slightly elevated K2O contents of the most mafic basaltic andesites that can be found in the lowermost unit of the Lower Pollara pyroclastics reveal earlier processes of moderately hydrous fractional crystallization at higher temperature (> 1050 °C). Fractional crystallization with decreasing influence of H2O causes a moderate decrease of MgO and a significant increase of K2O relative to SiO2 in the residual liquids. It is exemplarily shown that the crystallization of SiO2-rich phases at high temperature and low aH2O of only moderately K2O-rich calc-alkaline basalts can produce shoshonitic and high potassic rocks similar to those of Stromboli and Volcano. This suggests that the observed transition from calc-alkaline to shoshonitic and high potassic volcanism at the Aeolian Arc over time can be initiated by a general increase of magmatic temperatures and a decrease of aH2O in response to the extensional tectonics and related increase of heat flow and declining influence of slab

  20. Low cost submarine robot


    Ponlachart Chotikarn; Werapong Koedsin; Boonlua Phongdara; Pattara Aiyarak


    A submarine robot is a semi-autonomous submarine robot used mainly for marine environmental research. We aim todevelop a low cost, semi-autonomous submarine robot which is able to travel underwater. The robot’s structure was designedand patented using a novel idea of the diving system employing a volume adjustment mechanism to vary the robot’s density.A light weight, flexibility and small structure provided by PVC can be used to construct the torpedo-liked shape robot.Hydraulic seal and O-rin...

  1. Low cost submarine robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponlachart Chotikarn


    Full Text Available A submarine robot is a semi-autonomous submarine robot used mainly for marine environmental research. We aim todevelop a low cost, semi-autonomous submarine robot which is able to travel underwater. The robot’s structure was designedand patented using a novel idea of the diving system employing a volume adjustment mechanism to vary the robot’s density.A light weight, flexibility and small structure provided by PVC can be used to construct the torpedo-liked shape robot.Hydraulic seal and O-ring rubbers are used to prevent water leaking. This robot is controlled by a wired communicationsystem.

  2. A new genetic interpretation for the Caotaobei uranium deposit associated with the shoshonitic volcanic rocks in the Hecaokeng ore field, southern Jiangxi, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Sheng Yang


    ± 5.7 Ma in the shoshonitic volcanic rock is broadly coeval with main-stage U mineralization, which is probably attributable to a tectonothermal event related to the intrusion of the granite porphyries and further supports our genetic reinterpretation. It is thus concluded that the granite porphyry intrusions and associated magma may provide the fluids, ore components, and the thermal energy for U mineralization. However, some other types of fluids and metal sources (e.g., meteoric-derived fluids, which are yet to be identified could have been substantially involved in the mineralization process. Our new genetic explanation may point to significant potential for mid-Cretaceous granite-related hydrothermal U deposits in Jiangxi and other parts of Southeast China.

  3. From olivine nephelinite, basanite and basalt to peralkaline trachyphonolite and comendite in the Ankaratra volcanic complex, Madagascar: 40Ar/39Ar ages, phase compositions and bulk-rock geochemical and isotopic evolution (United States)

    Cucciniello, Ciro; Melluso, Leone; le Roex, Anton P.; Jourdan, Fred; Morra, Vincenzo; de'Gennaro, Roberto; Grifa, Celestino


    The Ankaratra volcanic field covers an area of 3800 km2 in central Madagascar and comprises of lava flows, lava domes, scoria cones, tuff rings and maars emplaced at different ages (Miocene to Recent). The volcanic products include ultramafic-mafic (olivine-leucite nephelinite, basanite, alkali basalt, hawaiite and tholeiitic basalt), intermediate (mugearite and benmoreite) and felsic rocks (trachyphonolite, quartz trachyte and rhyolite), the latter often peralkaline. The 40Ar/39Ar determinations for mafic lavas yield ages of 17.45 ± 0.12 Ma, 16.63 ± 0.08 Ma and 8.62 ± 0.09 Ma, indicating a prolonged magmatic activity. The mineralogical and geochemical variations suggest that the magmatic evolution of the alkali basalt-hawaiite-mugearite-benmoreite-trachyte series can be accounted for by removal of olivine, feldspars, clinopyroxene, Fe-Ti oxides and accessory phases, producing residual trachytic and trachyphonolitic compositions mineralogically very similar to those of other volcanic areas and tectonic settings. The Ankaratra olivine leucite nephelinites, basanites and tholeiitic basalts do not seem to be associated with significant amounts of evolved comagmatic rocks. The 87Sr/86Sr (0.70504-0.71012), 143Nd/144Nd (0.51259-0.51244) and 206Pb/204Pb (17.705-18.563) isotopic ratios of trachytes and comendite are consistent with open-system processes. However, other trachyphonolites have 143Nd/144Nd (0.51280), 206Pb/204Pb (18.648), 207Pb/204Pb (15.582) and 208Pb/204Pb (38.795) similar to those of mafic rocks, suggesting differentiation processes without appreciable interaction with crustal materials. The Ankaratra volcanism is to be directly linked to a broadly E-W-trending intracontinental extension. A large-scale thermal anomaly, associated with an anomalously hot source region, is not required to explain the Cenozoic magmatism of Madagascar.

  4. Reassessment of petrogenesis of Carboniferous–Early Permian rift-related volcanic rocks in the Chinese Tianshan and its neighboring areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linqi Xia


    Full Text Available The Carboniferous−Early Permian rift-related volcanic successions, covering large areas in the Chinese Tianshan and its adjacent areas, make up a newly recognized important Phanerozoic large igneous province in the world, which can be further divided into two sub-provinces: Tianshan and Tarim. The regional unconformity of Lower Carboniferous upon basement or pre-Carboniferous rocks, the ages (360–351 Ma of the youngest ophiolite and the peak of subduction metamorphism of high pressure–low temperature metamorphic belt and the occurrence of Ni-Cu-bearing mafic-ultramafic intrusion with age of ∼352 Ma and A-type granite with age of ∼358 Ma reveal that the final closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean might take place in the Early Mississippian. Our summation shows that at least four criteria, being normally used to identify ancient asthenosphere upwelling (or mantle plumes, are met for this large igneous province: (1 surface uplift prior to magmatism; (2 being associated with continental rifting and breakup events; (3 chemical characteristics of asthenosphere (or plume derived basalts; (4 close links to large-scale mineralization and the uncontaminated basalts, being analogous to those of many “ore-bearing” large igneous provinces, display Sr-Nd isotopic variations between plume and EM1 geochemical signatures. These suggest that a Carboniferous asthenosphere upwelling and an Early Permian plume played the central role in the generation of the Tianshan–Tarim (central Asia large igneous province.

  5. Magnetic anisotropy in rhyolitic ignimbrite, Snake River Plain: Implications for using remanent magnetism of volcanic rocks for correlation, paleomagnetic studies, and geological reconstructions (United States)

    Finn, David R.; Coe, Robert S.; Kelly, Henry; Branney, Michael; Knott, Thomas; Reichow, Marc


    Individual ignimbrite cooling units in southern Idaho display significant variation of magnetic remanence directions and other magnetic properties. This complicates paleomagnetic correlation. The ignimbrites are intensely welded and exhibit mylonite-like flow banding produced by rheomorphic ductile shear during emplacement, prior to cooling below magnetic blocking temperatures. Glassy vitrophyric lithologies commonly have discrepantly shallow remanence directions rotated closer to the orientation of the subhorizontal shear fabric when compared to the microcrystalline center of the same cooling unit. To investigate this problem, we conducted a detailed paleomagnetic and rock magnetic study of a vertical profile through a single ignimbrite cooling unit and its underlying baked soil. The results demonstrate that large anisotropy of thermal remanent magnetization correlates with large (up to 38°) deflections of the stable remanence direction. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility revealed no strong anisotropy. A strong lineation and deflection of the remanence declination suggest that rheomorphic shear above magnetic blocking temperatures is the dominant mechanism controlling the formation of the magnetic fabric, with compaction contributing to a lesser extent. Nucleation and growth of anisotropic fine-grained magnetite in volcanic glass at high temperatures after, and perhaps also during, emplacement is indicated by systematic variation of magnetic properties from the quickly chilled ignimbrite base to the interior. These properties include remanence directions, anisotropy, coercivity, susceptibility, strength of natural remanent magnetization, and dominant unblocking temperature. The microcrystalline ignimbrite center has a magnetic direction that is the same as the underlying baked soil and, therefore, is a more reliable recorder of the paleofield direction than the glassy margins of highly welded ignimbrites.

  6. Miocene Current-Modified Submarine Fans (United States)

    Arce Perez, L. E.; Snedden, J.; Fisher, W. L.


    In the southwestern Gulf of Mexico, new and newly reprocessed seismic data has revealed a series of large bedforms, with set thicknesses of 130 to 250 meters. These exhibit hummocky, oblique and shingled to parallel seismic clinoform reflections. This seismic package has a paleowater depth of 450 meters. Those shingled seismic reflections in offshore east Mexico are interpreted as contourite drift deposits. These Miocene-age contourites may be related to strong ocean bottom currents that modified submarine fans and transported sediment to the north. Those contourites were identified on older seismic data, but are better imaged and interpreted on this new data. Plans are to map out and investigate the origin and extent of fans and contourites that extends over a large area of the Gulf of Mexico. In the Early Miocene several submarine fans systems were formed by the sediment input related to orogenic activity in Mexico. Submarine fan development persisted into the Middle Miocene due to continued uplift and erosion of the Mexican landmass. Initial, contourites are small and close proximity to the deep-water fan. In the Late Miocene time, contourite drift field reached its maximum extent in the Mexican deepwater area, anchored on its southern end by a submarine mound. This mounded submarine fan is located in the offshore northeast Veracruz and can be linked to increased uplift and erosion of the Trans-Mexican volcanic belt. In the Miocene-Pliocene, the large contourite drift begins to diminish in size and scale and is moribund by the Pliocene, with establishment of oceanic circulation similar to the present day. This research is important to understand more about the Gulf of Mexico and also for the Miocene timeframe that is a key phase in the earth's history. The role of the change in bottom water flow during progressive closure of the equatorial seaway separating North and South America will also be investigated.

  7. Review of the tectonic setting of Cretaceous to Quaternary volcanism in northwestern Iran (United States)

    Azizi, Hossein; Moinevaziri, Hossein


    There are three parallel magmatic arcs in the northwest of Iran, of Cretaceous and Eocene-Miocene to Quaternary ages, trending in a NW-SE direction between the Main Zagros Thrust (MZT) in the southwest and the Tabriz Fault in the northeast. In this study, these volcanic belts are referred to as the Sanandaj Cretaceous volcanic (SCV), Sonqor-Baneh volcanic (SBV), and Hamedan-Tabriz volcanic (HTV) belts, respectively. The SCV belt consists mainly of mafic to intermediate submarine rocks with calc-alkaline affinity, and the SBV belt is composed of basalt, gabbro to dioritic bodies, with extrusive to subvolcanic magmatic textures and tholeiitic to alkaline affinity. These extend along the MZT between the Zagros ophiolite in the west and the SCV belt in the east. The HTV belt is part of the Urmieh-Dokhtar Magmatic Arc belt that extends across the Hamedan to Tabriz, and was active in the Miocene to Quaternary. The petrology and geochemistry of the northwestern Iranian volcanic zones indicate that they were generated at an active continental margin. In addition to the volcanic belts, there is a dismembered ophiolite along the MZT from Kermanshah to Turkey, in a NW-SE direction. These ophiolites are remnants of Neo-Tethyan oceanic crust which was obducted over the Arabian passive margin in the late Cretaceous. In this study, we propose that a collision between the Arabian and Iranian plates may have occurred in the middle to late Miocene, and that the Neo-Tethyan oceanic subduction beneath northwestern Iran ceased for a while. As a result, a gap in volcanic activity occurred between the Cretaceous and the Middle Miocene-Quaternary volcanism events. This gap in activity is not observed in southwestern Iran.

  8. Geochronology and geochemistry of the Triassic bimodal volcanic rocks and coeval A-type granites of the Olzit area, Middle Mongolia: Implications for the tectonic evolution of Mongol-Okhotsk Ocean (United States)

    Zhu, Mingshuai; Zhang, Fochin; Miao, Laicheng; Baatar, Munkhtsengel; Anaad, Chimedtseren; Yang, Shunhu; Li, Xingbo


    The Olzit volcanism in Middle Mongolia comprises a bimodal suite of basalts and peralkaline rhyolites adjacent to the Main Mongolia Lineament. The basalts are characterized by enrichment in LILE and LREE, and depletion in HFSE with typical Sr-Nd isotopic signatures (εNd(t) = -2.50 to -0.38 and (87Sr/86Sr)i = 0.7058-0.7063), indicating they were likely derived from partial melting of an enriched lithospheric mantle, modified by subducted slab-derived fluids. The rhyolites show a close affinity to A-type granites with enrichment in LILE and LREE, and depletion in Nb, Ta and Ti. They also show a significant negative Eu anomaly, and have εNd(t) values ranging from 0.50 to 1.38 and initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios ranging from 0.7022 to 0.7200, suggesting the rhyolites stem from partial melting of crustal rocks rather than fractional crystallization of the basaltic melt. The rhyolite porphyry yields a SHRIMP zircon U-Pb age of 207 ± 2 Ma (MSWD = 1.42), indicating the bimodal volcanic suite formed in the Late Triassic. The miarolitic per-alkaline granite and biotite-bearing granite, which are associated with the bimodal volcanic rocks, show typical A-type granitic geochemical affinity with εNd(t) = 0.89-0.91 and (87Sr/86Sr)i = 0.7021-0.7043, indicating they are likely generated by partial melting of crustal rocks similar to the rhyolitic end-member of bimodal suite. The miarolitic per-alkaline granite and biotite-bearing granite yielded SHRIMP zircon U-Pb ages of 209 ± 2 Ma (MSWD = 0.91) and 213 ± 3 Ma (MSWD = 1.65) respectively, which are nearly coeval with the age of the bimodal volcanic suites. In view of the new geochemical and chronological data in this study, we suggest the Olzit Late Triassic bimodal volcanic rocks together with the coeval A-type granites represent a back-arc basin extensional environment, which probably related to the roll-back of Mongol-Okhotsk oceanic plate during the southward subduction under the Central Mongolia microcontinent.

  9. A rock- and palaeomagnetic study of recent lavas and 1995 volcanic glass on Fogo (Cape Verde Islands)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, M.F.; Abrahamsen, N.; Riisager, P.


    Fogo is the only island in the Cape Verde archipelago with accounts of historical volcanic activity.Here we present palaeomagnetic data from seven geologically recent lava flows on Fogo, including one glassy, volcanic flow from the eruption in 1995. Almost all samples behaved well during...

  10. The unzipping of Africa and South America; New insights from the Etendeka and younger volcanic events along the Angola/Namibia margin. (United States)

    Jerram, D. A.


    The volcanic margin along Angola is relatively poorly constrained. This study uses new petrographic, geochronological and geochemical observations on a new sample set collected along the margin to help understand the various types and relative timings of volcanic events along the margin. This new study has identified 3 main volcanic events that occur at ~100Ma (Sumbe event 1), 90-92Ma (Serra de Neve (SDN)-Elefantes event 2) and 80-81Ma (Namibe event 3), with the oldest event in the north of the margin and younging southwards. This is contrasting with the main Etendeka pulse in Namibia at around 130 Ma. There is a marked variety of igneous rocks along the margin with a grouping of evolved alkaline rocks in the central SDN-Elefantes section, basic submarine volcanics in the north, and basanite eruptions in the southern section. There is some overlap with geochemical types along the margin. The Sumbe event contains predominantly submarine volcanics and shallow Intrusions. SDN-Elefantes rocks have a mixed type but with a distinctive feldspar rich evolved alkali suite of rocks (nepheline syenites and variations around this composition) which occur as lava flows and shallow intrusions as well as making up the core of the SDN complex. The SDN complex itself is analogous in size to the main volcanic centres in Namibia (such as Messum, Brandberg etc.) and suggests that large volcanic feeding centres are still active along the margin as young as 90ma. These in turn will form large volcano-topographic features. In the south the Ponta Negra and Canico sites mainly contain basanites in the form of lava flows, invasive flows and shallow intrusions. At Canico one intrusive plug was sampled with a similar composition to the evolved SDN-Elefantes suite. In all three events it is clear that the volcanic systems have interacted with the sedimentary systems, in some cases dynamically, in others with regional implications for volcano-tectonic uplift. Specific thanks is given for

  11. Geochronology, stratigraphy and geochemistry of Cambro-Ordovician, Silurian and Devonian volcanic rocks of the Saxothuringian Zone in NE Bavaria (Germany)—new constraints for Gondwana break up and ocean-island magmatism (United States)

    Höhn, Stefan; Koglin, Nikola; Klopf, Lisa; Schüssler, Ulrich; Tragelehn, Harald; Frimmel, Hartwig E.; Zeh, Armin; Brätz, Helene


    Stratigraphically well-defined volcanic rocks in Palaeozoic volcano-sedimentary units of the Frankenwald area (Saxothuringian Zone, Variscan Orogen) were sampled for geochemical characterisation and U-Pb zircon dating. The oldest rock suite comprises quartz keratophyre, brecciated keratophyre, quartz keratophyre tuff and basalt, formed in Upper Cambrian to Tremadocian time (c. 497-478 Ma). Basaltic volcanism continued until the Silurian. Quartz keratophyre shows post-collisional calc-alkaline signature, the Ordovician-Silurian basalt has alkaline signature typical of continental rift environments. The combined datasets provide evidence of Cambro-Ordovician bimodal volcanism and successive rifting until the Silurian. This evolution very likely resulted from break-up of the northern Gondwana margin, as recorded in many terranes throughout Europe. The position at the northern Gondwana margin is supported by detrital zircon grains in some tuffs, with typical Gondwana-derived age spectra mostly recording ages of 550-750 Ma and minor age populations of 950-1100 and 1700-2700 Ma. The absence of N-MORB basalt in the Frankenwald area points to a retarded break-off of the Saxothuringian terrane along a continental rift system from Uppermost Cambrian to Middle Silurian time. Geochemical data for a second suite of Upper Devonian basalt provide evidence of emplacement in a hot spot-related ocean-island setting south of the Rheic Ocean. Our results also require partial revision of the lithostratigraphy of the Frankenwald area. The basal volcanic unit of the Randschiefer Formation yielded a Tremadocian age and, therefore, should be attributed to the Vogtendorf Formation. Keratophyre of the Vogtendorf Formation, previously assigned to the Tremadoc, is most likely of Upper Devonian age.

  12. Mapping argillic and advanced argillic alteration in volcanic rocks, quartzites, and quartz arenites in the western Richfield 1° x 2 ° quadrangle, southwestern Utah, using ASTER satellite data (United States)

    Rockwell, Barnaby W.; Hofstra, Albert H.


    The Richfield quadrangle in southwestern Utah is known to contain a variety of porphyry Mo, skarn, polymetallic replacement and vein, alunite, and kaolin resources associated with 27-32 Ma calc-alkaline or 12-23 Ma bimodal volcano-plutonic centers in Neoproterozoic to Mesozoic carbonate and siliciclastic rocks. Four scenes of visible to shortwave-infrared image data acquired by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) sensor were analyzed to generate maps of exposed clay, sulfate, mica, and carbonate minerals, and ASTER thermal infrared data were analyzed to identify quartz and carbonate minerals. Argillic and advanced argillic alteration minerals including alunite, pyrophyllite, dickite, and kaolinite were identified in both undocumented (U) and known (K) areas, including in the southern Paradise Mtns. (U); in calc-alkaline volcanic rocks in the Wah Wah Mtns. between Broken Ridge and the NG area (U/K); at Wah Wah Summit in a small zone adjacent to 33.1 Ma diorite and marble (U); in fractures cutting quartzites surrounding the 20-22 Ma Pine Grove Mo deposit (U); in volcanic rocks in the Shauntie Hills (U/K); in quartzites in the west-central San Francisco Mtns. (U); in volcanic rocks in the Black Mtns. (K); and in mainly 12-13 Ma rhyolitic rocks along a 20 km E-W belt that includes the Bible Spring fault zone west of Broken Ridge, with several small centers in the Escalante Desert to the south (U/K). Argillized Navajo Sandstone with kaolinite and (or) dickite ± alunite was mapped adjacent to calc-alkaline intrusions in the Star Range (U). Intense quartz-sericite alteration (K) with local kaolinite was identified in andesite adjacent to calc-alkaline intrusions in the Beaver Lake Mountains. Mo-bearing phyllic alteration was identified in 22.2 Ma rhyolite plugs at the center of the NG alunite area. Limestones, dolomites, and marbles were differentiated, and quartz and sericite were identified in most unaltered quartzites. Halos of

  13. Widespread Neogene and Quaternary Volcanism on Central Kerguelen Plateau, Southern Indian Ocean (United States)

    Duncan, R. A.; Falloon, T.; Quilty, P. G.; Coffin, M. F.


    We report new age determinations and compositions for rocks from 18 dredge hauls collected from eight submarine areas across Central Kerguelen Plateau (CKP). Sea knolls and volcanic fields with multiple small cones were targeted over a 125,000 km2 region that includes Heard and McDonald islands. Large early Miocene (16-22 Ma) sea knolls rise from the western margin of the CKP and are part of a NNW-SSE line of volcanic centers that lie between Îles Kerguelen and Heard and McDonald islands. A second group of large sea knolls is aligned E-W across the center of this region. We see evidence of much younger activity (5 Ma to present) in volcanic fields to the north of, and up to 300 km NE of Heard Island. Compositions include basanite, basalt, and trachybasalt, that are broadly similar to plateau lava flows from nearby Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 1138, lower Miocene lavas at Îles Kerguelen, dredged rocks from the early Miocene sea knolls, and Big Ben lavas from Heard Island. Geochemical data indicate decreasing fractions of mantle source melting with time. The western line of sea knolls has been related to hotspot activity now underlying the Heard Island area. In view of the now recognized much larger area of young volcanic activity, we propose that a broad region of CKP became volcanically active in Neogene time due to incubation of plume material at the base of the relatively stationary overlying plateau. The presence of pre-existing crustal faults promotes access for melts from the Heard mantle plume to rise to the surface.

  14. Volcanism, Iron, and Phytoplankton in the Heard and McDonald Islands Region, Southern Indian Ocean (United States)

    Coffin, M. F.; Arculus, R. J.; Bowie, A. R.; Chase, Z.; Robertson, R.; Trull, T. W.; Heobi in2016 v01 Shipboard Party, T.


    Phytoplankton supply approximately half of the oxygen in Earth's atmosphere, and iron supply limits the growth of phytoplankton in the anemic Southern Ocean. Situated entirely within the Indian Ocean sector of the Southern Ocean are Australia's only active subaerial volcanoes, Heard and McDonald islands (HIMI) on the central Kerguelen Plateau, a large igneous province. Widespread fields of submarine volcanoes, some of which may be active, extend for distances of up to several hundred kilometers from the islands. The predominantly eastward-flowing Antarctic Circumpolar Current sweeps across the central Kerguelen Plateau, and extensive blooms of phytoplankton are observed on the Plateau down-current of HIMI. The goal of RV Investigator voyage IN2016_V01, conducted in January/February 2016, is to test the hypothesis that hydrothermal fluids, which cool active submarine volcanoes in the HIMI region, ascend from the seafloor and fertilise surface waters with iron, thereby enhancing biological productivity beginning with phytoplankton. Significant initial shipboard results include: Documentation, for the first time, of the role of active HIMI and nearby submarine volcanoes in supplying iron to the Southern Ocean. Nearshore waters had elevated dissolved iron levels. Although biomass was not correspondingly elevated, fluorescence induction data indicated highly productive resident phytoplankton. Discovery of >200 acoustic plumes emanating from the seafloor and ascending up to tens of meters into the water column near HIMI. Deep tow camera footage shows bubbles rising from the seafloor in an acoustic plume field north of Heard Island. Mapping 1,000 km2 of uncharted seafloor around HIMI. Submarine volcanic edifices punctuate the adjacent seafloor, and yielded iron-rich rocks similar to those found on HIMI, respectively. Acoustic plumes emanating from some of these features suggest active seafloor hydrothermal systems.

  15. U-Th-Pb zircon geochronology on igneous rocks in the Toija and Salittu Formations, Orijärvi area, southwestern Finland: constraints on the age of volcanism and metamorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher L. Kirkland


    Full Text Available Zircons from a felsic volcanic rock in the Toija Formation and a synvolcanic gabbro intrusion in the Salittu Formation within the Orijärvi area were dated by U-Th-Pb SIMS in order to provide depositional constraints on these formations. Zircon crystals from the felsic rock preserve a two-stage crystallisation history with zoned core domains and homogeneous rim domains. Inner domains yield a 1878±4 Ma concordia age, interpreted to determine the crystallisation of this rock. Rims yield a 1815±3 Ma concordia age interpretedto determine the regional metamorphism. Small rounded zircon grains from the Salittu gabbro, located within the Jyly shear zone, yield a concordia age of 1792±5 Ma. We interpret the grain textures to suggest that they recrystallised from inherited zircon seeds during the heat and fluid flow into the shear zone. Although no direct ages for the Salittu Formation have been recovered, field relationships imply that it was deposited between 1878−1875 Ma.

  16. Seafloor doming driven by degassing processes unveils sprouting volcanism in coastal areas (United States)

    Passaro, Salvatore; Tamburrino, Stella; Vallefuoco, Mattia; Tassi, Franco; Vaselli, Orlando; Giannini, Luciano; Chiodini, Giovanni; Caliro, Stefano; Sacchi, Marco; Rizzo, Andrea Luca; Ventura, Guido


    We report evidences of active seabed doming and gas discharge few kilometers offshore from the Naples harbor (Italy). Pockmarks, mounds, and craters characterize the seabed. These morphologies represent the top of shallow crustal structures including pagodas, faults and folds affecting the present-day seabed. They record upraise, pressurization, and release of He and CO2 from mantle melts and decarbonation reactions of crustal rocks. These gases are likely similar to those that feed the hydrothermal systems of the Ischia, Campi Flegrei and Somma-Vesuvius active volcanoes, suggesting the occurrence of a mantle source variously mixed to crustal fluids beneath the Gulf of Naples. The seafloor swelling and breaching by gas upraising and pressurization processes require overpressures in the order of 2-3 MPa. Seabed doming, faulting, and gas discharge are manifestations of non-volcanic unrests potentially preluding submarine eruptions and/or hydrothermal explosions.

  17. Miocene rifting in the Los Angeles basin: Evidence from the Puente Hills half-graben, volcanic rocks, and P-wave tomography (United States)

    Bjorklund, Tom; Burke, Kevin; Zhou, Hua-Wei; Yeats, Robert S.


    Formation of the Puente Hills half-graben in the northeastern Los Angeles basin and eruption of the Glendora and El Modeno Volcanics (16 14 Ma) help to define the timing of extension in the basin. Normal faulting on the proto-Whittier fault ca. 14 Ma established the Puente Hills half-graben, in which sedimentary strata accumulated between ca. 14 and 10 Ma and into which diabase sills intruded. North-South contraction began to invert the Puente Hills half-graben ca. 7 Ma, leading to formation of the Puente Hills anticline and the Whittier fault. Our high-resolution three-dimensional P-wave velocity model shows two anomalous higher velocity (6.63 km/s) bodies at depths between 9 and 18 km, which we attribute to dioritic plutons named here for Whittier Narrows and El Modeno. The stocklike Whittier Narrows pluton could have been a source for the Glendora Volcanics and the diabase sills in the Puente Hills half-graben. The sill-shaped El Modeno pluton was a likely source for the El Modeno Volcanics. The northwesterly alignment of the plutons may mark the location of the northeastern Los Angeles basin rift boundary, which is associated with the clockwise rotation of the western Transverse Ranges. Three active faults, the Elysian Park blind thrust, the Puente Hills blind thrust, and the Whittier fault, converge on the Whittier Narrows pluton, which may have played a role in their location and segmentation.

  18. Groundwater flow in a relatively old oceanic volcanic island: The Betancuria area, Fuerteventura Island, Canary Islands, Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera, Christian, E-mail: [Universidad Católica del Norte, Av. Angamos 0610, Antofagasta (Chile); Custodio, Emilio [Department of Geo-Engineering, Technical University of Catalonia (UPC), Barcelona (Spain)


    The island of Fuerteventura is the oldest of the Canary Islands' volcanic archipelago. It is constituted by volcanic submarine and subaerial activity and intrusive Miocene events, with some residual later volcanism and Quaternary volcanic deposits that have favored groundwater recharge. The climate is arid, with an average rainfall that barely attains 60 mm/year in the coast and up to 200 mm/year in the highlands. The aquifer recharge is small but significant; it is brackish due to large airborne atmospheric salinity, between 7 and 15 g m{sup −2} year{sup −1} of chloride deposition, and high evapo-concentration in the soil. The average recharge is estimated to be less than about 5 mm/year at low altitude and up to 10 mm/year in the highlands, and up to 20 mm/year associated to recent lava fields. Hydrochemical and water isotopic studies, supported by water table data and well and borehole descriptions, contribute a preliminary conceptual model of groundwater flow and water origin in the Betancuria area, the central area of the island. In general, water from springs and shallow wells tends to be naturally brackish and of recent origin. Deep saline groundwater is found and is explained as remnants of very old marine water trapped in isolated features in the very low permeability intrusive rocks. Preliminary radiocarbon dating indicates that this deep groundwater has an apparent age of less than 5000 years BP but it is the result of mixing recent water recharge with very old deep groundwater. Most of the groundwater flow occurs through the old raised volcanic shield of submarine and subaerial formations and later Miocene subaerial basalts. Groundwater transit time through the unsaturated zone is of a few decades, which allows the consideration of long-term quasi-steady state recharge. Transit times are up to a few centuries through the saturated old volcanics and up to several millennia in the intrusive formations, where isolated pockets of very old water may

  19. Natural factors and mining activity bearings on the water quality of the Choapa basin, North Central Chile: insights on the role of mafic volcanic rocks in the buffering of the acid drainage process. (United States)

    Parra, Amparo; Oyarzún, Jorge; Maturana, Hugo; Kretschmer, Nicole; Meza, Francisco; Oyarzún, Ricardo


    This contribution analyzes water chemical data for the Choapa basin, North Central Chile, for the period 1980-2004. The parameters considered are As, Cu Fe, pH, EC, SO₄⁻², Cl⁻¹, and HCO[Formula: see text], from samples taken in nine monitoring stations throughout the basin. Results show rather moderate contents of As, Cu, and Fe, with the exception of the Cuncumén River and the Aucó creek, explained by the influence of the huge porphyry copper deposit of Los Pelambres and by the presence of mining operations, respectively. When compared against results obtained in previous researches at the neighboring Elqui river basin, which host the El Indio Au-Cu-As district, a much reduced grade of pollution is recognized for the Choapa basin. Considering the effect of acid rock drainage (ARD)-related Cu contents on the fine fraction of the sediments of both river basins, the differences recorded are even more striking. Although the Los Pelambres porphyry copper deposit, on the headwaters of the Choapa river basin, is between one and two orders of magnitude bigger than El Indio, stream water and sediments of the former exhibit significantly lower copper contents than those of the latter. A main factor which may explain these results is the smaller degree of H( + )-metasomatism on the host rocks of the Los Pelambres deposit, where mafic andesitic volcanic rocks presenting propylitic hydrothermal alteration are dominant. This fact contrast with the highly altered host rocks of El Indio district, where most of them have lost their potential to neutralize ARD.

