WorldWideScience

Sample records for submarine uss houston

  1. Results of radioactivity analysis made in Corsica following the navigation incident of the USS Hartford submarine; Resultats des analyses de radioactivite effectuees en Corse suite a l'incident de navigation du sous-marin USS Hartford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-11-01

    No radiological impact has been revealed in relation with the navigation incident of the Uss Hartford submarine at the north of Sardinia. The analysis have been made by the Institute of radiation protection and nuclear safety (I.R.S.N.).The Uss Hartford submarine had hit the bottom of the sea, on the 25. of october 2003, between the islands of Sardinia at a thirty kilometers distance in the south of Bonifacio. The accident had been declared to the public only on the 12. of November 2003. (N.C.)

  2. Ussing Chamber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhout, J.; Wortelboer, H.; Verhoeckx, K.

    2015-01-01

    The Ussing chamber system is named after the Danish zoologist Hans Ussing, who invented the device in the 1950s to measure the short-circuit current as an indicator of net ion transport taking place across frog skin (Ussing and Zerahn, Acta Physiol Scand 23:110-127, 1951). Ussing chambers are

  3. SSN 774 Virginia Class Submarine (SSN 774)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Report: The VIRGINIA Class Submarine Program continues to deliver submarines within cost, ahead of schedule , with improved quality and with...baseline schedule threshold set ten years earlier, in 1994. June 20, 2006: USS TEXAS, which was essentially the second lead ship of the class , is the first...factored for the VIRGINIA Class based on weight. Public and private shipyard data was used, as well as the maintenance schedule provided in the CARD, Rev E

  4. Conduct and Support of Amphibious Operations from United States Submarines in World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    twelfth war patrol of the Gato class submarine (See photos 1 and 2). They made history as the only Americans to conduct an offensive landing on a...Naval History Vol. 2, no. 1 (April 1, 2003), 1. 4 This monograph features five Gato class submarines, and three V-class submarines, but also addresses...1993), 67. 6 Photo 2: USS Barb (SS 220), representing the five Gato class submarines that participated in Operation Torch. Barb’s crew also

  5. Submarine hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Renilson, Martin

    2015-01-01

    This book adopts a practical approach and presents recent research together with applications in real submarine design and operation. Topics covered include hydrostatics, manoeuvring, resistance and propulsion of submarines. The author briefly reviews basic concepts in ship hydrodynamics and goes on to show how they are applied to submarines, including a look at the use of physical model experiments. The issues associated with manoeuvring in both the horizontal and vertical planes are explained, and readers will discover suggested criteria for stability, along with rudder and hydroplane effectiveness. The book includes a section on appendage design which includes information on sail design, different arrangements of bow planes and alternative stern configurations. Other themes explored in this book include hydro-acoustic performance, the components of resistance and the effect of hull shape. Readers will value the author’s applied experience as well as the empirical expressions that are presented for use a...

  6. Houston's Regional Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Peter D. Smith; Michael Merritt; John Giedraitis; Jeffrey T. Walton; Robert E. Hoehn; Jack C. Stevens; Daniel E. Crane; Mark Estes; Stephen Stetson; Charles Burditt; David Hitchcock; Wendee Holtcamp

    2005-01-01

    The population in and around Houston has grown rapidly over the past twenty years, now exceeding five million people. Studies of the area have noted that the loss of trees and changes to the forest makeup have generally accompanied this growth. Trees and urban forestry practices can be used effectively to reduce many of the negative effects of urban growth and other...

  7. Submarine Medicine Team

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Submarine Medicine Team conducts basic and applied research on biomedical aspects of submarine and diving environments. It focuses on ways to optimize the health...

  8. Overhaul Work Booklet: USS Rathburne (FF-1057),

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-08-01

    I ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ FPrepared for PEARL HARBO R NA VA L SHIPYA RD/ - . [ Under Contract N00140—76—D—0813—00 15 - Prepared by - E. Bethke 1 D...BOH) directed toward permitting the ship to operate up to 54 t 6 months before its next Regular Overhaul. Pearl Harbo r Naval Shipyard’s goal is to...A . A /i~çvPublication 1815-01-1-1647 I1~ OVERHAUL WORK BOOKLET: USS RATHBURNE (FF-1057 ) August 1977 I Prepared for i / PEARL HARBOR NAVA L SHIPYARD

  9. Implementation of Siemens USS protocol into LabVIEW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosek, P; Diblik, M

    2011-10-01

    This article gives basic overview of the USS protocol as a communication interface to drive Siemens frequency inverters. It presents our implementation of this protocol into LabVIEW, as there was permanent demand from the community of the users to have native LabVIEW implementation of the USS protocol. It also states encountered problems and their solutions. Copyright © 2011 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Low cost submarine robot

    OpenAIRE

    Ponlachart Chotikarn; Werapong Koedsin; Boonlua Phongdara; Pattara Aiyarak

    2010-01-01

    A submarine robot is a semi-autonomous submarine robot used mainly for marine environmental research. We aim todevelop a low cost, semi-autonomous submarine robot which is able to travel underwater. The robot’s structure was designedand patented using a novel idea of the diving system employing a volume adjustment mechanism to vary the robot’s density.A light weight, flexibility and small structure provided by PVC can be used to construct the torpedo-liked shape robot.Hydraulic seal and O-rin...

  11. Low cost submarine robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponlachart Chotikarn

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A submarine robot is a semi-autonomous submarine robot used mainly for marine environmental research. We aim todevelop a low cost, semi-autonomous submarine robot which is able to travel underwater. The robot’s structure was designedand patented using a novel idea of the diving system employing a volume adjustment mechanism to vary the robot’s density.A light weight, flexibility and small structure provided by PVC can be used to construct the torpedo-liked shape robot.Hydraulic seal and O-ring rubbers are used to prevent water leaking. This robot is controlled by a wired communicationsystem.

  12. Supporting GUI Exploration through USS Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luís Silva

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Advances in usability and design techniques (e.g. user-centered design try to facilitate the use of interactive systems. However, users still have to adapt to interactive systems, i.e. they have to learn the steps required to accomplish a task either by trial and error or by obtaining help. While advanced users are usually able to adapt without much effort this is far from being the case with beginners. Some interactive systems offer different interaction styles in an attempt to meet the needs of all types of user but this is not the case with all interactive systems. In this sense, we present an approach to support the use of any interactive system making use of enriched models and picture-driven computing to achieve tasks automation. The USS tool (User Support System is the basis to the adaptation of interactive systems accordingly to the users' needs. The approach provides the foundation for the addition of help (based on demonstration to any graphical user interfaces (GUI facilitating learning and use. The work is illustrated by a case study and completed with a preliminary user evaluation which provides insights about the validity of the approach.

  13. Submarine Salt Karst Terrains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico Augustin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Karst terrains that develop in bodies of rock salt (taken as mainly of halite, NaCl are special not only for developing in one of the most soluble of all rocks, but also for developing in one of the weakest rocks. Salt is so weak that many surface-piercing salt diapirs extrude slow fountains of salt that that gravity spread downslope over deserts on land and over sea floors. Salt fountains in the deserts of Iran are usually so dry that they flow at only a few cm/yr but the few rain storms a decade so soak and weaken them that they surge at dm/day for a few days. We illustrate the only case where the rates at which different parts of one of the many tens of subaerial salt karst terrains in Iran flows downslope constrains the rates at which its subaerial salt karst terrains form. Normal seawater is only 10% saturated in NaCl. It should therefore be sufficiently aggressive to erode karst terrains into exposures of salt on the thousands of known submarine salt extrusions that have flowed or are still flowing over the floors of hundreds of submarine basins worldwide. However, we know of no attempt to constrain the processes that form submarine salt karst terrains on any of these of submarine salt extrusions. As on land, many potential submarine karst terrains are cloaked by clastic and pelagic sediments that are often hundreds of m thick. Nevertheless, detailed geophysical and bathymetric surveys have already mapped likely submarine salt karst terrains in at least the Gulf of Mexico, and the Red Sea. New images of these two areas are offered as clear evidence of submarine salt dissolution due to sinking or rising aggressive fluids. We suggest that repeated 3D surveys of distinctive features (± fixed seismic reflectors of such terrains could measure any downslope salt flow and thus offer an exceptional opportunity to constrain the rates at which submarine salt karst terrains develop. Such rates are of interest to all salt tectonicians and the many

  14. The USS Iowa disaster: success of the forensic dental team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannon, Robert B; Morlang, William M

    2004-09-01

    The authors record the contributions of dentistry to the identification of the crew members who were in one of the most significant peacetime military accidents in U.S. Navy history-the April 1989 explosion in a gun turret on the battleship USS Iowa and the deaths of 47 U.S. Navy personnel. Dental identification was the primary means of identification for most because a very high percentage of the bodies were burned or fragmented. The dental-identification team's success was a direct result of its preparedness, its use of dental personnel with mass-disaster experience, and the overall excellent quality of the antemortem dental records. The dental-identification team's successful involvement in the USS Iowa tragedy was considered a model for success and therefore was instrumental in contributing to the development of the American Board of Forensic Odontology "Guidelines for the Development of a Disaster Dental Identification Team."

  15. Laulja Whitney Houston sõlmis rekordlepingu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2001-01-01

    Popstaar Whitney Houston pikendas oma plaadifirmaga Arista lepingut ja tegi artistina popmuusika ajaloo kõige kallima tehingu, mis garanteerib talle kuue stuudioalbumi ja kahe hitikogumiku eest 100 miljonit dollarit

  16. Aeropuerto intercontinental de Houston USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goleman & Rolfe, Arquitectos

    1970-09-01

    Full Text Available The main factors that tend to differentiate this intercontinental airport are the following. An extensive network of parking facilities near the flying stations. Maximum proximity of the airliners to the waiting passengers. An underground railway to transport passengers and luggage outside the runway area. Each of the two terminal buildings has exits in six different directions. It enjoys ample communications with the approach and motor roads leading into Houston. The possibility of further enlarging the airport at a later time without excessive cost. This ultramodern airport is designed to handle all types of intercontinental airliners and supersonic aircraft, and provides maximum comfort to passengers.Disponer de una red de aparcamientos cercanos a las estaciones de vuelo; acercamiento máximo de los aviones a los pasajeros; existencia de un tren subterráneo para el transporte de los viajeros y equipajes fuera del campo de aterrizaje; dotación, a cada uno de los dos edificios tei-minales, de salidas en seis direcciones; disfrute de amplias comunicaciones con las vías de accesos y las autopistas que irradian de la ciudad; y la posibilidad de efectuar una futura ampliación sin realizar gastos excesivos. Estos son los factores que contribuyen a diferenciar este Aeropuerto Intercontinental de otros Centros de Aviación Comercial. Este ultramoderno Aeropuerto está preparado para recibir toda clase de reactores y transportes supersónicos intercontinentales, ofreciendo toda clase de comodidades a sus usuarios.

  17. Hans H. Ussing - scientific work: contemporary significance and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Hviid

    2002-01-01

    , he unambiguously proved active transport of sodium ions. Conceived in his electric circuit analogue of frog skin, Ussing associated transepithelial ion fluxes with the hitherto puzzling ‘bioelectric potentials'. The two-membrane hypothesis of frog skin initiated the study of epithelial transport...... at the cellular level and raised new questions about cellular mechanisms of actions of hormones and drugs. His theoretical treatment of osmotic water fluxes versus fluxes of deuterium labeled water resulted in the discovery of epithelial water channels. His discovery of paracellular transport in frog skin bridged...

  18. Hans Henriksen Ussing. 30 December 1911 - 22 December 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Hviid

    2009-01-01

    by using deuterium-labelled amino acids. After World War II, when radioactive isotopes of light elements became available for biological research, Ussing pioneered the development of epithelial physiology by introducing new concepts and theoretical tools, such as unidirectional fluxes, exchange diffusion...... ions. His two-membrane hypothesis of active transport by frog skin initiated studies of epithelial transport at the cellular level in other organs and of the mechanisms of action of hormones and drugs. His discovery of paracellular ion transports bridged the physiology of high-resistance and low...

  19. SCICEX: Submarine Arctic Science Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Submarine Arctic Science Program, SCICEX, is a federal interagency collaboration among the operational Navy, research agencies, and the marine research community...

  20. The Submarine, 1776-1918

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Uhlig, Frank

    2004-01-01

    When, on 11 April 1900, the U.S. Navy thought the Holland, named for its designer, that little submarine joined a fleet consisting of two armored cruisers, six monitors, seven first and second-class battleships, and seventeen each...

  1. ASSESSMENT OF THE DEEP SEA WRECK USS INDEPENDENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa C. Symons

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available As part of ongoing efforts to better understand the nature of shipwrecks in National Marine Sanctuaries which may pose some level of pollution risk, and in this case, to definitively locate what is likely the only shipwreck in a sanctuary involved in both nuclear testing and nuclear waste disposal, NOAA’s Office of National Marine Sanctuaries collaborated with NOAA’s Office of Ocean Exploration and The Boeing Company, which provided their autonomous underwater vehicle, Echo Ranger, to conduct the first deep-water archaeological survey of the scuttled aircraft carrier USS Independence in the waters of Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary (MBNMS in March 2015. The presence of the deep-sea scuttled radioactive aircraft carrier USS Independence off the California coast has been the source of consistent media speculation and public concern for decades. The survey confirmed that a sonar target charted at the location was Independence, and provided details on the condition of the wreck, and revealed no detectable levels of radioactivity. At the same time, new information from declassified government reports provided more detail on Independence’s use as a naval test craft for radiological decontamination as well as its use as a repository for radioactive materials at the time of its scuttling in 1951. While further surveys may reveal more, physical assessment and focused archival work has demonstrated that the level of concern and speculation of danger from either a radioactive or oil pollution threat posed may be exaggerated.

  2. Submarine Information Organization and Prioritization and Submarine Officer of the Deck Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-07-12

    The Submarine Review, 58-64. Shobe, K. (2002, May). Information organization and modeling of the submarine officer of the deck and sonar operator...Technical Report 01Oct00 - 31Sep02 SUBMARINE INFORMATION ORGANIZATION AND PRIORITIZATION AND SUBMARINE OFFICER OF THE DECK EXPERIENCE 51001 1) Katharine K

  3. Enhancing Submarine Operational Relevance: A Leadership Challenge

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daigle, Jr, Michael J

    2008-01-01

    .... This vision of submarine operations must change. As the military continues to shift to operations focused on joint capabilities, the submarine force must break from the closed, protective, and risk averse culture of its past and push forward...

  4. Submarine silicic volcanism: Processes and products

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kalangutkar, N.G.; Iyer, S.D.

    The occurrence of submarine silicic volcanics is rare at the mid-oceanic ridges, abyssal depths, seamounts and fracture zones. Hydrothermal processes are active in submarine silicic environments and are associated with host ores of Cu, Au, Ag, Pb...

  5. Houston, Texas: Solar in Action (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-10-01

    This brochure provides an overview of the challenges and successes of Houston, TX, a 2008 Solar America City awardee, on the path toward becoming a solar-powered community. Accomplishments, case studies, key lessons learned, and local resource information are given.

  6. North American Submarine Cable Association (NASCA) Submarine Cables

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data show the locations of in-service and out-of-service submarine cables that are owned by members of NASCA and located in U.S. territorial waters. More...

  7. Settlement of the USS Arizona, Pearl Harbor, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carkin, Brad A.; Kayen, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in collaboration with the National Park Service Submerged Resources Center, undertook investigations at the USS Arizona Memorial at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, in 2002, 2003, and 2005 to characterize geological factors affecting the deterioration and movement of the hull of the USS Arizona. Since sinking on the morning of December 7, 1941, the hull of the USS Arizona has been slowly but steadily disappearing below the surface of Pearl Harbor. Continuous sediment coring at three of four locations around the hull of the Arizona was only partially successful, but it was sufficient to identify a varied sedimentary substrate beneath the hull. A boring near the stern reveals a thick, continuous sequence of soft, gray clay to the bottom of the boring. In contrast, borings near the bow and starboard side, below about 5 meters subbottom depth, indicate the presence of very stiff, brown clay and coral debris and an absence of soft clay. Multisensor core logger scanning of the recovered cores distinguishes the lower density of the soft, gray clay at the stern from the higher density of the stiff, brown clays and coral debris at the bow and starboard side. Uniaxial consolidation testing of the soft gray clay indicates a normally consolidated sequence, whereas the stiff, brown clay and coral debris are overconsolidated. Profiles of shear wave velocity vs. depth obtained through spectral analysis of interface wave testing around the perimeter of the hull in 2005 identified areas of higher velocity, stiffer sediment at the bow and starboard side, which correspond to the dense, stiff clay recovered near the bow and starboard borings. Low shear-wave velocities at the port midship and quarter of the hull correlate with the lower density, softer sediment recovered from the boring at the stern. Cross sections of the subbottom of the Memorial combine results from the sediment borings and geophysical surveys and depict a wedge of soft clay unconformably overlying

  8. Submarine geothermal resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D.L.

    1976-01-01

    Approximately 20% of the earth's heat loss (or 2 ?? 1012 cal/s) is released through 1% of the earth's surface area and takes the form of hydrothermal discharge from young (Pleistocene or younger) rocks adjacent to active seafloor-spreading centers and submarine volcanic areas. This amount is roughly equivalent to man's present gross energy consumption rate. A sub-seafloor geothermal reservoir, to be exploitable under future economic conditions, will have to be hot, porous, permeable, large, shallow, and near an energy-deficient, populated land mass. Furthermore, the energy must be recoverable using technology achievable at a competitive cost and numerous environmental, legal and institutional problems will have to be overcome. The highest-temperature reservoirs should be found adjacent to the zones of the seafloor extension or volcanism that are subject to high sedimentation rates. The relatively impermeable sediments reduce hydrothermal-discharge flow rates, forcing the heat to be either conducted away or released by high-temperature fluids, both of which lead to reservoir temperatures that can exceed 300??C. There is evidence that the oceanic crust is quite permeable and porous and that it was amenable to deep (3-5 km) penetration by seawater at least some time in the early stages of its evolution. Most of the heat escapes far from land, but there are notable exceptions. For example, in parts of the Gulf of California, thermal gradients in the bottom sediments exceed 1??C/m. In the coastal areas of the Gulf of California, where electricity and fresh water are at a premium, this potential resource lies in shallow water (< 200 m) and within sight of land. Other interesting areas include the Sea of Japan, the Sea of Okhotsk and the Andaman Sea along the margins of the western Pacific, the Tyrrhenian Sea west of Italy, and the southern California borderland and west flank of the Juan de Fuca Ridge off the west coast of the United States. Many questions remain to be

  9. Submarine canyons off Madras Coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Setty, M.G.A.P.

    Submarine canyons off the coast of Madras, Tamil Nadu, India were studied during cruise of @iINS Kistna@@ as part of the IIOE programme They consist of hill-like projections and V-shaped valleys Their other features are also reported...

  10. SCICEX: Submarine Arctic Science Program, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Submarine Arctic Science Program, SCICEX, is a federal interagency collaboration among the operational Navy, research agencies, and the marine research community...

  11. Houston Pre-Freshman Enrichment Program (Houston PREP). Final report, June 9, 1997--July 25, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    The 1997 Houston Pre-Freshman Enrichment Program (PREP) was conducted at the campus of the University of Houston-Downtown from June 9 to July 25, 1997. Program participants were recruited from the Greater Houston Area. All participants were identified as high-achieving students with an interest in learning about the engineering and science professions. The goal of the program was to better prepare our pre-college youth prior to entering college as mathematics, science and engineering majors. The program participants were middle school and high school students from the Aldine, Alief, Channel View, Clear Creek, Cypress-Fairbanks, Fort Bend, Galena Park, Houston, Humble, Katy, Klein, North Forest, Pasadena, Private, and Spring Branch Independent School Districts. Of the 194 students starting the program, 165 students were from economically and socially disadvantage groups under-represented in the engineering and science professions, and 118 of the 194 were women. Our First Year group for 1997 composed of 96% minority and women students. Second and Third Year students combined were 96% minority or women. With financial support from the Center for Computational Sciences and Advanced Distributed Simulation, the Fourth Year Program was added to PREP this year. Twelve students completed the program (83% minority or women).

  12. [Measurement of unemployment-related psychological stress: Validation of the Unemployment Stress (USS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabóné Kapuvári, Virág; Martos, Tamás

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays the theme of unemployment and the given answers of it are up to date questions in psychology. In spite of this fact, the psychological methods measuring this phenomenon are often missing. That is why the Unemployment Stress Scale (USS) is presented in this article. The aim of our study is to develop a scale called USS and test it's validity and reliability. There were 287 adult unemployed persons asked in this study. Besides the USS we used the Beck Depression Scale, the Spielberger Anxiety Scale (TRAIT), the Sense of Coherence Scale (Hungarian version) and the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale. According to our results, USS has showed an excellent criterion and construct validity. A useful scale has been formed according to test-retest results. (Cronbach-alfa: 0.88 and 0.86 according to the samples). Moreover our scale has a strong correlation with the Spielberger Anxiety Scale (TRAIT) and the Beck Depression Scale. These chracteristics of the new scale proved that we fond a factor, independent from the self esteem and the sense of coherence, which represents the stress level in the situation of unemployment. This scale is a professional construction to measure stress contributed to unemployment. The USS can be a useful scale in clinical practice because after measuring with this scale we can protect the personality of the unemployed by representing the actual unemployment stress level. That is why professionals can help earlier in a crisis like this.

  13. The Anthropogenic/Lightning Effects Around Houston: The Houston Environmental Aerosol Thunderstorm (HEAT) Project - 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orville, R. E.

    2004-12-01

    A major field program will occur in summer 2005 to determine the sources and causes for the enhanced cloud-to-ground lightning over Houston, Texas. This program will be in association with simultaneous experiments supported by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ), formally the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission (TNRCC). Recent studies covering the period 1989-2002 document a 60 percent increase of cloud-to-ground lightning in the Houston area as compared to surrounding background values, which is second in flash density only to the Tampa Bay, Florida area. We suggest that the elevated flash densities could result from several factors, including 1) the convergence due to the urban heat island effect and complex sea breeze (thermal hypothesis), and 2) the increasing levels of air pollution from anthropogenic sources producing numerous small cloud droplets and thereby suppressing mean droplet size (aerosol hypothesis). The latter effect would enable more cloud water to reach the mixed phase region where it is involved in the formation of precipitation and the separation of electric charge, leading to an enhancement of lightning. The primary goals of HEAT are to examine the effects of (1) pollution, (2) the urban heat island, and (3) the complex coastline on storms and lightning characteristics in the Houston area. The transport of air pollutants by Houston thunderstorms will be investigated. In particular, the relative amounts of lightning-produced and convectively transported NOx into the upper troposphere will be determined, and a comparison of the different NOx sources in the urban area of Houston will be developed. The HEAT project is based on the observation that there is an enhancement in cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning. Total lightning (intracloud (IC) and CG) will be measured using a lightning mapping system (LDAR II) to observe if there is an enhancement in intracloud lightning as well.

  14. Submarines, spacecraft and exhaled breath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleil, Joachim D; Hansel, Armin

    2012-03-01

    Foreword The International Association of Breath Research (IABR) meetings are an eclectic gathering of researchers in the medical, environmental and instrumentation fields; our focus is on human health as assessed by the measurement and interpretation of trace chemicals in human exhaled breath. What may have escaped our notice is a complementary field of research that explores the creation and maintenance of artificial atmospheres practised by the submarine air monitoring and air purification (SAMAP) community. SAMAP is comprised of manufacturers, researchers and medical professionals dealing with the engineering and instrumentation to support human life in submarines and spacecraft (including shuttlecraft and manned rockets, high-altitude aircraft, and the International Space Station (ISS)). Here, the immediate concerns are short-term survival and long-term health in fairly confined environments where one cannot simply 'open the window' for fresh air. As such, one of the main concerns is air monitoring and the main sources of contamination are CO(2) and other constituents of human exhaled breath. Since the inaugural meeting in 1994 in Adelaide, Australia, SAMAP meetings have been held every two or three years alternating between the North American and European continents. The meetings are organized by Dr Wally Mazurek (a member of IABR) of the Defense Systems Technology Organization (DSTO) of Australia, and individual meetings are co-hosted by the navies of the countries in which they are held. An overriding focus at SAMAP is life support (oxygen availability and carbon dioxide removal). Certainly, other air constituents are also important; for example, the closed environment of a submarine or the ISS can build up contaminants from consumer products, cooking, refrigeration, accidental fires, propulsion and atmosphere maintenance. However, the most immediate concern is sustaining human metabolism: removing exhaled CO(2) and replacing metabolized O(2). Another

  15. Photo Essay: Notes on “The Voyage of the USS Juniata (1883–1885”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Dowling

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The images included in the June 2013 Cross-Currents photo essay, “The Voyage of the USS Juniata (1883–1885,” are digital scans made from a set of five-by-eight-inch glass plate negatives depicting scenes from a three-year (1883–1885 naval expedition to the Far East by the USS Juniata. The photographer was Asa M. Mattice, an officer on board (figure 1. Mattice, a native of New York State, graduated from the U.S. Naval Academy at the head of his class as a cadet engineer in 1874 and was later appointed to the teaching staff at Annapolis. He served on the USS Juniata beginning on November 30, 1882, when the ship departed from New York to join five other ships at the Asiatic Squadron.

  16. 3USS: a web server for detecting alternative 3'UTRs from RNA-seq experiments.

    KAUST Repository

    Le Pera, Loredana

    2015-01-22

    Protein-coding genes with multiple alternative polyadenylation sites can generate mRNA 3\\'UTR sequences of different lengths, thereby causing the loss or gain of regulatory elements, which can affect stability, localization and translation efficiency. 3USS is a web-server developed with the aim of giving experimentalists the possibility to automatically identify alternative 3 \\': UTRs (shorter or longer with respect to a reference transcriptome), an option that is not available in standard RNA-seq data analysis procedures. The tool reports as putative novel the 3 \\': UTRs not annotated in available databases. Furthermore, if data from two related samples are uploaded, common and specific alternative 3 \\': UTRs are identified and reported by the server.3USS is freely available at http://www.biocomputing.it/3uss_server.

  17. 78 FR 36523 - Foreign-Trade Zone 84-Houston, Texas; Authorization of Production Activity; Toshiba International...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-18

    ...; Toshiba International Corporation; (Hybrid Electric Vehicle Motors and Generators Production); Houston... of proposed production activity on behalf of Toshiba International Corporation, located in Houston...

  18. Submarine landslides: advances and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locat, Jacques; Lee, Homa J.

    2002-01-01

    Due to the recent development of well-integrated surveying techniques of the sea floor, significant improvements were achieved in mapping and describing the morphology and architecture of submarine mass movements. Except for the occurrence of turbidity currents, the aquatic environment (marine and fresh water) experiences the same type of mass failure as that found on land. Submarine mass movements, however, can have run-out distances in excess of 100 km, so their impact on any offshore activity needs to be integrated over a wide area. This great mobility of submarinemass movements is still not very well understood, particularly for cases like the far-reaching debris flows mapped on the Mississippi Fan and the large submarine rock avalanches found around many volcanic islands. A major challenge ahead is the integration of mass movement mechanics in an appropriate evaluation of the hazard so that proper risk assessment methodologies can be developed and implemented for various human activities offshore, including the development of natural resources and the establishment of reliable communication corridors. Key words : submarine slides, hazards, risk assessment, morphology, mobility, tsunami. Le dveloppement rcent de techniques de levs hydrograhiques pour les fonds marins nous a permis d'atteindre une qualit ingale dans la cartographie et la description des glissements sous marins. l'exception des courants de turbidit, on retrouve dans le domaine aquatique les mmes types de mouvements de terrain que sur terre. Par contre, les glissements sous-marins peuvent atteindre des distances excdant 100 km de telle sorte que leur impact sur les activits offshore doit tre pris en compte sur degrandes tendues. La grande mobilit des glissements sous-marins n'est pas encore bien comprise, comme pour le cas des coules dedbris cartographies sur le cne du Mississippi ainsi que pour les grandes avalanches rocheuses sous-marines retrouves au pourtour des les volcaniques. Un dfi majeur

  19. Houston KIDS COUNT: A Snapshot of Children Living in Houston and Harris County. 2005 Texas KIDS COUNT Special Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Public Policy Priorities, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The Houston KIDS COUNT data book examines the status of children in Houston and Harris County and identifies trends in their general welfare. These data provide a portrait of Harris County's children that can be used for developing sound and effective local policy. The report is divided into the following sections: (1) Children in Families; (2)…

  20. Houston prefreshman enrichment program (Houston PREP). Final report, June 10, 1996--August 1, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The 1996 Houston Pre-freshman Enrichment Program (PREP) was conducted on the campus of the University of Houston-Downtown from June 10 to August 1, 1996. Program Participants were recruited from the Greater Houston area. All participants were identified as high achieving students with an interest in learning about the engineering and science professions. The goal of the program was to better prepare our pre-college youth prior to entering college as mathematics, science and engineering majors. The program participants were middle school and high school students from the Aldine, Alief, Channel View, Crockett, Cypress-Fairbanks, Fort Bend, Galena Park, Houston, Humble, Katy, Klein, North Forest, Pasadena, Private, and Spring Branch Independent School Districts. Of the 197 students starting the program, 170 completed, 142 students were from economically and socially disadvantage groups underrepresented in the engineering and science professions, and 121 of the 197 were female. Our First Year group for 1996 composed of 96% minority and women students. Our Second and Third Year students were 100% and 93.75% minority or women respectively. This gave an overall minority and female population of 93.75%. This year, special efforts were again made to recruit students from minority groups, which caused a significant increase in qualified applicants. However, due to space limitations, 140 applicants were rejected. Investigative and discovery learning were key elements of PREP. The academic components of the program included Algebraic Structures, Engineering, Introduction to Computer Science, Introduction to Physics, Logic and Its Application to Mathematics, Probability and Statistics, Problem Solving Seminar using computers and PLATO software, SAT Preparatory Seminars, and Technical Writing.

  1. Similarities between rivers and submarine channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2013-02-01

    Scientists have long known that the width and depth of rivers follows a power law relationship with discharge. They have also noticed that submarine channels appear to be similar to terrestrial rivers, but there have not been many systematic comparisons of the relationships between submarine channel morphology and discharge. Konsoer et al. compared the width, depth, and slope of 177 submarine channels to those of 231 river cross sections. They found that submarine channels are up to an order of magnitude wider and deeper than the largest terrestrial rivers, but they exhibit a similar power law relationship between width and depth. For submarine channels that were similar in size to rivers, the authors found that submarine channels tend to be 1 to 2 orders of magnitude steeper than rivers. The authors also inferred values for sediment concentration in the turbidity currents in the channels and combined this with estimated mean flow velocities to look for a relationship between discharge and morphology in the channels. They found that like rivers, the width and depth of the submarine channels follow a power law scaling with discharge. (Journal of Geophysical Research-Earth Surface, doi:10.1029/2012JF002422, 2013)

  2. U.S.S. Intrepid alongside Gemini 3 spacecraft after landing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    The U.S.S. Intrepid pulls up alongside the Gemini 3 spacecraft during recovery operations following the successful Gemini-Titan 3 flight. Navy swimmers stand on the spacecraft's flotation collar waiting to hook a hoist line to the Gemini 3.

  3. President Nixon welcomes the Apollo 11 astronauts aboard the U.S.S. Hornet

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    President Richard M. Nixon welcomes the Apollo 11 astronauts aboard the U.S.S. Hornet. Already confined to the Mobile Quarantine Facility are (left to right) Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, command module pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., lunar module pilot.

  4. President Nixon on deck of U.S.S. Hornet awaiting Apollo 11 crew arrival

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    President Richard M. Nixon photographed on the deck of the U.S.S. Hornet, prime recovery ship for the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission, awaiting the Apollo 11 crew arrival. swimmer. All four men are wearing biological isolation garments. Apollo 11 splashed down at 11:40 a.m., July 24, 1969, about 812 nautical miles southwest of Hawaii.

  5. The Ussing Chamber Assay to Study Drug Metabolism and Transport in the Human Intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisser, Beatrice; Mangelsen, Eva; Wingolf, Caroline; Partecke, Lars Ivo; Heidecke, Claus-Dieter; Tannergren, Christer; Oswald, Stefan; Keiser, Markus

    2017-06-22

    The Ussing chamber is an old but still powerful technique originally designed to study the vectorial transport of ions through frog skin. This technique is also used to investigate the transport of chemical agents through the intestinal barrier as well as drug metabolism in enterocytes, both of which are key determinants for the bioavailability of orally administered drugs. More contemporary model systems, such as Caco-2 cell monolayers or stably transfected cells, are more limited in their use compared to the Ussing chamber because of differences in expression rates of transporter proteins and/or metabolizing enzymes. While there are limitations to the Ussing chamber assay, the use of human intestinal tissue remains the best laboratory test for characterizing the transport and metabolism of compounds following oral administration. Detailed in this unit is a step-by-step protocol for preparing human intestinal tissue, for designing Ussing chamber experiments, and for analyzing and interpreting the findings. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  6. 75 FR 73964 - Safety Zone; USS Fort Worth Launch, Marinette, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... determined that the launching of the USS Fort Worth does pose significant risks to public safety and property... Docket Management Facility (M-30), U.S. Department of Transportation, West Building Ground Floor, Room... rule, contact or e-mail BM1 Adam Kraft, U.S. Coast Guard Sector Lake Michigan, at 414-747-7154 or Adam...

  7. Characteristics of water-quality data for Lake Houston, selected tributary inflows to Lake Houston, and the Trinity River near Lake Houston (a potential source of interbasin transfer), August 1983-September 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liscum, Fred; Goss, R.L.; Rast, Walter

    1999-01-01

    Lake Houston, a reservoir completed in 1954 about 25 miles east-northeast of Houston, Texas, is a principal surface-water source for the city of Houston. The increase in water supply to meet future demands is expected to be accommodated by supplementing surface-water inflows to Lake Houston. The Trinity River is considered a potential source for interbasin transfer of water to Lake Houston. Before beginning to supplement inflows, the City needs to better understand the potential effects on Lake Houston water quality from streams that flow into or might contribute water to Lake Houston. During 1983–90, the USGS collected 3,727 water-quality samples from 27 sites in Lake Houston, 6 of the 7 main tributaries to the lake, and the Trinity River at Romayor.

  8. Final Critical Habitat for the Houston toad (Bufo houstonensis)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To provide the user with a general idea of areas where final critical habitat for Houston toad (Bufo houstonensis) based on the description provided in the Federal...

  9. 75 FR 6215 - Houston/Galveston Navigation Safety Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-08

    ... Optimization subcommittee report; (e) Commercial Recovery Contingency (CRC) Subcommittee replacement needed... 23, 2010. M.E. Woodring, Captain, U.S. Coast Guard Commander, Sector Houston-Galveston. BILLING CODE...

  10. 75 FR 51473 - Houston/Galveston Navigation Safety Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-20

    ... Utilization subcommittee report; (e) Commercial Recovery Contingency (CRC) subcommittee report; (f) HOGANSAC.... Woodring, Captain, U.S. Coast Guard, Commander, Sector Houston-Galveston. BILLING CODE 9110-04-P ...

  11. Calciclastic submarine fans: An integrated overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payros, Aitor; Pujalte, Victoriano

    2008-01-01

    Calciclastic submarine fans are rare in the stratigraphic record and no bona fide present-day analogue has been described to date. Possibly because of that, and although calciclastic submarine fans have long intrigued deep-water carbonate sedimentologists, they have largely been overlooked by the academic and industrial communities. To fill this gap we have compiled and critically reviewed the existing sedimentological literature on calciclastic submarine fans, thus offering an updated view of this type of carbonate slope sedimentary system. Calciclastic submarine fans range in length from just a few to more than 100 km. Three different types can be distinguished: (1) Coarse-grained, small-sized (depression associated with tectonic structures, an inherited topography, or large-scale mass failures.

  12. Aspects of Propeller Developements for a Submarine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul; kappel, Jens Julius; Spangenberg, Eugen

    2009-01-01

    Design and development of propellers for submarines are in some ways different from propellers for surface vessels. The most important demand is low acoustic signature that has priority over propeller efficiency, and the submarine propeller must be optimized with respect to acoustics rather than...... efficiency. Moreover the operating conditions of a submarine propeller are quite different. These aspects are discussed as well as the weighing of the various propeller parameters against the design objectives. The noise generated by the propeller can be characterized as thrust noise due to the inhomogeneous...... wake field of the submarine, trailing-edge noise and noise caused by turbulence in the inflow. The items discussed are demonstrated in a case study where a propeller of the Kappel type was developed. Three stages of the development are presented, including a design of an 8-bladed propeller where...

  13. Russia's Submarine Force: Determinants and Prospects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tully, John

    2001-01-01

    ... the determinants of these events, The Russian Federation inherited a huge submarine fleet from the Soviet Union, Due to the changing conditions in the world and in Russia, its future status is in doubt...

  14. Submarine landslides: processes, triggers and hazard prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, D G; Harbitz, C B; Wynn, R B; Pedersen, G; Løvholt, F

    2006-08-15

    Huge landslides, mobilizing hundreds to thousands of km(3) of sediment and rock are ubiquitous in submarine settings ranging from the steepest volcanic island slopes to the gentlest muddy slopes of submarine deltas. Here, we summarize current knowledge of such landslides and the problems of assessing their hazard potential. The major hazards related to submarine landslides include destruction of seabed infrastructure, collapse of coastal areas into the sea and landslide-generated tsunamis. Most submarine slopes are inherently stable. Elevated pore pressures (leading to decreased frictional resistance to sliding) and specific weak layers within stratified sequences appear to be the key factors influencing landslide occurrence. Elevated pore pressures can result from normal depositional processes or from transient processes such as earthquake shaking; historical evidence suggests that the majority of large submarine landslides are triggered by earthquakes. Because of their tsunamigenic potential, ocean-island flank collapses and rockslides in fjords have been identified as the most dangerous of all landslide related hazards. Published models of ocean-island landslides mainly examine 'worst-case scenarios' that have a low probability of occurrence. Areas prone to submarine landsliding are relatively easy to identify, but we are still some way from being able to forecast individual events with precision. Monitoring of critical areas where landslides might be imminent and modelling landslide consequences so that appropriate mitigation strategies can be developed would appear to be areas where advances on current practice are possible.

  15. A Case Study of Project ATHENA: Tactical Level Technological Innovation Aboard the USS Benfold

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    project ATHENA: The ATHENA concept instantly interested me because my Major in college was entrepreneurship … I didn’t expect to find something like...8. Fleet Tactical Talk-to-Chat; LTJG Rob McClenning; USS Benfold. Summary: Utilize a computerized system instead of a manual process to translate ... entrepreneurship : the critical link in the sea enterprise anchor chain. United States Naval Institute Essay Contest 1, 1–10 152 Lockwood, T. (2009). Design

  16. Apollo 12 crew welcomed aboard U.S.S. Hornet by Rear Admiral Donald David

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Rear Admiral Donald C. David, Commander, Manned Spacecraft Recovery Force, Pacific, welcomes the crew of the Apollo 12 lunar landing mission aboard the U.S.S. Hornet, prime recovery vessel for the mission. A color guard was also on hand for the welcoming ceremonies. Inside the Mobile Quarantine Facility are (left to right) Astronauts Charles Conrad Jr., commander; Richard F. Gordon Jr., command module pilot; and Alan L. Bean, lunar module pilot.

  17. Airborne aeroallergen measurements in Houston, Texas. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivy, J.T.

    1979-03-01

    Three principal objectives were established for the aeroallergen study, including sampling of Houston air for aeroallergens on a daily schedule for a period of four months beginning in July, 1977, using a documented, reliable, reproducible method; identifying and documenting major aeroallergens which might contribute to allergic responses in humans; and, determining and documenting the accuracy and precision of the qualitative and quantitative determinations required above. The sampling program provided adequate data for the support of the analysis of the health effects data. Daily variations and seasonal trends of aeroallergens were observed which were comparable with expectations for the Houston area. For application to analysis of allergic response, aeroallergens present in the Houston area may be categorized in three major groups: ragweed pollen (Ambrosia), grass pollens (Gramineae), and total mold spores. This conclusion is based on the daily and seasonal variations observed in this study, consultations with area allergists, and review of the available literature.

  18. Geomorphic process fingerprints in submarine canyons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothers, Daniel S.; ten Brink, Uri S.; Andrews, Brian D.; Chaytor, Jason D.; Twichell, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Submarine canyons are common features of continental margins worldwide. They are conduits that funnel vast quantities of sediment from the continents to the deep sea. Though it is known that submarine canyons form primarily from erosion induced by submarine sediment flows, we currently lack quantitative, empirically based expressions that describe the morphology of submarine canyon networks. Multibeam bathymetry data along the entire passive US Atlantic margin (USAM) and along the active central California margin near Monterey Bay provide an opportunity to examine the fine-scale morphology of 171 slope-sourced canyons. Log–log regression analyses of canyon thalweg gradient (S) versus up-canyon catchment area (A) are used to examine linkages between morphological domains and the generation and evolution of submarine sediment flows. For example, canyon reaches of the upper continental slope are characterized by steep, linear and/or convex longitudinal profiles, whereas reaches farther down canyon have distinctly concave longitudinal profiles. The transition between these geomorphic domains is inferred to represent the downslope transformation of debris flows into erosive, canyon-flushing turbidity flows. Over geologic timescales this process appears to leave behind a predictable geomorphic fingerprint that is dependent on the catchment area of the canyon head. Catchment area, in turn, may be a proxy for the volume of sediment released during geomorphically significant failures along the upper continental slope. Focused studies of slope-sourced submarine canyons may provide new insights into the relationships between fine-scale canyon morphology and down-canyon changes in sediment flow dynamics.

  19. Addressing submarine geohazards through scientific drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camerlenghi, A.

    2009-04-01

    Natural submarine geohazards (earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides, volcanic island flank collapses) are geological phenomena originating at or below the seafloor leading to a situation of risk for off-shore and on-shore structures and the coastal population. Addressing submarine geohazards means understanding their spatial and temporal variability, the pre-conditioning factors, their triggers, and the physical processes that control their evolution. Such scientific endeavour is nowadays considered by a large sector of the international scientific community as an obligation in order to contribute to the mitigation of the potentially destructive societal effects of submarine geohazards. The study of submarine geohazards requires a multi-disciplinary scientific approach: geohazards must be studied through their geological record; active processes must be monitored; geohazard evolution must be modelled. Ultimately, the information must be used for the assessment of vulnerability, risk analysis, and development of mitigation strategies. In contrast with the terrestrial environment, the oceanic environment is rather hostile to widespread and fast application of high-resolution remote sensing techniques, accessibility for visual inspection, sampling and installation of monitoring stations. Scientific Drilling through the IODP (including the related pre site-survey investigations, sampling, logging and in situ measurements capability, and as a platform for deployment of long term observatories at the surface and down-hole) can be viewed as the centre of gravity of an international, coordinated, multi-disciplinary scientific approach to address submarine geohazards. The IODP Initial Science Plan expiring in 2013 does not address openly geohazards among the program scientific objectives. Hazards are referred to mainly in relation to earthquakes and initiatives towards the understanding of seismogenesis. Notably, the only drilling initiative presently under way is the

  20. MVAC Submarine cable, impedance measurements and analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arentsen, Martin Trolle; Pedersen, Morten Virklund; Expethit, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    Due to environmental concerns an increase in off-shore windfarms has been observed in recent years, leading to an increased demand for three-core-wire-armoured submarine cables. However, the IEC Standard 60287 used to calculate the ampacity of these cables is widely recognized as being not accurate...

  1. German Submarine Offensives and South African Countermeasures

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evert

    'Good Hunting': German Submarine Offensives and South African. Countermeasures off the South African Coast during the Second World. War, 1942-1945. Evert Kleynhans. •. Abstract .... wolf packs south, Dönitz had hoped to cause a diversionary effect whereby the Allies would be forced to split their defensive forces ...

  2. Submarine Telecommunication Cables in Disputed Maritime Areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Logchem, Youri

    2014-01-01

    There are a considerable number of maritime areas where no boundary exists, or where a boundary is delimited only in part. This article deals with the issue of submarine telecommunication cables, which are sometimes placed on the seabed or buried in the subsoil of areas that are claimed by multiple

  3. Delft Delta Design : The Houston Galveston Bay Region, Texas, USA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bedient, P.B.; Berchum, E.; Blackburn, J.B.; De Boer, R.; Van Brakel, S.; Van Breukelen, M.; Brody, S.D.; Cao, Q.; Colbert, T.M.; Cunningham, S.W.; Dupuits, G.; Van den Ende, I.; Gunnewijk, R.; Heeringa, T.; Hogendoorn, D.; Bubu Hsun Ho, T.; Huang, S.Y.; Janssen, M.; Karimi, I.; Kelderman, R.; Kok, M.; Kuipers, A.; Van Ledden, M.; Lendering, K.T.; Liao, Y.C.; Liu, F.; Van Loon-Steensma, J.; De Milliano, A.; Merrell, W.J.; Meyer, V.J.; Mooyaart, L.; Newman, G.; Stoeten, K.; Rippi, K.; Roukens, G.; Ruijs, M.; Samson, K.; Schlepers, M.; Slinger, J.H.; Smulders, J.; Van der Toorn, A.; Van Boxelaere, H.; De Vries, P.; Wang, D.; Yam, A.A.; Kothuis, B.L.M.; Brand, A.D.; Sebastian, A.G.; Nillesen, A.L.; Jonkman, S.N.

    2015-01-01

    In 2008, Hurricane Ike devastated Bolivar Peninsula, narrowly missing the more heavily industrialized and populated areas in the region. In the aftermath of the hurricane, the Severe Storm Prediction, Education and Evacuation from Disasters (SSPEED) Center at Rice University in Houston, and Texas

  4. Houston, Texas design/build house. Case study report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borden, J. O.; Porter, C. B. [comps.

    1981-06-01

    The task activities relating to the Houston house, including problems, constructive comments, and successes, are described. Included in appendices are: cost data, methodology for ranking cities, house information sheet, thermal performance analysis, architectural information release, press releases and news clippings, and house pictures. One appendix was abstracted separately. (MHR)

  5. IUC establishes first ROV operator school in Houston

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-04-01

    The Underwater Vehicle Training Center (UVTC) has been established in Houston by The Professional Diving School of New York, a subsidiary of International Underwater Contractors (IUC). The UVTC was created to meet the increasing demand for highly-trained ROV operators. Many ROV service companies have found it costly and sometimes impossible to fill those positions. The activities of the UVTC are described.

  6. THE U.S.S. OLYMPIA: GLORIOUS PAST, DECAYED PRESENT AND HOPEFUL FUTURE (ABSTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward C. Koziara

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper traces the naval history of the U.S.S. Olympia and incorporates many photographs to display the current condition of the ship. The paper begins with a brief history of the U.S.S. Olympia and its role in the Spanish-American War, its part as the flagship of the Caribbean, its World War I work and its role in the ill conceived Murmansk intervention and its more successful participation in the Trau pacification of Italians and Yugoslavs; its feature part in the bombing experiments of Billy Mitchell and transporting the Unknown Soldier from France to Washington in a most hazardous journey. It was decommissioned in 1931 and is currently part of the Independence Seaport Museum in Philadelphia. It is docked in the Delaware River about eight blocks from Independence Hall and within easy walking distance of other historical attractions. Similar to the Constitution in Boston the U.S.S. Olympia could be an important part of the Philadelphia waterfront.The ship although in disrepair has a living history crew, which portray the work of the Spanish American seamen. They perform the various drills, play music of the time and prepare food then served. Of particular import is the economics of the Olympia. What is required and what initiatives have been undertaken to restore the Olympia? Rough cost-benefit data is presented to illustrate the advantages and costs of preservation.Finally the paper looks at the regional development of the Philadelphia Center City and the way in which preservation efforts can complement other initiatives to develop the area.

  7. Comparison of ceftibuten transport across Caco-2 cells and rat jejunum mounted on modified Ussing chambers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, R M; Barr, W H

    2003-10-01

    Ceftibuten uptake into Caco-2 cells and intestinal brush border membrane vesicles is mediated by the dipeptide transport system (PEPT1). The apical to basolateral transport characteristics of ceftibuten across Caco-2 cells and rat jejunum mounted on a modified Ussing chamber was examined. Mannitol was used as a paracellular marker along with trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER) for monitoring tight junction permeability. Transport across Caco-2 cells and rat jejunum mounted on a modified Ussing chamber was linear across the concentration range 0.25-10 mM. The net flux of mannitol and ceftibuten was higher across rat jejunum compared with Caco-2 cells. At a donor concentration of 0.25 mM, ceftibuten transport across Caco-2 cells was found to be pH dependent. Glycyl proline, a dipeptide, and 2,4- dinitrophenol, an energy poison, caused a reduction in the permeability of 0.25 mM ceftibuten across Caco-2 cells. Benzoic acid and adipic acid also inhibited transcellular transport of ceftibuten. At a donor concentration of 0.25 mM, passive paracellular transport accounts for about 60% and the active carrier mediated mechanism accounts for about 40% of ceftibuten transport across Caco-2 cells. None of the inhibitors however, had a significant effect on ceftibuten transport across rat jejunum mounted on a modified Ussing chamber at a donor concentration of 0.25 mM. In the concentration range 0.25-10 mM, ceftibuten is predominantly transported by paracellular mechanisms across rat jejunum and a mixture of active and passive transport across Caco-2 cells. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Monitoring of the nuclear submarine Komsomolets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heldal, Hilde E.; Flo, Janita K.; Liebig, Penny L. [Institute of Marine Research, P. O. Box 1870 Nordnes, N-5817 Bergen (Norway); Gaefvert, Torbjoern; Rudjord, Anne Liv [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, P.O. Box 55, N-1332 Oesteraas (Norway); Gwynn, Justin P. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, The Fram Centre, N-9296 Tromsoe (Norway)

    2014-07-01

    The Soviet nuclear submarine Komsomolets sank on the 7 April 1989, 180 km southwest of Bear Island in the Norwegian Sea to a depth of about 1655 m. The submarine contains one nuclear reactor containing long-lived radionuclides such as cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) along with other fission and activation products, in addition to 2 mixed uranium/plutonium nuclear warheads containing weapons grade plutonium. Although several model studies have shown that a radioactive leakage from Komsomolets will have insignificant impact on fish and other marine organisms, there are still public concerns about the condition of the submarine and the potential for radioactive leakage. In order to document the contamination levels and to meet public concerns, monitoring of radioactive contamination in the area adjacent to the submarine has been ongoing since 1993. Samples of bottom seawater and sediments have been collected annually by the Institute of Marine Research (IMR) and have been analysed for {sup 137}Cs and plutonium-239,240 ({sup 239,240}Pu). So far, activity concentrations in the samples have been comparable to levels found in other samples from the Norwegian and Barents Seas. During sampling from R/V 'G. O. Sars' in April 2013, an area of about 1 km{sup 2} of the seabed around Komsomolets was mapped to precisely locate the submarine using a Kongsberg EM302 multibeam echo sounder, a Simrad EK60 single beam echo sounder and an Olex 3D bottom-mapping system. For sediment sampling, a Simrad MST342 mini-transponder was attached to a Smoegen box corer to allow for precise positioning of the corer. With the aid of the Kongsberg HiPAP (High Precision Acoustic Positioning) system, 4 box cores were collected around the submarine at a distance of 10 to 20 m. In addition, one box core was collected from a reference station about 100 m upstream of the submarine. Surface sediments and sediment cores were collected from the box cores taken at each sampling location. Sediment cores

  9. Chemical environments of submarine hydrothermal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shock, Everett L.

    1992-01-01

    Perhaps because black-smoker chimneys make tremendous subjects for magazine covers, the proposal that submarine hydrothermal systems were involved in the origin of life has caused many investigators to focus on the eye-catching hydrothermal vents. In much the same way that tourists rush to watch the spectacular eruptions of Old Faithful geyser with little regard for the hydrology of the Yellowstone basin, attention is focused on the spectacular, high-temperature hydrothermal vents to the near exclusion of the enormous underlying hydrothermal systems. Nevertheless, the magnitude and complexity of geologic structures, heat flow, and hydrologic parameters which characterize the geyser basins at Yellowstone also characterize submarine hydrothermal systems. However, in the submarine systems the scale can be considerably more vast. Like Old Faithful, submarine hydrothermal vents have a spectacular quality, but they are only one fascinating aspect of enormous geologic systems operating at seafloor spreading centers throughout all of the ocean basins. A critical study of the possible role of hydrothermal processes in the origin of life should include the full spectrum of probable environments. The goals of this chapter are to synthesize diverse information about the inorganic geochemistry of submarine hydrothermal systems, assemble a description of the fundamental physical and chemical attributes of these systems, and consider the implications of high-temperature, fluid-driven processes for organic synthesis. Information about submarine hydrothermal systems comes from many directions. Measurements made directly on venting fluids provide useful, but remarkably limited, clues about processes operating at depth. The oceanic crust has been drilled to approximately 2.0 km depth providing many other pieces of information, but drilling technology has not allowed the bore holes and core samples to reach the maximum depths to which aqueous fluids circulate in oceanic crust. Such

  10. Phase 1 Final Report: Titan Submarine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleson, Steven R.; Lorenz, Ralph D.; Paul, Michael V.

