Sample records for submarine pyroclastic eruptions

  1. Pyroclastic sulphur eruption at Poas Volcano, Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis, P.W.; Thorpe, R.S.; Brown, G.C.; Glasscock, J.


    The recent Voyager missions to Jupiter have highlighted the role of sulphur in volcanic processes on io. Although fumarolic sulphur and SO/sub 2/ gas are almost universal in terrestrial active volcanoes, and rare instances of sulphur lava flows have been reported, sulphur in a pyroclastic form has only been described from Poas Volcano, Costa Rica. Here we amplify the original descriptions by Bennett and Raccichini and describe a recent eruption of pyroclastic sulphur scoria and ejected blocks that are characterised by miniature sulphur stalactites and stalagmites.

  2. Pyroclastic Eruption Boosts Organic Carbon Fluxes Into Patagonian Fjords (United States)

    Mohr, Christian H.; Korup, Oliver; Ulloa, Héctor; Iroumé, Andrés.


    Fjords and old-growth forests store large amounts of organic carbon. Yet the role of episodic disturbances, particularly volcanic eruptions, in mobilizing organic carbon in fjord landscapes covered by temperate rainforests remains poorly quantified. To this end, we estimated how much wood and soils were flushed to nearby fjords following the 2008 eruption of Chaitén volcano in south-central Chile, where pyroclastic sediments covered >12 km2 of pristine temperate rainforest. Field-based surveys of forest biomass, soil organic content, and dead wood transport reveal that the reworking of pyroclastic sediments delivered 66,500 + 14,600/-14,500 tC of large wood to two rivers entering the nearby Patagonian fjords in less than a decade. A similar volume of wood remains in dead tree stands and buried beneath pyroclastic deposits ( 79,900 + 21,100/-16,900 tC) or stored in active river channels (5,900-10,600 tC). We estimate that bank erosion mobilized 132,300+21,700/-30,600 tC of floodplain forest soil. Eroded and reworked forest soils have been accreting on coastal river deltas at >5 mm yr-1 since the eruption. While much of the large wood is transported out of the fjord by long-shore drift, the finer fraction from eroded forest soils is likely to be buried in the fjords. We conclude that the organic carbon fluxes boosted by rivers adjusting to high pyroclastic sediment loads may remain elevated for up to a decade and that Patagonian temperate rainforests disturbed by excessive loads of pyroclastic debris can be episodic short-lived carbon sources.

  3. Spectral Unmixing Modeling of the Aristarchus Pyroclastic Deposit: Assessing the Eruptive History of Glass-Rich Regional Lunar Pyroclastic Deposits (United States)

    Jawin, E. R.; Head, J. W., III; Cannon, K.


    The Aristarchus pyroclastic deposit in central Oceanus Procellarum is understood to have formed in a gas-rich explosive volcanic eruption, and has been observed to contain abundant volcanic glass. However, the interpreted color (and therefore composition) of the glass has been debated. In addition, previous analyses of the pyroclastic deposit have been performed using lower resolution data than are currently available. In this work, a nonlinear spectral unmixing model was applied to Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) data of the Aristarchus plateau to investigate the detailed mineralogic and crystalline nature of the Aristarchus pyroclastic deposit by using spectra of laboratory endmembers including a suite of volcanic glasses returned from the Apollo 15 and 17 missions (green, orange, black beads), as well as synthetic lunar glasses (orange, green, red, yellow). Preliminary results of the M3 unmixing model suggest that spectra of the pyroclastic deposit can be modeled by a mixture composed predominantly of a featureless endmember approximating space weathering and a smaller component of glass. The modeled spectra were most accurate with a synthetic orange glass endmember, relative to the other glasses analyzed in this work. The results confirm that there is a detectable component of glass in the Aristarchus pyroclastic deposit which may be similar to the high-Ti orange glass seen in other regional pyroclastic deposits, with only minimal contributions of other crystalline minerals. The presence of volcanic glass in the pyroclastic deposit, with the low abundance of crystalline material, would support the model that the Aristarchus pyroclastic deposit formed in a long-duration, hawaiian-style fire fountain eruption. No significant detection of devitrified black beads in the spectral modeling results (as was observed at the Apollo 17 landing site in the Taurus-Littrow pyroclastic deposit), suggests the optical density of the eruptive plume remained low throughout the

  4. Characterization of pyroclastic deposits and pre-eruptive soils following the 2008 eruption of Kasatochi Island Volcano, Alaska (United States)

    Wang, B.; Michaelson, G.; Ping, C.-L.; Plumlee, G.; Hageman, P.


    The 78 August 2008 eruption of Kasatochi Island volcano blanketed the island in newly generated pyroclastic deposits and deposited ash into the ocean and onto nearby islands. Concentrations of water soluble Fe, Cu, and Zn determined from a 1:20 deionized water leachate of the ash were sufficient to provide short-term fertilization of the surface ocean. The 2008 pyroclastic deposits were thicker in concavities at bases of steeper slopes and thinner on steep slopes and ridge crests. By summer 2009, secondary erosion had exposed the pre-eruption soils along gulley walls and in gully bottoms on the southern and eastern slopes, respectively. Topographic and microtopographic position altered the depositional patterns of the pyroclastic flows and resulted in pre-eruption soils being buried by as little as 1 m of ash. The different erosion patterns gave rise to three surfaces on which future ecosystems will likely develop: largely pre-eruptive soils; fresh pyroclastic deposits influenced by shallowly buried, pre-eruptive soil; and thick (>1 m) pyroclastic deposits. As expected, the chemical composition differed between the pyroclastic deposits and the pre-eruptive soils. Pre-eruptive soils hold stocks of C and N important for establishing biota that are lacking in the fresh pyroclastic deposits. The pyroclastic deposits are a source for P and K but have negligible nutrient holding capacity, making these elements vulnerable to leaching loss. Consequently, the pre-eruption soils may also represent an important long-term P and K source. ?? 2010 Regents of the University of Colorado.

  5. Hierarchy of facies of pyroclastic flow deposits generated by Laacher See type eruptions (United States)

    Freundt, A.; Schmincke, H.-U.


    The upper Quaternary pyroclastic flow deposits of Laacher See volcano show compositional and structural facies variations on four different scales: (1) eruptive units of pyroclastic flows, composed of many flow units; (2) depositional cycles of as many as five flow units; flow units containing (3) regional intraflow-unit facies; and (4) local intraflow-unit subfacies. These facies can be explained by successively overlapping processes beginning in the magma column and ending with final deposition. The pyroclastic flow deposits thus reflect major aspects of the eruptive history of Laacher See volcano: (a) drastic changes in eruptive mechanism due to increasing access of water to the magma chamber and (b) change in chemical composition and crystal and gas content as evacuation of a compositionally zoned magma column progressed. The four scales of facies result from four successive sets of processes: (1) differentiation in the magma column and external factors governing the mechanism of eruption; (2) temporal variations of factors inducing eruption column collapse; (3) physical conditions in the eruption column and the way in which its collapse proceeds; and (4) interplay of flow-inherent and morphology-induced transport mechanics.

  6. A submarine volcanic eruption leads to a novel microbial habitat. (United States)

    Danovaro, Roberto; Canals, Miquel; Tangherlini, Michael; Dell'Anno, Antonio; Gambi, Cristina; Lastras, Galderic; Amblas, David; Sanchez-Vidal, Anna; Frigola, Jaime; Calafat, Antoni M; Pedrosa-Pàmies, Rut; Rivera, Jesus; Rayo, Xavier; Corinaldesi, Cinzia


    Submarine volcanic eruptions are major catastrophic events that allow investigation of the colonization mechanisms of newly formed seabed. We explored the seafloor after the eruption of the Tagoro submarine volcano off El Hierro Island, Canary Archipelago. Near the summit of the volcanic cone, at about 130 m depth, we found massive mats of long, white filaments that we named Venus's hair. Microscopic and molecular analyses revealed that these filaments are made of bacterial trichomes enveloped within a sheath and colonized by epibiotic bacteria. Metagenomic analyses of the filaments identified a new genus and species of the order Thiotrichales, Thiolava veneris. Venus's hair shows an unprecedented array of metabolic pathways, spanning from the exploitation of organic and inorganic carbon released by volcanic degassing to the uptake of sulfur and nitrogen compounds. This unique metabolic plasticity provides key competitive advantages for the colonization of the new habitat created by the submarine eruption. A specialized and highly diverse food web thrives on the complex three-dimensional habitat formed by these microorganisms, providing evidence that Venus's hair can drive the restart of biological systems after submarine volcanic eruptions.

  7. Magma viscosity estimation based on analysis of erupted products. Potential assessment for large-scale pyroclastic eruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Shingo


    After the formulation of guidelines for volcanic hazards in site evaluation for nuclear installations (e.g. JEAG4625-2009), it is required to establish appropriate methods to assess potential of large-scale pyroclastic eruptions at long-dormant volcanoes, which is one of the most hazardous volcanic phenomena on the safety of the installations. In considering the volcanic dormancy, magma eruptability is an important concept. The magma eruptability is dominantly controlled by magma viscosity, which can be estimated from petrological analysis of erupted materials. Therefore, viscosity estimation of magmas erupted in past eruptions should provide important information to assess future activities at hazardous volcanoes. In order to show the importance of magma viscosity in the concept of magma eruptability, this report overviews dike propagation processes from a magma chamber and nature of magma viscosity. Magma viscosity at pre-eruptive conditions of magma chambers were compiled based on previous petrological studies on past eruptions in Japan. There are only 16 examples of eruptions at 9 volcanoes satisfying data requirement for magma viscosity estimation. Estimated magma viscosities range from 10 2 to 10 7 Pa·s for basaltic to rhyolitic magmas. Most of examples fall below dike propagation limit of magma viscosity (ca. 10 6 Pa·s) estimated based on a dike propagation model. Highly viscous magmas (ca. 10 7 Pa·s) than the dike propagation limit are considered to lose eruptability which is the ability to form dikes and initiate eruptions. However, in some cases, small precursory eruptions of less viscous magmas commonly occurred just before climactic eruptions of the highly viscous magmas, suggesting that the precursory dike propagation by the less viscous magmas induced the following eruptions of highly viscous magmas (ca. 10 7 Pa·s). (author)

  8. Juvenile pumice and pyroclastic obsidian reveal the eruptive conditions necessary for the stability of Plinian eruption of rhyolitic magma (United States)

    Giachetti, T.; Shea, T.; Gonnermann, H. M.; McCann, K. A.; Hoxsie, E. C.


    Significant explosive activity generally precedes or coexists with the large effusion of rhyolitic lava (e.g., Mono Craters; Medicine Lake Volcano; Newberry; Chaitén; Cordón Caulle). Such explosive-to-effusive transitions and, ultimately, cessation of activity are commonly explained by the overall waning magma chamber pressure accompanying magma withdrawal, albeit modulated by magma outgassing. The tephra deposits of such explosive-to-effusive eruptions record the character of the transition - abrupt or gradual - as well as potential changes in eruptive conditions, such as magma composition, volatiles content, mass discharge rate, conduit size, magma outgassing. Results will be presented from a detailed study of both the gas-rich (pumice) and gas-poor (obsidian) juvenile pyroclasts produced during the Plinian phase of the 1060 CE Glass Mountain eruption of Medicine Lake Volcano, California. In the proximal deposits, a multitude of pumice-rich sections separated by layers rich in dense clasts suggests a pulsatory behavior of the explosive phase. Density measurements on 2,600 pumices show that the intermediate, most voluminous deposits have a near constant median porosity of 65%. However, rapid increase in porosity to 75-80% is observed at both the bottom and the top of the fallout deposits, suggestive of rapid variations in magma degassing. In contrast, a water content of pyroclastic obsidians of approximately 0.6 wt% does remain constant throughout the eruption, suggesting that the pyroclastic obsidians degassed up to a constant pressure of a few megapascals. Numerical modeling of eruptive magma ascent and degassing is used to provide constraints on eruption conditions.

  9. Interrelations among pyroclastic surge, pyroclastic flow, and lahars in Smith Creek valley during first minutes of 18 May 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens, USA (United States)

    Brantley, S.R.; Waitt, R.B.


    A devastating pyroclastic surge and resultant lahars at Mount St. Helens on 18 May 1980 produced several catastrophic flowages into tributaries on the northeast volcano flank. The tributaries channeled the flows to Smith Creek valley, which lies within the area devastated by the surge but was unaffected by the great debris avalanche on the north flank. Stratigraphy shows that the pyroclastic surge preceded the lahars; there is no notable "wet" character to the surge deposits. Therefore the lahars must have originated as snowmelt, not as ejected water-saturated debris that segregated from the pyroclastic surge as has been inferred for other flanks of the volcano. In stratigraphic order the Smith Creek valley-floor materials comprise (1) a complex valley-bottom facies of the pyroclastic surge and a related pyroclastic flow, (2) an unusual hummocky diamict caused by complex mixing of lahars with the dry pyroclastic debris, and (3) deposits of secondary pyroclastic flows. These units are capped by silt containing accretionary lapilli, which began falling from a rapidly expanding mushroom-shaped cloud 20 minutes after the eruption's onset. The Smith Creek valley-bottom pyroclastic facies consists of (a) a weakly graded basal bed of fines-poor granular sand, the deposit of a low-concentration lithic pyroclastic surge, and (b) a bed of very poorly sorted pebble to cobble gravel inversely graded near its base, the deposit of a high-concentration lithic pyroclastic flow. The surge apparently segregated while crossing the steep headwater tributaries of Smith Creek; large fragments that settled from the turbulent surge formed a dense pyroclastic flow along the valley floor that lagged behind the front of the overland surge. The unusual hummocky diamict as thick as 15 m contains large lithic clasts supported by a tough, brown muddy sand matrix like that of lahar deposits upvalley. This unit contains irregular friable lenses and pods meters in diameter, blocks incorporated from

  10. Pigeonholing pyroclasts: Insights from the 19 March 2008 explosive eruption of Kīlauea volcano (United States)

    Houghton, Bruce F.; Swanson, D.A.; Carey, R.J.; Rausch, J.; Sutton, A.J.


    We think, conventionally, of volcanic explosive eruptions as being triggered in one of two ways: by release and expansion of volatiles dissolved in the ejected magma (magmatic explosions) or by transfer of heat from magma into an external source of water (phreatic or phreatomagmatic explosions). We document here an event where neither magma nor an external water source was involved in explosive activity at K??lauea. Instead, the eruption was powered by the expansion of decoupled magmatic volatiles released from deeper magma, which was not ejected by the eruption, and the trigger was a collapse of near-surface wall rocks that then momentarily blocked that volatile flux. Mapping of the advected fall deposit a day after this eruption has highlighted the difficulty of constraining deposit edges from unobserved or prehistoric eruptions of all magnitudes. Our results suggest that the dispersal area of advected fall deposits could be miscalculated by up to 30% of the total, raising issues for accurate hazard zoning and assessment. Eruptions of this type challenge existing classification schemes for pyroclastic deposits and explosive eruptions and, in the past, have probably been interpreted as phreatic explosions, where the eruptive mechanism has been assumed to involve flashing of groundwater to steam. ?? 2011 Geological Society of America.

  11. Contrasting styles of deep-marine pyroclastic eruptions revealed from Axial Seamount push core records (United States)

    Portner, Ryan A.; Clague, David A.; Helo, Christoph; Dreyer, Brian M.; Paduan, Jennifer B.


    A comprehensive understanding of explosive basaltic eruption processes in the deep-sea relies upon detailed analysis and comparison of the variety of volcaniclastic lithologies on the seafloor, which has been challenged by insufficient sample recovery. A dedicated ROV-based sampling approach using long push cores offers an unparalleled opportunity to fully characterize the diversity of unconsolidated volcaniclastic lithofacies on a recently active seamount. Lithofacies from Axial Seamount record two styles of pyroclastic eruptions, strombolian and phreatomagmatic, at 1.5 km water depth. Strombolian eruptions are represented by abundant fluidal and highly vesicular (up to 50%) vitriclasts within limu o Pele lapilli tuff and tuffaceous mud lithofacies. Lapilli-ash grain size, normal grading, good sorting, rip-up clasts and homogeneous glass geochemistry characterize individual limu o Pele lapilli tuff beds, and imply proximal deposition from a turbidity flow associated with a single eruption (i.e. event bed). Limu o Pele lapilli tuff beds are interbedded with poorly sorted, chemically heterogeneous and bioturbated tuffaceous mud units that preserve reworking and biologic habitation of more distal pyroclastic fallout and dilute turbidity flows. The phreatomagmatic eruption style is preserved by hydrothermal mineral-bearing muddy tuff that exhibits characteristics distinct from lapilli ash and tuffaceous mud lithofacies. Hydrothermal muddy tuff lithofacies are well-sorted and fine-grained with notable components of non-fluidal basaltic ash (∼45%), fluidal ash (∼30%) and accessory lithics (∼25%). Heterogeneous geochemistry of ash shards implies that juvenile components are minimal. The abundance, mineralogy and texture of lithic components (Fe-Mg clays, pyrite, epidote, actinolite, altered glass, basalt/diabase, hydrothermal breccia and agglutinate), and very fine-grain size of basaltic ash, are consistent with phreatomagmatic eruption deposits. A lack of

  12. H2O Contents of Submarine and Subaerial Silicic Pyroclasts from Oomurodashi Volcano, Northern Izu-Bonin Arc (United States)

    McIntosh, I. M.; Tani, K.; Nichols, A. R.


    Oomurodashi volcano is an active shallow submarine silicic volcano in the northern Izu-Bonin Arc, located ~20 km south of the inhabited active volcanic island of Izu-Oshima. Oomurodashi has a large (~20km diameter) flat-topped summit located at 100 - 150 metres below sea level (mbsl), with a small central crater, Oomuro Hole, located at ~200 mbsl. Surveys conducted during cruise NT12-19 of R/V Natsushima in 2012 using the remotely-operated vehicle (ROV) Hyper-Dolphin revealed that Oomuro Hole contains numerous active hydrothermal vents and that the summit of Oomurodashi is covered by extensive fresh rhyolitic lava and pumice clasts with little biogenetic or manganese cover, suggesting recent eruption(s) from Oomuro Hole. Given the shallow depth of the volcano summit, such eruptions are likely to have generated subaerial eruption columns. A ~10ka pumiceous subaerial tephra layer on the neighbouring island of Izu-Oshima has a similar chemical composition to the submarine Oomurodashi rocks collected during the NT12-19 cruise and is thought to have originated from Oomurodashi. Here we present FTIR measurements of the H2O contents of rhyolitic pumice from both the submarine deposits sampled during ROV dives and the subaerial tephra deposit on Izu-Oshima, in order to assess magma degassing and eruption processes occurring during shallow submarine eruptions.

  13. Eruptive origins of a lacustrine pyroclastic succession: insights from the middle Huka Falls Formation, Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cattell, H.J.; Cole, J.W.; Oze, C.; Allen, S.R.


    Current and ancestral lakes within the central Taupo Volcanic Zone (TVZ) provide depocentres for pyroclastic deposits, providing a reliable record of eruption history. These lakes can also be the source of explosive eruptions that directly feed pyroclast-rich density currents. The lithofacies characteristics of pyroclastic deposits allow discrimination between eruption-fed and resedimented facies. The most frequently recognised styles of subaqueous eruptions in the TVZ are shallow-water phreatomagmatic and phreatoplinian eruptions that form subaerial eruption columns. However, deeper source conditions (>150 m water depth) could generate subaqueous explosive eruptions that feed water-supported pyroclast-rich density currents, similar to neptunian eruptions. Such deep-water eruptions have not previously been recognised in the TVZ. Here we study a subsurface deposit, the middle Huka Falls Formation (MHFF), in the Wairakei-Tauhara geothermal fields (Wairakei-Tauhara), TVZ, which we interpret to be the product of a relatively deep-water pyroclastic eruption (150-250 m). The largely subsurface Huka Falls Formation records past sedimentary and volcaniclastic deposition in ancient Lake Huka. Deposits examined from eight drill cores reveal a lithic-rich lower unit, a middle volumetrically dominant pumice lapilli-tuff and an upper thinly bedded suspension-settled tuff unit. A coarse lithic lapilli-tuff within the lower unit is locally thick and coarse near well THM12, suggesting proximity to a source located beneath Lake Huka. This research provides an understanding of the origin of the MHFF deposit and offers insights for evaluating and interpreting the diversity of subaqueous volcanic lake deposits elsewhere. (author)

  14. Monitoring El Hierro submarine volcanic eruption events with a submarine seismic array (United States)

    Jurado, Maria Jose; Molino, Erik; Lopez, Carmen


    A submarine volcanic eruption took place near the southernmost emerged land of the El Hierro Island (Canary Islands, Spain), from October 2011 to February 2012. The Instituto Geografico Nacional (IGN) seismic stations network evidenced seismic unrest since July 2012 and was a reference also to follow the evolution of the seismic activity associated with the volcanic eruption. From the beginning of the eruption a geophone string was installed less than 2 km away from the new volcano, next to La Restinga village shore, to record seismic activity related to the volcanic activity, continuously and with special interest on high frequency events. The seismic array was endowed with 8, high frequency, 3 component, 250 Hz, geophone cable string with a separation of 6 m between them. The analysis of the dataset using spectral techniques allows the characterization of the different phases of the eruption and the study of its dynamics. The correlation of the data analysis results with the observed sea surface activity (ash and lava emission and degassing) and also with the seismic activity recorded by the IGN field seismic monitoring system, allows the identification of different stages suggesting the existence of different signal sources during the volcanic eruption and also the posteruptive record of the degassing activity. The study shows that the high frequency capability of the geophone array allow the study of important features that cannot be registered by the standard seismic stations. The accumulative spectral amplitude show features related to eruptive changes.

  15. Using InSAR for Characterizing Pyroclastic Flow Deposits at Augustine Volcano Across Two Eruptive Cycles (United States)

    McAlpin, D. B.; Meyer, F. J.; Lu, Z.; Beget, J. E.


    Augustine Island is a small, 8x11 km island in South Central Alaska's lower Cook Inlet. It is approximately 280 km southwest of Anchorage, and occupied entirely by its namesake Augustine Volcano. At Augustine Volcano, SAR data suitable for interferometry is available from 1992 to 2005, from March 2006 to April 2007, and from July 2007 to October 2010. Its last two eruptive episodes, in 1986 and 2006, resulted in substantial pyroclastic flow deposits (PFDs) on the Volcano's north flank. Earlier InSAR analyses of the area, from 1992-1999, identified local subsidence, but no volcano-wide deformation indicative of magma-chamber evacuation. In contrast to previous studies, we use InSAR data to determine a range of geophysical parameters for PFDs emplaced during the Augustine's two most recent eruption cycles. Based on InSAR measurements between 1992 and 2010, we reconstruct the deformation behavior of PFDs emplaced during Augustine's last two eruption cycles. Using a combination of InSAR measurements and modeling, we determine the thickness and long-term deformation of overlaying pyroclastic flow deposits emplaced in 1986 and 2006. Consistent with previous observations of pyroclastic flows, we found that the PFDs on Augustine Island rapidly subsided after emplacement due to an initial compaction of the material. We determined the length of this initial settling period and measured the compaction rate. Subsequent to this initial rapid subsidence, we found that PFD deformation slowed to a more persistent, linear, long-term rate, related to cooling of the deposits. We established that the deposits' contraction rate is linearly related to their thickness and measured the contraction rate. Finally, a study of long term coherence properties of the Augustine PFDs showed remarkable stability of the surface over long time periods. This information provides clues on the structural properties and composition of the emplaced material.

  16. Human survival in volcanic eruptions: Thermal injuries in pyroclastic surges, their causes, prognosis and emergency management. (United States)

    Baxter, Peter J; Jenkins, Susanna; Seswandhana, Rosadi; Komorowski, Jean-Christophe; Dunn, Ken; Purser, David; Voight, Barry; Shelley, Ian


    This study of burns patients from two eruptions of Merapi volcano, Java, in 1994 and 2010, is the first detailed analysis to be reported of thermal injuries in a large series of hospitalised victims of pyroclastic surges, one of the most devastating phenomena in explosive eruptions. Emergency planners in volcanic crises in populated areas have to integrate the health sector into disaster management and be aware of the nature of the surge impacts and the types of burns victims to be expected in a worst scenario, potentially in numbers and in severity that would overwhelm normal treatment facilities. In our series, 106 patients from the two eruptions were treated in the same major hospital in Yogyakarta and a third of these survived. Seventy-eight per cent were admitted with over 40% TBSA (total body surface area) burns and around 80% of patients were suspected of having at least some degree of inhalation injury as well. Thirty five patients suffered over 80% TBSA burns and only one of these survived. Crucially, 45% of patients were in the 40-79% TBSA range, with most suspected of suffering from inhalation injury, for whom survival was most dependent on the hospital treatment they received. After reviewing the evidence from recent major eruptions and outlining the thermal hazards of surges, we relate the type and severity of the injuries of these patients to the temperatures and dynamics of the pyroclastic surges, as derived from the environmental impacts and associated eruption processes evaluated in our field surveys and interviews conducted by our multi-disciplinary team. Effective warnings, adequate evacuation measures, and political will are all essential in volcanic crises in populated areas to prevent future catastrophes on this scale. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  17. Submarine Volcanic Eruptions and Potential Analogs for Venus (United States)

    Wilson, L.; Mouginismark, P. J.; Fryer, P.; Gaddis, L. R.


    As part of an analysis program to better understand the diversity of volcanic processes on the terrestrial planets, an investigation of the volcanic landforms which exist on the Earth's ocean floor was initiated. In part, this analysis is focused toward gaining a better understanding of submarine volcanic landforms in their own right, but also it is hoped that these features may show similarities to volcanic landforms on Venus, due to the high ambient water (Earth) and atmospheric (Venus) pressures. A series of numerical modelling experiments was performed to investigate the relative importance of such attributes as water pressure and temperature on the eruption process, and to determine the rate of cooling and emplacement of lava flows in the submarine environment. Investigations to date show that the confining water pressure and the buoyancy effects of the surrounding water significantly affect the styles of volcanism on the ocean floor. In the case of Venusian volcanism, confining pressures will not be as great as that found at the ocean's abyssal plains, but nevertheless the general trend toward reducing magma vesiculation will hold true for Venus as well as the ocean floor. Furthermore, other analogs may also be found between submarine volcanism and Venusian activity.

  18. Sr isotope geochemistry of voluminous acidic pyroclastics erupted at 1-3 Ma in Northeast Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirahase, Teruo; Tamanyu, Shiro; Togashi, Shigeko


    Sr isotope ratios are analyzed for voluminous acidic pyroclastics erupted at 1 - 3 Ma in five areas on the volcanic front of Northeast Japan. The initial values of 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios range from 0.7040 to 0.7055. There is no significant difference in ratios between 1 - 3 Ma acidic pyroclastics and 0 - 1 Ma andesitic volcanics in each area in spite of differences in age and in mean SiO 2 content. On the other hand, the ratios in both of 1 - 3 Ma and 0 - 1 Ma volcanics vary along arc in the same manner. The changes of Sr and Rb contents in each area are consistent with systematic changes by fractional crystallization. The low 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios and chemistry suggest that 1 - 3 Ma acidic pyroclastics of Northeast Japan formed by a high degree of fractional crystallization from basic magma which is common in genesis with young andesitic volcanism. The mechanisms of the formation of the basic magma and the character of mantle source in each area have not changed for the past 3 Ma. Degrees of fractional crystallization changed with changes of the tectonic condition of shallow magma chamber from a weak horizontal compression stress field to a strong one. (author)

  19. High and highly variable cooling rates during pyroclastic eruptions on Axial Seamount, Juan de Fuca Ridge (United States)

    Helo, Christoph; Clague, David A.; Dingwell, Donald B.; Stix, John


    We present a calorimetric analysis of pyroclastic glasses and glassy sheet lava flow crusts collected on Axial Seamount, Juan de Fuca Ridge, NE Pacific Ocean, at a water depth of about 1400 m. The pyroclastic glasses, subdivided into thin limu o Pele fragments and angular, blocky clasts, were retrieved from various stratigraphic horizons of volcaniclastic deposits on the upper flanks of the volcanic edifice. Each analysed pyroclastic sample consists of a single type of fragment from one individual horizon. The heat capacity (cp) was measured via differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and analysed using relaxation geospeedometry to obtain the natural cooling rate across the glass transition. The limu o Pele samples (1 mm grain size fraction) and angular fragments (0.5 mm grain size fraction) exhibit cooling rates of 104.3 to 106.0 K s- 1 and 103.9 to 105.1 K s- 1, respectively. A coarser grain size fraction, 2 mm for limu o Pele and 1 mm for the angular clasts yields cooling rates at the order of 103.7 K s- 1. The range of cooling rates determined for the different pyroclastic deposits presumably relates to the size or intensity of the individual eruptions. The outer glassy crusts of the sheet lava flows were naturally quenched at rates between 63 K s- 1 and 103 K s- 1. By comparing our results with published data on the very slow quenching of lava flow crusts, we suggest that (1) fragmentation and cooling appear to be coupled dynamically and (2) ductile deformation upon the onset of cooling is restricted due to the rapid increase in viscosity. Lastly, we suggest that thermally buoyant plumes that may arise from rapid heat transfer efficiently separate clasts based on their capability to rise within the plume and as they subsequently settle from it.

  20. Pyroclast textural variation as an indicator of eruption column steadiness in andesitic Plinian eruptions at Mt. Ruapehu (United States)

    Pardo, Natalia; Cronin, Shane J.; Wright, Heather M.N.; Schipper, C. Ian; Smith, Ian; Stewart, Bob


    Between 27 and 11 cal. ka BP, a transition is observed in Plinian eruptions at Mt. Ruapehu, indicating evolution from non-collapsing (steady and oscillatory) eruption columns to partially collapsing columns (both wet and dry). To determine the causes of these variations over this eruptive interval, we examined lapilli fall deposits from four eruptions representing the climactic phases of each column type. All eruptions involve andesite to basaltic andesite magmas containing plagioclase, clinopyroxene, orthopyroxene and magnetite phenocrysts. Differences occur in the dominant pumice texture, the degree of bulk chemistry and textural variability, the average microcrystallinity and the composition of groundmass glass. In order to investigate the role of ascent and degassing processes on column stability, vesicle textures were quantified by gas volume pycnometry (porosity), X-ray synchrotron and computed microtomography (μ-CT) imagery from representative clasts from each eruption. These data were linked to groundmass crystallinity and glass geochemistry. Pumice textures were classified into six types (foamy, sheared, fibrous, microvesicular, microsheared and dense) according to the vesicle content, size and shape and microlite content. Bulk porosities vary from 19 to 95 % among all textural types. Melt-referenced vesicle number density ranges between 1.8 × 102 and 8.9 × 102 mm−3, except in fibrous textures, where it spans from 0.3 × 102 to 53 × 102 mm−3. Vesicle-free magnetite number density varies within an order of magnitude from 0.4 × 102 to 4.5 × 102 mm−3 in samples with dacitic groundmass glass and between 0.0 and 2.3 × 102 mm−3 in samples with rhyolitic groundmass. The data indicate that columns that collapsed to produce pyroclastic flows contained pumice with the greatest variation in bulk composition (which overlaps with but extends to slightly more silicic compositions than other eruptive products); textures

  1. Chronology and pyroclastic stratigraphy of the May 18, 1980, eruption of Mount St. Helens, Washington (United States)

    Criswell, C. William


    The eruption of Mount St. Helens on May 18, 1980 can be subdivided into six phases: the paroxysmal phase I, the early Plinian phase II, the early ash flow phase III, the climactic phase IV, the late ash flow phase V, and phase VI, the activity of which consisted of a low-energy ash plume. These phases are correlated with stratigraphic subunits of ash-fall tephra and pyroclastic flow deposits. Sustained vertical discharge of phase II produced evolved dacite with high S/Cl ratios. Ash flow activity of phase III is attributed to decreases in gas content, indicated by reduced S/Cl ratios and increased clast density of the less evolved gray pumice. Climactic events are attributed to vent clearing and exhaustion of the evolved dacite.

  2. Correlation and stratigraphic eruption age of the pyroclastic flow deposits and wide spread volcanic ashes intercalated in the Pliocene-Pleistocene strata, central Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagahashi, Yoshitaka; Satoguchi, Yasufumi; Yoshikawa, Shusaku


    Three pyroclastic flow deposits in the Takayama and Omine area, central Honshu, are correlated to the distal widespread volcanic ashes intercalated in the Plio-Pleistocene boundary strata in central Japan. The correlation is based on these stratigraphic relationships, facies, magnetostratigraphy, petrographic properties such as mineral assemblage, refractive index and chemical composition of the volcanic glasses and orthopyroxene. As the result of these correlation, the eruption age of the proximal pyroclastic flow deposits have become clear. And precise correlation between proximal eruption units and distal depositional units is now possible. Ho-Kd 39 Tephra erupted at about 1.76 Ma, forming a co-ignimbrite ash, which deposited in the Kanto sedimentary basin. Eb-Fukuda Tephra erupted at about 1.75 Ma, and distal volcaniclastic deposit sedimented in the Kinki, Niigata and Kanto sedimentary basins. The eruptional and depositional phase are divided into the stage 1, stage 2 (early), stage 2 (late) and stage 3. Stage 1 is phreato-plinian type eruption phase, forming distal ash fall deposit. Stage 2 (early) is plinian pumice fall, intra-plinian pyroclastic flow and plinian pumice fall eruption phase, forming distal ash fall. Stage 2 (late) is final eruptional phase of the biggest pyroclastic flow of the Eb-Fukuda Tephra, forming a co-ignimbrite ash fall. Stage 3 is resedimented stage after the end of the explosive eruption. It is notable that resedimented volcaniclastic deposit reached Osaka sedimentary basin 300 km away from the eruption center. Om-SK110 Tephra erupted at about 1.65 Ma, divided into the stage 1, stage 2 and stage 3. Stage 1 is eruption phase of the plinian pumice fall and first pyroclastic flow. Stage 2 is pauses in eruption activity. Stage 3 is second pyroclastic flow phase, it is inferred that the pyroclastic flow of the stage 3 directly entered the Niigata sedimentary basin and simultaneously formed a co-ignimbrite ash. (author)

  3. Chronology, morphology and stratigraphy of pumiceous pyroclastic-flow (ignimbrite) deposits from the eruption of Mount St. Helens on 18 May 1983 (United States)

    Criswell, C. W.; Elston, W. E.


    Between 1217 and 1620 hours (PDT), on May 18, 1980, the magmatic eruption column of Mount St. Helens formed an ash fountain and pyroclastic flows dominated the eruption process over tephra ejection. Eurption-rate pulsations generally increased to a maximum at 1600 to 1700 hrs. After 1620 hrs, the eruption assumed an open-vent discharge with strong, vertical ejection of tephra. Relative eruption rates (relative mass flux rates) of the pyroclastic flows were determined by correlating sequential photographs and SLAR images, obtained during the eruption, with stratigraphy and surface morphology of the deposits.

  4. Slow-moving and far-travelled dense pyroclastic flows during the Peach Spring super-eruption (United States)

    Roche, Olivier; Buesch, David C.; Valentine, Greg A.


    Explosive volcanic super-eruptions of several hundred cubic kilometres or more generate long run-out pyroclastic density currents the dynamics of which are poorly understood and controversial. Deposits of one such event in the southwestern USA, the 18.8 Ma Peach Spring Tuff, were formed by pyroclastic flows that travelled >170 km from the eruptive centre and entrained blocks up to ~70–90 cm diameter from the substrates along the flow paths. Here we combine these data with new experimental results to show that the flow’s base had high-particle concentration and relatively modest speeds of ~5–20 m s−1, fed by an eruption discharging magma at rates up to ~107–108 m3 s−1 for a minimum of 2.5–10 h. We conclude that sustained high-eruption discharge and long-lived high-pore pressure in dense granular dispersion can be more important than large initial velocity and turbulent transport with dilute suspension in promoting long pyroclastic flow distance.

  5. Serreta 1998-2001 submarine volcanic eruption, offshore Terceira (Azores): Characterization of the vent and inferences about the eruptive dynamics (United States)

    Casas, David; Pimentel, Adriano; Pacheco, José; Martorelli, Eleonora; Sposato, Andrea; Ercilla, Gemma; Alonso, Belen; Chiocci, Francesco


    High-resolution bathymetric data and seafloor sampling were used to characterize the most recent volcanic eruption in the Azores region, the 1998-2001 Serreta submarine eruption. The vent of the eruption is proposed to be an asymmetric topographic high, composed of two coalescing volcanic cones, underlying the location where lava balloons had been observed at the sea surface during the eruption. The volcanic products related to the 1998-2001 eruption are constrained to an area of 0.5 km2 around the proposed vent position. A submarine Strombolian-style eruption producing basaltic lava balloons, ash and coarse scoriaceous materials with limited lateral dispersion led to the buildup of the cones. The 1998-2001 Serreta eruption shares many similarities with other intermediate-depth lava balloon-forming eruptions (e.g., the 1891 eruption offshore Pantelleria and the 2011-2012 eruption south of El Hierro), revealing the particular conditions needed for the production of this unusual and scarcely documented volcanic product.

  6. Database for geologic maps of pyroclastic-flow and related deposits of the 1980 eruptions of Mount St. Helens, Washington (United States)

    Furze, Andrew J.; Bard, Joseph A.; Robinson, Joel; Ramsey, David W.; Kuntz, Mel A.; Rowley, Peter D.; MacLeod, Norman S.


    This publication releases digital versions of the geologic maps in U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Investigations Map 1950 (USGS I-1950), “Geologic maps of pyroclastic-flow and related deposits of the 1980 eruptions of Mount St. Helens, Washington” (Kuntz, Rowley, and MacLeod, 1990) ( The 1980 Mount St. Helens eruptions on May 18, May 25, June 12, July 22, August 7, and October 16–18 produced pyroclastic-flow and related deposits. The distribution and morphology of these deposits, as determined from extensive field studies and examination of vertical aerial photographs, are shown on four maps in I-1950 (maps A–D) on two map sheets. Map A shows the May 18, May 25, and June 12 deposits; map B shows the July 22 deposits; map C shows the August 7 deposits; and map D shows the October 16–18 deposits. No digital geospatial versions of the geologic data were made available at the time of publication of the original maps. This data release consists of attributed vector features, data tables, and the cropped and georeferenced scans from which the features were digitized, in order to enable visualization and analysis of these data in GIS software. This data release enables users to digitally re-create the maps and description of map units of USGS I-1950; map sheet 1 includes text sections (Introduction, Physiography of Mount St. Helens at the time of the 1980 eruptions, Processes of the 1980 eruptions, Deposits of the 1980 eruptions, Limitations of the maps, Preparation of the maps, and References cited) and associated tables and figures that are not included in this data release.

  7. Characterization of juvenile pyroclasts from the Kos Plateau Tuff (Aegean Arc): insights into the eruptive dynamics of a large rhyolitic eruption (United States)

    Bouvet de Maisonneuve, Caroline; Bachmann, Olivier; Burgisser, Alain


    Silicic pumices formed during explosive volcanic eruptions are faithful recorders of the state of the magma in the conduit, close to or at the fragmentation level. We have characterized four types of pumices from the non-welded rhyolitic Kos Plateau Tuff, which erupted 161,000 years ago in the East Aegean Arc, Greece. The dominant type of pumice (>90 vol.%) shows highly elongated tubular vesicles. These tube pumices occur throughout the eruption. Less common pumice types include: (1) “frothy” pumice (highly porous with large, sub-rounded vesicles), which form 5-10 vol.% of the coarsest pyroclastic flow deposits, (2) dominantly “microvesicular” and systematically crystal-poor pumices, which are found in early erupted, fine-grained pyroclastic flow units, and are characterized by many small (<50 μm in diameter) vesicles and few mm-sized, irregular voids, (3) grey or banded pumices, indicating the interaction between the rhyolite and a more mafic magma, which are found throughout the eruption sequence and display highly irregular bubble shapes. Except for the grey-banded pumices, all three other types are compositionally identical and were generated synchronously as they are found in the same pyroclastic units. They, therefore, record different conditions in the volcanic conduit leading to variable bubble nucleation, growth and coalescence. A total of 74 pumice samples have been characterized using thin section observation, SEM imagery, porosimetry, and permeametry. We show that the four pumice types have distinct total and connected porosity, tortuosity and permeability. Grey-banded pumices show large variations in petrophysical characteristics as a response to mingling of two different magmas. The microvesicular, crystal-poor, pumices have a bimodal bubble size distribution, interpreted as reflecting an early heterogeneous bubble nucleation event followed by homogeneous bubble nucleation close to fragmentation. Finally, the significant differences in

  8. An Integrative Approach for Defining Plinian and Sub-Plinian Eruptive Scenarios at Andesitic Volcanoes: Event-Lithostratigraphy, Eruptive Parameters and Pyroclast Textural Variations of the Largest Late-Holocene Eruptions of Mt. Taranaki, New Zealand. (United States)

    Torres-Orozco, R.; Cronin, S. J.; Damaschke, M.; Kosik, S.; Pardo, N.


    Three eruptive scenarios were determined based on the event-lithostratigraphic reconstruction of the largest late-Holocene eruptions of the andesitic Mt. Taranaki, New Zealand: a) sustained dome-effusion followed by sudden stepwise collapse and unroofing of gas-rich magma; b) repeated plug and burst events generated by transient open-/closed-vent conditions; and c) open-vent conditions of more mafic magmas erupting from a satellite vent. Pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) are the most frequent outcome in every scenario. They can be produced in any/every eruption phase by formation and either repetitive-partial or total gravity-driven collapse of lava domes in the summit crater (block-and-ash flows), frequently followed by sudden magma decompression and violent, highly unsteady to quasi-steady lateral expansion (blast-like PDCs); by collapse or single-pulse fall-back of unsteady eruption columns (pyroclastic flow- and surge-type currents); or during highly unsteady and explosive hydromagmatic phases (wet surges). Fall deposits are produced during the climatic phase of each eruptive scenario by the emplacement of (i) high, sustained and steady, (ii) sustained and height-oscillating, (iii) quasi-steady and pulsating, or (iv) unsteady and totally collapsing eruption columns. Volumes, column heights and mass- and volume-eruption rates indicate that these scenarios correspond to VEI 4-5 plinian and sub-plinian multi-phase and style-shifting episodes, similar or larger than the most recent 1655 AD activity, and comparable to plinian eruptions of e.g. Apoyeque, Colima, Merapi and Tarawera volcanoes. Whole-rock chemistry, textural reconstructions and density-porosity determinations suggest that the different eruptive scenarios are mainly driven by variations in the density structure of magma in the upper conduit. Assuming a simple single conduit model, the style transitions can be explained by differing proportions of alternating gas-poor/degassed and gas-rich magma.

  9. The submarine eruption of La Restinga (El Hierro, Canary Islands): October 2011-March 2012; La erupcion submarina de La Restinga en la isla de El Hierro, Canarias: Octubre 2011-Marzo 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Torrado, F J; Carracedo, J C; Rodriguez-Gonzalez, A; Soler, V; Troll, V R; Wiesmaier, S


    The first signs of renewed volcanic activity at El Hierro began in July 2011 with the occurrence of abundant, low-magnitude earthquakes. The increasing seismicity culminated on October 10, 2011, with the onset of a submarine eruption about 2 km offshore from La Restinga, the southernmost village on El Hierro. The analysis of seismic and deformation records prior to, and throughout, the eruption allowed the reconstruction of its main phases: 1) ascent of magma and migration of hypo centres from beneath the northern coast (El Golfo) towards the south rift zone, close to La Restinga, probably marking the hydraulic fracturing and the opening of the eruptive conduit; and 2) onset and development of a volcanic eruption indicated by sustained and prolonged harmonic tremor whose intensity varied with time. The features monitored during the eruption include location, depth and morphological evolution of the eruptive source and emission of floating volcanic bombs. These bombs initially showed white, vesiculated cores (originated by partial melting of underlying pre-volcanic sediments upon which the island of El Hierro was constructed) and black basanite rims, and later exclusively hollow basanitic lava balloons. The eruptive products have been matched with a fissural submarine eruption without ever having attained surtseyan explosiveness. The eruption has been active for about five months and ended in March 2012, thus becoming the second longest reported historical eruption in the Canary Islands after the Timanfaya eruption in Lanzarote (1730-1736). This eruption provided the first opportunity in 40 years to manage a volcanic crisis in the Canary Islands and to assess the interpretations and decisions taken, thereby gaining experience for improved management of future volcanic activity. Seismicity and deformation during the eruption were recorded and analysed by the Instituto Geografico Nacional (IGN). Unfortunately, a lack of systematic sampling of erupted pyroclasts and

  10. The pumice raft-forming 2012 Havre submarine eruption was effusive (United States)

    Manga, Michael; Fauria, Kristen E.; Lin, Christina; Mitchell, Samuel J.; Jones, Meghan; Conway, Chris E.; Degruyter, Wim; Hosseini, Behnaz; Carey, Rebecca; Cahalan, Ryan; Houghton, Bruce F.; White, James D. L.; Jutzeler, Martin; Soule, S. Adam; Tani, Kenichiro


    A long-standing conceptual model for deep submarine eruptions is that high hydrostatic pressure hinders degassing and acceleration, and suppresses magma fragmentation. The 2012 submarine rhyolite eruption of Havre volcano in the Kermadec arc provided constraints on critical parameters to quantitatively test these concepts. This eruption produced a >1 km3 raft of floating pumice and a 0.1 km3 field of giant (>1 m) pumice clasts distributed down-current from the vent. We address the mechanism of creating these clasts using a model for magma ascent in a conduit. We use water ingestion experiments to address why some clasts float and others sink. We show that at the eruption depth of 900 m, the melt retained enough dissolved water, and hence had a low enough viscosity, that strain-rates were too low to cause brittle fragmentation in the conduit, despite mass discharge rates similar to Plinian eruptions on land. There was still, however, enough exsolved vapor at the vent depth to make the magma buoyant relative to seawater. Buoyant magma was thus extruded into the ocean where it rose, quenched, and fragmented to produce clasts up to several meters in diameter. We show that these large clasts would have floated to the sea surface within minutes, where air could enter pore space, and the fate of clasts is then controlled by the ability to trap gas within their pore space. We show that clasts from the raft retain enough gas to remain afloat whereas fragments from giant pumice collected from the seafloor ingest more water and sink. The pumice raft and the giant pumice seafloor deposit were thus produced during a clast-generating effusive submarine eruption, where fragmentation occurred above the vent, and the subsequent fate of clasts was controlled by their ability to ingest water.

  11. The 2011 submarine volcanic eruption of El Hierro Island (Canary Islands, Spain) (United States)

    López, C.; Blanco, M. J.


    On 10 October 2011 a submarine volcanic eruption began 2 km SW of La Restinga village in the South coast of El Hierro Island (Spain). It became the first submarine eruption reported in 500 years of historical record in the Canary Islands. The eruption took place after three months of intensive seismic activity and ground deformation. The first signal evidencing the eruption was a harmonic tremor signal, located somewhere in the South sector of El Hierro Island and registered in every seismic station on the island. On the following day, the tremoŕs amplitude increased up enough to be felt by the residents of La Restinga. The first visual evidence of the eruption was observed during the afternoon of 12 October, a large light-green coloured area on the sea surface, 2 km to the SW of La Restinga. Three days later, steaming lava fragments were observed floating on the sea, in the area where the vent was supposed to be located. These fragments had a bomb-like shape and their sizes ranged between 10 and 40 cm long. They were bicoloured, a black outer part with a basaltic composition, and a white inner part, highly vesiculated and rich in silica content (>60%). This type of fragments was only observed during the first days of the eruption. Within the next two months further emission episodes have been observed with turbulent water, foam rings and large bubbles on the sea surface. On the 27th of November new lava fragments were observed while floating and degassing on the sea surface. Most of them were "lava balloons" or hollow fragments of lavas, with sizes between 30 and 200 cm, and highly vesiculated outer crust of basaltic-basanitic and sideromelane composition. The emission of these products continues intermitently up to date (January 2012) During the eruption, the GPS monitoring network detected episodes of inflation-deflation and a maximum vertical deformation of 4 cm. The horizontal deformation, which had reached up to 5 cm before the eruption, remains stable. The

  12. The impacts of pyroclastic surges on buildings at the eruption of the Soufrière Hills volcano, Montserrat (United States)

    Baxter, Peter J.; Boyle, Robin; Cole, Paul; Neri, Augusto; Spence, Robin; Zuccaro, Giulio


    We investigated the impacts on buildings of three pyroclastic surges that struck three separate villages on 25 June, 21 September and 26 December, 1997, during the course of the andesitic dome building eruption of the Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat, which began on 18 July, 1995. A detailed analysis of the building damage of the 26 December event was used to compare the findings on the flow and behaviour of dilute pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) with the classical reports of PDCs from historical eruptions of similar size. The main characteristics of the PDC, as inferred from the building damage, were the lateral loading and directionality of the current; the impacts corresponded to the dynamic pressure of the PDC, with a relatively slow rate of rise and without the peak overpressure or a shock front associated with explosive blast; and the entrainment of missiles and ground materials which greatly added to the destructiveness of the PDC. The high temperature of the ash, causing the rapid ignition of furniture and other combustibles, was a major cause of damage even where the dynamic pressure was low at the periphery of the current. The vulnerability of buildings lay in the openings, mainly windows, which allowed the current to enter the building envelope, and in the flammable contents, as well as the lack of resistance to the intense heat and dynamic pressure of some types of vernacular building construction, such as wooden chattel houses, rubble masonry walls and galvanised steel-sheet roofs. Marked variability in the level of damage due to dynamic pressure (in a range 1-5 kPa, or more) was evident throughout most of the impact area, except for the zone of total loss, and this was attributable to the effects of topography and sheltering, and projectiles, and probably localised variations in current velocity and density. A marked velocity gradient existed from the outer part to the central axis of the PDC, where buildings and vegetation were razed to the

  13. Searching for structural medium changes during the 2011 El Hierro (Spain) submarine eruption (United States)

    Sánchez-Pastor, Pilar S.; Schimmel, Martin; López, Carmen


    Submarine volcanic eruptions are often difficult to study due to their restricted access that usually inhibits direct observations. That happened with the 2011 El Hierro eruption, which is the first eruption that has been tracked in real time in Canary Islands. For instance, despite the real-time tracking it was not possible to determine the exact end of the eruption. Besides, volcanic eruptions involve many dynamic (physical and chemical) processes, which cause structural changes in the surrounding medium that we expect to observe and monitor through passive seismic approaches. The purpose of this study is to detect and analyse these changes as well as to search for precursory signals to the eruption itself using ambient noise auto and cross-correlations. We employ different correlation strategies (classical and phase cross-correlation) and apply them to field data recorded by the IGN network during 2011 and 2012. The different preprocessing and processing steps are tested and compared to better understand the data, to find the robust signatures, and to define a routine work procedure. One of the problems we face is the presence of volcanic tremors, which cause a varying seismic response that we can not attribute to structural changes. So far, structural changes could not be detected unambiguously and we present our ongoing research in this field.

  14. A closer look at the pyroclastic density current deposits of the May 18, 1980 eruption of Mt St Helens (United States)

    Mackaman-Lofland, C. A.; Brand, B. D.; Dufek, J.


    Pyroclastic Density Currents (PDCs) are the most dangerous hazard associated with explosive volcanic eruptions. Due to the danger associated with observing these ground-hugging currents of searing hot gas, ash, and rock in real time, their processes are poorly understood. In order to understand flow dynamics, including what controls how far PDCs travel and how they interact with topography, it is necessary to study their deposits. The May 18th, 1980 eruption of Mt. St. Helens produced multiple PDCs, burying the area north of the volcano under 10s of meters of PDC deposits. Because the eruption is one of the best observed on record, individual flow units can be correlated to changes in eruptive intensity throughout the day (e.g., Criswell, 1987). Deep drainage erosion over the past 30 years has exposed the three-dimensional structure of the PDC deposits, making this intensive study possible. Up to six flow units have been identified along the large western drainage of the pumice plain. Each flow unit has intricate vertical and lateral facies changes and complex cross-cutting relationships away from source. The most proximal PDC deposits associated with the afternoon flows on May 18 are exposed 4 km from source in tributaries of the large drainage on the western side of the pumice plain. Hummocks from the debris avalanche are also exposed above and within these proximal drainages. It is apparent that the PDCs were often erosional, entraining large blocks from the hummocks and depositing them in close proximity downstream. The currents were also depositional, as thick sequences of PDC deposits are found in areas between hummocks, which thin to veneers above them. This indicates that the currents were interacting with complex topography early in their propagation, and is reflected by spatially variable bed conditions including rapid changes in bedding and granulometry characteristics within individual flow units. For example, within 20 lateral meters of a given flow

  15. Repeated magmatic intrusions at El Hierro Island following the 2011-2012 submarine eruption (United States)

    Benito-Saz, Maria A.; Parks, Michelle M.; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Hooper, Andrew; García-Cañada, Laura


    After more than 200 years of quiescence, in July 2011 an intense seismic swarm was detected beneath the center of El Hierro Island (Canary Islands), culminating on 10 October 2011 in a submarine eruption, 2 km off the southern coast. Although the eruption officially ended on 5 March 2012, magmatic activity continued in the area. From June 2012 to March 2014, six earthquake swarms, indicative of magmatic intrusions, were detected underneath the island. We have studied these post-eruption intrusive events using GPS and InSAR techniques to characterize the ground surface deformation produced by each of these intrusions, and to determine the optimal source parameters (geometry, location, depth, volume change). Source inversions provide insight into the depth of the intrusions ( 11-16 km) and the volume change associated with each of them (between 0.02 and 0.13 km3). During this period, > 20 cm of uplift was detected in the central-western part of the island, corresponding to approximately 0.32-0.38 km3 of magma intruded beneath the volcano. We suggest that these intrusions result from deep magma migrating from the mantle, trapped at the mantle/lower crust discontinuity in the form of sill-like bodies. This study, using joint inversion of GPS and InSAR data in a post-eruption period, provides important insight into the characteristics of the magmatic plumbing system of El Hierro, an oceanic intraplate volcanic island.

  16. Magmatic sill intrusions beneath El Hierro Island following the 2011-2012 submarine eruption (United States)

    Benito-Saz, María Á.; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Parks, Michelle M.; García-Cañada, Laura; Domínguez Cerdeña, Itahiza


    El Hierro, the most southwestern island of Canary Islands, Spain, is a volcano rising from around 3600 m above the ocean floor and up to of 1500 m above sea level. A submarine eruption occurred off the coast of El Hierro in 2011-2012, which was the only confirmed eruption in the last ~ 600 years. Activity continued after the end of the eruption with six magmatic intrusions occurring between 2012-2014. Each of these intrusions was characterized by hundreds of earthquakes and 3-19 centimeters of observed ground deformation. Ground displacements at ten continuous GPS sites were initially inverted to determine the optimal source parameters (location, geometry, volume/pressure change) that best define these intrusions from a geodetic point of view. Each intrusive period appears to be associated with the formation of a separate sill, with inferred volumes between 0.02 - 0.3 km3. SAR images from the Canadian RADARSAT-2 satellite and the Italian Space Agency COSMO-SkyMed constellation have been used to produce high-resolution detailed maps of line-of-sight displacements for each of these intrusions. These data have been combined with the continuous GPS observations and a joint inversion undertaken to gain further constraints on the optimal source parameters for each of these separate intrusive events. The recorded activity helps to understand how an oceanic intraplate volcanic island grows through repeated sill intrusions; well documented by seismic, GPS and InSAR observations in the case of the El Hierro activity.

  17. Submarine Flood Basalt Eruptions and Flows of Ontong Java Plateau, Nauru Basin and East Mariana Basin (United States)

    Michael, P. J.; Trowbridge, S. R.; Zhang, J.; Johnson, A. L.


    The preservation of fresh basalt glasses from the submarine Cretaceous Ontong Java Plateau (OJP), Earth's largest LIP, has allowed correlation of precise lava compositions over 100s of km, as well as determination of eruption depths using dissolved H2O and CO2 contents. Low dissolved H2O in glasses shows that H2O in the mantle source is low [1,2], suggesting mantle temperatures are high. Very high dissolved Cl indicates that magmas interacted extensively with brines. The near total absence of vesicles in OJP glasses contrasts sharply with MORB, and suggests that OJP lavas were saturated or undersaturated with CO2 when they were emplaced, in contrast to MORB that are often oversaturated. The lavas likely remained liquid for a longer period of time so that they degassed to equilibrium levels of dissolved CO2 andlost all bubbles. Very precise major and trace element analyses of glasses, uncomplicated by crystals or alteration, show how lavas within and between widely-spaced drill holes could be related. For example, glasses from Sites 1185B and 1186A, which are about 200 km apart, are compositionally identical within precise limits and must have erupted from the same well-mixed magma chamber. They erupted at about the same depth, but 1186A has a corrected basement depth that is >700m deeper. With a slope of 0.3°, this suggests a flow distance >130km. The eruption depths for glasses from East Mariana and Nauru Basins are similar to those of 1185B and 1186A on OJP, even though their reconstructed basement depths are about 2000 m deeper. It suggests that the plateau lavas flowed into the basins. Similarly, eruption depths in Hole 807C are 3040m for Kwaimbaita lavas but are 1110m [1,2] for Singgalo lavas that directly overlie them. It is unlikely that plateau uplift and subsidence accounts for the observed eruption depths. All of these observations are best explained by very large-volume eruptions whose lavas traveled for long distances, up to 100s of km, into deeper

  18. Serreta Submarine Eruption 1998-2001, Azores: a new compositional end-member? (United States)

    Filipa Marques, Ana; Hamelin, Cédric; Madureira, Pedro; Rosa, Carlos; Silva, Pedro; Relvas, Jorge; Lourenço, Nuno; Conceição, Patrícia; Barriga, Fernando


    The Azores platform, where the Eurasian, Nubian and American plates meet, comprises nine volcanic islands extending to both sides of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR). East of the MAR, the plate boundary between Eurasian and Nubian plates is defined by the Terceira Rift, interpreted as an intra-oceanic spreading system where the Islands of S. Miguel, Terceira and Graciosa emerge as well and the submarine D.João de Castro Bank, separated by deep avolcanic zones [1, 2]. Submarine and subaerial lavas from the Terceira Rift are characterized by small-scale elemental and isotopic variations, and several distinct compositional end-members have been identified [2,3] supporting the concept of significant mantle source heterogeneity. A recent submarine eruption (1998-2001) occurred ~4-5 NM WNW of Terceira Island, at the Serreta Ridge where lava balloons were observed floating at the surface [4]. In 2008, an oceanographic cruise was conducted to the Serreta ridge to investigate the site of the 1998-2001 eruption, map the seafloor, identify vent location, and characterize possible products of eruption [5]. An ROV from the EMEPC (Task Group for the Extension of the Continental Shelf) was used in this survey providing high-definition video footage and fresh lava samples. Three survey ROV dives (D15, D16, D17) were made on the Serreta ridge. D15 and D17 dives were located on the southern wall of the crater, whereas D16 explored the central and northern areas of the crater floor. Sr-Nd-Pb isotope compositions of representative samples from the Serreta submarine ridge are presented for the first time. On the 208Pb/204Pb vs. 206Pb/204Pb diagram Serreta samples plot on a linear array with the remaining Terceira rift samples. However, these results show that Serreta submarine volcanics lay on the most depleted end of the Terceira Rift array. Radiogenic isotopes also show that samples from the central and northern wall of the crater are distinct from the younger southern wall sector

  19. The 2011 El Hierro submarine eruption: estimation of erupted lava flow volume on the basis of helicopter thermal surveys (United States)

    Hernández, P. A.; Calvari, S.; Calvo, D.; Marquez, A.; Padron, E.; Pérez, N.; Melian, G.; Padilla, G.; Barrancos, J.; Dionis, S.; Rodríguez, F.; Nolasco, D.; Hernández, I.


    been collected each time in order to compare the temperature distribution with the features observed on the sea surface. Calculation of lava flow volume and effusion rate from thermal images collected by helicopter surveys has been largely used during the last decade for monitoring effusive eruptions at Etna, Stromboli, Kilauea, and other volcanoes. In this study, lava flow volume is calculated on the basis of temperature difference between the seawater contained within the dark patch, and the temperature of the seawater surface away from the eruption. These values have to be considered as minimum values, because they do not take into account the volume of lava isolated from the seawater by a thick crust that did not contribute to seawater warming. To calculate the lava volume we have used the model proposed by Harris et al. (1998) for the portion of the lava flow field spreading below sea level. Preliminary results indicate that during the period of study, about 5Mm3 of magma have been needed to heat the observed surface heated sea water at the submarine eruption site.