  20. The Marsili Volcanic Seamount (Southern Tyrrhenian Sea: A Potential Offshore Geothermal Resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Italiano


    Full Text Available Italy has a strong geothermal potential for power generation, although, at present, the only two geothermal fields being exploited are Larderello-Travale/Radicondoli and Mt. Amiata in the Tyrrhenian pre-Apennine volcanic district of Southern Tuscany. A new target for geothermal exploration and exploitation in Italy is represented by the Southern Tyrrhenian submarine volcanic district, a geologically young basin (Upper Pliocene-Pleistocene characterised by tectonic extension where many seamounts have developed. Heat-flow data from that area show significant anomalies comparable to those of onshore geothermal fields. Fractured basaltic rocks facilitate seawater infiltration and circulation of hot water chemically altered by rock/water interactions, as shown by the widespread presence of hydrothermal deposits. The persistence of active hydrothermal activity is consistently shown by many different sources of evidence, including: heat-flow data, gravity and magnetic anomalies, widespread presence of hydrothermal-derived gases (CO2, CO, CH4, 3He/4He isotopic ratios, as well as broadband OBS/H seismological information, which demonstrates persistence of volcano-tectonic events and High Frequency Tremor (HFT. The Marsili and Tyrrhenian seamounts are thus an important—and likely long-lasting-renewable energy resource. This raises the possibility of future development of the world’s first offshore geothermal power plant.

  1. Geochemical stratigraphy of submarine lavas (3-5 Ma) from the Flamengos Valley, Santiago, Cape Verde

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barker, Abigail K; Holm, Paul Martin; Peate, David W.


    New high-precision Pb-Sr-Nd isotope, major and trace element and mineral chemistry data are presented for the submarine stage of ocean island volcanism on Santiago, one of the southern islands of the Cape Verde archipelago. Pillow basalts and hyaloclastites in the Flamengos Valley are divided...

  2. Long-term eruptive activity at a submarine arc volcano. (United States)

    Embley, Robert W; Chadwick, William W; Baker, Edward T; Butterfield, David A; Resing, Joseph A; de Ronde, Cornel E J; Tunnicliffe, Verena; Lupton, John E; Juniper, S Kim; Rubin, Kenneth H; Stern, Robert J; Lebon, Geoffrey T; Nakamura, Ko-ichi; Merle, Susan G; Hein, James R; Wiens, Douglas A; Tamura, Yoshihiko


    Three-quarters of the Earth's volcanic activity is submarine, located mostly along the mid-ocean ridges, with the remainder along intraoceanic arcs and hotspots at depths varying from greater than 4,000 m to near the sea surface. Most observations and sampling of submarine eruptions have been indirect, made from surface vessels or made after the fact. We describe here direct observations and sampling of an eruption at a submarine arc volcano named NW Rota-1, located 60 km northwest of the island of Rota (Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands). We observed a pulsating plume permeated with droplets of molten sulphur disgorging volcanic ash and lapilli from a 15-m diameter pit in March 2004 and again in October 2005 near the summit of the volcano at a water depth of 555 m (depth in 2004). A turbid layer found on the flanks of the volcano (in 2004) at depths from 700 m to more than 1,400 m was probably formed by mass-wasting events related to the eruption. Long-term eruptive activity has produced an unusual chemical environment and a very unstable benthic habitat exploited by only a few mobile decapod species. Such conditions are perhaps distinctive of active arc and hotspot volcanoes.

  3. Voluminous and crystal-rich igneous rocks of the Permian Wurzen volcanic system, northern Saxony, Germany: physical volcanology and geochemical characterization (United States)

    Repstock, Alexander; Breitkreuz, Christoph; Lapp, Manuel; Schulz, Bernhard


    The North Saxon Volcanic Complex (NSVC) is a nested caldera edifice dominated by the c. 295 Ma Rochlitz Volcanic System and the c. 289 Ma Wurzen Volcanic System (WVS). The climactic activity of the WVS resembled a VEI ≥ 7 fissure `supereruption' resulting in voluminous and crystal-rich caldera-fill ignimbrites (minimum volume c. 199 km3); caldera outflow facies is not known sofar. Precursory to the WVS `monotonous intermediates', rhyolitic and rhyodacitic volcanic activity led to deposition of the low-volume Wermsdorf and Cannewitz ignimbrites. Modal analysis of the WVS pyroclastic units reveals an inhomogeneous crystal population (≤ 58 vol%) comprising k-feldspar, plagioclase, quartz, ortho- and clinopyroxene and minor amounts of biotite. The Wurzen caldera fill ignimbrites feature three types of fiamme: (1) felsic fiamme; (2) mafic fiamme; and (3) granite-porphyry fiamme. This, the modal variation, and the common presence of clinopyroxene and biotite indicate a strong magma mingling component in the WVS—characteristics which have not been observed in the precursory, Wermsdorf and Cannewitz ignimbrites. The caldera fill ignimbrites feature a large compositional variation from (basaltic) trachyandesite to rhyolite caused by basaltic injection and magma mingling. It is proposed that magmatic underplating led to reheating crystal mush and finally to convection processes within the WVS magma chamber. The predominance of either pyroxene or biotite as mafic mineral in the (trachy-) dacitic to rhyolitic ignimbrites indicates eruption of crystal mush from different magma batches. Prominent negative Nb and Ta anomalies of the Wurzen caldera fill ignimbrites, porphyries, and mafic dykes indicate enhanced melt-crust interaction or contamination of mantle melt. In the aftermath of the WVS caldera eruption, basaltic, trachyandesitic, andesitic and rhyolitic melts ascended puncturing the Wurzen-α and β ignimbrites leading to an array of NW-SE-trending dykes, subvolcanic

  4. Volcano-sedimentary characteristics in the Abu Treifiya Basin, Cairo-Suez District, Egypt: Example of dynamics and fluidization over sedimentary and volcaniclastic beds by emplacement of syn-volcanic basaltic rocks (United States)

    Khalaf, E. A.; Abdel Motelib, A.; Hammed, M. S.; El Manawi, A. H.


    This paper describes the Neogene lava-sediment mingling from the Abu Treifiya Basin, Cairo-Suez district, Egypt. The lava-sediment interactions as peperites have been identified for the first time at the study area and can be used as paleoenvironmental indicators. The identification of peperite reflects contemporaneous time relationship between volcanism and sedimentation and this finding is of primary importance to address the evolutional reconstruction of the Abu Treifiya Basin. Characterization of the facies architecture and textural framework of peperites was carried out through detailed description and interpretation of their outcrops. The peperites and sedimentary rocks are up to 350 m thick and form a distinct stratigraphic framework of diverse lithology that is widespread over several kilometers at the study area. Lateral and vertical facies of the peperites vary from sediment intercalated with the extrusive/intrusive basaltic rocks forming peperitic breccias to lava-sediment contacts at a large to small scales, respectively. Peperites encompass five main facies types ascribed to: (i) carbonate sediments-hosted fluidal and blocky peperites, (ii) lava flow-hosted blocky peperites, (iii) volcaniclastics-hosted fluidal and blocky peperites, (iv) sandstone/siltstone rocks-hosted blocky peperites, and (iv) debris-flows-hosted blocky peperites. Soft sediment deformation structures, vesiculated sediments, sediments filled-vesicles, and fractures in lava flows indicate that lava flows mingled with unconsolidated wet sediments. All the peperites in this study could be described as blocky or fluidal, but mixtures of different clast shapes occur regardless of the host sediment. The presence of fluidal and blocky juvenile clasts elucidates different eruptive styles, reflecting a ductile and brittle fragmentation. The gradual variation from fluidal to blocky peperite texture, producing the vertical grading is affected by influencing factors, e.g., the viscosity, magma

  5. Minor and trace element geochemistry of volcanic rocks dredged from the Galapagos spreading center: role of crystal fractionation and mantle heterogeneity. (United States)

    Clague, D.A.; Frey, F.A.; Thompson, G.; Rindge, S.


    A wide range of rock types (abyssal tholeiite, Fe-Ti-rich basalt, andesite, and rhyodacite) were dredged from near 95oW and 85oW on the Galapagos spreading center. Computer modeling of major element compositions has shown that these rocks could be derived from common parental magmas by successive degrees of fractional crystallization. However, the P2O5/K2O ratio implies distinct mantle source compositions for the two areas. These source regions also have different rare earth element (REE) abundance patterns. The sequence of fractionated lavas differs for the two areas and indicates earlier fractionation of apatite and titanomagnetite in the lavas from 95oW. The mantle source regions for these two areas are interpreted to be depleted in incompatible (and volatile?) elements, although the source region beneath 95oW is less severely depleted in La and K. -Authors

  6. Chemo-probe into the mantle origin of the NW Anatolia Eocene to Miocene volcanic rocks: Implications for the role of, crustal accretion, subduction, slab roll-back and slab break-off processes in genesis of post-collisional magmatism (United States)

    Ersoy, E. Yalçın; Palmer, Martin R.; Genç, Ş. Can; Prelević, Dejan; Akal, Cüneyt; Uysal, İbrahim


    Post-collisional Cenozoic magmatic activity in NW Anatolia produced widespread volcanism across the region. In the Biga Peninsula, in the west, medium-K calc-alkaline to ultra-K rocks with orogenic geochemical signature were emplaced at 43-15 Ma (Biga orogenic volcanic rocks; BOVR). Volcanic activity in the Central Sakarya region, to the east, is mainly restricted to 53-38 Ma, but also continued during the Early Miocene with small basaltic extrusives (Sakarya orogenic volcanic rocks; SOVR). This study presents a new set of geochemical data (whole rock major and trace elements and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic compositions), obtained from the Cenozoic calc-alkaline volcanic rocks from these two regions. While there is considerable overlap in the emplacement time of volcanism in the two areas, the post-collisional volcanic rocks of these two regions differ in terms of their geochemical compositions: (1) the BOVR show an age-dependent increase in K and other large-ion lithophile elements (LILE), coupled with an increase in radiogenic Sr and Pb compositions from the Eocene to Miocene; whereas (2) the SOVR are characterized by more sodic compositions with lower K and less radiogenic Sr contents with respect to the BOVR, which were unchanged in Eocene and Miocene. We conclude that these geochemical features were principally related to the distinct modes of subduction-related mantle enrichment processes. We suggest that the Eocene to Miocene progressive enrichment in the BOVR mantle was related to successive subduction of oceanic and crustal materials in the western Aegean, while the SOVR mantle was dominantly enriched during the pre-collisional events. Magma generation in the western region was related to subduction roll-back processes associated with post-collisional extension. In the east, thermal perturbation of the mantle in response to asthenospheric upwelling due to slab break-off process was responsible for the magma generation. The time-dependent increase of K (and other

  7. Quantifying submarine groundwater discharge in the coastal zone via multiple methods. (United States)

    Burnett, W C; Aggarwal, P K; Aureli, A; Bokuniewicz, H; Cable, J E; Charette, M A; Kontar, E; Krupa, S; Kulkarni, K M; Loveless, A; Moore, W S; Oberdorfer, J A; Oliveira, J; Ozyurt, N; Povinec, P; Privitera, A M G; Rajar, R; Ramessur, R T; Scholten, J; Stieglitz, T; Taniguchi, M; Turner, J V


    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) is now recognized as an important pathway between land and sea. As such, this flow may contribute to the biogeochemical and other marine budgets of near-shore waters. These discharges typically display significant spatial and temporal variability making assessments difficult. Groundwater seepage is patchy, diffuse, temporally variable, and may involve multiple aquifers. Thus, the measurement of its magnitude and associated chemical fluxes is a challenging enterprise. A joint project of UNESCO and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has examined several methods of SGD assessment and carried out a series of five intercomparison experiments in different hydrogeologic environments (coastal plain, karst, glacial till, fractured crystalline rock, and volcanic terrains). This report reviews the scientific and management significance of SGD, measurement approaches, and the results of the intercomparison experiments. We conclude that while the process is essentially ubiquitous in coastal areas, the assessment of its magnitude at any one location is subject to enough variability that measurements should be made by a variety of techniques and over large enough spatial and temporal scales to capture the majority of these changing conditions. We feel that all the measurement techniques described here are valid although they each have their own advantages and disadvantages. It is recommended that multiple approaches be applied whenever possible. In addition, a continuing effort is required in order to capture long-period tidal fluctuations, storm effects, and seasonal variations.

  8. Volcanic caves of East Africa - an overview


    Jim W. Simons


    Numerous Tertiary to recent volcanoes are located in East Africa. Thus, much of the region is made up volcanic rock, which hosts the largest and greatest variety of East Africas caves. Exploration of volcanic caves has preoccupied members of Cave Exploration Group of East Africa (CEGEA) for the past 30 years. The various publications edited by CEGEA are in this respect a treasure troves of speleological information. In the present paper an overview on the most important volcanic caves and are...

  9. Volcanic Gas (United States)

    ... often escape continuously into the atmosphere from the soil, volcanic vents , fumaroles , and hydrothermal systems. By far the ... after falling into a snow depression surrounding a volcanic fumarole and filled ... of CO 2 gas in soils can also damage or destroy vegetation, as is ...

  10. Biogeochemistry of REE elements and tetrad effect in the soil-plant system: a study on volcanic rock covers in southernmost Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Lima e Cunha


    Full Text Available This paper deals with the distribution of REE in rock, soil and plant in an area of monzonitic rocks from southernmost Brazil. The REE patterns in Schinus lensticifolius show a negative-Ce anomaly and a prominent tetrad effect, characterized as W-type that are not present in rock and soil samples. The REE patterns in the soils and rocks sampled are very similar and there is no fractionation of REE during the processes of soil formation. The W-type patterns are interpreted as indicating that REE were absorved by S. lentiscifolius as simple ions rather than as complex ions, or, alternatively, that the transport of REE in the plant metabolic processes was as free ions. The recognition of tetrads, either, M- or W-type patterns, is an additional tool for understanding the biogeochemistry of REE and can contribute to the study of monitoring processes of contaminated environment or to mineral prospecting.Este trabalho trata da distribuição dos ETR na rocha, solo e planta em área de ocorrência de rochas monzoníticas do extremo sul do Brasil. O padrão dos ETR em Schinus lentiscifolius apresenta anomalia negativa de Ce e significativo efeito tétrade, do tipo W, ausente no padrão da rocha e do solo. A configuração das curvas da rocha e do solo é similar e sem fracionamento das ETR durante a pedogênese. O padrão em W é interpretado como decorrente da absorção dos ETR pela planta na forma de íons livres e não complexados, ou, alternativamente, que o transporte das ETR nos processos metabólicos foi na forma de íons livres. O reconhecimento de tétrades, seja do tipo W ou M, é uma ferramenta adicional na compreensão da biogeoquímica dos ETR e pode contribuir para o estudo de processos de monitoramento de ambientes contaminados ou para pesquisas em prospecção mineral.

  11. SCICEX: Submarine Arctic Science Program (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Submarine Arctic Science Program, SCICEX, is a federal interagency collaboration among the operational Navy, research agencies, and the marine research community...

  12. The Submarine, 1776-1918

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Uhlig, Frank


    When, on 11 April 1900, the U.S. Navy thought the Holland, named for its designer, that little submarine joined a fleet consisting of two armored cruisers, six monitors, seven first and second-class battleships, and seventeen each...

  13. Submarine thermal springs on the Galapagos Rift (United States)

    Corliss, J.B.; Dymond, J.; Gordon, L.I.; Edmond, J.M.; Von Herzen, R. P.; Ballard, Richard D.; Green, K.; Williams, D.; Bainbridge, A.; Crane, K.; Van Andel, T. H.


    The submarine hydrothermal activity on and near the Galápagos Rift has been explored with the aid of the deep submersible Alvin. Analyses of water samples from hydrothermal vents reveal that hydrothermal activity provides significant or dominant sources and sinks for several components of seawater; studies of conductive and convective heat transfer suggest that two-thirds of the heat lost from new oceanic lithosphere at the Galápagos Rift in the first million years may be vented from thermal springs, predominantly along the axial ridge within the rift valley. The vent areas are populated by animal communities. They appear to utilize chemosynthesis by sulfur-oxidizing bacteria to derive their entire energy supply from reactions between the seawater and the rocks at high temperatures, rather than photosynthesis

  14. Scientific results from the deepened Lopra-1 borehole, Faroe Islands: Hydrocarbon gases in Palaeogene volcanic rocks from the Lopra-1/1A well, Faroe Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laier, Troels


    Full Text Available Hydrocarbon gases were monitored in the drilling fluid during deepening of the Lopra-1 well from 2178–3565 m, in which thermogenic, methane-rich gases had been found previously. The mud gas concentration, up to 105 ppm of methane, was generally higher in the hyaloclastite sequence, 2470 m – terminal depth (TD, than in the overlying lavas of the lower basalt formation. The highest concentrations of mud gas in the lower basalt formation were associated with the more porous tuffaceous zones, whereas no simple relationship could be established between measured mud gas concentrations and porosity of the hyaloclastic rocks, which showed less marked porosity variations than the lavas.Chemical (C2+ 104 ppm. No particularly gas-rich zones were indicated, however, by the mud gas, nor was any significant change in lithology noted for this interval. It is possible that the technique of turbo-drilling, that had been attempted over a short interval, 2657–2675 m prior to collection of the high-level methane samples, may have caused enhanced degassingdue to the very fine cuttings produced. Chemical and isotopic composition of headspace gas and mud gas indicated the same type of gas throughout the well, although headspace methane tended to bemore enriched with respect to the 13C isotope.The origin of the Lopra-1 gas is discussed in the light of recent information obtained from source rock studies of central East Greenland and the Faroe–Shetland Basin.

  15. Implications of volcanic erratics in Quaternary deposits of North Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funder, Svend Visby; Larsen, Ole


    Erratic boulders, petrographically similar to the volcanics exposed around Kap Washington, are found on islands and along the coast much further to the east. Isotopic measurements on two such boulders show that these volcanic rocks are of the same age as the Kap Washington volcanics. The regional...

  16. Rare earth element evidence concerning the origin of voluminous mid-Tertiary rhyolitic ignimbrites and related volcanic rocks, Sierra Madre Occidental, Chihuahua, Mexico (United States)

    Cameron, Kenneth L.; Hanson, Gilbert N.


    The mid-Tertiary volcanic sequence of the central Sierra Madre Occidental in Chihuahua, Mexico, is about one kilometer thick and is composed predominantly of rhyolitic ignimbrites. Basaltic andesite to dacitic lavas are interbedded with the rhyolites, but they are of minor volumetric importance. Rare earth element (REE) data are used to constrain a crustal anatexis model for the origin of the voluminous ignimbrites and to test a fractional crystallization model. The REE patterns indicate that if the rhyolites were formed by direct crustal anatexis, the residue from partial melting could contain no more than a few percent garnet or about 20% hornblende. This eliminates residues with the mineralogy of amphibolite, eclogite, or garnet granulite, but melting of a garnet-free granulite source is permitted. The crustal anatexis model is difficult to evaluate critically because of a lack of knowledge concerning the mid-Tertiary geothermal gradient and the composition of the crust beneath the Sierra Madre Occidental. In contrast, the fractional crystallization model can be tested rigorously. Rayleigh fractionation calculations are used to closely model REE patterns in the basaltic andesite to rhyolite series. The minerals involved are those occurring as phenocryst phases, and the mineral proportions were generated by leastsquares major element calculations. The results of the calculations are consistent with the hypothesis that the voluminous rhyolites originated by plagioclase-dominated crystal fractionation.

  17. geochemistry of the potassic basalts from the bufumbira volcanic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ABSTRACT. Bufumbira volcanic field is the southernmost of the four Ugandan small Pleistocene to Recent volcanic fields within the western branch of the East African rift system. The rocks consist of silica undersaturated and vesicular basalts with numerous primary structures. The rocks consist of basanites, leucitites ...

  18. Submarine pyroclastic deposits in Tertiary basins, NE Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polona Kralj


    Full Text Available In Tertiary basins of NE Slovenia, Upper Oligocene volcanic activity occurred in a submarine environment that experienced contemporaneous clastic sedimentation. Pyroclastic deposits are essentially related to gas- and watersupported eruption-fed density currents. At Trobni Dol, the Lako Basin, an over 100 m thick deposit formed by a sigle sustained volcanic explosion that fed gas-supported pyroclastic flow. Diagnostic features are large matrixshard content, normal grading of pumice lapilli, collapsed pumice lapilli and the presence of charcoal. In the Smrekovec Volcanic Complex, several but only up to 5 m thick deposits related to eruption-fed gassupported pyroclastic flows occur. Deposits settled from water-supported eruption-fed density currents form fining- and thinning-upward sedimentary units which resemble the units of volcaniclastic turbidites. Pyroclastic deposits related to gas- and water-supported density currents occur in an up to 1000 m thick succession composed of coherent volcanics, autoclastic, pyroclastic, reworked volcaniclastic and mixed volcaniclastic-siliciclastic deposits that indicate a complex explosive and depositional history of the Smrekovec Volcanic Complex.

  19. Late Cretaceous Sub-Marine Fan System in Batain Mélange Zone, the Fayah Formation in Northeastern Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iftikhar Ahmed Abbasi


    Full Text Available The Batain coast along the northeastern margin of Oman between Ra’s Al-Hadd and Ra’s Jibsch, is comprised of Permian to Late Cretaceous complex stratigraphy in a tectonically deformed area recording Permian rifting to late Cretaceous Tethys closure events. These rocks are thrust over Mesozoic and older autochthonous sedimentary cover in the form of a major nappe structure known as the Batain Nappe. The uppermost part of the Batain nappe is comprised of isolated outcrops of early Maastrichtian siliciclastic Fayah Formation dominated by gravity flow deposits. The Fayah Formation in the Jabal Fayah area is over four hundred meters thick and comprised of five distinct facies associations; namely, i coarsening-up sandstone, ii conglomerate, iii debris- flow, iv turbidite, and v inter-bedded sandstone and shale lithofacies. These lithofacies associations are repeated many times in the section. The sandstone lithofacies association exhibits a coarsening-upward trend making sequences tens of meters thick in various parts of the formation. Waterscape structures are common along with occasional sandstone dykes and convolute bedding, reflecting fluidized conditions of deposition. The conglomerate lithofacies association is comprised of a series of interbedded coarsening-upward pebble to gravel size conglomerates containing chert, limestone, granite and volcanic clasts ranging a few mm to cm in diameter. Occasionally these are interbedded with sandstone lithofacies. The conglomerate lithofacies was deposited by a high-energy channelized flow in a sub-aqueous setting. The debris-flow lithofacies association is a matrix supported chaotic mixture of clay and boulders of granite, limestone and volcanic rocks, some of which are meter-sized in diameter, and possibly derived from the nearby basement rocks such as the Jabal Ja’alan basement rocks. It constitutes the most dominant part of the formation. These sediments were deposited along a slope setting

  20. Petrogenesis and tectonic settings of volcanic rocks of the Ashele Cu-Zn deposit in southern Altay, Xinjiang, Northwest China: Insights from zircon U-Pb geochronology, geochemistry and Sr-Nd isotopes (United States)

    Wu, Yufeng; Yang, Fuquan; Liu, Feng; Geng, Xinxia; Li, Qiang; Zheng, Jiahao


    The Early-Mid-Devonian Ashele Formation of the southern margin of the Chinese Altay hosts the Ashele Cu-Zn volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposit and consists of intercalated volcanic and sedimentary rocks that have experienced regional greenschist-facies metamorphism. We studied the petrography, zircon U-Pb geochronology, geochemistry, and Sr-Nd isotopes of dacites and basalts in order to understand the petrogenesis of these rocks and the regional tectonic evolution. Two dacites yielded LA-MC-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb ages of 402 ± 6 Ma and 403 ± 2 Ma. The dacites are calc-alkaline, and characterized by high Na2O/K2O ratios (3.6-9.3), and high Mg# values (47-63), enrichment in large ion lithophile elements (LILE) and light rare earth elements (LREE), depletion in Nb, Ta, Ti, and P, and relatively positive εNd(t) values (+3.6 to +7.5), collectively suggesting a sanukitic magma affinity. The variations in the major and trace elements of the dacites indicate that Fe-Ti oxide, plagioclase, and apatite were fractionated during their petrogenesis. The basalts are tholeiitic, and are characterized by high Mg# values (66-73), and negative Nb and Ta anomalies. The geochemical characteristics of the basalts are similar to those of N-MORB. Those characteristics together with the positive εNd(t) values (+6.8 to +9.2) of the basalts, indicate that the precursor magma was derived mainly from an N-MORB-type depleted asthenospheric mantle in an island arc setting. The geochemical similarities between the basalts and dacites indicate that they both originated from a similar depleted mantle source via partial melting under different magmatic conditions in each case, possibly related to ridge subduction.

  1. Submarine explosive activity and ocean noise generation at Monowai Volcano, Kermadec Arc: constraints from hydroacoustic T-waves


    Grevemeyer, Ingo; Metz, Dirk; Watts, Anthony


    Submarine volcanic activity is difficult to detect, because eruptions at depth are strongly attenuated by seawater. With increasing depth the ambient water pressure increases and limits the expansion of gas and steam such that volcanic eruptions tend to be less violent and less explosive with depth. Furthermore, the thermal conductivity and heat capacity of water causes rapid cooling of ejected products and hence erupted magma cools much more quickly than during subaerial eruptions. Therefore...

  2. Submarine Information Organization and Prioritization and Submarine Officer of the Deck Experience (United States)


    The Submarine Review, 58-64. Shobe, K. (2002, May). Information organization and modeling of the submarine officer of the deck and sonar operator...Technical Report 01Oct00 - 31Sep02 SUBMARINE INFORMATION ORGANIZATION AND PRIORITIZATION AND SUBMARINE OFFICER OF THE DECK EXPERIENCE 51001 1) Katharine K

  3. Enhancing Submarine Operational Relevance: A Leadership Challenge

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daigle, Jr, Michael J


    .... This vision of submarine operations must change. As the military continues to shift to operations focused on joint capabilities, the submarine force must break from the closed, protective, and risk averse culture of its past and push forward...

  4. White Rock (United States)


    (Released 19 April 2002) The Science 'White Rock' is the unofficial name for this unusual landform which was first observed during the Mariner 9 mission in the early 1970's. As later analysis of additional data sets would show, White Rock is neither white nor dense rock. Its apparent brightness arises from the fact that the material surrounding it is so dark. Images from the Mars Global Surveyor MOC camera revealed dark sand dunes surrounding White Rock and on the floor of the troughs within it. Some of these dunes are just apparent in the THEMIS image. Although there was speculation that the material composing White Rock could be salts from an ancient dry lakebed, spectral data from the MGS TES instrument did not support this claim. Instead, the White Rock deposit may be the erosional remnant of a previously more continuous occurrence of air fall sediments, either volcanic ash or windblown dust. The THEMIS image offers new evidence for the idea that the original deposit covered a larger area. Approximately 10 kilometers to the southeast of the main deposit are some tiny knobs of similarly bright material preserved on the floor of a small crater. Given that the eolian erosion of the main White Rock deposit has produced isolated knobs at its edges, it is reasonable to suspect that the more distant outliers are the remnants of a once continuous deposit that stretched at least to this location. The fact that so little remains of the larger deposit suggests that the material is very easily eroded and simply blows away. The Story Fingers of hard, white rock seem to jut out like icy daggers across a moody Martian surface, but appearances can be deceiving. These bright, jagged features are neither white, nor icy, nor even hard and rocky! So what are they, and why are they so different from the surrounding terrain? Scientists know that you can't always trust what your eyes see alone. You have to use other kinds of science instruments to measure things that our eyes can

  5. The Impact of Space Flight on Survival and Interaction of Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34 with Basalt, a Volcanic Moon Analog Rock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Leys


    Full Text Available Microbe-mineral interactions have become of interest for space exploration as microorganisms could be used to biomine from extra-terrestrial material and extract elements useful as micronutrients in life support systems. This research aimed to identify the impact of space flight on the long-term survival of Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34 in mineral water and the interaction with basalt, a lunar-type rock in preparation for the ESA spaceflight experiment, BIOROCK. Therefore, C. metallidurans CH34 cells were suspended in mineral water supplemented with or without crushed basalt and send for 3 months on board the Russian FOTON-M4 capsule. Long-term storage had a significant impact on cell physiology and energy status (by flow cytometry analysis, plate count and intracellular ATP measurements as 60% of cells stored on ground lost their cell membrane potential, only 17% were still active, average ATP levels per cell were significantly lower and cultivability dropped to 1%. The cells stored in the presence of basalt and exposed to space flight conditions during storage however showed less dramatic changes in physiology, with only 16% of the cells lost their cell membrane potential and 24% were still active, leading to a higher cultivability (50% and indicating a general positive effect of basalt and space flight on survival. Microbe-mineral interactions and biofilm formation was altered by spaceflight as less biofilm was formed on the basalt during flight conditions. Leaching from basalt also changed (measured with ICP-OES, showing that cells release more copper from basalt and the presence of cells also impacted iron and magnesium concentration irrespective of the presence of basalt. The flight conditions thus could counteract some of the detrimental effects observed after the 3 month storage conditions.

  6. Scientific Ocean Drilling to Assess Submarine Geohazards along European Margins (United States)

    Ask, M. V.; Camerlenghi, A.; Kopf, A.; Morgan, J. K.; Ocean DrillingSeismic Hazard, P. E.


    Submarine geohazards are some of the most devastating natural events in terms of lives lost and economic impact. Earthquakes pose a big threat to society and infrastructure, but the understanding of their episodic generation is incomplete. Tsunamis are known for their potential of striking coastlines world-wide. Other geohazards originating below the sea surface are equally dangerous for undersea structures and the coastal population: submarine landslides and volcanic islands collapse with little warning and devastating consequences. The European scientific community has a strong focus on geohazards along European and nearby continental margins, especially given their high population densities, and long historic and prehistoric record of hazardous events. For example, the Mediterranean is surrounded by very densely-populated coastline and is the World's leading holiday destination, receiving up 30% of global tourism. In addition, its seafloor is criss-crossed by hydrocarbon pipelines and telecommunication cables. However, the governing processes and recurrence intervals of geohazards are still poorly understood. Examples include, but are not limited to, earthquakes and volcanic eruptions along the active tectonic margins of the Mediterranean and Sea of Marmara, landslides on both active and passive margins, and tsunamites and seismites in the sedimentary record that suggest a long history of similar events. The development of geophysical networks, drilling, sampling and long-term monitoring are crucial to the understanding of earthquake, landslide, and tsunami processes, and to mitigate the associated risks in densely populated and industrialized regions such as Europe. Scientific drilling, particularly in the submarine setting, offers a unique tool to obtain drill core samples, borehole measurements and long-term observations. Hence, it is a critical technology to investigate past, present, and possible future influences of hazardous processes in this area. The

  7. Comments on ;Geochronology and geochemistry of rhyolites from Hormuz Island, southern Iran: A new Cadomian arc magmatism in the Hormuz Formationˮ by N. S. Faramarzi, S. Amini, A. K. Schmitt, J. Hassanzadeh, G. Borg, K. McKeegan, S. M. H. Razavi, S. M. Mortazavi, Lithos, Sep. 2015, V.236-237, P.203-211: A missing link of Ediacaran A-type rhyolitic volcanism associated with glaciogenic banded iron salt formation (BISF) (United States)

    Atapour, Habibeh; Aftabi, Alijan


    A critical overview on the petrogeochemistry of Hormuz Island highlights that the Ediacaran Hormuz Complex includes synchronous felsic submarine volcanism associated with diamictite and dropstone-bearing banded iron salt (anhydrite, halite, sylvite) formation (BISF) that formed 558-541 Ma in the Late Neoproterozoic. Our field observations disagree with Faramarzi et al. (2015) on the geological map of the Hormuz Island, in particular on the occurrence of the ferruginous agglomerates in the Hormuz Island, thus the geological data do not provide a robust geological mapping. The agglomerates are commonly related to the strombolian peralkaline basaltic eruptions rather than the submarine felsic volcanism. Based on the tectonogeochemical diagrams extracted from the geochemical data of the authors, the Hormuz rhyolites show an affinity to the A-type or A2-type submarine riftogenic and or intra-plate rhyolites of Eby (1992). However, the authors admitted two sides of the debate and proposed an extensional back arc or rift-related magmatic activity as well as continental arc margin setting. The rhyolites are also similar to the Ediacaran Arabian-Nubian A-type alkaline rhyolites that formed by intra-plate rifting during the Pan-African orogen in the proto-Tethys shallow grabens of the Gondwana supercontinent. The most exceptional feature of the Hormuz rhyolites is related to their co-occurrence with the Ediacaran salt rocks, glaciogenic diamictites and jaspillitic banded iron formations, which have never ever been reported previously.