    2015-01-01

    The conceptual design of a submarine for Saturn's moon Titan was a funded NASA Innovative Advanced Concepts (NIAC) Phase 1 for 2014. The proposal stated the desire to investigate what science a submarine for Titan's liquid hydrocarbon seas might accomplish and what that submarine might look like. Focusing on a flagship class science system (100 kg), it was found that a submersible platform can accomplish extensive science both above and below the surface of the Kraken Mare. Submerged science includes mapping using side-looking sonar, imaging and spectroscopy of the lake, as well as sampling of the lake's bottom and shallow shoreline. While surfaced, the submarine will not only sense weather conditions (including the interaction between the liquid and atmosphere) but also image the shoreline, as much as 2 km inland. This imaging requirement pushed the landing date to Titan's next summer period (2047) to allow for lighted conditions, as well as direct-to-Earth communication, avoiding the need for a separate relay orbiter spacecraft. Submerged and surfaced investigation are key to understanding both the hydrological cycle of Titan as well as gather hints to how life may have begun on Earth using liquid, sediment, and chemical interactions. An estimated 25 Mb of data per day would be generated by the various science packages. Most of the science packages (electronics at least) can be safely kept inside the submarine pressure vessel and warmed by the isotope power system.The baseline 90-day mission would be to sail submerged and surfaced around and through Kraken Mare investigating the shoreline and inlets to evaluate the sedimentary interaction both on the surface and then below. Depths of Kraken have yet to be sensed (Ligeia to the north is thought to be 200 m (656 ft) deep), but a maximum depth of 1,000 m (3,281 ft) for Kraken Mare was assumed for the design). The sub would spend 20 d at the interface between Kraken Mare and Ligeia Mare for clues to the drainage of

  11. Miocene Current-Modified Submarine Fans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arce Perez, L. E.; Snedden, J.; Fisher, W. L.

    2016-12-01

    In the southwestern Gulf of Mexico, new and newly reprocessed seismic data has revealed a series of large bedforms, with set thicknesses of 130 to 250 meters. These exhibit hummocky, oblique and shingled to parallel seismic clinoform reflections. This seismic package has a paleowater depth of 450 meters. Those shingled seismic reflections in offshore east Mexico are interpreted as contourite drift deposits. These Miocene-age contourites may be related to strong ocean bottom currents that modified submarine fans and transported sediment to the north. Those contourites were identified on older seismic data, but are better imaged and interpreted on this new data. Plans are to map out and investigate the origin and extent of fans and contourites that extends over a large area of the Gulf of Mexico. In the Early Miocene several submarine fans systems were formed by the sediment input related to orogenic activity in Mexico. Submarine fan development persisted into the Middle Miocene due to continued uplift and erosion of the Mexican landmass. Initial, contourites are small and close proximity to the deep-water fan. In the Late Miocene time, contourite drift field reached its maximum extent in the Mexican deepwater area, anchored on its southern end by a submarine mound. This mounded submarine fan is located in the offshore northeast Veracruz and can be linked to increased uplift and erosion of the Trans-Mexican volcanic belt. In the Miocene-Pliocene, the large contourite drift begins to diminish in size and scale and is moribund by the Pliocene, with establishment of oceanic circulation similar to the present day. This research is important to understand more about the Gulf of Mexico and also for the Miocene timeframe that is a key phase in the earth's history. The role of the change in bottom water flow during progressive closure of the equatorial seaway separating North and South America will also be investigated.

  12. The Houston Lightning Mapping Array: Installation, Operation, and Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orville, R. E.; Cullen, M. R.; Rodeheffer, D.; Krehbiel, P. R.; Rison, W.

    2012-12-01

    The Houston Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) was established in April 2012 and is a network of twelve time-of-arrival lightning sensors operating in the VHF around Houston, Texas. The network sensors are built by New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology. Built stand-alone units, these LMA sensors use solar panels and cellular data modems for Internet connectivity. This enables the units to be placed in strategic locations at sites to minimize noise and interference by reducing dependence on wired power or communications lines. Twelve sensors are distributed around the Houston and provide total lightning data for the fourth most populated American city. The primary research goals of the network are to investigate the structure of total lightning within thunderstorm development and to examine any potential impact of the urban environment on lightning characteristics. Furthermore, the proximity to the coast and the Gulf of Mexico presents the opportunity to examine the total lightning structure within tropical cyclones that impact the Texas coastline. The availability of real-time LMA data provides a decision support tool for advanced warning of thunderstorm development. We present efforts with the Houston/Galveston Weather Forecast Office and the Spaceflight Meteorology Group at Johnson Space Center to integrate the real-time LMA data into operational display software. The network of 12 sensors has been operating continuously since installation in mid-April with 10 sensors surrounding the Houston area plus one in College Station and one in Galveston. Analysis of recent data will investigate three-dimensional thunderstorm activity.

  13. Psychological Implications for Submarine Display Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-01

    This paper addresses a number of psychological issues pertaining to display design . We review the literature comparing 3-D and 2-D displays and...perceptual, cognitive and ecological factors that are relevant to display design for submarine environments. The Generative Transformational approach...to visual perception is outlined and the relevance of transformational theory to display design is discussed. The paper also discusses a number of

  14. Topology Model of the Flow around a Submarine Hull Form

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    resistance and flow noise arising from flow-structure interaction, it is necessary to test the shape of the submarine , which includes the length-to...UNCLASSIFIED Topology Model of the Flow around a Submarine Hull Form S.-K. Lee Maritime Division Defence Science and Technology Group DST-Group–TR...3177 ABSTRACT A topology model constructed from surface-streamer visualisation describes the flow around a generic conventional submarine hull form at

  15. A Lanchester model of submarine attack on a carrier battlegroup

    OpenAIRE

    Eagle, James N.

    1987-01-01

    A Lanchester model is developed for a battlegroup ASW engagement. Two variations are included. In the first, long-range missile firing submarines, short-range missile or torpedo firing submarines, and submarines firing only torpedoes distribute their attack uniformly over battlegroup escort ships and carriers. In the second variation, the attack is concentrated on the carriers. supported by the Naval War College http://archive.org/details/lanchestermodelo00eagl NA

  16. Nocturnal NO 3 radical chemistry in Houston, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutz, Jochen; Wong, Kam Weng; Lawrence, Laura; Ziemba, Luke; Flynn, James H.; Rappenglück, Bernhard; Lefer, Barry

    2010-10-01

    Radical chemistry in the nocturnal urban boundary layer is dominated by the nitrate radical, NO 3, which oxidizes hydrocarbons and, through the aerosol uptake of N 2O 5, indirectly influences the nitrogen budget. The impact of NO 3 chemistry on polluted atmospheres and urban air quality is, however, not well understood, due to a lack of observations and the strong impact of vertical stability of the boundary layer, which makes nocturnal chemistry highly altitude dependent. Here we present long-path DOAS observations of the vertical distribution of the key nocturnal species O 3, NO 2, and NO 3 during the TRAMP experiment in Summer 2006 in Houston, TX. Our observations confirm the altitude dependence of nocturnal chemistry, which is reflected in the concentration profiles of all trace gases at night. In contrast to other study locations, NO 3 chemistry in Houston is dominated by industrial emissions of alkenes, in particular of isoprene, isobutene, and sporadically 1,3-butadiene, which are responsible for more than 70% of the nocturnal NO 3 loss. The nocturnally averaged loss of NO x in the lowest 300 m of the Houston atmosphere is ˜0.9 ppb h -1, with little day-to-day variability. A comparison with the daytime NO x loss shows that NO 3 chemistry is responsible for 16-50% of the NO x loss in a 24-h period in the lowest 300 m of the atmosphere. The importance of the NO 3 + isoprene/1,3-butadiene reactions implies the efficient formation of organic nitrates and secondary organic aerosol at night in Houston.

  17. Meta-Analysis of Data from the Submarine Ventilation Doctrine Test Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hoover, J

    1998-01-01

    .... The Submarine Ventilation Doctrine Test Program was developed to address submarine-specific issues regarding the use of ventilation systems to control smoke and heat movement, maintain habitability...

  18. Temperature and salinity data collected by XCTD in the Arctic Ocean from the USS L. Mendel Rivers in October 2000 and USS Honolulu in October 2003 (NODC Accession 0119953)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Submarine Arctic Science Program, SCICEX, is a federal interagency collaboration among the operational Navy, research agencies, and the marine research community...

  19. Australia’s Submarine Design Capabilities and Capacities: Challenges and Options for the Future Submarine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    General Dynamics Electric Boat Corporation EMC electromagnetic compatibility EMF electromagnetic field EMI electromagnetic interference EPCM engineering...to-diagnose flow-induced radiated noise Own-sensor performance degradation Note: Risks can be reduced for given designs using scale models...Acoustic analysis Addresses the total radiated noise signature of submarine designs Radiated noise that an enemy might detect Self-noise that that

  20. North Sea submarine cable disruptions and fishing activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hintzen, N.T.; Machiels, M.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    At the North Sea seafloor, numerous submarine cables are positioned that connect telecommunication networks between countries. Worldwide, human activities cause most of the cable disruptions with fisheries accounting for nearly half of all reported faults. Due to a recent increase of submarine cable

  1. The 1929 Grand Banks submarine landslide revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulten, Irena; Mosher, David C.; Krastel, Sebastian; Piper, David J. W.; Kienast, Markus

    2017-04-01

    On November 18th, 1929 a large submarine landslide occurred along the St. Pierre Slope of the southwestern Grand Banks of Newfoundland, as a result of a Mw 7.2 earthquake. This submarine landslide led to the first recognition of naturally-occurring submarine turbidity currents and is one of the few landslides known to have generated a tsunami. The event caused 28 causalities in Newfoundland and severe infrastructural damage. Earlier investigations of the area identified widely distributed shallow mass failures (15 - 20 m high escarpments), but no evidence of a larger headscarp. It is difficult to conceive, therefore, how this distributed shallow failure that rapidly evolved into a turbidity current would have generated a tsunami. It is hypothesised in this study that a deeper rooted sediment failure ( 500 m), involving faulting and mass-rotation, was involved in the sediment failure and this displacement generated the tsunami. In order to test this hypothesis, the volume and kinematics of the 1929 slope failure are analysed by means of recently acquired high resolution seismic reflection and multibeam swath bathymetry data, in addition to a significant volume of legacy data. The data allow determination of: 1) the dimension of the failure area, 2) the thickness and volume of failed sediment on St. Pierre Slope, 3) fault patterns and displacements, and 4) styles of sediment failure involved. Shallow (20 m high) sinuous escarpments and a number of faults are observed along the upper St. Pierre Slope (500 - 2 500 m water depth). The uppermost and largest of these escarpments shows association with a fault system. Preliminary results, therefore, indicate a complex sediment failure pattern along the St. Pierre Slope, possibly involving a deep-seated decollement and mobilization of a large volume of surficial sediment through retrogressive failure. Causes for the tsunami are yet to be determined.

  2. Multivariable Control System Design for a Submarine,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-05-01

    perturbations applied to the nominal point were identical in all cases (see table 2.3). The comparisons show excellent correlation between the...Open Loop Singular Values for the 5 and 1S Knot Linear Modelo *~~* b % % V’ , * % ~ .%~ C 9 ~ V. --.- V. V.-.--.--46..- S. 77’ Model S20R5 20- 10- -0...without imparting a pitch angle to the submarine and provides an excellent example of both the usefulness of w(t) as a state variable and the

  3. Hydrogen isotope systematics of submarine basalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyser, T.K.; O'Neil, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    The D/H ratios and water contents in fresh submarine basalts from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, the East Pacific Rise, and Hawaii indicate that the primary D/H ratios of many submarine lavas have been altered by processes including (1) outgassing, (2) addition of seawater at magmatic temperature, and (3) low-temperature hydration of glass. Decreases in ??D and H2O+ from exteriors to interiors of pillows are explained by outgassing of water whereas inverse relations between ??D and H2O+ in basalts from the Galapagos Rise and the FAMOUS Area are attributed to outgassing of CH4 and H2. A good correlation between ??D values and H2O is observed in a suite of submarine tholeiites dredged from the Kilauea East Rift Zone where seawater (added directly to the magma), affected only the isotopic compositions of hydrogen and argon. Analyses of some glassy rims indicate that the outer millimeter of the glass can undergo lowtemperature hydration by hydroxyl groups having ??D values as low as -100. ??D values vary with H2O contents of subaerial transitional basalts from Molokai, Hawaii, and subaerial alkali basalts from the Society Islands, indicating that the primary ??D values were similar to those of submarine lavas. Extrapolations to possible unaltered ??D values and H2O contents indicate that the primary ??D values of most thoteiite and alkali basalts are near -80 ?? 5: the weight percentages of water are variable, 0.15-0.35 for MOR tholeiites, about 0.25 for Hawaiian tholeiites, and up to 1.1 for alkali basalts. The primary ??D values of -80 for most basalts are comparable to those measured for deep-seated phlogopites. These results indicate that hydrogen, in marked contrast to other elements such as Sr, Nd, Pb, and O, has a uniform isotopic composition in the mantle. This uniformity is best explained by the presence of a homogeneous reservoir of hydrogen that has existed in the mantle since the very early history of the Earth. ?? 1984.

  4. The Houston Ship Channel security: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Han Q.; Bellamy, P. A.; Pei, S. S. S.

    2007-04-01

    The Houston Ship Channel (HSC) is a 50-mile long shipping channel that contains many private ports including the Port of Houston Authority. It has a uniquely critical role with respect to the US petroleum energy supply. The HSC security is currently planned for significant enhancement under the auspices of the Harris County and the Houston-based Port Strategic Security Council. The ultimate objective is to comprehensively address the HSC threat matrix. This paper describes the technical effort in support of this program. The HSC security is a complex system of systems that includes the physical control access system, the command, control, communication, and information (C4I) system, and the telecom infrastructure. The strategy is to coordinate the improvements of different components to achieve a high-impact net effectiveness. A key element is a planned high-capacity backbone optical network for integrating the C4I of many different HSC administrative-jurisdictional authorities, which will allow unified situational awareness for a more effective cooperation and coordination. Enhancement of surveillance and intrusion protection is crucial. A feasibility study was conducted for the HSC assuming common surveillance technologies including visible/IR camera, radar, and sonar. The method includes survey and theoretical modeling to detect threats of concern in the HSC natural environment. The result indicates that the HSC unique river-like geography offers both advantages and challenges. The narrow channel allows ease of waterside surveillance, but likely incurs high cost for its great length. In addition, landside security is also important owing to its location amidst urban-industrial zone. Lastly, limitation of the various technologies is discussed by considering the broader challenges of the intrusion problem.

  5. Flow dynamics around downwelling submarine canyons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Spurgin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Flow dynamics around a downwelling submarine canyon were analysed with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model. Blanes Canyon (northwestern Mediterranean was used for topographic and initial forcing conditions. Fourteen scenarios were modelled with varying forcing conditions. Rossby and Burger numbers were used to determine the significance of Coriolis acceleration and stratification (respectively and their impacts on flow dynamics. A new non-dimensional parameter (χ was introduced to determine the significance of vertical variations in stratification. Some simulations do see brief periods of upwards displacement of water during the 10-day model period; however, the presence of the submarine canyon is found to enhance downwards advection of density in all model scenarios. High Burger numbers lead to negative vorticity and a trapped anticyclonic eddy within the canyon, as well as an increased density anomaly. Low Burger numbers lead to positive vorticity, cyclonic circulation, and weaker density anomalies. Vertical variations in stratification affect zonal jet placement. Under the same forcing conditions, the zonal jet is pushed offshore in more uniformly stratified domains. The offshore jet location generates upwards density advection away from the canyon, while onshore jets generate downwards density advection everywhere within the model domain. Increasing Rossby values across the canyon axis, as well as decreasing Burger values, increase negative vertical flux at shelf break depth (150 m. Increasing Rossby numbers lead to stronger downwards advection of a passive tracer (nitrate, as well as stronger vorticity within the canyon. Results from previous studies are explained within this new dynamic framework.

  6. Submarine Tailings Disposal (STD—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Dold

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The mining industry is a fundamental industry involved in the development of modern society, but is also the world’s largest waste producer. This role will be enhanced in the future, because ore grades are generally decreasing, thus leading to increases in the waste/metal production ratio. Mine wastes deposited on-land in so-called tailings dams, impoundments or waste-dumps have several associated environmental issues that need to be addressed (e.g., acid mine drainage formation due to sulphide oxidation, geotechnical stability, among others, and social concerns due to land use during mining. The mining industry recognizes these concerns and is searching for waste management alternatives for the future. One option used in the past was the marine shore or shallow submarine deposition of this waste material in some parts of the world. After the occurrence of some severe environmental pollution, today the deposition in the deep sea (under constant reducing conditions is seen as a new, more secure option, due to the general thought that sulphide minerals are geochemically stable under the reduced conditions prevailing in the deep marine environment. This review highlights the mineralogical and geochemical issues (e.g., solubility of sulphides in seawater; reductive dissolution of oxide minerals under reducing conditions, which have to be considered when evaluating whether submarine tailings disposal is a suitable alternative for mine waste.

  7. Submarine melt rates under Greenland's ice tongues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Nat; Straneo, Fiametta; Heimbach, Patrick; Cenedese, Claudia

    2017-04-01

    The few remaining ice tongues (ice-shelf like extensions) of Greenland's glaciers are undergoing rapid changes with potential implications for the stability of the ice sheet. Submarine melting is recognized as a major contributor to mass loss, yet the magnitude and spatial distribution of melt are poorly known or understood. Here, we use high resolution satellite imagery to infer the magnitude and spatial variability of melt rates under Greenland's largest remaining ice tongues: Ryder Glacier, Petermann Glacier and Nioghalvfjerdsbræ (79 North Glacier). We find that submarine plus aerial melt approximately balance the ice flux from the grounded ice sheet for the first two while at Nioghalvfjerdsbræ the total melt flux exceeds the inflow of ice indicating thinning of the ice tongue. We also show that melt rates under the ice tongues vary considerably, exceeding 60 m yr-1 near the grounding zone and decaying rapidly downstream. Channels, likely originating from upstream subglacial channels, give rise to large melt variations across the ice tongues. Using derived melt rates, we test simplified melt parameterizations appropriate for ice sheet models and find the best agreement with those that incorporate ice tongue geometry in the form of depth and slope.

  8. [Growth modulation in operative treatment of juvenile scoliosis by USS paediatric].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfandlsteiner, Thomas; Wallnoefer, Peter; Wimmer, Cornelius

    2010-05-01

    Growth modulation in operative treatment of juvenile scoliosis can be done by USS paediatric instrumentation to control spinal growth in patients of small stature with juvenile scoliosis. The double-rod system has to be distracted every 4-6 months. The system is used in young patients too tall for VEPTR (vertical expandable prosthetic titanium rib) instrumentation. The system with a very low profile allows reduced soft-tissue pressure saving soft tissue from atrophy or the development of pseudocysts above the screws. With this procedure controlled growth with growth modulation of the spine is possible and final spondylodesis can be done later. Congenital, idiopathic and neuromuscular scolioses. Children, who are too tall and big for a VEPTR instrumentation. Cobb angle > 40 degrees or progression > 10 degrees during brace therapy. Adults. Dysplastic pedicles with vertebral anomalies. Arthrogryposis. The patient should be positioned prone, lying flat on the table. Median skin incision with subperiosteal preparation of the paraspinal muscles is done to expose the vertebrae. Next, the pedicle is prepared with a tap, and the USS paediatric pedicle screw system with its very low profile is inserted under fluoroscopic control in anterior-posterior and lateral view. In the upper thoracic spine the authors use screws 4.2 mm in diameter, in the lower thoracic spine 5-mm screws, and in the lumbar spine 6-mm screws. Measurement of the rod length and insertion of the rod are performed. When spinal growth for > 4 years is expected, distraction of the double-rod system by the use of two dominos is done on the concave and convex side of the curve to modulate spinal growth. When spinal growth for 2-4 years is expected, distraction is done just at the concave side of the curve. For correction of the curve, either segmental correction or classic derotation by the Cotrel-Dubousset technique can be performed. Postoperative on block rotation. Mobilization of the patient on day 2 after

  9. Environmental assessment of submarine power cables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isus, Daniel; Martinez, Juan D. [Grupo General Cable Sistemas, S.A., 08560-Manlleu, Barcelona (Spain); Arteche, Amaya; Del Rio, Carmen; Madina, Virginia [Tecnalia Research and Innovation, 20009 San Sebastian (Spain)

    2011-03-15

    Extensive analyses conducted by the European Community revealed that offshore wind energy have relatively benign effects on the marine environment by comparison to other forms of electric power generation [1]. However, the materials employed in offshore wind power farms suffer major changes to be confined to the marine environment at extreme conditions: saline medium, hydrostatic pressure... which can produce an important corrosion effect. This phenomenon can affect on the one hand, to the material from the structural viewpoint and on the other hand, to the marine environment. In this sense, to better understand the environmental impacts of generating electricity from offshore wind energy, this study evaluated the life cycle assessment for some new designs of submarine power cables developed by General Cable. To achieve this goal, three approaches have been carried out: leaching tests, eco-toxicity tests and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodologies. All of them are aimed to obtaining quantitative data for environmental assessment of selected submarine cables. LCA is a method used to assess environmental aspects and potential impacts of a product or activity. LCA does not include financial and social factors, which means that the results of an LCA cannot exclusively form the basis for assessment of a product's sustainability. Leaching tests results allowed to conclude that pH of seawater did not significantly changed by the presence of submarine three-core cables. Although, it was slightly higher in case of broken cable, pH values were nearly equals. Concerning to the heavy metals which could migrate to the aquatic medium, there were significant differences in both scenarios. The leaching of zinc is the major environmental concern during undersea operation of undamaged cables whereas the fully sectioned three-core cable produced the migration of significant quantities of copper and iron apart from the zinc migrated from the galvanized steel. Thus, the tar

  10. What threat do turbidity currents and submarine landslides pose to submarine telecommunications cable infrastructure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clare, Michael; Pope, Edward; Talling, Peter; Hunt, James; Carter, Lionel

    2016-04-01

    The global economy relies on uninterrupted usage of a network of telecommunication cables on the seafloor. These submarine cables carry ~99% of all trans-oceanic digital data and voice communications traffic worldwide, as they have far greater bandwidth than satellites. Over 9 million SWIFT banks transfers alone were made using these cables in 2004, totalling 7.4 trillion of transactions per day between 208 countries, which grew to 15 million SWIFT bank transactions last year. We outline the challenge of why, how often, and where seafloor cables are broken by natural causes; primarily subsea landslides and sediment flows (turbidity currents and also debris flows and hyperpycnal flows). These slides and flows can be very destructive. As an example, a sediment flow in 1929 travelled up to 19 m/s and broke 11 cables in the NE Atlantic, running out for ~800 km to the abyssal ocean. The 2006 Pingtung earthquake triggered a sediment flow that broke 22 cables offshore Taiwan over a distance of 450 km. Here, we present initial results from the first statistical analysis of a global database of cable breaks and causes. We first investigate the controls on frequency of submarine cable breaks in different environmental and geological settings worldwide. We assess which types of earthquake pose a significant threat to submarine cable networks. Meteorological events, such as hurricanes and typhoons, pose a significant threat to submarine cable networks, so we also discuss the potential impacts of future climate change on the frequency of such hazards. We then go on to ask what are the physical impacts of submarine sediment flows on submerged cables? A striking observation from past cable breaks is sometimes cables remain unbroken, whilst adjacent cables are severed (and record powerful flows travelling at up to 6 m/s). Why are some cables broken, but neighbouring cables remain intact? We provide some explanations for this question, and outline the need for future in

  11. Sound velocity and temperature data from sound velocity strip charts and XBT casts from the USS PORTER from 28 August 2000 to 22 October 2000 (NODC Accession 0000343)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sound velocity and temperature data were collected from the USS PORTER from August 28, 2000 to October 22, 2000. Data were submitted by the US NAVY; Ships of...

  12. WATER TEMPERATURE and other data from USS HERALD from 1992-06-02 to 1992-06-29 (NODC Accession 9200145)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data in this accession were collected from USS HERALD between June 2, 1992 and June 28, 1992. The real time data of water temperature at varying depth...

  13. WATER TEMPERATURE and other data from USS ABRAHAM LINCOLN from 1995-05-19 to 1995-06-03 (NCEI Accession 9500094)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data in this accession were collected from USS ABRAHAM LINCOLN between May 19, 1995 and June 3, 1995. The real time data of water temperature at varying depth...

  14. WATER TEMPERATURE and other data from USS THACH in the Sea of Japan from 1995-10-22 to 1995-10-31 (NCEI Accession 9500153)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data in this accession were collected in Sea of Japan from USS THACH between October 22, 1995 and October 31, 1995. The real time data of water temperature at...

  15. Temperature profile and water depth data collected from USS MOBILE BAY in the NW Atlantic Ocean from 05 March 1987 to 31 March 1987 (NODC Accession 8700170)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and water depth data were collected using BT and XBT casts from the USS MOBILE BAY in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean and Caribbean Sea. Data were...

  16. WATER TEMPERATURE and other data from USS STUMP DD-978) from 1990-04-01 to 1990-04-05 (NCEI Accession 9000105)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data in this accession was collected from USS Stump between April 1 and April 5, 1990. The real time data of water temperature at varying depth bathythermograph...

  17. The impact of meteorology on ozone in Houston

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eder, B.K. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Davis, J.M.; Nychka, D. [National Institute of Statistical Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    This paper compares the results from both a one-stage hierarchical clustering technique (average linkage) and a two-stage technique (average linkage then k-means) as part of an objective meteorological Classification scheme designed to better elucidate ozone`s dependence on meteorology in the Houston, Texas, area. When applied to twelve years of meteorological data (1981-1992), each technique identified seven statistically distinct meteorological regimes, the majority of which exhibited significantly different daily 1-hour maximum ozone (O{sub 3}) concentrations. While both clustering approaches proved successful, the two-stage approach did appear superior in terms of better segregation of the mean O{sub 3}, concentrations. Both approaches indicated that the largest mean daily one-hour maximum concentrations are associated with migrating anticyclones and not with the quasi-permanent Bermuda High that often dominates the southeastern United States during the summer. As a result, maximum ozone concentrations are just as likely during the months of April, May, September and October as they are during the summer months. These findings support and help explain the unique O{sub 3}, climatology experienced by the Houston area.

  18. Statistical investigations into indicator bacteria concentrations in Houston metropolitan watersheds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Anuradha M; Rifai, Hanadi; Helfer, Emil; Moreno, Norma; Stein, Ron

    2010-04-01

    Bacterial pollution in the Houston metropolitan area (Texas) watersheds was studied using statistical methods to determine the Escherichia coli levels and causes of their spatial and temporal variability. Houston bayous generally exhibit elevated E. coli concentrations. The more urban watersheds had higher concentration ranges and geometric means and had more spatial variation with higher overall ranges at downstream monitoring stations. They also were less sensitive to temperature variations and more strongly influenced by rainfall events. The median flow in the more urban bayous is predominantly wastewater. Frequent rainfall in the region, combined with relatively long travel times in the bayous, results in elevated bacterial levels in the bayous. Multiple regression models using water quality parameters were more representative on the segment level and not at the watershed level and may not be useful for predictions that rely on conventional water quality measures, particularly in urban watersheds, such as those studied here. Cluster analysis for the segments resulted in two distinct clusters differentiated by their developed land-use, population density, domestic animal density, and grassy land-use.

  19. Enhancement of cloud-to-ground lightning over Houston, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orville, Richard E.; Huffines, Gary; Nielsen-Gammon, John; Zhang, Renyi; Ely, Brandon; Steiger, Scott; Phillips, Stephen; Allen, Steve; Read, William

    Cloud-to-ground lightning flash data have been analyzed for the twelve-year period 1989-2000, for a geographical area centered on Houston, Texas. Of the 1.6 million cloud-to-ground flashes in this area of study, approximately 752,000 flashes occurred in the summer months of June, July, and August, and 119,000 flashes in the months of December, January, and February. The highest flash densities, greater than 4 flashes km-2 in the summer and 0.7 flashes/km-2 in the winter, are near the urban areas of Houston. We suggest that the elevated flash densities could result from several factors, including, 1) the convergence due to the urban heat island effect, and 2) the increasing levels of air pollution from anthropogenic sources producing numerous small droplets and thereby suppressing mean droplet size. The latter effect would enable more cloud water to reach the mixed phase region where it is involved in the formation of precipitation and the separation of electric charge, leading to an enhancement of lightning.

  20. The Undergraduate Student Instrumentation Projects at the University of Houston

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bering, E. A., III; Talbot, R. W.; Glennie, C. L.; Rodrigues, D.; Jinghong, C.; Alozie, M.; Behrend, C. C.; Bias, C.; Ehteshami, A.; Fenton, A.; Greer, M.; Gunawan, B.; Harrison, W.; Jordan, J.; Lalata, M. C.; Lehnen, J. N.; Martinez, A.; Mathur, S.; Medillin, M.; Nguyen, T.; Nguyen, T. V.; Nowling, M.; Perez, D.; Pham, M.; Pina, M.; Porat, I.; Prince, J.; Thomas, G. C.; Velasquez, B.; Victor, L.

    2016-12-01

    The Undergraduate Student Instrumentation Project (USIP) is a NASA program to engage undergraduate students in rigorous scientific research, for the purposes of innovation and developing the next generation of professionals for an array of fields. The program is student led and executed from initial ideation to research to the design and deployment of scientific payloads. The University of Houston has been selected twice to participate in the USIP programs. The first program (USIP_UH I) ran from 2013 to 2016. USIP_UH II started in January of this year, with funding starting at the end of May. USIP_UH I (USIP_UH II) at the University of Houston was (is) composed of eight (seven) research teams developing six (seven), distinct, balloon-based scientific instruments. These instruments will contribute to a broad range of geophysical sciences from Very Low Frequency recording and Total Electron Content to exobiology and ozone profiling. USIP_UH I had 12 successful launches with 9 recoveries from Fairbanks, AK in March 2015 and 4 piggyback flights with BARREL 3 from Esrange, Kiruna, Sweden in August, 2015. Additional flights with BARREL 4 will take place in August 2016. The great opportunity of this program is capitalizing on the proliferation of electronics miniaturization to create new generations of scientific instruments that are smaller and lighter than ever before. This situation allows experiments to be done more cheaply which ultimately allows many more experiments to be done.

  1. Navy Ohio Replacement (SSBN[X]) Ballistic Missile Submarine Program: Background and Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-17

    propulsion technology first occurred many years ago: To help jumpstart the UK’s nuclear - powered submarine program, the United States transferred to the UK a... nuclear - powered attack submarines (SSNs), nuclear - powered cruise missile submarines (SSGNs), and nuclear - powered ballistic missile submarines (SSBNs). 2...2 In the designations SSN, SSGN, SSBN, and SSBN(X), the SS stands for submarine, N stands for nuclear - powered (meaning the ship is

  2. The Contributions of Felix Bloch and W. V. Houston to the Electron Theory of Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rorschach, H. E., Jr.

    1970-01-01

    Discusses the contributions of Bloch and Houston to the electron theory of metals. Contains (1) a biographical note on W. V. Houston, (2) a review of the development of the electron theory of metals, and (3) a discussion of gravitationally induced electric fields. Bibliography. (LC)

  3. 78 FR 13857 - Foreign-Trade Zone 84-Houston, TX; Notification of Proposed Production Activity; Toshiba...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    ...; Toshiba International Corporation (Hybrid Electric Vehicle Motors and Generators Production) The Port of... of Toshiba International Corporation (Toshiba), located in Houston, Texas. The notification..., 2013. The Toshiba facility is located at 13131 West Little York Road, Houston (Harris County), Texas. A...

  4. The History of the Austin College Building and Old Main at Sam Houston State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Erin; Shields, Samantha

    2017-01-01

    Austin Hall and Old Main serve as the heart of what is now Sam Houston State University. The buildings' rich histories help one to understand how Sam Houston State University and its proud teacher education heritage came to be. To begin with Austin Hall's story, the University's original building has a unique and interesting tale that journeys…

  5. 78 FR 49254 - Foreign-Trade Zone 84-Houston, Texas; Application for Subzone; Toshiba International Corporation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-13

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 84--Houston, Texas; Application for Subzone; Toshiba International Corporation; Houston, Texas An application has been submitted to the Foreign-Trade Zones (FTZ... pursuant to the provisions of the Foreign-Trade Zones Act, as amended (19 U.S.C. 81a-81u), and the...

  6. 76 FR 30396 - Deloitte Financial Advisory Services LLP, Real Estate Consulting, Houston, TX; Amended...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-25

    ... Financial Advisory Services LLP, Real Estate Consulting, Houston, TX; Amended Certification Regarding... of Deloitte Financial Advisory Services LLP, Real Estate Consulting, Houston, Texas (subject firm... subject worker group supplies real estate valuation services for the subject firm. The Department, on its...

  7. Huelga Schools in Houston: Community-Based Education in the Struggle for Legal Recognition, 1970

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Miguel, Guadalupe, Jr.

    2016-01-01

    This essay provides an overview of the huelga schools established in Houston, Texas, in 1970. For 2 years, from 1970 to 1972, the Mexican American community opposed the Houston Independent School District's plan to integrate the schools by pairing so-called White Mexican Americans with African American students. While they protested this decision,…

  8. Evaluation of endoscopically obtained duodenal biopsy samples from cats and dogs in an adapter-modified Ussing chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBiasio, John V.; Suchodolski, Jan S.; Newman, Shelley; Musch, Mark W.; Steiner, Jörg M.

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate an adapter-modified Ussing chamber for assessment of transport physiology in endoscopically obtained duodenal biopsies from healthy cats and dogs, as well as dogs with chronic enteropathies. 17 duodenal biopsies from five cats and 51 duodenal biopsies from 13 dogs were obtained. Samples were transferred into an adapter-modified Ussing chamber and sequentially exposed to various absorbagogues and secretagogues. Overall, 78.6% of duodenal samples obtained from cats responded to at least one compound. In duodenal biopsies obtained from dogs, the rate of overall response ranged from 87.5% (healthy individuals; n = 8), to 63.6% (animals exhibiting clinical signs of gastrointestinal disease and histopathological unremarkable duodenum; n = 15), and 32.1% (animals exhibiting clinical signs of gastrointestinal diseases and moderate to severe histopathological lesions; n = 28). Detailed information regarding the magnitude and duration of the response are provided. The adapter-modified Ussing chamber enables investigation of the absorptive and secretory capacity of endoscopically obtained duodenal biopsies from cats and dogs and has the potential to become a valuable research tool. The response of samples was correlated with histopathological findings. PMID:24378587

  9. Submarine landside in the Bussol Graben: Structural and formation features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranov, B. V.; Lobkovsky, L. I.; Dozorova, K. A.; Rukavishnikova, D. D.

    2017-05-01

    Analysis of geophysical data obtained during a study of the insular slope in the central Kuril‒Kamchatka Trench during projects Kuriles-2005 and Kuriles-2006 promoted by the Presidium of the Russian Academy of Sciences revealed a large submarine landslide in this area. The landslide, located at the bottom of the transverse valley confined to the Bussol l Graben, resulted from the failure of the northeastern wall of a graben composed of sedimentary material. It exceeds 35 km3 in size, representing one of the large submarine landslides discovered to date on the slope of the Kuril‒Kamchatka Trench in submarine canyonfan environments.

  10. Management of demand based inventory aboard submarine tenders servicing attack (SSN) submarines

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, Timothy Joseph

    1990-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. This thesis examines the computation of inventory levels based on demand history aboard Submarine Tenders that use the Shipboard Automated Data Processing System (SUADPS) for inventory control. The focus of the thesis was the workload and supply effectiveness issues associated with the processing of the SUADPS levels setting program. The objective of the thesis was to determine the effect on supply effectiveness and stock churn if the...

  11. Transepithelial Transport of PAMAM Dendrimers across Isolated Rat Jejunal Mucosae in Ussing Chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Oral delivery remains a challenge for poorly permeable hydrophilic macromolecules. Poly(amido amine) (PAMAM) dendrimers have shown potential for their possible oral delivery. Transepithelial transport of carboxyl-terminated G3.5 and amine-terminated G4 PAMAM dendrimers was assessed using isolated rat jejunal mucosae mounted in Ussing chambers. The 1 mM FITC-labeled dendrimers were added to the apical side of mucosae. Apparent permeability coefficients (Papp) from the apical to the basolateral side were significantly increased for FITC when conjugated to G3.5 PAMAM dendrimer compared to FITC alone. Minimal signs of toxicity were observed when mucosae were exposed to both dendrimers with respect to transepithelial electrical resistance changes, carbachol-induced short circuit current stimulation, and histological changes. [14C]-mannitol fluxes were not altered in the presence of 1 mM dendrimers, suggesting that the paracellular pathway was not affected at this concentration in this model. These results give insight into the mechanism of PAMAM dendrimer transepithelial rat jejunal transport, as well as toxicological considerations important for oral drug delivery. PMID:24992090

  12. Simulation of the effects of different inflows on hydrologic conditions in Lake Houston with a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model, Houston, Texas, 2009–10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendon, Samuel H.; Lee, Michael T.

    2015-12-08

    Lake Houston, an important water resource for the Houston, Texas, area, receives inflows from seven major tributaries that compose the San Jacinto River Basin upstream from the reservoir. The effects of different inflows from the watersheds drained by these tributaries on the residence time of water in Lake Houston and closely associated physical and chemical properties including lake elevation, salinity, and water temperature are not well known. Accordingly, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the City of Houston, developed a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model of Lake Houston as a tool for evaluating the effects of different inflows on residence time of water in the lake and associated physical and chemical properties. The Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC), a grid-based, surface-water modeling package for simulating three-dimensional circulation, mass transport, sediments, and biogeochemical processes, was used to develop the model of Lake Houston. The Lake Houston EFDC model was developed and calibrated by using 2009 data and verified by using 2010 data. Three statistics (mean error, root mean square error, and the Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficient) were used to evaluate how well the Lake Houston EFDC model simulated lake elevation, salinity, and water temperature. The residence time of water in reservoirs is associated with various physical and chemical properties (including lake elevation, salinity, and water temperature). Simulated and measured lake-elevation values were compared at USGS reservoir station 08072000 Lake Houston near Sheldon, Tex. The accuracy of simulated salinity and water temperature values was assessed by using the salinity (computed from measured specific conductance) and water temperature at two USGS monitoring stations: 295826095082200 Lake Houston south Union Pacific Railroad Bridge near Houston, Tex., and 295554095093401 Lake Houston at mouth of Jack’s Ditch near Houston, Tex. Specific conductance

  13. Submarine thermal springs on the Galapagos Rift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corliss, J.B.; Dymond, J.; Gordon, L.I.; Edmond, J.M.; Von Herzen, R. P.; Ballard, Richard D.; Green, K.; Williams, D.; Bainbridge, A.; Crane, K.; Van Andel, T. H.

    1979-01-01

    The submarine hydrothermal activity on and near the Galápagos Rift has been explored with the aid of the deep submersible Alvin. Analyses of water samples from hydrothermal vents reveal that hydrothermal activity provides significant or dominant sources and sinks for several components of seawater; studies of conductive and convective heat transfer suggest that two-thirds of the heat lost from new oceanic lithosphere at the Galápagos Rift in the first million years may be vented from thermal springs, predominantly along the axial ridge within the rift valley. The vent areas are populated by animal communities. They appear to utilize chemosynthesis by sulfur-oxidizing bacteria to derive their entire energy supply from reactions between the seawater and the rocks at high temperatures, rather than photosynthesis

  14. Improved OTEC System for a Submarine Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Yi; Jones, Jack; Valdez, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    An ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC), now undergoing development, is a less-massive, more-efficient means of exploiting the same basic principle as that of the proposed system described in "Alternative OTEC Scheme for a Submarine Robot" (NPO-43500), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 33, No. 1 (January 2009), page 50. The proposed system as described previously would be based on the thawing-expansion/freezing-contraction behavior of a wax or perhaps another suitable phase-change material (PCM). The power generated by the system would be used to recharge the batteries in a battery- powered unmanned underwater vehicle [UUV (essentially, a small exploratory submarine robot)] of a type that has been deployed in large numbers in research pertaining to global warming. A UUV of this type travels between the ocean surface and depths, measuring temperature and salinity. At one phase of its operational cycle, the previously proposed system would utilize the surface ocean temperature (which lies between 15 and 30 C over most of the Earth) to melt a PCM that has a melting/freezing temperature of about 10 C. At the opposite phase of its operational cycle, the system would utilize the lower ocean temperature at depth (e.g., between 4 and 7 C at a depth of 300 m) to freeze the PCM. The melting or freezing would cause the PCM to expand or contract, respectively, by about 9 volume percent. The PCM would be contained in tubes that would be capable of expanding and contracting with the PCM. The PCM-containing tubes would be immersed in a hydraulic fluid. The expansion and contraction would drive a flow of the hydraulic fluid against a piston that, in turn, would push a rack-and-pinion gear system to spin a generator to charge a battery.

  15. A model for tidewater glacier undercutting by submarine melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, D. A.; Nienow, P. W.; Goldberg, D. N.; Cowton, T. R.; Sole, A. J.

    2017-03-01

    Dynamic change at the marine-terminating margins of the Greenland Ice Sheet may be initiated by the ocean, particularly where subglacial runoff drives vigorous ice-marginal plumes and rapid submarine melting. Here we model submarine melt-driven undercutting of tidewater glacier termini, simulating a process which is key to understanding ice-ocean coupling. Where runoff emerges from broad subglacial channels we find that undercutting has only a weak impact on local submarine melt rate but increases total ablation by submarine melting due to the larger submerged ice surface area. Thus, the impact of melting is determined not only by the melt rate magnitude but also by the slope of the ice-ocean interface. We suggest that the most severe undercutting occurs at the maximum height in the fjord reached by the plume, likely promoting calving of ice above. It remains unclear, however, whether undercutting proceeds sufficiently rapidly to influence calving at Greenland's fastest-flowing glaciers.

  16. Submarine Upward Looking Sonar Ice Draft Profile Data and Statistics

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of upward looking sonar draft data collected by submarines in the Arctic Ocean. It includes data from both U.S. Navy and Royal Navy...

  17. Virtual Reality Training System for a Submarine Command Center

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maxwell, Douglas B

    2008-01-01

    The invention as disclosed is a system that uses a combined real and virtual display interaction methodology to generate the visual appearance of submarine combat control rooms and allow interaction...

  18. Daytime HONO vertical gradients during SHARP 2009 in Houston, TX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. W. Wong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrous Acid (HONO plays an important role in tropospheric chemistry as a precursor of the hydroxyl radical (OH, the most important oxidizing agent in the atmosphere. Nevertheless, the formation mechanisms of HONO are still not completely understood. Recent field observations found unexpectedly high daytime HONO concentrations in both urban and rural areas, which point to unrecognized, most likely photolytically enhanced HONO sources. Several gas-phase, aerosol, and ground surface chemistry mechanisms have been proposed to explain elevated daytime HONO, but atmospheric evidence to favor one over the others is still weak. New information on whether HONO formation occurs in the gas-phase, on aerosol, or at the ground may be derived from observations of the vertical distribution of HONO and its precursor nitrogen dioxide, NO2, as well as from its dependence on solar irradiance or actinic flux.

    Here we present field observations of HONO, NO2 and other trace gases in three altitude intervals (30–70 m, 70–130 m and 130–300 m using UCLA's long path DOAS instrument, as well as in situ measurements of OH, NO, photolysis frequencies and solar irradiance, made in Houston, TX, during the Study of Houston Atmospheric Radical Precursor (SHARP experiment from 20 April to 30 May 2009. The observed HONO mixing ratios were often ten times larger than the expected photostationary state with OH and NO. Larger HONO mixing ratios observed near the ground than aloft imply, but do not clearly prove, that the daytime source of HONO was located at or near the ground. Using a pseudo steady-state (PSS approach, we calculated the missing daytime HONO formation rates, Punknown, on four sunny days. The NO2-normalized Punknown, Pnorm, showed a clear symmetrical diurnal variation with a maximum around noontime, which was well correlated with actinic flux (NO2 photolysis frequency and

  19. Anthropogenic And Biogenic Carbon Dioxide Fluxes in Urban Houston

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, N. D.; Schade, G. W.; Savage, J.; Hale, M.

    2011-12-01

    Approximately 5% of North American land cover is characterized as urban, representing a large source of anthropogenic carbon to the atmosphere but also an unknown sink in urban vegetation and its management. We present measurements of energy and trace gas fluxes from a unique urban research site in Houston, Texas, with a focus on evaluating the anthropogenic and biogenic contributions to the measured net CO2 exchange at this site. Eddy covariance carbon dioxide flux measurements, and CO2 and NOx flux gradient measurements have been operated (with a one-year gap) since mid 2007 from a commercial communications tower north of downtown Houston. In addition, leaf-level and soil CO2 efflux measurements were carried out in the tower's footprint region in 2011. Bottom-up estimates were developed for anthropogenic CO2 fluxes through correlation with CO, traffic count and natural gas use data, and for biogenic CO2 fluxes through modeling soil and plant respiration, and photosynthesis. CO, NO¬x, and CO2 data were strongly correlated during the morning rush hours, and were used to extrapolate CO2 emissions from traffic using measured biweekly to monthly CO (NOx) flux averages. CO emissions from natural gas use were extrapolated from monthly gas consumption data. The results will be compared to a top-down flux estimate that uses quadrant analysis of CO2 fluxes with simultaneously acquired heat and water vapor fluxes to distinguish biogenic (high q'C' correlation) from anthropogenic (high T'C' correlation) carbon flux contributions. First results from both bottom-up and top-down flux estimates will be presented. The successful implementation of this new analysis may allow us to better judge the importance of constantly growing urban areas in the North American carbon cycle. It addresses identified gaps in carbon cycle knowledge and can help in validating inventories and improving estimates of carbon cycling.

  20. Studies on submarine control for periscope depth operations

    OpenAIRE

    Tolliver, John V.

    1996-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution in unlimited. Requirements for submarine periscope depth operations have been increased by integration with carrier battle groups, littoral operations, and contributions to joint surveillance. Improved periscope depth performance is therefore imperative. Submarine control personnel rely on a large number of analog gauges and indications. An integrated digital display system could enhance the ergonomics of the human control interface and display add...

  1. Exercise Aboard Attack Submarines: Rationale and New Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-08-18

    experience loss of physical fitness while underway. Bennett and co-workers (2) noted a 7% reduction of maximal oxygen consumption in non-exercising...Inc. designed and built a comprehensive resistance exercise device to help counteract muscle deconditioning during long term space flights (the SX... Physical activity aboard nuclear submarines as measured by pedometry. Groton: Naval Submarine Medical Research Laboratory, Report 1053, 1985, p. 12

  2. Are tilt measurements useful in detecting tsunamigenic submarine landslides?

    OpenAIRE

    Sascha Brune; Andrey Babeyko; Stephan V. Sobolev

    2009-01-01

    Large submarine landslides can generate dangerous tsunamis. Because of their long-period signal, detection of landslides by common seismological methods is difficult. Here we suggest a method of detecting submarine landslides by using an array of land-based tiltmeters. The displacement of a large volume of sediments during landsliding produces a detectable elastic response of the lithosphere. We propose a technique to calculate this response and to invert for tsunami relevant parameters like ...

  3. The development of permafrost bacterial communities under submarine conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitzscherling, Julia; Winkel, Matthias; Winterfeld, Maria; Horn, Fabian; Yang, Sizhong; Grigoriev, Mikhail N.; Wagner, Dirk; Overduin, Pier P.; Liebner, Susanne

    2017-07-01

    Submarine permafrost is more vulnerable to thawing than permafrost on land. Besides increased heat transfer from the ocean water, the penetration of salt lowers the freezing temperature and accelerates permafrost degradation. Microbial communities in thawing permafrost are expected to be stimulated by warming, but how they develop under submarine conditions is completely unknown. We used the unique records of two submarine permafrost cores from the Laptev Sea on the East Siberian Arctic Shelf, inundated about 540 and 2500 years ago, to trace how bacterial communities develop depending on duration of the marine influence and pore water chemistry. Combined with geochemical analysis, we quantified total cell numbers and bacterial gene copies and determined the community structure of bacteria using deep sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene. We show that submarine permafrost is an extreme habitat for microbial life deep below the seafloor with changing thermal and chemical conditions. Pore water chemistry revealed different pore water units reflecting the degree of marine influence and stages of permafrost thaw. Millennia after inundation by seawater, bacteria stratify into communities in permafrost, marine-affected permafrost, and seabed sediments. In contrast to pore water chemistry, the development of bacterial community structure, diversity, and abundance in submarine permafrost appears site specific, showing that both sedimentation and permafrost thaw histories strongly affect bacteria. Finally, highest microbial abundance was observed in the ice-bonded seawater unaffected but warmed permafrost of the longer inundated core, suggesting that permafrost bacterial communities exposed to submarine conditions start to proliferate millennia after warming.

  4. Cardiometabolic Health in Submariners Returning from a 3-Month Patrol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heath G. Gasier

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Confined space, limited exercise equipment, rotating shift work and reduced sleep may affect cardiometabolic health in submariners. To test this hypothesis, 53 male U.S. Submariners (20–39 years were studied before and after a 3-month routine submarine patrol. Measures included anthropometrics, dietary and physical activity, biomarkers of cardiometabolic health, energy and appetite regulation, and inflammation. Before deployment, 62% of submariners had a body fat % (BF% ≥ 25% (obesity, and of this group, 30% met the criteria for metabolic syndrome. In obese volunteers, insulin, the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, leptin, the leptin/adiponectin ratio, and pro-inflammatory chemokines growth-related oncogene and macrophage-derived chemokine were significantly higher compared to non-obese submariners. Following the patrol, a significant mean reduction in body mass (5% and fat-mass (11% occurred in the obese group as a result of reduced energy intake (~2000 kJ during the patrol; and, independent of group, modest improvements in serum lipids and a mean reduction in interferon γ-induced protein 10 and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 were observed. Since 43% of the submariners remained obese, and 18% continued to meet the criteria for metabolic syndrome following the patrol, the magnitude of weight loss was insufficient to completely abolish metabolic dysfunction. Submergence up to 3-months, however, does not appear to be the cause of obesity, which is similar to that of the general population.

  5. Solution of Supplee's submarine paradox through special and general relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Vieira, R S

    2016-01-01

    In 1989 Supplee described an apparent relativistic paradox on which a submarine seems to sink in a given frame while floating in another one. If the submarine density is adjusted to be the same as the water density (when both of them are at rest) and then it is put to move, the density of the submarine will become higher than that of the water, thanks to Lorentz contraction, and hence it sinks. However, in the submarine proper frame, is the water that becomes denser, so the submarine supposedly should float and we get a paradox situation. In this paper we analyze the submarine paradox in both a flat and a curved spacetime. In the case of a flat spacetime, we first show that any relativistic force field in special relativity can be written in the Lorentz form, so that it can always be decomposed into a static (electric-like) and a dynamic (magnetic-like) part. Taking into account the gravitomagnetic effects between the Earth and the water, a relativistic formulation of Archimedes principle can be established, ...

  6. Submarine Landslides at Santa Catalina Island, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legg, M. R.; Francis, R. D.

