Sample records for submarine rescue systems

  1. Chemical environments of submarine hydrothermal systems (United States)

    Shock, Everett L.


    Perhaps because black-smoker chimneys make tremendous subjects for magazine covers, the proposal that submarine hydrothermal systems were involved in the origin of life has caused many investigators to focus on the eye-catching hydrothermal vents. In much the same way that tourists rush to watch the spectacular eruptions of Old Faithful geyser with little regard for the hydrology of the Yellowstone basin, attention is focused on the spectacular, high-temperature hydrothermal vents to the near exclusion of the enormous underlying hydrothermal systems. Nevertheless, the magnitude and complexity of geologic structures, heat flow, and hydrologic parameters which characterize the geyser basins at Yellowstone also characterize submarine hydrothermal systems. However, in the submarine systems the scale can be considerably more vast. Like Old Faithful, submarine hydrothermal vents have a spectacular quality, but they are only one fascinating aspect of enormous geologic systems operating at seafloor spreading centers throughout all of the ocean basins. A critical study of the possible role of hydrothermal processes in the origin of life should include the full spectrum of probable environments. The goals of this chapter are to synthesize diverse information about the inorganic geochemistry of submarine hydrothermal systems, assemble a description of the fundamental physical and chemical attributes of these systems, and consider the implications of high-temperature, fluid-driven processes for organic synthesis. Information about submarine hydrothermal systems comes from many directions. Measurements made directly on venting fluids provide useful, but remarkably limited, clues about processes operating at depth. The oceanic crust has been drilled to approximately 2.0 km depth providing many other pieces of information, but drilling technology has not allowed the bore holes and core samples to reach the maximum depths to which aqueous fluids circulate in oceanic crust. Such

  2. Improved OTEC System for a Submarine Robot (United States)

    Chao, Yi; Jones, Jack; Valdez, Thomas


    An ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC), now undergoing development, is a less-massive, more-efficient means of exploiting the same basic principle as that of the proposed system described in "Alternative OTEC Scheme for a Submarine Robot" (NPO-43500), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 33, No. 1 (January 2009), page 50. The proposed system as described previously would be based on the thawing-expansion/freezing-contraction behavior of a wax or perhaps another suitable phase-change material (PCM). The power generated by the system would be used to recharge the batteries in a battery- powered unmanned underwater vehicle [UUV (essentially, a small exploratory submarine robot)] of a type that has been deployed in large numbers in research pertaining to global warming. A UUV of this type travels between the ocean surface and depths, measuring temperature and salinity. At one phase of its operational cycle, the previously proposed system would utilize the surface ocean temperature (which lies between 15 and 30 C over most of the Earth) to melt a PCM that has a melting/freezing temperature of about 10 C. At the opposite phase of its operational cycle, the system would utilize the lower ocean temperature at depth (e.g., between 4 and 7 C at a depth of 300 m) to freeze the PCM. The melting or freezing would cause the PCM to expand or contract, respectively, by about 9 volume percent. The PCM would be contained in tubes that would be capable of expanding and contracting with the PCM. The PCM-containing tubes would be immersed in a hydraulic fluid. The expansion and contraction would drive a flow of the hydraulic fluid against a piston that, in turn, would push a rack-and-pinion gear system to spin a generator to charge a battery.

  3. Virtual Reality Training System for a Submarine Command Center

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maxwell, Douglas B


    The invention as disclosed is a system that uses a combined real and virtual display interaction methodology to generate the visual appearance of submarine combat control rooms and allow interaction...

  4. Multivariable Control System Design for a Submarine, (United States)


    perturbations applied to the nominal point were identical in all cases (see table 2.3). The comparisons show excellent correlation between the...Open Loop Singular Values for the 5 and 1S Knot Linear Modelo *~~* b % % V’ , * % ~ .%~ C 9 ~ V. --.- V. V.-.--.--46..- S. 77’ Model S20R5 20- 10- -0...without imparting a pitch angle to the submarine and provides an excellent example of both the usefulness of w(t) as a state variable and the

  5. Fuel-cell-propelled submarine-tanker-system study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Court, K E; Kumm, W H; O' Callaghan, J E


    This report provides a systems analysis of a commercial Arctic Ocean submarine tanker system to carry fossil energy to markets. The submarine is to be propelled by a modular Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell system. The power level is 20 Megawatts. The DOE developed electric utility type fuel cell will be fueled with methanol. Oxidant will be provided from a liquid oxygen tank carried onboard. The twin screw submarine tanker design is sized at 165,000 deadweight tons and the study includes costs and an economic analysis of the transport system of 6 ships. The route will be under the polar icecap from a loading terminal located off Prudhoe Bay, Alaska to a transshipment facility postulated to be in a Norwegian fjord. The system throughput of the gas-fed methanol cargo will be 450,000 barrels per day. The total delivered cost of the methanol including well head purchase price of natural gas, methanol production, and shipping would be $25/bbl from Alaska to the US East Coast. Of this, the shipping cost is $6.80/bbl. All costs in 1981 dollars.

  6. Water Supply Systems For Aircraft Fire And Rescue Protection (United States)


    This Advisory Circular (AC) provides guidance for the selection : of a water source and standards for the design of a distribution system to : support aircraft rescue and fire fighting (ARFF) service operations on : airports.

  7. Multi-core Fibers in Submarine Networks for High-Capacity Undersea Transmission Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nooruzzaman, Md; Morioka, Toshio


    Application of multi-core fibers in undersea networks for high-capacity submarine transmission systems is studied. It is demonstrated how different architectures of submerged branching unit affect network component counts in long-haul undersea transmission systems......Application of multi-core fibers in undersea networks for high-capacity submarine transmission systems is studied. It is demonstrated how different architectures of submerged branching unit affect network component counts in long-haul undersea transmission systems...

  8. Design and implementation of fishery rescue data mart system (United States)

    Pan, Jun; Huang, Haiguang; Liu, Yousong

    A novel data mart based system for fishery rescue field was designed and implemented. The system runs ETL process to deal with original data from various databases and data warehouses, and then reorganized the data into the fishery rescue data mart. Next, online analytical processing (OLAP) are carried out and statistical reports are generated automatically. Particularly, quick configuration schemes are designed to configure query dimensions and OLAP data sets. The configuration file will be transformed into statistic interfaces automatically through a wizard-style process. The system provides various forms of reporting files, including crystal reports, flash graphical reports, and two-dimensional data grids. In addition, a wizard style interface was designed to guide users customizing inquiry processes, making it possible for nontechnical staffs to access customized reports. Characterized by quick configuration, safeness and flexibility, the system has been successfully applied in city fishery rescue department.

  9. Development of a Mine Rescue Drilling System (MRDS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raymond, David W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gaither, Katherine N. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Polsky, Yarom [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Knudsen, Steven D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Broome, Scott Thomas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Su, Jiann-Cherng [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Blankenship, Douglas A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Costin, Laurence S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) has a long history in developing compact, mobile, very high-speed drilling systems and this technology could be applied to increasing the rate at which boreholes are drilled during a mine accident response. The present study reviews current technical approaches, primarily based on technology developed under other programs, analyzes mine rescue specific requirements to develop a conceptual mine rescue drilling approach, and finally, proposes development of a phased mine rescue drilling system (MRDS) that accomplishes (1) development of rapid drilling MRDS equipment; (2) structuring improved web communication through the Mine Safety & Health Administration (MSHA) web site; (3) development of an improved protocol for employment of existing drilling technology in emergencies; (4) deployment of advanced technologies to complement mine rescue drilling operations during emergency events; and (5) preliminary discussion of potential future technology development of specialized MRDS equipment. This phased approach allows for rapid fielding of a basic system for improved rescue drilling, with the ability to improve the system over time at a reasonable cost.

  10. Urban search and rescue medical teams: FEMA Task Force System. (United States)

    Barbera, J A; Lozano, M


    Recent national and international disasters involving collapsed structures and trapped casualties (Mexico City; Armenia; Iran; Philippines; Charleston, South Carolina; Loma Prieta, California; and others) have provoked a heightened national concern for the development of an adequate capability to respond quickly and effectively to this type of calamity. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) has responded to this need by developing an Urban Search and Rescue (US&R) Response System, a national system of multi-disciplinary task forces for rapid deployment to the site of a collapsed structure incident. Each 56-person task force includes a medical team capable of providing advanced emergency medical care both for task force members and for victims located and reached by the sophisticated search, rescue, and technical components of the task force. This paper reviews the background and development of urban search and rescue, and describes the make-up and function of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Task Force medical teams.

  11. Fuel cell systems for submarines: from the first idea to serial production (United States)

    Psoma, Angela; Sattler, Gunter

    The future submarines of Howaldtswerke-Deutsche Werft AG (HDW) will be equipped with fuel cell power plants for air independent propulsion. In the 1970s the decision for a fuel cell system on submarines was made. Tests in the 1980s confirmed the feasibility of fuel cells on submarines. Positive development results in the 1990s led to series production of fuel cell equipped submarines, which will be in operation from 2003 onwards. Strictly controlled development work was necessary to reach the goal of series production. The train of thought behind this process of development is described in this paper starting with the initial idea and ending with the description of the serial production of the fuel cell power plant. The future outlook gives an impression of current development work.

  12. Intelligent Robot-assisted Humanitarian Search and Rescue System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Y. K. Lau


    Full Text Available The unprecedented scale and number of natural and man-made disasters in the past decade has urged international emergency search and rescue communities to seek for novel technology to enhance operation efficiency. Tele-operated search and rescue robots that can navigate deep into rubble to search for victims and to transfer critical field data back to the control console has gained much interest among emergency response institutions. In response to this need, a low-cost autonomous mini robot equipped with thermal sensor, accelerometer, sonar, pin-hole camera, microphone, ultra-bright LED and wireless communication module is developed to study the control of a group of decentralized mini search and rescue robots. The robot can navigate autonomously between voids to look for living body heat and can send back audio and video information to allow the operator to determine if the found object is a living human. This paper introduces the design and control of a low-cost robotic search and rescue system based on an immuno control framework developed for controlling decentralized systems. Design and development of the physical prototype and the immunity-based control system are described in this paper.

  13. Intelligent Robot-Assisted Humanitarian Search and Rescue System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert W. Y. Ko


    Full Text Available The unprecedented scale and number of natural and man-made disasters in the past decade has urged international emergency search and rescue communities to seek for novel technology to enhance operation efficiency. Tele-operated search and rescue robots that can navigate deep into rubble to search for victims and to transfer critical field data back to the control console has gained much interest among emergency response institutions. In response to this need, a low-cost autonomous mini robot equipped with thermal sensor, accelerometer, sonar, pin-hole camera, microphone, ultra-bright LED and wireless communication module is developed to study the control of a group of decentralized mini search and rescue robots. The robot can navigate autonomously between voids to look for living body heat and can send back audio and video information to allow the operator to determine if the found object is a living human. This paper introduces the design and control of a low-cost robotic search and rescue system based on an immuno control framework developed for controlling decentralized systems. Design and development of the physical prototype and the immunity-based control system are described in this paper.

  14. Main devices design of submarine oil-water separation system (United States)

    Cai, Wen-Bin; Liu, Bo-Hong


    In the process of offshore oil production, in order to thoroughly separate oil from produced fluid, solve the environment problem caused by oily sewage, and improve the economic benefit of offshore drilling, from the perspective of new oil-water separation, a set of submarine oil-water separation devices were designed through adsorption and desorption mechanism of the polymer materials for crude oil in this paper. The paper introduces the basic structure of gas-solid separation device, periodic separation device and adsorption device, and proves the rationality and feasibility of this device.

  15. Modeling and Synthesis Methods for Retrofit Design of Submarine Actuation Systems. Energy Storage for Electric Actuators (United States)


    sternplane v - sway w - heave u - surge X Y Z y z x Figure 2: Coordinate frame definitions of submarine vehicular dynamics. 2.1 Six Degree of Freedom...where Mν̇ is the total inertial matrix, C(ν) is the Coriolis/centripetal matrix, D(ν) is the total damping matrix, g(η) are the buoyancy and weight...Natick, MA. Retrofit Design of Submarine Actuation Systems Page 7 q - pitch w - heave u - surge δs Msp Figure 3: Hydrodynamic moment unit definition

  16. Kolumbo submarine volcano (Greece): An active window into the Aegean subduction system. (United States)

    Rizzo, Andrea Luca; Caracausi, Antonio; Chavagnac, Valèrie; Nomikou, Paraskevi; Polymenakou, Paraskevi N; Mandalakis, Manolis; Kotoulas, Georgios; Magoulas, Antonios; Castillo, Alain; Lampridou, Danai


    Submarine volcanism represents ~80% of the volcanic activity on Earth and is an important source of mantle-derived gases. These gases are of basic importance for the comprehension of mantle characteristics in areas where subaerial volcanism is missing or strongly modified by the presence of crustal/atmospheric components. Though, the study of submarine volcanism remains a challenge due to their hazardousness and sea-depth. Here, we report (3)He/(4)He measurements in CO2-dominated gases discharged at 500 m below sea level from the high-temperature (~220 °C) hydrothermal system of the Kolumbo submarine volcano (Greece), located 7 km northeast off Santorini Island in the central part of the Hellenic Volcanic Arc (HVA). We highlight that the mantle below Kolumbo and Santorini has a (3)He/(4)He signature of at least 7.0 Ra (being Ra the (3)He/(4)He ratio of atmospheric He equal to 1.39×10(-6)), 3 Ra units higher than actually known for gases-rocks from Santorini. This ratio is also the highest measured across the HVA and is indicative of the direct degassing of a Mid-Ocean-Ridge-Basalts (MORB)-like mantle through lithospheric faults. We finally highlight that the degassing of high-temperature fluids with a MORB-like (3)He/(4)He ratio corroborates a vigorous outgassing of mantle-derived volatiles with potential hazard at the Kolumbo submarine volcano.

  17. Mountain Search and Rescue with Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (United States)

    Silvagni, Mario; Tonoli, Andrea; Zenerino, Enrico; Chiaberge, Marcello


    Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS) also known as Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) are nowadays becoming more and more popular in several applications. Even though a complete regulation is not yet available all over the world, researches, tests and some real case applications are wide spreading. These technologies can bring many benefits also to the mountain operations especially in emergencies and harsh environmental conditions, such as Search and Rescue (SAR) and avalanche rescue missions. In fact, during last decade, the number of people practicing winter sports in backcountry environment is increased and one of the greatest hazards for recreationists and professionals are avalanches. Often these accidents have severe consequences leading, mostly, to asphyxia-related death, which is confirmed by the hard drop of survival probability after ten minutes from the burying. Therefore, it is essential to minimize the time of burial. Modern avalanche beacon (ARTVA) interface guides the rescuer during the search phase reducing its time. Even if modern avalanche beacons are valid and reliable, the seeking range influences the rescue time. Furthermore, the environment and morphologic conditions of avalanches usually complicates the rescues. The recursive methodology of this kind of searching offers the opportunity to use automatic device like drones (RPAS). These systems allow performing all the required tasks autonomously, with high accuracy and without exposing the rescuers to additional risks due to secondary avalanches. The availability of highly integrated electronics and subsystems specifically meant for the applications, better batteries, miniaturized payload and, in general, affordable prices, has led to the availability of small RPAS with very good performances that can give interesting application opportunities in unconventional environments. The present work is one of the outcome from the experience made by the authors in RPAS fields and in Mechatronics

  18. Sub-sea engineering course (offshore submarine systems); Subsea engineering course (systemes sous - marins offshore)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preedy, J.; Chasserot, J.L. [Azur Offshore Ltd (United Kingdom)


    This document gathers 770 pages of information about offshore submarine systems and 16 pages of appendix (glossary). Content: course introduction, introduction to sub-sea engineering, review of diver-assisted sub-sea production systems, sub-sea completion and christmas trees, basis of offshore exploration and production, sub-sea manifolds and templates, new technology for sub-sea production, flow-lines and pipelines, design of risers (flexible, towers, steel catenary and rigid), reliability, risks and human factors, review of deep-water (diver-less) sub-sea production systems, sub-sea control systems and chemical injection, case study - Malampaya Field Tie Back (Philippines), sub-sea systems inspection, maintenance and repair, cost evaluations, field assessments and cost data base, sub-sea well operations and flow assurance.

  19. Representing distributed cognition in complex systems: how a submarine returns to periscope depth. (United States)

    Stanton, Neville A


    This paper presents the Event Analysis of Systemic Teamwork (EAST) method as a means of modelling distributed cognition in systems. The method comprises three network models (i.e. task, social and information) and their combination. This method was applied to the interactions between the sound room and control room in a submarine, following the activities of returning the submarine to periscope depth. This paper demonstrates three main developments in EAST. First, building the network models directly, without reference to the intervening methods. Second, the application of analysis metrics to all three networks. Third, the combination of the aforementioned networks in different ways to gain a broader understanding of the distributed cognition. Analyses have shown that EAST can be used to gain both qualitative and quantitative insights into distributed cognition. Future research should focus on the analyses of network resilience and modelling alternative versions of a system.

  20. Anatomy of La Jolla submarine canyon system; offshore southern California (United States)

    Paull, C.K.; Caress, D.W.; Lundsten, E.; Gwiazda, R.; Anderson, K.; McGann, M.; Conrad, J.; Edwards, B.; Sumner, E.J.


    An autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) carrying a multibeam sonar and a chirp profiler was used to map sections of the seafloor within the La Jolla Canyon, offshore southern California, at sub-meter scales. Close-up observations and sampling were conducted during remotely operated vehicle (ROV) dives. Minisparker seismic-reflection profiles from a surface ship help to define the overall geometry of the La Jolla Canyon especially with respect to the pre-canyon host sediments. The floor of the axial channel is covered with unconsolidated sand similar to the sand on the shelf near the canyon head, lacks outcrops of the pre-canyon host strata, has an almost constant slope of 1.0° and is covered with trains of crescent shaped bedforms. The presence of modern plant material entombed within these sands confirms that the axial channel is presently active. The sand on the canyon floor liquefied during vibracore collection and flowed downslope, illustrating that the sediment filling the channel can easily fail even on this gentle slope. Data from the canyon walls help constrain the age of the canyon and extent of incision. Horizontal beds of moderately cohesive fine-grained sediments exposed on the steep canyon walls are consistently less than 1.232 million years old. The lateral continuity of seismic reflectors in minisparker profiles indicate that pre-canyon host strata extend uninterrupted from outside the canyon underneath some terraces within the canyon. Evidence of abandoned channels and point bar-like deposits are noticeably absent on the inside bend of channel meanders and in the subsurface of the terraces. While vibracores from the surface of terraces contain thin (< 10 cm) turbidites, they are inferred to be part of a veneer of recent sediment covering pre-canyon host sediments that underpin the terraces. The combined use of state of the art seafloor mapping and exploration tools provides a uniquely detailed view of the morphology within an active submarine canyon.

  1. Oxygen-Accelerated Decompression of Submarine Rescue and Diving Recompression System (SRDRS) Operators and Tenders (United States)


    Medical Deck at 150, 200, 250, or 300 + 15 ml(surface)/min, depending on chamber depth, for analysis of nitrogen, oxygen, and carbon dioxide fractions using...and advised to refrain from any vigorous exercise including jogging, bicycling, and weightlifting . RESULTS One hundred twenty-seven (127) repetitive...Flynn. An analysis of decrements in vital capacity as an index of pulmonary oxygen toxicity. J. Appl. Physiol. 63(3):1130-1135, 1987. 14. W.A. Gerth

  2. An EM Modeling for Rescue System Design of Buried People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. De Leo


    Full Text Available The development of a rescue system for buried persons is a subject of growing importance in case of occurrence of natural disasters such as earthquake, landslides, or avalanches. In this paper a fully analytical model has been developed to get some fundamental a priori design characteristics. The proposed system is based on the detection of the victim movements due to its respiratory activity: in particular, when an electromagnetic (EM wave impinges on a human body, the analysis of the reflected wave parameters such as amplitude, frequency, phase, or delay time allows for the detection of the breathing frequency. The model is simple on purpose because the great uncertainty concerning the characterization of many environmental parameters of a general situation makes a very detailed model useless. However, it is accurate enough to provide useful information about system design, filling the gap in the literature concerning the electromagnetic formulation of such kinds of problems. A system prototype was built using laboratory equipment to experimentally validate the model, and subsequently breathing frequency measurements were carried on, both in a lossless laboratory environment and in a lossy realistic scenario.

  3. Space Rescue (United States)

    Muratore, John F.


    Space Rescue has been a topic of speculation for a wide community of people for decades. Astronauts, aerospace engineers, diplomats, medical and rescue professionals, inventors and science fiction writers have all speculated on this problem. Martin Caidin's 1964 novel Marooned dealt with the problems of rescuing a crew stranded in low earth orbit. Legend at the Johnson Space Center says that Caidin's portrayal of a Russian attempt to save the American crew played a pivotal role in convincing the Russians to join the real joint Apollo-Soyuz mission. Space Rescue has been a staple in science fiction television and movies portrayed in programs such as Star Trek, Stargate-SG1 and Space 1999 and movies such as Mission To Mars and Red Planet. As dramatic and as difficult as rescue appears in fictional accounts, in the real world it has even greater drama and greater difficulty. Space rescue is still in its infancy as a discipline and the purpose of this chapter is to describe the issues associated with space rescue and the work done so far in this field. For the purposes of this chapter, the term space rescue will refer to any system which allows for rescue or escape of personnel from situations which endanger human life in a spaceflight operation. This will span the period from crew ingress prior to flight through crew egress postlanding. For the purposes of this chapter, the term primary system will refer to the spacecraft system that a crew is either attempting to escape from or from which an attempt is being made to rescue the crew.

  4. The Rescue911 Emergency Response Information System (ERIS): A Systems Development Project Case (United States)

    Cohen, Jason F.; Thiel, Franz H.


    This teaching case presents a systems development project useful for courses in object-oriented analysis and design. The case has a strong focus on the business, methodology, modeling and implementation aspects of systems development. The case is centered on a fictitious ambulance and emergency services company (Rescue911). The case describes that…

  5. Low cost submarine robot


    Ponlachart Chotikarn; Werapong Koedsin; Boonlua Phongdara; Pattara Aiyarak


    A submarine robot is a semi-autonomous submarine robot used mainly for marine environmental research. We aim todevelop a low cost, semi-autonomous submarine robot which is able to travel underwater. The robot’s structure was designedand patented using a novel idea of the diving system employing a volume adjustment mechanism to vary the robot’s density.A light weight, flexibility and small structure provided by PVC can be used to construct the torpedo-liked shape robot.Hydraulic seal and O-rin...

  6. Low cost submarine robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponlachart Chotikarn


    Full Text Available A submarine robot is a semi-autonomous submarine robot used mainly for marine environmental research. We aim todevelop a low cost, semi-autonomous submarine robot which is able to travel underwater. The robot’s structure was designedand patented using a novel idea of the diving system employing a volume adjustment mechanism to vary the robot’s density.A light weight, flexibility and small structure provided by PVC can be used to construct the torpedo-liked shape robot.Hydraulic seal and O-ring rubbers are used to prevent water leaking. This robot is controlled by a wired communicationsystem.

  7. High Speed Submarine Optical Fiber Communication System:Pressure and Temperature Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Mohammed


    Full Text Available In the present paper, the performance of high speed submarine optical fiber cable systems is investigated, taking into account both the pressure and the temperature effects. Both the pressure and the temperature are depth-dependent variables, while both the spectral losses and the dispersion effects are temperature as well as wavelength dependent variables. Two important cases with real fibers are processed: a case with dispersion cancellation and a case without dispersion cancellation. It is found that the ocean pressure (due to the depth shifts the dispersion-free wavelength towards the third communication window. In general, as the depth increases the maximum transmitted bit rate increases in the range of interest. The system capacity as well as the spectral losses, and the dispersion effects are parametrically investigated over wide-range ranges of the set of affecting parameters {wavelength, ocean depth (and consequently the ocean pressure and temperature, and the chemical structure}. Key Words: Submarine Optical Fiber, Undersea Optical Communication, Pressure and Temperature Effects, Transoceanic Optical Communications

  8. 'Green' Submarine Cable Systems for Ocean/Climate Monitoring and Disaster Warning (United States)

    Barnes, C. R.; Butler, R.; Howe, B. M.; Bueti, M. C.


    A recent joint initiative between three UN agencies is proposing to develop trans-ocean mini-observatories to measure changing seafloor ocean observables. A Joint Task Force (JTF), established in 2012 by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) of UNESCO, is examining novel uses for submarine telecommunication cables. With ITU secretariat support, the JTF is developing a strategy and roadmap that could lead to enabling the availability of modified 'green' submarine cable systems equipped with scientific sensors (such as temperature, pressure and acceleration) for climate monitoring and disaster risk reduction (particularly tsunamis). If successful and needing support from industry and regulatory bodies, a wide network of mini-observatories could be established at many places across the world's ocean floors to measure these important parameters accurately over several decades. The initiative addresses two main issues: a) the need for sustained climate-quality data from the sparsely observed deep oceans and continental slopes but extending into coastal waters; and b) the desire to increase the reliability and integrity of the global tsunami warning networks. Presently, plans are being developed to launch a pilot project with the active involvement of cable industry players and existing ocean observatory researchers.

  9. Submarine Groundwater Discharge of Trace Elements and Isotopes from Karst Systems (Invited) (United States)

    Charette, M. A.; Henderson, P. B.; Gonneea, M. E.; Breier, C.; Murray, J.; Jenson, J. W.; Morales, S.; Herrera-Silveira, J.


    Coastal hydrogeology is a major driver of the flux of trace elements and isotopes associated with submarine groundwater discharge (SGD). Karst geomorphology, which makes up 25% of the world’s coastline, is often characterized by highly permeable soils result that result in fast infiltration of rainfall such that overland runoff is minimal. As a result, the major vector for land-ocean freshwater transport is submarine groundwater discharge. This talk will focus on process studies at two karst settings: the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico and Guam in the western Pacific Mariana Island chain. A feature common to both locations was minimal non-conservative behavior of trace metals and isotopes within subsurface mixing zones at the coast and substantial fluxes of trace metals associated with dissolution of carbonate minerals within the aquifer. The levels of trace metal enrichment appear correlated with subsurface path length, with groundwater endmember concentrations at the Yucatan site being ~2-5 times higher than at Guam. We surmise that SGD fluxes from karst systems were less significant during glacial periods when carbonate platforms are fully exposed and therefore subject to less intense weathering processes. These results have implications for interpretation of trace element and isotope distributions in the geologic record.

  10. Tectonic activity and the evolution of submarine canyons: The Cook Strait Canyon system, New Zealand (United States)

    Micallef, Aaron; Mountjoy, Joshu; Barnes, Philip; Canals, Miquel; Lastras, Galderic


    Submarine canyons are Earth's most dramatic erosional features, comprising steep-walled valleys that originate in the continental shelf and slope. They play a key role in the evolution of continental margins by transferring sediments into deep water settings and are considered important biodiversity hotspots, pathways for nutrients and pollutants, and analogues of hydrocarbon reservoirs. Although comprising only one third of continental margins worldwide, active margins host more than half of global submarine canyons. We still lack of thorough understanding of the coupling between active tectonics and submarine canyon processes, which is necessary to improve the modelling of canyon evolution in active margins and derive tectonic information from canyon morphology. The objectives of this study are to: (i) understand how tectonic activity influences submarine canyon morphology, processes, and evolution in an active margin, and (2) formulate a generalised model of canyon development in response to tectonic forcing based on morphometric parameters. We fulfil these objectives by analysing high resolution geophysical data and imagery from Cook Strait Canyon system, offshore New Zealand. Using these data, we demonstrate that tectonic activity, in the form of major faults and structurally-generated tectonic ridges, leaves a clear topographic signature on submarine canyon location and morphology, in particular their dendritic and sinuous planform shapes, steep and linear longitudinal profiles, and cross-sectional asymmetry and width. We also report breaks/changes in canyon longitudinal slope gradient, relief and slope-area regression models at the intersection with faults. Tectonic activity gives rise to two types of knickpoints in the Cook Strait Canyon. The first type consists of low slope gradient, rounded and diffusive knickpoints forming as a result of short wavelength folds or fault break outs and being restored to an equilibrium profile by upstream erosion and

  11. Common Submarine Radio Room: A Case Study of a System of Systems Approach (United States)


    11. Land Attack/Strike Mission Scenario (from PMW770 2011b, 52) .................30 Figure 12. CSG/ ESG Mission Scenario (from PMW770 2011b, 67...request EHF extremely high frequency ESG expeditionary strike group ETR Submarine communications electronics technician FRD Fleet readiness...expeditionary strike group operations mission (CSG/ ESG ) 4. Special operations forces mission (SOF) 5. Mine warfare operations mission (MIW) 6

  12. Development of an underwater ROV system for submarine cable maintenance. Kaitei cable maintenance yo suichu robot no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iyama, T.; Takahashi, Y.; Kaya, F.; Shigemitsu, T. (Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries, Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))


    For the purpose of repairing, burying, and inspecting submarine telecommunication cables more speedily and at greater depth than conventional processes, an underwater remotely operated robot system for submarine cable maintenance has been developed. The system is composed of an underwater remotely operated vehicle (ROV), tether cables, a tether management system, umbilical cables, a launch and recovery system, control units, and electric power units. The ROV is loaded with thrusters for propulsion, a television camera, a cable location system, manipulators, a cable gripper/cutter unit, a cable burier/digger unit, a variable ballast unit, various sensors, et al. Since its entrance into service in October, 1989, the system has been successfully operated in various sea areas around Japan with a crew of three or four for operation and maintenance. This paper describes the outline of the system configuration and their specifications. 12 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Submarine fiber cable network systems cost planning considerations with achieved high transmission capacity and signal quality enhancement (United States)

    Rashed, Ahmed Nabih Zaki


    This paper has presented theoretically the comparison between three types of fibers which are investigated extensively: plastic clad silica (PCS), polystyrene (PS) and perfluorinated graded index polymer optical fibers (PF GI-POF) for high speed undersea cable systems. Based on experimental data, both the deep ocean water temperature and pressure are tailored as functions of the water depth. It is taken into account the estimation of the total cost of the submarine fiber cable system for transmission techniques under study. The system capacity as well as the spectral losses, and the dispersion effects are parametrically investigated over wide range ranges of the set of affecting parameters {wavelength, ocean depth (and consequently the ocean pressure and temperature), and the chemical structure}. The results show that PCS has the optimum performance in compared with other fibers. Therefore PCS fiber is the most appropriate candidate among all types of fibers for high speed local submarine communication systems.

  14. Submarine hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Renilson, Martin


    This book adopts a practical approach and presents recent research together with applications in real submarine design and operation. Topics covered include hydrostatics, manoeuvring, resistance and propulsion of submarines. The author briefly reviews basic concepts in ship hydrodynamics and goes on to show how they are applied to submarines, including a look at the use of physical model experiments. The issues associated with manoeuvring in both the horizontal and vertical planes are explained, and readers will discover suggested criteria for stability, along with rudder and hydroplane effectiveness. The book includes a section on appendage design which includes information on sail design, different arrangements of bow planes and alternative stern configurations. Other themes explored in this book include hydro-acoustic performance, the components of resistance and the effect of hull shape. Readers will value the author’s applied experience as well as the empirical expressions that are presented for use a...

  15. DNV RP-F116 integrity management of submarine pipeline system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leinum, B.H.; Etterdal, B. [Det Norske Veritas (DNV), Hoevik (Norway); Augustinovic, Z. [Dong Energy, Fredericia (Denmark); Paula, A. [Det Norske Veritas (DNV), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    The need to keep pipelines operating safely and efficiently is paramount for any operator. Additionally, there is an increasing awareness at both regulatory and public level. Authorities around the world are adopting a more proactive approach as they seek to minimize the risk of human injuries or harm to the environment resulting from pipeline leaks. A joint industry project (JIP) led by DNV Energy is formulating guidelines for how to manage the integrity of submarine pipeline system. The resultant document of recommended practice, DNV RP-F116, will provide the oil and gas industry with a useful tool in an area where no such formal guidance currently exists. This paper gives an overview of the RP and demonstrates the use with a case study for the Siri field. The Siri field is operated by DONG Energy, Denmark and all infield pipelines were subjected to an integrity assessment using the Integrity Management process as outlined in the upcoming DNV RP-116. In parallel with establishing the RP, DNV has further developed the web-based software system, Orbit+, which is aligned with the RP. The software system is implemented and used by Dong Energy. (author)

  16. Experience in system design for human-robot teaming in urban search & rescue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruijff, G.J.M.; Janíček, M.; Keshavdas, S.; Larochelle, B.; Zender, H.; Smets, N.J.J.M.; Mioch, T.; Neerincx, M.A.; Diggelen, J. van; Colas, F.; Liu, M.; Pomerleau, F.; Svoboda, T.; Petriček, T.; Pirri, F.; Giannni, M.; Papadakis, P.; Sinha, A.; Balmer, P.; Tomatis, N.; WOrst, R.; Linder, T.; Surmann, H.; Tretyakov, V.; Corrao, S.; Pratzler-Wanczura, S.; Sulk, M.


    The paper describes experience with applying a user-centric design methodology in developing systems for human-robot teaming in Urban Search & Rescue. A human-robot team consists of several robots (rovers/UGVs, microcopter/UAVs), several humans at an off-site command post (mission commander, UGV

  17. Modeling and performance analysis of the emergency rescue logistics system based on Petri nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingxin YANG


    Full Text Available In order to more effectively analyze the performance of logistics emergency rescue system, based on analyzing the characteristics and main functions of the Petri net and its advantage of describing asynchronous concurrent random image system, this paper introduces stochastic Petri net modeling method to establish emergency system model on the basis of serious natural disasters or emergencies, and analyzes the performance. Firstly, according to the emergency rescue system of logistics flow chart, the Petri net model is built, and through the analysis of accessibility, activity and safety, the validity of the model is verified; Secondly, the Markov chain is constructed using the characteristics of isostructuralism with the Markov stochastic process, the linear equations is established, and a numerical example is introduced, reflecting the problems of the system through the quantitative analysis of main performance indexes. Finally, some suggestions are put forward about the problems. On the one hand, this modeling can vividly describe the sequential and asynchronous concurrent relationships between the processes; on the other hand, its mature performance analysis method can effectively explore the key links which have significant impacts on the operational efficiency of the system. The system analysis theory provides a feasible method for the analysis of system flow, and the proposal provides a theoretical basis for the optimization of the entire emergency logistics rescue system.

  18. Simple models for the simulation of submarine melt for a Greenland glacial system model (United States)

    Beckmann, Johanna; Perrette, Mahé; Ganopolski, Andrey


    Two hundred marine-terminating Greenland outlet glaciers deliver more than half of the annually accumulated ice into the ocean and have played an important role in the Greenland ice sheet mass loss observed since the mid-1990s. Submarine melt may play a crucial role in the mass balance and position of the grounding line of these outlet glaciers. As the ocean warms, it is expected that submarine melt will increase, potentially driving outlet glaciers retreat and contributing to sea level rise. Projections of the future contribution of outlet glaciers to sea level rise are hampered by the necessity to use models with extremely high resolution of the order of a few hundred meters. That requirement in not only demanded when modeling outlet glaciers as a stand alone model but also when coupling them with high-resolution 3-D ocean models. In addition, fjord bathymetry data are mostly missing or inaccurate (errors of several hundreds of meters), which questions the benefit of using computationally expensive 3-D models for future predictions. Here we propose an alternative approach built on the use of a computationally efficient simple model of submarine melt based on turbulent plume theory. We show that such a simple model is in reasonable agreement with several available modeling studies. We performed a suite of experiments to analyze sensitivity of these simple models to model parameters and climate characteristics. We found that the computationally cheap plume model demonstrates qualitatively similar behavior as 3-D general circulation models. To match results of the 3-D models in a quantitative manner, a scaling factor of the order of 1 is needed for the plume models. We applied this approach to model submarine melt for six representative Greenland glaciers and found that the application of a line plume can produce submarine melt compatible with observational data. Our results show that the line plume model is more appropriate than the cone plume model for simulating


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Power


    Full Text Available Tsunami generated by submarine landslides are now recognised as an important hazard, following several historical events. Submarine landslides can occur in a variety of settings such as on continental slopes, volcanic slopes, and submerged canyons and fjords. While significant progress has been made in understanding tsunami generation processes on open slopes, the problem of tsunami generation by landslides within submarine canyons has received less attention. In this paper we examine the tsunami hazard posed by submarine landslides in the Cook Strait canyon system, near Wellington, New Zealand. Understanding of the hazard posed by this tsunami source has practical value because of its proximity to a populated coast. Our studies also provide general results highlighting the differences between tsunami generation on open coasts and tsunami generation within canyons. Geotechnical and geological studies of the Cook Strait region reveal evidence for many large landslide scars in the canyon walls, these are interpreted to be failures of consolidated material which descend the slopes on the sides of the canyon. Scouring of the base of the canyon slopes by strong tidal currents is believed to be an important process in bringing slopes to the point of failure, with most large failures expected to occur during earthquake shaking. We present the results of computer simulations of landslide failures using simplified canyon geometries represented in either 2D (vertical slice or 3D. These simulations were made using Gerris, an adaptive-grid fluid dynamics solver. A key finding is that the sudden deceleration of the landslide material after reaching the canyon floor, leads to larger amplitude waves in the back-propagation direction (i.e. in the opposite direction to the initial landslide motion.

  20. Brain-specific rescue of Clock reveals system-driven transcriptional rhythms in peripheral tissue. (United States)

    Hughes, Michael E; Hong, Hee-Kyung; Chong, Jason L; Indacochea, Alejandra A; Lee, Samuel S; Han, Michael; Takahashi, Joseph S; Hogenesch, John B


    The circadian regulatory network is organized in a hierarchical fashion, with a central oscillator in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) orchestrating circadian oscillations in peripheral tissues. The nature of the relationship between central and peripheral oscillators, however, is poorly understood. We used the tetOFF expression system to specifically restore Clock function in the brains of Clock(Δ19) mice, which have compromised circadian clocks. Rescued mice showed normal locomotor rhythms in constant darkness, with activity period lengths approximating wildtype controls. We used microarray analysis to assess whether brain-specific rescue of circadian rhythmicity was sufficient to restore circadian transcriptional output in the liver. Compared to Clock mutants, Clock-rescue mice showed significantly larger numbers of cycling transcripts with appropriate phase and period lengths, including many components of the core circadian oscillator. This indicates that the SCN oscillator overcomes local circadian defects and signals directly to the molecular clock. Interestingly, the vast majority of core clock genes in liver were responsive to Clock expression in the SCN, suggesting that core clock genes in peripheral tissues are intrinsically sensitive to SCN cues. Nevertheless, most circadian output in the liver was absent or severely low-amplitude in Clock-rescue animals, demonstrating that the majority of peripheral transcriptional rhythms depend on a fully functional local circadian oscillator. We identified several new system-driven rhythmic genes in the liver, including Alas1 and Mfsd2. Finally, we show that 12-hour transcriptional rhythms (i.e., circadian "harmonics") are disrupted by Clock loss-of-function. Brain-specific rescue of Clock converted 12-hour rhythms into 24-hour rhythms, suggesting that signaling via the central circadian oscillator is required to generate one of the two daily peaks of expression. Based on these data, we conclude that 12-hour rhythms

  1. Brain-specific rescue of Clock reveals system-driven transcriptional rhythms in peripheral tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E Hughes

    Full Text Available The circadian regulatory network is organized in a hierarchical fashion, with a central oscillator in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN orchestrating circadian oscillations in peripheral tissues. The nature of the relationship between central and peripheral oscillators, however, is poorly understood. We used the tetOFF expression system to specifically restore Clock function in the brains of Clock(Δ19 mice, which have compromised circadian clocks. Rescued mice showed normal locomotor rhythms in constant darkness, with activity period lengths approximating wildtype controls. We used microarray analysis to assess whether brain-specific rescue of circadian rhythmicity was sufficient to restore circadian transcriptional output in the liver. Compared to Clock mutants, Clock-rescue mice showed significantly larger numbers of cycling transcripts with appropriate phase and period lengths, including many components of the core circadian oscillator. This indicates that the SCN oscillator overcomes local circadian defects and signals directly to the molecular clock. Interestingly, the vast majority of core clock genes in liver were responsive to Clock expression in the SCN, suggesting that core clock genes in peripheral tissues are intrinsically sensitive to SCN cues. Nevertheless, most circadian output in the liver was absent or severely low-amplitude in Clock-rescue animals, demonstrating that the majority of peripheral transcriptional rhythms depend on a fully functional local circadian oscillator. We identified several new system-driven rhythmic genes in the liver, including Alas1 and Mfsd2. Finally, we show that 12-hour transcriptional rhythms (i.e., circadian "harmonics" are disrupted by Clock loss-of-function. Brain-specific rescue of Clock converted 12-hour rhythms into 24-hour rhythms, suggesting that signaling via the central circadian oscillator is required to generate one of the two daily peaks of expression. Based on these data, we conclude

  2. Evaluating the Florida Urban Search and Rescue System: Its Future Structure and Direction (United States)


    and rescue (R. Napoli, peronal communication, September 1, 2009). In Florida’s Comprehensive Emergency Management Plan, the Director of State Fire... influenced by either man-made or natural disasters. According to Roberts (2008), achieving these goals, however, requires rethinking how to...strategy setting for the program, other groups will influence the development of the US&R system in unexpected ways, creating new versions of what it

  3. Ad hoc network for emergency rescue system based on unmanned aerial vehicles


    Cambra, Carlos; Sendra, Sandra; Lloret, Jaime; PARRA BORONAT, LORENA


    Intelligent Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) on emergency rescue are widely used to detect injured mountaineers in inaccessible areas. These systems should satisfy several features. It is important to know the georeference of the injured mountaineers. It is also important to have real-time images of the area where people have suffered the accident. In this paper, we present the development of a UAV integrated within a wireless ad hoc network and the communication protocol that i...

  4. First Report of Using Portable Unmanned Aircraft Systems (Drones) for Search and Rescue. (United States)

    Van Tilburg, Christopher


    Unmanned aircraft systems (UAS), colloquially called drones, are used commonly for military, government, and civilian purposes, including both commercial and consumer applications. During a search and rescue mission in Oregon, a UAS was used to confirm a fatality in a slot canyon; this eliminated the need for a dangerous rappel at night by rescue personnel. A second search mission in Oregon used several UAS to clear terrain. This allowed search of areas that were not accessible or were difficult to clear by ground personnel. UAS with cameras may be useful for searching, observing, and documenting missions. It is possible that UAS might be useful for delivering equipment in difficult areas and in communication. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Simple models for the simulation of submarine melt for a Greenland glacial system model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Beckmann


    Full Text Available Two hundred marine-terminating Greenland outlet glaciers deliver more than half of the annually accumulated ice into the ocean and have played an important role in the Greenland ice sheet mass loss observed since the mid-1990s. Submarine melt may play a crucial role in the mass balance and position of the grounding line of these outlet glaciers. As the ocean warms, it is expected that submarine melt will increase, potentially driving outlet glaciers retreat and contributing to sea level rise. Projections of the future contribution of outlet glaciers to sea level rise are hampered by the necessity to use models with extremely high resolution of the order of a few hundred meters. That requirement in not only demanded when modeling outlet glaciers as a stand alone model but also when coupling them with high-resolution 3-D ocean models. In addition, fjord bathymetry data are mostly missing or inaccurate (errors of several hundreds of meters, which questions the benefit of using computationally expensive 3-D models for future predictions. Here we propose an alternative approach built on the use of a computationally efficient simple model of submarine melt based on turbulent plume theory. We show that such a simple model is in reasonable agreement with several available modeling studies. We performed a suite of experiments to analyze sensitivity of these simple models to model parameters and climate characteristics. We found that the computationally cheap plume model demonstrates qualitatively similar behavior as 3-D general circulation models. To match results of the 3-D models in a quantitative manner, a scaling factor of the order of 1 is needed for the plume models. We applied this approach to model submarine melt for six representative Greenland glaciers and found that the application of a line plume can produce submarine melt compatible with observational data. Our results show that the line plume model is more appropriate than the cone plume

  6. Meta-Analysis of Data from the Submarine Ventilation Doctrine Test Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hoover, J


    .... The Submarine Ventilation Doctrine Test Program was developed to address submarine-specific issues regarding the use of ventilation systems to control smoke and heat movement, maintain habitability...

  7. Intelligent systems for urban search and rescue: challenges and lessons learned (United States)

    Jacoff, Adam; Messina, Elena; Weiss, Brian A.


    Urban search and rescue (USAR) is one of the most dangerous and time-critical non-wartime activities. Researchers have been developing hardware and software to enable robots to perform some search and rescue functions so as to minimize the exposure of human rescue personnel to danger and maximize the survival of victims. Significant progress has been achieved, but much work remains. USAR demands a blending of numerous specialized technologies. An effective USAR robot must be endowed with key competencies, such as being able to negotiate collapsed structures, find victims and assess their condition, identify potential hazards, generate maps of the structure and victim locations, and communicate with rescue personnel. These competencies bring to bear work in numerous sub-disciplines of intelligent systems (or artificial intelligence) such as sensory processing, world modeling, behavior generation, path planning, and human-robot interaction, in addition to work in communications, mechanism design and advanced sensors. In an attempt to stimulate progress in the field, reference USAR challenges are being developed and propagated worldwide. In order to make efficient use of finite research resources, the robotic USAR community must share a common understanding of what is required, technologically, to attain each competency, and have a rigorous measure of the current level of effectiveness of various technologies. NIST is working with partner organizations to measure the performance of robotic USAR competencies and technologies. In this paper, we describe the reference test arenas for USAR robots, assess the current challenges within the field, and discuss experiences thus far in the testing effort.

  8. An Embedded System for Search and Rescue of Trapped in the Ruins of an Earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pantelis


    Full Text Available is an embedded system for search and rescue of trapped victims in the ruins of an earthquake. A rescue team coulduse such kind of digital assistants in order to have quick and safe information about the disaster. The proposed system is asmall size vehicle, with microcontroller based hardware and is wirelessly controlled. The operator has full control of thevehicle and is able to capture real time image of the accident place and various sensors measurements.

  9. Influence of the Coriolis force on the velocity structure of gravity currents in straight submarine channel systems (United States)

    Cossu, R.; Wells, M. G.; WâHlin, A. K.


    Large-scale turbidity currents in submarine channels often show a significant asymmetry in the heights of their levee banks. In the Northern Hemisphere, there are many observations of the right-hand channel levee being noticeably higher than the left-hand levee, a phenomenon that is usually attributed to the effect of Coriolis forces upon turbidity currents. This article presents results from an analog model that documents the influence of Coriolis forces on the dynamics of gravity currents flowing in straight submarine channels. The observations of the transverse velocity structure, downstream velocity, and interface slope show good agreement with a theory that incorporates Ekman boundary layer dynamics. Coriolis forces will be important for most large-scale turbidity currents and need to be explicitly modeled when the Rossby number of these flows (defined as Ro = ∣U/Wf∣, where U is the mean downstream velocity, W is the channel width, and f is the Coriolis parameter defined as f = 2Ω sin(θ), with Ω being the Earth's rotation rate and θ being the latitude) is less than order 1. When Ro ≪ 1, the flow is substantially slower than a nonrotating flow with the same density contrast. The secondary flow field consists of frictionally induced Ekman transports across the channel in the benthic and interfacial boundary layers and a return flow in the interior. The cross-channel velocities are of the order of 10% of the along-channel velocities. The sediment transport associated with such transverse flow patterns should influence the evolution of submarine channel levee systems.

  10. A Search-and-Rescue Robot System for Remotely Sensing the Underground Coal Mine Environment. (United States)

    Zhao, Jingchao; Gao, Junyao; Zhao, Fangzhou; Liu, Yi


    This paper introduces a search-and-rescue robot system used for remote sensing of the underground coal mine environment, which is composed of an operating control unit and two mobile robots with explosion-proof and waterproof function. This robot system is designed to observe and collect information of the coal mine environment through remote control. Thus, this system can be regarded as a multifunction sensor, which realizes remote sensing. When the robot system detects danger, it will send out signals to warn rescuers to keep away. The robot consists of two gas sensors, two cameras, a two-way audio, a 1 km-long fiber-optic cable for communication and a mechanical explosion-proof manipulator. Especially, the manipulator is a novel explosion-proof manipulator for cleaning obstacles, which has 3-degree-of-freedom, but is driven by two motors. Furthermore, the two robots can communicate in series for 2 km with the operating control unit. The development of the robot system may provide a reference for developing future search-and-rescue systems.

  11. A smart phone-based pocket fall accident detection, positioning, and rescue system. (United States)

    Kau, Lih-Jen; Chen, Chih-Sheng


    We propose in this paper a novel algorithm as well as architecture for the fall accident detection and corresponding wide area rescue system based on a smart phone and the third generation (3G) networks. To realize the fall detection algorithm, the angles acquired by the electronic compass (ecompass) and the waveform sequence of the triaxial accelerometer on the smart phone are used as the system inputs. The acquired signals are then used to generate an ordered feature sequence and then examined in a sequential manner by the proposed cascade classifier for recognition purpose. Once the corresponding feature is verified by the classifier at current state, it can proceed to next state; otherwise, the system will reset to the initial state and wait for the appearance of another feature sequence. Once a fall accident event is detected, the user's position can be acquired by the global positioning system (GPS) or the assisted GPS, and sent to the rescue center via the 3G communication network so that the user can get medical help immediately. With the proposed cascaded classification architecture, the computational burden and power consumption issue on the smart phone system can be alleviated. Moreover, as we will see in the experiment that a distinguished fall accident detection accuracy up to 92% on the sensitivity and 99.75% on the specificity can be obtained when a set of 450 test actions in nine different kinds of activities are estimated by using the proposed cascaded classifier, which justifies the superiority of the proposed algorithm.

  12. Research of Tourism Rescue System based on Social-Local-Mobile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHI Beiqi


    Full Text Available Tourism Rescue System(TRSis a key issue to ensure the success of tourism service.The development of our country′s TRS showed that tourists are usually in a moving state with the geographical position information during travel accident process.So it is necessary to construct TRS using Social-Local-Mobile technology.The paper has presented the detail of Social-Local-Mobile technology,and has analyzed the motivation and practical strategy of building TRS.

  13. A novel field search and rescue system based on SIM card location (United States)

    Zhang, Huihui; Guo, Shutao; Cui, Dejing


    Nowadays, the rapid development of outdoor sports and adventure leads to the increase of the frequency of missing accidents. On the other hand, it becomes much more convenient and efficient for the criminals to escape with the help of new technologies. So we have developed a long-distance raids targeted field search and rescue system which utilizes RSSI ranging and Kalman filtering algorithm to realize remote positioning and dynamic supervision management only by a mobile phone with a SIM card, without any additional terminal equipment.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeněk MAREK


    Full Text Available The paper presents results of a study focused on usability of a 3D laser scanning system by fire rescue units during emergencies, respectively during preparations for inspection and tactical exercises. The first part of the study focuses on an applicability of a 3D scanner in relation to an accurate evaluation of a fire scene through digitization and creation of virtual walk-through of the fire scene. The second part deals with detailed documentation of access road to the place of intervention, including a simulation of the fire vehicle arrival.

  15. Development and experimental verification of a robust active noise control system for a diesel engine in submarines (United States)

    Sachau, D.; Jukkert, S.; Hövelmann, N.


    This paper presents the development and experimental validation of an ANC (active noise control)-system designed for a particular application in the exhaust line of a submarine. Thereby, tonal components of the exhaust noise in the frequency band from 75 Hz to 120 Hz are reduced by more than 30 dB. The ANC-system is based on the feedforward leaky FxLMS-algorithm. The observability of the sound pressure in standing wave field is ensured by using two error microphones. The noninvasive online plant identification method is used to increase the robustness of the controller. Online plant identification is extended by a time-varying convergence gain to improve the performance in the presence of slight error in the frequency of the reference signal.

  16. Submarine Medicine Team (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Submarine Medicine Team conducts basic and applied research on biomedical aspects of submarine and diving environments. It focuses on ways to optimize the health...

  17. SALVEREMO, an automatic system for the search and rescue in the wilderness and mountain areas (United States)

    Penna, Roberto; Allasia, Walter; Bianchi, Luca; Licata, Enrico; Duranti, Pierluigi; Molino, Andrea; Bagalini, Enea; Sagliocco, Sergio; Scarafia, Simone; Prinetto, Paolo; Airofarulla, Giuseppe; Carelli, Alberto


    SALVEREMO project aims at designing and prototyping an innovative system for searching and rescuing individuals (especially hikers and mountaineers) who got lost or in peril in wilderness or mountain areas. It makes use of Remotely Piloted Aircraft System (RPAS) equipped with a sensor suite specifically selected according to the requirements identified involving alpine rescuers and government officials. The peculiarity of the proposed solution is the exploitation and integration of the special skill and expertise coming from different competence fields. It will dramatically decrease the searching time in the wilderness and remote areas off the beaten tracks, providing rescuers and operators with a decision support system increasing successful results and reducing rescue missions costs. The system benefits from the adoption of a scaled-down Base Transceiver Station (BTS) embarked in the payload sensor suite of a small RPAS that can be carried in a back pack of rescuers. A Software Defined Radio (SDR) board implementing the BTS protocol stack has been integrated in a complex sensor suite made up of open processing boards and camera devices. Moreover computer vision (CV) algorithms for real time pattern detection and image enhancements have been investigated for assisting the rescuers during the searching operations. An easy-to-use ground station application has been developed for speeding up the overall mission accomplishment. Aknowledgement SALVEREMO project is a research project co-funded by Regione Piemonte according to the call for proposal POR F.E.S.R. 2007/2013, "Linea di attività I.1.3-Innovazione e PMI - Polo della Meccatronica e dei Sistemi Avanzati di Produzione". The authors want to thank "Il Soccorso Alpino Italiano" for the invaluable support for establishing operative requirements.

  18. Development of an improved polykaryon-based influenza virus rescue system


    Bourret Vincent; Lyall Jon; Ducatez Mariette F; Guérin Jean-Luc; Tiley Laurence


    Abstract Background Virus rescue from transfected cells is an extremely useful technique that allows defined viral clones to be engineered for the purpose of rational vaccine design or fundamental reverse genetics studies. However, it is often hindered by low primary rescue success rates or yields, especially with field-derived viral strains. Approach We investigated the possibility of enhancing influenza virus rescue by eliciting cell fusion to increase the chances of having all necessary pl...

  19. The habitus of 'rescue' and its significance for implementation of rapid response systems in acute health care. (United States)

    Mackintosh, Nicola; Humphrey, Charlotte; Sandall, Jane


    The need to focus on patient safety and improve the quality and consistency of medical care in acute hospital settings has been highlighted in a number of UK and international reports. When patients on a hospital ward become acutely unwell there is often a window of opportunity for staff, patients and relatives to contribute to the 'rescue' process by intervening in the trajectory of clinical deterioration. This paper explores the social and institutional processes associated with the practice of rescue, and implications for the implementation and effectiveness of rapid response systems (RRSs) within acute health care. An ethnographic case study was conducted in 2009 in two UK hospitals (focussing on the medical directorates in each organisation). Data collection involved 180 h of observation, 35 staff interviews (doctors, nurses, health care assistants and managers) and documentary review. Analysis was informed by Bourdieu's logic of practice and his relational concept of the 'field' of the general medical ward. Three themes illustrated the nature of rescue work within the field and collective rules which guided associated occupational distinction practices: (1) the 'dirty work' of vital sign recording and its distinction from diagnostic (higher order) interpretive work; (2) the moral order of legitimacy claims for additional help; and (3) professional deference and the selective managerial control of rescue work. The discourse of rescue provided a means of exercising greater control over clinical uncertainty. The acquisition of 'rescue capital' enabled the social positioning of health care assistants, nurses and doctors, and shaped use of the RRS on the wards. Boundary work, professional legitimation and jurisdictional claims defined the social practice of rescue, as clinical staff had to balance safety, professional and organisational concerns within the field. This paper offers a nuanced understanding of patient safety on the front-line, challenging notions of

  20. Steroid hormones, prostanoids, and angiogenic systems during rescue of the corpus luteum in pigs. (United States)

    Przygrodzka, E; Kaczmarek, M M; Kaczynski, P; Ziecik, A J


    In order to characterize the transition of the corpora lutea (CL) from acquisition of luteolytic sensitivity to rescue of luteal function: i) the expression of 38 factors associated with steroids, prostanoids, and angiogenic systems and ii) concentrations of the main hormones responsible for maintenance of CL function in cyclic and pregnant pigs were examined. Additionally, the effect of prostaglandin (PG) E2 and F2 α on luteal function during the estrous cycle and pregnancy was evaluated in vitro. Significantly up-regulated gene expression was revealed in CL collected on day 14 of the estrous cycle (CYP19A1, ESR2, PTGS2, HIF1A, and EDN1) and on days 12-14 of pregnancy (SCARB1, PGRMC1, STAR, HSD3B1, NR5A1, PTGFR, PTGER4, and VEGFA). Elevated concentrations of estradiol-17β and PGE2 occurred in CL on days 12 and 14 of pregnancy respectively, while an increased intraluteal PGF2 α content was noted on day 14 of the estrous cycle. Both PGs increased the synthesis of progesterone by cultured luteal slices obtained on day 14 of pregnancy, in contrast to the action of PGF2 α on the corresponding day of the estrous cycle. PGE2 stimulated cAMP production via PTGER2 and PTGER4, while PGF2 α elevated the content of CREB in cultured luteal slices from CL of pregnant pigs. In silico analysis showed that infiltration of lymphocytes and apoptosis of microvascular endothelium were activated in CL on day 12 of the estrous cycle vs pregnancy. Summarizing, an abundance of E2 and PGE2 during pregnancy regulates specific pathways responsible for steroidogenesis, the prostanoid signaling system and angiogenesis during rescue from luteolysis in porcine CL. © 2016 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  1. Construction of a marker rescue system in Bacillus subtilis for detection of horizontal gene transfer in food. (United States)

    Kharazmi, Mitra; Hammes, Walter P; Hertel, Christian


    A marker rescue system based on the repair of the kanamycin resistance gene nptII was constructed for use in Gram-positive bacteria and established in Bacillus subtilis 168. Marker rescue was detected in vitro using different types of donor DNA containing intact nptII. The efficiency of marker rescue using chromosomal DNA of E. coli Sure as well as plasmids pMR2 or pSR8-30 ranged from 3.8 x 10(-8) to 1.5 x 10(-9) transformants per nptII gene. Low efficiencies of ca. 10(-12) were obtained with PCR fragments of 792 bp obtained from chromosomal DNA of E. coli Sure or DNA from a transgenic potato. B. subtilis developed competence during growth in milk and chocolate milk, and marker rescue transformation was detected with frequencies of ca. 10(-6) and 10(-8), respectively, using chromosomal DNA of E. coli Sure as donor DNA. Although the copy number of nptII genes of the plant DNA exceeded that of chromosomal E. coli DNA in the marker rescue experiments, a transfer of DNA from the transgenic plant to B. subtilis was detectable neither in vitro nor in situ.

  2. Temperature as a tracer of hydrological dynamics in an anchialine cave system with a submarine spring (United States)

    Domínguez-Villar, David; Cukrov, Neven; Krklec, Kristina


    Although temperature is a nonconservative tracer, it often provides useful information to understand hydrological processes. This study explores the potential of temperature to characterize the hydrological dynamics of a submarine spring and its coastal karst aquifer in Krka Estuary (Croatia). The estuary is well stratified and its water column has a clear thermocline. A network of loggers was designed to monitor the temperature along vertical profiles in the estuary and the coastal aquifer, taking advantage of an anchialine cave that enabled access to the subterranean estuary. The location of the thermocline in the groundwater, which defines the upper boundary of the saline intrusion, depends on (1) the recharge of the aquifer via infiltration of precipitation, (2) the evolution of the thermocline in the estuary, and (3) the tidal oscillations. The sources of water flowing though the anchialine cave were identified: brackish water from the estuary above the thermocline, saline water from the estuary below the thermocline, and freshwater from infiltrated precipitation. A conceptual model is described that characterizes the hydrological dynamics of this coastal aquifer and its interactions with the estuary. Thus, at least for some hydrological settings, temperature is a valid tracer to characterize the main hydrological processes. The measurement of temperature is inexpensive compared to other (conservative) tracers. Therefore, for those hydrological settings that have water masses with distinct temperatures, the use of temperature as a tracer to establish conceptual models of the hydrological dynamics is encouraged.

  3. How a submarine returns to periscope depth: analysing complex socio-technical systems using Cognitive Work Analysis. (United States)

    Stanton, Neville A; Bessell, Kevin


    This paper presents the application of Cognitive Work Analysis to the description of the functions, situations, activities, decisions, strategies, and competencies of a Trafalgar class submarine when performing the function of returning to periscope depth. All five phases of Cognitive Work Analysis are presented, namely: Work Domain Analysis, Control Task Analysis, Strategies Analysis, Social Organisation and Cooperation Analysis, and Worker Competencies Analysis. Complex socio-technical systems are difficult to analyse but Cognitive Work Analysis offers an integrated way of analysing complex systems with the core of functional means-ends analysis underlying all of the other representations. The joined-up analysis offers a coherent framework for understanding how socio-technical systems work. Data were collected through observation and interviews at different sites across the UK. The resultant representations present a statement of how the work domain and current activities are configured in this complex socio-technical system. This is intended to provide a baseline, from which all future conceptions of the domain may be compared. The strength of the analysis is in the multiple representations from which the constraints acting on the work may be analysed. Future research needs to challenge the assumptions behind these constraints in order to develop new ways of working. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  4. The submarine hydrothermal system of Panarea (Southern Italy: biogeochemical processes at the thermal fluids - sea bottom interface

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    T. Maugeri


    Full Text Available Among the submarine hydrothermal systems located offshore the volcanic archipelago of the Aeolian Islands (Southern Italy, the most active is located off the coasts of Panarea island. Thermal waters, gases and sulfur deposits coexist at the sea bottom where hydrothermal fluids are released from both shallow and deep vents. The chemical and isotopic composition of the fluid phase shows the presence of a significant magmatic component and the physico-chemical conditions of the geothermal reservoir allow the release of reduced chemical species that are microbially mediated towards the production of organic carbon as a form of biochemical energy. Microorganisms inhabiting this environment possess nutritional requirements and overall metabolic pathways ideally suited to such ecosystem that represents a clear example of the close connection between geosphere and biosphere. Microscopic examination of the white mat attached to rock surfaces showed the presence of Thiothrix-like filamentous bacteria. Moderately thermophilic heterotrophic isolates were identified as strains of the genus Bacillus. Although the hydrothermal system of Panarea has to be considered a “shallow” system, it shows many characteristics that make it similar to the “deep” oceanic systems, giving a unique opportunity for improving our knowledge on such an unexplored world by working at this easily accessible site.

  5. Mercury speciation and transport via submarine groundwater discharge at a southern California coastal lagoon system (United States)

    Ganguli, P.M.; Conaway, C.H.; Swarzenski, P.W.; Izbicki, J.A.; Flegal, A.R.