  8. Geothermal surveys in the oceanic volcanic island of Mauritius (United States)

    Verdoya, Massimo; Chiozzi, Paolo; Pasqua, Claudio


    Oceanic island chains are generally characterised by young volcanic systems that are predominately composed of basaltic lavas and related magmatic products. Although hot springs are occasionally present, the pervasive, massive, recent outpourings of basaltic lavas are the primary manifestation of the existence of geothermal resources. These islands may have, in principle, significant potential for the exploitation of geothermal energy. In this paper, we present results of recent investigations aimed at the evaluation of geothermal resources of the island of Mauritius, that is the emerging portion of a huge submarine, aseismic, volcanic plateau extending in the SW part of the Indian Ocean. The plateau is related to a long-lived hotspot track, whose present-day expression is the active volcano of La Réunion Island, located about 200 km SW of Mauritius. The island does not show at present any volcanic activity, but magmatism is quite recent as it dates from 7.8 to 0.03 Myr. Geochemical data from water samples collected from boreholes do not indicate the presence of mature water, i.e. circulating in high-temperature geothermal reservoirs, and argue for short-term water-rock interaction in shallow hydrogeological circuits. However, this cannot rule out that a deep magmatic heat source, hydraulically insulated from shallow aquifers, may occur. To evaluate the geothermal gradient, a 270-m-deep hole was thus drilled in the island central portion, in which the most recent volcanic activity (0.03 Myr) took place. Temperature-depth profiles, recorded after complete thermal equilibration, revealed a thermal gradient of 40 mK/m. Attempts of extracting additional thermal information were also made by measuring the temperature in a 170-m-deep deep water hole, no longer used. The results were consistent with the gradient hole, i.e. pointing to a weak or null deep-seated thermal anomaly beneath Mauritius and low geothermal potential. The deep thermal process (mantle plume) invoked

  9. Palaeomagnetic constraints on the age of Lomo Negro volcanic eruption (El Hierro, Canary Islands) (United States)

    Villasante-Marcos, Víctor; Pavón-Carrasco, Francisco Javier


    A palaeomagnetic study has been carried out in 29 cores drilled at six different sites from the volcanic products of Lomo Negro eruption (El Hierro, Canary Islands, Spain). Systematic thermal and alternating field demagnetization of the samples' natural remanent magnetization revealed a northward, stable palaeomagnetic direction similar in all the samples. Rock magnetic experiments indicate that this palaeomagnetic component is carried by a mixture of high-Ti and low-Ti titanomagnetite crystals typical of basaltic lithologies that have experienced a significant degree of oxyexsolution during subaerial cooling. The well constrained palaeomagnetic direction of Lomo Negro lavas was used to perform a palaeomagnetic dating of the volcanic event, using the SHA.DIF.14k global geomagnetic model restricted for the last 3000 yr. It can be unambiguously concluded that Lomo Negro eruption occurred well before the previously proposed date of 1793 AD, with three different age ranges being statistically possible during the last 3 ka: 115 BC-7 AD, 410-626 AD and 1499-1602 AD. The calibration of a previously published non-calibrated 14C dating suggests a XVI c. date for Lomo Negro eruption. This conclusion leaves open the possibility that the seismic crisis occurred at El Hierro in 1793 AD was related to an intrusive magmatic event that either did not reach the surface or either culminated in an unregistered submarine eruption similar to the one occurred in 2011-2012 at the southern off-shore ridge of the island.

  10. Variation of olivine composition in the volcanic rocks in the Songliao basin, NE China: lithosphere control on the origin of the K-rich intraplate mafic lavas (United States)

    Zhang, L.-Y.; Prelević, D.; Li, N.; Mertz-Kraus, R.; Buhre, S.


    Lithospheric thickness and the heterogeneity of the mantle lithosphere are two major parameters that play a role in determining the final composition of the mafic melts and their minerals. The Songliao basin in northeast China represents an ideal natural laboratory to study the effect of these two parameters on early Pliocene to Holocene K-rich mafic lavas (K2O > 4 wt.%; K2O/Na2O > 1). A series of Cenozoic volcanic edifices (Erkeshan, Wudalianchi, Keluo and Xiaogulihe) are tentatively divided into three groups (Group 1 - thin, Group 2 - middle, and Group 3 - thick) according to the lithosphere thickness. They are located in the northern region of the Songliao basin extending in a near north-south direction along a broad zone where the lithosphere thickness increases gradually. We present a detailed petrographical and geochemical study on olivine macrocrysts in combination with new geochemical data on their host lavas, including major and trace element abundances as well as Sr, Nd, and Pb isotopic signatures. Our ultimate aim is to quantitatively and qualitatively determine the role of lithospheric mantle thickness (named as ;lid effect;) and composition in the variation of mafic lavas and olivine composition. When corrected to Mg# = 0.72, a number of major elements in the lavas correlate with increasing lithospheric thickness (L): Si72 and Al72 decrease, whereas Mg72, Fe72, Ti72 and P72 increase. Sm/Yb ratios in the lavas increase, implying that lithospheric thickness exerts an important control. Group 3 mafic lavas are ultrapotassic (showing lamproite affinity) with K2O/Na2O > 4: their La/Sm and Pb isotope ratios deviate from the above correlations, indicating that the lavas from the thickest part of the basin exhibit the highest extent of metasomatic enrichment of the mantle source. Several parameters (e.g. [Ni], Ni/Mg, Ni/(Mg/Fe), Mn/Fe and Ca/Fe) in melt-related olivine from Group 1 and Group 2 lavas are controlled by variable lithosphere thickness. Olivine


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Pararas-Carayannis


    Full Text Available Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, volcanic island flank failures and underwater slides have generated numerous destructive tsunamis in the Caribbean region. Convergent, compressional and collisional tectonic activity caused primarily from the eastward movement of the Caribbean Plate in relation to the North American, Atlantic and South American Plates, is responsible for zones of subduction in the region, the formation of island arcs and the evolution of particular volcanic centers on the overlying plate. The inter-plate tectonic interaction and deformation along these marginal boundaries result in moderate seismic and volcanic events that can generate tsunamis by a number of different mechanisms. The active geo-dynamic processes have created the Lesser Antilles, an arc of small islands with volcanoes characterized by both effusive and explosive activity. Eruption mechanisms of these Caribbean volcanoes are complex and often anomalous. Collapses of lava domes often precede major eruptions, which may vary in intensity from Strombolian to Plinian. Locally catastrophic, short-period tsunami-like waves can be generated directly by lateral, direct or channelized volcanic blast episodes, or in combination with collateral air pressure perturbations, nuéss ardentes, pyroclastic flows, lahars, or cascading debris avalanches. Submarine volcanic caldera collapses can also generate locally destructive tsunami waves. Volcanoes in the Eastern Caribbean Region have unstable flanks. Destructive local tsunamis may be generated from aerial and submarine volcanic edifice mass edifice flank failures, which may be triggered by volcanic episodes, lava dome collapses, or simply by gravitational instabilities. The present report evaluates volcanic mechanisms, resulting flank failure processes and their potential for tsunami generation. More specifically, the report evaluates recent volcanic eruption mechanisms of the Soufriere Hills volcano on Montserrat, of Mt. Pel

  12. High-Temperature, Perhaps Silicic, Volcanism on Mars Evidenced by Tridymite Detection in High-SiO2 Sedimentary Rock at Gale Crater, Mars (United States)

    Morris, R. V.; Vaniman, D. T.; Blake, D. F.; Gellert, R.; Chipera, S. J.; Rampe, E. B.; Ming, D. W.; Morrison, S. M.; Downs, R. T.; Treiman, A. H.; hide


    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover, Curiosity, has been exploring sedimentary rocks within Gale crater since landing in August, 2012. On the lower slopes of Aeolis Mons (a.k.a. Mount Sharp), drill powder was collected from a high-silica (74 wt% SiO2) outcrop named Buckskin (BK). It was a surprise to find that the Buckskin sample contained significant amounts of the relatively rare silica polymorph tridymite. We describe the setting of the Buckskin sample, the detection of tridymite by the MSL Chemistry and Mineralogy (CheMin) X-ray diffraction instrument, and detection implications. Geologic setting: The Buckskin outcrop is part of the Murray formation exposed in the Marias Pass area. The formation was previously studied by CheMin in the Pahrump Hills member [1] where three samples of drill fines were analyzed (Confidence Hills (CH), Mojave2 (MJ) and Telegraph Peak (TP) [2]). Assuming approximately horizontal bedding, the Buckskin outcrop is approx.15 m stratigraphically above the bottom of the Pahrump Hills member. Mudstone, generally characterized by fine lamination, is the dominant depositional facies [1]. Buckskin Mineralogical and Chemical Composition: The CheMin instrument and XRD pattern analysis procedures have been previously discussed [3-6]. The diffraction pattern used for quantitative XRD analysis (Fig. 1) is the sum of the first 4 of 45 diffraction images. The remaining images are all characterized by both on-ring and off-ring diffraction spots that we attributed to poor grain motion and particle clumping. Coincident with particle clumping was a significant decrease in the intensity of the tridymite diffraction peaks (Fig. 2a). The derived mineralogical composition of the crystalline component (derived from the first 4 diffraction images) is given in Table 1. The tridymite is well-crystalline and its pattern is refined as monoclinic tridymite (Fig 1). Mineral chemical compositions were derived from XRD unit cell parameters or obtained from

  13. North American Submarine Cable Association (NASCA) Submarine Cables (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data show the locations of in-service and out-of-service submarine cables that are owned by members of NASCA and located in U.S. territorial waters. More...

  14. Breathing modes of Kolumbo submarine volcano (Santorini, Greece). (United States)

    Bakalis, Evangelos; Mertzimekis, Theo J; Nomikou, Paraskevi; Zerbetto, Francesco


    Submarine volcanoes, such as Kolumbo (Santorini, Greece) are natural laboratories for fostering multidisciplinary studies. Their investigation requires the most innovative marine technology together with advanced data analysis. Conductivity and temperature of seawater were recorded directly above Kolumbo's hydrothermal vent system. The respective time series have been analyzed in terms of non-equilibrium techniques. The energy dissipation of the volcanic activity is monitored by the temperature variations of seawater. The venting dynamics of chemical products is monitored by water conductivity. The analysis of the time series in terms of stochastic processes delivers scaling exponents with turning points between consecutive regimes for both conductivity and temperature. Changes of conductivity are shown to behave as a universal multifractal and their variance is subdiffusive as the scaling exponents indicate. Temperature is constant over volcanic rest periods and a universal multifractal behavior describes its changes in line with a subdiffusive character otherwise. The universal multifractal description illustrates the presence of non-conservative conductivity and temperature fields showing that the system never retains a real equilibrium state. The existence of a repeated pattern of the combined effect of both seawater and volcanic activity is predicted. The findings can shed light on the dynamics of chemical products emitted from the vents and point to the presence of underlying mechanisms that govern potentially hazardous, underwater volcanic environments.

  15. Breathing modes of Kolumbo submarine volcano (Santorini, Greece) (United States)

    Bakalis, Evangelos; Mertzimekis, Theo J.; Nomikou, Paraskevi; Zerbetto, Francesco


    Submarine volcanoes, such as Kolumbo (Santorini, Greece) are natural laboratories for fostering multidisciplinary studies. Their investigation requires the most innovative marine technology together with advanced data analysis. Conductivity and temperature of seawater were recorded directly above Kolumbo’s hydrothermal vent system. The respective time series have been analyzed in terms of non-equilibrium techniques. The energy dissipation of the volcanic activity is monitored by the temperature variations of seawater. The venting dynamics of chemical products is monitored by water conductivity. The analysis of the time series in terms of stochastic processes delivers scaling exponents with turning points between consecutive regimes for both conductivity and temperature. Changes of conductivity are shown to behave as a universal multifractal and their variance is subdiffusive as the scaling exponents indicate. Temperature is constant over volcanic rest periods and a universal multifractal behavior describes its changes in line with a subdiffusive character otherwise. The universal multifractal description illustrates the presence of non-conservative conductivity and temperature fields showing that the system never retains a real equilibrium state. The existence of a repeated pattern of the combined effect of both seawater and volcanic activity is predicted. The findings can shed light on the dynamics of chemical products emitted from the vents and point to the presence of underlying mechanisms that govern potentially hazardous, underwater volcanic environments.

  16. Evidence for different processes of magma evolution in El Tatio volcanic region (22°16' to 22°30' S, Central Volcanic Zones, Andes)


    De Astis, G.; Lucchi, F.; Tranne, C. A.; Rossi, P. L.


    We report new petrographic and geochemical data on volcanic rocks erupted over the last 9 Ma ca. within El Tatio volcanic region (Western Cordillera – CVZ). They originated from compound volcanism alternating composite volcano activities, lava domes formation and minor low-mild explosive eruptions, whereas ignimbrite-like deposits outcropping in the region originated from external caldera system (Altiplano Puna Volcanic Complex). The volcanics – mostly erupted in the last 1 Ma - have composit...

  17. Ar-Ar Phlogopite Geochronology of the Navajo Volcanic Field and the Ship Rock Diatreme of Northwest New Mexico Define a 1.4 Ma Pulse of Potassic Magmatism (United States)

    Nybo, J. P.; McIntosh, W. C.; Semken, S. C.


    Newly acquired Ar-Ar phlogopite ages indicate a brief but widespread pulse of magmatism at 25.9 to 24.5 Ma in Navajo Volcanic Field (NVF). Covering approximately 30,000 km2 of the Four Corners region in the southwestern US and including the Ship Rock diatreme, the NVF forms approximately 100 diatremes, plugs, dikes, and occasional sills and maars. Petrographically the field is dominated by minette and serpentinized ultramafic microbreccia though katungite dikes occur in localized areas. Published K-Ar ages from the NVF range from 33.9 to 19.4 Ma1,2. Published Ar-Ar ages are sparse but a 25.05 Ma3 age in the Chuska Mountains and a 6.7 Ma4 age in SW Colorado have been reported. Phlogopite separates of six dikes from the Shiprock diatreme along with two dikes and two plugs from other locations throughout the NVF were analyzed in this study by the Ar-Ar method using CO2 laser and resistance furnace incremental heating. The resulting age spectra were generally flat and a selection of the most precise ages range from 25.9 ± 0.1 Ma at Todilto Park, AZ to 24.4 ± 0.1 Ma at Ship Rock, NM. The selected samples spatially represent the full breadth of the NVF with four pulses of magmatism interpreted at 25.9 Ma, 25.4 Ma, 24.9 Ma, and 24.5 Ma, altogether spanning a range 1.4 Ma. The narrow range of ages found in this study contrasts with the much wider range of published ages implying the bulk of the NVF was emplaced by a short pulse of widespread magmatism rather than series of temporally spaced eruptions. Additional geochronology will assess whether additional eruptive pulses occurred in the NVF. 1Laughlin, AW, et al, EPSL 76, 1986. 2Roden, MF, et al, EPSL 43, 1979. 3Cather, SM, et al, NMGS Guidebook 54, 2003. 4Gonzalez, DA, et al, NMGS Guidbook 61, 2010.

  18. Geochemistry of oceanic igneous rocks - Ridges, islands, and arcs - With emphasis on manganese, scandium, and vanadium (United States)

    Doe, B.R.


    A database on a number of elements in oceanic volcanic rocks is presented, including the principal major-element oxides - SiO2, TiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3(T), MnO, MgO, CaO, Na2O, K2O, and P2O5 (where T refers to total iron) - and the trace elements - Ba, Ce, Cr, Cu, Ni, Sc, Sr, V, Pb (mainly by isotope dilution), Yb, Zn, and Zr. Interpretations are given for transition metals, with emphasis on Mn, Sc, and V, in order to determine the concentration of the elements in primitive melts and assess their trends in magmatic differentiation. Transition metals are not enriched in plagioclase, so all are incompatible with pure plagioclase removal - that is, they become enriched in the melt. Both Cr and Ni are known to be highly compatible with olivine separation - i.e., they are depleted in the melt early in differentiation. Also, Sc is compatible with clinopyroxene (Cpx) removal from the melt and is depleted by separation of Cpx. Copper does not fit well in any of the principal silicates, but Cu, like Ni, is greatly enriched in sulfides that may remain in the source or separate from the magma. Decreasing Ni abundances and increasing Cu contents during differentiation are a sign of olivine separation. In the analysis presented herein, V - in the absence of Cpx separation - is found to behave remarkably like the moderately incompatible element Zn, and these two elements add to the list of element pairs of similar incompatibility whose ratios are insensitive to differentiation and to submarine weathering as well. Both are enhanced in titanomagnetite, so both would he compatible during titanomagnetite separation. When Cpx separates, however, V becomes compatible like Sc, but Zn remains incompatible. Thus, decreasing V (and Sc) contents and increasing Zn contents during differentiation are a sign of Cpx separation. Manganese often behaves much like Zn and therefore is moderately incompatible, but Mn is less compatible than Zn and V in titanomagnetite. Thus, decreasing Zn and V with

  19. Submarine canyons off Madras Coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Setty, M.G.A.P.

    Submarine canyons off the coast of Madras, Tamil Nadu, India were studied during cruise of @iINS Kistna@@ as part of the IIOE programme They consist of hill-like projections and V-shaped valleys Their other features are also reported...

  20. A quasi-linear structure of the southern margin of Eurasia prior to the India-Asia collision: First paleomagnetic constraints from Upper Cretaceous volcanic rocks near the western syntaxis of Tibet (United States)

    Yi, Zhiyu; Huang, Baochun; Yang, Liekun; Tang, Xiangde; Yan, Yonggang; Qiao, Qingqing; Zhao, Jie; Chen, Liwei


    We report the first combined geochronologic and paleomagnetic study of volcanic rocks from the Shiquanhe and Yare Basins at the westernmost Lhasa Terrane, which aims to provide an accurate constraint on the shape and paleoposition of the southern margin of Asia prior to the India-Asia collision. Three new 40Ar/39Ar ages of 92.5 ± 2.9 Ma, 92.4 ± 0.9 Ma, and 79.6 ± 0.7 Ma determined by fresh matrix or feldspar from lava flows suggest a Late Cretaceous age for the investigated units. Characteristic remanent magnetizations have been successfully isolated from 38 sites which pass positive fold and/or reversal, conglomerate tests and are hence interpreted as primary in origin. The two paleopoles obtained from Yare and Shiquanhe yield consistent paleolatitudes of 13.6°N ± 9.6°N and 14.2°N ± 2.7°N, respectively (for a reference site of 31.5°N, 80°E), indicating that the southern margin of Asia near the western syntaxis was located far south during the Late Cretaceous time. A reconstruction of the Lhasa Terrane in the frame of Eurasia with paleomagnetic data obtained from its western and eastern parts indicates that the southern margin of Eurasia probably had a quasi-linear orientation prior to the collision formerly trending approximately 315°E. This is compatible with the shape of the Neo-Tethys slab observed from seismic tomographic studies. Our findings provide a solid basis for evaluating Cenozoic crustal shortening in the Asian interior and the size of Greater India near the western syntaxis.

  1. The submarine hydrothermal system of Panarea (Southern Italy: biogeochemical processes at the thermal fluids - sea bottom interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Maugeri


    Full Text Available Among the submarine hydrothermal systems located offshore the volcanic archipelago of the Aeolian Islands (Southern Italy, the most active is located off the coasts of Panarea island. Thermal waters, gases and sulfur deposits coexist at the sea bottom where hydrothermal fluids are released from both shallow and deep vents. The chemical and isotopic composition of the fluid phase shows the presence of a significant magmatic component and the physico-chemical conditions of the geothermal reservoir allow the release of reduced chemical species that are microbially mediated towards the production of organic carbon as a form of biochemical energy. Microorganisms inhabiting this environment possess nutritional requirements and overall metabolic pathways ideally suited to such ecosystem that represents a clear example of the close connection between geosphere and biosphere. Microscopic examination of the white mat attached to rock surfaces showed the presence of Thiothrix-like filamentous bacteria. Moderately thermophilic heterotrophic isolates were identified as strains of the genus Bacillus. Although the hydrothermal system of Panarea has to be considered a “shallow” system, it shows many characteristics that make it similar to the “deep” oceanic systems, giving a unique opportunity for improving our knowledge on such an unexplored world by working at this easily accessible site.

  2. New insights from high resolution bathymetric surveys in the Panarea volcanic complex (Aeolian Islands, Italy) (United States)

    Anzidei, M.; Esposito, A.


    During November 2002 the portion of the Panarea volcanic complex (Aeolian Islands, Italy), which includes the islets of Dattilo, Panarelli, Lisca Bianca, Bottaro and Lisca Nera, experienced an intense submarine gaseous exhalation that produced a spectacular submarine fumarolic field. The submarine volcanic activity of the Aeolian area was already known during historical times by Tito Livio, Strabone and Plinio (SGA, 1996), that reported exhalation episodes and submarine eruptions. During the last decade geological, structural, geochemical and volcanological studies performed on the Panarea volcanic complex, evidenced a positive gravimetric anomaly, tectonic discontinuities and several centres of geothermal fluid emission (Barberi et al., 1974; Lanzafame and Rossi, 1984; Bellia et al., 1986; Gabianelli et al., 1990; Italiano and Nuccio, 1991; Calanchi et al., 1995,1999). With the aim to estimate the crustal deformation of the submarine area of the archipelago, connected with the exhalation activity, we produced a detailed Marine Digital Terrain Model (MDTM) of the seafloor by means of a high resolution bathymetric survey. We used the multi beam technique coupled with GPS positioning in RTK mode. We obtained a MDTM with an average pixel of 0.5 m. Our MDTM allowed to estimate the location, deep, shape and size of the exhalation centres and seafloor morphological-structural features, opening new questions for the evaluation of the volcanic hazard of Panarea area which date is still debated.

  3. geochemistry of the potassic basalts from the bufumbira volcanic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    volcanic fields within the western branch of the East African rift system. The rocks consist of silica undersaturated and ..... Plot of total alkalis (K2O + N2O wt%) versus SiO2 wt% of the various rocks of the. Bufumbira field (Cox et al. 1979). The Le Maitre (1989) plot (Fig. 8) clusters most of the mafic rocks between the basanite.

  4. Significant discharge of CO2 from hydrothermalism associated with the submarine volcano of El Hierro Island. (United States)

    Santana-Casiano, J M; Fraile-Nuez, E; González-Dávila, M; Baker, E T; Resing, J A; Walker, S L


    The residual hydrothermalism associated with submarine volcanoes, following an eruption event, plays an important role in the supply of CO2 to the ocean. The emitted CO2 increases the acidity of seawater. The submarine volcano of El Hierro, in its degasification stage, provided an excellent opportunity to study the effect of volcanic CO2 on the seawater carbonate system, the global carbon flux, and local ocean acidification. A detailed survey of the volcanic edifice was carried out using seven CTD-pH-ORP tow-yo studies, localizing the redox and acidic changes, which were used to obtain surface maps of anomalies. In order to investigate the temporal variability of the system, two CTD-pH-ORP yo-yo studies were conducted that included discrete sampling for carbonate system parameters. Meridional tow-yos were used to calculate the amount of volcanic CO2 added to the water column for each surveyed section. The inputs of CO2 along multiple sections combined with measurements of oceanic currents produced an estimated volcanic CO2 flux = 6.0 10(5) ± 1.1 10(5 )kg d(-1) which is ~0.1% of global volcanic CO2 flux. Finally, the CO2 emitted by El Hierro increases the acidity above the volcano by ~20%.

  5. Significant discharge of CO2 from hydrothermalism associated with the submarine volcano of El Hierro Island (United States)

    Santana-Casiano, J. M.; Fraile-Nuez, E.; González-Dávila, M.; Baker, E. T.; Resing, J. A.; Walker, S. L.


    The residual hydrothermalism associated with submarine volcanoes, following an eruption event, plays an important role in the supply of CO2 to the ocean. The emitted CO2 increases the acidity of seawater. The submarine volcano of El Hierro, in its degasification stage, provided an excellent opportunity to study the effect of volcanic CO2 on the seawater carbonate system, the global carbon flux, and local ocean acidification. A detailed survey of the volcanic edifice was carried out using seven CTD-pH-ORP tow-yo studies, localizing the redox and acidic changes, which were used to obtain surface maps of anomalies. In order to investigate the temporal variability of the system, two CTD-pH-ORP yo-yo studies were conducted that included discrete sampling for carbonate system parameters. Meridional tow-yos were used to calculate the amount of volcanic CO2 added to the water column for each surveyed section. The inputs of CO2 along multiple sections combined with measurements of oceanic currents produced an estimated volcanic CO2 flux = 6.0 105 ± 1.1 105 kg d-1 which is ~0.1% of global volcanic CO2 flux. Finally, the CO2 emitted by El Hierro increases the acidity above the volcano by ~20%.

  6. Raman-IR vibrational and XRD characterization of ancient and modern mineralogy from volcanic eruption in Tenerife Island: Implication for Mars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Lalla


    Full Text Available A detailed vibrational Raman-IR spectroscopic and diffractional analyses have been performed on basalts from two locations from Tenerife Island: (1 the Arenas Negras volcano which belongs to the historical eruption not showing visible alteration and (2 Pillow Lavas zone from Anaga Massif which shows a clearly fluid-rock interaction caused by submarine alteration. These places have been extensively studied due to its similarity with the surface of Mars. The analysis is based on the mineral detection of selected samples by a Micro-Raman study of the materials. The complementary techniques have confirmed the mineralogy detected by the Raman measurement. The results show a volcanic environment behavior with primary phases like olivine, pyroxene, and feldspar/plagioclase. Moreover, the presence of accessory minerals or secondary mineralization like phosphate, iron oxides, zeolite or carbonates shows the alteration processes on each outcrop. The variation in the crystallinity and amorphous phases is related to fluid-rock interaction caused by hydrothermal episodes and external weathering processes, which shows several analogies with the ancient volcanic activity from Mars.

  7. Protracted volcanism after large impacts: Evidence from the Sudbury impact basin (United States)

    Ubide, Teresa; Guyett, Paul C.; Kenny, Gavin G.; O'Sullivan, Edel M.; Ames, Doreen E.; Petrus, Joseph A.; Riggs, Nancy; Kamber, Balz S.


    Morphological studies of large impact structures on Mercury, Venus, Mars, and the Moon suggest that volcanism within impact craters may not be confined to the shock melting of target rocks. This possibility prompted reinvestigation of the 1.85 Ga subaqueous Sudbury impact structure, specifically its 1.5 km thick immediate basin fill (Onaping Formation). Historically, breccias of this formation were debated in the context of an endogenic versus an impact-fallback origin. New field, petrographic, and in situ geochemical data document an array of igneous features, including vitric shards, bombs, sheet-like intrusions, and peperites, preserved in exquisite textural detail. The geochemistry of vitric materials is affected by alteration, as expected for subaqueous magmatic products. Earlier studies proposed an overall andesitic chemistry for all magmatic products, sourced from the underlying impact melt sheet. The new data, however, suggest progressive involvement of an additional, more magnesian, and volatile-rich magma source with time. We propose a new working model in which only the lower part of the Onaping Formation was derived by explosive "melt-fuel-coolant interaction" when seawater flooded onto the impact melt sheet in the basin floor. By contrast, we suggest that the upper 1000 m were deposited during protracted submarine volcanism and sedimentary reworking. Magma was initially sourced from the impact melt sheet and up stratigraphy, from reservoirs at greater depth. It follows that volcanic deposits in large impact basins may be related to magmatism caused by the impact but not directly associated with the impact-generated melt sheet.

  8. Volcanic caves of East Africa - an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim W. Simons


    Full Text Available Numerous Tertiary to recent volcanoes are located in East Africa. Thus, much of the region is made up volcanic rock, which hosts the largest and greatest variety of East Africas caves. Exploration of volcanic caves has preoccupied members of Cave Exploration Group of East Africa (CEGEA for the past 30 years. The various publications edited by CEGEA are in this respect a treasure troves of speleological information. In the present paper an overview on the most important volcanic caves and areas are shortly reported.

  9. SCICEX: Submarine Arctic Science Program, Version 1 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Submarine Arctic Science Program, SCICEX, is a federal interagency collaboration among the operational Navy, research agencies, and the marine research community...

  10. Volcanic Catastrophes (United States)

    Eichelberger, J. C.


    The big news from 20th century geophysics may not be plate tectonics but rather the surprise return of catastrophism, following its apparent 19th century defeat to uniformitarianism. Divine miracles and plagues had yielded to the logic of integrating observations of everyday change over time. Yet the brilliant interpretation of the Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary iridium anomaly introduced an empirically based catastrophism. Undoubtedly, decades of contemplating our own nuclear self-destruction played a role in this. Concepts of nuclear winter, volcanic winter, and meteor impact winter are closely allied. And once the veil of threat of all-out nuclear exchange began to lift, we could begin to imagine slower routes to destruction as "global change". As a way to end our world, fire is a good one. Three-dimensional magma chambers do not have as severe a magnitude limitation as essentially two-dimensional faults. Thus, while we have experienced earthquakes that are as big as they get, we have not experienced volcanic eruptions nearly as great as those preserved in the geologic record. The range extends to events almost three orders of magnitude greater than any eruptions of the 20th century. Such a calamity now would at the very least bring society to a temporary halt globally, and cause death and destruction on a continental scale. At maximum, there is the possibility of hindering photosynthesis and threatening life more generally. It has even been speculated that the relative genetic homogeneity of humankind derives from an evolutionary "bottleneck" from near-extinction in a volcanic cataclysm. This is somewhat more palatable to contemplate than a return to a form of Original Sin, in which we arrived at homogeneity by a sort of "ethnic cleansing". Lacking a written record of truly great eruptions, our sense of human impact must necessarily be aided by archeological and anthropological investigations. For example, there is much to be learned about the influence of

  11. Deformation microstructures and timing of a large submarine landslide drilled offshore Martinique (IODP Exp. 340) (United States)

    Guyard, H.; Le Friant, A.; Brunet, M.; Boudon, G.; Emmanuel, L.; Caron, B.; Villemant, B.; Feuillet, N.