    2011-12-01

    Santa Catalina Island is an active tectonic block of volcanic and metamorphic rocks originally exposed during middle Miocene transtension along the evolving Pacific-North America transform plate boundary. Post-Miocene transpression created the existing large pop-up structure along the major strike-slip restraining bend of the Catalina fault that forms the southwest flank of the uplift. Prominent submerged marine terraces apparent in high-resolution bathymetric maps interrupt the steep submarine slopes in the upper ~400 meters subsea depths. Steep subaerial slopes of the island are covered by Quaternary landslides, especially at the sea cliffs and in the blueschist metamorphic rocks. The submarine slopes also show numerous landslides that range in area from a few hectares to more than three sq-km (300 hectares). Three or more landslides of recent origin exist between the nearshore and first submerged terrace along the north-facing shelf of the island's West End. One of these slides occurred during September 2005 when divers observed a remarkable change in the seafloor configuration after previous dives in the area. Near a sunken yacht at about 45-ft depth where the bottom had sloped gently into deeper water, a "sinkhole" had formed that dropped steeply to 100-ft or greater depths. Some bubbling sand was observed in the shallow water areas that may be related to the landslide process. High-resolution multibeam bathymetry acquired in 2008 by CSU Monterey Bay show this "fresh" slide and at least two other slides of varying age along the West End. The slides are each roughly 2 hectares in area and their debris aprons are spread across the first terrace at about 85-m water depth that is likely associated with the Last Glacial Maximum sealevel lowstand. Larger submarine slides exist along the steep Catalina and Catalina Ridge escarpments along the southwest flank of the island platform. A prominent slide block, exceeding 3 sq-km in area, appears to have slipped more than

  7. ROV Tiburon Investigation of Hawaiian Submarine Canyons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paull, C. K.; Greene, H. G.; Caress, D. W.; Clague, D. A.; Ussler, W.; Maher, N. M.

    2001-12-01

    MBARI conducted ROV dives around the Hawaiian Islands during an expedition of the R/V Western Flyer and Tiburon in the spring of 2001. Eight ROV dives were made to investigate five major submarine canyons offshore of Oahu, Molokai, and Hawaii in up to 3,434 m water depths. Four of these canyons are located off the windward (northern) side of these islands where onshore canyons are also well developed. Those canyons located offshore of Molokai and Oahu incise the head scars of the giant Nuuanu and Wailai submarine landslides. ROV observations and sediment and rock outcrop sampling were made in these canyons to determine their origin and present-day activity. The fifth canyon investigated is located on the leeward (southern) side of Molokai. The canyons along the windward side expose extensive stratigraphic sections that reveal the history of the islands' formation. In composite, these sections contain marine pillow basalt overlain by a substantial sequence of alternating subaerial lava flows, rounded boulder conglomerates, shallow water carbonates, and hyaloclastites that indicate coastal and marine deposition. These sequences illustrate the accretion and subsequent subsidence of the islands' flanks. These canyons also have morphologically distinct upper and lower sections. The upper reaches of the canyons are incised into the shallow water marine facies and contain broad axial channels through which active sediment transport is occurring. In contrast, the morphology of the lower canyons are strongly influenced by the giant landslides that massively altered the northern flanks of the Hawaiian chain. The lower canyons contain plunge pools and steep headwall scarps that are generally comprised of mechanically competent subaerial lava flows. The presence of multiple plunge pools with differentially eroded head scarps suggests retrogressive erosion (bottom-up process) with headward advancement of the various heads. Undercutting of the headwalls also produce periodic

  8. Relationship between work stress and health in submariners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan-nan JIANG

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the relationship between work stress and health in submariners. Methods In April 2008, 272 submariners trained in a navy base were selected as study subjects by random group sampling method, and tested by primary personal information questionnaire, self-rated health measurement scale (SRHMS, self-developed submariners' work stressors questionnaire, and work stress self-rated scale. Physical health, mental health and social health of submariners were analyzed, and scores were compared with the norm of reference scores. Correlations were analyzed respectively between 10 items of submariners' general information (including age, length of military service, education degree, years at the present post, times of receiving awards, on-duty hours, off-duty hours, hours of sleep, lost days of leave, positive attitude to work and their physical health score, mental health score, social health score, total health score, as well as between 15 submariners' work stressors (including workrelated risks, diet problems, high temperature, humidity and noise in workplace, shortage of clean clothes, illness, losing contact with outside, lack of information about the task, lacking supports from family members, relationship problems, lack of involvement in task decisions, boring and dull work, on duty, heavy work, high quality of work, coping with unexpected threat and their physical health score, mental health score, social health score and total health score. Results No significant difference was found between submariners' SRHMS total score and the normal referenced score (t=0.56, P>0.05, but the physical health score and mental health score were significantly lower than normal referenced scores respectively (t=–2.172, P<0.05; t=–3.299, P<0.01, and the social health score was significantly higher than normal referenced score (t=9.331, P<0.001. The age, length of military service, years at present post of submariners were related

  9. New USS Microstrip Antenna Proposal Based Both On Ku And Ka Frequency New USSMA Ku Ka Band

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chafaa Hamrouni

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article we propose a Microstrip Antenna for Ultra Small Satellite USS telecommunication subsystem application in UWB Ku frequency band and Ka band. The designed MA is based on circular patch antenna. We process by minimizing and adjusting the MA dimension to lift the latch of bandwidth while maintaining quality performance of other properties. We have developed a studied geometric shape and used tricks to design them. Obtained antenna feds by microstrip line and the ground plane. Antenna feed elements are placed on the same plate to reduce the spatial dimension. Successful results are presented to validate function of proposed design and its precision operating at high frequencies.

  10. From submarine to lacustrine groundwater discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, Jörg; Meinikmann, Karin; Pöschke, Franziska; Nützmann, Gunnar; Rosenberry, Donald O.

    2017-01-01

    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) and its role in marine nutrient cycling are well known since the last decade. The freshwater equivalent, lacustrine groundwater discharge (LGD), is often still disregarded, although first reports of LGD are more than 50 years old. We identify nine different reasons why groundwater has long been disregarded in both freshwater and marine environments such as invisibility of groundwater discharge, the size of the interface and its difficult accessibility. Although there are some fundamental differences in the hydrology of SGD and LGD, caused primarily by seawater recirculation that occurs only in cases of SGD, there are also a lot of similarities such as a focusing of discharge to near-shore areas. Nutrient concentrations in groundwater near the groundwater–surface water interface might be anthropogenically enriched. Due to spatial heterogeneity of aquifer characteristics and biogeochemical processes, the quantification of groundwater-borne nutrient loads is challenging. Both nitrogen and phosphorus might be mobile in near-shore aquifers and in a lot of case studies large groundwater-borne nutrient loads have been reported.

  11. Design and analysis of submarine radome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandeep, C. Satya; Prasad, U. Shiva; Suresh, R.; Rathan, A.; Sravanthi, G.; Govardhan, D.

    2017-07-01

    Radomes are the electromagnetic windows that protect microwave sub-systems from the environmental effects. The major requirement of radome is its transparency to microwaves and for most of the cases mechanical properties are also equally important. Radome for underwater applications has to withstand high water pressure of the order of 45 bars. Composite materials owing to their high strength to weight ratio, high stiffness and better corrosion resistance are potential source for under water applications. The concept of 'tailoring' the material properties to suit the radome is obtained by selecting proper reinforcement, resin matrix and their compositions. The mechanical properties of composite material, evaluated by testing specimens as per ASTM standards, are utilized in designing the radome. The modulus properties calculated using classical theories of composite materials and compared with test results. ANSYS a Finite Element software package used to analyse the problem. As the cross sectional thickness of radome varies, the complexity in fabrication is overcome by adopting matched die techniques. The radome design and finite element analysis validation concluded by conducting the pressure test on radome. On the design a modal analysis is also carried to check for the natural frequency, So that resonance does not occur if the natural frequency of the radome coincides with the excitation frequency of the submarine Clinical information system (CIS) for UNRWA is a computerized distributed application that used in clinics which follows the United Nations Relief and Works Agency (UNRWA) to manage the clinical requirements and services.

  12. Submarine landslides of the Southern California Borderland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H.J.; Greene, H. Gary; Edwards, B.D.; Fisher, M.A.; Normark, W.R.

    2009-01-01

    Conventional bathymetry, sidescan-sonar and seismic-reflection data, and recent, multibeam surveys of large parts of the Southern California Borderland disclose the presence of numerous submarine landslides. Most of these features are fairly small, with lateral dimensions less than ??2 km. In areas where multibeam surveys are available, only two large landslide complexes were identified on the mainland slope- Goleta slide in Santa Barbara Channel and Palos Verdes debris avalanche on the San Pedro Escarpment south of Palos Verdes Peninsula. Both of these complexes indicate repeated recurrences of catastrophic slope failure. Recurrence intervals are not well constrained but appear to be in the range of 7500 years for the Goleta slide. The most recent major activity of the Palos Verdes debris avalanche occurred roughly 7500 years ago. A small failure deposit in Santa Barbara Channel, the Gaviota mudflow, was perhaps caused by an 1812 earthquake. Most landslides in this region are probably triggered by earthquakes, although the larger failures were likely conditioned by other factors, such as oversteepening, development of shelf-edge deltas, and high fluid pressures. If a subsequent future landslide were to occur in the area of these large landslide complexes, a tsunami would probably result. Runup distances of 10 m over a 30-km-long stretch of the Santa Barbara coastline are predicted for a recurrence of the Goleta slide, and a runup of 3 m over a comparable stretch of the Los Angeles coastline is modeled for the Palos Verdes debris avalanche. ?? 2009 The Geological Society of America.

  13. Seismic reflections associated with submarine gas hydrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreassen, K.

    1995-12-31

    Gas hydrates are often suggested as a future energy resource. This doctoral thesis improves the understanding of the concentration and distribution of natural submarine gas hydrates. The presence of these hydrates are commonly inferred from strong bottom simulating reflection (BSR). To investigate the nature of BSR, this work uses seismic studies of hydrate-related BSRs at two different locations, one where gas hydrates are accepted to exist and interpreted to be very extensive (in the Beaufort Sea), the other with good velocity data and downhole logs available (offshore Oregon). To ascertain the presence of free gas under the BSR, prestack offset data must supplement near-vertical incidence seismic data. A tentative model for physical properties of sediments partially saturated with gas hydrate and free gas is presented. This model, together with drilling information and seismic data containing the BSR beneath the Oregon margin and the Beaufort Sea, made it possible to better understand when to apply the amplitude-versus-offset (AVO) method to constrain BSR gas hydrate and gas models. Distribution of natural gas hydrates offshore Norway and Svalbard is discussed and interpreted as reflections from the base of gas hydrate-bearing sediments, overlying sediments containing free gas. Gas hydrates inferred to exist at the Norwegian-Svalbard continental margin correlate well with Cenozoic depocenters, and the associated gas is assumed to be mainly biogenic. Parts of that margin have a high potential for natural gas hydrates of both biogenic and thermogenic origin. 235 refs., 86 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Submarine landslides in Arctic sedimentation: Canada Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, David C.; Shimeld, John; Hutchinson, Deborah R.; Lebedova-Ivanova, N; Chapman, C.

    2016-01-01

    Canada Basin of the Arctic Ocean is the least studied ocean basin in the World. Marine seismic field programs were conducted over the past 6 years using Canadian and American icebreakers. These expeditions acquired more than 14,000 line-km of multibeam bathymetric and multi-channel seismic reflection data over abyssal plain, continental rise and slope regions of Canada Basin; areas where little or no seismic reflection data existed previously. Canada Basin is a turbidite-filled basin with flat-lying reflections correlateable over 100s of km. For the upper half of the sedimentary succession, evidence of sedimentary processes other than turbidity current deposition is rare. The Canadian Archipelago and Beaufort Sea margins host stacked mass transport deposits from which many of these turbidites appear to derive. The stratigraphic succession of the MacKenzie River fan is dominated by mass transport deposits; one such complex is in excess of 132,000 km2 in area and underlies much of the southern abyssal plain. The modern seafloor is also scarred with escarpments and mass failure deposits; evidence that submarine landsliding is an ongoing process. In its latest phase of development, Canada Basin is geomorphologically confined with stable oceanographic structure, resulting in restricted depositional/reworking processes. The sedimentary record, therefore, underscores the significance of mass-transport processes in providing sediments to oceanic abyssal plains as few other basins are able to do.

  15. Houston Intercontinental and William P. Hobby Air Traffic Control System Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    This report provides a decription of the non-surveillance aspects of the FAA air traffic control facility operation at Houston Intercontinental and William P. Hobby Airports from teh air traffic controller's point of view. It includes photographs of ...

  16. U.S. Population Grids (Summary File 1), 2000: Houston Metropolitan Statistical Area, Alpha Version

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — U.S. Population Grids (Summary File 1), 2000: Houston Metropolitan Statistical Area, Alpha Version contains an ARC/INFO Workspace with grids of demographic data from...

  17. Cooley building opens in Houston. Demonstrates value of fully integrated marketing communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Tom

    2002-01-01

    The Texas Heart Institute at St. Luke's Episcopal HospiTal in Houston dedicated its new 10-story Denton A. Cooley Building in January. The structure opened with a fanfare, thanks to a well-integrated marketing communications program.

  18. NSMRL: A Small Command with A Huge Presence for the Submarine Force

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daniel, J. C; Lamb, Jerry

    2005-01-01

    "To protect the health and enhance the performance of our warfighters through focused submarine, diving and surface research solutions" is the mission of the Naval Submarine Medical Research Laboratory (NSMRL...

  19. 33 CFR 161.35 - Vessel Traffic Service Houston/Galveston.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Areas Precautionary area name Radius (yds.) Center point Latitude Longitude Bolivar Roads 4000 29°20.9... Bayou 1000 29°45.0′ N 95°17.3′ W Note: Each Precautionary Area encompasses a circular area of the radius... Channel Lt. 12 29° 22.4′ N; 94° 50.9′ W X Houston Ship Channel ICW Intersection Houston Ship Channel (HSC...

  20. STS-103 Commander Brown DEPARTs PAFB for Houston

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Amidst a flurry of activity, STS-103 Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr. disembarks from the bus which brought him to the runway at Patrick Air Force Base in Cocoa Beach, Fla. The STS-103 crew and their families are preparing to board an airplane that will return them to their home base at the Johnson Space Center in Houston following the successful completion of their mission. Discovery landed in darkness the previous evening, Dec. 27, on runway 33 at KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility at 7:00:47 p.m. EST. This was the first time that a Shuttle crew spent the Christmas holiday in space. The other STS-103 crew members are Pilot Scott J. Kelly and Mission Specialists Steven L. Smith, C. Michael Foale (Ph.D.), John M. Grunsfeld (Ph.D.), Claude Nicollier of Switzerland and Jean-Frangois Clervoy of France. The STS-103 mission accomplished outfitting the Hubble Space Telescope with six new gyroscopes, six new voltage/temperature improvement kits, a new onboard computer, a new solid state recorder and new data transmitter, a new fine guidance sensor along with new insulation on parts of the orbiting telescope. This was the 96th flight in the Space Shuttle program and the 27th for the orbiter Discovery.

  1. STS-103 Mission Specialist Clervoy DEPARTs PAFB for Houston

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    STS-103 Mission Specialist Jean-Frangois Clervoy of France exhibits his holiday spirit on the runway at Patrick Air Force Base in Cocoa Beach, Fla. The STS-103 crew and their families are preparing to board an airplane that will return them to their home base at the Johnson Space Center in Houston following the successful completion of their mission. Discovery landed in darkness the previous evening, Dec. 27, on runway 33 at KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility at 7:00:47 p.m. EST. This was the first time that a Shuttle crew spent the Christmas holiday in space. The other STS-103 crew members are Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr.; Pilot Scott J. Kelly; and Mission Specialists Steven L. Smith, C. Michael Foale (Ph.D.), John M. Grunsfeld (Ph.D.), and Claude Nicollier of Switzerland. The STS-103 mission accomplished outfitting the Hubble Space Telescope with six new gyroscopes, six new voltage/temperature improvement kits, a new onboard computer, a new solid state recorder and new data transmitter, a new fine guidance sensor along with new insulation on parts of the orbiting telescope. This was the 96th flight in the Space Shuttle program and the 27th for the orbiter Discovery.

  2. Houston, we have a narrative why science needs story

    CERN Document Server

    Olson, Randy

    2015-01-01

    Ask a scientist about Hollywood, and you ll probably get eye rolls. But ask someone in Hollywood about science, and they ll see dollar signs: moviemakers know that science can be the source of great stories, with all the drama and action that blockbusters require. That s a huge mistake, says Randy Olson: Hollywood has a lot to teach scientists about how to tell a story and, ultimately, how to "do" science better. With "Houston, We Have a Narrative," he lays out a stunningly simple method for turning the dull into the dramatic. Drawing on his unique background, which saw him leave his job as a working scientist to launch a career as a filmmaker, Olson first diagnoses the problem: When scientists tell us about their work, they pile one moment and one detail atop another moment and another detail a stultifying procession of and, and, and. What we need instead is an understanding of the basic elements of story, the narrative structures that our brains are all but hardwired to look for which Olson boils down, bril...

  3. An application of LOTEM around salt dome near Houston, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paembonan, Andri Yadi; Arjwech, Rungroj; Davydycheva, Sofia; Smirnov, Maxim; Strack, Kurt M.

    2017-07-01

    A salt dome is an important large geologic structure for hydrocarbon exploration. It may seal a porous reservoir of rocks that form petroleum reservoirs. Several techniques such as seismic, gravity, and electromagnetic including magnetotelluric have successfully yielded salt dome interpretation. Seismic has difficulties seeing through the salt because the seismic energy gets trapped by the salt due to its high velocity. Gravity and electromagnetics are more ideal methods. Long Offset Transient Electromagnetic (LOTEM) and Focused Source Electromagnetic (FSEM) were tested over a salt dome near Houston, Texas. LOTEM data were recorded at several stations with varying offset, and the FSEM tests were also made at some receiver locations near a suspected salt overhang. The data were processed using KMS's processing software: First, for assurance, including calibration and header checking; then transmitter and receiver data are merged and microseismic data is separated; Finally, data analysis and processing follows. LOTEM processing leads to inversion or in the FSEM case 3D modeling. Various 3D models verify the sensitivity under the salt dome. In addition, the processing was conducted pre-stack, stack, and post-stack. After pre-stacking, the noise was reduced, but showed the ringing effect due to a low-pass filter. Stacking and post-stacking with applying recursive average could reduce the Gibbs effect and produce smooth data.

  4. Etnopolítica mexicoamericana en Houston y nuevos inmigrados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iban Trapaga

    Full Text Available Resumen Aunque el término etnopolítica ha sido aplicado a grupos minoritarios o con un ascendente socio-histórico diferente del nacional hegemónico, en este artículo procuro establecer los parámetros generales y efectos de la etnopolítica mexico-americana sobre los nuevos inmigrados al sureste de Houston en un periodo reciente: 2010-2011. Los corolarios de esta política de minoría étnico-nacional influyen en los modos de recibir, educar y disciplinar a los nuevos inmigrados a la ciudad texana. La etnografía, óptimo instrumento científico enfocado a pequeñas comunidades urbanas y a la interculturalidad, nos muestra una realidad muy diferente respecto a la apariencia y discurso emitido por estas organizaciones etno-políticas. Como primera lectura, se comprueban los vínculos estructurales entre la etnopolítica mexico-americana y la ideología nacionalista estadounidense y su proyecto de nación “multicultural”.

  5. Index of Submarine Medical Officer’s Qualification Theses 1944-1974

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-04-01

    DEAD SPACE MEASUREMENTS BEFCRE AND 1968-3009 -- ESP IRATORY DEAD SPACE VARIAION TUDINVL---t b-0 9 INJURIES ON+ A SYLLABUS DEALING WITH THE MANAGEMENT OF...SUBARIkNE MEDICINEO A SYLLABUS OF.- SUBMARINE MEDICAL QUALIFICATION THESES U. S. NAVAL SJBMARINE MEDICAL CENTER SUBMARIN BASE, NEW LCNOOjN, GROTON...CARBON DIOXIDE ABSORBENT EVALUATION AND CANNISTER DESIGN *= SUBMARINE MDCLUALIFICATICN THESES U. -S.NAVAL SUBMARE MEDICAL CENTER SUBMARINE BASE, NEW LCNDON

  6. Gastrointestinal absorption and metabolism of apple polyphenols ex vivo by the pig intestinal mucosa in the Ussing chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deusser, Hannah; Rogoll, Dorothee; Scheppach, Wolfgang; Volk, Antje; Melcher, Ralph; Richling, Elke

    2013-03-01

    Polyphenols contained in food have various positive effects on human health. The absorption and metabolism of polyphenols in the intestinal tract needs to be studied to estimate these effects. The Ussing chamber technique was used to investigate the transport behavior of apple polyphenols through pig small intestinal mucosa, which served as a model for human gastrointestinal mucosa. The identities and concentrations of polyphenols and their metabolites in the half-chambers (luminal and basolateral) within an incubation period of 4 h were determined by HPLC-MS/MS and HPLC-DAD (DAD = diode-array detection). Flux values were also measured. It was found that 5-caffeoylquinic acid and caffeic acid were absorbed and translocated to the basolateral side (1.9 and 3.7%, respectively), but other compounds, including glycosides of phloretin and quercetin, were observed without translocation. A Ussing chamber utilizing pig small intestinal mucosa is a suitable model for assessing the effect of apple polyphenols on mucosal integrity and nutrition absorption across porcine mucosa. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Navy Ohio Replacement (SSBN[X]) Ballistic Missile Submarine Program: Background and Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-05

    Navy Ohio Replacement (SSBN[X]) Ballistic Missile Submarine Program: Background and Issues for Congress Ronald O’Rourke Specialist in Naval...Affairs April 5, 2016 Congressional Research Service 7-5700 www.crs.gov R41129 Navy Ohio Replacement (SSBN[X]) Ballistic Missile Submarine...Replacement (SSBN[X]) Ballistic Missile Submarine Program Congressional Research Service Contents Introduction

  8. Submarine fans: A critical retrospective (1950–2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Shanmugam

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available When we look back the contributions on submarine fans during the past 65 years (1950–2015, the empirical data on 21 modern submarine fans and 10 ancient deep-water systems, published by the results of the First COMFAN (Committee on FANs Meeting (Bouma et al., 1985a, have remained the single most significant compilation of data on submarine fans. The 1970s were the “heyday” of submarine fan models. In the 21st century, the general focus has shifted from submarine fans to submarine mass movements, internal waves and tides, and contourites. The purpose of this review is to illustrate the complexity of issues surrounding the origin and classification of submarine fans. The principal elements of submarine fans, composed of canyons, channels, and lobes, are discussed using nine modern case studies from the Mediterranean Sea, the Equatorial Atlantic, the Gulf of Mexico, the North Pacific, the NE Indian Ocean (Bay of Bengal, and the East Sea (Korea. The Annot Sandstone (Eocene–Oligocene, exposed at Peira-Cava area, SE France, which served as the type locality for the “Bouma Sequence”, was reexamined. The field details are documented in questioning the validity of the model, which was the basis for the turbidite-fan link. The 29 fan-related models that are of conceptual significance, developed during the period 1970–2015, are discussed using modern and ancient systems. They are: (1 the classic submarine fan model with attached lobes, (2 the detached-lobe model, (3 the channel-levee complex without lobes, (4 the delta-fed ramp model, (5 the gully-lobe model, (6 the suprafan lobe model, (7 the depositional lobe model, (8 the fan lobe model, (9 the ponded lobe model, (10 the nine models based on grain size and sediment source, (11 the four fan models based on tectonic settings, (12 the Jackfork debrite model, (13 the basin-floor fan model, (14 supercritical and subcritical fans, and (15 the three types of fan reservoirs. Each model is unique

  9. Process sedimentology of submarine fan deposits - new perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postma, George

    2017-04-01

    To link submarine fan process sedimentology with sand distribution, sand body architecture, texture and fabric, the field geologist studies sedimentary facies, facies associations (fan elements) and stratigraphy. Facies analysis resides on factual knowledge of modern fan morphodynamics and physical modelling of en-masse sediment transport. Where do we stand after 55 years of submarine research, i.e. the date when the first submarine fan model was launched by Arnold Bouma in 1962? Since that date students of submarine fans have worked on a number of important, recurring questions concerned with facies analysis of submarine successions in outcrop and core: 1. What type of sediment transport produced the beds? 2. What facies can be related to initial flow conditions? 3. What is the significance of grain size jumps and bounding surface hierarchy in beds consisting of crude and spaced stratification (traction carpets)? Do these point to multi flow events or to flow pulsations by one and the same event? 4. What facies associations relate to the basic elements of submarine fans? 5. What are the autogenic and allogenic signatures in submarine fans? Particularly in the last decade, the enormous technical advancement helped to obtain high-quality data from observations of density flows in modern canyons, deep basins and deep-water delta slopes (refs 1,2,3). In combination with both physical (refs 4,5) and numerical modelling (ref 6) these studies broke new ground into our understanding of density flow processes in various submarine environments and have led to new concepts of submarine fan building by super- and subcritical high-density flow (ref 7). Do these new concepts provide better answers to our recurrent questions related to the morphodynamics of submarine fans and prediction of sand body architecture? In discussing this open question, I shall 1. apply the new concepts to a modern and ancient example of a channel-lobe-transition-zone (ref 8); 2. raise the problem of

  10. Texas Solar Collaboration DOE Rooftop Solar Challenge City of Houston Project Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronk, Jennifer [Houston Advanced Research Center, TX (United States)

    2013-02-14

    The City of Houston is committed to achieving a sustainable solar infrastructure. In 2008, Houston was named a United States Department of Energy (DOE) Solar America City. As a Solar America City, Houston teamed with the Houston Advanced Research Center (HARC), Sandia National Laboratory (Sandia), industry, and academia, to implement the Solar Houston Initiative and prepare the Solar Houston Plan. The Solar Houston initiative was focused on identifying and overcoming barriers associated with establishing a solar infrastructure that is incorporated into the City of Houston’s overall energy plan. A broad group of Houston area stakeholders, facilitated by HARC, came together to develop a comprehensive solar plan that went beyond technology to address barriers and establish demonstrations, public outreach, education programs and other activities. The plan included proposed scopes of work in four program areas: policies, solar integration, public outreach, and education. Through the support of the DOE SunShot Rooftop Solar Challenge (RSC) grant to the Texas Collaboration (San Antonio, Austin, and Hosuton), Houston has been able to implement several of the recommendations of the Solar Houston Plan. Specific recommendations that this project was able to support include; Working with the other Texas Solar America Cities (San Antonio and Austin), to harmonize permitting and inspection processes to simplify for installers and lower soft costs of installation; Participating in state level solar policy groups such as the Texas Renewable Energy Industries Association (TRIEA); Continued coordination with the local transmission and distribution utility (CenterPoint) and retail electric providers (REP); Identification of opportunities to improve permitting and interconnection; Providing training on PV systems to City inspectors; Educating the public by continuing outreach, training, and workshops, particularly using the the Green Building Resources Center; Evaluating methods of

  11. Compressed natural gas fueled vehicles: The Houston experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    The report describes the experience of the City of Houston in defining the compressed natural gas fueled vehicle research scope and issues. It details the ways in which the project met initial expectations, and how the project scope, focus, and duration were adjusted in response to unanticipated results. It provides examples of real world successes and failures in efforts to commercialize basic research in adapting a proven technology (natural gas) to a noncommercially proven application (vehicles). Phase one of the demonstration study investigates, develops, documents, and disseminates information regarding the economic, operational, and environmental implications of utilizing compressed natural gas (CNG) in various truck fueling applications. The four (4) truck classes investigated are light duty gasoline trucks, medium duty gasoline trucks, medium duty diesel trucks and heavy duty diesel trucks. The project researches aftermarket CNG conversions for the first three vehicle classes and original equipment manufactured (OEM) CNG vehicles for light duty gasoline and heavy duty diesel classes. In phase two of the demonstration project, critical issues are identified and assessed with respect to implementing use of CNG fueled vehicles in a large vehicle fleet. These issues include defining changes in local, state, and industry CNG fueled vehicle related codes and standards; addressing vehicle fuel storage limitations; using standardized vehicle emission testing procedures and results; and resolving CNG refueling infrastructure implementation issues and related cost factors. The report identifies which CNG vehicle fueling options were tried and failed and which were tried and succeeded, with and without modifications. The conclusions include a caution regarding overly optimistic assessments of CNG vehicle technology at the initiation of the project.

  12. AMBIENT HYDROCARBONS IN THE HOUSTON METROPOLITAN AREA DURING TEXAQS 2000: AN IDENTIFICATION OF UNUSUAL FEATURES.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KLEINMAN, L.I.; DAUM P.H.

    2004-11-01

    Houston's ozone problem has been linked to the occurrence of very high light olefin concentrations. We have analyzed the DOE G-1 aircraft hydrocarbon data set to provide additional information on the geographic distribution and prevalence of air samples with high olefin concentration as well as an identification of other compounds which contribute to the high hydrocarbon reactivity in Houston. In order to identify high concentrations we need a definition of normal. For that purpose we use aircraft samples collected during a 1999 aircraft based field campaign in Philadelphia relying on the circumstance that the frequency distributions of NO{sub x} and C{sub 2}H{sub 2} in Philadelphia are nearly the same as in Houston. Comparison is made also with hydrocarbons collected in Phoenix which exhibit nearly the same NO{sub x} and C{sub 2}H{sub 2} frequency distribution as the other 2 cities, but in spite of that similarity have a much lower hydrocarbon reactivity. As in other studies we find that there is a subset of Houston hydrocarbon samples with very high OH-reactivity due to elevated concentrations of ethylene, propylene and less often butenes, including 1,3 butadiene. Although these samples stand out as being qualitatively different we present evidence that ethylene and propylene are significantly elevated in at least half of the Houston samples, covering a wide geographic area apart from the Ship Channel region. Frequency distributions for these compounds are log normal suggesting that Houston's atmosphere is a single entity rather than separate industrial and urban areas. The comparison between Houston and Philadelphia also identifies C{sub 2}-C{sub 5} alkanes, n-hexane, and benzene as having elevated concentrations. Emission reductions of these less reactive compounds sufficient to yield the concentrations observed in Philadelphia would have a minor effect on the most reactive samples, but about a 20% effect on samples with more typical (median

  13. Biomechanical investigation of a minimally invasive posterior spine stabilization system in comparison to the Universal Spinal System (USS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubosch, D; Kubosch, E J; Gueorguiev, B; Zderic, I; Windolf, M; Izadpanah, K; Südkamp, N P; Strohm, P C

    2016-03-22

    Although minimally invasive posterior spine implant systems have been introduced, clinical studies reported on reduced quality of spinal column realignment due to correction loss. The aim of this study was to compare biomechanically two minimally invasive spine stabilization systems versus the Universal Spine Stabilization system (USS). Three groups with 5 specimens each and 2 foam bars per specimen were instrumented with USS (Group 1) or a minimally invasive posterior spine stabilization system with either polyaxial (Group 2) or monoaxial (Group 3) screws. Mechanical testing was performed under quasi-static ramp loading in axial compression and torsion, followed by destructive cyclic loading run under axial compression at constant amplitude and then with progressively increasing amplitude until construct failure. Bending construct stiffness, torsional stiffness and cycles to failure were investigated. Initial bending stiffness was highest in Group 3, followed by Group 2 and Group 1, without any significant differences between the groups. A significant increase in bending stiffness after 20'000 cycles was observed in Group 1 (p = 0.002) and Group 2 (p = 0.001), but not in Group 3, though the secondary bending stiffness showed no significant differences between the groups. Initial and secondary torsional stiffness was highest in Group 1, followed by Group 3 and Group 2, with significant differences between all groups (p ≤ 0.047). A significant increase in initial torsional stiffness after 20'000 cycles was observed in Group 2 (p = 0.017) and 3 (p = 0.013), but not in Group 1. The highest number of cycles to failure was detected in Group 1, followed by Group 3 and Group 2. This parameter was significantly different between Group 1 and Group 2 (p = 0.001), between Group 2 and Group 3 (p = 0.002), but not between Group 1 and Group 3. These findings quantify the correction loss for minimally invasive spine implant systems and imply that

  14. A submarine volcanic eruption leads to a novel microbial habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danovaro, Roberto; Canals, Miquel; Tangherlini, Michael; Dell'Anno, Antonio; Gambi, Cristina; Lastras, Galderic; Amblas, David; Sanchez-Vidal, Anna; Frigola, Jaime; Calafat, Antoni M; Pedrosa-Pàmies, Rut; Rivera, Jesus; Rayo, Xavier; Corinaldesi, Cinzia

    2017-04-24

    Submarine volcanic eruptions are major catastrophic events that allow investigation of the colonization mechanisms of newly formed seabed. We explored the seafloor after the eruption of the Tagoro submarine volcano off El Hierro Island, Canary Archipelago. Near the summit of the volcanic cone, at about 130 m depth, we found massive mats of long, white filaments that we named Venus's hair. Microscopic and molecular analyses revealed that these filaments are made of bacterial trichomes enveloped within a sheath and colonized by epibiotic bacteria. Metagenomic analyses of the filaments identified a new genus and species of the order Thiotrichales, Thiolava veneris. Venus's hair shows an unprecedented array of metabolic pathways, spanning from the exploitation of organic and inorganic carbon released by volcanic degassing to the uptake of sulfur and nitrogen compounds. This unique metabolic plasticity provides key competitive advantages for the colonization of the new habitat created by the submarine eruption. A specialized and highly diverse food web thrives on the complex three-dimensional habitat formed by these microorganisms, providing evidence that Venus's hair can drive the restart of biological systems after submarine volcanic eruptions.

  15. Does calving matter? Evidence for significant submarine melt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomaus, Timothy C.; Larsen, Christopher F.; O’Neel, Shad

    2013-01-01

    During the summer in the northeast Pacific Ocean, the Alaska Coastal Current sweeps water with temperatures in excess of 12 °C past the mouths of glacierized fjords and bays. The extent to which these warm waters affect the mass balance of Alaskan tidewater glaciers is uncertain. Here we report hydrographic measurements made within Icy Bay, Alaska, and calculate rates of submarine melt at Yahtse Glacier, a tidewater glacier terminating in Icy Bay. We find strongly stratified water properties consistent with estuarine circulation and evidence that warm Gulf of Alaska water reaches the head of 40 km-long Icy Bay, largely unaltered. A 10–20 m layer of cold, fresh, glacially-modified water overlies warm, saline water. The saline water is observed to reach up to 10.4 °C within 1.5 km of the terminus of Yahtse Glacier. By quantifying the heat and salt deficit within the glacially-modified water, we place bounds on the rate of submarine melt. The submarine melt rate is estimated at >9 m d−1, at least half the rate at which ice flows into the terminus region, and can plausibly account for all of the submarine terminus mass loss. Our measurements suggest that summer and fall subaerial calving is a direct response to thermal undercutting of the terminus, further demonstrating the critical role of the ocean in modulating tidewater glacier dynamics.

  16. Submarine Construction in Germany (U-Bootbau in Deutschland),

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-04-25

    the IKL sister firm, Maschinenbau Gabler GmbH, also founded by Prof. Gabler, which, unlike IKL (involved solely in development), is a hardware...snorkels, radar masts, as well as wharf and dockside connections, for IKL and various submarine yards. Moreover, Maschinenbau Gabler is engaged in

  17. Dissolved Nutrients from Submarine Groundwater in Flic en Flac ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract—The aim of this study was to investigate dissolved nutrients in a submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) in Flic en Flac lagoon on the west coast of the volcanic island of Mauritius. The SGD enters Flic en Flac lagoon through a thin blanket of unconsolidated sediment through a fracture system and is concentrated ...

  18. Dissolved Nutrients from Submarine Groundwater in Flic en Flac ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate dissolved nutrients in a submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) in Flic en Flac lagoon on the west coast of the volcanic island of Mauritius. The SGD enters Flic en Flac lagoon through a thin blanket of unconsolidated sediment through a fracture system and is concentrated along the ...

  19. Simulation of Wave-Plus-Current Scour beneath Submarine Pipelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eltard-Larsen, Bjarke; Fuhrman, David R.; Sumer, B. Mutlu

    2016-01-01

    A fully coupled hydrodynamic and morphologic numerical model was utilized for the simulation of wave-plus-current scour beneath submarine pipelines. The model was based on incompressible Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations, coupled with k-ω turbulence closure, with additional bed and suspen...

  20. Sedimentary characteristics of samples collected from some submarine canyons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, Arnold H.

    Oriented rectangular cores of 20.3 × 30.5 cm and 45.7 cm high have been collected in a number of submarine canyons off southern California (U.S.A.) and off the southern tip of Baja California (Mexico) for a detailed study of their sedimentary structures. By applying several methods, mainly X-ray

  1. 'Good Hunting': German submarine offensives and South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The first German submarine offensive in South African waters during 1942, Operation Eisbär, was aimed at striking a devastating blow to shipping off the South African coast. By the end of December 1942, an estimated 310 864 tons of shipping had been sunk through Operation Eisbär and the first U-cruiser operation alone.

  2. Cost Estimation Lessons Learned for Future Submarine Acquisition Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-17

    North Carolina and New Mexico 30 General Dynamics Electric Boat “U.S. Navy Awards General Dynamics $14 Billion Contract for Eight Virginia- Class...NAVSEA Program Executive officer, Submarines PMO 450, June 1995. “New SSN Program Life Cycle Cost Estimate.” Naval Center for Cost Analysis: GE-1300

  3. An ongoing large submarine landslide at the Japan trench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitta, S.; Kasaya, T.; Miura, S.; Kawamura, K.

    2013-12-01

    This paper deals with an active submarine landslide on a landward trench slope in the Japan trench. Studied area is located on the upper terrace ranging from 400 to 1200 m in water depth, off Sendai, northeast Japan. We have surveyed in detail the seabed topography using a multi narrow beam (hereafter MBES) and a subbottom profiler (hereafter SBP) during the cruise MR12-E02 of R/V Mirai. The survey lines were 12 lines in N-S, and 3 lines in E-W, and situated in the region from 141°45'E, 37°40'N to 142°33'E, 38°32'N. Moreover, we used multi-channel seismic profile by the cruise KR04-10 of R/V Kairei in the interpretation of the SBP results. In general, horseshoe-shaped depressions of about 100 km wide along the trench slope are arrayed along the Japan trench. It has thought that they were formed by large submarine landslides, but we could not understand critically the relationship between the depressions and the submarine landslides. Based on the survey results, we found signals of an active submarine landslide in the depression as follows. 1) We observed arcuate-shaped lineaments, which are sub-parallel to a horseshoe-shaped depression. The lineaments concentrate in the south region from 38°N at about 20 km wide. These lineaments are formed by deformation structures as anticlines, synclines and normal fault sense displacements. 2) Most of the synclines and anticlines are not buried to form the lineaments. 3) Normal faults cutting about 1 km deep are observed in a multi-channel seismic profile. The normal faults are located just below the arcuate-shaped lineaments, and are tilted eastward being the downslope direction. It indicates a large submarine landslide. We concluded that the arcuate-shaped lineaments were generated by surface sediment movement with the submarine landsliding. We think that the submarine landslide of about 20 km wide and about 1 km thick move continuously down the landward trench slope. This would be the formation process of the horseshoe

  4. Vitamin D: Findings from Antarctic, Bed Rest, Houston, and ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwart, Sara R.; Locke, J.; Pierson, D.; Mehta, S.; Bourbeau, Y.; Parsons, H.; Smith, S. M.

    2009-01-01

    Obtaining vitamin D is critical for space travelers because they lack ultraviolet light exposure and have an insufficient dietary supply of vitamin D. Despite the provision of 400 IU vitamin D supplements to International Space Station (ISS) early crewmembers, vitamin D status was consistently lower after flight than before flight, and in several crewmembers has decreased to levels considered clinically significant. Vitamin D has long been known to play a role in calcium metabolism, and more recently its non-calcitropic functions have been recognized. According to the results of several recent studies, functionally relevant measures indicate that the lower limit of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (a marker of vitamin D status) should be raised from the current 23 nmol/L to 80 nmol/L. The mean preflight serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH vit D) for U.S. ISS crewmembers to date is 63 +/- 16 nmol/L, and after a 4- to 6-mo space flight it typically decreases 25-30% despite supplementation (400 IU/d). The sub-optimal pre- and postflight vitamin D status is an issue that needs to be addressed, to allow NASA to better define the appropriate amount of supplemental vitamin D to serve as a countermeasure against vitamin D deficiency in astronaut crews. A series of ground-based and flight studies in multiple models have been conducted, including Antarctica in winter months when UV-B radiation levels are essentially zero, bed rest where subjects are not exposed to UV-B radiation for 60-90 days, in free-living individuals in Houston, and in International Space Station crewmembers. In these studies, we looked at dose regimen and efficacy, compliance issues, as well as toxicity. Preliminary results from these studies will be presented. Together, the data from these studies will enable us to provide space crews with evidence-based recommendations for vitamin D supplementation. The findings also have implications for other persons with limited UV light exposure, including polar workers and

  5. Exploring the submarine Graham Bank in the Sicily Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Coltelli

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the Sicily Channel, volcanic activity has been concentrated mainly on the Pantelleria and Linosa islands, while minor submarine volcanism took place in the Adventure, Graham and Nameless banks. The volcanic activity spanned mostly during Plio-Pleistocene, however, historical submarine eruptions occurred in 1831 on the Graham Bank and in 1891 offshore Pantelleria Island. On the Graham Bank, 25 miles SW of Sciacca, the 1831 eruption formed the short-lived Ferdinandea Island that represents the only Italian volcano active in historical times currently almost completely unknown and not yet monitored. Moreover, most of the Sicily Channel seismicity is concentrated along a broad NS belt extending from the Graham Bank to Lampedusa Island. In 2012, the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV carried out a multidisciplinary oceanographic cruise, named “Ferdinandea 2012”, the preliminary results of which represent the aim of this paper. The cruise goal was the mapping of the morpho-structural features of some submarine volcanic centres located in the northwestern side of the Sicily Channel and the temporary recording of their seismic and degassing activity. During the cruise, three OBS/Hs (ocean bottom seismometer with hydrophone were deployed near the Graham, Nerita and Terribile submarine banks. During the following 9 months they have recorded several seismo-acoustic signals produced by both tectonic and volcanic sources. A high-resolution bathymetric survey was achieved on the Graham Bank and on the surrounding submarine volcanic centres. A widespread and voluminous gas bubbles emission was observed by both multibeam sonar echoes and a ROV (remotely operated vehicle along the NW side of the Graham Bank, where gas and seafloor samples were also collected.

  6. Regression models to estimate real-time concentrations of selected constituents in two tributaries to Lake Houston near Houston, Texas, 2005-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oden, Timothy D.; Asquith, William H.; Milburn, Matthew S.

    2009-01-01

    In December 2005, the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the City of Houston, Texas, began collecting discrete water-quality samples for nutrients, total organic carbon, bacteria (total coliform and Escherichia coli), atrazine, and suspended sediment at two U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations upstream from Lake Houston near Houston (08068500 Spring Creek near Spring, Texas, and 08070200 East Fork San Jacinto River near New Caney, Texas). The data from the discrete water-quality samples collected during 2005-07, in conjunction with monitored real-time data already being collected - physical properties (specific conductance, pH, water temperature, turbidity, and dissolved oxygen), streamflow, and rainfall - were used to develop regression models for predicting water-quality constituent concentrations for inflows to Lake Houston. Rainfall data were obtained from a rain gage monitored by Harris County Homeland Security and Emergency Management and colocated with the Spring Creek station. The leaps and bounds algorithm was used to find the best subsets of possible regression models (minimum residual sum of squares for a given number of variables). The potential explanatory or predictive variables included discharge (streamflow), specific conductance, pH, water temperature, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, rainfall, and time (to account for seasonal variations inherent in some water-quality data). The response variables at each site were nitrite plus nitrate nitrogen, total phosphorus, organic carbon, Escherichia coli, atrazine, and suspended sediment. The explanatory variables provide easily measured quantities as a means to estimate concentrations of the various constituents under investigation, with accompanying estimates of measurement uncertainty. Each regression equation can be used to estimate concentrations of a given constituent in real time. In conjunction with estimated concentrations, constituent loads were estimated by multiplying the

  7. Psychometric validation of the Spanish version of the USS-PROM questionnaire for patients who undergo anterior urethral surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puche-Sanz, I; Martín-Way, D; Flores-Martín, J; Expósito-Ruiz, M; Vicente-Prados, J; Nogueras-Ocaña, M; Tinaut-Ranera, J; Cózar-Olmo, J M

    2016-06-01

    To translate into Spanish and validate the Urethral Stricture Surgery Patient-Reported Outcome Measure (USS-PROM) questionnaire, assessing its psychometric properties and determining its suitability for clinical use in our community. We also assessed the potential changes in ejaculatory function using the Male Sexual Health Questionnaire-Ejaculatory Dysfunction (MSHQ-EjD). A systematic translation of the British version was performed. Patients scheduled for anterior urethral stricture surgery between September 2014 and September 2015 were prospectively included in the study. All patients completed the questionnaire before and after the surgery. We conducted an in-depth psychometric study of the questionnaire. We assessed the responses of a total of 40 patients. The questionnaire showed its validity, presenting an excellent negative correlation between the voiding symptom scores and the maximum flow (r=-0.6, P<.001), and also showed significant improvement in the EQ5D-VAS (visual analogue scale) and the time trade-off. For internal consistency, the Cronbach's alpha was 0.701. For the test-retest reliability, the overall intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was 0.974, and the ICC for each item separately ranged from 0.799 to 0.980. We observed significant improvement in all items regarding urinary symptoms and health-related quality of life (P<.001), thereby demonstrating the response capacity to changing the questionnaire. There were no significant changes in the MSHQ-EjD. The Spanish version of the USS-PROM questionnaire is a valid instrument for quantifying changes in voiding symptoms and the health-related quality of life of patients undergoing anterior urethral surgery. Copyright © 2016 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. U.S. President Richard Milhous Nixon Arrives Aboard U.S.S. Hornet for Apollo 11 Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    U.S. President Richard Milhous Nixon (center), is saluted by the honor guard of flight deck crewmen when he arrives aboard the U.S.S. Hornet, prime recovery ship for the Apollo 11 mission, to watch recovery operations and welcome the astronauts home. The recovery operation took place in the Pacific Ocean where Navy para-rescue men recovered the capsule housing the 3-man Apollo 11 crew. The crew was airlifted to safety aboard the U.S.S. Hornet, where they were quartered in a Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF) for 21 days following the mission. The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via the Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard were Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Edwin (Buzz) Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished. The Saturn V vehicle was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun.

  9. 77 FR 70174 - Waterway Suitability Assessment for Expansion of Liquefied Gas Terminals; Houston and Texas City, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-23

    ... 24, 2012 regarding the company's proposed expansion of its LHG facilities in Houston and Texas City... SECURITY Coast Guard Waterway Suitability Assessment for Expansion of Liquefied Gas Terminals; Houston and Texas City, TX AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice and request for comments. SUMMARY: In accordance...

  10. [Medical-physiological characteristics of combat training of nuclear-power submarine crews].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovgusha, V V; Myznikov, I L; Shalabodov, S A; Bumaĭ, O K

    2009-10-01

    The article presents an observe of general questions of peculiarities of military-professional activity of submarine staff These questions are defining value in ideology of medical supply of submarine troops of NAVY in now-days conditions. The article also presents the statistics of morbidity in long termed sails for last forty years, it's dynamics by different categories of sail staff, on different stages of combat training activity in dependence of perioditation of work cycle of submarine staff The authors have examined modern condition of medical supply of submarines; have presented statistics of quality indexes of health of submarine staff The authors have formed main problems of medical supply of submarines and have proposed ways of their solving on modern stage.

  11. Losses in armoured three-phase submarine cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebdrup, Thomas; Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da; Bak, Claus Leth

    2014-01-01

    increases the losses in armoured cables compared to unarmoured cables. In this paper a thorough state of the art analysis is conducted on armour losses in three-phase armoured submarine power cables. The analysis shows that the IEC 60287-1-1 standard overestimates the armour losses which lead...... to the installation of cables with excessive phase conductor cross section. This paper also presents an example of the potential economic benefits of having a better knowledge of the losses introduced by the armour.......The number of offshore wind farms will keep increasing in the future as a part of the shift towards a CO2 free energy production. The energy harvested from the wind farm must be brought to shore, which is often done by using a three-phase armoured submarine power cable. The use of an armour...

  12. Stresses in a submarine topography under ocean waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mei, C.C.; McTigue, D.F.

    1984-01-01

    The problem of submarine slope stability is of interest to both offshore engineering and geology. In an uneven topography, the weight above a horizontal plane induces two-dimensional variation in the static stress field. The action of wave pressure, which changes with depth, further introduces excess pore pressure and dynamic stresses in the sea bottom. In the present paper, we combine a simple analytical theory for the static stress by the present authors, and the recent solution by Mei and Foda for wave-induced stresses in a plane poro-elastic sea bed to account for mild bottom slope and wave shoaling, to obtain the effective stress field in a submarine topography under sea waves. Sample results are given for a ridge and a canyon. In particular the dynamic pore pressure and the combined static and dynamic effective stresses are presented. 10 references, 11 figures.

  13. Stresses in a submarine topography under ocean waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mei, C.C.; McTigue, D.F.

    1984-09-01

    The problem of submarine slope stability is of interest to both offshore engineering and geology. In an uneven topography, the weight above a horizontal plane induces two-dimensional variation in the static stress field. The action of wave pressure, which changes with depth, further introduces excess pore pressure and dynamic stresses in the sea bottom. In the present paper, we combine a simple analytical theory for the static stress by the present authors, and the recent solution by Mei and Foda for wave-induced stresses in a plane poro-elastic sea bed to account for mild bottom slope and wave shoaling, and obtain the effective stress field in a submarine topography under sea waves. Sample results are given for a ridge and a canyon. In particular, the dynamic pore pressure and the combined static and dynamic effective stresses are presented.

  14. Improving Situational Awareness on Submarines Using Augmented Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    COSO ) are several pages of guidance for the evolution available to the watch officer for reference. There are also Operating Procedures that the watch...officer must follow to ensure the safe ascent to PD. The COSOs are specific to the each CO. The OPs are specific to a class of submarine. The...evolution in the framework described above can provide valuable insight to the capabilities of the proposed system. This of course is a hypothetical

  15. Analysis of SSN 688 Class Submarine Maintenance Delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    errors an in-depth analysis into the job-level maintenance is required which is outside the scope of this analysis. 25 2. New Work Causes Late...attempting to determine the cause of this trend. Finally, this thesis proposes a solution to the systematic underestimation of availability durations by...illustrating the inherent error in the current equation and providing a notional equation to remove that error . 14. SUBJECT TERMS Submarine

  16. Submarine Pressure Hull Collapse Considering Corrosion and Penetrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    corrosion. Des valeurs de la pression d’écrasement sont calculées pour les diverses dimensions de la zone de corrosion, et ce, dans les cas de présence ou...Research & Development Canada DRDIM Director Research and Development Knowledge and Information Management OOC Out-of-circularity R&D Research...Support SLA (Mr. John Porter) 1 Project Manager , Submarine Scientific Support SLA (LCdr Wade Temple) 9 TOTAL LIST PART I LIST PART II: External

  17. Europe’s Grand Canyon: Nazaré submarine canyon

    OpenAIRE

    Tyler, P.; Amaro, T.; Arzola, R.; Cunha; Stigter, H. de; Gooday, A.; Huvenne, V.; Ingels, J; Kiriakoulakis, K; Lastras, G.; Masson, D.; Oliveira, A.; Pattenden, A.; Vanreusel, A.; van Weering, T.

    2009-01-01

    The Nazare submarine canyon extends similar to 210 km westward from the coast of Portugal, down to a water depth of > 4300 m. The considerable habitat heterogeneity found throughout the canyon is affected by strong currents and high turbidity, especially in the upper parts of the canyon. The canyon morphology comprises steep slopes, scarps, terraces, and overhangs, and a deeply incised thalweg is found in the lower part of the canyon. The seabed within the canyon is composed of varying propor...

  18. The True Voice of Whitney Houston: Commodification, Authenticity, and African American Superstardom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooijman, J.

    2014-01-01

    Taking its title from the 1994 AT&T commercial starring Whitney Houston, this article examines how Houston’s voice has functioned in the construction of her star persona from her 1985 debut album to her premature death on 11 February 2012, recognising three phases: the formative years (1985-1991);

  19. the Underestimation of Isorene in Houston during the Texas 2013 DISCOVER-AQ Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Y.; Diao, L.; Czader, B.; Li, X.; Estes, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    This study applies principal component analysis to aircraft data from the Texas 2013 DISCOVER-AQ (Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality) field campaign to characterize isoprene sources over Houston during September 2013. The biogenic isoprene signature appears in the third principal component and anthropogenic signals in the following two. Evaluations of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model simulations of isoprene with airborne measurements are more accurate for suburban areas than for industrial areas. This study also compares model outputs to eight surface automated gas chromatograph (Auto-GC) measurements near the Houston ship channel industrial area during the nighttime and shows that modeled anthropogenic isoprene is underestimated by a factor of 10.60. This study employs a new simulation with a modified anthropogenic emissions inventory (constraining using the ratios of observed values versus simulated ones) that yields closer isoprene predictions at night with a reduction in the mean bias by 56.93%, implying that model-estimated isoprene emissions from the 2008 National Emission Inventory are underestimated in the city of Houston and that other climate models or chemistry and transport models using the same emissions inventory might also be underestimated in other Houston-like areas in the United States.