    We measured total mercury (Hg T) and monomethylmercury (MMHg) concentrations in coastal groundwater and seawater over a range of tidal conditions near Malibu Lagoon, California, and used 222Rn-derived estimates of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) to assess the flux of mercury species to nearshore seawater. We infer a groundwater-seawater mixing scenario based on salinity and temperature trends and suggest that increased groundwater discharge to the ocean during low tide transported mercury offshore. Unfiltered Hg T (U-Hg T) concentrations in groundwater (2.2-5.9 pM) and seawater (3.3-5.2 pM) decreased during a falling tide, with groundwater U-Hg T concentrations typically lower than seawater concentrations. Despite the low Hg T in groundwater, bioaccumulative MMHg was produced in onshore sediment as evidenced by elevated MMHg concentrations in groundwater (0.2-1 pM) relative to seawater (???0.1 pM) throughout most of the tidal cycle. During low tide, groundwater appeared to transport MMHg to the coast, resulting in a 5-fold increase in seawater MMHg (from 0.1 to 0.5 pM). Similarly, filtered Hg T (F-Hg T) concentrations in seawater increased approximately 7-fold during low tide (from 0.5 to 3.6 pM). These elevated seawater F-Hg T concentrations exceeded those in filtered and unfiltered groundwater during low tide, but were similar to seawater U-Hg T concentrations, suggesting that enhanced SGD altered mercury partitioning and/or solubilization dynamics in coastal waters. Finally, we estimate that the SGD Hg T and MMHg fluxes to seawater were 0.41 and 0.15 nmol m -2 d -1, respectively - comparable in magnitude to atmospheric and benthic fluxes in similar environments. ?? 2012 American Chemical Society.

  6. First-line rescue system of Chinese army in non-warfare military operations

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    Wei ZHAO


    Full Text Available In the 21st century, non traditional security threats have become increasingly prominent, non warfare military activity has become general trend of global military development, and it has become the main activities of the peacetime arm forces in all countries. Therefore, to carry out and strengthen the medical support in non-war military operations is a long-term strategic task of Chinese Army medical service. The concept about non-war military activities and characteristics of medical support, and the existing problems, and measures of establishment of first-line rescue system are presented in this paper. Under the reformation of military affairs, the front-line ambulance system in non-war military action will work closely around the key security such as disaster relief, peacekeeping operations, public health emergencies and major events. It is necessary to learn the advanced experience from developed countries, and continuously deepen medical security work in non-war military operations on the basis of "non-combat" and "war"-oriented concept. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2016.01.17

  7. Late Cretaceous Sub-Marine Fan System in Batain Mélange Zone, the Fayah Formation in Northeastern Oman

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    Iftikhar Ahmed Abbasi


    , possibly as olistostrome formed due to submarine slumping and sliding. The turbidite lithofacies association is comprised of monotonous grayish-green to brown coloured clays tens of meters thick interbedded with thin, clean, well-sorted sandstone. The Interbedded sandstone and shale lithofacies association is comprised of a half to one meter thick cross-bedded, burrowed arkosic sandstone and plane laminated shale. The sandstone constitutes about 25% of the association with ripple lamination in the upper part of the unit indicating a fining-upward trend. Dewatering structures are common. This association constitutes the upper 100m of the formation. These sediments were deposited in shallow water conditions by channelized flows. Based on the lithofacies associations described above, especially the dominance of debris-flow units and turbidites, the greater part of the Fayah Formation are interpreted as having been deposited under a sub-marine fan setting. Only the upper part of the formation was deposited in a shallow water setting before the onset of overlying carbonate deposits. The sub-marine fan system was active during the last stages of the Tethys Ocean closure at the time of onset of the Batain nappe.

  8. Examples of Models Fit to Magnetic Anomalies Observed Over Subaerial, Submarine, and Subglacial Volcanoes in the West Antarctic Rift System (United States)

    Behrendt, J. C.; Finn, C. A.; Blankenship, D. D.


    Aeromagnetic and marine magnetic surveys over the volcanically active West Antarctic rift system, constrained by seismic reflection profiles over the Ross Sea continual shelf, and radar ice sounding surveys over the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) allowed calculation of models fit to very high-amplitude anomalies. We present several examples: exposed 2700-m high, subaerial erupted volcano Mt Melbourne; the 750-m high source of anomaly D (Hamilton submarine volcano) in the Ross sea; and the 600-m high edifice of Mt. CASERTZ beneath the WAIS. The character of these anomalies and their sources varies greatly, and is inferred to be the result of subaerial, submarine and subglacial emplacement respectively. Mt. Melbourne erupted through the WAIS at a time when it was grounded over the Ross Sea continental shelf. Highly magnetic volcanic flows inferred to have high remanent (normal) magnetization in the present field direction produce the 600-nT positive anomaly. The flows protected the edifice above the ice from erosion. Negligible amounts of probably subglacially erupted, apparently non-magnetic hyaloclastite exist in association with Mt. Melbourne. Mt. CASERTZ is nonmagnetic and the edifice is interpreted as consisting of a transient mound of unconsolidated hyaloclastite injected into the WAIS. However Mt. CASERTZ, about 8-km diameter, overlies a 200-m high, 40-km wide highly magnetic residual edifice modeled as the top of the source (an active subglacial volcano) of a 400-nT high positive anomaly. Any former edifices comprising hyaloclastite, pillow breccia or other volcanic debris injected into the moving WAIS apparently have been removed. About 400 other high- amplitude anomalies associated with low relief (80 percent less than 200 m) edifices at the base of the ice (the tops of the sources of these steep gradient anomalies) beneath the WAIS defined by radar ice sounding have been interpreted as having former hyaloclastite edifices, which were removed by the moving

  9. Structural vibration and acoustic radiation of coupled propeller-shafting and submarine hull system due to propeller forces (United States)

    Qu, Yegao; Su, Jinpeng; Hua, Hongxing; Meng, Guang


    This paper investigates the structural and acoustic responses of a coupled propeller-shafting and submarine pressure hull system under different propeller force excitations. The entire system, which consists of a rigid propeller, a main shaft, two bearings and an orthogonally stiffened pressure hull, is submerged in a heavy fluid. The shaft is elastically connected to the pressure hull by a radial bearing and a thrust bearing. The theoretical model of the structural system is formulated based on a modified variational method, in which the propeller, the main shaft and the bearings are treated as a lumped mass, an elastic beam and spatially distributed spring-damper systems, respectively. The rings and stringers in the pressure hull are modeled as discrete structural elements. The acoustic field generated by the hull is calculated using a spectral Kirchhoff-Helmholtz integral formulation. A strongly coupled structure-acoustic interaction analysis is employed to achieve reasonable solutions for the coupled system. The displacement of the pressure hull and the sound pressure of the fluid are expanded in the form of a double mixed series using Fourier series and Chebyshev orthogonal polynomials, providing a flexible way for the present method to account for the individual contributions of circumferential wave modes to the vibration and acoustic responses of the pressure hull in an analytical manner. The contributions of different circumferential wave modes of the pressure hull to the structural and acoustic responses of the coupled system under axial, transversal and vertical propeller forces are investigated. Computed results are compared with those solutions obtained from the coupled finite element/boundary element method. Effects of the ring and the bearing stiffness on the acoustic responses of the coupled system are discussed.

  10. Rapid shut-off and burial of slope channel-levee systems: new imaging and analysis of the Rio Grande submarine fan (United States)

    Swartz, J. M.; Mohrig, D. C.; Gulick, S. P. S.; Stockli, D. F.; Daniller-Varghese, M. S.; Fernandez, R.


    The continental slope of the western Gulf of Mexico is host to a major depositional system, the Rio Grande Fan. Unlike many submarine fans, the surface of the Rio Grande Fan lacks large submarine channels and associated levees. Prior analysis of continental shelf stratigraphy has identified the presence of past extensive shelf-edge delta systems, when the Rio Grande River system flowed across the modern shelf and delivered high volumes of sediment to the shelf/slope break. A major gap in understanding this system is how large volumes of sediment, particularly sands, are transported from the shelf edge systems down the slope and onto the basin-floor fan without constructional channel-levee systems. Over 500km of new high-resolution 2D multichannel seismic (MCS) and CHIRP echosounder data were collected over the shelf edge and upper slope of the Rio Grande fan. These new data provide unprecedented imaging of the shelf-edge delta systems and associated slope deposits. Our preliminary observations indicate that while the modern seafloor morphology of the fan is dominated by mass-transport deposits, slumps and minor inactive channels, buried below thick mud deposits are very large aggradational channels-levee systems. These systems have channel belts almost 1km wide, with confining levees that approach 10km in width. The main body of the fan is built from these channel complexes, which appear to have then rapidly buried in mud. We document the evolution, from initial channelization to burial, of these massive slope systems. Regional correlation suggests that this most recent episode of channel-levee growth and shutoff occurred very rapidly, and could indicate drastically higher sediment flux through the paleo-Rio Grande River than that of the modern. Our results highlight an example of a slope-channel system that is subject to significant variations in sediment supply. Such systems can apparently build large late Pleistocene submarine fan deposits that can be difficult

  11. Calciclastic submarine fans: An integrated overview (United States)

    Payros, Aitor; Pujalte, Victoriano


    Calciclastic submarine fans are rare in the stratigraphic record and no bona fide present-day analogue has been described to date. Possibly because of that, and although calciclastic submarine fans have long intrigued deep-water carbonate sedimentologists, they have largely been overlooked by the academic and industrial communities. To fill this gap we have compiled and critically reviewed the existing sedimentological literature on calciclastic submarine fans, thus offering an updated view of this type of carbonate slope sedimentary system. Calciclastic submarine fans range in length from just a few to more than 100 km. Three different types can be distinguished: (1) Coarse-grained, small-sized (depression associated with tectonic structures, an inherited topography, or large-scale mass failures.

  12. Detection of coastal and submarine discharge on the Florida Gulf Coast with an airborne thermal-infrared mapping system (United States)

    Raabe, Ellen; Stonehouse, David; Ebersol, Kristin; Holland, Kathryn; Robbins, Lisa


    Along the Gulf Coast of Florida north of Tampa Bay lies a region characterized by an open marsh coast, low topographic gradient, water-bearing limestone, and scattered springs. The Floridan aquifer system is at or near land surface in this region, discharging water at a consistent 70-72°F. The thermal contrast between ambient water and aquifer discharge during winter months can be distinguished using airborne thermal-infrared imagery. An airborne thermal-infrared mapping system was used to collect imagery along 126 miles of the Gulf Coast from Jefferson to Levy County, FL, in March 2009. The imagery depicts a large number of discharge locations and associated warm-water plumes in ponds, creeks, rivers, and nearshore waters. A thermal contrast of 6°F or more was set as a conservative threshold for identifying sites, statistically significant at the 99% confidence interval. Almost 900 such coastal and submarine-discharge locations were detected, averaging seven to nine per mile along this section of coast. This represents approximately one hundred times the number of previously known discharge sites in the same area. Several known coastal springs in Taylor and Levy Counties were positively identified with the imagery and were used to estimate regional discharge equivalent to one 1st-order spring, discharging 100 cubic feet per second or more, for every two miles of coastline. The number of identified discharge sites is a conservative estimate and may represent two-thirds of existing features due to low groundwater levels at time of overflight. The role of aquifer discharge in coastal and estuarine health is indisputable; however, mapping and quantifying discharge in a complex karst environment can be an elusive goal. The results of this effort illustrate the effectiveness of the instrument and underscore the influence of coastal springs along this stretch of the Florida coast.

  13. The potential use of unmanned aircraft systems (drones) in mountain search and rescue operations. (United States)

    Karaca, Yunus; Cicek, Mustafa; Tatli, Ozgur; Sahin, Aynur; Pasli, Sinan; Beser, Muhammed Fatih; Turedi, Suleyman


    This study explores the potential use of drones in searching for and locating victims and of motorized transportation of search and rescue providers in a mountain environment using a simulation model. This prospective randomized simulation study was performed in order to compare two different search and rescue techniques in searching for an unconscious victim on snow-covered ground. In the control arm, the Classical Line Search Technique (CLT) was used, in which the search is performed on foot and the victim is reached on foot. In the intervention arm, the Drone-snowmobile Technique (DST) was used, the search being performed by drone and the victim reached by snowmobile. The primary outcome of the study was the comparison of the two search and rescue techniques in terms of first human contact time. Twenty search and rescue operations were conducted in this study. Median time to arrival at the mannequin was 57.3min for CLT, compared to 8.9min for DST. The median value of the total searched area was 88,322.0m 2 for CLT and 228,613.0m 2 for DST. The median area searched per minute was 1489.6m 2 for CLT and 32,979.9m 2 for DST (pdrone using DST compared to the classical technique, and the victim can be located faster and reached earlier with rescuers transported by snowmobile. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Complications and Failure to Rescue After Inpatient Noncardiac Surgery in the Veterans Affairs Health System. (United States)

    Massarweh, Nader N; Kougias, Panagiotis; Wilson, Mark A


    The quality of surgical care in the Veterans Health Administration improved markedly in the 1990s after implementation of the Veterans Affairs (VA) National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (now called the VA Surgical Quality Improvement Program). Although there have been many recent evaluations of surgical care in the private sector, to date, a contemporary global evaluation has not been performed within the VA health system. To provide a contemporaneous report of noncardiac postoperative outcomes in the VA health system during the past 15 years. A retrospective cohort study was conducted using data from the VA Surgical Quality Improvement Program among veterans who underwent inpatient general, vascular, thoracic, genitourinary, neurosurgical, orthopedic, or spine surgery from October 1, 1999, through September 30, 2014. Rates of 30-day morbidity, mortality, and failure to rescue (FTR) over time. Among 704 901 patients (mean [SD] age, 63.7 [11.8] years; 676 750 [96%] male) undergoing noncardiac surgical procedures at 143 hospitals, complications occurred in 97 836 patients (13.9%), major complications occurred in 66 816 (9.5%), FTR occurred in 12 648 of the 97 836 patients with complications (12.9%), FTR after major complications occurred in 12 223 of the 66 816 patients with major complications (18.3%), and 18 924 patients (2.7%) died within 30 days of surgery. There were significant decreases from 2000 to 2014 in morbidity (8202 of 59 421 [13.8%] vs 3368 of 32 785 [10.3%]), major complications (5832 of 59 421 [9.8%] vs 2284 of 32 785 [7%]), FTR (1445 of 8202 [17.6%] vs 351 of 3368 [10.4%]), and FTR after major complications (1388 of 5832 [23.8%] vs 343 of 2284 [15%]) (trend test, P < .001 for all). Although there were no clinically meaningful differences in rates of complications and major complications across hospital risk-adjusted mortality quintiles (any complications: lowest quintile, 20 945 of 147 721 [14.2%] vs highest

  15. Redirecting N-acetylaspartate metabolism in the central nervous system normalizes myelination and rescues Canavan disease. (United States)

    Gessler, Dominic J; Li, Danning; Xu, Hongxia; Su, Qin; Sanmiguel, Julio; Tuncer, Serafettin; Moore, Constance; King, Jean; Matalon, Reuben; Gao, Guangping


    Canavan disease (CD) is a debilitating and lethal leukodystrophy caused by mutations in the aspartoacylase (ASPA) gene and the resulting defect in N-acetylaspartate (NAA) metabolism in the CNS and peripheral tissues. Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) has the ability to cross the blood-brain barrier and widely transduce the CNS. We developed a rAAV-based and optimized gene replacement therapy, which achieves early, complete, and sustained rescue of the lethal disease phenotype in CD mice. Our treatment results in a super-mouse phenotype, increasing motor performance of treated CD mice beyond that of WT control mice. We demonstrate that this rescue is oligodendrocyte independent, and that gene correction in astrocytes is sufficient, suggesting that the establishment of an astrocyte-based alternative metabolic sink for NAA is a key mechanism for efficacious disease rescue and the super-mouse phenotype. Importantly, the use of clinically translatable high-field imaging tools enables the noninvasive monitoring and prediction of therapeutic outcomes for CD and might enable further investigation of NAA-related cognitive function.

  16. TRIDENT Submarine Logistics Data System (LDS): A Case Study in Life Cycle Management and Budgeting. (United States)


    of the life cycle documentation requirements. 4 TABLE OF CONTENTS I. INTRODUCTION------------------------------------------ 10 A. COMPUTER SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT PROBLEMS...A. COMPUTER SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT PROBLEMS Computer programs - generally called software packages- are instructions that tell computer systems what...11, Naval Postgraduate School, 1979. 4. U.S. Comptroller General Report FGMSD-80-4, Contracting for Computer Software Development - Serious Problems

  17. Single-step generation of gene knockout-rescue system in pluripotent stem cells by promoter insertion with CRISPR/Cas9. (United States)

    Matsunaga, Taichi; Yamashita, Jun K


    Specific gene knockout and rescue experiments are powerful tools in developmental and stem cell biology. Nevertheless, the experiments require multiple steps of molecular manipulation for gene knockout and subsequent rescue procedures. Here we report an efficient and single step strategy to generate gene knockout-rescue system in pluripotent stem cells by promoter insertion with CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing technology. We inserted a tetracycline-regulated inducible gene promoter (tet-OFF/TRE-CMV) upstream of the endogenous promoter region of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2/Flk1) gene, an essential gene for endothelial cell (EC) differentiation, in mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) with homologous recombination. Both homo- and hetero-inserted clones were efficiently obtained through a simple selection with a drug-resistant gene. The insertion of TRE-CMV promoter disrupted endogenous Flk1 expression, resulting in null mutation in homo-inserted clones. When the inserted TRE-CMV promoter was activated with doxycycline (Dox) depletion, Flk1 expression was sufficiently recovered from the downstream genomic Flk1 gene. Whereas EC differentiation was almost completely perturbed in homo-inserted clones, Flk1 rescue with TRE-CMV promoter activation restored EC appearance, indicating that phenotypic changes in EC differentiation can be successfully reproduced with this knockout-rescue system. Thus, this promoter insertion strategy with CRISPR/Cas9 would be a novel attractive method for knockout-rescue experiments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Spatial and temporal variations of diffuse CO2 degassing at El Hierro volcanic system: Relation to the 2011-2012 submarine eruption (United States)

    Melián, Gladys; Hernández, Pedro A.; Padrón, Eleazar; Pérez, Nemesio M.; Barrancos, José; Padilla, Germán.; Dionis, Samara; Rodríguez, Fátima; Calvo, David; Nolasco, Dacil


    We report herein the results of extensive diffuse CO2 emission surveys performed on El Hierro Island in the period 1998-2012. More than 17,000 measurements of the diffuse CO2 efflux were carried out, most of them during the volcanic unrest period that started in July 2011. Two significant precursory signals based on geochemical and geodetical studies suggest that a magma intrusion processes might have started before 2011 in El Hierro Island. During the preeruptive and eruptive periods, the time series of the diffuse CO2 emission released by the whole island experienced two significant increases. The first started almost 2 weeks before the onset of the submarine eruption, reflecting a clear geochemical anomaly in CO2 emission, most likely due to increasing release of deep-seated magmatic gases to the surface. The second one, between 24 October and 27 November 2011, started before the most energetic seismic events of the volcanic-seismic unrest. The data presented here demonstrate that combined continuous monitoring studies and discrete surveys of diffuse CO2 emission provide important information to optimize the early warning system in volcano monitoring programs and to monitor the evolution of an ongoing volcanic eruption, even though it is a submarine eruption.

  19. Submarine Salt Karst Terrains

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    Nico Augustin


    Full Text Available Karst terrains that develop in bodies of rock salt (taken as mainly of halite, NaCl are special not only for developing in one of the most soluble of all rocks, but also for developing in one of the weakest rocks. Salt is so weak that many surface-piercing salt diapirs extrude slow fountains of salt that that gravity spread downslope over deserts on land and over sea floors. Salt fountains in the deserts of Iran are usually so dry that they flow at only a few cm/yr but the few rain storms a decade so soak and weaken them that they surge at dm/day for a few days. We illustrate the only case where the rates at which different parts of one of the many tens of subaerial salt karst terrains in Iran flows downslope constrains the rates at which its subaerial salt karst terrains form. Normal seawater is only 10% saturated in NaCl. It should therefore be sufficiently aggressive to erode karst terrains into exposures of salt on the thousands of known submarine salt extrusions that have flowed or are still flowing over the floors of hundreds of submarine basins worldwide. However, we know of no attempt to constrain the processes that form submarine salt karst terrains on any of these of submarine salt extrusions. As on land, many potential submarine karst terrains are cloaked by clastic and pelagic sediments that are often hundreds of m thick. Nevertheless, detailed geophysical and bathymetric surveys have already mapped likely submarine salt karst terrains in at least the Gulf of Mexico, and the Red Sea. New images of these two areas are offered as clear evidence of submarine salt dissolution due to sinking or rising aggressive fluids. We suggest that repeated 3D surveys of distinctive features (± fixed seismic reflectors of such terrains could measure any downslope salt flow and thus offer an exceptional opportunity to constrain the rates at which submarine salt karst terrains develop. Such rates are of interest to all salt tectonicians and the many

  20. Submarines, spacecraft and exhaled breath. (United States)

    Pleil, Joachim D; Hansel, Armin


    Foreword The International Association of Breath Research (IABR) meetings are an eclectic gathering of researchers in the medical, environmental and instrumentation fields; our focus is on human health as assessed by the measurement and interpretation of trace chemicals in human exhaled breath. What may have escaped our notice is a complementary field of research that explores the creation and maintenance of artificial atmospheres practised by the submarine air monitoring and air purification (SAMAP) community. SAMAP is comprised of manufacturers, researchers and medical professionals dealing with the engineering and instrumentation to support human life in submarines and spacecraft (including shuttlecraft and manned rockets, high-altitude aircraft, and the International Space Station (ISS)). Here, the immediate concerns are short-term survival and long-term health in fairly confined environments where one cannot simply 'open the window' for fresh air. As such, one of the main concerns is air monitoring and the main sources of contamination are CO(2) and other constituents of human exhaled breath. Since the inaugural meeting in 1994 in Adelaide, Australia, SAMAP meetings have been held every two or three years alternating between the North American and European continents. The meetings are organized by Dr Wally Mazurek (a member of IABR) of the Defense Systems Technology Organization (DSTO) of Australia, and individual meetings are co-hosted by the navies of the countries in which they are held. An overriding focus at SAMAP is life support (oxygen availability and carbon dioxide removal). Certainly, other air constituents are also important; for example, the closed environment of a submarine or the ISS can build up contaminants from consumer products, cooking, refrigeration, accidental fires, propulsion and atmosphere maintenance. However, the most immediate concern is sustaining human metabolism: removing exhaled CO(2) and replacing metabolized O(2). Another

  1. How significant is submarine groundwater discharge and its associated dissolved inorganic carbon in a river-dominated shelf system?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Liu


    Full Text Available In order to assess the role of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD and its impact on the carbonate system on the northern South China Sea (NSCS shelf, we measured seawater concentrations of four radium isotopes 223,224,226,228Ra along with carbonate system parameters in June–July, 2008. Complementary groundwater sampling was conducted in coastal areas in December 2008 and October 2010 to constrain the groundwater end-members. The distribution of Ra isotopes in the NSCS was largely controlled by the Pearl River plume and coastal upwelling. Long-lived Ra isotopes (228Ra and 226Ra were enriched in the river plume but low in the offshore surface water and subsurface water/upwelling zone. In contrast, short-lived Ra isotopes (224Ra and 223Ra were elevated in the subsurface water/upwelling zone as well as in the river plume but depleted in the offshore surface water. In order to quantify SGD, we adopted two independent mathematical approaches. Using a three end-member mixing model with total alkalinity (TAlk and Ra isotopes, we derived a SGD flux into the NSCS shelf of 2.3–3.7 × 108 m3 day−1. Our second approach involved a simple mass balance of 228Ra and 226Ra and resulted in a first order but consistent SGD flux estimate of 2.2–3.7 × 108 m3 day−1. These fluxes were equivalent to 12–21 % of the Pearl River discharge, but the source of the SGD was mostly recirculated seawater. Despite the relatively small SGD volume flow compared to the river, the associated material fluxes were substantial given their elevated concentrations of dissolved inorganic solutes. In this case, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC flux through SGD was 153–347 × 109 mol yr−1, or ~23–53 % of the riverine DIC export flux. Our estimates of the groundwater-derived phosphate flux ranged 3–68 × 10

  2. Surfacing Rescue Container Concept Design for Trident Submarines (United States)


    Administration (MBA) from the University of Hawaii at Mãnoa. In 2003 he accepted a lateral transfer to the Engineering Duty Officer ( EDO ) community, and...maritime industry has created a large need for reliable offshore communications. As a result, a wide variety of inexpensive satellite communication...ed LS om up . If ew ers ate the r o ope ch ati syst oxy ec edo n we the e i se o con to RC e s per the cou ion r f bo ver rat arg ona ems ge

  3. NeMO-Net: A System for Near Real-Time Remote Sensing of Hydrothermal and Biological Activity in the Caldera of an Active Submarine Volcano (United States)

    Hammond, S. R.; Butterfield, D.; Embley, R. W.; Meinig, C.; Stalin, S.


    In July of 2000, a camera and three temperature sensors were placed on the seafloor near a hydrothermal vent located in the caldera of an active submarine volcano. The volcano's summit lies at a depth of about 1500 m and is located at 46° N, 130° W, approximately 250 nautical miles off the Oregon coast. The volcano is the site of a long-term interdisciplinary study focused in part on discovering relationships between submarine volcanic and hydrothermal activity and a microbial biosphere which exists beneath the sea floor within the volcano's summit caldera. NeMO-Net utilizes an acoustic modem to communicate with a surface mooring anchored nearby. The mooring, in turn, is linked from the ocean surface to the Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory by means of satellite systems. A unique feature of NeMO-Net is that it enables shore-based investigators to interrogate and command the system to perform specific tasks, the results of which are then reported back typically within several minutes . In the initial year-long deployment, photographic images, along with hourly readings from the three temperature probes, were available on a website which was updated every 24 hours. During the year, the camera documented a dynamic vent biological community as well as water temperature variations due to the influence of tides, and possibly with changing vent fluid temperatures The NeMO-Net system is under continuing development with particular emphasis on linking it to multiple sea floor instruments including near-real-time chemical and water samplers. Near-future plans also call for NeMO Net to be linked to a resident sea floor AUV.

  4. tmRNA-mediated trans-translation as the major ribosome rescue system in a bacterial cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyouta eHimeno


    Full Text Available tmRNA (transfer messenger RNA; also known as 10Sa RNA or SsrA RNA is a small RNA molecule that is conserved among bacteria. It has structural and functional similarities to tRNA: it has an upper half of the tRNA-like structure, its 5’ end is processed by RNase P, it has typical tRNA-specific base modifications, it is aminoacylated with alanine, it binds to EF-Tu after aminoacylation and it enters the ribosome with EF-Tu and GTP. However, tmRNA lacks an anticodon, and instead it has a coding sequence for a short peptide called tag-peptide. An elaborate interplay of actions of tmRNA as both tRNA and mRNA with the help of a tmRNA-binding protein, SmpB, facilitates trans-translation, which produces a single polypeptide from two mRNA molecules. Initially alanyl-tmRNA in complex with EF-Tu and SmpB enters the vacant A-site of the stalled ribosome like aminoacyl-tRNA but without a codon-anticodon interaction, and subsequently truncated mRNA is replaced with the tag-encoding region of tmRNA. During these processes, not only tmRNA but also SmpB structurally and functionally mimics both tRNA and mRNA. Thus trans-translation rescues the stalled ribosome, thereby allowing recycling of the ribosome. Since the tag-peptide serves as a target of AAA+ proteases, the trans-translation products are preferentially degraded so that they do not accumulate in the cell. Although alternative rescue systems have recently been revealed, trans-translation is the only system that universally exists in bacteria. Furthermore, it is unique in that it employs a small RNA and that it prevents accumulation of nonfunctional proteins from truncated mRNA in the cell. It might play the major role in rescuing the stalled translation in the bacterial cell.

  5. A single-plasmid reverse genetics system for the rescue of non-segmented negative-strand RNA viruses from cloned full-length cDNA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, Ben; Leeuw, de Olav


    Reverse genetics systems for non-segmented negative-strand RNA viruses rely on co-transfection of a plasmid containing the full-length viral cDNA and helper plasmids encoding essential viral replication proteins. Here, a system is presented in which virus can be rescued from a single plasmid

  6. [Analysis of actions taken by medical rescue teams in the Polish Emergency Medical Servies system. Is the model of division into specialistad basic teams reasonable?]. (United States)

    Guła, Przemysław; Wejnarski, Arkadiusz; Moryto, Remigiusz; Gałazkowski, Robert; Swiezewski, Stanisław


    The Polish Emergency Medical Services (EMS) system is based on two types of medical rescue teams (MRT): specialist (S)--with system doctors and basic (B)--only paramedics. The aim of this study is to assess the reasonability of dividing medical rescue teams into specialist and basic. The retrospective analysis of medical cards of rescue activities performed during 21,896 interventions by medical rescue teams, 15,877 of which--by basic medical rescue teams (B MRT) and 6,019--by specialist medical rescue teams (S MRT). The procedures executed by both types of teams were compared. In the analysed group of dispatches, 56.4% were unrelated to medical emergencies. Simultaneously, 52.7% of code 1 interventions and 59.2% of code 2 interventions did not result in transporting the patient to the hospital. The qualification of S teams' dispatches is characterised by a higher number of assigned codes 1 (53.2% vs. 15.9%). It is worth emphasising that the procedures that can be applied exclusively by system doctors do not exceed 1% of interventions. Moreover, the number of the actions performed in medical emergencies in the secured region by the S team that is dispatched as the first one is comparable to that performed by B teams. The low need for usinq S teams'aid by B teams (0.92% of the interventions) was also indicated. This study points to the necessity to discuss the implementation of straightforward principles of call qualification and the optimisation of the system doctors' role in prehospital activities.

  7. Remote damage control during the attacks on Paris: Lessons learned by the Paris Fire Brigade and evolutions in the rescue system. (United States)

    Lesaffre, Xavier; Tourtier, Jean-Pierre; Violin, Yann; Frattini, Benoit; Rivet, Catherine; Stibbe, Olivier; Faure, Florian; Godefroy, Anne; Gallet, Jean-Claude; Ausset, Sylvain


    On November 13, 2015, in 40 minutes, Paris suffered four suicide bombers attacks; shootings at three different restaurant terraces; and an attack on the Bataclan concert hall, resulting in 130 dead and 495 wounded. How did the Parisian rescue system respond and how did it evolve since?We proved we could deploy quickly wide prehospital and hospital resources and teams' equipment and preparedness is being further developed. To secure a swifter initial response, we need a better integration of the operators of the rescue chain with a simpler and more robust organization as well as improved communications channels. We must continue to anticipate and prepare for possible future attacks.

  8. Rescue therapies for seizures. (United States)

    Poukas, Valeriya S; Pollard, John R; Anderson, Christopher Todd


    Most medical therapies for epilepsy consist of daily (or multiple-daily) dose, fixed-schedule, pharmacologic oral agents. Despite adherence, many patients continue to experience seizures. Various products have been discovered, designed, and marketed to serve as seizure-abortant therapies. These agents can be administered rapidly, as a "rescue" therapy, once a clinical seizure or cluster of seizures starts. Rescue medications are given as needed in an attempt to disrupt progression of a given seizure, and forestall what would otherwise be a more prolonged or more severe clinical event. Seizure-abortants also serve to aid in the management of seizure emergencies, such as prolonged, repetitive seizures, or status epilepticus. These compounds are not appropriate for all patients. Nevertheless, they do provide therapeutic benefit to several groups of patients: 1) those who perceive the onset of their seizures and have time to perform a self-intervention, 2) patients' caregivers who administer the therapy when they witness the onset of an ictal event, and 3) patients who are in the midst of an out-of-the-hospital seizure emergency (a seizure cluster or status epilepticus). In this article we will review currently available and future rescue therapies for seizures: US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved and FDA nonapproved drugs, nonpharmacologic behavioral treatments, the vagus nerve stimulator and the NeuroPace RNS® System (Mountain View, CA).

  9. Submarine geothermal resources (United States)

    Williams, D.L.


    Approximately 20% of the earth's heat loss (or 2 ?? 1012 cal/s) is released through 1% of the earth's surface area and takes the form of hydrothermal discharge from young (Pleistocene or younger) rocks adjacent to active seafloor-spreading centers and submarine volcanic areas. This amount is roughly equivalent to man's present gross energy consumption rate. A sub-seafloor geothermal reservoir, to be exploitable under future economic conditions, will have to be hot, porous, permeable, large, shallow, and near an energy-deficient, populated land mass. Furthermore, the energy must be recoverable using technology achievable at a competitive cost and numerous environmental, legal and institutional problems will have to be overcome. The highest-temperature reservoirs should be found adjacent to the zones of the seafloor extension or volcanism that are subject to high sedimentation rates. The relatively impermeable sediments reduce hydrothermal-discharge flow rates, forcing the heat to be either conducted away or released by high-temperature fluids, both of which lead to reservoir temperatures that can exceed 300??C. There is evidence that the oceanic crust is quite permeable and porous and that it was amenable to deep (3-5 km) penetration by seawater at least some time in the early stages of its evolution. Most of the heat escapes far from land, but there are notable exceptions. For example, in parts of the Gulf of California, thermal gradients in the bottom sediments exceed 1??C/m. In the coastal areas of the Gulf of California, where electricity and fresh water are at a premium, this potential resource lies in shallow water (< 200 m) and within sight of land. Other interesting areas include the Sea of Japan, the Sea of Okhotsk and the Andaman Sea along the margins of the western Pacific, the Tyrrhenian Sea west of Italy, and the southern California borderland and west flank of the Juan de Fuca Ridge off the west coast of the United States. Many questions remain to be

  10. Monitoring of the nuclear submarine Komsomolets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heldal, Hilde E.; Flo, Janita K.; Liebig, Penny L. [Institute of Marine Research, P. O. Box 1870 Nordnes, N-5817 Bergen (Norway); Gaefvert, Torbjoern; Rudjord, Anne Liv [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, P.O. Box 55, N-1332 Oesteraas (Norway); Gwynn, Justin P. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, The Fram Centre, N-9296 Tromsoe (Norway)


    The Soviet nuclear submarine Komsomolets sank on the 7 April 1989, 180 km southwest of Bear Island in the Norwegian Sea to a depth of about 1655 m. The submarine contains one nuclear reactor containing long-lived radionuclides such as cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) along with other fission and activation products, in addition to 2 mixed uranium/plutonium nuclear warheads containing weapons grade plutonium. Although several model studies have shown that a radioactive leakage from Komsomolets will have insignificant impact on fish and other marine organisms, there are still public concerns about the condition of the submarine and the potential for radioactive leakage. In order to document the contamination levels and to meet public concerns, monitoring of radioactive contamination in the area adjacent to the submarine has been ongoing since 1993. Samples of bottom seawater and sediments have been collected annually by the Institute of Marine Research (IMR) and have been analysed for {sup 137}Cs and plutonium-239,240 ({sup 239,240}Pu). So far, activity concentrations in the samples have been comparable to levels found in other samples from the Norwegian and Barents Seas. During sampling from R/V 'G. O. Sars' in April 2013, an area of about 1 km{sup 2} of the seabed around Komsomolets was mapped to precisely locate the submarine using a Kongsberg EM302 multibeam echo sounder, a Simrad EK60 single beam echo sounder and an Olex 3D bottom-mapping system. For sediment sampling, a Simrad MST342 mini-transponder was attached to a Smoegen box corer to allow for precise positioning of the corer. With the aid of the Kongsberg HiPAP (High Precision Acoustic Positioning) system, 4 box cores were collected around the submarine at a distance of 10 to 20 m. In addition, one box core was collected from a reference station about 100 m upstream of the submarine. Surface sediments and sediment cores were collected from the box cores taken at each sampling location. Sediment cores

  11. Phase 1 Final Report: Titan Submarine (United States)

    Oleson, Steven R.; Lorenz, Ralph D.; Paul, Michael V.


    The conceptual design of a submarine for Saturn's moon Titan was a funded NASA Innovative Advanced Concepts (NIAC) Phase 1 for 2014. The proposal stated the desire to investigate what science a submarine for Titan's liquid hydrocarbon seas might accomplish and what that submarine might look like. Focusing on a flagship class science system (100 kg), it was found that a submersible platform can accomplish extensive science both above and below the surface of the Kraken Mare. Submerged science includes mapping using side-looking sonar, imaging and spectroscopy of the lake, as well as sampling of the lake's bottom and shallow shoreline. While surfaced, the submarine will not only sense weather conditions (including the interaction between the liquid and atmosphere) but also image the shoreline, as much as 2 km inland. This imaging requirement pushed the landing date to Titan's next summer period (2047) to allow for lighted conditions, as well as direct-to-Earth communication, avoiding the need for a separate relay orbiter spacecraft. Submerged and surfaced investigation are key to understanding both the hydrological cycle of Titan as well as gather hints to how life may have begun on Earth using liquid, sediment, and chemical interactions. An estimated 25 Mb of data per day would be generated by the various science packages. Most of the science packages (electronics at least) can be safely kept inside the submarine pressure vessel and warmed by the isotope power system.The baseline 90-day mission would be to sail submerged and surfaced around and through Kraken Mare investigating the shoreline and inlets to evaluate the sedimentary interaction both on the surface and then below. Depths of Kraken have yet to be sensed (Ligeia to the north is thought to be 200 m (656 ft) deep), but a maximum depth of 1,000 m (3,281 ft) for Kraken Mare was assumed for the design). The sub would spend 20 d at the interface between Kraken Mare and Ligeia Mare for clues to the drainage of

  12. Miocene Current-Modified Submarine Fans (United States)

    Arce Perez, L. E.; Snedden, J.; Fisher, W. L.


    In the southwestern Gulf of Mexico, new and newly reprocessed seismic data has revealed a series of large bedforms, with set thicknesses of 130 to 250 meters. These exhibit hummocky, oblique and shingled to parallel seismic clinoform reflections. This seismic package has a paleowater depth of 450 meters. Those shingled seismic reflections in offshore east Mexico are interpreted as contourite drift deposits. These Miocene-age contourites may be related to strong ocean bottom currents that modified submarine fans and transported sediment to the north. Those contourites were identified on older seismic data, but are better imaged and interpreted on this new data. Plans are to map out and investigate the origin and extent of fans and contourites that extends over a large area of the Gulf of Mexico. In the Early Miocene several submarine fans systems were formed by the sediment input related to orogenic activity in Mexico. Submarine fan development persisted into the Middle Miocene due to continued uplift and erosion of the Mexican landmass. Initial, contourites are small and close proximity to the deep-water fan. In the Late Miocene time, contourite drift field reached its maximum extent in the Mexican deepwater area, anchored on its southern end by a submarine mound. This mounded submarine fan is located in the offshore northeast Veracruz and can be linked to increased uplift and erosion of the Trans-Mexican volcanic belt. In the Miocene-Pliocene, the large contourite drift begins to diminish in size and scale and is moribund by the Pliocene, with establishment of oceanic circulation similar to the present day. This research is important to understand more about the Gulf of Mexico and also for the Miocene timeframe that is a key phase in the earth's history. The role of the change in bottom water flow during progressive closure of the equatorial seaway separating North and South America will also be investigated.

  13. Studies on submarine control for periscope depth operations


    Tolliver, John V.


    Approved for public release; distribution in unlimited. Requirements for submarine periscope depth operations have been increased by integration with carrier battle groups, littoral operations, and contributions to joint surveillance. Improved periscope depth performance is therefore imperative. Submarine control personnel rely on a large number of analog gauges and indications. An integrated digital display system could enhance the ergonomics of the human control interface and display add...

  14. An Inferential System for Determination of Candidate Crash Sites for Search and Rescue Operations Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop, test, and prove the feasibility of a methodology for an inferential system for the generation of crash site likelihood maps. These maps will...

  15. Plasmapheresis as rescue therapy for systemic lupus erthyematosus-associated diffuse alveolar haemorrhage


    Claridge, Simon; Das, Partha; Dorling, Anthony; Robson, Michael


    Diffuse alveolar haemorrhage (DAH) is a rare complication of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), which can have a potentially lethal outcome. Conventional treatments of the condition include cyclophosphamide and intravenous immunoglobulins. Successful treatment with rituximab and plasmapheresis has also been described. The authors report the case of a woman recently diagnosed with SLE who developed DAH refractory to conventional treatment while on immunosuppressive treatment for class III lup...

  16. Rescue the failed half-ZFN by a sensitive mammalian cell-based luciferase reporter system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weifeng Zhang

    Full Text Available ZFN technology is a powerful research tool and has been used for genome editing in cells lines, animals and plants. The generation of functional ZFNs for particular targets in mammalian genome is still challenging for an average research group. The modular-assembly method is relatively fast, easy-to-practice but has a high failure rate. Some recent studies suggested that a ZFP with low binding activity might be able to form a working ZFN pair with another binding active half-ZFP. In order to unveil the potential ZFP candidates among those with low binding activities, this paper established a highly sensitive mammalian cell-based transcriptional reporter system to assess the DNA binding activities of ZFPs by inserting multiple copies of ZFN target sequence fragment (TSF of an interested gene (e. g., hPGRN or hVEGF. Our results showed that this system increased the screening sensitivity up to 50-fold and markedly amplified the differences in the binding activities between different ZFPs. We also found that the targeted chromosomal gene repair efficiency of each hPGRN or hVEGF ZFN pair was in proportion with the combination of the binding activities of the ZFL (Left zinc finger and ZFR (Right zinc finger. A hPGRN ZFR with low binding ability was able to form a biological active ZFN if combined with a hPGRN ZFL with relatively high binding ability. Lastly, site-specific genome editing by hPGRN ZFNs generated by this system was confirmed by sequencing, and the PGRN knock-out cell line showed significantly decreased cell growth compared with the control. Our system will provide a valuable tool for further optimizing the nucleases with regard to specificity and cytotoxicity.

  17. Changes in the marine carbonate system of the western Arctic: patterns in a rescued data set

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa A. Miller


    Full Text Available A recently recovered and compiled set of inorganic carbon data collected in the Canadian Arctic since the 1970s has revealed substantial change, as well as variability, in the carbonate system of the Beaufort Sea and Canada Basin. Whereas the role of this area as a net atmospheric carbon sink has been confirmed, high pCO2 values in the upper halocline underscore the potential for CO2 outgassing as sea ice retreats and upwelling increases. In addition, increasing total inorganic carbon and decreasing alkalinity are increasing pCO2 and decreasing CaCO3 saturation states, such that undersaturation with respect to aragonite now occurs regularly in both deep waters and the upper halocline.

  18. Structural Basis for Ribosome Rescue in Bacteria. (United States)

    Huter, Paul; Müller, Claudia; Arenz, Stefan; Beckert, Bertrand; Wilson, Daniel N


    Ribosomes that translate mRNAs lacking stop codons become stalled at the 3' end of the mRNA. Recycling of these stalled ribosomes is essential for cell viability. In bacteria three ribosome rescue systems have been identified so far, with the most ubiquitous and best characterized being the trans-translation system mediated by transfer-messenger RNA (tmRNA) and small protein B (SmpB). The two additional rescue systems present in some bacteria employ alternative rescue factor (Arf) A and release factor (RF) 2 or ArfB. Recent structures have revealed how ArfA mediates ribosome rescue by recruiting the canonical termination factor RF2 to ribosomes stalled on truncated mRNAs. This now provides us with the opportunity to compare and contrast the available structures of all three bacterial ribosome rescue systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Space Systems Failures Disasters and Rescues of Satellites, Rockets and Space Probes

    CERN Document Server

    Harland, David M


    In the 1960s and 1970s deep space missions were dispatched in pairs in case one was lost in launch or failed during its journey. Following the triumphs of the Viking landings on Mars in 1976 and both Voyagers spacecraft successfully surveying the outer giant planets of the Solar System, it was decided by NASA to cut costs and send out just a single probe. Although Magellan successfully mapped Venus by radar, it suffered from problems during the flight. Then came the loss of Mars Observer, whose engine exploded as it was preparing to enter Mars’ orbit because it was using technology designed for Earth’s satellites and the engine was not suited to spending several months in space. Later came the high-profile losses of Mars Climate Observer and Mars Polar Lander - a consequence of the faster, better, cheaper philosophy introduced by Dan Goldin in 1993. Even the highly successful Galileo mission suffered a major setback when its high-gain antenna (also based on satellite mission suffered a major setback when ...

  20. Lactobacillus casei stimulates phase-II detoxification system and rescues malathion-induced physiological impairments in Caenorhabditis elegans. (United States)

    Kamaladevi, Arumugam; Ganguli, Abhijit; Balamurugan, Krishnaswamy


    Malathion, an organophosphorus insecticide, is renowned for its inhibitory action on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme that eventually leads to widespread disturbance in the normal physiological and behavioral activities of any organism. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are still an underexploited and inexhaustible source of significant pharmaceutical thrust. In the present study, Caenorhabditis elegans was employed to identify and characterize the indigenous LAB isolated from different traditional food against malathion-induced toxicity. The results demonstrated that malathion at its LD50 concentration decreased various C. elegans physiological parameters such as survival, feeding, and locomotion. Among the screened isolates, L. casei exhibited an excellent protective efficacy against malathion-induced toxicity by increasing the level of AChE and thereby rescued all physiological parameters of C. elegans. In addition, short-term exposure and food choice assay divulged that L. casei could serve as a better food to protect C. elegans from noxious environment. The expression analysis unveiled that L. casei gavage upregulated the phase-II detoxification enzymes coding genes metallothioneins (mtl-1 and mtl-2) and glutathione-S-transferase (gst-8) and thereby eliminated malathion from the host system. Furthermore, the upregulation of ace-3 along with down-regulation of cyp35a in the nematodes supplemented with L. casei could be attributed to attenuate the malathion-induced physiological defects in C. elegans. Thus, the present study reports that an indigenous LAB-L. casei could serve as a promising protective agent against the harmful effects of pesticide. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. SCICEX: Submarine Arctic Science Program (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Submarine Arctic Science Program, SCICEX, is a federal interagency collaboration among the operational Navy, research agencies, and the marine research community...

  2. The Submarine, 1776-1918

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Uhlig, Frank


    When, on 11 April 1900, the U.S. Navy thought the Holland, named for its designer, that little submarine joined a fleet consisting of two armored cruisers, six monitors, seven first and second-class battleships, and seventeen each...

  3. Pre-hospital rescue times and actions in severe trauma. A comparison between two trauma systems: Germany and the Netherlands. (United States)

    Timm, Alexander; Maegele, Marc; Lefering, Rolf; Wendt, Klaus; Wyen, Hendrik


    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of national pre-hospital rescue strategies on the status of severely injured patients at the time of admission to a Trauma Center (TC) in Germany or the Netherlands. This retrospective database analysis based on the TraumaRegister DGU(®) (TR-DGU) of the German Trauma Society compares the pre-hospital trauma system of Germany with three Trauma Centers (TCs) from the Netherlands. It comprises trauma patients from 2009 to 2012 admitted to a Level I TC, all patients aged 16-80 years primarily admitted with an ISS ≥ 16 and data available for mode of transport, pre-hospital measures and total pre-hospital time. Additionally three subgroups were formed by mode of transportation and involved personnel: Ambulance/Physician, Helicopter/Physician, Ambulance/EMT. Primary endpoint is the patient's status at the time of admission to the trauma room. Secondary endpoint is hospital mortality. A total of 12,168 patients met the inclusion criteria. Major differences in the injury patterns, pre-hospital rescue time, transport strategy and actions are documented. The mean ISS in the German overall group was 28.6 ± 12.2 compared to 27.4 ± 12.8 in the Dutch overall group. In the subgroups the highest injury severity with 29.8 ± 12.7 for German patients and 31.0 ± 14.6 for Dutch patients was found in the Helicopter/Physician subgroups and the lowest in patients transported by ambulance under emergency medical technician (EMT) care i.e. 24.2 ± 8.9 for German patients and 23.6 ± 10.3 for Dutch patients. The mean total pre-hospital time for patients admitted to Dutch TCs of 53.8 ± 28.7 min was 15.1 min shorter than for patients transported to German TCs 68.7 ± 28.6 min. The overall mean pre-hospital volume replacement of 1103 ± 821 ml for German patients was about twice as high as for Dutch patients (541 ± 700 ml). In physician led subgroups in the Netherlands higher rates of intubation, catecholamine administration and chest

  4. Surf lifeguard rescues. (United States)

    Morgan, Damian; Ozanne-Smith, Joan


    This study assessed the utility of lifeguard rescue data for providing information on person and situation factors to inform surf bather drowning prevention research. The dataset comprised 872 beach-days (daily lifeguard reports) obtained from 26 beaches over a 95-day period in Victoria, Australia. The rescue rate was 128 per 100,000 in-water bathers. One or more rescues were required on 125 beach-days (14%). Rescue on a beach-day was more likely for offshore wind conditions, relatively high daily air temperatures, and high bather numbers (P < .05). Compared to female bathers, males were more frequently rescued (65%) and more likely (P < .05) to be from a younger age group (30 years or less), although being older was associated with a relatively poorer condition on rescue. Although rescues are proportional to water exposure, frequencies are also influenced by situation and person factors. Bathers at relatively high risk of rescue are hypothesized to be overrepresented in amenable sea and weather conditions, and poor patient condition on rescue may be associated with exposure to a preexisting health condition. Copyright © 2013 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Submarine Information Organization and Prioritization and Submarine Officer of the Deck Experience (United States)


    The Submarine Review, 58-64. Shobe, K. (2002, May). Information organization and modeling of the submarine officer of the deck and sonar operator...Technical Report 01Oct00 - 31Sep02 SUBMARINE INFORMATION ORGANIZATION AND PRIORITIZATION AND SUBMARINE OFFICER OF THE DECK EXPERIENCE 51001 1) Katharine K

  6. Enhancing Submarine Operational Relevance: A Leadership Challenge

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daigle, Jr, Michael J


    .... This vision of submarine operations must change. As the military continues to shift to operations focused on joint capabilities, the submarine force must break from the closed, protective, and risk averse culture of its past and push forward...

  7. Submarine silicic volcanism: Processes and products

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kalangutkar, N.G.; Iyer, S.D.

    The occurrence of submarine silicic volcanics is rare at the mid-oceanic ridges, abyssal depths, seamounts and fracture zones. Hydrothermal processes are active in submarine silicic environments and are associated with host ores of Cu, Au, Ag, Pb...

  8. Evaluation of the energy potential, biogenesis and essential characteristics of the geothermal submarine systems in Mexico; Evaluacion del potencial, biogenesis y caracteristicas esenciales de los sistemas geotermicos submarinos en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez Arriaga, Mario Cesar [Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas Hidalgo, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)


    Geothermal energy in Mexico embraces both near-surface traditional reservoirs located between 500 and 3000 meters depth, and deep geothermal resources over 3000 meters in depth. Non-traditional geothermal energy sources in Mexico include the deep portions and boundaries of traditional hydrothermal reservoirs, systems in hot dry or wet rock, geo-pressured reservoirs in the Gulf of Mexico and hydrothermal submarine systems mainly located close to the northern Mexican coast of the Pacific Ocean. Deep submarine energy is related to the existence of hydrothermal vents emerging in many places along the oceanic spreading centers between tectonic plates. These systems have a total length of about 65,000 km in the Earth's oceanic crust. There are two kinds of ocean systems in the Gulf of California: deep resources, located along the rifts between tectonic plates of oceanic crust over 2000 m below sea level, and shallow resources near continental platforms at 20-50 m depth. The shallow, submarine heat is related to faults and fractures in the sea bottom close to some coasts. This type of shallow, sub-sea system is found offshore at Punta Banda in Ensenada, Baja California. The preliminary energy potential of such reservoirs is estimated at an average of 1120 MWt per cubic kilometer of sub-sea rock. The specific chemical characteristics of the submarine hydrothermal waters found in those systems indicate that water-oceanic rock interactions occur under high-temperature and high-pressure conditions. At the same time, submarine geothermal energy supports rich biological communities at depths where living organisms find no sunlight for photosynthesis. Recent research suggests that possible locations for the synthesis of chemical needed for the origin of life include submarine hydrothermal systems. [Spanish] La energia geotermica en Mexico abarca todos los tipos de sistemas conocidos. Desde los grandes reservorios tradicionales, localizados entre 500 y 3000 metros de

  9. Hubble Space Telescope Crew Rescue Analysis (United States)

    Hamlin, Teri L.; Canga, Michael; Boyer, Roger; Thigpen, Eric


    In the aftermath of the 2003 Columbia accident NASA removed the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Servicing Mission 4 (SM4) from the Space Shuttle manifest. Reasons cited included concerns that the risk of flying the mission would be too high. There was at the time no viable technique to repair the orbiter s thermal protection system if it were to be damaged by debris during ascent. Furthermore in the event of damage, since the mission was not to the International Space Station, there was no safe haven for the crew to wait for an extended period of time for a rescue. The HST servicing mission was reconsidered because of improvements in the ascent debris environment, the development of techniques for the astronauts to perform on orbit repairs to damage thermal protection, and the development of a strategy to provide a crew rescue capability. However, leading up to the launch of servicing mission, the HST crew rescue capability was a recurring topic. For HST there was a limited amount of time available to perform a crew rescue because of the limited consumables available on the Orbiter. The success of crew rescue depends upon several factors including when a problem is identified, when and to what extent power down procedures are begun, and where the rescue vehicle is in its ground processing cycle. Severe power downs maximize crew rescue success but would eliminate the option for the orbiter servicing the HST to attempt a landing. Therefore, crew rescue success needed to be weighed against preserving the ability of the orbiter to have landing option in case there was a problem with the rescue vehicle. This paper focuses on quantification of the HST mission loss of crew rescue capability using Shuttle historical data and various power down capabilities. That work supported NASA s decision to proceed with the HST service mission, which was successfully completed on May 24th 2009.

  10. Management of demand based inventory aboard submarine tenders servicing attack (SSN) submarines


    Ross, Timothy Joseph


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. This thesis examines the computation of inventory levels based on demand history aboard Submarine Tenders that use the Shipboard Automated Data Processing System (SUADPS) for inventory control. The focus of the thesis was the workload and supply effectiveness issues associated with the processing of the SUADPS levels setting program. The objective of the thesis was to determine the effect on supply effectiveness and stock churn if the...

  11. New frontiers for mid-infrared sensors: towards deep sea monitoring with a submarine FT-IR sensor system. (United States)

    Kraft, Martin; Jakusch, Michael; Karlowatz, Manfred; Katzir, Abraham; Mizaikoff, Boris


    A sub-sea deployable fiber-optic sensor system for the continuous determination of a range of environmentally relevant volatile organic compounds in seawater has been developed. The prototype of a robust, miniaturized Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometer for in situ underwater pollution monitoring was designed, developed, and built in our research group. The assembled instrument is enclosed in a sealed aluminium pressure vessel and is capable of maintenance-free operation in an oceanic environment down to depths of at least 300 m. The whole system can be incorporated either in a tow frame or a remotely operated vehicle (ROV). A suitable fiber-optic sensor head was developed, optimized in terms of sensitivity and hydrodynamics, and connected to the underwater FT-IR spectrometer. Due to a modular system design, various other sensor head configurations could be realized and tested, ensuring facile adaptation of the instrument to future tasks. The sensor system was characterized in a series of laboratory and simulated field tests. The sensor proved to be capable of quantitatively detecting a range of chlorinated hydrocarbons and monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in seawater down to the low ppb (microg/L) concentration range, including mixtures of up to 6 components. It has been demonstrated that varying amounts of salinity, turbidity, or humic acids, as well as interfering seawater pollutants, such as aliphatic hydrocarbons or phenols, do not significantly influence the sensor characteristics. In addition, the sensor exhibits sufficient long-time stability and a low susceptibility to sensor fouling.

  12. A systematic review of clinical response and survival outcomes of downsizing systemic chemotherapy and rescue liver surgery in patients with initially unresectable colorectal liver metastases. (United States)

    Lam, Vincent W T; Spiro, Calista; Laurence, Jerome M; Johnston, Emma; Hollands, Michael J; Pleass, Henry C C; Richardson, Arthur J


    Selected patients with unresectable colorectal liver metastases (CLM) may be rendered resectable after systemic chemotherapy. We reviewed the evidence of downsizing systemic chemotherapy followed by rescue liver surgery in patients with initially unresectable CLM. Literature search of databases (Medline and PubMed) to identify published studies of neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by liver resection in patients with initially unresectable CLM was undertaken and focused on response rate of chemotherapy and survival outcomes. Ten observational studies were reviewed. A total of 1,886 patients with initially unresectable CLM underwent systemic chemotherapy. An objective response was observed in 64% (range, 43-79%) of patients after systemic chemotherapy. Of these, 22.5% underwent macroscopically curative liver resection. Median overall survival was 45 (range, 36-60) months with 19% of patients alive and recurrence-free. Current evidence suggests that downsizing systematic chemotherapy followed by rescue liver resection is safe and effective for selected patients with initially unresectable CLM. Further studies are required to examine response rates and secondary resectability using new targeted molecular therapy-based regimens.

  13. North American Submarine Cable Association (NASCA) Submarine Cables (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data show the locations of in-service and out-of-service submarine cables that are owned by members of NASCA and located in U.S. territorial waters. More...

  14. We must rescue them. (United States)

    Leber, G


    Leber describes the motivation and goals of Operation Rescue, a pro-life activist organization. Arguing that all human life is sacred from the moment of conception until natural death, Leber blames the acceptance of abortion on the values of an affluent society. He finds justification for Operation Rescue's work in the Old and New Testaments, and calls for acceptance of biblical standards of ethics and morals in rejecting abortion.

  15. Prediction of the wounded and rescue algorithm for emergent events during destruction of Japanese-abandoned chemical weapons(JACW in transportable system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue-cheng YU


    Full Text Available Objective To explore the potential injuries and amount of the wounded during destruction of JACW in transportable system(TSD,thereby to formulate the rational allocation of medical staff at the scene and the scientific algorithm of medical rescue in emergent events.Methods Prediction of the different injuries and amount of the wounded,allocation of the force for emergency medical rescue(EMR,and EMR algorithm were formulated based on the detailed investigation on the types of chemical weapons,working processes and risks during the elimination of JACW in the TSD background.Results The JACW in Nanjing Depository were diphenylcyanarsine,diphenylchloroarsine,chloroacetophenone,mustard gas and lewisite,among them the foremost two were in the majority.Red tanks containing the chemical toxicants are the main types of chemical weapons in warfare,and there were also a few chemical bombs.It was estimated that four to seven workers might be injured in one accident,of them two or three might be seriously injured.The types of injury might be due to intoxication of chemical agent,chemical burn,explosion injury,or combined injuries.The rational allocation of EMR force combined with the scientific rescue algorithm was made according to the information.Conclusions It is of great significance to scientifically allocate the EMR force and formulate algorithm based on the rational prediction of the types and amount of the wounded during elimination process of JACW with TSD in Nanjing.Theory and experience from this research will provide important reference for the same kind of work in other cities later.

  16. Submarine fans: A critical retrospective (1950–2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Shanmugam


    Full Text Available When we look back the contributions on submarine fans during the past 65 years (1950–2015, the empirical data on 21 modern submarine fans and 10 ancient deep-water systems, published by the results of the First COMFAN (Committee on FANs Meeting (Bouma et al., 1985a, have remained the single most significant compilation of data on submarine fans. The 1970s were the “heyday” of submarine fan models. In the 21st century, the general focus has shifted from submarine fans to submarine mass movements, internal waves and tides, and contourites. The purpose of this review is to illustrate the complexity of issues surrounding the origin and classification of submarine fans. The principal elements of submarine fans, composed of canyons, channels, and lobes, are discussed using nine modern case studies from the Mediterranean Sea, the Equatorial Atlantic, the Gulf of Mexico, the North Pacific, the NE Indian Ocean (Bay of Bengal, and the East Sea (Korea. The Annot Sandstone (Eocene–Oligocene, exposed at Peira-Cava area, SE France, which served as the type locality for the “Bouma Sequence”, was reexamined. The field details are documented in questioning the validity of the model, which was the basis for the turbidite-fan link. The 29 fan-related models that are of conceptual significance, developed during the period 1970–2015, are discussed using modern and ancient systems. They are: (1 the classic submarine fan model with attached lobes, (2 the detached-lobe model, (3 the channel-levee complex without lobes, (4 the delta-fed ramp model, (5 the gully-lobe model, (6 the suprafan lobe model, (7 the depositional lobe model, (8 the fan lobe model, (9 the ponded lobe model, (10 the nine models based on grain size and sediment source, (11 the four fan models based on tectonic settings, (12 the Jackfork debrite model, (13 the basin-floor fan model, (14 supercritical and subcritical fans, and (15 the three types of fan reservoirs. Each model is unique

  17. Submarine canyons off Madras Coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Setty, M.G.A.P.

    Submarine canyons off the coast of Madras, Tamil Nadu, India were studied during cruise of @iINS Kistna@@ as part of the IIOE programme They consist of hill-like projections and V-shaped valleys Their other features are also reported...

  18. The 1929 Grand Banks submarine landslide revisited (United States)

    Schulten, Irena; Mosher, David C.; Krastel, Sebastian; Piper, David J. W.; Kienast, Markus


    On November 18th, 1929 a large submarine landslide occurred along the St. Pierre Slope of the southwestern Grand Banks of Newfoundland, as a result of a Mw 7.2 earthquake. This submarine landslide led to the first recognition of naturally-occurring submarine turbidity currents and is one of the few landslides known to have generated a tsunami. The event caused 28 causalities in Newfoundland and severe infrastructural damage. Earlier investigations of the area identified widely distributed shallow mass failures (15 - 20 m high escarpments), but no evidence of a larger headscarp. It is difficult to conceive, therefore, how this distributed shallow failure that rapidly evolved into a turbidity current would have generated a tsunami. It is hypothesised in this study that a deeper rooted sediment failure ( 500 m), involving faulting and mass-rotation, was involved in the sediment failure and this displacement generated the tsunami. In order to test this hypothesis, the volume and kinematics of the 1929 slope failure are analysed by means of recently acquired high resolution seismic reflection and multibeam swath bathymetry data, in addition to a significant volume of legacy data. The data allow determination of: 1) the dimension of the failure area, 2) the thickness and volume of failed sediment on St. Pierre Slope, 3) fault patterns and displacements, and 4) styles of sediment failure involved. Shallow (20 m high) sinuous escarpments and a number of faults are observed along the upper St. Pierre Slope (500 - 2 500 m water depth). The uppermost and largest of these escarpments shows association with a fault system. Preliminary results, therefore, indicate a complex sediment failure pattern along the St. Pierre Slope, possibly involving a deep-seated decollement and mobilization of a large volume of surficial sediment through retrogressive failure. Causes for the tsunami are yet to be determined.