  20. Experimental Insights on Natural Lava-Ice/Snow Interactions and Their Implications for Glaciovolcanic and Submarine Eruptions (United States)

    Edwards, B. R.; Karson, J.; Wysocki, R.; Lev, E.; Bindeman, I. N.; Kueppers, U.


    Lava-ice-snow interactions have recently gained global attention through the eruptions of ice-covered volcanoes, particularly from Eyjafjallajokull in south-central Iceland, with dramatic effects on local communities and global air travel. However, as with most submarine eruptions, direct observations of lava-ice/snow interactions are rare. Only a few hundred potentially active volcanoes are presently ice-covered, these volcanoes are generally in remote places, and their associated hazards make close observation and measurements dangerous. Here we report the results of the first large-scale experiments designed to provide new constraints on natural interactions between lava and ice/snow. The experiments comprised controlled effusion of tens of kilograms of melted basalt on top of ice/snow, and provide insights about observations from natural lava-ice-snow interactions including new constraints for: 1) rapid lava advance along the ice-lava interface; 2) rapid downwards melting of lava flows through ice; 3) lava flow exploitation of pre-existing discontinuities to travel laterally beneath and within ice; and 4) formation of abundant limu o Pele and non-explosive vapor transport from the base to the top of the lava flow with minor O isotope exchange. The experiments are consistent with observations from eruptions showing that lava is more efficient at melting ice when emplaced on top of the ice as opposed to beneath the ice, as well as the efficacy of tephra cover for slowing melting. The experimental extrusion rates are as within the range of those for submarine eruptions as well, and reproduce some features seen in submarine eruptions including voluminous production of gas rich cavities within initially anhydrous lavas and limu on lava surfaces. Our initial results raise questions about the possibility of secondary ingestion of water by submarine and glaciovolcanic lava flows, and the origins of apparent primary gas cavities in those flows. Basaltic melt moving down

  1. Looking for Larvae Above an Erupting Submarine Volcano, NW Rota-1, Mariana Arc (United States)

    Beaulieu, S.; Hanson, M.; Tunnicliffe, V.; Chadwick, W. W., Jr.; Breuer, E. R.


    In 2009 the first marine protected areas for deep-sea hydrothermal vents in U.S. waters were established as part of the Volcanic Unit of the Marianas Trench Marine National Monument. In this region, hydrothermal vents are located along the Mariana Arc and back-arc spreading center. In particular hydrothermal vents are located near the summit of NW Rota-1, an active submarine volcano on the Mariana Arc which was erupting between 2003 and 2010 and ceased as of 2014. NW Rota-1 experienced a massive landslide in late 2009, decimating the habitat on the southern side of the volcano. This project looked at zooplankton tow samples taken from the water column above NW Rota-1 in 2010, searching for larvae which have the potential to recolonize the sea floor after such a major disturbance. Samples were sorted in entirety into coarse taxa, and then larvae were removed for DNA barcoding. Overall zooplankton composition was dominated by copepods, ostracods, and chaetognaths, the majority of which are pelagic organisms. Comparatively few larvae of benthic invertebrates were found, but shrimp, gastropod, barnacle, and polychaete larvae did appear in low numbers in the samples. Species-level identification obtained via genetic barcoding will allow for these larvae to be matched to species known to inhabit the benthic communities at NW Rota-1. Identified larvae will give insight into the organisms which can re-colonize the seafloor vent communities after a disturbance such as the 2009 landslide. Communities at hydrothermal vents at other submarine volcanoes in the Monument may act as sources for these larvae, but connectivity in this region of complex topography is unknown. As the microinvertebrate biodiversity in the Monument has yet to be fully characterized, our project also provides an opportunity to better describe both the zooplankton and benthic community composition in this area of the Monument.

  2. Precursory diffuse CO2 emission signature of the 2011 El Hierro submarine eruption, Canary Islands (United States)

    Pérez, N. M.; Padilla, G. D.; Padrón, E.; Hernández, P. A.; Melián, G. V.; Barrancos, J.; Dionis, S.; Rodríguez, F.; Nolasco, D.; Calvo, D.; Hernández, I.; Peraza, M. D.


    El Hierro is the youngest and southernmost island of the Canarian archipelago and represents the summit of a volcanic shield elevating from the surrounding seafloor at depth of 4000 m to up to 1501 m above sea level. The island is believed to be near the present hotspot location in the Canaries with the oldest subaerial rocks dated at 1.12 Ma. The subaerial parts of the El Hierro rift zones (NE, NW and S Ridges) are characterized by tightly aligned dyke complexes with clusters of cinder cones as their surface expressions. Since 16 July, an anomalous seismicity at El Hierro Island was recorded by IGN seismic network. Volcanic tremor started at 05:15 on 10 October, followed on the afternoon of 12 October by a green discolouration of seawater, strong bubbling and degassing, and abundant bombs on a decimetre scale found floating on the ocean surface offshore, southwest of La Restinga village, indicating the occurrence of a submarine volcanic eruption at approximately 2 km far the coast line of La Restinga. Further episodes have occurred during November, December 2011 and January 2012, with turbulent water, foam rings, and volcanic material again reaching the sea surface. In order to improve the volcanic surveillance program of El Hierro Island and to provide a multidisciplinary approach, a continuous geochemical station to measure CO2 efflux was installed on September 2003 in Llanos de Guillen, the interception center of the three volcanic-rift zones of the island, with the aim of detecting changes in the diffuse emission of CO2 related to the seismic or volcanic activity. The station measures on an hourly basis the CO2 and H2S efflux, the CO2 and H2S air concentrations, the soil water content and temperature and the atmospheric parameters: wind speed and direction, air temperature and humidity and barometric pressure. The meteorological parameters together with the air CO2 concentration are measured 1 m above the ground and the soil water content and soil temperature

  3. Syn-eruptive, soft-sediment deformation of deposits from dilute pyroclastic density current: triggers from granular shear, dynamic pore pressure, ballistic impacts and shock waves (United States)

    Douillet, G. A.; Taisne, B.; Tsang-Hin-Sun, E.; Muller, S. K.; Kueppers, U.; Dingwell, D. B.


    Soft-sediment deformation structures can provide valuable information about the conditions of parent flows, the sediment state and the surrounding environment. Here, examples of soft-sediment deformation in deposits of dilute pyroclastic density currents are documented and possible syn-eruptive triggers suggested. Outcrops from six different volcanoes have been compiled in order to provide a broad perspective on the variety of structures: Soufriere Hills (Montserrat), Tungurahua (Ecuador), Ubehebe craters (USA), Laacher See (Germany), and Tower Hill and Purrumbete lakes (both Australia). The variety of features can be classified in four groups: (1) tubular features such as pipes; (2) isolated, laterally oriented deformation such as overturned or oversteepened laminations and vortex-shaped laminae; (3) folds-and-faults structures involving thick (>30 cm) units; (4) dominantly vertical inter-penetration of two layers such as potatoids, dishes, or diapiric flame-like structures. The occurrence of degassing pipes together with basal intrusions suggest fluidization during flow stages, and can facilitate the development of other soft-sediment deformation structures. Variations from injection dikes to suction-driven, local uplifts at the base of outcrops indicate the role of dynamic pore pressure. Isolated, centimeter-scale, overturned beds with vortex forms have been interpreted to be the signature of shear instabilities occurring at the boundary of two granular media. They may represent the frozen record of granular, pseudo Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities. Their recognition can be a diagnostic for flows with a granular basal boundary layer. Vertical inter-penetration and those folds-and-faults features related to slumps are driven by their excess weight and occur after deposition but penecontemporaneous to the eruption. The passage of shock waves emanating from the vent may also produce trains of isolated, fine-grained overturned beds that disturb the surface bedding

  4. Field-trip guide to Mount St. Helens, Washington - An overview of the eruptive history and petrology, tephra deposits, 1980 pyroclastic density current deposits, and the crater (United States)

    Pallister, John S.; Clynne, Michael A.; Wright, Heather M.; Van Eaton, Alexa R.; Vallance, James W.; Sherrod, David R.; Kokelaar, B. Peter


    This field trip will provide an introduction to several fascinating features of Mount St. Helens. The trip begins with a rigorous hike of about 15 km from the Johnston Ridge Observatory (9 km north-northeast of the crater vent), across the 1980 Pumice Plain, to Windy Ridge (3.6 km northeast of the crater vent) to examine features that document the dynamics and progressive emplacement of pyroclastic flows. The next day, we examine classic tephra outcrops of the past 3,900 years and observe changes in thickness and character of these deposits as we traverse their respective lobes. We examine clasts in the deposits and discuss how the petrology and geochemistry of Mount St. Helens deposits reveal the evolution of the magmatic system through time. We also investigate the stratigraphy of the 1980 blast deposit and review the chronology of this iconic eruption as we travel through the remains of the blown-down forest. The third day is another rigorous hike, about 13 km round trip, climbing from the base of Windy Ridge (elevation 1,240 m) to the front of the Crater Glacier (elevation 1,700 m). En route we examine basaltic andesite and basalt lava flows emplaced between 1,800 and 1,700 years before present, a heterolithologic flow deposit produced as the 1980 blast and debris avalanche interacted, debris-avalanche hummocks that are stranded on the north flank and in the crater mouth, and shattered dacite lava domes that were emplaced between 3,900 and 2,600 years before present. These domes underlie the northern part of the volcano. In addition, within the crater we traverse well-preserved pyroclastic-flow deposits that were emplaced on the crater floor during the summer of 1980, and a beautiful natural section through the 1980 deposits in the upper canyon of the Loowit River.Before plunging into the field-trip log, we provide an overview of Mount St. Helens geology, geochemistry, petrology, and volcanology as background. The volcano has been referred to as a

  5. Acoustic and tephra records of explosive eruptions at West Mata submarine volcano, NE Lau Basin (United States)

    Dziak, R. P.; Bohnenstiehl, D. R.; Baker, E. T.; Matsumoto, H.; Caplan-Auerbach, J.; Mack, C. J.; Embley, R. W.; Merle, S. G.; Walker, S. L.; Lau, T. A.


    West Mata is a 1200 m deep submarine volcano where explosive boninite eruptions were directly observed in May 2009. Here we present long-term acoustic and tephra records of West Mata explosion activity from three deployments of hydrophone and particle sensor moorings beginning on 8 January 2009. These records provide insights into the character of explosive magma degassing occurring at the volcano's summit vent until the decline and eventual cessation of the eruption during late 2010 and early 2011. The detailed acoustic records show three types of volcanic signals, 1) discrete explosions, 2) diffuse explosions, and 3) volcanic tremor. Discrete explosions are short duration, high amplitude broad-band signals caused by rapid gas bubble release. Diffuse signals are likely a result of 'trap-door' explosions where a quench cap of cooled lava forms over the magmatic vent but gas pressure builds underneath the cap. This pressure eventually causes the cap to breach and gas is explosively released until pressure reduces and the cap once again forms. Volcanic tremor is typified by narrow-band, long-duration signals with overtones, as well as narrow-band tones that vary frequency over time between 60-100 Hz. The harmonic tremor is thought to be caused by modulation of rapid, short duration gas explosion pulses and not a magma resonance phenomenon. The variable frequency tones may be caused by focused degassing or hydrothermal fluid flow from a narrow volcanic vent or conduit. High frequency (>30 Hz) tremor-like bands of energy are a result of interference caused by multipath wide-band signals, including sea-surface reflected acoustic phases, that arrive at the hydrophone with small time delays. Acoustic data suggest that eruption velocities for a single explosion range from 4-50 m s-1, although synchronous arrival of explosion signals has complicated our efforts to estimate long-term gas flux. Single explosions exhibit ~4-40 m3 s-1 of total volume flux (gas and rock) but

  6. Petrological and geochemical Highlights in the floating fragments of the October 2011 submarine eruption offshore El Hierro (Canary Islands): Relevance of submarine hydrothermal processes (United States)

    Rodriguez-Losada, Jose A.; Eff-Darwich, Antonio; Hernandez, Luis E.; Viñas, Ronaldo; Pérez, Nemesio; Hernandez, Pedro; Melián, Gladys; Martinez-Frías, Jesús; Romero-Ruiz, M. Carmen; Coello-Bravo, Juan Jesús


    This paper describes the main physical, petrological and geochemical features of the floating fragments that were emitted in the initial stages of the 2011-2012 submarine eruption off the coast of the Canarian island of El Hierro, located 380 km from the Northwest African Coast. It attempts to assess the potential of radiometric analyses to discern the intriguing origin of the floating fragments and the differences between their constituent parts. In this regard, the material that conforms the core of the fragments contains the largest concentration of uranium (U) ever found in volcanic rocks of the Canary Islands. This enrichment in U is not found in the content of thorium (Th), hence the floating fragments have an unusual U/Th ratio, namely equal to or larger than 3. Although the origin of this material is under discussion, it is proposed that the enrichment in U is the result of hydrothermal processes.

  7. The submarine volcano eruption at the island of El Hierro: physical-chemical perturbation and biological response (United States)

    Fraile-Nuez, E.; Santana-Casiano, J.; Gonzalez-Davila, M.


    On October 10 2011 an underwater eruption gave rise to a novel shallow submarine volcano south of the island of El Hierro, Canary Islands, Spain. During the eruption large quantities of mantle-derived gases, solutes and heat were released into the surrounding waters. In order to monitor the impact of the eruption on the marine ecosystem, periodic multidisciplinary cruises were carried out. Here, we present an initial report of the extreme physical-chemical perturbations caused by this event, comprising thermal changes, water acidification, deoxygenation and metal-enrichment, which resulted in significant alterations to the activity and composition of local plankton communities. Our findings highlight the potential role of this eruptive process as a natural ecosystem-scale experiment for the study of extreme effects of global change stressors on marine environments. (A) Natural color composite from the MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) instrument aboard ENVISAT Satellite (European Space Agency), (November 9, 2011 at 14:45 UTC). Remote sensing data have been used to monitor the evolution of the volcanic emissions, playing a fundamental role during field cruises in guiding the Spanish government oceanographic vessel to the appropriate sampling areas. The inset map shows the position of Canary Islands west of Africa and the study area (solid white box). (B) Location of the stations carried out from November 2011 to February 2012 at El Hierro. Black lines denote transects A-B and C-D.

  8. Evolution of submarine eruptive activity during the 2011-2012 El Hierro event as documented by hydroacoustic images and remotely operated vehicle observations (United States)

    Somoza, L.; González, F. J.; Barker, S. J.; Madureira, P.; Medialdea, T.; de Ignacio, C.; Lourenço, N.; León, R.; Vázquez, J. T.; Palomino, D.


    Submarine volcanic eruptions are frequent and important events, yet they are rarely observed. Here we relate bathymetric and hydroacoustic images from the 2011 to 2012 El Hierro eruption with surface observations and deposits imaged and sampled by ROV. As a result of the shallow submarine eruption, a new volcano named Tagoro grew from 375 to 89 m depth. The eruption consisted of two main phases of edifice construction intercalated with collapse events. Hydroacoustic images show that the eruptions ranged from explosive to effusive with variable plume types and resulting deposits, even over short time intervals. At the base of the edifice, ROV observations show large accumulations of lava balloons changing in size and type downslope, coinciding with the area where floating lava balloon fallout was observed. Peaks in eruption intensity during explosive phases generated vigorous bubbling at the surface, extensive ash, vesicular lapilli and formed high-density currents, which together with periods of edifice gravitational collapse, produced extensive deep volcaniclastic aprons. Secondary cones developed in the last stages and show evidence for effusive activity with lava ponds and lava flows that cover deposits of stacked lava balloons. Chaotic masses of heterometric boulders around the summit of the principal cone are related to progressive sealing of the vent with decreasing or variable magma supply. Hornitos represent the final eruptive activity with hydrothermal alteration and bacterial mats at the summit. Our study documents the distinct evolution of a submarine volcano and highlights the range of deposit types that may form and be rapidly destroyed in such eruptions.Plain Language SummaryToday and through most of geological history, the greatest number and volume of volcanic eruptions on Earth have occurred underwater. However, in comparison to subaerial eruption, little is known about submarine eruptive processes as they are dangerous to cruise it over

  9. Diffuse degassing He/CO2 ratio before and during the 2011-12 El Hierro submarine eruption, Canary Islands (United States)

    Padrón, Eleazar; Hernández, Pedro A.; Melián, Gladys V.; Barrancos, José; Padilla, Germán; Pérez, Nemesio M.; Dionis, Samara; Rodríguez, Fátima; Asensio-Ramos, María; Calvo, David


    El Hierro Island (278 km2) is the youngest and the SW-most of the Canary Islands. On July 16, 2011, a seismic-volcanic crisis started with the occurrence of more than 11,900 seismic events and significant deformation along the island, culminating with the eruption onset in October 12. Since at El Hierro Islands there are not any surface geothermal manifestation (fumaroles, etc), we have focused our studies on soil degassing surveys. Between July 2011 to March 2012, seventeen diffuse CO2 and He emissions soil gas surveys were undertaken at El Hierro volcanic system (600 observation sites) with the aim to investigate the relationship between their temporal variations and the volcanic activity (Padrón et al., 2013; Melián et al., 2014). Based on the diffuse He/CO2 emission ratio, a sharp increase before the eruption onset was observed, reaching the maximum value on September 26 (6.8×10-5), sixteen days before the occurrence of the eruption. This increase coincided with an increase in seismic energy release during the volcanic unrest and occurred together with an increase on the 3He/4He isotopic ratio in groundwaters from a well in El Hierro Island (Padrón et al., 2013; from 2-3 RA to 7.2 RA where RA = 3He/4He ratio in air), one month prior to the eruption onset. Early degassing of new gas-rich magma batch at depth could explain the observed increase on the He/CO2 ratio, causing a preferential partitioning of CO2 in the gas phase with respect to the He, due to the lower solubility of CO2 than that of He in basaltic magmas. During the eruptive period (October 2011-March 2012) the prevalence of a magmatic CO2-dominated component is evident, as indicated by the generally lower He/CO2 ratios and high 3He/4He values (Padrón et al., 2013). The onset of the submarine eruption might have produced a sudden release of volcanic gases, and consequently, a decrease in the volcanic gas pressure of the magma bodies moving beneath the island, reflected by a drastic decrease in

  10. Effects of slope on the formation of dunes in dilute, turbulent pyroclastic currents: May 18th, 1980 Mt. St. Helens eruption (United States)

    Bendana, Sylvana; Brand, Brittany D.; Self, Stephen


    The flanks of Mt St Helens volcano (MSH) are draped with thin, cross-stratified and stratified pyroclastic density current (PDC) deposits. These are known as the proximal bedded deposits produced during the May 18th, 1980 eruption of MSH. While the concentrated portions of the afternoon PDCs followed deep topographic drainages down the steep flanks of the volcano, the dilute overriding cloud partially decoupled to develop fully dilute, turbulent PDCs on the flanks of the volcano (Beeson, D.L. 1988. Proximal Flank Facies of the May 18, 1980 Ignimbrite: Mt. St. Helens, Washington.). The deposits along the flank thus vary greatly from those found in the pumice plain, which are generally thick, massive, poorly-sorted, block-rich deposits associated with the more concentrated portions of the flow (Brand et al, accepted. Dynamics of pyroclastic density currents: Conditions that promote substrate erosion and self-channelization - Mount St Helens, Washington (USA). JVGR). We explore the influence of topography on the formation of these dilute currents and influence of slope on the currents transport and depositional mechanisms. The deposits on steeper slopes (>15°) are fines depleted relative to the proximal bedded deposits on shallower slopes (<15°). Bedform amplitude and wavelength increase with increasing slope, as does the occurrence of regressive dunes. Increasing slope causes an increase in flow velocity and thus an increase in flow turbulence. The fines depleted deposits suggest that fine ash elutriation is more efficient in flows with stronger turbulence. The longer wavelength and amplitudes suggest that bedform morphology is directly related to flow velocity, an important finding since the controls on bedform wavelength and amplitude in density stratified flows remains poorly constrained. The occurrence of regressive dunes, often interpreted as high flow-regime bedforms, on steeper slopes relative to progressive dunes on shallower slopes further attests to the

  11. Soil gas radon and volcanic activity at El Hierro (Canary Islands) before and after the 2011-2012 submarine eruption (United States)

    Barrancos, J.; Padilla, G.; Hernandez Perez, P. A.; Padron, E.; Perez, N.; Melian Rodriguez, G.; Nolasco, D.; Dionis, S.; Rodriguez, F.; Calvo, D.; Hernandez, I.


    El Hierro is the youngest and southernmost island of the Canarian archipelago and represents the summit of a volcanic shield elevating from the surrounding seafloor at depth of 4000 m to up to 1501 m above sea level. The island is believed to be near the present hotspot location in the Canaries with the oldest subaerial rocks dated at 1.12 Ma. The subaerial parts of the El Hierro rift zones (NE, NW and S Ridges) are characterized by tightly aligned dyke complexes with clusters of cinder cones as their surface expressions. Since July 16, 2011, an anomalous seismicity at El Hierro Island was recorded by IGN seismic network. Volcanic tremor started at 05:15 hours on October 10, followed on the afternoon of October 12 by a green discolouration of seawater, strong bubbling and degassing indicating the initial stage of submarine volcanic eruption at approximately 2 km off the coast of La Restinga, El Hierro. Soil gas 222Rn and 220Rn activities were continuously measured during the period of the recent volcanic unrest occurred at El Hierro, at two different geochemical stations, HIE02 and HIE03. Significant increases in soil 222Rn activity and 222Rn/220Rn ratio from the soil were observed at both stations prior the submarine eruption off the coast of El Hierro, showing the highest increases before the eruption onset and the occurrence of the strongest seismic event (M=4.6). A statistical analysis showed that the long-term trend of the filtered data corresponded closely to the seismic energy released during the volcanic unrest. The observed increases of 222Rn are related to the rock fracturing processes (seismic activity) and the magmatic CO2 outflow increase, as observed in HIE03 station. Under these results, we find that continuous soil radon studies are important for evaluating the volcanic activity of El Hierro and they demonstrate the potential of applying continuous monitoring of soil radon to improve and optimize the detection of early warning signals of future

  12. Forecasting the 2011 El Hierro submarine eruption (Canary Islands) on the basis of soil He degassing surveys (United States)

    Padrón, E.; Pérez, N. M.; Hernández, P. A.; Melián, G. V.; Padilla, G. D.; Barrancos, J.; Dionis, S.; Rodríguez, F.; Nolasco, D.; Calvo, D.; Hernández, I.; Peraza, M. D.


    El Hierro Island is the southwesternmost and the youngest island of the Canary archipelago. Since 16 July, an anomalous seismicity at El Hierro island was recorded by IGN seismic network. After the occurrence of more than 10,000 seismic events, volcanic tremor was recorded since 05:15 of the October 10, by all of the seismic stations on the island, with highest amplitudes recorded in the southernmost station. During the afternoon of 12 October a large light-green coloured area was observed in the sea to the souht of La Restinga village (at the southernmost part of El Hierro island), suggesting the existence of a submarine eruption. Since October 12, frequent episodes of, turbulent gas emission and foaming, and the appearance of steamy lava fragments has been observed on the sea surface. As part of the volcanic surveillance of the island, the Instituto Volcanologico de Canarias (INVOLCAN) geochemical monitoring program is carrying out diffuse helium surveys on the surface environment of El Hierro (soil atmosphere). This nobel gas has been investigated because it has been considered an almost ideal geochemical indicator because it is chemically inert, physically stable, nonbiogenic, sparingly soluble in water under ambient conditions and almost non-adsorbable. At each survey, 600 sampling sites covering the whole island and following an homogeneous distribution are selected for helium measurements in the soil gases, The helium concentration gradients with respect to its value on air (5.24 ppm) allow us to estimate a pure diffusive emission rate of helium throughout the island. The first survey was carried out on the summer of 2003, when the island was on a quiescence period. At this survey, the amount of helium released by the volcanic system of El Hierro was estimated in 6 kg/d. Since the beginning of the seismic unrest, 13 helium emission surveys have been carried out. The helium emission rate has shown an excellent agreement with the evolution of the volcanic

  13. Deployment of a seismic array for volcano monitoring during the ongoing submarine eruption at El Hierro, Canary Islands (United States)

    Abella, R.; Almendros, J.; Carmona, E.; Martin, R.


    On 17 July 2011 there was an important increase of the seismic activity at El Hierro (Canary Islands, Spain). This increase was detected by the Volcano Monitoring Network (Spanish national seismic network) run by the Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN). As a consequence, the IGN immediately deployed a dense, complete monitoring network that included seismometers, GPS stations, geochemical equipment, magnetometers, and gravity meters. During the first three months of activity, the seismic network recorded over ten thousand volcano-tectonic earthquakes, with a maximum magnitude of 4.6. On 10 October 2011 an intense volcanic tremor started. It was a monochromatic signal, with variable amplitude and frequency content centered at about 1-2 Hz. The tremor onset was correlated with the initial stages of the submarine eruption that occurred from a vent located south of El Hierro island, near the village of La Restinga. At that point the IGN, in collaboration with the Instituto Andaluz de Geofísica, deployed a seismic array intended for volcanic tremor monitoring and analysis. The seismic array is located about 7 km NW of the submarine vent. It has a 12-channel, 24-bit data acquisition system sampling each channel at 100 sps. The array is composed by 1 three-component and 9 vertical-component seismometers, distributed in a flat area with an aperture of 360 m. The data provided by the seismic array are going to be processed using two different approaches: (1) near-real-time, to produce information that can be useful in the management of the volcanic crisis; and (2) detailed investigations, to study the volcanic tremor characteristics and relate them to the eruption dynamics. At this stage we are mostly dedicated to produce fast, near-real-time estimates. Preliminary results have been obtained using the maximum average cross-correlation method. They indicate that the tremor wavefronts are highly coherent among array stations and propagate across the seismic array with an


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galen Gisler


    Full Text Available Kick-em Jenny, in the Eastern Caribbean, is a submerged volcanic cone that has erupted a dozen or more times since its discovery in 1939. The most likely hazard posed by this volcano is to shipping in the immediate vicinity (through volcanic missiles or loss-of-buoyancy, but it is of interest to estimate upper limits on tsunamis that might be produced by a catastrophic explosive eruption. To this end, we have performed two-dimensional simulations of such an event in a geometry resembling that of Kick-em Jenny with our SAGE adaptive mesh Eulerian multifluid compressible hydrocode. We use realistic equations of state for air, water, and basalt, and follow the event from the initial explosive eruption, through the generation of a transient water cavity and the propagation of waves away from the site. We find that even for extremely catastrophic explosive eruptions, tsunamis from Kick-em Jenny are unlikely to pose significant danger to nearby islands. For comparison, we have also performed simulations of explosive eruptions at the much larger shield volcano Vailulu'u in the Samoan chain, where the greater energy available can produce a more impressive wave. In general, however, we conclude that explosive eruptions do not couple well to water waves. The waves that are produced from such events are turbulent and highly dissipative, and don't propagate well. This is consistent with what we have found previously in simulations of asteroid-impact generated tsunamis. Non-explosive events, however, such as landslides or gas hydrate releases, do couple well to waves, and our simulations of tsunamis generated by sub- aerial and sub-aqueous landslides demonstrate this.

  15. Field-trip guide for exploring pyroclastic density current deposits from the May 18, 1980, eruption of Mount St. Helens, Washington (United States)

    Brand, Brittany D.; Pollock, Nicholas; Sarocchi, Damiano; Dufek, Josef; Clynne, Michael A.


    Pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) are one of the most dangerous phenomena associated with explosive volcanism. To help constrain damage potential, a combination of field studies, laboratory experiments, and numerical modeling are used to establish conditions that influence PDC dynamics and depositional processes, including runout distance. The objective of this field trip is to explore field relations that may constrain PDCs at the time of emplacement.The PDC deposits from the May 18, 1980, eruption of Mount St. Helens are well exposed along the steep flanks (10–30° slopes) and across the pumice plain (5–12° slopes) as far as 8 km north of the volcano. The pumice plain deposits represent deposition from a series of concentrated PDCs and are primarily thick (3–12 m), massive, and poorly sorted. In contrast, the steep east-flank deposits are stratified to cross-stratified, suggesting deposition from PDCs where turbulence strongly influenced transport and depositional processes.The PDCs that descended the west flank were largely nondepositional; they maintained a higher flow energy and carrying capacity than PDCs funneled through the main breach, as evidenced by the higher concentration of large blocks in their deposits. The PDC from the west flank collided with PDCs funneled through the breach at various points along the pumice plain. Evidence for flow collision will be explored and debated throughout the field trip.Evidence for substrate erosion and entrainment is found (1) along the steep eastern flank of the volcano, which has a higher degree of rough, irregular topography relative to the west flanks where PDCs were likely nonerosive, (2) where PDCs encountered debris-avalanche hummocks across the pumice plain, and (3) where PDCs eroded and entrained material deposited by PDCs produced during earlier phases of the eruption. Two features interpreted as large-scale (tens of meters wide) levees and a large (~200 m wide) channel scour-and-fill feature

  16. The submarine volcano eruption off El Hierro Island: Effects on the scattering migrant biota and the evolution of the pelagic communities

    KAUST Repository

    Ariza, Alejandro


    The submarine volcano eruption off El Hierro Island (Canary Islands) on 10 October 2011 promoted dramatic perturbation of the water column leading to changes in the distribution of pelagic fauna. To study the response of the scattering biota, we combined acoustic data with hydrographic profiles and concurrent sea surface turbidity indexes from satellite imagery. We also monitored changes in the plankton and nekton communities through the eruptive and post-eruptive phases. Decrease of oxygen, acidification, rising temperature and deposition of chemicals in shallow waters resulted in a reduction of epipelagic stocks and a disruption of diel vertical migration (nocturnal ascent) of mesopelagic organisms. Furthermore, decreased light levels at depth caused by extinction in the volcanic plume resulted in a significant shallowing of the deep acoustic scattering layer. Once the eruption ceased, the distribution and abundances of the pelagic biota returned to baseline levels. There was no evidence of a volcano-induced bloom in the plankton community. © 2014 Ariza et al.

  17. Precursory diffuse CO2 and H2S emission signatures of the 2011-2012 El Hierro submarine eruption, Canary Islands (United States)

    Pérez, Nemesio M.; Padilla, Germán D.; Padrón, Eleazar; Hernández, Pedro A.; Melián, Gladys V.; Barrancos, José; Dionis, Samara; Nolasco, Dácil; Rodríguez, Fátima; Calvo, David; Hernández, Íñigo


    On October 12, 2011, a submarine eruption began 2 km off the coast of La Restinga, south of El Hierro Island. CO2 and H2S soil efflux were continuously measured during the period of volcanic unrest by using the accumulation chamber method at two different geochemical stations, HIE01 and HIE07. Recorded CO2 and H2S effluxes showed precursory signals that preceded the submarine eruption. Beginning in late August, the CO2 efflux time series started increasing at a relatively constant rate over one month, reaching a maximum of 19 gm-2d-1 one week before the onset of the submarine volcanic eruption. The H2S efflux time series at HIE07 showed a pulse in H2S emission just one day before the initiation of the submarine eruption, reaching peak values of 42 mg m-2 d-1, 10 times the average H2S efflux recorded during the observation period. Since CO2 and H2S effluxes are strongly influenced by external factors, we applied a multiple regression analysis to remove their contribution. A statistical analysis showed that the long-term trend of the filtered data is well correlated with the seismic energy. We find that these geochemical stations are important monitoring sites for evaluating the volcanic activity of El Hierro and that they demonstrate the potential of applying continuous monitoring of soil CO2 and H2S efflux to improve and optimize the detection of early warning signals of future volcanic unrest episodes at El Hierro. Continuous diffuse degassing studies would likely prove useful for monitoring other volcanoes during unrest episodes.

  18. The Utilization of Remotely Sensed Data to Analyze the Estimated Volume of Pyroclastic Deposits and Morphological Changes Caused by the 2010-2015 Eruption of Sinabung Volcano, North Sumatra, Indonesia (United States)

    Yulianto, Fajar; Suwarsono; Sofan, Parwati


    In this research, remotely sensed data has been used to estimate the volume of pyroclastic deposits and analyze morphological changes that have resulted from the eruption of Sinabung volcano. Topographic information was obtained from these data and used for rapid mapping to assist in the emergency response. Topographic information and change analyses (pre- and syn- eruption) were conducted using digital elevation models (DEMs) for the period 2010-2015. Advanced spaceborne thermal emission and reflection radiometer (ASTER) global digital elevation model (GDEM) data from 2009 were used to generate the initial DEMs for the condition prior to the eruption of 2010. Satellite pour l'observation de la terre 6 (SPOT 6) stereo images acquired on 21 June 2015 and were used to make a DEM for that time. The results show that the estimated total volume of lava and pyroclastic deposits, produced during the period 2010 to mid-2015 is approximately 2.8 × 108 m3. This estimated volume of pyroclastic deposits can be used to predict the magnitude of future secondary lahar hazards, which are also related to the capacity of rivers in the area. Morphological changes are illustrated using cross-sectional analysis of the deposits, which are currently deposited to the east, southeast and south of the volcano. Such analyses can also help in forecasting the direction of the future flow hazards. The remote sensing and analysis methods used at Sinabung can also be applied at other volcanoes and to assess the threats of other types of hazards such as landslides and land subsidence.

  19. Soil gas 222Rn and volcanic activity at El Hierro (Canary Islands) before and after the 2011 submarine eruption (United States)

    Padilla, G.; Hernández, P. A.; Padrón, E.; Barrancos, J.; Melián, G.; Dionis, S.; Rodríguez, F.; Nolasco, D.; Calvo, D.; Hernández, I.; Pereza, M. D.; Pérez, N. M.


    El Hierro (278 km2) is the southwesternmost island of the Canarian archipelago. From June 19, 2011 to January 2012, more than 11,950 seismic events have been detected by the seismic network of IGN. On 10 October 2011 the earthquake swarm changed its behaviour and produced a harmonic tremor due to magma movement, indicating that a submarine eruption located at 2 km south of La Restinga had started which is still in progress. Since 2003, the ITER Environmental Research Division now integrated in the Instituto Volcanológico de Canarias, INVOLCAN, has regularly performed soil gas surveys at El Hierro as a geochemical tool for volcanic surveillance. Among the investigated gases, soil gas radon (222Rn) and thoron (220Rn) have played a special attention. Both gases are characterized to ascend towards the surface mainly through cracks or faults via diffusion or advection, mechanisms dependent of both soil porosity and permeability, which in turn vary as a function of the stress/strain changes at depth. Years before the starts of the volcanic-seismic crisis on July 17, 2011, a volcanic multidisciplinary surveillance program was implemented at El Hierro including discrete and continuous measurements of 222Rn and 220Rn. Two soil gas 222Rn surveys had been carried out at El Hierro in 2003 and 2011, and four continuous geochemical monitoring stations for 222Rn and 220Rn measurements had been installed (HIE02, HIE03, HIE04 and HIE08). Soil gas 222Rn surveys were carried out at the surface environment of El Hierro after selecting 600 sampling observation sites (about 40 cm depth). Geochemical stations measure 222Rn and 220Rn activities by pumping the gas from a PVC pipe inserted 1m in the ground and thermally isolated. The results of the 2003 and 2011 soil gas 222Rn surveys show clearly a relatively higher observed 222Rn activities in the surface environment on 2011 than those observed on 2003 when no anomalous seismicity were taking place beneath El Hierro. The observed

  20. Spatial and temporal variations of diffuse CO2 degassing at El Hierro volcanic system: Relation to the 2011-2012 submarine eruption (United States)

    Melián, Gladys; Hernández, Pedro A.; Padrón, Eleazar; Pérez, Nemesio M.; Barrancos, José; Padilla, Germán.; Dionis, Samara; Rodríguez, Fátima; Calvo, David; Nolasco, Dacil


    We report herein the results of extensive diffuse CO2 emission surveys performed on El Hierro Island in the period 1998-2012. More than 17,000 measurements of the diffuse CO2 efflux were carried out, most of them during the volcanic unrest period that started in July 2011. Two significant precursory signals based on geochemical and geodetical studies suggest that a magma intrusion processes might have started before 2011 in El Hierro Island. During the preeruptive and eruptive periods, the time series of the diffuse CO2 emission released by the whole island experienced two significant increases. The first started almost 2 weeks before the onset of the submarine eruption, reflecting a clear geochemical anomaly in CO2 emission, most likely due to increasing release of deep-seated magmatic gases to the surface. The second one, between 24 October and 27 November 2011, started before the most energetic seismic events of the volcanic-seismic unrest. The data presented here demonstrate that combined continuous monitoring studies and discrete surveys of diffuse CO2 emission provide important information to optimize the early warning system in volcano monitoring programs and to monitor the evolution of an ongoing volcanic eruption, even though it is a submarine eruption.

  1. Post-eruptive flooding of Santorini caldera and implications for tsunami generation (United States)

    Nomikou, P.; Druitt, T. H.; Hübscher, C.; Mather, T. A.; Paulatto, M.; Kalnins, L. M.; Kelfoun, K.; Papanikolaou, D.; Bejelou, K.; Lampridou, D.; Pyle, D. M.; Carey, S.; Watts, A. B.; Weiß, B.; Parks, M. M.


    Caldera-forming eruptions of island volcanoes generate tsunamis by the interaction of different eruptive phenomena with the sea. Such tsunamis are a major hazard, but forward models of their impacts are limited by poor understanding of source mechanisms. The caldera-forming eruption of Santorini in the Late Bronze Age is known to have been tsunamigenic, and caldera collapse has been proposed as a mechanism. Here, we present bathymetric and seismic evidence showing that the caldera was not open to the sea during the main phase of the eruption, but was flooded once the eruption had finished. Inflow of water and associated landsliding cut a deep, 2.0–2.5 km3, submarine channel, thus filling the caldera in less than a couple of days. If, as at most such volcanoes, caldera collapse occurred syn-eruptively, then it cannot have generated tsunamis. Entry of pyroclastic flows into the sea, combined with slumping of submarine pyroclastic accumulations, were the main mechanisms of tsunami production. PMID:27824353

  2. Submarine seismic monitoring of El Hierro volcanic eruption with a 3C-geophone string: applying new acquisition and data processing techniques to volcano monitoring (United States)

    Jurado, Maria Jose; Ripepe, Maurizio; Lopez, Carmen; Blanco, Maria Jose; Crespo, Jose


    A submarine volcanic eruption took place near the southernmost emerged land of the El Hierro Island (Canary Islands, Spain), from October 2011 to February 2012. The Instituto Geografico Nacional (IGN) seismic stations network evidenced seismic unrest since July 2011 and was a reference also to follow the evolution of the seismic activity associated with the volcanic eruption. Right after the eruption onset, in October 2011 a geophone string was deployed by the CSIC-IGN to monitor seismic activity. Monitoring with the seismic array continued till May 2012. The array was installed less than 2 km away from the new vol¬cano, next to La Restinga village shore in the harbor from 6 to 12m deep into the water. Our purpose was to record seismic activity related to the volcanic activity, continuously and with special interest on high frequency events. The seismic array was endowed with 8, high frequency, 3 component, 250 Hz, geophone cable string with a separation of 6 m between them. Each geophone consists on a 3-component module based on 3 orthogonal independent sensors that measures ground velocity. Some of the geophones were placed directly on the seabed, some were buried. Due to different factors, as the irregular characteristics of the seafloor. The data was recorded on the surface with a seismometer and stored on a laptop computer. We show how acoustic data collected underwater show a great correlation with the seismic data recorded on land. Finally we compare our data analysis results with the observed sea surface activity (ash and lava emission and degassing). This evidence is disclosing new and innovative tecniques on monitoring submarine volcanic activity. Reference Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN), "Serie El Hierro." Internet: /volcanologia/HIERRO.html [May, 17. 2013

  3. Active Submarine Volcanoes and Electro-Optical Sensor Networks: The Potential of Capturing and Quantifying an Entire Eruptive Sequence at Axial Seamount, Juan de Fuca Ridge (United States)

    Delaney, J. R.; Kelley, D. S.; Proskurowski, G.; Fundis, A. T.; Kawka, O.


    The NE Pacific Regional Scale Nodes (RSN) component of the NSF Ocean Observatories Initiative is designed to provide unprecedented electrical power and bandwidth to the base and summit of Axial Seamount. The scientific community is engaged in identifying a host of existing and innovative observation and measurement techniques that utilize the high-power and bandwidth infrastructure and its real-time transmission capabilities. The cable, mooring, and sensor arrays will enable the first quantitative documentation of myriad processes leading up to, during, and following a submarine volcanic event. Currently planned RSN instrument arrays will provide important and concurrent spatial and temporal constraints on earthquake activity, melt migration, hydrothermal venting behavior and chemistry, ambient currents, microbial community structure, high-definition (HD) still images and HD video streaming from the vents, and water-column chemistry in the overlying ocean. Anticipated, but not yet funded, additions will include AUVs and gliders that continually document the spatial-temporal variations in the water column above the volcano and the distal zones. When an eruption appears imminent the frequency of sampling will be increased remotely, and the potential of repurposing the tracking capabilities of the mobile sensing platforms will be adapted to the spatial indicators of likely eruption activity. As the eruption begins mobile platforms will fully define the geometry, temperature, and chemical-microbial character of the volcanic plume as it rises into the thoroughly documented control volume above the volcano. Via the Internet the scientific community will be able to witness and direct adaptive sampling in response to changing conditions of plume formation. A major goal will be to document the eruptive volume and link the eruption duration to the volume of erupted magma. For the first time, it will be possible to begin to quantify the time-integrated output of an underwater

  4. Hydroacoustic, infrasonic and seismic monitoring of the submarine eruptive activity and sub-aerial plume generation at South Sarigan, May 2010 (United States)

    Green, David N.; Evers, Läslo G.; Fee, David; Matoza, Robin S.; Snellen, Mirjam; Smets, Pieter; Simons, Dick


    Explosive submarine volcanic processes are poorly understood, due to the difficulties associated with both direct observation and continuous monitoring. In this study hydroacoustic, infrasound, and seismic signals recorded during the May 2010 submarine eruption of South Sarigan seamount, Marianas Arc, are used to construct a detailed event chronology. The signals were recorded on stations of the International Monitoring System, which is a component of the verification measures for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. Numerical hydroacoustic and infrasound propagation modelling confirms that viable propagation paths from the source to receivers exist, and provide traveltimes allowing signals recorded on the different technologies to be associated. The eruption occurred in three stages, separated by three-hour periods of quiescence. 1) A 46 h period during which broadband impulsive hydroacoustic signals were generated in clusters lasting between 2 and 13 min. 95% of the 7602 identified events could be classified into 4 groups based on their waveform similarity. The time interval between clusters decreased steadily from 80 to 25 min during this period. 2) A five-hour period of 10 Hz hydroacoustic tremor, interspersed with large-amplitude, broadband signals. Associated infrasound signals were also recorded at this time. 3) An hour-long period of transient broadband events culminated in two large-amplitude hydroacoustic events and one broadband infrasound signal. A speculative interpretation, consistent with the data, suggests that during phase (1) transitions between endogenous dome growth and phreatomagmatic explosions occurred with the magma ascent rate accelerating throughout the period; during phase (2) continuous venting of fragmented magma occurred, and was powerful enough to breach the sea surface. During the climactic phase (3) discrete powerful explosions occurred, and sufficient seawater was vaporised to produce the contemporaneous 12 km altitude steam

  5. Applying Fractal Dimensions and Energy-Budget Analysis to Characterize Fracturing Processes During Magma Migration and Eruption: 2011-2012 El Hierro (Canary Islands) Submarine Eruption (United States)

    López, Carmen; Martí, Joan; Abella, Rafael; Tarraga, Marta


    The impossibility of observing magma migration inside the crust obliges us to rely on geophysical data and mathematical modelling to interpret precursors and to forecast volcanic eruptions. Of the geophysical signals that may be recorded before and during an eruption, deformation and seismicity are two of the most relevant as they are directly related to its dynamic. The final phase of the unrest episode that preceded the 2011-2012 eruption on El Hierro (Canary Islands) was characterized by local and accelerated deformation and seismic energy release indicating an increasing fracturing and a migration of the magma. Application of time varying fractal analysis to the seismic data and the characterization of the seismicity pattern and the strain and the stress rates allow us to identify different stages in the source mechanism and to infer the geometry of the path used by the magma and associated fluids to reach the Earth's surface. The results obtained illustrate the relevance of such studies to understanding volcanic unrest and the causes that govern the initiation of volcanic eruptions.

  6. Directed blasts and blast-generated pyroclastic density currents: a comparison of the Bezymianny 1956, Mount St Helens 1980, and Soufrière Hills, Montserrat 1997 eruptions and deposits (United States)

    Belousov, Alexander; Voight, Barry; Belousova, Marina


    We compare eruptive dynamics, effects and deposits of the Bezymianny 1956 (BZ), Mount St Helens 1980 (MSH), and Soufrière Hills volcano, Montserrat 1997 (SHV) eruptions, the key events of which included powerful directed blasts. Each blast subsequently generated a high-energy stratified pyroclastic density current (PDC) with a high speed at onset. The blasts were triggered by rapid unloading of an extruding or intruding shallow magma body (lava dome and/or cryptodome) of andesitic or dacitic composition. The unloading was caused by sector failures of the volcanic edifices, with respective volumes for BZ, MSH, and SHV c. 0.5, 2.5, and 0.05 km3 . The blasts devastated approximately elliptical areas, axial directions of which coincided with the directions of sector failures. We separate the transient directed blast phenomenon into three main parts, the burst phase, the collapse phase, and the PDC phase. In the burst phase the pressurized mixture is driven by initial kinetic energy and expands rapidly into the atmosphere, with much of the expansion having an initially lateral component. The erupted material fails to mix with sufficient air to form a buoyant column, but in the collapse phase, falls beyond the source as an inclined fountain, and thereafter generates a PDC moving parallel to the ground surface. It is possible for the burst phase to comprise an overpressured jet, which requires injection of momentum from an orifice; however some exploding sources may have different geometry and a jet is not necessarily formed. A major unresolved question is whether the preponderance of strong damage observed in the volcanic blasts should be attributed to shock waves within an overpressured jet, or alternatively to dynamic pressures and shocks within the energetic collapse and PDC phases. Internal shock structures related to unsteady flow and compressibility effects can occur in each phase. We withhold judgment about published shock models as a primary explanation for the

  7. Textural constraints on the dynamics of the 2000 Miyakejima eruption (United States)

    Garozzo, Ileana; Romano, Claudia; Giordano, Guido; Geshi, Nobuo; Vona, Alessandro


    Miyakejima Volcano is a basaltic-andesite stratovolcano active from ~10.000 years, located on the north of the Izu-Bonin arc. During the last 600 years the volcano has been characterized mainly by flank fissure activity, with explosive phreatomagmatic eruptions on the coastal areas. In the last century, the activity became more frequent and regular with intervals of 20 to 70 years (1940, 1962, 1983 and 2000). The last activity started on 27 June 2000, with a minor submarine eruption on the west coast of the volcano, and proceeded with six major summit eruptions from July 8 to August 29. The eruptions led to the formation of a collapse caldera ~1.6 km across. The total erupted tephra represents only 1.7% in volume of the caldera, the high fragmentation of magma produced mainly fine-grained volcanic ash. In order to improve the understanding on the triggering and dynamics of this explosive eruption, we carried out a detailed investigation of the erupted materials with particular attention to the textural features of juvenile pyroclasts (Vesicle and Crystal Size Distributions). The stratigraphic record can be divided into six fall units, corresponding to the six summit eruptions, although juvenile materials were identified only in 4 units (unit 2, 4, 5, 6). We selected about 100 juvenile grains sampled from the bottom to the top of each level, to be analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. The study of juvenile morphological features allowed us to recognize the existence of three characteristic morphotypes, showing marked differences in their external morphologies and internal textures (from poorly to highly crystallized and vesiculated clasts). The distribution of these morphotypes is non-homogeneous along the eruptive sequence indicating changes of dynamics during magma ascent. Juveniles do not show features inherited from the interaction with external water. Vesicle Volume Distributions of the selected ash grains show that the three types of pyroclasts experienced

  8. Generation of pyroclastic density currents from pyroclastic fountaining or transient explosions: insights from large scale experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sulpizio, Roberto; Dellino, Pierfrancesco; Mele, Daniela; La Volpe, Luigi [CIRISIVU, c/o Dipartimento Geomineralogico, via Orabona 4, 70125, Bari (Italy)], E-mail:


    Pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) are among the most amazing, complex and dangerous volcanic phenomena. They are moving mixtures of particles and gas that flow across the ground, and originate in different ways and from various sources, during explosive eruptions or gravity-driven collapse of domes. We present results from experimental work to investigate the generation of large-scale, multiphase, gravity-driven currents. The experiments described here are particularly devoted to understanding the inception and development of PDCs under impulsive injection conditions by means of the fast application of a finite stress to a finite mass of pyroclastic particles via expansion of compressed gas. We find that, in summary, PDC generation from collapse of pressure-adjusted or overpressurised pyroclastic jets critically depends on behaviour of injection into the atmosphere, which controls the collapsing mechanisms and then the physical parameters of the initiating current.

  9. Pyroclastic Deposits in the Floor-fractured Crater Alphonsus (United States)

    Allen, Carlton C.; Donaldson-Hanna, Kerri L.; Pieters, Carle M.; Moriarty, Daniel P.; Greenhagen, Benjamin T.; Bennett, Kristen A.; Kramer, Georgiana Y.; Paige, David A.


    Alphonsus, the 118 km diameter floor-fractured crater, is located immediately east of Mare Nubium. Eleven pyroclastic deposits have been identified on the crater's floor. Early telescopic spectra suggest that the floor of Alphonsus is noritic, and that the pyroclastic deposits contain mixtures of floor material and a juvenile component including basaltic glass. Head and Wilson contend that Nubium lavas intruded the breccia zone beneath Alphonsus, forming dikes and fractures on the crater floor. In this model, the magma ascended to the level of the mare but cooled underground, and a portion broke thru to the surface in vulcanian (explosive) eruptions. Alternatively, the erupted material could be from a source unrelated to the mare, in the style of regional pyroclastic deposits. High-resolution images and spectroscopy from the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3), Diviner Lunar Radiometer, and Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) provide data to test these formation models. Spectra from M3 confirm that the crater floor is primarily composed of noritic material, and that the Nubium lavas are basaltic. Spectra from the three largest pyroclastic deposits in Alphonsus are consistent with a minor low- Ca pyroxene component in a glass-rich matrix. The centers of the 2 micron absorption bands have wavelengths too short to be of the same origin as the Nubium basalts. Diviner Christiansen feature (CF) values were used to estimate FeO abundances for the crater floor, Nubium soil, and pyroclastic deposits. The estimated abundance for the crater floor (7.5 +/- 1.4 wt.%) is within the range of FeO values for Apollo norite samples. However, the estimated FeO abundance for Nubium soil (13.4 +/- 1.4 wt.%) is lower than those measured in most mare samples. The difference may reflect contamination of the mare soil by highland ejecta. The Diviner-derived FeO abundance for the western pyroclastic deposit is 13.8 +/- 3.3 wt.%. This is lower than the values for mare soil

  10. Formation of obsidian pyroclasts by sintering of ash particles in the volcanic conduit (United States)

    Gardner, James E.; Llewellin, Edward W.; Watkins, James M.; Befus, Kenneth S.


    The ranges in intensity and style of volcanic eruptions, from highly explosive Plinian eruptions to quiescent lava extrusions, depend on the style and efficiency of gas loss from ascending magma. Obsidian pyroclasts - small, glassy pieces of quenched magma found in some volcanic tephra beds - may preserve valuable information about magma degassing in their vesicle textures and volatile contents. Accurate interpretation of their textures and volatiles, however, requires understanding the mechanism of formation of the pyroclasts. Obsidian pyroclasts from the ca. 1325-1350 C.E. North Mono eruption of Mono Craters (CA, USA) were analyzed and found to have H2O and CO2 contents indicating that they were formed at pressures in the approximate range of 3-40 MPa. Many also contain domains with differing vesicle textures, separated by boundaries containing xenocrystic material, indicating that they are composed of smaller fragments that have sutured together. More than half of the pyroclasts analyzed contained small (∼10 μm), highly distorted vesicles, with multi-cuspate morphology, interpreted as the remnants of interstitial gas trapped amongst sintered fragments of melt/glass. Rounded vesicles are also common and are interpreted to result from surface tension-driven relaxation of the distorted vesicles. Calculated timescales of sintering and relaxation are consistent with timescales for pyroclast formation indicated by H2O re-equilibration within the heterogeneous pyroclasts. This sintering model for the origin of obsidian pyroclasts is further supported by the observation that spherical vesicles are found mainly in H2O-rich pyroclasts, and distorted vesicles mainly in H2O-poor pyroclasts. We conclude that obsidian pyroclasts generated during the North Mono eruption were formed by cycles of fragmentation, sintering/suturing, and relaxation, over a very wide range of depths within the conduit; we find no evidence to support pumice (foam) collapse as the formation

  11. Analysis of the Pyroclastic Flow Deposits of Mount Sinabung and Merapi Using Landsat Imagery and the Artificial Neural Networks Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prima Riza Kadavi


    Full Text Available Volcanic eruptions cause pyroclastic flows, which can destroy plantations and settlements. We used image data from Landsat 7 Bands 7, 4 and 2 and Landsat 8 Bands 7, 5 and 3 to observe and analyze the distribution of pyroclastic flow deposits for two volcanos, Mount Sinabung and Merapi, over a period of 10 years (2001–2017. The satellite data are used in conjunction with an artificial neural network method to produce maps of pyroclastic precipitation for Landsat 7 and 8, then we calculated the pyroclastic precipitation area using an artificial neural network method after dividing the images into four classes based on color. Red, green, blue and yellow were used to indicate pyroclastic deposits, vegetation and forest, water and cloud, and farmland, respectively. The area affected by a volcanic eruption was deduced from the neural network processing, including calculating the area of pyroclastic deposits. The main differences between the pyroclastic flow deposits of Mount Sinabung and Mount Merapi are: the sediment deposits of the pyroclastic flows of Mount Sinabung tend to widen, whereas those of Merapi elongated; the direction of pyroclastic flow differed; and the area affected by an eruption was greater for Mount Merapi than Mount Sinabung because the VEI (Volcanic Explosivity Index during the last 10 years of Mount Merapi was larger than Mount Sinabung.

  12. Pyroclastic rocks: another manifestation of ultramafic volcanism on Gorgona Island, Colombia (United States)

    Echeverría, Lina M.; Aitken, Bruce G.


    Tertiary ultramafic volcanism on Gorgona Island, Colombia, is manifested not only by komatiite flows, but also by a more voluminous sequence of tuff breccias, which is cut by comagmatic picrite dikes. The ultramafic pyroclastic rocks are chaotic to stratified mixtures of angular to subrounded glassy picritic blocks and a fine grained volcaniclastic matrix that consists primarily of plastically-deformed, glassy globules. The entire deposit is interpreted to have formed by an explosive submarine eruption of phenocryst-laden picritic magma. MgO contents of tuff breccias and picrite dikes range from 21 to 27 wt%. Relative to nearby komatiite flows, these rocks are MgO-rich, and FeO-, TiO2- and Ni-poor. HREE concentrations are very low (

  13. The Summer 1997 Eruption at Pillan Patera on Io: Implications for Ultrabasic Lava Flow Emplacement (United States)

    Williams, David A.; Davies, Ashley G.; Keszthelyi, Laszlo P.; Greeley, Ronald


    Galileo data and numerical modeling were used to investigate the summer 1977 eruption at Pillan Patera on Io. This event, now defined as "Pillanian" eruption style, included a high-temperature (greater than 1600 C), possible ultrabasic , 140-km-high plume eruption that deposited dark, orthopyroxene-rich pyroclastic material over greater than 125,000 sq km, followed by emplacement of dark flow-like material over greater than 3100 sq km to the north of the caldera. We estimate that the high-temperature, energetic episode of this eruption had a duration of 52 - 167 days between May and September 1997, with peak eruption temperatures around June 28, 1997. Galileo 20 m/pixel images of part of the Pillan flow field show a wide-spread, rough, pitted surface that is unlike any flow surface we have seen before. We suggest that this surface may have resulted from: 1. A fractured lava crust formed during rapid, low-viscosity lava surging, perhaps including turbulent flow emplacement. 2. Disruption of the lava flow by explosive interaction with a volatile-rich substrate. or 3. A combination of 1 and 2 with or without accumulation of pyroclastic material on the surface. Well-developed flow lobes are observed, suggesting that this is a relatively distant part of the flow field.Shadow measurements at flow margins indicate a thickness of-8 - 10 m. We have modeled the emplacement of putative ultrabasic flow from the summer 1997 Pillan eruption using constraints from new Galileo data. Results suggest that either laminar sheet flows or turbulent channelized flows could have traveled 50 - 150 km on a flat, unobstructed surface, which is consistent with the estimated length of the Pillan flow field (approx. 60 km). Our modeling suggests low thermal erosion rates (less than 4.1 m/d), and that the formation of deep (greater than 20 m) erosion channels was unlikely, especially distal to the source. We calculate a volumetric flow rate of approx. 2 - 7 x 10(exp 3)cu m/s, which is greater

  14. A First: Detailed Tracking of an Erupting Undersea Volcano and its Impacts on the Overlying Ocean via a Submarine Electro-Optical Sensor Network. (United States)

    Delaney, J. R.