    Flank-instabilities constitute a recurrent process in the long-term evolution of many volcanoes. A very large submarine landslide deposit (~2100 km2, ~300 km3) drilled southwest Martinique island during the IODP Exp. 340 in 2012 is likely associated with one (or more) major volcanic flank collapse of Mount Pelée during the Late Pleistocene. A recent study revealed that this D1/D2 deposit is emergent in its central part, frontally confined, and mainly comprises remobilized seafloor sediments rather than debris avalanche material from the volcanic edifice (Brunet et al., subm). Here, we investigate the sedimentary microstructures and timing of deformation from the central (Hole 1400B, ~37 km from the coastline) and distal (Hole 1399A, ~70 km from the coastline) units of the D1/D2 deposit, in order to better understand the emplacement dynamics of such potentially tsunamigenic submarine landslides. High resolution CT-Scan analyses were continuously performed on more than 300 m of sediment cores, in order to characterize and distinguish the internal architecture and the complex deformation features of the sediments at each drilling site. The establishment of the stratigraphy, based on δ18O measurements and AMS 14C dating, is still in progress and may confirm the possible link between the submarine landslide deposits and the flank collapse scars observed on the subaerial part of Martinique. These new insights into the timing and emplacement processes of this large submarine landslide will have important implications for tsunami hazards. ReferenceBrunet, M., Le Friant, A., Boudon, G., Lafuerza, S., Talling, P., Hornbach, M., Lebas, E., Guyard, H., and IODP Expedition 340 science party, submitted. Composition, geometry and emplacement dynamics of a large volcanic island landslide offshore Martinique: from volcano flank-collapse to seafloor sediment failure? Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems.

  12. Post-eruptive Submarine Terrace Development of Capelinhos, Azores (United States)

    Zhongwei Zhao, Will; Mitchell, Neil; Quartau, Rui; Tempera, Fernando; Bricheno, Lucy


    Erosion of the coasts of volcanic islands by waves creates shallow banks, but how erosion proceeds with time to create them and how it relates to wave climate is unclear. In this study, historical and recent marine geophysical data collected around the Capelinhos promontory (western Faial Island, Azores) offer an unusual opportunity to characterize how a submarine terrace developed after the eruption. The promontory was formed in 1957/58 during a Surtseyan eruption that terminated with extensive lava forming new rocky coastal cliffs. Historical measurements of coastline position are supplemented here with coastlines measured from 2004 and 2014 Google Earth images in order to characterize coastline retreat rate and distance for lava- and tephra-dominated cliffs. Swath mapping sonars were used to characterize the submarine geometry of the resulting terrace (terrace edge position, gradient and morphology). Limited photographs are available from a SCUBA dive and drop-down camera deployments to ground truth the submarine geomorphology. The results reveal that coastal retreat rates have decreased rapidly with the time after the eruption, possibly explained by the evolving resistance to erosion of cliff base materials. Surprisingly, coastline retreat rate decreases with terrace width in a simple inverse power law with terrace width. We suspect this is only a fortuitous result as wave attenuation over the terrace will not obviously produce the variation, but nevertheless it shows how rapidly the retreat rate declines. Understanding the relationship between terrace widening shelf and coastal cliff retreat rate may be more widely interesting if they can be used to understand how islands evolve over time into abrasional banks and guyots.

  13. Tsunami Generated by a Two-Phase Submarine Debris Flow (United States)

    Pudasaini, S. P.


    The general two-phase debris flow model proposed by Pudasaini (2011) is employed to study subaerial and submarine debris flows, and the tsunami generated by the debris impact at lakes and oceans. The model includes several essential physical aspects, including Mohr-Coulomb plasticity for the solid stress, while the fluid stress is modelled as a solid volume fraction gradient enhanced non-Newtonian viscous stress. The generalized interfacial momentum transfer includes the viscous drag, buoyancy, and the virtual mass. The generalized drag covers both the solid-like and fluid-like contributions, and can be applied to linear to quadratic drags. Strong couplings exist between the solid and the fluid momentum transfer. The advantage of the real two-phase debris flow model over classical single-phase or quasi-two-phase models is that by considering the solid (and/or the fluid) volume fraction appropriately, the initial mass can be divided into several (even mutually disjoint) parts; a dry (landslide or rock slide), a fluid (water or muddy water; e.g., dams, rivers), and a general debris mixture material as needed in real flow simulations. This offers a unique and innovative opportunity within a single framework to simultaneously simulate (a) the sliding debris (or landslide), (b) the water lake or ocean, (c) the debris impact at the lake or ocean, (d) tsunami generation and propagation, (e) mixing and separation between the solid and the fluid phases, and (f) sediment transport and deposition process in the bathymetric surface. The new model is applied to two-phase subaerial and submarine debris flows. Benchmark numerical simulations reveal that the dynamics of the debris impact induced tsunamis are fundamentally different than the tsunami generated by pure rock avalanche and landslides. Special attention is paid to study the basic features of the debris impact to the mountain lakes or oceans. This includes the generation, amplification and propagation of the multiple

  14. ROV Tiburon Investigation of Hawaiian Submarine Canyons (United States)

    Paull, C. K.; Greene, H. G.; Caress, D. W.; Clague, D. A.; Ussler, W.; Maher, N. M.


    MBARI conducted ROV dives around the Hawaiian Islands during an expedition of the R/V Western Flyer and Tiburon in the spring of 2001. Eight ROV dives were made to investigate five major submarine canyons offshore of Oahu, Molokai, and Hawaii in up to 3,434 m water depths. Four of these canyons are located off the windward (northern) side of these islands where onshore canyons are also well developed. Those canyons located offshore of Molokai and Oahu incise the head scars of the giant Nuuanu and Wailai submarine landslides. ROV observations and sediment and rock outcrop sampling were made in these canyons to determine their origin and present-day activity. The fifth canyon investigated is located on the leeward (southern) side of Molokai. The canyons along the windward side expose extensive stratigraphic sections that reveal the history of the islands' formation. In composite, these sections contain marine pillow basalt overlain by a substantial sequence of alternating subaerial lava flows, rounded boulder conglomerates, shallow water carbonates, and hyaloclastites that indicate coastal and marine deposition. These sequences illustrate the accretion and subsequent subsidence of the islands' flanks. These canyons also have morphologically distinct upper and lower sections. The upper reaches of the canyons are incised into the shallow water marine facies and contain broad axial channels through which active sediment transport is occurring. In contrast, the morphology of the lower canyons are strongly influenced by the giant landslides that massively altered the northern flanks of the Hawaiian chain. The lower canyons contain plunge pools and steep headwall scarps that are generally comprised of mechanically competent subaerial lava flows. The presence of multiple plunge pools with differentially eroded head scarps suggests retrogressive erosion (bottom-up process) with headward advancement of the various heads. Undercutting of the headwalls also produce periodic

  15. Submarines, spacecraft and exhaled breath. (United States)

    Pleil, Joachim D; Hansel, Armin


    Foreword The International Association of Breath Research (IABR) meetings are an eclectic gathering of researchers in the medical, environmental and instrumentation fields; our focus is on human health as assessed by the measurement and interpretation of trace chemicals in human exhaled breath. What may have escaped our notice is a complementary field of research that explores the creation and maintenance of artificial atmospheres practised by the submarine air monitoring and air purification (SAMAP) community. SAMAP is comprised of manufacturers, researchers and medical professionals dealing with the engineering and instrumentation to support human life in submarines and spacecraft (including shuttlecraft and manned rockets, high-altitude aircraft, and the International Space Station (ISS)). Here, the immediate concerns are short-term survival and long-term health in fairly confined environments where one cannot simply 'open the window' for fresh air. As such, one of the main concerns is air monitoring and the main sources of contamination are CO(2) and other constituents of human exhaled breath. Since the inaugural meeting in 1994 in Adelaide, Australia, SAMAP meetings have been held every two or three years alternating between the North American and European continents. The meetings are organized by Dr Wally Mazurek (a member of IABR) of the Defense Systems Technology Organization (DSTO) of Australia, and individual meetings are co-hosted by the navies of the countries in which they are held. An overriding focus at SAMAP is life support (oxygen availability and carbon dioxide removal). Certainly, other air constituents are also important; for example, the closed environment of a submarine or the ISS can build up contaminants from consumer products, cooking, refrigeration, accidental fires, propulsion and atmosphere maintenance. However, the most immediate concern is sustaining human metabolism: removing exhaled CO(2) and replacing metabolized O(2). Another

  16. A submarine fan in the Mesa Central, Mexico (United States)

    Silva-Romo, G.; Arellano-Gil, J.; Mendoza-Rosales, C.; Nieto-Obregón, J.


    The contact between the Guerrero and Sierra Madre tectonostratigraphic terranes has been proposed to lie in the Mesa Central, east of the city of Zacatecas. Marine Triassic units have been assigned to the Guerrero Terrane. It is here proposed that this contact occurs to the west of the city of Zacatecas and the Triassic marine sequence assigned to the Sierra Madre Terrane. We analyzed the stratigraphic record and structural features of pre-Late Jurassic sequences at four localities in the Mesa Central. They contain a marine turbiditic Triassic unit, which includes La Bellena, Taray, and Zacatecas Formations, and a continental unit of probable Middle Jurassic age. Triassic sandstones were derived from a cratonic area, without the influence of arc volcanism. The sequences were affected by two phases of deformation. The Triassic formations are unconformably overlain by a continental volcano-sedimentary sequence that contains fragments of sandstones derived from the underlying unit. Sedimentologic characteristics of the Triassic unit fit a submarine fan model. The submarine fan developed at the continental margin of Pangaea during Triassic times. Turbidite associations in the San Rafael Area indicate a middle fan depositional environment, while in the Real de Catorce Area, they correspond to the distal part (basin plain facies). At La Ballena and Zacatecas the turbidite associations occur in the middle part and perhaps the external part of the fan.

  17. The largest deep-ocean silicic volcanic eruption of the past century. (United States)

    Carey, Rebecca; Soule, S Adam; Manga, Michael; White, James; McPhie, Jocelyn; Wysoczanski, Richard; Jutzeler, Martin; Tani, Kenichiro; Yoerger, Dana; Fornari, Daniel; Caratori-Tontini, Fabio; Houghton, Bruce; Mitchell, Samuel; Ikegami, Fumihiko; Conway, Chris; Murch, Arran; Fauria, Kristen; Jones, Meghan; Cahalan, Ryan; McKenzie, Warren


    The 2012 submarine eruption of Havre volcano in the Kermadec arc, New Zealand, is the largest deep-ocean eruption in history and one of very few recorded submarine eruptions involving rhyolite magma. It was recognized from a gigantic 400-km 2 pumice raft seen in satellite imagery, but the complexity of this event was concealed beneath the sea surface. Mapping, observations, and sampling by submersibles have provided an exceptionally high fidelity record of the seafloor products, which included lava sourced from 14 vents at water depths of 900 to 1220 m, and fragmental deposits including giant pumice clasts up to 9 m in diameter. Most (>75%) of the total erupted volume was partitioned into the pumice raft and transported far from the volcano. The geological record on submarine volcanic edifices in volcanic arcs does not faithfully archive eruption size or magma production.

  18. Growth History of Kaena Volcano, the Isolated, Dominantly Submarine, Precursor Volcano to Oahu, Hawaii (United States)

    Sinton, J. M.; Eason, D. E.


    The construction of O'ahu began with the recently recognized, ~3.5-4.9 Ma Ka'ena Volcano, as an isolated edifice in the Kaua'i Channel. Ka'ena remained submarine until, near the end of its lifetime as magma supply waned and the volcano transitioned to a late-shield stage of activity, it emerged to reach a maximum elevation of ~1000 m above sea level. We estimate that Ka'ena was emergent only for the last 15-25% of its lifespan, and that subaerial lavas make up < 5% of the total volume (20-27 x 103 km3). O'ahu's other volcanoes, Wai'anae (~3.9-2.85 Ma) and Ko'olau (~3.0-1.9 Ma), were built at least partly on the flanks of earlier edifices and both were active subaerial volcanoes for at least 1 Ma. The constructional history of Ka'ena contrasts with that of Wai'anae, Ko'olau, and many other Hawaiian volcanoes, which likely emerge within a few hundred kyr after inception, and with subaerial lavas comprising up to 35 volume % of the volcano. These relations suggest that volcano growth history and morphology are critically dependent on whether volcanic initiation and growth occur in the deep ocean floor (isolated), or on the flanks of pre-existing edifices. Two other volcanoes that likely formed in isolation are West Moloka'i and Kohala, both of which have long submarine rift zones, and neither attained great heights above sea level despite having substantial volume. The partitioning of volcanism between submarine and subaerial volcanism depends on the distance between volcanic centers, whether new volcanoes initiate on the flanks of earlier ones, and the time over which neighboring volcanoes are concurrently active. Ka'ena might represent an end-member in this spectrum, having initiated far from its next oldest neighbor and completed much of its evolution in isolation.

  19. Geochemistry and petrogenesis of anorogenic basic volcanic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    anorogenic setting for the basic rocks of Kundal area is suggested, which is in conformity with the similar setting for Malani Igneous Suite. 1. Introduction. The Malani magmatism is characterized by sub- volcanic setting, volcano-plutonic ring structures, anorogenic (A-type), high heat producing magma- tism and controlled by ...

  20. Submarine earthquake rupture, active faulting and volcanism along the major Liquiñe-Ofqui Fault Zone and implications for seismic hazard assessment in the Patagonian Andes Ruptura sísmica submarina, tectónica y volcanismo activo a lo largo de la Falla Liquiñe-Ofqui e implicancias para el peligro sísmico en los Andes patagónicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Vargas


    Full Text Available The Liquiñe-Ofqui fault zone (LOFZ in the Patagonian Andes is an active major transpressional intra-arc fault system along which Quaternary faulting and volcanism develop. Subaerial and submarine geomorphologic and structural characterization of latest Pleistocene-Holocene faults and monogenetic volcanoes allows us to assess geological cartography of active faults and the kinematic model for recent tectonics during postglacial times, since 12,000 cal. years BP. This allows increasing the basic geological knowledge necessary for determining the seismic hazard associated with cortical structures in the Aysén region in southern Chile. Fault cartography and field observations suggest dominant dextral-reverse strike slip along north-south and locally NNW-striking faults, dextral-normal strike slip along NE to NNE- striking faults, and sinistral strike slip along east-west faults. This kinematics is consistent with regional SW-NE shortening in the context of a major transpressional fault zone. Holocene and even historic monogenetic and sub-aquatic volcanism occurred in this tectonic setting in a close spatial relationship and probably favored by the activity and local architecture of faults. Submarine fault scarps and deformed sediments observed at the bottom of the Aysén Fjord were associated with the destructive April 2007 Mw6.2 earthquake located along the LOFZ. Our observations show that this earthquake occurred along dextral 15-20 km long N-S structure named Punta Cola Fault (PCF. This fault system is located some kilometres to the east of the main N-S Río Cuervo Fault (RCF. Most of the epicentres of the seismic swarm during 2007 were located along or in between both structures. The study area is a transference zone between N-S regional branches of the LOFZ. The cartography of fault segments proposed here together with geophysical and geologic data suggest that large earthquakes Mw6.2-6.5 can be typically expected along most of the active

  1. Late Cretaceous intraplate silicic volcanism in the Lake Chad region: incipient continental rift volcanism vs. Cameroon Line volcanism (United States)

    Shellnutt, G.; Lee, T. Y.; Torng, P. K.; Yang, C. C.


    The crustal evolution of west-central Africa during the Cretaceous was directly related to plate motion associated with the opening of the central Atlantic Ocean. Late Cretaceous (~66 Ma) to recent magmatism related to the Cameroon Line stretches from Northern Cameroon (i.e. Golda Zuelva) to the Gulf of Guinea (i.e. Pagalu) and is considered to be due to mantle-crust interaction. The volcanic rocks at Hadjer el Khamis, west-central Chad, are considered to be amongst the oldest volcanic rocks of the Cameroon Line but their relationship is uncertain because they erupted during a period of a regional extension associated with the opening of the Late Cretaceous (~75 Ma) Termit basin. The silicic volcanic rocks can be divided into a peraluminous group and a peralkaline group with both rock types having similar chemical characteristics as within-plate granitoids. In situ U/Pb zircon dating yielded a mean 206Pb/238U age of 74.4 ± 1.3 Ma and indicates the rocks erupted ~10 million years before the next oldest eruption attributed to the Cameroon Line. The Sr isotopes (i.e. ISr = 0.7050 to 0.7143) show a wide range but the Nd isotopes (i.e. 143Nd/144Ndi = 0.51268 to 0.51271) are more uniform and indicate that the rocks were derived from a moderately depleted mantle source. Major and trace elemental modeling show that the silicic rocks likely formed by shallow fractionation of a mafic parental magma where the peraluminous rocks experienced crustal contamination and the peralkaline rocks did not. The silicic rocks are more isotopically similar to Late Cretaceous basalts in the Doba and Bongor basins (i.e. ISr = 0.7040 to 0.7060; 143Nd/144Ndi = 0.51267 to 0.51277) of southern Chad than to rocks of the Cameroon Line (i.e. ISr = 0.7026 to 0.7038; 143Nd/144Ndi = 0.51270 to 0.51300). Given the age and isotopic compositions, it is likely that the silicic volcanic rocks of the Lake Chad area are related to Late Cretaceous extensional tectonics rather than to Cameroon Line magmatism.

  2. Submarine geology of South Kona landslide complex: investigation using ROV Kaiko (United States)

    Yokose, H.; Yoshida, S.


    KR01-12 cruise of Japan Marine Science and Technology Center using ROV KAIKO and its mother ship R/V KAIREI were carried out around Hawaii islands in the early fall of 2001. During this cruise, two dives of ROV KAIKO were made on western submarine flank of the island of Hawaii: South Kona landslide complex (K210:proximal part of the south Kona landslide, K211: distal block of the landslide). One single channel seismic reflection line was collected from vicinity of the above dive sites. These areas have never been systematically studied using submersible due to the bad sea state and /or the depth of outcrops. Valuable information about the submarine geology and in situ rock samples from western franks of the island of Hawaii were obtained. K211 site is one of the distal landslide block and can be divided into 3 geological units from bottom to top: picritic sheet lava and hyaloclastite, volcaniclastic deposit with picritic breccia, muddy breccia with highly vesiculated ol basalt. On the other hand, rocks recovered from K210 are composed mainly of aa clinker and aa lava which are highly vesiculated and reddish in color. The rocks from K210 is similar to the upper part of K211 in their bulk rock chemistry. Based on the geological and bulk rock chemistry, rocks recovered from both sites should be erupted subaerially. It suggests that these landslide blocks were composed subaerial portion of the paleo-Mauna Loa volcano.

  3. Similarities between rivers and submarine channels (United States)

    Balcerak, Ernie


    Scientists have long known that the width and depth of rivers follows a power law relationship with discharge. They have also noticed that submarine channels appear to be similar to terrestrial rivers, but there have not been many systematic comparisons of the relationships between submarine channel morphology and discharge. Konsoer et al. compared the width, depth, and slope of 177 submarine channels to those of 231 river cross sections. They found that submarine channels are up to an order of magnitude wider and deeper than the largest terrestrial rivers, but they exhibit a similar power law relationship between width and depth. For submarine channels that were similar in size to rivers, the authors found that submarine channels tend to be 1 to 2 orders of magnitude steeper than rivers. The authors also inferred values for sediment concentration in the turbidity currents in the channels and combined this with estimated mean flow velocities to look for a relationship between discharge and morphology in the channels. They found that like rivers, the width and depth of the submarine channels follow a power law scaling with discharge. (Journal of Geophysical Research-Earth Surface, doi:10.1029/2012JF002422, 2013)

  4. Rock fragmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, W.S.; Green, S.J.; Hakala, W.W.; Hustrulid, W.A.; Maurer, W.C. (eds.)


    Experts in rock mechanics, mining, excavation, drilling, tunneling and use of underground space met to discuss the relative merits of a wide variety of rock fragmentation schemes. Information is presented on novel rock fracturing techniques; tunneling using electron beams, thermocorer, electric spark drills, water jets, and diamond drills; and rock fracturing research needs for mining and underground construction. (LCL)

  5. Calciclastic submarine fans: An integrated overview (United States)

    Payros, Aitor; Pujalte, Victoriano


    Calciclastic submarine fans are rare in the stratigraphic record and no bona fide present-day analogue has been described to date. Possibly because of that, and although calciclastic submarine fans have long intrigued deep-water carbonate sedimentologists, they have largely been overlooked by the academic and industrial communities. To fill this gap we have compiled and critically reviewed the existing sedimentological literature on calciclastic submarine fans, thus offering an updated view of this type of carbonate slope sedimentary system. Calciclastic submarine fans range in length from just a few to more than 100 km. Three different types can be distinguished: (1) Coarse-grained, small-sized (depression associated with tectonic structures, an inherited topography, or large-scale mass failures.

  6. Aspects of Propeller Developements for a Submarine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul; kappel, Jens Julius; Spangenberg, Eugen


    Design and development of propellers for submarines are in some ways different from propellers for surface vessels. The most important demand is low acoustic signature that has priority over propeller efficiency, and the submarine propeller must be optimized with respect to acoustics rather than...... efficiency. Moreover the operating conditions of a submarine propeller are quite different. These aspects are discussed as well as the weighing of the various propeller parameters against the design objectives. The noise generated by the propeller can be characterized as thrust noise due to the inhomogeneous...... wake field of the submarine, trailing-edge noise and noise caused by turbulence in the inflow. The items discussed are demonstrated in a case study where a propeller of the Kappel type was developed. Three stages of the development are presented, including a design of an 8-bladed propeller where...

  7. Russia's Submarine Force: Determinants and Prospects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tully, John


    ... the determinants of these events, The Russian Federation inherited a huge submarine fleet from the Soviet Union, Due to the changing conditions in the world and in Russia, its future status is in doubt...

  8. Controls on volcanism at intraplate basaltic volcanic fields (United States)

    van den Hove, Jackson C.; Van Otterloo, Jozua; Betts, Peter G.; Ailleres, Laurent; Cas, Ray A. F.


    A broad range of controlling mechanisms is described for intraplate basaltic volcanic fields (IBVFs) in the literature. These correspond with those relating to shallow tectonic processes and to deep mantle plumes. Accurate measurement of the physical parameters of intraplate volcanism is fundamental to gain an understanding of the controlling factors that influence the scale and location of a specific IBVF. Detailed volume and geochronology data are required for this; however, these are not available for many IBVFs. In this study the primary controls on magma genesis and transportation are established for the Pliocene-Recent Newer Volcanics Province (NVP) of south-eastern Australia as a case-study for one of such IBVF. The NVP is a large and spatio-temporally complex IBVF that has been described as either being related to a deep mantle plume, or upper mantle and crustal processes. We use innovative high resolution aeromagnetic and 3D modelling analysis, constrained by well-log data, to calculate its dimensions, volume and long-term eruptive flux. Our estimates suggest volcanic deposits cover an area of 23,100 ± 530 km2 and have a preserved dense rock equivalent of erupted volcanics of least 680 km3, and may have been as large as 900 km3. The long-term mean eruptive flux of the NVP is estimated between 0.15 and 0.20 km3/ka, which is relatively high compared with other IBVFs. Our comparison with other IBVFs shows eruptive fluxes vary up to two orders of magnitude within individual fields. Most examples where a range of eruptive flux is available for an IBVF show a correlation between eruptive flux and the rate of local tectonic processes, suggesting tectonic control. Limited age dating of the NVP has been used to suggest there were pulses in its eruptive flux, which are not resolvable using current data. These changes in eruptive flux are not directly relatable to the rate of any interpreted tectonic driver such as edge-driven convection. However, the NVP and other

  9. Felsic Volcanics on the Moon (United States)

    Jolliff, B. L.; Lawrence, S. J.; Stopar, J.; Braden, S.; Hawke, B. R.; Robinson, M. S.; Glotch, T. D.; Greenhagen, B. T.; Seddio, S. M.


    Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) imaging and thermal data provide new morphologic and compositional evidence for features that appear to be expressions of nonmare silicic volcanism. Examples reflecting a range of sizes and volcanic styles include the Gruithuisen and Mairan Domes, and the Hansteen Alpha (H-A) and Compton-Belkovich (C-B) volcanic complexes. In this work we combine new observations with existing compositional remote sensing and Apollo sample data to assess possible origins. Images and digital topographic data at 100 m scale (Wide Angle Camera) and ~0.5 to 2 m (Narrow Angle Camera) reveal (1) slopes on volcanic constructs of ~12° to 27°, (2) potential endogenic summit depressions, (3) small domical features with dense boulder populations, and (4) irregular collapse features. Morphologies in plan view range from the circular to elliptical Gruithuisen γ and δ domes (~340 km2 each), to smaller cumulodomes such as Mairan T and C-B α (~30 km2, each), to the H-A (~375 km2) and C-B (~680 km2) volcanic complexes. Heights range from ~800-1800 m, and most domes are relatively flat-topped or have a central depression. Positions of the Christiansen Feature in LRO Diviner data reflect silicic compositions [1]. Clementine UVVIS-derived FeO varies from ~5 to 10 wt%. Lunar Prospector Th data indicate model values of 20-55 ppm [2,3], which are consistent with compositions ranging from KREEP basalt to lunar granite. The Apollo collection contains small rocks and breccia clasts of felsic/granitic lithologies. Apollo 12 samples include small, pristine and brecciated granitic rock fragments and a large, polymict breccia (12013) consisting of felsic material (quartz & K-feldspar-rich) and mafic phases (similar to KREEP basalt). Many of the evolved lunar rocks have geochemically complementary compositions. The lithologic associations and the lack of samples with intermediate composition suggest a form of magmatic differentiation that produced mafic and felsic

  10. SSN 774 Virginia Class Submarine (SSN 774) (United States)


    Report: The VIRGINIA Class Submarine Program continues to deliver submarines within cost, ahead of schedule , with improved quality and with...baseline schedule threshold set ten years earlier, in 1994. June 20, 2006: USS TEXAS, which was essentially the second lead ship of the class , is the first...factored for the VIRGINIA Class based on weight. Public and private shipyard data was used, as well as the maintenance schedule provided in the CARD, Rev E

  11. Reservoir characteristics and control factors of Carboniferous volcanic gas reservoirs in the Dixi area of Junggar Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji'an Shi


    Full Text Available Field outcrop observation, drilling core description, thin-section analysis, SEM analysis, and geochemistry, indicate that Dixi area of Carboniferous volcanic rock gas reservoir belongs to the volcanic rock oil reservoir of the authigenic gas reservoir. The source rocks make contact with volcanic rock reservoir directly or by fault, and having the characteristics of near source accumulation. The volcanic rock reservoir rocks mainly consist of acidic rhyolite and dacite, intermediate andesite, basic basalt and volcanic breccia: (1 Acidic rhyolite and dacite reservoirs are developed in the middle-lower part of the structure, have suffered strong denudation effect, and the secondary pores have formed in the weathering and tectonic burial stages, but primary pores are not developed within the early diagenesis stage. Average porosity is only at 8%, and the maximum porosity is at 13.5%, with oil and gas accumulation showing poor performance. (2 Intermediate andesite and basic basalt reservoirs are mainly distributed near the crater, which resembles the size of and suggests a volcanic eruption. Primary pores are formed in the early diagenetic stage, secondary pores developed in weathering and erosion transformation stage, and secondary fractures formed in the tectonic burial stage. The average porosity is at 9.2%, and the maximum porosity is at 21.9%: it is of the high-quality reservoir types in Dixi area. (3 The volcanic breccia reservoir has the same diagenetic features with sedimentary rocks, but also has the same mineral composition with volcanic rock; rigid components can keep the primary porosity without being affected by compaction during the burial process. At the same time, the brittleness of volcanic breccia reservoir makes it easily fracture under the stress; internal fracture was developmental. Volcanic breccia developed in the structural high part and suffered a long-term leaching effect. The original pore-fracture combination also made

  12. Precursory geophysical, geodetic and geochemical signatures of a new 2012 submarine eruption off the northwestern coast of El Hierro, Canary Islands, Spain (United States)

    Pérez, Nemesio M.; Somoza, Luis; González de Vallejo, Luis; Sagiya, Takeshi; León, Ricardo; Hernández, Pedro A.; Biain, Ander; González, Francisco J.; Medialdea, Teresa; Gonzalez-Aller, Daniel; Sánchez de La Madrid, José Luis; Barrancos, José; Ibáñez, Jesús M.; Sumino, Hirochika


    Here we report precursory geophysical, geodetic, and geochemical signatures of a new submarine eruption off the northwestern coast of El Hierro, Canary Islands, which has been detected through acoustic imaging of submarine plumes on June 27, 2012, by the Spanish research vessel "Hespérides". Five distinct acoustic submarine plumes have been recognized in this area at water depths between 64 and 88 m along a submarine platform located in front of the Lomo Negro volcanic cone, northwestern of El Hierro. Submarine plums are characterized by vertical columns of high-amplitude values rising from seafloor. These acoustic imaging data clearly support a new submarine eruption in 2012 associated to the recent magmatic reactivation of El Hierro volcanic system. This new eruption event was preceded by several precursory signatures: (i) a sharp increase of the seismic energy release and the number of daily earthquakes of magnitude ≥ 2.5 on June 25, 2012, (ii) significant vertical and horizontal displacements observed at the Canary Islands GPS permanent network (Nagoya University-ITER-GRAFCAN) at El Hierro with uplifts up to 3 cm from June 25 to 26, 2012, (iii) an anomalous increase of the soil gas radon activity at HIE02, a geochemical station located in the northwestern of El Hierro, from the end of April until the beginning of June reaching peak values of 2.7 kBq/m3 on June 3, 2012, and (iv) the highest observed corrected value of 3He/4He ratio in ground waters (8,5 Ra) from San Simón well at the northwestern of El Hierro on June 16, 2012. These precursory signals have revealed important to improve and optimize the detection of early warning signals of volcanic unrest episodes at El Hierro.

  13. Supervolcanoes Within an Ancient Volcanic Province in Arabia Terra, Mars (United States)

    Michalski, Joseph. R.; Bleacher, Jacob E.


    Several irregularly shaped craters located within Arabia Terra, Mars represent a new type of highland volcanic construct and together constitute a previously unrecognized martian igneous province. Similar to terrestrial supervolcanoes, these low-relief paterae display a range of geomorphic features related to structural collapse, effusive volcanism, and explosive eruptions. Extruded lavas contributed to the formation of enigmatic highland ridged plains in Arabia Terra. Outgassed sulfur and erupted fine-grained pyroclastics from these calderas likely fed the formation of altered, layered sedimentary rocks and fretted terrain found throughout the equatorial region. Discovery of a new type of volcanic construct in the Arabia volcanic province fundamentally changes the picture of ancient volcanism and climate evolution on Mars. Other eroded topographic basins in the ancient Martian highlands that have been dismissed as degraded impact craters should be reconsidered as possible volcanic constructs formed in an early phase of widespread, disseminated magmatism on Mars.