  19. Submarine Hull Insulation Materials System. (United States)


    polyurethane adhesives , which contain isocyanates , must be considered. 3M scientists assured us, however, that MDI, an isocyanate of relatively low...low levels of isocyanates liberated from this polyurethane adhesive is actually lower than the hazard presented by the rather high levels of organic...until their adhesive cured, were held in place with small plywood clips. Installation went smoothly and quickly in areas in which a moderately good

  20. Dissolved Nutrients from Submarine Groundwater in Flic en Flac ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract—The aim of this study was to investigate dissolved nutrients in a submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) in Flic en Flac lagoon on the west coast of the volcanic island of Mauritius. The SGD enters Flic en Flac lagoon through a thin blanket of unconsolidated sediment through a fracture system and is concentrated ...

  1. Dissolved Nutrients from Submarine Groundwater in Flic en Flac ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate dissolved nutrients in a submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) in Flic en Flac lagoon on the west coast of the volcanic island of Mauritius. The SGD enters Flic en Flac lagoon through a thin blanket of unconsolidated sediment through a fracture system and is concentrated along the ...

  2. Free energy distribution and hydrothermal mineral precipitation in Hadean submarine alkaline vent systems: Importance of iron redox reactions under anoxic conditions (United States)

    Shibuya, Takazo; Russell, Michael J.; Takai, Ken


    Thermodynamic calculations of mixing between hypothetical seawater and hydrothermal fluid in the Hadean deep ocean were carried out to predict saturation states of mineral precipitates and redox reactions that could occur in Hadean submarine alkaline hydrothermal systems associated with the serpentinization of ultramafic rocks. In the calculations, the seawater was assumed to be weakly acidic (pH = 5.5) and to include carbon dioxide, ferrous iron and silica, with or without nitrate, while the Hadean hydrothermal fluid was assumed to be highly alkaline (pH = 11) and to contain abundant molecular hydrogen, methane and bisulfide, based on the Archean geologic record, the modern low-temperature alkaline hydrothermal vent fluid (Lost City field), and experimental and theoretical considerations. The modeling indicates that potential mineral precipitates in the mixing zone (hydrothermal chimney structures) could consist mainly of iron sulfides but also of ferrous serpentine and brucite, siderite, and ferric iron-bearing minerals such as goethite, hematite and/or magnetite as minor phases. The precipitation of ferric iron-bearing minerals suggests that chemical iron oxidation would be made possible by pH shift even under anoxic condition. In the mixing zone, comprising an inorganic barrier precipitated at the interface of the two contrasting solutions, various redox reactions release free energy with the potential to drive endergonic reactions, assuming the involvement of coupling inorganic protoenzymes. Hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis and acetogenesis - long considered the most ancient forms of biological energy metabolisms - are able to achieve higher maximum energy yield (>0.5 kJ/kg hydrothermal fluid) than those in the modern serpentinization-associated seafloor hydrothermal systems (e.g., Kairei field). Furthermore, the recently proposed methanotrophic acetogenesis pathway was also thermodynamically investigated. It is known that methanotrophic acetogenesis would

  3. Development and current state of the Water Rescue Service of ČČK


    Krčma, Jakub


    Title: Water Rescue Service Goals: The goal of this bachelor thesis is to describe the history, structure and the current activities of the Water Rescue Service of Czech Red Cross. Method: This thesis is used to analyse related literature and other suitable available sources. Results: The result of this work is a description of the development and current status of the Water Rescue Service of Czech Red Cross and its activities with Integrated Rescue System in Czech Republic. Key words: Rescue...

  4. Sex, Deportation and Rescue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plambech, Sine


    – facilitation, remittances, deportation, and rescue – and suggests that we have to examine multiple sites and relink these in order to more fully understand the complexity of sex work migration. Drawing upon literature within transnational feminist analysis, critical human trafficking studies, and migration...

  5. SCICEX: Submarine Arctic Science Program, Version 1 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Submarine Arctic Science Program, SCICEX, is a federal interagency collaboration among the operational Navy, research agencies, and the marine research community...

  6. Prediction of nuclear submariner adaptability from autonomic indices and Rorschach Inkblot responses. Interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weybrew, B.B.; Molish, H.B.


    To identify the most valid predictors of submariner adaptability, the authors derived 23 indices from the responses of 170 nuclear submariners to the Rorschach Inkblot Test, 11 measures of Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) reactivity to contrived stress, and five adjustment criteria. Factor analysis of this 39x39 correlation matrix yielded two Rorschach Factors, one of which correlated with three criterion dimensions. Two unique factors were also discovered, one, a structured ANS factor, and the other, a complex criterion scale. Selected Rorschach scores and, to a lesser extent, certain ANS indices emanating from this study, may be usefully-valid predictors of the adaptability of nuclear submariners during long patrols.

  7. Measuring currents in submarine canyons: technological and scientific progress in the past 30 years (United States)

    Xu, J. P.


    The development and application of acoustic and optical technologies and of accurate positioning systems in the past 30 years have opened new frontiers in the submarine canyon research communities. This paper reviews several key advancements in both technology and science in the field of currents in submarine canyons since the1979 publication of Currents in Submarine Canyons and Other Sea Valleys by Francis Shepard and colleagues. Precise placements of high-resolution, high-frequency instruments have not only allowed researchers to collect new data that are essential for advancing and generalizing theories governing the canyon currents, but have also revealed new natural phenomena that challenge the understandings of the theorists and experimenters in their predictions of submarine canyon flow fields. Baroclinic motions at tidal frequencies, found to be intensified both up canyon and toward the canyon floor, dominate the flow field and control the sediment transport processes in submarine canyons. Turbidity currents are found to frequently occur in active submarine canyons such as Monterey Canyon. These turbidity currents have maximum speeds of nearly 200 cm/s, much smaller than the speeds of turbidity currents in geological time, but still very destructive. In addition to traditional Eulerian measurements, Lagrangian flow data are essential in quantifying water and sediment transport in submarine canyons. A concerted experiment with multiple monitoring stations along the canyon axis and on nearby shelves is required to characterize the storm-trigger mechanism for turbidity currents.

  8. A submarine volcanic eruption leads to a novel microbial habitat. (United States)

    Danovaro, Roberto; Canals, Miquel; Tangherlini, Michael; Dell'Anno, Antonio; Gambi, Cristina; Lastras, Galderic; Amblas, David; Sanchez-Vidal, Anna; Frigola, Jaime; Calafat, Antoni M; Pedrosa-Pàmies, Rut; Rivera, Jesus; Rayo, Xavier; Corinaldesi, Cinzia


    Submarine volcanic eruptions are major catastrophic events that allow investigation of the colonization mechanisms of newly formed seabed. We explored the seafloor after the eruption of the Tagoro submarine volcano off El Hierro Island, Canary Archipelago. Near the summit of the volcanic cone, at about 130 m depth, we found massive mats of long, white filaments that we named Venus's hair. Microscopic and molecular analyses revealed that these filaments are made of bacterial trichomes enveloped within a sheath and colonized by epibiotic bacteria. Metagenomic analyses of the filaments identified a new genus and species of the order Thiotrichales, Thiolava veneris. Venus's hair shows an unprecedented array of metabolic pathways, spanning from the exploitation of organic and inorganic carbon released by volcanic degassing to the uptake of sulfur and nitrogen compounds. This unique metabolic plasticity provides key competitive advantages for the colonization of the new habitat created by the submarine eruption. A specialized and highly diverse food web thrives on the complex three-dimensional habitat formed by these microorganisms, providing evidence that Venus's hair can drive the restart of biological systems after submarine volcanic eruptions.

  9. A Simple Space Station Rescue Vehicle (United States)

    Petro, Andrew


    Early in the development of the Space Station it was determined that there is a need to have a vehicle which could be used in the event that the Space Station crew need to quickly depart and return to Earth when the Space Shuttle is not available. Unplanned return missions might occur because of a medical emergency, a major Space Station failure, or if there is a long-term interruption in the delivery of logistics to the Station. The rescue vehicle ms envisioned as a simple capsule-type spacecraft which would be maintained in a dormant state at the Station for several years and be quickly activated by the crew when needed. During the assembly phase for the International Space Station, unplanned return missions will be performed by the Russian Soyuz vehicle, which can return up to three people. When the Station assembly is complete there will be a need for rescue capability for up to six people. This need might be met by an additional Soyuz vehicle or by a new vehicle which might come from a variety of sources. This paper describes one candidate concept for a Space Station rescue vehicle. The proposed rescue vehicle design has the blunt-cone shape of the Apollo command module but with a larger diameter. The rescue vehicle would be delivered to the Station in the payload bay of the Space Shuttle. The spacecraft design can accommodate six to eight people for a one-day return mission. All of the systems for the mission including deorbit propulsion are contained within the conical spacecraft and so there is no separate service module. The use of the proven Apollo re-entry shape would greatly reduce the time and cost for development and testing. Other aspects of the design are also intended to minimize development cost and simplify operations. This paper will summarize the evolution of rescue vehicle concepts, the functional requirements for a rescue vehicle, and describe the proposed design.

  10. Submarine landslides: advances and challenges (United States)

    Locat, Jacques; Lee, Homa J.


    Due to the recent development of well-integrated surveying techniques of the sea floor, significant improvements were achieved in mapping and describing the morphology and architecture of submarine mass movements. Except for the occurrence of turbidity currents, the aquatic environment (marine and fresh water) experiences the same type of mass failure as that found on land. Submarine mass movements, however, can have run-out distances in excess of 100 km, so their impact on any offshore activity needs to be integrated over a wide area. This great mobility of submarinemass movements is still not very well understood, particularly for cases like the far-reaching debris flows mapped on the Mississippi Fan and the large submarine rock avalanches found around many volcanic islands. A major challenge ahead is the integration of mass movement mechanics in an appropriate evaluation of the hazard so that proper risk assessment methodologies can be developed and implemented for various human activities offshore, including the development of natural resources and the establishment of reliable communication corridors. Key words : submarine slides, hazards, risk assessment, morphology, mobility, tsunami. Le dveloppement rcent de techniques de levs hydrograhiques pour les fonds marins nous a permis d'atteindre une qualit ingale dans la cartographie et la description des glissements sous marins. l'exception des courants de turbidit, on retrouve dans le domaine aquatique les mmes types de mouvements de terrain que sur terre. Par contre, les glissements sous-marins peuvent atteindre des distances excdant 100 km de telle sorte que leur impact sur les activits offshore doit tre pris en compte sur degrandes tendues. La grande mobilit des glissements sous-marins n'est pas encore bien comprise, comme pour le cas des coules dedbris cartographies sur le cne du Mississippi ainsi que pour les grandes avalanches rocheuses sous-marines retrouves au pourtour des les volcaniques. Un dfi majeur

  11. Evaluation of Environmental Information Products for Search and Rescue Optimal Planning System (SAROPS) - Version for Public Release (United States)


    Forecast System ICON Innovative Coastal-Ocean Observing Network IGES Institute of Global Environment and Society IMARS Institute for Marine Remote...Science WFS Circulation Model M Y ⌧ B-199 USF, College of Marine Science IMaRS Observing System D Y ⌧ B-201 Weather Flow Inc...Marine Science, Institute for Marine Sensing IMaRS Observing System Frank Muller-Karger 727-553-3335 University of South

  12. Microbial diversity in a submarine carbonate edifice from the serpentinizing hydrothermal system of the Prony Bay (New Caledonia over a 6-year period.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne ePostec


    Full Text Available Active carbonate chimneys from the shallow marine serpentinizing Prony Hydrothermal Field were sampled 3 times over a 6 years period at site ST09. Archaeal and bacterial communities composition was investigated using PCR-based methods (clone libraries, Denaturating Gel Gradient Electrophoresis, quantitative PCR targeting 16S rRNA genes, methyl coenzyme M reductase A and dissimilatory sulfite reductase subunit B genes. Methanosarcinales (Euryarchaeota and Thaumarchaea were the main archaeal members. The Methanosarcinales, also observed by epifluorescent microscopy and FISH, consisted of two phyotypes that were previously solely detected in two other serpentinitzing ecosystems (The Cedars and Lost City Hydrothermal Field. Surprisingly, members of the hyperthermophilic order Thermococcales were also found which may indicate the presence of a hot subsurface biosphere. The bacterial community mainly consisted of Firmicutes, Chloroflexi, Alpha-, Gamma-, Beta- and Delta-proteobacteria and of the candidate division NPL-UPA2. Members of these taxa were consistently found each year and may therefore represent a stable core of the indigenous bacterial community of the PHF chimneys. Firmicutes isolates representing new bacterial taxa were obtained by cultivation under anaerobic conditions. Our study revealed diverse microbial communities in PHF ST09 related to methane and sulfur compounds that share common populations with other terrestrial or submarine serpentinizing ecosystems.

  13. Microbial diversity in a submarine carbonate edifice from the serpentinizing hydrothermal system of the Prony Bay (New Caledonia) over a 6-year period. (United States)

    Postec, Anne; Quéméneur, Marianne; Bes, Méline; Mei, Nan; Benaïssa, Fatma; Payri, Claude; Pelletier, Bernard; Monnin, Christophe; Guentas-Dombrowsky, Linda; Ollivier, Bernard; Gérard, Emmanuelle; Pisapia, Céline; Gérard, Martine; Ménez, Bénédicte; Erauso, Gaël


    Active carbonate chimneys from the shallow marine serpentinizing Prony Hydrothermal Field were sampled 3 times over a 6 years period at site ST09. Archaeal and bacterial communities composition was investigated using PCR-based methods (clone libraries, Denaturating Gel Gradient Electrophoresis, quantitative PCR) targeting 16S rRNA genes, methyl coenzyme M reductase A and dissimilatory sulfite reductase subunit B genes. Methanosarcinales (Euryarchaeota) and Thaumarchaea were the main archaeal members. The Methanosarcinales, also observed by epifluorescent microscopy and FISH, consisted of two phylotypes that were previously solely detected in two other serpentinitzing ecosystems (The Cedars and Lost City Hydrothermal Field). Surprisingly, members of the hyperthermophilic order Thermococcales were also found which may indicate the presence of a hot subsurface biosphere. The bacterial community mainly consisted of Firmicutes, Chloroflexi, Alpha-, Gamma-, Beta-, and Delta-proteobacteria and of the candidate division NPL-UPA2. Members of these taxa were consistently found each year and may therefore represent a stable core of the indigenous bacterial community of the PHF chimneys. Firmicutes isolates representing new bacterial taxa were obtained by cultivation under anaerobic conditions. Our study revealed diverse microbial communities in PHF ST09 related to methane and sulfur compounds that share common populations with other terrestrial or submarine serpentinizing ecosystems.

  14. Submarine channel evolution linked to rising salt domes, Gulf of Mexico, USA (United States)

    Carter, Rachel C.; Gani, M. Royhan; Roesler, Toby; Sarwar, Abu K. M.


    An examination of halokinetics and channel evolution together in a deepwater system provides an opportunity to investigate how submarine channel morphology is locally affected by rising salt domes. The study area is located in the northern Gulf of Mexico (GOM), directly off the Louisiana continental slope in a prominent salt dome region. The influence of salt growth on submarine channel evolution is relatively understudied, particularly in the GOM. Utilizing high-resolution 3D seismic and well data and seismic geomorphology techniques, a long-lived (~ 3 Myr) Plio-Pleistocene submarine channel system has been investigated to show a relationship between variable phases of salt motion and planform morphology of preserved submarine channels. Our data suggest that local salt motion acts as a driver for submarine channel evolution. During the late Pliocene, when salt moved upward at a relatively fast rate, channels show distinct entrenchment with narrow channel belts and overall less sinuosity. When salt motion slowed down at the beginning of the Pleistocene, channels aggraded rapidly with preserved levees, and moved toward an equilibrium state with the expansion of channel belt widths. As our results indicate, the rate of salt diapirism exerted a first-order control on channel location and morphology and distribution of reservoir-prone units. This study cautions against readily invoking allogenic factors (e.g., sea level and climate) in explaining changes in submarine channel behavior and associated fan sedimentation, particularly in regions with salt tectonics.

  15. Similarities between rivers and submarine channels (United States)

    Balcerak, Ernie


    Scientists have long known that the width and depth of rivers follows a power law relationship with discharge. They have also noticed that submarine channels appear to be similar to terrestrial rivers, but there have not been many systematic comparisons of the relationships between submarine channel morphology and discharge. Konsoer et al. compared the width, depth, and slope of 177 submarine channels to those of 231 river cross sections. They found that submarine channels are up to an order of magnitude wider and deeper than the largest terrestrial rivers, but they exhibit a similar power law relationship between width and depth. For submarine channels that were similar in size to rivers, the authors found that submarine channels tend to be 1 to 2 orders of magnitude steeper than rivers. The authors also inferred values for sediment concentration in the turbidity currents in the channels and combined this with estimated mean flow velocities to look for a relationship between discharge and morphology in the channels. They found that like rivers, the width and depth of the submarine channels follow a power law scaling with discharge. (Journal of Geophysical Research-Earth Surface, doi:10.1029/2012JF002422, 2013)

  16. Rescuing Dogs in the Frederick Community | Poster (United States)

    Many Frederick National Lab employees have a favorite cause to which they volunteer a significant amount of time. For Dianna Kelly, IT program manager/scientific program analyst, Office of Scientific Operations, and Courtney Kennedy, associate technical project manager, Business Enterprise Systems, that cause is dog rescue.

  17. Rescuing--a universal phenomenon. (United States)

    Little, John


    Rescuing, where the person is delivered from the immediacy of their conundrum by another, complicates management. The object of this paper is to understand the difficulty in relinquishing the rescuing role. Rescuing is a universal phenomenon in parenting, teaching and therapy that has developed over time through a variety of interwoven social, economic, psychological and clinical variables. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2014.

  18. Improving Situational Awareness on Submarines Using Augmented Reality (United States)


    COSO ) are several pages of guidance for the evolution available to the watch officer for reference. There are also Operating Procedures that the watch...officer must follow to ensure the safe ascent to PD. The COSOs are specific to the each CO. The OPs are specific to a class of submarine. The...evolution in the framework described above can provide valuable insight to the capabilities of the proposed system. This of course is a hypothetical

  19. Implementation of the Garling recommendations can offer real hope for rescuing the New South Wales public hospital system. (United States)

    Stewart, Graeme J; Dwyer, John M


    Public hospital clinicians across Australia will relate to the problems described in the Garling report and endorse most of the recommendations to bring the system "back from the brink". Implementation is feasible but requires substantial culture change, which must re-engage clinicians and stem the flow of desertion to the private sector. It must also address the fundamental causes of the current crisis. Key recommendations involve a substantial change in governance, with a transfer of many areas of the New South Wales Department of Health's responsibility into four board-governed statutory authorities, where equal partnership between clinicians and managers will exist. Of Garling's "four pillars of reform", the greatly expanded role for the current clinician-led Greater Metropolitan Clinical Taskforce is a strong indication of the seriousness with which the Commissioner viewed the clinician-manager divide (which he likened to the Great Schism of 1054). The major omission in implementation is a failure to adequately address the loss of local accountability in hospitals since the abolition of area health service boards. Major change can occur without additional funding, but without substantial new money from the Australian Government, the public hospital system will not be pulled back from the brink. A better opportunity for true partnership of such importance between state and federal governments may not come again before it is too late.

  20. Aspects of Propeller Developements for a Submarine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul; kappel, Jens Julius; Spangenberg, Eugen


    Design and development of propellers for submarines are in some ways different from propellers for surface vessels. The most important demand is low acoustic signature that has priority over propeller efficiency, and the submarine propeller must be optimized with respect to acoustics rather than...... efficiency. Moreover the operating conditions of a submarine propeller are quite different. These aspects are discussed as well as the weighing of the various propeller parameters against the design objectives. The noise generated by the propeller can be characterized as thrust noise due to the inhomogeneous...... wake field of the submarine, trailing-edge noise and noise caused by turbulence in the inflow. The items discussed are demonstrated in a case study where a propeller of the Kappel type was developed. Three stages of the development are presented, including a design of an 8-bladed propeller where...

  1. Russia's Submarine Force: Determinants and Prospects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tully, John


    ... the determinants of these events, The Russian Federation inherited a huge submarine fleet from the Soviet Union, Due to the changing conditions in the world and in Russia, its future status is in doubt...

  2. SSN 774 Virginia Class Submarine (SSN 774) (United States)


    Report: The VIRGINIA Class Submarine Program continues to deliver submarines within cost, ahead of schedule , with improved quality and with...baseline schedule threshold set ten years earlier, in 1994. June 20, 2006: USS TEXAS, which was essentially the second lead ship of the class , is the first...factored for the VIRGINIA Class based on weight. Public and private shipyard data was used, as well as the maintenance schedule provided in the CARD, Rev E

  3. Development of a Reverse Genetic System for Infectious Salmon Anemia Virus: Rescue of Recombinant Fluorescent Virus by Using Salmon Internal Transcribed Spacer Region 1 as a Novel Promoter (United States)

    Toro-Ascuy, Daniela; Tambley, Carolina; Beltran, Carolina; Mascayano, Carolina; Sandoval, Nicolas; Olivares, Eduardo; Medina, Rafael A.; Spencer, Eugenio


    Infectious salmon anemia (ISA) is a serious disease of marine-farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) caused by ISA virus (ISAV), belonging to the genus Isavirus, family Orthomyxoviridae. There is an urgent need to understand the virulence factors and pathogenic mechanisms of ISAV and to develop new vaccine approaches. Using a recombinant molecular biology approach, we report the development of a plasmid-based reverse genetic system for ISAV, which includes the use of a novel fish promoter, the Atlantic salmon internal transcribed spacer region 1 (ITS-1). Salmon cells cotransfected with pSS-URG-based vectors expressing the eight viral RNA segments and four cytomegalovirus (CMV)-based vectors that express the four proteins of the ISAV ribonucleoprotein complex allowed the generation of infectious recombinant ISAV (rISAV). We generated three recombinant viruses, wild-type rISAV901_09 and rISAVrS6-NotI-HPR containing a NotI restriction site and rISAVS6/EGFP-HPR harboring the open reading frame of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP), both within the highly polymorphic region (HPR) of segment 6. All rescued viruses showed replication activity and cytopathic effect in Atlantic salmon kidney-infected cells. The fluorescent recombinant viruses also showed a characteristic cytopathic effect in salmon cells, and the viruses replicated to a titer of 6.5 × 105 PFU/ml, similar to that of the wild-type virus. This novel reverse genetics system offers a powerful tool to study the molecular biology of ISAV and to develop a new generation of ISAV vaccines to prevent and mitigate ISAV infection, which has had a profound effect on the salmon industry. PMID:25480750

  4. Earlier application of percutaneous cardiopulmonary support rescues patients from severe cardiopulmonary failure using the APACHE III scoring system. (United States)

    Song, Suk-Won; Yang, Hong-Suk; Lee, Sak; Youn, Young-Nam; Yoo, Kyung-Jong


    Percutaneous cardiopulmonary support (PCPS) is a widely accepted treatment for severe cardiopulmonary failure. This system, which uses a percutaneous approach and autopriming devices, can be rapidly applied in emergency situations. We sought to identify the risk factors that could help predict in-hospital mortality, and to assess its outcomes in survivors. During a 2-yr period, 50 patients underwent PCPS for the treatment of severe cardiopulmonary failure, and of those, 22 (44%) were classified as survivors and 28 (56%) as non-survivors. We compared the 2 groups for risk factors of in-hospital mortality and to establish proper PCPS timing. Twenty patients underwent PCPS for acute myocardial infarction, 20 for severe cardiopulmonary failure after cardiac surgery, 7 for acute respiratory distress syndrome, and 3 for acute myocarditis. Multivariate analysis showed that an acute physiology, age, and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) III score >or=50 prior to PCPS was the only significant predictor of in-hospital mortality (P=0.001). Overall 18-month survival was 42.2%. Cox analysis showed patients with APACHE III scores >or=50 had a poor prognosis (P=0.001). Earlier application of PCPS, and other preemptive strategies designed to optimize high-risk patients, may improve patient outcomes. Identifying patients with high APACHE scores at the beginning of PCPS may predict in-hospital mortality. Survivors, particularly those with higher APACHE scores, may require more frequent follow-up to improve overall survival.

  5. Submarine landslides: processes, triggers and hazard prediction. (United States)

    Masson, D G; Harbitz, C B; Wynn, R B; Pedersen, G; Løvholt, F


    Huge landslides, mobilizing hundreds to thousands of km(3) of sediment and rock are ubiquitous in submarine settings ranging from the steepest volcanic island slopes to the gentlest muddy slopes of submarine deltas. Here, we summarize current knowledge of such landslides and the problems of assessing their hazard potential. The major hazards related to submarine landslides include destruction of seabed infrastructure, collapse of coastal areas into the sea and landslide-generated tsunamis. Most submarine slopes are inherently stable. Elevated pore pressures (leading to decreased frictional resistance to sliding) and specific weak layers within stratified sequences appear to be the key factors influencing landslide occurrence. Elevated pore pressures can result from normal depositional processes or from transient processes such as earthquake shaking; historical evidence suggests that the majority of large submarine landslides are triggered by earthquakes. Because of their tsunamigenic potential, ocean-island flank collapses and rockslides in fjords have been identified as the most dangerous of all landslide related hazards. Published models of ocean-island landslides mainly examine 'worst-case scenarios' that have a low probability of occurrence. Areas prone to submarine landsliding are relatively easy to identify, but we are still some way from being able to forecast individual events with precision. Monitoring of critical areas where landslides might be imminent and modelling landslide consequences so that appropriate mitigation strategies can be developed would appear to be areas where advances on current practice are possible.

  6. 46 CFR 133.160 - Rescue boat embarkation, launching and recovery arrangements. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rescue boat embarkation, launching and recovery...) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS LIFESAVING SYSTEMS Requirements for All OSVs § 133.160 Rescue boat embarkation, launching and recovery arrangements. (a) Each davit for a rescue boat must be approved under approval series...

  7. 46 CFR 133.175 - Survival craft and rescue boat equipment. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Survival craft and rescue boat equipment. 133.175... LIFESAVING SYSTEMS Requirements for All OSVs § 133.175 Survival craft and rescue boat equipment. (a) All rescue boat equipment must be as follows: (1) The equipment must be secured within the boat by lashings...

  8. Pockmark morphology and turbulent buoyant plumes at a submarine spring (United States)

    Buongiorno Nardelli, B.; Budillon, F.; Watteaux, R.; Ciccone, F.; Conforti, A.; De Falco, G.; Di Martino, G.; Innangi, S.; Tonielli, R.; Iudicone, D.


    The input flow of groundwater from the seabed to the coastal ocean, known as Submarine Groundwater Discharge (SGD), has been only recently recognized as an important component of continental margin systems. It potentially impacts physical, chemical and biological marine dynamics. Independently of its specific nature (seepage, submarine springs, etc.) or fluid chemical composition, a SGD is generally characterized by low flow rates, hence making its detection and quantification very difficult, and explaining why it has been somewhat neglected by the scientific community for a long time. Along with the growing interest for SGDs emerged the need for in-situ observations in order to characterize in details how these SGDs behave. In this work, we describe the morphology of a pockmark field, detected in the Southern Tyrrhenian Sea (Mediterranean Sea), and provide observational evidences of the presence of active submarine springs over the coastal shelf area. We describe the effect of the fluid seeps on the water column stratification close to the main plumes and in the neighbouring areas, providing quantitative estimates of the intensity of the turbulent mixing and discussing their potential impact on the seabed morphology and pockmark formation in the context of turbulent buoyant plumes analytical modelling.

  9. The Zambezi Channel: A new perspective on submarine channel evolution at low latitudes (United States)

    Wiles, E.; Green, A.; Watkeys, M.; Jokat, W.


    Submarine channels are not stand-alone systems. They are long-lived systems modified by imperceptibly slow processes and rapid gravity flows, in some part controlled by hinterland dynamics. The submarine Zambezi Channel, within the Mozambique Channel, receives sediment from the Zambezi River catchment which has a dynamic tectonic and morphological history. Using recently collected multibeam bathymetry and PARASOUND data we discuss the geomorphology of the Zambezi Channel. Results show this system to be distinct in geomorphologic character when compared to other low-latitude submarine channels, sharing similarities with high-latitude systems. We propose a new, source-to-sink, hypothesis for the evolution of the Zambezi Channel, taking in to consideration hinterland tectonics, palaeo-lake development, river capture and rapid gravity flows. This hypothesis accounts for the unique present-day anatomy of the Zambezi Channel within the dynamic framework of the systems regional setting.

  10. Design and analysis of submarine radome (United States)

    Sandeep, C. Satya; Prasad, U. Shiva; Suresh, R.; Rathan, A.; Sravanthi, G.; Govardhan, D.


    Radomes are the electromagnetic windows that protect microwave sub-systems from the environmental effects. The major requirement of radome is its transparency to microwaves and for most of the cases mechanical properties are also equally important. Radome for underwater applications has to withstand high water pressure of the order of 45 bars. Composite materials owing to their high strength to weight ratio, high stiffness and better corrosion resistance are potential source for under water applications. The concept of 'tailoring' the material properties to suit the radome is obtained by selecting proper reinforcement, resin matrix and their compositions. The mechanical properties of composite material, evaluated by testing specimens as per ASTM standards, are utilized in designing the radome. The modulus properties calculated using classical theories of composite materials and compared with test results. ANSYS a Finite Element software package used to analyse the problem. As the cross sectional thickness of radome varies, the complexity in fabrication is overcome by adopting matched die techniques. The radome design and finite element analysis validation concluded by conducting the pressure test on radome. On the design a modal analysis is also carried to check for the natural frequency, So that resonance does not occur if the natural frequency of the radome coincides with the excitation frequency of the submarine Clinical information system (CIS) for UNRWA is a computerized distributed application that used in clinics which follows the United Nations Relief and Works Agency (UNRWA) to manage the clinical requirements and services.

  11. Thermo-Physiological Responses of Sailors in a Disabled Submarine with Interior Cabin Temperature and Humidity Slowly Rising as Predicted by Computer Simulation Techniques (United States)


    modeling; disabled submarine; DISSUB; thermoregulation Unclassified Unclassified Unclassified Unclassified 58 Adam W. Potter 508-233-4735 Reset iii...has been the threat of hypothermia from the environment caused by cold ocean water while waiting the sub’s rescue (Castellani et al., 2005...the SCENARIO thermo-physiological model developed at USARIEM by Kraning and Gonzalez (1997) (Fig 1). It is a rational human thermoregulation model

  12. Bridging grafts and transient nerve growth factor infusions promote long-term central nervous system neuronal rescue and partial functional recovery.


    Tuszynski, M H; Gage, F H


    Grafts of favorable axonal growth substrates were combined with transient nerve growth factor (NGF) infusions to promote morphological and functional recovery in the adult rat brain after lesions of the septohippocampal projection. Long-term septal cholinergic neuronal rescue and partial hippocampal reinnervation were achieved, resulting in partial functional recovery on a simple task assessing habituation but not on a more complex task assessing spatial reference memory. Control animals that...

  13. The Enemy Below - The Global Diffusion of Submarines and Related Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, K G


    The end of the Cold War seemed to create a more peaceful international environment. September 11 reminded us of the dangers of complacency. Indeed, even before September 11 US forces had intervened in a number of wars and crises, including Panama, the Persian Gulf War, Somalia, Rwanda, Bosnia, Kosovo, several Taiwan Straits crises, the North Korea nuclear weapons crisis, and most recently Afghanistan. US ability to intervene in remote areas of the world is often dependent on the Navy's ability to project power ashore. As a result, US ability to influence events in crisis situations, especially between or among nuclear powers, may become more difficult along with our ability to conduct littoral warfare. Although the numbers of potentially hostile submarines have declined with the end of the Cold War, US anti-submarine warfare capabilities have also declined. Moreover, foreign submarines and related technologies are likely to diffuse globally. New technologies like Air Independent Propulsion (AIP), improved weapons and sensors will make conventional submarines more dangerous, and the spread of nuclear submarines even to a few more countries raise political, military, environmental, and safety concerns. Submarines are one of the key weapon systems used alone or in combination with other weapon systems such as coastal defense missiles, aircraft, and other sea-based missile platforms to deny US ability to project power ashore, Thus, other countries who wish to deny the US the ability to interfere with their regional or even global ambitions may emphasize the acquisition and/or development of submarines. As the world become more multipolar over the longer term, as the Chinese believe it will, countries such as Russia, China. etc., may be able to acquire the submarine capabilities to challenge us not just regionally, but in blue waters. To the extent that our alliance relationships require US naval access or superiority to sustain them, then our erstwhile friendly

  14. Tsunami Generated by a Two-Phase Submarine Debris Flow (United States)

    Pudasaini, S. P.


    strong and bore-type tsunami waves and run-ups in the coastal lines, and debris slide and deposition at the bottom floor. Strong debris shock waves are generated that travel upstream. Once the debris supply ceases, the shock front is diffused. The model analysis also includes mixing and separation of phases, including inter-phase mass and momentum exchanges and generation and interactions of solid and fluid waves. The state of the solid volume fraction governs the evolution of the fluid extra stress and thus effectively dominates the entire flow dynamics. So, the actual knowledge of the solid volume fraction is essential for the prediction of the turbidity currents, sediment transport and deposition in the subaerial and submarine environments. Applications of this model include (i) the sediment transport on hill slopes, river streams, hydraulic channels (e.g., hydropower dams and plants); lakes, fjords, coastal lines, and aquatic ecology; and (ii) submarine debris impact and the rupture of fiber optic, submarine cables and pipelines in ocean floor, and damage to offshore drilling platforms. The Phase-Froude numbers (the solid and fluid Froude numbers) are introduced that change drastically as the debris mass hits the fluid dam. The Phase-Froude numbers can be subcritical or super-critical, suggesting that the tsunami may be following or preceding the wave generating submarine slide and thus enhancing or reducing the tsunami waves. It is observed that the submarine debris front speed can be faster than the tsunami wave speed. This information can be useful for the early warning strategy in the coastal regions. These findings substantially increase the dynamical understanding of complex multi-phase systems and flows, allowing proper modeling of landslide and debris induced tsunami, the dynamics of turbidity currents and sediment transport, with associated applications in hazard mitigation, geomorphology and sedimentology.

  15. Geomorphic process fingerprints in submarine canyons (United States)

    Brothers, Daniel S.; ten Brink, Uri S.; Andrews, Brian D.; Chaytor, Jason D.; Twichell, David C.


    Submarine canyons are common features of continental margins worldwide. They are conduits that funnel vast quantities of sediment from the continents to the deep sea. Though it is known that submarine canyons form primarily from erosion induced by submarine sediment flows, we currently lack quantitative, empirically based expressions that describe the morphology of submarine canyon networks. Multibeam bathymetry data along the entire passive US Atlantic margin (USAM) and along the active central California margin near Monterey Bay provide an opportunity to examine the fine-scale morphology of 171 slope-sourced canyons. Log–log regression analyses of canyon thalweg gradient (S) versus up-canyon catchment area (A) are used to examine linkages between morphological domains and the generation and evolution of submarine sediment flows. For example, canyon reaches of the upper continental slope are characterized by steep, linear and/or convex longitudinal profiles, whereas reaches farther down canyon have distinctly concave longitudinal profiles. The transition between these geomorphic domains is inferred to represent the downslope transformation of debris flows into erosive, canyon-flushing turbidity flows. Over geologic timescales this process appears to leave behind a predictable geomorphic fingerprint that is dependent on the catchment area of the canyon head. Catchment area, in turn, may be a proxy for the volume of sediment released during geomorphically significant failures along the upper continental slope. Focused studies of slope-sourced submarine canyons may provide new insights into the relationships between fine-scale canyon morphology and down-canyon changes in sediment flow dynamics.

  16. Maritime Mass Rescue Interventions: Availability and Associated Technology (United States)


    34 Though this ideation was field-generated by a CG rescue helicopter pilot and aviation engineer , and offered an approach to expedite multiple-person...have fire suppression system, vessel did, and fire was contained to the engine room PA/ Empress of the North Lynn Canal, SE AK [Grounding, May...rescue to a large group of survivors (greater than 25). mw\\ Acquisition Directorate ?fi IMI.AS WMW CX.-926RDC M i.cwandcmski.eiui • * ^ Public

  17. Addressing submarine geohazards through scientific drilling (United States)

    Camerlenghi, A.


    Natural submarine geohazards (earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides, volcanic island flank collapses) are geological phenomena originating at or below the seafloor leading to a situation of risk for off-shore and on-shore structures and the coastal population. Addressing submarine geohazards means understanding their spatial and temporal variability, the pre-conditioning factors, their triggers, and the physical processes that control their evolution. Such scientific endeavour is nowadays considered by a large sector of the international scientific community as an obligation in order to contribute to the mitigation of the potentially destructive societal effects of submarine geohazards. The study of submarine geohazards requires a multi-disciplinary scientific approach: geohazards must be studied through their geological record; active processes must be monitored; geohazard evolution must be modelled. Ultimately, the information must be used for the assessment of vulnerability, risk analysis, and development of mitigation strategies. In contrast with the terrestrial environment, the oceanic environment is rather hostile to widespread and fast application of high-resolution remote sensing techniques, accessibility for visual inspection, sampling and installation of monitoring stations. Scientific Drilling through the IODP (including the related pre site-survey investigations, sampling, logging and in situ measurements capability, and as a platform for deployment of long term observatories at the surface and down-hole) can be viewed as the centre of gravity of an international, coordinated, multi-disciplinary scientific approach to address submarine geohazards. The IODP Initial Science Plan expiring in 2013 does not address openly geohazards among the program scientific objectives. Hazards are referred to mainly in relation to earthquakes and initiatives towards the understanding of seismogenesis. Notably, the only drilling initiative presently under way is the

  18. MVAC Submarine cable, impedance measurements and analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arentsen, Martin Trolle; Pedersen, Morten Virklund; Expethit, Adrian


    Due to environmental concerns an increase in off-shore windfarms has been observed in recent years, leading to an increased demand for three-core-wire-armoured submarine cables. However, the IEC Standard 60287 used to calculate the ampacity of these cables is widely recognized as being not accurate...

  19. German Submarine Offensives and South African Countermeasures

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    'Good Hunting': German Submarine Offensives and South African. Countermeasures off the South African Coast during the Second World. War, 1942-1945. Evert Kleynhans. •. Abstract .... wolf packs south, Dönitz had hoped to cause a diversionary effect whereby the Allies would be forced to split their defensive forces ...

  20. Submarine Telecommunication Cables in Disputed Maritime Areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Logchem, Youri


    There are a considerable number of maritime areas where no boundary exists, or where a boundary is delimited only in part. This article deals with the issue of submarine telecommunication cables, which are sometimes placed on the seabed or buried in the subsoil of areas that are claimed by multiple

  1. Joseph Conrad's tormented Rescue (fantasy). (United States)

    Freedman, William


    Joseph Conrad was a notoriously tormented writer for whom the creative act was often a punishment severe enough to drive him into paralyzing depressions that delayed the completion of his novels, sometimes for years. By far the most agonizing of these projects was The Rescue, a novel he began in 1898, abandoned a year later, tried unsuccessfully to continue several times over the next two decades, but was only able to resume in 1918 and to complete, after another tortured two-year struggle, in 1920. An explanation for this incapacity, that is powerfully suggested by the novel's evocative title and perhaps unintentionally ironic subtitle (A Romance of the Shallows) has not yet been explored. Using Freud's 1910 essay on the rescue fantasy, "Contributions to the Psychology of Love: A Special Type of Choice of Object Made by Men," and Emanuel Berman's instructive revision and expansion of the concept in his 2003 American Imago essay, "Ferenczi, Rescue, and Utopia," I argue that a substantial explanation for Conrad's tormented history with The Rescue is ascribable to its quite remarkably faithful treatment of a rescue fantasy with deep and disabling resonance for its author. More specifically, the difficulty was compounded by the novel's dramatization of the soul-crushing conflict between two such fantasies: one in the service of the masculine ideal of unflinching dedication to a heroic purpose, the other promising satisfaction to the equally potent demands of emotional and sexual desire. Features of Conrad's narrative fit so tightly and consistently with the theory as Freud (and Abraham) proposed and as Berman elaborated it that The Rescue offers itself as one of those rare and reinforcing instances wherein the literary text seems to validate the psychoanalytic theory at least as persuasively as the theory "understands" the text.

  2. Drosophila simulans Lethal hybrid rescue mutation (Lhr) rescues ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Our results reveal that the phenotypes of the 'Lhr dependent rescued' hybrids were largely dependent on the genetic background and the dominance in species and hybrids, and not on Lhr. Cytological examination reveal that while the salivary chromosome of 'larval lethal' male carrying melanogaster X chromosome was ...

  3. Submarine geology and geomorphology of active Sub-Antarctic volcanoes: Heard and McDonald Islands (United States)

    Watson, S. J.; Coffin, M. F.; Whittaker, J. M.; Lucieer, V.; Fox, J. M.; Carey, R.; Arculus, R. J.; Bowie, A. R.; Chase, Z.; Robertson, R.; Martin, T.; Cooke, F.


    Heard and McDonald Islands (HIMI) are World Heritage listed sub-Antarctic active volcanic islands in the Southern Indian Ocean. Built atop the Kerguelen Plateau by Neogene-Quaternary volcanism, HIMI represent subaerial exposures of the second largest submarine Large Igneous Province globally. Onshore, processes influencing island evolution include glaciers, weathering, volcanism, vertical tectonics and mass-wasting (Duncan et al. 2016). Waters surrounding HIMI are largely uncharted, due to their remote location. Hence, the extent to which these same processes shape the submarine environment around HIMI has not been investigated. In early 2016, we conducted marine geophysical and geologic surveys around HIMI aboard RV Investigator (IN2016_V01). Results show that volcanic and sedimentary features prominently trend east-west, likely a result of erosion by the eastward flowing Antarctic Circumpolar Current and tidal currents. However, spatial patterns of submarine volcanism and sediment distribution differ substantially between the islands. >70 sea knolls surround McDonald Island suggesting substantial submarine volcanism. Geophysical data reveals hard volcanic seafloor around McDonald Island, whereas Heard Island is characterised by sedimentary sequences tens of meters or more thick and iceberg scours - indicative of glacial processes. Differences in submarine geomorphology are likely due to the active glaciation of Heard Island and differing rock types (Heard: alkali basalt, McDonald: phonolite), and dominant products (clastics vs. lava). Variations may also reflect different magmatic plumbing systems beneath the two active volcanoes (Heard produces larger volumes of more focused lava, whilst McDonald extrudes smaller volumes of more evolved lavas from multiple vents across the edifice). Using geophysical data, corroborated with new and existing geologic data, we present the first geomorphic map revealing the processes that shape the submarine environment around HIMI.

  4. Mapping submarine sand waves with multiband imaging radar - 2. Experimental results and model comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogelzang, J.; Wensink, G.J.; Calkoen, C.J.; Kooij, M.W.A. van der


    On August 16, 1989, and on July 12, 1991, experiments were performed to study the mapping of submarine sand waves with the airborne imaging radar, a polarimetric (and, in 1991, interferometric) airborne P, L, and C band synthetic aperture radar system. The experiments took place in an area 30 km off

  5. Submarine glaciated landscapes of central and northern British Columbia, Canada (United States)

    Shaw, John; Lintern, Gwyn


    Recent systematic multibeam sonar mapping and ground-truthing surveys in the fjords and coastal waters of central and northern British Columbia, Canada, provide information on glacial processes associated with the Cordilleran Ice Sheet, and also on postglacial processes that have strongly modified the glacial terrain. During the last glacial maximum, ice covered the Coast Range, except for nunataks. Convergent streamlined glacial landforms in the Strait of Georgia testify to a strong flow of ice towards the southeast, between Vancouver Island and the mainland. During ice retreat, thick deposits of acoustically stratified glaciomarine mud were deposited in glacially over deepened basins. Retreat through the Douglas Channel fjord system was punctuated by still stands, resulting in a series of submarine moraines. Postglacial processes have created a suite of landforms that mask the primary glacial terrain: 1) Fjord floors host thick deposits of acoustically transparent postglacial mud with highly variable distribution: banks up to 80-m thick are commonly adjacent to erosional zones with glaciomarine mud exposed at the seafloor; 2) In this region of high precipitation and snowpack melt, numerous cone-shaped Holocene fan deltas developed on the fjord sidewalls transport coarse sediment to the fjord floors. Larger deltas are developed at fjord heads, notably at Kitimat and Kildala; 3) Submarine slope failures in this tectonically active area have resulted in a suite of mass transport deposits on sidewalls and fjord floors. The very large submarine slope failures at Camano Sound and KitKat Inlet occurred on the steep, rear facets of large transverse moraines, and involved the failure of glaciomarine sediment that moved into deeper basins, perhaps as a retrogressive failure. The ages of these events are unknown, although the presence of postglacial mud in the slide scar at Caamano suggests that the event at that location occurred in the late glacial or early Holocene. Also

  6. Feasibility study of submarine diesel exhaust valve interspace coating application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, W.; Zhou, M.; Bibby, D.; Huang, J.


    This document described a feasibility study conducted to evaluate surface coating systems applied to the surface of a diesel exhaust valve interspace on a VICTORIA Class submarine. A series of laboratory studies were conducted to determine the physical characteristics of the coatings, which will be subjected to high service temperatures, diesel exhaust gas, and seawater. The valves were made of Q1N steel castings. The surface coatings were designed to provide corrosion resistance and thermal protection to the valves. As part of the study, a survey was conducted on various state-of-the-art surface coating systems. Coatings were rated on their ability to protect the Q10 steel surface from corrosion, high temperatures and seawater. An additional requirement was that the coatings should not produce high amounts of hydrogen. Plating trials were conducted with a nickel-based alloy (Ni-Cu-P) placed on Q1N steel substrates with a hypophosphite reducing agent. The results of X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses suggested that the coatings can also be used to protect the external surfaces of various submarine components. 54 refs., 4 tabs., 10 figs.

  7. GIS Support for Flood Rescue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liang, Gengsheng; Mioc, Darka; Anton, François


    Under flood events, the ground traffic is blocked in and around the flooded area due to damages to roads and bridges. The traditional transportation network may not always help people to make a right decision for evacuation. In order to provide dynamic road information needed for flood rescue, we...

  8. Self-Rescue Mask Training

    CERN Document Server


    Nine new self-rescue mask instructors have been trained since early 2013, which provides CERN with a total of 26 self-rescue mask instructors to date. This will allow us to meet the increasing training needs caused by the Long Shut Down LS1.   The self-rescue mask instructors have trained 1650 persons in 2012 and about 500 persons since the beginning of the year on how to wear the masks properly. We thank all the instructors and all the persons that made this training possible. Please remember that the self-rescue masks training sessions are scheduled as follows: Basic course: Tuesday and Thursday mornings (2 sessions – 8.30 AM and 10.30 AM), duration:  1.30 hour, in French and English – registration via CERN online training catalogue – Course code 077Y00. Refresher training : Monday mornings (2 sessions – 8.30 AM and 10.30 AM), duration: 1.30 hour , in French and English – registration via CERN online training catalogue &...

  9. CERN Fire Brigade rescue simulation

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice


    The CERN Fire Brigade is made up of experienced firemen from all of the 20 Member States. In these images they are seen at a 'Discovery Monday' held at the Microcosm exhibition. Here visitors learn how the Fire Brigade deal with various situations, including a simulated cave rescue performed by the Hazardous Environments Response Team.

  10. Reconstructing the evolution of the submarine Monterey Canyon System from Os, Nd, and Pb isotopes in hydrogenetic Fe-Mn crusts (United States)

    Conrad, T.A.; Nielsen, S.G.; Peucker-Ehrenbrink, Bernhard; Blusztajn, J.; Winslow, D.; Hein, James; Paytan, A.


    The sources of terrestrial material delivered to the California margin over the past 7 Myr were assessed using 187Os/188Os, Nd, and Pb isotopes in hydrogenetic ferromanganese crusts from three seamounts along the central and southern California margin. From 6.8 to 4.5 (± 0.5) Ma, all three isotope systems show more radiogenic values at Davidson Seamount, located near the base of the Monterey Canyon System, than in Fe-Mn crusts from the more remote Taney and Hoss seamounts. At the Taney seamounts, approximately 225 km farther offshore from Davidson Seamount, 187Os/188Os values, but not Pb and Nd isotope ratios, also deviate from the Cenozoic seawater curve towards more radiogenic values from 6.8 to 4.5 (± 0.5) Ma. However, none of the isotope systems in Fe-Mn crusts deviate from seawater at Hoss Seamount located approximately 450 km to the south. The regional gradients in isotope ratios indicate that substantial input of dissolved and particulate terrestrial material into the Monterey Canyon System is responsible for the local deviations in the seawater Nd, Pb, and Os isotope compositions from 6.8 to 4.5 (± 0.5) Ma. The isotope ratios recorded in Fe-Mn crusts are consistent with a southern Sierra Nevada or western Basin and Range provenance of the terrestrial material which was delivered by rivers to the canyon. The exhumation of the modern Monterey Canyon must have begun between 10 and 6.8 ± 0.5 Ma, as indicated by our data, the age of incised strata, and paleo-location of the Monterey Canyon relative to the paleo-coastline.

  11. Impact of Submarine Geohazards on Organic Carbon Burial Offshore Southwestern Taiwan (United States)

    Su, C. C.; Tsai, P. H.; Liu, J. T.; Hsu, S. K.; Chiu, S. D.


    The tectonically active setting and climatic conditions give Taiwan a high exposure to severe natural hazards. After the Pingtung Earthquake and Morakot Typhoon which occurred in 2006 and 2009, the turbidity currents caused a series of submarine cable breaks along the Gaoping and Fangliao Submarine Canyons off SW Taiwan. Large amounts of terrestrial sediments were fast transported bypass the narrow continental shelf and rapidly moved southward through submarine canyons to the deep sea. Two piston cores which were taken from the Tsangyao Ridge and its adjacent area (OR5-1302-2-MT7 and MT6) might shed light on understanding the export of terrestrial organic carbon to the abyss by submarine geo-hazards. The 210Pb profile of MT7 in conjunction with the grain size data indicates the existence of the Pingtung Earthquake and Morakot Typhoon related deposits. The sedimentation rate of these two cores which derived from 210Pb is approximately 0.05 cm/yr. The cores collected from the Gaoping Submarine Canyon, Gaoping Slope and Fangliao Submarine Canyon are used for analyzing TOC, organic C/N and δ13C ratios. The concentrations of total organic carbon are ~0.5%, and C/N rations almost remain between 4 and 8. The high TOC (~1%) and C/N ratio (>10) are observed in the samples with plant debris. The fluctuation of TOC and C/N ratios in near-shore samples is higher than deep sea. In terms of δ13C-values, it progressively decreases with distances from coastal zone to the deep sea. Due to the larger proportions of land-derived organic carbon, the δ13C-values in the surface sediment of upper Gaoping Submarine Canyon, Gaoping Slope, and the turbidite layers at the head of Fangliao Submarine Canyon are lighter. Furthermore, we use the TOC concentrations and δ13C-values to estimate the fractional contributions of terrestrial organic carbon by a simple two component mixing model, and integrate with the 210Pb-derived sediment accumulation rates to evaluate the organic carbon burial

  12. 46 CFR 169.517 - Rescue boat. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rescue boat. 169.517 Section 169.517 Shipping COAST... and Firefighting Equipment Primary Lifesaving Equipment § 169.517 Rescue boat. All vessels certificated for exposed or partially protected waters service must have a suitable motor rescue boat, except...

  13. Psychological Implications for Submarine Display Design (United States)


    This paper addresses a number of psychological issues pertaining to display design . We review the literature comparing 3-D and 2-D displays and...perceptual, cognitive and ecological factors that are relevant to display design for submarine environments. The Generative Transformational visual perception is outlined and the relevance of transformational theory to display design is discussed. The paper also discusses a number of

  14. Topology Model of the Flow around a Submarine Hull Form (United States)


    resistance and flow noise arising from flow-structure interaction, it is necessary to test the shape of the submarine , which includes the length-to...UNCLASSIFIED Topology Model of the Flow around a Submarine Hull Form S.-K. Lee Maritime Division Defence Science and Technology Group DST-Group–TR...3177 ABSTRACT A topology model constructed from surface-streamer visualisation describes the flow around a generic conventional submarine hull form at

  15. A Lanchester model of submarine attack on a carrier battlegroup


    Eagle, James N.


    A Lanchester model is developed for a battlegroup ASW engagement. Two variations are included. In the first, long-range missile firing submarines, short-range missile or torpedo firing submarines, and submarines firing only torpedoes distribute their attack uniformly over battlegroup escort ships and carriers. In the second variation, the attack is concentrated on the carriers. supported by the Naval War College NA

  16. Rescuing Middle School Astronomy (United States)

    Mayo, L. A.; Janney, D.


    There is a crisis in education at the middle school level (Spellings, 2006). Recent studies point to large disparities in middle school performance in schools with high minority populations. The largest disparities exist in areas of math and science. Astronomy has a universal appeal for K-12 students but is rarely taught at the middle school level. When it is taught at all it is usually taught in isolation with few references in other classes such as other sciences (e.g. physics, biology, and chemistry), math, history, geography, music, art, or English. The problem is greatest in our most challenged school districts. With scores in reading and math below national averages in these schools and with most state achievement tests ignoring subjects like astronomy, there is little room in the school day to teach about the world outside our atmosphere. Add to this the exceedingly minimal training and education in astronomy that most middle school teachers have and it is a rare school that includes any astronomy teaching at all. In this presentation, we show how to develop and offer an astronomy education training program for middle school teachers encompassing a wide range of educational disciplines that are frequently taught at the middle school level. The prototype for this program was developed and launched in two of the most challenged and diverse school systems in the country; D.C. Public Schools, and Montgomery County (MD) Public Schools.

  17. Adaptive mobility for rescue robots (United States)

    Blitch, John G.


    It has often been observed that the most daunting aspect of any crisis response is managing the "unknown unknowns" that inevitably plague incident commanders and emergency personnel at all levels responsible for life and death decisions on a minute by minute basis. In structural collapse situations, for example, rescue crews rarely have even a coarse picture of the number or disposition of people or material scattered amongst the twisted beams and piles of concrete that typically entomb would-be survivors. How can the incident commander decide which beam to lift or even which section of the building to search first in the absence of information of what lies beneath. Even the slightest tug on a concrete slab can collapse potential life harboring void spaces below killing potential survivors in the process. In deploying mobile robots to assist in rescue operations we combined the traditional advantages of machine immunity to fatigue, hazardous materials and environmental controls, with the mechanical design freedom that allowed small platforms to penetrate deep into rubble to expand both situational awareness and operational influence of rescue services at the World Trade Center and mountainous snow-bound caves in Afghanistan. We learned a great deal from these experiences with regard to robot emloyment and design. This paper endeavors to share a few of our more prominent lessons learned regarding portable robot mobility as a means to manage user expectations and stimulate more innovative and adaptive design.

  18. Toward a behavioral ecology of rescue behavior. (United States)

    Hollis, Karen L; Nowbahari, Elise


    Although the study of helping behavior has revolutionized the field of behavioral ecology, scientific examination of rescue behavior remains extremely rare, except perhaps in ants, having been described as early as 1874. Nonetheless, recent work in our laboratories has revealed several new patterns of rescue behavior that appear to be much more complex than previously studied forms. This precisely-directed rescue behavior bears a remarkable resemblance to what has been labeled empathy in rats, and thus raises numerous philosophical and theoretical questions: How should rescue behavior (or empathy) be defined? What distinguishes rescue from other forms of altruism? In what ways is rescue behavior in ants different from, and similar to, rescue in other non-human animals? What selection pressures dictate its appearance? In this paper, we review our own experimental studies of rescue in both laboratory and field, which, taken together, begin to reveal some of the behavioral ecological conditions that likely have given rise to rescue behavior in ants. Against this background, we also address important theoretical questions involving rescue, including those outlined above. In this way, we hope not only to encourage further experimental analysis of rescue behavior, but also to highlight important similarities and differences in very distant taxa.

  19. Toward a Behavioral Ecology of Rescue Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen L. Hollis


    Full Text Available Although the study of helping behavior has revolutionized the field of behavioral ecology, scientific examination of rescue behavior remains extremely rare, except perhaps in ants, having been described as early as 1874. Nonetheless, recent work in our laboratories has revealed several new patterns of rescue behavior that appear to be much more complex than previously studied forms. This precisely-directed rescue behavior bears a remarkable resemblance to what has been labeled empathy in rats, and thus raises numerous philosophical and theoretical questions: How should rescue behavior (or empathy be defined? What distinguishes rescue from other forms of altruism? In what ways is rescue behavior in ants different from, and similar to, rescue in other non-human animals? What selection pressures dictate its appearance? In this paper, we review our own experimental studies of rescue in both laboratory and field, which, taken together, begin to reveal some of the behavioral ecological conditions that likely have given rise to rescue behavior in ants. Against this background, we also address important theoretical questions involving rescue, including those outlined above. In this way, we hope not only to encourage further experimental analysis of rescue behavior, but also to highlight important similarities and differences in very distant taxa.

  20. [Design and application of portable rescue vehicle]. (United States)

    Guo, Ying; Qi, Huaying; Wang, Shen


    The disease of critically ill patients was with rapid changes, and at any time faced the risk of emergency. The current commonly used rescue vehicles were larger and bulky implementation, which were not conducive to the operation, therefore the design of a portable rescue vehicle was needed. This new type of rescue vehicle is multi-layer folding structure, with small footprint, large storage space, so a variety of first aid things can be classified and put, easy to be cleaned and disinfected. In the rescue process, the portable rescue vehicles can be placed in the required position; box of various emergency items can be found at a glance with easy access; the height of the infusion stand can adjust freely according to the user height; the rescue vehicle handle can be easy to pull and adjust accord with human body mechanics principle. The portable rescue vehicle facilitates the operation of medical staff, and is worthy of clinical application.

  1. Melatonin rescues cardiac thioredoxin system during ischemia-reperfusion injury in acute hyperglycemic state by restoring Notch1/Hes1/Akt signaling in a membrane receptor-dependent manner. (United States)

    Yu, Liming; Fan, Chongxi; Li, Zhi; Zhang, Jian; Xue, Xiaodong; Xu, Yinli; Zhao, Guolong; Yang, Yang; Wang, Huishan


    Stress hyperglycemia is commonly observed in patients suffering from ischemic heart disease. It not only worsens cardiovascular prognosis but also attenuates the efficacies of various cardioprotective agents. This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of melatonin against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (MI/R) injury in acute hyperglycemic state with a focus on Notch1/Hes1/Akt signaling and intracellular thioredoxin (Trx) system. Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to MI/R surgery and high-glucose (HG, 500 g/L) infusion (4 mL/kg/h) to induce temporary hyperglycemia. Rats were treated with or without melatonin (10 mg/kg/d) during the operation. Furthermore, HG (33 mmol/L)-incubated H9c2 cardiomyoblasts were treated in the presence or absence of luzindole (a competitive melatonin receptor antagonist), DAPT (a γ-secretase inhibitor), LY294002 (a PI3-kinase/Akt inhibitor), or thioredoxin-interacting protein (Txnip) adenoviral vectors. We found that acute hyperglycemia aggravated MI/R injury by suppressing Notch1/Hes1/Akt signaling and intracellular Trx activity. Melatonin treatment effectively ameliorated MI/R injury by reducing infarct size, myocardial apoptosis, and oxidative stress. Moreover, melatonin also markedly enhanced Notch1/Hes1/Akt signaling and rescued intracellular Trx system by upregulating Notch1, N1ICD, Hes1, and p-Akt expressions, increasing Trx activity, and downregulating Txnip expression. However, these effects were blunted by luzindole, DAPT, or LY294002. Additionally, Txnip overexpression not only decreased Trx activity, but also attenuated the cytoprotective effect of melatonin. We conclude that impaired Notch1 signaling aggravates MI/R injury in acute hyperglycemic state. Melatonin rescues Trx system by reducing Txnip expression via Notch1/Hes1/Akt signaling in a membrane receptor-dependent manner. Its role as a prophylactic/therapeutic drug deserves further clinical study. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley

  2. Australia’s Submarine Design Capabilities and Capacities: Challenges and Options for the Future Submarine (United States)


    General Dynamics Electric Boat Corporation EMC electromagnetic compatibility EMF electromagnetic field EMI electromagnetic interference EPCM flow-induced radiated noise Own-sensor performance degradation Note: Risks can be reduced for given designs using scale models...Acoustic analysis Addresses the total radiated noise signature of submarine designs Radiated noise that an enemy might detect Self-noise that that

  3. North Sea submarine cable disruptions and fishing activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hintzen, N.T.; Machiels, M.A.M.


    At the North Sea seafloor, numerous submarine cables are positioned that connect telecommunication networks between countries. Worldwide, human activities cause most of the cable disruptions with fisheries accounting for nearly half of all reported faults. Due to a recent increase of submarine cable

  4. Rescue allocation and recipient oriented extended allocation in kidney transplantation-influence of the EUROTRANSPLANT allocation system on recipient selection and graft survival for initially nonaccepted organs. (United States)

    Wahba, Roger; Suwelack, Barbara; Arns, Wolfgang; Cakiroglu, Figen; Eisenberger, Ute; Feldkamp, Thorsten; Hansen, Anita; Ivens, Kathrin; Klein, Thomas; Kribben, Andreas; Kurschat, Christine; Lange, Ulrich; Mühlfeld, Anja; Nitschke, Martin; Reuter, Stefan; Schulte, Kevin; Viebahn, Richard; Woitas, Rainer; Hellmich, Martin; Stippel, Dirk L


    Nonaccepted kidneys grafts enter the rescue allocation (RA) process to avoid discards. In December 2013, recipient oriented extended allocation (REAL) was introduced to improve transparency. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of REAL on recipients' selection and graft function compared to the formerly existing RA as well as to identify factors that influence graft outcome. Therefore, a multicenter study of 10 transplant centers in the same region in Germany was performed. All transplantations after RA or REAL from December 1, 2012, until December 31, 2014, with a follow-up time until December 31, 2015 were analyzed. 113 of 941 kidney transplantations were performed after RA or REAL (12%). With REAL, the number of refusals before transplantation had increased (12 ± 7.1 vs. 8.6 ± 8.6, P = 0.036), and cold ischemia time has decreased (13.6 ± 3.6 vs. 17.2 ± 4.8 h, P = 0.019). Recipients after REAL needed significantly more allocation points compared to RA to receive a kidney. One-year graft survival was comparable. If kidneys from the same donor were transplanted to two recipients at one center, the greater the difference in recipient age, the greater the difference in serum creatinine after 12 months (-0.019 mg/dl per year, P = 0.011) was, that is older recipients showed lower creatinine. REAL influences selection of the recipients compared to the former RA era for successful organ receipt. Graft function is comparable and seems to be influenced by recipient age. © 2017 Steunstichting ESOT.