    The scientifically diverse and technologically advanced cabled array component of the NSF's Ocean Observatories Initiative consists of 900 km of electro-optical fiber deployed from Pacific City, OR, across active portions of the Juan de Fuca (JdF) tectonic plate, and upward into the overlying ocean. This array, completed in 2014 on time and under budget, enables real-time, high-bandwidth, 2-way communication with seafloor and water column sensor arrays across: 1. the Cascadia accretionary prism, 2. the JdF spreading center, and, 3. portions of the overlying NE Pacific. Oceanographic processes in coastal waters, the California Current, and up to 400 km offshore, are captured by six remote-controlled, profiling moorings covering full-ocean depths. Currently, 6 primary nodes, 17 junction boxes, and 85% of 150 instruments are transmitting data ashore to the Internet via the Pacific NW Gigapop ( All data are archived at the U. of Washington, pending completion of the OOI CyberInfrastructure in October 2015. In 2014, community requests to access data to assess inflation at Axial Seamount, resulted in NSF releasing real-time data from 7 seismometers and 3 pressure sensors (IRIS: On April 20-22, 90 participants, met in Seattle to explore scientific responses to an eruption ( On April 24, Axial did erupt; seismic events rose dramatically to many hundreds/hour the Axial caldera floor dropped 2.4 m in 16 hours and water temperatures rose by 0.7°C, then declined in 3 weeks to normal values. Water-borne acoustic signals indicated seafloor activity along the rift zone north of Axial. Water column observations also indicated that a large plume of hydrothermal fluid was released during the eruptions. Follow-on field programs documented a 127 m thick lava flow on the northern rift, and a thin eruption within the caldera. These events signal a new era in Ocean Sciences as instantaneous Internet

  15. Submarine hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Renilson, Martin


    This book adopts a practical approach and presents recent research together with applications in real submarine design and operation. Topics covered include hydrostatics, manoeuvring, resistance and propulsion of submarines. The author briefly reviews basic concepts in ship hydrodynamics and goes on to show how they are applied to submarines, including a look at the use of physical model experiments. The issues associated with manoeuvring in both the horizontal and vertical planes are explained, and readers will discover suggested criteria for stability, along with rudder and hydroplane effectiveness. The book includes a section on appendage design which includes information on sail design, different arrangements of bow planes and alternative stern configurations. Other themes explored in this book include hydro-acoustic performance, the components of resistance and the effect of hull shape. Readers will value the author’s applied experience as well as the empirical expressions that are presented for use a...

  16. Investigating the use of Pyroclastics for Palaeointensity Determinations (United States)

    Paterson, G. A.; Muxworthy, A. R.; Roberts, A. P.; Mac Niocaill, C.


    Palaeointensity experiments are time consuming and prone to failure, making it difficult to obtain good data. This limits the global palaeointensity database, which has inadequate spatial and temporal resolution. Developing reliable yet efficient experimental techniques is important for improving data quality, as is expanding the range of materials to investigate. By characterizing and understanding the behaviour of different materials, such as lithic clasts found within pyroclastic flows, we can assess their potential usefulness as palaeomagnetic recorders. Pre-existing lithic fragments are reheated as they are incorporated into pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) and their subsequent deposits. This partially resets their magnetization to record the ambient field at the time of eruption. The explosive nature of volcanic eruptions associated with PDCs frequently results in a wide range of lithic fragments in such deposits and the high temperatures involved (up to ~1200°C) can allow acquisition of an entirely new magnetization. We have studied the pyroclastic deposits of four historic volcanoes: Láscar in the Chilean Andes, Colima in Mexico, Mount St. Helens, USA, and Vesuvius, Italy. At Láscar, the emplacement temperature of the deposits exceeds the Curie temperature of the magnetic minerals, which maximizes the potential temperature range for obtaining palaeointensity determinations. Triple heating palaeointensity experiments, with strict selection criteria, yield a mean palaeointensity of 24.3±2.1 μT (N=22), which is in good agreement with the expected value of 24 μT. This indicates that the method has promise. The use of multiple lithologies in a single palaeointensity determination also provides confidence that the result is not biased by alteration within one of the lithologies. Pyroclastics, however, still suffer from the problems associated with palaeointensity experiments on lava flows. Samples collected from Mount St. Helens show a high degree of

  17. The grain-size distribution of pyroclasts: Primary fragmentation, conduit sorting or abrasion? (United States)

    Kueppers, U.; Schauroth, J.; Taddeucci, J.


    Explosive volcanic eruptions expel a mixture of pyroclasts and lithics. Pyroclasts, fragments of the juvenile magma, record the state of the magma at fragmentation in terms of porosity and crystallinity. The grain size distribution of pyroclasts is generally considered to be a direct consequence of the conditions at magma fragmentation that is mainly driven by gas overpressure in bubbles, high shear rates, contact with external water or a combination of these factors. Stress exerted by any of these processes will lead to brittle fragmentation by overcoming the magma's relaxation timescale. As a consequence, most pyroclasts exhibit angular shapes. Upon magma fragmentation, the gas pyroclast mixture is accelerated upwards and eventually ejected from the vent. The total grain size distribution deposited is a function of fragmentation conditions and transport related sorting. Porous pyroclasts are very susceptible to abrasion by particle-particle or particle-conduit wall interaction. Accordingly, pyroclastic fall deposits with angular clasts should proof a low particle abrasion upon contact to other surfaces. In an attempt to constrain the degree of particle interaction during conduit flow, monomodal batches of washed pyroclasts have been accelerated upwards by rapid decompression and subsequently investigated for their grain size distribution. In our set-up, we used a vertical cylindrical tube without surface roughness as conduit. We varied grain size (0.125-0.25; 0.5-1; 1-2 mm), porosity (0; 10; 30 %), gas-particle ratio (10 and 40%), conduit length (10 and 28 cm) and conduit diameter (2.5 and 6 cm). All ejected particles were collected after settling at the base of a 3.3 m high tank and sieved at one sieve size below starting size (half-Φ). Grain size reduction showed a positive correlation with starting grain size, porosity and overpressure at the vent. Although milling in a volcanic conduit may take place, porous pyroclasts are very likely to be a primary product

  18. Phreatomagmatic eruptive and depositional processes during the 1949 eruption on La Palma (Canary Islands) (United States)

    White, James D. L.; Schmincke, Hans-Ulrich


    In 1949, a 5-week-long magmatic and phreatomagmatic eruption took place along the active volcanic ridge of La Palma (Canary Islands). Two vents, Duraznero and Hoyo Negro, produced significant pyroclastic deposits. The eruption began from Duraznero vent, which produced a series of deposits with an upward decrease in accidental fragments and increase in fluidal ash and spatter, together inferred to indicate decreasing phreatomagmatic interaction. Hoyo Negro erupted over a 2-week period, producing a variety of pyroclastic density currents and ballistic blocks and bombs. Hoyo Negro erupted within and modified an older crater having high walls on the northern to southeastern edges. Southwestern to western margins of the crater lay 50 to 100 m lower. Strongly contrasting deposits in the different sectors (N-SE vs. SW-W) were formed as a result of interaction between topography, weak eruptive columns and stratified pyroclastic density currents. Tephra ring deposits are thicker and coarser-grained than upper rim deposits formed along the higher edges of the crater, and beyond the crater margin, valley-confined deposits are thicker than more thinly bedded mantling deposits on higher topography. These differences indicate that the impact zone for the bulk of the collapsing, tephra-laden column lay within the crater and that the high crater walls inhibited escape of pyroclastic density currents to the north and east. The impact zone lay outside the low SW-W rims, however, thus allowing stratified pyroclastic density currents to move freely away from the crater in those directions, depositing thin sections (<30 cm) of well-bedded ash (mantling deposits) on ridges and thicker sections (1-3 m) of structureless ash beds in valleys and small basins. Such segregation of dense pyroclastic currents from more dilute ones at the crater wall is likely to be common for small eruptions from pre-existing craters and is an important factor to be taken into account in volcanic hazards

  19. Active Eruptions in the NE Lau Basin (United States)

    Resing, J. A.; Embley, R. W.


    NE Lau Response Team: K Rubin, E Baker, J Lupton, M Lilley, T Shank, S Merle, R Dziak, T Collasius (Jason 2 Expedition Leader), N Buck, T Baumberger, D Butterfield, D Clague, D Conlin, J Cowen, R Davis, L Evans, J Huber, M Keith, N Keller, P Michael, E Podowski, A-L Reysenbach, K Roe, H Thomas, S Walker. During a May 2009 cruise to W Mata volcano in the NE Lau Basin, we made the first observations of an active eruption on the deep-sea floor. The cruise was organized after volcanic activity was detected at two sites (W Mata volcano and NE Lau Spreading Center, NELSC) during a Nov. 2008 NOAA-PMEL expedition. At that time, both sites had elevated H2 concentrations and volcaniclastic shards in the hydrothermal plumes. Moored hydrophone data since Jan 2009 indicate that the activity at W Mata has been continuous between these expeditions. Results of our cruise and other work suggest that the NE Lau Basin hosts an unusually high level of magmatic activity, making it an ideal location to study the effects of magmatic processes on hydrothermal activity and associated ecosystems. W Mata was visited with 5 ROV Jason 2 dives and 2 dives with the MBARI autonomous mapping vehicle in May 2009. It was actively erupting at the 1200 m deep summit during each, so a hydrophone was deployed locally to collect acoustic data. Ship and shore-based analysis of HD video, molten lava, rocks, sediments, hot spring waters, and micro- and macro biological specimens collected by Jason 2 have provided a wealth of data. The eruption itself was characterized by extrusion of red, molten lava, extensive degassing, formation of large magma bubbles, explosive pyroclast ejection, and the active extrusion of pillow lavas. The erupting magmas are boninite, a relatively rare magma type found only at convergent margins. The hydrothermal fluids are generally acidic and all diffuse fluids collected were microbially active, even those at pH 20 yrs the PMEL-Vents and NSF RIDGE programs have sought to observe

  20. Explosive Volcanic Eruptions from Linear Vents on Earth, Venus and Mars: Comparisons with Circular Vent Eruptions (United States)

    Glaze, Lori S.; Baloga, Stephen M.; Wimert, Jesse


    Conditions required to support buoyant convective plumes are investigated for explosive volcanic eruptions from circular and linear vents on Earth, Venus, and Mars. Vent geometry (linear versus circular) plays a significant role in the ability of an explosive eruption to sustain a buoyant plume. On Earth, linear and circular vent eruptions are both capable of driving buoyant plumes to equivalent maximum rise heights, however, linear vent plumes are more sensitive to vent size. For analogous mass eruption rates, linear vent plumes surpass circular vent plumes in entrainment efficiency approximately when L(sub o) > 3r(sub o) owing to the larger entrainment area relative to the control volume. Relative to circular vents, linear vents on Venus favor column collapse and the formation of pyroclastic flows because the range of conditions required to establish and sustain buoyancy is narrow. When buoyancy can be sustained, however, maximum plume heights exceed those from circular vents. For current atmospheric conditions on Mars, linear vent eruptions are capable of injecting volcanic material slightly higher than analogous circular vent eruptions. However, both geometries are more likely to produce pyroclastic fountains, as opposed to convective plumes, owing to the low density atmosphere. Due to the atmospheric density profile and water content on Earth, explosive eruptions enjoy favorable conditions for producing sustained buoyant columns, while pyroclastic flows would be relatively more prevalent on Venus and Mars. These results have implications for the injection and dispersal of particulates into the planetary atmosphere and the ability to interpret the geologic record of planetary volcanism.

  1. Tephrostratigraphy of the A.D. 79 pyroclastic deposits in perivolcanic areas of Mt. Vesuvio (Italy) (United States)

    Lirer, Lucio; Munno, Rosalba; Petrosino, Paola; Vinci, Anna


    Correlations between pyroclastic deposits in perivolcanic areas are often complicated by lateral and vertical textural variations linked to very localized depositional effects. In this regard, a detailed sampling of A.D. 79 eruption products has been performed in the main archaeological sites of the perivolcanic area, with the aim of carrying out a grain-size, compositional and geochemical investigation so as to identify the marker layers from different stratigraphic successions and thus reconstruct the eruptive sequence. In order to process the large number of data available, a statistical approach was considered the most suitable. Statistical processing highlighted 14 marker layers among the fall, stratified surge and pyroclastic flow deposits. Furthermore statistical analysis made it possible to correlate pyroclastic flow and surge deposits interbedded with fall, interpreted as a lateral facies variation. Finally, the passage from magmatic to hydromagmatic activity is marked by the deposition of pyroclastic flow, surge and accretionary lapilli-bearing deposits. No transitional phase from magmatic to hydromagmatic activity has been recognized.

  2. Compositional analyses of small lunar pyroclastic deposits using Clementine multispectral data (United States)

    Gaddis, L.R.; Hawke, B.R.; Robinson, M.S.; Coombs, C.


    Clementine ultraviolet-visible (UVVIS) data are used to examine the compositions of 18 pyroclastic deposits (15 small, three large) at 13 sites on the Moon. Compositional variations among pyroclastic deposits largely result from differing amounts of new basaltic (or juvenile) material and reworked local material entrained in their ejecta upon eruption. Characterization of pyroclastic deposit compositions allows us to understand the mechanisms of lunar explosive volcanism. Evidence for compositional differences between small pyroclastic deposits at a single site is observed at Atlas crater. At all sites, compositional variation among the small pyroclastic deposits is consistent with earlier classification based on Earth-based spectra: three compositional groups can be observed, and the trend of increasing mafic absorption band strength from Group 1 to Group 2 to Group 3 is noted. As redefined here, Group 1 deposits include those of Alphonsus West, Alphonsus Southeast, Alphonsus Northeast 2, Atlas South, Crüger, Franklin, Grimaldi, Lavoisier, Oppenheimer, Orientale, and Riccioli. Group 1 deposits resemble lunar highlands, with weak mafic bands and relatively high UV/VIS ratios. Group 2 deposits include those of Alphonsus Northeast 1, Atlas North, Eastern Frigoris East and West, and Aristarchus Plateau; Group 2 deposits are similar to mature lunar maria, with moderate mafic band depths and intermediate UV/VIS ratios. The single Group 3 deposit, J. Herschel, has a relatively strong mafic band and a low UV/VIS ratio, and olivine is a likely juvenile component. Two of the deposits in these groups, Orientale and Aristarchus, are large pyroclastic deposits. The third large pyroclastic deposit, Apollo 17/Taurus Littrow, has a very weak mafic band and a high UV/VIS ratio and it does not belong to any of the compositional groups for small pyroclastic deposits. The observed compositional variations indicate that highland and mare materials are also present in many large and

  3. Magmas in motion: Degassing in volcanic conduits and fabrics of pyroclastic density current (United States)

    Burgisser, Alain

    Volcanoes are caused by the transport of magma batches from the Earth's crust to the surface. These magmas in motion undergo drastic changes of rheologic properties during their journey to the surface and this work explores how these changes affect volcanic eruptions. The first part of this study is devoted to the dynamic aspects of degassing and permeability in magmas with high pressure, high temperature experiments on natural volcanic rocks. Degassing is measured by the influence of decompression rate on the growth of the bubbles present in the magma while permeability is deduced from the temporal evolution of these bubbles. The parameterization of our results in a numerical model of volcanic conduit flow show that previous models based on equilibrium degassing overestimate the acceleration and the decompression rate of the magma. Assessing permeability effects derived form our results show that the transition between explosive and effusive eruptions is a strong function of the magma initial ascent rate. The second part of this work is a unification of two end-members of pyroclastic currents (highly concentrated pyroclastic flows and dilute, turbulent pyroclastic surges) using theoretical scaling arguments based on multiphase physics. Starting from the dynamics of the particle interactions with a fundamental eddy, we consider the full spectrum of eddies generated within a turbulent current. We demonstrate that the presence of particles with various sizes induces a density stratification of the current, leading to its segregation into a basal concentrated part overlain by a dilute cloud. To verify our predictions on the interactions of such a segregated pyroclastic current with its surroundings (hills and sea), we studied the products of the 2050 BP caldera-forming eruption of Okmok Volcano (Alaska). This field study allowed us to reconstruct the eruptive sequence and to validate the main aspects of our theoretical model, such as the superposition of a dense and

  4. Mapping Pyroclastic Flow Inundation Using Radar and Optical Satellite Images and Lahar Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Wook Lee


    Full Text Available Sinabung volcano, located above the Sumatra subduction of the Indo-Australian plate under the Eurasian plate, became active in 2010 after about 400 years of quiescence. We use ALOS/PALSAR interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR images to measure surface deformation from February 2007 to January 2011. We model the observed preeruption inflation and coeruption deflation using Mogi and prolate spheroid sources to infer volume changes of the magma chamber. We interpret that the inflation was due to magma accumulation in a shallow reservoir beneath Mount Sinabung and attribute the deflation due to magma withdrawal from the shallow reservoir during the eruption as well as thermoelastic compaction of erupted material. The pyroclastic flow extent during the eruption is then derived from the LAHARZ model based on the coeruption volume from InSAR modeling and compared to that derived from the Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+ image. The pyroclastic flow inundation extents between the two different methods agree at about 86%, suggesting the capability of mapping pyroclastic flow inundation by combing radar and optical imagery as well as flow modeling.

  5. Submarine Medicine Team (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Submarine Medicine Team conducts basic and applied research on biomedical aspects of submarine and diving environments. It focuses on ways to optimize the health...

  6. Eruption Depths, Magma Storage and Magma Degassing at Sumisu Caldera, Izu-Bonin Arc: Evidence from Glasses and Melt Inclusions (United States)

    Johnson, E. R.


    Island arc volcanoes can become submarine during cataclysmal caldera collapse. The passage of a volcanic vent from atmospheric to under water environment involves complex modifications of the eruption style and subsequent transport of the pyroclasts. Here, we use FTIR measurements of the volatile contents of glass and melt inclusions in the juvenile pumice clasts in the Sumisu basin and its surroundings (Izu-Bonin arc) to investigate changes in eruption depths, magma storage and degassing over time. This study is based on legacy cores from ODP 126, where numerous unconsolidated (250 m), massive to normally graded pumice lapilli-tuffs were recovered over four cores (788C, 790A, 790B and 791A). Glass and clast geochemistry indicate the submarine Sumisu caldera as the source of several of these pumice lapilli-tuffs. Glass chips and melt inclusions from these samples were analyzed using FTIR for H2O and CO2 contents. Glass chips record variable H2O contents; most chips contain 0.6-1.6 wt% H2O, corresponding to eruption depths of 320-2100 mbsl. Variations in glass H2O and pressure estimates suggest that edifice collapse occurred prior-to or during eruption of the oldest of these samples, and that the edifice may have subsequently grown over time. Sanidine-hosted melt inclusions from two units record variably degassed but H2O-rich melts (1.1-5.6 wt% H2O). The lowest H2O contents overlap with glass chips, consistent with degassing and crystallization of melts until eruption, and the highest H2O contents suggest that large amounts of degassing accompanied likely explosive eruptions. Most inclusions, from both units, contain 2-4 wt% H2O, which further indicates that the magmas crystallized at pressures of ~50-100 MPa, or depths ~400-2800 m below the seafloor. Further glass and melt inclusion analyses, including major element compositions, will elucidate changes in magma storage, degassing and evolution over time.

  7. Pyroclastic Flow Deposits and InSAR: Analysis of Long-Term Subsidence at Augustine Volcano, Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B. McAlpin


    Full Text Available Deformation of pyroclastic flow deposits begins almost immediately after emplacement, and continues thereafter for months or years. This study analyzes the extent, volume, thickness, and variability in pyroclastic flow deposits (PFDs on Augustine Volcano from measuring their deformation rates with interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR. To conduct this analysis, we obtained 48 SAR images of Augustine Volcano acquired between 1992 and 2010, spanning its most recent eruption in 2006. The data were processed using d-InSAR time-series analysis to measure the thickness of the Augustine PFDs, as well as their surface deformation behavior. Because much of the 2006 PFDs overlie those from the previous eruption in 1986, geophysical models were derived to decompose deformation contributions from the 1986 deposits underlying the measured 2006 deposits. To accomplish this, we introduce an inversion approach to estimate geophysical parameters for both 1986 and 2006 PFDs. Our analyses estimate the expanded volume of pyroclastic flow material deposited during the 2006 eruption to be 3.3 × 107 m3 ± 0.11 × 107 m3, and that PFDs in the northeastern part of Augustine Island reached a maximum thickness of ~31 m with a mean of ~5 m. Similarly, we estimate the expanded volume of PFDs from the 1986 eruption at 4.6 × 107 m3 ± 0.62 × 107 m3, with a maximum thickness of ~31 m, and a mean of ~7 m.

  8. Sunken nuclear submarines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksen, V.O.


    The increasing number of accidents with nuclear submarines is a worriment to the general public. Five nuclear submarines are resting on the bottom of the North Atlantic. Design information on nuclear propulsion plants for submarines is classified. The author describes a potential generic nuclear submarine propulsion plant. Design information from the civilian nuclear industry, nuclear power plants, research reactors, nuclear cargo vessels and nuclear propelled icebreakers are used for illustration of relevant problems. A survey is given of nuclear submarines. Factors influencing the accident risks and safety characteristics of nuclear submarines are considered, and potential accident scenarios are described. The fission product content of the nuclear plant can be estimated, '' source terms'' can be guessed and potential release rates can be judged. The mechanisms of dispersion in the oceans is reviewed and compared with the dumping of radioactive waste in the Atlantic and other known releases. 46 refs., 49 figs., 14 tabs

  9. Nuclear-powered submarines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curren, T.


    The proposed acquisition of nuclear-powered submarines by the Canadian Armed Forces raises a number of legitimate concerns, including that of their potential impact on the environment. The use of nuclear reactors as the propulsion units in these submarines merits special consideration. Radioactivity, as an environmental pollutant, has unique qualities and engenders particular fears among the general population. The effects of nuclear submarines on the environment fall into two distinct categories: those deriving from normal operations of the submarine (the chief concern of this paper), and those deriving from a reactor accident. An enormous body of data must exist to support the safe operation of nuclear submarines; however, little information on this aspect of the proposed submarine program has been made available to the Canadian public. (5 refs.)

  10. The Ottaviano eruption of Somma-Vesuvio (8000 y B.P.): a magmatic alternating fall and flow-forming eruption (United States)

    Rolandi, G.; Maraffi, S.; Petrosino, P.; Lirer, L.


    The Ottaviano eruption occurred in the late neolithic (8000 y B.P.). 2.40 km 3 of phonolitic pyroclastic material (0.61 km 3 DRE) were emplaced as pyroclastic flow, surge and fall deposits. The eruption began with a fall phase, with a model column height of 14 km, producing a pumice fall deposit (LA). This phase ended with short-lived weak explosive activity, giving rise to a fine-grained deposit (L1), passing to pumice fall deposits as the result of an increasing column height and mass discharge rate. The subsequent two fall phases (producing LB and LC deposits), had model column heights of 20 and 22 km with eruption rates of 2.5 × 10 7 and 2.81 × 10 7 kg/s, respectively. These phases ended with the deposition of ash layers (L2 and L3), related to a decreasing, pulsing explosive activity. The values of dynamic parameters calculated for the eruption classify it as a sub-plinian event. Each fall phase was characterized by variations in the eruptive intensity, and several pyroclastic flows were emplaced (F1 to F3). Alternating pumice and ash fall beds record the waning of the eruption. Finally, owing to the collapse of a eruptive column of low gas content, the last pyroclastic flow (F4) was emplaced.

  11. Snow and ice perturbation during historical volcanic eruptions and the formation of lahars and floods (United States)

    Major, Jon J.; Newhall, Christopher G.


    Historical eruptions have produced lahars and floods by perturbing snow and ice at more than 40 volcanoes worldwide. Most of these volcanoes are located at latitudes higher than 35°; those at lower latitudes reach altitudes generally above 4000 m. Volcanic events can perturb mantles of snow and ice in at least five ways: (1) scouring and melting by flowing pyroclastic debris or blasts of hot gases and pyroclastic debris, (2) surficial melting by lava flows, (3) basal melting of glacial ice or snow by subglacial eruptions or geothermal activity, (4) ejection of water by eruptions through a crater lake, and (5) deposition of tephra fall. Historical records of volcanic eruptions at snow-clad volcanoes show the following: (1) Flowing pyroclastic debris (pyroclastic flows and surges) and blasts of hot gases and pyroclastic debris are the most common volcanic events that generate lahars and floods; (2) Surficial lava flows generally cannot melt snow and ice rapidly enough to form large lahars or floods; (3) Heating the base of a glacier or snowpack by subglacial eruptions or by geothermal activity can induce basal melting that may result in ponding of water and lead to sudden outpourings of water or sediment-rich debris flows; (4) Tephra falls usually alter ablation rates of snow and ice but generally produce little meltwater that results in the formation of lahars and floods; (5) Lahars and floods generated by flowing pyroclastic debris, blasts of hot gases and pyroclastic debris, or basal melting of snow and ice commonly have volumes that exceed 105 m3. The glowing lava (pyroclastic flow) which flowed with force over ravines and ridges...gathered in the basin quickly and then forced downwards. As a result, tremendously wide and deep pathways in the ice and snow were made and produced great streams of water (Wolf 1878).

  12. Obsidian Pyroclasts: Where Do They Come From and What Can They Tell Us? (United States)

    Watkins, J. M.; Gardner, J. E.; Befus, K.


    Models for how volcanic gases behave during volcanic eruptions are constructed from measurements of volatiles (δD, H2O and CO2) in melt that has been quenched to glass. Volatile measurements on obsidian pyroclasts from Mono Craters, California, have been central to the development of open- versus closed-system and equilibrium versus non-equilibrium degassing models, and these models have been applied to the interpretation of volatile data from volcanic centers worldwide. Even for the well-studied Mono Craters system, however, there are several different degassing models that are compatible with existing data, and the origin of the vesicle-poor obsidian pyroclasts (upon which the degassing models have been built) remains ambiguous. To better establish the link between the volatiles in the pyroclasts and volcanic eruption processes, we combine textural analysis with area maps of CO2 and H2O. We show that obsidian pyroclasts are heterogeneous with respect to dissolved CO2 and H2O, and that many clasts have multiple textural and chemical domains that are sutured together. The observations suggest that clasts are assembled from non-equilibrated juvenile melt and ash during repeated melt fracturing and healing, ash sintering, and shearing along conduit margins. Melt fracturing promotes gas extraction from magma, whereas healing promotes gas resorption and glass densification. Some of the clasts have bands or patches of elevated CO2 associated with cuspate vesicles, which are evidence for CO2-rich vapor fluxing through the magmatic system. Collectively, the data support a model of open-system, non-equilibrium degassing with intermittent regassing caused by increases in pressure and exposure to different vapor compositions.

  13. What the submarine is

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liuzzi, A


    A short review of submarine problems and design is presented. Included are trim and stability concepts; propulsion and steering gears (surface and submerged); batteries on a conventional (diesel) submarine; optical and electronic sensing equipments; and an outline of new hull designs and shipbuilding methods.

  14. Explosive processes during the 2015 eruption of Axial Seamount, as recorded by seafloor hydrophones (United States)

    Caplan-Auerbach, J.; Dziak, R. P.; Haxel, J.; Bohnenstiehl, D. R.; Garcia, C.


    Following the installation of the Ocean Observatories Initiative cabled array, the 2015 eruption of Axial Seamount, Juan de Fuca ridge, became the first submarine eruption to be captured in real time by seafloor seismic and acoustic instruments. This eruption also marked the first instance where the entire eruption cycle of a submarine volcano, from the previous eruption in 2011 to the end of the month-long 2015 event, was monitored continuously using autonomous ocean bottom hydrophones. Impulsive sounds associated with explosive lava-water interactions are identified within hydrophone records during both eruptions. Explosions within the caldera are acoustically distinguishable from those occurring in association with north rift lava flows erupting in 2015. Acoustic data also record a series of broadband diffuse events, occurring in the waning phase of the eruption, and are interpreted as submarine Hawaiian explosions. This transition from gas-poor to gas-rich eruptive activity coincides with an increase in water temperature within the caldera and with a decrease in the rate of deflation. The last recorded diffuse events coincide with the end of the eruption, represented by the onset of inflation. All the observed explosion signals couple strongly into the water column, and only weakly into the solid Earth, demonstrating the importance of hydroacoustic observations as a complement to seismic and geodetic studies of submarine eruptions.

  15. Synthesizing large-scale pyroclastic flows: Experimental design, scaling, and first results from PELE (United States)

    Lube, G.; Breard, E. C. P.; Cronin, S. J.; Jones, J.


    Pyroclastic flow eruption large-scale experiment (PELE) is a large-scale facility for experimental studies of pyroclastic density currents (PDCs). It is used to generate high-energy currents involving 500-6500 m3 natural volcanic material and air that achieve velocities of 7-30 m s-1, flow thicknesses of 2-4.5 m, and runouts of >35 m. The experimental PDCs are synthesized by a controlled "eruption column collapse" of ash-lapilli suspensions onto an instrumented channel. The first set of experiments are documented here and used to elucidate the main flow regimes that influence PDC dynamic structure. Four phases are identified: (1) mixture acceleration during eruption column collapse, (2) column-slope impact, (3) PDC generation, and (4) ash cloud diffusion. The currents produced are fully turbulent flows and scale well to natural PDCs including small to large scales of turbulent transport. PELE is capable of generating short, pulsed, and sustained currents over periods of several tens of seconds, and dilute surge-like PDCs through to highly concentrated pyroclastic flow-like currents. The surge-like variants develop a basal <0.05 m thick regime of saltating/rolling particles and shifting sand waves, capped by a 2.5-4.5 m thick, turbulent suspension that grades upward to lower particle concentrations. Resulting deposits include stratified dunes, wavy and planar laminated beds, and thin ash cloud fall layers. Concentrated currents segregate into a dense basal underflow of <0.6 m thickness that remains aerated. This is capped by an upper ash cloud surge (1.5-3 m thick) with 100 to 10-4 vol % particles. Their deposits include stratified, massive, normally and reversely graded beds, lobate fronts, and laterally extensive veneer facies beyond channel margins.

  16. Ignimbrites of Armenia - Paleomagnetic constraints on flow direction and stratigraphy of pyroclastic activity of Mount Aragats (United States)

    Kirscher, Uwe; Meliksetian, Khachatur; Gevorgyan, Hripsime; Navasardyan, Gevorg; Bachtadse, Valerian


    The Aragats volcano is one of the largest stratovolcanoes within the Turkish-Armenian-Iranian orogenic plateau. It is located close to the Armenian capital Yerevan, and only 30 km from the only nuclear power plant within the country. Additional to numerous lava flows, Mount Aragats is thought to be the source of at least two large pyroclastic eruptions leading to a huge number of ignimbrite outcrops, which are located surrounding Mount Aragats with an evaluated eruption radius of 50 km. The age of several ignimbrite outcrops has recently been determined to be 0.65 Ma (Meliksetian et al., 2014). The different ignimbrite flows are characterized by huge diversity of colors, degree of welding and textures. Due to that reason some disagreement exist on how these outcrops can be linked and how the eruption process actually happened in terms of different eruption phases and mixing mechanism of magmas during the eruption. To add constraints to this debate we carried out an intensive paleomagnetic investigation on most of the ignimbrite outcrops (32 sites) in terms of directional and anisotropy measurements. Paleomagnetic directional measurements yield basically two polarities: (1) a well grouped normal polarity is present in the majority of the studied sites including 3 sites which have supposedly originated from a different vent located on Turkish territory in the west; (2) a reversed polarity of the remaining sites with a somewhat increased scatter. Based on secular variation arguments and considering the high quality of the data we suggest that at least all young outcrops represent a single eruption phase in the area at 0.65 Ma, which is in agreement with an occurrence during the Brunhes geomagnetic chron. Additional to that, at least one earlier phase of pyroclastic activity took place prior to the Brunhes-Matuyama boundary (0.781 Ma). Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) suggests initial radial flow directions, which shortly after the eruption become


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez Óscar


    Full Text Available Pyroclastic deposits produced by the domes collapse (resurgence of a caldera collapse, at the west of the Honda Grande creek (Paipa, Boyacá-Colombia were related by INGEOMINAS. These deposits fill the valleys of Olitas, Calderitas and a creek at the south of the Alto de los Volcanes reaching distances near to 3 km from the focus between the Alto de los Volcanes and El Mirador Hill.The flows were modeled using 3D Software (Sheridan and Kover, 1996. A volcanic simulation was done obtaining the height and morphology of the volcanic edifice before the collapse during the last eruptive event.

  18. Low cost submarine robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponlachart Chotikarn


    Full Text Available A submarine robot is a semi-autonomous submarine robot used mainly for marine environmental research. We aim todevelop a low cost, semi-autonomous submarine robot which is able to travel underwater. The robot’s structure was designedand patented using a novel idea of the diving system employing a volume adjustment mechanism to vary the robot’s density.A light weight, flexibility and small structure provided by PVC can be used to construct the torpedo-liked shape robot.Hydraulic seal and O-ring rubbers are used to prevent water leaking. This robot is controlled by a wired communicationsystem.

  19. Chemical environments of submarine hydrothermal systems (United States)

    Shock, Everett L.


    Perhaps because black-smoker chimneys make tremendous subjects for magazine covers, the proposal that submarine hydrothermal systems were involved in the origin of life has caused many investigators to focus on the eye-catching hydrothermal vents. In much the same way that tourists rush to watch the spectacular eruptions of Old Faithful geyser with little regard for the hydrology of the Yellowstone basin, attention is focused on the spectacular, high-temperature hydrothermal vents to the near exclusion of the enormous underlying hydrothermal systems. Nevertheless, the magnitude and complexity of geologic structures, heat flow, and hydrologic parameters which characterize the geyser basins at Yellowstone also characterize submarine hydrothermal systems. However, in the submarine systems the scale can be considerably more vast. Like Old Faithful, submarine hydrothermal vents have a spectacular quality, but they are only one fascinating aspect of enormous geologic systems operating at seafloor spreading centers throughout all of the ocean basins. A critical study of the possible role of hydrothermal processes in the origin of life should include the full spectrum of probable environments. The goals of this chapter are to synthesize diverse information about the inorganic geochemistry of submarine hydrothermal systems, assemble a description of the fundamental physical and chemical attributes of these systems, and consider the implications of high-temperature, fluid-driven processes for organic synthesis. Information about submarine hydrothermal systems comes from many directions. Measurements made directly on venting fluids provide useful, but remarkably limited, clues about processes operating at depth. The oceanic crust has been drilled to approximately 2.0 km depth providing many other pieces of information, but drilling technology has not allowed the bore holes and core samples to reach the maximum depths to which aqueous fluids circulate in oceanic crust. Such

  20. Addressing submarine geohazards through scientific drilling (United States)

    Camerlenghi, A.


    Natural submarine geohazards (earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides, volcanic island flank collapses) are geological phenomena originating at or below the seafloor leading to a situation of risk for off-shore and on-shore structures and the coastal population. Addressing submarine geohazards means understanding their spatial and temporal variability, the pre-conditioning factors, their triggers, and the physical processes that control their evolution. Such scientific endeavour is nowadays considered by a large sector of the international scientific community as an obligation in order to contribute to the mitigation of the potentially destructive societal effects of submarine geohazards. The study of submarine geohazards requires a multi-disciplinary scientific approach: geohazards must be studied through their geological record; active processes must be monitored; geohazard evolution must be modelled. Ultimately, the information must be used for the assessment of vulnerability, risk analysis, and development of mitigation strategies. In contrast with the terrestrial environment, the oceanic environment is rather hostile to widespread and fast application of high-resolution remote sensing techniques, accessibility for visual inspection, sampling and installation of monitoring stations. Scientific Drilling through the IODP (including the related pre site-survey investigations, sampling, logging and in situ measurements capability, and as a platform for deployment of long term observatories at the surface and down-hole) can be viewed as the centre of gravity of an international, coordinated, multi-disciplinary scientific approach to address submarine geohazards. The IODP Initial Science Plan expiring in 2013 does not address openly geohazards among the program scientific objectives. Hazards are referred to mainly in relation to earthquakes and initiatives towards the understanding of seismogenesis. Notably, the only drilling initiative presently under way is the

  1. The largest deep-ocean silicic volcanic eruption of the past century. (United States)

    Carey, Rebecca; Soule, S Adam; Manga, Michael; White, James; McPhie, Jocelyn; Wysoczanski, Richard; Jutzeler, Martin; Tani, Kenichiro; Yoerger, Dana; Fornari, Daniel; Caratori-Tontini, Fabio; Houghton, Bruce; Mitchell, Samuel; Ikegami, Fumihiko; Conway, Chris; Murch, Arran; Fauria, Kristen; Jones, Meghan; Cahalan, Ryan; McKenzie, Warren


    The 2012 submarine eruption of Havre volcano in the Kermadec arc, New Zealand, is the largest deep-ocean eruption in history and one of very few recorded submarine eruptions involving rhyolite magma. It was recognized from a gigantic 400-km 2 pumice raft seen in satellite imagery, but the complexity of this event was concealed beneath the sea surface. Mapping, observations, and sampling by submersibles have provided an exceptionally high fidelity record of the seafloor products, which included lava sourced from 14 vents at water depths of 900 to 1220 m, and fragmental deposits including giant pumice clasts up to 9 m in diameter. Most (>75%) of the total erupted volume was partitioned into the pumice raft and transported far from the volcano. The geological record on submarine volcanic edifices in volcanic arcs does not faithfully archive eruption size or magma production.

  2. First Volcanological-Probabilistic Pyroclastic Density Current and Fallout Hazard Map for Campi Flegrei and Somma Vesuvius Volcanoes. (United States)

    Mastrolorenzo, G.; Pappalardo, L.; Troise, C.; Panizza, A.; de Natale, G.


    Integrated volcanological-probabilistic approaches has been used in order to simulate pyroclastic density currents and fallout and produce hazard maps for Campi Flegrei and Somma Vesuvius areas. On the basis of the analyses of all types of pyroclastic flows, surges, secondary pyroclastic density currents and fallout events occurred in the volcanological history of the two volcanic areas and the evaluation of probability for each type of events, matrixs of input parameters for a numerical simulation have been performed. The multi-dimensional input matrixs include the main controlling parameters of the pyroclasts transport and deposition dispersion, as well as the set of possible eruptive vents used in the simulation program. Probabilistic hazard maps provide of each points of campanian area, the yearly probability to be interested by a given event with a given intensity and resulting demage. Probability of a few events in one thousand years are typical of most areas around the volcanoes whitin a range of ca 10 km, including Neaples. Results provide constrains for the emergency plans in Neapolitan area.

  3. The 2014 eruptions of Pavlof Volcano, Alaska (United States)

    Waythomas, Christopher F.; Haney, Matthew M.; Wallace, Kristi; Cameron, Cheryl E.; Schneider, David J.


    Pavlof Volcano is one of the most frequently active volcanoes in the Aleutian Island arc, having erupted more than 40 times since observations were first recorded in the early 1800s . The volcano is located on the Alaska Peninsula (lat 55.4173° N, long 161.8937° W), near Izembek National Wildlife Refuge. The towns and villages closest to the volcano are Cold Bay, Nelson Lagoon, Sand Point, and King Cove, which are all within 90 kilometers (km) of the volcano (fig. 1). Pavlof is a symmetrically shaped stratocone that is 2,518 meters (m) high, and has about 2,300 m of relief. The volcano supports a cover of glacial ice and perennial snow roughly 2 to 4 cubic kilometers (km3) in volume, which is mantled by variable amounts of tephra fall, rockfall debris, and pyroclastic-flow deposits produced during historical eruptions. Typical Pavlof eruptions are characterized by moderate amounts of ash emission, lava fountaining, spatter-fed lava flows, explosions, and the accumulation of unstable mounds of spatter on the upper flanks of the volcano. The accumulation and subsequent collapse of spatter piles on the upper flanks of the volcano creates hot granular avalanches, which erode and melt snow and ice, and thereby generate watery debris-flow and hyperconcentrated-flow lahars. Seismic instruments were first installed on Pavlof Volcano in the early 1970s, and since then eruptive episodes have been better characterized and specific processes have been documented with greater certainty. The application of remote sensing techniques, including the use of infrasound data, has also aided the study of more recent eruptions. Although Pavlof Volcano is located in a remote part of Alaska, it is visible from Cold Bay, Sand Point, and Nelson Lagoon, making distal observations of eruptive activity possible, weather permitting. A busy air-travel corridor that is utilized by a numerous transcontinental and regional air carriers passes near Pavlof Volcano. The frequency of air travel

  4. Modeling lunar volcanic eruptions (United States)

    Housley, R. M.


    Simple physical arguments are used to show that basaltic volcanos on different planetary bodies would fountain to the same height if the mole fraction of gas in the magma scaled with the acceleration of gravity. It is suggested that the actual eruption velocities and fountain heights are controlled by the velocities of sound in the two phase gas/liquid flows. These velocities are in turn determined by the gas contents in the magma. Predicted characteristics of Hawaiian volcanos are in excellent accord with observations. Assuming that the only gas in lunar volcano is the CO which would be produced if the observed Fe metal in lunar basalts resulted from graphite reduction, lunar volcanos would fountain vigorously, but not as spectacularly as their terrestrial counterparts. The volatile trace metals, halogens, and sulfur released would be transported over the entire moon by the transient atmosphere. Orange and black glass type pyroclastic materials would be transported in sufficient amounts to produce the observed dark mantle deposits.

  5. Submarine Salt Karst Terrains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico Augustin


    Full Text Available Karst terrains that develop in bodies of rock salt (taken as mainly of halite, NaCl are special not only for developing in one of the most soluble of all rocks, but also for developing in one of the weakest rocks. Salt is so weak that many surface-piercing salt diapirs extrude slow fountains of salt that that gravity spread downslope over deserts on land and over sea floors. Salt fountains in the deserts of Iran are usually so dry that they flow at only a few cm/yr but the few rain storms a decade so soak and weaken them that they surge at dm/day for a few days. We illustrate the only case where the rates at which different parts of one of the many tens of subaerial salt karst terrains in Iran flows downslope constrains the rates at which its subaerial salt karst terrains form. Normal seawater is only 10% saturated in NaCl. It should therefore be sufficiently aggressive to erode karst terrains into exposures of salt on the thousands of known submarine salt extrusions that have flowed or are still flowing over the floors of hundreds of submarine basins worldwide. However, we know of no attempt to constrain the processes that form submarine salt karst terrains on any of these of submarine salt extrusions. As on land, many potential submarine karst terrains are cloaked by clastic and pelagic sediments that are often hundreds of m thick. Nevertheless, detailed geophysical and bathymetric surveys have already mapped likely submarine salt karst terrains in at least the Gulf of Mexico, and the Red Sea. New images of these two areas are offered as clear evidence of submarine salt dissolution due to sinking or rising aggressive fluids. We suggest that repeated 3D surveys of distinctive features (± fixed seismic reflectors of such terrains could measure any downslope salt flow and thus offer an exceptional opportunity to constrain the rates at which submarine salt karst terrains develop. Such rates are of interest to all salt tectonicians and the many

  6. Long-term contraction of pyroclastic flow deposits at Augustine Volcano using InSAR (United States)

    McAlpin, D. B.; Meyer, F. J.; Lu, Z.; Beget, J. E.


    Augustine Island is a small, 8x11 km island in South Central Alaska's lower Cook Inlet. It is approximately 280 km southwest of Anchorage, and occupied entirely by its namesake Augustine Volcano. The volcano's nearly symmetrical central cone reaches an altitude of 1260 m, and the surrounding island is composed almost entirely of volcanic deposits. It is the youngest and most frequently active volcano in the lower Cook Inlet, with at least seven known eruptions since the beginning of written records in 1812. Its two most recent eruptions occurred during March-August 1986, and January-March 2006 The 1986 and 2006 Augustine eruptions produced significant pyroclastic flow deposits (PFDs) on the island, both which have been well mapped by previous studies. Subsidence of material deposited by these pyroclastic flows has been measured by InSAR data, and can be attributed to at least four processes: (1) initial, granular settling; (2) thermal contraction; (3) loading of 1986 PFDs from overlying 2006 deposits; and (4) continuing subsidence of 1986 PFDs buried beneath 2006 flows. For this paper, SAR data for PFDs from Augustine Volcano were obtained from 1992 through 2005, from 2006-2007, and from 2007-2011. These time frames provided InSAR data for long-term periods after both 1986 and 2006 eruptions. From time-series analysis of these datasets, deformation rates of 1986 PFDs and 2006 PFDs were determined, and corrections applied where newer deposits were emplaced over old deposits. The combination of data sets analyzed in this study enabled, for the first time, an analysis of long and short term subsidence rates of volcanic deposits emplaced by the two eruptive episodes. The generated deformation time series provides insight into the significance and duration of the initial settling period and allows us to study the thermal regime and heat loss of the PFDs. To extract quantitative information about thermal properties and composition of the PFDs, we measured the thickness

  7. A critical evaluation of the evidence for multiple Late Pleistocene eruptions of Laacher See Volcano

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zernack, Anke Verena; Hoggard, Christian Steven; Sauer, Florian Rudolf

    The c. 12,900 BP Plinian eruption of Laacher See Volcano is one of the largest known volcanic events of the Late Pleistocene in the Northern Hemisphere. It buried proximal areas under tens of meters of pyroclastic flow, surge and fallout deposits and deposited a widespread tephra layer across much...... of dispersal of the products from varying eruptive stages and some sites even report two distinct Laacher See Tephra layers that have been interpreted as evidence of a precursor eruption. In order to assess the potential for multiple Late Pleistocene eruptions of Laacher See Volcano, we have compiled...

  8. Characterizing the Morphology, Distribution, and Formation Geometry of Mercury's Pyroclastic Vents (United States)

    Jozwiak, L. M.; Head, J. W.; Wilson, L.


    We present a final catalog of pyroclastic vents on Mercury, identifying 104 candidate pyroclastic vents. We then assess the vent distribution, morphologic variation, and probable formation geometries.

  9. Dynamic Statistical Models for Pyroclastic Density Current Generation at Soufrière Hills Volcano (United States)

    Wolpert, Robert L.; Spiller, Elaine T.; Calder, Eliza S.


    To mitigate volcanic hazards from pyroclastic density currents, volcanologists generate hazard maps that provide long-term forecasts of areas of potential impact. Several recent efforts in the field develop new statistical methods for application of flow models to generate fully probabilistic hazard maps that both account for, and quantify, uncertainty. However a limitation to the use of most statistical hazard models, and a key source of uncertainty within them, is the time-averaged nature of the datasets by which the volcanic activity is statistically characterized. Where the level, or directionality, of volcanic activity frequently changes, e.g. during protracted eruptive episodes, or at volcanoes that are classified as persistently active, it is not appropriate to make short term forecasts based on longer time-averaged metrics of the activity. Thus, here we build, fit and explore dynamic statistical models for the generation of pyroclastic density current from Soufrière Hills Volcano (SHV) on Montserrat including their respective collapse direction and flow volumes based on 1996-2008 flow datasets. The development of this approach allows for short-term behavioral changes to be taken into account in probabilistic volcanic hazard assessments. We show that collapses from the SHV lava dome follow a clear pattern, and that a series of smaller flows in a given direction often culminate in a larger collapse and thereafter directionality of the flows change. Such models enable short term forecasting (weeks to months) that can reflect evolving conditions such as dome and crater morphology changes and non-stationary eruptive behavior such as extrusion rate variations. For example, the probability of inundation of the Belham Valley in the first 180 days of a forecast period is about twice as high for lava domes facing Northwest toward that valley as it is for domes pointing East toward the Tar River Valley. As rich multi-parametric volcano monitoring dataset become

  10. Pyroclastic Density Current Hazards in the Auckland Volcanic Field, New Zealand (United States)

    Brand, B. D.; Gravley, D.; Clarke, A. B.; Bloomberg, S. H.


    The most dangerous phenomena associated with phreatomagmatic eruptions are dilute pyroclastic density currents (PDCs). These are turbulent, ground-hugging sediment gravity currents that travel radially away from the explosive center at up to 100 m/s. The Auckland Volcanic Field (AVF), New Zealand, consists of approximately 50 eruptive centers, at least 39 of which have had explosive phreatomagmatic behaviour. A primary concern for future AVF eruptions is the impact of dilute PDCs in and around the Auckland area. We combine field observations from the Maungataketake tuff ring, which has one of the best exposures of dilute PDC deposits in the AVF, with a quantitative model for flow of and sedimentation from a radially-spreading, steady-state, depth-averaged dilute PDC (modified from Bursik and Woods, 1996 Bull Volcanol 58:175-193). The model allows us to explore the depositional mechanisms, macroscale current dynamics, and potential impact on societal infrastructure of dilute PDCs from a future AVF eruption. The lower portion of the Maungataketake tuff ring pyroclastic deposits contains trunks, limbs and fragments of Podocarp trees (strength of the wood, we calculate that dynamic pressures (Pdyn) of 10-75 kPa are necessary to topple trees of this size and composition. Thus the two main criteria for model success based on the field evidence include (a) Pdyn must be >10 kPa nearer than 0.9 km to the vent, and 35 kPa can be expected within 3 km from source, ensuring complete destruction of the area; Pdyn > 15 kPa up to 5 km from source, resulting in heavy structural damage to most buildings and near destruction of weaker buildings; and Pdyn <10 kPa at ~6 km from source, resulting in severe damage to weaker structures at least up to this distance. This exercise illustrates our ability to combine field measurements with numerical techniques to explore controlling parameters of dilute PDC dynamics. These tools can be used to understand and estimate the damage potential and

  11. Exploring the submarine Graham Bank in the Sicily Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Coltelli


    Full Text Available In the Sicily Channel, volcanic activity has been concentrated mainly on the Pantelleria and Linosa islands, while minor submarine volcanism took place in the Adventure, Graham and Nameless banks. The volcanic activity spanned mostly during Plio-Pleistocene, however, historical submarine eruptions occurred in 1831 on the Graham Bank and in 1891 offshore Pantelleria Island. On the Graham Bank, 25 miles SW of Sciacca, the 1831 eruption formed the short-lived Ferdinandea Island that represents the only Italian volcano active in historical times currently almost completely unknown and not yet monitored. Moreover, most of the Sicily Channel seismicity is concentrated along a broad NS belt extending from the Graham Bank to Lampedusa Island. In 2012, the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV carried out a multidisciplinary oceanographic cruise, named “Ferdinandea 2012”, the preliminary results of which represent the aim of this paper. The cruise goal was the mapping of the morpho-structural features of some submarine volcanic centres located in the northwestern side of the Sicily Channel and the temporary recording of their seismic and degassing activity. During the cruise, three OBS/Hs (ocean bottom seismometer with hydrophone were deployed near the Graham, Nerita and Terribile submarine banks. During the following 9 months they have recorded several seismo-acoustic signals produced by both tectonic and volcanic sources. A high-resolution bathymetric survey was achieved on the Graham Bank and on the surrounding submarine volcanic centres. A widespread and voluminous gas bubbles emission was observed by both multibeam sonar echoes and a ROV (remotely operated vehicle along the NW side of the Graham Bank, where gas and seafloor samples were also collected.

  12. Stratigraphic, Granulometric and Geochemical Studies of a Major Plinian Eruption on Dominica, Lesser Antilles (United States)

    Smith, A. L.; Daly, G.; Killingsworth, N.; Deuerling, K.; Schneider, S.; Fryxell, J. E.


    The island of Dominica, located in the center of the Lesser Antilles island arc has witnessed, probably within the last 100,000 years, three large volume Plinian eruptions. One of these, associated with the Morne Diablotins center, forms the Grande Savane pyroclastic flow fan, that extends off shore as a distinctive submarine feature for a distance of at least 14 km. Stratigraphical studies of road cuts and well-exposed sea cliffs indicate the fan is composed of an older unit composed of reworked deposits at the base followed by at least four sequences, based on the presence of paleosols, of block and ash flow deposits. The upper unit of block and ash flows is overlain, with no evidence of an intervening paleosol, by a sequence of ignimbrites and pumiceous surges (representing the Plinian eruption). There is no evidence of an initial Plinian fall deposit, so the lowest bed in the succession is an ignimbrite with a highly irregular base that cuts into the underlying block and ash flow deposits, the upper parts of which are colored red due to thermal effects. This lowest ignimbrite is welded (minimum porosity of 15%) throughout its thickness (maximum thickness of greater than 21 m), although a few outcrops near the margins show a thin (20-30 cm) non-welded but lithified zone beneath the welded zone. The remainder of the sequence is composed of lithified ignimbrite that can be subdivided into three units separated by pumiceous surge layers. The ignimbrite succession is overlain, with no obvious break, by a thin fall deposit containing accretionary lapilli and gas cavities, followed by three pumiceous surge deposits (lower and upper show planar stratification and the middle surge shows massive bedding); towards the north the upper two surge deposits are separated by thin pumiceous lapilli fall and ash fall deposits. This surge sequence extends laterally outside of the main area of ignimbrite deposition. The pumice clasts from the ignimbrites are andesitic in

  13. Monitoring and behavior of unsaturated volcanic pyroclastic in the Metropolitan Area of San Salvador, El Salvador. (United States)

    Chávez, José Alexander; Landaverde, José; Landaverde, Reynaldo López; Tejnecký, Václav


    Field monitoring and laboratory results are presented for an unsaturated volcanic pyroclastic. The pyroclastic belongs to the latest plinian eruption of the Ilopango Caldera in the Metropolitan Area of San Salvador, and is constantly affected by intense erosion, collapse, slab failure, sand/silt/debris flowslide and debris avalanche during the rainy season or earthquakes. Being the flowslides more common but with smaller volume. During the research, preliminary results of rain threshold were obtained of flowslides, this was recorded with the TMS3 (a moisture sensor device using time domain transmission) installed in some slopes. TMS3 has been used before in biology, ecology and soil sciences, and for the first time was used for engineering geology in this research. This device uses electromagnetic waves to obtain moisture content of the soil and a calibration curve is necessary. With the behavior observed during this project is possible to conclude that not only climatic factors as rain quantity, temperature and evaporation are important into landslide susceptibility but also information of suction-moisture content, seepage, topography, weathering, ground deformation, vibrations, cracks, vegetation/roots and the presence of crust covering the surface are necessary to research in each site. Results of the field monitoring indicates that the presence of biological soil crusts a complex mosaic of soil, green algae, lichens, mosses, micro-fungi, cyanobacteria and other bacteria covering the slopes surface can protect somehow the steep slopes reducing the runoff process and mass wasting processes. The results obtained during the assessment will help explaining the mass wasting problems occurring in some pyroclastic soils and its possible use in mitigation works and early warning system.

  14. Investigating pyroclast ejection dynamics using shock-tube experiments: temperature, grain size and vent geometry effects. (United States)

    Cigala, V.; Kueppers, U.; Dingwell, D. B.


    Explosive volcanic eruptions eject large quantities of gas and particles into the atmosphere. The portion directly above the vent commonly shows characteristics of underexpanded jets. Understanding the factors that influence the initial pyroclast ejection dynamics is necessary in order to better assess the resulting near- and far-field hazards. Field observations are often insufficient for the characterization of volcanic explosions due to lack of safe access to such environments. Fortunately, their dynamics can be simulated in the laboratory where experiments are performed under controlled conditions. We ejected loose natural particles from a shock-tube while controlling temperature (25˚ and 500˚C), overpressure (15MPa), starting grain size distribution (1-2 mm, 0.5-1 mm and 0.125-0.250 mm), sample-to-vent distance and vent geometry. For each explosion we quantified the velocity of individual particles, the jet spreading angle and the production of fines. Further, we varied the setup to allow for different sample-to-gas ratios and deployed four different vent geometries: 1) cylindrical, 2) funnel with a flaring of 30˚, 3) funnel with a flaring of 15˚ and 4) nozzle. The results showed maximum particle velocities up to 296 m/s, gas spreading angles varying from 21˚ to 37˚ and particle spreading angles from 3˚ to 40˚. Moreover we observed dynamically evolving ejection characteristics and variations in the production of fines during the course of individual experiments. Our experiments mechanistically mimic the process of pyroclast ejection. Thus the capability for constraining the effects of input parameters (fragmentation conditions) and conduit/vent geometry on ballistic pyroclastic plumes has been clearly established. These data obtained in the presence of well-documented conduit and vent conditions, should greatly enhance our ability to numerically model explosive ejecta in nature.

  15. Arctic Submarine Slope Stability (United States)

    Winkelmann, D.; Geissler, W.


    Submarine landsliding represents aside submarine earthquakes major natural hazard to coastal and sea-floor infrastructure as well as to coastal communities due to their ability to generate large-scale tsunamis with their socio-economic consequences. The investigation of submarine landslides, their conditions and trigger mechanisms, recurrence rates and potential impact remains an important task for the evaluation of risks in coastal management and offshore industrial activities. In the light of a changing globe with warming oceans and rising sea-level accompanied by increasing human population along coasts and enhanced near- and offshore activities, slope stability issues gain more importance than ever before. The Arctic exhibits the most rapid and drastic changes and is predicted to change even faster. Aside rising air temperatures, enhanced inflow of less cooled Atlantic water into the Arctic Ocean reduces sea-ice cover and warms the surroundings. Slope stability is challenged considering large areas of permafrost and hydrates. The Hinlopen/Yermak Megaslide (HYM) north of Svalbard is the first and so far only reported large-scale submarine landslide in the Arctic Ocean. The HYM exhibits the highest headwalls that have been found on siliciclastic margins. With more than 10.000 square kilometer areal extent and app. 2.400 cubic kilometer of involved sedimentary material, it is one of the largest exposed submarine slides worldwide. Geometry and age put this slide in a special position in discussing submarine slope stability on glaciated continental margins. The HYM occurred 30 ka ago, when the global sea-level dropped by app. 50 m within less than one millennium due to rapid onset of global glaciation. It probably caused a tsunami with circum-Arctic impact and wave heights exceeding 130 meters. The HYM affected the slope stability field in its neighbourhood by removal of support. Post-megaslide slope instability as expressed in creeping and smaller-scaled slides are

  16. Petrology of a sequence of pyroclastic rocks from the Taurus-Littrow (Apollo 17 landing site)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiken, G.; McKay, D.S.


    We have studied 13 samples from core 740012 using petrographic methods and electron probe microanalysis. The samples represent most of the major units described in the core by Nagle (1978). Below 5.5 cm, the samples consist entirely of whole and broken orange glass droplets and the partly to completely crystallized black equivalents. We believe these droplets are pyroclastic ejecta from a lunar volcano. The crystalline droplets contain olivine and ilmenite as major phases. Minor phases include pyroxene, Cr-spinels, and metallic Fe. Four different properties of these droplets suggest that a wide range of cooling rates are represented. These properties are the grain shapes, the degree of crystallization, the olivine shapes or textures, and the olivine compositions. Many droplets contain vesicles indicating that a gas phase was involved in the eruption. Above 5.5 cm the core sequence has undergone in situ reworking by micrometeorites and contains ''exotic'' fragments including basalt and agglutinates. We conclude that the sequence below 5.5 cm represents 3.5 b.y. old volcanic pyroclastic ejecta which was deposited in a relativley short time period, was buried, and was subsequently brought to the lunar surface by the Shorty Crater impact where it was subjected to minor in situ reworking

  17. Volcanic Eruptions in Kamchatka (United States)


    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Sheveluch Stratovolcano Click on the image for full resolution TIFF Klyuchevskoy Stratovolcano Click on the image for full resolution TIFF One of the most volcanically active regions of the world is the Kamchatka Peninsula in eastern Siberia, Russia. It is not uncommon for several volcanoes to be erupting at the same time. On April 26, 2007, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radioneter (ASTER) on NASA's Terra spacecraft captured these images of the Klyuchevskoy and Sheveluch stratovolcanoes, erupting simultaneously, and 80 kilometers (50 miles) apart. Over Klyuchevskoy, the thermal infrared data (overlaid in red) indicates that two open-channel lava flows are descending the northwest flank of the volcano. Also visible is an ash-and-water plume extending to the east. Sheveluch volcano is partially cloud-covered. The hot flows highlighted in red come from a lava dome at the summit. They are avalanches of material from the dome, and pyroclastic flows. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra spacecraft. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and

  18. Ilmenite-rich pyroclastic deposits - An ideal lunar resource (United States)

    Hawke, B. R.; Clark, B.; Coombs, C. R.