  20. Build Bridge Believe: Houston Independent School District 2012-2013 Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston Independent School District, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This report provides standard facts and figures about the Houston Independent School District's (HISD) finances, student populations, achievements, and more. HISD has humanized that data, as well, with vignettes and profiles that typify the remarkable programs and individuals in the district. One of the three drivers to achieve the vision of…

  1. CFD MODELING OF FINE SCALE FLOW AND TRANSPORT IN THE HOUSTON METROPOLITAN AREA, TEXAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine scale modeling of flows and air quality in Houston, Texas is being performed; the use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling is being applied to investigate the influence of morphologic structures on the within-grid transport and dispersion of sources in grid models ...

  2. 78 FR 53426 - Expansion of Foreign-Trade Zone 84; Houston, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-29

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Expansion of Foreign-Trade Zone 84; Houston, Texas Pursuant to its authority under the Foreign-Trade Zones Act of June 18, 1934, as amended (19 U.S.C. 81a-81u), the Foreign-Trade... Foreign-Trade Zone 84, submitted an application to the Board for authority to expand FTZ 84 to include a...

  3. El Uso de Pronombres Personales en La Oralidad Mexicoamericana de Houston, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richarte, Itzel

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the +/- presence of Spanish subject personal pronouns ("yo," "el/ella," "nosotros/nosotras," and "ellos/ellas" ) in sociolinguistic interviews of 36 Mexican-Americans from Houston, Texas (16 of 2nd generation and 20 of 3rd generation), and 20 Mexicans (control group) from Heroica…

  4. Shifting Self Perceptions and Ethnic Consciousness among Mexicans in Houston 1908-1946.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales, F. Arturo

    1985-01-01

    Analyzes the evolution of Mexican American identity in Houston's Chicano community. Describes immigrants' emphasis on community pride in "mexicanismo" and Mestizo-Indian heritage, abandonment of indigenous identity and demands for White status in 1930s and 1940s, and identification with racial minorities during the civil rights movement.…

  5. West Nile Virus Outbreak in Houston and Harris County, Texas, USA, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Diana; Murray, Kristy O; Reyna, Martin; Arafat, Raouf R; Gorena, Roberto; Shah, Umair A; Debboun, Mustapha

    2017-08-01

    Since 2002, West Nile virus (WNV) has been detected every year in Houston and the surrounding Harris County, Texas. In 2014, the largest WNV outbreak to date occurred, comprising 139 cases and causing 2 deaths. Additionally, 1,286 WNV-positive mosquito pools were confirmed, the most reported in a single mosquito season.

  6. 78 FR 8492 - Foreign-Trade Zone 84-Houston, TX Application for Expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ..., Houston Ship Channel,16398 Jacintoport Blvd.; Site 8 (162 acres)-- Central Green Business Park, 16638 Air..., and Battleground Business Park (10 acres), located at the corner of Porter Road and Old Underwood Road, La Porte; Site 18 (106 acres, sunset 5/31/2014)--Bay Area Business Park, located at Red Bluff Road...

  7. Submarine and Autonomous Vessel Proliferation: Implications for Future Strategic Stability at Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    replace the Ohio- class SSBN and Virginia -class SSN to replace the Los Angeles class attack submarine. Although more sophisticated than their...predecessors and with some modifications to demands of the post-Cold War era and (in the Virginia class) an emphasis on littoral conflict, these purchases...Congressional Research Service analyst Amy Woolf observes: “With few submarines in the fleet, the Navy would have to reduce the number of submarines on

  8. The future of the ballistic missile submarine force in the Russian nuclear triad

    OpenAIRE

    Lesiw, Richard T.

    2008-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis analyzes the current status of the Russian Federation's ballistic missile submarine force. It reviews the history of the ballistic missile submarine force, its current status, and the implementation of plans currently in progress and as well as the advantages and disadvantages of maintaining a ballistic missile submarine force. This thesis also assesses the other two legs of the nuclear triad - the intercontinental balli...

  9. Gender Integration on U.S. Navy Submarines: Views of the First Wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    submarines is to perform seek-and-destroy missions on enemy ships and submarines, conduct surveillance and reconnaissance, provide covert troop insertion...not only the missile payload they were designed to carry but also extended periods at sea without resupply. In terms of berthing and sanitary ...officer berthing and sanitary 28 facilities on board Ohio class submarines, however, no significant modifications would be necessary in order to

  10. Navy Virginia (SSN-774) Class Attack Submarine Procurement: Background and Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-12

    reactors or non- nuclear power sources such as diesel engines or fuel cells. All U.S. Navy submarines are nuclear - powered. A submarine’s use of...the Navy’s plan to design and procure a next - generation ballistic missile submarine called the Ohio Replacement Program or SSBN(X). 26...the next several years require these submarines to use up their nuclear fuel cores more quickly than the Navy now projects, then the amounts of time

  11. Introduction to the special issue on submarine geohazard records and potential seafloor instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song-Chuen Chen Jia-Jyun Dong

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Submarine landslides frequently occur in passive continental margins or active margins (Hampton et al. 1996; Wynn et al. 2000; Mienert et al. 2002; Korup et al. 2007; Twichell et al. 2009; Cukur et al. 2016. Submarine landslides have been studied extensively not only for scientific research but also for submarine geohazards. Submarine landslides could jeopardize marine infrastructures, such as offshore drilling platforms or submarine telecommunication cables, and could even trigger disastrous tsunamis (Bondevik et al. 2005; Harbitz et al. 2006; Hornbach et al. 2007, 2008; Hsu et al. 2008; Su et al. 2012; Tappin et al. 2014; Li et al. 2015. For instance, one disastrous tsunami hitting the coastal area of southwestern Taiwan in 1781 or 1782 was reported (Chen 1830; Hsu 1983; the tsunami event was probably generated by submarine landslides in the offshore area of southwestern Taiwan (Li et al. 2015. Moreover, several submarine landslides triggered by the 2006 Pingtung earthquake have induced turbidity currents off southwest Taiwan and destroyed about 14 submarine telecommunication cables off SW Taiwan (Hsu et al. 2008. The area of southwest Taiwan currently has a dense population (more than 3 million people in total, one deep-water Kaohsiung Port, several tanks of liquefied natural gas and a nuclear power plant on the coast (Fig. 1. Numerous submarine telecommunication cables exist off SW Taiwan. If a considerable tsunami event would hit again the costal area of SW Taiwan, the damage could very serious. Likewise, there are two nuclear power plants on the coast of northern Taiwan (Fig. 2, and the population in northern Taiwan has more than 10 million people. Submarine telecommunication cables also exist off northern Taiwan. In any case, it is important to understand the status of seafloor stability in the offshore areas of SW and NE Taiwan. For that, this special issue of submarine geohazard records and potential seafloor instability is aimed to

  12. Navy Virginia (SSN 774) Class Attack Submarine Procurement: Background and Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-25

    powered attack submarines (SSNs). The SSNs are general -purpose submarines that can (when appropriately equipped and armed) perform a variety of...signs of tampering. The defective elbow pipe, used to funnel steam from the reactor to the sub’s propulsion turbines and generators , showed evidence of...Congressional Research Service Summary The Navy has been procuring Virginia (SSN-774) class nuclear- powered attack submarines since FY1998. The two Virginia

  13. Fuel-cell-propelled submarine-tanker-system study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Court, K E; Kumm, W H; O' Callaghan, J E

    1982-06-01

    This report provides a systems analysis of a commercial Arctic Ocean submarine tanker system to carry fossil energy to markets. The submarine is to be propelled by a modular Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell system. The power level is 20 Megawatts. The DOE developed electric utility type fuel cell will be fueled with methanol. Oxidant will be provided from a liquid oxygen tank carried onboard. The twin screw submarine tanker design is sized at 165,000 deadweight tons and the study includes costs and an economic analysis of the transport system of 6 ships. The route will be under the polar icecap from a loading terminal located off Prudhoe Bay, Alaska to a transshipment facility postulated to be in a Norwegian fjord. The system throughput of the gas-fed methanol cargo will be 450,000 barrels per day. The total delivered cost of the methanol including well head purchase price of natural gas, methanol production, and shipping would be $25/bbl from Alaska to the US East Coast. Of this, the shipping cost is $6.80/bbl. All costs in 1981 dollars.

  14. Estimating the empirical probability of submarine landslide occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, Eric L.; Parsons, Thomas E.; Mosher, David C.; Shipp, Craig; Moscardelli, Lorena; Chaytor, Jason D.; Baxter, Christopher D. P.; Lee, Homa J.; Urgeles, Roger

    2010-01-01

    The empirical probability for the occurrence of submarine landslides at a given location can be estimated from age dates of past landslides. In this study, tools developed to estimate earthquake probability from paleoseismic horizons are adapted to estimate submarine landslide probability. In both types of estimates, one has to account for the uncertainty associated with age-dating individual events as well as the open time intervals before and after the observed sequence of landslides. For observed sequences of submarine landslides, we typically only have the age date of the youngest event and possibly of a seismic horizon that lies below the oldest event in a landslide sequence. We use an empirical Bayes analysis based on the Poisson-Gamma conjugate prior model specifically applied to the landslide probability problem. This model assumes that landslide events as imaged in geophysical data are independent and occur in time according to a Poisson distribution characterized by a rate parameter λ. With this method, we are able to estimate the most likely value of λ and, importantly, the range of uncertainty in this estimate. Examples considered include landslide sequences observed in the Santa Barbara Channel, California, and in Port Valdez, Alaska. We confirm that given the uncertainties of age dating that landslide complexes can be treated as single events by performing statistical test of age dates representing the main failure episode of the Holocene Storegga landslide complex.

  15. Pockmark morphology and turbulent buoyant plumes at a submarine spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buongiorno Nardelli, B.; Budillon, F.; Watteaux, R.; Ciccone, F.; Conforti, A.; De Falco, G.; Di Martino, G.; Innangi, S.; Tonielli, R.; Iudicone, D.

    2017-09-01

    The input flow of groundwater from the seabed to the coastal ocean, known as Submarine Groundwater Discharge (SGD), has been only recently recognized as an important component of continental margin systems. It potentially impacts physical, chemical and biological marine dynamics. Independently of its specific nature (seepage, submarine springs, etc.) or fluid chemical composition, a SGD is generally characterized by low flow rates, hence making its detection and quantification very difficult, and explaining why it has been somewhat neglected by the scientific community for a long time. Along with the growing interest for SGDs emerged the need for in-situ observations in order to characterize in details how these SGDs behave. In this work, we describe the morphology of a pockmark field, detected in the Southern Tyrrhenian Sea (Mediterranean Sea), and provide observational evidences of the presence of active submarine springs over the coastal shelf area. We describe the effect of the fluid seeps on the water column stratification close to the main plumes and in the neighbouring areas, providing quantitative estimates of the intensity of the turbulent mixing and discussing their potential impact on the seabed morphology and pockmark formation in the context of turbulent buoyant plumes analytical modelling.

  16. Long-term eruptive activity at a submarine arc volcano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embley, Robert W; Chadwick, William W; Baker, Edward T; Butterfield, David A; Resing, Joseph A; de Ronde, Cornel E J; Tunnicliffe, Verena; Lupton, John E; Juniper, S Kim; Rubin, Kenneth H; Stern, Robert J; Lebon, Geoffrey T; Nakamura, Ko-ichi; Merle, Susan G; Hein, James R; Wiens, Douglas A; Tamura, Yoshihiko

    2006-05-25

    Three-quarters of the Earth's volcanic activity is submarine, located mostly along the mid-ocean ridges, with the remainder along intraoceanic arcs and hotspots at depths varying from greater than 4,000 m to near the sea surface. Most observations and sampling of submarine eruptions have been indirect, made from surface vessels or made after the fact. We describe here direct observations and sampling of an eruption at a submarine arc volcano named NW Rota-1, located 60 km northwest of the island of Rota (Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands). We observed a pulsating plume permeated with droplets of molten sulphur disgorging volcanic ash and lapilli from a 15-m diameter pit in March 2004 and again in October 2005 near the summit of the volcano at a water depth of 555 m (depth in 2004). A turbid layer found on the flanks of the volcano (in 2004) at depths from 700 m to more than 1,400 m was probably formed by mass-wasting events related to the eruption. Long-term eruptive activity has produced an unusual chemical environment and a very unstable benthic habitat exploited by only a few mobile decapod species. Such conditions are perhaps distinctive of active arc and hotspot volcanoes.

  17. Temperature profile and water depth data collected from USS CURTS using BT and XBT casts in the Japan Sea from 11 January 1989 to 17 January 1989 (NODC Accession 8900027)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and water depth data were collected using BT and XBT casts from the USS CURTS in the Japan Sea. Data were collected from 11 January 1989 to 17...

  18. Temperature profiles from mechanical bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the USS AGILE in the Caribbean Sea in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project from 1962-09-28 to 1962-10-31 (NODC Accession 6200241)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MBT data were collected from the USS AGILE in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project. Data were collected by US Navy; Ships of...

  19. Oceanographic station data from bottle casts from the USS H. W. TUCKER in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project on 01 October 1970 (NODC Accession 7100288)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic station data were collected from the USS H. W. TUCKER in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project. Data were collected...

  20. Temperature profiles from mechanical bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the USS ENGAGE in the North Pacific Ocean in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project from 24 October 1966 to 12 December 1966 (NODC Accession 6600267)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MBT data were collected from the USS ENGAGE in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project. Data were collected by US Navy; Ships of...

  1. Temperature profiles from mechanical bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the USS DETECTOR in the Mediterranean Sea in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project from 1962-08-03 to 1962-08-26 (NODC Accession 6200936)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MBT data were collected from the USS DETECTOR in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project. Data were collected by US Navy; Ships of...

  2. Temperature profiles from mechanical bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the USS LOYALTY in the North Pacific Ocean in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project from 1970-01-19 to 1970-02-11 (NODC Accession 7000415)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MBT data were collected from the USS LOYALTY in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project. Data were collected by US Navy; Ships of...

  3. Temperature profiles from mechanical bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the USS PIVOT in the South China Sea in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project from 03 February 1969 to 10 May 1969 (NODC Accession 6900642)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MBT data were collected from the USS PIVOT in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project. Data were collected by US Navy; Ships of...

  4. Temperature profiles from mechanical bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the USS ABILITY in the Mediterranean Sea in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project from 11 March 1966 to 30 June 1966 (NODC Accession 6600720)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MBT data were collected from the USS ABILITY in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project. Data were collected by US Navy; Ships of...

  5. Temperature profile and water depth data collected from USS CURTS using BT and XBT casts in the Northeast Pacific Ocean and other seas from 03 September 1988 to 30 September 1988 (NODC Accession 8800280)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data in this accession was collected in Sea of Japan from USS CURTS between September 3, 1988 and September 30, 1988. The real time data of water temperature at...

  6. Temperature profiles from mechanical bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the USS REAPER in the North Pacific Ocean in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project from 1959-11-14 to 1959-12-10 (NODC Accession 5900152)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MBT data were collected from the USS REAPER in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project. Data were collected by US Navy; Ships of...

  7. Temperature profiles from mechanical bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the USS ENDURANCE in the North Pacific Ocean in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project from 21 April 1966 to 02 August 1966 (NODC Accession 6600198)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MBT data were collected from the USS ENDURANCE in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project. Data were collected by US Navy; Ships of...

  8. Temperature profiles from mechanical bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the USS ENHANCE in the North Pacific Ocean in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project from 07 November 1961 to 13 November 1961 (NODC Accession 6100205)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MBT data were collected from the USS ENHANCE in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project. Data were collected by US Navy; Ships of...

  9. Temperature profiles from mechanical bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the USS ENHANCE in the North Pacific Ocean in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project from 07 April 1963 to 26 April 1963 (NODC Accession 6300441)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MBT data were collected from the USS ENHANCE in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project. Data were collected by US Navy; Ships of...

  10. Temperature profiles from mechanical bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the USS SHRIKE in the Coastal Waters of Florida in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project from 08 May 1962 to 09 May 1962 (NODC Accession 6200766)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MBT data were collected from the USS SHRIKE in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project. Data were collected by US Navy; Ships of...

  11. Temperature profiles from mechanical bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the USS STALWART in the North Atlantic Ocean in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project from 06 March 1962 to 12 March 1962 (NODC Accession 6200780)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MBT data were collected from the USS STALWART in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project. Data were collected by US Navy; Ships of...

  12. Temperature profiles from mechanical bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the USS LEADER in the North Pacific Ocean in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project from 05 April 1963 to 01 May 1963 (NODC Accession 6300422)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MBT data were collected from the USS LEADER in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project. Data were collected by US Navy; Ships of...

  13. Temperature profiles from mechanical bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the USS LEADER in the Philippine Sea in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project from 17 February 1967 to 19 February 1967 (NODC Accession 6700064)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MBT data were collected from the USS LEADER in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project. Data were collected by US Navy; Ships of...

  14. Temperature profile and water depth data collected from USS ROBERT G. BRADLEY using BT and XBT casts in the NE/NW Atlantic Ocean and other seas from 03 May 1988 to 31 May 1988 (NODC Accession 8800213)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and water depth data were collected using BT and XBT casts from the USS ROBERT G. BRADLEY in the Northwest / Northeast Atlantic Ocean, Arabian...

  15. Temperature profiles from mechanical bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the USS ENHANCE in the Philippine Sea in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project on 01 November 1965 (NODC Accession 6500176)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MBT data were collected from the USS ENHANCE in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project. Data were collected in the in the Philippine...

  16. Temperature profiles from mechanical bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the USS LOYALTY in the South China Sea in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project from 07 October 1969 to 16 November 1969 (NODC Accession 7000014)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MBT data were collected from the USS LOYALTY in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project. Data were collected by US Navy; Ships of...

  17. Temperature profiles from mechanical bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the USS LOYALTY in the Coastal Waters of Hawaii in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project from 12 June 1962 to 30 June 1962 (NODC Accession 6200533)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MBT data were collected from the USS LOYALTY in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project. Data were collected by US Navy; Ships of...

  18. Temperature profiles from mechanical bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the USS LOYALTY in the South China Sea in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project from 12 September 1966 to 30 October 1966 (NODC Accession 6600255)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MBT data were collected from the USS LOYALTY in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project. Data were collected by US Navy; Ships of...

  19. Temperature profiles from mechanical bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the USS LOYALTY in the North Pacific Ocean in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project from 30 May 1964 to 19 June 1964 (NODC Accession 6400458)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MBT data were collected from the USS LOYALTY in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project. Data were collected by US Navy; Ships of...

  20. Temperature profiles from mechanical bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the USS LOYALTY in the North Pacific Ocean in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project from 04 March 1966 to 01 April 1966 (NODC Accession 6600774)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MBT data were collected from the USS LOYALTY in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project. Data were collected by US Navy; Ships of...

  1. Temperature profiles from mechanical bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the USS LOYALTY in the Coastal Waters of Hawaii in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project from 05 July 1962 to 24 July 1962 (NODC Accession 6200532)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MBT data were collected from the USS LOYALTY in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project. Data were collected by US Navy; Ships of...

  2. Temperature profiles from mechanical bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the USS LOYALTY in the South China Sea in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project from 09 May 1966 to 29 May 1966 (NODC Accession 6600779)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MBT data were collected from the USS LOYALTY in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project. Data were collected in the South China Sea...

  3. Temperature profiles from mechanical bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the USS LOYALTY in the North Pacific Ocean in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project from 18 June 1969 to 23 June 1969 (NODC Accession 6900720)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MBT data were collected from the USS LOYALTY in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project. Data were collected by US Navy; Ships of...

  4. Temperature profiles from mechanical bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the USS PEACOCK in the South China Sea in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project from 17 June 1967 to 17 July 1967 (NODC Accession 6700701)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MBT data were collected from the USS PEACOCK in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project. Data were collected by US Navy; Ships of...

  5. Temperature profiles from mechanical bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the USS WIDGEON in the North Pacific Ocean in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project from 18 October 1962 to 01 November 1962 (NODC Accession 6200910)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MBT data were collected from the USS WIDGEON in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project. Data were collected by US Navy; Ships of...

  6. Temperature profiles from mechanical bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the USS EXCEL in the South China and Philippine Seas in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project from 17 February 1967 to 22 February 1967 (NODC Accession 6700538)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MBT data were collected from the USS EXCEL in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project. Data were collected by US Navy; Ships of...

  7. Temperature profiles from mechanical bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the USS FIRM in the North Pacific Ocean in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project from from 30 July 1969 to 05 August 1969 (NODC Accession 6900652)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MBT data were collected from the USS FIRM in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project. Data were collected by US Navy; Ships of...

  8. Temperature profiles from mechanical bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the USS FORTIFY in the Philippine and South China Seas in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project from 21 March 1966 to 27 March 1966 (NODC Accession 6600635)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MBT data were collected from the USS FORTIFY in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project. Data were collected by US Navy; Ships of...

  9. Temperature profile and water depth data collected from USS MERRILL using BT and XBT casts in the Indian Ocean and other seas from 05 April 1988 to 11 April 1988 (NODC Accession 8800140)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and water depth data were collected using BT and XBT casts from the USS MERRILL in the Indian Ocean, Arabian Sea, and Gulf of Oman. Data were...

  10. Temperature profile and water depth data collected from USS BARBEY using BT and XBT casts in the TOGA Area - Pacific Ocean and other areas from 03 November 1988 to 01 December 1988 (NODC Accession 8800327)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and water depth data were collected using BT and XBT casts from the USS BARBEY in the TOGA Area - Pacific Ocean, Bay of Bengal, Indian Ocean,...

  11. Temperature profile and water depth data collected from USS BARBEY using BT and XBT casts in the Indian Ocean and other seas from 02 December 1988 to 28 December 1988 (NODC Accession 8900015)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and water depth data were collected using BT and XBT casts from the USS BARBEY in the Indian Ocean, Arabian Sea, Gulf of Oman, Gulf of Iran, and...

  12. Temperature profile and water depth data collected from USS MERRILL using BT and XBT casts in the Indian Ocean and other seas from 17 May 1988 to 01 June 1988 (NODC Accession 8800181)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and water depth data were collected using BT and XBT casts from the USS MERRILL in Arabian Sea, Indian Ocean, Gulf of Oman, Laccadive Sea, and...

  13. Temperature profile and water depth data collected from USS Merrill using BT and XBT casts in the Indian Ocean and other seas from 1988-03-01 to 1988-03-29 (NODC Accession 8800110)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and water depth data were collected using BT and XBT casts from the USS MERRILL in the Arabian Sea, Gulf of Oman, and Indian Ocean. Data were...

  14. Temperature profile and water depth data collected from USS HENRY B. WILSON using BT and XBT casts in the Indian Ocean and other seas from 22 October 1986 to 26 November 1986 (NODC Accession 8800183)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and water depth data were collected using BT and XBT casts from the USS HENRY B. WILSON in the Indian Ocean, Gulf of Oman, Gulf of Iran, and...

  15. Temperature profiles from mechanical bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the USS LOYALTY in the North and South Pacific Oceans in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project from 25 February 1966 to 03 March 1966 (NODC Accession 6600527)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MBT data were collected from the USS LOYALTY in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project. Data were collected in the North and South...

  16. Temperature profiles from mechanical bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the USS DYNAMIC in the Coastal Waters of Hawaii in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project for 1962-01-10 (NODC Accession 6200032)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MBT data were collected from the USS DYNAMIC in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project. Data were collected by US Navy; Ships of...

  17. Temperature profiles from mechanical bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the USS LUCID in the Coastal Waters of Hawaii in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project for 1961-11-03 (NODC Accession 6100197)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MBT data were collected from the USS LUCID in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project. Data were collected by US Navy; Ships of...

  18. Temperature profile and water depth data collected from USS CURTS using BT and XBT casts in the Northeast Pacific Ocean and other sea from 09 November 1988 to 20 November 1988 (NODC Accession 8800331)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and water depth data were collected using BT and XBT casts from the USS CURTS in the Northeast Pacific Ocean and Inland Sea. Data were collected...

  19. Temperature profiles from mechanical bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the USS BOLD in the Mediterranean Sea in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project for 1955-08-25 (NODC Accession 5500036)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MBT data were collected from the USS BOLD in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project. Data were collected by US Navy; Ships of...

  20. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from the USS KANE in the Mediterranean Sea in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) from 1975-08-02 to 1975-09-05 (NODC Accession 7500936)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from the USS KANE in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS). Data were collected by the US Navy; Naval Oceanographic...

  1. Temperature profile and water depth data collected from USS MOBILE BAY using BT and XBT casts in the NW Atlantic Ocean from 01 April 1987 to 07 April 1987 (NODC Accession 8700192)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and water depth data were collected using BT and XBT casts from the USS MOBILE BAY in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean and TOGA Area - Atlantic...

  2. Temperature profiles from mechanical bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the USS IMPERVIOUS in the North Pacific Ocean in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project from 24 June 1964 to 29 June 1964 (NODC Accession 6400369)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MBT data were collected from the USS IMPERVIOUS in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project. Data were collected by US Navy; Ships of...

  3. Temperature profiles from mechanical bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the USS LEADER in the North Pacific Ocean in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project from 04 May 1961 to 24 May 1961 (NODC Accession 6100034)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MBT data were collected from the USS LEADER in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project. Data were collected by US Navy; Ships of...

  4. Temperature profiles from mechanical bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the USS LEADER in the North Pacific Ocean in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project from 25 August 1968 to 01 October 1968 (NODC Accession 6900682)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MBT data were collected from the USS LEADER in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project. Data were collected by US Navy; Ships of...

  5. Temperature profiles from mechanical bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the USS GUIDE in the North Pacific Ocean in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project from 06 November 1961 to 12 November 1961 (NODC Accession 6100268)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MBT data were collected from the USS GUIDE in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project. Data were collected by US Navy; Ships of...

  6. Temperature profiles from mechanical bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the USS MULLANY in the North Pacific Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project from 13 July 1954 to 05 March 1955 (NODC Accession 7501245)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MBT data were collected from the USS MULLANY in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project. Data were collected by the US navy; Ships of...

  7. Temperature profiles from mechanical bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the USS STURDY in the North Atlantic Ocean in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project from 07 September 1965 to 28 October 1965 (NODC Accession 6500621)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MBT data were collected from the USS STURDY in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project. Data were collected by US Navy; Ships of...

  8. Temperature profiles from mechanical bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the USS PINNACLE in the Mediterranean Sea in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project from 03 June 1963 to 09 June 1963 (NODC Accession 6300511)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MBT data were collected from the USS PINNACLE in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project. Data were collected by US Navy; Ships of...

  9. Temperature profiles from mechanical bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the USS AGGRESSIVE in the Coastal Waters of Florida in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project for 1962-04-13 (NODC Accession 6200518)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MBT data were collected from the USS AGGRESSIVE in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project. Data were collected by US Navy; Ships of...

  10. Temperature profile and water depth data collected from USS MERRILL using BT and XBT casts in the Northwest Pacific Ocean from 11 August 1992 to 27 August 1992 (NODC Accession 9200253)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and water depth data were collected using BT and XBT casts from the USS MERRILL in the Northwest Pacific Ocean. Data were collected from 11...

  11. Temperature profile and water depth data collected from USS COCHRANE using BT and XBT casts in the East China sea and other seas from 07 March 1987 to 19 March 1987 (NODC Accession 8700263)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and water depth data were collected using BT and XBT casts from the USS COCHRANE in the South China sea, East China Sea, and Philippine Sea. Data...

  12. Temperature profile and water depth data collected from USS CURTS using BT and XBT casts in the NE/NW Pacific Ocean from 02 June 1988 to 19 June 1988 (NODC Accession 8800215)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and water depth data were collected using BT and XBT casts from the USS CURTS in the Northeast / Northwest Pacific Ocean and TOGA Area - Pacific...

  13. Temperature profile and water depth data collected from USS CURTS using BT and XBT casts in the Northwest Pacific Ocean from 21 March 1988 to 22 March 1988 (NODC Accession 8800144)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and water depth data were collected using BT and XBT casts from the USS CURTS in the Northwest Pacific Ocean. Data were collected from 21 March...

  14. Temperature profile and water depth data collected from USS CURTS using BT and XBT casts in the Indian Ocean and other seas from 01 December 1987 to 21 December 1987 (NODC Accession 8800028)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and water depth data were collected using BT and XBT casts from the USS CURTS in the Indian Ocean and other seas. Data were collected from 01...

  15. Temperature profile and water depth data collected from USS COCHRANE using BT and XBT casts in the Indian Ocean and other seas from 01 August 1987 to 27 September 1987 (NODC Accession 8700394)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and water depth data were collected using BT and XBT casts from the USS COCHRANE in the Indian Ocean, Arabian Sea, Laccadive Sea, and Philippine...

  16. Temperature profile and water depth data collected from USS JOUETT using BT and XBT casts in the Northwest Pacific Ocean from 14 July 1987 to 16 July 1987 (NODC Accession 8700264)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and water depth data were collected using BT and XBT casts from the USS JOUETT in the Northwest Pacific Ocean. Data were collected from 14 July...

  17. Temperature profile and water depth data collected from USS MERRILL using BT and XBT casts in the NE/NW Pacific Ocean and other seas from 17 June 1988 to 27 June 1988 (NODC Accession 8800217)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and water depth data were collected using BT and XBT casts from the USS MERRILL in the Northeast / Northwest Pacific Ocean, Japan Sea and Inland...

  18. Temperature profile and water depth data collected from USS ROBERT G. BRADLEY using BT and XBT casts in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean from 15 December 1988 to 28 February 1989 (NODC Accession 8900110)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and water depth data were collected using BT and XBT casts from the USS ROBERT G. BRADLEY in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean and TOGA Area -...

  19. Temperature profile and water depth data collected from USS HARRY E. YARNELL using BT and XBT casts in the Bay of Biscay and other seas from 30 June 1992 to 17 September 1992 (NODC Accession 9200283)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and water depth data were collected using BT and XBT casts from the USS HARRY E. YARNELL in the Bay of Biscay, English Channel, Northeast...

  20. Temperature profiles from mechanical bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the USS CONFLICT in the Philippine Sea in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project from 1964-02-20 to 1964-02-24 (NODC Accession 6400778)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MBT data were collected from the USS CONFLICT in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project. Data were collected by US Navy; Ships of...

  1. Temperature profiles from mechanical bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the USS CONFLICT in the North Pacific Ocean in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project from 1962-01-02 to 1962-02-09 (NODC Accession 6200043)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MBT data were collected from the USS CONFLICT in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project. Data were collected by US Navy; Ships of...

  2. Temperature profiles from mechanical bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the USS CONFLICT in the North Pacific Ocean in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project from 1966-07-23 to 1966-08-02 (NODC Accession 6600087)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MBT data were collected from the USS CONFLICT in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project. Data were collected in the North Pacific...

  3. Temperature profiles from mechanical bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the USS CONFLICT in the North Pacific Ocean in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project from 1966-07-19 to 1966-07-21 (NODC Accession 6600106)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MBT data were collected from the USS CONFLICT in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project. Data were collected by US Navy; Ships of...

  4. Temperature profile and water depth data collected from USS MOBILE BAY using BT and XBT casts in the NW Atlantic Ocean from 15 May 1987 to 27 May 19876 (NODC Accession 8700223)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and water depth data were collected using BT and XBT casts from the USS MOBILE BAY in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean. Data were collected from 15...

  5. Temperature profiles from mechanical bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the USS WARBLER in the South China Sea in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project from 21 April 1966 to 28 May 1966 (NODC Accession 6600712)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MBT data were collected from the USS WARBLER in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project. Data were collected by US Navy; Ships of...

  6. Temperature profiles from mechanical bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the USS FIRM in the South China Sea in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project from 1967-03-25 to 1967-04-17 (NODC Accession 6600379)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MBT data were collected from the USS FIRM in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project. Data were collected in the South China Sea by...

  7. Temperature profile and water depth data collected from USS BARBEY using BT and XBT casts in the Indian ocean and other seas from 07 January 1989 to 31 January 1989 (NODC Accession 8900034)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and water depth data were collected using BT and XBT casts from the USS BARBEY in the Indian Ocean, South China Sea, Burma Sea, and Malacca of...

  8. Temperature profiles from mechanical bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the USS FIRM in the North Pacific Ocean in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project from 1968-03-12 to 1968-11-27 (NODC Accession 6900089)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MBT data were collected from the USS FIRM in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project. Data were collected by US Navy; Ships of...

  9. Temperature profiles from mechanical bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the USS REAPER in the South China Sea in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project from 1970-01-04 to 1970-01-06 (NODC Accession 7000334)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MBT data were collected from the USS REAPER in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project. Data were collected by US Navy; Ships of...

  10. Temperature profiles from mechanical bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the USS GUIDE in the South China Sea in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project from 1967-08-07 to 1967-08-16 (NODC Accession 6700424)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MBT data were collected from the USS GUIDE in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project. Data were collected by US Navy; Ships of...

  11. Temperature profiles from mechanical bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the USS GANNET in the South China Sea in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project from 1966-09-29 to 1966-10-10 (NODC Accession 6600402)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MBT data were collected from the USS GANNET in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project. Data were collected by US Navy; Ships of...

  12. Temperature profile and water depth data collected from USS BARBEY using BT and XBT casts in the TOA Area - Pacific Ocean and other seas from 02 October 1988 to 30 October 1988 (NODC Accession 8800335)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and water depth data were collected using BT and XBT casts from the USS BARBEY in the TOGA Area - Pacific Ocean, Inland Sea, South China Sea,...

  13. Temperature profiles from mechanical bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the USS WHIPPOORWILL in the South China Sea in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project from 1966-06-27 to 1966-06-30 (NODC Accession 6600710)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MBT data were collected from the USS WHIPPOORWILL in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project. Data were collected by US Navy; Ships...

  14. Temperature profiles from mechanical bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the USS ALBATROSS in the South China Sea in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project from 1967-09-01 to 1967-10-29 (NODC Accession 6700450)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MBT data were collected from the USS ALBATROSS in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project. Data were collected by US Navy; Ships of...

  15. Temperature profiles from mechanical bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the USS GUIDE in the South China Sea in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project from 1967-05-05 to 1967-05-22 (NODC Accession 6700294)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MBT data were collected from the USS GUIDE in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project. Data were collected by US Navy; Ships of...

  16. Temperature profiles from mechanical bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the USS WARBLER in the South China Seas in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project from 1965-04-10 to 1965-05-06 (NODC Accession 6500672)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MBT data were collected from the USS WARBLER in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project. Data were collected by US Navy; Ships of...

  17. Temperature profiles from mechanical bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the USS VIREO in the South China Sea in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project from 1965-01-26 to 1965-02-14 (NODC Accession 6500660)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MBT data were collected from the USS VIREO in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project. Data were collected by US Navy; Ships of...

  18. Temperature profiles from mechanical bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the USS LOYALTY in the South China Sea in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project from 1969-12-01 to 1969-12-22 (NODC Accession 7000049)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MBT data were collected from the USS LOYALTY in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project. Data were collected by US Navy; Ships of...

  19. Temperature profiles from mechanical bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the USS PRIME in the South China Sea in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project from 1970-02-03 to 1970-03-18 (NODC Accession 7000378)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MBT data were collected from the USS PRIME in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project. Data were collected by US Navy; Ships of...

  20. Temperature profiles from mechanical bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the USS HUMMINGBIRD in the North Atlantic Ocean in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project from 19 September 1963 to 20 September 1963 (NODC Accession 6300789)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MBT data were collected from the USS HUMMINGBIRD in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project. Data were collected by US Navy; Ships of...

  1. Temperature profiles from mechanical bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the USS HUMMINGBIRD in the North Atlantic Ocean in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project from 31 August 1966 to 04 September 1966 (NODC Accession 6600182)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MBT data were collected from the USS HUMMINGBIRD in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project. Data were collected by US Navy; Ships of...

  2. Temperature profile and water depth data collected from USS HAYLER using BT and XBT casts in the Arabian Sea and other seas from 31 October 1984 to 22 October 1985 (NODC Accession 9200289)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and water depth data were collected using BT and XBT casts from the USS HAYLER in the Arabian Sea and other seas. Data were collected from 31...

  3. Ozone production by corona discharges during a convective event in DISCOVER-AQ Houston

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsakis, Alexander; Morris, Gary A.; Lefer, Barry; Jeon, Wonbae; Roy, Anirban; Minschwaner, Ken; Thompson, Anne M.; Choi, Yunsoo

    2017-07-01

    An ozonesonde launched near electrically active convection in Houston, TX on 5 September 2013 during the NASA DISCOVER-AQ project measured a large enhancement of ozone throughout the troposphere. A separate ozonesonde was launched from Smith Point, TX (∼58 km southeast of the Houston site) at approximately the same time as the launch from Houston and did not measure that enhancement. Furthermore, ozone profiles for the descent of both sondes agreed well with the ascending Smith Point profile, suggesting a highly localized event in both space and time in which an anomalously large enhancement of 70-100 ppbv appeared in the ascending Houston ozonesonde data. Compared to literature values, such an enhancement appears to be the largest observed to date. Potential sources of the localized ozone enhancement such as entrainment of urban or biomass burning emissions, downward transport from the stratosphere, photochemical production from lightning NOx, and direct ozone production from corona discharges were investigated using model simulations. We conclude that the most likely explanation for the large ozone enhancement is direct ozone production by corona discharges. Integrating the enhancement seen in the Houston ozone profile and using the number of electrical discharges detected by the NLDN (or HLMA), we estimate a production of 2.48 × 1028 molecules of ozone per flash which falls within the range of previously recorded values (9.89 × 1026-9.82 × 1028 molecules of ozone per flash). Since there is currently no parameterization for the direct production of ozone from corona discharges we propose the implementation of an equation into a chemical transport model. Ultimately, additional work is needed to further understand the occurrence and impact of corona discharges on tropospheric chemistry on short and long timescales.

  4. Scientific Ocean Drilling to Assess Submarine Geohazards along European Margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ask, M. V.; Camerlenghi, A.; Kopf, A.; Morgan, J. K.; Ocean DrillingSeismic Hazard, P. E.

    2008-12-01

    Submarine geohazards are some of the most devastating natural events in terms of lives lost and economic impact. Earthquakes pose a big threat to society and infrastructure, but the understanding of their episodic generation is incomplete. Tsunamis are known for their potential of striking coastlines world-wide. Other geohazards originating below the sea surface are equally dangerous for undersea structures and the coastal population: submarine landslides and volcanic islands collapse with little warning and devastating consequences. The European scientific community has a strong focus on geohazards along European and nearby continental margins, especially given their high population densities, and long historic and prehistoric record of hazardous events. For example, the Mediterranean is surrounded by very densely-populated coastline and is the World's leading holiday destination, receiving up 30% of global tourism. In addition, its seafloor is criss-crossed by hydrocarbon pipelines and telecommunication cables. However, the governing processes and recurrence intervals of geohazards are still poorly understood. Examples include, but are not limited to, earthquakes and volcanic eruptions along the active tectonic margins of the Mediterranean and Sea of Marmara, landslides on both active and passive margins, and tsunamites and seismites in the sedimentary record that suggest a long history of similar events. The development of geophysical networks, drilling, sampling and long-term monitoring are crucial to the understanding of earthquake, landslide, and tsunami processes, and to mitigate the associated risks in densely populated and industrialized regions such as Europe. Scientific drilling, particularly in the submarine setting, offers a unique tool to obtain drill core samples, borehole measurements and long-term observations. Hence, it is a critical technology to investigate past, present, and possible future influences of hazardous processes in this area. The

  5. The effects of reversing sleep-wake cycles on mood states, sleep, and fatigue on the crew of the USS John C. Stennis

    OpenAIRE

    Sawyer, Tiffoney L.

    2004-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited This study investigates the effects of reversing sleep-wake cycles on mood, sleep, and fatigue of the crewmembers and Air Wing 9 of the USS JOHN C. STENNIS (CVN-74). It also reviews the research conducted in sleep deprivation, circadian rhythms, shiftwork, fatigue, and mood. The effects of reversing sleep-wake cycle on mood of the crewmembers were analyzed by assessing a repeated administration of the Profile of Mood States (POMS). Moo...

  6. Tsunami Generated by a Two-Phase Submarine Debris Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pudasaini, S. P.

    2012-04-01

    The general two-phase debris flow model proposed by Pudasaini (2011) is employed to study subaerial and submarine debris flows, and the tsunami generated by the debris impact at lakes and oceans. The model includes several essential physical aspects, including Mohr-Coulomb plasticity for the solid stress, while the fluid stress is modelled as a solid volume fraction gradient enhanced non-Newtonian viscous stress. The generalized interfacial momentum transfer includes the viscous drag, buoyancy, and the virtual mass. The generalized drag covers both the solid-like and fluid-like contributions, and can be applied to linear to quadratic drags. Strong couplings exist between the solid and the fluid momentum transfer. The advantage of the real two-phase debris flow model over classical single-phase or quasi-two-phase models is that by considering the solid (and/or the fluid) volume fraction appropriately, the initial mass can be divided into several (even mutually disjoint) parts; a dry (landslide or rock slide), a fluid (water or muddy water; e.g., dams, rivers), and a general debris mixture material as needed in real flow simulations. This offers a unique and innovative opportunity within a single framework to simultaneously simulate (a) the sliding debris (or landslide), (b) the water lake or ocean, (c) the debris impact at the lake or ocean, (d) tsunami generation and propagation, (e) mixing and separation between the solid and the fluid phases, and (f) sediment transport and deposition process in the bathymetric surface. The new model is applied to two-phase subaerial and submarine debris flows. Benchmark numerical simulations reveal that the dynamics of the debris impact induced tsunamis are fundamentally different than the tsunami generated by pure rock avalanche and landslides. Special attention is paid to study the basic features of the debris impact to the mountain lakes or oceans. This includes the generation, amplification and propagation of the multiple

  7. Overview and Major Findings of the Study of Houston Atmospheric Radical Precursors (SHARP) Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefer, B. L.; Brune, W. H.; Collins, D. R.; Dibb, J. E.; Griffin, R. J.; Herndon, S. C.; Huey, L. G.; Jobson, B. T.; Luke, W. T.; Mellqvist, J.; Morris, G. A.; Mount, G. H.; North, S. W.; Olaguer, E. P.; Rappenglueck, B.; Ren, X.; Stutz, J.; Yu, X.; Zhang, R.

    2010-12-01

    Despite recent improvements in Houston’s air quality, particularly in the reduction of the number of days with ozone mixing ratios with a 1-hr average of 125 ppbv or greater, the Houston-Galveston-Brazoria (HGB) metropolitan area still has approximately 30 days where 8-hr ozone levels exceed the 75 ppbv standard. More than a third of these high ozone episodes typically occur during the Springtime. Based on the 2006 TexAQS-II and TRAMP findings highlighting the importance of HONO, HCHO, and potentially ClNO2 as radical sources in the Houston atmosphere, the Study of Houston Atmospheric Radical Precursors (SHARP) 2009 project was designed to address the following goals: (1) determine the contribution of direct emissions of OH radical precursors HCHO and HONO from flares and other point and mobile sources; (2) detect the important urban formation pathways of HONO (day/night, surface, heterogeneous, homogeneous); (3) quantify the impact of soot (fresh and coated) on chemistry and radiation, (4) measure the ambient levels of ClNO2 in Houston and determine its’ potential as a radical source; (5) perform an intercomparison of ambient HONO measurement techniques in a urban environment; (6) identify the relative importance of springtime ozone formation mechanisms in Houston. The overall purpose of pursuing these objectives was to reduce the uncertainties surrounding these processes with the aim of improve our ability to model radicals and ozone formation in Houston and other coastal cities with petrochemical operations. The majority of the time the meteorological and chemical conditions during the 2009 SHARP campaign resulted in clean southerly flow from the Gulf of Mexico. This southerly flow was interrupted at least 4 times by cold front passages during the campaign. Each frontal passage resulted in an 8-hr ozone exceedance one to three days later. Significant findings from the SHARP project from 15 April to 30 May 2009 include: (a) measurements of HCHO emitted

  8. The Impact of the General Board of the Navy on Interwar Submarine Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-12

    Navy had developed the Gato class submarine, which was successful independently operating in the vast Pacific Ocean in support of War Plan Orange. The...development of the Gato class submarine, which was successful independently operating in the vast Pacific Ocean in support of War Plan Orange. The...

  9. Procurements by the Non-Acoustic Anti-Submarine Warfare Program Through the Environmental Technologies Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-14

    General, DoD, on contract offloading, including Report No. 93-068, " Procurement of Services for the Non-Acoustic Anti-Submarine Warfare Program...contract administration in response to Audit Report No. 93-042. Report No. 93-068, " Procurement of Services for the Non-Acoustic Anti- Submarine Warfare

  10. Study on the locational criteria for submarine rock repositories of low and medium level radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, G. H.; Kang, W. J.; Kim, T. J. and others [Chungnam National Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-01-15

    Submarine repositories have significant advantages over their land counterparts locating close to the areas of daily human activities. Consequently, the construction of submarine repositories on the vast continental shelves around Korean seas is considered to be highly positive. In this context, the development of locational criteria primarily targeting the safety of submarine rock repositories is very important.The contents of the present study are: analyzing characteristics of marine environment: Search of potential hazards to, and environmental impact by, the submarine repositories; Investigation of the oceanographic, geochemical, ecological and sedimentological characteristics of estuaries and coastal seas. Locating potential hazards to submarine repositories by: Bibliographical search of accidents leading to the destruction of submarine structures by turbidity currents and other potentials; Review of turbidity currents. Consideration of environmental impact caused by submarine repositories: Logistics to minimize the environmental impacts in site selection; Removal and dispersion processes of radionuclides in sea water. Analyses of oceanographical characteristics of, and hazard potentials in, the Korean seas. Evaluation of the MOST 91-7 criteria for applicability to submarine repositories and the subsequent proposition of additional criteria.

  11. Submarine landslides on the north continental slope of the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiwei; Wang, Dawei; Wu, Shiguo; Völker, David; Zeng, Hongliu; Cai, Guanqiang; Li, Qingping

    2018-02-01

    Recent and paleo-submarine landslides are widely distributed within strata in deep-water areas along continental slopes, uplifts, and carbonate platforms on the north continental margin of the South China Sea (SCS). In this paper, high-resolution 3D seismic data and multibeam data based on seismic sedimentology and geomorphology are employed to assist in identifying submarine landslides. In addition, deposition models are proposed that are based on specific geological structures and features, and which illustrate the local stress field over entire submarine landslides in deep-water areas of the SCS. The SCS is one of the largest fluvial sediment sinks in enclosed or semi-enclosed marginal seas worldwide. It therefore provides a set of preconditions for the formation of submarine landslides, including rapid sediment accumulation, formation of gas hydrates, and fluid overpressure. A new concept involving temporal and spatial analyses is tested to construct a relationship between submarine landslides and different time scale trigger mechanisms, and three mechanisms are discussed in the context of spatial scale and temporal frequency: evolution of slope gradient and overpressure, global environmental changes, and tectonic events. Submarine landslides that are triggered by tectonic events are the largest but occur less frequently, while submarine landslides triggered by the combination of slope gradient and over-pressure evolution are the smallest but most frequently occurring events. In summary, analysis shows that the formation of submarine landslides is a complex process involving the operation of different factors on various time scales.

  12. The risk of hydrogen explosion in a submarine p.I Catalytic combustion of hydrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kłos Ryszard

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The series of articles discuss issues related to conducting high risk projects on the example of modernisation of hydrogen incinerators on a submarine. The article depicts a technical problem situation connected with catalytic hydrogen combustion on a submarine.

  13. Post-eruptive Submarine Terrace Development of Capelinhos, Azores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhongwei Zhao, Will; Mitchell, Neil; Quartau, Rui; Tempera, Fernando; Bricheno, Lucy

    2017-04-01

    Erosion of the coasts of volcanic islands by waves creates shallow banks, but how erosion proceeds with time to create them and how it relates to wave climate is unclear. In this study, historical and recent marine geophysical data collected around the Capelinhos promontory (western Faial Island, Azores) offer an unusual opportunity to characterize how a submarine terrace developed after the eruption. The promontory was formed in 1957/58 during a Surtseyan eruption that terminated with extensive lava forming new rocky coastal cliffs. Historical measurements of coastline position are supplemented here with coastlines measured from 2004 and 2014 Google Earth images in order to characterize coastline retreat rate and distance for lava- and tephra-dominated cliffs. Swath mapping sonars were used to characterize the submarine geometry of the resulting terrace (terrace edge position, gradient and morphology). Limited photographs are available from a SCUBA dive and drop-down camera deployments to ground truth the submarine geomorphology. The results reveal that coastal retreat rates have decreased rapidly with the time after the eruption, possibly explained by the evolving resistance to erosion of cliff base materials. Surprisingly, coastline retreat rate decreases with terrace width in a simple inverse power law with terrace width. We suspect this is only a fortuitous result as wave attenuation over the terrace will not obviously produce the variation, but nevertheless it shows how rapidly the retreat rate declines. Understanding the relationship between terrace widening shelf and coastal cliff retreat rate may be more widely interesting if they can be used to understand how islands evolve over time into abrasional banks and guyots.

  14. Variations in tropical cyclone-related discharge in four watersheds near Houston, Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laiyin Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined a 60-year record of daily precipitation and river discharge related to tropical cyclones (TCs in four watersheds undergoing land use and land cover change near Houston, Texas. Results show that TCs are responsible for ∼20% of the annual maximum discharge events in the four selected watersheds. Although there are no trends in TC precipitation, increasing trends were observed in daily extreme discharge and TC-related discharge. The more developed watersheds (Whiteoak Bayou and Brays Bayou, tend to have higher extreme discharge and steeper trends in extreme discharge than the less developed watersheds (Cypress Creek. Increases in TC-related extreme discharges correspond with increases in developed land and decreases in vegetated land between 1980 and 2006. Therefore, changes in land cover/use in watersheds near Houston are a major cause of the increased flooding risk in recent years.

  15. Continued Evolution of West Nile Virus, Houston, Texas, USA, 2002–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Brian R.; McMullen, Allison R.; Swetnam, Daniele M.; Salvato, Vence; Reyna, Martin; Guzman, Hilda; Bueno, Rudy; Dennett, James A.; Tesh, Robert B.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the genetics and evolution of West Nile virus (WNV) since initial detection in the United States in 1999 on the basis of continual surveillance studies in the Houston, Texas, USA, metropolitan area (Harris County) as a surrogate model for WNV evolution on a national scale. Full-length genomic sequencing of 14 novel 2010–2012 WNV isolates collected from resident birds in Harris County demonstrates emergence of 4 independent genetic groups distinct from historical strains circulating in the greater Houston region since 2002. Phylogenetic and geospatial analyses of the 2012 WNV isolates indicate closer genetic relationship with 2003–2006 Harris County isolates than more recent 2007–2011 isolates. Inferred monophyletic relationships of these groups with several 2006–2009 northeastern US isolates supports potential introduction of a novel WNV strain in Texas since 2010. These results emphasize the need to maintain WNV surveillance activities to better understand WNV transmission dynamics in the United States. PMID:23965756

  16. Maximizing the probability an aerial anti-submarine torpedo detects its target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-Jie

    2009-06-01

    As a result of the high speed of anti-submarine patrol aircraft as well as their wide range, high efficiency and other characteristics, aerial torpedoes released by anti-submarine patrol aircraft have become the key anti submarine tool. In order to improve operational efficiency, a deep study was made of the target detection probabilities for aerial torpedoes released by anti-submarine patrol aircraft. The operational modes of aerial torpedoes were analyzed and mathematical-simulation models were then established. The detection probabilities of three attacking modes were then calculated. Measures were developed for improving low probabilities of detection when attacking a probable target position. This study provides an important frame of reference for the operation of aerial torpedo released by anti-submarine patrol aircraft.

  17. Metropolitan Transportation Management Center : a case study : Houston TranStar maximizing safety and mobility for the public

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-10-01

    The following case study provides a snapshot of Houston's TranStar transportation management center. It follows the outline provided in the companion document, Metropolitan Transportation Management Center Concepts of Operation - A Cross Cutting Stud...

  18. Confirming the Environmental Concerns of Community Members Utilizing Participatory-Based Research in the Houston Neighborhood of Manchester

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sansom, Garett; Berke, Philip; McDonald, Thomas; Shipp, Eva; Horney, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    .... This cross-sectional study collected survey data and performed surface water analysis for heavy metals in a small neighborhood in Houston, TX, which is characterized by industrial sites, unimproved...