  5. New Generation Strategic Submarine Study (United States)


    FUNCTION C. Buoyancy (Cont’d) 6. Trim Priming Pomp * Provides the capability to remove air from the trim system piping, in order to insure a positive...resubmnerge. 001 The Diving Officer of the Watch shall cart pressure air will nat be used and the ship will degree to 5 degree up angle. cow The Chid of the

  6. Rapid Submarine Melting Driven by Subglacial Discharge, LeConte Glacier, Alaska (United States)

    Motyka, R. J.; Dryer, W. P.; Amundson, J. M.; Truffer, M.; Fahnestock, M. A.


    pattern. Although this circulation pattern is generally supported by our results, we also see evidence of eddying both at the terminus and down fjord, which adds complexity to the simple two layer model. Our results demonstrate that turbulent subglacial discharge is a key driver of ice-proximal fjord circulation that entrains warm seawater and melts submarine glacial ice. With projected continued global warming and increased glacial runoff, our results highlight the direct impact that increases in subglacial discharge will have on the stability of polar and subpolar tidewater outlet systems. These effects and feedbacks must be considered when modeling glacier response to future warming and increased runoff. Our results have direct implications for predicting future behavior at the ice sheet ocean interface, which constitutes the major uncertainty for future predictions of ice loss and sea-level rise.

  7. Hydrogen isotope systematics of submarine basalts (United States)

    Kyser, T.K.; O'Neil, J.R.


    The D/H ratios and water contents in fresh submarine basalts from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, the East Pacific Rise, and Hawaii indicate that the primary D/H ratios of many submarine lavas have been altered by processes including (1) outgassing, (2) addition of seawater at magmatic temperature, and (3) low-temperature hydration of glass. Decreases in ??D and H2O+ from exteriors to interiors of pillows are explained by outgassing of water whereas inverse relations between ??D and H2O+ in basalts from the Galapagos Rise and the FAMOUS Area are attributed to outgassing of CH4 and H2. A good correlation between ??D values and H2O is observed in a suite of submarine tholeiites dredged from the Kilauea East Rift Zone where seawater (added directly to the magma), affected only the isotopic compositions of hydrogen and argon. Analyses of some glassy rims indicate that the outer millimeter of the glass can undergo lowtemperature hydration by hydroxyl groups having ??D values as low as -100. ??D values vary with H2O contents of subaerial transitional basalts from Molokai, Hawaii, and subaerial alkali basalts from the Society Islands, indicating that the primary ??D values were similar to those of submarine lavas. Extrapolations to possible unaltered ??D values and H2O contents indicate that the primary ??D values of most thoteiite and alkali basalts are near -80 ?? 5: the weight percentages of water are variable, 0.15-0.35 for MOR tholeiites, about 0.25 for Hawaiian tholeiites, and up to 1.1 for alkali basalts. The primary ??D values of -80 for most basalts are comparable to those measured for deep-seated phlogopites. These results indicate that hydrogen, in marked contrast to other elements such as Sr, Nd, Pb, and O, has a uniform isotopic composition in the mantle. This uniformity is best explained by the presence of a homogeneous reservoir of hydrogen that has existed in the mantle since the very early history of the Earth. ?? 1984.

  8. Particle sedimentation and diffusive convection in submarine clouds (United States)

    Carazzo, G.; Jellinek, M.; Turchyn, A. V.


    The longevity of submarine plumes generated by the release of hydrothermal fluids during crustal rupturing or by the rapid cooling of an erupting lava flow constrains the input of crustal-derived elements into the deep-ocean. Decades of observations of episodic "event plumes" suggest that a key process governing the dynamics of a submarine cloud spreading out laterally from a buoyant rising plume is the production of internal layering. Here, we use geological data on submarine clouds and a new experimental apparatus producing at laboratory scale turbulent, hot particle-laden plumes and clouds to show that this layering occurs where particle diffusive convection driven by the differential diffusion of heat and small mineral precipitates gives rise to a large scale double diffusive instability. We show that this "particle diffusive convection" can extend the longevity of an event plume to two years after its emplacement, allowing iron-sulfide minerals to dissolve and deliver iron to the deep-ocean. The very long residence time imposed by diffusive convective effects does not allow iron-oxide minerals to dissolve but may lead to the formation of iron-rich sediments at large distances from the point of emission. We develop a new theoretical model that includes both sedimentation and dissolution processes to quantify the potential amount of iron produced by the dissolution of iron-sulfide minerals settling through the cloud by diffusive convection. A key prediction is that hydrothermal systems could provide 75% of the global budget of dissolved iron in the deep-ocean. The consideration of scale-basin variations suggests that the Southern Hemisphere is probably the most impacted by hydrothermal iron, consistent with observations and global ocean models. Photographs showing the typical evolution of a lab-scale turbulent, hot particle-laden plume. At stage 1, the buoyant plume reaches a level of neutral buoyancy and spreads out laterally forming a neutrally buoyant cloud

  9. Imaging deformation in submarine thrust belts using seismic attributes (United States)

    Iacopini, David; Butler, Robert W. H.


    Uncertainty exists as to the patterns of deformation that develop within submarine thrust belts. This case study uses a large-scale gravity-driven fold-thrust structure as an analogue for submarine fold thrust systems in general. Seismic attribute analysis and mapping provide ways of identifying complex fault patterns and associated deformation that are otherwise unresolved in conventional amplitude displays. These methods are developed and applied to a 3D dataset and used to investigate the geometry, internal architecture and the nature of the low signal/noise incoherency and discontinuities observed on the km-scale. Semblance (coherency), curvatures and spectral decomposition were all computed and used as attributes. Collectively these define volumes within the seismic data where the signal is greatly reduced — features termed here "disturbance geobodies". The study shows that thrust faults that, on conventional amplitude displays appear to be simple and continuous, are likely to consist of complex arrays of anastamosing fault strands. Adjacent to these composite fault zones are greater volumes of deformed rocks (disturbance geobodies) across which there are only minor stratal offsets. Similarly volumes of high stratal curvature coincide with disturbance geobodies, again interpreted as zones of weak, distributed deformation. These relationships between narrow thrust faults and broader zones of deformation are broadly comparable to those observed in outcrops within exhumed thrust systems. Application of the seismic imaging techniques developed here will improve the understanding of the localization of deformation in sedimentary successions with important implications for predicting fluid flow within other deep water structures such as subduction accretion complexes.

  10. Geo-hazard by sediment mass movements in submarine canyons (United States)

    Ghaith, Afif; Fakhri, Milad; Ivaldi, Roberta; Ciavola, Paolo


    Submarine mass movements and their consequences are of major concern for coastal communities and infrastructures but also for the exploitation and the development of seafloor resources. Elevated awareness of the need for better understanding of the underwater mass movement is coupled with great advances in underwater mapping technologies over the past two decades. The seafloor in the Nahr Ibrahim and Saida regions (Lebanon) is characterized by deep canyons, reaching one thousand meters depths in proximity of the coast. Signs of submarine mass movement instability related to these canyons create a connection between shallow and deep water. The presence of these canyons in a tectonically active area generates a particular drained mechanism to the sediment in form of mass movement and slumping. Identification of potential areas where slope movements could be triggered requires data with high spatial resolution. Since this area is poorly explored, in the framework of an international project between Lebanese Navy, Lebanese National Center for Marine Sciences, University of Ferrara and Italian Hydrographic Institute, we analyse the morpho-bathymetric and sedimentological characters of the coastal and shelf sectors. Multibeam echosounder and sub-bottom profiler acoustic systems calibrated with ground truths (sediment grab and core samples) allow us to characterize the nature of seafloor and sub-seafloor with particular detail to the geotechnical properties of sediments and high resolution seismic stratigraphy of the shallow layers. The detection of particular undersea features provides detail maps which are in support to littoral morpho-dynamics, coastal transport and sediment budget. Multilayer hydro-oceanographic map, referring to the seafloor dynamics in connection with deep water environment and drainage system, in accordance to the International Hydrographic Standards and nautical supports, are produced. This high resolution multibeam bathymetry dataset, integrated

  11. A Review of Mine Rescue Ensembles for Underground Coal Mining in the United States. (United States)

    Kilinc, F Selcen; Monaghan, William D; Powell, Jeffrey B

    The mining industry is among the top ten industries nationwide with high occupational injury and fatality rates, and mine rescue response may be considered one of the most hazardous activities in mining operations. In the aftermath of an underground mine fire, explosion or water inundation, specially equipped and trained teams have been sent underground to fight fires, rescue entrapped miners, test atmospheric conditions, investigate the causes of the disaster, or recover the dead. Special personal protective ensembles are used by the team members to improve the protection of rescuers against the hazards of mine rescue and recovery. Personal protective ensembles used by mine rescue teams consist of helmet, cap lamp, hood, gloves, protective clothing, boots, kneepads, facemask, breathing apparatus, belt, and suspenders. While improved technology such as wireless warning and communication systems, lifeline pulleys, and lighted vests have been developed for mine rescuers over the last 100 years, recent research in this area of personal protective ensembles has been minimal due to the trending of reduced exposure of rescue workers. In recent years, the exposure of mine rescue teams to hazardous situations has been changing. However, it is vital that members of the teams have the capability and proper protection to immediately respond to a wide range of hazardous situations. Currently, there are no minimum requirements, best practice documents, or nationally recognized consensus standards for protective clothing used by mine rescue teams in the United States (U.S.). The following review provides a summary of potential issues that can be addressed by rescue teams and industry to improve potential exposures to rescue team members should a disaster situation occur. However, the continued trending in the mining industry toward non-exposure to potential hazards for rescue workers should continue to be the primary goal. To assist in continuing this trend, the mining industry

  12. "Alien Rescue": Designing for Student-Centered Learning. (United States)

    Pedersen, Susan; Liu, Min; Williams, Douglas


    Describes the development of "Alien Rescue," a hypermedia-based program designed to engage middle school students in solving a complex problem related to the solar system and that has a science fiction premise. Discusses planning; producing and testing; theoretical influences on the design methodology; and trends in educational software…

  13. Development and validation of a modified Hybrid-III six-year-old dummy model for simulating submarining in motor-vehicle crashes. (United States)

    Hu, Jingwen; Klinich, Kathleen D; Reed, Matthew P; Kokkolaras, Michael; Rupp, Jonathan D


    In motor-vehicle crashes, young school-aged children restrained by vehicle seat belt systems often suffer from abdominal injuries due to submarining. However, the current anthropomorphic test device, so-called "crash dummy", is not adequate for proper simulation of submarining. In this study, a modified Hybrid-III six-year-old dummy model capable of simulating and predicting submarining was developed using MADYMO (TNO Automotive Safety Solutions). The model incorporated improved pelvis and abdomen geometry and properties previously tested in a modified physical dummy. The model was calibrated and validated against four sled tests under two test conditions with and without submarining using a multi-objective optimization method. A sensitivity analysis using this validated child dummy model showed that dummy knee excursion, torso rotation angle, and the difference between head and knee excursions were good predictors for submarining status. It was also shown that restraint system design variables, such as lap belt angle, D-ring height, and seat coefficient of friction (COF), may have opposite effects on head and abdomen injury risks; therefore child dummies and dummy models capable of simulating submarining are crucial for future restraint system design optimization for young school-aged children. Copyright © 2011 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Safety in alpine helicopter rescue operations--minimal requirements of alpine skills for rescue personnel

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Küpper, Thomas; Hillebrandt, David; Steffgen, Juergen; Schöffl, Volker


    There is a lack of data to establish minimal requirements for technical alpine climbing skills needed by rescue teams involved in alpine helicopter rescue operations to perform such operations safely...

  15. Flow dynamics around downwelling submarine canyons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Spurgin


    Full Text Available Flow dynamics around a downwelling submarine canyon were analysed with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model. Blanes Canyon (northwestern Mediterranean was used for topographic and initial forcing conditions. Fourteen scenarios were modelled with varying forcing conditions. Rossby and Burger numbers were used to determine the significance of Coriolis acceleration and stratification (respectively and their impacts on flow dynamics. A new non-dimensional parameter (χ was introduced to determine the significance of vertical variations in stratification. Some simulations do see brief periods of upwards displacement of water during the 10-day model period; however, the presence of the submarine canyon is found to enhance downwards advection of density in all model scenarios. High Burger numbers lead to negative vorticity and a trapped anticyclonic eddy within the canyon, as well as an increased density anomaly. Low Burger numbers lead to positive vorticity, cyclonic circulation, and weaker density anomalies. Vertical variations in stratification affect zonal jet placement. Under the same forcing conditions, the zonal jet is pushed offshore in more uniformly stratified domains. The offshore jet location generates upwards density advection away from the canyon, while onshore jets generate downwards density advection everywhere within the model domain. Increasing Rossby values across the canyon axis, as well as decreasing Burger values, increase negative vertical flux at shelf break depth (150 m. Increasing Rossby numbers lead to stronger downwards advection of a passive tracer (nitrate, as well as stronger vorticity within the canyon. Results from previous studies are explained within this new dynamic framework.

  16. Submarine Tailings Disposal (STD—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Dold


    Full Text Available The mining industry is a fundamental industry involved in the development of modern society, but is also the world’s largest waste producer. This role will be enhanced in the future, because ore grades are generally decreasing, thus leading to increases in the waste/metal production ratio. Mine wastes deposited on-land in so-called tailings dams, impoundments or waste-dumps have several associated environmental issues that need to be addressed (e.g., acid mine drainage formation due to sulphide oxidation, geotechnical stability, among others, and social concerns due to land use during mining. The mining industry recognizes these concerns and is searching for waste management alternatives for the future. One option used in the past was the marine shore or shallow submarine deposition of this waste material in some parts of the world. After the occurrence of some severe environmental pollution, today the deposition in the deep sea (under constant reducing conditions is seen as a new, more secure option, due to the general thought that sulphide minerals are geochemically stable under the reduced conditions prevailing in the deep marine environment. This review highlights the mineralogical and geochemical issues (e.g., solubility of sulphides in seawater; reductive dissolution of oxide minerals under reducing conditions, which have to be considered when evaluating whether submarine tailings disposal is a suitable alternative for mine waste.

  17. Submarine melt rates under Greenland's ice tongues (United States)

    Wilson, Nat; Straneo, Fiametta; Heimbach, Patrick; Cenedese, Claudia


    The few remaining ice tongues (ice-shelf like extensions) of Greenland's glaciers are undergoing rapid changes with potential implications for the stability of the ice sheet. Submarine melting is recognized as a major contributor to mass loss, yet the magnitude and spatial distribution of melt are poorly known or understood. Here, we use high resolution satellite imagery to infer the magnitude and spatial variability of melt rates under Greenland's largest remaining ice tongues: Ryder Glacier, Petermann Glacier and Nioghalvfjerdsbræ (79 North Glacier). We find that submarine plus aerial melt approximately balance the ice flux from the grounded ice sheet for the first two while at Nioghalvfjerdsbræ the total melt flux exceeds the inflow of ice indicating thinning of the ice tongue. We also show that melt rates under the ice tongues vary considerably, exceeding 60 m yr-1 near the grounding zone and decaying rapidly downstream. Channels, likely originating from upstream subglacial channels, give rise to large melt variations across the ice tongues. Using derived melt rates, we test simplified melt parameterizations appropriate for ice sheet models and find the best agreement with those that incorporate ice tongue geometry in the form of depth and slope.

  18. Feasibility of MHD submarine propulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doss, E.D. (ed.) (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Sikes, W.C. (ed.) (Newport News Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Co., VA (United States))


    This report describes the work performed during Phase 1 and Phase 2 of the collaborative research program established between Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and Newport News Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Company (NNS). Phase I of the program focused on the development of computer models for Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) propulsion. Phase 2 focused on the experimental validation of the thruster performance models and the identification, through testing, of any phenomena which may impact the attractiveness of this propulsion system for shipboard applications. The report discusses in detail the work performed in Phase 2 of the program. In Phase 2, a two Tesla test facility was designed, built, and operated. The facility test loop, its components, and their design are presented. The test matrix and its rationale are discussed. Representative experimental results of the test program are presented, and are compared to computer model predictions. In general, the results of the tests and their comparison with the predictions indicate that thephenomena affecting the performance of MHD seawater thrusters are well understood and can be accurately predicted with the developed thruster computer models.

  19. Environmental assessment of submarine power cables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isus, Daniel; Martinez, Juan D. [Grupo General Cable Sistemas, S.A., 08560-Manlleu, Barcelona (Spain); Arteche, Amaya; Del Rio, Carmen; Madina, Virginia [Tecnalia Research and Innovation, 20009 San Sebastian (Spain)


    Extensive analyses conducted by the European Community revealed that offshore wind energy have relatively benign effects on the marine environment by comparison to other forms of electric power generation [1]. However, the materials employed in offshore wind power farms suffer major changes to be confined to the marine environment at extreme conditions: saline medium, hydrostatic pressure... which can produce an important corrosion effect. This phenomenon can affect on the one hand, to the material from the structural viewpoint and on the other hand, to the marine environment. In this sense, to better understand the environmental impacts of generating electricity from offshore wind energy, this study evaluated the life cycle assessment for some new designs of submarine power cables developed by General Cable. To achieve this goal, three approaches have been carried out: leaching tests, eco-toxicity tests and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodologies. All of them are aimed to obtaining quantitative data for environmental assessment of selected submarine cables. LCA is a method used to assess environmental aspects and potential impacts of a product or activity. LCA does not include financial and social factors, which means that the results of an LCA cannot exclusively form the basis for assessment of a product's sustainability. Leaching tests results allowed to conclude that pH of seawater did not significantly changed by the presence of submarine three-core cables. Although, it was slightly higher in case of broken cable, pH values were nearly equals. Concerning to the heavy metals which could migrate to the aquatic medium, there were significant differences in both scenarios. The leaching of zinc is the major environmental concern during undersea operation of undamaged cables whereas the fully sectioned three-core cable produced the migration of significant quantities of copper and iron apart from the zinc migrated from the galvanized steel. Thus, the tar

  20. What threat do turbidity currents and submarine landslides pose to submarine telecommunications cable infrastructure? (United States)

    Clare, Michael; Pope, Edward; Talling, Peter; Hunt, James; Carter, Lionel


    The global economy relies on uninterrupted usage of a network of telecommunication cables on the seafloor. These submarine cables carry ~99% of all trans-oceanic digital data and voice communications traffic worldwide, as they have far greater bandwidth than satellites. Over 9 million SWIFT banks transfers alone were made using these cables in 2004, totalling 7.4 trillion of transactions per day between 208 countries, which grew to 15 million SWIFT bank transactions last year. We outline the challenge of why, how often, and where seafloor cables are broken by natural causes; primarily subsea landslides and sediment flows (turbidity currents and also debris flows and hyperpycnal flows). These slides and flows can be very destructive. As an example, a sediment flow in 1929 travelled up to 19 m/s and broke 11 cables in the NE Atlantic, running out for ~800 km to the abyssal ocean. The 2006 Pingtung earthquake triggered a sediment flow that broke 22 cables offshore Taiwan over a distance of 450 km. Here, we present initial results from the first statistical analysis of a global database of cable breaks and causes. We first investigate the controls on frequency of submarine cable breaks in different environmental and geological settings worldwide. We assess which types of earthquake pose a significant threat to submarine cable networks. Meteorological events, such as hurricanes and typhoons, pose a significant threat to submarine cable networks, so we also discuss the potential impacts of future climate change on the frequency of such hazards. We then go on to ask what are the physical impacts of submarine sediment flows on submerged cables? A striking observation from past cable breaks is sometimes cables remain unbroken, whilst adjacent cables are severed (and record powerful flows travelling at up to 6 m/s). Why are some cables broken, but neighbouring cables remain intact? We provide some explanations for this question, and outline the need for future in

  1. Risk assessment in submarine outfall projects: the case of Portugal. (United States)

    Mendonça, Ana; Losada, Miguel Ángel; Reis, Maria Teresa; Neves, Maria Graça


    Submarine outfalls need to be evaluated as part of an integrated environmental protection system for coastal areas. Although outfalls are tight with the diversity of economic activities along a densely populated coastline being effluent treatment and effluent reuse a sign of economic prosperity, precautions must be taken in the construction of these structures. They must be designed so as to have the least possible impact on the environment and at the same time be economically viable. This paper outlines the initial phases of a risk assessment procedure for submarine outfall projects. This approach includes a cost-benefit analysis in which risks are systematically minimized or eliminated. The methods used in this study also allow for randomness and uncertainty. The input for the analysis is a wide range of information and data concerning the failure probability of outfalls and the consequences of an operational stoppage or failure. As part of this risk assessment, target design levels of reliability, functionality, and operationality were defined for the outfalls. These levels were based on an inventory of risks associated with such construction projects, and thus afforded the possibility of identifying possible failure modes. This assessment procedure was then applied to four case studies in Portugal. The results obtained were the values concerning the useful life of the outfalls at the four sites and their joint probability of failure against the principal failure modes assigned to ultimate and serviceability limit states. Also defined were the minimum operationality of these outfalls, the average number of admissible technical breakdowns, and the maximum allowed duration of a stoppage mode. It was found that these values were in consonance with the nature of the effluent (tourist-related, industrial, or mixed) as well as its importance for the local economy. Even more important, this risk assessment procedure was able to measure the impact of the outfalls on

  2. Submarine groundwater discharge into the near-shore zone of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stieglitz, Thomas [Marine Geophysical Laboratory, School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville QLD 4811 (Australia) and Australian Institute of Marine Science, Townsville QLD 4810 (Australia)]. E-mail:


    Along the tropical coastline of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) region, little is known to date about submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) into the near-shore ocean. In an oceanographic sense, SGD consists of freshwater flow from land as well as seawater circulated through sediments. Recent radiochemical and geophysical studies, using the tracer {sup 222}Rn and apparent ground conductivity respectively, provide evidence for SGD to occur in a variety of hydrogeological settings. In this paper, a non-quantitative overview of different settings of SGD in the region is presented: (1) recirculation of seawater through animal burrows in mangrove forests, (2) freshwater SGD from unconfined aquifers as a narrow coastal fringe of freshwater along Wet Tropics beaches, (3) SGD from coastal dune systems in form of localised freshwater springs in the intertidal zone, (4) inner-shelf SGD from confined submarine aquifer systems comprised of riverine paleochannels incised into the shelf.

  3. 30 CFR 49.18 - Training for mine rescue teams. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Training for mine rescue teams. 49.18 Section... TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines § 49.18 Training for mine rescue teams. (a) Prior to serving on a mine rescue team each member shall complete, at a minimum, an initial...

  4. ESR dating of submarine hydrothermal activities using barite in sulfide deposition (United States)

    Toyoda, S.; Fujiwara, T.; Ishibashi, J.; Isono, Y.; Uchida, A.; Takamasa, A.; Nakai, S.


    The temporal change of submarine hydrothermal activities has been an important issue in the aspect of the evolution of hydrothermal systems which is related with ore formation (Urabe, 1995) and biological systems sustained by the chemical species arising from hydrothermal activities (Macdonald et al., 1980). Determining the ages of the hydrothermal deposit will provide essential information on such studies. Dating methods using disequilibrium between radioisotopes such as U-Th method (e.g. You and Bickle, 1998), 226}Ra-{210Pb and 228}Ra-{228Th method (e.g. Noguchi et al., 2011) have been applied to date submarine hydrothermal deposits. ESR (electron spin resonance) dating method is commonly applied to fossil teeth, shells, and quartz of Quaternay period where the natural accumulated dose is obtained from the intensities of the ESR signals which are created by natural radiation. The natural dose is divided by the dose rate to the mineral/sample to deduce the age. Okumura et al., (2010) made the first practical application of ESR (electron spin resonance) dating technique to a sample of submarine hydrothermal barite (BaSO4) to obtain preliminary ages, where Kasuya et al. (1991) first pointed out that barite can be used for ESR dating. Knowing that ESR dating of barite is promising, in this paper, we will present how we have investigated each factor that contributes ESR dating of barite in submarine hydrothermal sulfide deposition. (1) The best ESR condition for measuring the SO3- signal in barite is with the microwave power of 1mW and modulation amplitude of 0.1mT. (2) As results of heating experiments, the signal was found to be stable for the dating age range of several thousands. (3) 226Ra replacing Ba in barite is the source of the radiation. The amount of radioactive elements in sulfide mineral surrounding barite is negligible. (4) The external radiation from the sea water is negligible even in the submarine hydrothermal area where the radiation level is much

  5. Navy Ohio Replacement (SSBN[X]) Ballistic Missile Submarine Program: Background and Issues for Congress (United States)


    propulsion technology first occurred many years ago: To help jumpstart the UK’s nuclear - powered submarine program, the United States transferred to the UK a... nuclear - powered attack submarines (SSNs), nuclear - powered cruise missile submarines (SSGNs), and nuclear - powered ballistic missile submarines (SSBNs). 2...2 In the designations SSN, SSGN, SSBN, and SSBN(X), the SS stands for submarine, N stands for nuclear - powered (meaning the ship is

  6. Zone Defense -- Anti-Submarine Warfare Strategy in the age of Littoral Warfare (United States)


    systems malfunctioned at critical times and there is one documented case where the torpedoes they fired failed to detonate .9 However, they were still...Argentine submarine.25 While many ships in the U.S. Navy serve as multi-mission platforms, capable of simultaneously executing numerous tasks, with the implosion of the Russian economy. Recently, the Russian economy has shown a resurgence and it has coincided with a resurgence in

  7. Teaching Holocaust Rescue: A Problematic Pedagogy (United States)

    Lindquist, David H.


    Determining how to teach about rescue during the Holocaust presents many dilemmas to teachers as they plan Holocaust curricula. Rescue is often overemphasized, and faulty perspectives about rescuers and their actions may cause students to develop distorted views about this aspect of Holocaust history. This article explores several factors that…

  8. Submarine landside in the Bussol Graben: Structural and formation features (United States)

    Baranov, B. V.; Lobkovsky, L. I.; Dozorova, K. A.; Rukavishnikova, D. D.


    Analysis of geophysical data obtained during a study of the insular slope in the central Kuril‒Kamchatka Trench during projects Kuriles-2005 and Kuriles-2006 promoted by the Presidium of the Russian Academy of Sciences revealed a large submarine landslide in this area. The landslide, located at the bottom of the transverse valley confined to the Bussol l Graben, resulted from the failure of the northeastern wall of a graben composed of sedimentary material. It exceeds 35 km3 in size, representing one of the large submarine landslides discovered to date on the slope of the Kuril‒Kamchatka Trench in submarine canyonfan environments.

  9. Long-term flow monitoring of submarine gas emanations (United States)

    Spickenbom, K.; Faber, E.; Poggenburg, J.; Seeger, C.


    One of the Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) strategies currently under study is the sequestration of CO2 in sub-seabed geological formations. Even after a thorough review of the geological setting, there is the possibility of leaks from the reservoirs. As part of the EU-financed project CO2ReMoVe (Research, Monitoring, Verification), which aims to develop innovative research and technologies for monitoring and verification of carbon dioxide geological storage, we are working on the development of submarine long-term gas flow monitoring systems. Technically, however, these systems are not limited to CO2 but can be used for monitoring of any free gas emission (bubbles) on the seafloor. The basic design of the gas flow sensor system was derived from former prototypes developed for monitoring CO2 and CH4 on mud volcanoes in Azerbaijan. This design was composed of a raft floating on the surface above the gas vent to collect the bubbles. Sensors for CO2 flux and concentration and electronics for data storage and transmission were mounted on the raft, together with battery-buffered solar panels for power supply. The system was modified for installation in open sea by using a buoy instead of a raft and a funnel on the seafloor to collect the gas, which is then guided above water level through a flexible tube. Besides some technical problems (condensed water in the tube, movement of the buoys due to waves leading to biased measurement of flow rates), this setup provides a cost-effective solution for shallow waters. However, a buoy interferes with ship traffic, and it is also difficult to adapt this design to greater water depths. These requirements can best be complied by a completely submersed system. To allow unattended long-term monitoring in a submarine environment, such a system has to be extremely durable. Therefore, we focussed on developing a mechanically and electrically as simple setup as possible, which has the additional advantage of low cost. The system

  10. Submarine thermal springs on the Galapagos Rift (United States)

    Corliss, J.B.; Dymond, J.; Gordon, L.I.; Edmond, J.M.; Von Herzen, R. P.; Ballard, Richard D.; Green, K.; Williams, D.; Bainbridge, A.; Crane, K.; Van Andel, T. H.


    The submarine hydrothermal activity on and near the Galápagos Rift has been explored with the aid of the deep submersible Alvin. Analyses of water samples from hydrothermal vents reveal that hydrothermal activity provides significant or dominant sources and sinks for several components of seawater; studies of conductive and convective heat transfer suggest that two-thirds of the heat lost from new oceanic lithosphere at the Galápagos Rift in the first million years may be vented from thermal springs, predominantly along the axial ridge within the rift valley. The vent areas are populated by animal communities. They appear to utilize chemosynthesis by sulfur-oxidizing bacteria to derive their entire energy supply from reactions between the seawater and the rocks at high temperatures, rather than photosynthesis

  11. A model for tidewater glacier undercutting by submarine melting (United States)

    Slater, D. A.; Nienow, P. W.; Goldberg, D. N.; Cowton, T. R.; Sole, A. J.


    Dynamic change at the marine-terminating margins of the Greenland Ice Sheet may be initiated by the ocean, particularly where subglacial runoff drives vigorous ice-marginal plumes and rapid submarine melting. Here we model submarine melt-driven undercutting of tidewater glacier termini, simulating a process which is key to understanding ice-ocean coupling. Where runoff emerges from broad subglacial channels we find that undercutting has only a weak impact on local submarine melt rate but increases total ablation by submarine melting due to the larger submerged ice surface area. Thus, the impact of melting is determined not only by the melt rate magnitude but also by the slope of the ice-ocean interface. We suggest that the most severe undercutting occurs at the maximum height in the fjord reached by the plume, likely promoting calving of ice above. It remains unclear, however, whether undercutting proceeds sufficiently rapidly to influence calving at Greenland's fastest-flowing glaciers.

  12. Submarine Upward Looking Sonar Ice Draft Profile Data and Statistics (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of upward looking sonar draft data collected by submarines in the Arctic Ocean. It includes data from both U.S. Navy and Royal Navy...

  13. Exercise Aboard Attack Submarines: Rationale and New Options (United States)


    experience loss of physical fitness while underway. Bennett and co-workers (2) noted a 7% reduction of maximal oxygen consumption in non-exercising...Inc. designed and built a comprehensive resistance exercise device to help counteract muscle deconditioning during long term space flights (the SX... Physical activity aboard nuclear submarines as measured by pedometry. Groton: Naval Submarine Medical Research Laboratory, Report 1053, 1985, p. 12

  14. Are tilt measurements useful in detecting tsunamigenic submarine landslides?


    Sascha Brune; Andrey Babeyko; Stephan V. Sobolev


    Large submarine landslides can generate dangerous tsunamis. Because of their long-period signal, detection of landslides by common seismological methods is difficult. Here we suggest a method of detecting submarine landslides by using an array of land-based tiltmeters. The displacement of a large volume of sediments during landsliding produces a detectable elastic response of the lithosphere. We propose a technique to calculate this response and to invert for tsunami relevant parameters like ...

  15. Using Google Earth for Submarine Operations at Pavilion Lake (United States)

    Deans, M. C.; Lees, D. S.; Fong, T.; Lim, D. S.


    During the July 2009 Pavilion Lake field test, we supported submarine "flight" operations using Google Earth. The Intelligent Robotics Group at NASA Ames has experience with ground data systems for NASA missions, earth analog field tests, disaster response, and the Gigapan camera system. Leveraging this expertise and existing software, we put together a set of tools to support sub tracking and mapping, called the "Surface Data System." This system supports flight planning, real time flight operations, and post-flight analysis. For planning, we make overlays of the regional bedrock geology, sonar bathymetry, and sonar backscatter maps that show geology, depth, and structure of the bottom. Placemarks show the mooring locations for start and end points. Flight plans are shown as polylines with icons for waypoints. Flight tracks and imagery from previous field seasons are embedded in the map for planning follow-on activities. These data provide context for flight planning. During flights, sub position is updated every 5 seconds from the nav computer on the chase boat. We periodically update tracking KML files and refresh them with network links. A sub icon shows current location of the sub. A compass rose shows bearings to indicate heading to the next waypoint. A "Science Stenographer" listens on the voice loop and transcribes significant observations in real time. Observations called up to the surface immediately appear on the map as icons with date, time, position, and what was said. After each flight, the science back room immediately has the flight track and georeferenced notes from the pilots. We add additional information in post-processing. The submarines record video continuously, with "event" timestamps marked by the pilot. We cross-correlate the event timestamps with position logs to geolocate events and put a preview image and compressed video clip into the map. Animated flight tracks are also generated, showing timestamped position and providing timelapse

  16. The population genetics of evolutionary rescue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Allen Orr


    Full Text Available Evolutionary rescue occurs when a population that is threatened with extinction by an environmental change adapts to the change sufficiently rapidly to survive. Here we extend the mathematical theory of evolutionary rescue. In particular, we model evolutionary rescue to a sudden environmental change when adaptation involves evolution at a single locus. We consider adaptation using either new mutations or alleles from the standing genetic variation that begin rare. We obtain several results: i the total probability of evolutionary rescue from either new mutation or standing variation; ii the conditions under which rescue is more likely to involve a new mutation versus an allele from the standing genetic variation; iii a mathematical description of the U-shaped curve of total population size through time, conditional on rescue; and iv the time until the average population size begins to rebound as well as the minimal expected population size experienced by a rescued population. Our analysis requires taking into account a subtle population-genetic effect (familiar from the theory of genetic hitchhiking that involves "oversampling" of those lucky alleles that ultimately sweep to high frequency. Our results are relevant to conservation biology, experimental microbial evolution, and medicine (e.g., the dynamics of antibiotic resistance.

  17. Computer Security: DNS to the rescue!

    CERN Multimedia

    Stefan Lueders, Computer Security Team


    Why you should be grateful to the Domain Name System at CERN.   Incidents involving so-called “drive-by” infections and “ransomware” are on the rise. Whilst an up-to-date and fully patched operating system is essential; whilst running anti-virus software with current virus signature files is a must; whilst “stop --- think --- don’t click” surely helps, we can still go one step further in better protecting your computers: DNS to the rescue. The DNS, short for Domain Name System, translates the web address you want to visit (like “”) to a machine-readable format (the IP address, here: “”). For years, we have automatically monitored the DNS translation requests made by your favourite web browser (actually by your operating system, but that doesn’t matter here), and we have automatically informed you if your computer tried to access a website known to hos...

  18. The development of permafrost bacterial communities under submarine conditions (United States)

    Mitzscherling, Julia; Winkel, Matthias; Winterfeld, Maria; Horn, Fabian; Yang, Sizhong; Grigoriev, Mikhail N.; Wagner, Dirk; Overduin, Pier P.; Liebner, Susanne


    Submarine permafrost is more vulnerable to thawing than permafrost on land. Besides increased heat transfer from the ocean water, the penetration of salt lowers the freezing temperature and accelerates permafrost degradation. Microbial communities in thawing permafrost are expected to be stimulated by warming, but how they develop under submarine conditions is completely unknown. We used the unique records of two submarine permafrost cores from the Laptev Sea on the East Siberian Arctic Shelf, inundated about 540 and 2500 years ago, to trace how bacterial communities develop depending on duration of the marine influence and pore water chemistry. Combined with geochemical analysis, we quantified total cell numbers and bacterial gene copies and determined the community structure of bacteria using deep sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene. We show that submarine permafrost is an extreme habitat for microbial life deep below the seafloor with changing thermal and chemical conditions. Pore water chemistry revealed different pore water units reflecting the degree of marine influence and stages of permafrost thaw. Millennia after inundation by seawater, bacteria stratify into communities in permafrost, marine-affected permafrost, and seabed sediments. In contrast to pore water chemistry, the development of bacterial community structure, diversity, and abundance in submarine permafrost appears site specific, showing that both sedimentation and permafrost thaw histories strongly affect bacteria. Finally, highest microbial abundance was observed in the ice-bonded seawater unaffected but warmed permafrost of the longer inundated core, suggesting that permafrost bacterial communities exposed to submarine conditions start to proliferate millennia after warming.

  19. Cardiometabolic Health in Submariners Returning from a 3-Month Patrol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heath G. Gasier


    Full Text Available Confined space, limited exercise equipment, rotating shift work and reduced sleep may affect cardiometabolic health in submariners. To test this hypothesis, 53 male U.S. Submariners (20–39 years were studied before and after a 3-month routine submarine patrol. Measures included anthropometrics, dietary and physical activity, biomarkers of cardiometabolic health, energy and appetite regulation, and inflammation. Before deployment, 62% of submariners had a body fat % (BF% ≥ 25% (obesity, and of this group, 30% met the criteria for metabolic syndrome. In obese volunteers, insulin, the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, leptin, the leptin/adiponectin ratio, and pro-inflammatory chemokines growth-related oncogene and macrophage-derived chemokine were significantly higher compared to non-obese submariners. Following the patrol, a significant mean reduction in body mass (5% and fat-mass (11% occurred in the obese group as a result of reduced energy intake (~2000 kJ during the patrol; and, independent of group, modest improvements in serum lipids and a mean reduction in interferon γ-induced protein 10 and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 were observed. Since 43% of the submariners remained obese, and 18% continued to meet the criteria for metabolic syndrome following the patrol, the magnitude of weight loss was insufficient to completely abolish metabolic dysfunction. Submergence up to 3-months, however, does not appear to be the cause of obesity, which is similar to that of the general population.

  20. Solution of Supplee's submarine paradox through special and general relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Vieira, R S


    In 1989 Supplee described an apparent relativistic paradox on which a submarine seems to sink in a given frame while floating in another one. If the submarine density is adjusted to be the same as the water density (when both of them are at rest) and then it is put to move, the density of the submarine will become higher than that of the water, thanks to Lorentz contraction, and hence it sinks. However, in the submarine proper frame, is the water that becomes denser, so the submarine supposedly should float and we get a paradox situation. In this paper we analyze the submarine paradox in both a flat and a curved spacetime. In the case of a flat spacetime, we first show that any relativistic force field in special relativity can be written in the Lorentz form, so that it can always be decomposed into a static (electric-like) and a dynamic (magnetic-like) part. Taking into account the gravitomagnetic effects between the Earth and the water, a relativistic formulation of Archimedes principle can be established, ...


    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library



    .... In this article, we review present uses of GODAE ocean forecast systems for various safety applications at sea, including search and rescue drift calculations, iceberg drift calculations, ice cover...

  2. Diet induced mild hypercholesterolemia in pigs: local and systemic inflammation, effects on vascular injury - rescue by high-dose statin treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Busnelli

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to comprehensively evaluate systemic and local inflammation as well as progression of vascular inflammation in normal and mechanically injured vessels in a large animal model of mild hypercholesterolemia. Our aim was also to test the effect of high-dose statin treatment on these processes. METHODS: Pigs were kept for 120 days on a standard diet (SD, n=7, high-cholesterol diet (HCD, n=7 or high-cholesterol diet with Atorvastatin starting after 50 days (STATIN, n=7. Left carotid artery balloon injury was conducted in all groups after 60 days of diet treatment. Biochemical analysis together with evaluation of blood and tissue markers of vascular injury and inflammation were performed in all groups at the end of experiment. RESULTS: HCD compared to SD induced systemic inflammation demonstrated by increased number of circulating monocytes and lymphocytes. HCD compared to SD induced also local inflammation demonstrated by adipocyte hypertrophy and infiltration of T-lymphocytes in abdominal white adipose tissue, activation of hepatic stellate cells with infiltration of T- and B-lymphocytes and macrophages in the liver and increased macrophage content in lung parenchyma. These changes were accompanied by increased Intima/Media thickness, stenosis, matrix deposition and activated T-cell infiltrates in injured but not in uninjured contralateral carotid artery as we previously reported. The treatment with high-dose statin attenuated all aspects of systemic and local inflammation as well as pathological changes in injured carotid artery. CONCLUSIONS: Diet related mild hypercholesterolemia induce systemic and local inflammation in the liver, lung and adipose tissue that coincide with enhanced inflammation of injured vessel but is without deleterious effect on uninjured vessels. High dose statin attenuated systemic and local inflammation and protected injured vessels. However, finding exact role of reduced systemic

  3. Rescuing a Treasure Uranium-233

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krichinsky, Alan M [ORNL; Goldberg, Dr. Steven A. [DOE SC - Chicago Office; Hutcheon, Dr. Ian D. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)


    Uranium-233 (233U) is a synthetic isotope of uranium formed under reactor conditions during neutron capture by natural thorium (232Th). At high purities, this synthetic isotope serves as a crucial reference for accurately quantifying and characterizing natural uranium isotopes for domestic and international safeguards. Separated 233U is stored in vaults at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. These materials represent a broad spectrum of 233U from the standpoint isotopic purity the purest being crucial for precise analyses in safeguarding uranium. All 233U at ORNL currently is scheduled to be down blended with depleted uranium beginning in 2015. Such down blending will permanently destroy the potential value of pure 233U samples as certified reference material for use in uranium analyses. Furthermore, no replacement 233U stocks are expected to be produced in the future due to a lack of operating production capability and the high cost of returning to operation this currently shut down capability. This paper will describe the efforts to rescue the purest of the 233U materials arguably national treasures from their destruction by down blending.

  4. Submarine springs and coastal karst aquifers: A review (United States)

    Fleury, Perrine; Bakalowicz, Michel; de Marsily, Ghislain


    SummaryThis article reports on current knowledge of coastal karst aquifers, in which conduit flow is dominant, and its aim is to characterise the functioning of these systems which are closely linked to the sea. First, earlier and recent studies of these aquifers are discussed. On the basis of their findings, it can be shown that two essential mechanisms are involved in the functioning of these systems, i.e., aquifer discharge through submarine springs and saline intrusion through conduits open to the sea. Then, the conditions that give rise to these aquifers are described and particular emphasis is placed on the influence of deep karstification when the sea level falls. The base-level variations are attributed to the glaciations or, in the specific case of the Mediterranean, to the salinity crisis in the Messinian period. It is this inherited structure, sometimes containing very deep conduits below sea level, that today conditions the aquifer flow. The flow in the conduits open to the sea depends on the hydraulic head gradient between the aquifer and the sea and is therefore a function of the water density and head losses in the aquifer. This survey of coastal karst aquifers has revealed some common characteristics that show the development and/or functional capacity of their karstic drainage networks. A classification of such systems into three categories is proposed with the aim of assisting in the decision-making concerning potential exploitation of water resources in coastal regions.

  5. Importance of teamwork, communication and culture on failure-to-rescue in the elderly. (United States)

    Ghaferi, A A; Dimick, J B


    Surgical mortality increases significantly with age. Wide variations in mortality rates across hospitals suggest potential levers for improvement. Failure-to-rescue has been posited as a potential mechanism underlying these differences. A review was undertaken of the literature evaluating surgery, mortality, failure-to-rescue and the elderly. This was followed by a review of ongoing studies and unpublished work aiming to understand better the mechanisms underlying variations in surgical mortality in elderly patients. Multiple hospital macro-system factors, such as nurse staffing, available hospital technology and teaching status, are associated with differences in failure-to-rescue rates. There is emerging literature regarding important micro-system factors associated with failure-to-rescue. These are grouped into three broad categories: hospital resources, attitudes and behaviours. Ongoing work to produce interventions to reduce variations in failure-to-rescue rates include a focus on teamwork, communication and safety culture. Researchers are using novel mixed-methods approaches and theories adapted from organizational studies in high-reliability organizations in an effort to improve the care of elderly surgical patients. Although elderly surgical patients experience failure-to-rescue events at much higher rates than their younger counterparts, patient-level effects do not sufficiently explain these differences. Increased attention to the role of organizational dynamics in hospitals' ability to rescue these high-risk patients will establish high-yield interventions aimed at improving patient safety. © 2015 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. 'We didn't know anything, it was a mess!' Emergent structures and the effectiveness of a rescue operation multi-team system. (United States)

    Fleştea, Alina Maria; Fodor, Oana Cătălina; Curşeu, Petru Lucian; Miclea, Mircea


    Multi-team systems (MTS) are used to tackle unpredictable events and to respond effectively to fast-changing environmental contingencies. Their effectiveness is influenced by within as well as between team processes (i.e. communication, coordination) and emergent phenomena (i.e. situational awareness). The present case study explores the way in which the emergent structures and the involvement of bystanders intertwine with the dynamics of processes and emergent states both within and between the component teams. Our findings show that inefficient transition process and the ambiguous leadership generated poor coordination and hindered the development of emergent phenomena within the whole system. Emergent structures and bystanders substituted leadership functions and provided a pool of critical resources for the MTS. Their involvement fostered the emergence of situational awareness and facilitated contingency planning processes. However, bystander involvement impaired the emergence of cross-understandings and interfered with coordination processes between the component teams. Practitioner Summary: Based on a real emergency situation, the present research provides important theoretical and practical insights about the role of bystander involvement in the dynamics of multi-team systems composed to tackle complex tasks and respond to fast changing and unpredictable environmental contingencies.

  7. Submarine Landslides at Santa Catalina Island, California (United States)

    Legg, M. R.; Francis, R. D.


    Santa Catalina Island is an active tectonic block of volcanic and metamorphic rocks originally exposed during middle Miocene transtension along the evolving Pacific-North America transform plate boundary. Post-Miocene transpression created the existing large pop-up structure along the major strike-slip restraining bend of the Catalina fault that forms the southwest flank of the uplift. Prominent submerged marine terraces apparent in high-resolution bathymetric maps interrupt the steep submarine slopes in the upper ~400 meters subsea depths. Steep subaerial slopes of the island are covered by Quaternary landslides, especially at the sea cliffs and in the blueschist metamorphic rocks. The submarine slopes also show numerous landslides that range in area from a few hectares to more than three sq-km (300 hectares). Three or more landslides of recent origin exist between the nearshore and first submerged terrace along the north-facing shelf of the island's West End. One of these slides occurred during September 2005 when divers observed a remarkable change in the seafloor configuration after previous dives in the area. Near a sunken yacht at about 45-ft depth where the bottom had sloped gently into deeper water, a "sinkhole" had formed that dropped steeply to 100-ft or greater depths. Some bubbling sand was observed in the shallow water areas that may be related to the landslide process. High-resolution multibeam bathymetry acquired in 2008 by CSU Monterey Bay show this "fresh" slide and at least two other slides of varying age along the West End. The slides are each roughly 2 hectares in area and their debris aprons are spread across the first terrace at about 85-m water depth that is likely associated with the Last Glacial Maximum sealevel lowstand. Larger submarine slides exist along the steep Catalina and Catalina Ridge escarpments along the southwest flank of the island platform. A prominent slide block, exceeding 3 sq-km in area, appears to have slipped more than

  8. [Organization and management of mountain rescues]. (United States)

    Maupin, Thierry


    Mountain rescue is a matter for specialists. Specific training, a model of organisation under state control, emergency protocols and information and prevention campaigns have helped to improve morbidity and mortality rates in the mountains.


    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Howard Cooke


      This article discusses the situation where a company has been given a lifeline of an approved Business Rescue Plan but has to balance the need for speed by having to engage in negotiation for reducing employment...

  10. [Nontraumatic medical emergencies in mountain rescues]. (United States)

    Sierra Quintana, Eva; Martínez Caballero, Carmen María; Batista Pardo, Sara Abigail; Abella Barraca, Salas; de la Vieja Soriano, María


    To describe the clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of patients with nontraumatic medical problems rescued by a Spanish mountain emergency response service (061 Aragon). Retrospective observational analysis of records of mountain rescues completed between July 2010 and December 2016. A total of 164 patients with nontraumatic medical emergencies were rescued; 82.3% were males. Most patients were between the ages of 50 and 59 years. Environmentally related problems, most often hypothermia, accounted for 36.6% of the emergencies. Cardiac problems led to 20.7% and digestive problems to 12.8%. Eighty-two percent of the patients were hiking or engaged in general mountain activities (other than rock climbing, canyoning, hunting, or skiing). Recent years have seen a rise in the number of patients requiring rescue from mountains for nontraumatic medical emergencies, particularly heart problems. The typical patient to expect would be a man between the ages of 50 and 59 years who is hiking in the summer.

  11. ROV Tiburon Investigation of Hawaiian Submarine Canyons (United States)

    Paull, C. K.; Greene, H. G.; Caress, D. W.; Clague, D. A.; Ussler, W.; Maher, N. M.


    MBARI conducted ROV dives around the Hawaiian Islands during an expedition of the R/V Western Flyer and Tiburon in the spring of 2001. Eight ROV dives were made to investigate five major submarine canyons offshore of Oahu, Molokai, and Hawaii in up to 3,434 m water depths. Four of these canyons are located off the windward (northern) side of these islands where onshore canyons are also well developed. Those canyons located offshore of Molokai and Oahu incise the head scars of the giant Nuuanu and Wailai submarine landslides. ROV observations and sediment and rock outcrop sampling were made in these canyons to determine their origin and present-day activity. The fifth canyon investigated is located on the leeward (southern) side of Molokai. The canyons along the windward side expose extensive stratigraphic sections that reveal the history of the islands' formation. In composite, these sections contain marine pillow basalt overlain by a substantial sequence of alternating subaerial lava flows, rounded boulder conglomerates, shallow water carbonates, and hyaloclastites that indicate coastal and marine deposition. These sequences illustrate the accretion and subsequent subsidence of the islands' flanks. These canyons also have morphologically distinct upper and lower sections. The upper reaches of the canyons are incised into the shallow water marine facies and contain broad axial channels through which active sediment transport is occurring. In contrast, the morphology of the lower canyons are strongly influenced by the giant landslides that massively altered the northern flanks of the Hawaiian chain. The lower canyons contain plunge pools and steep headwall scarps that are generally comprised of mechanically competent subaerial lava flows. The presence of multiple plunge pools with differentially eroded head scarps suggests retrogressive erosion (bottom-up process) with headward advancement of the various heads. Undercutting of the headwalls also produce periodic

  12. China Medical Team: Medical rescue for “4.25” Nepal earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Lin


    Full Text Available In recent years, global natural disasters have been frequent and resulted in great casualties and property loss. Since Wenchuan earthquake, the disaster emergency rescue system of China has obtained considerable development in various aspects including team construction, task scheduling, personnel training, facilities and equipments, logistics, etc. On April 25, 2015, an earthquake that measured 8.1 on the Richter scale attacked Nepal. Chinese government firstly organized a medical team, named China Medical Team, and sent it to the attacked region in Nepal to implement medical rescue. The medical team completed the rescue mission successfully and creatively based on their experiences.

  13. Rescuing and recovering lost or endangered data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Griffin


    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the vital importance to the scientific community of rescuing historic scientific data, presently in various informal, non-digital formats, from likely oblivion and making them accessible digitally for trend analyses. It proposes models whereby historic biodiversity and astronomical data can be recovered as Canadian initiatives, in the hope of stimulating further discussion of such simple yet essential rescue missions in the context of Canadian scientific research.

  14. Relationship between work stress and health in submariners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan-nan JIANG


    Full Text Available Objective To explore the relationship between work stress and health in submariners. Methods In April 2008, 272 submariners trained in a navy base were selected as study subjects by random group sampling method, and tested by primary personal information questionnaire, self-rated health measurement scale (SRHMS, self-developed submariners' work stressors questionnaire, and work stress self-rated scale. Physical health, mental health and social health of submariners were analyzed, and scores were compared with the norm of reference scores. Correlations were analyzed respectively between 10 items of submariners' general information (including age, length of military service, education degree, years at the present post, times of receiving awards, on-duty hours, off-duty hours, hours of sleep, lost days of leave, positive attitude to work and their physical health score, mental health score, social health score, total health score, as well as between 15 submariners' work stressors (including workrelated risks, diet problems, high temperature, humidity and noise in workplace, shortage of clean clothes, illness, losing contact with outside, lack of information about the task, lacking supports from family members, relationship problems, lack of involvement in task decisions, boring and dull work, on duty, heavy work, high quality of work, coping with unexpected threat and their physical health score, mental health score, social health score and total health score. Results No significant difference was found between submariners' SRHMS total score and the normal referenced score (t=0.56, P>0.05, but the physical health score and mental health score were significantly lower than normal referenced scores respectively (t=–2.172, P<0.05; t=–3.299, P<0.01, and the social health score was significantly higher than normal referenced score (t=9.331, P<0.001. The age, length of military service, years at present post of submariners were related

  15. An Oxygenated and Transportable Machine Perfusion System Fully Rescues Liver Grafts Exposed to Lethal Ischemic Damage in a Pig Model of DCD Liver Transplantation. (United States)

    Compagnon, Philippe; Levesque, Eric; Hentati, Hassen; Disabato, Mara; Calderaro, Julien; Feray, Cyrille; Corlu, Anne; Cohen, José Laurent; Ben Mosbah, Ismail; Azoulay, Daniel


    Control of warm ischemia (WI) lesions that occur with donation after circulatory death (DCD) would significantly increase the donor pool for liver transplantation. We aimed to determine whether a novel, oxygenated and hypothermic machine perfusion device (HMP Airdrive system) improves the quality of livers derived from DCDs using a large animal model. Cardiac arrest was induced in female large white pigs by intravenous injection of potassium chloride. After 60 minutes of WI, livers were flushed in situ with histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate and subsequently preserved either by simple cold storage (WI-SCS group) or HMP (WI-HMP group) using Belzer-MPS solution. Liver grafts procured from heart-beating donors and preserved by SCS served as controls. After 4 hours of preservation, all livers were transplanted. All recipients in WI-SCS group died within 6 hours after transplantation. In contrast, the HMP device fully protected the liver against lethal ischemia/reperfusion injury, allowing 100% survival rate. A postreperfusion syndrome was observed in all animals of the WI-SCS group but none of the control or WI-HMP groups. After reperfusion, HMP-preserved livers functioned better and showed less hepatocellular and endothelial cell injury, in agreement with better-preserved liver histology relative to WI-SCS group. In addition to improved energy metabolism, this protective effect was associated with an attenuation of inflammatory response, oxidative load, endoplasmic reticulum stress, mitochondrial damage, and apoptosis. This study demonstrates for the first time the efficacy of the HMP Airdrive system to protect liver grafts from lethal ischemic damage before transplantation in a clinically relevant DCD model.

  16. Breathing modes of Kolumbo submarine volcano (Santorini, Greece). (United States)

    Bakalis, Evangelos; Mertzimekis, Theo J; Nomikou, Paraskevi; Zerbetto, Francesco


    Submarine volcanoes, such as Kolumbo (Santorini, Greece) are natural laboratories for fostering multidisciplinary studies. Their investigation requires the most innovative marine technology together with advanced data analysis. Conductivity and temperature of seawater were recorded directly above Kolumbo's hydrothermal vent system. The respective time series have been analyzed in terms of non-equilibrium techniques. The energy dissipation of the volcanic activity is monitored by the temperature variations of seawater. The venting dynamics of chemical products is monitored by water conductivity. The analysis of the time series in terms of stochastic processes delivers scaling exponents with turning points between consecutive regimes for both conductivity and temperature. Changes of conductivity are shown to behave as a universal multifractal and their variance is subdiffusive as the scaling exponents indicate. Temperature is constant over volcanic rest periods and a universal multifractal behavior describes its changes in line with a subdiffusive character otherwise. The universal multifractal description illustrates the presence of non-conservative conductivity and temperature fields showing that the system never retains a real equilibrium state. The existence of a repeated pattern of the combined effect of both seawater and volcanic activity is predicted. The findings can shed light on the dynamics of chemical products emitted from the vents and point to the presence of underlying mechanisms that govern potentially hazardous, underwater volcanic environments.

  17. Breathing modes of Kolumbo submarine volcano (Santorini, Greece) (United States)

    Bakalis, Evangelos; Mertzimekis, Theo J.; Nomikou, Paraskevi; Zerbetto, Francesco


    Submarine volcanoes, such as Kolumbo (Santorini, Greece) are natural laboratories for fostering multidisciplinary studies. Their investigation requires the most innovative marine technology together with advanced data analysis. Conductivity and temperature of seawater were recorded directly above Kolumbo’s hydrothermal vent system. The respective time series have been analyzed in terms of non-equilibrium techniques. The energy dissipation of the volcanic activity is monitored by the temperature variations of seawater. The venting dynamics of chemical products is monitored by water conductivity. The analysis of the time series in terms of stochastic processes delivers scaling exponents with turning points between consecutive regimes for both conductivity and temperature. Changes of conductivity are shown to behave as a universal multifractal and their variance is subdiffusive as the scaling exponents indicate. Temperature is constant over volcanic rest periods and a universal multifractal behavior describes its changes in line with a subdiffusive character otherwise. The universal multifractal description illustrates the presence of non-conservative conductivity and temperature fields showing that the system never retains a real equilibrium state. The existence of a repeated pattern of the combined effect of both seawater and volcanic activity is predicted. The findings can shed light on the dynamics of chemical products emitted from the vents and point to the presence of underlying mechanisms that govern potentially hazardous, underwater volcanic environments.

  18. Using multiple geochemical tracers to characterize the hydrogeology of the submarine spring off Crescent Beach, Florida (United States)

    Swarzenski, P.W.; Reich, C.D.; Spechler, R.M.; Kindinger, J.L.; Moore, W.S.


    A spectacular submarine spring is located about 4 km east of Crescent Beach, FL, in the Atlantic Ocean. The single vent feature of Crescent Beach Spring provides a unique opportunity to examine onshore-offshore hydrogeologic processes, as well as point source submarine ground water discharge. The Floridan aquifer system in northeastern Florida consists of Tertiary interspersed limestone and dolomite strata. Impermeable beds confine the water-bearing zones under artesian pressure. Miocene and younger confining strata have been eroded away at the vent feature, enabling direct hydrologic communication of Eocene ground water with coastal bottom waters. The spring water had a salinity of 6.02, which was immediately diluted by ambient seawater during advection/mixing. The concentration of major solutes in spring water and onshore well waters confirm a generalized easterly flow direction of artesian ground water. Nutrient concentrations were generally low in the reducing vent samples, and the majority of the total nitrogen species existed as NH3. The submarine ground water tracers, Rn-222 (1174 dpm I-1, dpm), methane (232 nM) and barium (294.5 nM) were all highly enriched in the spring water relative to ambient seawater. The concentrations of the reverse redox elements U, V and Mo were expectedly low in the submarine waters. The strontium isotope ratio of the vent water (87Sr/86Sr = 0.70798) suggests that the spring water contain an integrated signature indicative of Floridan aquifer system ground water. Additional Sr isotopic ratios from a series of surficial and Lower Floridan well samples suggest dynamic ground water mixing, and do not provide clear evidence for a single hydrogeologic water source at the spring vent. In this karst-dominated aquifer, such energetic mixing at the vent feature is expected, and would be facilitated by conduit and fractured flow. Radium isotope activities were utilized to estimate flow-path trajectories and to provide information on

  19. Dexamethasone Rescues Neurovascular Unit Integrity from Cell Damage Caused by Systemic Administration of Shiga Toxin 2 and Lipopolysaccharide in Mice Motor Cortex (United States)

    Pinto, Alipio; Jacobsen, Mariana; Geoghegan, Patricia A.; Cangelosi, Adriana; Cejudo, María Laura; Tironi-Farinati, Carla; Goldstein, Jorge


    Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) causes hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) that can lead to fatal encephalopathies. Neurological abnormalities may occur before or after the onset of systemic pathological symptoms and motor disorders are frequently observed in affected patients and in studies with animal models. As Stx2 succeeds in crossing the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and invading the brain parenchyma, it is highly probable that the observed neurological alterations are based on the possibility that the toxin may trigger the impairment of the neurovascular unit and/or cell damage in the parenchyma. Also, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) produced and secreted by enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) may aggravate the deleterious effects of Stx2 in the brain. Therefore, this study aimed to determine (i) whether Stx2 affects the neurovascular unit and parenchymal cells, (ii) whether the contribution of LPS aggravates these effects, and (iii) whether an inflammatory event underlies the pathophysiological mechanisms that lead to the observed injury. The administration of a sub-lethal dose of Stx2 was employed to study in detail the motor cortex obtained from a translational murine model of encephalopathy. In the present paper we report that Stx2 damaged microvasculature, caused astrocyte reaction and neuronal degeneration, and that this was aggravated by LPS. Dexamethasone, an anti-inflammatory, reversed the pathologic effects and proved to be an important drug in the treatment of acute encephalopathies. PMID:23894578

  20. Splicing factor SF2/ASF rescues IL-2 production in T cells from systemic lupus erythematosus patients by activating IL-2 transcription. (United States)

    Moulton, Vaishali R; Grammatikos, Alexandros P; Fitzgerald, Lisa M; Tsokos, George C


    T cells from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) produce insufficient amounts of the vital cytokine IL-2. We previously showed that SLE T cells express decreased levels of the T-cell receptor-CD3ζ chain and forced expression of CD3ζ into SLE T cells restores IL-2 production. We recently showed that the serine arginine protein splicing factor 2/alternative splicing factor (SF2/ASF) enhances the expression of CD3ζ chain by limiting the production of an unstable splice variant. Here we demonstrate that SF2/ASF levels are decreased in patients with SLE and more so in those with active disease. More importantly, we reveal a function of SF2/ASF, independent of T-cell receptor/CD3 signaling, whereby it is recruited to the IL-2 promoter, increases transcriptional activity, and enhances IL-2 production in SLE T cells. Our results demonstrate that SF2/ASF regulates IL-2 production and that decreased SF2/ASF expression in SLE T cells contributes to deficient IL-2 production.

  1. Your Laptop to the Rescue: Using the Child Language Data Exchange System Archive and CLAN Utilities to Improve Child Language Sample Analysis. (United States)

    Ratner, Nan Bernstein; MacWhinney, Brian


    In this article, we review the advantages of language sample analysis (LSA) and explain how clinicians can make the process of LSA faster, easier, more accurate, and more insightful than LSA done "by hand" by using free, available software programs such as Computerized Language Analysis (CLAN). We demonstrate the utility of CLAN analysis in studying the expressive language of a very large cohort of 24-month-old toddlers tracked in a recent longitudinal study; toddlers in particular are the most likely group to receive LSA by clinicians, but existing reference "norms" for this population are based on fairly small cohorts of children. Finally, we demonstrate how a CLAN utility such as KidEval can now extract potential normative data from the very large number of corpora now available for English and other languages at the Child Language Data Exchange System project site. Most of the LSA measures that we studied appear to show developmental profiles suggesting that they may be of specifically higher value for children at certain ages, because they do not show an even developmental trajectory from 2 to 7 years of age. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  2. Dexamethasone rescues neurovascular unit integrity from cell damage caused by systemic administration of shiga toxin 2 and lipopolysaccharide in mice motor cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alipio Pinto

    Full Text Available Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2-producing Escherichia coli (STEC causes hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS that can lead to fatal encephalopathies. Neurological abnormalities may occur before or after the onset of systemic pathological symptoms and motor disorders are frequently observed in affected patients and in studies with animal models. As Stx2 succeeds in crossing the blood-brain barrier (BBB and invading the brain parenchyma, it is highly probable that the observed neurological alterations are based on the possibility that the toxin may trigger the impairment of the neurovascular unit and/or cell damage in the parenchyma. Also, lipopolysaccharide (LPS produced and secreted by enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC may aggravate the deleterious effects of Stx2 in the brain. Therefore, this study aimed to determine (i whether Stx2 affects the neurovascular unit and parenchymal cells, (ii whether the contribution of LPS aggravates these effects, and (iii whether an inflammatory event underlies the pathophysiological mechanisms that lead to the observed injury. The administration of a sub-lethal dose of Stx2 was employed to study in detail the motor cortex obtained from a translational murine model of encephalopathy. In the present paper we report that Stx2 damaged microvasculature, caused astrocyte reaction and neuronal degeneration, and that this was aggravated by LPS. Dexamethasone, an anti-inflammatory, reversed the pathologic effects and proved to be an important drug in the treatment of acute encephalopathies.