  14. Boundary of the southwestern Nevada volcanic field from Laczniak and others (1996), for the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system study, Nevada and California (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set defines the boundary of the southwestern Nevada volcanic field (SWNVF), an area of thick, regionally distributed volcanic rocks within the...

  15. Submarine weathering of silicate minerals and the extent of pore water freshening at active continental margins (United States)

    Scholz, Florian; Hensen, Christian; Schmidt, Mark; Geersen, Jacob


    In order to investigate how submarine weathering processes may affect the water balance of sediments at convergent plate margins, six sediment cores were retrieved off Central Chile at water depth between ˜800 and 4000 m. The sediment solid phase was analyzed for its major element composition and the pore fluids were analyzed for dissolved sulfate, sulfide, total alkalinity, major cations, chloride, bromide, iodide, hydrocarbons as well as the carbon isotopic composition of methane. Because of negligible weathering on land, surface sediments off Central Chile are rich in reactive silicate minerals and have a bulk composition similar to volcanic rocks in the adjacent Andes. Deep-sourced fluxes of alkalinity, cations and chloride indicate that silicate minerals are subject to weathering in the forearc during burial. Comparison of deep-sourced signals with data from nearby Ocean Drilling Program Sites reveals two different types of weathering processes: In shallow (tens of meters), methanic sediments of slope basins with high organic carbon burial rates, reactive silicate minerals undergo incongruent dissolution through reaction with CO2 from methanogenesis. At greater burial depth (hundreds of meters), silicate weathering is dominated by authigenic smectite formation. This process is accompanied by uptake of water into the clay interlayers thus leading to elevated salinities in the surrounding pore water. Deep-seated smectite formation is more widespread than shallow silicate dissolution, as it is independent from the availability of CO2 from methanogenesis. Although solute transport is not focused enough to form cold seeps in the proper sense, tectonically induced, diffuse fluid flow transfers the deep-seated signal of smectite formation into the shallow sediments. The temperature-controlled conversion of smectite to illite is considered the most important dehydration process in marine forearc environments (depth of kilometers). However, in agreement with other

  16. Acoustic response of submarine volcanoes in the Tofua Arc and northern Lau Basin to two great earthquakes (United States)

    Bohnenstiehl, DelWayne R.; Dziak, Robert P.; Matsumoto, Haru; Conder, James A.


    Using a short-baseline hydrophone array, persistent volcanoacoustic sources are identified within the ambient noise field of the Lau Basin during the period between 2009 January and 2010 April. The submarine volcano West Mata and adjacent volcanic terrains, including the northern Matas and Volcano O, are the most active acoustic sources during the 15-month period of observation. Other areas of long-term activity include the Niua hydrothermal field, the volcanic islands of Hunga Ha'apai, Founalei, Niuatoputapu and Niuafo'ou, two seamounts located along the southern Tofua Arc and at least three unknown sites within the northern Lau Basin. Following the great Samoan earthquake on 2009 September 29, seven of the volcanoacoustic sources identified exhibit increases in the rate of acoustic detection. These changes persist over timescales of days-to-months and are observed up to 900 km from the earthquake hypocentre. At least one of the volcanoacoustic sources that did not respond to the 2009 Samoan earthquake exhibits an increase in detection rate following the great Mw 8.8 Chile earthquake that occurred at a distance of ˜9500 km on 2010 February 27. These observations suggest that great earthquakes may have undocumented impacts on Earth's vast submarine volcanic systems, potentially increasing the short-term flux of magma and volcanic gas into the overlying ocean.

  17. Temporal and Petrogenetic Constraints on Volcanic Accretionary Processes at 9-10 Degrees North East Pacific Rise (United States)


    Sims, S. Weyer , and J. Schweiters (2008), Measurement of 234U/238U and 230Th/232Th in volcanic rocks using the Neptune PIMMS, J. Anal. At. Spectrom...doi:10.1029/2002GC000419. Ball, L., K. Sims, S. Weyer , and J. Schweiters (2008), Measurement of 234U/238U and 230Th/232Th in volcanic rocks using

  18. Excess europium content in Precambrian sedimentary rocks and continental evolution (United States)

    Jakes, P.; Taylor, S. R.


    It is proposed that the europium excess in Precambrian sedimentary rocks, relative to those of younger age, is derived from volcanic rocks of ancient island arcs, which were the source materials for the sediments. Precambrian sedimentary rocks and present-day volcanic rocks of island arcs have similar REE patterns, total REE abundances, and excess Eu, relative to the North American shale composite. The present upper crustal REE pattern, as exemplified by that of sediments, is depleted in Eu, relative to chondrites. This depletion is considered to be a consequence of development of a granodioritic upper crust by partial melting in the lower crust, which selectively retains europium.

  19. Geomorphic process fingerprints in submarine canyons (United States)

    Brothers, Daniel S.; ten Brink, Uri S.; Andrews, Brian D.; Chaytor, Jason D.; Twichell, David C.


    Submarine canyons are common features of continental margins worldwide. They are conduits that funnel vast quantities of sediment from the continents to the deep sea. Though it is known that submarine canyons form primarily from erosion induced by submarine sediment flows, we currently lack quantitative, empirically based expressions that describe the morphology of submarine canyon networks. Multibeam bathymetry data along the entire passive US Atlantic margin (USAM) and along the active central California margin near Monterey Bay provide an opportunity to examine the fine-scale morphology of 171 slope-sourced canyons. Log–log regression analyses of canyon thalweg gradient (S) versus up-canyon catchment area (A) are used to examine linkages between morphological domains and the generation and evolution of submarine sediment flows. For example, canyon reaches of the upper continental slope are characterized by steep, linear and/or convex longitudinal profiles, whereas reaches farther down canyon have distinctly concave longitudinal profiles. The transition between these geomorphic domains is inferred to represent the downslope transformation of debris flows into erosive, canyon-flushing turbidity flows. Over geologic timescales this process appears to leave behind a predictable geomorphic fingerprint that is dependent on the catchment area of the canyon head. Catchment area, in turn, may be a proxy for the volume of sediment released during geomorphically significant failures along the upper continental slope. Focused studies of slope-sourced submarine canyons may provide new insights into the relationships between fine-scale canyon morphology and down-canyon changes in sediment flow dynamics.

  20. Gravity inversion for modelling of subsurface structures associated to the volcanic evolution of La Gomera island (Canarian Archipelago, Spain) (United States)

    Montesinos, F. G.; Arnoso, J.; Luque, T.; Benavent, T.; Vieira, R.


    It is firmly established that, of all the geodetic or geophysical techniques available, gravity modelling plays an important role in helping us to understand volcanic structures. We present here a study of the structural setting of the volcanic island of La Gomera by the analysis and interpretation of high-resolution gravity data obtained over the island. The gravity data allow us to model the main subsurface anomaly sources of the island, which are related with its volcanic evolution. Our outcome is consistent with the results of previous geophysical and volcanological studies. La Gomera island occupies a central position in the Canarian archipelago. This archipelago is the result of construction and destruction of successive large edifices covering a time span of several million years. Intrusion of magma has caused the development of an enormous amount of dikes that constituted step by step the main framework of the hypabyssal roots of these edifices. La Gomera has a surface about 372 km2 with a roughly circular contour and it is characterised by its central massif of 1487 meters height, dropping steeply to the sea. This island is the only one on the archipelago with no signs of Pleistocene volcanic activity. Its distinctive morphological feature is the intense degree of erosion in all formations, with deep, vertical-walled valleys that cut the island radially and in which the tabular successions of basalts can be seen. The most complex and interesting unit of La Gomera is its Basal Complex, which crops out in a restricted area located at the North and it is formed of plutonic volcanic and sedimentary rocks cut by an extremely dense dyke network. According to several authors, the characteristics of this complex seem to support the hypothesis that these rocks were formed by processes of magmatic sedimentation in a fairly turbulent medium. These conditions could correspond, for instance, to the ones in a reservoir beneath a volcano. Another possibility is that this

  1. Studies of Arc Volcanism in the Southern Mariana Arc from Pagan to Tracey: Preliminary results from ROV Hyper-Dolphin Dives (United States)

    Shukuno, H.; Tamura, Y.; Stern, R. J.; Ishizuka, O.; Bloomer, S. H.; Hein, J. R.; Leybourne, M. I.; Jordan, E.; Wada, I.; Nichols, A. R.; Hirahara, Y.; Senda, R.; Nunokawa, A.


    ROV Hyper-Dolphin dives in the Southern Mariana region were carried out during NT10-12 cruise (R/V Natsushima) in July 2010. We focused on the submarine volcanoes within the Pagan-Daon cross-arc chain, and at East Diamante, NW Rota-1, West Rota and Tracey. The newly obtained petrologic and geologic data, together with data from previous studies on the IBM arc, will provide insights into understanding processes occurring in the subduction factory. Here we will present preliminary results of our recent cruises in the Mariana arc. Pagan volcano, the top of which is subaerial, and Daon Seamount form a WSW-ENE cross-arc chain, with Pagan volcano on the volcanic front side. On the NE submarine slopes of Pagan, in water depths of 2000-1500 m, there are many SW-NE trending ridges, which were found to mainly consist of basaltic pillow lavas. Daon seamount, located on the rear-arc side of the cross-chain, has an unusual morphology with many ridges radiating from it. Basaltic lavas were recovered from the ridges on the lower SE flanks of Daon at depths of 2600-2360 m. Basalts from the Pagan-Daon cross-chain are mostly undifferentiated olivine-bearing basalts. The samples collected from Pagan-Daon cross-arc chain will be compared with primitive lavas from NW Rota-1, where two primary magma types have been found. East Diamante caldera is located on the volcanic front side of the Diamante cross-arc chain and has a complex volcanic history. East Diamante is characterized by the existence of a large field of hydrothermal mounds and active chimneys in its summit caldera. Post-caldera collapse intrusions of dacite are believed to provide the heat source for the production and circulation of the hydrothermal fluids that generate the field. During this cruise the chimneys and mounds were sampled from depths of 350-380 m. West Rota volcano is the largest submarine caldera in the Mariana arc. The eastern caldera wall preserves much of the stratigraphic and intrusive relationships. West

  2. Geology and geochemistry of volcanic centers within the eastern half of the Sonoma volcanic field, northern San Francisco Bay region, California (United States)

    Sweetkind, Donald S.; Rytuba, James J.; Langenheim, V.E.; Fleck, Robert J.


    Volcanic rocks in the Sonoma volcanic field in the northern California Coast Ranges contain heterogeneous assemblages of a variety of compositionally diverse volcanic rocks. We have used field mapping, new and existing age determinations, and 343 new major and trace element analyses of whole-rock samples from lavas and tuff to define for the first time volcanic source areas for many parts of the Sonoma volcanic field. Geophysical data and models have helped to define the thickness of the volcanic pile and the location of caldera structures. Volcanic rocks of the Sonoma volcanic field show a broad range in eruptive style that is spatially variable and specific to an individual eruptive center. Major, minor, and trace-element geochemical data for intracaldera and outflow tuffs and their distal fall equivalents suggest caldera-related sources for the Pinole and Lawlor Tuffs in southern Napa Valley and for the tuff of Franz Valley in northern Napa Valley. Stratigraphic correlations based on similarity in eruptive sequence and style coupled with geochemical data allow an estimate of 30 km of right-lateral offset across the West Napa-Carneros fault zones since ~5 Ma.

  3. Imaging deformation in submarine thrust belts using seismic attributes (United States)

    Iacopini, David; Butler, Robert W. H.


    Uncertainty exists as to the patterns of deformation that develop within submarine thrust belts. This case study uses a large-scale gravity-driven fold-thrust structure as an analogue for submarine fold thrust systems in general. Seismic attribute analysis and mapping provide ways of identifying complex fault patterns and associated deformation that are otherwise unresolved in conventional amplitude displays. These methods are developed and applied to a 3D dataset and used to investigate the geometry, internal architecture and the nature of the low signal/noise incoherency and discontinuities observed on the km-scale. Semblance (coherency), curvatures and spectral decomposition were all computed and used as attributes. Collectively these define volumes within the seismic data where the signal is greatly reduced — features termed here "disturbance geobodies". The study shows that thrust faults that, on conventional amplitude displays appear to be simple and continuous, are likely to consist of complex arrays of anastamosing fault strands. Adjacent to these composite fault zones are greater volumes of deformed rocks (disturbance geobodies) across which there are only minor stratal offsets. Similarly volumes of high stratal curvature coincide with disturbance geobodies, again interpreted as zones of weak, distributed deformation. These relationships between narrow thrust faults and broader zones of deformation are broadly comparable to those observed in outcrops within exhumed thrust systems. Application of the seismic imaging techniques developed here will improve the understanding of the localization of deformation in sedimentary successions with important implications for predicting fluid flow within other deep water structures such as subduction accretion complexes.

  4. The Early Mesozoic volcanic arc of western North America in northeastern Mexico (United States)

    Barboza-Gudiño, José Rafael; Orozco-Esquivel, María Teresa; Gómez-Anguiano, Martín; Zavala-Monsiváis, Aurora


    Volcanic successions underlying clastic and carbonate marine rocks of the Oxfordian-Kimmeridgian Zuloaga Group in northeastern Mexico have been attributed to magmatic arcs of Permo-Triassic and Early Jurassic ages. This work provides stratigraphic, petrographic geochronological, and geochemical data to characterize pre-Oxfordian volcanic rocks outcropping in seven localities in northeastern Mexico. Field observations show that the volcanic units overlie Paleozoic metamorphic rocks (Granjeno schist) or Triassic marine strata (Zacatecas Formation) and intrude Triassic redbeds or are partly interbedded with Lower Jurassic redbeds (Huizachal Group). The volcanic rocks include rhyolitic and rhyodacitic domes and dikes, basaltic to andesitic lava flows and breccias, and andesitic to rhyolitic pyroclastic rocks, including breccias, lapilli, and ashflow tuffs that range from welded to unwelded. Lower-Middle Jurassic ages (U/Pb in zircon) have been reported from only two studied localities (Huizachal Valley, Sierra de Catorce), and other reported ages (Ar/Ar and K-Ar in whole-rock or feldspar) are often reset. This work reports a new U/Pb age in zircon that confirms a Lower Jurassic (193 Ma) age for volcanic rocks exposed in the Aramberri area. The major and trace element contents of samples from the seven localities are typical of calc-alkaline, subduction-related rocks. The new geochronological and geochemical data, coupled with the lithological features and stratigraphic positions, indicate volcanic rocks are part of a continental arc, similar to that represented by the Lower-Middle Jurassic Nazas Formation of Durango and northern Zacatecas. On that basis, the studied volcanic sequences are assigned to the Early Jurassic volcanic arc of western North America.

  5. Volcanic Supersites as cross-disciplinary laboratories (United States)

    Provenzale, Antonello; Beierkuhnlein, Carl; Giamberini, Mariasilvia; Pennisi, Maddalena; Puglisi, Giuseppe


    surface between the top of the vegetation and the rock matrix in active volcanic areas and Volcanic Supersites.

  6. Quaternary basaltic volcanism in the Payenia volcanic province, Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søager, Nina

    primitive basalts and trachybasalts but also more evolved samples from the retroarc region and the larger volcanoes Payún Matrú and Payún Liso are presented. The samples cover a broad range of compositions from intraplate lavas similar to ocean island basalts to arc andesites. A common feature found...... are isotopically similar to the Andean Southern Volcanic Zone arc rocks and their mantle source possibly resembled the source of South Atlantic N-MORB prior to addition of fluids and melts from the subduction channel. However, it must have been more enriched than the estimates of depleted upper mantle from...... the lithosphere is thinnest and possibly in areas of elevated mantle temperatures. The pyroxenite melts formed at deeper levels react with the surrounding peridotite and thereby changes composition leading to eruption of melts which experienced variable degrees of melt-peridotite interaction. This can presumably...

  7. Silicate volcanism on Io (United States)

    Carr, M. H.


    This paper is mainly concerned with the nature of volcanic eruptions on Io, taking into account questions regarding the presence of silicates or sulfur as principal component. Attention is given to the generation of silicate magma, the viscous dissipation in the melt zone, thermal anomalies at eruption sites, and Ionian volcanism. According to the information available about Io, it appears that its volcanism and hence its surface materials are dominantly silicic. Several percent of volatile materials such as sulfur, but also including sodium- and potassium-rich materials, may also be present. The volatile materials at the surface are continually vaporized and melted as a result of the high rates of silicate volcanism.

  8. MVAC Submarine cable, impedance measurements and analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arentsen, Martin Trolle; Pedersen, Morten Virklund; Expethit, Adrian


    Due to environmental concerns an increase in off-shore windfarms has been observed in recent years, leading to an increased demand for three-core-wire-armoured submarine cables. However, the IEC Standard 60287 used to calculate the ampacity of these cables is widely recognized as being not accurate...

  9. German Submarine Offensives and South African Countermeasures

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    'Good Hunting': German Submarine Offensives and South African. Countermeasures off the South African Coast during the Second World. War, 1942-1945. Evert Kleynhans. •. Abstract .... wolf packs south, Dönitz had hoped to cause a diversionary effect whereby the Allies would be forced to split their defensive forces ...

  10. Submarine Telecommunication Cables in Disputed Maritime Areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Logchem, Youri


    There are a considerable number of maritime areas where no boundary exists, or where a boundary is delimited only in part. This article deals with the issue of submarine telecommunication cables, which are sometimes placed on the seabed or buried in the subsoil of areas that are claimed by multiple

  11. Monitoring of the nuclear submarine Komsomolets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heldal, Hilde E.; Flo, Janita K.; Liebig, Penny L. [Institute of Marine Research, P. O. Box 1870 Nordnes, N-5817 Bergen (Norway); Gaefvert, Torbjoern; Rudjord, Anne Liv [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, P.O. Box 55, N-1332 Oesteraas (Norway); Gwynn, Justin P. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, The Fram Centre, N-9296 Tromsoe (Norway)


    The Soviet nuclear submarine Komsomolets sank on the 7 April 1989, 180 km southwest of Bear Island in the Norwegian Sea to a depth of about 1655 m. The submarine contains one nuclear reactor containing long-lived radionuclides such as cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) along with other fission and activation products, in addition to 2 mixed uranium/plutonium nuclear warheads containing weapons grade plutonium. Although several model studies have shown that a radioactive leakage from Komsomolets will have insignificant impact on fish and other marine organisms, there are still public concerns about the condition of the submarine and the potential for radioactive leakage. In order to document the contamination levels and to meet public concerns, monitoring of radioactive contamination in the area adjacent to the submarine has been ongoing since 1993. Samples of bottom seawater and sediments have been collected annually by the Institute of Marine Research (IMR) and have been analysed for {sup 137}Cs and plutonium-239,240 ({sup 239,240}Pu). So far, activity concentrations in the samples have been comparable to levels found in other samples from the Norwegian and Barents Seas. During sampling from R/V 'G. O. Sars' in April 2013, an area of about 1 km{sup 2} of the seabed around Komsomolets was mapped to precisely locate the submarine using a Kongsberg EM302 multibeam echo sounder, a Simrad EK60 single beam echo sounder and an Olex 3D bottom-mapping system. For sediment sampling, a Simrad MST342 mini-transponder was attached to a Smoegen box corer to allow for precise positioning of the corer. With the aid of the Kongsberg HiPAP (High Precision Acoustic Positioning) system, 4 box cores were collected around the submarine at a distance of 10 to 20 m. In addition, one box core was collected from a reference station about 100 m upstream of the submarine. Surface sediments and sediment cores were collected from the box cores taken at each sampling location. Sediment cores

  12. Chemical environments of submarine hydrothermal systems (United States)

    Shock, Everett L.


    Perhaps because black-smoker chimneys make tremendous subjects for magazine covers, the proposal that submarine hydrothermal systems were involved in the origin of life has caused many investigators to focus on the eye-catching hydrothermal vents. In much the same way that tourists rush to watch the spectacular eruptions of Old Faithful geyser with little regard for the hydrology of the Yellowstone basin, attention is focused on the spectacular, high-temperature hydrothermal vents to the near exclusion of the enormous underlying hydrothermal systems. Nevertheless, the magnitude and complexity of geologic structures, heat flow, and hydrologic parameters which characterize the geyser basins at Yellowstone also characterize submarine hydrothermal systems. However, in the submarine systems the scale can be considerably more vast. Like Old Faithful, submarine hydrothermal vents have a spectacular quality, but they are only one fascinating aspect of enormous geologic systems operating at seafloor spreading centers throughout all of the ocean basins. A critical study of the possible role of hydrothermal processes in the origin of life should include the full spectrum of probable environments. The goals of this chapter are to synthesize diverse information about the inorganic geochemistry of submarine hydrothermal systems, assemble a description of the fundamental physical and chemical attributes of these systems, and consider the implications of high-temperature, fluid-driven processes for organic synthesis. Information about submarine hydrothermal systems comes from many directions. Measurements made directly on venting fluids provide useful, but remarkably limited, clues about processes operating at depth. The oceanic crust has been drilled to approximately 2.0 km depth providing many other pieces of information, but drilling technology has not allowed the bore holes and core samples to reach the maximum depths to which aqueous fluids circulate in oceanic crust. Such

  13. Phase 1 Final Report: Titan Submarine (United States)

    Oleson, Steven R.; Lorenz, Ralph D.; Paul, Michael V.


    The conceptual design of a submarine for Saturn's moon Titan was a funded NASA Innovative Advanced Concepts (NIAC) Phase 1 for 2014. The proposal stated the desire to investigate what science a submarine for Titan's liquid hydrocarbon seas might accomplish and what that submarine might look like. Focusing on a flagship class science system (100 kg), it was found that a submersible platform can accomplish extensive science both above and below the surface of the Kraken Mare. Submerged science includes mapping using side-looking sonar, imaging and spectroscopy of the lake, as well as sampling of the lake's bottom and shallow shoreline. While surfaced, the submarine will not only sense weather conditions (including the interaction between the liquid and atmosphere) but also image the shoreline, as much as 2 km inland. This imaging requirement pushed the landing date to Titan's next summer period (2047) to allow for lighted conditions, as well as direct-to-Earth communication, avoiding the need for a separate relay orbiter spacecraft. Submerged and surfaced investigation are key to understanding both the hydrological cycle of Titan as well as gather hints to how life may have begun on Earth using liquid, sediment, and chemical interactions. An estimated 25 Mb of data per day would be generated by the various science packages. Most of the science packages (electronics at least) can be safely kept inside the submarine pressure vessel and warmed by the isotope power system.The baseline 90-day mission would be to sail submerged and surfaced around and through Kraken Mare investigating the shoreline and inlets to evaluate the sedimentary interaction both on the surface and then below. Depths of Kraken have yet to be sensed (Ligeia to the north is thought to be 200 m (656 ft) deep), but a maximum depth of 1,000 m (3,281 ft) for Kraken Mare was assumed for the design). The sub would spend 20 d at the interface between Kraken Mare and Ligeia Mare for clues to the drainage of

  14. Geomechanical rock properties of a basaltic volcano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren N Schaefer


    Full Text Available In volcanic regions, reliable estimates of mechanical properties for specific volcanic events such as cyclic inflation-deflation cycles by magmatic intrusions, thermal stressing, and high temperatures are crucial for building accurate models of volcanic phenomena. This study focuses on the challenge of characterizing volcanic materials for the numerical analyses of such events. To do this, we evaluated the physical (porosity, permeability and mechanical (strength properties of basaltic rocks at Pacaya Volcano (Guatemala through a variety of laboratory experiments, including: room temperature, high temperature (935 °C, and cyclically-loaded uniaxial compressive strength tests on as-collected and thermally-treated rock samples. Knowledge of the material response to such varied stressing conditions is necessary to analyze potential hazards at Pacaya, whose persistent activity has led to 13 evacuations of towns near the volcano since 1987. The rocks show a non-linear relationship between permeability and porosity, which relates to the importance of the crack network connecting the vesicles in these rocks. Here we show that strength not only decreases with porosity and permeability, but also with prolonged stressing (i.e., at lower strain rates and upon cooling. Complimentary tests in which cyclic episodes of thermal or load stressing showed no systematic weakening of the material on the scale of our experiments. Most importantly, we show the extremely heterogeneous nature of volcanic edifices that arise from differences in porosity and permeability of the local lithologies, the limited lateral extent of lava flows, and the scars of previous collapse events. Input of these process-specific rock behaviors into slope stability and deformation models can change the resultant hazard analysis. We anticipate that an increased parameterization of rock properties will improve mitigation power.

  15. Recreating Rocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Posth, Nicole R


    Nicole Posth and colleagues spent a month touring South African rock formations in their quest to understand the origin of ancient iron and silicate layers.......Nicole Posth and colleagues spent a month touring South African rock formations in their quest to understand the origin of ancient iron and silicate layers....

  16. Birth of two volcanic islands in the southern Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Wenbin


    Submarine eruptions that lead to the formation of new volcanic islands are rare and far from being fully understood; only a few such eruptions have been witnessed since Surtsey Island emerged to the south of Iceland in the 1960s. Here we report on two new volcanic islands that were formed in the Zubair archipelago of the southern Red Sea in 2011–2013. Using high-resolution optical satellite images, we find that the new islands grew rapidly during their initial eruptive phases and that coastal erosion significantly modified their shapes within months. Satellite radar data indicate that two north–south-oriented dykes, much longer than the small islands might suggest, fed the eruptions. These events occurred contemporaneously with several local earthquake swarms of the type that typically accompany magma intrusions. Earthquake activity has been affecting the southern Red Sea for decades, suggesting the presence of a magmatically active zone that has previously escaped notice.

  17. Evidence of persistent seismo-volcanic activity at Marsili seamount

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonino D'Alessandro


    Full Text Available The Marsili submarine volcano is the largest European volcano, and it can be considered as the key to our understanding of the dynamics of the spreading and back-arc lithosphere formation in the Tyrrhenian sector [Marani et al. 2004, and references therein]. Despite its size, it is very difficult to monitor due to its geographical position [D'Alessandro et al. 2011], and it still remains little known. In 2006, the Centro Nazionale Terremoti (National Earthquake Centre of the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV deployed a broadband ocean-bottom seismometer with hydrophone (OBS/H [Mangano et al. 2011] on the flat top of Marsili volcano, at a depth of ca. 790 m. In only nine days, the instrument recorded ca. 800 seismo-volcanic events [D'Alessandro et al. 2009]. This revealed the intense seismo-volcanic activity of Marsili volcano for the first time. […] 

  18. The volcanic and geochemical development of São Nicolau, Cape Verde Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duprat, Helene Inga; Holm, Paul Martin; Sherson, Jacob Friis


    We present 34 new age results from 40 Ar/39 Ar incremental heating analyses of groundmass separates from volcanic rocks from São Nicolau, Cape Verde. Combining the age results with field observations, we show that the volcanic activity that formed the island occurred in four separate stages: 1: >...

  19. Art Rocks with Rock Art! (United States)

    Bickett, Marianne


    This article discusses rock art which was the very first "art." Rock art, such as the images created on the stone surfaces of the caves of Lascaux and Altimira, is the true origin of the canvas, paintbrush, and painting media. For there, within caverns deep in the earth, the first artists mixed animal fat, urine, and saliva with powdered minerals…

  20. Basaltic lava characterization using magnetic susceptibility identification and presence of opaque minerals in Ijen volcanic complex, Banyuwangi, East Java (United States)

    Pratama, Aditya; Hafidz, Abd.; Bijaksana, Satria; Abdurrachman, Mirzam


    Reliable volcanic map and deep understanding of magmatic processes are very important in exploration of natural resources and mitigation of volcanic hazards. The conservative method in volcanic mapping still depends on qualitative approach thus it often failed to characterize volcanic products properly. Rock magnetic methods are quantitative approaches that classify rocks based on their magnetic properties. In this study, magmatic processes in basaltic lavas from Ijen volcanic complex in Banyuwangi, East Java were studied using combined rock magnetic and petrogenesis approaches. Samples of basaltic lavas from 13 localities, taken from three eruption sources were measuredfor their mass-specific magnetic susceptibility. The samples were then also subjected to petrographic and X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (XRF) analyses for their minerals composition and petrogenesis. Preliminary results show that the distinction in magnetic characters might be due to the quantity of magnetic minerals contained in rocks.

  1. Crustal contamination and fluid/rock interaction in the carbonatites of Fuerteventura (Canary Islands, Spain): a C, O, H isotope study (United States)

    Demény, A.; Ahijado, A.; Casillas, R.; Vennemann, T. W.


    Fuerteventura—the second largest of the Canary Islands consists of Mesozoic sediments, submarine volcanic rocks, dike swarms and plutons of the Basal Complex, and younger subaerial basaltic and trachytic series. Carbonatites are found in two Basal Complex exposures: the Betancuria Massif in the central part of the island and the Esquinzo area in the north. δ 13C values of the carbonatites increase progressively from south to north of the island. This phenomenon is attributed to different degrees of assimilation of sedimentary carbonate. Homogeneous, typically magmatic δ 18O values for carbonatites which have preserved primary igneous textures and minerals suggest a well-mixed reservoir where changes in δ 13C values result from the storage of carbonate magmas at different structural levels. The magma storage allowed assimilation of sediment to varying degrees before final emplacement of carbonatites. Shifts in δ 18O towards more positive and negative values from presumed primary compositions are observed in the carbonatites. On the basis of the oxygen isotope compositions of calcite, mica and K-feldspar, and the hydrogen isotope compositions of micas, the changes in the δ 18O values of the carbonatites can be related to fluid/rock interactions.

  2. Rock Physics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Ida Lykke


    Rock physics is the discipline linking petrophysical properties as derived from borehole data to surface based geophysical exploration data. It can involve interpretation of both elastic wave propagation and electrical conductivity, but in this chapter focus is on elasticity. Rock physics is based...... on continuum mechanics, and the theory of elasticity developed for statics becomes the key to petrophysical interpretation of velocity of elastic waves. In practice, rock physics involves interpretation of well logs including vertical seismic profiling (VSP) and analysis of core samples. The results...

  3. First data on the age of rocks from the central part of the Vitoria-Trindade Ridge (Brazil Basin, South Atlantic) (United States)

    Skolotnev, S. G.; Bylinskaya, M. E.; Golovina, L. A.; Ipat'eva, I. S.


    Micropaleontological and isotope-geochronological investigations of calcareous sedimentary rocks and volcanites dredged out from the central portion of the submarine Vitoria-Trindade Ridge during the 24th cruise of R/V Akademik Vavilov have been conducted. It has been established based on micropaleontological analysis, which included determination of the species composition of foraminifera and nannoplankton, that the sequence of sedimentary rocks having a pelagic nature formed on the slopes of the volcanic seamounts in the central portion of the Vitoria-Trindade Ridge from the Early to Mid-Miocene to the Holocene; a good correlation between the degree of lithification of these rocks and their age is observed. It has also been established that the carbonate platforms on the abraded tops of the Davis Seamount and the Dogaressa Bank, which are located in the east-central portion of the Vitoria-Trindade Ridge, started forming in the Early Miocene (19-24 Ma). It has been determined using local U-Pb dating of zircon grains with a SHRIMP-II high resolution secondary ion mass spectrometer that the volcanites forming the upper portion of the volcanic rock sequence of the Jaseur Seamount (29.8 ± 6.6 Ma) located in the west-central portion of the Vitoria-Trindade Ridge date to the Oligocene. The investigations conducted have confirmed the opinion that the Vitoria-Trindade Ridge formed in general because of the activity of the hot spot located under the volcanic Trindade and Martin Vaz Islands. However, separate extended lenticular segments of this ridge existed for a long time as single structures, within which the age of the seamounts was not linearly dependent on the distance from the location of the hot spot. Lenses of hot mantle matter that form at the sublithospheric level as a result of impulses of plume activity and move along with the lithospheric plate play a defining role in the development of individual segments forming the Vitoria-Trindade Ridge.