  19. Main devices design of submarine oil-water separation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Wen-Bin; Liu, Bo-Hong

    2017-11-01

    In the process of offshore oil production, in order to thoroughly separate oil from produced fluid, solve the environment problem caused by oily sewage, and improve the economic benefit of offshore drilling, from the perspective of new oil-water separation, a set of submarine oil-water separation devices were designed through adsorption and desorption mechanism of the polymer materials for crude oil in this paper. The paper introduces the basic structure of gas-solid separation device, periodic separation device and adsorption device, and proves the rationality and feasibility of this device.

  20. Submarine glaciated landscapes of central and northern British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, John; Lintern, Gwyn

    2015-04-01

    Recent systematic multibeam sonar mapping and ground-truthing surveys in the fjords and coastal waters of central and northern British Columbia, Canada, provide information on glacial processes associated with the Cordilleran Ice Sheet, and also on postglacial processes that have strongly modified the glacial terrain. During the last glacial maximum, ice covered the Coast Range, except for nunataks. Convergent streamlined glacial landforms in the Strait of Georgia testify to a strong flow of ice towards the southeast, between Vancouver Island and the mainland. During ice retreat, thick deposits of acoustically stratified glaciomarine mud were deposited in glacially over deepened basins. Retreat through the Douglas Channel fjord system was punctuated by still stands, resulting in a series of submarine moraines. Postglacial processes have created a suite of landforms that mask the primary glacial terrain: 1) Fjord floors host thick deposits of acoustically transparent postglacial mud with highly variable distribution: banks up to 80-m thick are commonly adjacent to erosional zones with glaciomarine mud exposed at the seafloor; 2) In this region of high precipitation and snowpack melt, numerous cone-shaped Holocene fan deltas developed on the fjord sidewalls transport coarse sediment to the fjord floors. Larger deltas are developed at fjord heads, notably at Kitimat and Kildala; 3) Submarine slope failures in this tectonically active area have resulted in a suite of mass transport deposits on sidewalls and fjord floors. The very large submarine slope failures at Camano Sound and KitKat Inlet occurred on the steep, rear facets of large transverse moraines, and involved the failure of glaciomarine sediment that moved into deeper basins, perhaps as a retrogressive failure. The ages of these events are unknown, although the presence of postglacial mud in the slide scar at Caamano suggests that the event at that location occurred in the late glacial or early Holocene. Also

  1. Micro-tunneling as an alternative to submarine cable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russo, D.A. [Seattle City Light, WA (United States); Hansen, D. [CH2M Hill, Bellevue, WA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The geography that gives Seattle its beauty can pose unique challenges for the engineers attempting to provide service to the customers who live near or upon these features. Steep, wooded hills and greenbelts create familiar problems of construction and right-of-way maintenance. The waterways and adjoining shoreline zones present a more difficult set of requirements. When Seattle City Light determined it was necessary to install 2-26 KV feeders across the Salmon Bay waterway, they discovered that submarine cables could not be used. Shallow angle directional drilling and micro-tunneling were examined and it was fond that a microtunneled duct bank was the best method to use.

  2. Groundwater quality of the Gulf Coast aquifer system, Houston, Texas, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oden, Jeannette H.; Brown, Dexter W.; Oden, Timothy D.

    2011-01-01

    During March–December 2010, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the city of Houston, collected source-water samples from 60 municipal supply wells in the Houston area. These data were collected as part of an ongoing study to determine concentrations, spatial extent, and associated geochemical conditions that might be conducive for mobility and transport of selected naturally occurring contaminants (selected trace elements and radionuclides) in the Gulf Coast aquifer system in the Houston area. In the summers of 2007 and 2008, a reconnaissance-level survey of these constituents in untreated water from 28 municipal supply wells was completed in the Houston area. Included in this report are the complete analytical results for 47 of the 60 samples collected in 2010—those results which were received from the laboratories and reviewed by the authors as of December 31, 2010. All of the wells sampled were screened in the Gulf Coast aquifer system; 22 were screened entirely in the Evangeline aquifer, and the remaining 25 wells contained screened intervals that intersected both Evangeline and Chicot aquifers. The data documented in this report were collected as part of an ongoing study to characterize source-water-quality conditions in untreated groundwater prior to drinking-water treatment. An evaluation of contaminant occurrence in source water provides background information regarding the presence of a contaminant in the environment. Because source-water samples were collected prior to any treatment or blending that potentially could alter contaminant concentrations, the water-quality results documented by this report represent the quality of the source water, not the quality of finished drinking water provided to the public.

  3. Jamie May's Success and Bill Houston's Failure Search for Meaning of Life in Denis Johnson's Angel

    OpenAIRE

    Indreswari, Intan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to analyze the meaning life of Bill Houston and Jamie May. In order to complete this paper, the writer used library research to collect the material. The writer uses a book written by Viktor Frankl about logotherapy to analyze the novel. Logotherapy consists of existential problems and the way to find the meaning of life. Existential problems fall into existential frustration, existential vacuum and noogenic neuroses. Projection and de-reflection are a therapy ...

  4. Everything is bigger in Texas : Reflection program case ‘Houston Galveston Bay, Texas’

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, M.; Brand, A.D.; Kothuis, Baukje; Kok, Matthijs

    2017-01-01

    The saying goes that ‘Everything is bigger in Texas.’ This holds true for both the flood risk in the Houston-Galveston Bay Area, and for the complexity of issues that need to be dealt with in order to reduce it – assuming there is agreement that the current risk is

  5. Applicability of land use models for the Houston area test site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersburg, R. K.; Bradford, L. H.

    1973-01-01

    Descriptions of land use models are presented which were considered for their applicability to the Houston Area Test Site. These models are representative both of the prevailing theories of land use dynamics and of basic approaches to simulation. The models considered are: a model of metropolis, land use simulation model, emperic land use forecasting model, a probabilistic model for residential growth, and the regional environmental management allocation process. Sources of environmental/resource information are listed.

  6. Knowledge and Risk Perception Regarding HPV Among Latino Alternative School Students in Houston, Texas

    OpenAIRE

    Markham, Christine M.; Escobar-Chaves, Soledad Liliana; Addy, Robert C.; Lewis, Holly; Tortolero-Luna, Guillermo; Tortolero, Susan R.

    2009-01-01

    Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common STI among youth in the U.S. As alternative school students are at higher risk of acquiring STIs compared to regular high school students, this study examined HPV knowledge and risk perception among Latino youth attending 9 alternative high schools in Houston, Texas. HPV knowledge measures assessed prevalence, health consequences, symptoms, transmission, and risk reduction strategies. Three measures assessed perceived risk. The sample included 414 ...

  7. Supply Chain Strategies for the International Interoceanic Mazatlan-Houston Logistic Corridor

    OpenAIRE

    de la O, G.; Matis, T.

    2014-01-01

    Describe the interoceanic Mazatlan-Houston Logistic Corridor (MHLC) as an alternative route to create sustainable competitive advantages for Mexican, USA, and international firms competing in an international marketplace. Taking into account the competitive advantages of utilizing this corridor for international trade, we analyze supply chain strategies for Mexican and international companies demanding economical logistic solutions in this region. It was found that the MHLC benefits efficient...

  8. Cell Mergers and Their Impact on Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Over the Houston Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Michael L.; Petersen, Walter A.; Carey, Lawrence D.

    2009-01-01

    A previous hypothesis advanced from observational studies such as METROMEX suggests that the intensity, frequency, and organization of cumulus convection may be impacted by the forcing of enhanced merger activity downstream of urban zones. A resulting corollary is that cities may exert an indirect anthropogenic forcing of parameters related to convection and associated phenomena such as lightning and precipitation. This paper investigates the urban merger hypothesis by examining the role of convective cell mergers on the existence and persistence of the Houston lightning "anomaly", a local maximum in cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning activity documented to exist over and east of Houston. Using eight summer seasons of peak columnar radar reflectivity, CG lightning data and a cell-tracking algorithm, a two-dimensional cell merger climatology is created for portions of eastern Texas and Louisiana. Results from the tracking and analysis of over 3.8 million cells indicate that merger-driven enhancements in convection induce a positive response (O 46%) in ground-flash densities throughout the domain, with areas of enhanced lightning typically being co-located with areas of enhanced merger activity. However, while mergers over the Houston area (relative to elsewhere in the domain) do result in more vigorous convective cells that produce larger CG flash densities, we find that CG lightning contributions due to mergers are distributed similarly throughout the domain. Hence while we demonstrate that cell mergers do greatly impact the production of lightning, the urban cell merger hypothesis does not uniquely explain the presence of a local lightning maximum near and downstream of Houston.

  9. Mercury species measured atop the Moody Tower TRAMP site, Houston, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Steven; Luke, Winston; Cohen, Mark; Kelly, Paul; Lefer, Barry; Rappenglück, Bernhard

    2010-10-01

    Atmospheric mercury speciation was monitored within Houston, Texas, USA, August 6-October 14, 2006 as part of the TexAQS Radical and Aerosol Measurement Program (TRAMP). On average, all mercury levels were significantly elevated compared to a rural Gulf of Mexico coastal site. Concentrations varied from very clean to very dirty. Multi-day periods of stagnant or low-wind conditions brought elevated concentrations of all mercury species, whereas multi-day periods of strong winds, particularly southerly winds off the Gulf of Mexico, brought very low values of mercury species. Over the entire mercury measurement period, the daily averages of mercury species showed distinct and consistent relationships with the average planetary boundary layer dynamics, with gaseous elemental and particulate-bound mercury near-surface concentrations enhanced by a shallow nocturnal boundary layer, and reactive gaseous mercury concentration enhanced by midday convective boundary layer air entrainment transporting air aloft to the surface. Mercury concentrations were not significantly correlated with known products of combustion, likely indicating non-combustion mercury sources from the Houston area petrochemical complexes. On the morning of August 31, 2006 an observed emission event at a refinery complex on the Houston Ship Channel resulted in extremely high concentrations of aerosol mass and particulate-bound mercury at the TRAMP measurement site 20 km downwind.

  10. Ambient formaldehyde source attribution in Houston during TexAQS II and TRAMP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzcu Guven, Birnur; Olaguer, Eduardo P.

    2011-08-01

    An online data repository known as the Air Research Information Infrastructure (ARII) was used to discriminate large industrial sources of formaldehyde (HCHO) from mobile and secondary formaldehyde sources in Houston. Analysis of continuous online measurements at one urban and two industrial sites obtained during the summer of 2006 enabled us to isolate and evaluate major source factors associated with formaldehyde. The contribution of industrial sources to total atmospheric formaldehyde at the urban Houston site is estimated to be 17%, compared to 23% for mobile sources, 36% secondary formation, and 24% biogenic sources. The potential industrial sources include flares from petrochemical plants and refineries in the Port of Houston. The relative contribution of industrial source factors to ambient HCHO at the urban site increased to about 66% on some mornings, coinciding with the HCHO peak concentration. Secondary formation of HCHO during the day and night resulted from reactions of industrial olefins and other VOCs with OH or ozone. Some peak HCHO concentrations can also be linked to emission events of other VOCs, while a significant portion remains unexplained by the reported events. It is likely, based on the results from the SHARP campaign and our analysis, that some episodic emission events releasing primary HCHO are unreported to the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ).

  11. Seasonal and Diurnal Variations of Total Gaseous Mercury in Urban Houston, TX, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Lan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Total gaseous mercury (THg observations in urban Houston, over the period from August 2011 to October 2012, were analyzed for their seasonal and diurnal characteristics. Our continuous measurements found that the median level of THg was 172 parts per quadrillion by volume (ppqv, consistent with the current global background level. The seasonal variation showed that the highest median THg mixing ratios occurred in summer and the lowest ones in winter. This seasonal pattern was closely related to the frequency of THg episodes, energy production/consumption and precipitation in the area. The diurnal variations of THg exhibited a pattern where THg accumulated overnight and reached its maximum level right before sunrise, followed by a rapid decrease after sunrise. This pattern was clearly influenced by planetary boundary layer (PBL height and horizontal winds, including the complex sea breeze system in the Houston area. A predominant feature of THg in the Houston area was the frequent occurrence of large THg spikes. Highly concentrated pollution plumes revealed that mixing ratios of THg were related to not only the combustion tracers CO, CO2, and NO, but also CH4 which is presumably released from oil and natural gas operations, landfills and waste treatment. Many THg episodes occurred simultaneously with peaks in CO, CO2, CH4, NOx, and/or SO2, suggesting possible contributions from similar sources with multi-source types. Our measurements revealed that the mixing ratios and variability of THg were primarily controlled by nearby mercury sources.

  12. Seismicity and sedimentation rate effects on submarine slope stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Brink, U. S.; Andrews, B. D.; Miller, N. C.

    2016-12-01

    Large submarine mass-transport scars are commonly observed on continental margins, but are noticeably less abundant on margins that experience frequent earthquakes than on those that seldom experience them. This is a surprising observation, given that horizontal acceleration from earthquakes and associated strength loss from cyclic loading and liquefaction are commonly thought to provide the primary triggers for inducing failures and subsequent mass movements. Mapping submarine failure scars in ten margins worldwide, we find decreasing scar abundance with both increasing frequency of earthquakes and decreasing sedimentation rate. The decrease in scar abundance is interpreted to represent increasing slope stability. The increase in stability is non linear (power law with btectonic activity (salt diapirs, seamount subduction, etc.) leads to relatively rapid oversteepening of the slope, implying that the morphology of most margins is in fact, stable over many earthquake cycles. Note that the above correlation averages scar area and sedimentation rate over entire margin areas. Variations in sedimentation rate with time, such as over glacial-interglacial cycles, and intra-margin variations in seismic attenuation, sedimentation rate, composition, and pore pressure, have likely affected the abundance of slope failures in time and space.

  13. An Automatic Procedure for the Quantitative Characterization of Submarine Bedforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Di Stefano

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A model for the extraction and quantitative characterization of submarine landforms from high-resolution digital bathymetry is presented. The procedure is fully automated and comprises two parts. The first part consists of an analytical model which extracts quantitative information from a Digital Elevation Model in the form of objects with similar parametric characteristics (terrain objects. The second part is a rule-based model where the terrain objects are reclassified into distinct landforms with well-defined three dimensional characteristics. For the focus of this work, the quantitative characterization of isolated dunes (height greater than 2 m is used to exemplify the process. The primary metrics used to extract terrain objects are the flatness threshold and the search radius, which are then used by the analytical model to identify the feature type. Once identified as dunes, a sequence of spatial analysis routines is applied to identify and compute metrics for each dune including length, height, width, ray of curvature, slope analysis for each stoss and lee side, and dune symmetry. Dividing the model into two parts, one scale-dependent and another centered around the shape of the landform, makes the model applicable to other submarine landforms like ripples, mega-ripples, and coral reefs, which also have well-defined three-dimensional characteristics.

  14. Fin propulsion on a human-powered submarine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Iain A.; Pocock, Benjamin; Harbuz, Antoni; Algie, Cam; Vochezer, Daniel; Chao, Ryan; Lu, Benjamin

    2015-03-01

    Nearly all surface and underwater vessels are driven by screw propulsion; ideal for coupling to rotary engines and well understood after over a century of development. But most aquatic creatures use fins for swimming. Although there are sound evolutionary reasons why fish have fins and not propellers, they are nevertheless agile, fast and efficient. Although fish-like robots such as the MIT Robotuna are providing good insight into fin-based swimming there are advantages for using humans in the experimental device. Like an airplane test pilot they can write crash reports. We present preliminary observations for the human powered finned submarine: Taniwha. The sub participated in the 2nd European International Submarine races in Gosport UK where it received a trophy for "Best Non-Propeller Performance". Two sets of Hobie Mirage fin drives fixed to the upper and lower rear surfaces of the sub are pedaled by the pilot. The pilot also has two levers at the front, one to pitch a pair of dive planes and one for yawing a large rudder. Good speed, we estimate to be greater than 6 m/s is possible with these fins although we haven't explored their full potential. Straying too near the surface or bottom can lead to an instability, synonymous to a stall, such that control is lost. The mechanism for this will be discussed and solutions offered. Fish are 400 million years in front of us but one day we'll catch them.

  15. Are tilt measurements useful in detecting tsunamigenic submarine landslides?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brune, Sascha; Babeyko, Andrey Y.; Sobolev, Stephan V.

    2009-06-01

    Large submarine landslides can generate dangerous tsunamis. Because of their long-period signal, detection of landslides by common seismological methods is difficult. Here we suggest a method of detecting submarine landslides by using an array of land-based tiltmeters. The displacement of a large volume of sediments during landsliding produces a detectable elastic response of the lithosphere. We propose a technique to calculate this response and to invert for tsunami relevant parameters like slide location, volume, and velocity. We exemplify our method by applying it to the Storegga slide west of Norway and other tsunamigenic landslide events. The parameter which can be most robustly estimated from tiltmeter array measurements is the product of slide volume and its velocity (slide tsunamigenic potential). This parameter also controls the amplitude of the generated tsunami wave. The inversion accuracy of this parameter and the estimated tsunami height near the coast depends on the noise level of tiltmeter measurements, distance of the tiltmeters from the slide, and slide tsunamigenic potential itself. The tsunamigenic potential of the most dangerous slides like Storegga can be estimated well by tiltmeters at the coast if the effective noise level does not exceed 50 nrad.

  16. A submarine fan in the Mesa Central, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Romo, G.; Arellano-Gil, J.; Mendoza-Rosales, C.; Nieto-Obregón, J.

    2000-10-01

    The contact between the Guerrero and Sierra Madre tectonostratigraphic terranes has been proposed to lie in the Mesa Central, east of the city of Zacatecas. Marine Triassic units have been assigned to the Guerrero Terrane. It is here proposed that this contact occurs to the west of the city of Zacatecas and the Triassic marine sequence assigned to the Sierra Madre Terrane. We analyzed the stratigraphic record and structural features of pre-Late Jurassic sequences at four localities in the Mesa Central. They contain a marine turbiditic Triassic unit, which includes La Bellena, Taray, and Zacatecas Formations, and a continental unit of probable Middle Jurassic age. Triassic sandstones were derived from a cratonic area, without the influence of arc volcanism. The sequences were affected by two phases of deformation. The Triassic formations are unconformably overlain by a continental volcano-sedimentary sequence that contains fragments of sandstones derived from the underlying unit. Sedimentologic characteristics of the Triassic unit fit a submarine fan model. The submarine fan developed at the continental margin of Pangaea during Triassic times. Turbidite associations in the San Rafael Area indicate a middle fan depositional environment, while in the Real de Catorce Area, they correspond to the distal part (basin plain facies). At La Ballena and Zacatecas the turbidite associations occur in the middle part and perhaps the external part of the fan.

  17. Feasibility study of submarine diesel exhaust valve interspace coating application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, W.; Zhou, M.; Bibby, D.; Huang, J.

    2008-05-15

    This document described a feasibility study conducted to evaluate surface coating systems applied to the surface of a diesel exhaust valve interspace on a VICTORIA Class submarine. A series of laboratory studies were conducted to determine the physical characteristics of the coatings, which will be subjected to high service temperatures, diesel exhaust gas, and seawater. The valves were made of Q1N steel castings. The surface coatings were designed to provide corrosion resistance and thermal protection to the valves. As part of the study, a survey was conducted on various state-of-the-art surface coating systems. Coatings were rated on their ability to protect the Q10 steel surface from corrosion, high temperatures and seawater. An additional requirement was that the coatings should not produce high amounts of hydrogen. Plating trials were conducted with a nickel-based alloy (Ni-Cu-P) placed on Q1N steel substrates with a hypophosphite reducing agent. The results of X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses suggested that the coatings can also be used to protect the external surfaces of various submarine components. 54 refs., 4 tabs., 10 figs.

  18. The perceptions of inquiry held by greater Houston area science supervisors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Jon Michael

    The purpose of this study was to describe the perceptions of inquiry held by responding greater Houston area science supervisors. Leading science organizations proposed that students might be better served if students are mentally and physically engaged in the process of finding out about natural phenomena rather than by didactic modes of teaching and learning. During the past fifty years, inquiry-based instruction has become a significant theme of new science programs. Students are more likely to make connections between classroom exercises and their personal lives through the use of inquiry-based instruction. Learning becomes relevant to students. Conversely, traditional science instruction often has little or no connection to students' everyday lives (Papert, 1980). In short, inquiry-based instruction empowers students to become independent thinkers. The utilization of inquiry-based instruction is essential to a successful reform in science education. However, a reform's success is partly determined by the extent to which science supervisors know and understand inquiry and consequently promote its integration in the district's science curricula. Science supervisors have the role of providing curriculum and instructional support to science teachers and for implementing science programs. There is a fundamental need to assess the perceptions of inquiry held by greater Houston area science supervisors. Science supervisor refers to a class of job titles that include department chairperson, science specialist, science consultant, and science coordinator. The target population was greater Houston area science supervisors in Texas. This study suggests that there are three major implications for educational practice. First, there is the implication that responding greater Houston area science supervisors need an inclusive perception of inquiry. Second, responding greater Houston area science supervisors' perception of inquiry may affect the perceptions and understandings

  19. Occupational stress in submariners: the impact of isolated and confined work on psychological well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasher, Kate S; Dew, Angela B C; Kilminster, Shaun G; Bridger, Robert S

    2010-03-01

    This study aimed to identify work-related and personal factors associated with occupational stress in submariners. Work and well-being questionnaires were distributed to 219 male submariners (mean age 34 years), as part of a larger cohort study involving a stratified sample of 4951 Royal Navy (RN) personnel. The stress rate in submariners was 40%; significantly higher than the stress rate in the general RN, although once demographic factors were controlled for in a matched control sample, this difference was no longer significant. A summary model accounted for 49% of the variance in submariner stress, with key differences emerging between the occupational factors associated with stress in submariners and in the general RN. The longitudinal nature of this study permits stress in submariners to be monitored over 5 years, which will provide valuable insights into the chronicity of stress in this specialised occupational group. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This paper contributes to the current literature on the negative impact of working in isolated conditions. It is demonstrated that occupational stress in submarines can be partially explained using current theories of stress in the workplace. However, the constraints of a restricted environment introduce additional factors which can also be associated with occupational stress.

  20. Measuring currents in submarine canyons: technological and scientific progress in the past 30 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J. P.

    2011-01-01

    The development and application of acoustic and optical technologies and of accurate positioning systems in the past 30 years have opened new frontiers in the submarine canyon research communities. This paper reviews several key advancements in both technology and science in the field of currents in submarine canyons since the1979 publication of Currents in Submarine Canyons and Other Sea Valleys by Francis Shepard and colleagues. Precise placements of high-resolution, high-frequency instruments have not only allowed researchers to collect new data that are essential for advancing and generalizing theories governing the canyon currents, but have also revealed new natural phenomena that challenge the understandings of the theorists and experimenters in their predictions of submarine canyon flow fields. Baroclinic motions at tidal frequencies, found to be intensified both up canyon and toward the canyon floor, dominate the flow field and control the sediment transport processes in submarine canyons. Turbidity currents are found to frequently occur in active submarine canyons such as Monterey Canyon. These turbidity currents have maximum speeds of nearly 200 cm/s, much smaller than the speeds of turbidity currents in geological time, but still very destructive. In addition to traditional Eulerian measurements, Lagrangian flow data are essential in quantifying water and sediment transport in submarine canyons. A concerted experiment with multiple monitoring stations along the canyon axis and on nearby shelves is required to characterize the storm-trigger mechanism for turbidity currents.

  1. TU-G-BRD-06: The Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core Houston (IROC Houston) QA Center International Activities Outside North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Followill, D; Kry, S; Molineu, A; Lowenstein, J; Alvarez, P; Taylor, P; Nguyen, H; Hernandez, N; Lujano, C; Nguyen, T; Keith, T; Roll, J; Tailor, A [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To describe the extent of IROC Houston’s (formerly the RPC) QA activities and audit results for radiotherapy institutions outside of North America (NA). Methods: The IROC Houston’s QA program components were designed to audit the radiation dose calculation chain from the NIST traceable reference beam calibration, to inclusion of dosimetry parameters used to calculate tumor doses, to the delivery of the radiation dose. The QA program provided to international institutions includes: 1) remote TLD/OSLD audit of machine output, 2) credentialing for advanced technologies, and 3) review of patient treatment records. IROC Houston uses the same standards and acceptance criteria for all of its audits whether for North American or international sites. Results: IROC Houston’s QA program has reached out to radiotherapy sites in 43 different countries since 2013 through their participation in clinical trials. In the past two years, 2,778 international megavoltage beam outputs were audited with OSLD/TLD. While the average IROC/Inst ratio is near unity for all sites monitored, there are international regions whose results are significantly different from the NA region. In the past 2 years, 477 and 87 IMRT H&N phantoms were irradiated at NA and international sites, respectively. Regardless of the OSLD beam audit results, the overall pass rate (87 percent) for all international sites (no region separation) is equal to the NA sites. Of the 182 international patient charts reviewed, 10.7 percent of the dose calculation points did not meet our acceptance criterion as compared to 13.6 percent for NA sites. The lower pass rate for NA sites results from a much larger brachytherapy component which has been shown to be more error prone. Conclusion: IROC Houston has expanded its QA services worldwide and continues a long history of improving radiotherapy dose delivery in many countries. Funding received for QA audit services from the Korean GOG, DAHANCA, EORTC, ICON and CMIC

  2. Prediction of nuclear submariner adaptability from autonomic indices and Rorschach Inkblot responses. Interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weybrew, B.B.; Molish, H.B.

    1986-09-09

    To identify the most valid predictors of submariner adaptability, the authors derived 23 indices from the responses of 170 nuclear submariners to the Rorschach Inkblot Test, 11 measures of Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) reactivity to contrived stress, and five adjustment criteria. Factor analysis of this 39x39 correlation matrix yielded two Rorschach Factors, one of which correlated with three criterion dimensions. Two unique factors were also discovered, one, a structured ANS factor, and the other, a complex criterion scale. Selected Rorschach scores and, to a lesser extent, certain ANS indices emanating from this study, may be usefully-valid predictors of the adaptability of nuclear submariners during long patrols.

  3. Marine litter in submarine canyons of the Bay of Biscay

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Beld, Inge M. J.; Guillaumont, Brigitte; Menot, Lénaïck; Bayle, Christophe; Arnaud-Haond, Sophie; Bourillet, Jean-François

    2017-11-01

    Marine litter is a matter of increasing concern worldwide, from shallow seas to the open ocean and from beaches to the deep-seafloor. Indeed, the deep sea may be the ultimate repository of a large proportion of litter in the ocean. We used footage acquired with a Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) and a towed camera to investigate the distribution and composition of litter in the submarine canyons of the Bay of Biscay. This bay contains many submarine canyons housing Vulnerable Marine Ecosystems (VMEs) such as scleractinian coral habitats. VMEs are considered to be important for fish and they increase the local biodiversity. The objectives of the study were to investigate and discuss: (i) litter density, (ii) the principal sources of litter, (iii) the influence of environmental factors on the distribution of litter, and (iv) the impact of litter on benthic communities. Litter was found in all 15 canyons and at three sites on the edge of the continental shelf/canyon, in 25 of 29 dives. The Belle-île and Arcachon Canyons contained the largest amounts of litter, up to 12.6 and 9.5 items per 100 images respectively. Plastic items were the most abundant (42%), followed by fishing-related items (16%). The litter had both a maritime and a terrestrial origin. The main sources could be linked to fishing activities, major shipping lanes and river discharges. Litter appeared to accumulate at water depths of 801-1100 m and 1401-1700 m. In the deeper of these two depth ranges, litter accumulated on a geologically structured area, accounting for its high frequency at this depth. A larger number of images taken in areas of coral in the shallower of these two depth ranges may account for the high frequency of litter detection at this depth. A larger number of litter items, including plastic objects in particular, were observed on geological structures and in coral areas than on areas of bare substratum. The distribution of fishing-related items was similar for the various types of

  4. Particle sedimentation and diffusive convection in submarine clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carazzo, G.; Jellinek, M.; Turchyn, A. V.

    2013-12-01

    The longevity of submarine plumes generated by the release of hydrothermal fluids during crustal rupturing or by the rapid cooling of an erupting lava flow constrains the input of crustal-derived elements into the deep-ocean. Decades of observations of episodic "event plumes" suggest that a key process governing the dynamics of a submarine cloud spreading out laterally from a buoyant rising plume is the production of internal layering. Here, we use geological data on submarine clouds and a new experimental apparatus producing at laboratory scale turbulent, hot particle-laden plumes and clouds to show that this layering occurs where particle diffusive convection driven by the differential diffusion of heat and small mineral precipitates gives rise to a large scale double diffusive instability. We show that this "particle diffusive convection" can extend the longevity of an event plume to two years after its emplacement, allowing iron-sulfide minerals to dissolve and deliver iron to the deep-ocean. The very long residence time imposed by diffusive convective effects does not allow iron-oxide minerals to dissolve but may lead to the formation of iron-rich sediments at large distances from the point of emission. We develop a new theoretical model that includes both sedimentation and dissolution processes to quantify the potential amount of iron produced by the dissolution of iron-sulfide minerals settling through the cloud by diffusive convection. A key prediction is that hydrothermal systems could provide 75% of the global budget of dissolved iron in the deep-ocean. The consideration of scale-basin variations suggests that the Southern Hemisphere is probably the most impacted by hydrothermal iron, consistent with observations and global ocean models. Photographs showing the typical evolution of a lab-scale turbulent, hot particle-laden plume. At stage 1, the buoyant plume reaches a level of neutral buoyancy and spreads out laterally forming a neutrally buoyant cloud

  5. Hawaiian submarine manganese-iron oxide crusts - A dating tool?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J.G.; Clague, D.A.

    2004-01-01

    Black manganese-iron oxide crusts form on most exposed rock on the ocean floor. Such crusts are well developed on the steep lava slopes of the Hawaiian Ridge and have been sampled during dredging and submersible dives. The crusts also occur on fragments detached from bedrock by mass wasting, on submerged coral reefs, and on poorly lithified sedimentary rocks. The thickness of the crusts was measured on samples collected since 1965 on the Hawaiian Ridge from 140 dive or dredge localities. Fifty-nine (42%) of the sites were collected in 2001 by remotely operated vehicles (ROVs). The thinner crusts on many samples apparently result from post-depositional breakage, landsliding, and intermittent burial of outcrops by sediment. The maximum crust thickness was selected from each dredge or dive site to best represent crusts on the original rock surface at that site. The measurements show an irregular progressive thickening of the crusts toward the northwest-i.e., progressive thickening toward the older volcanic features with increasing distance from the Hawaiian hotspot. Comparison of the maximum crust thickness with radiometric ages of related subaerial features supports previous studies that indicate a crust-growth rate of about 2.5 mm/m.y. The thickness information not only allows a comparison of the relative exposure ages of two or more features offshore from different volcanoes, but also provides specific age estimates of volcanic and landslide deposits. The data indicate that some of the landslide blocks within the south Kona landslide are the oldest exposed rock on Mauna Loa, Kilauea, or Loihi volcanoes. Crusts on the floors of submarine canyons off Kohala and East Molokai volcanoes indicate that these canyons are no longer serving as channelways for downslope, sediment-laden currents. Mahukona volcano was approximately synchronous with Hilo Ridge, both being younger than Hana Ridge. The Nuuanu landslide is considerably older than the Wailau landslide. The Waianae

  6. Newly recognized submarine slide complexes in the southern California Bight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, J. E.; Lee, H. J.; Edwards, B. D.; McGann, M.; Sliter, R. W.

    2012-12-01

    New high-resolution bathymetric and seismic-reflection surveys have imaged large (7) individual overlapping slides along the western margin of Santa Cruz Basin (SCB slide); 2) a series of slumps and slide scars on the slope south of San Pedro shelf (SPS slide); and 3) a slope failure along the shelf edge in northern San Diego County, termed the Del Mar slide. The SCB slide complex extends for 30 km along the western slope of Santa Cruz Basin, with debris lobes extending 5-8 km into the basin. Head scarps of some of these slides are 50-75 m high. The SPS slide complex also appears to consist of multiple slides, which roughly parallel the Palos Verdes Fault and the San Gabriel Canyon submarine channel on the shelf edge and slope south of San Pedro shelf. Slide deposits associated with this complex are only partially mapped due to limited high-resolution bathymetric coverage, but extend to the south in the area SW of Lasuen Knoll. Seismic-reflection profiles show that some of these deposits are up to 20 m thick. The Del Mar slide is located about 10 km north of La Jolla Canyon and extends about 6 km along the shelf edge. The head scarp lies along the trend of a branch of the Rose Canyon Fault Zone. Radiocarbon ages of sediment overlying this slide indicate the Del Mar slide is approximately 12-16 ka. These large slide complexes have several characteristics in common. Nearly all occur in areas of tectonic uplift. All of the complexes show evidence of recurrent slide activity, exhibiting multiple headwall scarps and debris lobes, and where available, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles of these slide areas provide evidence of older, buried mass transport deposits. Assuming typical sedimentation rates, the recurrence interval of major slide events appears to be on the order of tens of thousands of years. Most of the slide complexes do not appear to be located in areas of high sediment input. The SCB and Del Mar slides are in areas receiving relatively small

  7. Multi-scale evaluations of submarine groundwater discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Taniguchi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Multi-scale evaluations of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD have been made in Saijo, Ehime Prefecture, Shikoku Island, Japan, by using seepage meters for point scale, 222Rn tracer for point and coastal scales, and a numerical groundwater model (SEAWAT for coastal and basin scales. Daily basis temporal changes in SGD are evaluated by continuous seepage meter and 222Rn mooring measurements, and depend on sea level changes. Spatial evaluations of SGD were also made by 222Rn along the coast in July 2010 and November 2011. The area with larger 222Rn concentration during both seasons agreed well with the area with larger SGD calculated by 3D groundwater numerical simulations.

  8. Characterizing the fabric of the urban environment: A case study of Greater Houston, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, Leanna Shea; Akbari, Hashem; Taha, Haider

    2003-01-15

    In this report, the materials and various surface types that comprise a city are referred to as the ''urban fabric.'' Urban fabric data are needed in order to estimate the impact of light-colored surfaces (roofs and pavements) and urban vegetation (trees, grass, shrubs) on the meteorology and air quality of a city, and to design effective urban environmental implementation programs. We discuss the results of a semi-automatic Monte-Carlo statistical approach used to develop data on surface-type distribution and city-fabric makeup (percentage of various surface-types) using aerial color orthophotography. The digital aerial photographs for Houston covered a total of about 52 km2 (20 mi2). At 0.30-m resolution, there were approximately 5.8 x 108 pixels of data. Four major land-use types were examined: (1) commercial, (2) industrial, (3) educational, and (4) residential. On average, for the regions studied, vegetation covers about 39 percent of the area, roofs cover about 21 percent, and paved surfaces cover about 29 percent. For the most part, trees shade streets, parking lots, grass, and sidewalks. At ground level, i.e., view from below the vegetation canopies, paved surfaces cover about 32 percent of the study area. GLOBEIS model data from University of Texas and land-use/land-cover (LULC) information from the United States Geological Survey (USGS) were used to extrapolate these results from neighborhood scales to Greater Houston. It was found that in an area of roughly 3,430 km2, defining most of Greater Houston, over 56 percent is residential. The total roof area is about 740 km2, and the total paved surface area (roads, parking areas, sidewalks) covers about 1000 km2. Vegetation covers about 1,320 km2.

  9. Cumulative cancer risk from air pollution in Houston: disparities in risk burden and social disadvantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Stephen H; Marko, Dritana; Sexton, Ken

    2008-06-15

    Air toxics are of particular concern in Greater Houston, home to one of the world's largest petrochemical complexes and a quarter ofthe nation's refining capacity. Much of this complex lies along a navigable ship channel that flows 50 miles from east of the central business district through Galveston Bay and into the Gulf of Mexico. Numerous communities, including both poor and affluent neighborhoods, are located in close proximity to the 200 facilities along this channel. Our aim is to examine the spatial distribution of cumulative, air-pollution-related cancer risks in Houston and Harris County, with particular emphasis on identifying ethnic, economic, and social disparities. We employ exposure estimates from NATA-1999 and census data to assess whether the cumulative cancer risks from air toxics in Houston (and Harris County) fall disproportionately on certain ethnicities and on the socially and economically disadvantaged. The cancer risk burden across Harris County census tracts increases with the proportion of residents who are Hispanic and with key indicators of relative social disadvantage. Aggregate disadvantage grows at each higher level of cancer risk. The highest cancer risk in Harris County is concentrated along a corridor flanking the ship channel. These high-risk neighborhoods, however, vary markedly in relative disadvantage, as well as in emission source mix. Much of the risk they face appears to be driven by only a few hazardous air pollutants. Results provide evidence of risk disparities from hazardous air pollution based on ethnicity and social disadvantage. At the highest levels of risk the pattern is more complex, arguing for a neighborhood level of analysis, especially when proximity to high-emissions industries is a substantial contributor to cumulative cancer risk.

  10. MO-F-CAMPUS-T-01: IROC Houston QA Center’s Anthropomorphic Proton Phantom Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lujano, C; Hernandez, N; Keith, T; Nguyen, T; Taylor, P; Molineu, A; Followill, D [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To describe the proton phantoms that IROC Houston uses to approve and credential proton institutions to participate in NCI-sponsored clinical trials. Methods: Photon phantoms cannot necessarily be used for proton measurements because protons react differently than photons in some plastics. As such plastics that are tissue equivalent for protons were identified. Another required alteration is to ensure that the film dosimeters are housed in the phantom with no air gap to avoid proton streaming. Proton-equivalent plastics/materials used include RMI Solid Water, Techron HPV, blue water, RANDO soft tissue material, balsa wood, compressed cork and polyethylene. Institutions wishing to be approved or credentialed request a phantom and are prioritized for delivery. At the institution, the phantom is imaged, a treatment plan is developed, positioned on the treatment couch and the treatment is delivered. The phantom is returned and the measured dose distributions are compared to the institution’s electronically submitted treatment plan dosimetry data. Results: IROC Houston has developed an extensive proton phantom approval/credentialing program consisting of five different phantoms designs: head, prostate, lung, liver and spine. The phantoms are made with proton equivalent plastics that have HU and relative stopping powers similar (within 5%) of human tissues. They also have imageable targets, avoidance structures, and heterogeneities. TLD and radiochromic film are contained in the target structures. There have been 13 head, 33 prostate, 18 lung, 2 liver and 16 spine irradiations with either passive scatter, or scanned proton beams. The pass rates have been: 100%, 69.7%, 72.2%, 50%, and 81.3%, respectively. Conclusion: IROC Houston has responded to the recent surge in proton facilities by developing a family of anthropomorphic phantoms that are able to be used for remote audits of proton beams. Work supported by PHS grant CA10953 and CA081647.

  11. Risk assessment in submarine outfall projects: the case of Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, Ana; Losada, Miguel Ángel; Reis, Maria Teresa; Neves, Maria Graça

    2013-02-15

    Submarine outfalls need to be evaluated as part of an integrated environmental protection system for coastal areas. Although outfalls are tight with the diversity of economic activities along a densely populated coastline being effluent treatment and effluent reuse a sign of economic prosperity, precautions must be taken in the construction of these structures. They must be designed so as to have the least possible impact on the environment and at the same time be economically viable. This paper outlines the initial phases of a risk assessment procedure for submarine outfall projects. This approach includes a cost-benefit analysis in which risks are systematically minimized or eliminated. The methods used in this study also allow for randomness and uncertainty. The input for the analysis is a wide range of information and data concerning the failure probability of outfalls and the consequences of an operational stoppage or failure. As part of this risk assessment, target design levels of reliability, functionality, and operationality were defined for the outfalls. These levels were based on an inventory of risks associated with such construction projects, and thus afforded the possibility of identifying possible failure modes. This assessment procedure was then applied to four case studies in Portugal. The results obtained were the values concerning the useful life of the outfalls at the four sites and their joint probability of failure against the principal failure modes assigned to ultimate and serviceability limit states. Also defined were the minimum operationality of these outfalls, the average number of admissible technical breakdowns, and the maximum allowed duration of a stoppage mode. It was found that these values were in consonance with the nature of the effluent (tourist-related, industrial, or mixed) as well as its importance for the local economy. Even more important, this risk assessment procedure was able to measure the impact of the outfalls on

  12. Imaging deformation in submarine thrust belts using seismic attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacopini, David; Butler, Robert W. H.

    2011-02-01

    Uncertainty exists as to the patterns of deformation that develop within submarine thrust belts. This case study uses a large-scale gravity-driven fold-thrust structure as an analogue for submarine fold thrust systems in general. Seismic attribute analysis and mapping provide ways of identifying complex fault patterns and associated deformation that are otherwise unresolved in conventional amplitude displays. These methods are developed and applied to a 3D dataset and used to investigate the geometry, internal architecture and the nature of the low signal/noise incoherency and discontinuities observed on the km-scale. Semblance (coherency), curvatures and spectral decomposition were all computed and used as attributes. Collectively these define volumes within the seismic data where the signal is greatly reduced — features termed here "disturbance geobodies". The study shows that thrust faults that, on conventional amplitude displays appear to be simple and continuous, are likely to consist of complex arrays of anastamosing fault strands. Adjacent to these composite fault zones are greater volumes of deformed rocks (disturbance geobodies) across which there are only minor stratal offsets. Similarly volumes of high stratal curvature coincide with disturbance geobodies, again interpreted as zones of weak, distributed deformation. These relationships between narrow thrust faults and broader zones of deformation are broadly comparable to those observed in outcrops within exhumed thrust systems. Application of the seismic imaging techniques developed here will improve the understanding of the localization of deformation in sedimentary successions with important implications for predicting fluid flow within other deep water structures such as subduction accretion complexes.

  13. Geo-hazard by sediment mass movements in submarine canyons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaith, Afif; Fakhri, Milad; Ivaldi, Roberta; Ciavola, Paolo

    2017-04-01

    Submarine mass movements and their consequences are of major concern for coastal communities and infrastructures but also for the exploitation and the development of seafloor resources. Elevated awareness of the need for better understanding of the underwater mass movement is coupled with great advances in underwater mapping technologies over the past two decades. The seafloor in the Nahr Ibrahim and Saida regions (Lebanon) is characterized by deep canyons, reaching one thousand meters depths in proximity of the coast. Signs of submarine mass movement instability related to these canyons create a connection between shallow and deep water. The presence of these canyons in a tectonically active area generates a particular drained mechanism to the sediment in form of mass movement and slumping. Identification of potential areas where slope movements could be triggered requires data with high spatial resolution. Since this area is poorly explored, in the framework of an international project between Lebanese Navy, Lebanese National Center for Marine Sciences, University of Ferrara and Italian Hydrographic Institute, we analyse the morpho-bathymetric and sedimentological characters of the coastal and shelf sectors. Multibeam echosounder and sub-bottom profiler acoustic systems calibrated with ground truths (sediment grab and core samples) allow us to characterize the nature of seafloor and sub-seafloor with particular detail to the geotechnical properties of sediments and high resolution seismic stratigraphy of the shallow layers. The detection of particular undersea features provides detail maps which are in support to littoral morpho-dynamics, coastal transport and sediment budget. Multilayer hydro-oceanographic map, referring to the seafloor dynamics in connection with deep water environment and drainage system, in accordance to the International Hydrographic Standards and nautical supports, are produced. This high resolution multibeam bathymetry dataset, integrated

  14. Best Practices Case Study: David Weekley Homes - Eagle Springs and Waterhaven, Houston, TX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2011-04-01

    Case study describing David Weekley Homes, Houston Division, has qualified more than 1,240 homes for the DOE Builders Challenge. Advanced framed 2x6 walls with open headers and two-stud corners allow more room for R-20 damp sprayed cellulose wall cavity insulation that is covered with R-5 rigid XPS foam. A radiant barrier cuts heat gain in the R-38 insulated vented attics. Draft stopping at fireplace and duct chases and behind tubs, gluing sheetrock to framing, and extensive caulking make for air-tight homes at 3.0 ACH50.

  15. Supply Chain Strategies for the International Interoceanic Mazatlan-Houston Logistic Corridor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. de la O

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Describe the interoceanic Mazatlan-Houston Logistic Corridor (MHLC as an alternative route to create sustainable competitive advantages for Mexican, USA, and international firms competing in an international marketplace. Taking into account the competitive advantages of utilizing this corridor for international trade, we analyze supply chain strategies for Mexican and international companies demanding economical logistic solutions in this region. It was found that the MHLC benefits efficient industry segments with demand well known in advance. It was also found that the potential of both inbound and outbound container traffic to the Asia-Pacific marketplace along this international commerce corridor fluctuates between 39,000 and 761,000 TEU's.

  16. Characterizing spatial variability of air pollution from vehicle traffic around the Houston Ship Channel area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xueying; Craft, Elena; Zhang, Kai

    2017-07-01

    Mobile emissions are a major source of urban air pollution and have been associated with a variety of adverse health outcomes. The Houston Ship Channel area is the home of a large number of diesel-powered vehicles emitting fine particulate matter (PM2.5; ≤2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). However, the spatial variability of traffic-related air pollutants in the Houston Ship Channel area has rarely been investigated. The objective of this study is to characterize spatial variability of PM2.5 and NOx concentrations attributable to on-road traffic in the Houston Ship Channel area in the year of 2011. We extracted the road network from the Texas Department of Transportation Road Inventory, and calculated emission rates using the Motor Vehicle Emission Simulator version 2014a (MOVES2014a). These parameters and preprocessed meteorological parameters were entered into a Research LINE-source Dispersion Model (RLINE) to conduct a simulation. Receptors were placed at 50 m resolution within 300 m to major roads and at 150 m resolution in the rest of the area. Our findings include that traffic-related PM2.5 were mainly emitted from trucks, while traffic-related NOx were emitted from both trucks and cars. The traffic contributed 0.90 μg/m3 PM2.5 and 29.23 μg/m3 NOx to the annual average mass concentrations of on-road air pollution, and the concentrations of the two pollutants decreased by nearly 40% within 500 m distance to major roads. The pollution level of traffic-related PM2.5 and NOx was higher in winter than those in the other three seasons. The Houston Ship Channel has earlier morning peak hours and relative late afternoon hours, which indicates the influence of goods movement from port activity. The varied near-road gradients illustrate that proximities to major roads are not an accurate surrogate of traffic-related air pollution.

  17. Atmospheric oxidation chemistry and ozone production: Results from SHARP 2009 in Houston, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xinrong; van Duin, Diana; Cazorla, Maria; Chen, Shuang; Mao, Jingqiu; Zhang, Li; Brune, William H.; Flynn, James H.; Grossberg, Nicole; Lefer, Barry L.; Rappenglück, Bernhard; Wong, Kam W.; Tsai, Catalina; Stutz, Jochen; Dibb, Jack E.; Thomas Jobson, B.; Luke, Winston T.; Kelley, Paul

    2013-06-01

    Ozone (O3) and secondary fine particles come from the atmospheric oxidation chemistry that involves the hydroxyl radical (OH) and hydroperoxyl radical (HO2), which are together called HOx. Radical precursors such as nitrous acid (HONO) and formaldehyde (HCHO) significantly affect the HOx budget in urban environments. These chemical processes connect surface anthropogenic and natural emissions to local and regional air pollution. Using the data collected during the Study of Houston Atmospheric Radical Precursors (SHARP) in spring 2009, we examine atmospheric oxidation chemistry and O3 production in this polluted urban environment. A numerical box model with five different chemical mechanisms was used to simulate the oxidation processes and thus OH and HO2 in this study. In general, the model reproduced the measured OH and HO2 with all five chemical mechanisms producing similar levels of OH and HO2, although midday OH was overpredicted and nighttime OH and HO2 were underpredicted. The calculated HOx production was dominated by HONO photolysis in the early morning and by the photolysis of O3 and oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) in the midday. On average, the daily HOx production rate was 24.6 ppbv d-1, of which 30% was from O3 photolysis, 22% from HONO photolysis, 15% from the photolysis of OVOCs (other than HCHO), 14% from HCHO photolysis, and 13% from O3 reactions with alkenes. The O3 production was sensitive to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the early morning but was sensitive to NOx for most of afternoon. This is similar to the behavior observed in two previous summertime studies in Houston: the Texas Air Quality Study in 2000 (TexAQS 2000) and the TexAQS II Radical and Aerosol Measurement Project in 2006 (TRAMP 2006). Ozone production in SHARP exhibits a longer NOx-sensitive period than TexAQS 2000 and TRAMP 2006, indicating that NOx control may be an efficient approach for the O3 control in springtime for Houston. Results from this study

  18. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: Durable Energy Builders - Houston, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-11-01

    This case study describes a DOE Zero Energy Ready Home in Houston, Texas, that scored HERS 39 without PV and HERS 29 with PV. This 5,947 ft2 custom home has 11.5-inch ICF walls. The attic is insulated along the roof line with 5 to 7 inches of open-cell spray foam. Most of the home's drinking water is supplied by a 11,500-gallon rainwater cistern. Hurricane strapping connects the roof to the walls. The triple-pane windows are impact resistant. The foundation is a raised slab.

  19. Did a "lucky shot" sink the submarine H.L. Hunley?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance, Rachel M; Warder, Henry; Bass, Cameron R Dale

    2017-01-01

    The H.L. Hunley was the first submarine to be successful in combat, sinking the Union vessel Housatonic outside Charleston Harbor in 1864 during the Civil War. However, despite marking a milestone in military history, little is known about this vessel or why it sank. One popular theory is the "lucky shot" theory: the hypothesis that small arms fire from the crew of the Housatonic may have sufficiently damaged the submarine to sink it. However, ballistic experiments with cast iron samples, analysis of historical experiments firing Civil War-era projectiles at cast iron samples, and calculation of the tidal currents and sinking trajectory of the submarine indicate that this theory is not likely. Based on our results, the "lucky shot" theory does not explain the sinking of the world's first successful combat submarine. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. The impact of glacier geometry on meltwater plume structure and submarine melt in Greenland fjords

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carroll, D.; Sutherland, D. A.; Hudson, B.; Moon, T.; Catania, G. A.; Shroyer, E. L.; Nash, J. D.; Bartholomaus, T. C.; Felikson, D.; Stearns, L. A.; Noël, B. P Y; van den Broeke, M. R.

    2016-01-01

    Meltwater from the Greenland Ice Sheet often drains subglacially into fjords, driving upwelling plumes at glacier termini. Ocean models and observations of submarine termini suggest that plumes enhance melt and undercutting, leading to calving and potential glacier destabilization. Here we

  1. An Analysis of the Effectiveness of a New Watchstanding Schedule for U.S. Submariners

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Osborn, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    A need exists within the U.S. submarine force to employ an operational schedule that provides more sleep and that is in better alignment with human circadian rhythms, thus improving cognitive effectiveness...

  2. Fuel cell systems for submarines: from the first idea to serial production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psoma, Angela; Sattler, Gunter

    The future submarines of Howaldtswerke-Deutsche Werft AG (HDW) will be equipped with fuel cell power plants for air independent propulsion. In the 1970s the decision for a fuel cell system on submarines was made. Tests in the 1980s confirmed the feasibility of fuel cells on submarines. Positive development results in the 1990s led to series production of fuel cell equipped submarines, which will be in operation from 2003 onwards. Strictly controlled development work was necessary to reach the goal of series production. The train of thought behind this process of development is described in this paper starting with the initial idea and ending with the description of the serial production of the fuel cell power plant. The future outlook gives an impression of current development work.

  3. Submarine Warfare in the 20th & 21st Centuries: A Bibliography

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Huygen, Michaele

    2003-01-01

    There are constant motions in the sea caused by atmospheric and seabed activities volcanic disruptions marine animals ships and submarines -- all of which create what is called the ambient noise level of the oceans...

  4. The risk of hydrogen explosion in a submarine p. IV The implementation of high risk projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kłos Ryszard

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This series of articles on high risk projects looks at the example of the modernisation of hydrogen incinerators on a submarine. The article describes problems connected with the management of such a project.

  5. Volume transport data from a submarine cable in the Florida Strait in 2014 (NODC Accession 0125429)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Daily mean and raw voltage volume transport data of the Florida Current collected with a submarine cable spanning from South Florida to the Grand Bahama Island in...

  6. A Statistical Analysis of the Impact of Marital Status on Nuclear Submarine Officer Retention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Phelps, Matthew

    2001-01-01

    This thesis develops multivariate logit models to estimate the impact of marital status and the independent effect of dependent children on nuclear submarine officer retention beyond the minimum service requirement (MSR...