  3. From submarine to lacustrine groundwater discharge (United States)

    Lewandowski, Jörg; Meinikmann, Karin; Pöschke, Franziska; Nützmann, Gunnar; Rosenberry, Donald O.


    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) and its role in marine nutrient cycling are well known since the last decade. The freshwater equivalent, lacustrine groundwater discharge (LGD), is often still disregarded, although first reports of LGD are more than 50 years old. We identify nine different reasons why groundwater has long been disregarded in both freshwater and marine environments such as invisibility of groundwater discharge, the size of the interface and its difficult accessibility. Although there are some fundamental differences in the hydrology of SGD and LGD, caused primarily by seawater recirculation that occurs only in cases of SGD, there are also a lot of similarities such as a focusing of discharge to near-shore areas. Nutrient concentrations in groundwater near the groundwater–surface water interface might be anthropogenically enriched. Due to spatial heterogeneity of aquifer characteristics and biogeochemical processes, the quantification of groundwater-borne nutrient loads is challenging. Both nitrogen and phosphorus might be mobile in near-shore aquifers and in a lot of case studies large groundwater-borne nutrient loads have been reported.

  4. Submarine landslides of the Southern California Borderland (United States)

    Lee, H.J.; Greene, H. Gary; Edwards, B.D.; Fisher, M.A.; Normark, W.R.


    Conventional bathymetry, sidescan-sonar and seismic-reflection data, and recent, multibeam surveys of large parts of the Southern California Borderland disclose the presence of numerous submarine landslides. Most of these features are fairly small, with lateral dimensions less than ??2 km. In areas where multibeam surveys are available, only two large landslide complexes were identified on the mainland slope- Goleta slide in Santa Barbara Channel and Palos Verdes debris avalanche on the San Pedro Escarpment south of Palos Verdes Peninsula. Both of these complexes indicate repeated recurrences of catastrophic slope failure. Recurrence intervals are not well constrained but appear to be in the range of 7500 years for the Goleta slide. The most recent major activity of the Palos Verdes debris avalanche occurred roughly 7500 years ago. A small failure deposit in Santa Barbara Channel, the Gaviota mudflow, was perhaps caused by an 1812 earthquake. Most landslides in this region are probably triggered by earthquakes, although the larger failures were likely conditioned by other factors, such as oversteepening, development of shelf-edge deltas, and high fluid pressures. If a subsequent future landslide were to occur in the area of these large landslide complexes, a tsunami would probably result. Runup distances of 10 m over a 30-km-long stretch of the Santa Barbara coastline are predicted for a recurrence of the Goleta slide, and a runup of 3 m over a comparable stretch of the Los Angeles coastline is modeled for the Palos Verdes debris avalanche. ?? 2009 The Geological Society of America.

  5. Seismic reflections associated with submarine gas hydrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreassen, K.


    Gas hydrates are often suggested as a future energy resource. This doctoral thesis improves the understanding of the concentration and distribution of natural submarine gas hydrates. The presence of these hydrates are commonly inferred from strong bottom simulating reflection (BSR). To investigate the nature of BSR, this work uses seismic studies of hydrate-related BSRs at two different locations, one where gas hydrates are accepted to exist and interpreted to be very extensive (in the Beaufort Sea), the other with good velocity data and downhole logs available (offshore Oregon). To ascertain the presence of free gas under the BSR, prestack offset data must supplement near-vertical incidence seismic data. A tentative model for physical properties of sediments partially saturated with gas hydrate and free gas is presented. This model, together with drilling information and seismic data containing the BSR beneath the Oregon margin and the Beaufort Sea, made it possible to better understand when to apply the amplitude-versus-offset (AVO) method to constrain BSR gas hydrate and gas models. Distribution of natural gas hydrates offshore Norway and Svalbard is discussed and interpreted as reflections from the base of gas hydrate-bearing sediments, overlying sediments containing free gas. Gas hydrates inferred to exist at the Norwegian-Svalbard continental margin correlate well with Cenozoic depocenters, and the associated gas is assumed to be mainly biogenic. Parts of that margin have a high potential for natural gas hydrates of both biogenic and thermogenic origin. 235 refs., 86 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Submarine landslides in Arctic sedimentation: Canada Basin (United States)

    Mosher, David C.; Shimeld, John; Hutchinson, Deborah R.; Lebedova-Ivanova, N; Chapman, C.


    Canada Basin of the Arctic Ocean is the least studied ocean basin in the World. Marine seismic field programs were conducted over the past 6 years using Canadian and American icebreakers. These expeditions acquired more than 14,000 line-km of multibeam bathymetric and multi-channel seismic reflection data over abyssal plain, continental rise and slope regions of Canada Basin; areas where little or no seismic reflection data existed previously. Canada Basin is a turbidite-filled basin with flat-lying reflections correlateable over 100s of km. For the upper half of the sedimentary succession, evidence of sedimentary processes other than turbidity current deposition is rare. The Canadian Archipelago and Beaufort Sea margins host stacked mass transport deposits from which many of these turbidites appear to derive. The stratigraphic succession of the MacKenzie River fan is dominated by mass transport deposits; one such complex is in excess of 132,000 km2 in area and underlies much of the southern abyssal plain. The modern seafloor is also scarred with escarpments and mass failure deposits; evidence that submarine landsliding is an ongoing process. In its latest phase of development, Canada Basin is geomorphologically confined with stable oceanographic structure, resulting in restricted depositional/reworking processes. The sedimentary record, therefore, underscores the significance of mass-transport processes in providing sediments to oceanic abyssal plains as few other basins are able to do.

  7. 49 CFR 238.114 - Rescue access windows. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rescue access windows. 238.114 Section 238.114... § 238.114 Rescue access windows. (a) Number and location. Except as provided in paragraph (a)(1)(ii) of... rescue access windows. At least one rescue access window shall be located in each side of the car...

  8. 30 CFR 49.8 - Training for mine rescue teams. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Training for mine rescue teams. 49.8 Section 49... TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS § 49.8 Training for mine rescue teams. (a) Prior to serving on a mine rescue team each member shall complete, at a minimum, an initial 20-hour course of instruction as prescribed...

  9. 30 CFR 49.12 - Availability of mine rescue teams. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Availability of mine rescue teams. 49.12... TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines § 49.12 Availability of mine rescue teams. (a) Except where alternative compliance is permitted for small and remote mines (§ 49.13), every...

  10. 30 CFR 49.15 - Mine rescue station. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mine rescue station. 49.15 Section 49.15 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines § 49.15 Mine rescue station. (a) Every operator...

  11. “Hello, HELLO! Anyone there? - on the need to assess the tsunami risk to global submarine telecommunications infrastructure (United States)

    Dominey-Howes, D.; Goff, J. R.


    National economies are increasingly dependent on the global telecommunications system - and in particular, its submarine cable infrastructure. Submarine cable traffic represents about 30% of global GDP so the cost of losing, or even simply slowing, communications traffic is high. Many natural hazards are capable of damaging and destroying this infrastructure but tsunamis are the most significant threat, particularly in waters >1000 m deep. Submarine cables and their shore-based infrastructure (the anchor points), are at risk from direct and indirect tsunami-related effects. During the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami in India and Indonesia, cables were broken (direct effect) as the tsunami eroded supporting sediments, and were further damaged by floating/submerged objects and intense nearshore currents. Shore-based infrastructure was also directly damaged in India, Indonesia, and the Maldives. The 1929 Grand Banks earthquake generated a submarine landslide and tsunami off Newfoundland which broke 12 submarine telegraph cables. In 2006, an earthquake in Taiwan generated submarine landslides and a tsunami. These landslides caused one of the largest disruptions of modern telecommunications history when nine cables in the Strait of Luzon were broken disabling vital connections between SE Asia and the rest of the world. Although electronic traffic in and out of Australia was slowed, it did not cease because >70% of our traffic is routed via cables that pass through Hawaii. This is extremely significant because Hawaii is an internationally recognised bottleneck or “choke point” in the global telecommunications network. The fact that Hawaii is a choke point is important because it is regularly affected by numerous large magnitude natural hazards. Any damage to the submarine telecommunications infrastructure routed through Hawaii could result in significant impacts on the electronic flow of data and voice traffic, negatively affecting dependent economies such as Australia

  12. Unsteady hydrodynamics of blade forces and acoustic responses of a model scaled submarine excited by propeller's thrust and side-forces (United States)

    Wei, Yingsan; Wang, Yongsheng


    This study presents the unsteady hydrodynamics of the excitations from a 5-bladed propeller at two rotating speeds running in the wake of a small-scaled submarine and the behavior of the submarine's structure and acoustic responses under the propeller excitations. Firstly, the propeller flow and submarine flows are independently validated. The propulsion of the hull-propeller is simulated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD), so as to obtain the transient responses of the propeller excitations. Finally, the structure and acoustic responses of the submarine under propeller excitations are predicted using a finite element/boundary element model in the frequency domain. Results show that (1) the propeller excitations are tonal at the propeller harmonics, and the propeller transversal force is bigger than vertical force. (2) The structure and acoustic responses of the submarine hull is tonal mainly at the propeller harmonics and the resonant mode frequencies of the hull, and the breathing mode in axial direction as well as the bending modes in vertical and transversal directions of the hull can generate strong structure vibration and underwater noise. (3) The maximum sound pressure of the field points increases with the increasing propeller rotating speed at structure resonances and propeller harmonics, and the rudders resonant mode also contributes a lot to the sound radiation. Lastly, the critical rotating speeds of the submarine propeller are determined, which should be carefully taken into consideration when match the propeller with prime mover in the propulsion system. This work shows the importance of the propeller's tonal excitation and the breathing mode plus the bending modes in evaluating submarine's noise radiation.

  13. NSMRL: A Small Command with A Huge Presence for the Submarine Force

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daniel, J. C; Lamb, Jerry


    "To protect the health and enhance the performance of our warfighters through focused submarine, diving and surface research solutions" is the mission of the Naval Submarine Medical Research Laboratory (NSMRL...

  14. Evolutionary rescue: linking theory for conservation and medicine. (United States)

    Alexander, Helen K; Martin, Guillaume; Martin, Oliver Y; Bonhoeffer, Sebastian


    Evolutionary responses that rescue populations from extinction when drastic environmental changes occur can be friend or foe. The field of conservation biology is concerned with the survival of species in deteriorating global habitats. In medicine, in contrast, infected patients are treated with chemotherapeutic interventions, but drug resistance can compromise eradication of pathogens. These contrasting biological systems and goals have created two quite separate research communities, despite addressing the same central question of whether populations will decline to extinction or be rescued through evolution. We argue that closer integration of the two fields, especially of theoretical understanding, would yield new insights and accelerate progress on these applied problems. Here, we overview and link mathematical modelling approaches in these fields, suggest specific areas with potential for fruitful exchange, and discuss common ideas and issues for empirical testing and prediction.

  15. Sea-level-induced seismicity and submarine landslide occurrence (United States)

    Brothers, Daniel S.; Luttrell, Karen M.; Chaytor, Jason D.


    The temporal coincidence between rapid late Pleistocene sea-level rise and large-scale slope failures is widely documented. Nevertheless, the physical mechanisms that link these phenomena are poorly understood, particularly along nonglaciated margins. Here we investigate the causal relationships between rapid sea-level rise, flexural stress loading, and increased seismicity rates along passive margins. We find that Coulomb failure stress across fault systems of passive continental margins may have increased more than 1 MPa during rapid late Pleistocene–early Holocene sea-level rise, an amount sufficient to trigger fault reactivation and rupture. These results suggest that sea-level–modulated seismicity may have contributed to a number of poorly understood but widely observed phenomena, including (1) increased frequency of large-scale submarine landslides during rapid, late Pleistocene sea-level rise; (2) emplacement of coarse-grained mass transport deposits on deep-sea fans during the early stages of marine transgression; and (3) the unroofing and release of methane gas sequestered in continental slope sediments.

  16. NESTOR - Neutrino Extended Submarine Telescope with Oceanographic Research

    CERN Document Server


    {\\bf NESTOR} is a deep-sea neutrino telescope that is being deployed in the Mediterranean off the south-west coast of the Peleponnese in Greece. Neutrinos, when they interact in the earth below or in the seawater around the detector, produce muons that can be observed by the Cherenkov radiation, which they emit. At an operating depth of 4000 metres, the detector is effectively shielded from muons produced in atmospheric interactions. {\\bf The site:} A major feature of the Ionian Sea floor is the Hellenic Trench, the deepest in the Mediterranean, which in places exceeds 5000 meters. It runs close to the western coast of the Peleponnese and is protected on its western side by the submarine Eastern Mediterranean Ridge. It is far from big city pollution or the effluent of major river systems flowing into the Mediterranean and is protected from deep-water perturbations.\\\\ The NESTOR site is located on a broad plateau some 8 $\\times$ 9 kilometres in area on the eastern side of the Hellenic Trench at a mean depth of...

  17. Conduct and Support of Amphibious Operations from United States Submarines in World War II (United States)


    twelfth war patrol of the Gato class submarine (See photos 1 and 2). They made history as the only Americans to conduct an offensive landing on a...Naval History Vol. 2, no. 1 (April 1, 2003), 1. 4 This monograph features five Gato class submarines, and three V-class submarines, but also addresses...1993), 67. 6 Photo 2: USS Barb (SS 220), representing the five Gato class submarines that participated in Operation Torch. Barb’s crew also

  18. Index of Submarine Medical Officer’s Qualification Theses 1944-1974 (United States)



  19. Navy Ohio Replacement (SSBN[X]) Ballistic Missile Submarine Program: Background and Issues for Congress (United States)


    Navy Ohio Replacement (SSBN[X]) Ballistic Missile Submarine Program: Background and Issues for Congress Ronald O’Rourke Specialist in Naval...Affairs April 5, 2016 Congressional Research Service 7-5700 R41129 Navy Ohio Replacement (SSBN[X]) Ballistic Missile Submarine...Replacement (SSBN[X]) Ballistic Missile Submarine Program Congressional Research Service Contents Introduction

  20. Process sedimentology of submarine fan deposits - new perspectives (United States)

    Postma, George


    To link submarine fan process sedimentology with sand distribution, sand body architecture, texture and fabric, the field geologist studies sedimentary facies, facies associations (fan elements) and stratigraphy. Facies analysis resides on factual knowledge of modern fan morphodynamics and physical modelling of en-masse sediment transport. Where do we stand after 55 years of submarine research, i.e. the date when the first submarine fan model was launched by Arnold Bouma in 1962? Since that date students of submarine fans have worked on a number of important, recurring questions concerned with facies analysis of submarine successions in outcrop and core: 1. What type of sediment transport produced the beds? 2. What facies can be related to initial flow conditions? 3. What is the significance of grain size jumps and bounding surface hierarchy in beds consisting of crude and spaced stratification (traction carpets)? Do these point to multi flow events or to flow pulsations by one and the same event? 4. What facies associations relate to the basic elements of submarine fans? 5. What are the autogenic and allogenic signatures in submarine fans? Particularly in the last decade, the enormous technical advancement helped to obtain high-quality data from observations of density flows in modern canyons, deep basins and deep-water delta slopes (refs 1,2,3). In combination with both physical (refs 4,5) and numerical modelling (ref 6) these studies broke new ground into our understanding of density flow processes in various submarine environments and have led to new concepts of submarine fan building by super- and subcritical high-density flow (ref 7). Do these new concepts provide better answers to our recurrent questions related to the morphodynamics of submarine fans and prediction of sand body architecture? In discussing this open question, I shall 1. apply the new concepts to a modern and ancient example of a channel-lobe-transition-zone (ref 8); 2. raise the problem of

  1. The Atlas of Submarine Glacial Landforms: Modern, Quaternary and Ancient (United States)

    Dowdeswell, Julian A.; Canals, Miquel; Jakobsson, Martin; Todd, Brian J.; Dowdeswell, Evelyn K.; Hogan, Kelly A.


    Twenty years ago, the international marine community brought together a first Atlas of Acoustic Images of the high-latitude geo-marine environment (Davies et al. 1997). The present Atlas is a new attempt to summarize the state of knowledge of high-latitude glacier-influenced systems, focusing on HR imagery derived from multibeam swath bathymetry and novel 2D and 3D seismic reflection tools. These new-generation techniques, aided by accurate global positioning, have revolutionized the imaging of the seafloor and subseafloor over the past two decades and have now been deployed widely in polar and subpolar waters, providing vast quantities of new data. It is, therefore, timely to provide a compilation of the variety of submarine glacial and related landforms, together with their stratigraphic setting where possible, for scientific, technological, environmental and economic reasons. The glacial imprint on the modern seabed and palaeo-shelf surfaces, buried in glacial-sedimentary depocentres, can now be imaged better than ever before using the above techniques, providing novel insights into present and past environmental conditions and sedimentary architecture. The understanding of polar regions and their changing ice cover is of enhanced significance as they are both a key driver of global change and important responders to it. Finally, industry is increasingly interested on the dimensions and architecture of glacial sedimentary depocentres on present and past continental shelves because of the hydrocarbon potential of some glacial-sedimentary systems. The Atlas consists of a comprehensive series of over 180 contributions that describe, illustrate and discuss the full variability of landforms found on the high-latitude, glacier-influenced systems, and is organised in terms of their positions on a continental margin into those from: (1) fjords, (2) continental shelves and plateaus, and (3) the deep margin and basins beyond. The Atlas has been published by the Geological

  2. A comparative analysis of reliability, maintainability and availability for two alternatives of the production submarine systems: ANM and submarine ducts versus BOP and a subsea well testing tree; Analise comparativa da confiabilidade, mantenabilidade e disponibilidade para duas alternativas de sistemas submarino de producao: ANM e dutos submarinos versus BOP e arvore submarina de teste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Arlindo Antonio de; Polillo Filho, Adolfo; Santos, Otto Luiz Alcantara [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    This technical article presents a study using the concepts of the Engineering of the Reliability and Risk Analysis with the objective of doing a comparative evaluation of the reliability of two alternative production systems for a marine well: one composed by a wet christmas tree (ANM) producing through underwater ducts (flow lines) and other, usually used in tests of long duration, using a subsea BOP and a subsea well testing tree (AST). The central point of the work was the evaluation of the probability of happening an event considered as critic, denominated 'critical flaw', during the well production life. The work uses one of the procedures and methodologies adopted in the Well Construction Engineering, GERISK, together with four computer applications for data treatment, generation of flaw distribution curves and times of repair, modelling and Monte Carlo simulations. The adopted strategy was the one of starting from the existent report, to assume an interval for the possible real value of the relevant parameters and then to establish the scenarios (more probable, optimist and pessimist). Based on those sceneries, the considered premises, the modelling and the reliabilities obtained for each one of the variables, the simulations have been made. As results, are presented the medium readiness, MTTFF (Mean Time To First Failure), the number of flaws and the expected costs. The work also displays the sensibility analysis in respect to the time of production of the well. (author)

  3. Submarine hydrothermal environments as sites for the origin and evolution of life (United States)

    Hoffman, S.; Baross, J.


    That life formed and evolved in hydrothermal environments is proposed. This hypothesis is plausible in terms of the tectonic, paleontological, and degassing history of the Earth. Submarine hydrothermal vents are the only contemporary geological environment which may truly be called primeval and which today continue to be a major source of gases and dissolved elements to the ocean. The microbial assemblages in present day hydrothermal systems therefore could be living analogues of the earliest microbial communities to develop on Earth. The evidence for the hypothesis is reviewed.

  4. Logistics of nuclear fuel production for nuclear submarines; Logistica de producao de combustiveis para submarinos nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Leonam dos Santos [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo (CTMSP), SP (Brazil). E-mail:


    The future acquisition of nuclear attack submarines by Brazilian Navy along next century will imply new requirements on Naval Logistic Support System. These needs will impact all the six logistic functions. Among them, fuel supply could be considered as the one which requires the most important capacitating effort, including not only technological development of processes but also the development of a national industrial basis for effective production of nuclear fuel. This paper presents the technical aspects of the processes involved and an annual production dimensioning for an squadron composed by four units. (author)

  5. Dynamics of omnidirectional unmanned rescue vehicle with mecanum wheels (United States)

    Typiak, Andrzej; Łopatka, Marian Janusz; Rykała, Łukasz; Kijek, Magdalena


    The work presents the dynamic equations of motion of a unmanned six-wheeled vehicle with mecanum wheels for rescue applications derived with the of Lagrange equations of the second kind with multipliers. Analysed vehicle through using mecanum wheels has three degrees of freedom and can move on a flat ground in any direction with any configuration of platform's frame. In order to derive dynamic equations of motion of mentioned object, kinetic potential of the system and generalized forces affecting the system are determined. The results of a solution of inverse dynamics problem are also published.

  6. Analysis of Submarine Landslides and Canyons along the U.S. Atlantic Margin Using Extended Continental Shelf Mapping Data (United States)

    Chaytor, J. D.; Brothers, D. S.; Ten Brink, U. S.; Hoy, S. K.; Baxter, C.; Andrews, B.


    U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) studies of the U.S. Atlantic continental slope and rise aim to understand the: 1) the role of submarine landslides in tsunami generation, and 2) the linkages between margin morphology and sedimentary processes, particularly in and around submarine canyon systems. Data from U.S. Extended Continental Shelf (ECS) and numerous subsequent mapping surveys have facilitated the identification and characterization of submarine landslides and related features in fine detail over an unprecedented spatial extent. Ongoing analysis of USGS collected piston cores, sub-bottom and multichannel seismic (MCS) reflection profiles, and an extensive suite of legacy MCS data from two landslides, the Southern New England landslide zone and the Currituck Landslide, suggest that the most recent major landslide events are pre-Holocene, but that failures were complex and most likely multi-phase, at times resulting in extensive overlapping debris deposits. Piston core records plus visual observations of the seafloor from recent TowCam deployments and NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer ROV dives reveal ongoing development of colluvial wedge-style debris aprons at the base of scarps within these landslides, showing that these regions continue to evolve long after the initial failure events. Multibeam bathymetry data and MCS profiles along the upper slope reveal evidence for vertical fluid migration and possible seabed gas expulsion. These observations underscore the need to reevaluate the sources of pore fluid overpressure in slope sediments and their role in landslide generation. ECS and more recent multibeam mapping have provided the opportunity to investigate the full extent of submarine canyon morphology and evolution from Cape Hatteras up to the US-Canadian EEZ, which has led to better understanding of the important role of antecedent margin physiography on their development. Six submarine canyon systems along the margin (Veatch, Hydrographer, Hudson, Wilmington

  7. Improved recovery from Gulf of Mexico reservoirs. Volume I (of 4): Task 1, conduct research on mud-rich submarine fans. Final report, February 14, 1995--October 13, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimbrell, W.C.; Bassiouni, Z.A.; Bourgoyne, A.T.


    The objective for this portion of the research involved conducting field studies and laboratory investigations to develop and refine models for mud-rich submarine fan architectures used by seismic analysis and reservoir engineers. These research aspects have been presented in two papers as follows: (1) Bouma, A.H., {open_quotes}Review of Fine-Grained Submarine Fans and Turbidite Systems{close_quotes}; (2) Kirkova, J.T. and Lorenzo, J.M., {open_quotes}Synthetic Seismic Modeling of Measured Submarine Fans Sections, Case Study of the Tanqua Complex, Karoo, South Africa{close_quotes} The {open_quotes}Review of Fine-Grained Submarine Fans and Turbidite Systems{close_quotes} by Arnold Bouma discusses research targeted toward stimulating an increase in oil and gas recovery by developing new and improved geological understanding. The {open_quotes}Synthetic Seismic Modeling of Measured Submarine Fan Sections, Case Study of the Tanqua Complex, Karoo, South Africa{close_quotes} by J.T. Kirkova and J.M. Lorenso discusses the limitations of verticle resolution and how this affects the interpretation and characterization of submarine fan complexes.

  8. Does calving matter? Evidence for significant submarine melt (United States)

    Bartholomaus, Timothy C.; Larsen, Christopher F.; O’Neel, Shad


    During the summer in the northeast Pacific Ocean, the Alaska Coastal Current sweeps water with temperatures in excess of 12 °C past the mouths of glacierized fjords and bays. The extent to which these warm waters affect the mass balance of Alaskan tidewater glaciers is uncertain. Here we report hydrographic measurements made within Icy Bay, Alaska, and calculate rates of submarine melt at Yahtse Glacier, a tidewater glacier terminating in Icy Bay. We find strongly stratified water properties consistent with estuarine circulation and evidence that warm Gulf of Alaska water reaches the head of 40 km-long Icy Bay, largely unaltered. A 10–20 m layer of cold, fresh, glacially-modified water overlies warm, saline water. The saline water is observed to reach up to 10.4 °C within 1.5 km of the terminus of Yahtse Glacier. By quantifying the heat and salt deficit within the glacially-modified water, we place bounds on the rate of submarine melt. The submarine melt rate is estimated at >9 m d−1, at least half the rate at which ice flows into the terminus region, and can plausibly account for all of the submarine terminus mass loss. Our measurements suggest that summer and fall subaerial calving is a direct response to thermal undercutting of the terminus, further demonstrating the critical role of the ocean in modulating tidewater glacier dynamics.

  9. Submarine Construction in Germany (U-Bootbau in Deutschland), (United States)


    the IKL sister firm, Maschinenbau Gabler GmbH, also founded by Prof. Gabler, which, unlike IKL (involved solely in development), is a hardware...snorkels, radar masts, as well as wharf and dockside connections, for IKL and various submarine yards. Moreover, Maschinenbau Gabler is engaged in

  10. Simulation of Wave-Plus-Current Scour beneath Submarine Pipelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eltard-Larsen, Bjarke; Fuhrman, David R.; Sumer, B. Mutlu


    A fully coupled hydrodynamic and morphologic numerical model was utilized for the simulation of wave-plus-current scour beneath submarine pipelines. The model was based on incompressible Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations, coupled with k-ω turbulence closure, with additional bed and suspen...

  11. Sedimentary characteristics of samples collected from some submarine canyons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, Arnold H.

    Oriented rectangular cores of 20.3 × 30.5 cm and 45.7 cm high have been collected in a number of submarine canyons off southern California (U.S.A.) and off the southern tip of Baja California (Mexico) for a detailed study of their sedimentary structures. By applying several methods, mainly X-ray

  12. 'Good Hunting': German submarine offensives and South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The first German submarine offensive in South African waters during 1942, Operation Eisbär, was aimed at striking a devastating blow to shipping off the South African coast. By the end of December 1942, an estimated 310 864 tons of shipping had been sunk through Operation Eisbär and the first U-cruiser operation alone.

  13. Cost Estimation Lessons Learned for Future Submarine Acquisition Programs (United States)


    North Carolina and New Mexico 30 General Dynamics Electric Boat “U.S. Navy Awards General Dynamics $14 Billion Contract for Eight Virginia- Class...NAVSEA Program Executive officer, Submarines PMO 450, June 1995. “New SSN Program Life Cycle Cost Estimate.” Naval Center for Cost Analysis: GE-1300

  14. RoboCup Rescue Simulation Innovation Strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.; Ito, N.; Kleiner, A.; Bianchi, R.A.C.; Akin, H.L.; Ramamoorthy, S.; Sugiura, K.


    The RoboCup rescue simulation competitions have been held since 2001. The experience gained during these competitions has supported the development of multi-agent and robotics based solution for disaster mitigation. The league consists of three distinct competitions. These competitions are the agent

  15. Archaeological Rescue Excavations at the Dejazmach Gebreslassie ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Archaeological rescue test excavations that were carried out by the Ethiopian Cultural Heritage Project Site Planning and Conservation sub-component at the Gebreslassie Bariya Gabir palace enclosure at the back of The Main Stelae Field in Aksum from the 5th of June to the 15th of July 2005 yielded at least four ...

  16. Emergency Medical Rescue in a Radiation Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briesmeister, L.; Ellington, Y.; Hollis, R.; Kunzman, J.; McNaughton, M.; Ramsey, G.; Somers, B.; Turner, A.; Finn, J.


    Previous experience with emergency medical rescues in the presence of radiation or contamination indicates that the training provided to emergency responders is not always appropriate. A new course developed at Los Alamos includes specific procedures for emergency response in a variety of radiological conditions.

  17. Rescue Fantasies in Homicide-Suicide (United States)

    Selkin, James


    Homicide-suicides (N=13), events in which an individual murders one or more persons and kills himself immediately afterward, were studied, The results are interpreted to suggest that persons who commit homicide-suicide are acting out a three-party rescue fantasy in an attempt to resolve unbearable stress. (Author)

  18. A ground moving target emergency tracking method for catastrophe rescue (United States)

    Zhou, X.; Li, D.; Li, G.


    ground moving target through the communication number of the handheld devices. The handheld devices receive and identify the activation short message, and send the current location information to the server. Therefore, the emergency tracking mode is triggered. The real time location of the filtered target can be shown on the organizer's screen, and the organizer can assign the rescue tasks to the rescuer teams and volunteers based on their real time location. The ground moving target emergency tracking prototype system is implemented using Oracle 11g, Visual Studio 2010 C#, Android, SMS Modem, and Google Maps API.

  19. An ongoing large submarine landslide at the Japan trench (United States)

    Nitta, S.; Kasaya, T.; Miura, S.; Kawamura, K.


    This paper deals with an active submarine landslide on a landward trench slope in the Japan trench. Studied area is located on the upper terrace ranging from 400 to 1200 m in water depth, off Sendai, northeast Japan. We have surveyed in detail the seabed topography using a multi narrow beam (hereafter MBES) and a subbottom profiler (hereafter SBP) during the cruise MR12-E02 of R/V Mirai. The survey lines were 12 lines in N-S, and 3 lines in E-W, and situated in the region from 141°45'E, 37°40'N to 142°33'E, 38°32'N. Moreover, we used multi-channel seismic profile by the cruise KR04-10 of R/V Kairei in the interpretation of the SBP results. In general, horseshoe-shaped depressions of about 100 km wide along the trench slope are arrayed along the Japan trench. It has thought that they were formed by large submarine landslides, but we could not understand critically the relationship between the depressions and the submarine landslides. Based on the survey results, we found signals of an active submarine landslide in the depression as follows. 1) We observed arcuate-shaped lineaments, which are sub-parallel to a horseshoe-shaped depression. The lineaments concentrate in the south region from 38°N at about 20 km wide. These lineaments are formed by deformation structures as anticlines, synclines and normal fault sense displacements. 2) Most of the synclines and anticlines are not buried to form the lineaments. 3) Normal faults cutting about 1 km deep are observed in a multi-channel seismic profile. The normal faults are located just below the arcuate-shaped lineaments, and are tilted eastward being the downslope direction. It indicates a large submarine landslide. We concluded that the arcuate-shaped lineaments were generated by surface sediment movement with the submarine landsliding. We think that the submarine landslide of about 20 km wide and about 1 km thick move continuously down the landward trench slope. This would be the formation process of the horseshoe

  20. Point-of-care ultrasonography during rescue operations on board a Polish Medical Air Rescue helicopter (United States)

    Gałązkowski, Robert; Sobczyk, Dorota; Żyła, Zbigniew; Drwiła, Rafał


    Point-of-care ultrasound examination has been increasingly widely used in pre-hospital care. The use of ultrasound in rescue medicine allows for a quick differential diagnosis, identification of the most important medical emergencies and immediate introduction of targeted treatment. Performing and interpreting a pre-hospital ultrasound examination can improve the accuracy of diagnosis and thus reduce mortality. The authors’ own experiences are presented in this paper, which consist in using a portable, hand-held ultrasound apparatus during rescue operations on board a Polish Medical Air Rescue helicopter. The possibility of using an ultrasound apparatus during helicopter rescue service allows for a full professional evaluation of the patient's health condition and enables the patient to be brought to a center with the most appropriate facilities for their condition. PMID:26674604

  1. Near-Real-Time Sismo-acoustic Submarine Station for offshore monitoring (United States)

    D'Anna, Giuseppe; D'Alessandro, Antonino; Fertitta, Gioacchino; Fraticelli, Nicola; Calore, Daniele


    From the early 1980's, Italian seismicity is monitored by the National Seismic Network (NSN). The network has been considerably enhanced by INGV since 2005 by 24-bit digital stations equipped with broad-band sensors. The NSN is nowadays constituted by about 300 on-land seismic station able to detect and locate also small magnitude earthquake in the whole Italian peninsula. However, the lack of offshore seismic stations does not allow the accurate estimation of hypocentral and focal parameters of small magnitude earthquakes occurring in offshore areas. As in the Mediterranean area there is an intense offshore seismic activity, an extension of the seismic monitoring to the sea would be beneficial. There are two types of stations that could be used to extend the network towards the sea: the first type is connected to the coast though a cable, the second type is isolated (or stand alone) and works autonomously. Both solutions have serious limitations: the first one, for several technical and economic problems, linked to the indispensable transmission/alimentation cable, cannot be installed far from the coast; the second one, allows access to the recorded data, only after they are recovered from the seabed. It is clear that these technical solutions are not suitable for the real time monitoring of the offshore seismicity or for the realization of a tsunami warning system. For this reason, in early 2010, the OBSLab of Gibilmanna begins the design of a submarine station able to overcome the limitations of the two systems above. The station isbuilt under the project EMSO-MedIT. The two stations built have already been tested in dock and ready for installation. One of this station will be installed, in few time, in the southern Tyrrhenian Sea, near the epicentre of the Palermo 2002 main shock. The sea bottom station will be equipped with 2 very broadband 3C seismometers, a broad band hydrophone, a differential and an absolute pressure gauge. The station includes a submarine

  2. Exploring the submarine Graham Bank in the Sicily Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Coltelli


    Full Text Available In the Sicily Channel, volcanic activity has been concentrated mainly on the Pantelleria and Linosa islands, while minor submarine volcanism took place in the Adventure, Graham and Nameless banks. The volcanic activity spanned mostly during Plio-Pleistocene, however, historical submarine eruptions occurred in 1831 on the Graham Bank and in 1891 offshore Pantelleria Island. On the Graham Bank, 25 miles SW of Sciacca, the 1831 eruption formed the short-lived Ferdinandea Island that represents the only Italian volcano active in historical times currently almost completely unknown and not yet monitored. Moreover, most of the Sicily Channel seismicity is concentrated along a broad NS belt extending from the Graham Bank to Lampedusa Island. In 2012, the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV carried out a multidisciplinary oceanographic cruise, named “Ferdinandea 2012”, the preliminary results of which represent the aim of this paper. The cruise goal was the mapping of the morpho-structural features of some submarine volcanic centres located in the northwestern side of the Sicily Channel and the temporary recording of their seismic and degassing activity. During the cruise, three OBS/Hs (ocean bottom seismometer with hydrophone were deployed near the Graham, Nerita and Terribile submarine banks. During the following 9 months they have recorded several seismo-acoustic signals produced by both tectonic and volcanic sources. A high-resolution bathymetric survey was achieved on the Graham Bank and on the surrounding submarine volcanic centres. A widespread and voluminous gas bubbles emission was observed by both multibeam sonar echoes and a ROV (remotely operated vehicle along the NW side of the Graham Bank, where gas and seafloor samples were also collected.

  3. [Medical rescue of China National Earthquake Disaster Emergency Search and Rescue Team in Lushan earthquake]. (United States)

    Liu, Ya-hua; Yang, Hui-ning; Liu, Hui-liang; Wang, Fan; Hu, Li-bin; Zheng, Jing-chen


    To summarize and analyze the medical mission of China National Earthquake Disaster Emergency Search and Rescue Team (CNESAR) in Lushan earthquake, to promote the medical rescue effectiveness incorporated with search and rescue. Retrospective analysis of medical work data by CNESAR from April 21th, 2013 to April 27th during Lushan earthquake rescue, including the medical staff dispatch and the wounded case been treated. The reasonable medical corps was composed by 22 members, including 2 administrators, 11 doctors [covering emergency medicine, orthopedics (joints and limbs, spinal), obstetrics and gynecology, gastroenterology, cardiology, ophthalmology, anesthesiology, medical rescue, health epidemic prevention, clinical laboratory of 11 specialties], 1 ultrasound technician, 5 nurses, 1 pharmacist, 1 medical instrument engineer and 1 office worker for propaganda. There were two members having psychological consultants qualifications. The medical work were carried out in seven aspects, including medical care assurance for the CNESAR members, first aid cooperation with search and rescue on site, clinical work in refugees' camp, medical round service for scattered village people, evacuation for the wounded, mental intervention, and the sanitary and anti-epidemic work. The medical work covered 24 small towns, and medical staff established 3 medical clinics at Taiping Town, Shuangshi Town of Lushan County and Baoxing County. Medical rescue, mental intervention for the old and kids, and sanitary and anti-epidemic were performed at the above sites. The medical corps had successful evacuated 2 severe wounded patients and treated the wounded over thousands. Most of the wounded were soft tissue injuries, external injury, respiratory tract infections, diarrhea, and heat stroke. Compared with the rescue action in 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, the aggregation and departure of rescue team in Lushan earthquake, the traffic control order in disaster area, the self-aid and buddy aid

  4. Management Plans : Search and Rescue Plan : Shiawassee National Wildlife Refuge (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A plan for search and rescue (SAR) operations on Shiawassee National Wildlife Refuge. Objectives include: (A) to carry out or assist in search and rescue (SAR) on...

  5. US Navy Submarine Sea Trial of NASA developed Multi-Gas Monitor (United States)

    Mudgett, Paul D.; Manney, Joshua A.; Smith, Matthew J.; O'Connor, Sara Jane; Pilgrim, Jeffrey S.


    During a successful 2 year technology demonstration of the tunable diode laser spectroscopy (TDLS) based Multi-Gas Monitor (MGM) on the International Space Station (ISS), we began discussing with the US Navy the possibility of conducting a sea trial of an MGM on a submarine. The sea trial would also include a gas chromatography/differential mobility spectrometer based Air Quality Monitor (AQM), which is used operationally on ISS for volatile organic compound analysis. AQM preparation and results will be the subject of a separate paper. The Navy's interest in testing NASA equipment in general relates to their ongoing search for better air monitoring technology. NASA's goal is studying submarines as closed environment analogs to spacecraft. MGM's core technology was developed by Vista Photonics Inc. using Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grants and expanded for various applications using NASA program funding. The MGM measures oxygen, carbon dioxide, ammonia and water vapor in ambient air, displays concentrations with temperature and pressure, and stores 30 second moving averages. The sea trial involves collocating the instrument with the Central Atmosphere Monitoring System (CAMS Mk II) of the submarine, connecting it to rack power prior to departure, and letting it run during the entire 90 day patrol. All data is stored within MGM, with no connection to the vessel data bus. Crew intervention is limited to checking MGM periodically to see that it is working and power cycling if necessary. After the trial is over, the unit with its data will be retrieved. Post sea trial calibration check and data analysis are planned and results will be compared with both CAMS Mk II data and results from MGM's ISS technology demonstration. Since the sea trial itself has been delayed, this paper describes the preparation of MGM for the sea trial and also provides a summary of the latest data from the ISS MGM technology demonstration.

  6. Significant discharge of CO2 from hydrothermalism associated with the submarine volcano of El Hierro Island. (United States)

    Santana-Casiano, J M; Fraile-Nuez, E; González-Dávila, M; Baker, E T; Resing, J A; Walker, S L


    The residual hydrothermalism associated with submarine volcanoes, following an eruption event, plays an important role in the supply of CO2 to the ocean. The emitted CO2 increases the acidity of seawater. The submarine volcano of El Hierro, in its degasification stage, provided an excellent opportunity to study the effect of volcanic CO2 on the seawater carbonate system, the global carbon flux, and local ocean acidification. A detailed survey of the volcanic edifice was carried out using seven CTD-pH-ORP tow-yo studies, localizing the redox and acidic changes, which were used to obtain surface maps of anomalies. In order to investigate the temporal variability of the system, two CTD-pH-ORP yo-yo studies were conducted that included discrete sampling for carbonate system parameters. Meridional tow-yos were used to calculate the amount of volcanic CO2 added to the water column for each surveyed section. The inputs of CO2 along multiple sections combined with measurements of oceanic currents produced an estimated volcanic CO2 flux = 6.0 10(5) ± 1.1 10(5 )kg d(-1) which is ~0.1% of global volcanic CO2 flux. Finally, the CO2 emitted by El Hierro increases the acidity above the volcano by ~20%.

  7. Significant discharge of CO2 from hydrothermalism associated with the submarine volcano of El Hierro Island (United States)

    Santana-Casiano, J. M.; Fraile-Nuez, E.; González-Dávila, M.; Baker, E. T.; Resing, J. A.; Walker, S. L.


    The residual hydrothermalism associated with submarine volcanoes, following an eruption event, plays an important role in the supply of CO2 to the ocean. The emitted CO2 increases the acidity of seawater. The submarine volcano of El Hierro, in its degasification stage, provided an excellent opportunity to study the effect of volcanic CO2 on the seawater carbonate system, the global carbon flux, and local ocean acidification. A detailed survey of the volcanic edifice was carried out using seven CTD-pH-ORP tow-yo studies, localizing the redox and acidic changes, which were used to obtain surface maps of anomalies. In order to investigate the temporal variability of the system, two CTD-pH-ORP yo-yo studies were conducted that included discrete sampling for carbonate system parameters. Meridional tow-yos were used to calculate the amount of volcanic CO2 added to the water column for each surveyed section. The inputs of CO2 along multiple sections combined with measurements of oceanic currents produced an estimated volcanic CO2 flux = 6.0 105 ± 1.1 105 kg d-1 which is ~0.1% of global volcanic CO2 flux. Finally, the CO2 emitted by El Hierro increases the acidity above the volcano by ~20%.

  8. Gas Hydrate Formation Amid Submarine Canyon Incision: Investigations From New Zealand's Hikurangi Subduction Margin (United States)

    Crutchley, G. J.; Kroeger, K. F.; Pecher, I. A.; Mountjoy, J. J.; Gorman, A. R.


    We investigate gas hydrate system dynamics beneath a submarine canyon on New Zealand's Hikurangi subduction margin using seismic reflection data and petroleum systems modeling. High seismic velocities just above the base of gas hydrate stability (BGHS) indicate that concentrated gas hydrates exist beneath the canyon. Two-dimensional gas hydrate formation modeling shows how the process of canyon incision at this location alters the distribution and concentration of gas hydrate. The key modeling result is that free gas is trapped beneath the gas hydrate layer and then "captured" into a concentrated gas hydrate deposit as a result of a downward-shift in the BGHS driven by canyon incision. Our study thus provides new insight into the functioning of this process. From our data, we also conceptualize two other models to describe how canyons could significantly change gas hydrate distribution and concentration. One scenario is related to deflection of fluid flow pathways from over-pressured regions at the BGHS toward the canyon, and the other is based on relationships between simultaneous seafloor uplift and canyon incision. The relationships and processes described are of global relevance because of considerations of gas hydrate as an energy resource and the influence of both submarine canyons and gas hydrate systems on seafloor biodiversity.

  9. Elemental mercury at submarine hydrothermal vents in the Bay of Plenty, Taupo volcanic zone, New Zealand (United States)

    Stoffers, P.; Hannington, M.; Wright, I.; Herzig, P.; de Ronde, C.; Scientific Party, Shipboard


    Hot springs in active geothermal areas such as Yellowstone National Park, the Geysers geothermal field in California, and the Taupo volcanic zone in New Zealand are notably enriched in the trace metals Au, Ag, As, Sb, and Hg. Such near-surface hot springs have formed many of the world's important deposits of gold and silver and some of the largest deposits of mercury. The majority of these are associated with continental geothermal systems in subaerial environments. Here we report the discovery of active mercury-depositing hot springs in a submarine setting, at nearly 200 m water depth, within the offshore extension of the Taupo volcanic zone of New Zealand. These vents contain the first documented occurrence of elemental mercury on the sea floor and provide an important link between offshore hydrothermal activity and mercury-depositing geothermal systems on land. The discovery has implications for mercury transport in sea-floor hydrothermal systems and underscores the importance of submarine volcanic and geothermal activity as a source of mercury in the oceans.

  10. Heat stress is a potent stimulus for enhancing rescue efficiency of recombinant Borna disease virus. (United States)

    Kojima, Shohei; Honda, Tomoyuki; Matsumoto, Yusuke; Tomonaga, Keizo


    Recently developed vector systems based on Borna disease virus (BDV) hold promise as platforms for efficient and stable gene delivery to the central nervous system (CNS). However, because it currently takes several weeks to rescue recombinant BDV (rBDV), an improved rescue procedure would enhance the utility of this system. Heat stress reportedly enhances the rescue efficiency of other recombinant viruses. Here, heat stress was demonstrated to increase the amount of BDV genome in persistently BDV-infected cells without obvious cytotoxicity. Further analyses suggested that the effect of heat stress on BDV infection is not caused by an increase in the activity of BDV polymerase. More cells in which BDV replication occurs were obtained in the initial phase of rBDV rescue by using heat stress than when it was not used. Thus, heat stress is a useful improvement on the published rescue procedure for rBDV. The present findings may accelerate the practical use of BDV vector systems in basic science and the clinic and thus enable broader adoption of this viral vector, which is uniquely suited for gene delivery to the CNS. © 2014 The Societies and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  11. Precursory geophysical, geodetic and geochemical signatures of a new 2012 submarine eruption off the northwestern coast of El Hierro, Canary Islands, Spain (United States)

    Pérez, Nemesio M.; Somoza, Luis; González de Vallejo, Luis; Sagiya, Takeshi; León, Ricardo; Hernández, Pedro A.; Biain, Ander; González, Francisco J.; Medialdea, Teresa; Gonzalez-Aller, Daniel; Sánchez de La Madrid, José Luis; Barrancos, José; Ibáñez, Jesús M.; Sumino, Hirochika


    Here we report precursory geophysical, geodetic, and geochemical signatures of a new submarine eruption off the northwestern coast of El Hierro, Canary Islands, which has been detected through acoustic imaging of submarine plumes on June 27, 2012, by the Spanish research vessel "Hespérides". Five distinct acoustic submarine plumes have been recognized in this area at water depths between 64 and 88 m along a submarine platform located in front of the Lomo Negro volcanic cone, northwestern of El Hierro. Submarine plums are characterized by vertical columns of high-amplitude values rising from seafloor. These acoustic imaging data clearly support a new submarine eruption in 2012 associated to the recent magmatic reactivation of El Hierro volcanic system. This new eruption event was preceded by several precursory signatures: (i) a sharp increase of the seismic energy release and the number of daily earthquakes of magnitude ≥ 2.5 on June 25, 2012, (ii) significant vertical and horizontal displacements observed at the Canary Islands GPS permanent network (Nagoya University-ITER-GRAFCAN) at El Hierro with uplifts up to 3 cm from June 25 to 26, 2012, (iii) an anomalous increase of the soil gas radon activity at HIE02, a geochemical station located in the northwestern of El Hierro, from the end of April until the beginning of June reaching peak values of 2.7 kBq/m3 on June 3, 2012, and (iv) the highest observed corrected value of 3He/4He ratio in ground waters (8,5 Ra) from San Simón well at the northwestern of El Hierro on June 16, 2012. These precursory signals have revealed important to improve and optimize the detection of early warning signals of volcanic unrest episodes at El Hierro.

  12. Rescue and Fire Fighting on RWY 06R/24L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristýna Vaňková


    Full Text Available Rescue and firefighting service is an important and essential part at the Václav Havel Airport Prague and it has to follow the requirements stated in Commission regulations (EU, regulations and laws of Czech Republic. Construction of parallel runway 06R/24L influences runway and taxiway system significantly. Consequences of these construction changes are changes of access routes and new places of potential interventions originates. Safety risks of inaccessible areas at the airport and inability to follow response time come with operations of the new runway. These risks are assessed and mitigated if necessary.

  13. ECMO for Cardiac Rescue after Accidental Intravenous Mepivacaine Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Froehle


    Full Text Available Mepivacaine is a potent local anaesthetic and used for infiltration and regional anaesthesia in adults and pediatric patients. Intoxications with mepivacaine affect mainly the CNS and the cardiovascular system. We present a case of accidental intravenous mepivacaine application and intoxication of an infant resulting in seizure, broad complex bradyarrhythmia, arterial hypotension and finally cardiac arrest. The patient could be rescued by prolonged resuscitations and a rapid initiation of ECMO and survived without neurological damage. The management strategies of this rare complication including promising other treatment options with lipid emulsions are discussed.

  14. Submarine landslide triggered by eruption recorded by in-situ hydrophone at NW Rota-1 submarine volcano, Mariana Arc (Invited) (United States)

    Chadwick, B.; Dziak, R. P.; Embley, R. W.; Tunnicliffe, V.; Sherrin, J.; Cashman, K. V.; Deardorff, N.


    An expedition to NW Rota-1, Mariana Arc, in March 2010 with R/V Kilo Moana and ROV Jason found that the submarine volcano (summit depth 520 m) was still erupting more or less continuously as has been observed since 2004, In addition, the expedition also discovered that a major landslide had occurred since the last visit in April 2009, demonstrating the dynamic processes of eruption, collapse, and regrowth in the submarine arc environment. The dive observations reveal the responses of the volcano’s magmatic and hydrothermal systems to such a collapse, as well as how the resident chemosynthetic biological community has responded to the event. The morphologic changes from the landslide can be quantified by comparing multibeam bathymetric surveys between 2009 and 2010. The headwall of the slide is now ~100 m north of the former summit ridge where depth changes up to -90 m occurred between surveys. The slide excavated material from the upper southern slope of the volcano to a distance of 3.5 km downslope, and deposited material between 2-8 km from the summit down to at least 2800 m on the volcano flank. The area and volume of slide deposits (positive depth changes) are 7.1 x 106 m2 and 5.3 x 107 m3, respectively, and the maximum thickness is +42 m. The area and volume of material removed by the slide (negative depth changes) are 2.2 x 106 m2 and -4.1 x 107 m3, respectively. We have found no evidence for a local tsunami generated by this event. The changes in morphology near the summit show that the landslide primarily removed loose volcaniclastic deposits that had accumulated near the active eruptive vent, exposing an underlying stock-like core of resistant intrusive rocks and massive lavas at the summit. During March 2010, there were at least 5 active eruptive vents, located along a line 200-m long, that changed between active and inactive day-to-day and even hour-to-hour, suggesting that the near-surface magmatic plumbing system was still reorganizing after the

  15. 78 FR 58567 - Criteria to Certify Coal Mine Rescue Teams (United States)


    ... Safety and Health Administration Criteria to Certify Coal Mine Rescue Teams AGENCY: Mine Safety and... mine rescue team training. MSHA prescribes training materials through the issuance of instruction guides. Existing standards for coal mine rescue teams include criteria for mine operators to certify the...

  16. 30 CFR 49.2 - Availability of mine rescue teams. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Availability of mine rescue teams. 49.2 Section... TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS § 49.2 Availability of mine rescue teams. (a) Except where alternative... teams which are available at all times when miners are underground; or (2) Enter into an arrangement for...

  17. 78 FR 79010 - Criteria to Certify Coal Mine Rescue Teams (United States)


    ... Safety and Health Administration Criteria to Certify Coal Mine Rescue Teams AGENCY: Mine Safety and... Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) has updated the coal mine rescue team certification criteria. The... rescue team is that team members are properly ] trained annually. MSHA has updated the prescribed...

  18. 30 CFR 49.5 - Mine rescue station. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mine rescue station. 49.5 Section 49.5 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS § 49.5 Mine rescue station. (a) Except where alternative compliance is permitted, every operator...

  19. Propranolol Effects on Decompression Sickness in a Simulated DISSUB Rescue in Swine. (United States)

    Forbes, Angela S; Regis, David P; Hall, Aaron A; Mahon, Richard T; Cronin, William A


    Disabled submarine (DISSUB) survivors may face elevated CO2 levels and inert gas saturation, putting them at risk for CO2 toxicity and decompression sickness (DCS). Propranolol was shown to reduce CO2 production in an experimental DISSUB model in humans but its effects on DCS in a DISSUB rescue scenario are unknown. A 100% oxygen prebreathe (OPB) reduces DCS incidence and severity and is incorporated into some DISSUB rescue protocols. We used a swine model of DISSUB rescue to study the effect of propranolol on DCS incidence and mortality with and without an OPB. In Experiment 1, male Yorkshire Swine (70 kg) were pressurized to 2.8 ATA for 22 h. Propranolol 1.0 mg · kg-1 (IV) was administered at 21.25 h. At 22 h, the animal was rapidly decompressed and observed for DCS type, onset time, and mortality. Experimental animals (N = 21; 69 ± 4.1 kg), PROP1.0, were compared to PROP1.0-OPB45 (N = 8; 69 ± 2.8 kg) with the same dive profile, except for a 45 min OPB prior to decompression. In Experiment 2, the same methodology was used with the following changes: swine pressurized to 2.8 ATA for 28 h; experimental group (N = 25; 67 ± 3.3 kg), PROP0.5 bis, propranolol 0.5 mg · kg-1 bis (twice) (IV) was administered at 22 h and 26 h. Control animals (N = 25; 67 ± 3.9 kg) received normal saline. OPB reduced mortality in PROP1.0-OBP45 compared to PROP1.0 (0% vs. 71%). PROP0.5 bis had increased mortality compared to CONTROL (60-% vs. 4%). Administration of beta blockers prior to saturation decompression appears to increase DCS and worsen mortality in a swine model; however, their effects in bounce diving remain unknown.Forbes AS, Regis DP, HallAA, Mahon RT, Cronin WA. Propranolol effects on decompression sickness in a simulated DISSUB rescue in swine. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(4):385-391.

  20. Discerning Primary and Secondary Processes in the Volatile Geochemistry of Submarine Basalts (United States)

    Hauri, E. H.


    Defining the primary volatile composition of submarine basalts from mid-ocean ridges, back-arc basins and arc-front volcanoes is key to understanding volatile cycling and the influence of volatiles on melting in the upper mantle. The volatile and halogen geochemistry of submarine volcanic glasses and melt inclusions has been the subject of an increasing number of studies that have made progress in distinguishing between secondary seawater contamination of magmas, and true melting and mantle-source variations, thus enabling observed magma compositions to be used to study the time-integrated cycling of volatiles through the upper mantle. But fewer studies have examined in detail the local-and segment-scale variations of volatiles together with trace elements and radiogenic isotopes, so that it can be understood how and where in the oceanic crust submarine magmas are contaminated by seawater-derived components. Mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB) are significantly affected by secondary seawater assimilation processes due to their low volatile contents. From combined CO2-H2O-Cl systematics, it is apparent that addition of seawater-derived components is enhanced in magmas that ascend more slowly through the crust, and/or erupt away from the ridge axis. Highly depleted magmas that erupt in extensional zones within transform faults (e.g. Siqueiros) show little evidence for seawater addition, due to the near absence of thick crust and hydrothermal systems in such environments. At the same time, there also exists a second tier of more subtle seawater addition that is evident as a function of the extent of differentiation in MORB, pointing to combined assimilation and fractional crystallization as an important process operating in MORB petrogeneis. In detail the geochemistry of the assimilants can vary substantially from simple seawater compositions. Discerning seawater contamination in arc and back-arc magmas is more difficult, not only because of higher volatile concentrations

  1. Cyclic thermal behavior associated to the degassing process at El Hierro submarine volcano, Canary Islands. (United States)

    Fraile-Nuez, E.; Santana-Casiano, J. M.; González-Dávila, M.


    One year after the ceasing of magmatic activity in the shallow submarine volcano of the island of El Hierro, significant physical-chemical anomalies produced by the degassing process as: (i) thermal anomalies increase of +0.44 °C, (ii) pH decrease of -0.034 units, (iii) total dissolved inorganic carbon, CT increase by +43.5 µmol kg-1 and (iv) total alkalinity, AT by +12.81 µmol kg-1 were still present in the area. These evidences highlight the potential role of the shallow degassing processes as a natural ecosystem-scale experiments for the study of significant effects of global change stressors on marine environments. Additionally, thermal time series obtained from a temporal yo-yo CTD study, in isopycnal components, over one of the most active points of the submarine volcano have been analyzed in order to investigate the behavior of the system. Signal processing of the thermal time series highlights a strong cyclic temperature period of 125-150 min at 99.9% confidence, due to characteristic time-scales revealed in the periodogram. These long cycles might reflect dynamics occurring within the shallow magma supply system below the island of El Hierro.

  2. Validation and verification of a virtual environment for training naval submarine officers (United States)

    Zeltzer, David L.; Pioch, Nicholas J.


    A prototype virtual environment (VE) has been developed for training a submarine officer of the desk (OOD) to perform in-harbor navigation on a surfaced submarine. The OOD, stationed on the conning tower of the vessel, is responsible for monitoring the progress of the boat as it negotiates a marked channel, as well as verifying the navigational suggestions of the below- deck piloting team. The VE system allows an OOD trainee to view a particular harbor and associated waterway through a head-mounted display, receive spoken reports from a simulated piloting team, give spoken commands to the helmsman, and receive verbal confirmation of command execution from the helm. The task analysis of in-harbor navigation, and the derivation of application requirements are briefly described. This is followed by a discussion of the implementation of the prototype. This implementation underwent a series of validation and verification assessment activities, including operational validation, data validation, and software verification of individual software modules as well as the integrated system. Validation and verification procedures are discussed with respect to the OOD application in particular, and with respect to VE applications in general.

  3. Submarine Channel Association with Seamount Chain Alignment on the Ontong Java Plateau (United States)

    Meyers, H. G., IV; Sautter, L.


    The Ontong Java Plateau (OJP), north of the Solomon Islands, Indonesia, is a submerged seafloor platform, larger than Alaska and full of intricate systems of channels, atolls and seamounts. This area has remained relatively unstudied because of both the area's remote location and low number of ships carrying advanced sonar systems. The OJP is believed to have been formed by one of the largest volcanic eruptions in Earth's history. This study uses EM302 multibeam sonar data collected on the R/V Falkor in 2014 by the University of Tasmania's Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies to better understand relationships between the seafloor geomorphology and tectonic processes that formed numerous unexplored seamounts. The area surveyed is situated along the OJP's central northeast margin, and includes a small chain of six seamounts that range from 300 to 700 m in vertical relief. These seamounts are situated within the axis of a major 14 km wide submarine channel that was likely formed by a sequence of turbidity currents. Using CARIS HIPS and SIPS 9.0 post-processing software, seamount and channel morphology were characterized with 2 dimensional profiles and 3 dimensional images. Backscatter intensity was used to identify relative substrate hardness of the seamounts and surrounding seafloor areas. Scour and depositional features from the turbidity flows are evident at the base of several seamounts, indicating that the submarine channel bifurcated when turbidity flows encountered the seamount chain.

  4. Invited commentary: rescuing Robinson Crusoe. (United States)

    Oakes, J Michael


    Estimating the independent effect of "place" on health outcomes has proven quite difficult. In this issue of the Journal, Auchincloss and Diez Roux contribute a lucid introduction to agent-based simulation models and argue that they may be a fruitful alternative to current approaches to the problem. Insofar as conceptual understanding must precede empirical investigation, this author agrees. Given the obvious shortcoming of pure simulations, the key benefit of agent-based models lies in their ability to alter our thinking and/or theory. Among other things, the approach permits analysts to model (i.e., conceptualize) system dynamics, more realistic social treatment effects, endogenous contexts, and a more congenial image of human behavior.

  5. Understanding Inbreeding Depression, Purging, and Genetic Rescue. (United States)

    Hedrick, Philip W; Garcia-Dorado, Aurora


    Inbreeding depression, the reduction of fitness caused by inbreeding, is a nearly universal phenomenon that depends on past mutation, selection, and genetic drift. Recent estimates suggest that its impact on individual fitness is even greater than previously thought. Genomic information is contributing to its detection and can enlighten important aspects of its genetic architecture. In natural populations, purging and genetic rescue mitigate fitness decline during inbreeding periods, and might be critical to population survival, thus, both mechanisms should be considered when assessing extinction risks. However, deliberate purging and genetic rescue involve considerable risk in the short and medium term, so that neither appears to be a panacea against high inbreeding depression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of maritime emergency rescue capability based on network analysis (United States)

    Haixiang, Pang; Yijia, Ma; Tianyu, Mao; Shengjing, Liu; Yajie, Zhang


    Maritime emergency rescue operations are complex and random, it leads to the complexity of the evaluation of maritime emergency rescue capability. In this paper, we considered the relationship between the evaluation indexes of maritime emergency rescue capability, used Analytic Network Process to determine the weight of each index, took into account the feedback relationship between indicators to determine the index weight, improved the scientific and reliability of the model, and combined with fuzzy comprehensive evaluation to evaluate the rescue capability. According to the evaluation results which combined with the index weight, maritime sector can propose a targeted improvement measures to effectively improve maritime emergency rescue capability.

  7. Rescuing NOAA's Earliest Airphoto Archive (United States)

    Hsu, F. C.; Baugh, K.; Elvidge, C.; Hendy, M. V.


    In 2004 NGDC had rediscovered a previously lost collection of airphotos produced by Coast and Geodetic Survey (later NOAA-NOS National Geodetic Survey) dated from late 1920s to 1960s. The collection focuses on U.S. coastline and the primary goal of these photos was to provide reference for coastal map construction. There are approximately 200,000 frames of film and print taken by multiple instruments. The majority of the photographs were taken by multilens cameras which captures nadir and oblique imageries to cover a larger area hence reduce the number of flightlines required. This huge collection not only shows the change of U.S coast over decades but also gracefully demonstrates how the technique of photogrammetry evolved. It is regarded as the premier record of land cover and coastal features for the era prior to the advent of satellite remote sensing. The collection was stored for many years at the Federal Records Center in Takoma Park, Maryland. After aging past the retention date, the FRC was ready to dispose the collection. NGDC volunteered to pay for the shipping and the collection was transferred to NGDC in 2004. In 2009-11 approximately 10% of the collection was digitally scanned by NOAA's Climate Data Modernization Program. NGDC has organized the scanned photos based on flight lines and has built a web access system. The unscanned portion of the collection is in storage with the Federal Record Center in Denver, Colorado.

  8. Virginia Beach search and rescue experiment (United States)

    Rais, Houra; Mansfield, Arthur W.; Huxtable, Barton D.; Chotoo, Kancham


    In May, 1998, the NASA Search and Rescue Mission conducted a SAR crash detection test in the swampy area south and west of Virginia Beach. A number of aircraft parts were hidden in the dense foliage. The radar used was the Navy P-3 with the ERIM XLC and UHF SAR, providing fine resolution imagery with full polarimetry and an IFSAR capability. This paper reports preliminary results of this test.