  4. Submarine mass wasting processes along slopes influenced by long-term tectonic erosion: The Middle America Trench (United States)

    Harders, R.; Ranero, C. R.; Weinrebe, W.


    We have studied submarine land-sliding using a seafloor topography and side-scan sonar data along the continental slope of the Middle America Trench. This subduction zone is dominated by tectonic erosion. Studies during the last few decades have shown mass wasting structures at submarine slopes around the world's continental margins, hot-spot volcanic islands, and volcanic island arcs. At Atlantic margins slides initiate at low slope angles and appear triggered by high sediment accumulation rates. At volcanic islands large-scale land-sliding is caused by volcano sector collapse. At subduction zones with accretionary prisms, land-sliding seems associated to contractional tectonics and fluid seepage. Submarine mass movements at subduction zones dominated by tectonic erosion are comparatively limited. However, tectonic erosion is active in about 50% of the world subduction zones. Distinct failures have been studied at slopes in Peru, Costa Rica, Nicaragua and New Zealand but extensive surveys have not been obtained. We present a comprehensive data sets on seafloor mapping on a subduction zone dominated by tectonic erosion. The data covers much of the Middle America Trench (MAT) from the Mexico-Guatemala border to Costa Rica - Panama border. The goal of this contribution is to evaluate how long-term tectonics caused by subduction erosion preconditions the continental slope structure to modulate the generation of land-sliding. We show that changes in subduction erosion processes, interacting with the local topography of the subducting plate correlate to variations in the type and distribution of failures along the slope of the region.

  5. Volcanic signals in oceans

    KAUST Repository

    Stenchikov, Georgiy L.


    Sulfate aerosols resulting from strong volcanic explosions last for 2–3 years in the lower stratosphere. Therefore it was traditionally believed that volcanic impacts produce mainly short-term, transient climate perturbations. However, the ocean integrates volcanic radiative cooling and responds over a wide range of time scales. The associated processes, especially ocean heat uptake, play a key role in ongoing climate change. However, they are not well constrained by observations, and attempts to simulate them in current climate models used for climate predictions yield a range of uncertainty. Volcanic impacts on the ocean provide an independent means of assessing these processes. This study focuses on quantification of the seasonal to multidecadal time scale response of the ocean to explosive volcanism. It employs the coupled climate model CM2.1, developed recently at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration\\'s Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, to simulate the response to the 1991 Pinatubo and the 1815 Tambora eruptions, which were the largest in the 20th and 19th centuries, respectively. The simulated climate perturbations compare well with available observations for the Pinatubo period. The stronger Tambora forcing produces responses with higher signal-to-noise ratio. Volcanic cooling tends to strengthen the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. Sea ice extent appears to be sensitive to volcanic forcing, especially during the warm season. Because of the extremely long relaxation time of ocean subsurface temperature and sea level, the perturbations caused by the Tambora eruption could have lasted well into the 20th century.


    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    THE PANJAL TRAPS: ACID AND BASIC. VOLCANIC ROCKS. BY P. N. GANJU, M.Sc. (Lecturer in Geology, University of Lucknow). Received September 17, 1943. (Communicated by Prof. L. Rama Rao, HB material on which this paper is based was collected by the author, mainly during the field work done in the ...

  7. Evidences for a volcanic province in the Central Indian Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Iyer, S.D.; Sudhakar, M.

    and in deciphering the source of the rock types. Further, the large manganese nodule fields in the CIB are seen to occur in conjunction with the volcanic materials, since the latter forms nuclei and substrates for ferromanganese deposits. It is concluded that a...

  8. Surface complexation modeling of americium sorption onto volcanic tuff. (United States)

    Ding, M; Kelkar, S; Meijer, A


    Results of a surface complexation model (SCM) for americium sorption on volcanic rocks (devitrified and zeolitic tuff) are presented. The model was developed using PHREEQC and based on laboratory data for americium sorption on quartz. Available data for sorption of americium on quartz as a function of pH in dilute groundwater can be modeled with two surface reactions involving an americium sulfate and an americium carbonate complex. It was assumed in applying the model to volcanic rocks from Yucca Mountain, that the surface properties of volcanic rocks can be represented by a quartz surface. Using groundwaters compositionally representative of Yucca Mountain, americium sorption distribution coefficient (Kd, L/Kg) values were calculated as function of pH. These Kd values are close to the experimentally determined Kd values for americium sorption on volcanic rocks, decreasing with increasing pH in the pH range from 7 to 9. The surface complexation constants, derived in this study, allow prediction of sorption of americium in a natural complex system, taking into account the inherent uncertainty associated with geochemical conditions that occur along transport pathways. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Psychological Implications for Submarine Display Design (United States)


    This paper addresses a number of psychological issues pertaining to display design . We review the literature comparing 3-D and 2-D displays and...perceptual, cognitive and ecological factors that are relevant to display design for submarine environments. The Generative Transformational visual perception is outlined and the relevance of transformational theory to display design is discussed. The paper also discusses a number of

  10. New insight from noble gas and stable isotopes of geothermal/hydrothermal fluids at Caviahue-Copahue Volcanic Complex: Boiling steam separation and water-rock interaction at shallow depth (United States)

    Roulleau, Emilie; Tardani, Daniele; Sano, Yuji; Takahata, Naoto; Vinet, Nicolas; Bravo, Francisco; Muñoz, Carlos; Sanchez, Juan


    We measured noble gas and stable isotopes of the geothermal and hydrothermal fluids of the Caviahue-Copahue Volcanic Complex (CCVC), one of the most important geothermal systems in Argentina/Chile, in order to provide new insights into fluid circulation and origin. With the exception of Anfiteatro and Chancho-co geothermal systems, mantle-derived helium dominates in the CCVC fluids, with measured 3He/4He ratios up to 7.86Ra in 2015. Their positive δ15N is an evidence for subducted sediment-derived nitrogen, which is commonly observed in subduction settings. Both He-N2-Ar composition and positive correlation between δD-H2O and δ18O-H2O suggest that the fluids from Anfiteatro and Chancho-co (and partly from Pucon-Mahuida as well, on the southern flank of Copahue volcano) represent a meteoric water composition with a minor magmatic contribution. The Ne, Kr and Xe isotopic compositions are entirely of atmospheric origin, but processes of boiling and steam separation have led to fractionation of their elemental abundances. We modeled the CCVC fluid evolution using Rayleigh distillation curves, considering an initial air saturated geothermal water (ASGW) end-member at 250 and 300 °C, followed by boiling and steam separation at lower temperatures (from 200 °C to 150 °C). Between 2014 and 2015, the CCVC hydrogen and oxygen isotopes shifted from local meteoric water-dominated to andesitic water-dominated signature. This shift is associated with an increase of δ13C values and Stotal, HCl and He contents. These characteristics are consistent with a change in the gas ascent pathway between 2014 and 2015, which in turn induced higher magmatic-hydrothermal contribution in the fluid signature. The composition of the magmatic source of the CCVC fluids is: 3He/4He = 7.7Ra, δ15N = + 6‰, and δ13C = - 6.5‰. Mixing models between air-corrected He and N suggest the involvement of 0.5% to 5% of subducted sediments in the magmatic source. The magmatic sulfur isotopic

  11. Topology Model of the Flow around a Submarine Hull Form (United States)


    resistance and flow noise arising from flow-structure interaction, it is necessary to test the shape of the submarine , which includes the length-to...UNCLASSIFIED Topology Model of the Flow around a Submarine Hull Form S.-K. Lee Maritime Division Defence Science and Technology Group DST-Group–TR...3177 ABSTRACT A topology model constructed from surface-streamer visualisation describes the flow around a generic conventional submarine hull form at

  12. A Lanchester model of submarine attack on a carrier battlegroup


    Eagle, James N.


    A Lanchester model is developed for a battlegroup ASW engagement. Two variations are included. In the first, long-range missile firing submarines, short-range missile or torpedo firing submarines, and submarines firing only torpedoes distribute their attack uniformly over battlegroup escort ships and carriers. In the second variation, the attack is concentrated on the carriers. supported by the Naval War College NA

  13. The volcanic-sedimentary sequence of the Lousal deposit, Iberian Pyrite Belt (Portugal) (United States)

    Rosa, Carlos; Rosa, Diogo; Matos, Joao; Relvas, Jorge


    The Iberian Pyrite Belt (IPB) is a massive sulfide province that is located in the south of Portugal and Spain, and hosts more than 90 massive sulfide deposits that amount to more than 1850 million metric tonnes of sulfide ore (Tornos, 2006). The ore deposits size, vary from ~1Mt to >100Mt (e.g. Neves Corvo and Aljustrel in Portugal, and Rio Tinto and Tharsis in Spain). The ore deposits are hosted by a submarine sedimentary and volcanic, felsic dominated, succession that constitutes the Upper Devonian to Lower Carboniferous Volcanic and Sedimentary Complex (VSC). The VSC ranges in thickness from approximately 600 to 1300 m (Tornos 2006). The VSC overlies the Phyllite-Quartzite Group (PQ) (Upper Devonian, base unknown) and is overlain by the Baixo Alentejo Flysch Group (Lower to Upper Carboniferous). The Lousal massive sulfide deposit is located in the western part of the IPB and occurs mostly interbedded with black mudstone. The VSC sequence at Lousal mine consists of a mudstone and quartzite sequence (PQ Group) in the lower part of the succession, over which a thick sequence of rhyolitic lavas (>300 m) occurs. Above the rhyolitic lavas there is a thick sequence of black and grey mudstone that hosts the massive sulfide ore bodies, and a rhyolitic sill. The upper part of the VSC sequence consists of a thick mudstone interval that hosts two thick basaltic units, locally with pillows. The rhyolites have small coherent cores, locally with flow bands, that grade to surrounding massive clastic intervals, with large lateral extent. The clasts show jigsaw-fit arrangement in many places and have planar or curviplanar margins and locally are perlitic at the margin. The top contact of these units is in most locations not exposed, which makes difficult to interpret the mode of emplacement. However, the thick clastic intervals, above described, are in accordance with quenching of volcanic glass with abundant water and therefore indicate that quenching of the rhyolites was the

  14. Searching for structural medium changes during the 2011 El Hierro (Spain) submarine eruption (United States)

    Sánchez-Pastor, Pilar S.; Schimmel, Martin; López, Carmen


    Submarine volcanic eruptions are often difficult to study due to their restricted access that usually inhibits direct observations. That happened with the 2011 El Hierro eruption, which is the first eruption that has been tracked in real time in Canary Islands. For instance, despite the real-time tracking it was not possible to determine the exact end of the eruption. Besides, volcanic eruptions involve many dynamic (physical and chemical) processes, which cause structural changes in the surrounding medium that we expect to observe and monitor through passive seismic approaches. The purpose of this study is to detect and analyse these changes as well as to search for precursory signals to the eruption itself using ambient noise auto and cross-correlations. We employ different correlation strategies (classical and phase cross-correlation) and apply them to field data recorded by the IGN network during 2011 and 2012. The different preprocessing and processing steps are tested and compared to better understand the data, to find the robust signatures, and to define a routine work procedure. One of the problems we face is the presence of volcanic tremors, which cause a varying seismic response that we can not attribute to structural changes. So far, structural changes could not be detected unambiguously and we present our ongoing research in this field.

  15. Potential Impact of Submarine Power Cables on Crab Harvest (United States)

    Bull, A. S.; Nishimoto, M.


    Offshore renewable energy installations convert wave or wind energy to electricity and transfer the power to shore through transmission cables laid on or buried beneath the seafloor. West coast commercial fishermen, who harvest the highly prized Dungeness crab (Metacarcinus magister) and the rock crab (Cancer spp.), are concerned that the interface of crabs and electromagnetic fields (EMF) from these cables will present an electrified fence on the seafloor that their target resource will not cross. Combined with the assistance of professional fishermen, submarine transmission cables that electrify island communities and offshore oil platforms in the eastern Pacific provide an opportunity to test the harvest of crab species across power transmission cables. In situ field techniques give commercial crab species a choice to decide if they will cross fully energized, EMF emitting, power transmission cables, in response to baited traps. Each independent trial is either one of two possible responses: the crab crosses the cable to enter a trap (1) or the crab does not cross the cable to enter a trap (0). Conditions vary among sample units by the following categorical, fixed factors (i.e., covariates) of cable structure (buried or unburied); direction of cable from crab position (west or east, north or south); time and season. A generalized linear model is fit to the data to determine whether any of these factors affect the probability of crabs crossing an energized cable to enter baited traps. Additionally, the experimental design, aside from the number of runs (set of sample trials) and the dates of the runs, is the same in the Santa Barbara Channel for rock crab and Puget Sound for Dungeness crab, and allows us to compare the capture rates of the two species in the two areas. We present preliminary results from field testing in 2015.

  16. Fire effects on rock images and similar cultural resources [Chapter 5 (United States)

    Roger E. Kelly; Daniel F. McCarthy


    Throughout human global history, people have purposely altered natural rock surfaces by drilling, drawing, painting, incising, pecking, abrading and chiseling images into stone. Some rock types that present suitable media surfaces for these activities are fine-grained sandstones and granites, basalts, volcanic tuff, dolomites, and limestones. Commonly called rock...

  17. Payenia volcanic province, southern Mendoza, Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søager, Nina; Holm, Paul Martin; Llambias, Eduardo Jorge


    to the low thickness of the lithospheric mantle and preheating of the lower crust by earlier Mio-Pliocene volcanism. Rare earth element modelling of mantle melting calls for enriched source compositions and a beginning of melting within the garnet stability field for all Payenia basalts. The Río Colorado......The Pleistocene to Holocene Payenia volcanic province is a backarc region of 60,000 km2 in Mendoza, Argentina, which is dominated by transitional to alkaline basalts and trachybasalts. We present major and trace element compositions of 139 rocks from this area of which the majority are basaltic...... rocks with 4 to 12 wt.% MgO and 44 to 50 wt.% SiO2. The southern Payenia province is dominated by intraplate basalts and the trace element patterns of the Río Colorado and Payún Matrú lavas suggest little or no influence from subducted slab components. The mantle source of these rocks is similar to some...

  18. Impact of tectonic and volcanism on the Neogene evolution of isolated carbonate platforms (SW Indian Ocean) (United States)

    Courgeon, S.; Jorry, S. J.; Jouet, G.; Camoin, G.; BouDagher-Fadel, M. K.; Bachèlery, P.; Caline, B.; Boichard, R.; Révillon, S.; Thomas, Y.; Thereau, E.; Guérin, C.


    Understanding the impact of tectonic activity and volcanism on long-term (i.e. millions years) evolution of shallow-water carbonate platforms represents a major issue for both industrial and academic perspectives. The southern central Mozambique Channel is characterized by a 100 km-long volcanic ridge hosting two guyots (the Hall and Jaguar banks) and a modern atoll (Bassas da India) fringed by a large terrace. Dredge sampling, geophysical acquisitions and submarines videos carried out during recent oceanographic cruises revealed that submarine flat-top seamounts correspond to karstified and drowned shallow-water carbonate platforms largely covered by volcanic material and structured by a dense network of normal faults. Microfacies and well-constrained stratigraphic data indicate that these carbonate platforms developed in shallow-water tropical environments during Miocene times and were characterized by biological assemblages dominated by corals, larger benthic foraminifera, red and green algae. The drowning of these isolated carbonate platforms is revealed by the deposition of outer shelf sediments during the Early Pliocene and seems closely linked to (1) volcanic activity typified by the establishment of wide lava flow complexes, and (2) to extensional tectonic deformation associated with high-offset normal faults dividing the flat-top seamounts into distinctive structural blocks. Explosive volcanic activity also affected platform carbonates and was responsible for the formation of crater(s) and the deposition of tuff layers including carbonate fragments. Shallow-water carbonate sedimentation resumed during Late Neogene time with the colonization of topographic highs inherited from tectonic deformation and volcanic accretion. Latest carbonate developments ultimately led to the formation of the Bassas da India modern atoll. The geological history of isolated carbonate platforms from the southern Mozambique Channel represents a new case illustrating the major

  19. Meta-Analysis of Data from the Submarine Ventilation Doctrine Test Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hoover, J


    .... The Submarine Ventilation Doctrine Test Program was developed to address submarine-specific issues regarding the use of ventilation systems to control smoke and heat movement, maintain habitability...

  20. The Satah Mountain and Baldface Mountain volcanic fields: Pleistocene hot spot volcanism in the Anahim Volcanic Belt, west-central British Columbia, Canada (United States)

    Kuehn, Christian; Guest, Bernard; Russell, James K.; Benowitz, Jeff A.


    The Satah Mountain and Baldface Mountain volcanic fields (SMVF, BMVF) comprise more than three dozen small volcanic centers and erosional remnants thereof. These fields are located in the Chilcotin Highland of west-central British Columbia, Canada, and are spatially associated with the Anahim Volcanic Belt (AVB), a linear feature of alkaline to peralkaline plutonic and volcanic centers of Miocene to Holocene ages. The AVB has been postulated to be the track of a hot spot passing beneath the westward moving Cordilleran lithosphere. We test the AVB hot spot model by applying whole-rock 40Ar/39Ar geochronology ( n = 24) and geochemistry. Whole-rock chemical compositions of volcanic rock samples ( n = 59) from these two fields suggest a strong geochemical affinity with the nearby Itcha Range shield volcano; however, SMVF and BMVF centers are mostly small in volume (<1 km3) and differ in composition from one another, even where they are in close spatial proximity. Trace element and REE patterns of mafic AVB lavas are similar to ocean island basalts (OIB), suggesting a mantle source for these lavas. The age ranges for the SMVF ( n = 11; ~2.21 to ~1.43 Ma) and BMVF ( n = 7; ~3.91 to ~0.91 Ma) are largely coeval with the Itcha Range. The distribution of volcanoes in these two volcanic fields is potentially consistent with the postulated AVB hot spot track. Eruption rates in the SMVF were high enough to build an elongated ridge that deviates from the E-W trend of the AVB by almost 90°. This deviation might reflect the mechanisms and processes facilitating magma generation and ascent through the lithosphere in this tectonically complex region and may also indicate interaction of the potential hot spot with (pre)existing fracture systems in vicinity of the Itcha Range.

  1. Languages of volcanic landscapes (United States)

    Frederick J. Swanson


    As a young geologist in 1980, I felt a powerful attraction to volcanoes, and I thought I knew volcanoes rather well. I had studied volcanology. I had climbed volcanic peaks in the Cascades. And I had tried to be an attentive citizen of my volcanic region, the Pacific Northwest. But when I had a chance to go with other scientists to Mount St. Helens within days of its...

  2. Hydrothermal fluids vented at shallow depths at the Aeolian islands: relationships with volcanic and geothermal systems. (United States)

    Italiano, Francesco; Caracausi, Antonio; Longo, Manfredi; Maugeri, Roberto; Paonita, Antonio


    Scuba diving investigations carried out over the last two decades at the Aeolian islands revealed the existence of submarine magmatic and late-magmatic hydrothermalism at all the islands, despite the absence of on-shore activity at some of the islands. The results gained by diving activities provided useful information to evaluate the volcanic and geothermal activity and to manage the volcanic crisis occurred on November 2002 off the island of Panarea. Scuba diving investigations carried out from middle 80's, had shown that despite the absence of on shore volcanic manifestations, submarine hydrothermal activity is recognizable at shallow depth around all the Aeolian islands related either to volcanic and geothermal activity. The sampled gases are CO2-dominated with low amounts of oxygen and reactive gases (H2, CO, CH4 and H2S) with concentrations ranging from a few ppm to some mole percent. Sometimes significant N2 amount are detectable together with high helium contents. Samples having low CO2 content, besides relevant N2 and He amounts, are the consequence of CO2 dissolution in sea-water due to gas-water interactions (GWI) occurred before the sample collection. The high CO2 solubility (878 ml/l, T=20°C, P=1bar) may, in fact, decrease the CO2 content in the venting gases thus increasing the concentrations of the less soluble species (e.g. He 8 ml/l, CO 23 ml/l and CH4 33.8 ml/l) in the gas mixture. Such a process might occur at any level, however, because of the slow water circulation in deep sediments, CO2 is able to saturate the circulating sea-water. The isotopic composition of carbon displays a small range of values while helium isotopes are in the range of 4.1chemical composition is similar. Contrastingly the isotope composition of helium shows a large heterogeneity with the highest isotopic ratios surprisingly measured at the extinct volcanic islands in the western sector, and much lower values detected in venting gases from active volcanoes (e.g. Vulcano

  3. Age-Distance Relations along the Hawaiian-Emperor Volcanic Chain: History and Current Status (United States)

    Clague, D. A.


    The increase in age with distance along the Hawaiian-Emperor volcanic chain is a key parameter in models of plate motions and mantle dynamics. Wilson (1963) proposed that the Hawaiian Islands formed sequentially as the Pacific Plate migrated over a hot spot in the Earth's mantle based on the inferred increase in age of the Islands to the west. Morgan (1971) proposed that Wilson's hot spot was a geographically fixed mantle plume originating at the core-mantle boundary, and that the orientation and age-distance relations of the chain provided a measure of absolute plate motion with the bend between the Hawaiian and Emperor chains reflecting a major change in motion of the Pacific Plate at 40 Ma. Defining and refining the age relations along the two chains has taken decades due largely to the remoteness of most of the chain, the difficulties in dating altered submarine lavas, and the presence of glacial debris as far south as 42°25'N in the Emperor Seamounts. Ocean drilling program legs 55 and 197 focused on the age and paleolatitude of Emperor Seamounts. Many of the early ages are K-Ar dates. Later dates are Ar/Ar incremental heating extractions of whole-rocks or, more recently still, of clean mineral separates that yield accurate and precise dates (e.g., Sharp and Clague, 2006). Many reported ages have ill-defined errors, especially those of tholeiitic shield lavas. Over-interpretation of the collected age data seemed to indicate coeval volcanism along large segments of the chain, instead of recognizing the errors inherent in many of the determined ages. Subsequent work, such as at Gardner Pinnacles, has eliminated some of these apparent non-linear age relations. The bend is now recognized as a gradual transition in orientation that occurred between 50 and 42 Ma (Sharp & Clague, 2006); it likely resulted from the collision of India and Eurasia that precipitated a worldwide chain reaction of relative and absolute plate motion changes (Dalrymple & Clague, 1976).

  4. Origin of the Easter Submarine Alignment: morphology and structural lineaments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristián Rodrigo


    Full Text Available The Easter submarine alignment corresponds to a sequence of seamounts and oceanic islands which runs from the Ahu-Umu volcanic fields in the west to its intersection with the Nazca Ridge in the east, with a total length of about 2.900 km and a strike of N85°E. Recent bathymetric compilations that include combined satellite derived and shipboard data (Global Topography and multibeam bathymetric data (from NGDC-NOAA are interpreted both qualitatively and quantitatively by using a morphological analysis, which was comprised of the determination of bathymetric patterns, trends in lineations and structures; height measurements, computation of basal areas and volumes of seamounts, in order to establish clues on the origin of this seamount chain and to establish relationships with the regional tectonics. In the study region 514 seamounts were counted, of which 334 had a basal area less than the reference seamount (Moai. In general, the largest seamounts (>1000 m in height tend to align and to have a larger volume, with an elongation of their bases along the seamount chain. On the other hand, smaller seamounts tend to be distributed more randomly with more circular bases. As a consequence of the morphological analysis, the best possible mechanism that explains the origin of the seamount chain is the existence of a localized hotspot to the west of the Salas y Gómez Island. The corresponding plume would contribute additional magmatic material towards the East Pacific Rise through canalizations, whose secondary branches would feed intermediate volcanoes. It is possible that within the Easter Island region there would be another minor contribution through fractures in the crust, due to the crustal weakening that was produced by the Easter Fracture Zone.

  5. Descartes region - Evidence for Copernican-age volcanism. (United States)

    Head, J. W., III; Goetz, A. F. H.


    A model that suggests that the high-albedo central region of the Descartes Formation was formed by Copernican-age volcanism was developed from Orbiter photography, Apollo 12 multispectral photography, earth-based spectrophotometry, and thermal IR and radar data. The bright surface either is abundant in centimeter-sized rocks or is formed from an insulating debris layer overlying a surface with an abundance of rocks in the 1- to 20-cm size range. On the basis of these data, the bright unit is thought to be a young pyroclastic deposit mantling older volcanic units of the Descartes Formation. Since the Apollo 16 target point is only 50 km NW of the central part of this unit, evidence for material associated with this unique highland formation should be searched for in returned soil and rock samples.

  6. Swath sonar mapping of Earth's submarine plate boundaries (United States)

    Carbotte, S. M.; Ferrini, V. L.; Celnick, M.; Nitsche, F. O.; Ryan, W. B. F.


    The recent loss of Malaysia Airlines flight MH370 in an area of the Indian Ocean where less than 5% of the seafloor is mapped with depth sounding data (Smith and Marks, EOS 2014) highlights the striking lack of detailed knowledge of the topography of the seabed for much of the worlds' oceans. Advances in swath sonar mapping technology over the past 30 years have led to dramatic improvements in our capability to map the seabed. However, the oceans are vast and only an estimated 10% of the seafloor has been mapped with these systems. Furthermore, the available coverage is highly heterogeneous and focused within areas of national strategic priority and community scientific interest. The major plate boundaries that encircle the globe, most of which are located in the submarine environment, have been a significant focus of marine geoscience research since the advent of swath sonar mapping. While the location of these plate boundaries are well defined from satellite-derived bathymetry, significant regions remain unmapped at the high-resolutions provided by swath sonars and that are needed to study active volcanic and tectonic plate boundary processes. Within the plate interiors, some fossil plate boundary zones, major hotspot volcanoes, and other volcanic provinces have been the focus of dedicated research programs. Away from these major tectonic structures, swath mapping coverage is limited to sparse ocean transit lines which often reveal previously unknown deep-sea channels and other little studied sedimentary structures not resolvable in existing low-resolution global compilations, highlighting the value of these data even in the tectonically quiet plate interiors. Here, we give an overview of multibeam swath sonar mapping of the major plate boundaries of the globe as extracted from public archives. Significant quantities of swath sonar data acquired from deep-sea regions are in restricted-access international archives. Open access to more of these data sets would

  7. The acoustic response of submarine volcanoes in the Tofua Arc and northern Lau Basin following two great earthquakes in Samoa and Chile (United States)

    Bohnenstiehl, D. R.; Dziak, R. P.; Matsumoto, H.; Conder, J. A.


    Using a correlation-based detector operating on data from a short-baseline hydrophone array, persistent volcano-acoustic sources are identified within the ambient noise field of the Lau Basin during the period between January 2009 and April 2010. The submarine volcano West Mata and adjacent volcanic terrains, including the northern Matas and Volcano O, are the most active acoustic sources during the 15-month period of observation. Other areas of long-term activity include the Niua hydrothermal field, the volcanic islands of Hunga-Ha'apai, Founalei, Niuatoputapu and Niuafo'ou, two unnamed seamounts located along the southern Tofua Arc, and at least three unknown sites within the northern Lau Basin. Following the great Samoan earthquake on 29 September of 2009, seven of the volcano-acoustic sources identified exhibit increases in the rate of acoustic detection. These changes persist over time scales of days-to-months and are observed up to 900 km from the earthquake hypocenter. At least one of the volcano-acoustic sources that did not respond to the 2009 Samoan earthquake exhibits an increase in detection rate following the great Mw 8.8 Chile earthquake that occurred at a distance of ~9,500 km on 27 February 2010. These observations suggest that great earthquakes may have undocumented impacts on Earth's vast submarine volcanic systems, potentially increasing the short-term flux of magma and volcanic gas into the overlying ocean.

  8. Source rock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abubakr F. Makky


    Full Text Available West Beni Suef Concession is located at the western part of Beni Suef Basin which is a relatively under-explored basin and lies about 150 km south of Cairo. The major goal of this study is to evaluate the source rock by using different techniques as Rock-Eval pyrolysis, Vitrinite reflectance (%Ro, and well log data of some Cretaceous sequences including Abu Roash (E, F and G members, Kharita and Betty formations. The BasinMod 1D program is used in this study to construct the burial history and calculate the levels of thermal maturity of the Fayoum-1X well based on calibration of measured %Ro and Tmax against calculated %Ro model. The calculated Total Organic Carbon (TOC content from well log data compared with the measured TOC from the Rock-Eval pyrolysis in Fayoum-1X well is shown to match against the shale source rock but gives high values against the limestone source rock. For that, a new model is derived from well log data to calculate accurately the TOC content against the limestone source rock in the study area. The organic matter existing in Abu Roash (F member is fair to excellent and capable of generating a significant amount of hydrocarbons (oil prone produced from (mixed type I/II kerogen. The generation potential of kerogen in Abu Roash (E and G members and Betty formations is ranging from poor to fair, and generating hydrocarbons of oil and gas prone (mixed type II/III kerogen. Eventually, kerogen (type III of Kharita Formation has poor to very good generation potential and mainly produces gas. Thermal maturation of the measured %Ro, calculated %Ro model, Tmax and Production index (PI indicates that Abu Roash (F member exciting in the onset of oil generation, whereas Abu Roash (E and G members, Kharita and Betty formations entered the peak of oil generation.

  9. Scattering from Rock and Rock Outcrops (United States)


    Scattering from Rock and Rock Outcrops Derek R. Olson The Pennsylvania State University Applied Research Laboratory, P.O. Box 30 State...In terms of target detection and classification, scattering from exposed rock on the seafloor, (i.e., individual rocks and rock outcrops) presents...levels, and other statistical measures of acoustic scattering from rocks and rock outcrops is therefore critical. Unfortunately (and curiously

  10. Mapping the sound field of an erupting submarine volcano using an acoustic glider. (United States)

    Matsumoto, Haru; Haxel, Joseph H; Dziak, Robert P; Bohnenstiehl, Delwayne R; Embley, Robert W


    An underwater glider with an acoustic data logger flew toward a recently discovered erupting submarine volcano in the northern Lau basin. With the volcano providing a wide-band sound source, recordings from the two-day survey produced a two-dimensional sound level map spanning 1 km (depth) × 40 km(distance). The observed sound field shows depth- and range-dependence, with the first-order spatial pattern being consistent with the predictions of a range-dependent propagation model. The results allow constraining the acoustic source level of the volcanic activity and suggest that the glider provides an effective platform for monitoring natural and anthropogenic ocean sounds. © 2011 Acoustical Society of America

  11. Submarine Channel Association with Seamount Chain Alignment on the Ontong Java Plateau (United States)

    Meyers, H. G., IV; Sautter, L.