    With a view of investigating possible economic benefits that a permanent lunar settlement might provide to the near-earth space infrastructures, consideration was given to the ilmenite-rich pyroclastic deposits as sources of oxygen (for use as a propellant) and He-3 (for nuclear fusion fuel). This paper demonstrates that ilmenite-rich pyroclastic deposits would be excellent sources of a wide variety of valuable elements besides O and He-3, including Fe, Ti, H2, N, C, S, Cu, Zn, Cd, Bi, and Pb. It is shown that several ilmenite-rich pyroclastic deposits of regional extent exist on the lunar surface. The suitability of regional pyroclastic deposits for lunar mining operations, construction activities, and the establishment of permanent lunar settlements is examined.

  19. A new approach to investigate an eruptive paroxysmal sequence using camera and strainmeter networks: Lessons from the 3-5 December 2015 activity at Etna volcano (United States)

    Bonaccorso, A.; Calvari, S.


    Explosive sequences are quite common at basaltic and andesitic volcanoes worldwide. Studies aimed at short-term forecasting are usually based on seismic and ground deformation measurements, which can be used to constrain the source region and quantify the magma volume involved in the eruptive process. However, during single episodes of explosive sequences, integration of camera remote sensing and geophysical data are scant in literature, and the total volume of pyroclastic products is not determined. In this study, we calculate eruption parameters for four powerful lava fountains occurring at the main and oldest Mt. Etna summit crater, Voragine, between 3 and 5 December 2015. These episodes produced impressive eruptive columns and plume clouds, causing lapilli and ash fallout to more than 100 km away. We analyse these paroxysmal events by integrating the images recorded by a network of monitoring cameras and the signals from three high-precision borehole strainmeters. From the camera images we calculated the total erupted volume of fluids (gas plus pyroclastics), inferring amounts from 1.9 ×109 m3 (first event) to 0.86 ×109 m3 (third event). Strain changes recorded during the first and most powerful event were used to constrain the depth of the source. The ratios of strain changes recorded at two stations during the four lava fountains were used to constrain the pyroclastic fraction for each eruptive event. The results revealed that the explosive sequence was characterized by a decreasing trend of erupted pyroclastics with time, going from 41% (first event) to 13% (fourth event) of the total erupted pyroclastic volume. Moreover, the volume ratio fluid/pyroclastic decreased markedly in the fourth and last event. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time ever that erupted volumes of both fluid and pyroclastics have been estimated for an explosive sequence from a monitoring system using permanent cameras and high precision strainmeters. During future

  20. High-speed imaging of explosive eruptions: applications and perspectives (United States)

    Taddeucci, Jacopo; Scarlato, Piergiorgio; Gaudin, Damien; Capponi, Antonio; Alatorre-Ibarguengoitia, Miguel-Angel; Moroni, Monica


    Explosive eruptions, being by definition highly dynamic over short time scales, necessarily call for observational systems capable of relatively high sampling rates. "Traditional" tools, like as seismic and acoustic networks, have recently been joined by Doppler radar and electric sensors. Recent developments in high-speed camera systems now allow direct visual information of eruptions to be obtained with a spatial and temporal resolution suitable for the analysis of several key eruption processes. Here we summarize the methods employed to gather and process high-speed videos of explosive eruptions, and provide an overview of the several applications of these new type of data in understanding different aspects of explosive volcanism. Our most recent set up for high-speed imaging of explosive eruptions (FAMoUS - FAst, MUltiparametric Set-up,) includes: 1) a monochrome high speed camera, capable of 500 frames per second (fps) at high-definition (1280x1024 pixel) resolution and up to 200000 fps at reduced resolution; 2) a thermal camera capable of 50-200 fps at 480-120x640 pixel resolution; and 3) two acoustic to infrasonic sensors. All instruments are time-synchronized via a data logging system, a hand- or software-operated trigger, and via GPS, allowing signals from other instruments or networks to be directly recorded by the same logging unit or to be readily synchronized for comparison. FAMoUS weights less than 20 kg, easily fits into four, hand-luggage-sized backpacks, and can be deployed in less than 20' (and removed in less than 2', if needed). So far, explosive eruptions have been recorded in high-speed at several active volcanoes, including Fuego and Santiaguito (Guatemala), Stromboli (Italy), Yasur (Vanuatu), and Eyjafiallajokull (Iceland). Image processing and analysis from these eruptions helped illuminate several eruptive processes, including: 1) Pyroclasts ejection. High-speed videos reveal multiple, discrete ejection pulses within a single Strombolian

  1. MeMoVolc report on classification and dynamics of volcanic explosive eruptions (United States)

    Bonadonna, C.; Cioni, R.; Costa, A.; Druitt, T.; Phillips, J.; Pioli, L.; Andronico, D.; Harris, A.; Scollo, S.; Bachmann, O.; Bagheri, G.; Biass, S.; Brogi, F.; Cashman, K.; Dominguez, L.; Dürig, T.; Galland, O.; Giordano, G.; Gudmundsson, M.; Hort, M.; Höskuldsson, A.; Houghton, B.; Komorowski, J. C.; Küppers, U.; Lacanna, G.; Le Pennec, J. L.; Macedonio, G.; Manga, M.; Manzella, I.; Vitturi, M. de'Michieli; Neri, A.; Pistolesi, M.; Polacci, M.; Ripepe, M.; Rossi, E.; Scheu, B.; Sulpizio, R.; Tripoli, B.; Valade, S.; Valentine, G.; Vidal, C.; Wallenstein, N.


    Classifications of volcanic eruptions were first introduced in the early twentieth century mostly based on qualitative observations of eruptive activity, and over time, they have gradually been developed to incorporate more quantitative descriptions of the eruptive products from both deposits and observations of active volcanoes. Progress in physical volcanology, and increased capability in monitoring, measuring and modelling of explosive eruptions, has highlighted shortcomings in the way we classify eruptions and triggered a debate around the need for eruption classification and the advantages and disadvantages of existing classification schemes. Here, we (i) review and assess existing classification schemes, focussing on subaerial eruptions; (ii) summarize the fundamental processes that drive and parameters that characterize explosive volcanism; (iii) identify and prioritize the main research that will improve the understanding, characterization and classification of volcanic eruptions and (iv) provide a roadmap for producing a rational and comprehensive classification scheme. In particular, classification schemes need to be objective-driven and simple enough to permit scientific exchange and promote transfer of knowledge beyond the scientific community. Schemes should be comprehensive and encompass a variety of products, eruptive styles and processes, including for example, lava flows, pyroclastic density currents, gas emissions and cinder cone or caldera formation. Open questions, processes and parameters that need to be addressed and better characterized in order to develop more comprehensive classification schemes and to advance our understanding of volcanic eruptions include conduit processes and dynamics, abrupt transitions in eruption regime, unsteadiness, eruption energy and energy balance.

  2. Clast comminution during pyroclastic density current transport: Mt St Helens (United States)

    Dawson, B.; Brand, B. D.; Dufek, J.


    Volcanic clasts within pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) tend to be more rounded than those in fall deposits. This rounding reflects degrees of comminution during transport, which produces an increase in fine-grained ash with distance from source (Manga, M., Patel, A., Dufek., J. 2011. Bull Volcanol 73: 321-333). The amount of ash produced due to comminution can potentially affect runout distance, deposit sorting, the volume of ash lofted into the upper atmosphere, and increase internal pore pressure (e.g., Wohletz, K., Sheridan, M. F., Brown, W.K. 1989. J Geophy Res, 94, 15703-15721). For example, increased pore pressure has been shown to produce longer runout distances than non-comminuted PDC flows (e.g., Dufek, J., and M. Manga, 2008. J. Geophy Res, 113). We build on the work of Manga et al., (2011) by completing a pumice abrasion study for two well-exposed flow units from the May 18th, 1980 eruption of Mt St Helens (MSH). To quantify differences in comminution from source, sampling and the image analysis technique developed in Manga et al., 2010 was completed at distances proximal, medial, and distal from source. Within the units observed, data was taken from the base, middle, and pumice lobes within the outcrops. Our study is unique in that in addition to quantifying the degree of pumice rounding with distance from source, we also determine the possible range of ash sizes produced during comminution by analyzing bubble wall thickness of the pumice through petrographic and SEM analysis. The proportion of this ash size is then measured relative to the grain size of larger ash with distance from source. This allows us to correlate ash production with degree of rounding with distance from source, and determine the fraction of the fine ash produced due to comminution versus vent-fragmentation mechanisms. In addition we test the error in 2D analysis by completing a 3D image analysis of selected pumice samples using a Camsizer. We find that the roundness of PDC

  3. Sedimentology and geomorphology of the deposits from the August 2006 pyroclastic density currents at Tungurahua volcano, Ecuador. (United States)

    Douillet, Guilhem Amin; Tsang-Hin-Sun, Ève; Kueppers, Ulrich; Letort, Jean; Pacheco, Daniel Alejandro; Goldstein, Fabian; Von Aulock, Felix; Lavallée, Yan; Hanson, Jonathan Bruce; Bustillos, Jorge; Robin, Claude; Ramón, Patricio; Hall, Minard; Dingwell, Donald B

    The deposits of the pyroclastic density currents from the August 2006 eruption of Tungurahua show three facies associations depending on the topographic setting: the massive, proximal cross-stratified, and distal cross-stratified facies. (1) The massive facies is confined to valleys on the slopes of the volcano. It contains clasts of >1 m diameter to fine ash material, is massive, and interpreted as deposited from dense pyroclastic flows. Its surface can exhibit lobes and levees covered with disk-shaped and vesicular large clasts. These fragile large clasts must have rafted at the surface of the flows all along the path in order to be preserved, and thus imply a sharp density boundary near the surface of these flows. (2) The proximal cross-stratified facies is exposed on valley overbanks on the upper part of the volcano and contains both massive coarse-grained layers and cross-stratified ash and lapilli bedsets. It is interpreted as deposited from (a) dense pyroclastic flows that overflowed the gentle ridges of valleys of the upper part of the volcano and (b) dilute pyroclastic density currents created from the dense flows by the entrainment of air on the steep upper flanks. (3) The distal cross-stratified facies outcrops as spatially limited, isolated, and wedge-shaped bodies of cross-stratified ash deposits located downstream of cliffs on valleys overbanks. It contains numerous aggrading dune bedforms, whose crest orientations reveal parental flow directions. A downstream decrease in the size of the dune bedforms, together with a downstream fining trend in the grain size distribution are observed on a 100-m scale. This facies is interpreted to have been deposited from dilute pyroclastic density currents with basal tractional boundary layers. We suggest that the parental flows were produced from the dense flows by entrainment of air at cliffs, and that these diluted currents might rapidly deposit through "pneumatic jumps". Three modes are present in the grain

  4. Eruptive history of Mount Katmai, Alaska (United States)

    Hildreth, Edward; Fierstein, Judith


    Mount Katmai has long been recognized for its caldera collapse during the great pyroclastic eruption of 1912 (which vented 10 km away at Novarupta in the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes), but little has previously been reported about the geology of the remote ice-clad stratovolcano itself. Over several seasons, we reconnoitered all parts of the edifice and sampled most of the lava flows exposed on its flanks and caldera rim. The precipitous inner walls of the 1912 caldera remain too unstable for systematic sampling; so we provide instead a photographic and interpretive record of the wall sequences exposed. In contrast to the several andesite-dacite stratovolcanoes nearby, products of Mount Katmai range from basalt to rhyolite. Before collapse in 1912, there were two overlapping cones with separate vent complexes and craters; their products are here divided into eight sequences of lava flows, agglutinates, and phreatomagmatic ejecta. Latest Pleistocene and Holocene eruptive units include rhyodacite and rhyolite lava flows along the south rim; a major 22.8-ka rhyolitic plinian fall and ignimbrite deposit; a dacite-andesite zoned scoria fall; a thick sheet of dacite agglutinate that filled a paleocrater and draped the west side of the edifice; unglaciated leveed dacite lava flows on the southeast slope; and the Horseshoe Island dacite dome that extruded on the caldera floor after collapse. Pre-collapse volume of the glaciated Katmai edifice was ∼30 km3, and eruptive volume is estimated to have been 57±13 km3. The latter figure includes ∼40±6 km3 for the edifice, 5±2 km3 for off-edifice dacite pyroclastic deposits, and 12±5 km3 for the 22.8-ka rhyolitic pyroclastic deposits. To these can be added 13.5 km3 of magma that erupted at Novarupta in 1912, all or much of which is inferred to have been withdrawn from beneath Mount Katmai. The oldest part of the edifice exposed is a basaltic cone, which gave a 40Ar/39Ar plateau age of 89 ± 25 ka.

  5. Eruption products of the 1883 eruption of Krakatau and their final settlement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izumi Yokoyama


    Full Text Available Firstly the volume of pyroclastic ejecta during the 1883 eruption of Krakatau is re-examined. To revise the volume of flow deposits, the author basically follows Verbeek’s observation while to estimate the fall deposits, as the last resort, the author assumes that volume ratios fall / flow are common to similar caldera eruptions, and the ratios determined by the caldera- forming eruptions of Novarupta and Pinatubo are applied to the Krakatau eruption. Verbeek’s estimation of the total volume of ejecta, 12 km3 is revised to 19 km3. This is significantly different from the volume of disrupted volcano edifice, 8 km3. Such a result does not support the predecessors’ hypothesis that calderas are formed by collapses of volcano edifices into magma reservoirs in replacement of the total ejecta. Through the discussion on the volume estimation of volcanic ejecta on and around Krakatau, the author recognizes that such estimation should be originally very difficult to attain enough accuracy. Much importance of “caldera deposits” to post-eruption settlements of the ejecta is emphasized. In relation to caldera formation, mechanical stability of a cavity in the crust is discussed. Lastly, upon the basis of subsurface structure, especially caldera deposits, a structural image of Krakatau caldera is presented.

  6. Boiling-over dense pyroclastic density currents during the formation of the 100 km3 Huichapan ignimbrite in Central Mexico: Stratigraphic and lithofacies analysis (United States)

    Pacheco-Hoyos, Jaime G.; Aguirre-Díaz, Gerardo J.; Dávila-Harris, Pablo


    A lithofacies analysis of the Huichapan ignimbrite has been undertaken to evaluate its depositional history from large pyroclastic density currents. The Huichapan ignimbrite is a massive ignimbrite sheet with a maximum runout of at least 55 km and thickness variations between 6 and 80 m. The lower portion of the Huichapan ignimbrite consists of a large plateau [ 100 km3; 69 km3 as dense-rock equivalent (DRE)] of massive ignimbrites with welding variations from densely welded to partly welded, devitrification, and high-temperature vapor-phase alteration. The lower part grades laterally to moderately welded and non-devitrified ignimbrites. These variations are interpreted as the sedimentation of density-stratified pyroclastic density currents erupted as boiling-over pulses from the Huichapan-Donguinyó caldera complex at a continuous rate, supporting deposition by quasi-steady progressive aggradation of sustained and hot currents. To the north of the caldera, the lower portion of the ignimbrite consists of a small plateau (< 10 km3) in which the densely welded and devitrified lithofacies are absent. Our interpretation is that the pyroclastic density currents flowed late to the north of the caldera and formed a smaller ignimbrite plateau with respect to the western one. This northern ignimbrite plateau cooled faster than the western ignimbrite plateau. Deposition-induced topographic modifications suggest that topographic obstacles, such as remnants of older volcanoes, may have promoted the deviation of the density currents to the north. The upper portion of the ignimbrite is composed of extensive, massive, coarse clast-rich, non-devitrified, and non-welded ignimbrites with abundant fines-poor pipes. This upper part was deposited from largely sustained and rapidly aggrading high-concentration currents in a near end-member, fluid escape-dominated flow boundary zone. The absence of welding in the upper portion may record pyroclastic density currents cooling during the

  7. Naples between two fires: eruptive scenarios for the next eruptions by an integrated volcanological-probabilistic approach. (United States)

    Mastrolorenzo, G.; Pappalardo, L.; de Natale, G.; Troise, C.; Rossano, S.; Panizza, A.


    Probabilistic approaches based on available volcanological data from real eruptions of Campi Flegrei and Somma-Vesuvius, are assembled in a comprehensive assessment of volcanic hazards at the Neapolitan area. This allows to compare the volcanic hazards related to the different types of events, which can be used for evaluating the conditional probability of flows and falls hazard in case of a volcanic crisis. Hazard maps are presented, based on a rather complete set of numerical simulations, produced using field and laboratory data as input parameters relative to a large range (VEI 1 to 5) of fallout and pyroclastic-flow events and their relative occurrence. The results allow us to quantitatively evaluate and compare the hazard related to pyroclastic fallout and density currents (PDCs) at the Neapolitan volcanoes and their surroundings, including the city of Naples. Due to its position between the two volcanic areas, the city of Naples is particularly exposed to volcanic risk from VEI>2 eruptions, as recorded in the local volcanic succession. Because dominant wind directions, the area of Naples is particularly prone to fallout hazard from Campi Flegrei caldera eruptions in the VEI range 2-5. The hazard from PDCs decreases roughly radially with distance from the eruptive vents and is strongly controlled by the topographic heights. Campi Flegrei eruptions are particularly hazardous for Naples, although the Camaldoli and Posillipo hills produce an effective barrier to propagation to the very central part of Naples. PDCs from Vesuvius eruptions with VEI>4 can cover the city of Naples, whereas even VEI>3 eruptions have a moderate fallout hazard there.

  8. Rheology of the 2006 eruption at Tungurahua volcano, Ecuador (United States)

    Hanson, J. B.; Lavallée, Y.; Hess, K.-U.; von Aulock, F. W.; Dingwell, D. B.


    During August 16th to 18th 2006, the eruptive crisis at Tungurahua volcano (Ecuador) culminated in VEI 2 eruption with tens of pyroclastic flows and the extrusion of a lava flow. The nearly simultaneous occurrence of a lava flow and a pyroclastic flow from a single vent deserves attention. Generally, the rheology is a chief determinant of eruption style. Specifically, magmas are ductile (effusive) at low strain rates whereas they are brittle (explosive) at high strain rates. Although this distinction has been extensively described for single-phase magmas, there remain many questions as to the rheological implications of crystals and bubbles present in magmas. Here we present preliminary characterizations of the complex rheology of the magma involved in the 2006 eruption at Tungurahua volcano. The magma present in this eruption was andesitic with an interstitial melt composition averaging ~58 wt.% SiO2. The bombs present in the pyroclastic deposit show an open porosity ranging from 15 to 35 vol.% and a crystallinity generally greater than ~30 vol.% and occasionally up to 60 vol.% in samples affected by microlite growth. Petrographic analyses revealed magma batches with different crystallization histories. In high-porosity samples containing microlites, a recrystallization rim around clinopyroxene and resorption of the plagioclase were observed. In contrast, the dense samples show pristine, euhedral crystals and a near absence of microlites. The heterogeneous petrographic structures suggest the possibilities of mingling in the conduit or of magma batches with different decompression rates. Dilatometric analyses suggest glass transition temperatures (Tg) of ~974 °C for the dense material (porosity~15 vol.%) and as high as ~1060 °C for the high-porosity bombs (porosity~35 vol.%). Successive series of heating and cooling of the glass reveal an increase of Tg by as much as 60 °C indicative of significant water left in the melt. Preliminary analyses of images obtained

  9. Stratigraphy, sedimentology and eruptive mechanism of the El Golfo phreatomagmatic edifice (Lanzarote, Canary Islands) (United States)

    Pedrazzi, D.; Marti, J.; Geyer, A.


    The El Golfo tuff cone is an example of phreatomagmatic edifice, developed in the western coast of Lanzarote (Canary Islands). El Golfo, together with other edifices of the same age, is aligned along a fracture oriented NEE-SWW coinciding with the main lineation of the historic volcanism in this part of the island. In this contribution we present a detailed stratigraphic study of the succession of deposits and we interpret them in terms of depositional processes and eruptive dynamics. The eruptive sequence is exclusively represented by a succession of pyroclastic deposits, and we infer it according to variations in flow regime and the magma-water interaction. Several pyroclastic units were identified according to facies variations based on sedimentary discontinuities, grain size, components, variations in primary laminations and bedforms following the facies model proposed by Chough and Sohn (1990). The growth of the El Golfo tuff cone involved several stages based on variations in depositional processes. The edifice was constructed very rapidly around the vent controlling the amount of water that got access to the eruption conduit. Although the invariable phreatomagmatic character of most of the pyroclastic sequence, it is possible to deduce variations in the explosive energy, with a general increment upwards, according to the increase in the degree of fragmentation of pyroclasts, The absence of hyaloclastites, the nature of the palagonite alteration and the observed sedimentary structures, demonstrate the subaereal character of most of the deposits

  10. The Tala Tuff, La Primavera caldera Mexico. Pre-eruptive conditions and magma processes before eruption (United States)

    Sosa-Ceballos, G.


    La Primavera caldera, Jalisco Mexico, is a Pleistocenic volcanic structure formed by dome complexes and multiple pyroclastic flows and fall deposits. It is located at the intersection of the Chapala, Colima, and Tepic grabens in western Mexico. The first volcanic activity associated to La Primavera started ~0.1 Ma with the emission of pre-caldera lavas. The caldera collapse occurred 95 ka and is associated to the eruption of ~20 km3of pumice flows known as the Tala tuff (Mahood 1980). The border of the caldera was replaced by a series of domes dated in 75-30 ky, which partially filled the inner depression of the caldera with pyroclastic flows and falls. For more than a decade the Federal Commission of Electricity in Mexico (CFE) has prospected and evaluated the geothermal potential of the Cerritos Colorados project at La Primavera caldera. In order to better understand the plumbing system that tapped the Tala tuff and to investigate its relation with the potential geothermal field at La Primavera we performed a series of hydrothermal experiments and studied melt inclusions hosted in quartz phenocrysts by Fourier Infra red stectroscopy (FTIR). Although some post caldera products at La Primavera contain fayalite and quartz (suggesting QFM conditions) the Tala tuff does not contain fayalite and we ran experiments under NNO conditions. The absence of titanomagnetite does not allowed us to calculate pre-eruptive temperature. However, the stability of quartz and plagioclase, which are natural phases, suggest that temperature should be less than 750 °C at a pressure of 200 MPa. The analyses of H2O and CO2 dissolved in melt inclusions yielded concentrations of 2-5 wt.% and 50-100 ppm respectively. This data confirm that the pre-eruptive pressure of the Tala tuff is ~200 MPa and in addition to major elements compositions suggest that the Tala tuff is either, compositionally zoned or mixed with other magma just prior to eruption.

  11. Fertility of the early post-eruptive surfaces of Kasatochi Island volcano (United States)

    Michaelson, G. J.; Wang, Bronwen; Ping, C. L.


    In the four years after the 2008 eruption and burial of Kasatochi Island volcano, erosion and the return of bird activity have resulted in new and altered land surfaces and initiation of ecosystem recovery. We examined fertility characteristics of the recently deposited pyroclastic surfaces, patches of legacy pre-eruptive surface soil (LS), and a post-eruptive surface with recent bird roosting activity. Pyroclastic materials were found lacking in N, but P, K, and other macronutrients were in sufficient supply for plants. Erosion and leaching are moving mobile P and Fe downslope to deposition fan areas. Legacy soil patches that currently support plants have available-N at levels (10–22 mg N kg-1) similar to those added by birds in a recent bird roosting area. Roosting increased surface available N from fertile pre-eruptive soils and erosion-mixing of pre-eruptive soils with newly erupted materials, along with inputs of nutrients from bird activities, each will exert significant influences on the surface fertility and recovery pattern of the new post-eruptive Kasatochi volcano. For this environment, these influences could help to speed recovery of a more diverse plant community by providing N (LS and bird inputs) as alternatives to relying most heavily on N-fixing plants to build soil fertility.

  12. The 12.1 ka Middle Toluca Pumice: A dacitic Plinian subplinian eruption of Nevado de Toluca in Central Mexico (United States)

    Arce, J. L.; Cervantes, K. E.; Macías, J. L.; Mora, J. C.


    The Nevado de Toluca volcano erupted explosively approximately 12.1 ka ago, producing a Plinian-subplinian eruption that deposited the Middle Toluca Pumice (MTP). The MTP consists of white and gray juvenile pumice, gray dense juvenile lapilli, and red altered lithic lapilli. The pumice is dacitic (63.54-65.06 wt.% SiO 2) with phenocrysts of plagioclase > orthopyroxene > hornblende ± ilmenite and titanomagnetite, and biotite xenocrysts set in a groundmass of rhyolitic glass (70-71 wt.% SiO 2). The MTP has a dispersal axis to the ESE covering an area of 92 km 2, with a minimum volume of 1.8 km 3 (DRE). Stratigraphic relations, grain size, componentry, and vesicularity analyses suggest that the eruption occurred in five major phases: (1) an opening magmatic phase that generated a 20-km-high Plinian column dispersed to the SE; (2) a hydromagmatic explosion followed with the establishment of a subplinian eruptive column (18-19 km high) dispersed tephra to the SE and gradually waned; (3) hydromagmatic explosions emplaced dilute pyroclastic density currents followed by the formation of an eruptive column of unknown height; (4) immediately after, a new magmatic explosion established another eruptive column; and (5) the collapse of the latter column generated two pumiceous pyroclastic density currents that were fully dilute proximally, but transformed into two granular-fluid pyroclastic currents that traveled 19 km from the source.

  13. SCICEX: Submarine Arctic Science Program (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Submarine Arctic Science Program, SCICEX, is a federal interagency collaboration among the operational Navy, research agencies, and the marine research community...

  14. Proximal stratigraphy and event sequence of the c. 5600 cal. yr BP Whakatane rhyolite eruption episode from Haroharo volcano, Okataina Volcanic Centre, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, T.; Nairn, I.; Smith, V.; Shane, P.


    The c. 5600 cal. yr BP Whakatane eruption episode consisted of a sequence of intracaldera rhyolite eruptions from at least five vents spread over 11 km of the Haroharo linear vent zone within Okataina Volcanic Centre. Initial vent-opening eruptions from the Haroharo vent produced coarse lithic clast 'blast beds' and pyroclastic density currents surges). These were immediately followed by eruption of very mobile pumiceous pyroclastic surges from the Makatiti vent 6 km to the southwest. Major plinian eruptions from the Makatiti vent then dispersed Whakatane Tephra pumice fall deposits (bulk volume c. 6 km 3 ) across the northeastern North Island while smaller explosive eruptions produced pyroclastic flows and falls from the Haroharo-Rotokohu vents and at the Pararoa vent on the caldera rim 11 km northeast from Makatiti. The pyroclastic eruptions at all vents were followed by the extrusion of lava flows and domes; extruded lava volumes ranged from 0.03 km 3 for the Pararoa dome to 7.5 km 3 for the Makatiti-Tapahoro lava flows and domes. Minor variations in whole rock and glass chemistry show that the three main vent areas each tapped a slightly different high-silica rhyolite magma. About 10 km 3 of M-type magma was erupted from the Makatiti-Tapahoro vents; c. 1.3 km 3 of H-type magma from the Haroharo-Rotokohu vents, and 0.04 km 3 of P-type magma from the Pararoa vent. There are no significant weathering or erosional breaks within the Whakatane eruptive sequence, which suggests that all Whakatane eruptions occurred within a short time interval. However, extrusion of the Haroharo dome within the Makatiti pyroclastic eruption sequence suggests a duration of c. 2 yr for the main pyroclastic eruption phase. Emplacement of the following voluminous (7.5 km 3 ) lavas from the Makatiti-Tapahoro vents would have occurred over >10 yr at the c. 10-20 m 3 /s inferred extrusion rates. (author). 19 refs., 16 figs., 7 tabs

  15. Eruptive history of South Sister, Oregon Cascades (United States)

    Fierstein, J.; Hildreth, W.; Calvert, A.T.


    South Sister is southernmost and highest of the Three Sisters, three geologically dissimilar stratovolcanoes that together form a spectacular 20km reach along the Cascade crest in Oregon. North Sister is a monotonously mafic edifice as old as middle Pleistocene, Middle Sister a basalt-andesite-dacite cone built between 48 and 14ka, and South Sister is a basalt-free edifice that alternated rhyolitic and intermediate modes from 50ka to 2ka (largely contemporaneous with Middle Sister). Detailed mapping, 330 chemical analyses, and 42 radioisotopic ages show that the oldest exposed South Sister lavas were initially rhyolitic ~50ka. By ~37ka, rhyolitic lava flows and domes (72-74% SiO2) began alternating with radially emplaced dacite (63-68% SiO2) and andesite (59-63% SiO2) lava flows. Construction of a broad cone of silicic andesite-dacite (61-64% SiO2) culminated ~30ka in a dominantly explosive sequence that began with crater-forming andesitic eruptions that left fragmental deposits at least 200m thick. This was followed at ~27ka by growth of a steeply dipping summit cone of agglutinate-dominated andesite (56-60.5% SiO2) and formation of a summit crater ~800m wide. This crater was soon filled and overtopped by a thick dacite lava flow and then by >150m of dacitic pyroclastic ejecta. Small-volume dacite lavas (63-67% SiO2) locally cap the pyroclastic pile. A final sheet of mafic agglutinate (54-56% SiO2) - the most mafic product of South Sister - erupted from and drapes the small (300-m-wide) present-day summit crater, ending a summit-building sequence that lasted until ~22ka. A 20kyr-long-hiatus was broken by rhyolite eruptions that produced (1) the Rock Mesa coulee, tephra, and satellite domelets (73.5% SiO2) and (2) the Devils Chain of ~20 domes and short coulees (72.3-72.8% SiO2) from N-S vent alignments on South Sister's flanks. The compositional reversal from mafic summit agglutinate to recent rhyolites epitomizes the frequently changing compositional modes of the

  16. Eruptive and Geomorphic Processes at the Lathrop Wells Scoria Cone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    G. Valentine; D.J. Krier; F.V. Perry; G. Heiken


    The ∼80 ka Lathrop Wells volcano (southern Nevada, U.S.A.) preserves evidence for a range of explosive processes and emplacement mechanisms of pyroclastic deposits and lava fields in a small-volume basaltic center. Early cone building by Strombolian bursts was accompanied by development of a fan-like lava field reaching ∼800 m distance from the cone, built upon a gently sloping surface. Lava flows carried rafts of cone deposits, which provide indirect evidence for cone facies in lieu of direct exposures in the active quarry. Subsequent activity was of a violent Strombolian nature, with many episodes of sustained eruption columns up to a few km in height. These deposited layers of scoria lapilli and ash in different directions depending upon wind direction at the time of a given episode, reaching up to ∼20 km from the vent, and also produced the bulk of the scoria cone. Lava effusion migrated from south to north around the eastern base of the cone as accumulation of lavas successively reversed the topography at the base of the cone. Late lavas were emplaced during violent Strombolian activity and continued for some time after explosive eruptions had waned. Volumes of the eruptive products are: fallout--0.07 km 3 , scoria cone--0.02 km 3 , and lavas--0.03 km 3 . Shallow-derived xenolith concentrations suggest an upper bound on average conduit diameter of ∼21 m in the uppermost 335 m beneath the volcano. The volcano was constructed over a period of at least seven months with cone building occurring only during part of that time, based upon analogy with historical eruptions. Post-eruptive geomorphic evolution varied for the three main surface types that were produced by volcanic activity: (1) scoria cone, (2) low relief surfaces (including lavas) with abundant pyroclastic material, and (3) lavas with little pyroclastic material. The role of these different initial textures must be accounted for in estimating relative ages of volcanic surfaces, and failure to

  17. Eruptive and Geomorphic Processes at the Lathrop Wells Scoria Cone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Valentine; D.J. Krier; F.V. Perry; G. Heiken


    The {approx}80 ka Lathrop Wells volcano (southern Nevada, U.S.A.) preserves evidence for a range of explosive processes and emplacement mechanisms of pyroclastic deposits and lava fields in a small-volume basaltic center. Early cone building by Strombolian bursts was accompanied by development of a fan-like lava field reaching {approx}800 m distance from the cone, built upon a gently sloping surface. Lava flows carried rafts of cone deposits, which provide indirect evidence for cone facies in lieu of direct exposures in the active quarry. Subsequent activity was of a violent Strombolian nature, with many episodes of sustained eruption columns up to a few km in height. These deposited layers of scoria lapilli and ash in different directions depending upon wind direction at the time of a given episode, reaching up to {approx}20 km from the vent, and also produced the bulk of the scoria cone. Lava effusion migrated from south to north around the eastern base of the cone as accumulation of lavas successively reversed the topography at the base of the cone. Late lavas were emplaced during violent Strombolian activity and continued for some time after explosive eruptions had waned. Volumes of the eruptive products are: fallout--0.07 km{sup 3}, scoria cone--0.02 km{sup 3}, and lavas--0.03 km{sup 3}. Shallow-derived xenolith concentrations suggest an upper bound on average conduit diameter of {approx}21 m in the uppermost 335 m beneath the volcano. The volcano was constructed over a period of at least seven months with cone building occurring only during part of that time, based upon analogy with historical eruptions. Post-eruptive geomorphic evolution varied for the three main surface types that were produced by volcanic activity: (1) scoria cone, (2) low relief surfaces (including lavas) with abundant pyroclastic material, and (3) lavas with little pyroclastic material. The role of these different initial textures must be accounted for in estimating relative ages of

  18. Contrasting patterns of vesiculation in low, intermediate, and high Hawaiian fountains: A case study of the 1969 Mauna Ulu eruption (United States)

    Parcheta, Carolyn E.; Houghton, Bruce F.; Swanson, Donald A.


    Hawaiian-style eruptions, or Hawaiian fountains, typically occur at basaltic volcanoes and are sustained, weakly explosive jets of gas and dominantly coarse, juvenile ejecta (dense spatter to delicate reticulite). Almost the entire range of styles and mass eruption rates within Hawaiian fountaining occurred during twelve fountaining episodes recorded at Mauna Ulu, Kīlauea between May and December 1969. Such diversity in intensity and style is controlled during magma ascent by many processes that can be constrained by the size and shape of vesicles in the 1969 pyroclasts. This paper describes pyroclast vesicularity from high, intermediate, and low fountaining episodes with eruption rates from 0.05 to 1.3 × 106 m3 h− 1. As each eruptive episode progressed, magma ascent slowed in and around the vent system, offering extended time for bubbles to grow and coalesce. Late ejected pyroclasts are thus characterized by populations of fewer and larger vesicles with relaxed shapes. This progression continued in the intervals between episodes after termination of fountain activity. The time scale for this process of shallow growth, coalescence and relaxation of bubbles is typically tens of hours. Rims and cores of pumiceous pyroclasts from moderate to high fountaining episodes record a second post-fragmentation form of vesicle maturation. Partially thermally insulated pyroclasts can have internal bubble populations evolve more dynamically with continued growth and coalescence, on a time scale of only minutes, during transport in the fountains. Reticulite, which formed in a short-lived fountain 540 m in height, underwent late, short-lived bubble nucleation followed by rapid growth of a uniform bubble population in a thermally insulated fountain, and quenched at the onset of permeability before significant coalescence. These contrasting patterns of shallow degassing and outgassing were the dominant controls in determining both the form and duration of fountaining

  19. A unique volcanic field in Tharsis, Mars: Pyroclastic cones as evidence for explosive eruptions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brož, Petr; Hauber, E.


    Roč. 218, č. 1 (2012), s. 88-99 ISSN 0019-1035 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME09011 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : Mars * volcanism * Mars surface Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 3.161, year: 2012

  20. Pyroclastic eruptions from Axial caldera, Juan de Fuca Ridge, NE Pacific Ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helo, Christoph; Stix, John [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, McGill University, 3450 University Street, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2A7 (Canada); Clague, Dave A [Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute 7700 Sandholdt Road, Moss Landing, CA 95039-9644 (United States)


    Unconsolidated volcaniclastic glass deposits on the flanks of Axial Seamount, a caldera system situated on the Juan de Fuca Ridge in the NE Pacific Ocean, demonstrate the occurrence of explosive events, in addition to effusive activity. The variety of produced glass fragments ranges from various angular forms to thin deep-sea limu o Pele, with dominantly moderately fractionated to occasionally primitive MOR basalt composition. A model involving the collapse of a magmatic foam layer may account for the observed spectrum of glass fragments.

  1. Characterization of volcanic deposits and geoarchaeological studies from the 1815 eruption of Tambora volcano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igan Supriatman Sutawidjaja


    Full Text Available eruption of Tambora volcano on the island of Sumbawa in 1815 is generally considered as the largest and the most violent volcanic event in recorded history. The cataclysmic eruption occurred on 11 April 1815 was initiated by Plinian eruption type on 5 April and killed more than 90,000 people on Sumbawa and nearby Lombok. The type plinian eruptions occurred twice and ejected gray pumice and ash, to form stratified deposits as thick as 40-150 cm on the slopes and mostly distributed over the district west of the volcano. Following this, at about 7 pm, on 11 April the first pyroclastic surge was generated and progressively became greater extending to almost whole direction, mainly to the north, west, and south districts from the eruption center. The deadliest volcanic eruption buried ancient villages by pyroclastic surge and flow deposits in almost intact state, thus preserving important archaeological evidence for the period. High preservation in relatively stable conditions and known date of the eruptions provide approximate dating for the archaeological remains. Archaeological excavations on the site uncovered a variety of remains were relieved by ground penetrating radar (GPR to map structural remains of the ancient villages under the pyroclastic surge and flow deposits. These traverses showed that GPR could define structures as deep as 10 m (velocity 0.090 m/ns and could accurately map the thickness of the stratified volcanic deposits in the Tambora village area.    

  2. Fertility of the early post-eruptive surfaces of Kasatochi Island volcano (United States)

    Michaelson, G. J.; Wang, Bronwen; Ping, C. L.


    In the four years after the 2008 eruption and burial of Kasatochi Island volcano, erosion and the return of bird activity have resulted in new and altered land surfaces and initiation of ecosystem recovery. We examined fertility characteristics of the recently deposited pyroclastic surfaces, patches of legacy pre-eruptive surface soil (LS), and a post-eruptive surface with recent bird roosting activity. Pyroclastic materials were found lacking in N, but P, K, and other macronutrients were in sufficient supply for plants. Erosion and leaching are moving mobile P and Fe downslope to deposition fan areas. Legacy soil patches that currently support plants have available-N at levels (10–22 mg N kg-1) similar to those added by birds in a recent bird roosting area. Roosting increased surface available N from 40% that of the LS surface. Laboratory plant growth trials using Lupinus nootkatensis and Leymus mollis indicated that the influence of eroded and redeposited LS in amounts as little as 10% by volume mixed with new pyroclastic materials could aid plant recovery by supplying vital N and soil biota to plants as propagules are introduced to the new surface. Erosion-exposure of fertile pre-eruptive soils and erosion-mixing of pre-eruptive soils with newly erupted materials, along with inputs of nutrients from bird activities, each will exert significant influences on the surface fertility and recovery pattern of the new post-eruptive Kasatochi volcano. For this environment, these influences could help to speed recovery of a more diverse plant community by providing N (LS and bird inputs) as alternatives to relying most heavily on N-fixing plants to build soil fertility.

  3. Large submarine sand-rubble flow on Kilauea volcano, Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fornari, D J [Columbia Univ., Palisades, NY; Moore, J G; Calk, L


    Papa'u seamount on the south submarine slope of Kilauea volcano is a large landslide about 19 km long, 6 km wide, and up to 1 km thick with a volume of about 39 km/sup 3/. Dredge hauls, remote camera photographs, and submersible observations indicate that it is composed primarily of unconsolidated angular glassy basalt sand with scattered basalt blocks up to 1 m in size; no lava flows were seen. Sulfur contents of basalt glass from several places on the sand-rubble flow and nearby areas are low (< 240 ppm), indicating that the clastic basaltic material was all erupted on land. The Papa'u sandrubble flow was emplaced during a single flow event fed from a large near-shore bank of clastic basaltic material which in turn was formed as lava flows from the summit area of Kilauea volcano disintegrated when they entered the sea. The current eruptive output of the volcano suggests that the material in the submarine sand-rubble flow represents about 6000 years of accumulation, and that the flow event occurred several thousand years ago.

  4. Reconstructing the deadly eruptive events of 1790 CE at Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai‘i (United States)

    Swanson, Don; Weaver, Samantha J; Houghton, Bruce F.


    A large number of people died during an explosive eruption of Kīlauea Volcano in 1790 CE. Detailed study of the upper part of the Keanakāko‘i Tephra has identified the deposits that may have been responsible for the deaths. Three successive units record shifts in eruption style that agree well with accounts of the eruption based on survivor interviews 46 yr later. First, a wet fall of very fine, accretionary-lapilli–bearing ash created a “cloud of darkness.” People walked across the soft deposit, leaving footprints as evidence. While the ash was still unconsolidated, lithic lapilli fell into it from a high eruption column that was seen from 90 km away. Either just after this tephra fall or during its latest stage, pulsing dilute pyroclastic density currents, probably products of a phreatic eruption, swept across the western flank of Kīlauea, embedding lapilli in the muddy ash and crossing the trail along which the footprints occur. The pyroclastic density currents were most likely responsible for the fatalities, as judged from the reported condition and probable location of the bodies. This reconstruction is relevant today, as similar eruptions will probably occur in the future at Kīlauea and represent its most dangerous and least predictable hazard.

  5. Probabilistic-numerical assessment of pyroclastic current hazard at Campi Flegrei and Naples city: Multi-VEI scenarios as a tool for "full-scale" risk management. (United States)

    Mastrolorenzo, Giuseppe; Palladino, Danilo M; Pappalardo, Lucia; Rossano, Sergio


    The Campi Flegrei volcanic field (Italy) poses very high risk to the highly urbanized Neapolitan area. Eruptive history was dominated by explosive activity producing pyroclastic currents (hereon PCs; acronym for Pyroclastic Currents) ranging in scale from localized base surges to regional flows. Here we apply probabilistic numerical simulation approaches to produce PC hazard maps, based on a comprehensive spectrum of flow properties and vent locations. These maps are incorporated in a Geographic Information System (GIS) and provide all probable Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) scenarios from different source vents in the caldera, relevant for risk management planning. For each VEI scenario, we report the conditional probability for PCs (i.e., the probability for a given area to be affected by the passage of PCs in case of a PC-forming explosive event) and related dynamic pressure. Model results indicate that PCs from VEIextreme event) would affect a large part of the Campanian Plain to the north and the city of Naples to the east. Thus, in case of renewal of eruptive activity at Campi Flegrei, up to 3 million people will be potentially exposed to volcanic hazard, pointing out the urgency of an emergency plan. Considering the present level of uncertainty in forecasting the future eruption type, size and location (essentially based on statistical analysis of previous activity), we suggest that appropriate planning measures should face at least the VEI 5 reference scenario (at least 2 occurrences documented in the last 10 ka).

  6. Giant Subaqueous Pyroclastic-Flow Deposits Revealed: Sedimentological Revision of the Holocene Outcrops of Izu-Oshima Island, Japan (United States)

    Hemmi, R.; Yoshida, S.; Nemoto, Y.; Kotake, N.


    The early-to-middle Holocene outcrops of Izu-Oshima island, 100 km SSW of Tokyo, comprise sand- to gravel-size pyroclasts, and exhibit undulating layered structures, with each wavelet typically measuring 5-10 m high. These outcrops were traditionally interpreted as exemplary subaerial "ash-fall" deposits in volcanology textbooks (e.g. Schmincke 2006). Our detailed sedimentological analyses, however, have revealed that it is of pyroclastic density-current origin, the majority of which formed in shallow-marine settings. The present study focuses on the outcrops along the western coast of the Island, where the three-dimensional architecture of the outcrops is superbly exposed, and the existing archaeological framework provides a reliable chronostratigraphic control. The outcrops contain abundant compound bedforms, where small bedforms (dunes/antidunes) occur within the larger bedforms. The compound bedforms exhibit four-fold hierarchy (ranks 1 to 4), and bedforms for each scale display dominantly upstream-accreting geometry. The largest scale (Rank 1) of these bedforms show wavy parallel-bedding geometry (each wavelet typically measuring 5-10 m high and 50-100 m wide). We interpreted the large-scale architecture as sediment waves (gigantic antidunes) similar to the one reported from the shallow-marine deposits associated with AD 79 Mt. Vesuvius eruptions (Milia et al. 2008). Moreover, we have identified crustacean burrows and other trace fossils indicative of a nearshore shallow-marine environment. The pervasive occurrence of these fossils throughout the outcrops and abundant water-escape structures also suggests their subaqueous origin. On the other hand, evidence of subaerial deposition (e.g., paleosols and rootlets) or subaerial reworking (e.g., lahar) is absent, except for some spots on several regional unconformities that divide 10’s-m-thick sediment-wave deposits. On some of these unconformities, ribbon- to fan-shaped lava and/or ancient human-dwelling sites

  7. The effect of topography on pyroclastic flow mobility (United States)

    Ogburn, S. E.; Calder, E. S.


    Pyroclastic flows are among the most destructive volcanic phenomena. Hazard mitigation depends upon accurate forecasting of possible flow paths, often using computational models. Two main metrics have been proposed to describe the mobility of pyroclastic flows. The Heim coefficient, height-dropped/run-out (H/L), exhibits an inverse relationship with flow volume. This coefficient corresponds to the coefficient of friction and informs computational models that use Coulomb friction laws. Another mobility measure states that with constant shear stress, planimetric area is proportional to the flow volume raised to the 2/3 power (A∝V^(2/3)). This relationship is incorporated in models using constant shear stress instead of constant friction, and used directly by some empirical models. Pyroclastic flows from Soufriere Hills Volcano, Montserrat; Unzen, Japan; Colima, Mexico; and Augustine, Alaska are well described by these metrics. However, flows in specific valleys exhibit differences in mobility. This study investigates the effect of topography on pyroclastic flow mobility, as measured by the above mentioned mobility metrics. Valley width, depth, and cross-sectional area all influence flow mobility. Investigating the appropriateness of these mobility measures, as well as the computational models they inform, indicates certain circumstances under which each model performs optimally. Knowing which conditions call for which models allows for better model selection or model weighting, and therefore, more realistic hazard predictions.

  8. Impact of the AD 79 explosive eruption on Pompeii, II. Causes of death of the inhabitants inferred by stratigraphic analysis and areal distribution of the human casualties (United States)

    Luongo, Giuseppe; Perrotta, Annamaria; Scarpati, Claudio; De Carolis, Ernesto; Patricelli, Giovanni; Ciarallo, Annamaria


    Detailed descriptions of the effects of explosive eruptions on urban settlements available to volcanologists are relatively rare. Apart from disease and starvation, the largest number of human deaths caused by explosive eruptions in the twentieth century are due to pyroclastic flows. The relationship between the number of victims related to a specific hazard and the presence of urban settlements in the area covered by the eruption has been shown. However, pyroclastic falls are also extremely dangerous under certain conditions. These conclusions are based on archaeological and volcanological studies carried out on the victims of the well-known AD 79 eruption of Vesuvius that destroyed and buried the Roman city of Pompeii. The stratigraphic level in the pyroclastic deposit and the location of all the casualties found are described and discussed. The total number of victims recovered during the archaeological excavations amounts to 1150. Of these, 1044 well recognisable bodies plus an additional group of 100 individuals were identified based on the analysis of several groups of scattered bones. Of the former, 394 were found in the lower pumice lapilli fall deposit and 650 in the upper stratified ash and pumice lapilli pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) deposits. In addition, a tentative evaluation suggests that 464 corpses may still be buried in the unexcavated part of the city. According to the reconstruction presented in this paper, during the first phase of the eruption (August 24, AD 79) a huge quantity of pumice lapilli fell on Pompeii burying the city under 3 m of pyroclastic material. During this eruptive phase, most of the inhabitants managed to leave the city. However, 38% of the known victims were killed during this phase mainly as a consequence of roofs and walls collapsing under the increasing weight of the pumice lapilli deposit. During the second phase of the eruption (August 25, AD 79) 49% of the total victims were on the roadways and 51% inside

  9. A new high-performance 3D multiphase flow code to simulate volcanic blasts and pyroclastic density currents: example from the Boxing Day event, Montserrat (United States)

    Ongaro, T. E.; Clarke, A.; Neri, A.; Voight, B.; Widiwijayanti, C.


    For the first time the dynamics of directed blasts from explosive lava-dome decompression have been investigated by means of transient, multiphase flow simulations in 2D and 3D. Multiphase flow models developed for the analysis of pyroclastic dispersal from explosive eruptions have been so far limited to 2D axisymmetric or Cartesian formulations which cannot properly account for important 3D features of the volcanic system such as complex morphology and fluid turbulence. Here we use a new parallel multiphase flow code, named PDAC (Pyroclastic Dispersal Analysis Code) (Esposti Ongaro et al., 2005), able to simulate the transient and 3D thermofluid-dynamics of pyroclastic dispersal produced by collapsing columns and volcanic blasts. The code solves the equations of the multiparticle flow model of Neri et al. (2003) on 3D domains extending up to several kilometres in 3D and includes a new description of the boundary conditions over topography which is automatically acquired from a DEM. The initial conditions are represented by a compact volume of gas and pyroclasts, with clasts of different sizes and densities, at high temperature and pressure. Different dome porosities and pressurization models were tested in 2D to assess the sensitivity of the results to the distribution of initial gas pressure, and to the total mass and energy stored in the dome, prior to 3D modeling. The simulations have used topographies appropriate for the 1997 Boxing Day directed blast on Montserrat, which eradicated the village of St. Patricks. Some simulations tested the runout of pyroclastic density currents over the ocean surface, corresponding to observations of over-water surges to several km distances at both locations. The PDAC code was used to perform 3D simulations of the explosive event on the actual volcano topography. The results highlight the strong topographic control on the propagation of the dense pyroclastic flows, the triggering of thermal instabilities, and the elutriation

  10. Enhancing Submarine Operational Relevance: A Leadership Challenge

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daigle, Jr, Michael J


    .... This vision of submarine operations must change. As the military continues to shift to operations focused on joint capabilities, the submarine force must break from the closed, protective, and risk averse culture of its past and push forward...

  11. Explosive volcanism on Mercury: Analysis of vent and deposit morphology and modes of eruption (United States)

    Jozwiak, Lauren M.; Head, James W.; Wilson, Lionel


    The MESSENGER mission revealed, for the first time, conclusive evidence of explosive volcanism on Mercury. Several previous works have cataloged the appearance and location of explosive volcanism on the planet using a variety of identifying characteristics, including vent presence and deposit color as seen in multispectral image mosaics. We present here a comprehensive catalog of vents of likely volcanic origin; our classification scheme emphasizes vent morphology. We have analyzed the morphologies of all vents in our catalog, and recognize three main morphologies: "simple vent", "pit vent", and "vent-with-mound". The majority of vents we identify are located within impact craters. The spatial distribution of vents does not correlate with the locations of volcanic smooth plains deposits, in contrast to the Moon, nor do vents correlate with the locations of large impact basins (except for the Caloris and Tolstoj basins). Using the degradation state of the vent host crater as a proxy for maximum age, we suggest that vent formation has been active through the Mansurian and into the Kuiperian periods, although the majority of vents were likely formed much earlier in mercurian history. The morphologies and locations of vents are used to investigate a set of plausible formation geometries. We find that the most likely and most prevalent formation geometry is that of a dike, stalled at depth, which then explosively vents to the surface. We compare the vent and deposit size of mercurian pyroclastic deposits with localized and regional lunar pyroclastic deposits, and find a range of possible eruption energies and corresponding variations in eruption style. Localized lunar pyroclastic deposits and the majority of mercurian pyroclastic deposits show evidence for eruption that is consistent with the magmatic foam at the top of a dike reaching a critical gas volume fraction. A subset of mercurian vents, including the prominent Copland-Rachmaninoff vent to the northeast of the

  12. Magmatic densities control erupted volumes in Icelandic volcanic systems (United States)

    Hartley, Margaret; Maclennan, John


    Magmatic density and viscosity exert fundamental controls on the eruptibility of magmas. In this study, we investigate the extent to which magmatic physical properties control the eruptibility of magmas from Iceland's Northern Volcanic Zone (NVZ). By studying subaerial flows of known age and volume, we are able to directly relate erupted volumes to magmatic physical properties, a task that has been near-impossible when dealing with submarine samples dredged from mid-ocean ridges. We find a strong correlation between magmatic density and observed erupted volumes on the NVZ. Over 85% of the total volume of erupted material lies close to a density and viscosity minimum that corresponds to the composition of basalts at the arrival of plagioclase on the liquidus. These magmas are buoyant with respect to the Icelandic upper crust. However, a number of small-volume eruptions with densities greater than typical Icelandic upper crust are also found in Iceland's neovolcanic zones. We use a simple numerical model to demonstrate that the eruption of magmas with higher densities and viscosities is facilitated by the generation of overpressure in magma chambers in the lower crust and uppermost mantle. This conclusion is in agreement with petrological constraints on the depths of crystallisation under Iceland.

  13. Magmatic Densities Control Erupted Volumes in Icelandic Volcanic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Hartley


    Full Text Available Magmatic density and viscosity exert fundamental controls on the eruptibility of magmas. In this study, we investigate the extent to which magmatic physical properties control the eruptibility of magmas from Iceland's Northern Volcanic Zone (NVZ. By studying subaerial flows of known age and volume, we are able to directly relate erupted volumes to magmatic physical properties, a task that has been near-impossible when dealing with submarine samples dredged from mid-ocean ridges. We find a strong correlation between magmatic density and observed erupted volumes on the NVZ. Over 85% of the total volume of erupted material lies close to a density and viscosity minimum that corresponds to the composition of basalts at the arrival of plagioclase on the liquidus. These magmas are buoyant with respect to the Icelandic upper crust. However, a number of small-volume eruptions with densities greater than typical Icelandic upper crust are also found in Iceland's neovolcanic zones. We use a simple numerical model to demonstrate that the eruption of magmas with higher densities and viscosities is facilitated by the generation of overpressure in magma chambers in the lower crust and uppermost mantle. This conclusion is in agreement with petrological constraints on the depths of crystallization under Iceland.

  14. Environmental monitoring of El Hierro Island submarine volcano, by combining low and high resolution satellite imagery (United States)

    Eugenio, F.; Martin, J.; Marcello, J.; Fraile-Nuez, E.


    El Hierro Island, located at the Canary Islands Archipelago in the Atlantic coast of North Africa, has been rocked by thousands of tremors and earthquakes since July 2011. Finally, an underwater volcanic eruption started 300 m below sea level on October 10, 2011. Since then, regular multidisciplinary monitoring has been carried out in order to quantify the environmental impacts caused by the submarine eruption. Thanks to this natural tracer release, multisensorial satellite imagery obtained from MODIS and MERIS sensors have been processed to monitor the volcano activity and to provide information on the concentration of biological, chemical and physical marine parameters. Specifically, low resolution satellite estimations of optimal diffuse attenuation coefficient (Kd) and chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentration under these abnormal conditions have been assessed. These remote sensing data have played a fundamental role during field campaigns guiding the oceanographic vessel to the appropriate sampling areas. In addition, to analyze El Hierro submarine volcano area, WorldView-2 high resolution satellite spectral bands were atmospherically and deglinted processed prior to obtain a high-resolution optimal diffuse attenuation coefficient model. This novel algorithm was developed using a matchup data set with MERIS and MODIS data, in situ transmittances measurements and a seawater radiative transfer model. Multisensor and multitemporal imagery processed from satellite remote sensing sensors have demonstrated to be a powerful tool for monitoring the submarine volcanic activities, such as discolored seawater, floating material and volcanic plume, having shown the capabilities to improve the understanding of submarine volcanic processes.

  15. 3-D high-speed imaging of volcanic bomb trajectory in basaltic explosive eruptions (United States)

    Gaudin, D.; Taddeucci, J; Houghton, Bruce F.; Orr, Tim R.; Andronico, D.; Del Bello, E.; Kueppers, U.; Ricci, T.; Scarlato, P.


    Imaging, in general, and high speed imaging in particular are important emerging tools for the study of explosive volcanic eruptions. However, traditional 2-D video observations cannot measure volcanic ejecta motion toward and away from the camera, strongly hindering our capability to fully determine crucial hazard-related parameters such as explosion directionality and pyroclasts' absolute velocity. In this paper, we use up to three synchronized high-speed cameras to reconstruct pyroclasts trajectories in three dimensions. Classical stereographic techniques are adapted to overcome the difficult observation conditions of active volcanic vents, including the large number of overlapping pyroclasts which may change shape in flight, variable lighting and clouding conditions, and lack of direct access to the target. In particular, we use a laser rangefinder to measure the geometry of the filming setup and manually track pyroclasts on the videos. This method reduces uncertainties to 10° in azimuth and dip angle of the pyroclasts, and down to 20% in the absolute velocity estimation. We demonstrate the potential of this approach by three examples: the development of an explosion at Stromboli, a bubble burst at Halema'uma'u lava lake, and an in-flight collision between two bombs at Stromboli.

  16. Submarine geothermal resources (United States)

    Williams, D.L.


    Approximately 20% of the earth's heat loss (or 2 ?? 1012 cal/s) is released through 1% of the earth's surface area and takes the form of hydrothermal discharge from young (Pleistocene or younger) rocks adjacent to active seafloor-spreading centers and submarine volcanic areas. This amount is roughly equivalent to man's present gross energy consumption rate. A sub-seafloor geothermal reservoir, to be exploitable under future economic conditions, will have to be hot, porous, permeable, large, shallow, and near an energy-deficient, populated land mass. Furthermore, the energy must be recoverable using technology achievable at a competitive cost and numerous environmental, legal and institutional problems will have to be overcome. The highest-temperature reservoirs should be found adjacent to the zones of the seafloor extension or volcanism that are subject to high sedimentation rates. The relatively impermeable sediments reduce hydrothermal-discharge flow rates, forcing the heat to be either conducted away or released by high-temperature fluids, both of which lead to reservoir temperatures that can exceed 300??C. There is evidence that the oceanic crust is quite permeable and porous and that it was amenable to deep (3-5 km) penetration by seawater at least some time in the early stages of its evolution. Most of the heat escapes far from land, but there are notable exceptions. For example, in parts of the Gulf of California, thermal gradients in the bottom sediments exceed 1??C/m. In the coastal areas of the Gulf of California, where electricity and fresh water are at a premium, this potential resource lies in shallow water (characteristics of these systems before they can be considered a viable resource. Until several of the most promising areas are carefully defined and drilled, the problem will remain unresolved. ?? 1976.