  9. Rescuing Downed Aircrews: The Value of Time (United States)


    border. The personnel who were captured in 14 hours were originally on a Royal Air Force (RAF) Tornado that was shot down by a Roland missile. The...rescued as a function of time and other factors. We then identified the relevant factors and organized them according to the SERE categorization ...air engagement and a ground explosion. The pilot was subsequently reported missing. 2. January 17, 1991, RAF GR1 Tornado : The aircraft was part of a

  10. Launch-Off-Need Shuttle Hubble Rescue Mission: Medical Issues (United States)

    Hamilton, Douglas; Gillis, David; Ilcus, Linda; Perchonok, Michele; Polk, James; Brandt, Keith; Powers, Edward; Stepaniak, Phillip


    The Space Shuttle Hubble repair mission (STS-125) is unique in that a rescue mission (STS-400) has to be ready to launch before STS-125 life support runs out should the vehicle become stranded. The shuttle uses electrical power derived from fuel cells that use cryogenic oxygen and hydrogen (CRYO) to run all subsystems including the Environmental Control System. If the STS-125 crew cannot return to Earth due to failure of a critical subsystem, they must power down all nonessential systems and wait to be rescued by STS-400. This power down will cause the cabin temperature to be 60 F or less and freeze the rest of the vehicle, preventing it from attempting a reentry. After an emergency has been declared, STS-125 must wait at least 7 days to power down since that is the earliest that STS-400 can be launched. Problem The delayed power down of STS-125 causes CYRO to be consumed at high rates and limits the survival time after STS-400 launches to 10 days or less. CRYO will run out sooner every day that the STS-400 launch is delayed (weather at launch, technical issues etc.). To preserve CRYO and lithium hydroxide (LiOH - carbon dioxide removal) the crew will perform no exercise to reduce their metabolic rates, yet each deconditioned STS-125 crewmember must perform an EVA to rescue himself. The cabin may be cold for 10 days, which may cause shivering, increasing the metabolic rate of the STS-125 crew. Solution To preserve LiOH, the STS-125 manifest includes nutrition bars with low carbohydrate content to maintain crew respiratory quotient (RQ) below 0.85 as opposed to the usual shuttle galley food which is rich in carbohydrates and keeps the RQ at approximately 0.95. To keep the crew more comfortable in the cold vehicle warm clothing also has been included. However, with no exercise and limited diet, the deconditioned STS-125 crew returning on STS-400 may not be able to egress the vehicle autonomously requiring a supplemented crash-and-rescue capability.

  11. Tactical mobile robots for urban search and rescue (United States)

    Blitch, John; Sidki, Nahid; Durkin, Tim


    Few disasters can inspire more compassion for victims and families than those involving structural collapse. Video clips of children's bodies pulled from earthquake stricken cities and bombing sties tend to invoke tremendous grief and sorrow because of the totally unpredictable nature of the crisis and lack of even the slightest degree of negligence (such as with those who choose to ignore storm warnings). Heartbreaking stories of people buried alive for days provide a visceral and horrific perspective of some of greatest fears ever to be imagined by human beings. Current trends toward urban sprawl and increasing human discord dictates that structural collapse disasters will continue to present themselves at an alarming rate. The proliferation of domestic terrorism, HAZMAT and biological contaminants further complicates the matter further and presents a daunting problem set for Urban Search and Rescue (USAR) organizations around the world. This paper amplifies the case for robot assisted search and rescue that was first presented during the KNOBSAR project initiated at the Colorado School of Mines in 1995. It anticipates increasing technical development in mobile robot technologies and promotes their use for a wide variety of humanitarian assistance missions. Focus is placed on development of advanced robotic systems that are employed in a complementary tool-like fashion as opposed to traditional robotic approaches that portend to replace humans in hazardous tasks. Operational challenges for USAR are presented first, followed by a brief history of mobiles robot development. The paper then presents conformal robotics as a new design paradigm with emphasis on variable geometry and volumes. A section on robot perception follows with an initial attempt to characterize sensing in a volumetric manner. Collaborative rescue is then briefly discussed with an emphasis on marsupial operations and linked mobility. The paper concludes with an emphasis on Human Robot Interface

  12. Gravitational, erosional and depositional processes on volcanic ocean islands: Insights from the submarine morphology of Madeira Archipelago (United States)

    Quartau, Rui; Ramalho, Ricardo S.; Madeira, José; Santos, Rúben; Rodrigues, Aurora; Roque, Cristina; Carrara, Gabriela; Brum da Silveira, António


    The submarine flanks of volcanic ocean islands are shaped by a variety of physical processes. Whilst volcanic constructional processes are relatively well understood, the gravitational, erosional and depositional processes that lead to the establishment of large submarine tributary systems are still poorly comprehended. Until recently, few studies have offered a comprehensive source-to-sink approach, linking subaerial morphology with near-shore shelf, slope and far-field abyssal features. In particular, few studies have addressed how different aspects of the subaerial part of the system (island height, climate, volcanic activity, wave regime, etc.) may influence submarine flank morphologies. We use multibeam bathymetric and backscatter mosaics of an entire archipelago - Madeira - to investigate the development of their submarine flanks. Crucially, this dataset extends from the nearshore to the deep sea, allowing a solid correlation between submarine morphologies with the physical and geological setting of the islands. In this study we also established a comparison with other island settings, which allowed us to further explore the wider implications of the observations. The submarine flanks of the Madeira Archipelago are deeply dissected by large landslides, most of which also affected the subaerial edifices. Below the shelf break, landslide chutes extend downslope forming poorly defined depositional lobes. Around the islands, a large tributary system composed of gullies and channels has formed where no significant rocky/ridge outcrops are present. In Madeira Island these were likely generated by turbidity currents that originated as hyperpycnal flows, whilst on Porto Santo and Desertas their origin is attributed to storm-induced offshore sediment transport. At the lower part of the flanks (-3000 to -4300 m), where seafloor gradients decrease to 0.5°-3°, several scour and sediment wave fields are present, with the former normally occurring upslope of the latter

  13. 30 CFR 49.50 - Certification of coal mine rescue teams. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Certification of coal mine rescue teams. 49.50... TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines § 49.50 Certification of coal mine rescue teams. (a) For each mine rescue team designated to provide mine rescue coverage at an underground...

  14. Test Report : GS Battery, EPC power HES RESCU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, David Martin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schenkman, Benjamin L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Borneo, Daniel R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    The Department of Energy Office of Electricity (DOE/OE), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the Base Camp Integration Lab (BCIL) partnered together to incorporate an energy storage system into a microgrid configured Forward Operating Base to reduce the fossil fuel consumption and to ultimately save lives. Energy storage vendors will be sending their systems to SNL Energy Storage Test Pad (ESTP) for functional testing and then to the BCIL for performance evaluation. The technologies that will be tested are electro-chemical energy storage systems comprising of lead acid, lithium-ion or zinc-bromide. GS Battery and EPC Power have developed an energy storage system that utilizes zinc-bromide flow batteries to save fuel on a military microgrid. This report contains the testing results and some limited analysis of performance of the GS Battery, EPC Power HES RESCU.

  15. The Nonfragile Controller with Covariance Constraint for Stable Motion of Quadruped Search-Rescue Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Wang


    Full Text Available The problem of a stable motion for the quadruped search-rescue robots is described as a variance constrained uncertainty in the discrete systems. According to the model structure of the quadruped search-rescue robot, the kinematics of the robot is analyzed on the basis of the D-H parameter. Each joint of the robot angular velocity is planned using the Jacobian matrix, because the angular velocity is directly related to the stability of walking based on the ADAMS simulation. The nonfragile control method with the covariance constraint is proposed for the gait motion control of the quadruped search-rescue robot. The motion state feedback controller and the covariance upper bounds can be given by the solutions of the linear matrix inequalities (LMI, which makes the system satisfy the covariance constrain theory. The results given by LMI indicate that the proposed control method is correct and effective.

  16. Partitioning of Submarine Melt and Calving across the front of Store Glacier, Greenland (United States)

    Hubbard, A., II; Chauche, N.


    Processes unique to the marine-termini of fast-flowing tidewater outlet glaciers can potentially drive extreme rates of mass wastage thereby providing a rapid link between the terrestrial ice reservoir and the oceanic sink. Here we attempt to directly quantify the pattern and magnitude of calving and melt at the front of Store Glacier, a major outlet draining the western sector of the Greenland ice sheet. Integration of range-survey technologies on a robust, heavy displacement marine platform coupled with high-resolution photogrammetry allowed the production of accurate, ~m resolution 3d digital terrain models (DTMs) of the glacier front. A swath-interferometric sonar system calibrated via an inertial motion unit stabilized with RTK GPS and vector-compass data-streams was combined with photogrammetric processing of repeat UAV surveys. The results of three repeat surveys across the front of Store Glaciers in 2012 is presented during which significant ice flow, melt and calving events were imaged, complimented with AWS, on-ice GPS stations and time-lapse/video camera sequences. The residual of successive DTMs yield the 3d pattern of frontal change allowing the processes calving and melt to be quantified and constrained in unprecedented detail. The pattern of submarine melt is further validated against indirect estimates of submarine melt derived from oceanographic circulation measurements within the fjord.

  17. [Medical-physiological characteristics of combat training of nuclear-power submarine crews]. (United States)

    Dovgusha, V V; Myznikov, I L; Shalabodov, S A; Bumaĭ, O K


    The article presents an observe of general questions of peculiarities of military-professional activity of submarine staff These questions are defining value in ideology of medical supply of submarine troops of NAVY in now-days conditions. The article also presents the statistics of morbidity in long termed sails for last forty years, it's dynamics by different categories of sail staff, on different stages of combat training activity in dependence of perioditation of work cycle of submarine staff The authors have examined modern condition of medical supply of submarines; have presented statistics of quality indexes of health of submarine staff The authors have formed main problems of medical supply of submarines and have proposed ways of their solving on modern stage.

  18. Losses in armoured three-phase submarine cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebdrup, Thomas; Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da; Bak, Claus Leth


    increases the losses in armoured cables compared to unarmoured cables. In this paper a thorough state of the art analysis is conducted on armour losses in three-phase armoured submarine power cables. The analysis shows that the IEC 60287-1-1 standard overestimates the armour losses which lead...... to the installation of cables with excessive phase conductor cross section. This paper also presents an example of the potential economic benefits of having a better knowledge of the losses introduced by the armour.......The number of offshore wind farms will keep increasing in the future as a part of the shift towards a CO2 free energy production. The energy harvested from the wind farm must be brought to shore, which is often done by using a three-phase armoured submarine power cable. The use of an armour...

  19. Stresses in a submarine topography under ocean waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mei, C.C.; McTigue, D.F.


    The problem of submarine slope stability is of interest to both offshore engineering and geology. In an uneven topography, the weight above a horizontal plane induces two-dimensional variation in the static stress field. The action of wave pressure, which changes with depth, further introduces excess pore pressure and dynamic stresses in the sea bottom. In the present paper, we combine a simple analytical theory for the static stress by the present authors, and the recent solution by Mei and Foda for wave-induced stresses in a plane poro-elastic sea bed to account for mild bottom slope and wave shoaling, to obtain the effective stress field in a submarine topography under sea waves. Sample results are given for a ridge and a canyon. In particular the dynamic pore pressure and the combined static and dynamic effective stresses are presented. 10 references, 11 figures.

  20. Stresses in a submarine topography under ocean waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mei, C.C.; McTigue, D.F.


    The problem of submarine slope stability is of interest to both offshore engineering and geology. In an uneven topography, the weight above a horizontal plane induces two-dimensional variation in the static stress field. The action of wave pressure, which changes with depth, further introduces excess pore pressure and dynamic stresses in the sea bottom. In the present paper, we combine a simple analytical theory for the static stress by the present authors, and the recent solution by Mei and Foda for wave-induced stresses in a plane poro-elastic sea bed to account for mild bottom slope and wave shoaling, and obtain the effective stress field in a submarine topography under sea waves. Sample results are given for a ridge and a canyon. In particular, the dynamic pore pressure and the combined static and dynamic effective stresses are presented.

  1. Analysis of SSN 688 Class Submarine Maintenance Delays (United States)


    errors an in-depth analysis into the job-level maintenance is required which is outside the scope of this analysis. 25 2. New Work Causes Late...attempting to determine the cause of this trend. Finally, this thesis proposes a solution to the systematic underestimation of availability durations by...illustrating the inherent error in the current equation and providing a notional equation to remove that error . 14. SUBJECT TERMS Submarine

  2. Submarine Pressure Hull Collapse Considering Corrosion and Penetrations (United States)


    corrosion. Des valeurs de la pression d’écrasement sont calculées pour les diverses dimensions de la zone de corrosion, et ce, dans les cas de présence ou...Research & Development Canada DRDIM Director Research and Development Knowledge and Information Management OOC Out-of-circularity R&D Research...Support SLA (Mr. John Porter) 1 Project Manager , Submarine Scientific Support SLA (LCdr Wade Temple) 9 TOTAL LIST PART I LIST PART II: External

  3. Europe’s Grand Canyon: Nazaré submarine canyon


    Tyler, P.; Amaro, T.; Arzola, R.; Cunha; Stigter, H. de; Gooday, A.; Huvenne, V.; Ingels, J; Kiriakoulakis, K; Lastras, G.; Masson, D.; Oliveira, A.; Pattenden, A.; Vanreusel, A.; van Weering, T.


    The Nazare submarine canyon extends similar to 210 km westward from the coast of Portugal, down to a water depth of > 4300 m. The considerable habitat heterogeneity found throughout the canyon is affected by strong currents and high turbidity, especially in the upper parts of the canyon. The canyon morphology comprises steep slopes, scarps, terraces, and overhangs, and a deeply incised thalweg is found in the lower part of the canyon. The seabed within the canyon is composed of varying propor...

  4. Driven around the bend: Spatial evolution and controls on the orientation of helical bend flow in a natural submarine gravity current (United States)

    Sumner, E.; Peakall, J.; Dorrell, R. M.; Parsons, D. R.; Darby, S. E.; Wynn, R. B.


    Submarine channel systems transport vast amounts of terrestrial sediment into the deep sea. Understanding the dynamics of the gravity currents that create these systems, and in particular, how these flows interact with and form bends, is fundamental to predicting system architecture and evolution. Bend flow is characterized by a helical structure and in rivers typically comprises inwardly directed near-bed flow and outwardly directed near-surface flow. Following a decade of debate, it is now accepted that helical flow in submarine channel bends can exhibit a variety of structures including being opposed to that observed in rivers. The new challenge is to understand what controls the orientation of helical flow cells within submarine flows and determines the conditions for reversal. We present data from the Black Sea showing, for the first time, the three-dimensional velocity and density structure of an active submarine gravity current. By calculating the forces acting on the flow, we evaluate what controls the orientation of helical flow cells. We demonstrate that radial pressure gradients caused by across-channel stratification of the flow are more important than centrifugal acceleration in controlling the orientation of helical flow. We also demonstrate that nonlocal acceleration of the flow due to topographic forcing and downstream advection of the cross-stream flow are significant terms in the momentum balance. These findings have major implications for conceptual and numerical models of submarine channel dynamics, because they show that three-dimensional models that incorporate across-channel flow stratification are required to accurately represent curvature-induced helical flow in such systems.

  5. Submarine and Autonomous Vessel Proliferation: Implications for Future Strategic Stability at Sea (United States)


    replace the Ohio- class SSBN and Virginia -class SSN to replace the Los Angeles class attack submarine. Although more sophisticated than their...predecessors and with some modifications to demands of the post-Cold War era and (in the Virginia class) an emphasis on littoral conflict, these purchases...Congressional Research Service analyst Amy Woolf observes: “With few submarines in the fleet, the Navy would have to reduce the number of submarines on

  6. The future of the ballistic missile submarine force in the Russian nuclear triad


    Lesiw, Richard T.


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis analyzes the current status of the Russian Federation's ballistic missile submarine force. It reviews the history of the ballistic missile submarine force, its current status, and the implementation of plans currently in progress and as well as the advantages and disadvantages of maintaining a ballistic missile submarine force. This thesis also assesses the other two legs of the nuclear triad - the intercontinental balli...

  7. Gender Integration on U.S. Navy Submarines: Views of the First Wave (United States)


    submarines is to perform seek-and-destroy missions on enemy ships and submarines, conduct surveillance and reconnaissance, provide covert troop insertion...not only the missile payload they were designed to carry but also extended periods at sea without resupply. In terms of berthing and sanitary ...officer berthing and sanitary 28 facilities on board Ohio class submarines, however, no significant modifications would be necessary in order to

  8. Navy Virginia (SSN-774) Class Attack Submarine Procurement: Background and Issues for Congress (United States)


    reactors or non- nuclear power sources such as diesel engines or fuel cells. All U.S. Navy submarines are nuclear - powered. A submarine’s use of...the Navy’s plan to design and procure a next - generation ballistic missile submarine called the Ohio Replacement Program or SSBN(X). 26...the next several years require these submarines to use up their nuclear fuel cores more quickly than the Navy now projects, then the amounts of time

  9. Introduction to the special issue on submarine geohazard records and potential seafloor instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song-Chuen Chen Jia-Jyun Dong


    Full Text Available Submarine landslides frequently occur in passive continental margins or active margins (Hampton et al. 1996; Wynn et al. 2000; Mienert et al. 2002; Korup et al. 2007; Twichell et al. 2009; Cukur et al. 2016. Submarine landslides have been studied extensively not only for scientific research but also for submarine geohazards. Submarine landslides could jeopardize marine infrastructures, such as offshore drilling platforms or submarine telecommunication cables, and could even trigger disastrous tsunamis (Bondevik et al. 2005; Harbitz et al. 2006; Hornbach et al. 2007, 2008; Hsu et al. 2008; Su et al. 2012; Tappin et al. 2014; Li et al. 2015. For instance, one disastrous tsunami hitting the coastal area of southwestern Taiwan in 1781 or 1782 was reported (Chen 1830; Hsu 1983; the tsunami event was probably generated by submarine landslides in the offshore area of southwestern Taiwan (Li et al. 2015. Moreover, several submarine landslides triggered by the 2006 Pingtung earthquake have induced turbidity currents off southwest Taiwan and destroyed about 14 submarine telecommunication cables off SW Taiwan (Hsu et al. 2008. The area of southwest Taiwan currently has a dense population (more than 3 million people in total, one deep-water Kaohsiung Port, several tanks of liquefied natural gas and a nuclear power plant on the coast (Fig. 1. Numerous submarine telecommunication cables exist off SW Taiwan. If a considerable tsunami event would hit again the costal area of SW Taiwan, the damage could very serious. Likewise, there are two nuclear power plants on the coast of northern Taiwan (Fig. 2, and the population in northern Taiwan has more than 10 million people. Submarine telecommunication cables also exist off northern Taiwan. In any case, it is important to understand the status of seafloor stability in the offshore areas of SW and NE Taiwan. For that, this special issue of submarine geohazard records and potential seafloor instability is aimed to

  10. Navy Virginia (SSN 774) Class Attack Submarine Procurement: Background and Issues for Congress (United States)


    powered attack submarines (SSNs). The SSNs are general -purpose submarines that can (when appropriately equipped and armed) perform a variety of...signs of tampering. The defective elbow pipe, used to funnel steam from the reactor to the sub’s propulsion turbines and generators , showed evidence of...Congressional Research Service Summary The Navy has been procuring Virginia (SSN-774) class nuclear- powered attack submarines since FY1998. The two Virginia

  11. Estimating the empirical probability of submarine landslide occurrence (United States)

    Geist, Eric L.; Parsons, Thomas E.; Mosher, David C.; Shipp, Craig; Moscardelli, Lorena; Chaytor, Jason D.; Baxter, Christopher D. P.; Lee, Homa J.; Urgeles, Roger


    The empirical probability for the occurrence of submarine landslides at a given location can be estimated from age dates of past landslides. In this study, tools developed to estimate earthquake probability from paleoseismic horizons are adapted to estimate submarine landslide probability. In both types of estimates, one has to account for the uncertainty associated with age-dating individual events as well as the open time intervals before and after the observed sequence of landslides. For observed sequences of submarine landslides, we typically only have the age date of the youngest event and possibly of a seismic horizon that lies below the oldest event in a landslide sequence. We use an empirical Bayes analysis based on the Poisson-Gamma conjugate prior model specifically applied to the landslide probability problem. This model assumes that landslide events as imaged in geophysical data are independent and occur in time according to a Poisson distribution characterized by a rate parameter λ. With this method, we are able to estimate the most likely value of λ and, importantly, the range of uncertainty in this estimate. Examples considered include landslide sequences observed in the Santa Barbara Channel, California, and in Port Valdez, Alaska. We confirm that given the uncertainties of age dating that landslide complexes can be treated as single events by performing statistical test of age dates representing the main failure episode of the Holocene Storegga landslide complex.

  12. Long-term eruptive activity at a submarine arc volcano. (United States)

    Embley, Robert W; Chadwick, William W; Baker, Edward T; Butterfield, David A; Resing, Joseph A; de Ronde, Cornel E J; Tunnicliffe, Verena; Lupton, John E; Juniper, S Kim; Rubin, Kenneth H; Stern, Robert J; Lebon, Geoffrey T; Nakamura, Ko-ichi; Merle, Susan G; Hein, James R; Wiens, Douglas A; Tamura, Yoshihiko


    Three-quarters of the Earth's volcanic activity is submarine, located mostly along the mid-ocean ridges, with the remainder along intraoceanic arcs and hotspots at depths varying from greater than 4,000 m to near the sea surface. Most observations and sampling of submarine eruptions have been indirect, made from surface vessels or made after the fact. We describe here direct observations and sampling of an eruption at a submarine arc volcano named NW Rota-1, located 60 km northwest of the island of Rota (Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands). We observed a pulsating plume permeated with droplets of molten sulphur disgorging volcanic ash and lapilli from a 15-m diameter pit in March 2004 and again in October 2005 near the summit of the volcano at a water depth of 555 m (depth in 2004). A turbid layer found on the flanks of the volcano (in 2004) at depths from 700 m to more than 1,400 m was probably formed by mass-wasting events related to the eruption. Long-term eruptive activity has produced an unusual chemical environment and a very unstable benthic habitat exploited by only a few mobile decapod species. Such conditions are perhaps distinctive of active arc and hotspot volcanoes.

  13. Satellite-Based Technologies in Use for Extreme Nocturnal Mountain Rescue Operations: a Synergetic Approach Applying Geophysical Principles (United States)

    Buchroithner, Manfred F.; Ehlert, Guido; Hetze, Bernd; Kohlschmidt, Horst; Prechtel, Nikolas


    Mountain-rescue operations require rapid response whilst also ensuring the security of the rescue teams. Rescuing people in a big rock-face is even more difficult if night or fog prevent sight. The paper presents a technical solution to optimally support, under these aggravated conditions, the location of the casualties and the navigation of the rescue team(s) in a rock-face from a coordination station. In doing so, standard components like a smartphones with GPS functionality, a data communication on a client-server basis and VR visualisation software have been adapted to the specific requirements. Remote support of the navigation in steep rocky terrain requires a highly accurate wall model which permits the local experts of the coordination station to dependably estimate geometry and structure of the rock along the rescue route and to convey necessary directives to the retrieval team. Based on terrestrial laser-scans from different locations, such a model has been generated for the mighty Dachstein South Face (Austria) and texturised with digital photographs. Over a twelve-month period, a transdisciplinary team of the Dresden University of Technology (Informatics, Electrical Engineering, Cartography) developed and integrated the various technical modules of the mountain-rescue support-system (digital rock-face model, optimised GPS data transmission between mobile device, server and client, data filtering, and dynamic visualisation component). In summer 2011 the proper functioning of the prototype was demonstrated in a rescue exercise under foggy dusk conditions.

  14. Manned remote work station - Safety and rescue considerations (United States)

    Nathan, C. A.


    It is noted that due to restrictions of payload and volume limitations of current and projected launch systems, space construction of ultralarge space structures is essential. The present paper discusses the concepts of a key piece of construction equipment needed to support assembly of such large structures. Attention is given to the manned remote work station (MRWS), a universal crew cabin to be used as a construction cherry picker, space crane turret, work station on a construction base rail system, or a free flyer. Concepts and safety and rescue requirements for this spacecraft are delineated for early applications in support of Shuttle operations, as well as applications in support of a mid to late 1980's space construction base. Finally, applications in support of constructing and maintaining a solar power satellite system are covered.

  15. Isotopic evidence for the influence of typhoons and submarine canyons on the sourcing and transport behavior of biospheric organic carbon to the deep sea (United States)

    Zheng, Li-Wei; Ding, Xiaodong; Liu, James T.; Li, Dawei; Lee, Tsung-Yu; Zheng, Xufeng; Zheng, Zhenzhen; Xu, Min Nina; Dai, Minhan; Kao, Shuh-Ji


    Export of biospheric organic carbon from land masses to the ocean plays an important role in regulating the global carbon cycle. High-relief islands in the western Pacific are hotspots for such land-to-ocean carbon transport due to frequent floods and active tectonics. Submarine canyon systems serve as a major conduit to convey terrestrial organics into the deep sea, particularly during episodic floods, though the nature of ephemeral sediment transportation through such canyons remains unclear. In this study, we deployed a sediment trap in southwestern Taiwan's Gaoping submarine canyon during summer 2008, during which Typhoon Kalmaegi impacted the study area. We investigated sources of particulate organic carbon and quantified the content of fossil organic carbon (OCf) and biospheric non-fossil carbon (OCnf) during typhoon and non-typhoon periods, based on relations between total organic carbon (TOC), isotopic composition (δ13 C, 14C), and nitrogen to carbon ratios (N/C) of newly and previously reported source materials. During typhoons, flooding connected terrestrial rivers to the submarine canyon. Fresh plant debris was not found in the trap except in the hyperpycnal layer, suggesting that only hyperpycnal flow is capable of entraining plant debris, while segregation had occurred during non-hyperpycnal periods. The OCnf components in typhoon flood and trapped samples were likely sourced from aged organics buried in ancient landslides. During non-typhoon periods, the canyon is more connected to the shelf, where waves and tides cause reworking, thus allowing abiotic and biotic processes to generate isotopically uniform and similarly aged OCnf for transport into the canyon. Therefore, extreme events coupled with the submarine canyon system created an efficient method for deep-sea burial of freshly produced organic-rich material. Our results shed light on the ephemeral transport of organics within a submarine canyon system on an active tectonic margin.

  16. Use of Recombination-Mediated Genetic Engineering for Construction of Rescue Human Cytomegalovirus Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalpana Dulal


    Full Text Available Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC technology has contributed immensely to manipulation of larger genomes in many organisms including large DNA viruses like human cytomegalovirus (HCMV. The HCMV BAC clone propagated and maintained inside E. coli allows for accurate recombinant virus generation. Using this system, we have generated a panel of HCMV deletion mutants and their rescue clones. In this paper, we describe the construction of HCMV BAC mutants using a homologous recombination system. A gene capture method, or gap repair cloning, to seize large fragments of DNA from the virus BAC in order to generate rescue viruses, is described in detail. Construction of rescue clones using gap repair cloning is highly efficient and provides a novel use of the homologous recombination-based method in E. coli for molecular cloning, known colloquially as recombineering, when rescuing large BAC deletions. This method of excising large fragments of DNA provides important prospects for in vitro homologous recombination for genetic cloning.

  17. Scientific Ocean Drilling to Assess Submarine Geohazards along European Margins (United States)

    Ask, M. V.; Camerlenghi, A.; Kopf, A.; Morgan, J. K.; Ocean DrillingSeismic Hazard, P. E.


    Submarine geohazards are some of the most devastating natural events in terms of lives lost and economic impact. Earthquakes pose a big threat to society and infrastructure, but the understanding of their episodic generation is incomplete. Tsunamis are known for their potential of striking coastlines world-wide. Other geohazards originating below the sea surface are equally dangerous for undersea structures and the coastal population: submarine landslides and volcanic islands collapse with little warning and devastating consequences. The European scientific community has a strong focus on geohazards along European and nearby continental margins, especially given their high population densities, and long historic and prehistoric record of hazardous events. For example, the Mediterranean is surrounded by very densely-populated coastline and is the World's leading holiday destination, receiving up 30% of global tourism. In addition, its seafloor is criss-crossed by hydrocarbon pipelines and telecommunication cables. However, the governing processes and recurrence intervals of geohazards are still poorly understood. Examples include, but are not limited to, earthquakes and volcanic eruptions along the active tectonic margins of the Mediterranean and Sea of Marmara, landslides on both active and passive margins, and tsunamites and seismites in the sedimentary record that suggest a long history of similar events. The development of geophysical networks, drilling, sampling and long-term monitoring are crucial to the understanding of earthquake, landslide, and tsunami processes, and to mitigate the associated risks in densely populated and industrialized regions such as Europe. Scientific drilling, particularly in the submarine setting, offers a unique tool to obtain drill core samples, borehole measurements and long-term observations. Hence, it is a critical technology to investigate past, present, and possible future influences of hazardous processes in this area. The

  18. Swath sonar mapping of Earth's submarine plate boundaries (United States)

    Carbotte, S. M.; Ferrini, V. L.; Celnick, M.; Nitsche, F. O.; Ryan, W. B. F.


    The recent loss of Malaysia Airlines flight MH370 in an area of the Indian Ocean where less than 5% of the seafloor is mapped with depth sounding data (Smith and Marks, EOS 2014) highlights the striking lack of detailed knowledge of the topography of the seabed for much of the worlds' oceans. Advances in swath sonar mapping technology over the past 30 years have led to dramatic improvements in our capability to map the seabed. However, the oceans are vast and only an estimated 10% of the seafloor has been mapped with these systems. Furthermore, the available coverage is highly heterogeneous and focused within areas of national strategic priority and community scientific interest. The major plate boundaries that encircle the globe, most of which are located in the submarine environment, have been a significant focus of marine geoscience research since the advent of swath sonar mapping. While the location of these plate boundaries are well defined from satellite-derived bathymetry, significant regions remain unmapped at the high-resolutions provided by swath sonars and that are needed to study active volcanic and tectonic plate boundary processes. Within the plate interiors, some fossil plate boundary zones, major hotspot volcanoes, and other volcanic provinces have been the focus of dedicated research programs. Away from these major tectonic structures, swath mapping coverage is limited to sparse ocean transit lines which often reveal previously unknown deep-sea channels and other little studied sedimentary structures not resolvable in existing low-resolution global compilations, highlighting the value of these data even in the tectonically quiet plate interiors. Here, we give an overview of multibeam swath sonar mapping of the major plate boundaries of the globe as extracted from public archives. Significant quantities of swath sonar data acquired from deep-sea regions are in restricted-access international archives. Open access to more of these data sets would

  19. Motivations for volunteers in food rescue nutrition. (United States)

    Mousa, T Y; Freeland-Graves, J H


    A variety of organizations redistribute surplus food to low-income populations through food rescue nutrition. Why volunteers participate in these charitable organizations is unclear. The aim of this study is to document the participation and motivations of volunteers who are involved specifically in food rescue nutrition. A cross-sectional study was conducted in two phases. In phase 1, a new instrument, Motivations to Volunteer Scale, was developed and validated in 40 participants (aged ≥18 years). In phase 2, the new scale and a demographics questionnaire were administered to 300 participants who were volunteering in food pantries and churches. The pilot study showed that Motivations to Volunteer Scale exhibited an internal consistency of Cronbach's α of 0.73 (P  0.05). The scale was validated also by comparison to the Volunteer Function Inventory (r = 0.86, P Motivations to Volunteer Scale were requirement, career improvement, social life, and altruism. The mean motivation score of the 300 volunteers was 9.15 ± 0.17. Greater motivations were observed among participants who were aged >45 years, women, Hispanics, college/university graduates, physically inactive, non-smokers, and had an income ≥ $48,000. The Motivations to Volunteer Scale is a valid tool to assess why individuals volunteer in food rescue nutrition. The extent of motivations of participants was relatively high, and the primary reason for volunteering was altruism. Health professionals should be encouraged to participate in food redistribution. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Numerical and experimental investigations of submarine groundwater discharge to a coastal lagoon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haider, Kinza

    of the groundwater discharge occurred near the shoreline of the lagoon, but also off-shore discharge from deep confined aquifers system occurred at places where confining clay layers are eroded by buried valleys. The simulated fresh groundwater discharge was a non-negligible component, 59 % of recharge on the lagoon......The main goal of this study is to understand and estimate the amount of submarine groundwater discharge into Ringkøbing Fjord from shallow and deep aquifer systems at the Eastern shoreline from Ringkøbing catchment in Western Denmark. In order to accomplish this objective, the study was initiated...... using an existing large-scale airborne geophysical survey and hydrogeological data from the boreholes in the study area. This data helped in locating zones of groundwater discharge as well estimating complex salinity distribution under the sediment bed along with information about geology under lagoon...

  1. The timing of sediment transport down Monterey Submarine Canyon, offshore California (United States)

    Stevens, Thomas; Paull, Charles K.; Ussler, William III; McGann, Mary; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter; Lundsten, Eve M.


    While submarine canyons are the major conduits through which sediments are transported from the continents out into the deep sea, the time it takes for sediment to pass down through a submarine canyon system is poorly constrained. Here we report on the first study to couple optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages of quartz sand deposits and accelerator mass spectrometry 14C ages measured on benthic foraminifera to examine the timing of sediment transport through the axial channel of Monterey Submarine Canyon and Fan, offshore California. The OSL ages date the timing of sediment entry into the canyon head while the 14C ages of benthic foraminifera record the deposition of hemipelagic sediments that bound the sand horizons. We use both single-grain and small (∼2 mm area) single-aliquot regeneration approaches on vibracore samples from fining-upward sequences at various water depths to demonstrate relatively rapid, decadal-scale sand transport to at least 1.1 km depth and more variable decadal- to millennial-scale transport to a least 3.5 km depth on the fan. Significant differences between the time sand was last exposed at the canyon head (OSL age) and the timing of deposition of the sand (from 14C ages of benthic foraminifera in bracketing hemipelagic sediments) are interpreted as indicating that the sand does not pass through the entire canyon instantly in large individual events, but rather moves multiple times before emerging onto the fan. The increased spread in single-grain OSL dates with water depth provides evidence of mixing and temporary storage of sediment as it moves through the canyon system. The ages also indicate that the frequency of sediment transport events decreases with distance down the canyon channel system. The amalgamated sands near the canyon head yield OSL ages that are consistent with a sub-decadal recurrence frequency while the fining-upward sand sequences on the fan indicate that the channel is still experiencing events with a 150

  2. Space-for-time substitution and the evolution of submarine canyons in a passive, progradational margin. (United States)

    Micallef, Aaron; Ribó, Marta; Canals, Miquel; Puig, Pere; Lastras, Galderic; Tubau, Xavier


    40% of submarine canyons worldwide are located in passive margins, where they constitute preferential conduits of sediment and biodiversity hotspots. Recent studies have presented evidence that submarine canyons incising passive, progradational margins can co-evolve with the adjacent continental slope during long-term margin construction. The stages of submarine canyon initiation and their development into a mature canyon-channel system are still poorly constrained, however, which is problematic when attempting to reconstruct the development of passive continental margins. In this study we analyse multibeam echosounder and seismic reflection data from the southern Ebro margin (western Mediterranean Sea) to document the stages through which a first-order gully develops into a mature, shelf-breaching canyon and, finally, into a canyon-channel system. This morphological evolution allows the application of a space-for-time substitution approach. Initial gully growth on the continental slope takes place via incision and downslope elongation, with limited upslope head retreat. Gravity flows are the main driver of canyon evolution, whereas slope failures are the main agent of erosion; they control the extent of valley widening, promote tributary development, and their influence becomes more significant with time. Breaching of the continental shelf by a canyon results in higher water/sediment loads that enhance canyon development, particularly in the upper reaches. Connection of the canyon head with a paleo-river changes evolution dynamics significantly, promoting development of a channel and formation of depositional landforms. Morphometric analyses demonstrate that canyons develop into geometrically self-similar systems that approach steady-state and higher drainage efficiency. Canyon activity in the southern Ebro margin is pulsating and enhanced during sea level lowstands. Rapid sedimentation by extension of the palaeo-Millars River into the outermost shelf and upper

  3. Optimal Mission Abort Policy for Systems Operating in a Random Environment. (United States)

    Levitin, Gregory; Finkelstein, Maxim


    Many real-world critical systems, e.g., aircrafts, manned space flight systems, and submarines, utilize mission aborts to enhance their survivability. Specifically, a mission can be aborted when a certain malfunction condition is met and a rescue or recovery procedure is then initiated. For systems exposed to external impacts, the malfunctions are often caused by the consequences of these impacts. Traditional system reliability models typically cannot address a possibility of mission aborts. Therefore, in this article, we first develop the corresponding methodology for modeling and evaluation of the mission success probability and survivability of systems experiencing both internal failures and external shocks. We consider a policy when a mission is aborted and a rescue procedure is activated upon occurrence of the mth shock. We demonstrate the tradeoff between the system survivability and the mission success probability that should be balanced by the proper choice of the decision variable m. A detailed illustrative example of a mission performed by an unmanned aerial vehicle is presented. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  4. Evaluating maps produced by urban search and rescue robots: Lessons learned from RoboCup

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balaguer, B.; Balakirsky, S.; Carpin, S.; Visser, A.


    This paper presents the map evaluation methodology developed for the Virtual Robots Rescue competition held as part of RoboCup. The procedure aims to evaluate the quality of maps produced by multi-robot systems with respect to a number of factors, including usability, exploration, annotation and

  5. 46 CFR 111.75-16 - Lighting of survival craft and rescue boats. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lighting of survival craft and rescue boats. 111.75-16... ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Lighting Circuits and Protection § 111.75-16 Lighting of survival... be adequately illuminated by lighting supplied from the emergency power source. (b) The arrangement...

  6. The swimming literacy of women in term sof self rescue


    Vokurková, Eva


    Work name: The swimming literacy of women in term of self rescue Aim of work: To acquire and analyze data about the level of the swimming literacy and self rescue skills of women aged 18 - 72 years, whether they can handle and use them. Method: Literature search, creation of the questionnaire, implementation survey, data analysis and graphical presentation of results. Results: The analysis of the swimming literacy and self rescue skills of women. Key words: literacy, physical literacy, swimmi...

  7. Submarine flow discharge changes as a way to explain incission-overspilling and other cycles in submarine channel sequences (United States)

    Milana, J. P.; Kneller, B.; Dykstra, M.


    -stratification. The second bedform recognized is related to described macrodunes, and is comparable to large-scale antidunes, and produce tabular bodies with very subtle undulating structure. The third and perhaps more important is described as "gravel sheets" although they could be also low-relief gravel dunes developed during low-flow events, on top of the large-scale bedforms or directly over a flat gravelly bed. It is well known that bedforms produce the effect of delay averaged sediment velocity with respect to flow velocity, and thus we propose that this delay has an important geological effect as it creates a lag time between the onset of discharge increase and the time the channel bed reaches an equilibrium with the dominant flows. The effect of changes in the transport efficiency of submarine slope systems in the resulting depositional architecture is already known. However, we introduce here the concept of lagging the coarsest-grained fractions, delayed by the fact they involve in bedform building which move at lower velocities of the flows and hence allow the system to pass along a stage in which flows are big and fast, but the bed is not in equilibrium with them and as a result, canyoning may occur. These changes in external conditions (flow discharge) is likely to occur as a result of changes of turbid water near the slope by fluvial action and hence it would be t result of the interplay of river discharge and eustacy.

  8. Leadership lessons from the Chilean mine rescue. (United States)

    Rashid, Faaiza; Edmondson, Amy C; Leonard, Herman B


    Three years ago, when a cave-in at the San José mine in Chile trapped 33 men under 700,000 metric tons of rock, experts estimated the probability of getting them out alive at less than 1%. Yet, after spending a record 69 days underground, all 33 were hoisted up to safety. The inspiring story of their rescue is a case study in how to lead in situations where the stakes, risk, and uncertainty are incredibly high and time pressure is intense. Today executives often find themselves in similar straits. When they do, many feel torn. Should they be directive, taking charge and commanding action? Or should they be empowering, enabling innovation and experimentation? As the successful example of André Sougarret, the chief of the mine rescue operation, shows, the answer is yes--to both. The choice is a false dichotomy. Implementing this dual approach involves three key tasks. Each has directive and enabling components. The first task is envisioning, which requires instilling both realism and hope. The second task is enrolling, which means setting clear boundaries for who is on and off the team, but inviting in helpful collaborators. The third task is engaging--leading disciplined execution while encouraging innovation and experimentation. The authors of this article describe how Sougarret ably juggled all of these tasks, orchestrating the efforts of hundreds of people from different organizations, areas of expertise, and countries in an extraordinary mission that overcame impossible odds.

  9. Redefining Technical Rescue and Casualty Care for SOF: Part 1. (United States)

    McKay, S D; Johnston, J; Callaway, D W


    Trauma care in the tactical environment is complex; it requires a unique blend of situational awareness, foresight, medical skill, multitasking, and physical strength. Rescue is a critical, but often over-looked, component of nearly all tactical trauma casualty management. Successful full spectrum casualty management requires proficiency in four areas: casualty access, assessment, stabilization, and extraction. When complex rescue situations arise (casualty removal from roof tops, mountain terrain, collapsed structures, wells, or a karez), casualty care often becomes further complicated. Special Operations units have historically looked to civilian technical rescue techniques and equipment to fill this ?rescue gap.? Similar to the evolution of pre-hospital military medicine from civilian guidelines (e.g. Advanced Trauma Life Support) (ATLS)) to an evidence-based, tactical-specific guideline (Tactical Combat Casualty Care (TCCC)), an evolution is required within the rescue paradigm. This shift from civilian-based technical rescue guidelines towards an Operational Rescue? capability allows tactical variables such as minimal equipment, low light/night vision goggles (NVG) considerations, enemy threats, and variable evacuation times to permeate through the individual rescue skill set. Just as with TCCC, in which the principles of casualty care remain consistent, the practices must be adapted to end-users environment, so it is with rescue. 2012.

  10. The Impact of the General Board of the Navy on Interwar Submarine Design (United States)


    Navy had developed the Gato class submarine, which was successful independently operating in the vast Pacific Ocean in support of War Plan Orange. The...development of the Gato class submarine, which was successful independently operating in the vast Pacific Ocean in support of War Plan Orange. The...

  11. Procurements by the Non-Acoustic Anti-Submarine Warfare Program Through the Environmental Technologies Laboratory (United States)


    General, DoD, on contract offloading, including Report No. 93-068, " Procurement of Services for the Non-Acoustic Anti-Submarine Warfare Program...contract administration in response to Audit Report No. 93-042. Report No. 93-068, " Procurement of Services for the Non-Acoustic Anti- Submarine Warfare

  12. Study on the locational criteria for submarine rock repositories of low and medium level radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, G. H.; Kang, W. J.; Kim, T. J. and others [Chungnam National Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    Submarine repositories have significant advantages over their land counterparts locating close to the areas of daily human activities. Consequently, the construction of submarine repositories on the vast continental shelves around Korean seas is considered to be highly positive. In this context, the development of locational criteria primarily targeting the safety of submarine rock repositories is very important.The contents of the present study are: analyzing characteristics of marine environment: Search of potential hazards to, and environmental impact by, the submarine repositories; Investigation of the oceanographic, geochemical, ecological and sedimentological characteristics of estuaries and coastal seas. Locating potential hazards to submarine repositories by: Bibliographical search of accidents leading to the destruction of submarine structures by turbidity currents and other potentials; Review of turbidity currents. Consideration of environmental impact caused by submarine repositories: Logistics to minimize the environmental impacts in site selection; Removal and dispersion processes of radionuclides in sea water. Analyses of oceanographical characteristics of, and hazard potentials in, the Korean seas. Evaluation of the MOST 91-7 criteria for applicability to submarine repositories and the subsequent proposition of additional criteria.

  13. Submarine landslides on the north continental slope of the South China Sea (United States)

    Wang, Weiwei; Wang, Dawei; Wu, Shiguo; Völker, David; Zeng, Hongliu; Cai, Guanqiang; Li, Qingping


    Recent and paleo-submarine landslides are widely distributed within strata in deep-water areas along continental slopes, uplifts, and carbonate platforms on the north continental margin of the South China Sea (SCS). In this paper, high-resolution 3D seismic data and multibeam data based on seismic sedimentology and geomorphology are employed to assist in identifying submarine landslides. In addition, deposition models are proposed that are based on specific geological structures and features, and which illustrate the local stress field over entire submarine landslides in deep-water areas of the SCS. The SCS is one of the largest fluvial sediment sinks in enclosed or semi-enclosed marginal seas worldwide. It therefore provides a set of preconditions for the formation of submarine landslides, including rapid sediment accumulation, formation of gas hydrates, and fluid overpressure. A new concept involving temporal and spatial analyses is tested to construct a relationship between submarine landslides and different time scale trigger mechanisms, and three mechanisms are discussed in the context of spatial scale and temporal frequency: evolution of slope gradient and overpressure, global environmental changes, and tectonic events. Submarine landslides that are triggered by tectonic events are the largest but occur less frequently, while submarine landslides triggered by the combination of slope gradient and over-pressure evolution are the smallest but most frequently occurring events. In summary, analysis shows that the formation of submarine landslides is a complex process involving the operation of different factors on various time scales.

  14. The risk of hydrogen explosion in a submarine p.I Catalytic combustion of hydrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kłos Ryszard


    Full Text Available The series of articles discuss issues related to conducting high risk projects on the example of modernisation of hydrogen incinerators on a submarine. The article depicts a technical problem situation connected with catalytic hydrogen combustion on a submarine.

  15. Post-eruptive Submarine Terrace Development of Capelinhos, Azores (United States)

    Zhongwei Zhao, Will; Mitchell, Neil; Quartau, Rui; Tempera, Fernando; Bricheno, Lucy


    Erosion of the coasts of volcanic islands by waves creates shallow banks, but how erosion proceeds with time to create them and how it relates to wave climate is unclear. In this study, historical and recent marine geophysical data collected around the Capelinhos promontory (western Faial Island, Azores) offer an unusual opportunity to characterize how a submarine terrace developed after the eruption. The promontory was formed in 1957/58 during a Surtseyan eruption that terminated with extensive lava forming new rocky coastal cliffs. Historical measurements of coastline position are supplemented here with coastlines measured from 2004 and 2014 Google Earth images in order to characterize coastline retreat rate and distance for lava- and tephra-dominated cliffs. Swath mapping sonars were used to characterize the submarine geometry of the resulting terrace (terrace edge position, gradient and morphology). Limited photographs are available from a SCUBA dive and drop-down camera deployments to ground truth the submarine geomorphology. The results reveal that coastal retreat rates have decreased rapidly with the time after the eruption, possibly explained by the evolving resistance to erosion of cliff base materials. Surprisingly, coastline retreat rate decreases with terrace width in a simple inverse power law with terrace width. We suspect this is only a fortuitous result as wave attenuation over the terrace will not obviously produce the variation, but nevertheless it shows how rapidly the retreat rate declines. Understanding the relationship between terrace widening shelf and coastal cliff retreat rate may be more widely interesting if they can be used to understand how islands evolve over time into abrasional banks and guyots.

  16. Maximizing the probability an aerial anti-submarine torpedo detects its target (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-Jie


    As a result of the high speed of anti-submarine patrol aircraft as well as their wide range, high efficiency and other characteristics, aerial torpedoes released by anti-submarine patrol aircraft have become the key anti submarine tool. In order to improve operational efficiency, a deep study was made of the target detection probabilities for aerial torpedoes released by anti-submarine patrol aircraft. The operational modes of aerial torpedoes were analyzed and mathematical-simulation models were then established. The detection probabilities of three attacking modes were then calculated. Measures were developed for improving low probabilities of detection when attacking a probable target position. This study provides an important frame of reference for the operation of aerial torpedo released by anti-submarine patrol aircraft.

  17. Hydrodynamic modeling of magmatic-hydrothermal activity at submarine arc volcanoes, with implications for ore formation (United States)

    Gruen, Gillian; Weis, Philipp; Driesner, Thomas; Heinrich, Christoph A.; de Ronde, Cornel E. J.


    Subduction-related magmas have higher volatile contents than mid-ocean ridge basalts, which affects the dynamics of associated submarine hydrothermal systems. Interaction of saline magmatic fluids with convecting seawater may enhance ore metal deposition near the seafloor, making active submarine arcs a preferred modern analogue for understanding ancient massive sulfide deposits. We have constructed a quantitative hydrological model for sub-seafloor fluid flow based on observations at Brothers volcano, southern Kermadec arc, New Zealand. Numerical simulations of multi-phase hydrosaline fluid flow were performed on a two-dimensional cross-section cutting through the NW Caldera and the Upper Cone sites, two regions of active venting at the Brothers volcanic edifice, with the former hosting sulfide mineralization. Our aim is to explore the flow paths of saline magmatic fluids released from a crystallizing magma body at depth and their interaction with seawater circulating through the crust. The model includes a 3 × 2km2 sized magma chamber emplaced at ∼ 2.5 km beneath the seafloor connected to the permeable cone via a ∼ 200 m wide feeder dike. During the simulation, a magmatic fluid was temporarily injected from the top of the cooling magma chamber into the overlying convection system, assuming hydrostatic conditions and a static permeability distribution. The simulations predict a succession of hydrologic regimes in the subsurface of Brothers volcano, which can explain some of the present-day hydrothermal observations. We find that sub-seafloor phase separation, inferred from observed vent fluid salinities, and the temperatures of venting at Brothers volcano can only be achieved by input of a saline magmatic fluid at depth, consistent with chemical and isotopic data. In general, our simulations show that the transport of heat, water, and salt from magmatic and seawater sources is partly decoupled. Expulsion of magmatic heat and volatiles occurs within the first

  18. Micro-tunneling as an alternative to submarine cable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russo, D.A. [Seattle City Light, WA (United States); Hansen, D. [CH2M Hill, Bellevue, WA (United States)


    The geography that gives Seattle its beauty can pose unique challenges for the engineers attempting to provide service to the customers who live near or upon these features. Steep, wooded hills and greenbelts create familiar problems of construction and right-of-way maintenance. The waterways and adjoining shoreline zones present a more difficult set of requirements. When Seattle City Light determined it was necessary to install 2-26 KV feeders across the Salmon Bay waterway, they discovered that submarine cables could not be used. Shallow angle directional drilling and micro-tunneling were examined and it was fond that a microtunneled duct bank was the best method to use.

  19. A new species of Copepoda Harpacticoida, Xylora calyptogenae spec. n., with a carnivorous life-style from a hydrothermally active submarine volcano in the New Ireland Fore-Arc system (Papua New Guinea) with notes on the systematics of the Donsiellinae Lang, 1948 (United States)

    Willen, Elke


    A new species of harpacticoid copepods, Xylora calyptogenae spec. n., from Edison Seamount, a hydrothermally active submarine volcano in the New Ireland Fore-Arc system (Papua New Guinea) is described. The new species belongs to the Donsiellinae Lang, 1944, a highly specialised taxon, the members of which have previously been encountered only in association with decaying wood and/or wood-boring isopods. A closer relationship of the Donsiellinae with the Pseudotachidiidae Lang, 1936, can be stated on the basis of characteristics concerning the setation and/or segmentation of A1, A2, Mxl, Mxp, the shape of the female P5, anal somite, sexual dimorphisms on P2 and P3 and missing caudal seta I. Within the Pseudotachidiidae, the Donsiellinae again can be well characterized, e.g. by the setation and segmentation of A2, Mxl, swimming-legs, the shape of P1, female P5, male P2, sexual dimorphism and male P5. The Donsiellinae share some apomorphies with the pseudotachidiid subtaxon Paranannopinae Por, 1986: setation/segmentation of Mx, P1, A1. X. calyptogenae spec. n. is more closely related to Xylora bathyalis Hicks 1988 living in the deep sea wood substrata in New Zealand waters. Some traits of the evolutionary history of the Donsiellinae become evident, probably starting from the more primitive deep sea taxa X .calyptogenae spec. n., which lives in the hydrothermal seafloor in the absence of decaying wood, and X. bathyalis, which is found in decaying wood but not necessarily associated with the wood-boring isopod Limnoria Leach, 1814, towards the more advanced genera such as Donsiella Stephensen, 1936, which invades shallow waters and, further, clings to Limnoria, forming a close and, for the copepod, probably obligatory association. The specialised mouthparts of X. calyptogenae spec. n. seem to facilitate the grabbing and fixing of larger and/or active food items. This is confirmed by the presence of a large prey organism, presumably a copepod, consumed either alive or

  20. Seismic evidence of a second submarine eruption in the north of El Hierro Island (United States)

    Ortiz, R.; Berrocoso, M.; de la Cruz-Reyna, S.; Marrero, J. M.; Garcia, A.


    From the July 19, 2011 an increase of seismicity, accompanied by a remarkable process of deformation, was detected on the island of El Hierro. This reactivation process, instrumental and scientifically monitored, culminates in the occurrence of a submarine eruption, with the emergence of a strong tremor signal, in the south of the island on October 10, 2011. Both processes (unrest and eruption) have different phases and behaviors clearly evidenced by the deformation and seismicity. This work is the result of an exhaustive analysis of seismic signals from three stations deployed on the island of El Hierro(CTAB and CTIG (IGN) and REST (CSIC)), in order to explain the behavior of the volcanic system responsible for the submarine eruption of Las Calmas sea and its evolution, as well as evidence of a second submarine eruption in the north of the island (ElGolfo). The spectral content of signals from the seismic stations in the north of the island (CTIG and CTAB) and the area around the eruption (REST) has the dominant peak at different frequencies. The amplitude modulations of the seismic noise evolved differently in CTAB and CTIG than REST being particularly significant changes in amplitude and frequency after the occurrence of events of magnitude greater than 4. The evolution of the volcano-tectonic cumulative seismic energy shows the occurrence of two similar eruptive episodes, in which two phases can be distinguished. The first phase of both cycles has a constant rate with seismic events of magnitude less than 3 to reach the energy of 10 ^ 11 Joule. From that moment the magnitude grows rapidly exceeding magnitude 4. In the second phase the seismic events are mainly located in the south of the island, before the onset of visual evidences of the eruption (October 11, 2011) and later (November 2011) the seismic events are mainly located in the north of the island, where no visible signs have been detected. In both cases the appearance or changes in the tremor signal

  1. Partly standing internal tides in a dendritic submarine canyon observed by an ocean glider (United States)

    Hall, Rob A.; Aslam, Tahmeena; Huvenne, Veerle A. I.


    An autonomous ocean glider is used to make the first direct measurements of internal tides within Whittard Canyon, a large, dendritic submarine canyon system that incises the Celtic Sea continental slope and a site of high benthic biodiversity. This is the first time a glider has been used for targeted observations of internal tides in a submarine canyon. Vertical isopycnal displacement observations at different stations fit a one-dimensional model of partly standing semidiurnal internal tides - comprised of a major, incident wave propagating up the canyon limbs and a minor wave reflected back down-canyon by steep, supercritical bathymetry near the canyon heads. The up-canyon internal tide energy flux in the primary study limb decreases from 9.2 to 2.0 kW m-1 over 28 km (a dissipation rate of 1 - 2.5 ×10-7 Wkg-1), comparable to elevated energy fluxes and internal tide driven mixing measured in other canyon systems. Within Whittard Canyon, enhanced mixing is inferred from collapsed temperature-salinity curves and weakened dissolved oxygen concentration gradients near the canyon heads. It has previously been hypothesised that internal tides impact benthic fauna through elevated near-bottom current velocities and particle resuspension. In support of this, we infer order 20 cm s-1 near-bottom current velocities in the canyon and observe high concentrations of suspended particulate matter. The glider observations are also used to estimate a 1 °C temperature range and 12 μmol kg-1 dissolved oxygen concentration range, experienced twice a day by organisms on the canyon walls, due to the presence of internal tides. This study highlights how a well-designed glider mission, incorporating a series of tide-resolving stations at key locations, can be used to understand internal tide dynamics in a region of complex topography, a sampling strategy that is applicable to continental shelves and slopes worldwide.

  2. An Experimental Multi-disciplinary observatory (VENUS at the Ryukyu Trench using the Guam-Okinawa Geophysical Submarine Cable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Shirasaki


    Full Text Available A multidisciplinary Ocean Bottom Observatory (MDOBO was installed on VENUS (Versatile Eco-monitoring Network by Undersea-cable System a depth of 2,170 meters on the slope of the Ryukyu Trench. In this context, “Eco-“ refers to both economic (e.g., earthquake hazard mitigation and ecological motivation. The first step in this instillation was to insert a telemetry/power system into the submarine coaxial cable; this system could then service the MODOBO, which consist of seven major bottom sensor packages. During August-September 1999, using a deep-towed unit and both manned and unmanned submersibles coupled with precise ship navigation, the MDOBO system and its attendant cables were deployed over a range of distances from 80 m to 1 km from the telemetry system, with several meter allowance for navigational uncertainty in positioning. The unmanned submersible then extended the multi-conductor extension cables from the instrument units toward the telemetry system and connected them to undersea mateable connectors on a junction box installed on the submarine cable. The MDOBO collected one and half months of continuous records. Several kinds of useful data were collected after installation, including an aftershock (Ms=6.1 of the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake (Ms=7.7 in Taiwan.

  3. Rescue from replication stress during mitosis. (United States)

    Fragkos, Michalis; Naim, Valeria


    Genomic instability is a hallmark of cancer and a common feature of human disorders, characterized by growth defects, neurodegeneration, cancer predisposition, and aging. Recent evidence has shown that DNA replication stress is a major driver of genomic instability and tumorigenesis. Cells can undergo mitosis with under-replicated DNA or unresolved DNA structures, and specific pathways are dedicated to resolving these structures during mitosis, suggesting that mitotic rescue from replication stress (MRRS) is a key process influencing genome stability and cellular homeostasis. Deregulation of MRRS following oncogene activation or loss-of-function of caretaker genes may be the cause of chromosomal aberrations that promote cancer initiation and progression. In this review, we discuss the causes and consequences of replication stress, focusing on its persistence in mitosis as well as the mechanisms and factors involved in its resolution, and the potential impact of incomplete replication or aberrant MRRS on tumorigenesis, aging and disease.

  4. Nitric oxide rescues thalidomide mediated teratogenicity (United States)

    Siamwala, Jamila H.; Veeriah, Vimal; Priya, M. Krishna; Rajendran, Saranya; Saran, Uttara; Sinha, Swaraj; Nagarajan, Shunmugam; T, Pradeep; Chatterjee, Suvro


    Thalidomide, a sedative drug given to pregnant women, unfortunately caused limb deformities in thousands of babies. Recently the drug was revived because of its therapeutic potential; however the search is still ongoing for an antidote against thalidomide induced limb deformities. In the current study we found that nitric oxide (NO) rescues thalidomide affected chick (Gallus gallus) and zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos. This study confirms that NO reduced the number of thalidomide mediated limb deformities by 94% and 80% in chick and zebrafish embryos respectively. NO prevents limb deformities by promoting angiogenesis, reducing oxidative stress and inactivating caspase-3 dependent apoptosis. We conclude that NO secures angiogenesis in the thalidomide treated embryos to protect them from deformities. PMID:22997553

  5. Teleautonomous Control on Rescue Robot Prototype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Son Kuswadi


    Full Text Available Robot application in disaster area can help responder team to save victims. In order to finish task, robot must have flexible movement mechanism so it can pass through uncluttered area. Passive linkage can be used on robot chassis so it can give robot flexibility. On physical experiments, robot is succeeded to move through gravels and 5 cm obstacle. Rescue robot also has specialized control needs. Robot must able to be controlled remotely. It also must have ability to move autonomously. Teleautonomous control method is combination between those methods. It can be concluded from experiments that on teleoperation mode, operator must get used to see environment through robot’s camera. While on autonomous mode, robot is succeeded to avoid obstacle and search target based on sensor reading and controller program. On teleautonomous mode, robot can change control mode by using bluetooth communication for data transfer, so robot control will be more flexible.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Guilbert


    Full Text Available On most large scale and middle scale maps, relief is represented by contours and spot heights. In order to adapt the representation to the scale, the terrain is generalised either by smoothing or filtering the terrain model or by simplifying the contours. However this approach is not applicable to nautical chart construction where terrain features are selected according to their importance for navigation. This paper presents an approach for the consideration of feature attributes in the generalisation of a set of contours with respect to nautical chart constraints. Features are defined by sets of contours and a set of generalisation operators applied to features is presented. The definitions are introduced in a multi-agent system in order to perform automatic generalisation of a contour set. Results are discussed on a case study and directions for future work are presented.

  7. Submarine permafrost depth from ambient seismic noise (United States)

    Overduin, Pier P.; Haberland, Christian; Ryberg, Trond; Kneier, Fabian; Jacobi, Tim; Grigoriev, Mikhail. N.; Ohrnberger, Matthias


    Permafrost inundated since the last glacial maximum is degrading, potentially releasing trapped or stabilized greenhouse gases, but few observations of the depth of ice-bonded permafrost (IBP) below the seafloor exist for most of the arctic continental shelf. We use spectral ratios of the ambient vibration seismic wavefield, together with estimated shear wave velocity from the dispersion curves of surface waves, for estimating the thickness of the sediment overlying the IBP. Peaks in spectral ratios modeled for three-layered 1-D systems correspond with varying thickness of the unfrozen sediment. Seismic receivers were deployed on the seabed around Muostakh Island in the central Laptev Sea, Siberia. We derive depths of the IBP between 3.7 and 20.7 m ± 15%, increasing with distance from the shoreline. Correspondence between expected permafrost distribution, modeled response, and observational data suggests that the method is promising for the determination of the thickness of unfrozen sediment.

  8. Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration from embryo rescue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The application of tissue culture techniques, particularly in the area of embryo rescue, has had a major impact on the maintenance and development of hybrid embryo from wide crosses. Embryo rescue techniques are directed towards obtaining more efficient survival of embryos in situations where very immature embryos ...

  9. Dynamics of genetic rescue in inbred Drosophila melanogaster populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijlsma, R.; Westerhof, M. D. D.; Roekx, L. P.; Pen, I.

    Genetic rescue has been proposed as a management strategy to improve the fitness of genetically eroded populations by alleviating inbreeding depression. We studied the dynamics of genetic rescue in inbred populations of Drosophila. Using balancer chromosomes, we show that the force of heterosis that

  10. 46 CFR 131.855 - Lifeboats and rescue boats. (United States)


    ... must be plainly marked or painted on each side of the bow of each lifeboat and rescue boat in block... port whose marking on the stern is required by § 67.123 of this chapter. (b) The following must be plainly marked or painted on each side of the bow of each lifeboat and rescue boat in block capital...