  7. Observations of nearshore groundwater discharge: Kahekili Beach Park submarine springs, Maui, Hawaii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.W. Swarzenski

    2017-06-01

    New hydrological insights for the region: Estimates of submarine groundwater discharge were derived for a primary vent site and surrounding coastal waters off west Maui, Hawaii using an excess 222Rn (t1/2 = 3.8 d mass balance model. Such estimates were complemented with a novel thoron (220Rn, t1/2 = 56 s groundwater discharge tracer application, as well as oceanographic time series and thermal infrared imagery analyses. In combination, this suite of techniques provides new insight into the connectivity of the coastal aquifer with the near-shore ocean and examines the physical drivers of submarine groundwater discharge. Lastly, submarine groundwater discharge derived constituent concentrations were tabulated and compared to surrounding seawater concentrations. Such work has implications for the management of coastal aquifers and downstream nearshore ecosystems that respond to sustained constituent loadings via this submarine route.

  8. Dance With the One That Brought You: Revitalizing Antisubmarine Warfare to Counter Chinese Diesel Submarines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Farrell, Richard

    2003-01-01

    .... Navy needs to revitalize ASW, or risk losing the ability to gain sea control in strategic areas of the East Asian Littoral and South China Sea due to a rising Chinese diesel-electric submarine threat...

  9. Submarine Upward Looking Sonar Ice Draft Profile Data and Statistics, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set consists of upward looking sonar sea ice draft data collected by submarines in the Arctic Ocean. It includes data from both U.S. Navy and Royal Navy...

  10. Navy Trident Submarine Conversion (SSGN) Program: Background and Issues for Congress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Rourke, Ronald

    2005-01-01

    ...) into cruisemissile- carrying and special operations forces (SOF) support submarines (SSGNs). The total estimated cost of the program, which has been increasing over time, is now $4,018 million...

  11. Solid Shield 󈨓 Common-User Dial Communications, Application of Telephone Switchboard SB-3614(V)/TT Aboard USS SHREVEPORT (LPD 12) for Direct-Dial Ship-Shore Radio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    Determine immediately whether or not the SB-3614(V)/TT is to be used aboard USS MT WHITNEY for Solid Shield 󈨔. If it is, determine the specific...BRAGG50 RADIO4V~r RADIO OUCH-ONE RECEVEY RECEIER TE EPOC TAANMTTERTRA13I TA RT-N/VRCRT524VR LOOPR TELEPHON FLAGDI RADI FLAGC-9 SECR -9 OP-SDCABL...Immediately determine whether or not the SB-3614(V)/TT is to be used aboard USS MT WHITNEY for Solid Shield 󈨔. If it is, determine the specific sizing

  12. Multi-core Fibers in Submarine Networks for High-Capacity Undersea Transmission Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nooruzzaman, Md; Morioka, Toshio

    2017-01-01

    Application of multi-core fibers in undersea networks for high-capacity submarine transmission systems is studied. It is demonstrated how different architectures of submerged branching unit affect network component counts in long-haul undersea transmission systems......Application of multi-core fibers in undersea networks for high-capacity submarine transmission systems is studied. It is demonstrated how different architectures of submerged branching unit affect network component counts in long-haul undersea transmission systems...

  13. They Have Not Yet Begun to Fight: Women in the United States Navy Submarine Fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-11

    Navy Nurse Corps in 1908. The Nurse Corps was highly educated for the time and maintained high professional standards.3 Regardless, the struggle to...nation’s navies who integrated women into their submarine fleets ahead of the U.S. Navy. Norway, Sweden , Australian, and Great Britain all...Nations such as Norway and Sweden have been incorporating females into their submarines since the mid-1980s. 39 Sweden has had female sailors

  14. The Close Aboard Bastion: a Soviet ballistic missile submarine deployment strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Kreitler, Walter M

    1988-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis describes and analyzes a possible deployment posture for the Soviet ballistic missile submarine force. It examines the proposition that the Soviet Navy will establish a point defense, labeled "Close Aboard Bastions" (CABs), for its ballistic missile submarine fleet within the Soviet claimed 12 nautical mile territorial sea. This is a logical derivation of the currently widely held view that the Soviets will estab...

  15. Submarine channel evolution linked to rising salt domes, Gulf of Mexico, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Rachel C.; Gani, M. Royhan; Roesler, Toby; Sarwar, Abu K. M.

    2016-08-01

    An examination of halokinetics and channel evolution together in a deepwater system provides an opportunity to investigate how submarine channel morphology is locally affected by rising salt domes. The study area is located in the northern Gulf of Mexico (GOM), directly off the Louisiana continental slope in a prominent salt dome region. The influence of salt growth on submarine channel evolution is relatively understudied, particularly in the GOM. Utilizing high-resolution 3D seismic and well data and seismic geomorphology techniques, a long-lived (~ 3 Myr) Plio-Pleistocene submarine channel system has been investigated to show a relationship between variable phases of salt motion and planform morphology of preserved submarine channels. Our data suggest that local salt motion acts as a driver for submarine channel evolution. During the late Pliocene, when salt moved upward at a relatively fast rate, channels show distinct entrenchment with narrow channel belts and overall less sinuosity. When salt motion slowed down at the beginning of the Pleistocene, channels aggraded rapidly with preserved levees, and moved toward an equilibrium state with the expansion of channel belt widths. As our results indicate, the rate of salt diapirism exerted a first-order control on channel location and morphology and distribution of reservoir-prone units. This study cautions against readily invoking allogenic factors (e.g., sea level and climate) in explaining changes in submarine channel behavior and associated fan sedimentation, particularly in regions with salt tectonics.

  16. Observations of nearshore groundwater discharge: Kahekili Beach Park submarine springs, Maui, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swarzenski, Peter W.; Dulai, H.; Kroeger, K.D.; Smith, C.G.; Dimova, N.; Storlazzi, C. D.; Prouty, N.G.; Gingerich, S.B.; Glenn, C. R.

    2016-01-01

    Study regionThe study region encompasses the nearshore, coastal waters off west Maui, Hawaii. Here abundant groundwater—that carries with it a strong land-based fingerprint—discharges into the coastal waters and over a coral reef.Study focusCoastal groundwater discharge is a ubiquitous hydrologic feature that has been shown to impact nearshore ecosystems and material budgets. A unique combined geochemical tracer and oceanographic time-series study addressed rates and oceanic forcings of submarine groundwater discharge at a submarine spring site off west Maui, Hawaii.New hydrological insights for the regionEstimates of submarine groundwater discharge were derived for a primary vent site and surrounding coastal waters off west Maui, Hawaii using an excess 222Rn (t1/2 = 3.8 d) mass balance model. Such estimates were complemented with a novel thoron (220Rn,t1/2 = 56 s) groundwater discharge tracer application, as well as oceanographic time series and thermal infrared imagery analyses. In combination, this suite of techniques provides new insight into the connectivity of the coastal aquifer with the near-shore ocean and examines the physical drivers of submarine groundwater discharge. Lastly, submarine groundwater discharge derived constituent concentrations were tabulated and compared to surrounding seawater concentrations. Such work has implications for the management of coastal aquifers and downstream nearshore ecosystems that respond to sustained constituent loadings via this submarine route.

  17. Designing a low-cost pollution prevention plan to pay off at the University of Houston.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialowas, Yurika Diaz; Sullivan, Emmett C; Schneller, Robert D

    2006-09-01

    The University of Houston is located just south of downtown Houston, TX. Many different chemical substances are used in scientific research and teaching activities throughout the campus. These activities generate a significant amount of waste materials that must be discarded as regulated hazardous waste per U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) rules. The Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) is the state regulatory agency that has enforcement authority for EPA hazardous waste rules in Texas. Currently, the University is classified as a large quantity generator and generates >1000 kg per month of hazardous waste. In addition, the University has experienced a major surge in research activities during the past several years, and overall the quantity of the hazardous waste generated has increased. The TCEQ requires large quantity generators to prepare a 5-yr Pollution Prevention (P2) Plan, which describes efforts to eliminate or minimize the amount of hazardous waste generated. This paper addresses the design and development of a low-cost P2 plan with minimal implementation obstacles and strong payoff potentials for the University. The projects identified can be implemented with existing University staff resources. This benefits the University by enhancing its environmental compliance efforts, and the disposal cost savings can be used for other purposes. Other educational institutions may benefit by undertaking a similar process.

  18. Houston-Galveston Bay area, Texas, from space; a new tool for mapping land subsidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stork, Sylvia V.; Sneed, Michelle

    2002-01-01

    Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) is a powerful new tool that uses radar signals to measure displacement (subsidence and uplift) of the Earth's crust at an unprecedented level of spatial detail and high degree of measurement resolution.The Houston-Galveston Bay area, possibly more than any other metropolitan area in the United States, has been adversely affected by land subsidence. Extensive subsidence, caused mainly by ground-water pumping but also by oil and gas extraction, has increased the frequency of flooding, caused extensive damage to industrial and transportation infrastructure, motivated major investments in levees, reservoirs, and surfacewater distribution facilities, and caused substantial loss of wetland habitat. Ongoing patterns of subsidence in the Houston area have been carefully monitored using borehole extensometers, Global Positioning System (GPS) and conventional spirit-leveling surveys, and more recently, an emerging technology—Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR)—which enables development of spatially-detailed maps of land-surface displacement over broad areas. This report, prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, briefly summarizes the history of subsidence in the area and the local consequences of subsidence and describes the use of InSAR as one of several tools in an integrated subsidence-monitoring program in the area.

  19. The IROC Houston Quality Assurance Program: Potential benefits of 3D dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Followill, D. S.; Molineu, H. A.; Lafratta, R.; Ibbott, G. S.

    2017-05-01

    The IROC Houston QA Center has provided QA core support for NCI clinical trials by ensuring that radiation doses delivered to trial patients are accurate and comparable between participating institutions. Within its QA program, IROC Houston uses anthropomorphic QA phantoms to credential sites. It is these phantoms that have the highest potential to benefit from the use of 3D dosimeters. Credentialing is performed to verify that institutions that are using advanced technologies to deliver complex treatment plans that conform to targets. This makes it increasingly difficult to assure the intended calculated dose is being delivered correctly using current techniques that are 2D-based. A 3D dosimeter such as PRESAGE® is able to provide a complete 3D measured dosimetry dataset with one treatment plan delivery. In our preliminary studies, the 3D dosimeters in our H&N and spine phantoms were found to be appropriate for remote dosimetry for relative dose measurements. To implement 3D dosimetry in IROC Houston’s phantoms, the benefit of this significant change to its current infrastructure would have to be assessed and further work would be needed before bringing 3D dosimeters into the phantom dosimetry program.

  20. Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Characteristics Over Houston, TX: 1989-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiger, S. M.; Orville, R. E.

    2001-12-01

    Cloud-to-Ground (CG) lightning detected by the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN) indicates a relatively high flash density over Houston, Texas for the twelve-year period 1989-2000. A significant enhancement of 45% in the flash density is observed compared to the nearby surrounding areas. The strength of the enhancement varies based on season and time-of-day, with the greatest increases occurring during the summer (58%), and during the 0900-1800 LST time periods in each season. Observations indicate that large lightning events (defined as days with > 1,000 flashes in a geographic region that includes Houston and nearby rural areas) were responsible for the climatological lightning anomaly, and that increased thunderstorm initiation was not the most significant cause of the enhancement. A decrease (-12%) in the percentage of positive flashes is observed over the city. Higher negative median peak currents along the coast and well into the Gulf of Mexico were also discovered. Several explanations for our observations are suggested. The urban heat island and increased cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations, especially from industrial pollution, are shown to be significant factors in creating lightning enhancement. Pollution effects are speculated to cause a change in a thunderstorm's charge distribution, which can affect the polarity of CG flashes. The potential effect of the nearby coastal Gulf salt water on the measured peak current is examined.

  1. Cloud-to-ground lightning characteristics over Houston, Texas: 1989-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiger, Scott M.; Orville, Richard E.; Huffines, Gary

    2002-06-01

    Cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning detected by the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN) indicates a relatively high flash density over Houston, Texas, for the 12-year period 1989-2000. A significant enhancement of 45% in the flash density is observed compared to the nearby surrounding areas. The strength of the enhancement varies on the basis of season and time of day, with the greatest increases occurring during the summer (58%) and during the 0900-1800 LT time periods in each season. Observations indicate that large lightning events (defined as days with >100 flashes in a geographic region that includes Houston and nearby rural areas) were responsible for the climatological lightning anomaly and that increased thunderstorm initiation was not the most significant cause of the enhancement. A decrease (-12%) in the percentage of positive flashes is observed over the city. Higher negative median peak currents along the coast and well into the Gulf of Mexico were also discovered. Several explanations for our observations are suggested. The urban heat island and increased cloud condensation nuclei concentrations, especially from industrial pollution, are speculated to be significant factors in creating lightning enhancement. Pollution effects are speculated to cause a change in a thunderstorm's charge distribution, which can affect the polarity of CG flashes. The potential effect of the nearby coastal Gulf salt water on the calculated peak current is examined. Variations in multiplicity values across the region are observed but not explained.

  2. Injuries after Hurricane Katrina among Gulf Coast Evacuees sheltered in Houston, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faul, Mark; Weller, Nancy F; Jones, Julie A

    2011-09-01

    After Hurricane Katrina and a decline in the living conditions at a major temporary shelter in New Orleans, Louisiana, residents were offered transport to a Mega-Shelter in Houston, Texas. Approximately 200,000 Gulf Coast residents were transported to Houston's Astrodome/Reliant Center Complex for appropriate triage and transfer to other shelter facilities. The Katrina Clinic was quickly organized to treat evacuees with acute injuries and illnesses as well as chronic medical conditions. Clinic physicians documented 1130 hurricane-related injuries during Katrina Clinic's operational interval, September 1-22, 2005. This article documents the nature, extent, and location of injuries treated at that clinic. We compare the frequency of injury among Katrina evacuees who visited the clinic to that of injuries among clinic outpatient records recorded in a nationally representative database. Using the Barell Matrix system and codes from the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, we classify Katrina injuries by body region and nature of injury; we also document the large number of hurricane-related immunizations distributed at the temporary outpatient clinic. The results show a 42% higher injury proportion among Katrina evacuees and that approximately half of all of the evacuees required immunizations. Lower leg extremity injuries were among the most frequent injuries. Future planning for hurricanes should take into account nonfatal injuries requiring medical treatment and other supportive care. Copyright © 2011 Emergency Nurses Association. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Chagas Disease Knowledge and Risk Behaviors of the Homeless Population in Houston, TX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingber, Alexandra; Garcia, Melissa N; Leon, Juan; Murray, Kristy O

    2017-05-31

    Chagas disease is a parasitic infection, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, endemic in Latin America. Sylvatic T. cruzi-infected triatomine vectors are present in rural and urban areas in the southern USA and may transmit T. cruzi infection to at-risk populations, such as homeless individuals. Our study aimed to evaluate Chagas disease knowledge and behaviors potentially associated with transmission risk of Chagas disease among Houston, Texas' homeless population by performing interviews with 212 homeless individuals. The majority of the 212 surveyed homeless individuals were male (79%), African-American (43%), American-born individuals (96%). About 30% of the individuals reported having seen triatomines in Houston, and 25% had evidence of blood-borne transmission risk (IV drug use and/or unregulated tattoos). The median total time homeless was significantly associated with recognition of the triatomine vector. Our survey responses indicate that the homeless populations may exhibit potential risks for Chagas disease, due to increased vector exposure, and participation in blood-borne pathogen risk behaviors. Our findings warrant additional research to quantify the prevalence of Chagas disease among homeless populations.

  4. Flood Improvement and LID Modeling of Rice University in Houston, Texas Using XP-SWMM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan, A.; Bedient, P. B.

    2013-12-01

    In recent years, Low Impact Development (LID) has emerged as an alternative to traditional urban development strategies. However, unlike most conventional methodologies, LID is designed to manage storm runoff as close as possible to its point of origin. This feat is accomplished through the use of distributed technologies such as green roofs, bio-swales, and rain gardens, with the end goal of reducing the adverse impacts of urbanization on natural resources by maintaining pre-development hydrologic conditions. In this study, hypothetical LID scenarios throughout Rice University in Houston, Texas were simulated with the hydrologic/hydraulic software package XP-SWMM. Comparisons were made between the base scenario (existing conditions) and the various LID scenarios with several design storms. The rainfall simulated were all less than 6 in., due to LID typically being known to have limited impacts in inundation reduction during large storms, especially in the Texas Gulf Coast region. Preliminary results indicated that the LID applications were able to reduce peak flows as well as total storm runoff volume by as much as 20%. These results show that LID has the potential to replace, or to be used in conjunction with, conventional storm water management practices in Houston.

  5. Experimental modeling of gravity underflow in submarine channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammad Ashraful

    Active and relic meandering channels are common on the seafloor adjacent to continental margins. These channels and their associated submarine fan deposits are products of the density-driven gravity flows known as turbidity currents. Unlike natural rivers, few attempts have been made to explore the process of channel meandering in the submarine environment. This research focuses on resolving the flow field of submarine channels by conducting experiments in a large laboratory basin. Saline and particulate density flows were studied in a straight channel, a single bend sinuous channel with vertical sidewalls and a multiple-bend sinuous channel with sloping sidewalls. Instantaneous velocities in steady developed currents were measured using 3-component acoustic Doppler velocity probes. Excess fractional density was measured at selected locations by collecting water sample using a siphon rake. Turbulent kinetic energy and Reynolds stress components are derived from the instantaneous velocity data of the straight channel experiments. Structure functions for mean velocity, Reynolds stress and turbulent kinetic energy profiles are derived by fitting normalized data. The normalized Reynolds-averaged velocity shows excellent similarity collapse while the Reynolds-stress and the turbulent kinetic energy profiles display reasonable similarity. Vertical profiles of the turbulent kinetic energy display two peaks separated by a zone of low turbulence; the ratio of the maximum to the depth-averaged turbulent kinetic energy is approximately 1.5. Theoretical profile of turbulent kinetic energy is derived. Comparisons of experimentally and theoretically derived turbulent kinetic energy profiles show reasonable agreement except at the position of velocity maximum where the theoretical profile displays a very small value. Velocity profiles derived from the measurements with confined flow in the single bend channel reveal that channel curvature drives two helical flow cells, one

  6. Long-term flow monitoring of submarine gas emanations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spickenbom, K.; Faber, E.; Poggenburg, J.; Seeger, C.

    2009-04-01

    One of the Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) strategies currently under study is the sequestration of CO2 in sub-seabed geological formations. Even after a thorough review of the geological setting, there is the possibility of leaks from the reservoirs. As part of the EU-financed project CO2ReMoVe (Research, Monitoring, Verification), which aims to develop innovative research and technologies for monitoring and verification of carbon dioxide geological storage, we are working on the development of submarine long-term gas flow monitoring systems. Technically, however, these systems are not limited to CO2 but can be used for monitoring of any free gas emission (bubbles) on the seafloor. The basic design of the gas flow sensor system was derived from former prototypes developed for monitoring CO2 and CH4 on mud volcanoes in Azerbaijan. This design was composed of a raft floating on the surface above the gas vent to collect the bubbles. Sensors for CO2 flux and concentration and electronics for data storage and transmission were mounted on the raft, together with battery-buffered solar panels for power supply. The system was modified for installation in open sea by using a buoy instead of a raft and a funnel on the seafloor to collect the gas, which is then guided above water level through a flexible tube. Besides some technical problems (condensed water in the tube, movement of the buoys due to waves leading to biased measurement of flow rates), this setup provides a cost-effective solution for shallow waters. However, a buoy interferes with ship traffic, and it is also difficult to adapt this design to greater water depths. These requirements can best be complied by a completely submersed system. To allow unattended long-term monitoring in a submarine environment, such a system has to be extremely durable. Therefore, we focussed on developing a mechanically and electrically as simple setup as possible, which has the additional advantage of low cost. The system

  7. Using Google Earth for Submarine Operations at Pavilion Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deans, M. C.; Lees, D. S.; Fong, T.; Lim, D. S.

    2009-12-01

    During the July 2009 Pavilion Lake field test, we supported submarine "flight" operations using Google Earth. The Intelligent Robotics Group at NASA Ames has experience with ground data systems for NASA missions, earth analog field tests, disaster response, and the Gigapan camera system. Leveraging this expertise and existing software, we put together a set of tools to support sub tracking and mapping, called the "Surface Data System." This system supports flight planning, real time flight operations, and post-flight analysis. For planning, we make overlays of the regional bedrock geology, sonar bathymetry, and sonar backscatter maps that show geology, depth, and structure of the bottom. Placemarks show the mooring locations for start and end points. Flight plans are shown as polylines with icons for waypoints. Flight tracks and imagery from previous field seasons are embedded in the map for planning follow-on activities. These data provide context for flight planning. During flights, sub position is updated every 5 seconds from the nav computer on the chase boat. We periodically update tracking KML files and refresh them with network links. A sub icon shows current location of the sub. A compass rose shows bearings to indicate heading to the next waypoint. A "Science Stenographer" listens on the voice loop and transcribes significant observations in real time. Observations called up to the surface immediately appear on the map as icons with date, time, position, and what was said. After each flight, the science back room immediately has the flight track and georeferenced notes from the pilots. We add additional information in post-processing. The submarines record video continuously, with "event" timestamps marked by the pilot. We cross-correlate the event timestamps with position logs to geolocate events and put a preview image and compressed video clip into the map. Animated flight tracks are also generated, showing timestamped position and providing timelapse

  8. Did a submarine landslide contribute to the 2011 Tohoku tsunami?

    KAUST Repository

    Tappin, David R.

    2014-09-28

    Many studies have modeled the Tohoku tsunami of March 11, 2011 as being due entirely to slip on an earthquake fault, but the following discrepancies suggest that further research is warranted. (1) Published models of tsunami propagation and coastal impact underpredict the observed runup heights of up to 40 m measured along the coast of the Sanriku district in the northeast part of Honshu Island. (2) Published models cannot reproduce the timing and high-frequency content of tsunami waves recorded at three nearshore buoys off Sanriku, nor the timing and dispersion properties of the waveforms at offshore DART buoy #21418. (3) The rupture centroids obtained by tsunami inversions are biased about 60 km NNE of that obtained by the Global CMT Project. Based on an analysis of seismic and geodetic data, together with recorded tsunami waveforms, we propose that, while the primary source of the tsunami was the vertical displacement of the seafloor due to the earthquake, an additional tsunami source is also required. We infer the location of the proposed additional source based on an analysis of the travel times of higher-frequency tsunami waves observed at nearshore buoys. We further propose that the most likely additional tsunami source was a submarine mass failure (SMF—i.e., a submarine landslide). A comparison of pre- and post-tsunami bathymetric surveys reveals tens of meters of vertical seafloor movement at the proposed SMF location, and a slope stability analysis confirms that the horizontal acceleration from the earthquake was sufficient to trigger an SMF. Forward modeling of the tsunami generated by a combination of the earthquake and the SMF reproduces the recorded on-, near- and offshore tsunami observations well, particularly the high-frequency component of the tsunami waves off Sanriku, which were not well simulated by previous models. The conclusion that a significant part of the 2011 Tohoku tsunami was generated by an SMF source has important implications for

  9. Temperature profile and water depth data collected from USS McInerney from expendable bathythermographs (XBT) in the Red Sea from 07 December 1992 to 28 December 1992 (NODC Accession 9300017)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and water depth data were collected using BT and XBT casts from the USS McInerney in the Red Sea. Data were collected from 07 December 1992 to 28...

  10. Establishment of a National Wind Energy Center at University of Houston

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Su Su [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States)

    2016-10-31

    The DOE-supported project objectives are to: establish a national wind energy center (NWEC) at University of Houston and conduct research to address critical science and engineering issues for the development of future large MW-scale wind energy production systems, especially offshore wind turbines. The goals of the project are to: (1) establish a sound scientific/technical knowledge base of solutions to critical science and engineering issues for developing future MW-scale large wind energy production systems, (2) develop a state-of-the-art wind rotor blade research facility at the University of Houston, and (3) through multi-disciplinary research, introducing technology innovations on advanced wind-turbine materials, processing/manufacturing technology, design and simulation, testing and reliability assessment methods related to future wind turbine systems for cost-effective production of offshore wind energy. To achieve the goals of the project, the following technical tasks were planned and executed during the period from April 15, 2010 to October 31, 2014 at the University of Houston: (1) Basic research on large offshore wind turbine systems (2) Applied research on innovative wind turbine rotors for large offshore wind energy systems (3) Integration of offshore wind-turbine design, advanced materials and manufacturing technologies (4) Integrity and reliability of large offshore wind turbine blades and scaled model testing (5) Education and training of graduate and undergraduate students and post- doctoral researchers (6) Development of a national offshore wind turbine blade research facility The research program addresses both basic science and engineering of current and future large wind turbine systems, especially offshore wind turbines, for MW-scale power generation. The results of the research advance current understanding of many important scientific issues and provide technical information for solving future large wind turbines with advanced design

  11. Submarine pyroclastic deposits in Tertiary basins, NE Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polona Kralj

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In Tertiary basins of NE Slovenia, Upper Oligocene volcanic activity occurred in a submarine environment that experienced contemporaneous clastic sedimentation. Pyroclastic deposits are essentially related to gas- and watersupported eruption-fed density currents. At Trobni Dol, the Lako Basin, an over 100 m thick deposit formed by a sigle sustained volcanic explosion that fed gas-supported pyroclastic flow. Diagnostic features are large matrixshard content, normal grading of pumice lapilli, collapsed pumice lapilli and the presence of charcoal. In the Smrekovec Volcanic Complex, several but only up to 5 m thick deposits related to eruption-fed gassupported pyroclastic flows occur. Deposits settled from water-supported eruption-fed density currents form fining- and thinning-upward sedimentary units which resemble the units of volcaniclastic turbidites. Pyroclastic deposits related to gas- and water-supported density currents occur in an up to 1000 m thick succession composed of coherent volcanics, autoclastic, pyroclastic, reworked volcaniclastic and mixed volcaniclastic-siliciclastic deposits that indicate a complex explosive and depositional history of the Smrekovec Volcanic Complex.

  12. Breathing modes of Kolumbo submarine volcano (Santorini, Greece).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakalis, Evangelos; Mertzimekis, Theo J; Nomikou, Paraskevi; Zerbetto, Francesco

    2017-04-13

    Submarine volcanoes, such as Kolumbo (Santorini, Greece) are natural laboratories for fostering multidisciplinary studies. Their investigation requires the most innovative marine technology together with advanced data analysis. Conductivity and temperature of seawater were recorded directly above Kolumbo's hydrothermal vent system. The respective time series have been analyzed in terms of non-equilibrium techniques. The energy dissipation of the volcanic activity is monitored by the temperature variations of seawater. The venting dynamics of chemical products is monitored by water conductivity. The analysis of the time series in terms of stochastic processes delivers scaling exponents with turning points between consecutive regimes for both conductivity and temperature. Changes of conductivity are shown to behave as a universal multifractal and their variance is subdiffusive as the scaling exponents indicate. Temperature is constant over volcanic rest periods and a universal multifractal behavior describes its changes in line with a subdiffusive character otherwise. The universal multifractal description illustrates the presence of non-conservative conductivity and temperature fields showing that the system never retains a real equilibrium state. The existence of a repeated pattern of the combined effect of both seawater and volcanic activity is predicted. The findings can shed light on the dynamics of chemical products emitted from the vents and point to the presence of underlying mechanisms that govern potentially hazardous, underwater volcanic environments.

  13. High-efficiency airfoil rudders applied to submarines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHOU Yimei

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Modern submarine design puts forward higher and higher requirements for control surfaces, and this creates a requirement for designers to constantly innovate new types of rudder so as to improve the efficiency of control surfaces. Adopting the high-efficiency airfoil rudder is one of the most effective measures for improving the efficiency of control surfaces. In this paper, we put forward an optimization method for a high-efficiency airfoil rudder on the basis of a comparative analysis of the various strengths and weaknesses of the airfoil, and the numerical calculation method is adopted to analyze the influence rule of the hydrodynamic characteristics and wake field by using the high-efficiency airfoil rudder and the conventional NACA rudder comparatively; at the same time, a model load test in a towing tank was carried out, and the test results and simulation calculation obtained good consistency:the error between them was less than 10%. The experimental results show that the steerage of a high-efficiency airfoil rudder is increased by more than 40% when compared with the conventional rudder, but the total resistance is close:the error is no more than 4%. Adopting a high-efficiency airfoil rudder brings much greater lifting efficiency than the total resistance of the boat. The results show that high-efficiency airfoil rudder has obvious advantages for improving the efficiency of control, giving it good application prospects.

  14. Submarine springs and coastal karst aquifers: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Perrine; Bakalowicz, Michel; de Marsily, Ghislain

    2007-06-01

    SummaryThis article reports on current knowledge of coastal karst aquifers, in which conduit flow is dominant, and its aim is to characterise the functioning of these systems which are closely linked to the sea. First, earlier and recent studies of these aquifers are discussed. On the basis of their findings, it can be shown that two essential mechanisms are involved in the functioning of these systems, i.e., aquifer discharge through submarine springs and saline intrusion through conduits open to the sea. Then, the conditions that give rise to these aquifers are described and particular emphasis is placed on the influence of deep karstification when the sea level falls. The base-level variations are attributed to the glaciations or, in the specific case of the Mediterranean, to the salinity crisis in the Messinian period. It is this inherited structure, sometimes containing very deep conduits below sea level, that today conditions the aquifer flow. The flow in the conduits open to the sea depends on the hydraulic head gradient between the aquifer and the sea and is therefore a function of the water density and head losses in the aquifer. This survey of coastal karst aquifers has revealed some common characteristics that show the development and/or functional capacity of their karstic drainage networks. A classification of such systems into three categories is proposed with the aim of assisting in the decision-making concerning potential exploitation of water resources in coastal regions.

  15. Sea-level-induced seismicity and submarine landslide occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothers, Daniel S.; Luttrell, Karen M.; Chaytor, Jason D.

    2013-01-01

    The temporal coincidence between rapid late Pleistocene sea-level rise and large-scale slope failures is widely documented. Nevertheless, the physical mechanisms that link these phenomena are poorly understood, particularly along nonglaciated margins. Here we investigate the causal relationships between rapid sea-level rise, flexural stress loading, and increased seismicity rates along passive margins. We find that Coulomb failure stress across fault systems of passive continental margins may have increased more than 1 MPa during rapid late Pleistocene–early Holocene sea-level rise, an amount sufficient to trigger fault reactivation and rupture. These results suggest that sea-level–modulated seismicity may have contributed to a number of poorly understood but widely observed phenomena, including (1) increased frequency of large-scale submarine landslides during rapid, late Pleistocene sea-level rise; (2) emplacement of coarse-grained mass transport deposits on deep-sea fans during the early stages of marine transgression; and (3) the unroofing and release of methane gas sequestered in continental slope sediments.

  16. NESTOR - Neutrino Extended Submarine Telescope with Oceanographic Research

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    {\\bf NESTOR} is a deep-sea neutrino telescope that is being deployed in the Mediterranean off the south-west coast of the Peleponnese in Greece. Neutrinos, when they interact in the earth below or in the seawater around the detector, produce muons that can be observed by the Cherenkov radiation, which they emit. At an operating depth of 4000 metres, the detector is effectively shielded from muons produced in atmospheric interactions. {\\bf The site:} A major feature of the Ionian Sea floor is the Hellenic Trench, the deepest in the Mediterranean, which in places exceeds 5000 meters. It runs close to the western coast of the Peleponnese and is protected on its western side by the submarine Eastern Mediterranean Ridge. It is far from big city pollution or the effluent of major river systems flowing into the Mediterranean and is protected from deep-water perturbations.\\\\ The NESTOR site is located on a broad plateau some 8 $\\times$ 9 kilometres in area on the eastern side of the Hellenic Trench at a mean depth of...

  17. Ecostructuring of marine nematode communities by submarine groundwater discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzelak, Katarzyna; Tamborski, Joseph; Kotwicki, Lech; Bokuniewicz, Henry

    2018-02-02

    Inputs of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) to the coastal ocean may alter local and regional-scale biology. Here, we report on nematode assemblages along the north shore of Long Island, NY. We test if nematode communities differed between sites impacted by mixed fresh-saline SGD and where SGD is exclusively saline. Diversity of nematodes was low at sites impacted by fresh SGD and communities were dominated by a few opportunistic genera. Moreover, a set of typical freshwater nematode genera restricted to impacted sites was observed. Their presence in the marine coastal zone is exceptional and underlines the structuring role that fresh SGD plays in the local ecosystem. Saline SGD structured nematode assemblages differently compared to sites impacted by fresh SGD. The number of nematode genera was markedly higher at saline SGD sites, with a different community structure. This study highlights the importance to which inputs of fresh SGD may have on local ecosystem diversity in marine coastal environments. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Breathing modes of Kolumbo submarine volcano (Santorini, Greece)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakalis, Evangelos; Mertzimekis, Theo J.; Nomikou, Paraskevi; Zerbetto, Francesco

    2017-04-01

    Submarine volcanoes, such as Kolumbo (Santorini, Greece) are natural laboratories for fostering multidisciplinary studies. Their investigation requires the most innovative marine technology together with advanced data analysis. Conductivity and temperature of seawater were recorded directly above Kolumbo’s hydrothermal vent system. The respective time series have been analyzed in terms of non-equilibrium techniques. The energy dissipation of the volcanic activity is monitored by the temperature variations of seawater. The venting dynamics of chemical products is monitored by water conductivity. The analysis of the time series in terms of stochastic processes delivers scaling exponents with turning points between consecutive regimes for both conductivity and temperature. Changes of conductivity are shown to behave as a universal multifractal and their variance is subdiffusive as the scaling exponents indicate. Temperature is constant over volcanic rest periods and a universal multifractal behavior describes its changes in line with a subdiffusive character otherwise. The universal multifractal description illustrates the presence of non-conservative conductivity and temperature fields showing that the system never retains a real equilibrium state. The existence of a repeated pattern of the combined effect of both seawater and volcanic activity is predicted. The findings can shed light on the dynamics of chemical products emitted from the vents and point to the presence of underlying mechanisms that govern potentially hazardous, underwater volcanic environments.

  19. Assessment of emerging contaminants including organophosphate esters and pyrethroids during DISCOVER-AQ in Houston, Texas, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usenko, Sascha; Clark, Addie; Sheesley, Rebecca

    2015-04-01

    DISCOVER-AQ (Deriving Information on Surface conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality) is a NASA-funded air quality research program that focused on Houston, Texas, United States in September 2013. In conjunction with DISCOVER-AQ, particulate matter was collected for the month of September from four ground-based sampling sites across the Houston metropolitan area. The Houston metropolitan area is one of the most populous cities in the United States. Sampling sites included an upwind and downwind site as well as an urban (i.e. downtown) and industrial/port areas (i.e. Houston Ship Channel). Particulate matter samples were collected to examine both spatial and temporal trends (including day versus night). Particulate matter was collected on quartz fiber filters, which were analyzed for emerging classes of concern including organophosphate esters (OPEs; including flame retardants) and pyrethroids. OPEs have in recent years increased in both use and production as they replaced polybrominated diphenyl ethers flame retardants. Permethrin is one of the most commonly used mosquito adulticides in the United States.

  20. The Evolution of Discovery Systems in Academic Libraries: A Case Study at the University of Houston Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guajardo, Richard; Brett, Kelsey; Young, Frederick

    2017-01-01

    For the past several years academic libraries have been adopting discovery systems to provide a search experience that reflects user expectations and improves access to electronic resources. University of Houston Libraries has kept pace with this evolving trend by pursuing various discovery options; these include an open-source tool, a federated…

  1. 77 FR 6815 - Emergency Exemption; Issuance of Emergency Permit To Salvage Houston Toads Affected by a Wildfire...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service Emergency Exemption; Issuance of Emergency Permit To Salvage Houston Toads Affected by a Wildfire in Bastrop County, TX AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of...

  2. Teacher Certification and Academic Growth among English Learner Students in the Houston Independent School District. REL 2018-284

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz de Castilla, Verónica

    2018-01-01

    Aware of the challenges set before the Houston Independent school District by rapid growth in the numbers of English learner students, and a critical shortage of teachers with bilingual certification for more than a decade, members of Regional Educational Laboratory Southwest's English Learners Research Alliance sought information that districts…

  3. Evaluation of a Workplace Literacy Program: A Cooperative Effort between Houston Lighting and Power Company and North Harris County College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaman, Don F.; Denyer, Jacque L.

    A workplace literacy project to prepare Houston Lighting and Power Company employees for the commercial driver's licence (CDL) exam was evaluated. The following four components of Steele's (1990) evaluation model were used to evaluate the project: proof of effect, judgment against criteria, critical questions, and valuing. The evaluation revealed…

  4. Groundwater quality of the Gulf Coast aquifer system, Houston, Texas, 2007-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oden, Jeannette H.; Oden, Timothy D.; Szabo, Zoltan

    2010-01-01

    In the summers of 2007 and 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the City of Houston, Texas, completed an initial reconnaissance-level survey of naturally occurring contaminants (arsenic, other selected trace elements, and radionuclides) in water from municipal supply wells in the Houston area. The purpose of this reconnaissance-level survey was to characterize source-water quality prior to drinking water treatment. Water-quality samples were collected from 28 municipal supply wells in the Houston area completed in the Evangeline aquifer, Chicot aquifer, or both. This initial survey is part of ongoing research to determine concentrations, spatial extent, and associated geochemical conditions that might be conducive for mobility and transport of these constituents in the Gulf Coast aquifer system in the Houston area. Samples were analyzed for major ions (calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, bromide, chloride, fluoride, silica, and sulfate), selected chemically related properties (residue on evaporation [dissolved solids] and chemical oxygen demand), dissolved organic carbon, arsenic species (arsenate [As(V)], arsenite [As(III)], dimethylarsinate [DMA], and monomethylarsonate [MMA]), other trace elements (aluminum, antimony, arsenic, barium, beryllium, boron, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, lithium, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, silver, strontium, thallium, vanadium, and zinc), and selected radionuclides (gross alpha- and beta-particle activity [at 72 hours and 30 days], carbon-14, radium isotopes [radium-226 and radium-228], radon-222, tritium, and uranium). Field measurements were made of selected physicochemical (relating to both physical and chemical) properties (oxidation-reduction potential, turbidity, dissolved oxygen concentration, pH, specific conductance, water temperature, and alkalinity) and unfiltered sulfides. Dissolved organic carbon and chemical oxygen demand are presented but not discussed in the

  5. Impact of Hurricane Ike on the call volumes of Houston Fire Department emergency medical services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Elise; Langabeer, James R; Alqusairi, Diaa; Persse, David

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the capacity and activity of emergency medical services (EMS) during large-scale disasters. This article provides a case study of the role of EMS in one large urban city during a major hurricane. The authors analyzed changes in call volume data from the City of Houston Fire Department's EMS during Hurricane Ike. Descriptive and statistical analyses are used to explain surges and statistical differences in volumes. Demand for EMS care can increase approximately 40 percent during surges in the disaster cycle, placing extreme burdens on system capacity and workload. The largest increase in demand came from respiratory problems, falls, and chest pains, with the largest decrease in calls from motor vehicle accidents. A strategy for managing surges in prehospital care from major disasters is a requirement for modern EMS.

  6. The Houston Academy of Medicine--Texas Medical Center Library management information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camille, D; Chadha, S; Lyders, R A

    1993-10-01

    A management information system (MIS) provides a means for collecting, reporting, and analyzing data from all segments of an organization. Such systems are common in business but rare in libraries. The Houston Academy of Medicine-Texas Medical Center Library developed an MIS that operates on a system of networked IBM PCs and Paradox, a commercial database software package. The data collected in the system include monthly reports, client profile information, and data collected at the time of service requests. The MIS assists with enforcement of library policies, ensures that correct information is recorded, and provides reports for library managers. It also can be used to help answer a variety of ad hoc questions. Future plans call for the development of an MIS that could be adapted to other libraries' needs, and a decision-support interface that would facilitate access to the data contained in the MIS databases.

  7. The Enemy Below - The Global Diffusion of Submarines and Related Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, K G

    2002-09-05

    The end of the Cold War seemed to create a more peaceful international environment. September 11 reminded us of the dangers of complacency. Indeed, even before September 11 US forces had intervened in a number of wars and crises, including Panama, the Persian Gulf War, Somalia, Rwanda, Bosnia, Kosovo, several Taiwan Straits crises, the North Korea nuclear weapons crisis, and most recently Afghanistan. US ability to intervene in remote areas of the world is often dependent on the Navy's ability to project power ashore. As a result, US ability to influence events in crisis situations, especially between or among nuclear powers, may become more difficult along with our ability to conduct littoral warfare. Although the numbers of potentially hostile submarines have declined with the end of the Cold War, US anti-submarine warfare capabilities have also declined. Moreover, foreign submarines and related technologies are likely to diffuse globally. New technologies like Air Independent Propulsion (AIP), improved weapons and sensors will make conventional submarines more dangerous, and the spread of nuclear submarines even to a few more countries raise political, military, environmental, and safety concerns. Submarines are one of the key weapon systems used alone or in combination with other weapon systems such as coastal defense missiles, aircraft, and other sea-based missile platforms to deny US ability to project power ashore, Thus, other countries who wish to deny the US the ability to interfere with their regional or even global ambitions may emphasize the acquisition and/or development of submarines. As the world become more multipolar over the longer term, as the Chinese believe it will, countries such as Russia, China. etc., may be able to acquire the submarine capabilities to challenge us not just regionally, but in blue waters. To the extent that our alliance relationships require US naval access or superiority to sustain them, then our erstwhile friendly

  8. The location of late night bars and alcohol-related crashes in Houston, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Ned

    2017-10-01

    A study in the City of Houston, Texas, related the location of establishments primarily serving alcohol ("bars") after midnight to late night alcohol-related motor vehicle crashes. There were three data sets for 2007-09: 1) 764bars that were open after midnight; 2) 1660 alcohol-related crashes that occurred within the City of Houston between midnight and 6 am; and 3) 4689 modeling network road segments to which bars and alcohol-related crashes were assigned. Forty-five percent of the late night alcohol-related crashes were within a quarter mile of a late night bar. The bars were highly concentrated in 17 small bar clusters. Using the modeling network, Poisson-Gamma-CAR and Poisson-Lognormal-CAR spatial regression models showed a positive exponential relationship between late night alcohol-related crashes and the number of late nights bars and bar clusters, and a negative exponential relationship to distance to the nearest late night bar controlling for the type of road segment (freeway, principal arterial, minor arterial). A more general model dropped the bar cluster variable. Further, the Poisson-Gamma-CAR model appeared to produce a better representation than the Poisson-Lognormal-CAR model though the errors were different. The general Poisson-Gamma-CAR model showed that each late night bar increased the frequency of alcohol-related crashes on a segment by approximately 190%. For each mile closer a segment was to a late night bar, the likelihood increased by 42%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Addressing Houston's Bad Air Days: Advancing Environmental Justice Advocacy with Geospatial Analysis and Science Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C.; White, R.; Phartiyal, P.

    2016-12-01

    Evidence indicates that chronic exposure to chemical pollutants contributes to and exacerbates negative health impacts, and that the burden of exposure falls disproportionately upon low-income, Black, and Latino communities. These data, however, are often inaccessible or too technical for the community groups who need it to raise public awareness and to inform decision makers. Recognizing the many challenges of communicating science to a non-technical audience, the Center for Science and Democracy at the Union of Concerned Scientists, a science-based policy and advocacy organization, partnered with Texas Environmental Justice Advocacy Services (TEJAS), an environmental justice organization based in Manchester in Houston, to develop products that would visualize the technical information needed to strengthen TEJAS' advocacy work. The products were created with the intention of educating and engaging community members and to raise the profile of these issues with community residents, local government and regional EPA officials. Together, we were able to map the geographic distribution of contaminants, health risks, and demographic information to tell the story of inequity in Houston. Our spatial analysis accounts for multiple sources of air pollution exposure and associated health risks, overlaid with demographic information in Manchester. The talk will discuss the various ways we used maps to display high level data to be accessible for community members. The analysis will ultimately be used by TEJAS to strengthen its advocacy around chemical safety by: 1) educating community members on the hazards and health risks of local pollutants, 2) increasing community awareness of local emergency planning and response procedures, and 3) providing scientific evidence to decision makers to demand prevention and reduction in chemical exposure for their community.

  10. VOC source-receptor relationships in Houston during TexAQS-II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuchner, Michael; Rappenglück, Bernhard

    2010-10-01

    During the TRAMP field campaign in August-September 2006, C 2-C 10 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured continuously and online at the urban Moody Tower (MT) site. This dataset was compared to corresponding VOC data sets obtained at six sites located in the highly industrialized Houston Ship Channel area (HSC). Receptor modeling was performed by positive matrix factorization (PMF) at all sites. Conditional probability functions (CPF) were used to determine the origin of the polluted air masses in the Houston area. A subdivision into daytime and nighttime was carried out to discriminate photochemical influences. Eight main source categories of industrial, mobile, and biogenic emissions were identified at the urban receptor site, seven and six, respectively, at the different HSC sites. At MT natural gas/crude oil contributed most to the VOC mass (27.4%), followed by liquefied petroleum gas (16.7%), vehicular exhaust (15.3%), fuel evaporation (14.3%), and aromatics (13.4%). Also petrochemical sources from ethylene (4.7%) and propylene (3.6%) play an important role. A minor fraction of the VOC mass can be attributed to biogenic sources mainly from isoprene (4.4%). Based on PMF analyses of different wind sectors, the total VOC mass was estimated to be twofold at MT with wind directions from HSC compared to air from a typical urban sector, for petrochemical compounds more than threefold. Despite the strong impact of air masses influenced by industrial sources at HSC, still about a third of the total mass contributions at MT can be apportioned to other sources, mainly motor vehicles and aromatic solvents. The investigation of diurnal variation in combination with wind directional frequencies revealed the greatest HSC impact at the urban site during the morning, and the least during the evening.

  11. Diurnal and seasonal variation of various carbon fluxes from an urban tower platform in Houston, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schade, G. W.; Werner, N.; Hale, M. C.

    2013-12-01

    We measured carbon fluxes (CO2, CO, VOCs) from a tall lattice tower in Houston between 2007 and 2009, and 2011-2013. We present results from various analyses of (i) anthropogenic and biogenic CO2 fluxes using a quadrant segregation technique, (ii) seasonal and multi-year changes of CO fluxes as related to car traffic and industrial sources, and (iii) the accuracy of, and usefulness of a bulk flux footprint model to quantify pentane emissions form a distant source in comparison to permitted emission levels. Segregated and net anthropogenic CO2 fluxes were dominated by car traffic but industrial sources were identified as well. Emissions sank to minimal levels after hurricane Ike had passed over Houston, causing a traffic shutdown and lower population density. Segregated biogenic fluxes showed a clear seasonal variation with photosynthetic activity between April and November, and large effects of the 2011 Texas drought due to negligible irrigation in the study area. Carbon monoxide fluxes, measured via a flux gradient technique, are even stronger dominated by car traffic than CO2 fluxes and serve as a traffic tracer. Our data show a continued drop in emissions over time, seasonal changes with higher emissions during winter, and local influences due to industrial emissions. Lastly, we present the results of a tracer release study and a single point source quantification to test a bulk footprint model in this complex urban area. Known releases of volatile acetone and MEK were compered to measured fluxes using a REA-GC-FID system, and permit emissions of pentane from a foam plastics manufacturing facility were compared to measured pentane fluxes. Both comparisons reveal a surprisingly accurate performance of the footprint model within a factor of 2.

  12. OPERATION OF A PUBLIC GEOLOGIC CORE AND SAMPLE REPOSITORY IN HOUSTON, TEXAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott W. Tinker; Beverly Blakeney DeJarnett; Laura C. Zahm

    2005-04-01

    The Bureau of Economic Geology's Houston Research Center (HRC) is well established as a premier regional research center for geologic research serving not only Houston, but geoscientists from around Texas, the U. S., and even the world. As reported in the 2003-2004 technical progress report to the DOE, the HRC provides a state-of-the-art core viewing facility, two fully equipped conference rooms, and a comprehensive technical library, all available for public use. In addition, the HRC currently houses over 500,000 boxes of rock material, and has space to hold approximately 400,000 more boxes. Use of the facility has continued to increase during this third year of operation; over the past twelve months the HRC has averaged approximately 200 patrons per month. This usage is a combination of individuals describing core, groups of geoscientists holding seminars and workshops, and various industry and government-funded groups holding short courses, workshops, and seminars. The BEG/HRC secured several substantial donations of rock materials and/or cash during this operating period. All of these funds went directly into the endowment. Outreach during 2004 and 2005 included many technical presentations and several publications on the HRC. Several field trips to the facility were held for geoscience professionals and grade school students alike. Goals for the upcoming year involve securing more donations of rock material and cash in order to fully fund the HRC endowment. BEG will also continue to increase the number of patrons using the facility, and we will strive to raise awareness of the HRC's 100,000-volume geoscience technical library.

  13. Westward advance of the deformation front and evolution of submarine canyons offshore of southwestern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wei-Chung; Liu, Char-Shine; Chi, Wu-Cheng; Chen, Liwen; Lin, Che-Chuan; Chen, Song-Chuen

    2017-11-01

    This study analyzes both 2D and 3D seismic images around the Palm Ridge area offshore of southwestern Taiwan to understand how the deformation front shifted westward and how tectonic activities interact with submarine canyon paths in the transition area between the active and passive margins. Palm Ridge is a submarine ridge that developed on the passive China continental margin by down-dip erosion of several tributaries of Penghu Canyon; it extends eastward across the deformation front into the submarine Taiwan accretionary wedge. The presence of proto-thrusts that are located west of the frontal thrust implies that the compressional stress field has advanced westward due to the convergence of the Philippine Sea Plate and Eurasian Plate. Since the deformation front is defined as the location of the most frontal contractional structure, no significant contractional structure should appear west of it. We thus suggest moving the location of the previously mapped deformation front farther west to where the westernmost proto-thrust lies. High-resolution seismic and bathymetric data reveal that the directions of the paleo-submarine canyons run transverse to the present slope dip, while the present submarine canyons head down slope in the study area. We propose that this might be the result of the westward migration of the deformation front that changed the paleo-bathymetry and thus the canyon path directions. The interactions of down-slope processes and active tectonics control the canyon paths in our study area.

  14. Influence of stiffness constant of stern bearing on vibration and acoustic radiation of whole submarine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Lucai

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available [Objectives] This paper studies the influence of the stiffness constant of a stern bearing on the vibration and acoustic radiation of a whole submarine.[Methods] Based on the form of SUBOFF, a whole submarine model is established in which the structures of the propeller and shaft are first formed in solid elements. Through calculating and comparing the structural vibration and acoustic radiation driven by a vertically excited force, the influence of the elastic coefficient of the stern bearing on the vibroacoustic of the overall submarine structure is mainly considered. [Results] It is demonstrated that the reduction of the elastic coefficient of the stern bearing leads to the convergence of structural vibration and acoustic radiation to the second order overall bending modal frequency, and the frequency gradually becomes lower, which can benefit the vibroacoustic reduction of submarines at frequencies higher than the second order overall bending modal frequency. [Conclusions] These results provide a reference for the acoustic design of submarine structures.

  15. Methane concentration inside a submarine mud volcano examined through seismic velocity profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kioka, Arata; Tsuji, Takeshi; Otsuka, Hironori; Ashi, Juichiro

    2017-04-01

    Mud volcanoes are considered to be among largest geological sources releasing hydrocarbon gases into the atmosphere. Numerous studies have revealed their origins and compositions from submarine mud volcanoes. A recent long-term observation at a submarine mud volcano sheds light on that larger volume of methane gas than expected is escaped from deep-water mud volcanoes, suggesting that the global methane flux from the seafloor is likely underestimated. Yet, estimates of the gas amount inside mud volcanoes have been still challenging, because of the difficulty of in-situ measurements. This study provides a new model to bridge methane amounts and seismic velocities in fluidized mud conduits of submarine mud volcanoes. This model is universally applicable and enables estimates of methane concentration in the mud conduits, using the seismic velocity profile derived from reflection/refraction seismic and/or downhole logging data. In this study, (1) we examine our modeled results through deep-drilling data obtained at mud volcanoes in the Olimpi mud field of the central Mediterranean Ridge accretionary margin, to evaluate the difference between in situ methane amounts and those calculated from our model, and (2) apply our model to the seismic velocity profile derived from seicmic data to estimate the methane amount inside the submarine mud volcano in the Nankai accretionary margin. Our scheme may provide an opportunity to re-estimate the total methane flux from submarine mud volcanoes.