  17. Petrogenesis and depositional history of felsic pyroclastic rocks from the Melka Wakena archaeological site-complex in South central Ethiopia (United States)

    Resom, Angesom; Asrat, Asfawossen; Gossa, Tegenu; Hovers, Erella


    The Melka Wakena archaeological site-complex is located at the eastern rift margin of the central sector of the Main Ethiopian Rift (MER), in south central Ethiopia. This wide, gently sloping rift shoulder, locally called the "Gadeb plain" is underlain by a succession of primary pyroclastic deposits and intercalated fluvial sediments as well as reworked volcaniclastic rocks, the top part of which is exposed by the Wabe River in the Melka Wakena area. Recent archaeological survey and excavations at this site revealed important paleoanthropological records. An integrated stratigraphic, petrological, and major and trace element geochemical study has been conducted to constrain the petrogenesis of the primary pyroclastic deposits and the depositional history of the sequence. The results revealed that the Melka Wakena pyroclastic deposits are a suite of mildly alkaline, rhyolitic pantellerites (ash falls, pumiceous ash falls and ignimbrites) and slightly dacitic ash flows. These rocks were deposited by episodic volcanic eruptions during early to middle Pleistocene from large calderas along the Wonji Fault Belt (WFB) in the central sector of the MER and from large silicic volcanic centers at the eastern rift shoulder. The rhyolitic ash falls, pumiceous ash falls and ignimbrites have been generated by fractional crystallization of a differentiating basaltic magma while the petrogenesis of the slightly dacitic ash flows involved some crustal contamination and assimilation during fractionation. Contemporaneous fluvial activities in the geomorphologically active Gadeb plain deposited overbank sedimentary sequences (archaeology bearing conglomerates and sands) along meandering river courses while a dense network of channels and streams have subsequently down-cut through the older volcanic and sedimentary sequences, redepositing the reworked volcaniclastic sediments further downstream.

  18. Comparing Pyroclastic Density Current (PDC) deposits at Colima (Mexico) and Tungurahua (Ecuador) volcanoes (United States)

    Goldstein, Fabian; Varley, Nick; Bustillos, Jorge; Kueppers, Ulrich; Lavallee, Yan; Dingwell, Donald B.


    Sudden transitions from effusive to explosive eruptive behaviour have been observed at several volcanoes. As a result of explosive activity, pyroclastic density currents represent a major threat to life and infrastructure, mostly due to their unpredictability, mass, and velocity. Difficulties in direct observation force us to deduce crucial information from their deposits. Here, we present data from field work performed in 2009 on primary deposits from recent explosive episodes at Volcán de Colima (Mexico) and Tungurahua (Ecuador). Volcán de Colima, located 40km away from the Capital city Colima with 300,000 inhabitants, has been active since 1999. Activity has been primarily characterized by the slow effusion of lava dome with the daily occurrence of episodic gas (and sometimes ash) explosion events. During a period of peak activity in 2005, explosive eruptions repeatedly destroyed the dome and column collapse resulted in several PDCs that travelled down the W, S, and SE flanks. Tungurahua looms over the 20,000 inhabitants of the city of Baños, located 5km away, and is considered one of the most active volcanoes in Ecuador. The most recent eruptive cycle began in 1999 and climaxed in July and August of 2006 with the eruptions of several PDCs that traveled down the western flanks, controlled by the hydrological network. During two field campaigns, we collected an extensive data set of porosity and grain size distribution on PDCs at both volcanoes. The deposits have been mapped in detail and the porosity distribution of clasts across the surface of the deposits has been measured at more than 30 sites (> 3.000 samples). Our porosity distribution data (mean porosity values range between 17 and 24%) suggests an influence of run out distance and lateral position. Preliminary results of grain size analysis of ash and lapilli (structures such as dunes, grain size distribution, and the observed damage to vegetation help depict the progression of the flow and its

  19. Social and environmental impact of volcaniclastic flows related to 472 AD eruption at Vesuvius from stratigraphic and geoarcheological data (United States)

    Di Vito, Mauro A.; de Vita, Sandro; Rucco, Ilaria; Bini, Monica; Zanchetta, Giovanni; Aurino, Paola; Cesarano, Mario; Ebanista, Carlo; Rosi, Mauro; Ricciardi, Giovanni


    There is a growing number of evidences in the surrounding plain of Somma-Vesuvius volcano which indicate that along with primary volcanic processes (i.e. fallout, pyroclastic density currents) the syn-eruptive and post-eruptive volcaniclastic remobilization has severely impacted the ancient civilizations, which flourished in the area. This represents an important starting point for understanding the future hazard related to a potential (and not remote) renewal of volcanic activity of the Campaniana volcanoes. We present geoarcheological and stratigraphic data obtained from the analysis of more than 160 sections in the Campanian plain showing the widespread impact of volcaniclastic debris flows and floods originated from the rapid remobilization of the products of the AD 472 eruption of Somma-Vesuvius, both on the environment and on the human landscape. This eruption was one of the two sub-Plinian historical events of Somma Vesuvius. This event largely impacted the northern and eastern territory surrounding the volcano with deposition of a complex sequence of pyroclastic-fallout and -current deposits. These sequences were variably affected by syn- and post-eruptive mobilization both along the Somma-Vesuvius slopes and the Apennine valleys with the emplacement of thick mud- and debris-flows which strongly modified the preexisting paleogeography of the Plain with irretrievable damages to the agricultural and urban landscape. The multidisciplinary approach to the study of the sequences permitted to reconstruct the palaeoenvironment before the eruption and the timing of the emplacement of both pyroclastic and volcanoclastic deposits. The preexisting landscape was characterized by intense human occupation, although showing strong evidences of degradation and abandonment due to the progressive decline of the Roman Empire. The impact of volcaniclastic flows continued for decades after the eruption as highlighted in the studied sequences by stratigraphic and archaeologic

  20. Natural radioactivity in volcanic ash from Mt. Pinatubo eruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duran, E.B.; De Vera, C.M.; Garcia, T.Y.; Dela Cruz, F.M.; Esguerra, L.V.; Castaneda, S.S.


    Last June 15, 1991, a major pyroclastic eruption occurred from Mt. Pinatubo volcano located in Zambales, Central Luzon. The radiological impact of this eruption was assessed based on the concentrations of the principal naturally occurring radionuclides observed in volcanic ash. The volcanic ash samples were collected from locations which are within 50-km radius of Mt. Pinatubo at various times after the eruption. The mean activity concentrations in Bq/kg wet weight of the natural radionuclides in volcanic ash were as follows: 12.6 for 238 U, 14.0 for 232 Th and 330 for 40 K. These values are significantly higher than the mean activity concentrations of these radionuclides observed in topsoil in the same provinces before the eruption. This suggests that with the deposition of large quantities of volcanic ash and lahar in Central Luzon and concomitant topographic changes, the distribution and quantities of radionuclides which gave rise to terrestrial radiation may have also changed. Outdoor radon concentrations measured three days and later after the eruption were within normal background values. (auth.). 4 refs.; 5 tabs.; 1 fig

  1. Lava delta deformation as a proxy for submarine slope instability (United States)

    Di Traglia, Federico; Nolesini, Teresa; Solari, Lorenzo; Ciampalini, Andrea; Frodella, William; Steri, Damiano; Allotta, Benedetto; Rindi, Andrea; Marini, Lorenzo; Monni, Niccolò; Galardi, Emanuele; Casagli, Nicola


    The instability of lava deltas is a recurrent phenomenon affecting volcanic islands, which can potentially cause secondary events such as littoral explosions (due to interactions between hot lava and seawater) and tsunamis. It has been shown that Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) is a powerful technique to forecast the collapse of newly emplaced lava deltas. This work goes further, demonstrating that the monitoring of lava deltas is a successful strategy by which to observe the long-term deformation of subaerial-submarine landslide systems on unstable volcanic flanks. In this paper, displacement measurements derived from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery were used to detect lava delta instability at Stromboli volcano (Italy). Recent flank eruptions (2002-2003, 2007 and 2014) affected the Sciara del Fuoco (SdF) depression, created a "stacked" lava delta, which overlies a pre-existing scar produced by a submarine-subaerial tsunamigenic landslide that occurred on 30 December 2002. Space-borne X-band COSMO-SkyMED (CSK) and C-band SENTINEL-1A (SNT) SAR data collected between February 2010 and October 2016 were processed using the SqueeSAR algorithm. The obtained ground displacement maps revealed the differential ground motion of the lava delta in both CSK and SNT datasets, identifying a stable area (characterized by less than 2 mm/y in both datasets) within the northern sector of the SdF and an unstable area (characterized by velocity fields on the order of 30 mm/y and 160 mm/y in the CSK and SNT datasets, respectively) in the central sector of the SdF. The slope stability of the offshore part of the SdF, as reconstructed based on a recently performed multibeam bathymetric survey, was evaluated using a 3D Limit Equilibrium Method (LEM). In all the simulations, Factor of Safety (F) values between 0.9 and 1.1 always characterized the submarine slope between the coastline and -250 m a.s.l. The critical surfaces for all the search volumes corresponded to

  2. Submarine canyons off Madras Coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Setty, M.G.A.P.

    Submarine canyons off the coast of Madras, Tamil Nadu, India were studied during cruise of @iINS Kistna@@ as part of the IIOE programme They consist of hill-like projections and V-shaped valleys Their other features are also reported...

  3. Spectro-Morphologic Analysis of Pyroclastic Deposits on Mercury (United States)

    Doressoundiram, A.; Besse, S.; Hersérant, W.


    Observations of the MESSENGER spacecraft in orbit around Mercury have shown that volcanism is a very important process that has shaped the surface of the planet. Kerber et al. [2011,2014] have identified 200 pyroclastic deposits candidates based on color ratio and morphology images. Goudge et al. [2014] used the visible portion of the MASCS spectrometer to do further analysis on the spectral nature of the deposits. The authors have shown that the deposits have specific UV properties probably caused by Oxygen-Metal charges transfer, and a correlation between the slope of the UV-downturn and the age of the surrounding terrains. In this study, we use the full range of the MASCS spectrometer (300-1400nm) to characterize the spectral properties of the pyroclastic deposits. Moreover, additional observations have been obtained since the last publications, and this allows specific studies of previously non-imaged deposits. This study shows that the visible slope of the deposits is changing as a function of distance from the vent, as seen on the Moon for pyroclastic deposits and their mafic absorption bands [Besse et al, 2013]. This is consistent with a decrease of thickness of the deposits that are mixed with background material. Surprisingly, the UV-downturn parameter proposed by Goudge et al. [2014] does not change as the distance to the vent increase. Eventually, the near infrared portion does not appear to have absorption bands in the range 900nm-1200nm, consistent with the very low iron abundance of the surface of Mercury. This could also be due to the lower signal to noise ratio of the near infrared portion of the MASCS instrument, and further analysis are needed to confirm these results. The use of visible images from the MDIS camera has revealed that some of the pyroclastic deposits candidates are certainly correlated with hollows.

  4. New tools to investigate textures of pyroclastic deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarocchi, Damiano [Instituto de GeologIa / Fac. IngenierIa UASLP, Dr. M. Nava No 5, Zona Universitaria 78240, San Luis PotosI (Mexico); Borselli, Lorenzo [Istituto di Ricerca per la Protezione Idrogeologica, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019, Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); MacIas, Jose Luis [Departamento de VulcanologIa, Instituto de Geofisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Coyoacan 04510, D.F. (Mexico)


    A pyroclastic flow deposit keeps a fingerprint of the physical processes that occurred in the flow during transport and settling. Part of this information is recorded in the texture of the deposit offering an instantaneous view of the flow prior to freezing. In this work we introduce some texture's analysis techniques, based on image analysis, that we have developed or tuned during the last years.

  5. Theory for Deducing Volcanic Activity From Size Distributions in Plinian Pyroclastic Fall Deposits (United States)

    Iriyama, Yu; Toramaru, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Tetsuo


    Stratigraphic variation in the grain size distribution (GSD) of plinian pyroclastic fall deposits reflects volcanic activity. To extract information on volcanic activity from the analyses of deposits, we propose a one-dimensional theory that provides a formula connecting the sediment GSD to the source GSD. As the simplest case, we develop a constant-source model (CS model), in which the source GSD and the source height are constant during the duration of release of particles. We assume power laws of particle radii for the terminal fall velocity and the source GSD. The CS model can describe an overall (i.e., entire vertically variable) feature of the GSD structure of the sediment. It is shown that the GSD structure is characterized by three parameters, that is, the duration of supply of particles to the source scaled by the fall time of the largest particle, ts/tM, and the power indices of the terminal fall velocity p and of the source GSD q. We apply the CS model to samples of the Worzel D ash layer and compare the sediment GSD structure calculated by using the CS model to the observed structure. The results show that the CS model reproduces the overall structure of the observed GSD. We estimate the duration of the eruption and the q value of the source GSD. Furthermore, a careful comparison of the observed and calculated GSDs reveals new interpretation of the original sediment GSD structure of the Worzel D ash layer.

  6. Geophysical evidence for widespread reversely magnetised pyroclastics in the western Taupo Volcanic Zone (New Zealand)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soengkono, S.; Hochstein, M.P.; Smith, I.E.M.; Itaya, T.


    Low-altitude aeromagnetic data show that negative residual anomalies are widespread over the western Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand. Paleomagnetic study of eight rhyolitic ignimbrite units and two lava flows which are exposed in this area, together with new K-Ar dates of four of the ignimbrite units, indicate that the two lava units and seven of the ignimbrite units were erupted during the Matuyama geomagnetic epoch (>0.73 Ma B.P.) and suggest that rhyolitic volcanism in the western Taupo Volcanic Zone began as early as 1.6 Ma B.P. These results provide the basis for an interpretation of our aeromagnetic data which confirms the hypothesis that the magnetic anomalies observed in the western Taupo Volcanic Zone are caused by widespread, thick, reversely magnetised pyroclastic and lava flows. Magnetic modelling also allows thickness estimates of the younger, normally magnetised cover rocks which reach a maximum thickness of the order of 0.5 km in the Mangakino area. The magnetic structure of these volcanic rocks defines approximately the lateral extent of the Mangakino Volcanic Centre. (author). 41 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  7. Geology of proximal, small-volume trachyte-trachyandesite pyroclastic flows and associated surge deposits, Roccamonfina volcano, Italy (United States)

    Giannetti, Bernardino


    This paper describes the 232 ka B.P. MTTT trachyte-trachyandesite pyroclastic succession of Roccamonfina volcano. This small-volume, proximal sequence crops out along Mulino di Sotto, Paratone, and Pisciariello ravines in the southwest sector of the central caldera, and covers a minimum extent of 3.5 km 2 area. It is made up of seven pyroclastic flows and pyroclastic surge units consisting of trachytic ash matrix containing juvenile trachyandesitic scoria and dense lava fragments, pumice clasts of uncertain trachyandesite, and a foreign trachyandesitic lithic facies. Two stratigraphic markers allow correlation of the units. No paleosoils and Plinian fallout have been observed at the base and within the succession. Some lateral grading of scoria and lithic clasts suggests that MTTT derived from three distinct source vents. The sequence consists of a basal ash flow passing laterally to laminated surge deposits (Unit A). This is overlain by a reversely graded scoria and pumice lapilli flow (Unit B) which is in turn overlain by a thinly cross-stratified scoria lapilli surge (Unit C). Unit C is capped by a prominent ash-and-scoria flow (Unit D). A ground layer (Marker MK1) divides Unit D from a massive ignimbrite which grades upcurrent to sand-wave surge deposits (Unit E). Another ground layer (Marker MK2) separates Unit E from Unit F. This unit consists of a basal ignimbrite passing laterally to bedded surge deposits with convolute structures (subunit Fl), and grading upcurrent to a subhorizontally plane-laminated ash cloud (subunit F2) containing near the top a layer of millimetric lithic clasts embedded in fine ash. The succession is closed by the pyroclastic flow Unit G. Surge Unit C can be interpreted in terms of vertical gradients in turbulence, particle concentration, and velocity during flowage, whereas the bedded surge parts present in the massive deposits of Units A and E-F1 can be related to abrupt changes of velocity down the steep slopes of ravines. Reverse

  8. Joint M3 and Diviner Analysis of the Mineralogy, Glass Composition, and Country Rock Content of Pyroclastic Deposits in Oppenheimer Crater (United States)

    Bennett, Kristen A.; Horgan, Briony H. N.; Greenhagen, Benjamin T.; Allen, Carlton C.; Paige, David A.; Bell, James F., III


    Here we present our analysis of the near- and mid-infrared spectral properties of pyroclastic deposits within the floor fractured Oppenheimer Crater that are hypothesized to be Vulcanian in origin. These are the first results of our global study of lunar pyroclastic deposits aimed at constraining the range of eruption processes on the Moon. In the near-infrared, we have employed a new method of spectral analysis developed in Horgan et al. (2013) of the 1 ?m iron absorption band in Chandrayaan-1 Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) spectra. By analyzing both the position and shape of the 1 ?m band we can detect and map the distribution of minerals, glasses, and mixtures of these phases in pyroclastic deposits. We are also using mid-infrared spectra from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment to develop 200 m/pixel Christiansen Feature (CF) maps, which correlate with silica abundance. One of the benefits of using CF maps for analysis of pyroclastic deposits is that they can be used to detect silicic country rock that may have been emplaced by Vulcanian-style eruptions, and are sensitive to iron abundance in glasses, neither of which is possible in the near-infrared. M3 analysis reveals that the primary spectral endmembers are low-calcium pyroxene and iron-bearing glass, with only minor high-calcium pyroxene, and no detectable olivine. The large deposit in the south shows higher and more extensive glass concentrations than the surrounding deposits. We interpret the M3 spectra of the pyroclastic deposits as indicating a mixture of low-calcium pyroxene country rock and juvenile glass, and no significant olivine. Analysis of Diviner CF maps of the Oppenheimer crater floor indicates an average CF value of 8.16, consistent with a mixture of primarily plagioclase and some pyroxene. The average CF values of the pyroclastic deposits range from 8.31 in the SW to 8.24 in the SE. Since CF values within the deposits are as high as 8.49, the lower average CF

  9. Mechanism of human tooth eruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Inger


    Human eruption is a unique developmental process in the organism. The aetiology or the mechanism behind eruption has never been fully understood and the scientific literature in the field is extremely sparse. Human and animal tissues provide different possibilities for eruption analyses, briefly ...... keeps this new theory in mind. Understanding the aetiology of the eruption process is necessary for treating deviant eruption courses....... to insight into the aetiology behind eruption. A new theory on the eruption mechanism is presented. Accordingly, the mechanism of eruption depends on the correlation between space in the eruption course, created by the crown follicle, eruption pressure triggered by innervation in the apical root membrane......, and the ability of the periodontal ligament to adapt to eruptive movements. Animal studies and studies on normal and pathological eruption in humans can support and explain different aspects in the new theory. The eruption mechanism still needs elucidation and the paper recommends that future research on eruption...

  10. Analysis of SSN 688 Class Submarine Maintenance Delays (United States)


    Simplified Notional Submarine FRP (Independent Deployer) ..................11  Figure 8.  Evolution of Los Angeles Class Submarine Notional...Number TFP Technical Foundation Paper URO Unrestricted Operations xv ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to thank my lead advisor, Professor Nick Dew...only on Los Angeles (SSN 688)-class submarines. Being the higher quantity and older generation submarine hull type, the Los Angeles class submarine

  11. Scientific Ocean Drilling to Assess Submarine Geohazards along European Margins (United States)

    Ask, M. V.; Camerlenghi, A.; Kopf, A.; Morgan, J. K.; Ocean DrillingSeismic Hazard, P. E.


    Submarine geohazards are some of the most devastating natural events in terms of lives lost and economic impact. Earthquakes pose a big threat to society and infrastructure, but the understanding of their episodic generation is incomplete. Tsunamis are known for their potential of striking coastlines world-wide. Other geohazards originating below the sea surface are equally dangerous for undersea structures and the coastal population: submarine landslides and volcanic islands collapse with little warning and devastating consequences. The European scientific community has a strong focus on geohazards along European and nearby continental margins, especially given their high population densities, and long historic and prehistoric record of hazardous events. For example, the Mediterranean is surrounded by very densely-populated coastline and is the World's leading holiday destination, receiving up 30% of global tourism. In addition, its seafloor is criss-crossed by hydrocarbon pipelines and telecommunication cables. However, the governing processes and recurrence intervals of geohazards are still poorly understood. Examples include, but are not limited to, earthquakes and volcanic eruptions along the active tectonic margins of the Mediterranean and Sea of Marmara, landslides on both active and passive margins, and tsunamites and seismites in the sedimentary record that suggest a long history of similar events. The development of geophysical networks, drilling, sampling and long-term monitoring are crucial to the understanding of earthquake, landslide, and tsunami processes, and to mitigate the associated risks in densely populated and industrialized regions such as Europe. Scientific drilling, particularly in the submarine setting, offers a unique tool to obtain drill core samples, borehole measurements and long-term observations. Hence, it is a critical technology to investigate past, present, and possible future influences of hazardous processes in this area. The

  12. The Te Rere and Okareka eruptive episodes : Okataina Volcanic Centre, Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nairn, I.A.


    The Te Rere and Okareka eruptive episodes occurred within the Okataina Volcanic Centre at c. 21 000 and 18 000 yr B.P., respectively. The widespread rhyolitic pumice fall deposits of Te Rere Ash (volume 5 km 3 ) and Okareka Ash (6 km 3 ) are only rarely exposed in near-source areas, and locations of their vent areas have been uncertain. New exposures and petrographic and chemical analyses show that the Te Rere episode eruptions occurred from multiple vents, up to 20 km apart, on the Haroharo linear vent zone. The Okareka episode eruptions occurred from vents since buried beneath the Tarawera volcanic massif. Eruption of the rhyolitic Okareka pumice fall was immediately preceded by a small basaltic scoria eruption, apparently from vents close to those for the following rhyolite eruptions. Dacitic mixed pumices scattered within the rhyolite pumice layers immediately overlying the scoria were formed by mixing of the basalt and rhyolite magmas. The Te Rere and Okareka pyroclastic eruptions were both followed by extrusion of voluminous rhyolite lavas. These eruptive episodes mark the commencement of growth of the present-day Haroharo and Tarawera volcanic complexes. (author). 27 refs., 14 figs., 6 tabs

  13. Seismic constraints on caldera dynamics from the 2015 Axial Seamount eruption. (United States)

    Wilcock, William S D; Tolstoy, Maya; Waldhauser, Felix; Garcia, Charles; Tan, Yen Joe; Bohnenstiehl, DelWayne R; Caplan-Auerbach, Jacqueline; Dziak, Robert P; Arnulf, Adrien F; Mann, M Everett


    Seismic observations in volcanically active calderas are challenging. A new cabled observatory atop Axial Seamount on the Juan de Fuca ridge allows unprecedented real-time monitoring of a submarine caldera. Beginning on 24 April 2015, the seismic network captured an eruption that culminated in explosive acoustic signals where lava erupted on the seafloor. Extensive seismic activity preceding the eruption shows that inflation is accommodated by the reactivation of an outward-dipping caldera ring fault, with strong tidal triggering indicating a critically stressed system. The ring fault accommodated deflation during the eruption and provided a pathway for a dike that propagated south and north beneath the caldera's east wall. Once north of the caldera, the eruption stepped westward, and a dike propagated along the extensional north rift. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  14. A contribution to the hazards assessment at Copahue volcano (Argentina-Chile) by facies analysis of a recent pyroclastic density current deposit (United States)

    Balbis, C.; Petrinovic, I. A.; Guzmán, S.


    We recognised and interpreted a recent pyroclastic density current (PDC) deposit at the Copahue volcano (Southern Andes), through a field survey and a sedimentological study. The relationships between the behaviour of the PDCs, the morphology of the Río Agrio valley and the eruptive dynamics were interpreted. We identified two lithofacies in the deposit that indicate variations in the eruptive dynamics: i) the opening of the conduit and the formation of a highly explosive eruption that formed a diluted PDC through the immediate collapse of the eruptive column; ii) a continued eruption which followed immediately and records the widening of the conduit, producing a dense PDC. The eruption occurred in 2000 CE, was phreatomagmatic (VEI ≤ 2), with a vesiculation level above 4000 m depth and fragmentation driven by the interaction of magma with an hydrothermal system at ca. 1500 m depth. As deduced from the comparison between the accessory lithics of this deposit and those of the 2012 CE eruption, the depth of onset of vesiculation and fragmentation level in this volcano is constant in depth. In order to reproduce the distribution pattern of this PDC's deposit and to simulate potential PDC's forming-processes, we made several computational modelling from "denser" to "more diluted" conditions. The latter fairly reproduces the distribution of the studied deposit and represents perhaps one of the most dangerous possible scenarios of the Copahue volcanic activity. PDCs occurrence has been considered in the last volcanic hazards map as a low probability process; evidences found in this contribution suggest instead to include them as more probable and thus very important for the hazards assessment of the Copahue volcano.

  15. Spatial and Temporal Analysis of Eruption Locations, Compositions, and Styles in Northern Harrat Rahat, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (United States)

    Dietterich, H. R.; Stelten, M. E.; Downs, D. T.; Champion, D. E.


    Harrat Rahat is a predominantly mafic, 20,000 km2 volcanic field in western Saudi Arabia with an elongate volcanic axis extending 310 km north-south. Prior mapping suggests that the youngest eruptions were concentrated in northernmost Harrat Rahat, where our new geologic mapping and geochronology reveal >300 eruptive vents with ages ranging from 1.2 Ma to a historic eruption in 1256 CE. Eruption compositions and styles vary spatially and temporally within the volcanic field, where extensive alkali basaltic lavas dominate, but more evolved compositions erupted episodically as clusters of trachytic domes and small-volume pyroclastic flows. Analysis of vent locations, compositions, and eruption styles shows the evolution of the volcanic field and allows assessment of the spatio-temporal probabilities of vent opening and eruption styles. We link individual vents and fissures to eruptions and their deposits using field relations, petrography, geochemistry, paleomagnetism, and 40Ar/39Ar and 36Cl geochronology. Eruption volumes and deposit extents are derived from geologic mapping and topographic analysis. Spatial density analysis with kernel density estimation captures vent densities of up to 0.2 %/km2 along the north-south running volcanic axis, decaying quickly away to the east but reaching a second, lower high along a secondary axis to the west. Temporal trends show slight younging of mafic eruption ages to the north in the past 300 ka, as well as clustered eruptions of trachytes over the past 150 ka. Vent locations, timing, and composition are integrated through spatial probability weighted by eruption age for each compositional range to produce spatio-temporal models of vent opening probability. These show that the next mafic eruption is most probable within the north end of the main (eastern) volcanic axis, whereas more evolved compositions are most likely to erupt within the trachytic centers further to the south. These vent opening probabilities, combined with

  16. The 26.5 ka Oruanui eruption, New Zealand : a review of the roles of volcanism and climate in the post-eruptive sedimentary response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manville, V.R.; Wilson, C.J.N.


    The landscape response to large explosive pyroclastic volcanic eruptions is one of the most dramatic processes in sedimentology and geomorphology. Processes of post-eruptive erosion and resedimentation are maximised by large erupted volumes, abundant unconsolidated ash-sized material, destruction of the vegetation cover (particularly by burial by ignimbrite), and inhibition of vegetation regrowth (e.g., by harsh climatic conditions). The 26.5 ka Oruanui eruption from Taupo volcano in the central North Island of New Zealand created optimal conditions for a large-scale sedimentary response that was influenced and prolonged by the succeeding climatic nadir of the Last Glacial Maximum. About 530 km 3 of rhyolitic magma was erupted as 420 km 3 of fall deposits, 320 km 3 of pyroclastic density current deposits (mostly non-welded ignimbrite), and 430 km 3 of primary intracaldera fill. The eruption, and formation of the Oruanui caldera, destroyed one major lake but created the forerunner to modern Lake Taupo. This lake initially stably overflowed to the northwest before breaking out in a catastrophic flood during establishment of a northeasterly outlet along the line of the modern Waikato River. Suppression of revegetation by the contemporaneous harsh periglacial climate contributed to intense erosion and remobilisation of Oruanui pyroclastic units, triggering massive downstream fluvial aggradation in impacted catchments. In particular, aggradation caused the lower 180 km of the Waikato River to avulse from its long-established route via the Hauraki Plains into the Hamilton Basin where it was subsequently trapped. Aeolian reworking created localised dune fields, while generation of tephric loess formed deposits over much of the central North Island. The initial perturbation to fluvial sedimentary systems created by the eruption was generally sustained by climatic conditions until c. 17 ka. Climatic amelioration eventually stabilised primary sediment sources through the re

  17. Bedform reconstruction using Terrestrial Laser Scanning at Hunt's Hole, New Mexico: implications for sediment transport in pyroclastic surge deposits and criteria for their identification on Mars (United States)

    Edgar, L.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Ewing, R. C.; Southard, J. B.; Lamb, M. P.


    Pyroclastic surges are dilute flows of gas and rock fragments, typically generated by the interaction of magma and water. Due to their hazardous nature, very little is known about sediment transport during these eruptions. However, the cross-stratified deposits that they leave behind provide an important record of flow conditions, if properly interpreted. In the absence of geologic context (and volcanic indicators such as bombs and lapilli), it may be difficult to distinguish bedforms in pyroclastic surge deposits from those in eolian or fluvial deposits. There has been some debate about the identification of pyroclastic surge deposits on Mars, suggesting a need to establish better criteria for recognizing these deposits in remote sensing applications. The goals of this study are to use physical characteristics to better understand bedform kinematics and gain insight into the flow dynamics of pyroclastic surges, and to establish criteria to distinguish pyroclastic surges from other depositional environments on Mars. Two examples of pyroclastic surge deposits are exposed in Hunt's Hole (HH) and Kilbourne Hole in southern NM. These volcanic craters expose up to 13 m of stratigraphy, dominated by dm-to-m-scale bedforms. The geomorphic pattern around the rim of HH provides 3D exposures at the scale of the bedforms, which enables observations of bedform geometries. We identify several facies, and measure bedform characteristics in the cross-stratified facies. Bedforms range in height from 25-80 cm, and wavelength from 190-460 cm. Stoss slope angles range from 4-11°, and lee slope from 2-18°. Geometries indicate possible bedform merging, as smaller bedforms overtake others to build larger features. Bedform interactions have been described in modern eolian systems, typically in plan-view, but these surge deposits may provide an opportunity to observe them in outcrop in cross-section. We propose that bedforms in pyroclastic surges can be identified by a unique style of

  18. Stratigraphy and eruption age of the volcanic rocks in the west of Miyanoharu area, Kumamoto Prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamata, Hiroki


    The detailed stratigraphic survey, K-Ar age determinations and NRM measurements of the volcanic rocks in the west of Miyanoharu area revealed the volcanic history as follows: Hornblende andesite lava with plagioclase megacryst (Yoshinomoto lava) erupted during 2.8 - 2.5 Ma (Gauss normal epoch), accompanied by small amount of pyroclastic materials. After this eruption, Kamitarumizu hypersthene-augite andesite lava (1.7 - 1.3 Ma; reversed), Yabakei pyroclastic flow (0.99 Ma; Jaramillo normal event), Yamakogawa biotite rhyolite lava (0.9 Ma; reversed) and Daikanbo hypersthene-augite andesite lava (0.8 Ma; normal) erupted successively prior to the Aso-1 pyroclastic flow (0.3 - 0.4 Ma). Both the K-Ar ages and NRM data are consistent with the stratigraphic sequence (Fig. 2), which suggests that the activity of andesite and rhyolite is intercalated with each other during Pleistocene in the studied area. The compiled radiometric age data in the central-north Kyushu show that the age of volcanic activity that has previously been inferred as middle Miocene is of Pliocene, and its distribution is limited within the quadrilateral (60 km x 40 km) where the pre-Tertiary basement rocks are absent. The distribution of volcanic rocks is historically zonated such that the rocks of older age up to 5 Ma develop toward the outer rim of the quadrilateral, which coincides with the 0 mgal contour bordering the large low Bouguer anomaly. These facts suggest that the volcanic activity is remarkably relevant to the subsidence of this area, where the volcano-tectonic depression has been formed after 5 Ma to the present, and filled with lavas and pyroclastic materials with scarce sedimentary rocks in the tension stress field during Plio-Pleistocene age. (Kubozono, M.)

  19. Volcaniclastic dykes tell on fracturing, explosive eruption and lateral collapse at Stromboli volcano (Italy) (United States)

    Vezzoli, Luigina; Corazzato, Claudia


    In the upper part of the Stromboli volcano, in the Le Croci and Bastimento areas, two dyke-like bodies of volcanic breccia up to two-metre thick crosscut and intrude the products of Vancori and Neostromboli volcanoes. We describe the lithofacies association of these unusual volcaniclastic dykes, interpret the setting of dyke-forming fractures and the emplacement mechanism of internal deposits, and discuss their probable relationships with the explosive eruption and major lateral collapse events that occurred at the end of the Neostromboli period. The dyke volcaniclastic deposits contain juvenile magmatic fragments (pyroclasts) suggesting a primary volcanic origin. Their petrographic characteristics are coincident with the Neostromboli products. The architecture of the infilling deposits comprises symmetrically-nested volcaniclastic units, separated by sub-vertical boundaries, which are parallel to the dyke margins. The volcanic units are composed of distinctive lithofacies. The more external facies is composed of fine and coarse ash showing sub-vertical laminations, parallel to the contact wall. The central facies comprises stratified, lithic-rich breccia and lapilli-tuff, whose stratification is sub-horizontal and convolute, discordant to the dyke margins. Only at Le Croci dyke, the final unit shows a massive tuff-breccia facies. The volcaniclastic dykes experienced a polyphasic geological evolution comprising three stages. The first phase consisted in fracturing, explosive intrusion related to magma rising and upward injection of magmatic fluids and pyroclasts. The second phase recorded the dilation of fractures and their role as pyroclastic conduits in an explosive eruption possibly coeval with the lateral collapse of the Neostromboli lava cone. Finally, in the third phase, the immediately post-eruption mass-flow remobilization of pyroclastic deposits took place on the volcano slopes.

  20. A Helicopter submarine Search Game (United States)


    Figure 3. Graphical representation of Baston and Bostock ................. 10 Figure 4. Dips and Speed Circle...dimen.ional helicopter submarine gaines studied by Meinardi [Ref. 7] and more recently by Baston and Bostock [Ref. 8]. Meinardi solves a discr,-te form of...the game while Baston and Bostock solve the continuous case. Bes.ides Danskin’s game, not much work has been done on the two dimensional case except

  1. Eruption dynamics and explosive-effusive transitions during the 1400 cal BP eruption of Opala volcano, Kamchatka, Russia (United States)

    Andrews, Benjamin J.; Dufek, Josef; Ponomareva, Vera


    Deposits and pumice from the 1400 cal BP eruption of Opala volcano record activity that occurred at the explosive-effusive transition, resulting in intermittent, or stop-start, behavior, where explosive activity resumed following a pause. The eruption deposited distinctive, biotite-bearing rhyolite tephra across much of Kamchatka, and its stratigraphy consists of a lithic-rich pumice fall, overlain by pumice falls and pyroclastic density deposits, with the proportion of the latter increasing with height. This sequence repeats such that the middle of the total deposit is marked by a lithic-rich fall with abundant obsidian clasts. Notably, the eruptive pumice are poorly vesiculated, with vesicle textures that record fragmentation of a partially collapsed magmatic foam. The eruption vent, Baranii Amphitheater is filled with obsidian lavas of the same composition as the rhyolite tephra. Based upon the stratigraphic and compositional relations, we divide the eruption into four phases. Phase I initiated with eruption of a lithic-rich pumice fall, followed by eruption of Plinian falls and pyroclastic density currents. During Phase II, the eruption paused for at least 5-6 h; in this time, microlites nucleated and began to grow in the magma. Phase III essentially repeated the Phase I sequence. Obsidian lavas were emplaced during Phase IV. The pumice textures suggest that the magma ascended very near the threshold decompression rate for the transition between explosive (fast) and effusive (slow) behavior. The pause during Phase II likely occurred as decompression slowed enough for the magma to develop sufficient permeability for gas to escape resulting in collapse of the magmatic foam, stopping the eruption and temporarily sealing the conduit. After about 5-6 h, eruption resumed with, once again, magma decompressing very near the explosive-effusive transition. Phase III ended when the decompression rate slowed and lava dome emplacement began. Distributions of pumice and

  2. Eruption and emplacement timescales of ignimbrite super-eruptions from thermo-kinetics of glass shards

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    Yan eLavallée


    Full Text Available Super-eruptions generating hundreds of cubic kilometres of pyroclastic density currents are commonly recorded by thick, welded and lava-like ignimbrites. Despite the huge environmental impact inferred for this type of eruption, little is yet known about the timescales of deposition and post-depositional flow. Without these timescales, the critical question of the duration of any environmental impact, and the ensuing gravity of its effects for the Earth system, eludes us. The eruption and welding of ignimbrites requires three transects of the glass transition. Magma needs to: 1 fragment during ascent, 2 liquefy and relax during deposition, agglutination and welding (sintering, and 3 quench by cooling into the glassy state. Here we show that welding is a rapid, syn-depositional process and that the welded ignimbrite sheet may flow for up to a few hours before passing through the glass transition a final time. Geospeedometry reveals that the basal vitrophyre of the Grey’s Landing ignimbrite underwent the glass transition at a rate of ~0.1 °C.min^-1 at 870 °C; that is, 30-180 °C below pre-eruptive geothermometric estimates. Application of a 1-D cooling model constrains the timescale of deposition, agglutination, and welding of the basal vitrophyre to less than 1 hour, and possibly even tens of minutes. Thermo-mechanical iteration of the sintering process indicates an optimal temperature solution for the emplacement of the vitrophyres at 966 °C. The vitrophyres reveal a Newtonian rheology up to 46 MPa, which suggests that the ash particles annealed entirely during welding and that viscous energy dissipation is unlikely from loading conditions alone, unless shear stresses imposed by the overlying ash flow were excessively high and sustained over long distances. The findings underline the value of the term 'lava-like' flow to describe the end rheology of Snake River-type ignimbrites, fully consistent with the typical lithofacies observed.

  3. Formation of submarine gas hydrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soloviev, V.; Ginsburg, G.D. (Reserch Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources of the Ocean ' ' VNII Okeangeologia' ' , St. Petersburg (Russian Federation))


    Submarine gas hydrates have been discoverd in the course of deep-sea drilling (DSDP and ODP) and bottom sampling in many offshore regions. This paper reports on expeditions carried out in the Black, Caspian and Okhotsk Seas. Gas hydrate accumulations were discovered and investigated in all these areas. The data and an analysis of the results of the deep-sea drilling programme suggest that the infiltration of gas-bearing fluids is a necessary condition for gas hydrate accumulation. This is confirmed by geological observations at three scale levels. Firstly, hydrates in cores are usually associated with comparatively coarse-grained, permeable sediments as well as voids and fractures. Secondly, hydrate accumulations are controlled by permeable geological structures, i.e. faults, diapirs, mud volcanos as well as layered sequences. Thirdly, in the worldwide scale, hydrate accumulations are characteristic of continental slopes and rises and intra-continental seas where submarine seepages also are widespread. Both biogenic and catagenic gas may occur, and the gas sources may be located at various distances from the accumulation. Gas hydrates presumably originate from water-dissolved gas. The possibility of a transition from dissolved gas into hydrate is confirmed by experimental data. Shallow gas hydrate accumulations associated with gas-bearing fluid plumes are the most convenient features for the study of submarine hydrate formation in general. These accumulations are known from the Black, Caspian and Okhotsk Seas, the Gulf of Mexico and off northern California. (au) (24 refs.)

  4. Russian nuclear-powered submarine decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukharin, O.; Handler, J.


    Russia is facing technical, economic and organizational difficulties in dismantling its oversized and unsafe fleet of nuclear powered submarines. The inability of Russia to deal effectively with the submarine decommissioning crisis increases the risk of environmental disaster and may hamper the implementation of the START I and START II treaties. This paper discusses the nuclear fleet support infrastructure, the problems of submarine decommissioning, and recommends international cooperation in addressing these problems

  5. Volcanic hazards from Bezymianny- and Bandai-type eruptions (United States)

    Siebert, L.; Glicken, H.; Ui, T.


    Major slope failures are a significant degradational process at volcanoes. Slope failures and associated explosive eruptions have resulted in more than 20 000 fatalities in the past 400 years; the historic record provides evidence for at least six of these events in the past century. Several historic debris avalanches exceed 1 km3 in volume. Holocene avalanches an order of magnitude larger have traveled 50-100 km from the source volcano and affected areas of 500-1500 km2. Historic eruptions associated with major slope failures include those with a magmatic component (Bezymianny type) and those solely phreatic (Bandai type). The associated gravitational failures remove major segments of the volcanoes, creating massive horseshoe-shaped depressions commonly of caldera size. The paroxysmal phase of a Bezymianny-type eruption may include powerful lateral explosions and pumiceous pyroclastic flows; it is often followed by construction of lava dome or pyroclastic cone in the new crater. Bandai-type eruptions begin and end with the paroxysmal phase, during which slope failure removes a portion of the edifice. Massive volcanic landslides can also occur without related explosive eruptions, as at the Unzen volcano in 1792. The main potential hazards from these events derive from lateral blasts, the debris avalanche itself, and avalanche-induced tsunamis. Lateral blasts produced by sudden decompression of hydrothermal and/or magmatic systems can devastate areas in excess of 500km2 at velocities exceeding 100 m s-1. The ratio of area covered to distance traveled for the Mount St. Helens and Bezymianny lateral blasts exceeds that of many pyroclastic flows or surges of comparable volume. The potential for large-scale lateral blasts is likely related to the location of magma at the time of slope failure and appears highest when magma has intruded into the upper edifice, as at Mount St. Helens and Bezymianny. Debris avalanches can move faster than 100 ms-1 and travel tens of

  6. Post-eruptive sediment transport and surface processes on unvegetated volcanic hillslopes - A case study of Black Tank scoria cone, Cima Volcanic Field, California (United States)

    Kereszturi, Gábor; Németh, Károly


    Conical volcanic edifices that are made up from lapilli to block/bomb pyroclastic successions, such as scoria cones, are widespread in terrestrial and extraterrestrial settings. Eruptive processes responsible for establishing the final facies architecture of a scoria cone are not well linked to numerical simulations of their post-eruptive sediment transport. Using sedimentological, geomorphic and 2D fragment morphology data from a 15-ky-old scoria cone from the Cima Volcanic Field, California, this study provides field evidence of the various post-eruptive sediment transport and degradation processes of scoria cones located in arid to semi-arid environments. This study has revealed that pyroclast morphologies vary downslope due to syn-eruptive granular flows, along with post-eruptive modification by rolling, bouncing and sliding of individual particles down a slope, and overland flow processes. The variability of sediment transport rates on hillslopes are not directly controlled by local slope angle variability and the flank length but rather by grain size, and morphological characteristics of particles, such as shape irregularity of pyroclast fragments and block/lapilli ratio. Due to the abundance of hillslopes degrading in unvegetated regions, such as those found in the Southwestern USA, granulometric influences should be accounted for in the formulation of sediment transport laws for geomorphic modification of volcanic terrains over long geologic time.

  7. Influences on the variability of eruption sequences and style transitions in the Auckland Volcanic Field, New Zealand (United States)

    Kereszturi, Gábor; Németh, Károly; Cronin, Shane J.; Procter, Jonathan; Agustín-Flores, Javier


    Monogenetic basaltic volcanism is characterised by a complex array of eruptive behaviours, reflecting spatial and temporal variability of the magmatic properties (e.g. composition, eruptive volume, magma flux) as well as environmental factors at the vent site (e.g. availability of water, country rock geology, faulting). These combine to produce changes in eruption style over brief periods (minutes to days) in many eruption episodes. Monogenetic eruptions in some volcanic fields often start with a phreatomagmatic vent-opening phase that later transforms into "dry" magmatic explosive or effusive activity, with a strong variation in the duration and importance of this first phase. Such an eruption sequence pattern occurred in 83% of the known eruption in the 0.25 My-old Auckland Volcanic Field (AVF), New Zealand. In this investigation, the eruptive volumes were compared with the sequences of eruption styles preserved in the pyroclastic record at each volcano of the AVF, as well as environmental influencing factors, such as distribution and thickness of water-saturated semi- to unconsolidated sediments, topographic position, distances from known fault lines. The AVF showed that there is no correlation between ejecta ring volumes and environmental influencing factors that is valid for the entire AVF. In contrary, using a set of comparisons of single volcanoes with well-known and documented sequences, resultant eruption sequences could be explained by predominant patterns of the environment in which these volcanoes were erupted. Based on the spatial variability of these environmental factors, a first-order susceptibility hazard map was constructed for the AVF that forecasts areas of largest likelihood for phreatomagmatic eruptions by overlaying topographical and shallow geological information. Combining detailed phase-by-phase breakdowns of eruptive volumes and the event sequences of the AVF, along with the new susceptibility map, more realistic eruption scenarios can be

  8. Multi-stage volcanic island flank collapses with coeval explosive caldera-forming eruptions. (United States)

    Hunt, James E; Cassidy, Michael; Talling, Peter J


    Volcanic flank collapses and explosive eruptions are among the largest and most destructive processes on Earth. Events at Mount St. Helens in May 1980 demonstrated how a relatively small (300 km 3 ), but can also occur in complex multiple stages. Here, we show that multistage retrogressive landslides on Tenerife triggered explosive caldera-forming eruptions, including the Diego Hernandez, Guajara and Ucanca caldera eruptions. Geochemical analyses were performed on volcanic glasses recovered from marine sedimentary deposits, called turbidites, associated with each individual stage of each multistage landslide. These analyses indicate only the lattermost stages of subaerial flank failure contain materials originating from respective coeval explosive eruption, suggesting that initial more voluminous submarine stages of multi-stage flank collapse induce these aforementioned explosive eruption. Furthermore, there are extended time lags identified between the individual stages of multi-stage collapse, and thus an extended time lag between the initial submarine stages of failure and the onset of subsequent explosive eruption. This time lag succeeding landslide-generated static decompression has implications for the response of magmatic systems to un-roofing and poses a significant implication for ocean island volcanism and civil emergency planning.

  9. Explosive eruptive history of Pantelleria, Italy: Repeated caldera collapse and ignimbrite emplacement at a peralkaline volcano (United States)

    Jordan, Nina J.; Rotolo, Silvio G.; Williams, Rebecca; Speranza, Fabio; McIntosh, William C.; Branney, Michael J.; Scaillet, Stéphane


    A new, pre-Green Tuff (46 ka) volcanic stratigraphy is presented for the peralkaline Pantelleria Volcano, Italy. New 40Ar/39Ar and paleomagnetic data are combined with detailed field studies to develop a comprehensive stratigraphic reconstruction of the island. We find that the pre-46 ka succession is characterised by eight silica-rich peralkaline (trachyte to pantellerite) ignimbrites, many of which blanketed the entire island. The ignimbrites are typically welded to rheomorphic, and are commonly associated with lithic breccias and/or pumice deposits. They record sustained radial pyroclastic density currents fed by low pyroclastic fountains. The onset of ignimbrite emplacement is typically preceded (more rarely followed) by pumice fallout with limited dispersal, and some eruptions lack any associated pumice fall deposit, suggesting the absence of tall eruption columns. Particular attention is given to the correlation of well-developed lithic breccias in the ignimbrites, interpreted as probable tracers of caldera collapses. They record as many as five caldera collapse events, in contrast to the two events reported to date. Inter-ignimbrite periods are characterised by explosive and effusive eruptions with limited dispersal, such as small pumice cones, as well as pedogenesis. These periods have similar characteristics as the current post-Green Tuff activity on the island, and, while not imminent, it is reasonable to postulate the occurrence of another ignimbrite-forming eruption sometime in the future.

  10. To the problem of utilization of nuclear submarines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarakanov, E.; Larin, V.


    Paper discusses a concept of step-by-step utilization of nuclear submarines in Russia. By the late 2000 minimum 160 nuclear submarines with over 300 nuclear reactors should be removed. Unloading of spent nuclear fuel from reactors, dismounting of nuclear submarines, efforts to arrange storage facilities for liquid and solid radioactive waste are the main steps of nuclear submarine utilization. Under the rates of nuclear submarine utilization being as they are, the utilization of 160 nuclear submarines will take about 30 years. Paper analyzes the alternative variants of nuclear submarine utilization and discusses the social and ecological aspects of utilization of nuclear submarines [ru

  11. Constraining recent Shiveluch volcano eruptions (Kamchatka, Russia by means of dendrochronology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Solomina


    Full Text Available Shiveluch (N 56°38´, E 161°19´; elevation: active dome ~2500 m, summit of Old Shiveluch 3283 m is one of the most active volcanoes in Kamchatka. The eruptions of Shiveluch commonly result in major environmental damage caused by debris avalanches, hot pyroclastic flows, tephra falls and lahars. Constraining these events in time and space is important for the understanding and prediction of these natural hazards. The last major eruption of Shiveluch occurred in 2005; earlier ones, dated by instrumental, historical, 14C and tephrochronological methods, occurred in the last millennium around AD 1030, 1430, 1650, 1739, 1790–1810, 1854, 1879–1883, 1897–1898, 1905, 1927–1929, 1944–1950, and 1964. A lava dome has been growing in the 1964 crater since 1980, occasionally producing tephra falls and pyroclastic flows. Several Shiveluch eruptions (~AD 1050, 1650, 1854, 1964 may have been climatically effective and are probably recorded in the Greenland ice cores.

    Previously, most dates for eruptions before AD 1854 were obtained by tephrochronology and constrained by radiocarbon dating with an accuracy of several decades or centuries. In this paper we report tree-ring dates for a recent pyroclastic flow in Baidarnaia valley. Though the wood buried in these deposits is carbonized, fragile and poorly preserved, we were able to measure ring-width using standard tree-ring equipment or photographs and to cross-date these samples against the regional Kamchatka larch ring-width chronology. The dates of the outer rings indicate the date of the eruptions. In the Baidarnaia valley the eruption occurred shortly after AD 1756, but not later than AD 1758. This date coincides with the decrease of ring-width in trees growing near Shiveluch volcano in 1758–1763 in comparison with the control "non-volcanic" chronology. The pyroclastic flow in Kamenskaia valley, although similar in appearance to the one in Baidarnaia valley, definitively

  12. The effects and consequences of very large explosive volcanic eruptions. (United States)

    Self, S


    Every now and again Earth experiences tremendous explosive volcanic eruptions, considerably bigger than the largest witnessed in historic times. Those yielding more than 450km3 of magma have been called super-eruptions. The record of such eruptions is incomplete; the most recent known example occurred 26000 years ago. It is more likely that the Earth will next experience a super-eruption than an impact from a large meteorite greater than 1km in diameter. Depending on where the volcano is located, the effects will be felt globally or at least by a whole hemisphere. Large areas will be devastated by pyroclastic flow deposits, and the more widely dispersed ash falls will be laid down over continent-sized areas. The most widespread effects will be derived from volcanic gases, sulphur gases being particularly important. This gas is converted into sulphuric acid aerosols in the stratosphere and layers of aerosol can cover the global atmosphere within a few weeks to months. These remain for several years and affect atmospheric circulation causing surface temperature to fall in many regions. Effects include temporary reductions in light levels and severe and unseasonable weather (including cool summers and colder-than-normal winters). Some aspects of the understanding and prediction of super-eruptions are problematic because they are well outside modern experience. Our global society is now very different to that affected by past, modest-sized volcanic activity and is highly vulnerable to catastrophic damage of infrastructure by natural disasters. Major disruption of services that society depends upon can be expected for periods of months to, perhaps, years after the next very large explosive eruption and the cost to global financial markets will be high and sustained.

  13. Perils in distinguishing phreatic from phreatomagmatic ash; insights into the eruption mechanisms of the 6 August 2012 Mt. Tongariro eruption, New Zealand (United States)

    Pardo, Natalia; Cronin, Shane J.; Németh, Károly; Brenna, Marco; Schipper, C. Ian; Breard, Eric; White, James D. L.; Procter, Jonathan; Stewart, Bob; Agustín-Flores, Javier; Moebis, Anja; Zernack, Anke; Kereszturi, Gábor; Lube, Gert; Auer, Andreas; Neall, Vince; Wallace, Clel


    The weak geophysical precursors of the 6 August 2012 Te Maari eruption of Mt. Tongariro and a lack of obvious juvenile components in its proximal ballistic deposits imply that the eruption was caused by the sudden decompression of a sealed, hot hydrothermal system. Strong magmatic signals in pre- and post-eruption gas emissions indicate that fresh magma had intruded to shallow levels shortly before this eruption. Here we examine the volcanic ash produced during the August eruption with the aim of determining whether juvenile magma was erupted or not. The widely applied criteria for identifying fresh juvenile pyroclasts provided inconclusive results. The Te Maari ash sorting and trend towards a unimodal grain-size distribution increase with distance along the dispersal axis. Proximal to intermediate sites showing polymodal grain-size distributions can be related to the re-fragmentation of different pre-existing lithologies, overlapped erupted pulses and transport mechanisms, and to particle aggregation. Between 69 and 100 vol.% of particles coarser than 3 ϕ and 45-75 vol.% of grains finer than 3 ϕ were sourced from the pre-existing, commonly hydrothermally altered, vent-area lavas and pyroclasts. Free crystals (pyroxene > plagioclase > magnetite > pyrite) make up 0-23 vol.% of particles coarser than 3 ϕ, and 22-41 vol.% of grains finer than 3 ϕ. Brown to black fragments of fresh glass are a small (1-15 vol.%), but notable, component. Under SEM, these blocky, glassy particles are poorly vesicular, and irregularly shaped, some with fluidal or bubble-wall surfaces, and others with fragmented stepped surfaces and fine adhering ash. In thin section, they contain variable amounts of microlites within an isotropic groundmass. The range in silica content of the microprobe-analysed glass is very wide (56-77 wt.%) and cannot be correlated to any specific particle textural type. These chemically and texturally diverse glassy fragments are identical to mechanically broken

  14. Submarines, spacecraft and exhaled breath. (United States)

    Pleil, Joachim D; Hansel, Armin


    Foreword The International Association of Breath Research (IABR) meetings are an eclectic gathering of researchers in the medical, environmental and instrumentation fields; our focus is on human health as assessed by the measurement and interpretation of trace chemicals in human exhaled breath. What may have escaped our notice is a complementary field of research that explores the creation and maintenance of artificial atmospheres practised by the submarine air monitoring and air purification (SAMAP) community. SAMAP is comprised of manufacturers, researchers and medical professionals dealing with the engineering and instrumentation to support human life in submarines and spacecraft (including shuttlecraft and manned rockets, high-altitude aircraft, and the International Space Station (ISS)). Here, the immediate concerns are short-term survival and long-term health in fairly confined environments where one cannot simply 'open the window' for fresh air. As such, one of the main concerns is air monitoring and the main sources of contamination are CO(2) and other constituents of human exhaled breath. Since the inaugural meeting in 1994 in Adelaide, Australia, SAMAP meetings have been held every two or three years alternating between the North American and European continents. The meetings are organized by Dr Wally Mazurek (a member of IABR) of the Defense Systems Technology Organization (DSTO) of Australia, and individual meetings are co-hosted by the navies of the countries in which they are held. An overriding focus at SAMAP is life support (oxygen availability and carbon dioxide removal). Certainly, other air constituents are also important; for example, the closed environment of a submarine or the ISS can build up contaminants from consumer products, cooking, refrigeration, accidental fires, propulsion and atmosphere maintenance. However, the most immediate concern is sustaining human metabolism: removing exhaled CO(2) and replacing metabolized O(2). Another

  15. Two coarse pyroclastic flow deposits, northern Mono-Inyo Craters, CA (United States)

    Dennen, R. L.; Bursik, M. I.; Stokes, P. J.; Lagamba, M.; Fontanella, N.; Hintz, A. R.; Jayko, A. S.


    The ~1350 A.D., rhyolitic North Mono eruption, Mono-Inyo Craters, CA, included the extrusion and destruction of Panum Dome and associated clastic deposits. Overlying the tephras of the North Mono sequence, the Panum deposits include a block-and-ash flow (BAF) deposit, covering ~3.5 km2. Blocks within the deposit are typically lithic rhyolite and banded gray micro-vesicular glass, showing white, almost powdery marks ranging from circular to linear in shape. These marks are interpreted as friction marks resulting from collisions between clasts. The deposit also contains bread-crusted obsidians with pressed-in clasts as well as reticulite with a bread-crusted surface texture. Near the centerline of the deposit is a ridge-topping train of jigsaw fractured blocks, often with reddish-orange alteration. One house sized jigsaw block sits upstream of a long, thinning pile of reddish orange debris; this “flow shadow” indicates that the block remained relatively stationary while the block and ash flow continued to propagate around it. The bread-crusted reticulite is most common at proximal localities. It is proposed that the dome destruction included a debris avalanche emplacing the train of jigsaw fractured blocks and creating a topographic high, the block-and-ash flow (the farthest reaching deposit from this event) which flowed around the debris avalanche deposits, and a final “lateral expansion” of a magma foam, creating the reticulite seen concentrated at proximal locations. Another coarse pyroclastic flow (here termed the “lower blast deposit”) underlies the North Mono tephra. It is more obsidian rich and finer grained than the Panum BAF. The lower blast deposit may have originated from Pumice Pit vent, which is now capped with an older dome ~0.5 km southeast of Panum. The lower blast deposit extends farther from the Panum vent than does the Panum BAF deposit, and apparently was mistaken for the Panum BAF deposit by previous workers. Hence the run

  16. The 15 September 1991 pyroclastic flows at Unzen Volcano (Japan): a flow model for associated ash-cloud surges (United States)

    Fujii, Toshitsugu; Nakada, Setsuya


    Large-scale collapse of a dacite dome in the late afternoon of 15 September 1991 generated a series of pyroclastic-flow events at Unzen Volcano. Pyroclastic flows with a volume of 1×10 6 m 3 (as DRE) descended the northeastern slope of the volcano, changing their courses to the southeast due to topographic control. After they exited a narrow gorge, an ash-cloud surge rushed straight ahead, detaching the main body of the flow that turned and followed the topographic lows to the east. The surge swept the Kita-Kamikoba area, which had been devastated by the previous pyroclastic-flow events, and transported a car as far as 120 m. Following detachment, the surge lost its force after it moved several hundred meters, but maintained a high temperature. The deposits consist of a bottom layer of better-sorted ash (unit 1), a thick layer of block and ash (unit 2), and a thin top layer of fall-out ash (unit 3). Unit 2 overlies unit 1 with an erosional contact. The upper part of unit 2 grades into better-sorted ash. At distal block-and-ash flow deposits, the bottom part of unit 2 also consists of better-sorted ash, and the contact with the unit 1 deposits becomes ambiguous. Video footage of cascading pyroclastic flows during the 1991-1995 eruption, traveling over surfaces without any topographic barriers, revealed that lobes of ash cloud protruded intermittently from the moving head and sides, and that these lobes surged ahead on the ground surface. This fact, together with the inspection by helicopter shortly after the events, suggests that the protruded lobes consisted of better-sorted ash, and resulted in the deposits of unit 1. The highest ash-cloud plume at the Oshigadani valley exit, and the thickest deposition of fall-out ash over Kita-Kamikoba and Ohnokoba, indicate that abundant ash was also produced when the flow passed through a narrow gorge. In the model presented here, the ash clouds from the pyroclastic flows were composed of a basal turbulent current of high

  17. Submarine landslides: advances and challenges (United States)

    Locat, Jacques; Lee, Homa J.