  11. Emotional Reactions of Rescue Workers Following a Tornado. (United States)

    McCammon, Susan L.; And Others

    Rescue and medical workers may be at risk for negative emotional experience following intervention efforts in disaster situations. To examine this possibility, 120 rescue and hospital personnel responded to a survey of their emotional reactions and coping behaviors 3 months after a devastating tornado. Twenty-eight subjects had been involved in…

  12. Expectations of a business rescue plan: international directives for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preliminary analysis of business rescue plans suggested that a significant contrast exists between international reorganisational plans and those being published under the newly formed business rescue regime in South Africa. Since the South African regime has emerged from an international insolvency framework, ...

  13. Seismicity and sedimentation rate effects on submarine slope stability (United States)

    Ten Brink, U. S.; Andrews, B. D.; Miller, N. C.


    Large submarine mass-transport scars are commonly observed on continental margins, but are noticeably less abundant on margins that experience frequent earthquakes than on those that seldom experience them. This is a surprising observation, given that horizontal acceleration from earthquakes and associated strength loss from cyclic loading and liquefaction are commonly thought to provide the primary triggers for inducing failures and subsequent mass movements. Mapping submarine failure scars in ten margins worldwide, we find decreasing scar abundance with both increasing frequency of earthquakes and decreasing sedimentation rate. The decrease in scar abundance is interpreted to represent increasing slope stability. The increase in stability is non linear (power law with btectonic activity (salt diapirs, seamount subduction, etc.) leads to relatively rapid oversteepening of the slope, implying that the morphology of most margins is in fact, stable over many earthquake cycles. Note that the above correlation averages scar area and sedimentation rate over entire margin areas. Variations in sedimentation rate with time, such as over glacial-interglacial cycles, and intra-margin variations in seismic attenuation, sedimentation rate, composition, and pore pressure, have likely affected the abundance of slope failures in time and space.

  14. An Automatic Procedure for the Quantitative Characterization of Submarine Bedforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Di Stefano


    Full Text Available A model for the extraction and quantitative characterization of submarine landforms from high-resolution digital bathymetry is presented. The procedure is fully automated and comprises two parts. The first part consists of an analytical model which extracts quantitative information from a Digital Elevation Model in the form of objects with similar parametric characteristics (terrain objects. The second part is a rule-based model where the terrain objects are reclassified into distinct landforms with well-defined three dimensional characteristics. For the focus of this work, the quantitative characterization of isolated dunes (height greater than 2 m is used to exemplify the process. The primary metrics used to extract terrain objects are the flatness threshold and the search radius, which are then used by the analytical model to identify the feature type. Once identified as dunes, a sequence of spatial analysis routines is applied to identify and compute metrics for each dune including length, height, width, ray of curvature, slope analysis for each stoss and lee side, and dune symmetry. Dividing the model into two parts, one scale-dependent and another centered around the shape of the landform, makes the model applicable to other submarine landforms like ripples, mega-ripples, and coral reefs, which also have well-defined three-dimensional characteristics.

  15. Fin propulsion on a human-powered submarine (United States)

    Anderson, Iain A.; Pocock, Benjamin; Harbuz, Antoni; Algie, Cam; Vochezer, Daniel; Chao, Ryan; Lu, Benjamin


    Nearly all surface and underwater vessels are driven by screw propulsion; ideal for coupling to rotary engines and well understood after over a century of development. But most aquatic creatures use fins for swimming. Although there are sound evolutionary reasons why fish have fins and not propellers, they are nevertheless agile, fast and efficient. Although fish-like robots such as the MIT Robotuna are providing good insight into fin-based swimming there are advantages for using humans in the experimental device. Like an airplane test pilot they can write crash reports. We present preliminary observations for the human powered finned submarine: Taniwha. The sub participated in the 2nd European International Submarine races in Gosport UK where it received a trophy for "Best Non-Propeller Performance". Two sets of Hobie Mirage fin drives fixed to the upper and lower rear surfaces of the sub are pedaled by the pilot. The pilot also has two levers at the front, one to pitch a pair of dive planes and one for yawing a large rudder. Good speed, we estimate to be greater than 6 m/s is possible with these fins although we haven't explored their full potential. Straying too near the surface or bottom can lead to an instability, synonymous to a stall, such that control is lost. The mechanism for this will be discussed and solutions offered. Fish are 400 million years in front of us but one day we'll catch them.

  16. Are tilt measurements useful in detecting tsunamigenic submarine landslides? (United States)

    Brune, Sascha; Babeyko, Andrey Y.; Sobolev, Stephan V.


    Large submarine landslides can generate dangerous tsunamis. Because of their long-period signal, detection of landslides by common seismological methods is difficult. Here we suggest a method of detecting submarine landslides by using an array of land-based tiltmeters. The displacement of a large volume of sediments during landsliding produces a detectable elastic response of the lithosphere. We propose a technique to calculate this response and to invert for tsunami relevant parameters like slide location, volume, and velocity. We exemplify our method by applying it to the Storegga slide west of Norway and other tsunamigenic landslide events. The parameter which can be most robustly estimated from tiltmeter array measurements is the product of slide volume and its velocity (slide tsunamigenic potential). This parameter also controls the amplitude of the generated tsunami wave. The inversion accuracy of this parameter and the estimated tsunami height near the coast depends on the noise level of tiltmeter measurements, distance of the tiltmeters from the slide, and slide tsunamigenic potential itself. The tsunamigenic potential of the most dangerous slides like Storegga can be estimated well by tiltmeters at the coast if the effective noise level does not exceed 50 nrad.

  17. A submarine fan in the Mesa Central, Mexico (United States)

    Silva-Romo, G.; Arellano-Gil, J.; Mendoza-Rosales, C.; Nieto-Obregón, J.


    The contact between the Guerrero and Sierra Madre tectonostratigraphic terranes has been proposed to lie in the Mesa Central, east of the city of Zacatecas. Marine Triassic units have been assigned to the Guerrero Terrane. It is here proposed that this contact occurs to the west of the city of Zacatecas and the Triassic marine sequence assigned to the Sierra Madre Terrane. We analyzed the stratigraphic record and structural features of pre-Late Jurassic sequences at four localities in the Mesa Central. They contain a marine turbiditic Triassic unit, which includes La Bellena, Taray, and Zacatecas Formations, and a continental unit of probable Middle Jurassic age. Triassic sandstones were derived from a cratonic area, without the influence of arc volcanism. The sequences were affected by two phases of deformation. The Triassic formations are unconformably overlain by a continental volcano-sedimentary sequence that contains fragments of sandstones derived from the underlying unit. Sedimentologic characteristics of the Triassic unit fit a submarine fan model. The submarine fan developed at the continental margin of Pangaea during Triassic times. Turbidite associations in the San Rafael Area indicate a middle fan depositional environment, while in the Real de Catorce Area, they correspond to the distal part (basin plain facies). At La Ballena and Zacatecas the turbidite associations occur in the middle part and perhaps the external part of the fan.

  18. Standards for manpower in militarized mine rescue departments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krokhalev, B.G. (SPO Metallurgbezopasnost' (Russian Federation))


    Discusses the organization, duties and role of militarized mine rescue departments in the mining industry of the Russian Federation. In 1991, militarized mine rescue personnel was summoned 191 times, saving the lives of 27 workers and providing first aid to 51 injured persons. Militarized mine rescue departments ensure rapid response to a distress call, with two detachments of rescuers dispatched to the disaster site within 1-3 minutes. According to the Code of militarized mine rescue units, mines are classified into two categories with respect to safety: category one is prone to rock bumps, sudden outbursts, spontaneous combustion and dust explosions. Two techniques for calculating the required manpower of militarized mine rescue sections are described. It is pointed out that a major criterion for consideration in manning and deploying such units is a coordinated and approved plan for emergency clearing at each particular mine.

  19. Robot-Assisted Risky Intervention, Search, Rescue and Environmental Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maki K. Habib


    Full Text Available Technology has become the solution to many long-standing problems, and while current technologies may be effective, it is far from fully addressing the hug, complex, difficult and challenging tasks associated with disaster missions and risky intervention. The challenge is in finding creative, reliable and applicable technical solutions in such highly constrained and uncertain environment. In addition, it is necessary to overcome constrains on resources by developing innovative, cost effective and practical technology. Robotics can play important intelligent and technological roles that support first response equipment in harsh and dangerous environments while replacing rescue personnel from entering unreachable or unsafe places. Robotics solutions that are well adapted to local conditions of unstructured and unknown environment can greatly improve safety and security of personnel as well as work efficiency, productivity and flexibility. Solving and fulfilling the needs of such tasks presents challenges in robotic mechanical structure and mobility, sensors and sensor fusion, autonomous and semi autonomous control, planning and navigation, and machine intelligence. This paper categorizes the source of disasters and associated missions, and highlights the needs for suitable and reliable technology and technical and functional requirements of robotic systems to fulfill task objectives. In addition, it shows that robotic technologies can be used for disasters prevention or early warning, intervention and recovery efforts during disasters with all possible kinds of relevant missions while ensuring quality of service and safety of human beings. Some of these missions may include: demining, search and rescue, surveillance, reconnaissance and risk assessment, evacuation assistance, intrusion/victim detection and assessment, etc.

  20. A Submarine Electric Propulsion System with Large Hub Propeller (United States)


    dZ (RE2) (KEI) 1T.)(M Z=L/2 Z=L/2 x 3 (Z) dT4 (Z) 4(Z=L/2) - T1 1 (3.126’S d (R411)(K.END), (Ae) SZ=L/2 Z=L/2 dT 4(Z) T_(Z=L/2 -. 2 .. ,.x 5 (Z) dZ...i2) Z=L!2 i3.15 4) dT4 (Z T1 T4 (Z=L/2),4 4__ _ _ _ _ idZ (R411) (i3) (Ae) (R411) (KIND) (Ae) Z=L/2 v )C + a1(Z=L/2) (3. 15 ) SdT (Z) T (r:L/2) dZ

  1. Quantifying Channelized Submarine Depositional Systems From Bed to Basin Scale (United States)


    topography. Sample locations are indicated by circles and labeled with alpha- numeric identifiers. See Table 5.1 for sample characteristics...e.g. Dietrich et al. (2003)). Steady state or equilibrium topography therefore requires a regenerative source/sink term in the form of rock uplift or...been dated directly using recovered assemblages of mi- crofossils from multiple wellbores in the basin. The basin-wide mapping of regional surfaces

  2. Occupational stress in submariners: the impact of isolated and confined work on psychological well-being. (United States)

    Brasher, Kate S; Dew, Angela B C; Kilminster, Shaun G; Bridger, Robert S


    This study aimed to identify work-related and personal factors associated with occupational stress in submariners. Work and well-being questionnaires were distributed to 219 male submariners (mean age 34 years), as part of a larger cohort study involving a stratified sample of 4951 Royal Navy (RN) personnel. The stress rate in submariners was 40%; significantly higher than the stress rate in the general RN, although once demographic factors were controlled for in a matched control sample, this difference was no longer significant. A summary model accounted for 49% of the variance in submariner stress, with key differences emerging between the occupational factors associated with stress in submariners and in the general RN. The longitudinal nature of this study permits stress in submariners to be monitored over 5 years, which will provide valuable insights into the chronicity of stress in this specialised occupational group. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This paper contributes to the current literature on the negative impact of working in isolated conditions. It is demonstrated that occupational stress in submarines can be partially explained using current theories of stress in the workplace. However, the constraints of a restricted environment introduce additional factors which can also be associated with occupational stress.

  3. Rescuing drug discovery: In vivo systems pathology and systems pharmacology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greef, J. van der; McBurney, R.N.


    The pharmaceutical industry is currently beleaguered by close scrutiny from the financial community, regulators and the general public. Productivity, in terms of new drug approvals, has generally been falling for almost a decade and the safety of a number of highly successful drugs has recently been

  4. Integrating data rescue into the classroom (United States)

    Ryan, Ciara; Ciaran, Broderick; Mary, Curley; Conor, Daly; Catriona, Duffy; Thorne, Peter; Treanor, Mairead; Walsh, Seamus; Murphy, Conor


    The availability of long-term observational data at fine time scales (e.g. daily or sub-daily) is paramount to examining changes in the magnitude, duration, intensity, and frequency of extreme events and to assess whether or not the likelihood of recent events has changed throughout the historical record. The capacity to extend current observational data holdings is, however, largely dependent on the resources available to carry out the digitisation and transcription process. This paper presents an ambitious research led teaching experiment in which undergraduate students engaged in a substantial data rescue effort to transcribe over 1 million daily rainfall values and associated metadata across Ireland for the period 1860-1939. The aim of the project was first, to motivate students by engaging them in a practical exercise whereby their contribution has considerable value to research, second, to expose students to the basic processes involved in climate data rescue, and third, to examine the potential for students to produce accurate and reliable observational data. Students were provided with digital images of annual rainfall sheets recovered from the national archives together with templates used by Met Éireann in transcribing the data. Using video and text supports, together with an online discussion forum for additional support, students double keyed more than 1400 station years of rainfall data. The assessment process was linked to creating a correct data series whereby differences in double keyed sheets were identified and a master (correct) series created by teaching staff. Three hundred station years of data previously transcribed by Met Éireann was used as a benchmark against which students showed that they were as accurate as the professionals in the process. The success of the students makes a major contribution to understanding the historic climate variability of Ireland, a sentinel location on the western margins of Europe. Given the large volumes of

  5. Marine litter in submarine canyons of the Bay of Biscay (United States)

    van den Beld, Inge M. J.; Guillaumont, Brigitte; Menot, Lénaïck; Bayle, Christophe; Arnaud-Haond, Sophie; Bourillet, Jean-François


    Marine litter is a matter of increasing concern worldwide, from shallow seas to the open ocean and from beaches to the deep-seafloor. Indeed, the deep sea may be the ultimate repository of a large proportion of litter in the ocean. We used footage acquired with a Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) and a towed camera to investigate the distribution and composition of litter in the submarine canyons of the Bay of Biscay. This bay contains many submarine canyons housing Vulnerable Marine Ecosystems (VMEs) such as scleractinian coral habitats. VMEs are considered to be important for fish and they increase the local biodiversity. The objectives of the study were to investigate and discuss: (i) litter density, (ii) the principal sources of litter, (iii) the influence of environmental factors on the distribution of litter, and (iv) the impact of litter on benthic communities. Litter was found in all 15 canyons and at three sites on the edge of the continental shelf/canyon, in 25 of 29 dives. The Belle-île and Arcachon Canyons contained the largest amounts of litter, up to 12.6 and 9.5 items per 100 images respectively. Plastic items were the most abundant (42%), followed by fishing-related items (16%). The litter had both a maritime and a terrestrial origin. The main sources could be linked to fishing activities, major shipping lanes and river discharges. Litter appeared to accumulate at water depths of 801-1100 m and 1401-1700 m. In the deeper of these two depth ranges, litter accumulated on a geologically structured area, accounting for its high frequency at this depth. A larger number of images taken in areas of coral in the shallower of these two depth ranges may account for the high frequency of litter detection at this depth. A larger number of litter items, including plastic objects in particular, were observed on geological structures and in coral areas than on areas of bare substratum. The distribution of fishing-related items was similar for the various types of

  6. Hawaiian submarine manganese-iron oxide crusts - A dating tool? (United States)

    Moore, J.G.; Clague, D.A.


    Black manganese-iron oxide crusts form on most exposed rock on the ocean floor. Such crusts are well developed on the steep lava slopes of the Hawaiian Ridge and have been sampled during dredging and submersible dives. The crusts also occur on fragments detached from bedrock by mass wasting, on submerged coral reefs, and on poorly lithified sedimentary rocks. The thickness of the crusts was measured on samples collected since 1965 on the Hawaiian Ridge from 140 dive or dredge localities. Fifty-nine (42%) of the sites were collected in 2001 by remotely operated vehicles (ROVs). The thinner crusts on many samples apparently result from post-depositional breakage, landsliding, and intermittent burial of outcrops by sediment. The maximum crust thickness was selected from each dredge or dive site to best represent crusts on the original rock surface at that site. The measurements show an irregular progressive thickening of the crusts toward the northwest-i.e., progressive thickening toward the older volcanic features with increasing distance from the Hawaiian hotspot. Comparison of the maximum crust thickness with radiometric ages of related subaerial features supports previous studies that indicate a crust-growth rate of about 2.5 mm/m.y. The thickness information not only allows a comparison of the relative exposure ages of two or more features offshore from different volcanoes, but also provides specific age estimates of volcanic and landslide deposits. The data indicate that some of the landslide blocks within the south Kona landslide are the oldest exposed rock on Mauna Loa, Kilauea, or Loihi volcanoes. Crusts on the floors of submarine canyons off Kohala and East Molokai volcanoes indicate that these canyons are no longer serving as channelways for downslope, sediment-laden currents. Mahukona volcano was approximately synchronous with Hilo Ridge, both being younger than Hana Ridge. The Nuuanu landslide is considerably older than the Wailau landslide. The Waianae

  7. Newly recognized submarine slide complexes in the southern California Bight (United States)

    Conrad, J. E.; Lee, H. J.; Edwards, B. D.; McGann, M.; Sliter, R. W.


    New high-resolution bathymetric and seismic-reflection surveys have imaged large (7) individual overlapping slides along the western margin of Santa Cruz Basin (SCB slide); 2) a series of slumps and slide scars on the slope south of San Pedro shelf (SPS slide); and 3) a slope failure along the shelf edge in northern San Diego County, termed the Del Mar slide. The SCB slide complex extends for 30 km along the western slope of Santa Cruz Basin, with debris lobes extending 5-8 km into the basin. Head scarps of some of these slides are 50-75 m high. The SPS slide complex also appears to consist of multiple slides, which roughly parallel the Palos Verdes Fault and the San Gabriel Canyon submarine channel on the shelf edge and slope south of San Pedro shelf. Slide deposits associated with this complex are only partially mapped due to limited high-resolution bathymetric coverage, but extend to the south in the area SW of Lasuen Knoll. Seismic-reflection profiles show that some of these deposits are up to 20 m thick. The Del Mar slide is located about 10 km north of La Jolla Canyon and extends about 6 km along the shelf edge. The head scarp lies along the trend of a branch of the Rose Canyon Fault Zone. Radiocarbon ages of sediment overlying this slide indicate the Del Mar slide is approximately 12-16 ka. These large slide complexes have several characteristics in common. Nearly all occur in areas of tectonic uplift. All of the complexes show evidence of recurrent slide activity, exhibiting multiple headwall scarps and debris lobes, and where available, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles of these slide areas provide evidence of older, buried mass transport deposits. Assuming typical sedimentation rates, the recurrence interval of major slide events appears to be on the order of tens of thousands of years. Most of the slide complexes do not appear to be located in areas of high sediment input. The SCB and Del Mar slides are in areas receiving relatively small

  8. Physical capacity of rescue personnel in the mining industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hunt Andrew P


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mining industry has one of the highest occupational rates of serious injury and fatality. Mine staff involved with rescue operations are often required to respond to physically challenging situations. This paper describes the physical attributes of mining rescue personnel. Methods 91 rescue personnel (34 ± 8.6 yrs, 1.79 ± 0.07 m, 90 ± 15.0 kg participating in the Queensland Mines Rescue Challenge completed a series of health-related and rescue-related fitness tasks. Health-related tasks comprised measurements of aerobic capacity (VO2max, abdominal endurance, abdominal strength, flexibility, lower back strength, leg strength, elbow flexion strength, shoulder strength, lower back endurance, and leg endurance. Rescue-related tasks comprised an incremental carry (IC, coal shovel (CS, and a hose drag (HD, completed in this order. Results Cardiovascular (VO2max and muscular endurance was average or below average compared with the general population. Isometric strength did not decline with age. The rescue-related tasks were all extremely demanding with heart rate responses averaging greater than 88% of age predicted maximal heart rates. Heart rate recovery responses were more discriminating than heart rates recorded during the tasks, indicating the hose drag as the most physically demanding of the tasks. Conclusion Relying on actual rescues or mining related work to provide adequate training is generally insufficient to maintain, let alone increase, physical fitness. It is therefore recommended that standards of required physical fitness be developed and mines rescue personnel undergo regularly training (and assessment in order to maintain these standards.

  9. Beaconless search and rescue using polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (United States)

    McCandless, Samuel W.; Huxtable, Barton D.; Mansfield, Arthur W.; Wallace, Ronald; Larsen, Rudolph; Rais, Houra


    In developing a beaconless search and rescue capability to quickly locate small aircraft that have crashed in remote areas, NASA's Search and Rescue (S&R) Program brings together advanced polarimetric synthetic aperture radar processing, field and laboratory tests, and state-of-the-art automated target detection algorithms. This paper provides the status of this program, which began with experiments conducted in concert with the JPL DC-8 AirSAR in 1989 at the Duke University Forest. The program is being conducted by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) under the auspices of the Search and Rescue Office.

  10. A concept for optimizing avalanche rescue strategies using a Monte Carlo simulation approach (United States)

    Paal, Peter; Schweizer, Jürg


    Recent technical and strategical developments have increased the survival chances for avalanche victims. Still hundreds of people, primarily recreationists, get caught and buried by snow avalanches every year. About 100 die each year in the European Alps–and many more worldwide. Refining concepts for avalanche rescue means to optimize the procedures such that the survival chances are maximized in order to save the greatest possible number of lives. Avalanche rescue includes several parameters related to terrain, natural hazards, the people affected by the event, the rescuers, and the applied search and rescue equipment. The numerous parameters and their complex interaction make it unrealistic for a rescuer to take, in the urgency of the situation, the best possible decisions without clearly structured, easily applicable decision support systems. In order to analyse which measures lead to the best possible survival outcome in the complex environment of an avalanche accident, we present a numerical approach, namely a Monte Carlo simulation. We demonstrate the application of Monte Carlo simulations for two typical, yet tricky questions in avalanche rescue: (1) calculating how deep one should probe in the first passage of a probe line depending on search area, and (2) determining for how long resuscitation should be performed on a specific patient while others are still buried. In both cases, we demonstrate that optimized strategies can be calculated with the Monte Carlo method, provided that the necessary input data are available. Our Monte Carlo simulations also suggest that with a strict focus on the "greatest good for the greatest number", today's rescue strategies can be further optimized in the best interest of patients involved in an avalanche accident. PMID:28467434

  11. A concept for optimizing avalanche rescue strategies using a Monte Carlo simulation approach. (United States)

    Reiweger, Ingrid; Genswein, Manuel; Paal, Peter; Schweizer, Jürg


    Recent technical and strategical developments have increased the survival chances for avalanche victims. Still hundreds of people, primarily recreationists, get caught and buried by snow avalanches every year. About 100 die each year in the European Alps-and many more worldwide. Refining concepts for avalanche rescue means to optimize the procedures such that the survival chances are maximized in order to save the greatest possible number of lives. Avalanche rescue includes several parameters related to terrain, natural hazards, the people affected by the event, the rescuers, and the applied search and rescue equipment. The numerous parameters and their complex interaction make it unrealistic for a rescuer to take, in the urgency of the situation, the best possible decisions without clearly structured, easily applicable decision support systems. In order to analyse which measures lead to the best possible survival outcome in the complex environment of an avalanche accident, we present a numerical approach, namely a Monte Carlo simulation. We demonstrate the application of Monte Carlo simulations for two typical, yet tricky questions in avalanche rescue: (1) calculating how deep one should probe in the first passage of a probe line depending on search area, and (2) determining for how long resuscitation should be performed on a specific patient while others are still buried. In both cases, we demonstrate that optimized strategies can be calculated with the Monte Carlo method, provided that the necessary input data are available. Our Monte Carlo simulations also suggest that with a strict focus on the "greatest good for the greatest number", today's rescue strategies can be further optimized in the best interest of patients involved in an avalanche accident.

  12. Equipment of medical backpacks in mountain rescue. (United States)

    Elsensohn, Fidel; Soteras, Inigo; Resiten, Oliver; Ellerton, John; Brugger, Hermann; Paal, Peter


    We conducted a survey of equipment in medical backpacks for mountain rescuers and mountain emergency physicians. The aim was to investigate whether there are standards for medical equipment in mountain rescue organizations associated with the International Commission for Mountain Emergency Medicine (ICAR MEDCOM). A questionnaire was completed by 18 member organizations from 14 countries. Backpacks for first responders are well equipped to manage trauma, but deficiencies in equipment to treat medical emergencies were found. Paramedic and physicians' backpacks were well equipped to provide advanced life support and contained suitable drugs. We recommend that medical backpacks should be equipped in accordance with national laws, the medical emergencies in a given region, and take into account the climate, geography, medical training of rescuers, and funding of the organization. Automated external defibrillator provision should be improved. The effects of temperature on the drugs and equipment should be considered. Standards for training in the use and maintenance of medical tools should be enforced. First responders and physicians should only use familiar tools and drugs.

  13. Multi-scale evaluations of submarine groundwater discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Taniguchi


    Full Text Available Multi-scale evaluations of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD have been made in Saijo, Ehime Prefecture, Shikoku Island, Japan, by using seepage meters for point scale, 222Rn tracer for point and coastal scales, and a numerical groundwater model (SEAWAT for coastal and basin scales. Daily basis temporal changes in SGD are evaluated by continuous seepage meter and 222Rn mooring measurements, and depend on sea level changes. Spatial evaluations of SGD were also made by 222Rn along the coast in July 2010 and November 2011. The area with larger 222Rn concentration during both seasons agreed well with the area with larger SGD calculated by 3D groundwater numerical simulations.

  14. [Medical doctor in mountain rescue service - a profession's perspective]. (United States)

    Putzke, Matthias


    Helicopter emergency services (HEMS) carrying doctors trained in emergency medicine represent a well established system for primary care with increasing professionalism since their implementation in the seventies until now. However, considerable differences persist in Europe concerning the structure as well as integration of the system in the entire organisation of area-wide demands. Based on the particular geographic conditions in the alps which are highly associated with challenges for man and material a dense network of helicopter airbases has been established. Hence, this system accounts for the social, economical and touristic requirements of this region in terms of providing sufficient emergency medical treatment. In addition to statutory and professional provisions qualification requirements for emergency doctors comprehend extensive alpine training. Primarily this provides personal safety as well as security for the entire team and the patient which particularly applies for technical rope rescue. Advanced all-season training is compulsory due to seasonal differences in casualties. Well harmonized training with cross-border validity is not available to-date. Hence, the development of obligatory standard operating procedures should be the major goal of medical associations and societies.

  15. Did a "lucky shot" sink the submarine H.L. Hunley? (United States)

    Lance, Rachel M; Warder, Henry; Bass, Cameron R Dale


    The H.L. Hunley was the first submarine to be successful in combat, sinking the Union vessel Housatonic outside Charleston Harbor in 1864 during the Civil War. However, despite marking a milestone in military history, little is known about this vessel or why it sank. One popular theory is the "lucky shot" theory: the hypothesis that small arms fire from the crew of the Housatonic may have sufficiently damaged the submarine to sink it. However, ballistic experiments with cast iron samples, analysis of historical experiments firing Civil War-era projectiles at cast iron samples, and calculation of the tidal currents and sinking trajectory of the submarine indicate that this theory is not likely. Based on our results, the "lucky shot" theory does not explain the sinking of the world's first successful combat submarine. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. The impact of glacier geometry on meltwater plume structure and submarine melt in Greenland fjords

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carroll, D.; Sutherland, D. A.; Hudson, B.; Moon, T.; Catania, G. A.; Shroyer, E. L.; Nash, J. D.; Bartholomaus, T. C.; Felikson, D.; Stearns, L. A.; Noël, B. P Y; van den Broeke, M. R.


    Meltwater from the Greenland Ice Sheet often drains subglacially into fjords, driving upwelling plumes at glacier termini. Ocean models and observations of submarine termini suggest that plumes enhance melt and undercutting, leading to calving and potential glacier destabilization. Here we

  17. An Analysis of the Effectiveness of a New Watchstanding Schedule for U.S. Submariners

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Osborn, Christopher


    A need exists within the U.S. submarine force to employ an operational schedule that provides more sleep and that is in better alignment with human circadian rhythms, thus improving cognitive effectiveness...

  18. Submarine Warfare in the 20th & 21st Centuries: A Bibliography

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Huygen, Michaele


    There are constant motions in the sea caused by atmospheric and seabed activities volcanic disruptions marine animals ships and submarines -- all of which create what is called the ambient noise level of the oceans...

  19. The risk of hydrogen explosion in a submarine p. IV The implementation of high risk projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kłos Ryszard


    Full Text Available This series of articles on high risk projects looks at the example of the modernisation of hydrogen incinerators on a submarine. The article describes problems connected with the management of such a project.

  20. Volume transport data from a submarine cable in the Florida Strait in 2014 (NODC Accession 0125429) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Daily mean and raw voltage volume transport data of the Florida Current collected with a submarine cable spanning from South Florida to the Grand Bahama Island in...

  1. A Statistical Analysis of the Impact of Marital Status on Nuclear Submarine Officer Retention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Phelps, Matthew


    This thesis develops multivariate logit models to estimate the impact of marital status and the independent effect of dependent children on nuclear submarine officer retention beyond the minimum service requirement (MSR...

  2. Observations of nearshore groundwater discharge: Kahekili Beach Park submarine springs, Maui, Hawaii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.W. Swarzenski


    New hydrological insights for the region: Estimates of submarine groundwater discharge were derived for a primary vent site and surrounding coastal waters off west Maui, Hawaii using an excess 222Rn (t1/2 = 3.8 d mass balance model. Such estimates were complemented with a novel thoron (220Rn, t1/2 = 56 s groundwater discharge tracer application, as well as oceanographic time series and thermal infrared imagery analyses. In combination, this suite of techniques provides new insight into the connectivity of the coastal aquifer with the near-shore ocean and examines the physical drivers of submarine groundwater discharge. Lastly, submarine groundwater discharge derived constituent concentrations were tabulated and compared to surrounding seawater concentrations. Such work has implications for the management of coastal aquifers and downstream nearshore ecosystems that respond to sustained constituent loadings via this submarine route.

  3. Dance With the One That Brought You: Revitalizing Antisubmarine Warfare to Counter Chinese Diesel Submarines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Farrell, Richard


    .... Navy needs to revitalize ASW, or risk losing the ability to gain sea control in strategic areas of the East Asian Littoral and South China Sea due to a rising Chinese diesel-electric submarine threat...

  4. Submarine Upward Looking Sonar Ice Draft Profile Data and Statistics, Version 1 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set consists of upward looking sonar sea ice draft data collected by submarines in the Arctic Ocean. It includes data from both U.S. Navy and Royal Navy...

  5. Navy Trident Submarine Conversion (SSGN) Program: Background and Issues for Congress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Rourke, Ronald


    ...) into cruisemissile- carrying and special operations forces (SOF) support submarines (SSGNs). The total estimated cost of the program, which has been increasing over time, is now $4,018 million...

  6. Cardiac Arrest? Someday, Drones May Come to Your Rescue (United States)

    ... gov/news/fullstory_166543.html Cardiac Arrest? Someday, Drones May Come to Your Rescue Like something from ... 13, 2017 TUESDAY, June 13, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Drones have been proposed for some pretty mundane uses, ...

  7. It's Snakes to the Rescue for Heart Patients (United States)

    ... Rescue for Heart Patients Venom from one slithery serpent might be source of a better blood thinner, ... anti-clotting meds for humans one day. The serpent-medicine connection isn't new, one cardiologist noted, ...

  8. That Others May Live: USAF Air Rescue in Korea

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marion, Forrest L


    When the Korean War began in June 1950, the United States Air Force's Air Rescue Service was a fledgling organization possessing a variety of aircraft types, most having seen service during World War II...

  9. It's Often Family to The Rescue During Opioid ODs (United States)

    ... html It's Often Family to the Rescue During Opioid ODs Study finds increased access to antidote may ... of a loved one who has overdosed on opioids. But a new study suggests that family members ...

  10. Rescue surgical pulmonary embolectomy for acute massive pulmonary embolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abdulrahman Elassal


    Conclusion: Surgical pulmonary embolectomy is a rescue operation in high-risk PE. It could save patients with preoperative cardiac arrest. Early diagnosis, interdisciplinary team action, appropriate and emergent treatment strategy are necessary for favorable outcome.

  11. Line drawing illustrating Skylab crew rescue mission profile (United States)


    A line drawing by North American Rockwell Space Division artist illustrating Skylab crew rescue mission profile. The standard Command Module converts from a three-seater to accommodate five astronauts for the return trip.

  12. Development of an Urban Search and Rescue Robot

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hudock, Bryan


    ... and-rescue mission extremely daunting. The solution to such a complicated problem lies in creating robots capable of quickly exploring a collapsed building and pinpointing the location of any survivors...

  13. Guidance of Autonomous Amphibious Vehicles for Flood Rescue Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankarachary Ragi


    Full Text Available We develop a path-planning algorithm to guide autonomous amphibious vehicles (AAVs for flood rescue support missions. Specifically, we develop an algorithm to control multiple AAVs to reach/rescue multiple victims (also called targets in a flood scenario in 2D, where the flood water flows across the scene and the targets move (drifted by the flood water along the flood stream. A target is said to be rescued if an AAV lies within a circular region of a certain radius around the target. The goal is to control the AAVs such that each target gets rescued while optimizing a certain performance objective. The algorithm design is based on the theory of partially observable Markov decision process (POMDP. In practice, POMDP problems are hard to solve exactly, so we use an approximation method called nominal belief-state optimization (NBO. We compare the performance of the NBO approach with a greedy approach.

  14. They Have Not Yet Begun to Fight: Women in the United States Navy Submarine Fleet (United States)


    Navy Nurse Corps in 1908. The Nurse Corps was highly educated for the time and maintained high professional standards.3 Regardless, the struggle to...nation’s navies who integrated women into their submarine fleets ahead of the U.S. Navy. Norway, Sweden , Australian, and Great Britain all...Nations such as Norway and Sweden have been incorporating females into their submarines since the mid-1980s. 39 Sweden has had female sailors

  15. The Close Aboard Bastion: a Soviet ballistic missile submarine deployment strategy


    Kreitler, Walter M


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis describes and analyzes a possible deployment posture for the Soviet ballistic missile submarine force. It examines the proposition that the Soviet Navy will establish a point defense, labeled "Close Aboard Bastions" (CABs), for its ballistic missile submarine fleet within the Soviet claimed 12 nautical mile territorial sea. This is a logical derivation of the currently widely held view that the Soviets will estab...

  16. An application of the MEMbrain training module: Pre-hospital rescue operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, V.


    A system for training in pre-hospital emergency management is being developed and the first version of a prototype has been completed. The training system fulfils the demands from the domain of hospital emergency planning centres and medical attendants concerning increased efficiency of rescue...... efforts. This includes enhanced first aid on site and improved overall co-ordination amongst the organisations involved in coping with emergency situations. The training system is based on the Multi-User System for Training Emergency Response (MUSTER) concept which is used for the training module...... in the decision support system MEMbrain. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  17. Motivation of women to cultivate thein self rescue swimming skills


    Stralczynská, Anna


    Work name: Motivation of women to cultivate thein self rescue swimming skills. Aim of work: Defining a set of basic self rescue swimming skills, motivation survey of women aged 18-60 years to cultivate these skills. Detection of awareness of theimportance of swimming skills of the interviewed women. Method: Literature search, questionnaire design, survey implementation, analysis and evaluation of data, graphical presentation of results. Results: The interviewed women realize the importance an...

  18. Flash flood swift water rescues, Texas, 2005–2014


    Vaidehi Shah; Katie R. Kirsch; Diana Cervantes; David F. Zane; Tracy Haywood; Jennifer A. Horney


    Although rainfall patterns are complex and difficult to predict, climate models suggest precipitation in Texas will occur less frequently and with greater intensity in the future. In combination with rapid population growth and development, extreme rainfall events are likely to lead to flash floods and necessitate swift water rescues. Swift water rescues are used to retrieve person(s) from swift water flowing at a rate of 1 knot or greater. Data were obtained from the Texas Fire Marshal’s Off...

  19. Rescue of failed filtering blebs with ab interno trephination. (United States)

    Shihadeh, Wisam A; Ritch, Robert; Liebmann, Jeffrey M


    We evaluated the effectiveness of ab interno automated trephination as a technique for rescuing failed mature filtering blebs. A retrospective chart review of 40 failed blebs of 38 patients who had a posttrephination follow-up period of at least 3 months was done. With success defined as intraocular pressure (IOP) control with other modalities of management. Complications were few. We believe that ab interno trephination is an excellent option for rescuing selected failed filtering blebs.

  20. Reconceptualising failure to rescue in midwifery: a concept analysis. (United States)

    Hastings-Tolsma, Marie; Nolte, Anna G W


    to reconceptualise the concept of failure to rescue, distinguishing it from its current scientific usage as a surveillance strategy to recognise physiologic decline. failure to rescue has been consistently defined as a failure to save a patient׳s life after development of complications. The term, however, carries a richer connotation when viewed within a midwifery context. Midwives have historically believed themselves to be the vanguards of normal, physiologic processes, including birth. This philosophy mandates careful consideration of what it means to promote normal birth and the consequences of failure to rescue women from processes which challenge that outcome. the Medline, CINAHL, PsycINFO, PubMED, Web of Science and Google Scholar databases were searched from the period of 1992-2014 using the key terms of concept analysis, failure-to-rescue, childbirth, midwifery outcomes, obstetrical outcomes, suboptimal care, and patient outcomes. English language reports were used exclusively. The search yielded 45 articles which were reviewed in this paper. a critical analysis of the published literature was undertaken as a means of determining the adequacy of the concept for midwifery practice and to detail how it relates to other concepts important in development of a conceptual framework promoting normal birth processes. failure to rescue within the context of the midwifery model of care requires robust attention to a midwifery managed setting and surveillance based on a caring presence, patient protection, and midwifery partnership with patient. clarifying the definition of failure to rescue in childbirth and defining its attributes can help inform midwifery providers throughout the world of the ethical importance of considering failure to rescue in clinical practice. Relevance to midwifery care mandates use of failure to rescue as both a process and outcome measure. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Defectors Can Create Conditions That Rescue Cooperation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam James Waite


    Full Text Available Cooperation based on the production of costly common goods is observed throughout nature. This is puzzling, as cooperation is vulnerable to exploitation by defectors which enjoy a fitness advantage by consuming the common good without contributing fairly. Depletion of the common good can lead to population collapse and the destruction of cooperation. However, population collapse implies small population size, which, in a structured population, is known to favor cooperation. This happens because small population size increases variability in cooperator frequency across different locations. Since individuals in cooperator-dominated locations (which are most likely cooperators will grow more than those in defector-dominated locations (which are most likely defectors, cooperators can outgrow defectors globally despite defectors outgrowing cooperators in each location. This raises the possibility that defectors can lead to conditions that sometimes rescue cooperation from defector-induced destruction. We demonstrate multiple mechanisms through which this can occur, using an individual-based approach to model stochastic birth, death, migration, and mutation events. First, during defector-induced population collapse, defectors occasionally go extinct before cooperators by chance, which allows cooperators to grow. Second, empty locations, either preexisting or created by defector-induced population extinction, can favor cooperation because they allow cooperator but not defector migrants to grow. These factors lead to the counterintuitive result that the initial presence of defectors sometimes allows better survival of cooperation compared to when defectors are initially absent. Finally, we find that resource limitation, inducible by defectors, can select for mutations adaptive to resource limitation. When these mutations are initially present at low levels or continuously generated at a moderate rate, they can favor cooperation by further reducing local

  2. Rescuing the ischemic penumbra: Our experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milosavljević Tamara


    Full Text Available Objectives: Over one million strokes per year are occurring in Europe. Brain stroke is one of the most important death and disability causes in Europe and USA. The main role of perfusion is to determine the border of insult core and ischemic penumbra. Penumbra can be saved with thrombolytic therapy but core have irreversible injuries and represent death of brain cells. Aim: to determine the role of CT brain perfusion in cases of acute brain stroke and following thrombolytic therapy. Methods: We examined 64 patients with acute brain stroke who received thrombolytic therapy after that. All patients were examining on 16 MDCT with 50 ml of iodine contrast agent following the standard procedure for CT perfusion. Patients were 34 male and 30 female with middle age of 64 years. MRI was made after thrombolytic therapy and compare with perfusion results before therapy. Results: Using an artery and a vein as reference three parameters were measured - blood flow (CBF, blood volume (CBV and mean transit time (MTT, for each patient. Hemorrhagic was find in 9 (14.01% patients after thrombolytic therapy. 4 (6.25% other patients develop new stroke of same but mostly other side of brain. 8 (12.50% more patients finished lethally. From other 42 patients with thrombolytic therapy we can positively say that in 31 (48.44% patients penumbra was rescued. For other 11 (17.19% stroke was same size like firstly involved core and penumbra but not bigger. Conclusion: CT perfusion plays major role by showing a curable parts of tissue in brain strokes.

  3. Design of the patent evasion and rescue manipulator based on TRIZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Hong-liang


    Full Text Available In this paper, the theoretical system and technical contradiction of TRIZ theory are analyzed. Combined with the patent law and patent law implementation rules, to determine the avoidance strategy. And through the goal of patent retrieval and determine the technical barriers, technical problems and solutions, according to the working mechanism and task, complete to the rescue robot manipulator mechanical structure design. The test results show that the stability and reliability of the manipulator are obviously improved.

  4. Escape, evacuation, and rescue research project : phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bercha, F.G. [Bercha Engineering Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)


    This report describes the work from the Escape, Evacuation and Rescue (EER) research project conducted between April 2001 and March 2003. The objectives were to develop EER performance-based standards (PBS) for offshore oil and gas installations in Canadian waters. It included studies of human performance under extreme conditions, reliability analysis of a specific evacuation system, and the incorporation of research findings into a computer simulation program called the Risk and Performance Tool (RPT). The newest version of the RPT was applied to make use of three major improvements and modifications. This report also discussed the application of RPT to generate information in support of the PBS development program. Methods of quantifying psychological and physiological stressors into the RPT were developed. The RPT was applied to the reliability analysis of the preferred orientation and displacement system. The results indicate the contributions of human and mechanical factors in evacuation performance. Results showed that for evacuations in calm conditions, human error and mechanical failure made the same contribution. Under moderate and severe conditions, human error contributed about twice as much to failure as mechanical failure. Under extreme conditions, both human error and mechanical failure were at the limit. A series of recommendations were proposed to improve performance-based standards. refs., tabs., figs.

  5. Observations of nearshore groundwater discharge: Kahekili Beach Park submarine springs, Maui, Hawaii (United States)

    Swarzenski, Peter W.; Dulai, H.; Kroeger, K.D.; Smith, C.G.; Dimova, N.; Storlazzi, C. D.; Prouty, N.G.; Gingerich, S.B.; Glenn, C. R.


    Study regionThe study region encompasses the nearshore, coastal waters off west Maui, Hawaii. Here abundant groundwater—that carries with it a strong land-based fingerprint—discharges into the coastal waters and over a coral reef.Study focusCoastal groundwater discharge is a ubiquitous hydrologic feature that has been shown to impact nearshore ecosystems and material budgets. A unique combined geochemical tracer and oceanographic time-series study addressed rates and oceanic forcings of submarine groundwater discharge at a submarine spring site off west Maui, Hawaii.New hydrological insights for the regionEstimates of submarine groundwater discharge were derived for a primary vent site and surrounding coastal waters off west Maui, Hawaii using an excess 222Rn (t1/2 = 3.8 d) mass balance model. Such estimates were complemented with a novel thoron (220Rn,t1/2 = 56 s) groundwater discharge tracer application, as well as oceanographic time series and thermal infrared imagery analyses. In combination, this suite of techniques provides new insight into the connectivity of the coastal aquifer with the near-shore ocean and examines the physical drivers of submarine groundwater discharge. Lastly, submarine groundwater discharge derived constituent concentrations were tabulated and compared to surrounding seawater concentrations. Such work has implications for the management of coastal aquifers and downstream nearshore ecosystems that respond to sustained constituent loadings via this submarine route.

  6. Medical aspects of the work of a moorland rescue team. (United States)

    Guly, H R


    To describe the work of a moorland rescue team and, in particular, the medical aspects of this work. A retrospective study of 25 years of callouts of the Dartmoor Rescue Group (DRG)-the mountain rescue team (MRT) for Dartmoor. These were analysed by cause, year, month, day of the week, and time of day. Injuries and other medical problems in casualties are described. 276 callouts are described. The most common cause was searching for missing persons, but 62 callouts were to known casualties. The most common medical problem was cold exhaustion. The most common injuries were to the lower leg. However, a wide variety of other medical problems including heat exhaustion was also seen. The Mountain Rescue Council represents MRTs in mountainous regions and those covering lower hills and moorland. It produces an annual report containing details of the incidents attended by its affiliated teams. The work of the DRG is very different from that of the Mountain Rescue Council as a whole. Medical problems other than cold exhaustion and lower leg injuries are uncommon and moorland rescue teams do not need to equip themselves to treat other medical problems but in view of the wide variety of medical problems encountered a long way from a road, good first aid training of team members is essential.

  7. Rescue Effects: Irradiated Cells Helped by Unirradiated Bystander Cells (United States)

    Lam, R. K. K.; Fung, Y. K.; Han, W.; Yu, K. N.


    The rescue effect describes the phenomenon where irradiated cells or organisms derive benefits from the feedback signals sent from the bystander unirradiated cells or organisms. An example of the benefit is the mitigation of radiation-induced DNA damages in the irradiated cells. The rescue effect can compromise the efficacy of radioimmunotherapy (RIT) (and actually all radiotherapy). In this paper, the discovery and subsequent confirmation studies on the rescue effect were reviewed. The mechanisms and the chemical messengers responsible for the rescue effect studied to date were summarized. The rescue effect between irradiated and bystander unirradiated zebrafish embryos in vivo sharing the same medium was also described. In the discussion section, the mechanism proposed for the rescue effect involving activation of the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) pathway was scrutinized. This mechanism could explain the promotion of cellular survival and correct repair of DNA damage, dependence on cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and modulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level in irradiated cells. Exploitation of the NF-κB pathway to improve the effectiveness of RIT was proposed. Finally, the possibility of using zebrafish embryos as the model to study the efficacy of RIT in treating solid tumors was also discussed. PMID:25625514

  8. New Mapping of Mariana Submarine Volcanoes with Sidescan and Multibeam Sonars (United States)

    Embley, R. W.; Chadwick, W. W.; Baker, E. T.; Johnson, P. D.; Merle, S. G.; Ristau, S.


    An expedition in February/March 2003 on the R/V Thomas G. Thompson mapped more than 18,000 km2 with the towed MR1 sidescan sonar and almost 28,000 km2 with an EM300 hull-mounted multibeam system along the Mariana volcanic arc. The expedition was funded by NOAA's Office of Ocean Exploration (more on the expedition can be found at: The MR1 sidescan surveys began at the northern end of a 2001 R/V Melville MR1 survey at 16§ N and extended to Nikko Volcano at 23\\deg 05'N. A portion of the southern back-arc spreading center and the arc volcanoes south of 16\\deg N were mapped using the EM300 system. Of 43 submarine arc volcanoes surveyed that have basal diameters of 10 km or greater, 17 have summit calderas or craters. Of these, however, only 5 have diameters more than 2 km. In an accompanying survey of hydrothermal activity along the arc, CTD casts and/or tows were conducted over more than 50 individual volcanoes. The 11 volcanoes with active hydrothermal systems found in the course of these surveys appear to be about equally divided between those with and without summit calderas or craters (for additional information, see Baker et al., Resing et al., and Lupton et al., this session). The flanks of the submarine volcanoes and islands of the central and northern Mariana Arc consist largely of volcaniclastic flows. Most of the larger edifices have high-backscatter spoke-like patterns that probably represent coarser and/or younger flows from the summits. Higher relief high-backscatter areas, also commonly exhibiting a radial pattern, are found on many of the volcanoes' flanks. These are probably lava flows erupted along radial fissures. The Mariana Arc volcanoes are shedding large volumes of volcaniclastic material westward into the back-arc basin through a series of deep-sea channels oriented transverse to the arc that are in many places fed by flows from several volcanoes. On many of the volcaniclastic

  9. Operational and accident survey of Russian nuclear submarines for risk assessments using statistical models for reliability growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reistad, Ole [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, P.O. Box 55, N-1332 Osteras (Norway); Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim (Norway)], E-mail:; Hustveit, Styrkaar; Roudak, Svetlana [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, P.O. Box 55, N-1332 Osteras (Norway)


    In this study, 165 safety related events involving Russian nuclear submarines from 1959 to 2007 are surveyed with respect to vessel generation, reactor type, various types of initiating event (loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA), transients, common cause initiators (CCI)), safety significance and the release of radioactivity. The survey of vessel operations shows that the accumulated number of vessel operating years (VOY)/reactor operating years (ROY) from 1959 to 2007 is 4991/9335. With respect to the survey of safety related events, out of the 165 events registered, there have been identified 17 accidents, 133 incidents and 15 deviations. As to event characteristics, 14 LOCA and 7 criticality events have been identified. The accident rates for each of the vessel generations exhibit the usual characteristics of a technological system under development, gradually going from a high accident rate to a stable lower level - however, with clear differences between reactor technologies (PWR versus LMC) and vessel generations. The mean-time between failures (MTBF) for various types of safety related events for the Russian nuclear submarines has been calculated for various events using the non-homogeneous Poisson process (NHPP) power-law model. When applied to the complete set of events, this model fails due to a cluster of safety related events that occurred between 1984 and 1987. With respect to releases of radioactivity, the MTBF has been calculated to 893 {+-} 138 VOY. All safety related events identified as part of this study are given in.

  10. Acoustic response of submarine volcanoes in the Tofua Arc and northern Lau Basin to two great earthquakes (United States)

    Bohnenstiehl, DelWayne R.; Dziak, Robert P.; Matsumoto, Haru; Conder, James A.


    Using a short-baseline hydrophone array, persistent volcanoacoustic sources are identified within the ambient noise field of the Lau Basin during the period between 2009 January and 2010 April. The submarine volcano West Mata and adjacent volcanic terrains, including the northern Matas and Volcano O, are the most active acoustic sources during the 15-month period of observation. Other areas of long-term activity include the Niua hydrothermal field, the volcanic islands of Hunga Ha'apai, Founalei, Niuatoputapu and Niuafo'ou, two seamounts located along the southern Tofua Arc and at least three unknown sites within the northern Lau Basin. Following the great Samoan earthquake on 2009 September 29, seven of the volcanoacoustic sources identified exhibit increases in the rate of acoustic detection. These changes persist over timescales of days-to-months and are observed up to 900 km from the earthquake hypocentre. At least one of the volcanoacoustic sources that did not respond to the 2009 Samoan earthquake exhibits an increase in detection rate following the great Mw 8.8 Chile earthquake that occurred at a distance of ˜9500 km on 2010 February 27. These observations suggest that great earthquakes may have undocumented impacts on Earth's vast submarine volcanic systems, potentially increasing the short-term flux of magma and volcanic gas into the overlying ocean.

  11. 46 CFR 199.160 - Rescue boat embarkation, launching and recovery arrangements. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rescue boat embarkation, launching and recovery... Vessels § 199.160 Rescue boat embarkation, launching and recovery arrangements. (a) Each rescue boat must... be used to meet this requirement. (b) Each rescue boat embarkation and launching arrangement must...

  12. 46 CFR 160.056-4 - Approval tests of prototype rescue boat. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Approval tests of prototype rescue boat. 160.056-4..., CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Rescue Boat § 160.056-4 Approval tests of prototype rescue boat. (a) Drop test. The rescue boat, fully equipped, shall be dropped, in a...

  13. 30 CFR Appendix to Subpart B - Optional Form for Certifying Mine Rescue Teams (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Optional Form for Certifying Mine Rescue Teams... EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines Pt. 49, Subpt. B, App. Appendix to Subpart B—Optional Form for Certifying Mine Rescue Teams ER08FE08.000 ER08FE08.001 ...

  14. 78 FR 35974 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Coal Mine Rescue Teams; Arrangements for... (United States)


    ... Safety and Health Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Coal Mine Rescue Teams... protecting the safety and health of miners. 30 CFR Part 49, Mine Rescue Teams, Subpart B--Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines, sets standards related to the availability of mine rescue teams; alternate...

  15. Dynamics of submarine groundwater discharge and associated fluxes of dissolved nutrients, carbon, and trace gases to the coastal zone (Okatee River estuary, South Carolina) (United States)

    Porubsky, W.P.; Weston, N.B.; Moore, W.S.; Ruppel, C.; Joye, S.B.


    Multiple techniques, including thermal infrared aerial remote sensing, geophysical and geological data, geochemical characterization and radium isotopes, were used to evaluate the role of groundwater as a source of dissolved nutrients, carbon, and trace gases to the Okatee River estuary, South Carolina. Thermal infrared aerial remote sensing surveys illustrated the presence of multiple submarine groundwater discharge sites in Okatee headwaters. Significant relationships were observed between groundwater geochemical constituents and 226Ra activity in groundwater with higher 226Ra activity correlated to higher concentrations of organics, dissolved inorganic carbon, nutrients, and trace gases to the Okatee system. A system-level radium mass balance confirmed a substantial submarine groundwater discharge contribution of these constituents to the Okatee River. Diffusive benthic flux measurements and potential denitrification rate assays tracked the fate of constituents in creek bank sediments. Diffusive benthic fluxes were substantially lower than calculated radium-based submarine groundwater discharge inputs, showing that advection of groundwater-derived nutrients dominated fluxes in the system. While a considerable potential for denitrification in tidal creek bank sediments was noted, in situ denitrification rates were nitrate-limited, making intertidal sediments an inefficient nitrogen sink in this system. Groundwater geochemical data indicated significant differences in groundwater chemical composition and radium activity ratios between the eastern and western sides of the river; these likely arose from the distinct hydrological regimes observed in each area. Groundwater from the western side of the Okatee headwaters was characterized by higher concentrations of dissolved organic and inorganic carbon, dissolved organic nitrogen, inorganic nutrients and reduced metabolites and trace gases, i.e. methane and nitrous oxide, than groundwater from the eastern side

  16. Fiscal 1997 project on the R and D of industrial scientific technology under consignment from NEDO (book on the handling / gas lift system). Report on the results of the R and D of the overall base technology of ocean resources (R and D of submarine oil drilling technology, etc.); 1997 nendo sangyo kagaku gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo Shine Energy Sangyo Gijutsu Sogo Kaihatsu Kiko itaku. Kaiyo shigen sogo kiban gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu (kaitei sekiyu kussaku gijutsu nado kenkyu kaihatsu) seika hokokusho (handling / gas lift system hen)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The paper conducted a R and D on the handling of drilling equipment in drilling/collecting of submarine oil and the gas lift of artificial oil extraction technology. As to each equipment of a barge style handling system, conducted were assembly/adjustment/trial run on land and pipe handling experiments on sea. In the experiment, confirmed were pipe transfer function, lifting function, fitting function, grasping function, etc. In the ocean experiment, studied were pipe bending stress, Karman vortex control effects, etc. Relating to the gas lift system, experiments were made on confirmation of fabrication/performance of air compressor. Moreover, a technique of air transportation to the blowing inlet of the gas lift pipe was established by developing an air blowing system and fabricating a long-distance flexible pipe. Concerning the gas/liquid/solid three-phase separator, a cyclone separator was developed, and improvement in lifting efficiency was confirmed. Helped by these, the problems of the gas lift system were almost solved, and a possibility of the commercial-base production system was obtained. 2 refs., 182 figs., 47 tabs.

  17. Experimental modeling of gravity underflow in submarine channels (United States)

    Islam, Mohammad Ashraful

    Active and relic meandering channels are common on the seafloor adjacent to continental margins. These channels and their associated submarine fan deposits are products of the density-driven gravity flows known as turbidity currents. Unlike natural rivers, few attempts have been made to explore the process of channel meandering in the submarine environment. This research focuses on resolving the flow field of submarine channels by conducting experiments in a large laboratory basin. Saline and particulate density flows were studied in a straight channel, a single bend sinuous channel with vertical sidewalls and a multiple-bend sinuous channel with sloping sidewalls. Instantaneous velocities in steady developed currents were measured using 3-component acoustic Doppler velocity probes. Excess fractional density was measured at selected locations by collecting water sample using a siphon rake. Turbulent kinetic energy and Reynolds stress components are derived from the instantaneous velocity data of the straight channel experiments. Structure functions for mean velocity, Reynolds stress and turbulent kinetic energy profiles are derived by fitting normalized data. The normalized Reynolds-averaged velocity shows excellent similarity collapse while the Reynolds-stress and the turbulent kinetic energy profiles display reasonable similarity. Vertical profiles of the turbulent kinetic energy display two peaks separated by a zone of low turbulence; the ratio of the maximum to the depth-averaged turbulent kinetic energy is approximately 1.5. Theoretical profile of turbulent kinetic energy is derived. Comparisons of experimentally and theoretically derived turbulent kinetic energy profiles show reasonable agreement except at the position of velocity maximum where the theoretical profile displays a very small value. Velocity profiles derived from the measurements with confined flow in the single bend channel reveal that channel curvature drives two helical flow cells, one

  18. Submarine landslides in contourite drifts along the Pianosa Ridge (Northern Tyrrhenian Sea): A geotechnical approach. (United States)

    Miramontes Garcia, Elda; Sultan, Nabil; Garziglia, Sebastien; Jouet, Gwenael; Cauquil, Eric; Cattaneo, Antonio


    The Pianosa Ridge is a tectonic structure in the Northern Tyrrhenian Sea that forms the eastern flank of the Corsica trough (between Corsica and the Tuscan shelf). It is characterised by the presence of submarine landslides within the Pianosa Contourite Depositional System. Multibeam bathymetry, High-Resolution-72 channel (50-250 Hz) and CHIRP (3200-5200 Hz) seismic reflection profiles, collected during cruises PRISME2 and PRISME3 in 2013, revealed that bottom currents created a heterogeneous sedimentation pattern, resulting in zones of preferential deposition (drifts) and zones of erosion and/or non-deposition (moat and abraded surfaces). The sector where the largest submarine landslides took place is characterised by the presence of a plastered drift, a sediment body with a maximum thickness in the mid-low continental slope and a moat at the toe of the slope. Calypso piston cores and piezocone CPTu data acquired during the PRISME3 cruise in 2013 also provide valuable information about the lithology, geomechanical properties and stress history of contourite drifts and of the shallowest submarine landslide, named Pianosa Slump. Contourites in this area are mostly muddy, with coarser layers deposited during sea level falls. During sea level low-stands sedimentation rates (up to 115 cm•kyr-1 in the plastered drift) are higher than during sea level high-stands (20 cm•kyr-1 in the plastered drift). The plastered drift is underconsolidated with Overconsolidation Ratios (OCR) that range between 0.5 and 0.8. The Pianosa Slump formed in the plastered drift at 43-50 kyr BP has a volume of 2.62 km3, and it is covered by 17-20 m of sediment. The basal shear surface of the Pianosa Slump, at 30-56 m below the present-day seafloor, is correlated with a sediment layer characterised by the presence of zeolite minerals (up to 4% of sediment volume), high water content, low density, high compressibility, high permeability, high undrained shear strength and a post-peak strain

  19. First Use of an Autonomous Glider for Exploring Submarine Volcanism in the SW Pacific (United States)

    Matsumoto, H.; Embley, R. W.; Haxel, J. H.; Dziak, R. P.; Bohnenstiehl, D. R.; Stalin, S.; Meinig, C.


    A 1000-m Slocum glider® (Teledyne Webb Research Corporation) with CTD, turbidity, and hydrophone sensors was operated for two days in the Northeast Lau Basin. The survey was conducted near West Mata Volcano, where in November of 2008 the NOAA PMEL Vents program observed an active eruption at its 1207 m summit—the deepest submarine activity ever before witnessed. Our goal was to use the glider as a forensic tool to search for other nearby eruption sites with onboard sensors that detect the chemical and hydroacoustic signatures associated with the volcanic and hydrothermal plumes. The glider was launched approximately 40 km to the west of West Mata. It flew toward West Mata and was recovered near the summit of the volcano after repeating 13 yos during a 41-hour mission. Although the recordings were affected by mechanical noise from the glider’s rudder, the data demonstrate that the system can detect the wide-band noises (>1 kHz) associated with submarine volcanic and intense hydrothermal activity. The glider recorded complex acoustic amplitudes due to the multiple raypaths from West Mata as well as temporal variations in the volcano’s rate of activity, and demonstrated that these geologic processes contribute to the region’s high ambient noise levels. With the exception of the deployment and recovery, the mission was managed entirely by the shore teams in PMEL (Seattle, WA) and OSU labs (Newport, OR), ~5000 miles away without an engineer onboard. The dive cycle of the 950-m dives was ~3.5 hours and the average speed was ~0.27 cm/s. The CTD data were downloaded at every surface cycle and appeared to be of high quality. However we found that the sensitivity of the Wetlabs ECO flntu turbidity sensor was not adequate for the detection of volcanic plumes. The mission demonstrated PMEL’s ability to use autonomous gliders to monitor a variety of environmental parameters including ambient sound levels, temperature, salinity and turbidity for the purpose of finding

  20. Rescue of foot-and-mouth disease viruses that are pathogenic for cattle from preserved viral RNA samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belsham, Graham; Jamal, Syed Muhammad; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten


    of the rescued viruses (of serotype O and Asia 1) were inoculated into bull calves under high containment conditions. Acute clinical disease was observed in each case which spread rapidly from the inoculated calves to in-contact animals. Thus the rescued viruses were highly pathogenic. The availability......Background: Foot and mouth disease is an economically important disease of cloven-hoofed animals including cattle, sheep and pigs. It is caused by a picornavirus, foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), which has a positive sense RNA genome which, when introduced into cells, can initiate virus...... replication. Principal Findings: A system has been developed to rescue infectious FMDV from RNA preparations generated from clinical samples obtained under experimental conditions and then applied to samples collected in the ‘‘field’’. Clinical samples from suspect cases of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) were...

  1. Reference frame congruency in search-and-rescue tasks. (United States)

    Pavlovic, Nada J; Keillor, Jocelyn; Hollands, Justin G; Chignell, Mark H


    Our aim was to investigate how the congruency between visual displays and auditory cues affects performance on various spatial tasks. Previous studies have demonstrated that spatial auditory cues, when combined with visual displays, can enhance performance and decrease workload. However, this facilitation was achieved only when auditory cues shared a common reference frame (RF) with the visual display. In complex and dynamic environments, such as airborne search and rescue (SAR), it is often difficult to ensure such congruency. In a simulated SAR operation, participants performed three spatial tasks: target search, target localization, and target recall. The interface consisted of the camera view of the terrain from the aircraft-mounted sensor, a map of the area flown over, a joystick that controlled the sensor, and a mouse. Auditory cues were used to indicate target location. While flying in the scenario, participants searched for targets, identified their locations in one of two coordinate systems, and memorized their location relative to the terrain layout. Congruent cues produced the fastest and most accurate performance. Performance advantages were observed even with incongruent cues relative to neutral cues, and egocentric cues were more effective than exocentric cues. Although the congruent cues are most effective, in cases in which the same cue is used across spatial tasks, egocentric cues are a better choice than exocentric cues. Egocentric auditory cues should be used in display design for tasks that involve RF transformations, such as SAR, air traffic control, and unmanned aerial vehicle operations.