    The Ontong Java Plateau (OJP), north of the Solomon Islands, Indonesia, is a submerged seafloor platform, larger than Alaska and full of intricate systems of channels, atolls and seamounts. This area has remained relatively unstudied because of both the area's remote location and low number of ships carrying advanced sonar systems. The OJP is believed to have been formed by one of the largest volcanic eruptions in Earth's history. This study uses EM302 multibeam sonar data collected on the R/V Falkor in 2014 by the University of Tasmania's Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies to better understand relationships between the seafloor geomorphology and tectonic processes that formed numerous unexplored seamounts. The area surveyed is situated along the OJP's central northeast margin, and includes a small chain of six seamounts that range from 300 to 700 m in vertical relief. These seamounts are situated within the axis of a major 14 km wide submarine channel that was likely formed by a sequence of turbidity currents. Using CARIS HIPS and SIPS 9.0 post-processing software, seamount and channel morphology were characterized with 2 dimensional profiles and 3 dimensional images. Backscatter intensity was used to identify relative substrate hardness of the seamounts and surrounding seafloor areas. Scour and depositional features from the turbidity flows are evident at the base of several seamounts, indicating that the submarine channel bifurcated when turbidity flows encountered the seamount chain.

  12. Australia’s Submarine Design Capabilities and Capacities: Challenges and Options for the Future Submarine (United States)


    General Dynamics Electric Boat Corporation EMC electromagnetic compatibility EMF electromagnetic field EMI electromagnetic interference EPCM flow-induced radiated noise Own-sensor performance degradation Note: Risks can be reduced for given designs using scale models...Acoustic analysis Addresses the total radiated noise signature of submarine designs Radiated noise that an enemy might detect Self-noise that that

  13. Major-element geochemistry of the Silent Canyon-Black Mountain peralkaline volcanic centers, northwestern Nevada Test Site: applications to an assessment of renewed volcanism (United States)

    Crowe, Bruce M.; Sargent, Kenneth A.


    The Silent Canyon and Black Mountain volcanic centers are located in the northern part of the Nevada Test Site. The Silent Canyon volcanic center is a buried cauldron complex of Miocene age (13-15 m.y.). Black Mountain volcanic center is an elliptical-shaped cauldron complex of late Miocene age. The lavas and tuffs of the two centers comprise a subalkaline-peralkaline association. Rock types range from quartz normative subalkaline trachyte and rhyolite to peralkaline comendite. The Gold Flat Member of the Thirsty Canyon Tuff (Black Mountain) is a pantellerite. The major-element geochemistry of the Black Mountain-Silent Canyon volcanic centers differs in the total range and distribution of Si02, contents, the degree of peralkalinity (molecular Na2O+K2O>Al2O3) and in the values of total iron and alumina through the range of rock types. These differences indicate that the suites were unrelated and evolved from differing magma bodies. The Black Mountain volcanic cycle represents a renewed phase of volcanism following cessation of the Timber Mountain-Silent Canyon volcanic cycles. Consequently, there is a small but numerically incalculable probability of recurrence of Black Mountain-type volcanism within the Nevada Test Site region. This represents a potential risk with respect to deep geologic storage of high-level radioactive waste at the Nevada Test Site.

  14. Intellektuaalne rock

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    Briti laulja-helilooja ja näitleja Toyah Willcox ning Bill Rieflin ansamblist R.E.M. ja Pat Mastelotto King Krimsonist esinevad koos ansamblitega The Humans ja Tuner 25. okt. Tallinnas Rock Cafés ja 27. okt Tartu Jaani kirikus

  15. Submarine geology of Hana Ridge and Haleakala Volcano's northeast flank, Maui (United States)

    Eakins, Barry W.; Robinson, Joel E.


    We present a morphostructural analysis of the submarine portions of Haleakala Volcano and environs, based upon a 4-year program of geophysical surveys and submersible explorations of the underwater flanks of Hawaiian volcanoes that was conducted by numerous academic and governmental research organizations in Japan and the U.S. and funded primarily by the Japan Agency for Marine–Earth Science and Technology. A resulting reconnaissance geologic map features the 135-km-long Hana Ridge, the 3000 km2 Hana slump on the volcano's northeast flank, and island-surrounding terraces that are the submerged parts of volcanic shields. Hana Ridge below 2000 m water depth exhibits the lobate morphology typical of the subaqueously erupted parts of Hawaiian rift zones, with some important distinctions: namely, subparallel crestlines, which we propose result from the down-rift migration of offsets in the dike intrusion zone, and an amphitheater at its distal toe, where a submarine landslide has embayed the ridge tip. Deformation of Haleakala's northeast flank is limited to that part identified as the Hana slump, which lies downslope from the volcano's submerged shield, indicating that flank mobility is also limited in plan, inconsistent with hypothesized volcanic spreading driven by rift-zone dilation. The leading edge of the slump has transverse basins and ridges that resemble the thrust ramps of accretionary prisms, and we present a model to describe the slump's development that emphasizes the role of coastally generated fragmental basalt on gravitational instability of Haleakala's northeast flank and that may be broadly applicable to other ocean-island slumps.

  16. North Sea submarine cable disruptions and fishing activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hintzen, N.T.; Machiels, M.A.M.


    At the North Sea seafloor, numerous submarine cables are positioned that connect telecommunication networks between countries. Worldwide, human activities cause most of the cable disruptions with fisheries accounting for nearly half of all reported faults. Due to a recent increase of submarine cable

  17. Igneous Rocks (United States)

    Doe, Bruce R.

    “Igneous Rocks was written for undergraduate geology majors who have had a year of college-level chemistry and a course in mineralogy … and for beginning graduate students. Geologists working in industry, government, or academia should find this text useful as a guide to the technical literature up to 1981 and as an overview of topics with which they have not worked but which may have unanticipated pertinence to their own projects.” So starts the preface to this textbook.As one who works part time in research on igneous rocks, especially as they relate to mineral deposits, I have been looking for such a book with this avowed purpose in a field that has a choking richness of evolving terminology and a bewildering volume of interdisciplinary literature. In addition to the standard topics of igneous petrology, the book contains a chapter on the role of igneous activity in the genesis of mineral deposits, its value to geothermal energy, and the potential of igneous rocks as an environment for nuclear waste disposal. These topics are presented rather apologetically in the preface, but the author is to be applauded for including this chapter. The apology shows just how new these interests are to petrology. Recognition is finally coming that, for example, mineral deposits are not “sports of nature,” a view held even by many economic geologists as recently as the early 1960's; instead they are perfectly ordinary geochemical features formed by perfectly ordinary geologic processes. In fact, the mineral deposits and their attendant alteration zones probably have as much to tell us about igneous rocks as the igneous rocks have to tell us about mineral deposits.

  18. The 1929 Grand Banks submarine landslide revisited (United States)

    Schulten, Irena; Mosher, David C.; Krastel, Sebastian; Piper, David J. W.; Kienast, Markus


    On November 18th, 1929 a large submarine landslide occurred along the St. Pierre Slope of the southwestern Grand Banks of Newfoundland, as a result of a Mw 7.2 earthquake. This submarine landslide led to the first recognition of naturally-occurring submarine turbidity currents and is one of the few landslides known to have generated a tsunami. The event caused 28 causalities in Newfoundland and severe infrastructural damage. Earlier investigations of the area identified widely distributed shallow mass failures (15 - 20 m high escarpments), but no evidence of a larger headscarp. It is difficult to conceive, therefore, how this distributed shallow failure that rapidly evolved into a turbidity current would have generated a tsunami. It is hypothesised in this study that a deeper rooted sediment failure ( 500 m), involving faulting and mass-rotation, was involved in the sediment failure and this displacement generated the tsunami. In order to test this hypothesis, the volume and kinematics of the 1929 slope failure are analysed by means of recently acquired high resolution seismic reflection and multibeam swath bathymetry data, in addition to a significant volume of legacy data. The data allow determination of: 1) the dimension of the failure area, 2) the thickness and volume of failed sediment on St. Pierre Slope, 3) fault patterns and displacements, and 4) styles of sediment failure involved. Shallow (20 m high) sinuous escarpments and a number of faults are observed along the upper St. Pierre Slope (500 - 2 500 m water depth). The uppermost and largest of these escarpments shows association with a fault system. Preliminary results, therefore, indicate a complex sediment failure pattern along the St. Pierre Slope, possibly involving a deep-seated decollement and mobilization of a large volume of surficial sediment through retrogressive failure. Causes for the tsunami are yet to be determined.

  19. Volcanic hazards to airports (United States)

    Guffanti, M.; Mayberry, G.C.; Casadevall, T.J.; Wunderman, R.


    Volcanic activity has caused significant hazards to numerous airports worldwide, with local to far-ranging effects on travelers and commerce. Analysis of a new compilation of incidents of airports impacted by volcanic activity from 1944 through 2006 reveals that, at a minimum, 101 airports in 28 countries were affected on 171 occasions by eruptions at 46 volcanoes. Since 1980, five airports per year on average have been affected by volcanic activity, which indicates that volcanic hazards to airports are not rare on a worldwide basis. The main hazard to airports is ashfall, with accumulations of only a few millimeters sufficient to force temporary closures of some airports. A substantial portion of incidents has been caused by ash in airspace in the vicinity of airports, without accumulation of ash on the ground. On a few occasions, airports have been impacted by hazards other than ash (pyroclastic flow, lava flow, gas emission, and phreatic explosion). Several airports have been affected repeatedly by volcanic hazards. Four airports have been affected the most often and likely will continue to be among the most vulnerable owing to continued nearby volcanic activity: Fontanarossa International Airport in Catania, Italy; Ted Stevens Anchorage International Airport in Alaska, USA; Mariscal Sucre International Airport in Quito, Ecuador; and Tokua Airport in Kokopo, Papua New Guinea. The USA has the most airports affected by volcanic activity (17) on the most occasions (33) and hosts the second highest number of volcanoes that have caused the disruptions (5, after Indonesia with 7). One-fifth of the affected airports are within 30 km of the source volcanoes, approximately half are located within 150 km of the source volcanoes, and about three-quarters are within 300 km; nearly one-fifth are located more than 500 km away from the source volcanoes. The volcanoes that have caused the most impacts are Soufriere Hills on the island of Montserrat in the British West Indies

  20. Volcanism in Eastern Africa (United States)

    Cauthen, Clay; Coombs, Cassandra R.


    In 1891, the Virunga Mountains of Eastern Zaire were first acknowledged as volcanoes, and since then, the Virunga Mountain chain has demonstrated its potentially violent volcanic nature. The Virunga Mountains lie across the Eastern African Rift in an E-W direction located north of Lake Kivu. Mt. Nyamuragira and Mt. Nyiragongo present the most hazard of the eight mountains making up Virunga volcanic field, with the most recent activity during the 1970-90's. In 1977, after almost eighty years of moderate activity and periods of quiescence, Mt. Nyamuragira became highly active with lava flows that extruded from fissures on flanks circumscribing the volcano. The flows destroyed vast areas of vegetation and Zairian National Park areas, but no casualties were reported. Mt. Nyiragongo exhibited the same type volcanic activity, in association with regional tectonics that effected Mt. Nyamuragira, with variations of lava lake levels, lava fountains, and lava flows that resided in Lake Kivu. Mt. Nyiragongo, recently named a Decade volcano, presents both a direct and an indirect hazard to the inhabitants and properties located near the volcano. The Virunga volcanoes pose four major threats: volcanic eruptions, lava flows, toxic gas emission (CH4 and CO2), and earthquakes. Thus, the volcanoes of the Eastern African volcanic field emanate harm to the surrounding area by the forecast of volcanic eruptions. During the JSC Summer Fellowship program, we will acquire and collate remote sensing, photographic (Space Shuttle images), topographic and field data. In addition, maps of the extent and morphology(ies) of the features will be constructed using digital image information. The database generated will serve to create a Geographic Information System for easy access of information of the Eastem African volcanic field. The analysis of volcanism in Eastern Africa will permit a comparison for those areas from which we have field data. Results from this summer's work will permit

  1. Multivariable Control System Design for a Submarine, (United States)


    perturbations applied to the nominal point were identical in all cases (see table 2.3). The comparisons show excellent correlation between the...Open Loop Singular Values for the 5 and 1S Knot Linear Modelo *~~* b % % V’ , * % ~ .%~ C 9 ~ V. --.- V. V.-.--.--46..- S. 77’ Model S20R5 20- 10- -0...without imparting a pitch angle to the submarine and provides an excellent example of both the usefulness of w(t) as a state variable and the

  2. Hydrogen isotope systematics of submarine basalts (United States)

    Kyser, T.K.; O'Neil, J.R.


    The D/H ratios and water contents in fresh submarine basalts from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, the East Pacific Rise, and Hawaii indicate that the primary D/H ratios of many submarine lavas have been altered by processes including (1) outgassing, (2) addition of seawater at magmatic temperature, and (3) low-temperature hydration of glass. Decreases in ??D and H2O+ from exteriors to interiors of pillows are explained by outgassing of water whereas inverse relations between ??D and H2O+ in basalts from the Galapagos Rise and the FAMOUS Area are attributed to outgassing of CH4 and H2. A good correlation between ??D values and H2O is observed in a suite of submarine tholeiites dredged from the Kilauea East Rift Zone where seawater (added directly to the magma), affected only the isotopic compositions of hydrogen and argon. Analyses of some glassy rims indicate that the outer millimeter of the glass can undergo lowtemperature hydration by hydroxyl groups having ??D values as low as -100. ??D values vary with H2O contents of subaerial transitional basalts from Molokai, Hawaii, and subaerial alkali basalts from the Society Islands, indicating that the primary ??D values were similar to those of submarine lavas. Extrapolations to possible unaltered ??D values and H2O contents indicate that the primary ??D values of most thoteiite and alkali basalts are near -80 ?? 5: the weight percentages of water are variable, 0.15-0.35 for MOR tholeiites, about 0.25 for Hawaiian tholeiites, and up to 1.1 for alkali basalts. The primary ??D values of -80 for most basalts are comparable to those measured for deep-seated phlogopites. These results indicate that hydrogen, in marked contrast to other elements such as Sr, Nd, Pb, and O, has a uniform isotopic composition in the mantle. This uniformity is best explained by the presence of a homogeneous reservoir of hydrogen that has existed in the mantle since the very early history of the Earth. ?? 1984.

  3. California's Vulnerability to Volcanic Hazards: What's at Risk? (United States)

    Mangan, M.; Wood, N. J.; Dinitz, L.


    California is a leader in comprehensive planning for devastating earthquakes, landslides, floods, and tsunamis. Far less attention, however, has focused on the potentially devastating impact of volcanic eruptions, despite the fact that they occur in the State about as frequently as the largest earthquakes on the San Andreas Fault Zone. At least 10 eruptions have occurred in the past 1,000 years—most recently in northern California (Lassen Peak 1914 to 1917)—and future volcanic eruptions are inevitable. The likelihood of renewed volcanism in California is about one in a few hundred to one in a few thousand annually. Eight young volcanoes, ranked as Moderate to Very High Threat [1] are dispersed throughout the State. Partially molten rock (magma) resides beneath at least seven of these—Medicine Lake Volcano, Mount Shasta, Lassen Volcanic Center, Clear Lake Volcanic Field, Long Valley Volcanic Region, Coso Volcanic Field, and Salton Buttes— causing earthquakes, toxic gas emissions, hydrothermal activity, and (or) ground deformation. Understanding the hazards and identifying what is at risk are the first steps in building community resilience to volcanic disasters. This study, prepared in collaboration with the State of California Governor's Office of Emergency Management and the California Geological Survey, provides a broad perspective on the State's exposure to volcano hazards by integrating mapped volcano hazard zones with geospatial data on at-risk populations, infrastructure, and resources. The study reveals that ~ 16 million acres fall within California's volcano hazard zones, along with ~ 190 thousand permanent and 22 million transitory populations. Additionally, far-field disruption to key water delivery systems, agriculture, utilities, and air traffic is likely. Further site- and sector-specific analyses will lead to improved hazard mitigation efforts and more effective disaster response and recovery. [1] "Volcanic Threat and Monitoring Capabilities

  4. A Novel Mobile Testing Equipment for Rock Cuttability Assessment: Vertical Rock Cutting Rig (VRCR) (United States)

    Yasar, Serdar; Yilmaz, Ali Osman


    In this study, a new mobile rock cutting testing apparatus was designed and produced for rock cuttability assessment called vertical rock cutting rig (VRCR) which was designed specially to fit into hydraulic press testing equipment which are available in almost every rock mechanics laboratory. Rock cutting trials were initiated just after the production of VRCR along with calibration of the measuring load cell with an external load cell to validate the recorded force data. Then, controlled rock cutting tests with both relieved and unrelieved cutting modes were implemented on five different volcanic rock samples with a standard simple-shaped wedge tool. Additionally, core cutting test which is an important approach for roadheader performance prediction was simulated with VRCR. Mini disc cutters and point attack tools were used for execution of experimental trials. Results clearly showed that rock cutting tests were successfully realized and measuring system is delicate to rock strength, cutting depth and other variables. Core cutting test was successfully simulated, and it was also shown that rock cutting tests with mini disc cutters and point attack tools are also successful with VRCR.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Power


    Full Text Available Tsunami generated by submarine landslides are now recognised as an important hazard, following several historical events. Submarine landslides can occur in a variety of settings such as on continental slopes, volcanic slopes, and submerged canyons and fjords. While significant progress has been made in understanding tsunami generation processes on open slopes, the problem of tsunami generation by landslides within submarine canyons has received less attention. In this paper we examine the tsunami hazard posed by submarine landslides in the Cook Strait canyon system, near Wellington, New Zealand. Understanding of the hazard posed by this tsunami source has practical value because of its proximity to a populated coast. Our studies also provide general results highlighting the differences between tsunami generation on open coasts and tsunami generation within canyons. Geotechnical and geological studies of the Cook Strait region reveal evidence for many large landslide scars in the canyon walls, these are interpreted to be failures of consolidated material which descend the slopes on the sides of the canyon. Scouring of the base of the canyon slopes by strong tidal currents is believed to be an important process in bringing slopes to the point of failure, with most large failures expected to occur during earthquake shaking. We present the results of computer simulations of landslide failures using simplified canyon geometries represented in either 2D (vertical slice or 3D. These simulations were made using Gerris, an adaptive-grid fluid dynamics solver. A key finding is that the sudden deceleration of the landslide material after reaching the canyon floor, leads to larger amplitude waves in the back-propagation direction (i.e. in the opposite direction to the initial landslide motion.

  6. Precambrian Lunar Volcanic Protolife

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Green


    Full Text Available Five representative terrestrial analogs of lunar craters are detailed relevant to Precambrian fumarolic activity. Fumarolic fluids contain the ingredients for protolife. Energy sources to derive formaldehyde, amino acids and related compounds could be by flow charging, charge separation and volcanic shock. With no photodecomposition in shadow, most fumarolic fluids at 40 K would persist over geologically long time periods. Relatively abundant tungsten would permit creation of critical enzymes, Fischer-Tropsch reactions could form polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and soluble volcanic polyphosphates would enable assembly of nucleic acids. Fumarolic stimuli factors are described. Orbital and lander sensors specific to protolife exploration including combined Raman/laser-induced breakdown spectrocsopy are evaluated.

  7. Discerning Primary and Secondary Processes in the Volatile Geochemistry of Submarine Basalts (United States)

    Hauri, E. H.


    Defining the primary volatile composition of submarine basalts from mid-ocean ridges, back-arc basins and arc-front volcanoes is key to understanding volatile cycling and the influence of volatiles on melting in the upper mantle. The volatile and halogen geochemistry of submarine volcanic glasses and melt inclusions has been the subject of an increasing number of studies that have made progress in distinguishing between secondary seawater contamination of magmas, and true melting and mantle-source variations, thus enabling observed magma compositions to be used to study the time-integrated cycling of volatiles through the upper mantle. But fewer studies have examined in detail the local-and segment-scale variations of volatiles together with trace elements and radiogenic isotopes, so that it can be understood how and where in the oceanic crust submarine magmas are contaminated by seawater-derived components. Mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB) are significantly affected by secondary seawater assimilation processes due to their low volatile contents. From combined CO2-H2O-Cl systematics, it is apparent that addition of seawater-derived components is enhanced in magmas that ascend more slowly through the crust, and/or erupt away from the ridge axis. Highly depleted magmas that erupt in extensional zones within transform faults (e.g. Siqueiros) show little evidence for seawater addition, due to the near absence of thick crust and hydrothermal systems in such environments. At the same time, there also exists a second tier of more subtle seawater addition that is evident as a function of the extent of differentiation in MORB, pointing to combined assimilation and fractional crystallization as an important process operating in MORB petrogeneis. In detail the geochemistry of the assimilants can vary substantially from simple seawater compositions. Discerning seawater contamination in arc and back-arc magmas is more difficult, not only because of higher volatile concentrations

  8. Flow dynamics around downwelling submarine canyons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Spurgin


    Full Text Available Flow dynamics around a downwelling submarine canyon were analysed with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model. Blanes Canyon (northwestern Mediterranean was used for topographic and initial forcing conditions. Fourteen scenarios were modelled with varying forcing conditions. Rossby and Burger numbers were used to determine the significance of Coriolis acceleration and stratification (respectively and their impacts on flow dynamics. A new non-dimensional parameter (χ was introduced to determine the significance of vertical variations in stratification. Some simulations do see brief periods of upwards displacement of water during the 10-day model period; however, the presence of the submarine canyon is found to enhance downwards advection of density in all model scenarios. High Burger numbers lead to negative vorticity and a trapped anticyclonic eddy within the canyon, as well as an increased density anomaly. Low Burger numbers lead to positive vorticity, cyclonic circulation, and weaker density anomalies. Vertical variations in stratification affect zonal jet placement. Under the same forcing conditions, the zonal jet is pushed offshore in more uniformly stratified domains. The offshore jet location generates upwards density advection away from the canyon, while onshore jets generate downwards density advection everywhere within the model domain. Increasing Rossby values across the canyon axis, as well as decreasing Burger values, increase negative vertical flux at shelf break depth (150 m. Increasing Rossby numbers lead to stronger downwards advection of a passive tracer (nitrate, as well as stronger vorticity within the canyon. Results from previous studies are explained within this new dynamic framework.

  9. Submarine Tailings Disposal (STD—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Dold


    Full Text Available The mining industry is a fundamental industry involved in the development of modern society, but is also the world’s largest waste producer. This role will be enhanced in the future, because ore grades are generally decreasing, thus leading to increases in the waste/metal production ratio. Mine wastes deposited on-land in so-called tailings dams, impoundments or waste-dumps have several associated environmental issues that need to be addressed (e.g., acid mine drainage formation due to sulphide oxidation, geotechnical stability, among others, and social concerns due to land use during mining. The mining industry recognizes these concerns and is searching for waste management alternatives for the future. One option used in the past was the marine shore or shallow submarine deposition of this waste material in some parts of the world. After the occurrence of some severe environmental pollution, today the deposition in the deep sea (under constant reducing conditions is seen as a new, more secure option, due to the general thought that sulphide minerals are geochemically stable under the reduced conditions prevailing in the deep marine environment. This review highlights the mineralogical and geochemical issues (e.g., solubility of sulphides in seawater; reductive dissolution of oxide minerals under reducing conditions, which have to be considered when evaluating whether submarine tailings disposal is a suitable alternative for mine waste.

  10. Submarine melt rates under Greenland's ice tongues (United States)

    Wilson, Nat; Straneo, Fiametta; Heimbach, Patrick; Cenedese, Claudia


    The few remaining ice tongues (ice-shelf like extensions) of Greenland's glaciers are undergoing rapid changes with potential implications for the stability of the ice sheet. Submarine melting is recognized as a major contributor to mass loss, yet the magnitude and spatial distribution of melt are poorly known or understood. Here, we use high resolution satellite imagery to infer the magnitude and spatial variability of melt rates under Greenland's largest remaining ice tongues: Ryder Glacier, Petermann Glacier and Nioghalvfjerdsbræ (79 North Glacier). We find that submarine plus aerial melt approximately balance the ice flux from the grounded ice sheet for the first two while at Nioghalvfjerdsbræ the total melt flux exceeds the inflow of ice indicating thinning of the ice tongue. We also show that melt rates under the ice tongues vary considerably, exceeding 60 m yr-1 near the grounding zone and decaying rapidly downstream. Channels, likely originating from upstream subglacial channels, give rise to large melt variations across the ice tongues. Using derived melt rates, we test simplified melt parameterizations appropriate for ice sheet models and find the best agreement with those that incorporate ice tongue geometry in the form of depth and slope.

  11. Environmental assessment of submarine power cables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isus, Daniel; Martinez, Juan D. [Grupo General Cable Sistemas, S.A., 08560-Manlleu, Barcelona (Spain); Arteche, Amaya; Del Rio, Carmen; Madina, Virginia [Tecnalia Research and Innovation, 20009 San Sebastian (Spain)


    Extensive analyses conducted by the European Community revealed that offshore wind energy have relatively benign effects on the marine environment by comparison to other forms of electric power generation [1]. However, the materials employed in offshore wind power farms suffer major changes to be confined to the marine environment at extreme conditions: saline medium, hydrostatic pressure... which can produce an important corrosion effect. This phenomenon can affect on the one hand, to the material from the structural viewpoint and on the other hand, to the marine environment. In this sense, to better understand the environmental impacts of generating electricity from offshore wind energy, this study evaluated the life cycle assessment for some new designs of submarine power cables developed by General Cable. To achieve this goal, three approaches have been carried out: leaching tests, eco-toxicity tests and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodologies. All of them are aimed to obtaining quantitative data for environmental assessment of selected submarine cables. LCA is a method used to assess environmental aspects and potential impacts of a product or activity. LCA does not include financial and social factors, which means that the results of an LCA cannot exclusively form the basis for assessment of a product's sustainability. Leaching tests results allowed to conclude that pH of seawater did not significantly changed by the presence of submarine three-core cables. Although, it was slightly higher in case of broken cable, pH values were nearly equals. Concerning to the heavy metals which could migrate to the aquatic medium, there were significant differences in both scenarios. The leaching of zinc is the major environmental concern during undersea operation of undamaged cables whereas the fully sectioned three-core cable produced the migration of significant quantities of copper and iron apart from the zinc migrated from the galvanized steel. Thus, the tar

  12. What threat do turbidity currents and submarine landslides pose to submarine telecommunications cable infrastructure? (United States)

    Clare, Michael; Pope, Edward; Talling, Peter; Hunt, James; Carter, Lionel


    The global economy relies on uninterrupted usage of a network of telecommunication cables on the seafloor. These submarine cables carry ~99% of all trans-oceanic digital data and voice communications traffic worldwide, as they have far greater bandwidth than satellites. Over 9 million SWIFT banks transfers alone were made using these cables in 2004, totalling 7.4 trillion of transactions per day between 208 countries, which grew to 15 million SWIFT bank transactions last year. We outline the challenge of why, how often, and where seafloor cables are broken by natural causes; primarily subsea landslides and sediment flows (turbidity currents and also debris flows and hyperpycnal flows). These slides and flows can be very destructive. As an example, a sediment flow in 1929 travelled up to 19 m/s and broke 11 cables in the NE Atlantic, running out for ~800 km to the abyssal ocean. The 2006 Pingtung earthquake triggered a sediment flow that broke 22 cables offshore Taiwan over a distance of 450 km. Here, we present initial results from the first statistical analysis of a global database of cable breaks and causes. We first investigate the controls on frequency of submarine cable breaks in different environmental and geological settings worldwide. We assess which types of earthquake pose a significant threat to submarine cable networks. Meteorological events, such as hurricanes and typhoons, pose a significant threat to submarine cable networks, so we also discuss the potential impacts of future climate change on the frequency of such hazards. We then go on to ask what are the physical impacts of submarine sediment flows on submerged cables? A striking observation from past cable breaks is sometimes cables remain unbroken, whilst adjacent cables are severed (and record powerful flows travelling at up to 6 m/s). Why are some cables broken, but neighbouring cables remain intact? We provide some explanations for this question, and outline the need for future in


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Galanin


    Full Text Available Based on remote mapping and field studies inGrand Rapids, Tumansky,Hasynsky,Del-Urechen Ridges as well as Dukchinsky and Kilgansky Mountain Massifs there were identified about 1160 landforms which morphologically are similar to the rock glaciers or they develop in close association with them. Besides tongue-shaped cirque rock glaciers originated due to ablation, a large number of lobate-shaped slope-associated rock glaciers were recognized. Significant quantity of such forms are developing within the active neotectonic areas, in zones of seismic-tectonic badland and in association with active earthquakes-controlling faults. Multiplication of regional data on volcanic-ash-chronology, lichenometry, Schmidt Hammer Test, pollen spectra and single radiocarbon data, most of the active rock glaciers were preliminary attributed to the Late Holocene.

  14. Morfologia e classificação taxonômica de neossolos e saprolitos derivados de rochas vulcânicas da Formação Serra Geral no Rio Grande no Sul Morphology and taxonomy classification of neossolos and saprolites derived from volcanic rock of the Serra Geral formation in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício de Araújo Pedron


    low potential for agricultural use. Consequently the morphological description of Neossolos in the field is also hampered, particularly in terms of contacts between soil, saprolite and rock, and their classification in the Brazilian Soil Classification System. The purpose of this study was: to define morphologically the contact between soil, saprolite and rock in Neossolos; generate data of the saprolite layer and test an inclusion in the suborder Neossolos Litólicos and Neossolos Regolíticos; and evaluate the diagnostic attributes and classes available in the Brazilian Soil Classification System for the of Neossolos Litólicos and Regolíticos derived from volcanic rocks of the Serra Geral formation in Rio Grande do Sul, State, Brazil. Five profiles of litho-climosequence were analyzed. The contacts were characterized based on the straight shovel excavation test associated to analyses of saprolite fracture and weathering classes. The contacts related to the presence of saprolite layers identified in the profile are not taken into consideration in the Brazilian Soil Classification System. Diagnostic attributes for the classification of Neossolos Regolíticos were proposed as well as a change of the term from "Regolítico" to "Saprolítico". New classes were also suggested for the third categorical level, based on information such as soil position and saprolite contact, excavation resistance and cracking level of the material. The proposed diagnostic attributes and classes allowed a more adequate classification of Neossolos derived from volcanic rocks in the State of Rio Grande do Sul.

  15. Geothermal and volcanism in west Java (United States)

    Setiawan, I.; Indarto, S.; Sudarsono; Fauzi I, A.; Yuliyanti, A.; Lintjewas, L.; Alkausar, A.; Jakah


    Indonesian active volcanoes extend from Sumatra, Jawa, Bali, Lombok, Flores, North Sulawesi, and Halmahera. The volcanic arc hosts 276 volcanoes with 29 GWe of geothermal resources. Considering a wide distribution of geothermal potency, geothermal research is very important to be carried out especially to tackle high energy demand in Indonesia as an alternative energy sources aside from fossil fuel. Geothermal potency associated with volcanoes-hosted in West Java can be found in the West Java segment of Sunda Arc that is parallel with the subduction. The subduction of Indo-Australian oceanic plate beneath the Eurasian continental plate results in various volcanic products in a wide range of geochemical and mineralogical characteristics. The geochemical and mineralogical characteristics of volcanic and magmatic rocks associated with geothermal systems are ill-defined. Comprehensive study of geochemical signatures, mineralogical properties, and isotopes analysis might lead to the understanding of how large geothermal fields are found in West Java compared to ones in Central and East Java. The result can also provoke some valuable impacts on Java tectonic evolution and can suggest the key information for geothermal exploration enhancement.