    Due to the recent development of well-integrated surveying techniques of the sea floor, significant improvements were achieved in mapping and describing the morphology and architecture of submarine mass movements. Except for the occurrence of turbidity currents, the aquatic environment (marine and fresh water) experiences the same type of mass failure as that found on land. Submarine mass movements, however, can have run-out distances in excess of 100 km, so their impact on any offshore activity needs to be integrated over a wide area. This great mobility of submarinemass movements is still not very well understood, particularly for cases like the far-reaching debris flows mapped on the Mississippi Fan and the large submarine rock avalanches found around many volcanic islands. A major challenge ahead is the integration of mass movement mechanics in an appropriate evaluation of the hazard so that proper risk assessment methodologies can be developed and implemented for various human activities offshore, including the development of natural resources and the establishment of reliable communication corridors. Key words : submarine slides, hazards, risk assessment, morphology, mobility, tsunami. Le dveloppement rcent de techniques de levs hydrograhiques pour les fonds marins nous a permis d'atteindre une qualit ingale dans la cartographie et la description des glissements sous marins. l'exception des courants de turbidit, on retrouve dans le domaine aquatique les mmes types de mouvements de terrain que sur terre. Par contre, les glissements sous-marins peuvent atteindre des distances excdant 100 km de telle sorte que leur impact sur les activits offshore doit tre pris en compte sur degrandes tendues. La grande mobilit des glissements sous-marins n'est pas encore bien comprise, comme pour le cas des coules dedbris cartographies sur le cne du Mississippi ainsi que pour les grandes avalanches rocheuses sous-marines retrouves au pourtour des les volcaniques. Un dfi majeur

  18. Runout distance and dynamic pressure of pyroclastic density currents: Evidence from 18 May 1980 blast surge of Mount St. Helens (United States)

    Gardner, J. E.; Andrews, B. J.


    Pyroclastic density currents (flows and surges) are one of the most deadly hazards associated with volcanic eruptions. Understanding what controls how far such currents will travel, and how their dynamic pressure evolves, could help mitigate their hazards. The distance a ground hugging, pyroclastic density current travels is partly limited by when it reverses buoyancy and lifts off into the atmosphere. The 1980 blast surge of Mount St. Helens offers an example of a current seen to lift off. Before lofting, it had traveled up to 20 km and leveled more than 600 km3 of thick forest (the blowdown zone). The outer edge of the devastated area - where burned trees that were left standing (the singe zone) - is where the surge is thought to have lifted off. We recently examined deposits in the outer parts of the blowdown and in the singe zone at 32 sites. The important finding is that the laterally moving surge travelled into the singe zone, and hence the change in tree damage does not mark the run out distance of the ground hugging surge. Eyewitness accounts and impacts on trees and vehicles reveal that the surge consisted of a fast, dilute "overcurrent" and a slower "undercurrent", where most of the mass (and heat) was retained. Reasonable estimates for flow density and velocity show that dynamic pressure of the surge (i.e., its ability to topple trees) peaked near the base of the overcurrent. We propose that when the overcurrent began to lift off, the height of peak dynamic pressure rose above the trees and stopped toppling them. The slower undercurrent continued forward, burning trees but it lacked the dynamic pressure needed to topple them. Grain-size variations argue that it slowed from 30 m/s when it entered the singe zone to 3 m/s at the far end. Buoyancy reversal and liftoff are thus not preserved in the deposits where the surge lofted upwards.

  19. Mobility of pyroclastic flows and surges at the Soufriere Hills Volcano, Montserrat (United States)

    Calder, E.S.; Cole, P.D.; Dade, W.B.; Druitt, T.H.; Hoblitt, R.P.; Huppert, H.E.; Ritchie, L.; Sparks, R.S.J.; Young, S.R.


    The Soufriere Hills Volcano on Montserrat has produced avalanche-like pyroclastic flows formed by collapse of the unstable lava dome or explosive activity. Pyroclastic flows associated with dome collapse generate overlying dilute surges which detach from and travel beyond their parent flows. The largest surges partially transform by rapid sedimentation into dense secondary pyroclastic flows that pose significant hazards to distal areas. Different kinds of pyroclastic density currents display contrasting mobilities indicated by ratios of total height of fall H, run-out distance L, area inundated A and volume transported V. Dome-collapse flow mobilities (characterised by either L/H or A/V 2/3) resemble those of terrestrial and extraterrestrial cold-rockfalls (Dade and Huppert, 1998). In contrast, fountain-fed pumice flows and fine-grained, secondary pyroclastic flows travel slower but, for comparable initial volumes and heights, can inundate greater areas.

  20. El Chichón's "surprise" eruption in 1982: lessons for reducing volcano risk (United States)

    Tilling, R.I.


    During one week (28 March–4 April 1982), three powerful explosive eruptions (VEI 5) of El Chichón Volcano caused the worst volcanic disaster in Mexico's recorded history. Pyroclastic flows and surges obliterated nine villages, killing about 2,000 people, and ashfalls downwind posed socio–economic hardships for many thousands of inhabitants of the States of Chiapas and Tabasco. The unexpected and vigorous eruption of 28 caused a hasty, confused evacuation of most villagers in the area. Activity was greatly diminished the next five days, and then the most powerful and lethal eruptions occurred 3–4 April—tragically, after many evacuees were allowed by authorities to return home.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Rui; Liu, Ying D.; Zimovets, Ivan; Hu, Huidong; Yang, Zhongwei [State Key Laboratory of Space Weather, National Space Science Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Dai, Xinghua, E-mail: [Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)


    The 2015 March 15 coronal mass ejection as one of the two that together drove the largest geomagnetic storm of solar cycle 24 so far was associated with sympathetic filament eruptions. We investigate the relations between the different filaments involved in the eruption. A surge-like small-scale filament motion is confirmed as the trigger that initiated the erupting filament with multi-wavelength observations and using a forced magnetic field extrapolation method. When the erupting filament moved to an open magnetic field region, it experienced an obvious acceleration process and was accompanied by a C-class flare and the rise of another larger filament that eventually failed to erupt. We measure the decay index of the background magnetic field, which presents a critical height of 118 Mm. Combining with a potential field source surface extrapolation method, we analyze the distributions of the large-scale magnetic field, which indicates that the open magnetic field region may provide a favorable condition for F2 rapid acceleration and have some relation with the largest solar storm. The comparison between the successful and failed filament eruptions suggests that the confining magnetic field plays an important role in the preconditions for an eruption.

  2. Using Spectroscopy to Infer the Eruption Style and Volatile History of Volcanic Tephras (United States)

    McBride, M. J.; Horgan, B. H. N.; Rowe, M. C.; Wall, K. T.; Oxley, B. M.


    The interaction between volatiles and magma strongly influences volcanic eruption styles, and results in an increase in the glass component of volcanic tephra. On Earth, both phreatomagmatic and magmatic explosive eruptions create glassy tephras. Phreatomagmatic eruptions form abundant glass by quickly quenching lava through interaction with meteoric water while magmatic eruptions create less glass through slower cooling within larger pyroclasts or eruption columns. Wall et al. (2014) used X-ray diffraction (XRD) of diverse tephra samples to show that glass content correlates with eruption style, as magmatic samples contain less glass than phreatomagmatic samples. While use of XRD is limited to Earth and the Curiosity rover on Mars, orbital spectroscopy is much a more common technique in the exploration of terrestrial bodies. In this study, we evaluate whether or not spectroscopy can be used to infer eruption style and thus volatile history. Visible/near-infrared (VNIR) and thermal-infrared (TIR) spectra were collected of the Wall et al. (2014) tephra samples, and were analyzed for trends related to glass content and thus eruption style. VNIR spectra can detect glass at high abundances as well as hydrothermal alteration minerals produced during interactions with meteoric water. Using TIR, glass abundances can be derived by deconvolving the spectra with a standard spectral library; however, due to the non-unique spectral shape of glass, intermediate to high glass abundances in tephras are difficult to differentiate using TIR alone. Synthetic mixtures of glass and crystalline minerals verify these results. Therefore, the most effective method for determining glass abundance and thus eruption style from volcanic deposits is a combination of VNIR and TIR spectral analysis. Using standard planetary remote sensing instrumentation to infer eruption styles will provide a new window into the volcanic and volatile histories of terrestrial bodies.

  3. Stratigraphy, sedimentology and eruptive mechanisms in the tuff cone of El Golfo (Lanzarote, Canary Islands) (United States)

    Pedrazzi, Dario; Martí, Joan; Geyer, Adelina


    The tuff cone of El Golfo on the western coast of Lanzarote (Canary Islands) is a typical hydrovolcanic edifice. Along with other edifices of the same age, it was constructed along a fracture oriented NEE-SWW that coincides with the main structural trend of recent volcanism in this part of the island. We conducted a detailed stratigraphic study of the succession of deposits present in this tuff cone and here interpret them in light of the depositional processes and eruptive dynamics that we were able to infer. The eruptive sequence is represented by a succession of pyroclastic deposits, most of which were emplaced by flow, plus a number of air-fall deposits and ballistic blocks and bombs. We distinguished five different eruptive/depositional stages on the basis of differences in inferred current flow regimes and fragmentation efficiencies represented by the resulting deposits; the different stages may be related to variations in the explosive energy. Eight lithofacies were identified based on sedimentary discontinuities, grain size, components, variations in primary laminations and bedforms. The volcanic edifice was constructed very rapidly around the vent, and this is inferred to have controlled the amount of water that was able to enter the eruption conduit. The sedimentological characteristics of the deposits and the nature and distribution of palagonitic alteration suggest that most of the pyroclastic succession in El Golfo was deposited in a subaerial environment. This type of hydrovolcanic explosive activity is common in the coastal zones of Lanzarote and the other Canary Islands and is one of the main potential hazards that could threaten the human population of this archipelago. Detailed studies of these hydrovolcanic eruptions such as the one we present here can help volcanologists understand the hazards that this type of eruption can generate and provide essential information for undertaking risk assessment in similar volcanic environments.

  4. Sedimentology, eruptive mechanism and facies architecture of basaltic scoria cones from the Auckland Volcanic Field (New Zealand) (United States)

    Kereszturi, Gábor; Németh, Károly


    Scoria cones are a common type of basaltic to andesitic small-volume volcanoes (e.g. 10- 1-10- 5 km3) that results from gas-bubble driven explosive eruptive styles. Although they are small in volume, they can produce complex eruptions, involving multiple eruptive styles. Eight scoria cones from the Quaternary Auckland Volcanic Field in New Zealand were selected to define the eruptive style variability from their volcanic facies architecture. The reconstruction of their eruptive and pyroclastic transport mechanisms was established on the basis of study of their volcanic sedimentology, stratigraphy, and measurement of their pyroclast density, porosity, Scanning Electron Microscopy, 2D particle morphology analysis and Visible and Near Visible Infrared Spectroscopy. Collection of these data allowed defining three end-member types of scoria cones inferred to be constructed from lava-fountaining, transitional fountaining and Strombolian type, and explosive Strombolian type. Using the physical and field-based characteristics of scoriaceous samples a simple generalised facies model of basaltic scoria cones for the AVF is developed that can be extended to other scoria cones elsewhere. The typical AVF scoria cone has an initial phreatomagmatic phases that might reduce the volume of magma available for subsequent scoria cone forming eruptions. This inferred to have the main reason to have decreased cone volumes recognised from Auckland in comparison to other volcanic fields evolved dominantly in dry eruptive condition (e.g. no external water influence). It suggests that such subtle eruptive style variations through a scoria cone evolution need to be integrated into the hazard assessment of a potentially active volcanic field such as that in Auckland.

  5. Extensive young silicic volcanism produces large deep submarine lava flows in the NE Lau Basin (United States)

    Embley, Robert W.; Rubin, Kenneth H.


    New field observations reveal that extensive (up to 402 km2) aphyric, glassy dacite lavas were erupted at multiple sites in the recent past in the NE Lau basin, located about 200 km southwest of Samoa. This discovery of volumetrically significant and widespread submarine dacite lava flows extends the domain for siliceous effusive volcanism into the deep seafloor. Although several lava flow fields were discovered on the flank of a large silicic seamount, Niuatahi, two of the largest lava fields and several smaller ones ("northern lava flow fields") were found well north of the seamount. The most distal portion of the northernmost of these fields is 60 km north of the center of Niuatahi caldera. We estimate that lava flow lengths from probable eruptive vents to the distal ends of flows range from a few km to more than 10 km. Camera tows on the shallower, near-vent areas show complex lava morphology that includes anastomosing tube-like pillow flows and ropey surfaces, endogenous domes and/or ridges, some with "crease-like" extrusion ridges, and inflated lobes with extrusion structures. A 2 × 1.5 km, 30-m deep depression could be an eruption center for one of the lava flow fields. The Lau lava flow fields appear to have erupted at presumptive high effusion rates and possibly reduced viscosity induced by presumptive high magmatic water content and/or a high eruption temperature, consistent with both erupted composition ( 66% SiO2) and glassy low crystallinity groundmass textures. The large areal extent (236 km2) and relatively small range of compositional variation ( σ = 0.60 for wt% Si02%) within the northern lava flow fields imply the existence of large, eruptible batches of differentiated melt in the upper mantle or lower crust of the NE Lau basin. At this site, the volcanism could be controlled by deep crustal fractures caused by the long-term extension in this rear-arc region. Submarine dacite flows exhibiting similar morphology have been described in ancient

  6. The Uwekahuna Ash Member of the Puna Basalt: product of violent phreatomagmatic eruptions at Kilauea volcano, Hawaii, between 2800 and 2100 14C years ago (United States)

    Dzurisin, D.; Lockwood, J.P.; Casadevall, T.J.; Rubin, M.


    Kilauea volcano's reputation for relatively gentle effusive eruptions belies a violent geologic past, including several large phreatic and phreatomagmatic eruptions that are recorded by Holocene pyroclastic deposits which mantle Kilauea's summit area and the southeast flank of adjacent Mauna Loa volcano. The most widespread of these deposits is the Uwekahuna Ash Member, a basaltic surge and fall deposit emplaced during two or more eruptive episodes separated by a few decades to several centuries. It is infered that the eruptions which produced the Uwekahuna were driven by water interacting with a fluctuating magma column. The volume, extent and character of the Uwekahuna deposits underscore the hazards posed by relatively infrequent but potentially devastating explosive eruptions at Kilauea, as well as at other basaltic volcanoes. -from Authors

  7. Surface morphology of caldera-forming eruption deposits revealed by lidar mapping of Crater Lake National Park, Oregon- Implications for emplacement and surface modification (United States)

    Robinson, Joel E.; Bacon, Charles R.; Major, Jon J.; Wright, Heather M.; Vallance, James W.


    Large explosive eruptions of silicic magma can produce widespread pumice fall, extensive ignimbrite sheets, and collapse calderas. The surfaces of voluminous ignimbrites are rarely preserved or documented because most terrestrial examples are heavily vegetated, or severely modified by post-depositional processes. Much research addresses the internal sedimentary characteristics, flow processes, and depositional mechanisms of ignimbrites, however, surface features of ignimbrites are less well documented and understood, except for comparatively small-volume deposits of historical eruptions. The ~7,700 calendar year B.P. climactic eruption of Mount Mazama, USA vented ~50 km3 of magma, deposited first as rhyodacite pumice fall and then as a zoned rhyodacite-to-andesite ignimbrite as Crater Lake caldera collapsed. Lidar collected during summer 2010 reveals the remarkably well-preserved surface of the Mazama ignimbrite and related deposits surrounding Crater Lake caldera in unprecedented detail despite forest cover. The ±1 m lateral and ±4 cm vertical resolution lidar allows surface morphologies to be classified. Surface morphologies are created by internal depositional processes and can point to the processes at work when pyroclastic flows come to rest. We describe nine surface features including furrow-ridge sets and wedge-shaped mounds in pumice fall eroded by high-energy pyroclastic surges, flow- parallel ridges that record the passage of multiple pyroclastic flows, perched benches of marginal deposits stranded by more-mobile pyroclastic-flow cores, hummocks of dense clasts interpreted as lag deposit, transverse ridges that mark the compression and imbrication of flows as they came to rest, scarps indicating ignimbrite remobilization, fields of pit craters caused by phreatic explosions, fractures and cracks caused by extensional processes resulting from ignimbrite volume loss, and stream channels eroded in the newly formed surface. The nine morphologies presented

  8. physical volcanology of pyroclastic tephra deposit at batoke mt.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Apr 16, 2013 ... In the deposit three facies types; which are the lava flow, the lapilli and ash ... flow flanked by the tephra pile, the lack of accidental clasts, and the ..... Origin of the Lethal gas ... eruption behaviour and petrochemistry of lava.

  9. Eruptive history of the Elysium volcanic province of Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, K.L.; Scott, D.H.


    New geologic mapping of the Elysium volcanic province at 1:2,000,000 scale and crater counts provide a basis for describing its overall eruptive history. Four stages are listed and described in order of their relative age. They are also distinguished by eruption style and location. Stage 1: Central volcanism at Hecates and Albor Tholi. Stage 2: Shield and complex volcanism at Elysium Mons and Elysium Fossae. Stage 3: Rille volcanism at Elysium Fossae and Utopia Planitia. Stage 4: Flood lava and pyroclastic eruptions at Hecates Tholus and Elysium Mons. Tectonic and channeling activity in the Elysium region is intimately associated with volcanism. Recent work indicates that isostatic uplift of Tharsis, loading by Elysium Mons, and flexural uplift of the Elysium rise produced the stresses responsible for the fracturing and wrinkle-ridge formation in the region. Coeval faulting and channel formation almost certainly occurred in the pertinent areas in Stages 2 to 4. Older faults east of the lava flows and channels on Hecates Tholus may be coeval with Stage 1

  10. Long-term volcanic hazard forecasts based on Somma-Vesuvio past eruptive activity (United States)

    Lirer, Lucio; Petrosino, Paola; Alberico, Ines; Postiglione, Immacolata


    Distributions of pyroclastic deposits from the main explosive events at Somma-Vesuvio during the 8,000-year B.P.-A.D. 1906 time-span have been analysed to provide maps of volcanic hazard for long-term eruption forecasting. In order to define hazard ratings, the spatial distributions and loads (kg/m2) exerted by the fall deposits on the roofs of buildings have been considered. A load higher than 300 kg/m2 is defined as destructive. The relationship load/frequency (the latter defined as the number of times that an area has been impacted by the deposition of fall deposits) is considered to be a suitable parameter for differentiating among areas according to hazard rating. Using past fall deposit distributions as the basis for future eruptive scenarios, the total area that could be affected by the products of a future Vesuvio explosive eruption is 1,500 km2. The perivolcanic area (274 km2) has the greatest hazard rating because it could be buried by pyroclastic flow deposits thicker than 0.5 m and up to several tens of metres in thickness. Currently, the perivolcanic area also has the highest risk because of the high exposed value, mainly arising from the high population density.

  11. Merging field mapping and modeling to interpret the lithofacies variations from unsteady ash-rich pyroclastic density currents on uneven topography (United States)

    Doronzo, Domenico; Dellino, Pierfrancesco; Sulpizio, Roberto; Lucchi, Federico


    In order to obtain significant volcanological results from computer simulations of explosive eruptions, one either needs a systematic statistical approach to test a wide range of initial and boundary conditions, or needs using a well-constrained field case study. Here we followed the second approach, using data obtained from field mapping of the Grotta dei Palizzi 2 pyroclastic deposits (Vulcano Island, Italy) as input for numerical modeling. This case study deals with impulsive phreatomagmatic explosions that generated ash-rich pyroclastic density currents, interacting with the high topographic obstacle of the La Fossa Caldera rim. We demonstrate that by merging field data with 3D numerical simulation it is possible to highlight the details of the dynamical current-terrain interaction, and to interpret the lithofacies variations of the associated deposits as a function of topography-induced sedimentation rate. Results suggest that a value of the sedimentation rate lower than 5 kg/m2s at the bed load can still be sheared by the overlying current, producing tractional structures in the deposit. Instead, a sedimentation rate in excess of that threshold can preclude the formation of tractional structures, producing thick massive deposits. We think that the approach used in this study could be applied to other case studies to confirm or refine such threshold value of the sedimentation rate, which is to be considered as an upper value as for the limitations of the numerical model.

  12. The three youngest Plinian eruptions of Mt Pelée, Martinique (P1, P2 and P3): Constraining the eruptive conditions from field and experimental studies. (United States)

    Kueppers, Ulrich; Uhlig, Joan; Carazzo, Guillaume; Kaminski, Edouard; Perugini, Diego; Tait, Steve; Clouard, Valérie


    Mt Pelée on Martinique, French Lesser Indies, is infamous for the last big Pelean (i.e., dome forming) eruption in 1902 AD that destroyed agricultural land and the city of Saint Pierre by pyroclastic density currents. Beside such mostly valley-confined deposits, the geological record shows thick fall deposits of at least three Plinian eruptions during the past 2000 years. In an attempt to describe and understand systematic eruptive behaviours as well as the associated variability of eruptive scenarios of Plinian eruptions in Martinique, we have investigated approx. 50 outcrops belonging to the P1 (1315 AD), P2 (345 AD) and P3 (4 AD) eruptions (Traineau et al., JVGR 1989) and collected bulk samples as well as >100 mm pumiceous clasts. All samples are andesitic, contain plagioclase and pyroxene in a glassy matrix and range in porosity between 55 and 69 vol.% with individual bubbles rarely larger than 1 mm. Our approach was two-fold: 1) Loose bulk samples have been subject to dry mechanical sieving in order to quantively describe the grain-size distribution and the fractal dimension. 2) From large clasts, 60*25 mm cylinders have been drilled for fragmentation experiments following the sudden decompression of gas in the sample's pore space. The used experimental set-up allowed for precisely controllable and repeatable conditions (5, 10 and 15 MPa, 25 °C) and the complete sampling of the generated pyroclasts. These experimentally generated clasts were analysed for their grain-size distribution and fractal dimension. For both natural samples and experimental populations, we find we find that the grain-size distribution follows a power-law, with an exponent between 2,5 and 3,7. Deciphering eruption conditions from deposits alone is challenging because of the complex interplay of dynamic volcanic processes and transport-related sorting. We use the quantified values of fractal dimension for a comparison of the power law exponents among the three eruptions and the

  13. Airborne Radar Search for Diesel Submarines (ARSDS)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pilnick, Steven E; Landa, Jose


    .... In this research, a detection rate model is developed to analyze the effectiveness of an airborne radar search for a diesel submarine assumed to be intermittently operating with periscopes or masts...

  14. Airborne Radar Search for Diesel Submarines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pilnick, Steven E; Landa, Jose


    .... In this research, a detection rate model is developed to analyze the effectiveness of airborne radar search for a diesel submarine assumed to be intermittently operating with periscopes or masts...

  15. North Kona slump: Submarine flank failure during the early(?) tholeiitic shield stage of Hualalai Volcano (United States)

    Lipman, P.W.; Coombs, M.L.


    The North Kona slump is an elliptical region, about 20 by 60 km (1000-km2 area), of multiple, geometrically intricate benches and scarps, mostly at water depths of 2000–4500 m, on the west flank of Hualalai Volcano. Two dives up steep scarps in the slump area were made in September 2001, using the ROV Kaiko of the Japan Marine Science and Technology Center (JAMSTEC), as part of a collaborative Japan–USA project to improve understanding of the submarine flanks of Hawaiian volcanoes. Both dives, at water depths of 2700–4000 m, encountered pillow lavas draping the scarp-and-bench slopes. Intact to only slightly broken pillow lobes and cylinders that are downward elongate dominate on the steepest mid-sections of scarps, while more equant and spherical pillow shapes are common near the tops and bases of scarps and locally protrude through cover of muddy sediment on bench flats. Notably absent are subaerially erupted Hualalai lava flows, interbedded hyaloclastite pillow breccia, and/or coastal sandy sediment that might have accumulated downslope from an active coastline. The general structure of the North Kona flank is interpreted as an intricate assemblage of downdropped lenticular blocks, bounded by steeply dipping normal faults. The undisturbed pillow-lava drape indicates that slumping occurred during shield-stage tholeiitic volcanism. All analyzed samples of the pillow-lava drape are tholeiite, similar to published analyses from the submarine northwest rift zone of Hualālai. Relatively low sulfur (330–600 ppm) and water (0.18–0.47 wt.%) contents of glass rinds suggest that the eruptive sources were in shallow water, perhaps 500–1000-m depth. In contrast, saturation pressures calculated from carbon dioxide concentrations (100–190 ppm) indicate deeper equilibration, at or near sample sites at water depths of − 3900 to − 2800 m. Either vents close to the sample sites erupted mixtures of undegassed and degassed magmas, or volatiles were resorbed from

  16. Volcanic eruptions on Io (United States)

    Strom, R. G.; Schneider, N. M.; Terrile, R. J.; Hansen, C.; Cook, A. F.


    Nine eruption plumes which were observed during the Voyager 1 encounter with Io are discussed. During the Voyager 2 encounter, four months later, eight of the eruptions were still active although the largest became inactive sometime between the two encounters. Plumes range in height from 60 to over 300 km with corresponding ejection velocities of 0.5 to 1.0 km/s and plume sources are located on several plains and consist of fissures or calderas. The shape and brightness distribution together with the pattern of the surface deposition on a plume 3 is simulated by a ballistic model with a constant ejection velocity of 0.5 km/s and ejection angles which vary from 0-55 deg. The distribution of active and recent eruptions is concentrated in the equatorial regions and indicates that volcanic activity is more frequent and intense in the equatorial regions than in the polar regions. Due to the geologic setting of certain plume sources and large reservoirs of volatiles required for the active eruptions, it is concluded that sulfur volcanism rather than silicate volcanism is the most likely driving mechanism for the eruption plumes.

  17. Caldera formation and varied eruption styles on North Pacific seamounts: the clastic lithofacies record (United States)

    Portner, Ryan A.; Clague, Dave A.; Paduan, Jennifer B.


    Detailed examination of volcaniclastic and sedimentary rocks collected from the Taney (30 Ma), President Jackson (4 Ma), Vance (3 Ma) and Alarcon (2 Ma) near-ridge seamount chains of the North Pacific reveals seven clastic lithofacies that record various modes of eruption, magma fragmentation, and particle dispersal. Lithofacies are distinguished by differences in lithology, bedding habit, compositional heterogeneity, and relationship to volcanic landforms. Breccia lithofacies were produced through mechanical fragmentation during caldera collapse (polymict) or effusive eruptions onto steep slopes (monomict). Rare globular lapilli mudstone lithofacies contain clasts with morphologies formed by magma-sediment mingling processes (peperite). Seamount summit pyroclastic deposits include proximal lapilli tuff with vesicular pyroclasts, and more distal limu o Pele tuff lithofacies. Much finer-grained hydrothermal mudstone/tuff lithofacies occurs around caldera rims and contains greenschist minerals, hydrothermal clays and basaltic ash that record subsurface phreatomagmatic fragmentation processes. Very fine-grained ash is transported to distal regions by oceanic currents and hydrothermal plumes, and is a component of the regional pelagic sediment budget. Pyroclastic lithofacies only occur on seamount summits suggesting formation during the latter stages of seamount evolution. As a seamount drifts away from an adjacent ridge axis and associated heat source, its magma supply is reduced allowing for magmatic gas buildup and mild explosive eruptions. During this stage, the diminished melt supply under the seamount is unable to fully compensate for extension along the ridge axis and vertical seamount growth. Lateral intrusion into spreading-related structures in this stage causes magma withdrawal and caldera formation. Formation of caldera ring faults also promotes seawater ingress into subseafloor hydrothermal cells, which interact with magma conduits causing phreatomagmatic

  18. Submarine films as narratives of masculinity


    MacDonald, Alex


    The research for this thesis is on representations of masculinity in Anglo-American submarine films since 1943. The discussion will draw on relevant work on the representation of masculinity and popular cinema in film and cultural studies. In particular, the thesis will account for the notion of hegemony in relation to masculinity in the submarine film. Further, the notion of hegemonic masculinity will be addressed in terms of four key claims. These are as follows: that relations between grou...

  19. Magma evolution inside the 1631 Vesuvius magma chamber and eruption triggering (United States)

    Stoppa, Francesco; Principe, Claudia; Schiazza, Mariangela; Liu, Yu; Giosa, Paola; Crocetti, Sergio


    Vesuvius is a high-risk volcano and the 1631 Plinian eruption is a reference event for the next episode of explosive unrest. A complete stratigraphic and petrographic description of 1631 pyroclastics is given in this study. During the 1631 eruption a phonolite was firstly erupted followed by a tephritic phonolite and finally a phonolitic tephrite, indicating a layered magma chamber. We suggest that phonolitic basanite is a good candidate to be the primitive parental-melt of the 1631 eruption. Composition of apatite from the 1631 pyroclastics is different from those of CO2-rich melts indicating negligible CO2 content during magma evolution. Cross checking calculations, using PETROGRAPH and PELE software, accounts for multistage evolution up to phonolite starting from a phonolitic basanite melt similar to the Vesuvius medieval lavas. The model implies crystal settling of clinopyroxene and olivine at 6 kbar and 1220°C, clinopyroxene plus leucite at a pressure ranging from 2.5 to 0.5 kbar and temperature ranging from 1140 to 940°C. Inside the phonolitic magma chamber K-feldspar and leucite would coexist at a temperature ranging from from 940 to 840°C and at a pressure ranging from 2.5 to0.5 kbar. Thus crystal fractionation is certainly a necessary and probably a sufficient condition to evolve the melt from phono tephritic to phonolitic in the 1631 magma chamber. We speculate that phonolitic tephrite magma refilling from deeper levels destabilised the chamber and triggered the eruption, as testified by the seismic precursor phenomena before 1631 unrest.

  20. Magma evolution inside the 1631 Vesuvius magma chamber and eruption triggering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoppa Francesco


    Full Text Available Vesuvius is a high-risk volcano and the 1631 Plinian eruption is a reference event for the next episode of explosive unrest. A complete stratigraphic and petrographic description of 1631 pyroclastics is given in this study. During the 1631 eruption a phonolite was firstly erupted followed by a tephritic phonolite and finally a phonolitic tephrite, indicating a layered magma chamber. We suggest that phonolitic basanite is a good candidate to be the primitive parental-melt of the 1631 eruption. Composition of apatite from the 1631 pyroclastics is different from those of CO2-rich melts indicating negligible CO2 content during magma evolution. Cross checking calculations, using PETROGRAPH and PELE software, accounts for multistage evolution up to phonolite starting from a phonolitic basanite melt similar to the Vesuvius medieval lavas. The model implies crystal settling of clinopyroxene and olivine at 6 kbar and 1220°C, clinopyroxene plus leucite at a pressure ranging from 2.5 to 0.5 kbar and temperature ranging from 1140 to 940°C. Inside the phonolitic magma chamber K-feldspar and leucite would coexist at a temperature ranging from from 940 to 840°C and at a pressure ranging from 2.5 to0.5 kbar. Thus crystal fractionation is certainly a necessary and probably a sufficient condition to evolve the melt from phono tephritic to phonolitic in the 1631 magma chamber. We speculate that phonolitic tephrite magma refilling from deeper levels destabilised the chamber and triggered the eruption, as testified by the seismic precursor phenomena before 1631 unrest.

  1. Criteria for the Identification of Pyroclastic Surge Deposits on Mars: Insight from Hunt's Hole, New Mexico (United States)

    Edgar, L. A.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Southard, J. B.; Ewing, R. C.; Lamb, M. P.


    We combine field observations, Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS), and hydrodynamic considerations to understand pyroclastic surge deposits at Hunt’s Hole, New Mexico, and provide criteria for their identification on Mars.

  2. Recolonization of the intertidal and shallow subtidal community following the 2008 eruption of Alaska's Kasatochi Volcano (United States)

    Jewett, S. C.; Drew, G. S.


    The intertidal and nearshore benthic communities of Kasatochi Island are described following a catastrophic volcanic eruption in 2008. Prior to the eruption, the island was surrounded by a dense bed of canopy-forming dragon kelp Eualaria fistulosa which supported a productive nearshore community. The eruption extended the coastline of the island approximately 400 m offshore to roughly the 20 m isobath. One year following the eruption a reconnaissance survey found the intertidal zone devoid of life. Subtidally, the canopy kelp, as well as limited understory algal species and associated benthic fauna on the hard substratum, were buried by debris from the eruption. The resulting substrate was comprised almost entirely of medium and coarse sands with a depauperate benthic community. Comparisons of habitat and biological communities with other nearby Aleutian Islands and the Icelandic submarine volcanic eruption of Surtsey confirm dramatic reductions in flora and fauna consistent with the initial stages of recovery from a large-scale disturbance event. Four and five years following the eruption brief visits revealed dramatic intertidal and subtidal recolonization of the flora and fauna in some areas. Signs of nesting and fledging of young pigeon guillemots Cepphus columba suggest that the recovery of the nearshore biota may have begun affecting higher trophic levels. Recolonization or lack thereof was tied to bathymetric changes from coastal and nearshore erosion over the study period.

  3. The Novarupta-Katmai eruption of 1912 - largest eruption of the twentieth century; centennial perspectives (United States)

    Hildreth, Wes; Fierstein, Judy


    , nine packages of ash flows, and three lava domes that followed the explosive pyroclastic episodes. Changes in the proportions of coerupting rhyolite, dacite, and andesite pumice documented for the fallout and ash-flow successions, which are locally interbedded, permit close correlation of those synchronously emplaced sequences and their varied facies. Petrological correlation of the sequence of deposits near Novarupta with ash layers at Kodiak village, 170 km downwind, where three episodes of ashfall were recorded (to the hour), provides key constraints on timing of the eruptive events. Syneruptive collapse of a kilometer-deep caldera took place atop Mount Katmai, a stratovolcano centered 10 km east of the eruption site at Novarupta, owing to drainage of magma from beneath the Katmai edifice. Correlation of ~50 earthquakes recorded at distant seismic stations (including 14 shocks of magnitude 6.0 to 7.0) to fitful caldera collapse provides further constraints on eruption timing, because layers of nonjuvenile breccia and mud ejected from Mount Katmai during collapse pulses are intercalated with the pumice-fall layers from Novarupta. Structure of the Novarupta vent, a 2-km-wide depression backfilled by welded tuff and inferred to be funnel-shaped at depth, is described in detail, as is the 4-km-wide caldera at Mount Katmai. Discussions are also provided concerning: (1) the impact on global climate of the great mass of sulfur-poor but halogen-rich aerosol ejected into the atmosphere by the rhyolite-dominated eruption; (2) chemical and mineralogical effects of the fumarolic acid gases; and (3) the timing of several syneruptive landslide deposits sandwiched within the pumice-fall sequence. Secondary posteruption phenomena characterized include impounded lakes, ash-rich debris flows, phreatic craters on the ignimbrite sheet, responses of glaciers to the fallout blanket and to beheading by caldera collapse, growth of new glaciers inside the caldera, and gradual filling of the

  4. Probabilistic-numerical assessment of pyroclastic current hazard at Campi Flegrei and Naples city: Multi-VEI scenarios as a tool for "full-scale" risk management.

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    Giuseppe Mastrolorenzo

    Full Text Available The Campi Flegrei volcanic field (Italy poses very high risk to the highly urbanized Neapolitan area. Eruptive history was dominated by explosive activity producing pyroclastic currents (hereon PCs; acronym for Pyroclastic Currents ranging in scale from localized base surges to regional flows. Here we apply probabilistic numerical simulation approaches to produce PC hazard maps, based on a comprehensive spectrum of flow properties and vent locations. These maps are incorporated in a Geographic Information System (GIS and provide all probable Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI scenarios from different source vents in the caldera, relevant for risk management planning. For each VEI scenario, we report the conditional probability for PCs (i.e., the probability for a given area to be affected by the passage of PCs in case of a PC-forming explosive event and related dynamic pressure. Model results indicate that PCs from VEI<4 events would be confined within the Campi Flegrei caldera, PC propagation being impeded by the northern and eastern caldera walls. Conversely, PCs from VEI 4-5 events could invade a wide area beyond the northern caldera rim, as well as part of the Naples metropolitan area to the east. A major controlling factor of PC dispersal is represented by the location of the vent area. PCs from the potentially largest eruption scenarios (analogous to the ~15 ka, VEI 6 Neapolitan Yellow Tuff or even the ~39 ka, VEI 7 Campanian Ignimbrite extreme event would affect a large part of the Campanian Plain to the north and the city of Naples to the east. Thus, in case of renewal of eruptive activity at Campi Flegrei, up to 3 million people will be potentially exposed to volcanic hazard, pointing out the urgency of an emergency plan. Considering the present level of uncertainty in forecasting the future eruption type, size and location (essentially based on statistical analysis of previous activity, we suggest that appropriate planning measures should

  5. Changes in body composition of submarine crew during prolonged submarine deployment

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    Sourabh Bhutani


    Discussion: Increased body fat along with lack of physical activity can lead to development of lifestyle disorders in submarine crew. These crew members need to be actively encouraged to participate in physical activity when in harbour. In addition dieting program specifically to encourage reduced fat consumption needs to be instituted in submarines during sorties at sea.

  6. Vapour dynamics during magma-water interaction experiments: hydromagmatic origins of submarine volcaniclastic particles (limu o Pele) (United States)

    Schipper, C. Ian; Sonder, Ingo; Schmid, Andrea; White, James D. L.; Dürig, Tobias; Zimanowski, Bernd; Büttner, Ralf


    Recent observations have shattered the long-held theory that deep-sea (>500 m) explosive eruptions are impossible; however, determining the dynamics of unobserved eruptions requires interpretation of the deposits they produce. For accurate interpretation to be possible, the relative abilities of explosive magmatic degassing and non-explosive magma-water interaction to produce characteristic submarine volcaniclastic particles such as `limu o Pele' (bubble wall shards of glass) must be established. We experimentally address this problem by pouring remelted basalt (1300 °C, anhydrous) into a transparent, water-filled reservoir, recording the interaction with a high-speed video camera and applying existing heat transfer models. We performed the experiments under moderate to high degrees of water subcooling (˜8 l of water at 58 and 3 °C), with ˜0.1 to 0.15 kg of melt poured at ˜10-2 kg s-1. Videos show the non-explosive, hydromagmatic blowing and bursting of isolated melt bubbles to form limu o Pele particles that are indistinguishable from those found in submarine volcaniclastic deposits. Pool boiling around growing melt bubbles progresses from metastable vapour film insulation, through vapour film retraction/collapse, to direct melt-water contact. These stages are linked to the evolution of melt-water heat transfer to verify the inverse relationship between vapour film stability and the degree of water subcooling. The direct contact stage in particular explains the extremely rapid quench rates determined from glass relaxation speedometry for natural limu. Since our experimentally produced limu is made entirely by the entrapping of ambient water in degassed basaltic melt, we argue that the presence of fast-quenched limu o Pele in natural deposits is not diagnostic of volatile-driven explosive eruptions. This must be taken into account if submarine eruption dynamics are to be accurately inferred from the deposits and particles they produce.

  7. [Effects of volcanic eruptions on environment and health]. (United States)

    Zuskin, Eugenija; Mustajbegović, Jadranka; Doko Jelinić, Jagoda; Pucarin-Cvetković, Jasna; Milosević, Milan


    Volcanoes pose a threat to almost half a billion people; today there are approximately 500 active volcanoes on Earth, and every year there are 10 to 40 volcanic eruptions. Volcanic eruptions produce hazardous effects for the environment, climate, and the health of the exposed persons, and are associated with the deterioration of social and economic conditions. Along with magma and steam (H2O), the following gases surface in the environment: carbon dioxide (CO2) and sulphur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen sulphide (H2S), carbon sulphide (CS), carbon disulfide (CS2), hydrogen chloride (HCl), hydrogen (H2), methane (CH4), hydrogen fluoride (HF), hydrogen bromide (HBr) and various organic compounds, as well as heavy metals (mercury, lead, gold).Their unfavourable effects depend on the distance from a volcano, on magma viscosity, and on gas concentrations. The hazards closer to the volcano include pyroclastic flows, flows of mud, gases and steam, earthquakes, blasts of air, and tsunamis. Among the hazards in distant areas are the effects of toxic volcanic ashes and problems of the respiratory system, eyes and skin, as well as psychological effects, injuries, transport and communication problems, waste disposal and water supplies issues, collapse of buildings and power outage. Further effects are the deterioration of water quality, fewer periods of rain, crop damages, and the destruction of vegetation. During volcanic eruptions and their immediate aftermath, increased respiratory system morbidity has been observed as well as mortality among those affected by volcanic eruptions. Unfavourable health effects could partly be prevented by timely application of safety measures.

  8. Multiparametric Experiments and Multiparametric Setups for Metering Explosive Eruptions (United States)

    Taddeucci, J.; Scarlato, P.; Del Bello, E.


    Explosive eruptions are multifaceted processes best studied by integrating a variety of observational perspectives. This need marries well with the continuous stream of new means that technological progress provides to volcanologists to parameterize these eruptions. Since decades, new technologies have been tested and integrated approaches have been attempted during so-called multiparametric experiments, i.e., short field campaigns with many, different instruments (and scientists) targeting natural laboratory volcanoes. Recently, portable multiparametric setups have been developed, including a few, highly complementary instruments to be rapidly deployed at any erupting volcano. Multiparametric experiments and setups share most of their challenges, like technical issues, site logistics, and data processing and interpretation. Our FAMoUS (FAst MUltiparametric Setup) setup pivots around coupled, high-speed imaging (visible and thermal) and acoustic (infrasonic to audible) recording, plus occasional seismic recording and sample collection. FAMoUS provided new insights on pyroclasts ejection and settling and jet noise dynamics at volcanoes worldwide. In the last years we conducted a series of BAcIO (Broadband ACquisition and Imaging Operation) experiments at Stromboli (Italy). These hosted state-of-the-art and prototypal eruption-metering technologies, including: multiple high-speed high-definition cameras for 3-D imaging; combined visible-infrared-ultraviolet imaging; in-situ and remote gas measurements; UAV aerial surveys; Doppler radar, and microphone arrays. This combined approach provides new understandings of the fundamental controls of Strombolian-style activity, and allows for crucial cross-validation of instruments and techniques. Several documentary expeditions participated in the BAcIO, attesting its tremendous potential for public outreach. Finally, sharing field work promotes interdisciplinary discussions and cooperation like nothing in the world.

  9. Premature eruption of the premolars. (United States)

    Camm, J H; Schuler, J L


    This paper presents a variety of cases in which very early loss of abscessed primary molars caused early eruption of the permanent successors. Clinical sequelae including ectopic eruption, alteration of eruption sequence, arch-length inadequacy and tooth impaction are illustrated by five case reports.

  10. Pyroclastic density currents at Etna volcano, Italy: The 11 February 2014 case study (United States)

    Andronico, Daniele; Di Roberto, Alessio; De Beni, Emanuela; Behncke, Boris; Bertagnini, Antonella; Del Carlo, Paola; Pompilio, Massimo


    On 11 February 2014, a considerable volume (0.82 to 1.29 × 106 m3) of unstable and hot rocks detached from the lower-eastern flank of the New Southeast Crater (NSEC) at Mt. Etna, producing a pyroclastic density current (PDC). This event was by far the most extensive ever recorded at Mt. Etna since 1999 and has attracted the attention of the scientific community and civil protection to this type of volcanic phenomena, usually occurring without any clear volcanological precursor and especially toward the mechanisms which led to the crater collapse, the PDC flow dynamics and the related volcanic hazard. We present here the results of the investigation carried out on the 11 February 2014 collapse and PDC events; data were obtained through a multidisciplinary approach which includes the analysis of photograph, images from visible and thermal surveillance cameras, and the detailed stratigraphic, textural and petrographic investigations of the PDC deposits. Results suggest that the collapse and consequent PDC was the result of a progressive thermal and mechanical weakening of the cone by repeated surges of magma passing through it during the eruptive activity prior to the 11 February 2014 events, as well as pervasive heating and corrosion by volcanic gas. The collapse of the lower portion of the NSEC was followed by the formation of a relatively hot (up to 750 °C) dense flow which travelled about 2.3 km from the source, stopping shortly after the break of the slope and emplacing the main body of the deposit which ranges between 0.39 and 0.92 × 106 m3. This flow was accompanied a relatively hot cloud of fine ash that dispersed over a wider area. The results presented may contribute to the understanding of this very complex type of volcanic phenomena at Mt. Etna and in similar volcanic settings of the world. In addition, results will lay the basis for the modeling of crater collapse and relative PDC events and consequently for the planning of hazard assessment strategies

  11. The Effects of Vent Location, Event Scale, and Time Forecasts on Pyroclastic Density Current Hazard Maps at Campi Flegrei Caldera (Italy

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    Andrea Bevilacqua


    Full Text Available This study presents a new method for producing long-term hazard maps for pyroclastic density currents (PDC originating at Campi Flegrei caldera. Such method is based on a doubly stochastic approach and is able to combine the uncertainty assessments on the spatial location of the volcanic vent, the size of the flow and the expected time of such an event. The results are obtained by using a Monte Carlo approach and adopting a simplified invasion model based on the box model integral approximation. Temporal assessments are modeled through a Cox-type process including self-excitement effects, based on the eruptive record of the last 15 kyr. Mean and percentile maps of PDC invasion probability are produced, exploring their sensitivity to some sources of uncertainty and to the effects of the dependence between PDC scales and the caldera sector where they originated. Conditional maps representative of PDC originating inside limited zones of the caldera, or of PDC with a limited range of scales are also produced. Finally, the effect of assuming different time windows for the hazard estimates is explored, also including the potential occurrence of a sequence of multiple events. Assuming that the last eruption of Monte Nuovo (A.D. 1538 marked the beginning of a new epoch of activity similar to the previous ones, results of the statistical analysis indicate a mean probability of PDC invasion above 5% in the next 50 years on almost the entire caldera (with a probability peak of ~25% in the central part of the caldera. In contrast, probability values reduce by a factor of about 3 if the entire eruptive record is considered over the last 15 kyr, i.e., including both eruptive epochs and quiescent periods.

  12. Eruption of Pele (United States)


    The eruption of Pele on Jupiter's moon Io. The volcanic plume rises 300 kilometers above the surface in an umbrella-like shape. The plume fallout covers an area the size of Alaska. The vent is a dark spot just north of the triangular-shaped plateau (right center). To the left, the surface is covered by colorful lava flows rich in sulfur.

  13. Complicated lichenoid drug eruption. (United States)

    Armour, Katherine; Lowe, Patricia


    We report a case of severe lichenoid drug eruption with multiple possible causative agents. A hepatitis C-positive male presented with a short history of painful erosions of the vermilion, lichenoid lesions on the buccal mucosa and glans penis, and erosions and lichenification of the scrotum. In addition, he had a pruritic polymorphic eruption over the scalp, trunk and limbs, comprising psoriasiform and eczematous lesions. He had received combination therapy of pegylated interferon-alpha-2a and ribavirin, along with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor for interferon-induced leucopenia, and propranolol for portal hypertension. The former three agents were ceased 3 weeks prior to presentation, but he remained on propranolol at the initial dermatology consultation. The polymorphous clinical picture was consistent with lichenoid drug eruption, which was confirmed on histology. The papulosquamous eruption responded quickly to 2 weeks of oral prednisone 25 mg daily, which was tapered to 1 mg over 3 months and then ceased. The mucosal lesions were slow to improve and required the addition of tacrolimus 0.03% solution t.d.s. for complete resolution.

  14. Volcanic Eruptions and Climate (United States)

    LeGrande, Allegra N.; Anchukaitis, Kevin J.


    Volcanic eruptions represent some of the most climatically important and societally disruptive short-term events in human history. Large eruptions inject ash, dust, sulfurous gases (e.g. SO2, H2S), halogens (e.g. Hcl and Hbr), and water vapor into the Earth's atmosphere. Sulfurous emissions principally interact with the climate by converting into sulfate aerosols that reduce incoming solar radiation, warming the stratosphere and altering ozone creation, reducing global mean surface temperature, and suppressing the hydrological cycle. In this issue, we focus on the history, processes, and consequences of these large eruptions that inject enough material into the stratosphere to significantly affect the climate system. In terms of the changes wrought on the energy balance of the Earth System, these transient events can temporarily have a radiative forcing magnitude larger than the range of solar, greenhouse gas, and land use variability over the last millennium. In simulations as well as modern and paleoclimate observations, volcanic eruptions cause large inter-annual to decadal-scale changes in climate. Active debates persist concerning their role in longer-term (multi-decadal to centennial) modification of the Earth System, however.

  15. Analysis on the Capacity Building Efforts for Mitigating Volcanic Risks during 2010 Eruption of Mount Merapi, Central Java, Indonesia

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    Full Text Available Mount Merapi is one of the most active volcanoes on the World erupted again during October to November 2010. Its climax activities happened on 5th November at 00.10 pm, with different type of eruption from Mount Merapi of last 50 years. Ordinary, Mount Merapi activity starts from lava dome development, followed by dome collapse to create pyroclastic flow. This specific character of eruption is called Merapi type. The pyroclastic flows at that time killed 341 people and buried many villages on the southeastern slope, while the secondary hazard of lahar destroyed many other human settlements and infrastructures on the western slope of the volcano. Actually, capacity building program in the areas of around Mount Merapi has been established since more than 15 years ago. In most villages, there are community associations that well trained on volcanic hazard mitigation and early warning system. The association name is Association of Mountains Belt of Merapi. Map of Mount Merapi hazards was also already set by the Center of Volcanology and Geologic Disaster Mitigation. Unfortunately, human are not able to order the nature. The character of Mount Merapi eruption in the year 2010 was inconsistent. There was much higher gas pressure, much longer distant of pyroclastic flow, and much greater volume of volcanic material poured from the crater. This made people and stake holders very astonished in handling the evacuation. However, a socio-cultural factor in this respect is that the local people and agriculturists view Mount Merapi as a God which gives them fertile soil and water for agriculture and are reluctant to move away even under an impending threat of a volcanic hazard. This mind-set of people is a challenge in capacity building as the people prefer in-situ protective measures rather than moving away.

  16. Primative components, crustal assimilation, and magmatic degassing of the 2008 Kilauea summit eruption (United States)

    Rowe, Michael C.; Thornber, Carl R.; Orr, Tim R.


    Simultaneous summit and rift zone eruptions at Kīlauea starting in 2008 reflect a shallow eruptive plumbing system inundated by a bourgeoning supply of new magma from depth. Olivine-hosted melt inclusions, host glass, and bulk lava compositions of magma erupted at both the summit and east rift zone demonstrate chemical continuity at both ends of a well-worn summit-to-rift pipeline. Analysis of glass within dense-cored lapilli erupted from the summit in March – August 2008 show these are not samplings of compositionally distinct magmas stored in the shallow summit magma reservoir, but instead result from remelting and assimilation of fragments from conduit wall and vent blocks. Summit pyroclasts show the predominant and most primitive component erupted to be a homogenous, relatively trace-element-depleted melt that is a compositionally indistinguishable from east rift lava. Based on a “top-down” model for the geochemical variation in east rift zone lava over the past 30 years, we suggest that the apparent absence of a 1982 enriched component in melt inclusions, as well as the proposed summit-rift zone connectivity based on sulfur and mineral chemistry, indicate that the last of the pre-1983 magma has been flushed out of the summit reservoir during the surge of mantle-derived magma from 2003-2007.

  17. Morphology, temperature, and eruption dynamics at Pele (United States)

    Howell, Robert R.; Lopes, Rosaly M. C.


    ., Milazzo, M., Radebaugh, J., Davies, A.G., Mitchell, K.L. [2007]. Icarus 192, 491-502). When applied to the I32 observations we obtain a fire-fountain mass eruption rate of 5.1 × 10 5 kg s -1 for the main vent area and 1.4 × 10 4 kg s -1 for each of two smaller vent regions to the west. These fire-fountain rates suggest a solution to the puzzling lack of extensive lava flows in the Pele region. Much of the erupted lava may be ejected at high speed into the fire-fountains and plumes, creating dispersed pyroclastic deposits rather than flows. We compare gas and silicate mass eruption rates and discuss briefly the dynamics of this ejection model and the observational evidence.

  18. Spatial analysis of the impacts of the Chaitén volcano eruption (Chile) in three fluvial systems (United States)

    Ulloa, H.; Iroumé, A.; Picco, L.; Mohr, C. H.; Mazzorana, B.; Lenzi, M. A.; Mao, L.


    The eruption of the Chaitén volcano in May 2008 generated morphological and ecological disturbances in adjacent river basins, and the magnitude of these disturbances depended on the type of dominant volcanic process affecting each of them. The aim of this study is to analyse the morphological changes in different periods in river segments of the Blanco, El Amarillo and Rayas river basins located near the Chaitén volcano. These basins suffered disturbances of different intensity and spatial distribution caused by tephra fall, dome collapses and pyroclastic density currents that damaged hillslope forests, widened channels and destroyed island and floodplain vegetation. Changes continued to occur in the fluvial systems in the years following the eruption, as a consequence of the geomorphic processes indirectly induced by the eruption. Channel changes were analyzed by comparing remote images of pre and post-eruption conditions. Two periods were considered: the first from 2008 to 2009-2010 associated with the explosive and effusive phases of the eruption and the second that correspond to the post-eruption stage from 2009-2010 to 2013. Following the first phases channel segments widened 91% (38 m/yr), 6% (7 m/yr) and 7% (22 m/yr) for Blanco, Rayas and El Amarillo Rivers, respectively, compared to pre-eruption condition. In the second period, channel segments additionally widened 42% (8 m/yr), 2% (2 m/yr) and 5% (4 m/yr) for Blanco, Rayas and El Amarillo Rivers, respectively. In the Blanco River 62 and 82% of the islands disappeared in the first and second period, respectively, which is 6-8 times higher than in the El Amarillo approximately twice the Rayas. Sinuosity increased after the eruption only in the Blanco River but the three study channels showed a high braiding intensity mainly during the first post-eruption period. The major disturbances occurred during the eruptive and effusive phases of Chaitén volcano, and the intensity of these disturbances reflects the

  19. A Late Holocene explosive mafic eruption of Villarrica volcano, Southern Andes: The Chaimilla deposit (United States)

    Costantini, L.; Pioli, L.; Bonadonna, C.; Clavero, J.; Longchamp, C.


    Villarrica (Chile) is one of the most active volcanoes in South America having erupted about 60 times in the last 460 years. Although its historical eruptive activity has been mainly effusive and weakly explosive, it had strong explosive behaviour in postglacial times. Chaimilla (activity. The deposit is dispersed over an area of 250 km 2 and consists of 8 units (A-H) which were grouped into four sequences. Stratigraphic data suggest that the eruption had a relatively short duration and evolved from i) an Opening phase, dispersing ash, lapilli clasts, accretionary lapilli, blocks and bombs, to ii) a Pulsatory phase, originating a series of magmatic explosions, to iii) a Collapsing phase, characterised by unstable plumes which emplaced a series of pyroclastic density currents intercalated with thin fallout layers and finally to iv) a Climactic phase forming a more sustained plume which eventually collapsed generating the final pyroclastic density currents. The deposit (fall and flow) has a minimum cumulative volume of 0.6 km 3, with the main sustained phase being associated with a VEI 4 and the flow units having a minimum estimated total volume of 0.04 km 3. The erupted material has a homogenous chemical composition but displays a remarkable variability in both textural and physical properties. The density distribution of juvenile products shows a clear bimodality characterised by two main populations: P1 and P2. Population P1 consists of highly vesicular clasts (modal density around 1000 kg m - 3 ) with mostly sub-spherical bubbles and moderately crystallised groundmass with large-sized microlites. Clasts from population P2 are poorly vesicular (modal density around 1600 kg m - 3 ) with irregular to collapsed bubbles and numerous smaller microlites. The variability of both vesicularity and microlite characteristics suggests the involvement of two magma batches with distinct pre-eruptive degassing and rising histories. Our eruption conceptual model implies the

  20. Psychological aspects in a volcanic crisis: El Hierro Island eruption (October, 2011). (United States)

    Lopez, P.; Llinares, A.; Garcia, A.; Marrero, J. M.; Ortiz, R.


    The recent eruption on the El Hierro Island (Canary Islands, Spain) has shown that Psychology plays an important role in the emergence management of a natural phenomenon. However, Psychology continues to have no social coverage it deserves in the mitigation of the effects before, during and after the occurrence of a natural phenomenon. Keep in mind that an unresolved psychological problem involves an individual and collective mismatch may become unrecoverable. The population of El Hierro has been under a state of alert since July 2011, when seismic activity begins, until the occurrence of submarine eruption in October 2011 that is held for more than three months. During this period the inhabitants of the small island have gone through different emotional states ranging from confusion to disappointment. A volcanic eruption occurs not unexpectedly, allowing to have a time of preparation / action before the disaster. From the psychological point of view people from El Hierro Island have responded to different stages of the same natural process. Although the island of El Hierro is of volcanic origin, the population has no historical memory since the last eruption occurred in 1793. Therefore, the educational system does not adequately address the formation in volcanic risk. As a result people feel embarrassment when the seismovolcanic crisis begins, although no earthquakes felt. As an intermediate stage, when the earthquakes are felt by the population, scientists and operational Emergency Plan care to inform and prepare actions in case of a possible eruption. The population feel safe despite the concerns expressed by not knowing where, how and when the eruption will occur. Once started the submarine eruption, taking into account that all the actions (evacuation, relocation, etc.) have worked well and that both their basic needs and security are covered there are new states of mind. These new emotional states ranging from disenchantment with the phenomenology of the

  1. Generation, ascent and eruption of magma on the Moon: New insights into source depths, magma supply, intrusions and effusive/explosive eruptions (Part 2: Predicted emplacement processes and observations) (United States)

    Head, James W.; Wilson, Lionel


    , inhibiting dike emplacement and surface eruptions. In contrast to small dike volumes and low propagation velocities in terrestrial environments, lunar dike propagation velocities are typically sufficiently high that shallow sill formation is not favored; local low-density breccia zones beneath impact crater floors, however, may cause lateral magma migration to form laccoliths (e.g., Vitello Crater) and sills (e.g., Humboldt Crater) in floor-fractured craters. Dikes emplaced into the shallow crust may stall and produce crater chains due to active and passive gas venting (e.g., Mendeleev Crater Chain) or, if sufficiently shallow, may create a near-surface stress field that forms linear and arcuate graben, often with pyroclastic and small-scale effusive eruptions (e.g., Rima Parry V). Effusive eruptions are modulated by effusion rates, eruption durations, cooling and supply limitations to flow length, and pre-existing topography. Relatively low effusion rate, cooling-limited flows lead to small shield volcanoes (e.g., Tobias Mayer, Milicius); higher effusion rate, cooling-limited flows lead to compound flow fields (e.g., most mare basins) and even higher effusion rate, long-duration flows lead to thermal erosion of the vent, effusion rate enhancement, and thermal erosion of the substrate to produce sinuous rilles (e.g., Rimae Prinz). Extremely high effusion rate flows on slopes lead to volume-limited flow with lengths of many hundreds of kilometers (e.g., the young Imbrium basin flows). Explosive, pyroclastic eruptions are common on the Moon. The low pressure environment in propagating dike crack-tips can cause gas formation at great depths and throughout dike ascent; at shallow crustal depths both the smelting reaction and the recently documented abundant magmatic volatiles in mare basalt magmas contribute to significant shallow degassing and pyroclastic activity associated with the dike as it erupts at the surface. Dikes penetrating to the surface produce a wide range of

  2. The recent pumice eruptions of Mt. Pelée volcano, Martinique. Part I: Depositional sequences, description of pumiceous deposits (United States)

    Traineau, Hervé; Westercamp, Denis; Bardintzeff, Jacques-Marie; Miskovsky, Jean-Claude


    Mount Pelée is one of the most active volcanoes of the Lesser Antilles arc, with more than twenty eruptions over the last 5000 years. Both nuée ardente-type eruptions, which are well known, and pumice eruptions, although little known, are very common in the stratigraphic record. The four younger pumice eruptions, P4 (2440 y.B.P.), P3 (2010 y.B.P.), P2 (1670 y.B.P.) and P1 (650 y.B.P.) can be used to reconstruct the eruption sequences. The various pumiceous deposits can be described as fine lithic ash layer, Plinian fall deposits, pumice and ash flow deposits with associated ash cloud fall deposits, and pumice surge deposits. Three kinds of depositional sequences have been defined. The distinctions between them are based on the occurrence of an initial Plinian phase and the generation of intraflow pyroclastic surges. The pumice eruptions of Mt. Pelée are small in intensity and magnitude, as expressed by the dispersal of their products and by the total mass of erupted material which is estimated to be less than 1 km 3 in each case. The pumice fall deposits have dispersal characteristics of small Plinian eruptions, close to the sub-Plinian type. Nevertheless, the probability of an occurrence of a new pumice eruption at Mt. Pelée is high, and the widespread distribution of pumice deposits around the volcano suggests that such an eruption is a major volcanic risk during the present stage of activity.