  2. Urban search and rescue robot performance standards: progress update (United States)

    Jacoff, Adam; Messina, Elena


    In this paper, we describe work in performance standards for urban search and rescue (USAR) robots, begun in 2004 by the Department of Homeland Security. This program is being coordinated by the National Institute of Standards and Technology and will result in consensus standards developed through ASTM International, under the Operational Equipment Subcommittee of their Homeland Security Committee. A comprehensive approach to performance requirements and standards development is being used in this project. Formal test methods designed by several working groups in the standards task group are validated by the stakeholders. These tests are complemented by regular exercises in which responders and robot manufacturers work together to apply robots within realistic training scenarios. This paper recaps the most recent exercise, held at the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Maryland Task Force 1 training facility, at which over twenty different robots were operated by responders from various FEMA Task Forces. The exercise included candidate standard test methods being developed for requirements in the areas of communications, mobility, sensors, and human-system interaction for USAR robots.

  3. Did a submarine landslide contribute to the 2011 Tohoku tsunami?

    KAUST Repository

    Tappin, David R.


    Many studies have modeled the Tohoku tsunami of March 11, 2011 as being due entirely to slip on an earthquake fault, but the following discrepancies suggest that further research is warranted. (1) Published models of tsunami propagation and coastal impact underpredict the observed runup heights of up to 40 m measured along the coast of the Sanriku district in the northeast part of Honshu Island. (2) Published models cannot reproduce the timing and high-frequency content of tsunami waves recorded at three nearshore buoys off Sanriku, nor the timing and dispersion properties of the waveforms at offshore DART buoy #21418. (3) The rupture centroids obtained by tsunami inversions are biased about 60 km NNE of that obtained by the Global CMT Project. Based on an analysis of seismic and geodetic data, together with recorded tsunami waveforms, we propose that, while the primary source of the tsunami was the vertical displacement of the seafloor due to the earthquake, an additional tsunami source is also required. We infer the location of the proposed additional source based on an analysis of the travel times of higher-frequency tsunami waves observed at nearshore buoys. We further propose that the most likely additional tsunami source was a submarine mass failure (SMF—i.e., a submarine landslide). A comparison of pre- and post-tsunami bathymetric surveys reveals tens of meters of vertical seafloor movement at the proposed SMF location, and a slope stability analysis confirms that the horizontal acceleration from the earthquake was sufficient to trigger an SMF. Forward modeling of the tsunami generated by a combination of the earthquake and the SMF reproduces the recorded on-, near- and offshore tsunami observations well, particularly the high-frequency component of the tsunami waves off Sanriku, which were not well simulated by previous models. The conclusion that a significant part of the 2011 Tohoku tsunami was generated by an SMF source has important implications for

  4. Environmental Enrichment Rescues Binocular Matching of Orientation Preference in the Mouse Visual Cortex. (United States)

    Levine, Jared N; Chen, Hui; Gu, Yu; Cang, Jianhua


    Neural circuits are shaped by experience during critical periods of development. Sensory deprivation during these periods permanently compromises an organism's ability to perceive the outside world. In the mouse visual system, normal visual experience during a critical period in early life drives the matching of individual cortical neurons' orientation preferences through the two eyes, likely a key step in the development of binocular vision. Here, in mice of both sexes, we show that the binocular matching process is completely blocked by monocular deprivation spanning the entire critical period. We then show that 3 weeks of environmental enrichment (EE), a paradigm of enhanced sensory, motor, and cognitive stimulation, is sufficient to rescue binocular matching to the level seen in unmanipulated mice. In contrast, 6 weeks of conventional housing only resulted in a partial rescue. Finally, we use two-photon calcium imaging to track the matching process chronically in individual cells during EE-induced rescue. We find that for cells that are clearly dominated by one of the two eyes, the input representing the weaker eye changes its orientation preference to align with that of the dominant eye. These results thus reveal ocular dominance as a key driver of the binocular matching process, and suggest a model whereby the dominant input instructs the development of the weaker input. Such a mechanism may operate in the development of other systems that need to integrate inputs from multiple sources to generate normal neuronal functions.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Critical periods are developmental windows of opportunity that ensure the proper wiring of neural circuits, as well as windows of vulnerability when abnormal experience could cause lasting damage to the developing brain. In the visual system, critical period plasticity drives the establishment of binocularly matched orientation preferences in cortical neurons. Here, we show that binocular matching is completely

  5. Data Management and Rescue at a State Geological Survey (United States)

    Hills, D. J.; McIntyre-Redden, M. R.


    As new technologies are developed to utilize data more fully, and as shrinking budgets mean more needs to be done with less, well-documented and discoverable legacy data is vital for continued research and economic growth. Many governmental agencies are mandated to maintain scientific data, and the Geological Survey of Alabama (GSA) is no different. As part of the mandate to explore for, characterize, and report Alabama's mineral, energy, water, and biological resources for the betterment of Alabama's citizens, communities, and businesses, the GSA has increasingly been called upon to make our data (including samples) more accessible to stakeholders. The GSA has been involved in several data management, preservation, and rescue projects, including the National Geothermal Data System and the National Geological and Geophysical Data Preservation Program. GSA staff utilizes accepted standards for metadata, such as those found at the US Geoscience Information Network (USGIN). Through the use of semi-automated workflows, these standards can be applied to legacy data records. As demand for more detailed information on samples increases, especially so that a researcher can do a preliminary assessment prior to a site visit, it has become critical for the efficiency of the GSA to have better systems in place for sample tracking and data management. Thus, GSA is in the process of registering cores and related samples for International Geo Sample Numbers (IGSNs) through the System for Earth Sample Registration. IGSNs allow the GSA to use asset management software to better curate the physical samples and provide more accurate information to stakeholders. Working with other initiatives, such as EarthCube's iSamples project, will ensure that GSA continues to use best practices and standards for sample identification, documentation, citation, curation, and sharing.

  6. Submarine pyroclastic deposits in Tertiary basins, NE Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polona Kralj


    Full Text Available In Tertiary basins of NE Slovenia, Upper Oligocene volcanic activity occurred in a submarine environment that experienced contemporaneous clastic sedimentation. Pyroclastic deposits are essentially related to gas- and watersupported eruption-fed density currents. At Trobni Dol, the Lako Basin, an over 100 m thick deposit formed by a sigle sustained volcanic explosion that fed gas-supported pyroclastic flow. Diagnostic features are large matrixshard content, normal grading of pumice lapilli, collapsed pumice lapilli and the presence of charcoal. In the Smrekovec Volcanic Complex, several but only up to 5 m thick deposits related to eruption-fed gassupported pyroclastic flows occur. Deposits settled from water-supported eruption-fed density currents form fining- and thinning-upward sedimentary units which resemble the units of volcaniclastic turbidites. Pyroclastic deposits related to gas- and water-supported density currents occur in an up to 1000 m thick succession composed of coherent volcanics, autoclastic, pyroclastic, reworked volcaniclastic and mixed volcaniclastic-siliciclastic deposits that indicate a complex explosive and depositional history of the Smrekovec Volcanic Complex.

  7. High-efficiency airfoil rudders applied to submarines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHOU Yimei


    Full Text Available Modern submarine design puts forward higher and higher requirements for control surfaces, and this creates a requirement for designers to constantly innovate new types of rudder so as to improve the efficiency of control surfaces. Adopting the high-efficiency airfoil rudder is one of the most effective measures for improving the efficiency of control surfaces. In this paper, we put forward an optimization method for a high-efficiency airfoil rudder on the basis of a comparative analysis of the various strengths and weaknesses of the airfoil, and the numerical calculation method is adopted to analyze the influence rule of the hydrodynamic characteristics and wake field by using the high-efficiency airfoil rudder and the conventional NACA rudder comparatively; at the same time, a model load test in a towing tank was carried out, and the test results and simulation calculation obtained good consistency:the error between them was less than 10%. The experimental results show that the steerage of a high-efficiency airfoil rudder is increased by more than 40% when compared with the conventional rudder, but the total resistance is close:the error is no more than 4%. Adopting a high-efficiency airfoil rudder brings much greater lifting efficiency than the total resistance of the boat. The results show that high-efficiency airfoil rudder has obvious advantages for improving the efficiency of control, giving it good application prospects.

  8. Ecostructuring of marine nematode communities by submarine groundwater discharge. (United States)

    Grzelak, Katarzyna; Tamborski, Joseph; Kotwicki, Lech; Bokuniewicz, Henry


    Inputs of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) to the coastal ocean may alter local and regional-scale biology. Here, we report on nematode assemblages along the north shore of Long Island, NY. We test if nematode communities differed between sites impacted by mixed fresh-saline SGD and where SGD is exclusively saline. Diversity of nematodes was low at sites impacted by fresh SGD and communities were dominated by a few opportunistic genera. Moreover, a set of typical freshwater nematode genera restricted to impacted sites was observed. Their presence in the marine coastal zone is exceptional and underlines the structuring role that fresh SGD plays in the local ecosystem. Saline SGD structured nematode assemblages differently compared to sites impacted by fresh SGD. The number of nematode genera was markedly higher at saline SGD sites, with a different community structure. This study highlights the importance to which inputs of fresh SGD may have on local ecosystem diversity in marine coastal environments. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Noble gases in submarine pillow basalt glasses from Loihi and Kilauea, Hawaii: A solar component in the Earth (United States)

    Honda, M.; McDougall, I.; Patterson, D.B.; Doulgeris, A.; Clague, D.A.


    Noble gas elemental and isotopic abundances have been analysed in twenty-two samples of basaltic glass dredged from the submarine flanks of two currently active Hawaiian volcanoes, Loihi Seamount and Kilauea. Neon isotopic ratios are enriched in 20Ne and 21Ne by as much as 16% with respect to atmospheric ratios. All the Hawaiian basalt glass samples show relatively high 3He 4He ratios. The high 20Ne 22Ne values in some of the Hawaiian samples, together with correlations between neon and helium systematics, suggest the presence of a solar component in the source regions of the Hawaiian mantle plume. The solar hypothesis for the Earth's primordial noble gas composition can account for helium and neon isotopic ratios observed in basaltic glasses from both plume and spreading systems, in fluids in continental hydrothermal systems, in CO2 well gases, and in ancient diamonds. These results provide new insights into the origin and evolution of the Earth's atmosphere. ?? 1993.

  10. Rescue effects in radiobiology: Unirradiated bystander cells assist irradiated cells through intercellular signal feedback

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, S. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Zhao, Y. [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Han, W. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Chiu, S.K. [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Zhu, L. [Office of Admission and Careers Advisory Service, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Wu, L. [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Yu, K.N., E-mail: [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong)


    Mammalian cells respond to ionization radiation by sending out extracellular signals to affect non-irradiated neighboring cells, which is referred to as radiation induced bystander effect. In the present paper, we described a phenomenon entitled the 'rescue effects', where the bystander cells rescued the irradiated cells through intercellular signal feedback. The effect was observed in both human primary fibroblast (NHLF) and cancer cells (HeLa) using two-cell co-culture systems. After co-culturing irradiated cells with unirradiated bystander cells for 24 h, the numbers of 53BP1 foci, corresponding to the number of DNA double-strand breaks in the irradiated cells were less than those in the irradiated cells that were not co-cultured with the bystander cells (0.78 {+-} 0.04 foci/cell vs. 0.90 {+-} 0.04 foci/cell) at a statistically significant level. Similarly, both micronucleus formation and extent of apoptosis in the irradiated cells were different at statistically significant levels if they were co-cultured with the bystander cells. Furthermore, it was found that unirradiated normal cells would also reduce the micronucleus formation in irradiated cancer cells. These results suggested that the rescue effects could participate in repairing the radiation-induced DNA damages through a media-mediated signaling feedback, thereby mitigating the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of ionizing radiation.

  11. Science in search and rescue in the aftermath of the massive February 2006 Philippine landslide (United States)

    Lagmay, A. A.; Ong, J. T.; Rodolfo, R. S.; Tengonciang, A. P.; Soria, J. T.; Fernandez, D. D.; Lapus, M. R.; Baliatan, E. G.; Quimba, Z. P.; Uichanco, C. L.; Paguican, E. R.


    Technical advice by a team of geologists, geophysicists and meteorologists was provided during the search and rescue operations at ground zero of the February 2006 landslide in Southern Leyte, Philippines. An ad hoc geographic information system constructed from a cadastral plan, 1:50,000 topographic map, aerial imagery taken 7 days after the landslide, and a plot of the inventory of survivors, recovered bodies, personal articles and remnants of buildings, was used to narrow down the search in the large debris field. In particular, search parties were directed to transfer operations to an area where a community was believed to have been transported about 550 meters down slope of its original position. By the time rescuers concentrated their efforts to the new search site, the water table had risen, diminishing chances of finding survivors trapped under the water-drenched rubble. Improvised rain gauges placed around the debris field served as basis to call off search operations to prevent casualties among the ranks of rescue teams. The lessons learned from the Southern Leyte landslide may be applied in the construction of policies for disaster management. Because speed, accuracy and the maximum utilization of resources are required in handling search and rescue operations, a systematic and informed approach is imperative. Time is essential in such a critical situation; thus, following a standard rote of procedures can improve how civil authorities deal with large scale landslide calamities.

  12. Rip current related drowning deaths and rescues in Australia 2004-2011 (United States)

    Brighton, B.; Sherker, S.; Brander, R.; Thompson, M.; Bradstreet, A.


    Rip currents are a common hazard to beachgoers found on many beaches around the world, but it has proven difficult to accurately quantify the actual number of rip current related drowning deaths in many regions and countries. Consequently, reported estimates of rip current drowning can fluctuate considerably and are often based on anecdotal evidence. This study aims to quantify the incidence of rip current related drowning deaths and rescues in Australia from 2004 to 2011. A retrospective search was undertaken for fatal and non-fatal rip-related drowning incidents from Australia's National Coronial Information System (NCIS), Surf Life Saving Australia's (SLSA, 2005-2011) SurfGuard Incident Report Database (IRD), and Media Monitors for the period 1 July 2004 to 30 June 2011. In this time, rip currents were recorded as a factor in 142 fatalities of a total of 613 coastal drowning deaths (23.2%), an average of 21 per year. Rip currents were related to 44% of all beach-related drowning deaths and were involved in 57.4% of reported major rescues in Australian locations where rips occur. A comparison with international operational statistics over the same time period describes rip-related rescues as 53.7% of the total rescues in the US, 57.9% in the UK and 49.4% in New Zealand. The range 49-58% is much lower than 80-89% traditionally cited. The results reported are likely to underestimate the size of the rip current hazard, because we are limited by the completeness of data on rip-related events; however this is the most comprehensive estimate to date. Beach safety practitioners need improved data collection and standardized definitions across organisations. The collection of drowning data using consistent categories and the routine collection of rip current information will allow for more accurate global comparisons.

  13. Survival at Sea for Mariners, Aviators and Search and Rescue Personnel (Survie en mer pour les marins, les aviateurs et le personnel de recherche et de sauvetage) (United States)


    of the staff there and next door at HMS Dolphin had Second World War expertise in survival medicine, and the new nuclear medicine submarine...people ‘freeze’ in an emergency: temporal and cognitive constraints on survival responses. Aviation, Space & Environmental Medicine, 75: 539-542. [5...Leach, J. (2005). Cognitive paralysis in an emergency: the role of the supervisory attentional system. Aviation, Space & Environmental Medicine, 76

  14. Science guides search and rescue after the 2006 Philippine landslide. (United States)

    Lagmay, Alfredo Mahar A; Tengonciang, Arlene Mae P; Rodolfo, Raymond S; Soria, Janneli Lea A; Baliatan, Eden G; Paguican, Engielle R; Ong, John Burtkenley T; Lapus, Mark R; Fernandez, Dan Ferdinand D; Quimba, Zareth P; Uichanco, Christopher L


    A rockslide-debris avalanche destroyed the remote village of Guinsaugon in Southern Leyte, Philippines, on 17 February 2006. Although search and rescue procedures were implemented immediately, the scale of the landslide and a lack of information about its nature resulted in unfocused and imprecise efforts in the early days of the operation. Technical support was only introduced five days after the event, provided by a team of volunteer geologists, geophysicists, and meteorologists. By the time search and rescue operations were transferred to specific target sites, however, the chances of finding survivors trapped under the rubble had diminished. In such critical situations, speed, accuracy, and the maximum appropriation of resources are crucial. We emphasise here the need for a systematic and technically informed approach to search and rescue missions in large-scale landslide disaster contexts, and the formulation of better disaster management policies in general. Standard procedures must be developed and enforced to improve how civil authorities respond to natural calamities.

  15. Westward advance of the deformation front and evolution of submarine canyons offshore of southwestern Taiwan (United States)

    Han, Wei-Chung; Liu, Char-Shine; Chi, Wu-Cheng; Chen, Liwen; Lin, Che-Chuan; Chen, Song-Chuen


    This study analyzes both 2D and 3D seismic images around the Palm Ridge area offshore of southwestern Taiwan to understand how the deformation front shifted westward and how tectonic activities interact with submarine canyon paths in the transition area between the active and passive margins. Palm Ridge is a submarine ridge that developed on the passive China continental margin by down-dip erosion of several tributaries of Penghu Canyon; it extends eastward across the deformation front into the submarine Taiwan accretionary wedge. The presence of proto-thrusts that are located west of the frontal thrust implies that the compressional stress field has advanced westward due to the convergence of the Philippine Sea Plate and Eurasian Plate. Since the deformation front is defined as the location of the most frontal contractional structure, no significant contractional structure should appear west of it. We thus suggest moving the location of the previously mapped deformation front farther west to where the westernmost proto-thrust lies. High-resolution seismic and bathymetric data reveal that the directions of the paleo-submarine canyons run transverse to the present slope dip, while the present submarine canyons head down slope in the study area. We propose that this might be the result of the westward migration of the deformation front that changed the paleo-bathymetry and thus the canyon path directions. The interactions of down-slope processes and active tectonics control the canyon paths in our study area.

  16. Influence of stiffness constant of stern bearing on vibration and acoustic radiation of whole submarine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Lucai


    Full Text Available [Objectives] This paper studies the influence of the stiffness constant of a stern bearing on the vibration and acoustic radiation of a whole submarine.[Methods] Based on the form of SUBOFF, a whole submarine model is established in which the structures of the propeller and shaft are first formed in solid elements. Through calculating and comparing the structural vibration and acoustic radiation driven by a vertically excited force, the influence of the elastic coefficient of the stern bearing on the vibroacoustic of the overall submarine structure is mainly considered. [Results] It is demonstrated that the reduction of the elastic coefficient of the stern bearing leads to the convergence of structural vibration and acoustic radiation to the second order overall bending modal frequency, and the frequency gradually becomes lower, which can benefit the vibroacoustic reduction of submarines at frequencies higher than the second order overall bending modal frequency. [Conclusions] These results provide a reference for the acoustic design of submarine structures.

  17. Methane concentration inside a submarine mud volcano examined through seismic velocity profiles (United States)

    Kioka, Arata; Tsuji, Takeshi; Otsuka, Hironori; Ashi, Juichiro


    Mud volcanoes are considered to be among largest geological sources releasing hydrocarbon gases into the atmosphere. Numerous studies have revealed their origins and compositions from submarine mud volcanoes. A recent long-term observation at a submarine mud volcano sheds light on that larger volume of methane gas than expected is escaped from deep-water mud volcanoes, suggesting that the global methane flux from the seafloor is likely underestimated. Yet, estimates of the gas amount inside mud volcanoes have been still challenging, because of the difficulty of in-situ measurements. This study provides a new model to bridge methane amounts and seismic velocities in fluidized mud conduits of submarine mud volcanoes. This model is universally applicable and enables estimates of methane concentration in the mud conduits, using the seismic velocity profile derived from reflection/refraction seismic and/or downhole logging data. In this study, (1) we examine our modeled results through deep-drilling data obtained at mud volcanoes in the Olimpi mud field of the central Mediterranean Ridge accretionary margin, to evaluate the difference between in situ methane amounts and those calculated from our model, and (2) apply our model to the seismic velocity profile derived from seicmic data to estimate the methane amount inside the submarine mud volcano in the Nankai accretionary margin. Our scheme may provide an opportunity to re-estimate the total methane flux from submarine mud volcanoes.

  18. Newly recognized turbidity current structure can explain prolonged flushing of submarine canyons. (United States)

    Azpiroz-Zabala, Maria; Cartigny, Matthieu J B; Talling, Peter J; Parsons, Daniel R; Sumner, Esther J; Clare, Michael A; Simmons, Stephen M; Cooper, Cortis; Pope, Ed L


    Seabed-hugging flows called turbidity currents are the volumetrically most important process transporting sediment across our planet and form its largest sediment accumulations. We seek to understand the internal structure and behavior of turbidity currents by reanalyzing the most detailed direct measurements yet of velocities and densities within oceanic turbidity currents, obtained from weeklong flows in the Congo Canyon. We provide a new model for turbidity current structure that can explain why these are far more prolonged than all previously monitored oceanic turbidity currents, which lasted for only hours or minutes at other locations. The observed Congo Canyon flows consist of a short-lived zone of fast and dense fluid at their front, which outruns the slower moving body of the flow. We propose that the sustained duration of these turbidity currents results from flow stretching and that this stretching is characteristic of mud-rich turbidity current systems. The lack of stretching in previously monitored flows is attributed to coarser sediment that settles out from the body more rapidly. These prolonged seafloor flows rival the discharge of the Congo River and carry ~2% of the terrestrial organic carbon buried globally in the oceans each year through a single submarine canyon. Thus, this new structure explains sustained flushing of globally important amounts of sediment, organic carbon, nutrients, and fresh water into the deep ocean.

  19. Modeled alongshore circulation and force balances onshore of a submarine canyon (United States)

    Hansen, Jeff E.; Raubenheimer, Britt; List, Jeffrey H.; Elgar, Steve


    Alongshore force balances, including the role of nonlinear advection, in the shoaling and surf zones onshore of a submarine canyon are investigated using a numerical modeling system (Delft3D/SWAN). The model is calibrated with waves and alongshore flows recorded over a period of 1.5 months at 26 sites along the 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 m depth contours spanning about 2 km of coast. Field observation-based estimates of the alongshore pressure and radiation-stress gradients are reproduced well by the model. Model simulations suggest that the alongshore momentum balance is between the sum of the pressure and radiation-stress gradients and the sum of the nonlinear advective terms and bottom stress, with the remaining terms (e.g., wind stress and turbulent mixing) being negligible. The simulations also indicate that unexplained residuals in previous field-based estimates of the momentum balance may be owing to the neglect of the nonlinear advective terms, which are similar in magnitude to the sum of the forcing (pressure and radiations stress gradients) and to the bottom stress.

  20. Radium tracing nutrient inputs through submarine groundwater discharge in the global ocean. (United States)

    Cho, Hyung-Mi; Kim, Guebuem; Kwon, Eun Young; Moosdorf, Nils; Garcia-Orellana, Jordi; Santos, Isaac R


    Riverine and atmospheric inputs are often considered as the main terrestrial sources of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN), phosphorus (DIP), and silicon (DSi) in the ocean. However, the fluxes of nutrients via submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) often exceed riverine inputs in different local and regional scale settings. In this study, we provide a first approximation of global nutrient fluxes to the ocean via total SGD, including pore water fluxes, by combining a global compilation of nutrient concentrations in groundwater and the SGD-derived 228 Ra fluxes. In order to avoid overestimations in calculating SGD-derived nutrient fluxes, the endmember value of nutrients in global groundwater was chosen from saline groundwater samples (salinity >10) which showed relatively lower values over all regions. The results show that the total SGD-derived fluxes of DIN, DIP, and DSi could be approximately 1.4-, 1.6-, and 0.7-fold of the river fluxes to the global ocean (Indo-Pacific and Atlantic Oceans), respectively. Although significant portions of these SGD-derived nutrient fluxes are thought to be recycled within sediment-aquifer systems over various timescales, SGD-derived nutrient fluxes should be included in the global ocean budget in order to better understand dynamic interactions at the land-ocean interface.

  1. Surgical rescue: The next pillar of acute care surgery. (United States)

    Kutcher, Matthew E; Sperry, Jason L; Rosengart, Matthew R; Mohan, Deepika; Hoffman, Marcus K; Neal, Matthew D; Alarcon, Louis H; Watson, Gregory A; Puyana, Juan Carlos; Bauzá, Graciela M; Schuchert, Vaishali D; Fombona, Anisleidy; Zhou, Tianhua; Zolin, Samuel J; Becher, Robert D; Billiar, Timothy R; Forsythe, Raquel M; Zuckerbraun, Brian S; Peitzman, Andrew B


    The evolving field of acute care surgery (ACS) traditionally includes trauma, emergency general surgery, and critical care. However, the critical role of ACS in the rescue of patients with a surgical complication has not been explored. We here describe the role of "surgical rescue" in the practice of ACS. A prospective, electronic medical record-based ACS registry spanning January 2013 to May 2014 at a large urban academic medical center was screened by ICD-9 codes for acute surgical complications of an operative or interventional procedure. Long-term outcomes were derived from the Social Security Death Index. Of 2,410 ACS patients, 320 (13%) required "surgical rescue": most commonly, from wound complications (32%), uncontrolled sepsis (19%), and acute obstruction (15%). The majority of complications (85%) were related to an operation; 15% were related to interventional procedures. The most common rescue interventions required were bowel resection (23%), wound debridement (18%), and source control of infection (17%); 63% of patients required operative intervention, and 22% required surgical critical care. Thirty-six percent of complications occurred in ACS primary patients ("local"), whereas 38% were referred from another surgical service ("institutional") and 26% referred from another institution ("regional"). Hospital length of stay was longer, and in-hospital and 1-year mortalities were higher in rescue patients compared with those without a complication. Outcomes were equivalent between "local" and "institutional" patients, but hospital length of stay and discharge to home were significantly worse in "institutional" referrals. We here describe the distinct role of the acute care surgeon in the surgical management of complications; this is an additional pillar of ACS. In this vital role, the acute care surgeon provides crucial support to other providers as well as direct patient care in the "surgical rescue" of surgical and procedural complications

  2. Flash flood swift water rescues, Texas, 2005–2014

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    Vaidehi Shah


    Full Text Available Although rainfall patterns are complex and difficult to predict, climate models suggest precipitation in Texas will occur less frequently and with greater intensity in the future. In combination with rapid population growth and development, extreme rainfall events are likely to lead to flash floods and necessitate swift water rescues. Swift water rescues are used to retrieve person(s from swift water flowing at a rate of 1 knot or greater. Data were obtained from the Texas Fire Marshal’s Office and analyzed to describe spatial and temporal characteristics of rescues. Between 2005 and 2014, 3256 swift water rescues were reported from 136 of 254 (54% counties. Over half (54.6%, n = 1777 occurred in counties known as Flash Flood Alley, which includes Texas’ largest and fastest growing cities. Less than 1.0% (n = 18 were reported from 49 counties designated as completely rural, or with an urban population less than 2500. Increases in swift water rescues were seen between March and September and during major weather events such as tropical storms. Because county-level data was utilized and demographic data was missing in all but 2% (n = 47 of the incidents, our ability to identify populations at risk or target interventions in the future using this data is limited. Despite the frequency of flash flood events and swift water rescues in Texas, knowledge gaps persist that should be addressed through the conduct of interdisciplinary research by epidemiologists and climatologists and by disseminating evidence-based health education and safety programs, particularly in rapidly growing counties that make up Texas’ Flash Flood Alley.

  3. Search and Rescue in Southeast Asia 1961-1975. (United States)


    first U.S. Marine CH-53 spiraled onto the soccer field to disgorge the first element of the Marine security force. The leathernecks fanned out across...ADAII1 903 OFFICE OF AIR FORCE’HISTORY WASHINGTON OC F/S 6/7 SEARCH AND RESCUE IN SOUTHEAST ASIA 1961-1975.(U) 1975 f H TILFORO MC~I £PS1FTEO M...A CLA -z6 C) LU Search and Rescue in Southeast Asia , 1961-1975 EARL H. Tu.oRD, JR. OFFICE OF AIR FORCE HISTORY UNITED STATES AIR FORCE WASHINGTON

  4. Regulation of bacterial gene expression by ribosome stalling and rescuing. (United States)

    Jin, Yongxin; Jin, Shouguang; Wu, Weihui


    Ribosome is responsible for protein synthesis and is able to monitor the sequence and structure of the nascent peptide. Such ability plays an important role in determining overall gene expression profile of the bacteria through ribosome stalling and rescuing. In this review, we briefly summarize our current understanding of the regulation of gene expression through ribosome stalling and rescuing in bacteria, as well as mechanisms that modulate ribosome activity. Understanding the mechanisms of how bacteria modulate ribosome activity will provide not only fundamental insights into bacterial gene regulation, but also new candidate targets for the development of novel antimicrobial agents.

  5. Spatial scale-dependent habitat heterogeneity influences submarine canyon macrofaunal abundance and diversity off the Main and Northwest Hawaiian Islands (United States)

    De Leo, Fabio C.; Vetter, Eric W.; Smith, Craig R.; Rowden, Ashley A.; McGranaghan, Matthew


    polychaetes, suggest that canyons play important roles in maintaining high levels of regional biodiversity in the extremely oligotrophic system of the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre. This information is of key importance to the process of MPA design, suggesting that canyon habitats be explicitly included in marine spatial planning. The low-islands of Nihoa and Maro Reef in the NWHI showed a lack of sustained input of terrestrial and macrolagae detritus, likely having an influence on the observed low macrofaunal abundances (see further discussion of ‘canyon effects’ in Section 4.3), and showing the fundamental role of coastal landscape characteristics in determining the amount and nature of allochthonous organic matter entering the system. Total and highly-mobile invertebrate megafauna abundances were two to three times higher in the submarine canyons and slopes of the MHI contrasted with the NWHI (Vetter et al., 2010), also demonstrating the role of this larger contribution of terrestrial and coastal organic enrichment in the MHI contrasted with the NWHI.

  6. The Keelung Submarine Volcano in the near-shore area of northern Taiwan and its tectonic implication (United States)

    Tsai, Ching-Hui; Hsu, Shu-Kun; Lin, Shiao-Shan; Yang, Tsanyao F.; Wang, Shiou-Ya; Doo, Wen-Bin; Lee, Hsiao-Fen; Lan, Tefang; Huang, Jian-Cheng; Liang, Chin-Wei


    The Taiwan mountain belt has been created due to the collision between the Philippine Sea Plate and the Eurasian Plate. Northernmost Taiwan and its offshore area are now under post-collisional collapse. The post-collisional magmatism is distributed around northern Taiwan. Here we first report a submarine volcano, named Keelung Submarine Volcano, existing in the near-shore area of northern Taiwan. The high 3He/4He ratios in the collected seawater samples suggest that the magma of the Keelung Submarine Volcano is derived from a mantle source. Geometrically, both the Keelung Submarine Volcano and the Tatun Volcano Group are situated above the western border of the subducted Philippine Sea Plate and may have a same magma source. Both volcanic areas belong to the northern Taiwan volcanic zone, instead of the Ryukyu volcanic front. The Keelung Submarine Volcano has been rotated clockwise ∼48° after its formation, which implies that the Keelung Submarine Volcano has formed before the Luzon arc collided against northern Taiwan. Consequently, the post-collisional model to explain the formation of the northern Taiwan volcanic zone is questionable. As indicated by numerous shallow earthquakes and persistent emissions of the volcanic gases out of the seafloor around the volcanic cone, the Keelung Submarine Volcano is as active as the Tatun Volcano Group. For the sake of volcanic hazard assessment, it is essential to monitor the activity of the Keelung Submarine Volcano.

  7. CFD RANS Simulations on a Generic Conventional Scale Model Submarine: Comparison between Fluent and OpenFOAM (United States)


    1 – Hydrodynamics”, Defence Science and Technology Organisation Technical Report DSTO-TR-1622, 2004. UNCLASSIFIED DST-Group-TN-1449 UNCLASSIFIED...17 7. Joubert, P.N., “Some Aspects of Submarine Design Part 2– Shape of a Submarine 2026”, Defence Science and Technology Organisation Technical

  8. High accuracy station moving method for total station in submarine construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIN Shaosong


    Full Text Available [Objectives] When we measure submarine pressure hulls using a total station, it is essential to set several stations in order to complete the measurement of the whole cabin due to the complicated measuring environment. However, there are many restrictions related to the total station itself when moving stations, and it is also difficult to ensure measuring accuracy and satisfy the requirements of submarine measurement in complicated environments.[Methods] As such, a new station moving method is presented which can automatically establish standing relationships by measuring common points at every measuring position.[Results] This method can significantly improve accuracy and efficiency.[Conclusions] The experiment shows that the results of the new station moving method can meet sub-pixel precision and satisfy submarine measurement requirements with high accuracy.

  9. Submarine landslide and tsunami hazards offshore southern Alaska: Seismic strengthening versus rapid sedimentation (United States)

    Sawyer, Derek E.; Reece, Robert S.; Gulick, Sean P. S.; Lenz, Brandi L.


    The southern Alaskan offshore margin is prone to submarine landslides and tsunami hazards due to seismically active plate boundaries and extreme sedimentation rates from glacially enhanced mountain erosion. We examine the submarine landslide potential with new shear strength measurements acquired by Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 341 on the continental slope and Surveyor Fan. These data reveal lower than expected sediment strength. Contrary to other active margins where seismic strengthening enhances slope stability, the high-sedimentation margin offshore southern Alaska behaves like a passive margin from a shear strength perspective. We interpret that seismic strengthening occurs but is offset by high sedimentation rates and overpressure. This conclusion is supported by shear strength outside of the fan that follow an active margin trend. More broadly, seismically active margins with wet-based glaciers are susceptible to submarine landslide hazards because of the combination of high sedimentation rates and earthquake shaking.

  10. Research on Big Data Attribute Selection Method in Submarine Optical Fiber Network Fault Diagnosis Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Ganlang


    Full Text Available At present, in the fault diagnosis database of submarine optical fiber network, the attribute selection of large data is completed by detecting the attributes of the data, the accuracy of large data attribute selection cannot be guaranteed. In this paper, a large data attribute selection method based on support vector machines (SVM for fault diagnosis database of submarine optical fiber network is proposed. Mining large data in the database of optical fiber network fault diagnosis, and calculate its attribute weight, attribute classification is completed according to attribute weight, so as to complete attribute selection of large data. Experimental results prove that ,the proposed method can improve the accuracy of large data attribute selection in fault diagnosis database of submarine optical fiber network, and has high use value.

  11. Chemical Fluxes from a Recently Erupted Submarine Volcano on the Mariana Arc (United States)

    Buck, N. J.; Resing, J. A.; Lupton, J. E.; Larson, B. I.; Walker, S. L.; Baker, E. T.


    While hydrothermal circulation is paramount to the geochemical budget for a wide array of elements, relatively few flux estimates exist in the literature. To date most studies have concentrated on constraining global and vent-field scale inputs originating from ocean spreading ridges. The goal of this study is to directly measure the chemical flux from an active submarine volcano injecting hydrothermal fluids into the surface ocean. Ahyi Seamount, a submarine intraoceanic arc volcano located in the Northern Mariana Islands, has a summit depth TSM and total and dissolved Fe and Mn. Laboratory analyses found enriched concentrations of H2, 3He, CO2 and Fe, consistent with a recent eruption. Preliminary flux calculations estimate a Fe input of 16 mmol s-1. This indicates shallow submarine arc volcanoes are capable of supplying appreciable quantities of Fe into the surface ocean. Further laboratory analyses and calculations to characterize and constrain the fluxes of other chemical constituents are underway.

  12. Air blast injuries killed the crew of the submarine H.L. Hunley.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel M Lance

    Full Text Available The submarine H.L. Hunley was the first submarine to sink an enemy ship during combat; however, the cause of its sinking has been a mystery for over 150 years. The Hunley set off a 61.2 kg (135 lb black powder torpedo at a distance less than 5 m (16 ft off its bow. Scaled experiments were performed that measured black powder and shock tube explosions underwater and propagation of blasts through a model ship hull. This propagation data was used in combination with archival experimental data to evaluate the risk to the crew from their own torpedo. The blast produced likely caused flexion of the ship hull to transmit the blast wave; the secondary wave transmitted inside the crew compartment was of sufficient magnitude that the calculated chances of survival were less than 16% for each crew member. The submarine drifted to its resting place after the crew died of air blast trauma within the hull.

  13. Origin of the Easter Submarine Alignment: morphology and structural lineaments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristián Rodrigo


    Full Text Available The Easter submarine alignment corresponds to a sequence of seamounts and oceanic islands which runs from the Ahu-Umu volcanic fields in the west to its intersection with the Nazca Ridge in the east, with a total length of about 2.900 km and a strike of N85°E. Recent bathymetric compilations that include combined satellite derived and shipboard data (Global Topography and multibeam bathymetric data (from NGDC-NOAA are interpreted both qualitatively and quantitatively by using a morphological analysis, which was comprised of the determination of bathymetric patterns, trends in lineations and structures; height measurements, computation of basal areas and volumes of seamounts, in order to establish clues on the origin of this seamount chain and to establish relationships with the regional tectonics. In the study region 514 seamounts were counted, of which 334 had a basal area less than the reference seamount (Moai. In general, the largest seamounts (>1000 m in height tend to align and to have a larger volume, with an elongation of their bases along the seamount chain. On the other hand, smaller seamounts tend to be distributed more randomly with more circular bases. As a consequence of the morphological analysis, the best possible mechanism that explains the origin of the seamount chain is the existence of a localized hotspot to the west of the Salas y Gómez Island. The corresponding plume would contribute additional magmatic material towards the East Pacific Rise through canalizations, whose secondary branches would feed intermediate volcanoes. It is possible that within the Easter Island region there would be another minor contribution through fractures in the crust, due to the crustal weakening that was produced by the Easter Fracture Zone.

  14. Seismic site response of submarine slope offshore southwestern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Yi Lin


    Full Text Available Widely distributed Bottom-Simulating Reflectors (BSRs have been observed in the area offshore of southwestern Taiwan where the active accretionary complex meets with the passive China continental margin. In order to clarify the link between seismic site response and sedimentary properties of submarine slope, we evaluate the response of seafloor sediments in regard to passive dynamic loads. The local site effect produced by shallow marine sediments was characterized by estimating the horizontal-to-vertical (H/V spectral ratios of data recorded by the short-period Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBSs. The results show that the maximal H/V ratios appeared in the range of 3.66 - 9.28 Hz, suggesting that the fundamental frequency is dominated by the effect related to the very shallow sediments. For most stations, the H/V ratios estimated based on the earthquakes and noise records were characterized by different patterns. Relatively broad H/V pattern was obtained when the signals were extracted from earthquakes. This phenomenon may be related to soil nonlinearity when a stronger motion applies. In comparison with the available geological structures and bulk density distribution obtained from coring experiments, we found a relatively higher fundamental frequency of about 8 - 9 Hz for the more rigid material, such as mud diapir and folding axes. For most of the area along the slope, the fundamental frequency shows a relatively low value, about 6 - 8 Hz. Finally, when a site is characterized by thick or lowest bulk density sedimentary layer, we observed a fundamental frequency lower than 5 Hz, which is the lowest in our assessment.

  15. Potential Impact of Submarine Power Cables on Crab Harvest (United States)

    Bull, A. S.; Nishimoto, M.


    Offshore renewable energy installations convert wave or wind energy to electricity and transfer the power to shore through transmission cables laid on or buried beneath the seafloor. West coast commercial fishermen, who harvest the highly prized Dungeness crab (Metacarcinus magister) and the rock crab (Cancer spp.), are concerned that the interface of crabs and electromagnetic fields (EMF) from these cables will present an electrified fence on the seafloor that their target resource will not cross. Combined with the assistance of professional fishermen, submarine transmission cables that electrify island communities and offshore oil platforms in the eastern Pacific provide an opportunity to test the harvest of crab species across power transmission cables. In situ field techniques give commercial crab species a choice to decide if they will cross fully energized, EMF emitting, power transmission cables, in response to baited traps. Each independent trial is either one of two possible responses: the crab crosses the cable to enter a trap (1) or the crab does not cross the cable to enter a trap (0). Conditions vary among sample units by the following categorical, fixed factors (i.e., covariates) of cable structure (buried or unburied); direction of cable from crab position (west or east, north or south); time and season. A generalized linear model is fit to the data to determine whether any of these factors affect the probability of crabs crossing an energized cable to enter baited traps. Additionally, the experimental design, aside from the number of runs (set of sample trials) and the dates of the runs, is the same in the Santa Barbara Channel for rock crab and Puget Sound for Dungeness crab, and allows us to compare the capture rates of the two species in the two areas. We present preliminary results from field testing in 2015.

  16. Scattering effect of submarine hull on propeller non-cavitation noise (United States)

    Wei, Yingsan; Shen, Yang; Jin, Shuanbao; Hu, Pengfei; Lan, Rensheng; Zhuang, Shuangjiang; Liu, Dezhi


    This paper investigates the non-cavitation noise caused by propeller running in the wake of submarine with the consideration of scattering effect caused by submarine's hull. The computation fluid dynamics (CFD) and acoustic analogy method are adopted to predict fluctuating pressure of propeller's blade and its underwater noise radiation in time domain, respectively. An effective iteration method which is derived in the time domain from the Helmholtz integral equation is used to solve multi-frequency waves scattering due to obstacles. Moreover, to minimize time interpolation caused numerical errors, the pressure and its derivative at the sound emission time is obtained by summation of Fourier series. It is noted that the time averaging algorithm is used to achieve a convergent result if the solution oscillated in the iteration process. Meanwhile, the developed iteration method is verified and applied to predict propeller noise scattered from submarine's hull. In accordance with analysis results, it is summarized that (1) the scattering effect of hull on pressure distribution pattern especially at the frequency higher than blade passing frequency (BPF) is proved according to the contour maps of sound pressure distribution of submarine's hull and typical detecting planes. (2) The scattering effect of the hull on the total pressure is observable in noise frequency spectrum of field points, where the maximum increment is up to 3 dB at BPF, 12.5 dB at 2BPF and 20.2 dB at 3BPF. (3) The pressure scattered from hull is negligible in near-field of propeller, since the scattering effect surrounding analyzed location of propeller on submarine's stern is significantly different from the surface ship. This work shows the importance of submarine's scattering effect in evaluating the propeller non-cavitation noise.

  17. Radiation rescue: mesenchymal stromal cells protect from lethal irradiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Lange

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Successful treatment of acute radiation syndromes relies on immediate supportive care. In patients with limited hematopoietic recovery potential, hematopoietic stem cell (HSC transplantation is the only curative treatment option. Because of time consuming donor search and uncertain outcome we propose MSC treatment as an alternative treatment for severely radiation-affected individuals. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Mouse mesenchymal stromal cells (mMSCs were expanded from bone marrow, retrovirally labeled with eGFP (bulk cultures and cloned. Bulk and five selected clonal mMSCs populations were characterized in vitro for their multilineage differentiation potential and phenotype showing no contamination with hematopoietic cells. Lethally irradiated recipients were i.v. transplanted with bulk or clonal mMSCs. We found a long-term survival of recipients with fast hematopoietic recovery after the transplantation of MSCs exclusively without support by HSCs. Quantitative PCR based chimerism analysis detected eGFP-positive donor cells in peripheral blood immediately after injection and in lungs within 24 hours. However, no donor cells in any investigated tissue remained long-term. Despite the rapidly disappearing donor cells, microarray and quantitative RT-PCR gene expression analysis in the bone marrow of MSC-transplanted animals displayed enhanced regenerative features characterized by (i decreased proinflammatory, ECM formation and adhesion properties and (ii boosted anti-inflammation, detoxification, cell cycle and anti-oxidative stress control as compared to HSC-transplanted animals. CONCLUSIONS: Our data revealed that systemically administered MSCs provoke a protective mechanism counteracting the inflammatory events and also supporting detoxification and stress management after radiation exposure. Further our results suggest that MSCs, their release of trophic factors and their HSC-niche modulating activity rescue endogenous hematopoiesis

  18. Radiation rescue: mesenchymal stromal cells protect from lethal irradiation. (United States)

    Lange, Claudia; Brunswig-Spickenheier, Bärbel; Cappallo-Obermann, Heike; Eggert, Katharina; Gehling, Ursula M; Rudolph, Cornelia; Schlegelberger, Brigitte; Cornils, Kerstin; Zustin, Jozef; Spiess, Andrej-Nikolai; Zander, Axel R


    Successful treatment of acute radiation syndromes relies on immediate supportive care. In patients with limited hematopoietic recovery potential, hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation is the only curative treatment option. Because of time consuming donor search and uncertain outcome we propose MSC treatment as an alternative treatment for severely radiation-affected individuals. Mouse mesenchymal stromal cells (mMSCs) were expanded from bone marrow, retrovirally labeled with eGFP (bulk cultures) and cloned. Bulk and five selected clonal mMSCs populations were characterized in vitro for their multilineage differentiation potential and phenotype showing no contamination with hematopoietic cells. Lethally irradiated recipients were i.v. transplanted with bulk or clonal mMSCs. We found a long-term survival of recipients with fast hematopoietic recovery after the transplantation of MSCs exclusively without support by HSCs. Quantitative PCR based chimerism analysis detected eGFP-positive donor cells in peripheral blood immediately after injection and in lungs within 24 hours. However, no donor cells in any investigated tissue remained long-term. Despite the rapidly disappearing donor cells, microarray and quantitative RT-PCR gene expression analysis in the bone marrow of MSC-transplanted animals displayed enhanced regenerative features characterized by (i) decreased proinflammatory, ECM formation and adhesion properties and (ii) boosted anti-inflammation, detoxification, cell cycle and anti-oxidative stress control as compared to HSC-transplanted animals. Our data revealed that systemically administered MSCs provoke a protective mechanism counteracting the inflammatory events and also supporting detoxification and stress management after radiation exposure. Further our results suggest that MSCs, their release of trophic factors and their HSC-niche modulating activity rescue endogenous hematopoiesis thereby serving as fast and effective first-line treatment to

  19. Autologous intramuscular transplantation of engineered satellite cells induces exosome-mediated systemic expression of Fukutin-related protein and rescues disease phenotype in a murine model of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2I. (United States)

    Frattini, Paola; Villa, Chiara; De Santis, Francesca; Meregalli, Mirella; Belicchi, Marzia; Erratico, Silvia; Bella, Pamela; Raimondi, Manuela Teresa; Lu, Qilong; Torrente, Yvan


    α-Dystroglycanopathies are a group of muscular dystrophies characterized by α-DG hypoglycosylation and reduced extracellular ligand-binding affinity. Among other genes involved in the α-DG glycosylation process, fukutin related protein (FKRP) gene mutations generate a wide range of pathologies from mild limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2I (LGMD2I), severe congenital muscular dystrophy 1C (MDC1C), to Walker-Warburg Syndrome and Muscle-Eye-Brain disease. FKRP gene encodes for a glycosyltransferase that in vivo transfers a ribitol phosphate group from a CDP -ribitol present in muscles to α-DG, while in vitro it can be secreted as monomer of 60kDa. Consistently, new evidences reported glycosyltransferases in the blood, freely circulating or wrapped within vesicles. Although the physiological function of blood stream glycosyltransferases remains unclear, they are likely released from blood borne or distant cells. Thus, we hypothesized that freely or wrapped FKRP might circulate as an extracellular glycosyltransferase, able to exert a "glycan remodelling" process, even at distal compartments. Interestingly, we firstly demonstrated a successful transduction of MDC1C blood-derived CD133+ cells and FKRP L276IKI mouse derived satellite cells by a lentiviral vector expressing the wild-type of human FKRP gene. Moreover, we showed that LV-FKRP cells were driven to release exosomes carrying FKRP. Similarly, we observed the presence of FKRP positive exosomes in the plasma of FKRP L276IKI mice intramuscularly injected with engineered satellite cells. The distribution of FKRP protein boosted by exosomes determined its restoration within muscle tissues, an overall recovery of α-DG glycosylation and improved muscle strength, suggesting a systemic supply of FKRP protein acting as glycosyltransferase. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  20. Geological Implications on the Different Products of Submarine Volcanism in Sangihe Waters : View from the Rov (Remotely Operated Vehicles) (United States)

    Priyadi, B.; Basuki, N.; Abidin, H.; Permana, H.; Handayani, L.; Wirasantosa, S.; Nganro, N.; Djamaluddin, R.; Ch. Kusuma, L.; Ratna Setyawidati, N.; Makarim, S.; Solihudin, T.


    Index Satal 2010, a joint marine research of Indonesia - USA, was realized in June-August 2010 to explore the deep sea of the Sangihe - Talaud Waters of Indonesia. This research was conducted by RV Baruna Jaya-4 and RV Okeanos Explorer of NOAA. Beside conducting multi beam imagery, RV Okeanos Explorer produced photos and video of the selected sites through high definition cameras mounted on an ROV operated from onboard RV Okeanos Explorer. The following discussion were based on ROV observation concerning the occurrence of volcanic products in the dive sites. Two submarine volcanoes (Naung and Kawio Barat), indicate various textures of submarine volcanic products from which magmatic composition and eruption types can be inferred. Lava is mostly observed around Kawio Barat and reflecting slightly coarse grained, thick and less structured, and in some spots flow textures could be observed especially in rough morphology. The overlying lavas show finer grain size with relatively shinny surface and darker color and supposedly having less contents of silica as it forms pillow and sheeting joint structures. The rock composition is presumably basaltic and is related with the subduction systems of the Sangihe arc. The coarser lavas might be more andesitic in composition, hence they are originated from the more differentiated magma chamber. This phenomenon indicates a change of magmatic composition from more differentiated magma to the less differentiated one. Geologically, this observation may indicate new formation of magma that may be related with the increasing intensity of subduction activity. Volcanic products around Naung are observed as pyroclastic covers on basaltic lavas. Pyroclastics present as lapilli deposit in light to dark brown colors forming stratification of 2 cm to 30 cm thick and unconsolidated clastic materials. The occurrence of pebble-size fragments of igneous rocks associated with pyroclastics indicate a phreatic to phreato-magmatic explosions of the

  1. Health and environmental risk assessment associated with a potential recovery of the Russian submarine K-27

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosseini, A.; Amundsen, I.; Brown, J.E.; Dowdall, M.; Standring, W. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority/CERAD CoE (Norway); Bartnicki, J. [Norwegian Meteorological Institute/CERAD CoE (Norway); Karcher, M. [O.A.Sys - Ocean Atmosphere Systems GmbH (Germany); Lind, O.C.; Salbu, B. [Norwegian University of Life Sciences/CERAD CoE (Norway)


    The nuclear submarine K-27 is one of several objects with spent nuclear fuel (SNF) which has been dumped in the Arctic. It contained two liquid metal reactors (LMRs) of 70 MW maximum thermal power each and used Pb-Bi as the coolant. The reactors were loaded with 180 kg of U-235 at an enrichment of 90 %. In September 1981, the submarine was sunk in the shallow waters of Stepovoy Fjord at an estimated depth of 30 m. Concerns have been expressed by various parties regarding the issue of dumped nuclear waste in the Kara Sea and in particular the submarine K-27. To address these concerns and to provide a better basis for evaluating possible radiological impact (especially as a consequence of a potential recovery of the submarine), an environmental impact assessment has been undertaken. The study is based on construction of different hypothetical accident scenarios and evaluating possible associated consequences for human and the environment. In general, three main scenarios seem probable and thus appropriate for consideration. One is the 'zero- alternative', i.e. investigate the current and future impact assuming no interventions. The second considers an accidental scenario involving the raising of the submarine and the third an accidental scenario related to the transportation of the submarine to shore for defueling. With regards to the accidental scenarios related to raising and transportation of the submarine, two alternatives can be considered depending on where and how a hypothetical accident will take place and whether the subsequent releases occur under water or at the water surface. The issue of an uncontrolled chain reaction occurring as a result of a potential recovery of the submarine will be included in the assessment. The work includes application of state of the art 3D hydrodynamic and atmospheric dispersion models to investigate the transport, distribution and fate of relevant radionuclides following a hypothetical accident in aquatic and

  2. Nuclear-powered submarine accidents; Les accidents de sous-marins nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tournyol du Clos, A.


    Most of nuclear-powered ships are military ships and submarines represent 95% of the total. Most of the propulsion reactors used are of PWR type. This paper gives the principal technical characteristics of PWR ship propulsion reactors and the differences with their civil homologues. The principal accidents that occurred on US and Russian nuclear-powered submarines are also listed and the possible effects of a shipwreck on the reactor behaviour are evaluated with their environmental impact. (J.S.). 1 tab., 1 photo.

  3. The impact of the Type 094 ballistic missile submarine on China's nuclear policy


    Bell, Samuel D.


    Approved for public release, distribution unlimited This thesis examines the implication of China’s near completion of a viable nuclear triad. The objective is to determine first, how this submarine will fit into China’s no-first-use policy with regards to their nuclear weapons. And second, determine how advanced this weapon platform will be. With the introduction of multiple Type 094 “Jin” class ballistic missile submarines, has Beijing set the stage for a possible return to Cold War leve...

  4. Oceanographic studies supporting the assessment of deep-sea disposal of defueled decommissioned nuclear submarines (United States)

    Ross Heath, G.; Rea, David K.; Ness, Gordon; Dale Pillsbury, R.; Beasley, Thomas M.; Lopez, Carlos; Talbert, Daniel M.


    Based on criteria developed by the international Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), potential disposal sites for defueled, decommissioned nuclear submarines appear to exist in deep water south of the Mendocino Fracture Zone within 200 nautical miles of the United States Oceanographic measurements in the water column and at the sea floor in a study area (W-N) at 39 5°N, 127 5°W will allow the operational and radiological consequences of deep-sea disposal to be compared with land burial of old submarines. The W-N studies also are yielding new data that will provide insights to the deposition and early diagenesis of distal hemipelagic sediments

  5. Embryo rescue of crosses between diploid and tetraploid grape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi


    Dec 19, 2011 ... tetraploid grapes can be a good way to obtain new triploid germplasm. However, there exists a severe mating obstacle in crosses between diploid and tetraploid grape. The embryo rescue technique may prevent the early stage abortion of triploid young embryo, so triploid plants can be produced (Pan et al., ...

  6. Embryo rescue of crosses between diploid and tetraploid grape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Five cross combinations Jumeigui×Xinghua No.1, 87-1×Kyoho, Kyoho×Muscat Hamburg, Jumeigui× Hongqitezao and Red globle×Kyoho were used as the testing materials. Factors that affect embryo rescue from crossed seeds between diploid and tetraploid grape were studied applying L25(55) orthogonal experiment ...

  7. Rescuing a business in financial difficulties: mordern trends and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rescuing a business in financial difficulties: mordern trends and Tanzania's legal perspective. Benhaji Shabaan. Abstract. No Abstract. African Journal of Finance and Management Vol. 14(1) 2005: 60-78. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  8. Mine rescue robots requirements: Outcomes from an industry workshop

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Green, J


    Full Text Available and internationally. The paper identifies three definite robot deployments in South Africa as a) box hole deployment (vertical tunnels), b) flying drone reconnaissance and c) proto (rescue) team assistance. These represent applications where there is a market need...

  9. Autonomous underwater vehicle for research and rescue operations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Holtzhausen S


    Full Text Available Autonomous under water vehicles are ideal platforms for search and rescue operations. They can also be used for inspection of underwater terrains. These vehicles need to be autonomous and robust to cope with unpredictable current and high pressures...

  10. Rescue Archaeology and Spanish Journalism: The Abu Simbel Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salomé Zurinaga Fernández-Toribio


    Full Text Available Building Aswan Dam brought an unprecedented campaign to rescue all the affected archaeological sites in the region. Among them, Abu Simbel, one of the Egyptian icons, whose relocation was minutely followed by the Spanish press. This paper analyzes this coverage and its impact in Spain, one of the participant countries.

  11. Eco-evolutionary feedbacks, adaptive dynamics and evolutionary rescue theory. (United States)

    Ferriere, Regis; Legendre, Stéphane


    Adaptive dynamics theory has been devised to account for feedbacks between ecological and evolutionary processes. Doing so opens new dimensions to and raises new challenges about evolutionary rescue. Adaptive dynamics theory predicts that successive trait substitutions driven by eco-evolutionary feedbacks can gradually erode population size or growth rate, thus potentially raising the extinction risk. Even a single trait substitution can suffice to degrade population viability drastically at once and cause 'evolutionary suicide'. In a changing environment, a population may track a viable evolutionary attractor that leads to evolutionary suicide, a phenomenon called 'evolutionary trapping'. Evolutionary trapping and suicide are commonly observed in adaptive dynamics models in which the smooth variation of traits causes catastrophic changes in ecological state. In the face of trapping and suicide, evolutionary rescue requires that the population overcome evolutionary threats generated by the adaptive process itself. Evolutionary repellors play an important role in determining how variation in environmental conditions correlates with the occurrence of evolutionary trapping and suicide, and what evolutionary pathways rescue may follow. In contrast with standard predictions of evolutionary rescue theory, low genetic variation may attenuate the threat of evolutionary suicide and small population sizes may facilitate escape from evolutionary traps.

  12. How Europe’s least controversial rescue fund became controversial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, N.; Koedooder, C.


    Over the past week, UK Prime Minister David Cameron and his Chancellor of the Exchequer, George Osborne, made a fuss about emergency funding for Greece. The source of their grievances is that some of the funding comes from the European Financial Stabilisation Mechanism (EFSM). Use of this rescue

  13. Civil-military relations in disaster rescue and relief activities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Philippine disaster framework recognises the military's role in disaster relief and has existing mechanisms for accepting international assistance and procedures for military-to-military ... The US military's activities were confined to search and rescue and to providing critical logistics, which the Philippines actors lacked.

  14. Dense 3D Map Construction for Indoor Search and Rescue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellekilde, Lars-Peter; Huang, Shoudong; Miró, Jaime Valls


    The main contribution of this paper is a new simultaneous localization and mapping  SLAM algorithm for building dense three-dimensional maps using information ac- quired from a range imager and a conventional camera, for robotic search and rescue in unstructured indoor environments. A key challenge...

  15. The Rescue Mission: Assigning Guilt to a Chaotic Scene. (United States)

    Procter, David E.


    Seeks to identify rhetorical distinctiveness of the rescue mission as a form of belligerency--examining presidential discourse justifying the 1985 Lebanon intervention, the 1965 Dominican intervention, and the 1983 Grenada intervention. Argues that the distinction is in guilt narrowly assigned to a chaotic scene and the concomitant call for…

  16. Hospital Delivery Volume, Severe Obstetrical Morbidity, and Failure to Rescue (United States)

    Friedman, Alexander M.; Ananth, Cande V.; Huang, Yongmei; D'Alton, Mary E.; Wright, Jason D.


    Background In the setting of persistently high risk for maternal mortality and severe obstetric morbidity, little is known about the relationship between hospital delivery volume and maternal outcomes. Objective The objectives of this analysis were (i) to determine maternal risk for severe morbidity during delivery hospitalizations by hospital delivery volume in the United States; and (ii) to characterize, by hospital volume, the risk for mortality in the setting of severe obstetrical morbidity – a concept known as failure to rescue. Study Design This cohort study evaluated 50,433,539 delivery hospitalizations across the United States from 1998 to 2010. The main outcome measures were (i) severe morbidity defined as a composite of any one of fifteen diagnoses representative of acute organ injury and critical illness, and (ii) failure to rescue, defined as death in the setting of severe morbidity. Results The prevalence of severe morbidity rose from 471.2 to 751.5 cases per 100,000 deliveries from 1998 to 2010, an increase of 59.5%. Failure to rescue was highest in 1998 (1.5%), decreased to 0.6% in 2007, and rose to 0.9% in 2010. In models adjusted for comorbid risk and hospital factors, both low and high annualized delivery volume were associated with increased risk for failure to rescue and severe morbidity. However, the relative importance of hospital volume for both outcomes compared to other factors was relatively small. Conclusions While low and high delivery volume are associated with increased risk for both failure to rescue and severe maternal morbidity, other factors, in particular characteristics of individual centers, may be more important in determining outcomes. PMID:27457112

  17. An evaluation of coordination relationships during earthquake emergency rescue using entropy theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Rong


    Full Text Available Emergency rescue after an earthquake is complex work which requires the participation of relief and social organizations. Studying earthquake emergency coordination efficiency can not only help rescue organizations to define their own rescue missions, but also strengthens inter-organizational communication and collaboration tasks, improves the efficiency of emergency rescue, and reduces loss. In this paper, collaborative entropy is introduced to study earthquake emergency rescue operations. To study the emergency rescue coordination relationship, collaborative matrices and collaborative entropy functions are established between emergency relief work and relief organizations, and the collaborative efficiency of the emergency rescue elements is determined based on this entropy function. Finally, the Lushan earthquake is used as an example to evaluate earthquake emergency rescue coordination efficiency.

  18. Rocket-Powered Parachutes Rescue Entire Planes (United States)


    Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts with Langley Research Center helped BRS Aerospace, of Saint Paul, Minnesota, to develop technology that has saved 246 lives to date. The company s whole aircraft parachute systems deploy in less than 1 second thanks to solid rocket motors and are capable of arresting the descent of a small aircraft, lowering it safely to the ground. BRS has sold more than 30,000 systems worldwide, and the technology is now standard equipment on many of the world s top-selling aircraft. Parachutes for larger airplanes are in the works.

  19. Volunteers Oriented Interface Design for the Remote Navigation of Rescue Robots at Large-Scale Disaster Sites (United States)

    Yang, Zhixiao; Ito, Kazuyuki; Saijo, Kazuhiko; Hirotsune, Kazuyuki; Gofuku, Akio; Matsuno, Fumitoshi

    This paper aims at constructing an efficient interface being similar to those widely used in human daily life, to fulfill the need of many volunteer rescuers operating rescue robots at large-scale disaster sites. The developed system includes a force feedback steering wheel interface and an artificial neural network (ANN) based mouse-screen interface. The former consists of a force feedback steering control and a six monitors’ wall. It provides a manual operation like driving cars to navigate a rescue robot. The latter consists of a mouse and a camera’s view displayed in a monitor. It provides a semi-autonomous operation by mouse clicking to navigate a rescue robot. Results of experiments show that a novice volunteer can skillfully navigate a tank rescue robot through both interfaces after 20 to 30 minutes of learning their operation respectively. The steering wheel interface has high navigating speed in open areas, without restriction of terrains and surface conditions of a disaster site. The mouse-screen interface is good at exact navigation in complex structures, while bringing little tension to operators. The two interfaces are designed to switch into each other at any time to provide a combined efficient navigation method.

  20. UvA Rescue - Team Description Paper - Virtual Robot competition - Rescue Simulation League RoboCup Iran Open 2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.


    This year the task of the UvA Rescue Team is to break up the monolith architecture of the control architecture. On the one hand this will make the existing modules reusable by other researchers; on the other hand it opens the possibility to incorporate efficient modules from other research groups. A