  16. Late Cretaceous volcanic arc system in Southwest Korea: Occurrence, lithological characteristics, SHRIMP zircon U-Pb age, and tectonic implications (United States)

    Koh, Hee Jae; Kwon, Chang Woo


    In the southwest region of the Korean Peninsula, four large volcanoes, the Buan, Seonunsan, Wido, and Beopseongpo, with a maximum diameter of ca 20 km, form a distinct topographic undulation along the NE-SW-trending Hamyeol Fault. These volcanics comprise various types of pyroclastic, sedimentary, and lava/intrusive rocks, and are interpreted as remnants of calderas resulting from various volcanic eruptions, indicating that Hamyeol Fault, together with crustal extension, played an important role in volcano formation in this region. SHRIMP U-Pb ages of zircon isolated from each volcanics are as follows. For Buan Volcanics, Cheonmasan Tuff 87.23 ±0.92 Ma, Udongje Tuff 86.79 ±0.71 Ma, Seokpo Tuff 87.30 ±0.99 Ma and Yujeongje Tuff 86.66 ±0.93 Ma. For Seonunsan Volcanics, Gyeongsusan Tuff 84.9 ±1.1 Ma and Yeongije Tuff 86.61 ±0.67 Ma. These ages indicate that the four volcanics were formed in the Late Cretaceous. The ages are comparable to those of the volcanic rocks of the Aioi and Arima groups in Southwestern Japan, suggesting that the Late Cretaceous volcanic arc systems developed in a NE-SW direction from the Japanese Islands to the southwestern part of the Korean Peninsula caused by regional magmatism together with crustal deformation as reflected by occurrence of the volcanic rocks along the Hamyeol Fault.

  17. Volcanic activity and climatic changes. (United States)

    Bryson, R A; Goodman, B M


    Radiocarbon dates of volcanic activity suggest variations that appear to be related to climatic changes. Historical eruption records also show variations on the scale of years to centuries. These records can be combined with simple climatic models to estimate the impact of various volcanic activity levels. From this analysis it appears that climatic prediction in the range of 2 years to many decades requires broad-scale volcanic activity prediction. Statistical analysis of the volcanic record suggests that some predictability is possible.

  18. Blast energy mitigation in porous rocks (United States)

    Essink, Brittany C.

    Geo-materials are commonly used and sought after for blast mitigation applications due to their wide availability and low cost compared to industry trademarked materials. Characterization of these natural geo-materials such as volcanic rocks is of paramount importance in determining their blast mitigation capabilities. While there is a large amount of information available for materials such as concrete or sand blasts, information on the properties of volcanic rocks is far more scarce. This lack of data is due to the wide range of existing natural volcanic rocks and the variation in the minerals and pore structures of the rocks. In this thesis, silicate volcanic rock samples are characterized both through static and dynamic experimental methods. Initial X-ray powder diffraction scans have been conducted and analyzed to obtain the mineral composition information of the rock samples. Additional tomographic scans under quasi-static loading have been recorded to better understand the internal composition of the material pore structure and the material fracture. For this study, standard compression experiments were conducted at two separate strain rates for ten samples each on a UTM test frame to characterize the behavior of the rock under quasi-static conditions. High strain rate uniaxial compression tests were conducted for three strain rates using a split-Hopkinson pressure bar with pulse shaping to determine the dynamic response of the material. The stress-strain data from the experiments was used to determine the modulus of toughness of the material. Due to the high porosity and heterogeneity of the material, 25 samples were used for dynamic experimentation to attempt to capture and minimize the effects of scatter in the natural material. High speed photography was used to capture the sample deformation during two separate strain rates and to visualize crack propagation and strain rate in the samples. It was found that after an initial yielding, the material is

  19. Modeling volcanic ash dispersal

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    The assessment of volcanic fallout hazard is an important scientific, economic, and political issue, especially in densely populated areas. From a scientific point of view, considerable progress has been made during the last two decades through the use of increasingly powerful computational models and capabilities. Nowadays, models are used to quantify hazard...

  20. Navy Ohio Replacement (SSBN[X]) Ballistic Missile Submarine Program: Background and Issues for Congress (United States)


    propulsion technology first occurred many years ago: To help jumpstart the UK’s nuclear - powered submarine program, the United States transferred to the UK a... nuclear - powered attack submarines (SSNs), nuclear - powered cruise missile submarines (SSGNs), and nuclear - powered ballistic missile submarines (SSBNs). 2...2 In the designations SSN, SSGN, SSBN, and SSBN(X), the SS stands for submarine, N stands for nuclear - powered (meaning the ship is

  1. Submarine landside in the Bussol Graben: Structural and formation features (United States)

    Baranov, B. V.; Lobkovsky, L. I.; Dozorova, K. A.; Rukavishnikova, D. D.


    Analysis of geophysical data obtained during a study of the insular slope in the central Kuril‒Kamchatka Trench during projects Kuriles-2005 and Kuriles-2006 promoted by the Presidium of the Russian Academy of Sciences revealed a large submarine landslide in this area. The landslide, located at the bottom of the transverse valley confined to the Bussol l Graben, resulted from the failure of the northeastern wall of a graben composed of sedimentary material. It exceeds 35 km3 in size, representing one of the large submarine landslides discovered to date on the slope of the Kuril‒Kamchatka Trench in submarine canyonfan environments.

  2. Management of demand based inventory aboard submarine tenders servicing attack (SSN) submarines


    Ross, Timothy Joseph


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. This thesis examines the computation of inventory levels based on demand history aboard Submarine Tenders that use the Shipboard Automated Data Processing System (SUADPS) for inventory control. The focus of the thesis was the workload and supply effectiveness issues associated with the processing of the SUADPS levels setting program. The objective of the thesis was to determine the effect on supply effectiveness and stock churn if the...

  3. Cyclic eruptions and sector collapses at Monowai submarine volcano, Kermadec arc: 1998-2007 (United States)

    Chadwick, W. W.; Wright, I. C.; Schwarz-Schampera, U.; Hyvernaud, O.; Reymond, D.; de Ronde, C. E. J.


    Repeated multibeam bathymetric surveys at Monowai Cone, a shallow submarine basaltic volcano and part of the Monowai Volcanic Center in the northern Kermadec arc, were conducted in 1998, 2004, and 2007. These surveys document dramatic depth changes at the volcano including negative changes up to -176 m from two sector collapses and positive changes up to +138 m from volcanic reconstruction near the summit and debris avalanche deposits downslope of the slide scars. One sector collapse occurred on the SE slope between 1998 and 2004 with a volume of ˜0.09 km3, and another occurred on the SW slope between 2004 and 2007 with a volume of ˜0.04 km3. The volume of positive depth change due to addition of volcanic material by eruption is of the same order: ˜0.05 km3 between 1998 and 2004 and ˜0.06 km3 between 2004 and 2007. During these time intervals, monitoring by the Polynesian Seismic Network detected frequent T wave swarms at Monowai, indicative of explosive eruptive activity every few months. An unusual T wave swarm on 24 May 2002 was previously interpreted as the collapse event between the 1998 and 2004 surveys, but no similarly anomalous T waves were detected between 2004 and 2007, probably because the Polynesian Seismic Network stations were acoustically shadowed from the second slide event. We interpret that the sector collapses on Monowai are caused by the unstable loading of fragmental erupted material on the summit and steep upper slopes of the volcano (>20°). Moreover, there appears to be a cyclic pattern in which recurrent eruptions oversteepen the cone and periodically lead to collapse events that transport volcaniclastic material downslope to the lower apron of the volcano. Volumetric rate calculations suggest that these two processes may be more or less in equilibrium. The repeated collapses at Monowai are relatively modest in volume (involving only 0.1-0.5% of the edifice volume), have occurred much more frequently than is estimated for larger debris

  4. Laboratory simulations of volcanic ash charging and conditions for volcanic lightning on Venus (United States)

    Airey, Martin; Warriner-Bacon, Elliot; Aplin, Karen


    Lightning may be important in the emergence of life on Earth and elsewhere, as significant chemical reactions occur in the superheated region around the lightning channel. This, combined with the availability of phosphates in volcanic clouds, suggests that volcanic lightning could have been the catalyst for the formation of biological compounds on the early Earth [1]. In addition to meteorological lightning, volcanic activity also generates electrical discharges within charged ash plumes, which can be a significant contributor to atmospheric electricity on geologically active planets. The physical properties of other planetary atmospheres, such as that of Venus, have an effect on the processes that lead to the generation of volcanic lightning. Volcanism is known to have occurred on Venus in the past, and recent observations made by ESA's Venus Express satellite have provided evidence for currently active volcanism [2-4], and lightning discharges [e.g. 5]. Venusian lightning could potentially be volcanic in origin, since no meteorological mechanisms are known to separate charge effectively in its clouds [6]. The hunt for further evidence for lightning at Venus is ongoing, for example by means of the Lightning and Airglow Camera (LAC) [7] on Akatsuki, the current JAXA mission at Venus. Our laboratory experiments simulate ash generation and measure electrical charging of the ash under typical atmospheric conditions on Earth and Venus. The study uses a 1 litre chamber, which, when pressurised and heated, can simulate the high-pressure, high-temperature, carbon dioxide-dominated atmosphere of Venus at 10 km altitude ( 5 MPa, 650 K). A key finding of previous work [8] is that ash plume-forming eruptions are more likely to occur at higher altitudes such as these on Venus. The chamber contains temperature/pressure monitoring and logging equipment, a rock collision apparatus (based on [9]) to generate the charged rock fragments, and charge measurement electrodes connected

  5. Volcanology and geochemical study of the volcanic rocks of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The major process responsible for the emplacement of the Bafmeng felsic lavas is partial melting of spinel-garnet rich peridotite, followed by contamination and assimilation. Mafic lavas are derived from the partial melting of the asthenospheric mantle. The tectonic context based on geochemistry indicates that, the regional ...

  6. Improved OTEC System for a Submarine Robot (United States)

    Chao, Yi; Jones, Jack; Valdez, Thomas


    An ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC), now undergoing development, is a less-massive, more-efficient means of exploiting the same basic principle as that of the proposed system described in "Alternative OTEC Scheme for a Submarine Robot" (NPO-43500), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 33, No. 1 (January 2009), page 50. The proposed system as described previously would be based on the thawing-expansion/freezing-contraction behavior of a wax or perhaps another suitable phase-change material (PCM). The power generated by the system would be used to recharge the batteries in a battery- powered unmanned underwater vehicle [UUV (essentially, a small exploratory submarine robot)] of a type that has been deployed in large numbers in research pertaining to global warming. A UUV of this type travels between the ocean surface and depths, measuring temperature and salinity. At one phase of its operational cycle, the previously proposed system would utilize the surface ocean temperature (which lies between 15 and 30 C over most of the Earth) to melt a PCM that has a melting/freezing temperature of about 10 C. At the opposite phase of its operational cycle, the system would utilize the lower ocean temperature at depth (e.g., between 4 and 7 C at a depth of 300 m) to freeze the PCM. The melting or freezing would cause the PCM to expand or contract, respectively, by about 9 volume percent. The PCM would be contained in tubes that would be capable of expanding and contracting with the PCM. The PCM-containing tubes would be immersed in a hydraulic fluid. The expansion and contraction would drive a flow of the hydraulic fluid against a piston that, in turn, would push a rack-and-pinion gear system to spin a generator to charge a battery.

  7. Intracaldera volcanism and sedimentation - Creede Caldera, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiken, G.; Krier, D.; Snow, M.G. [and others


    Within the Creede caldera, Colorado, many of the answers to its postcaldera volcanic and sedimentary history lie within the sequence of tuffaceous elastic sedimentary rocks and tuffs known as the Creede Formation. The Creede Formation and its interbedded ash deposits were sampled by research coreholes Creede 1 and 2, drilled during the fall of 1991. In an earlier study of the Creede Formation, based on surface outcrops and shallow mining company coreholes, Heiken and Krier concluded that the process of caldera structural resurgence was rapid and that a caldera lake had developed in an annulus ({open_quotes}moat{close_quotes}) located between the resurgent dome and caldera wall. So far we have a picture of intracaldera activity consisting of intermittent hydrovolcanic eruptions within a caldera lake for the lower third of the Creede Formation, and both magmatic and hydrovolcanic ash eruptions throughout the top two-thirds. Most of the ash deposits interbedded with the moat sedimentary rocks are extremely fine-grained. Ash fallout into the moat lake and unconsolidated ash eroded from caldera walls and the slopes of the resurgent dome were deposited over stream delta distributaries within relatively shallow water in the northwestern moat, and in deeper waters of the northern moat, where the caldera was intersected by a graben. Interbedded with ash beds and tuffaceous siltstones are coarse-grained turbidites from adjacent steep slopes and travertine from fissure ridges adjacent to the moat. Sedimentation rates and provenance for elastic sediments are linked to the frequent volcanic activity in and near the caldera; nearly all of the Creede Formation sedimentary rocks are tuffaceous.

  8. A model for tidewater glacier undercutting by submarine melting (United States)

    Slater, D. A.; Nienow, P. W.; Goldberg, D. N.; Cowton, T. R.; Sole, A. J.


    Dynamic change at the marine-terminating margins of the Greenland Ice Sheet may be initiated by the ocean, particularly where subglacial runoff drives vigorous ice-marginal plumes and rapid submarine melting. Here we model submarine melt-driven undercutting of tidewater glacier termini, simulating a process which is key to understanding ice-ocean coupling. Where runoff emerges from broad subglacial channels we find that undercutting has only a weak impact on local submarine melt rate but increases total ablation by submarine melting due to the larger submerged ice surface area. Thus, the impact of melting is determined not only by the melt rate magnitude but also by the slope of the ice-ocean interface. We suggest that the most severe undercutting occurs at the maximum height in the fjord reached by the plume, likely promoting calving of ice above. It remains unclear, however, whether undercutting proceeds sufficiently rapidly to influence calving at Greenland's fastest-flowing glaciers.

  9. Submarine Upward Looking Sonar Ice Draft Profile Data and Statistics (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of upward looking sonar draft data collected by submarines in the Arctic Ocean. It includes data from both U.S. Navy and Royal Navy...

  10. Virtual Reality Training System for a Submarine Command Center

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maxwell, Douglas B


    The invention as disclosed is a system that uses a combined real and virtual display interaction methodology to generate the visual appearance of submarine combat control rooms and allow interaction...

  11. Backprojection of volcanic tremor (United States)

    Haney, Matthew M.


    Backprojection has become a powerful tool for imaging the rupture process of global earthquakes. We demonstrate the ability of backprojection to illuminate and track volcanic sources as well. We apply the method to the seismic network from Okmok Volcano, Alaska, at the time of an escalation in tremor during the 2008 eruption. Although we are able to focus the wavefield close to the location of the active cone, the network array response lacks sufficient resolution to reveal kilometer-scale changes in tremor location. By deconvolving the response in successive backprojection images, we enhance resolution and find that the tremor source moved toward an intracaldera lake prior to its escalation. The increased tremor therefore resulted from magma-water interaction, in agreement with the overall phreatomagmatic character of the eruption. Imaging of eruption tremor shows that time reversal methods, such as backprojection, can provide new insights into the temporal evolution of volcanic sources.

  12. Studies on submarine control for periscope depth operations


    Tolliver, John V.


    Approved for public release; distribution in unlimited. Requirements for submarine periscope depth operations have been increased by integration with carrier battle groups, littoral operations, and contributions to joint surveillance. Improved periscope depth performance is therefore imperative. Submarine control personnel rely on a large number of analog gauges and indications. An integrated digital display system could enhance the ergonomics of the human control interface and display add...

  13. Exercise Aboard Attack Submarines: Rationale and New Options (United States)


    experience loss of physical fitness while underway. Bennett and co-workers (2) noted a 7% reduction of maximal oxygen consumption in non-exercising...Inc. designed and built a comprehensive resistance exercise device to help counteract muscle deconditioning during long term space flights (the SX... Physical activity aboard nuclear submarines as measured by pedometry. Groton: Naval Submarine Medical Research Laboratory, Report 1053, 1985, p. 12

  14. Are tilt measurements useful in detecting tsunamigenic submarine landslides?


    Sascha Brune; Andrey Babeyko; Stephan V. Sobolev


    Large submarine landslides can generate dangerous tsunamis. Because of their long-period signal, detection of landslides by common seismological methods is difficult. Here we suggest a method of detecting submarine landslides by using an array of land-based tiltmeters. The displacement of a large volume of sediments during landsliding produces a detectable elastic response of the lithosphere. We propose a technique to calculate this response and to invert for tsunami relevant parameters like ...

  15. Volcanic eruptions on Io (United States)

    Strom, R. G.; Schneider, N. M.; Terrile, R. J.; Cook, A. F.; Hansen, C.


    Nine eruption plumes which were observed during the Voyager 1 encounter with Io are discussed. During the Voyager 2 encounter, four months later, eight of the eruptions were still active although the largest became inactive sometime between the two encounters. Plumes range in height from 60 to over 300 km with corresponding ejection velocities of 0.5 to 1.0 km/s and plume sources are located on several plains and consist of fissures or calderas. The shape and brightness distribution together with the pattern of the surface deposition on a plume 3 is simulated by a ballistic model with a constant ejection velocity of 0.5 km/s and ejection angles which vary from 0-55 deg. The distribution of active and recent eruptions is concentrated in the equatorial regions and indicates that volcanic activity is more frequent and intense in the equatorial regions than in the polar regions. Due to the geologic setting of certain plume sources and large reservoirs of volatiles required for the active eruptions, it is concluded that sulfur volcanism rather than silicate volcanism is the most likely driving mechanism for the eruption plumes.

  16. The development of permafrost bacterial communities under submarine conditions (United States)

    Mitzscherling, Julia; Winkel, Matthias; Winterfeld, Maria; Horn, Fabian; Yang, Sizhong; Grigoriev, Mikhail N.; Wagner, Dirk; Overduin, Pier P.; Liebner, Susanne


    Submarine permafrost is more vulnerable to thawing than permafrost on land. Besides increased heat transfer from the ocean water, the penetration of salt lowers the freezing temperature and accelerates permafrost degradation. Microbial communities in thawing permafrost are expected to be stimulated by warming, but how they develop under submarine conditions is completely unknown. We used the unique records of two submarine permafrost cores from the Laptev Sea on the East Siberian Arctic Shelf, inundated about 540 and 2500 years ago, to trace how bacterial communities develop depending on duration of the marine influence and pore water chemistry. Combined with geochemical analysis, we quantified total cell numbers and bacterial gene copies and determined the community structure of bacteria using deep sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene. We show that submarine permafrost is an extreme habitat for microbial life deep below the seafloor with changing thermal and chemical conditions. Pore water chemistry revealed different pore water units reflecting the degree of marine influence and stages of permafrost thaw. Millennia after inundation by seawater, bacteria stratify into communities in permafrost, marine-affected permafrost, and seabed sediments. In contrast to pore water chemistry, the development of bacterial community structure, diversity, and abundance in submarine permafrost appears site specific, showing that both sedimentation and permafrost thaw histories strongly affect bacteria. Finally, highest microbial abundance was observed in the ice-bonded seawater unaffected but warmed permafrost of the longer inundated core, suggesting that permafrost bacterial communities exposed to submarine conditions start to proliferate millennia after warming.

  17. Cardiometabolic Health in Submariners Returning from a 3-Month Patrol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heath G. Gasier


    Full Text Available Confined space, limited exercise equipment, rotating shift work and reduced sleep may affect cardiometabolic health in submariners. To test this hypothesis, 53 male U.S. Submariners (20–39 years were studied before and after a 3-month routine submarine patrol. Measures included anthropometrics, dietary and physical activity, biomarkers of cardiometabolic health, energy and appetite regulation, and inflammation. Before deployment, 62% of submariners had a body fat % (BF% ≥ 25% (obesity, and of this group, 30% met the criteria for metabolic syndrome. In obese volunteers, insulin, the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, leptin, the leptin/adiponectin ratio, and pro-inflammatory chemokines growth-related oncogene and macrophage-derived chemokine were significantly higher compared to non-obese submariners. Following the patrol, a significant mean reduction in body mass (5% and fat-mass (11% occurred in the obese group as a result of reduced energy intake (~2000 kJ during the patrol; and, independent of group, modest improvements in serum lipids and a mean reduction in interferon γ-induced protein 10 and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 were observed. Since 43% of the submariners remained obese, and 18% continued to meet the criteria for metabolic syndrome following the patrol, the magnitude of weight loss was insufficient to completely abolish metabolic dysfunction. Submergence up to 3-months, however, does not appear to be the cause of obesity, which is similar to that of the general population.

  18. Solution of Supplee's submarine paradox through special and general relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Vieira, R S


    In 1989 Supplee described an apparent relativistic paradox on which a submarine seems to sink in a given frame while floating in another one. If the submarine density is adjusted to be the same as the water density (when both of them are at rest) and then it is put to move, the density of the submarine will become higher than that of the water, thanks to Lorentz contraction, and hence it sinks. However, in the submarine proper frame, is the water that becomes denser, so the submarine supposedly should float and we get a paradox situation. In this paper we analyze the submarine paradox in both a flat and a curved spacetime. In the case of a flat spacetime, we first show that any relativistic force field in special relativity can be written in the Lorentz form, so that it can always be decomposed into a static (electric-like) and a dynamic (magnetic-like) part. Taking into account the gravitomagnetic effects between the Earth and the water, a relativistic formulation of Archimedes principle can be established, ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hananto Kurnio


    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to understand the characteristics of a volcano occurred in marine environment, as Weh Island where Sabang City located is still demonstrated its volcanic cone morphology either through satellite imagery or bathymetric map. Methods used were marine geology, marine geophysics and oceanography. Results show that surface volcanism (sea depth less than 50 m take place as fumaroles, solfataras, hot ground, hot spring, hot mud pool and alteration in the vicinities of seafloor and coastal area vents. Seismic records also showed acoustic turbidity in the sea water column due to gas bubblings produced by seafloor fumaroles. Geochemical analyses show that seafloor samples in the vicinities of active and non-active fumarole vent are abundances with rare earth elements (REE. These were interpreted that the fumarole bring along REE through its gases and deposited on the surrounding seafloor surface. Co-existence between active fault of Sumatra and current volcanism produce hydrothermal mineralization in fault zone as observed in Serui and Pria Laot-middle of Weh Island which both are controlled by normal faults and graben.

  20. Geochemical studies of impact breccias and country rocks from the El'gygytgyn impact structure, Russia


    Raschke, Ulli; Schmitt, Ralf Thomas; McDonald, Iain; Reimold, Wolf Uwe; Mader, Dieter; Koeberl, Christian


    The complex impact structure El'gygytgyn (age 3.6 Ma, diameter 18 km) in northeastern Russia was formed in ~88 Ma old volcanic target rocks of the Ochotsk-Chukotsky Volcanic Belt (OCVB). In 2009, El'gygytgyn was the target of a drilling project of the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP), and in summer 2011 it was investigated further by a Russian–German expedition. Drill core material and surface samples, including volcanic target rocks and impactites, have been inves...

  1. Gas Resource Potential of Volcanic Reservoir in Yingtai Fault Depression of Southern Songliao Basin,China (United States)

    Zheng, M.


    There are 2 kinds of volcanic reservoir of gas resource in the Yingtai fault depression, southern Songliao basin,China: volcanic lava reservoir in the Yingcheng-1formation and sedimentary pryoclastics rock of the Yingcheng-2 formation. Based on analysis of the 2 kinds of gas pool features and controlling factors, distribution of each kind has been studied. The resources of these gas reservoirs have been estimated by Delphi method and volumetric method, respectively. The results of resources assessment show the total volcanic gas resources of the Yingtai depression is rich, and the resource proving rate is low, with the remaining gas resource in volcanic reservoir accounting for more than 70%. Thus there will be great exploration potential in the volcanic reservoir in the future gas exploration of this area.

  2. Jurassic Volcanism in the Eastern Pontides: Is it Rift Related or Subduction Related?




    The Jurassic volcanic rocks in the centre of the northern zone (south of Trabzon City) provide important constraints on the evolution of Pontides. The investigated volcanic rocks form a transitional series between tholeiitic and calc-alkaline, and is dominated by basalt, basaltic andesite and andesite. Geochemically, they are enriched in LILE and LREE contents and depleted in HFSE [(La/Yb)N= 2.2 - 8.5; (Nb/La)N= 0.1 - 0.77)] compared to mid-ocean ridge basalts and have radiogenic Nd isotope r...

  3. Volcanic signatures in time gravity variations during the volcanic unrest on El Hierro (Canary Islands) (United States)

    Sainz-Maza Aparicio, S.; Arnoso Sampedro, J.; Gonzalez Montesinos, F.; Martí Molist, J.


    Gravity changes occurring during the initial stage of the 2011-2012 El Hierro submarine eruption are interpreted in terms of the preeruptive signatures during the episode of unrest. Continuous gravity measurements were made at two sites on the island using the relative spring gravimeter LaCoste and Romberg gPhone-054. On 15 September 2011, an observed gravity decrease of 45 μGal, associated with the southward migration of seismic epicenters, is consistent with a lateral magma migration that occurred beneath the volcanic edifice, an apparently clear precursor of the eruption that took place 25 days later on 10 October 2011. High-frequency gravity signals also appeared on 6-11 October 2011, pointing to an occurring interaction between a magmatic intrusion and the ocean floor. These important gravity changes, with amplitudes varying from 10 to -90 μGal, during the first 3 days following the onset of the eruption are consistent with the northward migration of the eruptive focus along an active eruptive fissure. An apparent correlation of gravity variations with body tide vertical strain was also noted, which could indicate that concurrent tidal triggering occurred during the initial stage of the eruption.

  4. Page 1 Petrological Studies of Rocks of Boračudur, Java 405 diorite ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A microsection of the pebble reveals similar mineral association and it is a compact and non-vesicular Volcanic rock. MINERALOGY. Felspars.-The common felspars of the rocks are the intermediate plagioclases of the composition of andesine to labradorite. The plagio- clases often show strong zoning. They are idiomorphic ...

  5. Lithofacies and paleo depositional environment of the rocks of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Sep 20, 2013 ... environment. The intact shells of bivalves suggest deposition in a low energy protected shoreline where wave action is limited. Sedimentary structures like fissility and laminations, also suggest deposition in low energy marine setting. Pyroclastic rocks mapped in the area have been interpreted as volcanic ...

  6. Looking for Larvae Above an Erupting Submarine Volcano, NW Rota-1, Mariana Arc (United States)

    Beaulieu, S.; Hanson, M.; Tunnicliffe, V.; Chadwick, W. W., Jr.; Breuer, E. R.


    In 2009 the first marine protected areas for deep-sea hydrothermal vents in U.S. waters were established as part of the Volcanic Unit of the Marianas Trench Marine National Monument. In this region, hydrothermal vents are located along the Mariana Arc and back-arc spreading center. In particular hydrothermal vents are located near the summit of NW Rota-1, an active submarine volcano on the Mariana Arc which was erupting between 2003 and 2010 and ceased as of 2014. NW Rota-1 experienced a massive landslide in late 2009, decimating the habitat on the southern side of the volcano. This project looked at zooplankton tow samples taken from the water column above NW Rota-1 in 2010, searching for larvae which have the potential to recolonize the sea floor after such a major disturbance. Samples were sorted in entirety into coarse taxa, and then larvae were removed for DNA barcoding. Overall zooplankton composition was dominated by copepods, ostracods, and chaetognaths, the majority of which are pelagic organisms. Comparatively few larvae of benthic invertebrates were found, but shrimp, gastropod, barnacle, and polychaete larvae did appear in low numbers in the samples. Species-level identification obtained via genetic barcoding will allow for these larvae to be matched to species known to inhabit the benthic communities at NW Rota-1. Identified larvae will give insight into the organisms which can re-colonize the seafloor vent communities after a disturbance such as the 2009 landslide. Communities at hydrothermal vents at other submarine volcanoes in the Monument may act as sources for these larvae, but connectivity in this region of complex topography is unknown. As the microinvertebrate biodiversity in the Monument has yet to be fully characterized, our project also provides an opportunity to better describe both the zooplankton and benthic community composition in this area of the Monument.

  7. Paleoseismicity on the Dense Network of Holocene Submarine Faults in Beppu Bay, Southwest Japan (United States)

    Shimazaki, K.; Matsuoka, H.; Okamura, M.; Chida, N.


    Beppu Bay, approximately 30 km by 15 km in size, contains a complex network of Holocene submarine faults whose total length amounts to 230km. They are normal dip-slip fault with left-lateral strike-slip component. The maximum vertical offset accumulated in the past 7,300 years exceeds 20 m. A detailed study on paleoseismicity on one of the faults shows a feature of the time-predictable recurrence, i.e., the larger the vertical offset, the longer the following inter-event time. Branching features can be often recognized near the end of fault and the consistency in branching direction of neighboring faults suggest repeated rupture propagation in the same direction. A detailed examination of high-resolution seismic profiling of branch indicates a repeat of branching and a slow transition of rupture from an old branch to a new one. The central Beppu-Bay fault running WNW to ESE in the center of the bay forms the northern boundary of the major graben structure of the bay. The Asamigawa fault in the west of the bay, running parallel to the central Beppu-Bay fault, has been considered as the southern boundary, but its eastern continuation was not clear. Recent seismic profiling carried out by Chida et al. (2003) showed an existence of Holocene normal fault beneath the city of Oita whose population is 440,000 and interpreted it as a part of the southern boundary. Our high-resolution shallow-water profiling survey revealed the submarine portion of the southern boundary fault, filling a gap between two subaerial faults. We continuously sample marine sediments down to a subbottom depth of 20m by piston coring and correlate specific features of sediment, 20 volcanic ash layers, a few features of magnetic susceptibility and coarse fraction together with C-14 ages of echinoids, pelecypods, and plant remains on the both sides of a targe fault to estimate the date and vertical offset of paleoearthquakes.

  8. Rock-brine chemical interactions. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The results of experimental interaction of powdered volcanic rock with aqueous solutions are presented at temperatures from 200 to 400/sup 0/C, 500 to 1000 bars fluid pressure, with reaction durations of approximately 30 days under controlled laboratory conditions. The aim of this research is to develop data on the kinetics and equilibria of rock solution interactions that will provide insight into the complex geochemical processes attending geothermal reservoir development, stimulation, and reinjection. The research was done in the Stanford Hydrothermal Lab using gold cell equipment of the Dickson design. This equipment inverts the solution rock mixture several times a minute to ensure thorough mixing. Solution samples were periodically withdrawn without interruption of the experimental conditions. The data from these experiments suggests a path dependent series of reactions by which geothermal fluids might evolve from meteoric or magmatic sources.

  9. Prevention of Catastrophic Volcanic Eruptions


    Fujii, Yoshiaki; Kodama, Jun-ichi; Fukuda, Daisuke; Dassanayake, Abn


    Giant volcanic eruptions emit sulphate aerosols as well as volcanic ash. Needless to say that volcanic ash causes significant damage to the environment and human at large. However, the aerosols are even worse. They reach the Stratosphere and stay there for months to years reflecting insolation. As a result, air temperature at the Earth's surfaces drops. Even a slight temperature drop may cause severe food shortage. Yellowstone supervolcano, for example, can even make human in the Northern Hem...

  10. Relationship between work stress and health in submariners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan-nan JIANG


    Full Text Available Objective To explore the relationship between work stress and health in