  3. Monitoring so2 emission at the Soufriere Hills volcano: Implications for changes in eruptive conditions (United States)

    Young, S.R.; Francis, P.W.; Barclay, J.; Casadevall, T.J.; Gardner, C.A.; Darroux, B.; Davies, M.A.; Delmelle, P.; Norton, G.E.; Maciejewski, A.J.H.; Oppenheimer, C.M.M.; Stix, J.; Watson, I.M.


    Correlation spectrometer measurements of sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission rates during the current eruption of the Soufriere Hills volcano, Montserrat, have contributed towards identifying different phases of volcanic activity. SO2 emission rate has increased from 550 td-1 (>6.4 kgs-1) after July 1996, with the uncertainty associated with any individual measurement ca. 30%. Significantly enhanced SO2 emission rates have been identified in association with early phreatic eruptions (800 td-1 (9.3 kgs-1)) and episodes of vigorous dome collapse and pyroclastic flow generation (900 to 1500 td-1 (10.4 to 17.4 kgs-1)). SO2 emission rate has proved a useful proxy measurement for magma production rate. Observed SO2 emission rates are significantly higher than those inferred from analyses of glass inclusions in phenocrysts, implying the existence of a S-rich magmatic vapour phase.

  4. The Ministry of Dilemmas [decommissioning nuclear submarines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peden, W.


    A consultant for Greenpeace, the anti-nuclear campaigners, looks at the United Kingdom Government's problems with decommissioning of its nuclear submarine fleet as the vessels become obsolete, and at the transport and storage of spent fuels from the submarine's propulsion reactors. It is argued that no proper plans exist to decommission the vessels safely. The Ministry of Defence sites such as Rosyth and Devonport are immune from inspection by regulatory bodies, so there is no public knowledge of any potential radioactive hazards from the stored out-of-service carcasses, floating in dock, awaiting more active strategies. The author questions the wisdom of building new nuclear submarines, when no proper program exists to decommission existing vessels and their operational waste. (U.K.)

  5. Durable terrestrial bedrock predicts submarine canyon formation (United States)

    Smith, Elliot; Finnegan, Noah J.; Mueller, Erich R.; Best, Rebecca J.


    Though submarine canyons are first-order topographic features of Earth, the processes responsible for their occurrence remain poorly understood. Potentially analogous studies of terrestrial rivers show that the flux and caliber of transported bedload are significant controls on bedrock incision. Here we hypothesize that coarse sediment load could exert a similar role in the formation of submarine canyons. We conducted a comprehensive empirical analysis of canyon occurrence along the West Coast of the contiguous United States which indicates that submarine canyon occurrence is best predicted by the occurrence of durable crystalline bedrock in adjacent terrestrial catchments. Canyon occurrence is also predicted by the flux of bed sediment to shore from terrestrial streams. Surprisingly, no significant correlation was observed between canyon occurrence and the slope or width of the continental shelf. These findings suggest that canyon incision is promoted by greater yields of durable terrestrial clasts to the shore.

  6. Geomorphic process fingerprints in submarine canyons (United States)

    Brothers, Daniel S.; ten Brink, Uri S.; Andrews, Brian D.; Chaytor, Jason D.; Twichell, David C.


    Submarine canyons are common features of continental margins worldwide. They are conduits that funnel vast quantities of sediment from the continents to the deep sea. Though it is known that submarine canyons form primarily from erosion induced by submarine sediment flows, we currently lack quantitative, empirically based expressions that describe the morphology of submarine canyon networks. Multibeam bathymetry data along the entire passive US Atlantic margin (USAM) and along the active central California margin near Monterey Bay provide an opportunity to examine the fine-scale morphology of 171 slope-sourced canyons. Log–log regression analyses of canyon thalweg gradient (S) versus up-canyon catchment area (A) are used to examine linkages between morphological domains and the generation and evolution of submarine sediment flows. For example, canyon reaches of the upper continental slope are characterized by steep, linear and/or convex longitudinal profiles, whereas reaches farther down canyon have distinctly concave longitudinal profiles. The transition between these geomorphic domains is inferred to represent the downslope transformation of debris flows into erosive, canyon-flushing turbidity flows. Over geologic timescales this process appears to leave behind a predictable geomorphic fingerprint that is dependent on the catchment area of the canyon head. Catchment area, in turn, may be a proxy for the volume of sediment released during geomorphically significant failures along the upper continental slope. Focused studies of slope-sourced submarine canyons may provide new insights into the relationships between fine-scale canyon morphology and down-canyon changes in sediment flow dynamics.

  7. Large erupted complex odontoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijeev Vasudevan


    Full Text Available Odontomas are a heterogeneous group of jaw bone lesions, classified as odontogenic tumors which usually include well-diversified dental tissues. Odontoma is a term introduced to the literature by Broca in 1867. Trauma, infection and hereditary factors are the possible causes of forming this kind of lesions. Among odontogenic tumors, they constitute about 2/3 of cases. These lesions usually develop slowly and asymptomatically, and in most cases they do not cross the bone borders. Two types of odontoma are recognized: compound and complex. Complex odontomas are less common than the compound variety in the ratio 1:2.3. Eruption of an odontoma in the oral cavity is rare. We present a case of complex odontoma, in which apparent eruption has occurred in the area of the right maxillary second molar region.

  8. First Survey For Submarine Hydrothermal Vents In NE Sulawesi, Indonesia (United States)

    McConachy, T.; Binns, R.; Permana, H.


    The IASSHA-2001 cruise (Indonesia-Australia Survey for Submarine Hydrothermal Activity) was successfully conducted from June 1 to June 29 on board Baruna Jaya VIII. Preliminary results are reported of the first expedition to locate and study submarine hydrothermal activity in north east Sulawesi. Leg A focussed on Tomini Bay, a virtually unexplored Neogene sedimentary basin. Its objective was to test whether modern sediment-hosted hydrothermal activity occurred on the sea floor. The results of new bathymetric mapping, sediment coring and CTD/transmissometer hydrocasts negate the likely presence in central Tomini Bay of large-scale modern analogues of hydrothermal massive sulfide environments involving hydrothermal venting of basinal or magma-derived fluids into reduced sediments. It is possible that the "heat engine" required to drive circulation of basinal and hydrothermal fluids is today too weak. Surveys around Colo volcano indicate that it may be in its final stage of evolution. Leg B studied the arc and behind-arc sectors of the Sangihe volcanic island chain extending northwards from Quaternary volcanoes on the northeastern tip of Sulawesi's North Arm, near Manado. West of the main active chain and extending northwards from Manado there is a subparallel ridge surmounted by a number of high (>2000 m) seamounts of uncertain age. Fifteen relatively high-standing submarine edifices were crossed during this leg, of which nine were tested for hydrothermal activity by hydrocast and dredging. Eight sites were known from previous bathymetric surveys, and seven are new discoveries made by narrow-beam or multibeam echo sounding. Two submarine edifices at least 1000 m high were discovered in the strait immediately north of Awu volcano on Sangihe Island. One, with crest at 206 m, is surrounded by a circular platform 300m deep which we infer to be a foundered fringing reef to a formerly emergent island. The other, lacking such a platform, appears relatively young and may be

  9. [Localized eruptive juvenile xanthogranuloma]. (United States)

    Vanotti, S; Chiaverini, C; Rostain, G; Cardot-Leccia, N; Lacour, J-P


    Juvenile xanthogranuloma (JXG) is a non-Langerhans histiocytosis of young children characterized by solitary or multiple yellowish cutaneous nodules. Atypical skin lesions such as lichenoid eruptions, and pedunculated, maculopapular, plaque-like or linear lesions have been described. We report a case of eruptive XGJ en plaque in the left leg in an infant. A 13-month-old child presented asymptomatic eruptive, yellowish papules of the leg measuring 5 to 10mm since the age of 2months. There was no cutaneous infiltration between the lesions. Darier's sign was negative. Histological examination confirmed the diagnosis of JXG. The course of the disease comprised a gradual decrease in the number of active lesions with slight residual pigmentation. Our case was suggestive of JXG en plaque. Only 7 cases have been reported in the literature, all appearing before the age of 5months. The lesions corresponded mostly to an asymptomatic erythematous plaque studded with small yellowish/red nodules of variable localisation. Spontaneous involvement was noted in all cases. No systemic involvement was found. Herein we present a unique case of localised multiple JXG without evident clinical infiltrating plaque progressing with self-resolving flares. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Transition from Plinian to unstable eruption conditions recorded in fine-grained proximal ash layers of the Middle Laacher See Tephra (12,900 a BP), East Eifel Volcanic Field, Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zernack, Anke Verena

    The 12,900 a BP eruption of Laacher See Volcano is a classic example of a complex, multi-phase Plinian eruption and one of the largest known of the Northern Hemisphere during the Late Quaternary. The wide range of primary and reworked pyroclastic deposits produced record drastically changing...... internal and external conditions during the course of the eruption. Here we focus on the so-called “Hauptbritzbank” (HBB), which marks a significant change in the eruptive style of Laacher See Volcano following the initial Plinian phase. The interval is characterised by a series of thin ash beds...... to assess their eruptive mechanism, transport processes and depositional conditions. Correlation between the Eastern and Southern fan proved difficult with dispersal axes of deposits pointing to two different locations within the Laacher See basin and some not intersecting the basin at all. In addition...

  11. Characterization of previously unidentified lunar pyroclastic deposits using Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) data (United States)

    Gustafson, J. Olaf; Bell, James F.; Gaddis, Lisa R.R.; Hawke, B. Ray Ray; Giguere, Thomas A.


    We used a Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) global monochrome Wide-angle Camera (WAC) mosaic to conduct a survey of the Moon to search for previously unidentified pyroclastic deposits. Promising locations were examined in detail using LROC multispectral WAC mosaics, high-resolution LROC Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) images, and Clementine multispectral (ultraviolet-visible or UVVIS) data. Out of 47 potential deposits chosen for closer examination, 12 were selected as probable newly identified pyroclastic deposits. Potential pyroclastic deposits were generally found in settings similar to previously identified deposits, including areas within or near mare deposits adjacent to highlands, within floor-fractured craters, and along fissures in mare deposits. However, a significant new finding is the discovery of localized pyroclastic deposits within floor-fractured craters Anderson E and F on the lunar farside, isolated from other known similar deposits. Our search confirms that most major regional and localized low-albedo pyroclastic deposits have been identified on the Moon down to ~100 m/pix resolution, and that additional newly identified deposits are likely to be either isolated small deposits or additional portions of discontinuous, patchy deposits.

  12. Experimental Determination of Bed Conditions in Concentrated Pyroclastic Density Currents (United States)

    Winner, A.; Ferrier, K.; Dufek, J.


    Pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) are ground-hugging mixtures of hot gas and rock that can reach temperatures > 800 oC and speeds of 200 m/s. These flows are capable of eroding and entraining the underlying bed material into the flow, which can strongly influence flow momentum, runout distance, and hazards associated with PDCs. However, the mechanism of erosion remains poorly constrained, with proposed mechanisms including under-pressure following the head of the fluidized current, force chain enhanced stresses at the bed, and discrete particle impacts and friction. The interactions between PDCs and the bed have been difficult to observe in the field, as their infrequent occurrence, opacity, and hostile environment make real-time measurement difficult. This study is aimed at obtaining a better understanding of the interactions between PDCs and the bed through a quantitative analysis of bed forces. Our experimental apparatus consists of a rotating cylindrical flume of radius 22 cm, within which gas-rich granular material flows along the interior of the cylinder as it rotates. By using a rotating cylinder, we are able to simulate long-duration flows, allowing us to observe impact forces at the bed over timescales comparable to the flow duration of natural PDCs. To measure the distribution and evolution of forces imparted by the flow on the bed, we constructed a cylindrical insert with a non-erodible bed in which we embedded force sensor arrays parallel and perpendicular to the direction of flow. To measure the forces felt by the particles in the flow, we added "smart particles" 25 to 50 mm in diameter to the flow. Each smart particle contains a three-axis accelerometer and a micro SD card enclosed in a spherical plastic casing, and possesses a density similar to that of the pumice in the experimental flow. Each smart particle also contains a three-axis magnetometer which permits its location to be tracked by means of a unique applied magnetic field. Ultimately

  13. The dynamics of Hawaiian-style eruptions: a century of study: Chapter 8 in Characteristics of Hawaiian volcanoes (United States)

    Mangan, Margaret T.; Cashman, Katharine V.; Swanson, Donald A.; Poland, Michael P.; Takahashi, T. Jane; Landowski, Claire M.


    This chapter, prepared in celebration of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatoryʼs centennial, provides a historical lens through which to view modern paradigms of Hawaiian-style eruption dynamics. The models presented here draw heavily from observations, monitoring, and experiments conducted on Kīlauea Volcano, which, as the site of frequent and accessible eruptions, has attracted scientists from around the globe. Long-lived eruptions in particular—Halema‘uma‘u 1907–24, Kīlauea Iki 1959, Mauna Ulu 1969–74, Pu‘u ‘Ō‘ō-Kupaianaha 1983–present, and Halema‘uma‘u 2008–present—have offered incomparable opportunities to conceptualize and constrain theoretical models with multidisciplinary data and to field-test model results. The central theme in our retrospective is the interplay of magmatic gas and near-liquidus basaltic melt. A century of study has shown that gas exsolution facilitates basaltic dike propagation; volatile solubility and vesiculation kinetics influence magma-rise rates and fragmentation depths; bubble interactions and gas-melt decoupling modulate magma rheology, eruption intensity, and plume dynamics; and pyroclast outgassing controls characteristics of eruption deposits. Looking to the future, we anticipate research leading to a better understanding of how eruptive activity is influenced by volatiles, including the physics of mixed CO2-H2O degassing, gas segregation in nonuniform conduits, and vaporization of external H2O during magma ascent.

  14. Decompression Induced Crystallization of Basaltic Andesite Magma: Constraints on the Eruption of Arenal Volcano, Costa Rica. (United States)

    Szramek, L. A.; Gardner, J. E.; Larsen, J. F.


    Arenal Volcano is a small stratovolcano located 90 km NW of San Jose, Costa Rica. In 1968 current activity began with a Plinian phase, and has continued to erupt lava flows and pyroclastic flows intermittently since. Samples from the Plinian, pyroclastic flow, strombolian, and effusive phases have been studied texturally. Little variation in crystallinity occurs amongst the different phases. Number density of crystals, both 2D and 3D are 50-70 mm-2 and 30,000-50,000 mm-3 in the Plinian sample, compared to the lesser values in other eruptive types. Characteristic crystal size also increases as explosivity decreases. Two samples, both lava flows collected while warm, overlap with the Plinian sample. This suggests that the variations seen may be a result of cooling history. Plagioclase differs between the Plinian sample, in which they are only tabular in shape, and the other eruptive types, which contain both tabular and equant crystals. To link decompression paths of the Arenal magma to possible pre-eruptive conditions, we have carried out hydrothermal experiments. The experiments were preformed in TZM pressure vessels buffered at a fugacity of Ni-NiO and water saturation. Phase equilibria results in conjunction with mineral compositions and temperature estimates by previous workers from active lava flows and two-pyroxene geothermometry, constrain the likely pre-eruptive conditions for the Arenal magma to 950-1040° C with a water pressure of 50-80 MPa. Samples that started from conditions that bracket our estimated pre-eruptive conditions were decompressed in steps of 5-30 MPa and held for various times at each step until 20 MPa was reached, approximating average decompression rates of 0.25, 0.025, 0.0013 MPa/s. Comparison of textures found in the natural samples to the experimentally produced textures suggest that the Plinian eruption likely was fed by magma ascending at 0.05-1 m/s, whereas the less explosive phases were fed by magma ascending at 0.05 m/s or less.

  15. Eruptive mechanism at Volcán de Colima: Interpreting transitions between styles (United States)

    Varley, N.; James, M. R.; Hutchison, W.; Arámbula, R.; Reyes, G.


    In January 2013 eruptions resumed at Volcán de Colima, the previous activity having ceased in June 2011. This period represented the quietest the volcano has been since before the previous episode commenced in 1998. The new eruptive episode is showing differences compared to the 1998-2011 period, which are presenting a challenge to interpret. Lower gases fluxes coupled with lower fumaroles temperatures are consistent with the decreasing trend of volatile-contents but the two larger Vulcanian eruptions in January produced pyroclastic density currents with a greater degree of fragmentation than previous events. A dome has been growing within the newly formed crater within the previous dome. The 1998-2011 eruption included five periods of effusive activity, with little variation in composition. Domes grew with effusion rates covering more than 2 orders of magnitude. Both explosive and effusive activity was centred at multiple locations within the summit crater. The SO2 flux showed a general declining trend throughout this period and 2005 included the largest pyroclastic flows witnessed since the last Plinian eruption in 1913. Swarms of small amplitude long period events were detected prior to each larger eruption, these have been again witnessed in 2013. The characteristics of the swarms is being compared, the generation of events being related to brittle fracturing along the conduit margin. The episode terminated in June 2011 with an explosion which removed the upper portion of the most recent and extended period of dome growth, which was at a very slow rate from January 2007. Automated 3D computer vision reconstruction techniques (structure-from-motion and multi-view stereo, SfM-MVS) have permitted the estimation of dome volumes from 1 m resolution digital elevation models. A small decrease in volume (0.4×105 m3) was detected prior to the explosion, which was related to the formation of steps in the dome surface, related to localized zones of weakness. For the

  16. What Controls Submarine Groundwater Discharge? (United States)

    Martin, J. B.; Cable, J. E.; Cherrier, J.; Roy, M.; Smith, C. G.; Dorsett, A.


    Numerous processes have been implicated in controlling submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) to coastal zones since Ghyben, Herzberg and Dupuit developed models of fresh water discharge from coastal aquifers at the turn of the 19th century. Multiple empirical and modeling techniques have also been applied to these environments to measure the flow. By the mid-1950's, Cooper had demonstrated that dispersion across the fresh water-salt water boundary required salt water entrained into fresh water flow be balanced by recharge of salt water across the sediment-water interface seaward of the outflow face. Percolation of water into the beach face from wind and tidal wave run up and changes in pressure at the sediment-water interface with fluctuating tides have now been recognized, and observed, as processes driving seawater into the sediments. Within the past few years, variations in water table levels and the 1:40 amplification from density difference in fresh water and seawater have been implicated to pump salt water seasonally across the sediment- water interface. Salt water driven by waves, tides and seasonal water table fluctuations is now recognized as a component of SGD when it flows back to overlying surface waters. None of these processes are sufficiently large to provide measured volumes of SGD in Indian River Lagoon, Florida, however, because minimal tides and waves exist, flat topography and transmissive aquifers minimize fluctuations of the water table, and little water is entrained across the salt water-fresh water boundary. Nonetheless, the saline fraction of SGD represents more than 99% of the volume of total SGD in the Indian River Lagoon. This volume of saline SGD can be driven by the abundance of burrowing organisms in the lagoon, which pump sufficient amounts of water through the sediment- water interface. These bioirrigating organisms are ubiquitous at all water depths in sandy sediment and thus may provide one of the major sources of SGD world wide

  17. Deposits, petrology and mechanism of the 2010-2013 eruption of Kizimen volcano in Kamchatka, Russia (United States)

    Auer, A.; Belousov, A.; Belousova, M.


    Kizimen volcano in Kamchatka is well known as a source of highly heterogeneous poorly mingled magmas ranging from dacites to basaltic andesites. In 2010-2013, the volcano produced its first historical magmatic eruption with the deposition of 0.27 km3 of block and ash pyroclastic flows accompanied by slow extrusion of a 200-m-thick, highly viscous (1010-1011 Pa s) block lava flow with a volume of 0.3 km3. The total volume of erupted magma comprised approximately 0.4 km3 DRE. We provide description of the eruption chronology, as well as the lithology and petrology of eruptive products. The erupted material is represented by banded dacite and high-silica andesite. The dacitic magma was formed during a long dormancy after the previous magmatic eruption several hundred years ago with mineral compositions indicating average pre-eruptive temperatures of 810 °C, fO2 of 0.9-1.6 log units above the nickel-nickel oxide (NNO) buffer and shallow crustal storage conditions at 123 MPa. The silica-rich andesite represents a hybrid magma, which shows signs of recent thermal and compositional disequilibrium. We suggest that the hybrid magma started to form in 1963 when a swarm of deep earthquakes indicated an input of mafic magma from depth into the 6-11-km-deep silicic magma chamber. It took the following 46 years until the magma filling the chamber reached an eruptible state. Poor mingling of the two melts is attributed to its unusually high viscosity that could be associated with the pre-eruptive long-term leakage of volatiles from the chamber through a regional tectonic fault. Our investigations have shown that shallow magma chambers of dormant volcanoes demonstrating strong persistent fumarolic activity can contain highly viscous, degassed magma of evolved composition. Reactivation of such magma chambers by injection of basic magma takes a long time (several decades). Thus, eruption forecasts at such volcanoes should include a possibility of long time lag between a swarm of

  18. Organic matter quantity and source affects microbial community structure and function following volcanic eruption on Kasatochi Island, Alaska (United States)

    Zeglin, Lydia H.; Wang, Bronwen; Waythomas, Christopher F.; Rainey, Frederick; Talbot, Sandra L.


    In August 2008, Kasatochi volcano erupted and buried a small island in pyroclastic deposits and fine ash; since then, microbes, plants and birds have begun to re-colonize the initially sterile surface. Five years post-eruption, bacterial 16S rRNA gene and fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) copy numbers and extracellular enzyme activity (EEA) potentials were one to two orders of magnitude greater in pyroclastic materials with organic matter (OM) inputs relative to those without, despite minimal accumulation of OM (eruptive surfaces with OM inputs had the highest β-glucosidase, phosphatase, NAGase and cellobiohydrolase activities, and had microbial population sizes approaching those in reference soils. In contrast, the strongest factor determining bacterial community composition was the dominance of plants versus birds as OM input vectors. Although soil pH ranged from 3.9 to 7.0, and %C ranged 100×, differentiation between plant- and bird-associated microbial communities suggested that cell dispersal or nutrient availability are more likely drivers of assembly than pH or OM content. This study exemplifies the complex relationship between microbial cell dispersal, soil geochemistry, and microbial structure and function; and illustrates the potential for soil microbiota to be resilient to disturbance.

  19. German Submarine Offensives and South African Countermeasures

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    World War, with a number of opportunistic attacks also made by submarines travelling to the Far ..... This time round, however, the strategic importance of the Indian Ocean ... offensive operations in the Indian Ocean between the Gulf of Aden and the ... American seaboards, which ensured that an attack around the coast off ...

  20. The sedimentary record of submarine channel morphodynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Leeuw, J.


    Submarine channels are ubiquitous on the ocean floor and are considered to be the equivalent of rivers on land. These channels are created by turbidity currents, which originate from the continental margins and which can transport sediment for thousands of kilometres into the oceans. The aim of this

  1. German Submarine Offensives and South African Countermeasures

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Scientia Militaria vol 44, no 1, 2016, pp 168-189. doi: 10.5787/44-1-1166 ..... report the presence of a body of German submarines moving south towards Cape Town. Despite ...... London: Arms and Armour Press, 1989, 100–101; Keegan op.

  2. Modeling Submarine Lava Flow with ASPECT (United States)

    Storvick, E. R.; Lu, H.; Choi, E.


    Submarine lava flow is not easily observed and experimented on due to limited accessibility and challenges posed by the fast solidification of lava and the associated drastic changes in rheology. However, recent advances in numerical modeling techniques might address some of these challenges and provide unprecedented insight into the mechanics of submarine lava flow and conditions determining its wide-ranging morphologies. In this study, we explore the applicability ASPECT, Advanced Solver for Problems in Earth's ConvecTion, to submarine lava flow. ASPECT is a parallel finite element code that solves problems of thermal convection in the Earth's mantle. We will assess ASPECT's capability to model submarine lava flow by observing models of lava flow morphology simulated with GALE, a long-term tectonics finite element analysis code, with models created using comparable settings and parameters in ASPECT. From these observations we will contrast the differing models in order to identify the benefits of each code. While doing so, we anticipate we will learn about the conditions required for end-members of lava flow morphology, for example, pillows and sheet flows. With ASPECT specifically we focus on 1) whether the lava rheology can be implemented; 2) how effective the AMR is in resolving morphologies of the solidified crust; 3) whether and under what conditions the end-members of the lava flow morphologies, pillows and sheets, can be reproduced.

  3. NDT in submarines construction-HY 80

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russo, C.A.; Talmadge, J.


    In submarines construction, provided that metallurgic characteristics have been established, the NDT methods and equipments as well as the application ways should be taken into account. It is then fundamental purpose of this work to emphasize all that coming from conventional context in the field of use of already known nondestructive techniques

  4. Monitoring of the nuclear submarine Komsomolets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heldal, Hilde E.; Flo, Janita K.; Liebig, Penny L. [Institute of Marine Research, P. O. Box 1870 Nordnes, N-5817 Bergen (Norway); Gaefvert, Torbjoern; Rudjord, Anne Liv [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, P.O. Box 55, N-1332 Oesteraas (Norway); Gwynn, Justin P. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, The Fram Centre, N-9296 Tromsoe (Norway)


    The Soviet nuclear submarine Komsomolets sank on the 7 April 1989, 180 km southwest of Bear Island in the Norwegian Sea to a depth of about 1655 m. The submarine contains one nuclear reactor containing long-lived radionuclides such as cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) along with other fission and activation products, in addition to 2 mixed uranium/plutonium nuclear warheads containing weapons grade plutonium. Although several model studies have shown that a radioactive leakage from Komsomolets will have insignificant impact on fish and other marine organisms, there are still public concerns about the condition of the submarine and the potential for radioactive leakage. In order to document the contamination levels and to meet public concerns, monitoring of radioactive contamination in the area adjacent to the submarine has been ongoing since 1993. Samples of bottom seawater and sediments have been collected annually by the Institute of Marine Research (IMR) and have been analysed for {sup 137}Cs and plutonium-239,240 ({sup 239,240}Pu). So far, activity concentrations in the samples have been comparable to levels found in other samples from the Norwegian and Barents Seas. During sampling from R/V 'G. O. Sars' in April 2013, an area of about 1 km{sup 2} of the seabed around Komsomolets was mapped to precisely locate the submarine using a Kongsberg EM302 multibeam echo sounder, a Simrad EK60 single beam echo sounder and an Olex 3D bottom-mapping system. For sediment sampling, a Simrad MST342 mini-transponder was attached to a Smoegen box corer to allow for precise positioning of the corer. With the aid of the Kongsberg HiPAP (High Precision Acoustic Positioning) system, 4 box cores were collected around the submarine at a distance of 10 to 20 m. In addition, one box core was collected from a reference station about 100 m upstream of the submarine. Surface sediments and sediment cores were collected from the box cores taken at each sampling location. Sediment cores

  5. Phase 1 Final Report: Titan Submarine (United States)

    Oleson, Steven R.; Lorenz, Ralph D.; Paul, Michael V.


    The conceptual design of a submarine for Saturn's moon Titan was a funded NASA Innovative Advanced Concepts (NIAC) Phase 1 for 2014. The proposal stated the desire to investigate what science a submarine for Titan's liquid hydrocarbon seas might accomplish and what that submarine might look like. Focusing on a flagship class science system (100 kg), it was found that a submersible platform can accomplish extensive science both above and below the surface of the Kraken Mare. Submerged science includes mapping using side-looking sonar, imaging and spectroscopy of the lake, as well as sampling of the lake's bottom and shallow shoreline. While surfaced, the submarine will not only sense weather conditions (including the interaction between the liquid and atmosphere) but also image the shoreline, as much as 2 km inland. This imaging requirement pushed the landing date to Titan's next summer period (2047) to allow for lighted conditions, as well as direct-to-Earth communication, avoiding the need for a separate relay orbiter spacecraft. Submerged and surfaced investigation are key to understanding both the hydrological cycle of Titan as well as gather hints to how life may have begun on Earth using liquid, sediment, and chemical interactions. An estimated 25 Mb of data per day would be generated by the various science packages. Most of the science packages (electronics at least) can be safely kept inside the submarine pressure vessel and warmed by the isotope power system.The baseline 90-day mission would be to sail submerged and surfaced around and through Kraken Mare investigating the shoreline and inlets to evaluate the sedimentary interaction both on the surface and then below. Depths of Kraken have yet to be sensed (Ligeia to the north is thought to be 200 m (656 ft) deep), but a maximum depth of 1,000 m (3,281 ft) for Kraken Mare was assumed for the design). The sub would spend 20 d at the interface between Kraken Mare and Ligeia Mare for clues to the drainage of

  6. Will Teide erupt again? (United States)

    Marti, Joan; Geyer, Adelina


    The quantification of hazard in volcanic systems characterised by long repose period is difficult because the lack of knowledge of the past volcanic history and also because in many cases volcanism is not perceived as a potential problem, being only regarded as an attraction for tourism or a source of economic benefit, thus hiding the need to conduct hazard assessment. Teide, in the island of Tenerife (Canary Islands), is not an exception to this general rule and, despite being one of the largest composite volcanoes in the World, it is generally considered as a non-active volcano by population, visitors and even by some scientists. However, geological and geophysical evidence, including a large diversity of monitoring signals recorded during last decades, as well as a simple comparison with similar volcanoes that have erupted in recent times after hundreds or even thousands of years of quiescence, recommend to consider Teide as an active volcano and to take the necessary precaution in an island with nearly one million of permanent inhabitants and nearly 5 millions of visitors per year. What is the potential of Teide to erupt again? is the question that relies behind the fact of considering it as active, and that needs to be answered first. Based on the current volcanological, petrological and geophysical knowledge We propose a conceptual model on the magma recharge mechanisms, structure of the plumbing system, and eruption triggers and dynamics of Teide volcano that helps to understand its behaviour and to anticipate future activity. Ramón y Cajal contract (RYC-2012-11024)

  7. The anatomy of a pyroclastic density current: the 10 July 2015 event at Volcán de Colima (Mexico) (United States)

    Capra, L.; Sulpizio, R.; Márquez-Ramirez, V. H.; Coviello, V.; Doronzo, D. M.; Arambula-Mendoza, R.; Cruz, S.


    Pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) represent one of the most dangerous phenomena occurring in explosive volcanic eruptions, and any advance in the physical understanding of their transport and sedimentation processes can contribute to improving their hazard assessment. The 10-11 July 2015 eruption at Volcán de Colima provided a unique opportunity to better understand the internal behaviour of PDCs based on seismic monitoring data. On 10 July 2015, the summit dome collapsed, producing concentrated PDCs that filled the main channel of the Montegrande ravine. A lahar monitoring station installed 6 km from the volcano summit recorded a PDC before being completely destroyed. Real-time data acquisition from a camcorder and a geophone that were part of the station, along with field observations and grain-size data of the pyroclastic deposits, are used here to interpret the internal flow structure and time-variant transport dynamics of low-volume, valley-confined concentrated PDCs. The PDC that reached the monitoring station moved at a velocity of 7 m/s and filled a 12-m-deep channel. The outcrops show massive, block-and-ash flow deposits with trains of coarse clasts in the middle and towards the top of the depositional units. The seismic record gathered with the geophone was analysed for the time window when the flow travelled past the sensor. The geophone record was also compared with the recordings of a broadband seismic station located nearby. Two main frequency ranges were recognised which could be correlated with the basal frictional forces exerted by the flow on the channel bed (10-20 Hz) and a collisional regime (20-40 Hz) interpreted to be associated with a clast segregation process (i.e. kinematic squeezing). This latter regime promoted the upward migration of large blocks, which subsequently deviated towards the margin of the flow where they interacted with the sidewall of the main channel. The energy calculated for both seismic components shows that the

  8. Formation of a spatter-rich pyroclastic density current deposit in a Neogene sequence of trachytic-mafic igneous rocks at Mason Spur, Erebus volcanic province, Antarctica (United States)

    Martin, A. P.; Smellie, J. L.; Cooper, A. F.; Townsend, D. B.


    Erosion has revealed a remarkable section through the heart of a volcanic island, Mason Spur, in the southwestern Ross Sea, Antarctica, including an unusually well-exposed section of caldera fill. The near-continuous exposure, 10 km laterally and > 1 km vertically, cuts through Cenozoic alkalic volcanic rocks of the Erebus volcanic province (McMurdo Volcanic Group) and permits the study of an ancient volcanic succession that is rarely available due to subsequent burial or erosion. The caldera filling sequence includes an unusual trachytic spatter-rich lapilli tuff (ignimbrite) facies that is particularly striking because of the presence of abundant black fluidal, dense juvenile spatter clasts of trachytic obsidian up to 2 m long supported in a pale cream-coloured pumiceous lapilli tuff matrix. Field mapping indicates that the deposit is an ignimbrite and, together with petrological considerations, it is suggested that mixing of dense spatter and pumiceous lapilli tuff in the investigated deposit occurred during emplacement, not necessarily in the same vent, with the mixed fragmental material emplaced as a pyroclastic density current. Liquid water was not initially present but a steam phase was probably generated during transport and may represent water ingested during passage of the current as it passed over either wet ground, stream, shallow lake or (possibly) snow. Well-exposed caldera interiors are uncommon and that at Mason Spur is helping understand eruption dynamics associated with a complex large island volcano. The results of our study should help to elucidate interpretations of other, less well exposed, pyroclastic density current deposits elsewhere in Antarctica and globally.

  9. Recolonization of the intertidal and shallow subtidal community following the 2008 eruption of Alaska’s Kasatochi Volcano (United States)

    Jewett, S.C.; Drew, Gary S.


    The intertidal and nearshore benthic communities of Kasatochi Island are described following a catastrophic volcanic eruption in 2008. Prior to the eruption, the island was surrounded by a dense bed of canopy-forming dragon kelp Eualaria fistulosa which supported a productive nearshore community. The eruption extended the coastline of the island approximately 400 m offshore to roughly the 20 m isobath. One year following the eruption a reconnaissance survey found the intertidal zone devoid of life. Subtidally, the canopy kelp, as well as limited understory algal species and associated benthic fauna on the hard substratum, were buried by debris from the eruption. The resulting substrate was comprised almost entirely of medium and coarse sands with a depauperate benthic community. Comparisons of habitat and biological communities with other nearby Aleutian Islands and the Icelandic submarine volcanic eruption of Surtsey confirm dramatic reductions in flora and fauna consistent with the initial stages of recovery from a large-scale disturbance event. Four and five years following the eruption brief visits revealed dramatic intertidal and subtidal recolonization of the flora and fauna in some areas. Signs of nesting and fledging of young pigeon guillemots Cepphus columba suggest that the recovery of the nearshore biota may have begun affecting higher trophic levels. Recolonization or lack thereof was tied to bathymetric changes from coastal and nearshore erosion over the study period.

  10. Late Pleistocene-Holocene cataclysmic eruptions at Nevado de Toluca and Jocotitlan volcanoes, central Mexico (United States)

    Macias, J.L.; Garcia, P.A.; Arce, J.L.; Siebe, C.; Espindola, J.M.; Komorowski, J.C.; Scott, K.


    This field guide describes a five day trip to examine deposits of Late Pleistocene-Holocene cataclysmic eruptions at Nevado de Toluca and Jocotitlan volcanoes in central Mexico. We will discuss the stratigraphy, petrology, and sedimentological characteristics of these deposits which provide insights into the eruptive history, type of volcanic activity, and transport and emplacement mechanisms of pyroclastic materials. These parameters will allow us to discuss the kinds of hazards and the risk that they pose to populations around these volcanoes. The area to be visited is tectonically complex thus we will also discuss the location of the volcanoes with respect to the tectonic environment. The first four days of the field trip will be dedicated to Nevado de Toluca Volcano (19 degrees 09'N; 99 degrees 45'W) located at 23 km. southwest of the City of Toluca, and is the fourth highest peak in the country, reaching an elevation of 4,680 meters above sea level (m.a.s.l.). Nevado de Toluca is an andesitic-dacitic stratovolcano, composed of a central vent excavated upon the remains of older craters destroyed by former events. Bloomfield and Valastro, (1974, 1977) concluded that the last cycle of activity occurred nearly equal 11,600 yr. ago. For this reason Nevado de Toluca has been considered an extinct volcano. Our studies, however, indicate that Nevado de Toluca has had at least two episodes of cone destruction by sector collapse as well as several explosive episodes including plinian eruptions and dome-destruction events. These eruptions occurred during the Pleistocene but a very young eruption characterized by surge and ash flows occurred ca. 3,300 yr. BP. This new knowledge of the volcano's eruptive history makes the evaluation of its present state of activity and the geological hazards necessary. This is important because the area is densely populated and large cities such as Toluca and Mexico are located in its proximity.

  11. Atmospheric processes affecting the separation of volcanic ash and SO2 in volcanic eruptions: inferences from the May 2011 Grímsvötn eruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Prata


    Full Text Available The separation of volcanic ash and sulfur dioxide (SO2 gas is sometimes observed during volcanic eruptions. The exact conditions under which separation occurs are not fully understood but the phenomenon is of importance because of the effects volcanic emissions have on aviation, on the environment, and on the earth's radiation balance. The eruption of Grímsvötn, a subglacial volcano under the Vatnajökull glacier in Iceland during 21–28 May 2011 produced one of the most spectacular examples of ash and SO2 separation, which led to errors in the forecasting of ash in the atmosphere over northern Europe. Satellite data from several sources coupled with meteorological wind data and photographic evidence suggest that the eruption column was unable to sustain itself, resulting in a large deposition of ash, which left a low-level ash-rich atmospheric plume moving southwards and then eastwards towards the southern Scandinavian coast and a high-level predominantly SO2 plume travelling northwards and then spreading eastwards and westwards. Here we provide observational and modelling perspectives on the separation of ash and SO2 and present quantitative estimates of the masses of ash and SO2 that erupted, the directions of transport, and the likely impacts. We hypothesise that a partial column collapse or sloughing fed with ash from pyroclastic density currents (PDCs occurred during the early stage of the eruption, leading to an ash-laden gravity intrusion that was swept southwards, separated from the main column. Our model suggests that water-mediated aggregation caused enhanced ash removal because of the plentiful supply of source water from melted glacial ice and from entrained atmospheric water. The analysis also suggests that ash and SO2 should be treated with separate source terms, leading to improvements in forecasting the movement of both types of emissions.

  12. Atmospheric processes affecting the separation of volcanic ash and SO2 in volcanic eruptions: inferences from the May 2011 Grímsvötn eruption (United States)

    Prata, Fred; Woodhouse, Mark; Huppert, Herbert E.; Prata, Andrew; Thordarson, Thor; Carn, Simon


    The separation of volcanic ash and sulfur dioxide (SO2) gas is sometimes observed during volcanic eruptions. The exact conditions under which separation occurs are not fully understood but the phenomenon is of importance because of the effects volcanic emissions have on aviation, on the environment, and on the earth's radiation balance. The eruption of Grímsvötn, a subglacial volcano under the Vatnajökull glacier in Iceland during 21-28 May 2011 produced one of the most spectacular examples of ash and SO2 separation, which led to errors in the forecasting of ash in the atmosphere over northern Europe. Satellite data from several sources coupled with meteorological wind data and photographic evidence suggest that the eruption column was unable to sustain itself, resulting in a large deposition of ash, which left a low-level ash-rich atmospheric plume moving southwards and then eastwards towards the southern Scandinavian coast and a high-level predominantly SO2 plume travelling northwards and then spreading eastwards and westwards. Here we provide observational and modelling perspectives on the separation of ash and SO2 and present quantitative estimates of the masses of ash and SO2 that erupted, the directions of transport, and the likely impacts. We hypothesise that a partial column collapse or sloughing fed with ash from pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) occurred during the early stage of the eruption, leading to an ash-laden gravity intrusion that was swept southwards, separated from the main column. Our model suggests that water-mediated aggregation caused enhanced ash removal because of the plentiful supply of source water from melted glacial ice and from entrained atmospheric water. The analysis also suggests that ash and SO2 should be treated with separate source terms, leading to improvements in forecasting the movement of both types of emissions.

  13. Thorium abundances on the aristarchus plateau: Insights into the composition of the aristarchus pyroclastic glass deposits (United States)

    Hagerty, Justin J.; Lawrence, D.J.; Hawke, B.R.; Gaddis, Lisa R.


    Thorium (Th) data from the Lunar Prospector gamma ray spectrometer (LP-GRS) are used to constrain the composition of lunar pyroclastic glass deposits on top of the Aristarchus plateau. Our goal is to use forward modeling of LP-GRS Th data to measure the Th abundances on the plateau and then to determine if the elevated Th abundances on the plateau are associated with the pyroclastic deposits or with thorium-rich ejecta from Aristarchus crater. We use a variety of remote sensing data to show that there is a large, homogenous portion of the pyroclastics on the plateau that has seen little or no contamination from the Th-rich ejecta of Aristarchus crater. Our results show that the uncontaminated pyroclastic glasses on Aristarchus plateau have an average Th content of 6.7 ppm and ???7 wt % TiO2. These Th and Ti values are consistent with Th-rich, intermediate-Ti yellow glasses from the lunar sample suite. On the basis of this information, we use petrologic equations and interelement correlations for the Moon to estimate the composition of the source region from which the Aristarchus glasses were derived. We find that the source region for the Aristarchus glasses contained high abundances of heat-producing elements, which most likely served as a thermal driver for the prolonged volcanic activity in this region of the Moon. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  14. Submarine paleoseismology based on turbidite records. (United States)

    Goldfinger, Chris


    Many of the largest earthquakes are generated at subduction zones or other plate boundary fault systems near enough to the coast that marine environments may record evidence of them. During and shortly after large earthquakes in the coastal and marine environments, a spectrum of evidence may be left behind, mirroring onshore paleoseismic evidence. Shaking or displacement of the seafloor can trigger processes such as turbidity currents, submarine landslides, tsunami (which may be recorded both onshore and offshore), and soft-sediment deformation. Marine sites may also share evidence of fault scarps, colluvial wedges, offset features, and liquefaction or fluid expulsion with their onshore counterparts. This article reviews the use of submarine turbidite deposits for paleoseismology, focuses on the dating and correlation techniques used to establish stratigraphic continuity of marine deposits, and outlines criteria for distinguishing earthquake deposits and the strategies used to acquire suitable samples and data for marine paleoseismology.

  15. Hybrid Intelligent Control for Submarine Stabilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minghui Wang


    Full Text Available Abstract While sailing near the sea surface, submarines will often undergo rolling motion caused by wave disturbance. Fierce rolling motion seriously affects their normal operation and even threatens their security. We propose a new control method for roll stabilization. This paper studies hybrid intelligent control combining a fuzzy control, a neural network and extension control technology. Every control strategy can achieve the ideal control effect within the scope of its effective control. The neuro-fuzzy control strategy is used to improve the robustness of the controller. The speed control strategy and the course control strategy are conducted to extend the control range. The paper also proposes the design of the controller and carries out the simulation experiment in different sea conditions. The simulation results show that the control method proposed can indeed effectively improve the control performance of submarine stabilization.

  16. Submarine Groundwater Discharge in the Coastal Zone (United States)

    Bakti, Hendra


    Indonesia is one of the archipelagic countries that has the longest coastline in the world. Because it is located in the tropics, in general it has a very high rainfall. Each island has a different morphology which is composed of a variety of rocks with different hydrogeological properties. This natural condition allows for the presence of groundwater in different amount in each island. The difference in groundwater hydraulics gradients in aquifer continuous to the sea has triggered the discharge of groundwater to offshore known as submarine groundwater discharge (SGD). Its presence can be as seepage or submarine springs with components derived from land and sea and a mixture between them. The understanding of SGD phenomenon is very important because it can be useful as a source of clean water in coastal areas, affecting marine health, and improving marine environment.

  17. Influence of Anchoring on Burial Depth of Submarine Pipelines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Zhuang

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of the twenty-first century, there has been widespread construction of submarine oil-gas transmission pipelines due to an increase in offshore oil exploration. Vessel anchoring operations are causing more damage to submarine pipelines due to shipping transportation also increasing. Therefore, it is essential that the influence of anchoring on the required burial depth of submarine pipelines is determined. In this paper, mathematical models for ordinary anchoring and emergency anchoring have been established to derive an anchor impact energy equation for each condition. The required effective burial depth for submarine pipelines has then been calculated via an energy absorption equation for the protection layer covering the submarine pipelines. Finally, the results of the model calculation have been verified by accident case analysis, and the impact of the anchoring height, anchoring water depth and the anchor weight on the required burial depth of submarine pipelines has been further analyzed.

  18. Influence of Anchoring on Burial Depth of Submarine Pipelines. (United States)

    Zhuang, Yuan; Li, Yang; Su, Wei


    Since the beginning of the twenty-first century, there has been widespread construction of submarine oil-gas transmission pipelines due to an increase in offshore oil exploration. Vessel anchoring operations are causing more damage to submarine pipelines due to shipping transportation also increasing. Therefore, it is essential that the influence of anchoring on the required burial depth of submarine pipelines is determined. In this paper, mathematical models for ordinary anchoring and emergency anchoring have been established to derive an anchor impact energy equation for each condition. The required effective burial depth for submarine pipelines has then been calculated via an energy absorption equation for the protection layer covering the submarine pipelines. Finally, the results of the model calculation have been verified by accident case analysis, and the impact of the anchoring height, anchoring water depth and the anchor weight on the required burial depth of submarine pipelines has been further analyzed.

  19. Magma displacements under insular volcanic fields, applications to eruption forecasting: El Hierro, Canary Islands, 2011-2013 (United States)

    García, A.; Fernández-Ros, A.; Berrocoso, M.; Marrero, J. M.; Prates, G.; De la Cruz-Reyna, S.; Ortiz, R.


    Significant deformations, followed by increased seismicity detected since 2011 July at El Hierro, Canary Islands, Spain, prompted the deployment of additional monitoring equipment. The climax of this unrest was a submarine eruption first detected on 2011 October 10, and located at about 2 km SW of La Restinga, southernmost village of El Hierro Island. The eruption ceased on 2012 March 5, after the volcanic tremor signals persistently weakened through 2012 February. However, the seismic activity did not end with the eruption, as several other seismic crises followed. The seismic episodes presented a characteristic pattern: over a few days the number and magnitude of seismic event increased persistently, culminating in seismic events severe enough to be felt all over the island. Those crises occurred in 2011 November, 2012 June and September, 2012 December to 2013 January and in 2013 March-April. In all cases the seismic unrest was preceded by significant deformations measured on the island's surface that continued during the whole episode. Analysis of the available GPS and seismic data suggests that several magma displacement processes occurred at depth from the beginning of the unrest. The first main magma movement or `injection' culminated with the 2011 October submarine eruption. A model combining the geometry of the magma injection process and the variations in seismic energy release has allowed successful forecasting of the new-vent opening.

  20. Response of the Black Sea methane budget to massive short-term submarine inputs of methane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmale, O.; Haeckel, M.; McGinnis, D. F.


    A steady state box model was developed to estimate the methane input into the Black Sea water column at various water depths. Our model results reveal a total input of methane of 4.7 Tg yr(-1). The model predicts that the input of methane is largest at water depths between 600 and 700 m (7......% of the total input), suggesting that the dissociation of methane gas hydrates at water depths equivalent to their upper stability limit may represent an important source of methane into the water column. In addition we discuss the effects of massive short-term methane inputs (e. g. through eruptions of deep......-water mud volcanoes or submarine landslides at intermediate water depths) on the water column methane distribution and the resulting methane emission to the atmosphere. Our non-steady state simulations predict that these inputs will be effectively buffered by intense microbial methane consumption...

  1. Tephra-Producing Eruptions of Holocene Age at Akutan Volcano, Alaska; Frequency, Magnitude, and Hazards (United States)

    Waythomas, C. F.; Wallace, K. L.; Schwaiger, H.


    Akutan Volcano in the eastern Aleutian Islands of Alaska is one of the most historically active volcanoes in the Aleutian arc (43 eruptions in about the past 250 years). Explosive eruptions pose major hazards to aircraft flying north Pacific air routes and to local infrastructure on Akutan and neighboring Unalaska Island. Air travel, infrastructure, and population in the region have steadily increased during the past several decades, and thus it is important to better understand the frequency, magnitude, and characteristics of tephra-producing eruptions. The most recent eruption was a VEI 2 event on March 8-May 21, 1992 that resulted in minor ash emissions and trace amounts of proximal fallout. Nearly continuous low-level emission of ash and steam is typical of historical eruptions, and most of the historical events have been similar in magnitude to the 1992 event. The most recent major eruption occurred about 1600 yr. B.P. and likely produced the ca. 2-km diameter summit caldera and inundated valleys that head on the volcano with pyroclastic-flow and lahar deposits that are tens of meters thick. The 1600 yr. B.P. eruption covered most of Akutan Island with up to 2.5 m of coarse scoriaceous tephra fall, including deposits 0.5-1 m thick near the City of Akutan. Tephra-fall deposits associated with this eruption exhibit a continuous sequence of black, fine to coarse scoriaceous lapilli overlain by a lithic-rich facies and finally a muddy aggregate-rich facies indicating water involvement during the latter stages of the eruption. Other tephra deposits of Holocene age on Akutan Island include more than a dozen discrete fine to coarse ash beds and 3-6 beds of scoriaceous, coarse lapilli tephra indicating that there have been several additional major eruptions (>VEI 3) of Akutan Volcano during the Holocene. Radiocarbon dates on these events are pending. In addition to tephra falls from Akutan, other fine ash deposits are found on the island that originated from other

  2. An overview of the 2009 eruption of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska (United States)

    Bull, Katharine F.; Buurman, Helena


    In March 2009, Redoubt Volcano, Alaska erupted for the first time since 1990. Explosions ejected plumes that disrupted international and domestic airspace, sent lahars more than 35 km down the Drift River to the coast, and resulted in tephra fall on communities over 100 km away. Geodetic data suggest that magma began to ascend slowly from deep in the crust and reached mid- to shallow-crustal levels as early as May, 2008. Heat flux at the volcano during the precursory phase melted ~ 4% of the Drift glacier atop Redoubt's summit. Petrologic data indicate the deeply sourced magma, low-silica andesite, temporarily arrested at 9-11 km and/or at 4-6 km depth, where it encountered and mixed with segregated stored high-silica andesite bodies. The two magma compositions mixed to form intermediate-silica andesite, and all three magma types erupted during the earliest 2009 events. Only intermediate- and high-silica andesites were produced throughout the explosive and effusive phases of the eruption. The explosive phase began with a phreatic explosion followed by a seismic swarm, which signaled the start of lava effusion on March 22, shortly prior to the first magmatic explosion early on March 23, 2009 (UTC). More than 19 explosions (or “Events”) were produced over 13 days from a single vent immediately south of the 1989-90 lava domes. During that period multiple small pyroclastic density currents flowed primarily to the north and into glacial ravines, three major lahars flooded the Drift River Terminal over 35 km down-river on the coast, tephra fall deposited on all aspects of the edifice and on several communities north and east of the volcano, and at least two, and possibly three lava domes were emplaced. Lightning accompanied almost all the explosions. A shift in the eruptive character took place following Event 9 on March 27 in terms of infrasound signal onsets, the character of repeating earthquakes, and the nature of tephra ejecta. More than nine additional

  3. Evidence for water influx from a caldera lake during the explosive hydromagmatic eruption of 1790, Kilauea volcano, Hawaii (United States)

    Mastin, L.G.


    In 1790 a major hydromagmatic eruption at the summit of Kilauea volcano, Hawaii, deposited up to 10 m of pyroclastic fall and surge deposits and killed several dozen Hawaiian natives who were crossing the island. Previous studies have hypothesized that the explosivity of this eruption was due to the influx of groundwater into the conduit and mixing of the groundwater with ascending magma. This study proposes that surface water, not groundwater, was the agent responsible for the explosiveness of the eruption. That is, a lake or pond may have existed in the caldera in 1790 and explosions may have taken place when magma ascended into the lake from below. That assertion is based on two lines of evidence: (1) high vesicularity (averaging 73% of more than 3000 lapilli) and high vesicle number density (105-107 cm-3 melt) of pumice clasts suggest that some phases of the eruption involved vigorous, sustained magma ascent; and (2) numerical calculations suggest that under most circumstances, hydrostatic pressure would not be sufficient to drive water into the eruptive conduit during vigorous magma ascent unless the water table were above the ground surface. These results are supported by historical data on the rate of infilling of the caldera floor during the early 1800s. When extrapolated back to 1790, they suggest that the caldera floor was below the water table.

  4. An Eruption on Io (United States)


    The first images returned to Earth by New Horizons during its close encounter with Jupiter feature the Galilean moon Io, snapped with the Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI) at 0840 UTC on February 26, while the moon was 2.5 million miles (4 million kilometers) from the spacecraft. Io is intensely heated by its tidal interaction with Jupiter and is thus extremely volcanically active. That activity is evident in these images, which reveal an enormous dust plume, more than 150 miles high, erupting from the volcano Tvashtar. The plume appears as an umbrella-shaped feature of the edge of Io's disk in the 11 o'clock position in the right image, which is a long-exposure (20-millisecond) frame designed specifically to look for plumes like this. The bright spots at 2 o'clock are high mountains catching the setting sun; beyond them the night side of Io can be seen, faintly illuminated by light reflected from Jupiter itself. The left image is a shorter exposure -- 3 milliseconds -- designed to look at surface features. In this frame, the Tvashtar volcano shows as a dark spot, also at 11 o'clock, surrounded by a large dark ring, where an area larger than Texas has been covered by fallout from the giant eruption. This is the clearest view yet of a plume from Tvashtar, one of Io's most active volcanoes. Ground-based telescopes and the Galileo Jupiter orbiter first spotted volcanic heat radiation from Tvashtar in November 1999, and the Cassini spacecraft saw a large plume when it flew past Jupiter in December 2000. The Keck telescope in Hawaii picked up renewed heat radiation from Tvashtar in spring 2006, and just two weeks ago the Hubble Space Telescope saw the Tvashtar plume in ultraviolet images designed to support the New Horizons flyby. Most of those images will be stored onboard the spacecraft for downlink to Earth in March and April.

  5. Submarine Landslides: What we Know and Where we are Going! (United States)

    Moscardelli, L. G.; Mountjoy, J. J.; Micallef, A.; Strasser, M.; Vanneste, M.; Chaytor, J. D.; Mosher, D.; Krastel, S.; Lo Iacono, C.; Yamada, Y.


    Submarine landslides and other gravity-induced movements can disrupt very large areas of continental margins resulting in long-term seafloor morphologic change and multi-scale mass transport deposits (MTDs). Potential consequences of submarine landslides include damage to seabed infrastructure, offshore facilities, as well as generation or enhancement of tsunamis. MTDs are common on the modern seafloor and within the stratigraphic record. Slides, slumps and debris flows can be constituents of MTDs and can co-occur in the same event or depositional unit. Recent research indicates that relationships exist between MTD geological setting, causal mechanisms, and geometries. Quantitative data analysis suggests that MTD morphometric parameters can be used to link these three parameters. Despite many advances in this field, it still remains unclear how to definitively identify pre-conditioning factors and triggers of submarine landslides in modern slopes, and how submarine landslides evolve after initiation. In addition, new questions regarding the interaction between submarine landslides and active marine processes, such as bottom currents and fluid flow, have emerged.One of the mandates of the S4SLIDE (IGCP-640) project, a joint endeavor of UNESCO and IGCP that represents the broad field of submarine landslide research, is to facilitate interactions at an international level among scientists, industry and government representatives to advance our knowledge on a number of outstanding science questions: (i) What is the nature of the interaction between current-controlled sedimentation and submarine landslides? (ii) What role do transient turbulent-laminar flows play in the formation of submarine landslides? (iii) Do climatic variations control the occurrence of submarine landslides? (iv) What is the economic significance of submarine landslides? (v) Do we understand the hazards that submarine landslides pose to the environment and to humans? This presentation will cover

  6. VICTORIA Class Submarine Human-in-the-Loop Experimentation Plan (United States)


    1472G. VICTORIA Class Submarine Human-in-the-Loop Experimentation Plan and Preliminary Results © Her Majesty the Queen in Right of...19 th International Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium Title: VICTORIA Class Submarine Human-in-the-Loop...TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE VICTORIA Class Submarine Human-in-the-Loop Experimentation Plan 5a. CONTRACT

  7. Ilchulbong tuff cone, Jeju Island, Korea, revisited: A compound monogenetic volcano involving multiple magma batches, shifting vents, and discrete eruptive phases (United States)

    Sohn, Y.; Brenna, M.; Smith, I. E.; Nemeth, K.; White, J. D.; Murtagh, R.; Jeon, Y.; Kwon, C.; Cronin, S. J.


    Ilchulbong (Sunrise Peak) tuff cone is a UNESCO World Heritage site that owes its scientific importance to the outstanding coastal exposures that surround it. It is also one of the classic sites that provided the sedimentary evidence for the primary pyroclastic processes that occur during phreatomagmatic basaltic eruptions. It has been long considered, based on the cone morphology, that this classic cone was produced via eruption from a single vent site. Reanalysis of the detailed sedimentary sequence has now revealed that two subtle paraconformities occur in this deposition sequence, one representing a significant time break of perhaps days to weeks or months, during which erosion and compaction of the lower cone occurred, the conduit cooled and solidified and a subsequent resumption of eruption took place in a new vent location. Detailed geochemical study of the juvenile clasts through this cone reveals that three separate alkali basaltic magma batches were erupted, the first and third erupted may be genetically related, with the latter showing evidence for longer periods of shallow-level fractionation. The second magma batch erupted was generated in a different mantle source area. Reconstructing the eruption sequence, the lower Ilchulbong cone was formed by eruption of magma 1. Cessation of eruption was accompanied by erosion to generate a volcano-wide unconformity, associated with reworked deposits in the lower cone flanks. The eruption resumed with magma 2 that, due to the cooled earlier conduit, was forced to erupt in a new site to the west of the initial vent. This formed the middle cone sequence over the initially formed structure. The third magma batch erupted with little or no interval after magma 2 from the same vent location, associated with cone instability and slumping, and making up the deposits of the upper cone. These results demonstrate how critical the examination for sedimentary evidence for time breaks in such eruption sequences is for

  8. The initial giant umbrella cloud of the May 18th, 1980, explosive eruption of Mount St. Helens (United States)

    Sparks, R.S.J.; Moore, J.G.; Rice, C.J.