  16. The Keelung Submarine Volcano in the near-shore area of northern Taiwan and its tectonic implication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ching-Hui; Hsu, Shu-Kun; Lin, Shiao-Shan; Yang, Tsanyao F.; Wang, Shiou-Ya; Doo, Wen-Bin; Lee, Hsiao-Fen; Lan, Tefang; Huang, Jian-Cheng; Liang, Chin-Wei

    2017-11-01

    The Taiwan mountain belt has been created due to the collision between the Philippine Sea Plate and the Eurasian Plate. Northernmost Taiwan and its offshore area are now under post-collisional collapse. The post-collisional magmatism is distributed around northern Taiwan. Here we first report a submarine volcano, named Keelung Submarine Volcano, existing in the near-shore area of northern Taiwan. The high 3He/4He ratios in the collected seawater samples suggest that the magma of the Keelung Submarine Volcano is derived from a mantle source. Geometrically, both the Keelung Submarine Volcano and the Tatun Volcano Group are situated above the western border of the subducted Philippine Sea Plate and may have a same magma source. Both volcanic areas belong to the northern Taiwan volcanic zone, instead of the Ryukyu volcanic front. The Keelung Submarine Volcano has been rotated clockwise ∼48° after its formation, which implies that the Keelung Submarine Volcano has formed before the Luzon arc collided against northern Taiwan. Consequently, the post-collisional model to explain the formation of the northern Taiwan volcanic zone is questionable. As indicated by numerous shallow earthquakes and persistent emissions of the volcanic gases out of the seafloor around the volcanic cone, the Keelung Submarine Volcano is as active as the Tatun Volcano Group. For the sake of volcanic hazard assessment, it is essential to monitor the activity of the Keelung Submarine Volcano.

  17. CFD RANS Simulations on a Generic Conventional Scale Model Submarine: Comparison between Fluent and OpenFOAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    1 – Hydrodynamics”, Defence Science and Technology Organisation Technical Report DSTO-TR-1622, 2004. UNCLASSIFIED DST-Group-TN-1449 UNCLASSIFIED...17 7. Joubert, P.N., “Some Aspects of Submarine Design Part 2– Shape of a Submarine 2026”, Defence Science and Technology Organisation Technical

  18. High accuracy station moving method for total station in submarine construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIN Shaosong

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available [Objectives] When we measure submarine pressure hulls using a total station, it is essential to set several stations in order to complete the measurement of the whole cabin due to the complicated measuring environment. However, there are many restrictions related to the total station itself when moving stations, and it is also difficult to ensure measuring accuracy and satisfy the requirements of submarine measurement in complicated environments.[Methods] As such, a new station moving method is presented which can automatically establish standing relationships by measuring common points at every measuring position.[Results] This method can significantly improve accuracy and efficiency.[Conclusions] The experiment shows that the results of the new station moving method can meet sub-pixel precision and satisfy submarine measurement requirements with high accuracy.

  19. Submarine landslide and tsunami hazards offshore southern Alaska: Seismic strengthening versus rapid sedimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Derek E.; Reece, Robert S.; Gulick, Sean P. S.; Lenz, Brandi L.

    2017-08-01

    The southern Alaskan offshore margin is prone to submarine landslides and tsunami hazards due to seismically active plate boundaries and extreme sedimentation rates from glacially enhanced mountain erosion. We examine the submarine landslide potential with new shear strength measurements acquired by Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 341 on the continental slope and Surveyor Fan. These data reveal lower than expected sediment strength. Contrary to other active margins where seismic strengthening enhances slope stability, the high-sedimentation margin offshore southern Alaska behaves like a passive margin from a shear strength perspective. We interpret that seismic strengthening occurs but is offset by high sedimentation rates and overpressure. This conclusion is supported by shear strength outside of the fan that follow an active margin trend. More broadly, seismically active margins with wet-based glaciers are susceptible to submarine landslide hazards because of the combination of high sedimentation rates and earthquake shaking.

  20. The Zambezi Channel: A new perspective on submarine channel evolution at low latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiles, E.; Green, A.; Watkeys, M.; Jokat, W.

    2017-06-01

    Submarine channels are not stand-alone systems. They are long-lived systems modified by imperceptibly slow processes and rapid gravity flows, in some part controlled by hinterland dynamics. The submarine Zambezi Channel, within the Mozambique Channel, receives sediment from the Zambezi River catchment which has a dynamic tectonic and morphological history. Using recently collected multibeam bathymetry and PARASOUND data we discuss the geomorphology of the Zambezi Channel. Results show this system to be distinct in geomorphologic character when compared to other low-latitude submarine channels, sharing similarities with high-latitude systems. We propose a new, source-to-sink, hypothesis for the evolution of the Zambezi Channel, taking in to consideration hinterland tectonics, palaeo-lake development, river capture and rapid gravity flows. This hypothesis accounts for the unique present-day anatomy of the Zambezi Channel within the dynamic framework of the systems regional setting.

  1. Research on Big Data Attribute Selection Method in Submarine Optical Fiber Network Fault Diagnosis Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Ganlang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available At present, in the fault diagnosis database of submarine optical fiber network, the attribute selection of large data is completed by detecting the attributes of the data, the accuracy of large data attribute selection cannot be guaranteed. In this paper, a large data attribute selection method based on support vector machines (SVM for fault diagnosis database of submarine optical fiber network is proposed. Mining large data in the database of optical fiber network fault diagnosis, and calculate its attribute weight, attribute classification is completed according to attribute weight, so as to complete attribute selection of large data. Experimental results prove that ,the proposed method can improve the accuracy of large data attribute selection in fault diagnosis database of submarine optical fiber network, and has high use value.

  2. Chemical Fluxes from a Recently Erupted Submarine Volcano on the Mariana Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, N. J.; Resing, J. A.; Lupton, J. E.; Larson, B. I.; Walker, S. L.; Baker, E. T.

    2016-12-01

    While hydrothermal circulation is paramount to the geochemical budget for a wide array of elements, relatively few flux estimates exist in the literature. To date most studies have concentrated on constraining global and vent-field scale inputs originating from ocean spreading ridges. The goal of this study is to directly measure the chemical flux from an active submarine volcano injecting hydrothermal fluids into the surface ocean. Ahyi Seamount, a submarine intraoceanic arc volcano located in the Northern Mariana Islands, has a summit depth TSM and total and dissolved Fe and Mn. Laboratory analyses found enriched concentrations of H2, 3He, CO2 and Fe, consistent with a recent eruption. Preliminary flux calculations estimate a Fe input of 16 mmol s-1. This indicates shallow submarine arc volcanoes are capable of supplying appreciable quantities of Fe into the surface ocean. Further laboratory analyses and calculations to characterize and constrain the fluxes of other chemical constituents are underway.

  3. Air blast injuries killed the crew of the submarine H.L. Hunley.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel M Lance

    Full Text Available The submarine H.L. Hunley was the first submarine to sink an enemy ship during combat; however, the cause of its sinking has been a mystery for over 150 years. The Hunley set off a 61.2 kg (135 lb black powder torpedo at a distance less than 5 m (16 ft off its bow. Scaled experiments were performed that measured black powder and shock tube explosions underwater and propagation of blasts through a model ship hull. This propagation data was used in combination with archival experimental data to evaluate the risk to the crew from their own torpedo. The blast produced likely caused flexion of the ship hull to transmit the blast wave; the secondary wave transmitted inside the crew compartment was of sufficient magnitude that the calculated chances of survival were less than 16% for each crew member. The submarine drifted to its resting place after the crew died of air blast trauma within the hull.

  4. Origin of the Easter Submarine Alignment: morphology and structural lineaments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristián Rodrigo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Easter submarine alignment corresponds to a sequence of seamounts and oceanic islands which runs from the Ahu-Umu volcanic fields in the west to its intersection with the Nazca Ridge in the east, with a total length of about 2.900 km and a strike of N85°E. Recent bathymetric compilations that include combined satellite derived and shipboard data (Global Topography and multibeam bathymetric data (from NGDC-NOAA are interpreted both qualitatively and quantitatively by using a morphological analysis, which was comprised of the determination of bathymetric patterns, trends in lineations and structures; height measurements, computation of basal areas and volumes of seamounts, in order to establish clues on the origin of this seamount chain and to establish relationships with the regional tectonics. In the study region 514 seamounts were counted, of which 334 had a basal area less than the reference seamount (Moai. In general, the largest seamounts (>1000 m in height tend to align and to have a larger volume, with an elongation of their bases along the seamount chain. On the other hand, smaller seamounts tend to be distributed more randomly with more circular bases. As a consequence of the morphological analysis, the best possible mechanism that explains the origin of the seamount chain is the existence of a localized hotspot to the west of the Salas y Gómez Island. The corresponding plume would contribute additional magmatic material towards the East Pacific Rise through canalizations, whose secondary branches would feed intermediate volcanoes. It is possible that within the Easter Island region there would be another minor contribution through fractures in the crust, due to the crustal weakening that was produced by the Easter Fracture Zone.

  5. The Atlas of Submarine Glacial Landforms: Modern, Quaternary and Ancient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowdeswell, Julian A.; Canals, Miquel; Jakobsson, Martin; Todd, Brian J.; Dowdeswell, Evelyn K.; Hogan, Kelly A.

    2017-04-01

    Twenty years ago, the international marine community brought together a first Atlas of Acoustic Images of the high-latitude geo-marine environment (Davies et al. 1997). The present Atlas is a new attempt to summarize the state of knowledge of high-latitude glacier-influenced systems, focusing on HR imagery derived from multibeam swath bathymetry and novel 2D and 3D seismic reflection tools. These new-generation techniques, aided by accurate global positioning, have revolutionized the imaging of the seafloor and subseafloor over the past two decades and have now been deployed widely in polar and subpolar waters, providing vast quantities of new data. It is, therefore, timely to provide a compilation of the variety of submarine glacial and related landforms, together with their stratigraphic setting where possible, for scientific, technological, environmental and economic reasons. The glacial imprint on the modern seabed and palaeo-shelf surfaces, buried in glacial-sedimentary depocentres, can now be imaged better than ever before using the above techniques, providing novel insights into present and past environmental conditions and sedimentary architecture. The understanding of polar regions and their changing ice cover is of enhanced significance as they are both a key driver of global change and important responders to it. Finally, industry is increasingly interested on the dimensions and architecture of glacial sedimentary depocentres on present and past continental shelves because of the hydrocarbon potential of some glacial-sedimentary systems. The Atlas consists of a comprehensive series of over 180 contributions that describe, illustrate and discuss the full variability of landforms found on the high-latitude, glacier-influenced systems, and is organised in terms of their positions on a continental margin into those from: (1) fjords, (2) continental shelves and plateaus, and (3) the deep margin and basins beyond. The Atlas has been published by the Geological

  6. Seismic site response of submarine slope offshore southwestern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Yi Lin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Widely distributed Bottom-Simulating Reflectors (BSRs have been observed in the area offshore of southwestern Taiwan where the active accretionary complex meets with the passive China continental margin. In order to clarify the link between seismic site response and sedimentary properties of submarine slope, we evaluate the response of seafloor sediments in regard to passive dynamic loads. The local site effect produced by shallow marine sediments was characterized by estimating the horizontal-to-vertical (H/V spectral ratios of data recorded by the short-period Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBSs. The results show that the maximal H/V ratios appeared in the range of 3.66 - 9.28 Hz, suggesting that the fundamental frequency is dominated by the effect related to the very shallow sediments. For most stations, the H/V ratios estimated based on the earthquakes and noise records were characterized by different patterns. Relatively broad H/V pattern was obtained when the signals were extracted from earthquakes. This phenomenon may be related to soil nonlinearity when a stronger motion applies. In comparison with the available geological structures and bulk density distribution obtained from coring experiments, we found a relatively higher fundamental frequency of about 8 - 9 Hz for the more rigid material, such as mud diapir and folding axes. For most of the area along the slope, the fundamental frequency shows a relatively low value, about 6 - 8 Hz. Finally, when a site is characterized by thick or lowest bulk density sedimentary layer, we observed a fundamental frequency lower than 5 Hz, which is the lowest in our assessment.

  7. Potential Impact of Submarine Power Cables on Crab Harvest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, A. S.; Nishimoto, M.

    2016-02-01

    Offshore renewable energy installations convert wave or wind energy to electricity and transfer the power to shore through transmission cables laid on or buried beneath the seafloor. West coast commercial fishermen, who harvest the highly prized Dungeness crab (Metacarcinus magister) and the rock crab (Cancer spp.), are concerned that the interface of crabs and electromagnetic fields (EMF) from these cables will present an electrified fence on the seafloor that their target resource will not cross. Combined with the assistance of professional fishermen, submarine transmission cables that electrify island communities and offshore oil platforms in the eastern Pacific provide an opportunity to test the harvest of crab species across power transmission cables. In situ field techniques give commercial crab species a choice to decide if they will cross fully energized, EMF emitting, power transmission cables, in response to baited traps. Each independent trial is either one of two possible responses: the crab crosses the cable to enter a trap (1) or the crab does not cross the cable to enter a trap (0). Conditions vary among sample units by the following categorical, fixed factors (i.e., covariates) of cable structure (buried or unburied); direction of cable from crab position (west or east, north or south); time and season. A generalized linear model is fit to the data to determine whether any of these factors affect the probability of crabs crossing an energized cable to enter baited traps. Additionally, the experimental design, aside from the number of runs (set of sample trials) and the dates of the runs, is the same in the Santa Barbara Channel for rock crab and Puget Sound for Dungeness crab, and allows us to compare the capture rates of the two species in the two areas. We present preliminary results from field testing in 2015.

  8. Anatomy of La Jolla submarine canyon system; offshore southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paull, C.K.; Caress, D.W.; Lundsten, E.; Gwiazda, R.; Anderson, K.; McGann, M.; Conrad, J.; Edwards, B.; Sumner, E.J.

    2013-01-01

    An autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) carrying a multibeam sonar and a chirp profiler was used to map sections of the seafloor within the La Jolla Canyon, offshore southern California, at sub-meter scales. Close-up observations and sampling were conducted during remotely operated vehicle (ROV) dives. Minisparker seismic-reflection profiles from a surface ship help to define the overall geometry of the La Jolla Canyon especially with respect to the pre-canyon host sediments. The floor of the axial channel is covered with unconsolidated sand similar to the sand on the shelf near the canyon head, lacks outcrops of the pre-canyon host strata, has an almost constant slope of 1.0° and is covered with trains of crescent shaped bedforms. The presence of modern plant material entombed within these sands confirms that the axial channel is presently active. The sand on the canyon floor liquefied during vibracore collection and flowed downslope, illustrating that the sediment filling the channel can easily fail even on this gentle slope. Data from the canyon walls help constrain the age of the canyon and extent of incision. Horizontal beds of moderately cohesive fine-grained sediments exposed on the steep canyon walls are consistently less than 1.232 million years old. The lateral continuity of seismic reflectors in minisparker profiles indicate that pre-canyon host strata extend uninterrupted from outside the canyon underneath some terraces within the canyon. Evidence of abandoned channels and point bar-like deposits are noticeably absent on the inside bend of channel meanders and in the subsurface of the terraces. While vibracores from the surface of terraces contain thin (< 10 cm) turbidites, they are inferred to be part of a veneer of recent sediment covering pre-canyon host sediments that underpin the terraces. The combined use of state of the art seafloor mapping and exploration tools provides a uniquely detailed view of the morphology within an active submarine canyon.

  9. Scattering effect of submarine hull on propeller non-cavitation noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yingsan; Shen, Yang; Jin, Shuanbao; Hu, Pengfei; Lan, Rensheng; Zhuang, Shuangjiang; Liu, Dezhi

    2016-05-01

    This paper investigates the non-cavitation noise caused by propeller running in the wake of submarine with the consideration of scattering effect caused by submarine's hull. The computation fluid dynamics (CFD) and acoustic analogy method are adopted to predict fluctuating pressure of propeller's blade and its underwater noise radiation in time domain, respectively. An effective iteration method which is derived in the time domain from the Helmholtz integral equation is used to solve multi-frequency waves scattering due to obstacles. Moreover, to minimize time interpolation caused numerical errors, the pressure and its derivative at the sound emission time is obtained by summation of Fourier series. It is noted that the time averaging algorithm is used to achieve a convergent result if the solution oscillated in the iteration process. Meanwhile, the developed iteration method is verified and applied to predict propeller noise scattered from submarine's hull. In accordance with analysis results, it is summarized that (1) the scattering effect of hull on pressure distribution pattern especially at the frequency higher than blade passing frequency (BPF) is proved according to the contour maps of sound pressure distribution of submarine's hull and typical detecting planes. (2) The scattering effect of the hull on the total pressure is observable in noise frequency spectrum of field points, where the maximum increment is up to 3 dB at BPF, 12.5 dB at 2BPF and 20.2 dB at 3BPF. (3) The pressure scattered from hull is negligible in near-field of propeller, since the scattering effect surrounding analyzed location of propeller on submarine's stern is significantly different from the surface ship. This work shows the importance of submarine's scattering effect in evaluating the propeller non-cavitation noise.

  10. Simple models for the simulation of submarine melt for a Greenland glacial system model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckmann, Johanna; Perrette, Mahé; Ganopolski, Andrey

    2018-01-01

    Two hundred marine-terminating Greenland outlet glaciers deliver more than half of the annually accumulated ice into the ocean and have played an important role in the Greenland ice sheet mass loss observed since the mid-1990s. Submarine melt may play a crucial role in the mass balance and position of the grounding line of these outlet glaciers. As the ocean warms, it is expected that submarine melt will increase, potentially driving outlet glaciers retreat and contributing to sea level rise. Projections of the future contribution of outlet glaciers to sea level rise are hampered by the necessity to use models with extremely high resolution of the order of a few hundred meters. That requirement in not only demanded when modeling outlet glaciers as a stand alone model but also when coupling them with high-resolution 3-D ocean models. In addition, fjord bathymetry data are mostly missing or inaccurate (errors of several hundreds of meters), which questions the benefit of using computationally expensive 3-D models for future predictions. Here we propose an alternative approach built on the use of a computationally efficient simple model of submarine melt based on turbulent plume theory. We show that such a simple model is in reasonable agreement with several available modeling studies. We performed a suite of experiments to analyze sensitivity of these simple models to model parameters and climate characteristics. We found that the computationally cheap plume model demonstrates qualitatively similar behavior as 3-D general circulation models. To match results of the 3-D models in a quantitative manner, a scaling factor of the order of 1 is needed for the plume models. We applied this approach to model submarine melt for six representative Greenland glaciers and found that the application of a line plume can produce submarine melt compatible with observational data. Our results show that the line plume model is more appropriate than the cone plume model for simulating

  11. Submarine geology and geomorphology of active Sub-Antarctic volcanoes: Heard and McDonald Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, S. J.; Coffin, M. F.; Whittaker, J. M.; Lucieer, V.; Fox, J. M.; Carey, R.; Arculus, R. J.; Bowie, A. R.; Chase, Z.; Robertson, R.; Martin, T.; Cooke, F.

    2016-12-01

    Heard and McDonald Islands (HIMI) are World Heritage listed sub-Antarctic active volcanic islands in the Southern Indian Ocean. Built atop the Kerguelen Plateau by Neogene-Quaternary volcanism, HIMI represent subaerial exposures of the second largest submarine Large Igneous Province globally. Onshore, processes influencing island evolution include glaciers, weathering, volcanism, vertical tectonics and mass-wasting (Duncan et al. 2016). Waters surrounding HIMI are largely uncharted, due to their remote location. Hence, the extent to which these same processes shape the submarine environment around HIMI has not been investigated. In early 2016, we conducted marine geophysical and geologic surveys around HIMI aboard RV Investigator (IN2016_V01). Results show that volcanic and sedimentary features prominently trend east-west, likely a result of erosion by the eastward flowing Antarctic Circumpolar Current and tidal currents. However, spatial patterns of submarine volcanism and sediment distribution differ substantially between the islands. >70 sea knolls surround McDonald Island suggesting substantial submarine volcanism. Geophysical data reveals hard volcanic seafloor around McDonald Island, whereas Heard Island is characterised by sedimentary sequences tens of meters or more thick and iceberg scours - indicative of glacial processes. Differences in submarine geomorphology are likely due to the active glaciation of Heard Island and differing rock types (Heard: alkali basalt, McDonald: phonolite), and dominant products (clastics vs. lava). Variations may also reflect different magmatic plumbing systems beneath the two active volcanoes (Heard produces larger volumes of more focused lava, whilst McDonald extrudes smaller volumes of more evolved lavas from multiple vents across the edifice). Using geophysical data, corroborated with new and existing geologic data, we present the first geomorphic map revealing the processes that shape the submarine environment around HIMI.

  12. Measurements of primary trace gases and NO Y composition in Houston, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, Winston T.; Kelley, Paul; Lefer, Barry L.; Flynn, James; Rappenglück, Bernhard; Leuchner, Michael; Dibb, Jack E.; Ziemba, Luke D.; Anderson, Casey H.; Buhr, Martin

    2010-10-01

    Concentrations of CO, SO 2, NO, NO 2, and NO Y were measured atop the University of Houston's Moody Tower supersite during the 2006 TexAQS-II Radical and Aerosol Measurement Project (TRAMP). The lowest concentrations of all primary and secondary species were observed in clean marine air in southerly flow. SO 2 concentrations were usually low, but increased dramatically in sporadic midday plumes advected from sources in the Houston Ship Channel (HSC), located NE of the site. Concentrations of CO and NO x displayed large diurnal variations in keeping with their co-emission by mobile sources in the Houston Metropolitan Area (HMA). CO/NO x emission ratios of 5.81 ± 0.94 were observed in the morning rush hour. Nighttime concentrations of NO x (NO x = NO + NO 2) and NO Y (NO Y = NO + NO 2 + NO 3 + HNO 3 + HONO + 2∗N 2O 5 + HO 2NO 2 + PANs + RONO 2 + p-NO 3- + …) were highest in winds from the NNW-NE due to emission from mobile sources. Median ratios of NO x/NO Y were approximately 0.9 overnight, reflecting the persistence and/or generation of NO Z (NO Z = NO Y - NO x) species in the nighttime Houston boundary layer, and approached unity in the morning rush hour. Daytime concentrations of NO x and NO Y were highest in winds from the HSC. NO x/NO Y ratios reached their minimum values (median ca 0.63) from 1300 to 1500 CST, near local solar noon, and air masses often retained enough NO x to sustain additional O 3 formation farther downwind. HNO 3 and PANs comprised the dominant NO Z species in the HMA, and on a median basis represented 17-20% and 12-15% of NO Y, respectively, at midday. Concentrations of HNO 3, PANs, and NO Z, and fractional contributions of these species to NO Y, were at a maximum in NE flow, reflecting the source strength and reactivity of precursor emissions in the HSC. As a result, daytime O 3 concentrations were highest in air masses with HSC influence. Overall, our findings confirm the impact of the HSC as a dominant source region within the HMA

  13. Health and environmental risk assessment associated with a potential recovery of the Russian submarine K-27

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosseini, A.; Amundsen, I.; Brown, J.E.; Dowdall, M.; Standring, W. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority/CERAD CoE (Norway); Bartnicki, J. [Norwegian Meteorological Institute/CERAD CoE (Norway); Karcher, M. [O.A.Sys - Ocean Atmosphere Systems GmbH (Germany); Lind, O.C.; Salbu, B. [Norwegian University of Life Sciences/CERAD CoE (Norway)

    2014-07-01

    The nuclear submarine K-27 is one of several objects with spent nuclear fuel (SNF) which has been dumped in the Arctic. It contained two liquid metal reactors (LMRs) of 70 MW maximum thermal power each and used Pb-Bi as the coolant. The reactors were loaded with 180 kg of U-235 at an enrichment of 90 %. In September 1981, the submarine was sunk in the shallow waters of Stepovoy Fjord at an estimated depth of 30 m. Concerns have been expressed by various parties regarding the issue of dumped nuclear waste in the Kara Sea and in particular the submarine K-27. To address these concerns and to provide a better basis for evaluating possible radiological impact (especially as a consequence of a potential recovery of the submarine), an environmental impact assessment has been undertaken. The study is based on construction of different hypothetical accident scenarios and evaluating possible associated consequences for human and the environment. In general, three main scenarios seem probable and thus appropriate for consideration. One is the 'zero- alternative', i.e. investigate the current and future impact assuming no interventions. The second considers an accidental scenario involving the raising of the submarine and the third an accidental scenario related to the transportation of the submarine to shore for defueling. With regards to the accidental scenarios related to raising and transportation of the submarine, two alternatives can be considered depending on where and how a hypothetical accident will take place and whether the subsequent releases occur under water or at the water surface. The issue of an uncontrolled chain reaction occurring as a result of a potential recovery of the submarine will be included in the assessment. The work includes application of state of the art 3D hydrodynamic and atmospheric dispersion models to investigate the transport, distribution and fate of relevant radionuclides following a hypothetical accident in aquatic and

  14. Impact of Submarine Geohazards on Organic Carbon Burial Offshore Southwestern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, C. C.; Tsai, P. H.; Liu, J. T.; Hsu, S. K.; Chiu, S. D.

    2015-12-01

    The tectonically active setting and climatic conditions give Taiwan a high exposure to severe natural hazards. After the Pingtung Earthquake and Morakot Typhoon which occurred in 2006 and 2009, the turbidity currents caused a series of submarine cable breaks along the Gaoping and Fangliao Submarine Canyons off SW Taiwan. Large amounts of terrestrial sediments were fast transported bypass the narrow continental shelf and rapidly moved southward through submarine canyons to the deep sea. Two piston cores which were taken from the Tsangyao Ridge and its adjacent area (OR5-1302-2-MT7 and MT6) might shed light on understanding the export of terrestrial organic carbon to the abyss by submarine geo-hazards. The 210Pb profile of MT7 in conjunction with the grain size data indicates the existence of the Pingtung Earthquake and Morakot Typhoon related deposits. The sedimentation rate of these two cores which derived from 210Pb is approximately 0.05 cm/yr. The cores collected from the Gaoping Submarine Canyon, Gaoping Slope and Fangliao Submarine Canyon are used for analyzing TOC, organic C/N and δ13C ratios. The concentrations of total organic carbon are ~0.5%, and C/N rations almost remain between 4 and 8. The high TOC (~1%) and C/N ratio (>10) are observed in the samples with plant debris. The fluctuation of TOC and C/N ratios in near-shore samples is higher than deep sea. In terms of δ13C-values, it progressively decreases with distances from coastal zone to the deep sea. Due to the larger proportions of land-derived organic carbon, the δ13C-values in the surface sediment of upper Gaoping Submarine Canyon, Gaoping Slope, and the turbidite layers at the head of Fangliao Submarine Canyon are lighter. Furthermore, we use the TOC concentrations and δ13C-values to estimate the fractional contributions of terrestrial organic carbon by a simple two component mixing model, and integrate with the 210Pb-derived sediment accumulation rates to evaluate the organic carbon burial

  15. Nuclear-powered submarine accidents; Les accidents de sous-marins nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tournyol du Clos, A.

    1996-04-01

    Most of nuclear-powered ships are military ships and submarines represent 95% of the total. Most of the propulsion reactors used are of PWR type. This paper gives the principal technical characteristics of PWR ship propulsion reactors and the differences with their civil homologues. The principal accidents that occurred on US and Russian nuclear-powered submarines are also listed and the possible effects of a shipwreck on the reactor behaviour are evaluated with their environmental impact. (J.S.). 1 tab., 1 photo.

  16. Modeling and Synthesis Methods for Retrofit Design of Submarine Actuation Systems. Energy Storage for Electric Actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-15

    sternplane v - sway w - heave u - surge X Y Z y z x Figure 2: Coordinate frame definitions of submarine vehicular dynamics. 2.1 Six Degree of Freedom...where Mν̇ is the total inertial matrix, C(ν) is the Coriolis/centripetal matrix, D(ν) is the total damping matrix, g(η) are the buoyancy and weight...Natick, MA. Retrofit Design of Submarine Actuation Systems Page 7 q - pitch w - heave u - surge δs Msp Figure 3: Hydrodynamic moment unit definition

  17. The impact of the Type 094 ballistic missile submarine on China's nuclear policy

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, Samuel D.

    2009-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution unlimited This thesis examines the implication of China’s near completion of a viable nuclear triad. The objective is to determine first, how this submarine will fit into China’s no-first-use policy with regards to their nuclear weapons. And second, determine how advanced this weapon platform will be. With the introduction of multiple Type 094 “Jin” class ballistic missile submarines, has Beijing set the stage for a possible return to Cold War leve...

  18. Oceanographic studies supporting the assessment of deep-sea disposal of defueled decommissioned nuclear submarines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross Heath, G.; Rea, David K.; Ness, Gordon; Dale Pillsbury, R.; Beasley, Thomas M.; Lopez, Carlos; Talbert, Daniel M.

    1984-12-01

    Based on criteria developed by the international Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), potential disposal sites for defueled, decommissioned nuclear submarines appear to exist in deep water south of the Mendocino Fracture Zone within 200 nautical miles of the United States Oceanographic measurements in the water column and at the sea floor in a study area (W-N) at 39 5°N, 127 5°W will allow the operational and radiological consequences of deep-sea disposal to be compared with land burial of old submarines. The W-N studies also are yielding new data that will provide insights to the deposition and early diagenesis of distal hemipelagic sediments

  19. Submarine landslide triggered by eruption recorded by in-situ hydrophone at NW Rota-1 submarine volcano, Mariana Arc (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, B.; Dziak, R. P.; Embley, R. W.; Tunnicliffe, V.; Sherrin, J.; Cashman, K. V.; Deardorff, N.

    2010-12-01

    An expedition to NW Rota-1, Mariana Arc, in March 2010 with R/V Kilo Moana and ROV Jason found that the submarine volcano (summit depth 520 m) was still erupting more or less continuously as has been observed since 2004, In addition, the expedition also discovered that a major landslide had occurred since the last visit in April 2009, demonstrating the dynamic processes of eruption, collapse, and regrowth in the submarine arc environment. The dive observations reveal the responses of the volcano’s magmatic and hydrothermal systems to such a collapse, as well as how the resident chemosynthetic biological community has responded to the event. The morphologic changes from the landslide can be quantified by comparing multibeam bathymetric surveys between 2009 and 2010. The headwall of the slide is now ~100 m north of the former summit ridge where depth changes up to -90 m occurred between surveys. The slide excavated material from the upper southern slope of the volcano to a distance of 3.5 km downslope, and deposited material between 2-8 km from the summit down to at least 2800 m on the volcano flank. The area and volume of slide deposits (positive depth changes) are 7.1 x 106 m2 and 5.3 x 107 m3, respectively, and the maximum thickness is +42 m. The area and volume of material removed by the slide (negative depth changes) are 2.2 x 106 m2 and -4.1 x 107 m3, respectively. We have found no evidence for a local tsunami generated by this event. The changes in morphology near the summit show that the landslide primarily removed loose volcaniclastic deposits that had accumulated near the active eruptive vent, exposing an underlying stock-like core of resistant intrusive rocks and massive lavas at the summit. During March 2010, there were at least 5 active eruptive vents, located along a line 200-m long, that changed between active and inactive day-to-day and even hour-to-hour, suggesting that the near-surface magmatic plumbing system was still reorganizing after the

  20. Exploratory study of atmospheric methane enhancements derived from natural gas use in the Houston urban area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Nancy P.; Zheng, Chuantao; Ye, Weilin; Czader, Beata; Cohan, Daniel S.; Tittel, Frank K.; Griffin, Robert J.

    2018-03-01

    The extensive use of natural gas (NG) in urban areas for heating and cooking and as a vehicular fuel is associated with potentially significant emissions of methane (CH4) to the atmosphere. Methane, a potent greenhouse gas that influences the chemistry of the atmosphere, can be emitted from different sources including leakage from NG infrastructure, transportation activities, end-use uncombusted NG, landfills and livestock. Although significant CH4 leakage associated with aging local NG distribution systems in the U.S. has been reported, further investigation is required to study the role of this infrastructure component and other NG-related sources in atmospheric CH4 enhancements in urban centers. In this study, neighborhood-scale mobile-based monitoring of potential CH4 emissions associated with NG in the Greater Houston area (GHA) is reported. A novel dual-gas 3.337 μm interband cascade laser-based sensor system was developed and mobile-mode deployed for simultaneous CH4 and ethane (C2H6) monitoring during a period of over 14 days, corresponding to ∼ 90 h of effective data collection during summer 2016. The sampling campaign covered ∼250 exclusive road miles and was primarily concentrated on eight residential zones with distinct infrastructure age and NG usage levels. A moderate number of elevated CH4 concentration events (37 episodes) with mixing ratios not exceeding 3.60 ppmv and associated with atmospheric background enhancements below 1.21 ppmv were observed during the field campaign. Source discrimination analyses based on the covariance between CH4 and C2H6 levels indicated the predominance of thermogenic sources (e.g., NG) in the elevated CH4 concentration episodes. The volumetric fraction of C2H6 in the sources associated with the thermogenic CH4 spikes varied between 2.7 and 5.9%, concurring with the C2H6 content in NG distributed in the GHA. Isolated CH4 peak events with significantly higher C2H6 enhancements (∼11%) were observed at industrial

  1. Investigation of the correlation between odd oxygen and secondary organic aerosol in Mexico City and Houston

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, E. C.; Canagaratna, M. R.; Herndon, S. C.; Onasch, T. B.; Kolb, C. E.; Worsnop, D. R.; Kroll, J. H.; Knighton, W. B.; Seila, R.; Zavala, M.; Molina, L. T.; Decarlo, P. F.; Jimenez, J. L.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Knapp, D. J.; Jobson, B. T.; Stutz, J.; Kuster, W. C.; Williams, E. J.

    2010-09-01

    Many recent models underpredict secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particulate matter (PM) concentrations in polluted regions, indicating serious deficiencies in the models' chemical mechanisms and/or missing SOA precursors. Since tropospheric photochemical ozone production is much better understood, we investigate the correlation of odd-oxygen ([Ox]≡[O3]+[NO2]) and the oxygenated component of organic aerosol (OOA), which is interpreted as a surrogate for SOA. OOA and Ox measured in Mexico City in 2006 and Houston in 2000 were well correlated in air masses where both species were formed on similar timescales (less than 8 h) and not well correlated when their formation timescales or location differed greatly. When correlated, the ratio of these two species ranged from 30 μg m-3/ppm (STP) in Houston during time periods affected by large petrochemical plant emissions to as high as 160 μg m-3/ppm in Mexico City, where typical values were near 120 μg m-3/ppm. On several days in Mexico City, the [OOA]/[Ox] ratio decreased by a factor of ~2 between 08:00 and 13:00 local time. This decrease is only partially attributable to evaporation of the least oxidized and most volatile components of OOA; differences in the diurnal emission trends and timescales for photochemical processing of SOA precursors compared to ozone precursors also likely contribute to the observed decrease. The extent of OOA oxidation increased with photochemical aging. Calculations of the ratio of the SOA formation rate to the Ox production rate using ambient VOC measurements and traditional laboratory SOA yields are lower than the observed [OOA]/[Ox] ratios by factors of 5 to 15, consistent with several other models' underestimates of SOA. Calculations of this ratio using emission factors for organic compounds from gasoline and diesel exhaust do not reproduce the observed ratio. Although not succesful in reproducing the atmospheric observations presented, modeling P(SOA)/P(Ox) can serve as a useful test

  2. Investigation of the correlation between odd oxygen and secondary organic aerosol in Mexico City and Houston

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. C. Wood

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Many recent models underpredict secondary organic aerosol (SOA particulate matter (PM concentrations in polluted regions, indicating serious deficiencies in the models' chemical mechanisms and/or missing SOA precursors. Since tropospheric photochemical ozone production is much better understood, we investigate the correlation of odd-oxygen ([Ox]≡[O3]+[NO2] and the oxygenated component of organic aerosol (OOA, which is interpreted as a surrogate for SOA. OOA and Ox measured in Mexico City in 2006 and Houston in 2000 were well correlated in air masses where both species were formed on similar timescales (less than 8 h and not well correlated when their formation timescales or location differed greatly. When correlated, the ratio of these two species ranged from 30 μg m−3/ppm (STP in Houston during time periods affected by large petrochemical plant emissions to as high as 160 μg m−3/ppm in Mexico City, where typical values were near 120 μg m−3/ppm. On several days in Mexico City, the [OOA]/[Ox] ratio decreased by a factor of ~2 between 08:00 and 13:00 local time. This decrease is only partially attributable to evaporation of the least oxidized and most volatile components of OOA; differences in the diurnal emission trends and timescales for photochemical processing of SOA precursors compared to ozone precursors also likely contribute to the observed decrease. The extent of OOA oxidation increased with photochemical aging. Calculations of the ratio of the SOA formation rate to the Ox production rate using ambient VOC measurements and traditional laboratory SOA yields are lower than the observed [OOA]/[Ox] ratios by factors of 5 to 15, consistent with several other models' underestimates of SOA. Calculations of this ratio using emission factors for organic compounds from gasoline and diesel exhaust do not reproduce the observed

  3. Formaldehyde and its relation to CO, PAN, and SO2 in the Houston-Galveston airshed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Li

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The Houston-Galveston Airshed (HGA is one of the major metropolitan areas in the US that is classified as a nonattainment area of federal ozone standards. Formaldehyde (HCHO is a key species in understanding ozone related air pollution; some of the highest HCHO concentrations in North America have been reported for the HGA. We report on HCHO measurements in the HGA from summer 2006. Among several sites, maximum HCHO mixing ratios were observed in the Houston Ship Channel (HSC, a region with a very high density of industrial/petrochemical operations. HCHO levels at the Moody Tower (MT site close to downtown were dependent on the wind direction: southerly maritime winds brought in background levels (0.5–1 ppbv while trajectories originating in the HSC resulted in high HCHO (up to 31.5 ppbv. Based on the best multiparametric linear regression model fit, the HCHO levels at the MT site can be accounted for as follows: 38.5±12.3% from primary vehicular emissions (using CO as an index of vehicular emission, 24.1±17.7% formed photochemically (using peroxyacetic nitric anhydride (PAN as an index of photochemical activity and 8.9±11.2% from industrial emissions (using SO2 as an index of industrial emissions. The balance 28.5±12.7% constituted the residual which cannot be easily ascribed to the above categories and/or which is transported into the HGA. The CO related HCHO fraction is dominant during the morning rush hour (06:00–09:00 h, all times are given in CDT; on a carbon basis, HCHO emissions are up to 0.7% of the CO emissions. The SO2 related HCHO fraction is significant between 09:00–12:00 h. After 12:00 h HCHO is largely formed through secondary processes. The HCHO/PAN ratios are dependent on the SO2 levels. The SO2 related HCHO fraction at the downtown site originates in the ship channel. Aside from traffic-related primary HCHO emissions, HCHO of industrial origin serves as an appreciable source for OH in the morning.

  4. Swath sonar mapping of Earth's submarine plate boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbotte, S. M.; Ferrini, V. L.; Celnick, M.; Nitsche, F. O.; Ryan, W. B. F.

    2014-12-01

    The recent loss of Malaysia Airlines flight MH370 in an area of the Indian Ocean where less than 5% of the seafloor is mapped with depth sounding data (Smith and Marks, EOS 2014) highlights the striking lack of detailed knowledge of the topography of the seabed for much of the worlds' oceans. Advances in swath sonar mapping technology over the past 30 years have led to dramatic improvements in our capability to map the seabed. However, the oceans are vast and only an estimated 10% of the seafloor has been mapped with these systems. Furthermore, the available coverage is highly heterogeneous and focused within areas of national strategic priority and community scientific interest. The major plate boundaries that encircle the globe, most of which are located in the submarine environment, have been a significant focus of marine geoscience research since the advent of swath sonar mapping. While the location of these plate boundaries are well defined from satellite-derived bathymetry, significant regions remain unmapped at the high-resolutions provided by swath sonars and that are needed to study active volcanic and tectonic plate boundary processes. Within the plate interiors, some fossil plate boundary zones, major hotspot volcanoes, and other volcanic provinces have been the focus of dedicated research programs. Away from these major tectonic structures, swath mapping coverage is limited to sparse ocean transit lines which often reveal previously unknown deep-sea channels and other little studied sedimentary structures not resolvable in existing low-resolution global compilations, highlighting the value of these data even in the tectonically quiet plate interiors. Here, we give an overview of multibeam swath sonar mapping of the major plate boundaries of the globe as extracted from public archives. Significant quantities of swath sonar data acquired from deep-sea regions are in restricted-access international archives. Open access to more of these data sets would

  5. Submarine Groundwater Discharge in Stony Brook Harbor, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, J. M.; Young, C.; Wong, T.; Hanson, G. N.

    2012-12-01

    As nutrients can significantly impact coastal ecosystems, understanding their path to embayments and oceans is crucial. In Stony Brook Harbor (Long Island, NY), submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) is the only significant contribution of freshwater and thus constitutes the main pathway for nutrients, which may eventually reach Long Island Sound. Subterranean estuaries have been shown to be highly reactive zones where nitrogen attenuation can occur. Understanding the fate of nitrogen in Stony Brook Harbor requires knowing the volume of groundwater entering the bay as well as the amount of denitrification, in the context of the hydrogeological framework. This is achieved by combining electrical resistivity survey, water sampling in piezometers, point conductivity and seepage measurements. A Trident probe inserted 60 cm deep into the sediments allows measuring the conductivity and temperature of the sediments and the overlying seawater. In spring 2011, five Trident transects spreading across the head of the harbor were used as a preliminary study to reveal potential locations for SGD. Locations with significant difference between sediment and seawater temperature and/or conductivities were further investigated using an AGI SuperSting 8-channel receiver resistivity meter. Two ultrasonic seepage meters were deployed in May and July 2011 about 20 m below the low tide mark. Five piezometers were aligned parallel to one resistivity survey. Our resistivity data indicate superficial mixing in the intertidal zone. The freshwater extends quite far under the seafloor, above 67 meters after the low tide mark for one location. The freshwater/saltwater interface seems to be almost horizontal. The piezometer data agree relatively well with the resistivity data. The preliminary average seepage rates observed vary from 3 to 60 cm/d. The resistivity sections reveal the presence of a thin layer of high conductivity above the low tide mark. This matches the observation of a superficial

  6. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from the USS BOLD in the Gulf of Mexico from 2007-05-02 to 2007-08-24 (NODC Accession 0117500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0117500 includes Surface underway, chemical and physical data collected from USS BOLD in the Gulf of Mexico from 2007-05-02 to 2007-08-24. These data...

  7. Temperature profiles from mechanical bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the USS WARBLER in the Eastern China Sea and other locations in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project from 19 September 1966 to 27 September 1966 (NODC Accession 6600396)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MBT data were collected from the USS WARBLER in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project. Data were collected in the Eastern China Sea...

  8. Temperature profiles from mechanical bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the USS PLEDGE in the North Pacific Ocean and South China Sea in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project from 24 August 1961 to 12 April 1962 (NODC Accession 6100460)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MBT data were collected from the USS PLEDGE in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project. Data were collected by US Navy; Ships of...

  9. Temperature profiles from mechanical bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the USS JACANA in the Caribbean Sea and Coastal Waters of Florida in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project from 1962-04-28 to 1962-05-03 (NODC Accession 6200512)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MBT data were collected from the USS JACANA in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project. Data were collected by US Navy; Ships of...

  10. Temperature profiles from mechanical bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the USS WOODPECKER in the Philippine Sea and South China Sea in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project from 15 October 1960 to 05 November 1960 (NODC Accession 6000086)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MBT data were collected from the USS WOODPECKER in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project. Data were collected by US Navy; Ships of...

  11. Temperature profiles from mechanical bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the USS GEIGER and Other Platforms in the North Pacific Ocean in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project on from 24 May 1962 to 20 March 1969 (NODC Accession 6900570)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MBT data were collected from the USS GEIGER and Other Platforms in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project. Data were collected by US...

  12. Temperature profiles from XBT casts from the USS CURTS and other platforms from the North Atlantic Ocean and other locations as part of the South Atlantic Bight project from 1980-04-30 to 1986-04-24 (NCEI Accession 8600175)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profiles were collected from XBT casts from the USS CURTS and other platforms from 30 April 1980 to 24 April 1986. Data were submitted by the Woods Hole...

  13. Temperature profiles from mechanical bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the USS VIGOR in the Mediterranean Sea and other locations in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project from 1962-01-28 to 1966-10-20 (NODC Accession 7600251)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MBT data were collected from the USS VIGOR in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project. Data were collected by US Navy; Ships of...

  14. Oceanographic station data from bottle casts from the USS SAGACITY and Other Platforms in the Bering Sea and other locations in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project from 01 December 1965 to 19 August 1968 (NODC Accession 6900268)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic station data were collected from the USS SAGACITY and Other Platforms in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project. Data...

  15. Temperature profiles from mechanical bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the USS LEADER in the North Pacific Ocean and South China Sea in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project from 14 August 1961 to 02 September 1961 (NODC Accession 6100202)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MBT data were collected from the USS LEADER in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project. Data were collected by US Navy; Ships of...

  16. Temperature profiles from mechanical bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the USS AGGRESSIVE in the Gulf of Mexico and North Atlantic Ocean in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project from 22 June 1965 to 12 July 1965 (NODC Accession 6500048)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MBT data were collected from the USS AGGRESSIVE in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project. Data were collected by US Navy; Ships of...

  17. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from the USS BOLD in the Gulf of Mexico from 2006-06-06 to 2006-09-11 (NODC Accession 0117493)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0117493 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from USS BOLD in the Gulf of Mexico from 2006-06-06 to...

  18. Temperature profiles from mechanical bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the USS CONFLICT in the North and South Pacific Oceans in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project from 1966-07-12 to 1966-07-19 (NODC Accession 6600091)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MBT data were collected from the USS CONFLICT in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project. Data were collected North and South Pacific...

  19. Temperature profiles from mechanical bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the USS VIREO in the Gulf of Thailand and the South China Sea in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project from 1965-04-02 to 1965-05-15 (NODC Accession 6500920)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MBT data were collected from the USS VIREO in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project. Data were collected in the Gulf of Thailand...

  20. Temperature profiles from mechanical bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the USS CHEMUNG and Other Platforms in the Eastern China China Sea in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project from 1962-01-17 to 1965-09-08 (NODC Accession 6900749)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MBT data were collected from the USS CHEMUNG and Other Platforms in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project. Data were collected by...

  1. Proposing transportation designs and concepts to make Houston METRO's southeast line at the Palm Center area more walkable, bikeable, and livable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Over the years, the Palm Center (PC) in Houston, Texas, has been the beneficiary of several economic : development endeavors designed to ignite economic and community growth and revitalization. While : these endeavors brought forth initial success, t...

  2. Experimental research on the double-peak characteristic of underwater radiated noise in the near field on top of a submarine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ning; Wang, Sande; Guo, Tao; Li, Xiyou; Yu, Ziyang

    2011-06-01

    The double-peak characteristic of underwater radiated noise in the near field on top of the target submarine was analyzed in depth on the basis of submarine test data on the sea. The contribution of three major noise sources to the radiated noise of a submarine were compared and analyzed, and emphasis was put on the original source, production mechanism, and their correlative characteristics. On the basis of analysis on underwater tracking and pass through characteristics of the target submarine, the double-peak phenomenon was reasonably interpreted. Furthermore, the correctness of the theoretical interpretation was verified adequately in real submarine tests. The double-peak phenomenon indicates that the space distributing character on submarine radiated noise are both asymmetrical with time and space, whereas that is provided with directivity. Studying the double-peak phenomenon in depth has important reference value and meaning in engineering practice for understanding the underwater radiated noise field of submarines.

  3. Statistical Analysis and water Quality Modeling for a Drinking Water Source Watershed for the City of Houston, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teague, A.; Bedient, P.; Vieux, B. E.

    2009-12-01

    Water quality is a problem in Lake Houston, the primary source of drinking water for the City of Houston, due to pollutant loads coming from the influent watersheds, including Cypress Creek. Water quality issues in the watershed that are of concern for the lake include nutrient enrichment bacterial impairment, both of which present operational challenges for the drinking water treatment plant operations. Statistical analysis of the historic water quality data was developed in order to understand the source characterization and seasonality of the watershed. Multivariate analysis including principal component, cluster, and discriminant analysis provided a unique seasonal assessment of the watershed leading to refined loading curves have been analyzed using data collected by the USGS at 3 sites in Cypress Creek with corresponding City of Houston water quality data at the sites for the past 5 years to characterize the behavior of the pollutant source and watershed. A VfloTM hydrologic model from Vieux & Assoc., Inc for the watershed of the influent stream Cypress Creek was developed to predict the watershed flows into Lake Houston. A distributed model of a large scale watershed, it uses finite element analysis to solve the kinematic wave equation. The model incorporates land use relationships to predict runoff from Radar rainfall data. Continuous VfloTM was run for storm events and the distributed discharge of the watershed simulated. From the spatial discharge output, nutrient wash-off and convective transport was simulated. The simulated nutrient transport was then compared to storm sampling data at a downstream location to assess the water quality model and determine needed future refinements.

  4. The Italian Submarine Force in the Battle of the Atlantic: Left in the Dark

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-12

    design during the Interwar period. Part of this discussion will focus on German U-boat design and capabilities prior to the Versailles Treaty in...patrols can be attributed to the restrictions imposed by the Treaty of Versailles and the amount of time required to re-build a German submarine force...

  5. Kolumbo submarine volcano (Greece): An active window into the Aegean subduction system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Andrea Luca; Caracausi, Antonio; Chavagnac, Valèrie; Nomikou, Paraskevi; Polymenakou, Paraskevi N; Mandalakis, Manolis; Kotoulas, Georgios; Magoulas, Antonios; Castillo, Alain; Lampridou, Danai

    2016-06-17

    Submarine volcanism represents ~80% of the volcanic activity on Earth and is an important source of mantle-derived gases. These gases are of basic importance for the comprehension of mantle characteristics in areas where subaerial volcanism is missing or strongly modified by the presence of crustal/atmospheric components. Though, the study of submarine volcanism remains a challenge due to their hazardousness and sea-depth. Here, we report (3)He/(4)He measurements in CO2-dominated gases discharged at 500 m below sea level from the high-temperature (~220 °C) hydrothermal system of the Kolumbo submarine volcano (Greece), located 7 km northeast off Santorini Island in the central part of the Hellenic Volcanic Arc (HVA). We highlight that the mantle below Kolumbo and Santorini has a (3)He/(4)He signature of at least 7.0 Ra (being Ra the (3)He/(4)He ratio of atmospheric He equal to 1.39×10(-6)), 3 Ra units higher than actually known for gases-rocks from Santorini. This ratio is also the highest measured across the HVA and is indicative of the direct degassing of a Mid-Ocean-Ridge-Basalts (MORB)-like mantle through lithospheric faults. We finally highlight that the degassing of high-temperature fluids with a MORB-like (3)He/(4)He ratio corroborates a vigorous outgassing of mantle-derived volatiles with potential hazard at the Kolumbo submarine volcano.

  6. Environmental monitoring of El Hierro Island submarine volcano, by combining low and high resolution satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eugenio, F.; Martin, J.; Marcello, J.; Fraile-Nuez, E.

    2014-06-01

    El Hierro Island, located at the Canary Islands Archipelago in the Atlantic coast of North Africa, has been rocked by thousands of tremors and earthquakes since July 2011. Finally, an underwater volcanic eruption started 300 m below sea level on October 10, 2011. Since then, regular multidisciplinary monitoring has been carried out in order to quantify the environmental impacts caused by the submarine eruption. Thanks to this natural tracer release, multisensorial satellite imagery obtained from MODIS and MERIS sensors have been processed to monitor the volcano activity and to provide information on the concentration of biological, chemical and physical marine parameters. Specifically, low resolution satellite estimations of optimal diffuse attenuation coefficient (Kd) and chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentration under these abnormal conditions have been assessed. These remote sensing data have played a fundamental role during field campaigns guiding the oceanographic vessel to the appropriate sampling areas. In addition, to analyze El Hierro submarine volcano area, WorldView-2 high resolution satellite spectral bands were atmospherically and deglinted processed prior to obtain a high-resolution optimal diffuse attenuation coefficient model. This novel algorithm was developed using a matchup data set with MERIS and MODIS data, in situ transmittances measurements and a seawater radiative transfer model. Multisensor and multitemporal imagery processed from satellite remote sensing sensors have demonstrated to be a powerful tool for monitoring the submarine volcanic activities, such as discolored seawater, floating material and volcanic plume, having shown the capabilities to improve the understanding of submarine volcanic processes.

  7. The fate of the submarine ikaite tufa columns in southwest Greenland under changing climate conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Marc O.; Buchardt, Bjørn; Kühl, Michael

    2011-01-01

    carbonate tufa columns. Here, ikaite is formed as a result of submarine spring water mixing with cold seawater. As ikaite disintegrates at temperatures above 6–7uC, it has been speculated that global warming could endanger this unique habitat as well as other sites. In Ikka Fjord in situ water chemistry...

  8. Frontal and Lateral Submarine Lobe Fringes: Comparing Sedimentary Facies, Architecture and Flow Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spychala, Yvonne T.; Hodgson, David M.; Prélat, Amandine; Kane, Ian A.; Flint, Stephen S.; Mountney, Nigel P.

    2017-01-01

    Submarine lobe-fringe deposits form heterolithic successions that may include a high proportion of hybrid beds. The identification of lobe-fringe successions aids interpretation of paleogeographic setting and the degree of basin confinement. Here, for the first time, the sedimentological and

  9. Contributions for the modelling of submarine cables – current density and simplified modelling of wired layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da; Bak, Claus Leth; Ebdrup, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This article researches two topics relevant for the development of accurate formulae able to estimate the ampacity of HVAC submarine cables. Simplified formulae for estimating the current density distribution, which can be used for theoretical analyses, are developed and compared with the exact...

  10. The Future of the Ballistic Missile Submarine Force in the Russian Nuclear Triad

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    financial setbacks, missile technology failures, and the Kursk sinking in 2000, the SSBN force has slipped back to a lesser prominence.9 B. MAJOR...range category. In the battle for survival, the SLBMs and ALCMs are the most likely potential losers. When the two platforms – submarines and

  11. Scientific Ocean Drilling Behind the Assessment of Geo-Hazards from Submarine Slides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Ercilla

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The workshop ‘Scientific Ocean Drilling Behind the Assessment of Geo-hazards from Submarine Slides’ was held on 25–27 October 2006 in Barcelona (Spain. Fifty mainly European scientists and industry representatives attended from a wide spectrum of disciplines such as geophysics, stratigraphy, sedimentology, paleoceanography, marinegeotechnology, geotechnical engineering, and tsunami modeling.

  12. Estimation of submarine mass failure probability from a sequence of deposits with age dates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, Eric L.; Chaytor, Jason D.; Parsons, Thomas E.; ten Brink, Uri S.

    2013-01-01

    The empirical probability of submarine mass failure is quantified from a sequence of dated mass-transport deposits. Several different techniques are described to estimate the parameters for a suite of candidate probability models. The techniques, previously developed for analyzing paleoseismic data, include maximum likelihood and Type II (Bayesian) maximum likelihood methods derived from renewal process theory and Monte Carlo methods. The estimated mean return time from these methods, unlike estimates from a simple arithmetic mean of the center age dates and standard likelihood methods, includes the effects of age-dating uncertainty and of open time intervals before the first and after the last event. The likelihood techniques are evaluated using Akaike’s Information Criterion (AIC) and Akaike’s Bayesian Information Criterion (ABIC) to select the optimal model. The techniques are applied to mass transport deposits recorded in two Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) drill sites located in the Ursa Basin, northern Gulf of Mexico. Dates of the deposits were constrained by regional bio- and magnetostratigraphy from a previous study. Results of the analysis indicate that submarine mass failures in this location occur primarily according to a Poisson process in which failures are independent and return times follow an exponential distribution. However, some of the model results suggest that submarine mass failures may occur quasiperiodically at one of the sites (U1324). The suite of techniques described in this study provides quantitative probability estimates of submarine mass failure occurrence, for any number of deposits and age uncertainty distributions.

  13. CLAM - CoLlAborative eMbedded networks for submarine surveillance: An overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meratnia, Nirvana; Havinga, Paul J.M.; Casari, Paolo; Petrioli, Chiara; Grythe, Knut; Husoy, Thor; Zorzi, Michele

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the CLAM project, which aims at developing a collaborative embedded monitoring and control platform for submarine surveillance by combining cutting edge acoustic vector sensor technology and 1D, 2D, 3D sensor arrays, underwater wireless sensor networks protocol

  14. Terrestrial-style slow-moving earthflow kinematics in a submarine landslide complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshu J. Mountjoy; Jim McKean; Philip M. Barnes; Jarg R. Pettinga

    2009-01-01

    Morphometric analysis of Simrad EM300 multibeam bathymetric DEMs reveals details of deformation patterns in a ~145 km2 submarine landslide complex that are commonly associated with slow-moving earthflows in terrestrial settings. This mode of failure, where existing landslide debris is remobilised repeatedly along discrete shear boundaries and is...

  15. Exchange Flow of Oil and Sea-Water in a Ruptured Submarine Pipeline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranenburg, C.

    1983-01-01

    The rupture of a submarine oil pipeline starts var10US mechanisms leading to an oil spill. Among these mechanisms the leakage of oil driven by the difference in specific gravities of oil and seawater is difficult to quantify. A simple mathematical model has been developed and laboratory experiments

  16. Buoyancy-driven leakage of oil from a ruptured submarine pipeline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranenburg, C.

    1983-01-01

    The rupture of a submarine oil pipeline starts various mechanisms leading to an oil spill. Among these mechanisms the leakage of oil driven by the difference in specific gravities of oil and sea-water is difficult to estimate. A simple mathematical model has been developed and laboratory experiments

  17. Geochemical stratigraphy of submarine lavas (3-5 Ma) from the Flamengos Valley, Santiago, Cape Verde

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barker, Abigail K; Holm, Paul Martin; Peate, David W.

    2009-01-01

    New high-precision Pb-Sr-Nd isotope, major and trace element and mineral chemistry data are presented for the submarine stage of ocean island volcanism on Santiago, one of the southern islands of the Cape Verde archipelago. Pillow basalts and hyaloclastites in the Flamengos Valley are divided...

  18. Common Submarine Radio Room: A Case Study of a System of Systems Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    11. Land Attack/Strike Mission Scenario (from PMW770 2011b, 52) .................30 Figure 12. CSG/ ESG Mission Scenario (from PMW770 2011b, 67...request EHF extremely high frequency ESG expeditionary strike group ETR Submarine communications electronics technician FRD Fleet readiness...expeditionary strike group operations mission (CSG/ ESG ) 4. Special operations forces mission (SOF) 5. Mine warfare operations mission (MIW) 6

  19. Mapping submarine sand waves with multiband imaging radar - 2. Experimental results and model comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogelzang, J.; Wensink, G.J.; Calkoen, C.J.; Kooij, M.W.A. van der

    1997-01-01

    On August 16, 1989, and on July 12, 1991, experiments were performed to study the mapping of submarine sand waves with the airborne imaging radar, a polarimetric (and, in 1991, interferometric) airborne P, L, and C band synthetic aperture radar system. The experiments took place in an area 30 km off

  20. Adaptation of a submarine transient detector to the detection of whale sounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hotho, G.H.

    1999-01-01

    As part of an international effort to investigate a potential link between acoustic trials (SWAC 4) of SACLANTCEN with a stranding of Cuvier's beaked whales on the Greek coast in May 1996. TNO-FEL's Transient Detection Demonstrator (TDD). a tool to automatically search for submarine transients in

  1. The Risk of Hydrogen Explosion an a Submarine Part 3 Production of Hydrogen Mixes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kłos Ryszard

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This series of articles presents the problems associated with the conduction of a high-risk project aimed at modernising the hydrogen combustion engines on a submarine. The article describes technical issues connected with obtaining hydrogen-air mixes.

  2. Global land-ocean linkage: direct inputs of nitrogen to coastal waters via submarine groundwater discharge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beusen, A.H.W.; Slomp, C.P.; Bouwman, A.F.

    2013-01-01

    The role of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD), the leakage of groundwater from aquifers into coastal waters, in coastal eutrophication has been demonstrated mostly for the North American and European coastlines, but poorly quantified in other regions. Here, we present the first spatially

  3. Possible climate preconditioning on submarine landslides along a convergent margin, Nankai Trough (NE Pacific)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Katrina; Usman, Muhammed O.; Satoguchi, Yasufumi; Nagahashi, Yoshitaka; Vadakkepuliyambatta, Sunil; Panieri, Giuliana; Strasser, Michael

    2017-12-01

    Submarine landslides are major agents of sediment mass transfer from the shallow to deep sea. Due to their rapid emplacement and tsunamigenic potential, such landslides are significant geohazards for society and off- and on-shore infrastructure. The relationship between climate change and the occurrence of submarine landslides is widely debated. However, there is a lack of continuous long-term submarine landslide records with which to comprehensively understand the relationship between climate-driven forces and submarine landslide occurrence. Here, using oxygen isotope stratigraphy in combination with tephrochronology, we date a 1 Myr continuous record of six landslide deposits (at 13.0-14.2, 323-339, 372-384, 394-413, 508-521, and 857-867 ka) recorded in a slope basin of the Nankai Trough subduction zone, off-shore Japan, which represents the major outcome of this study. The ages of the six landslides coincide mostly with interglacial periods. Thus, we propose that climate forcing might act as a preconditioning factor for slope instability in this active tectonic region.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  4. Near-bottom particulate matter dynamics in the Nazare submarine canyon under calm and stormy conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martín, J.; Palanques, A.; Vitorino, J.; Oliveira, A.; de Stigter, H.C.

    2011-01-01

    Two mooring lines equipped with near-bottom sediment traps were deployed in the axis of the Nazare submarine canyon at similar to 1600 and similar to 3300 m depth, respectively. We studied time-series of particle flux, composition (biogenic silica, carbonates, organic matter and lithogenic

  5. Autonomous long-term gamma-spectrometric monitoring of submarine groundwater discharge trends in Hawaii

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dulai, H.; Kameník, Jan; Waters, C. A.; Kennedy, J.; Babinec, J.; Jolly, J.; Williamson, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 307, č. 3 (2016), s. 1865-1870 ISSN 0236-5731. [10th International Conference on Methods and Applications of Radioanalytical Chemistry (MARC). Kailua Kona, 12.04.2015-17.04.2015] Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : submarine groundwater discharge * long-term SGD monitoring * underwater gammaspectrometry Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 1.282, year: 2016

  6. Probabilistic Hazard of Tsunamis Generated by Submarine Landslides in the Cook Strait Canyon (New Zealand)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Emily M.; Mountjoy, Joshu J.; Power, William L.; Mueller, Christof

    2016-12-01

    Cook Strait Canyon is a submarine canyon that lies within ten kilometres of Wellington, the capital city of New Zealand. The canyon walls are covered with scars from previous landslides which could have caused local tsunamis. Palaeotsunami evidence also points to past tsunamis in the Wellington region. Furthermore, the canyon's location in Cook Strait means that there is inhabited land in the path of both forward- and backward-propagating waves. Tsunamis induced by these submarine landslides pose hazard to coastal communities and infrastructure but major events are very uncommon and the historical record is not extensive enough to quantify this hazard. The combination of infrequent but potentially very consequential events makes realistic assessment of the hazard challenging. However, information on both magnitude and frequency is very important for land use planning and civil defence purposes. We use a multidisciplinary approach bringing together geological information with modelling to construct a Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessment of submarine landslide-generated tsunami. Although there are many simplifying assumptions used in this assessment, it suggests that the Cook Strait open coast is exposed to considerable hazard due to submarine landslide-generated tsunamis. We emphasise the uncertainties involved and present opportunities for future research.

  7. Beam propagation of tidal internal waves over a submarine slope of the Mascarene Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozov, E. G.; Nechvolodov, L. V.; Sabinin, K. D.

    2009-12-01

    The generation of internal tides over the Mascarene Ridge is studied on the basis of moored measurements and numerical modeling. The beam structure of the internal wave propagation over a submarine ridge is analyzed. The dependence of the beam propagation of the perturbations on the steepness of the slope, the depth of the ridge crest, and the stratification is studied.

  8. Noble gas systematics of submarine alkalic lavas near the Hawaiian hotspot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanyu, T.; Clague, D.A.; Kaneoka, I.; Dunai, T.J.; Davies, G.R.

    2005-01-01

    Noble gas isotopic ratios were determined for submarine alkalic volcanic rocks distributed around the Hawaiian islands to constrain the origin of such alkalic volcanism and hence understand the details of mantle upwelling beneath Hawaii. Samples were collected by dredging or using submersibles from

  9. Submarine groundwater discharge within a landslide scar at the French Mediterranean coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehler, Till; Mogollón, José M.; Moosdorf, Nils; Winkler, Andreas; Kopf, Achim; Pichler, Thomas

    2017-11-01

    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD), the flow of fresh and saline groundwater from the seabed into the coastal ocean, has been intensively investigated in the recent years. This research has usually been restricted to shallow water and intertidal areas, whereas knowledge about groundwater seepage in deeper water is mainly limited to point sources from karstic aquifers. In this study we observed submarine groundwater seepage and a subterranean estuary in sediments at water depths of 20-44 m located within the Ligurian Margin, western Mediterranean Sea. Here, a catastrophic submarine landslide occurred near the Nice airport (French Ligurian coast) in the fall of 1979 after a period of heavy rainfall. During two research cruises, gravity cores were recovered in and around the area of the landslide scar. Pore water samples collected from sediment cores indicated sediments containing freshwater within the landslide scar. Pore water profiles of selected ions, such as chloride, ammonium, manganese, sulfate and barium were used to assess transport and reaction processes within the sediment. A 1-dimensional transport model indicates in most cores upward pore water velocities of 2.3-8.8 cm yr-1. This study shows that submarine groundwater seepage along the French Mediterranean coastline can occur at water depths reaching 44 m.

  10. STS-103 Pilot Kelly and MS Clervoy and Smith DEPART PAFB for Houston

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    STS-103 Pilot Scott J. Kelly holds his daughter as he talks to Mission Specialists and fellow crew members Jean-Frangois Clervoy of France and Steven L. Smith on the runway at Patrick Air Force Base in Cocoa Beach, Fla. The STS-103 crew and their families are preparing to board an airplane that will return them to their home base at the Johnson Space Center in Houston following the successful completion of their mission. Discovery landed in darkness the previous evening, Dec. 27, on runway 33 at KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility at 7:00:47 p.m. EST. This was the first time that a Shuttle crew spent the Christmas holiday in space. The other STS-103 crew members are Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr. and Mission Specialists C. Michael Foale (Ph.D.), John M. Grunsfeld (Ph.D.), and Claude Nicollier of Switzerland. The STS-103 mission accomplished outfitting the Hubble Space Telescope with six new gyroscopes, six new voltage/temperature improvement kits, a new onboard computer, a new solid state recorder and new data transmitter, a new fine guidance sensor along with new insulation on parts of the orbiting telescope. This was the 96th flight in the Space Shuttle program and the 27th for the orbiter Discovery.

  11. STS-103 Mission Specialist Grunsfeld and his family DEPART PAFB for Houston

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    STS-103 Mission Specialist John M. Grunsfeld (Ph.D.), with his wife, Carol, and their children, smiles for the camera on the runway at Patrick Air Force Base in Cocoa Beach, Fla. The STS-103 crew and their families are preparing to board an airplane that will return them to their home base at the Johnson Space Center in Houston following the successful completion of their mission. Discovery landed in darkness the previous evening, Dec. 27, on runway 33 at KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility at 7:00:47 p.m. EST. This was the first time that a Shuttle crew spent the Christmas holiday in space. The other STS-103 crew members are Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr.; Pilot Scott J. Kelly; and Mission Specialists Steven L. Smith, C. Michael Foale (Ph.D.), Claude Nicollier of Switzerland and Jean-Frangois Clervoy of France. The STS-103 mission accomplished outfitting the Hubble Space Telescope with six new gyroscopes, six new voltage/temperature improvement kits, a new onboard computer, a new solid state recorder and new data transmitter, a new fine guidance sensor along with new insulation on parts of the orbiting telescope. This was the 96th flight in the Space Shuttle program and the 27th for the orbiter Discovery.

  12. STS-103 Payload Commander Smith and his wife DEPART PAFB for Houston

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    STS-103 Payload Commander Steven L. Smith and his wife, Peggy, smile for the camera on the runway at Patrick Air Force Base in Cocoa Beach, Fla. The STS-103 crew and their families are preparing to board an airplane that will return them to their home base at the Johnson Space Center in Houston following the successful completion of their mission. Discovery landed in darkness the previous evening, Dec. 27, on runway 33 at KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility at 7:00:47 p.m. EST. This was the first time that a Shuttle crew spent the Christmas holiday in space. The other STS-103 crew members are Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr.; Pilot Scott J. Kelly; and Mission Specialists C. Michael Foale (Ph.D.), John M. Grunsfeld (Ph.D.), Claude Nicollier of Switzerland and Jean-Frangois Clervoy of France. The STS-103 mission accomplished outfitting the Hubble Space Telescope with six new gyroscopes, six new voltage/temperature improvement kits, a new onboard computer, a new solid state recorder and new data transmitter, a new fine guidance sensor along with new insulation on parts of the orbiting telescope. This was the 96th flight in the Space Shuttle program and the 27th for the orbiter Discovery.

  13. STS-103 Commander Brown and his fiancee DEPART PAFB for Houston

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    STS-103 Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr. and his fiancee, Ann Brickert, smile for the camera on the runway at Patrick Air Force Base in Cocoa Beach, Fla. The STS-103 crew and their families are preparing to board an airplane that will return them to their home base at the Johnson Space Center in Houston following the successful completion of their mission. Discovery landed in darkness the previous evening, Dec. 27, on runway 33 at KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility at 7:00:47 p.m. EST. This was the first time that a Shuttle crew spent the Christmas holiday in space. The other STS-103 crew members are Pilot Scott J. Kelly and Mission Specialists Steven L. Smith, C. Michael Foale (Ph.D.), John M. Grunsfeld (Ph.D.), Claude Nicollier of Switzerland and Jean-Frangois Clervoy of France. The STS-103 mission accomplished outfitting the Hubble Space Telescope with six new gyroscopes, six new voltage/temperature improvement kits, a new onboard computer, a new solid state recorder and new data transmitter, a new fine guidance sensor along with new insulation on parts of the orbiting telescope. This was the 96th flight in the Space Shuttle program and the 27th for the orbiter Discovery.

  14. STS-103 Mission Specialist Nicollier and his wife DEPART PAFB for Houston

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    STS-103 Mission Specialist Claude Nicollier of Switzerland and his wife, Susana, beam at the camera on the runway at Patrick Air Force Base in Cocoa Beach, Fla. The STS-103 crew and their families are preparing to board an airplane that will return them to their home base at the Johnson Space Center in Houston following the successful completion of their mission. Discovery landed in darkness the previous evening, Dec. 27, on runway 33 at KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility at 7:00:47 p.m. EST. This was the first time that a Shuttle crew spent the Christmas holiday in space. The other STS-103 crew members are Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr.; Pilot Scott J. Kelly; and Mission Specialists Steven L. Smith, C. Michael Foale (Ph.D.), John M. Grunsfeld (Ph.D.), and Jean-Frangois Clervoy of France. The STS-103 mission accomplished outfitting the Hubble Space Telescope with six new gyroscopes, six new voltage/temperature improvement kits, a new onboard computer, a new solid state recorder and new data transmitter, a new fine guidance sensor along with new insulation on parts of the orbiting telescope. This was the 96th flight in the Space Shuttle program and the 27th for the orbiter Discovery.

  15. STS-103 Mission Specialist Foale and his family DEPART PAFB for Houston

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    STS-103 Mission Specialist C. Michael Foale (Ph.D.) holds one of his children on the runway at Patrick Air Force Base in Cocoa Beach, Fla., as his wife, Rhonda, looks on. The STS-103 crew and their families are preparing to board an airplane that will return them to their home base at the Johnson Space Center in Houston following the successful completion of their mission. Discovery landed in darkness the previous evening, Dec. 27, on runway 33 at KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility at 7:00:47 p.m. EST. This was the first time that a Shuttle crew spent the Christmas holiday in space. The other STS-103 crew members are Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr.; Pilot Scott J. Kelly; and Mission Specialists Steven L. Smith, John M. Grunsfeld (Ph.D.), Claude Nicollier of Switzerland and Jean-Frangois Clervoy of France. The STS-103 mission accomplished outfitting the Hubble Space Telescope with six new gyroscopes, six new voltage/temperature improvement kits, a new onboard computer, a new solid state recorder and new data transmitter, a new fine guidance sensor along with new insulation on parts of the orbiting telescope. This was the 96th flight in the Space Shuttle program and the 27th for the orbiter Discovery.

  16. Stop, Collaborate, and Listen: Lessons Learned from Collaborating with a Houston Environmental Justice Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C.; Arellano, Y.; Phartiyal, P.

    2016-12-01

    Scientists are increasingly showing interest in conducting research at the community level, yet community groups often struggle with lack of access to scientific information. Collaborations between the two are mutually beneficial: scientists can include assessment of societal implications in their research, and community-specific scientific evidence can be used by local groups to inform public decisions that benefit community interests. Recognizing the need for and utility of such partnerships, the Center for Science and Democracy at the Union of Concerned Scientists, a science-based policy and advocacy organization, partnered with Texas Environmental Justice Advocacy Services (TEJAS), an environmental justice organization based in Manchester in Houston, to provide the technical support and resources needed to strengthen TEJAS' advocacy work. Working closely with TEJAS, we connected community members with local experts, developed educational products to inform community members about environmental health risks in their neighborhoods, published a report highlighting chemical safety issues in the community, and assisted in constructing a community survey to assess residents' health concerns. The products were created with the intention of raising the profile of these issues with local government and regional EPA officials. This talk will discuss the projects done in collaboration with TEJAS, as well as important lessons learned that offer insight into best practices for other organizations and technical experts to partner with community groups on local projects.

  17. Seasonal Evaluation of Antigenic Bacterial Infections Among Working Class in the Inner City of Houston

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebere C. Anyanwu

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the monthly, quarterly, and seasonal variation of antigenic bacterial infections among the working class in the inner city of Houston using the Wellcogen Rapid Test methods. One of the aims was to demonstrate how this method could be used effectively in screening patients at risk and preventing the spread of antigenic bacteria such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae b, Streptococcus (Strep b, and Neisseria meningitidis (mainly group c and b. A total of 2,837 patients were screened for bacterial infections; 908 (32% were male and 1,929 (68% were female. The age range was between 2 and 70 years. Of the total group, 356 (12.5% patients were positive; 203 (57% were female while 153 (43% were male (male/female ratio of 1:1.3. Medically underserved and immune suppressed populations are the most affected by these bacterial infections. Blacks are the most affected (48% compared to Native Americans (1%, but children under 10 years of age have the highest incidence. This research showed, in addition, that the Wellcogen Rapid Tests are effective (356 cases identified for a rapid screening of infectious bacteria. Explanation for these results was probably due to poor living conditions, poor hygiene, and viral immune suppression in adults and immature immune systems in neonates and children under 10 years of age.

  18. Accessing Disadvantaged Pregnant Women in Houston, Texas, and Characterizing Biomarkers of Metal Exposure: A Feasibility Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina W. Whitworth

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Communities of color or low socioeconomic status are disproportionately affected by metal exposure given spatial variability of the ambient levels of these contaminants. Despite this, there is little research characterizing metal concentrations in blood among disadvantaged populations in the U.S., especially among pregnant women who are particularly vulnerable and difficult to access. Thus, we conducted a pilot study among disadvantaged pregnant women in Houston, Texas to assess willingness to participate in key activities of an epidemiologic study and characterize exposures to 16 metals. Thirty-one women attending a Medicaid-serving prenatal clinic were included in this pilot study and completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire. We obtained and measured metal compounds in whole blood samples for 22 of these women during third-trimester prenatal visits. Median whole blood concentrations of Ni, As, Cd, and Pb were 27, 1.4, 0.6, and 6.3 µg/L, respectively. Most women were willing to participate in critical aspects of a research study, including wearing a personal air-sampling badge for 2–3 days (87.1%, receiving ultrasounds (83.9%, and providing blood draws (64.5%. Despite the small sample, our results provide evidence of women’s metal exposure and their willingness to participate in future research studies to elucidate exposure pathways and explore related health effects experienced among this population of disadvantaged pregnant women.

  19. Houston's Novel Strategy to Control Hazardous Air Pollutants: A Case Study in Policy Innovation and Political Stalemate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, Ken; Linder, Stephen H

    2015-01-01

    Although ambient concentrations have declined steadily over the past 30 years, Houston has recorded some of the highest levels of hazardous air pollutants in the United States. Nevertheless, federal and state regulatory efforts historically have emphasized compliance with the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for ozone, treating "air toxics" in Houston as a residual problem to be solved through application of technology-based standards. Between 2004 and 2009, Mayor Bill White and his administration challenged the well-established hierarchy of air quality management spelled out in the Clean Air Act, whereby federal and state authorities are assigned primacy over local municipalities for the purpose of designing and implementing air pollution control strategies. The White Administration believed that existing regulations were not sufficient to protect the health of Houstonians and took a diversity of both collaborative and combative policy actions to mitigate air toxic emissions from stationary sources. Opposition was substantial from a local coalition of entrenched interests satisfied with the status quo, which hindered the city's attempts to take unilateral policy actions. In the short term, the White Administration successfully raised the profile of the air toxics issue, pushed federal and state regulators to pay more attention, and induced a few polluting facilities to reduce emissions. But since White left office in 2010, air quality management in Houston has returned to the way it was before, and today there is scant evidence that his policies have had any lasting impact.

  20. US Navy Submarine Sea Trial of the NASA Air Quality Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limero, Thomas; Wallace, William T.; Manney, Joshua A.; Mudgett, Paul D.

    2017-01-01

    For the past four years, the Air Quality Monitor (AQM) has been the operational instrument for measuring trace volatile organic compounds on the International Space Station (ISS). The key components of the AQM are the inlet preconcentrator, the gas chromatograph (GC), and the differential mobility spectrometer. Most importantly, the AQM operates at atmospheric pressure and uses air as the GC carrier gas, which translates into a small reliable instrument. Onboard ISS there are two AQMs, with different GC columns that detect and quantify 22 compounds. The AQM data contributes valuable information to the assessment of air quality aboard ISS for each crew increment. The U.S. Navy is looking to update its submarine air monitoring suite of instruments, and the success of the AQM on ISS has led to a jointly planned submarine sea trial of a NASA AQM. In addition to the AQM, the Navy is also interested in the Multi-Gas Monitor (MGM), which was successfully flown on ISS as a technology demonstration to measure major constituent gases (oxygen, carbon dioxide, water vapor, and ammonia). A separate paper will present the MGM sea trial results. A prototype AQM, which is virtually identical to the operational AQM, has been readied for the sea trial. Only one AQM will be deployed during the sea trial, but it is sufficient to detect the compounds of interest to the Navy for the purposes of this trial. A significant benefit of the AQM is that runs can be scripted for pre-determined intervals and no crew intervention is required. The data from the sea trial will be compared to archival samples collected prior to and during the trial period. This paper will give a brief overview of the AQM technology and protocols for the submarine trial. After a quick review of the AQM preparation, the main focus of the paper will be on the results of the submarine trial. Of particular interest will be the comparison of the contaminants found in the ISS and submarine atmospheres, as both represent

  1. Energy efficient low-income housing demonstration with Houston Habitat for Humanity. Final status report, October 1, 1995--September 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-30

    Using DOE grant funds, the Alliance to Save Energy developed and managed an award-winning low-income housing demonstration in cooperation with Houston Habitat for Humanity at the 1996 and 1997 annual NAHB Builders Show in Houston, Texas. Using a unique group of over 30 national, state and local partners, the energy design of Houston Habitat houses was permanently upgraded to the Energy Star Homes Program threshold. Meeting Energy Star Homes Program criteria, the partner design team increased the level of efficiency approximately 30% over the 1992 Model Energy Code. This innovative design using commercially available materials added approximately $1,400 in cost-effective energy upgrades with an estimated payback of less than 8 years. The 30 public-private partners successfully demonstrated energy and resource efficient housing techniques to the 65,000 NAHB home show attendees and the over 3,000 Habitat affiliates. This project resulted in the Houston Habitat affiliate becoming the nation`s first low-income Energy Star Homes Program home builder. By the year 2000, Houston Habitat anticipates building over 500 homes to this new level of efficiency as well as set an example for other Habitat affiliates nationwide to follow. The 1997 demonstration house utilized an all-women volunteer builders team to construct a 3 bedroom home in Houston Habitat`s Woodglen Subdivision. Energy consumption was remotely metered by Texas A and M.

  2. Rapid Submarine Melting Driven by Subglacial Discharge, LeConte Glacier, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motyka, R. J.; Dryer, W. P.; Amundson, J. M.; Truffer, M.; Fahnestock, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    Submarine melting impacts the stability of tidewater glaciers worldwide, but the connections between the ocean, a warming climate, and retreat of outlet glaciers are poorly known. Clearly warm seawater plays an important role, but the tremendous heat potential resident in oceans and fjords must first be brought into contact with outlet glacier termini in order to affect them. We show here that for many glaciers, the principal process driving high rates of submarine melting is subglacial discharge of freshwater. This buoyant discharge draws in warm seawater, entraining it in a turbulent upwelling convective flow along the submarine face that melts glacier ice. To capture the effect of changing subglacial discharge on submarine melting, we conducted four days of hydrographic transects during late summer 2012 at LeConte Glacier, Alaska. A major rainstorm allowed us to directly measure the influence of large changes in subglacial discharge. We found strong submarine melt rates that increased from 9.0×1.0 to 16.8×1.3 m/d (ice face equivalent frontal ablation) as subglacial discharge increased from 130 to 440 m^3/s over a four day period. This subglacial discharge drove influx of warm seawater (thermal forcing ~ 8° C) to the terminus with fluxes increasing from 1800 to 4000 m3/s. Our ice equivalent frontal ablation rates due to submarine melting are two to three times values found for Greenland glaciers, where thermal forcing is substantially lower (~ 1 - 4 °C) and termini are wider. Together, these studies confirm the importance of submarine melting at grounded glaciers. At LeConte, the total frontal ablation rate (calving flux plus submarine melting) is ~ 3.0 x10^6 m^3/d w.e., which far surpasses surface ablation. One-half to two-thirds of the frontal ablation during September 2012 can be attributed to submarine melting. A two-layer model driven by a buoyant plume of subglacial discharge has been previously invoked to describe the proglacial fjord circulation

  3. A submarine landslide source for the devastating 1964 Chenega tsunami, southern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothers, Daniel; Haeussler, Peter J.; Lee Liberty,; David Finlayson,; Geist, Eric L.; Labay, Keith A.; Michael Byerly,

    2016-01-01

    During the 1964 Great Alaska earthquake (Mw 9.2), several fjords, straits, and bays throughout southern Alaska experienced significant tsunami runup of localized, but unexplained origin. Dangerous Passage is a glacimarine fjord in western Prince William Sound, which experienced a tsunami that devastated the village of Chenega where 23 of 75 inhabitants were lost – the highest relative loss of any community during the earthquake. Previous studies suggested the source of the devastating tsunami was either from a local submarine landslide of unknown origin or from coseismic tectonic displacement. Here we present new observations from high-resolution multibeam bathymetry and seismic reflection surveys conducted in the waters adjacent to the village of Chenega. The seabed morphology and substrate architecture reveal a large submarine landslide complex in water depths of 120–360 m. Analysis of bathymetric change between 1957 and 2014 indicates the upper 20–50 m (∼0.7 km3) of glacimarine sediment was destabilized and evacuated from the steep face of a submerged moraine and an adjacent ∼21 km2 perched sedimentary basin. Once mobilized, landslide debris poured over the steep, 130 m-high face of a deeper moraine and then blanketed the terminal basin (∼465 m water depth) in 11 ± 5 m of sediment. These results, combined with inverse tsunami travel-time modeling, suggest that earthquake- triggered submarine landslides generated the tsunami that struck the village of Chenega roughly 4 min after shaking began. Unlike other tsunamigenic landslides observed in and around Prince William Sound in 1964, the failures in Dangerous Passage are not linked to an active submarine delta. The requisite environmental conditions needed to generate large submarine landslides in glacimarine fjords around the world may be more common than previously thought. 

  4. Boulder emplacement and remobilisation by cyclone and submarine landslide tsunami waves near Suva City, Fiji

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, A. Y. Annie; Terry, James P.; Ziegler, Alan; Pratap, Arti; Harris, Daniel

    2018-02-01

    The characteristics of a reef-top boulder field created by a local submarine landslide tsunami are presented for the first time. Our examination of large reef-derived boulders deposited by the 1953 tsunami near Suva City, Fiji, revealed that shorter-than-normal-period tsunami waves generated by submarine landslides can create a boulder field resembling a storm boulder field due to relatively short boulder transport distances. The boulder-inferred 1953 tsunami flow velocity is estimated at over 9 m s- 1 at the reef edge. Subsequent events, for example Cyclone Kina (1993), appear to have remobilised some large boulders. While prior research has demonstrated headward retreat of Suva Canyon in response to the repeated occurrence of earthquakes over the past few millennia, our results highlight the lingering vulnerability of the Fijian coastlines to high-energy waves generated both in the presence (tsunami) and absence (storm) of submarine failures and/or earthquakes. To explain the age discrepancies of U-Th dated coral comprising the deposited boulders, we introduce a conceptual model showing the role of repeated episodes of tsunamigenic submarine landslides in removing reef front sections through collapse. Subsequent high-energy wave events transport boulders from exposed older sections of the reef front onto the reef where they are deposited as 'new' boulders, alongside freshly detached sections of the living reef. In similar situations where anachronistic deposits complicate the deposition signal, age-dating of the coral boulders should not be used as a proxy for determining the timing of the submarine landslides or the tsunamis that generated them.

  5. Critical Anthropology of Global Health "takes a stand" statement: a critical medical anthropological approach to the U.S.'s Affordable Care Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Sarah; Abadía, Cesar; Mulligan, Jessica; Thompson, Jennifer Jo

    2014-03-01

    The Affordable Care Act (ACA) of 2010--the U.S.'s first major health care reform in over half a century-has sparked new debates in the United States about individual responsibility, the collective good, and the social contract. Although the ACA aims to reduce the number of the uninsured through the simultaneous expansion of the private insurance industry and government-funded Medicaid, critics charge it merely expands rather than reforms the existing fragmented and costly employer-based health care system. Focusing in particular on the ACA's individual mandate and its planned Medicaid expansion, this statement charts a course for ethnographic contributions to the on-the-ground impact of the ACA while showcasing ways critical medical anthropologists can join the debate. We conclude with ways that anthropologists may use critiques of the ACA as a platform from which to denaturalize assumptions of "cost" and "profit" that underpin the global spread of market-based medicine more broadly. © 2014 by the American Anthropological Association.

  6. Ozone production and its sensitivity to NOx and VOCs: results from the DISCOVER-AQ field experiment, Houston 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Mazzuca

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available An observation-constrained box model based on the Carbon Bond mechanism, version 5 (CB05, was used to study photochemical processes along the NASA P-3B flight track and spirals over eight surface sites during the September 2013 Houston, Texas deployment of the NASA Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from COlumn and VERtically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality (DISCOVER-AQ campaign. Data from this campaign provided an opportunity to examine and improve our understanding of atmospheric photochemical oxidation processes related to the formation of secondary air pollutants such as ozone (O3. O3 production and its sensitivity to NOx and volatile organic compounds (VOCs were calculated at different locations and times of day. Ozone production efficiency (OPE, defined as the ratio of the ozone production rate to the NOx oxidation rate, was calculated using the observations and the simulation results of the box and Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ models. Correlations of these results with other parameters, such as radical sources and NOx mixing ratio, were also evaluated. It was generally found that O3 production tends to be more VOC-sensitive in the morning along with high ozone production rates, suggesting that control of VOCs may be an effective way to control O3 in Houston. In the afternoon, O3 production was found to be mainly NOx-sensitive with some exceptions. O3 production near major emissions sources such as Deer Park was mostly VOC-sensitive for the entire day, other urban areas near Moody Tower and Channelview were VOC-sensitive or in the transition regime, and areas farther from downtown Houston such as Smith Point and Conroe were mostly NOx-sensitive for the entire day. It was also found that the control of NOx emissions has reduced O3 concentrations over Houston but has led to larger OPE values. The results from this work strengthen our understanding of O3 production; they indicate that controlling NOx

  7. Apparent resistivity and spectral induced polarization in the submarine environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HERCULES DE SOUZA

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Relatively few investigations have employed electrical methods in the submarine environment, which may be promising for mineral deposits or threatened by environmental problems. We have measured the electric field using both disk and bar electrodes in the sea water at three different levels: sea surface, seven meters deep, and sea bottom at a depth of ten meters, employing a 2 m spacing dipole-dipole array with 7 array spacings of investigation, and 13 values of frequencies at steps of (2N hertz, N = -2, -1, 0, 1, 2,.....10. The measurement allowed the analysis of the electric field as a function of frequency and spacing, and of the spectral induced polarization. Modelling and interpretation of the apparent resistivity yielded a good fit with previous drilling data. Analysis of the spectrum of the complex apparent resistivity and the comparison with equivalent circuits, provided information about the grain size, the mineral composition and the major induced polarization phenomenon occurring below the sea. Therefore the result of the present research show the feasibility of measuring the variation of seawater resistivity in situ, as well as the resistivity of sea bottom sediments.Relativamente poucas investigações têm empregado métodos elétricos no ambiente submarino, o qual pode ser promissor para depósitos minerais ou ameaçado por problemas ambientais. Nós medimos o campo elétrico usando eletrodos em forma de disco e de barra na água do mar, em três níveis distintos: superfície, sete metros de profundidade, e fundo do mar a dez metros de profundidade, empregando um dispositivo dipolo-dipolo com 2m de afastamento, 7 níveis de investigação e 13 valores de freqüência a intervalos de (2N hertz, N = -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, ... 10. A medida permitiu a análise do campo elétrico como uma função de freqüência e afastamento, e da polarização induzida espectral. A modelagem e a interpretação da resistividade aparente se ajustaram bem

  8. Environmental literacy of Hispanic, urban, middle school students in Houston, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meuth, Amber M.

    With the global crises facing the planet that bring major implications, (Hart & Nolan, 1999; Hungerford & Simmons, 2003) it is imperative that there be an environmentally literate citizenry who can identify, solve, and prevent environmental issues. Since middle school students are evolving into participating citizens and are developing the ability to think in abstract terms, they are a critical group to study regarding levels of environmental literacy. Additionally, with the increased resource needs and decreased air and water quality in highly populated urban areas, focusing on the environmental literacy of students living and attending school in urban areas is essential. The purpose of this study was to describe the levels of environmental literacy of a group of Hispanic, urban, middle school students in Houston, Texas. Sixth, seventh, and eighth grade students who attend a charter school in Houston, Texas were given, the Middle School Environmental Literacy Survey (MSELS). This survey has been developed to measure components of environmental literacy as related to domains identified critical to environmental literacy (McBeth et al., 2008). The four domains include ecological knowledge, environmental affect, cognitive skills, and behavior. Data collected from the survey was used to determine levels of environmental literacy in the following variables: ecological knowledge, verbal commitment, actual commitment, environmental sensitivity, general environmental feelings, and environmental issue and action skills. Descriptive statistics were calculated and analyzed for each grade level and as an entire sample for each variable in order to generate a profile of the group. Composite scores were calculated in the four domains (ecological knowledge, environmental affect, cognitive skills, and behavior) and were compared to high, moderate, and low levels of environmental literacy set forth by top environmental education researchers (McBeth et al., 2008). Additionally, two

  9. Chemical, microbial and physical evaluation of commercial bottled waters in greater Houston area of Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Mahmoud A; Abdel-Rahman, Fawzia H; Woodard, Brooke B; Clark, Shavon; Wallace, Cecil; Aboaba, Adetoun; Zhang, Wenluo; Nance, James H

    2008-03-01

    Due to the increased demand and consumption of bottled water in the United States, there has been a growing concern about the quality of this product. Retail outlets sell local as well as imported bottled water to consumers. Three bottles for each of 35 different brands of bottled water were randomly collected from local grocery stores in the greater Houston area. Out of the 35 different brands, 16 were designated as spring water, 11 were purified and/or fortified tap water, 5 were carbonated water and 3 were distilled water. Chemical, microbial and physical properties of all samples were evaluated including pH, conductivity, bacteria counts, anion concentration, trace metal concentration, heavy metal and volatile organics concentration were determined in all samples. Inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry (ICPMS) was used for elemental analysis, gas chromatography with electron capture detector (GCECD) as well as gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS) were used for analysis of volatile organics, ion chromatography (IC) and selective ion electrodes were used for the analysis of anions. Bacterial identification was performed using the Biolog software (Biolog, Inc., Hayward, Ca, USA). The results obtained were compared with guidelines of drinking water recommended by the International Bottled Water Association (IBWA), United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA), United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the World Health Organization (WHO) drinking water standard. The majority of the analyzed chemicals were below their respective drinking water standards for maximum admissible concentrations (MAC). Volatile organic chemicals were found to be below detection limits. Four of the 35 brands of the bottled water samples analyzed were found to be contaminated with bacteria.

  10. Formaldehyde Source Attribution in Houston during TexAQS II and TRAMP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guven, B.; Olaguer, E. P.

    2010-12-01

    To determine the relative importance of primary vs secondary formaldehyde in Houston, source apportionment was performed on continuous online measurements of VOCs, formaldehyde (HCHO), CO, SO2, and HONO at one urban and two industrial sites. The results of source apportionment were used in conjunction with the meteorological, emission inventory, emission event, and back trajectory data catalogued in Air Research Information Infrastructure (ARII) to determine the dominant source regions and evaluate the accuracy of reported regular and upset emissions from industrial facilities. The contribution of industrial sources such as flares from petrochemical plants and refineries to total atmospheric formaldehyde concentrations at the urban site is estimated to be 17% compared to 23% for mobile sources, amounting to 40% for the total contribution of primary HCHO sources. The relative contribution of industrial sources to HCHO concentration at the urban site increased to about 66% on some mornings coinciding with the HCHO peak concentrations. Secondary formation of HCHO during the day and night resulted from the reactions of industrial olefins and other VOCs with OH or ozone was a significant contributor to HCHO concentrations at the urban site. An analysis of emission event, back trajectory and ambient concentration data in ARII showed that a large percentage of emission events were associated with trajectories that passed through the two industrial sites when peaks in concentrations were detected at those sites. Some peak HCHO concentrations can also be linked to emission events of other VOCs, while a significant portion remained unexplained by the reported events. It is likely, based on the results from the SHARP campaign and our analysis, that some episodic emission events containing HCHO are unreported to the TCEQ. Overlaid CPF plots for nighttime (green) and daytime (red) HCHO concentrations measured at three sites and the locations of the largest emitting point

  11. Mouthguard usage by middle and high school student-athletes in Houston, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Michael B; Johnson, Cleverick D; Cooley, Ralph A; Sharp, Holly; Servos, Thomas A

    2016-01-01

    This survey recorded utilization levels of stock and custom mouthguards among middle and high school athletes in a US metropolitan area and gathered data on the prevalence of traumatic injuries that have occurred as a consequence of school-based athletic competition. The data also included reasons for the athletes' noncompliance. A 23-question, online survey form was developed. A geographically diverse list of public and private schools in the Houston metropolitan area was identified and included 30 public middle schools, 32 public high schools, 8 private middle schools, and 10 private high schools. The sports surveyed were baseball, basketball, field hockey, football, lacrosse, soccer, softball, volleyball, and wrestling. Only 1 private middle school participated. Only 5 of 32 public high schools and 1 private high school participated, representing response rates of 16% and 10%, respectively. Overall, there were 503 responses, and 56% of the respondents did not have a mouthguard. Among athletes who owned a mouthguard, most (70%) had stock versions purchased in a retail store, while 11% had a custom mouthguard fabricated by a dentist, and 19% had both types. The most frequent reasons cited for not wearing a mouthguard were forgetting to use it and a lack of comfort. The injury rates reported by respondents in the stock and custom mouthguard groups were 26% and 9%, respectively. A consistent, concerted effort by local dental societies should be aimed at school administrators and coaches to encourage enforcement or reinforcement of mouthguard usage policies among high school athletes, but, ultimately, parents need to step up to protect their children.

  12. Evaluation of Freshwater Aquatic Resources and Stormwater Management at U.S. Naval Submarine Base, Bangor, Washington

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    May, Christopher

    1997-01-01

    Surface and storm water conditions on the Naval Submarine Base (NSB), Bangor, Washington, are evaluated, and recommendations are made to improve water quality and enhance the ecological integrity of aquatic resources located on the base...

  13. Hydrothermal processes related to some Triassic and Jurassic submarine basaltic complexes in northeastern Hungary, the Dinarides and Hellenides

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gabriella B Kiss; Ferenc Molnár; Ladislav A Palinkas

    2016-01-01

      Comparative studies on hydrothermal alteration of submarine peperitic basalt occurrences related to the Triassic early rifting of the Neotethys were carried out in various parts of the Dinarides and Hellenides...

  14. Volume transport data from a submarine cable in the Florida Strait from 1982 to 1998 (NODC Accession 0087879)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Daily mean volume transport data of the Florida Current collected with a submarine cable spanning from South Florida to the Grand Bahama Island in the Florida Strait...

  15. Submarine flow discharge changes as a way to explain incission-overspilling and other cycles in submarine channel sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milana, J. P.; Kneller, B.; Dykstra, M.

    2009-04-01

    -stratification. The second bedform recognized is related to described macrodunes, and is comparable to large-scale antidunes, and produce tabular bodies with very subtle undulating structure. The third and perhaps more important is described as "gravel sheets" although they could be also low-relief gravel dunes developed during low-flow events, on top of the large-scale bedforms or directly over a flat gravelly bed. It is well known that bedforms produce the effect of delay averaged sediment velocity with respect to flow velocity, and thus we propose that this delay has an important geological effect as it creates a lag time between the onset of discharge increase and the time the channel bed reaches an equilibrium with the dominant flows. The effect of changes in the transport efficiency of submarine slope systems in the resulting depositional architecture is already known. However, we introduce here the concept of lagging the coarsest-grained fractions, delayed by the fact they involve in bedform building which move at lower velocities of the flows and hence allow the system to pass along a stage in which flows are big and fast, but the bed is not in equilibrium with them and as a result, canyoning may occur. These changes in external conditions (flow discharge) is likely to occur as a result of changes of turbid water near the slope by fluvial action and hence it would be t result of the interplay of river discharge and eustacy.

  16. Simple models for the simulation of submarine melt for a Greenland glacial system model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Beckmann

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Two hundred marine-terminating Greenland outlet glaciers deliver more than half of the annually accumulated ice into the ocean and have played an important role in the Greenland ice sheet mass loss observed since the mid-1990s. Submarine melt may play a crucial role in the mass balance and position of the grounding line of these outlet glaciers. As the ocean warms, it is expected that submarine melt will increase, potentially driving outlet glaciers retreat and contributing to sea level rise. Projections of the future contribution of outlet glaciers to sea level rise are hampered by the necessity to use models with extremely high resolution of the order of a few hundred meters. That requirement in not only demanded when modeling outlet glaciers as a stand alone model but also when coupling them with high-resolution 3-D ocean models. In addition, fjord bathymetry data are mostly missing or inaccurate (errors of several hundreds of meters, which questions the benefit of using computationally expensive 3-D models for future predictions. Here we propose an alternative approach built on the use of a computationally efficient simple model of submarine melt based on turbulent plume theory. We show that such a simple model is in reasonable agreement with several available modeling studies. We performed a suite of experiments to analyze sensitivity of these simple models to model parameters and climate characteristics. We found that the computationally cheap plume model demonstrates qualitatively similar behavior as 3-D general circulation models. To match results of the 3-D models in a quantitative manner, a scaling factor of the order of 1 is needed for the plume models. We applied this approach to model submarine melt for six representative Greenland glaciers and found that the application of a line plume can produce submarine melt compatible with observational data. Our results show that the line plume model is more appropriate than the cone plume

  17. ESR dating of submarine hydrothermal activities using barite in sulfide deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoda, S.; Fujiwara, T.; Ishibashi, J.; Isono, Y.; Uchida, A.; Takamasa, A.; Nakai, S.

    2012-12-01

    The temporal change of submarine hydrothermal activities has been an important issue in the aspect of the evolution of hydrothermal systems which is related with ore formation (Urabe, 1995) and biological systems sustained by the chemical species arising from hydrothermal activities (Macdonald et al., 1980). Determining the ages of the hydrothermal deposit will provide essential information on such studies. Dating methods using disequilibrium between radioisotopes such as U-Th method (e.g. You and Bickle, 1998), 226}Ra-{210Pb and 228}Ra-{228Th method (e.g. Noguchi et al., 2011) have been applied to date submarine hydrothermal deposits. ESR (electron spin resonance) dating method is commonly applied to fossil teeth, shells, and quartz of Quaternay period where the natural accumulated dose is obtained from the intensities of the ESR signals which are created by natural radiation. The natural dose is divided by the dose rate to the mineral/sample to deduce the age. Okumura et al., (2010) made the first practical application of ESR (electron spin resonance) dating technique to a sample of submarine hydrothermal barite (BaSO4) to obtain preliminary ages, where Kasuya et al. (1991) first pointed out that barite can be used for ESR dating. Knowing that ESR dating of barite is promising, in this paper, we will present how we have investigated each factor that contributes ESR dating of barite in submarine hydrothermal sulfide deposition. (1) The best ESR condition for measuring the SO3- signal in barite is with the microwave power of 1mW and modulation amplitude of 0.1mT. (2) As results of heating experiments, the signal was found to be stable for the dating age range of several thousands. (3) 226Ra replacing Ba in barite is the source of the radiation. The amount of radioactive elements in sulfide mineral surrounding barite is negligible. (4) The external radiation from the sea water is negligible even in the submarine hydrothermal area where the radiation level is much

  18. Changes to United States Navy Submarine Design and Construction during World War I, as Determined by the General Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    and influence of operational doctrine that led to significant innovation during the interwar period. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW...naval technology and influence of operational doctrine that led to significant innovation during the interwar period. v ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Many...Russian government Anti Access and Area Denial programs, it can be seen how submarine design and construction remains as important today as when Germany

  19. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Flood Control Strategies in Contrasting Urban Watersheds and Implications for Houston's Future Flood Vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gori, A.; Juan, A.; Bass, B. J.; Bedient, P. B.

    2016-12-01

    In recent years the Greater Houston Region has been hit by a series of severe storms that exceeded the 100-yr recurrence interval. Most notable are the 2015 Memorial Day (May 25-26) and the 2016 Tax Day (April 18) storms, which caused widespread riverine flooding that damaged thousands of properties and debilitated the region's traffic and commercial activities for extended periods. This situation is discouraging, considering that further urban development in the Houston Region will likely exacerbate the flooding impact of future severe storms. Questions arise regarding the efficacy of implemented flood control solutions and the long-term viability of current flood management strategies, especially in heavily impacted watersheds such as Brays Bayou and Cypress Creek. To better understand the effectiveness and limitations of current flood reduction solutions in the Greater Houston Region, this study evaluates the hydrodynamic responses and flood impacts of Brays Bayou watershed and Cypress Creek watershed from the afore-mentioned storm events. Brays Bayou watershed is fully developed with extremely limited options for future flood control projects, while Cypress Creek still has significant portions of undeveloped land that could be utilized for flood mitigation purposes. In order to simulate watershed responses at the time of the storms, the hydrologic model HEC-HMS and unsteady hydraulic model HEC-RAS are used. Additionally, this study evaluates the effectiveness of recently-completed flood control projects in Brays Bayou watershed and proposed flood control strategies in Cypress Creek watershed by conducting a scenario analysis of each watershed. This analysis includes a pre- and post-implementation scenario that represents watershed conditions prior to and after implementation of flood control measures for each watershed. This study demonstrates the benefits and shortcomings of current implemented and proposed flood control projects, and identifies vulnerable

  20. Representing distributed cognition in complex systems: how a submarine returns to periscope depth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Neville A

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the Event Analysis of Systemic Teamwork (EAST) method as a means of modelling distributed cognition in systems. The method comprises three network models (i.e. task, social and information) and their combination. This method was applied to the interactions between the sound room and control room in a submarine, following the activities of returning the submarine to periscope depth. This paper demonstrates three main developments in EAST. First, building the network models directly, without reference to the intervening methods. Second, the application of analysis metrics to all three networks. Third, the combination of the aforementioned networks in different ways to gain a broader understanding of the distributed cognition. Analyses have shown that EAST can be used to gain both qualitative and quantitative insights into distributed cognition. Future research should focus on the analyses of network resilience and modelling alternative versions of a system.