    The initial eruption column of May 18th, 1980 reached nearly 30 km altitude and released 1017 joules of thermal energy into the atmosphere in only a few minutes. Ascent of the cloud resulted in forced intrusion of a giant umbrella-shaped cloud between altitudes of 10 and 20 km at radial horizontal velocities initially in excess of 50 m/s. The mushroom cloud expanded 15 km upwind, forming a stagnation point where the radial expansion velocity and wind velocity were equal. The cloud was initiated when the pyroclastic blast flow became buoyant. The flow reduced its density as it moved away from the volcano by decompression, by sedimentation, and by mixing with and heating the surrounding air. Observations indicate that much of the flow, covering an area of 600 km2, became buoyant within 1.5 minutes and abruptly ascended to form the giant cloud. Calculations are presented for the amount of air that must have been entrained into the flow to make it buoyant. Assuming an initial temperature of 450??C and a magmatic origin for the explosion, these calculations indicate that the flow became buoyant when its temperature was approximately 150??C and the flow consisted of a mixture of 3.25 ?? 1011 kg of pyroclasts and 5.0 ?? 1011 kg of air. If sedimentation is considered, these figures reduce to 1.1 ?? 1011 kg of pyroclasts and 1.0 ?? 1011 kg of air. ?? 1986.

  9. Significant discharge of CO2 from hydrothermalism associated with the submarine volcano of El Hierro Island (United States)

    Santana-Casiano, J. M.; Fraile-Nuez, E.; González-Dávila, M.; Baker, E. T.; Resing, J. A.; Walker, S. L.


    The residual hydrothermalism associated with submarine volcanoes, following an eruption event, plays an important role in the supply of CO2 to the ocean. The emitted CO2 increases the acidity of seawater. The submarine volcano of El Hierro, in its degasification stage, provided an excellent opportunity to study the effect of volcanic CO2 on the seawater carbonate system, the global carbon flux, and local ocean acidification. A detailed survey of the volcanic edifice was carried out using seven CTD-pH-ORP tow-yo studies, localizing the redox and acidic changes, which were used to obtain surface maps of anomalies. In order to investigate the temporal variability of the system, two CTD-pH-ORP yo-yo studies were conducted that included discrete sampling for carbonate system parameters. Meridional tow-yos were used to calculate the amount of volcanic CO2 added to the water column for each surveyed section. The inputs of CO2 along multiple sections combined with measurements of oceanic currents produced an estimated volcanic CO2 flux = 6.0 105 ± 1.1 105 kg d-1 which is ~0.1% of global volcanic CO2 flux. Finally, the CO2 emitted by El Hierro increases the acidity above the volcano by ~20%.

  10. Exercise Aboard Attack Submarines: Rationale and New Options

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Watenpaugh, Donald


    .... However, most submariners do not exercise during deployment for a variety of reasons, including lack of space, time limitations, equipment limitations, lack of entertainment or recreational value...

  11. The human factor in the operation of nuclear powered submarines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dambier, M.


    The conditions characterizing the operation of nuclear powered submarines are described and the precautionary measures suitable to reduce the incidence of human errors and their consequences are explained

  12. Merging field mapping and numerical simulation to interpret the lithofacies variations from unsteady pyroclastic density currents on uneven terrain: The case of La Fossa di Vulcano (Aeolian Islands, Italy) (United States)

    Doronzo, Domenico M.; Dellino, Pierfrancesco; Sulpizio, Roberto; Lucchi, Federico


    In order to obtain results from computer simulations of explosive volcanic eruptions, one either needs a statistical approach to test a wide range of initial and boundary conditions, or needs using a well-constrained field case study via stratigraphy. Here we followed the second approach, using data obtained from field mapping of the Grotta dei Palizzi 2 pyroclastic deposits (Vulcano Island, Italy) as input for numerical modeling. This case study deals with impulsive phreatomagmatic explosions of La Fossa Cone that generated ash-rich pyroclastic density currents, interacting with the topographic high of the La Fossa Caldera rim. One of the simplifications in dealing with well-sorted ash (one particle size in the model) is to highlight the topographic effects on the same pyroclastic material in an unsteady current. We demonstrate that by merging field data with 3D numerical simulation results it is possible to see key details of the dynamical current-terrain interaction, and to interpret the lithofacies variations of the associated deposits as a function of topography-induced sedimentation (settling) rate. Results suggest that a value of the sedimentation rate lower than 5 kg/m2 s at the bed load can still be sheared by the overlying current, producing tractional structures (laminae) in the deposits. Instead, a sedimentation rate higher than that threshold can preclude the formation of tractional structures, producing thicker massive deposits. We think that the approach used in this study could be applied to other case studies (both for active and ancient volcanoes) to confirm or refine such threshold value of the sedimentation rate, which is to be considered as an upper value as for the limitations of the numerical model.

  13. The 2010 explosive eruption of Java's Merapi volcano—A ‘100-year’ event (United States)

    Surono,; Jousset, Philippe; Pallister, John S.; Boichu, Marie; Buongiorno, M. Fabrizia; Budisantoso, Agus; Costa, Fidel; Andreastuti, Supriyati; Prata, Fred; Schneider, David; Clarisse, Lieven; Humaida, Hanik; Sumarti, Sri; Bignami, Christian; Griswold, Julia P.; Carn, Simon A.; Oppenheimer, Clive; Lavigne, Franck


    Merapi volcano (Indonesia) is one of the most active and hazardous volcanoes in the world. It is known for frequent small to moderate eruptions, pyroclastic flows produced by lava dome collapse, and the large population settled on and around the flanks of the volcano that is at risk. Its usual behavior for the last decades abruptly changed in late October and early November 2010, when the volcano produced its largest and most explosive eruptions in more than a century, displacing at least a third of a million people, and claiming nearly 400 lives. Despite the challenges involved in forecasting this ‘hundred year eruption’, we show that the magnitude of precursory signals (seismicity, ground deformation, gas emissions) was proportional to the large size and intensity of the eruption. In addition and for the first time, near-real-time satellite radar imagery played an equal role with seismic, geodetic, and gas observations in monitoring eruptive activity during a major volcanic crisis. The Indonesian Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (CVGHM) issued timely forecasts of the magnitude of the eruption phases, saving 10,000–20,000 lives. In addition to reporting on aspects of the crisis management, we report the first synthesis of scientific observations of the eruption. Our monitoring and petrologic data show that the 2010 eruption was fed by rapid ascent of magma from depths ranging from 5 to 30 km. Magma reached the surface with variable gas content resulting in alternating explosive and rapid effusive eruptions, and released a total of ~ 0.44 Tg of SO2. The eruptive behavior seems also related to the seismicity along a tectonic fault more than 40 km from the volcano, highlighting both the complex stress pattern of the Merapi region of Java and the role of magmatic pressurization in activating regional faults. We suggest a dynamic triggering of the main explosions on 3 and 4 November by the passing seismic waves generated by regional

  14. Meta-Analysis of Data from the Submarine Ventilation Doctrine Test Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hoover, J


    .... The Submarine Ventilation Doctrine Test Program was developed to address submarine-specific issues regarding the use of ventilation systems to control smoke and heat movement, maintain habitability...

  15. 3D imaging of vesicles in hyaloclastic fragments - clues to syn-eruptive shear conditions (United States)

    Helo, C.; Flaws, A.; Hess, K.; Franz, A.; Clague, D. A.; Dingwell, D. B.


    3D imaging of stretched vesicles in hyaloclastic fragments has been used to investigate the shear environment of mild pyroclastic eruptions at mid-ocean ridges. X-ray computed tomography offers an attractive non-invasive method to investigate geomaterials at a high resolution for the geometry of the different phases. In this study, we have imaged vesicles within two types of basaltic glass fragments. Stretched, ellipsoid-shaped vesicles in thin limu o Pele and tubular vesicles in a pumiceous fragment. Both types originate from pyroclastic activity on Axial Seamount, Juan de Fuca ridge. Rapid quenching of the glass has prevented extensive bubble relaxation and information about syn-eruptive shear and differential stress conditions is stored, as the dimensions of a stretched bubble directly relates to the extent and mode of shearing. The X-ray tomography data was processed using a set of codes based on edge detection and ellipsoid fitting to acquire quantitative information on the shape of the stretched vesicles. Preliminary results demonstrate, that the geometry of the stretched vesicles, e.g., the elongation of the vesicle with respect to the calculated undeformed radius, is in accordance with simple shear scenarios. Stored differential stress ranges from 5 kPa to 90 kPa with shear rates between 3.2x102 s-1 and 5.7x3 s-1 within a single limu o Pele fragment. This range may be explained by either variable time available for relaxation as the cooling front proceeds through the fragment, complex interplay in space and time between fragmentation and quenching, bubble clusters mutually inhibiting each others extend of deformation, or any combination of these. Bubble relaxation time scales are less then 0.005 s providing constraints on the timeframe for cooling to the glass transition. Qualitative analyses of the tube pumice indicates that the tubular structures grow in length by coalescence of vertically aligned ellipsoid-shaped vesicles, and in width by coalescence of

  16. Phreatomagmatic eruptions through unconsolidated coastal plain sequences, Maungataketake, Auckland Volcanic Field (New Zealand) (United States)

    Agustín-Flores, Javier; Németh, Károly; Cronin, Shane J.; Lindsay, Jan M.; Kereszturi, Gábor; Brand, Brittany D.; Smith, Ian E. M.


    Maungataketake is a monogenetic basaltic volcano formed at ~ 85-89 ka in the southern part of the Auckland Volcanic Field (AVF), New Zealand. It comprises a basal 1100-m diameter tuff ring, with a central scoria/spatter cone and lava flows. The tuff ring was formed under hydrogeological and geographic conditions very similar to the present. The tuff records numerous density stratified, wet base surges that radiated outward up to 1 km, decelerating rapidly and becoming less turbulent with distance. The pyroclastic units dominantly comprise fine-grained expelled grains from various sedimentary deposits beneath the volcano mixed with a minor component of juvenile pyroclasts (~ 35 vol.%). Subtle lateral changes relate to deceleration with distance and vertical transformations are minor, pointing to stable explosion depths and conditions, with gradual transitions between units and no evidence for eruptive pauses. This volcano formed within and on ~ 60 m-thick Plio/Pleistocene, poorly consolidated, highly permeable shelly sands and silts (Kaawa Formation) capped by near-impermeable, water-saturated muds (Tauranga Group). These sediments rest on moderately consolidated Miocene-aged permeable turbiditic sandstones and siltstones (Waitemata Group). Magma-water fuelled thermohydraulic explosions remained in the shallow sedimentary layers, excavating fine-grained sediments without brittle fragmentation required. On the whole, the resulting cool, wet pyroclastic density currents were of low energy. The unconsolidated shallow sediments deformed to accommodate rapidly rising magma, leading to development of complex sill-like bodies and a range of magma-water contact conditions at any time. The weak saturated sediments were also readily liquefied to provide an enduring supply of water and fine sediment to the explosion loci. Changes in magma flux and/or subsequent stabilisation of the conduit area by a lava ring-barrier led to ensuing Strombolian and fire-fountaining eruption

  17. Multifractal investigation of continuous seismic signal recorded at El Hierro volcano (Canary Islands) during the 2011-2012 pre- and eruptive phases (United States)

    Telesca, Luciano; Lovallo, Michele; Martì Molist, Joan; López Moreno, Carmen; Abella Meléndez, Rafael


    The Multifractal Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (MF-DFA) is an effective method that allows detecting multifractality in non-stationary signals. We applied the MF-DFA to the continuous seismic signal recorded at El Hierro volcano (Canary Islands), which was affected by a submarine monogenetic eruption in October 2011. We investigated the multifractal properties of the continuous seismic signal before the onset of the eruption and after. We analysed three frames of the signal, one measured before the onset of eruption that occurred on October 10, 2011; and two after, but corresponding to two distinct eruptive episodes, the second one started on November 22, 2011 and lasting until late February 2012. The results obtained show a striking difference in the width of the multifractal spectrum, which is generally used to quantify the multifractal degree of a signal: the multifractal spectra of the signal frames recorded during the eruptive episodes are almost identical and much narrower than that of the signal frame measured before the onset of the eruption. Such difference indicates that the seismic signal recorded during the unrest reflects mostly the fracturing of the host rock under the overpressure exerted by the intruding magma, while that corresponding to the eruptive phases was mostly influenced by the flow of magma through the plumbing system, even some fracturing remains, not being possible to distinguish among the two eruptive episodes in terms of rock fracture mechanics.

  18. 10,000 Years of explosive eruptions of Merapi Volcano, Central Java: archaeological and modern implications (United States)

    Newhall, C.G.; Bronto, S.; Alloway, B.; Banks, N.G.; Bahar, I.; Del Marmol, M.A.; Hadisantono, R.D.; Holcomb, R.T.; McGeehin, J.; Miksic, J.N.; Rubin, M.; Sayudi, S.D.; Sukhyar, R.; Andreastuti, Supriyati; Tilling, R.I.; Torley, R.; Trimble, D.; Wirakusumah, A.D.


    Stratigraphy and radiocarbon dating of pyroclastic deposits at Merapi Volcano, Central Java, reveals ~10,000 years of explosive eruptions. Highlights include: (1) Construction of an Old Merapi stratovolcano to the height of the present cone or slightly higher. Our oldest age for an explosive eruption is 9630±60 14C y B.P.; construction of Old Merapi certainly began earlier. (2) Collapse(s) of Old Merapi that left a somma rim high on its eastern slope and sent one or more debris avalanche(s) down its southern and western flanks. Impoundment of Kali Progo to form an early Lake Borobudur at ~3400 14C y B.P. hints at a possible early collapse of Merapi. The latest somma-forming collapse occurred ~1900 14C y B.P. The current cone, New Merapi, began to grow soon thereafter. (3) Several large and many small Buddhist and Hindu temples were constructed in Central Java between 732 and ~900 A.D. (roughly, 1400-1000 14C y B.P.). Explosive Merapi eruptions occurred before, during and after temple construction. Some temples were destroyed and (or) buried soon after their construction, and we suspect that this destruction contributed to an abrupt shift of power and organized society to East Java in 928 A.D. Other temples sites, though, were occupied by "caretakers" for several centuries longer. (4) A partial collapse of New Merapi occurred 14C y B.P. Eruptions ~700-800 14C y B.P. (12-14th century A.D.) deposited ash on the floors of (still-occupied?) Candi Sambisari and Candi Kedulan. We speculate but cannot prove that these eruptions were triggered by (the same?) partial collapse of New Merapi, and that the eruptions, in turn, ended "caretaker" occupation at Candi Sambisari and Candi Kedulan. A new or raised Lake Borobudur also existed during part or all of the 12-14th centuries, probably impounded by deposits from Merapi. (5) Relatively benign lava-dome extrusion and dome-collapse pyroclastic flows have dominated activity of the 20th century, but explosive eruptions much

  19. Dynamics of an unusual cone-building trachyte eruption at Pu`u Wa`awa`a, Hualālai volcano, Hawai`i (United States)

    Shea, Thomas; Leonhardi, Tanis; Giachetti, Thomas; Lindoo, Amanda; Larsen, Jessica; Sinton, John; Parsons, Elliott


    The Pu`u Wa`awa`a pyroclastic cone and Pu`u Anahulu lava flow are two prominent monogenetic eruptive features assumed to result from a single eruption during the trachyte-dominated early post-shield stage of Hualālai volcano (Hawaíi). Púu Wa`awa`a is composed of complex repetitions of crudely cross-stratified units rich in dark dense clasts, which reversely grade into coarser pumice-rich units. Pyroclasts from the cone are extremely diverse texturally, ranging from glassy obsidian to vesicular scoria or pumice, in addition to fully crystalline end-members. The >100-m thick Pu`u Anahulu flow is, in contrast, entirely holocrystalline. Using field observations coupled with whole rock analyses, this study aimed to test whether the Pu`u Wa`awa`a tephra and Pu`u Anahulu lava flows originated from the same eruption, as had been previously assumed. Crystal and vesicle textures are characterized along with the volatile contents of interstitial glasses to determine the origin of textural variability within Pu`u Wáawáa trachytes (e.g., magma mixing vs. degassing origin). We find that (1) the two eruptions likely originated from distinct vents and magma reservoirs, despite their proximity and similar age, (2) the textural diversity of pyroclasts forming Pu`u Wa`awa`a can be fully explained by variable magma degassing and outgassing within the conduit, (3) the Pu`u Wa`awa`a cone was constructed during explosions transitional in style between violent Strombolian and Vulcanian, involving the formation of a large cone and with repeated disruption of conduit plugs, but without production of large pyroclastic density currents (PDCs), and (4) the contrasting eruption styles of Hawaiian trachytes (flow-, cone-, and PDC-forming) are probably related to differences in the outgassing capacity of the magmas prior to reaching the surface and not in intrinsic compositional or temperature properties. These results further highlight that trachytes are "kinetically faster" magmas compared

  20. Historical Significant Volcanic Eruption Locations (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — A significant eruption is classified as one that meets at least one of the following criteriacaused fatalities, caused moderate damage (approximately $1 million or...

  1. Ash turbidites from Southern Italy help understanding the parent eruptions and contributing to geodynamic evolution cadre of the Tyrrhenian sea (United States)

    Doronzo, Domenico Maria


    Tephra layers intercalated in sedimentary successions are very interesting since they represent some instants of geodynamic evolution in a sedimentation basin. Furthermore, they can constitute deposits of explosive eruptions whose distal behaviour can be useful for studying the volcanoes activity, especially when pyroclastic deposits in proximal areas are absent. In the Craco area (Matera, Italy), thick ash turbidites intercalated in marine clays deposits have been recently recognized, which interest is related to the considerable cropping out thickness (1 to 5 m), freshness of the material and absence of sedimentary component. Petrography, sedimentology and chemistry of the deposits have been characterized with the aim of defining genesis and deposition of the material. The deposits are essentially made up of ashy pyroclasts, dominated by fresh acidic to intermediate glass, mostly in the form of shards, pumice fragments and groundmass fragments with vitrophyric texture. Rare crystals include Pl, Opx, Cpx, Hbl and Bt. 40Ar/39Ar geochronology on the amphibole dated one level to 2.24 ± 0.06 Ma, indicating the Late Pliocene. The grain size (fine ash) and textural features of the deposits are typical of pyroclastic fall deposits related to explosive eruptions with consequent upward projection of the fragmented material through Plinian columms. The columns turned eastward because of stratospheric winds and the material fell in a marine environment. It deposited on the slope of Pliocene basins in the frontal sector of the Southern Apennine chain. Structural features are the following: fining-upward gradation of the deposits with cross- and convolute laminations at the base and fine-grained massive beds at the top. They suggest that the primary pyroclastic fall deposits were mobilized as volcaniclastic turbidity currents towards a deeper environment. Glass and crystal compositions were investigated by SEM/EDS analysis. Petrographycal and chemical compositions of the

  2. Assessing Eruption Column Height in Ancient Flood Basalt Eruptions (United States)

    Glaze, Lori S.; Self, Stephen; Schmidt, Anja; Hunter, Stephen J.


    A buoyant plume model is used to explore the ability of flood basalt eruptions to inject climate-relevant gases into the stratosphere. An example from the 1986 Izu-Oshima basaltic fissure eruption validates the model's ability to reproduce the observed maximum plume heights of 12-16 km above sea level, sustained above fire-fountains. The model predicts maximum plume heights of 13-17 km for source widths of between 4-16 m when 32% (by mass) of the erupted magma is fragmented and involved in the buoyant plume (effective volatile content of 6 wt%). Assuming that the Miocene-age Roza eruption (part of the Columbia River Basalt Group) sustained fire-fountains of similar height to Izu-Oshima (1.6 km above the vent), we show that the Roza eruption could have sustained buoyant ash and gas plumes that extended into the stratosphere at approximately 45 deg N. Assuming 5 km long active fissure segments and 9000 Mt of SO2 released during explosive phases over a 10-15 year duration, the approximately 180 km of known Roza fissure length could have supported approximately 36 explosive events/phases, each with a duration of 3-4 days. Each 5 km fissure segment could have emitted 62 Mt of SO2 per day into the stratosphere while actively fountaining, the equivalent of about three 1991 Mount Pinatubo eruptions per day. Each fissure segment could have had one to several vents, which subsequently produced lava without significant fountaining for a longer period within the decades-long eruption. Sensitivity of plume rise height to ancient atmospheric conditions is explored. Although eruptions in the Deccan Traps (approximately 66 Ma) may have generated buoyant plumes that rose to altitudes in excess of 18 km, they may not have reached the stratosphere because the tropopause was substantially higher in the late Cretaceous. Our results indicate that some flood basalt eruptions, such as Roza, were capable of repeatedly injecting large masses of SO2 into the stratosphere. Thus sustained

  3. Volcanic eruption plumes on Io

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strom, R.G.; Terrile, R.J.; Masursky, H.; Hansen, C.


    The detection of an umbrella-shaped plume extending about 280 km above the bright limb of Io was one of the most important discoveries made during the Voyager 1 encounter with the jovian system. This discovery proves that Io is volcanically active at present, and the number and magnitude of these eruptions indicate that Io is the most volcanically active body so far discovered in the Solar System. Preliminary analyses of these eruptive plumes are presented. (U.K.)

  4. Kulanaokuaiki Tephra (ca, A.D. 400-1000): Newly recognized evidence for highly explosive eruptions at Kilauea Volcano, Hawai'i (United States)

    Fiske, R.S.; Rose, T.R.; Swanson, D.A.; Champion, D.E.; McGeehin, J.P.


    K??lauea may be one of the world's most intensively monitored volcanoes, but its eruptive history over the past several thousand years remains rather poorly known. Our study has revealed the vestiges of thin basaltic tephra deposits, overlooked by previous workers, that originally blanketed wide, near-summit areas and extended more than 17 km to the south coast of Hawai'i. These deposits, correlative with parts of tephra units at the summit and at sites farther north and northwest, show that K??lauea, commonly regarded as a gentle volcano, was the site of energetic pyroclastic eruptions and indicate the volcano is significantly more hazardous than previously realized. Seventeen new calibrated accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon ages suggest these deposits, here named the Kulanaokuaiki Tephra, were emplaced ca. A.D. 400-1000, a time of no previously known pyroclastic activity at the volcano. Tephra correlations are based chiefly on a marker unit that contains unusually high values of TiO2 and K2O and on paleomagnetic signatures of associated lava flows, which show that the Kulanaokuaiki deposits are the time-stratigraphic equivalent of the upper part of a newly exhumed section of the Uw??kahuna Ash in the volcano's northwest caldera wall. This section, thought to have been permanently buried by rockfalls in 1983, is thicker and more complete than the previously accepted type Uw??kahuna at the base of the caldera wall. Collectively, these findings justify the elevation of the Uw??kahuna Ash to formation status; the newly recognized Kulanaokuaiki Tephra to the south, the chief focus of this study, is defined as a member of the Uw??kahuna Ash. The Kulanaokuaiki Tephra is the product of energetic pyroclastic falls; no surge- or pyroclastic-flow deposits were identified with certainty, despite recent interpretations that Uw??kahuna surges extended 10-20 km from K??lauea's summit. ?? 2009 Geological Society of America.

  5. Premature dental eruption: report of case.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNamara, C M


    This case report reviews the variability of dental eruption and the possible sequelae. Dental eruption of the permanent teeth in cleft palate children may be variable, with delayed eruption the most common phenomenon. A case of premature dental eruption of a maxillary left first premolar is demonstrated, however, in a five-year-old male. This localized premature dental eruption anomaly was attributed to early extraction of the primary dentition, due to caries.

  6. Geochemistry and volatile content of magmas feeding explosive eruptions at Telica volcano (Nicaragua) (United States)

    Robidoux, P.; Rotolo, S. G.; Aiuppa, A.; Lanzo, G.; Hauri, E. H.


    Telica volcano, in north-west Nicaragua, is a young stratovolcano of intermediate magma composition producing frequent Vulcanian to phreatic explosive eruptions. The Telica stratigraphic record also includes examples of (pre)historic sub-Plinian activity. To refine our knowledge of this very active volcano, we analyzed major element composition and volatile content of melt inclusions from some stratigraphically significant Telica tephra deposits. These include: (1) the Scoria Telica Superior (STS) deposit (2000 to 200 years Before Present; Volcanic Explosive Index, VEI, of 2-3) and (2) pyroclasts from the post-1970s eruptive cycle (1982; 2011). Based on measurements with nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry, olivine-hosted (forsterite [Fo] > 80) glass inclusions fall into 2 distinct clusters: a group of H2O-rich (1.8-5.2 wt%) inclusions, similar to those of nearby Cerro Negro volcano, and a second group of CO2-rich (360-1700 μg/g CO2) inclusions (Nejapa, Granada). Model calculations show that CO2 dominates the equilibrium magmatic vapor phase in the majority of the primitive inclusions (XCO2 > 0.62-0.95). CO2, sulfur (generally 400 MPa) and early crystallization of magmas. Chlorine exhibits a wide concentration range (400-2300 μg/g) in primitive olivine-entrapped melts (likely suggesting variable source heterogeneity) and is typically enriched in the most differentiated melts (1000-3000 μg/g). Primitive, volatile-rich olivine-hosted melt inclusions (entrapment pressures, 5-15 km depth) are exclusively found in the largest-scale Telica eruptions (exemplified by STS in our study). These eruptions are thus tentatively explained as due to injection of deep CO2-rich mafic magma into the shallow crustal plumbing system. More recent (post-1970), milder (VEI 1-2) eruptions, instead, do only exhibit evidence for low-pressure (P viscosity of resident magma in shallow plumbing system (< 2.4 km), due to crystallization and degassing.

  7. Rain-triggered lahars following the 2010 eruption of Merapi volcano, Indonesia: A major risk (United States)

    de Bélizal, Edouard; Lavigne, Franck; Hadmoko, Danang Sri; Degeai, Jean-Philippe; Dipayana, Gilang Aria; Mutaqin, Bachtiar Wahyu; Marfai, Muh Aris; Coquet, Marie; Mauff, Baptiste Le; Robin, Anne-Kyria; Vidal, Céline; Cholik, Noer; Aisyah, Nurnaning


    The 2010 VEI 4 eruption of Merapi volcano deposited roughly ten times the volume of pyroclastic materials of the 1994 and 2006 eruptions, and is recognized as one of the most intense eruption since 1872. However, as the eruptive phase is now over, another threat endangers local communities: rain-triggered lahars. Previous papers on lahars at Merapi presented lahar-related risk following small-scale dome-collapse PDCs. Thus the aim of this study is to provide new insights on lahar-related risk following a large scale VEI 4 eruption. The paper highlights the high number of events (240) during the 2010-2011 rainy season (October 2010-May 2011). The frequency of the 2010-2011 lahars is also the most important ever recorded at Merapi. Lahars occurred in almost all drainages located under the active cone, with runout distances exceeding 15 km. The geomorphic impacts of lahars on the distal slope of the volcano are then explained as they directly threaten houses and infrastructures: creation of large corridors, avulsions, riverbank erosion and riverbed downcutting are detailed through local scale examples. Related damage is also studied: 860 houses damaged, 14 sabo-dams and 21 bridges destroyed. Sedimentological characteristics of volcaniclastic sediments in lahar corridors are presented, with emphasis on the resource in building material that they represent for local communities. Risk studies should not forget that thousands of people are exposing themselves to lahar hazard when they quarry volcaniclastic sediment on lahar corridors. Finally, the efficient community-based crisis management is explained, and shows how local people organize themselves to manage the risk: 3 fatalities were reported, although lahars reached densely populated areas. To summarize, this study provides an update of lahar risk issues at Merapi, with emphasis on the distal slope of the volcano where lahars had not occurred for 40 years, and where lahar corridors were rapidly formed.

  8. Geological Evidences for a Large Tsunami Generated by the 7.3 ka Kikai Caldera Eruption, Southern Japan (United States)

    Yamada, M.; Fujino, S.; Satake, K.


    The 7.3 ka eruption of Kikai volcano, southern Kyushu, Japan, is one of the largest caldera-forming eruption in the world. Given that a huge caldera was formed in shallow sea area during the eruption, a tsunami must have been generated by a sea-level change associated. Pyroclastic flow and tsunami deposits by the eruption have been studied around the caldera, but they are not enough to evaluate the tsunami size. The goal of this study is to unravel sizes of tsunami and triggering caldera collapse by numerical simulations based on a widely-distributed tsunami deposit associated with the eruption. In this presentation, we will provide an initial data on distribution of the 7.3 ka tsunami deposit contained in sediment cores taken at three coastal lowlands in Wakayama, Tokushima, and Oita prefectures (560 km, 520 km, and 310 km north-east from the caldera, respectively). A volcanic ash from the eruption (Kikai Akahoya tephra: K-Ah) is evident in organic-rich muddy sedimentary sequence in all sediment cores. Up to 6-cm-thick sand layer, characterized by a grading structure and sharp bed boundary with lower mud, is observed immediately beneath the K-Ah tephra in all study sites. These sedimentary characteristics and broad distribution indicate that the sand layer was most likely deposited by a tsunami which can propagate to a wide area, but not by a local storm surge. Furthermore, the stratigraphic relationship implies that the study sites must have been inundated by the tsunami prior to the ash fall. A sand layer is also evident within the K-Ah tephra layer, suggesting that the sand layer was probably formed by a subsequent tsunami wave during the ash fall. These geological evidences for the 7.3 ka tsunami inundation will contribute to a better understanding of the caldera collapse and the resultant tsunami, but also of the tsunami generating system in the eruptive process.

  9. Nature Interrupted: Affect and Ecology in the Wake of Volcanic Eruption in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric J Cunningham


    Full Text Available On September 27, 2014 Ontake-san, a volcano in the highlands of central Japan, unexpectedly erupted sending a plume of ash and rock miles into the atmosphere. Lodge and shrine structures were heavily damaged and more than 60 climbers lost their lives as a pyroclastic flow engulfed the mountain's summit. Humans have long dwelled on and around Ontake-san, maintaining their livelihoods through farming, gathering, and hunting. The mountain has also been the focus of religious devotion and spiritual training for hundreds of years, and spiritual practitioners still visit the mountain regularly. However, in the modern era, Ontake-san and its surrounding environment has also been a site of resource development and exploitation, including industrial forestry, dam building, and tourist recreation. Thus, the mountain occupies, and its eruption occurred within, a landscape of contested meanings and values embodied by various entities and materially inscribed through their actions and interactions. In this article I employ an affective ecology framework to consider Ontake-san's eruption as an interruptive 'destabilizing moment' within which new trajectories and life projects may emerge. I argue that the affective qualities of local life projects present challenges to dominant modes of conservation, resource development, and capital accumulation.

  10. The role of residual (undegassed) and environmental waters in pyroclastic volcanic glass in nature and experiments (Invited) (United States)

    Bindeman, I. N.; Seligman, A. N.; Nolan, G. S.; Lundstrom, C.; Martin, E.; Lowenstern, J. B.; Palandri, J. L.


    The advent and calibration of the Thermal Combustion Element Analyzer (TCEA) continuous flow system coupled with the large-radius mass spectrometer, at the University of Oregon, permits precise (×0.02 wt.% H2O, ×1-3‰ D/H) measurements in 1-10 mg of volcanic glass (0.1 wt.% H2O requires ~10 mg glass). This is a 10-100 time reduction in sample size over previous methods, which permits the targeting of small amounts of the freshest concentrate. In combination with the FTIR, we use the TCEA to research problems involving the mechanisms and timescales of volcanic ash hydration on both natural and laboratory timescales using isotopically-labeled water, D/H-H2O pathways of volcanic degassing, water content and D/H in recently erupted volcanic ash, and the mechanisms of tephra-hydration by isotopically-distinct rain and glacial meltwaters. The talk will review new results: 1) Water content determined by FTIR (OH and H2O) and TCEA give excellent correspondence for basaltic and rhyolitic glasses, including FTIR measurements for irregular ash particles mixed in equal proportion with KBr and molded into pellets. 2) Nominally-anhydrous (hydrated ash (4 wt.% water) leads to neglegeable δD exchange, signifying nearly zero-fractionation upon loss of predominantly H2Omol water. 5) Glacial vs. intergacial water can be recognized in hydrated glasses. 6) Subaqueous perlites from Yellowstone have an onion-skin distribution of water with water-poor cores, as determined by the scanning FTIR technique. 7) Thermal diffusion experiments achieve up to a 144‰ range in δD across a 300-600°C temperature change; this has implications for explaining natural variations in δD in high temperature environments due to high diffusivity of hydrogen. 8) We report results of δ18O in extracted water in glass and discuss isotopic offsets due to incomplete oxygen extraction from OH groups. 9) We apply these methods to submarine glasses, and degassing tephra products of the same eruption.

  11. Explosive dome eruptions modulated by periodic gas-driven inflation (United States)

    Johnson, Jeffrey B.; Lyons, John; Andrews, B. J.; Lees, J.M.


    Volcan Santiaguito (Guatemala) “breathes” with extraordinary regularity as the edifice's conduit system accumulates free gas, which periodically vents to the atmosphere. Periodic pressurization controls explosion timing, which nearly always occurs at peak inflation, as detected with tiltmeters. Tilt cycles in January 2012 reveal regular 26 ± 6 min inflation/deflation cycles corresponding to at least ~101 kg/s of gas fluxing the system. Very long period (VLP) earthquakes presage explosions and occur during cycles when inflation rates are most rapid. VLPs locate ~300 m below the vent and indicate mobilization of volatiles, which ascend at ~50 m/s. Rapid gas ascent feeds pyroclast-laden eruptions lasting several minutes and rising to ~1 km. VLPs are not observed during less rapid inflation episodes; instead, gas vents passively through the conduit producing no infrasound and no explosion. These observations intimate that steady gas exsolution and accumulation in shallow reservoirs may drive inflation cycles at open-vent silicic volcanoes.

  12. Displaying Uncertainty: A Comparison Between Submarine Subject Matter Experts (United States)


    known as the “submarine capital of the world” and is the home for many of the schools relating to the submarine service. The administering officer for...and Woods, D. D. (1988). Aiding Human Performance: I. Cognitive Analysis, Le Travail Humain 51(1), 39-64. Roth, E. M., Patterson, E. S., and Mumaw

  13. 'Good Hunting': German submarine offensives and South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    By the latter half of 1942, the High Command of the German U-boats (BdU) realised that the 'sinking results' of the North Atlantic had decreased immensely. The successes of the Allied anti-submarine operations in the North Atlantic precluded the successful employment of the German submarines in said waters.

  14. Monitoring of radioactivity at the Russian nuclear submarine Kursk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amundsen, I.; Lind, B.


    In the morning of August 12th 2000, a Russian submarine accident occurred in international waters east of Rybatschi Peninsula in the Barents Sea about 250 km from Norway. The submarine, a Russian Oscar class II attack submarine, sunk to 116 meters depth at the position 69 deg. 36,99N, 37 deg. 34,50E. The submarine 'Kursk' is 154 meters long, equipped with two pressurised water reactors and the submerged displacement is 24000 tons. Each reactor has a thermal effect or 190 megawatt, or less than 10% of a typical nuclear power plant reactor. The submarines in Oscar-II class is one of the largest and most capable in the Russian Northern Fleet. No indications of leakage from the submarine have so far been observed during the monitoring expeditions. Elevated levels of radioactivity have note been detected in any dose-rate readings or at any of the measurements of environmental samples taken close to Kursk. Furthermore, no increased levels were measured on bits and pieces from the submarine or from water sampled inside the submarine. A more comprehensive report covering experience and monitoring results from the two expeditions term and impact assessments of possible future releases from Kursk. (LN)

  15. Assessment of motion-induced fluidization of dense pyroclastic gravity currents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Salatino


    Full Text Available The paper addresses some fundamental aspects of the dynamics of dense granular flows down inclines relevant to pyroclastic density currents. A simple mechanistic framework is presented to analyze the dynamics of the frontal zone, with a focus on the establishment of conditions that promote air entrainment at the head of the current and motion-induced self-fluidization of the flow. The one-dimensional momentum balance on the current along the incline is considered under the hypothesis of strongly turbulent flow and pseudo-homogeneous behaviour of the two-phase gas-solid flow. Departures from one-dimensional flow in the frontal region are also analyzed and provide the key to the assessment of air cross-flow and fluidization of the solids in the head of the current. The conditions for the establishment of steady motion of pyroclastic flows down an incline, in either the fluidized or «dry» granular states, are examined.

  16. Experimental estimates of the energy budget of hydrothermal eruptions; application to 2012 Upper Te Maari eruption, New Zealand (United States)

    Montanaro, Cristian; Scheu, Bettina; Cronin, Shane J.; Breard, Eric C. P.; Lube, Gert; Dingwell, Donald B.


    Sudden hydrothermal eruptions occur in many volcanic settings and may include high-energy explosive phases. Ballistics launched by such events, together with ash plumes and pyroclastic density currents, generate deadly proximal hazards. The violence of hydrothermal eruptions (or explosive power) depends on the energy available within the driving-fluids (gas or liquid), which also influences the explosive mechanisms, volumes, durations, and products of these eruptions. Experimental studies in addition to analytical modeling were used here to elucidate the fragmentation mechanism and aspects of energy balance within hydrothermal eruptions. We present results from a detailed study of recent event that occurred on the 6th of August 2012 at Upper Te Maari within the Tongariro volcanic complex (New Zealand). The eruption was triggered by a landslide from this area, which set off a rapid stepwise decompression of the hydrothermal system. Explosive blasts were directed both westward and eastward of the collapsed area, with a vertical ash plume sourced from an adjacent existing crater. All explosions ejected blocks on ballistic trajectories, hundreds of which impacted New Zealand's most popular hiking trail and a mountain lodge, 1.4 km from the explosion locus. We have employed rocks representative of the eruption source area to perform rapid decompression experiments under controlled laboratory conditions that mimic hydrothermal explosions under controlled laboratory conditions. An experimental apparatus for 34 by 70 mm cylindrical samples was built to reduce the influence of large lithic enclaves (up to 30 mm in diameter) within the rock. The experiments were conducted in a temperature range of 250 °C-300 °C and applied pressure between 4 MPa and 6.5 MPa, which span the range of expected conditions below the Te Maari crater. Within this range we tested rapid decompression of pre-saturated samples from both liquid-dominated conditions and the vapor-dominated field

  17. Permeability and microstructural changes due to weathering of pyroclastic rocks in Cappadocia, central Turkey (United States)

    Sato, M.; Takahashi, M.; Anma, R.; Shiomi, K.


    Studies of permeability changes of rocks during weathering are important to understand the processes of geomorphological development and how they are influenced by cyclic climatic conditions. Especially volcanic tuffs and pyroclastic flow deposits are easily affected by water absorption and freezing-thawing cycle (Erguler. 2009, Çelik and Ergül 2014). Peculiar erosional landscapes of Cappadocia, central Turkey, with numerous underground cities and carved churches, that made this area a world heritage site, are consists of volcanic tuffs and pyroclastic flow deposits. Understanding permeability changes of such rocks under different conditions are thus important not only to understand fundamental processes of weathering, but also to protect the landscapes of the world heritage sites and archaeological remains. In this study, we aim to evaluate internal void structures and bulk permeability of intact and weathered pyroclastic rocks from Cappadocia using X-ray CT, mercury intrusion porosimetry data and permeability measurement method of flow pump test. Samples of pyroclastic deposits that comprise the landscapes of Rose Valley and Ihlara Valley, were collected from the corresponding strata outside of the preservation areas. Porosity and pore-size distribution for the same samples measured by mercury intrusion porosimetry, indicate that the intact samples have lower porosity than weathered samples and pore sizes were dominantly 1-10μm in calculated radii, whereas weathered samples have more micropores (smaller than 1 μm). X-ray CT images were acquired to observe internal structure of samples. Micro-fractures, probably caused by repeated expansion and contraction due to temperature changes, were observed around clast grains. The higher micropore ratio in weathered samples could be attributed to the development of the micro-farctures. We will discuss fundamental processes of weathering and geomorphological development models using these data.

  18. PYFLOW_2.0: a computer program for calculating flow properties and impact parameters of past dilute pyroclastic density currents based on field data (United States)

    Dioguardi, Fabio; Mele, Daniela


    This paper presents PYFLOW_2.0, a hazard tool for the calculation of the impact parameters of dilute pyroclastic density currents (DPDCs). DPDCs represent the dilute turbulent type of gravity flows that occur during explosive volcanic eruptions; their hazard is the result of their mobility and the capability to laterally impact buildings and infrastructures and to transport variable amounts of volcanic ash along the path. Starting from data coming from the analysis of deposits formed by DPDCs, PYFLOW_2.0 calculates the flow properties (e.g., velocity, bulk density, thickness) and impact parameters (dynamic pressure, deposition time) at the location of the sampled outcrop. Given the inherent uncertainties related to sampling, laboratory analyses, and modeling assumptions, the program provides ranges of variations and probability density functions of the impact parameters rather than single specific values; from these functions, the user can interrogate the program to obtain the value of the computed impact parameter at any specified exceedance probability. In this paper, the sedimentological models implemented in PYFLOW_2.0 are presented, program functionalities are briefly introduced, and two application examples are discussed so as to show the capabilities of the software in quantifying the impact of the analyzed DPDCs in terms of dynamic pressure, volcanic ash concentration, and residence time in the atmosphere. The software and user's manual are made available as a downloadable electronic supplement.

  19. The Tephra Layer From the Plinian Eruption in ™r‘faj”kull 1362, Southeast Iceland (United States)

    Selbekk, R. S.


    Pyroclastic fallout from the 1362 eruption of ™r‘faj”kull forms one of the volcanic marker horizons of the North Atlantic. This contribution reports the mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of the ™r‘faj”kull 1362 fallout and its grain-size distribution. A non-rifting 120 km long volcanic lineament some 50 km east of the Eastern Rift-Zone of Iceland is defined by transitional and alkalic volcanic rocks resting unconformably on late Tertiary strata. ™r‘faj”kull which forms the southern termination of this off-rift liniment is an ice-covered stratovolcano (2200 masl) composed mostly of subglacially formed hyaloclastite ranging from basalts to rhyolites. The two historical (1100 yrs) eruptions of ™r‘faj”kull include a small explosive eruption in 1727 and a large devastating Plinian eruption associated with major lahars and a caldera collapse in 1362. Between 1 and 2 km3 dense rock equivalent or 5-10 km3 of rhyolitic pumice was erupted and the fallout was mainly towards ESE. Tentative modelling of the PT-conditions of the magma formation, based on glass/mineral equilibria, indicates that the source was a near-eutectic melt in equilibrium with fayalite, hedenbergite, oligoclase and hematite at some 0.2 GPa pressure. A profile through the fallout was sampled at elevation of about 1100 masl on the SE flank of the volcano. A deposit of 1.8 m thickness was collected in 14 units for examination of composition, mineralogy and grain-size distribution during the eruption. In the profile the fallout is fine grained vesicular glass (1-3% minerals, 3% lithic fragments) with bubble wall thickness in the low micron range. The high and even vesiculation of the glass indicates fast magma ascent and explains the extreme mechanical fragmentation within the eruptive column, yielding between 50 and 80 wt% of less than 0.25 mm grain size. A reconstruction of the Plinian phase, based on grain-size analysis and abundance of lithic fragments, reveals that the

  20. Towards the definition of AMS facies in the deposits of pyroclastic density currents (United States)

    Ort, M.H.; Newkirk, T.T.; Vilas, J.F.; Vazquez, J.A.; Ort, M.H.; Porreca, Massimiliano; Geissman, J.W.


    Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) provides a statistically robust technique to characterize the fabrics of deposits of pyroclastic density currents (PDCs). AMS fabrics in two types of pyroclastic deposits (small-volume phreatomagmatic currents in the Hopi Buttes volcanic field, Arizona, USA, and large-volume caldera-forming currents, Caviahue Caldera, Neuquén, Argentina) show similar patterns. Near the vent and in areas of high topographical roughness, AMS depositional fabrics are poorly grouped, with weak lineations and foliations. In a densely welded proximal ignimbrite, this fabric is overprinted by a foliation formed as the rock compacted and deformed. Medial deposits have moderate–strong AMS lineations and foliations. The most distal deposits have strong foliations but weak lineations. Based on these facies and existing models for pyroclastic density currents, deposition in the medial areas occurs from the strongly sheared, high-particle-concentration base of a density-stratified current. In proximal areas and where topography mixes this denser base upwards into the current, deposition occurs rapidly from a current with little uniformity to the shear, in which particles fall and collide in a chaotic fashion. Distal deposits are emplaced by a slowing or stalled current so that the dominant particle motion is vertical, leading to weak lineation and strong foliation.

  1. Merapi 2010 eruption—Chronology and extrusion rates monitored with satellite radar and used in eruption forecasting (United States)

    Pallister, John S.; Schneider, David; Griswold, Julia P.; Keeler, Ronald H.; Burton, William C.; Noyles, Christopher; Newhall, Christopher G.; Ratdomopurbo, Antonius


    Despite dense cloud cover, satellite-borne commercial Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) enabled frequent monitoring of Merapi volcano's 2010 eruption. Near-real-time interpretation of images derived from the amplitude of the SAR signals and timely delivery of these interpretations to those responsible for warnings, allowed satellite remote sensing for the first time to play an equal role with in situ seismic, geodetic and gas monitoring in guiding life-saving decisions during a major volcanic crisis. Our remotely sensed data provide an observational chronology for the main phase of the 2010 eruption, which lasted 12 days (26 October–7 November, 2010). Unlike the prolonged low-rate and relatively low explosivity dome-forming and collapse eruptions of recent decades at Merapi, the eruption began with an explosive eruption that produced a new summit crater on 26 October and was accompanied by an ash column and pyroclastic flows that extended 8 km down the flanks. This initial explosive event was followed by smaller explosive eruptions on 29 October–1 November, then by a period of rapid dome growth on 1–4 November, which produced a summit lava dome with a volume of ~ 5 × 106 m3. A paroxysmal VEI 4 magmatic eruption (with ash column to 17 km altitude) destroyed this dome, greatly enlarged the new summit crater and produced extensive pyroclastic flows (to ~ 16 km radial distance in the Gendol drainage) and surges during the night of 4–5 November. The paroxysmal eruption was followed by a period of jetting of gas and tephra and by a second short period (12 h) of rapid dome growth on 6 November. The eruption ended with low-level ash and steam emissions that buried the 6 November dome with tephra and continued at low levels until seismicity decreased to background levels by about 23 November. Our near-real-time commercial SAR documented the explosive events on 26 October and 4–5 November and high rates of dome growth (> 25 m3 s− 1). An event tree

  2. Eruptions from the Sun (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna


    The Sun often exhibits outbursts, launching material from its surface in powerful releases of energy. Recent analysis of such an outburst captured on video by several Sun-monitoring spacecraft may help us understand the mechanisms that launch these eruptions.Many OutburstsSolar jets are elongated, transient structures that are thought to regularly release magnetic energy from the Sun, contributing to coronal heating and solar wind acceleration. Coronal mass ejections (CMEs), on the other hand, are enormous blob-like explosions, violently ejecting energy and mass from the Sun at incredible speeds.But could these two types of events actually be related? According to a team of scientists at the University of Science and Technology of China, they may well be. The team, led by Jiajia Liu, has analyzed observations of a coronal jet that they believe prompted the launch of a powerful CME.Observing an ExplosionGif of a movie of the CME, taken by the Solar Dynamics Observatorys Atmospheric Imaging Assembly at a wavelength of 304. The original movie can be found in the article. [Liu et al.]An army of spacecraft was on hand to witness the event on 15 Jan 2013 including the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), and the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO). The instruments on board these observatories captured the drama on the northern limb of the Sun as, at 19:32 UT, a coronal jet formed. Just eight minutes later, a powerful CME was released from the same active region.The fact that the jet and CME occurred in the same place at roughly the same time suggests theyre related. But did the initial motions of the CME blob trigger the jet? Or did the jet trigger the CME?Tying It All TogetherIn a recently published study, Liu and collaborators analyzed the multi-wavelength observations of this event to find the heights and positions of the jet and CME. From this analysis, they determined that the coronal jet triggered the release

  3. Hazard assessment of long-range tephra dispersal for a Plinian eruptive scenario at Popocatépetl volcano (Mexico). Inplications on civil aviation (United States)

    Bonasia, R.; Scaini, C.; Capra, L.; Nathenson, M.; Siebe, C.; Arana-Salinas, L.; Folch, A.


    Popocatépetl is one of the most active volcanoes in Mexico threatening a densely populated area that includes Mexico City with more than 20 million inhabitants. The destructive potential of this volcano is demonstrated by its Late Pleistocene-Holocene eruptive activity, which has been characterized by recurrent Plinian eruptions of large magnitude. The current volcanic hazards map, reconstructed after the crisis occurred in 1994, considers the potential occurrence of different volcanic phenomena, including pyroclastic density currents and lahars. However, no quantitative assessment of the tephra dispersal hazard, especially related to atmospheric dispersal, has been performed. Given the high number of important airports in the surroundings of Popocatépetl volcano and considering the potential threat posed to civil aviation in Mexico and adjacent regions in case of a Plinian eruption, a hazard assessment for tephra dispersal is strongly required. In this work we present the first probabilistic tephra dispersal hazard assessment for Popocatépetl volcano. We compute probabilistic hazard maps for critical thresholds of airborne ash concentrations at different flight levels. Tephra dispersal modelling is performed using the FALL3D numerical model. Probabilistic hazard maps are built for a Plinian eruptive scenario defined on the basis of geological field data for the 'Ochre Pumice' Plinian eruption (4965 14C yrBP). FALL3D model input eruptive parameters are constrained through an inversion method carried out with the semi-analytical HAZMAP model and are varied sampling them on the base of a Probability Density Function. We analyze the influence of seasonal variations on ash dispersal and estimate the average persistence of critical ash concentrations at relevant locations and airports. This study assesses the impact that a Plinian eruption similar to the Ochre Pumice eruption would have on the main airports of Mexico and adjacent areas. The hazard maps presented here

  4. Palaeomagnetic constraints on the age of Lomo Negro volcanic eruption (El Hierro, Canary Islands) (United States)

    Villasante-Marcos, Víctor; Pavón-Carrasco, Francisco Javier


    A palaeomagnetic study has been carried out in 29 cores drilled at six different sites from the volcanic products of Lomo Negro eruption (El Hierro, Canary Islands, Spain). Systematic thermal and alternating field demagnetization of the samples' natural remanent magnetization revealed a northward, stable palaeomagnetic direction similar in all the samples. Rock magnetic experiments indicate that this palaeomagnetic component is carried by a mixture of high-Ti and low-Ti titanomagnetite crystals typical of basaltic lithologies that have experienced a significant degree of oxyexsolution during subaerial cooling. The well constrained palaeomagnetic direction of Lomo Negro lavas was used to perform a palaeomagnetic dating of the volcanic event, using the SHA.DIF.14k global geomagnetic model restricted for the last 3000 yr. It can be unambiguously concluded that Lomo Negro eruption occurred well before the previously proposed date of 1793 AD, with three different age ranges being statistically possible during the last 3 ka: 115 BC-7 AD, 410-626 AD and 1499-1602 AD. The calibration of a previously published non-calibrated 14C dating suggests a XVI c. date for Lomo Negro eruption. This conclusion leaves open the possibility that the seismic crisis occurred at El Hierro in 1793 AD was related to an intrusive magmatic event that either did not reach the surface or either culminated in an unregistered submarine eruption similar to the one occurred in 2011-2012 at the southern off-shore ridge of the island.

  5. Volcanology and hazards of phreatomagmatic basaltic eruptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmith, Johanne

    Iceland is one of the most active terrestrial volcanic regions on Earth with an average of more than 20 eruptions per century. Around 80% of all events are tephra generating explosive eruptions, but less than 10 % of all known tephra layers have been mapped. Recent hazard assessment models show...... that the two key parameters for hazard assessment modeling are total grain size distribution (TGSD) and eruptive style. These two parameters have been determined for even fewer eruptive events in Iceland. One of the most hazardous volcanoes in Iceland is Katla and no data set of TGSD or other eruptive...... parameters exist. Katla has not erupted for 99 years, but at least 2 of the 20 eruptions since the settlement of Iceland in 871 have reached Northern Europe as visible tephra fall. These eruptions occurred in 1755 and 1625 and remain enigmatic both in terms of actual size and eruption dynamics. This work...

  6. Submarine Tailings Disposal (STD—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Dold


    Full Text Available The mining industry is a fundamental industry involved in the development of modern society, but is also the world’s largest waste producer. This role will be enhanced in the future, because ore grades are generally decreasing, thus leading to increases in the waste/metal production ratio. Mine wastes deposited on-land in so-called tailings dams, impoundments or waste-dumps have several associated environmental issues that need to be addressed (e.g., acid mine drainage formation due to sulphide oxidation, geotechnical stability, among others, and social concerns due to land use during mining. The mining industry recognizes these concerns and is searching for waste management alternatives for the future. One option used in the past was the marine shore or shallow submarine deposition of this waste material in some parts of the world. After the occurrence of some severe environmental pollution, today the deposition in the deep sea (under constant reducing conditions is seen as a new, more secure option, due to the general thought that sulphide minerals are geochemically stable under the reduced conditions prevailing in the deep marine environment. This review highlights the mineralogical and geochemical issues (e.g., solubility of sulphides in seawater; reductive dissolution of oxide minerals under reducing conditions, which have to be considered when evaluating whether submarine tailings disposal is a suitable alternative for mine waste.

  7. Submarine geologic disposal of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollister, C.D.; Corliss, B.H.; Anderson, D.R.


    Site suitability characteristics of submarine geological formations for the disposal of radioactive wastes include the distribution coefficient of the host medium, permeability, viscoelastic nature of the sediments, influence of organic material on remobilization, and effects of thermal stress. The submarine geological formation that appears to best satisfy these criteria is abyssal ''red'' clay. Regions in the ocean that have coarse-grained deposits, high or variable thermal conductivity, high organic carbon content, and sediment thickness of less than 50 m are not being considered at this time. The optimum geological environment should be tranquil and have environmental predictability over a minimum of 10 5 years. Site selection activities for the North Atlantic and North Pacific are reviewed and future activities which include international cooperation are discussed. A paleoenvironmental model for Cenozoic sedimentation in the central North Pacific is presented based on studies of a long core from the Mid-Plate Gyre MPG-1 area, and is an example of the type of study that will be carried out in other seabed study areas. The data show that the MPG-1 region has been an area of slow, continuous accumulation during the past 65 million years. (author)

  8. Flow dynamics around downwelling submarine canyons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Spurgin


    Full Text Available Flow dynamics around a downwelling submarine canyon were analysed with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model. Blanes Canyon (northwestern Mediterranean was used for topographic and initial forcing conditions. Fourteen scenarios were modelled with varying forcing conditions. Rossby and Burger numbers were used to determine the significance of Coriolis acceleration and stratification (respectively and their impacts on flow dynamics. A new non-dimensional parameter (χ was introduced to determine the significance of vertical variations in stratification. Some simulations do see brief periods of upwards displacement of water during the 10-day model period; however, the presence of the submarine canyon is found to enhance downwards advection of density in all model scenarios. High Burger numbers lead to negative vorticity and a trapped anticyclonic eddy within the canyon, as well as an increased density anomaly. Low Burger numbers lead to positive vorticity, cyclonic circulation, and weaker density anomalies. Vertical variations in stratification affect zonal jet placement. Under the same forcing conditions, the zonal jet is pushed offshore in more uniformly stratified domains. The offshore jet location generates upwards density advection away from the canyon, while onshore jets generate downwards density advection everywhere within the model domain. Increasing Rossby values across the canyon axis, as well as decreasing Burger values, increase negative vertical flux at shelf break depth (150 m. Increasing Rossby numbers lead to stronger downwards advection of a passive tracer (nitrate, as well as stronger vorticity within the canyon. Results from previous studies are explained within this new dynamic framework.

  9. Topographic controls on pyroclastic density current dynamics: Insight from 18 May 1980 deposits at Mount St. Helens, Washington (USA) (United States)

    Brand, Brittany D.; Bendaña, Sylvana; Self, Stephen; Pollock, Nicholas


    Our ability to interpret the deposits of pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) is critical for understanding the transport and depositional processes that control PDC dynamics. This paper focuses on the influence of slope on flow dynamics and criticality as recorded in PDC deposits from the 18 May 1980 eruption of Mt. St. Helens (USA). PDC deposits are found along the steep flanks (10°-30°) and across the pumice plain ( 5°) up to 8 km north of the volcano. Granulometry, componentry and descriptions of depositional characteristics (e.g., bedform morphology) are recorded with distance from source. The pumice plain deposits are primarily thick (3-12 m), massive and poorly-sorted, and represent deposition from a series of concentrated PDCs. By contrast, the steep flank deposits are stratified to cross-stratified, suggesting deposition from PDCs where turbulence strongly influenced transport and depositional processes. We propose that acceleration of the concentrated PDCs along the steep flanks resulted in thinning of the concentrated, basal region of the current(s). Enhanced entrainment of ambient air, and autofluidization from upward fluxes of air from substrate interstices and plunging breakers across rugged, irregular topography further inflated the currents to the point that the overriding turbulent region strongly influenced transport and depositional mechanisms. Acceleration in combination with partial confinement in slot canyons and high surface roughness would also increase basal shear stress, further promoting shear and traction transport in the basal region of the current. Conditions along the steep flank resulted in supercritical flow, as recorded by regressive bedforms, which gradually transitioned to subcritical flow downstream as the concentrated basal region thickness increased as a function of decreasing slope and flow energy. We also find that (1) PDCs were erosive into the underlying granular substrate along high slopes (> 25°) where currents were

  10. The 2008 Puipui eruption and morphology of the Northeast Lau Spreading Center between Maka and Tafu (Invited) (United States)

    Clague, D. A.; Caress, D. W.; Rubin, K. H.; Paduan, J. B.


    An event plume was discovered in the water column between Maka and Tafu volcanoes on the Northeast Lau Spreading Center in Nov. 2008. A Rapid Response cruise in May 2009 found that eruptive activity had ceased after observations on two Jason II ROV dives and one MBARI Mapping AUV survey that mapped most of the axis and flanks at 1.5-m resolution. Jason II located a recent lava flow, which was named Puipui. The small ridge of mounds aligned along two overlapping fissures extend for 1.8 km. The pillow ridge cuts obliquely across the ridge axis. The dive observations show mainly pillow lavas near the NE end and sheet flows near the SE end. A central 340 m portion observed by Jason II as predominantly ponded lobate flows was not mapped by the AUV. The Puipui and prior eruptions produced abundant vesicular angular glass fragments, Pele’s hair, and less abundant limu o Pele pyroclasts that thinly blanket the axial plateau and cascade down the steep flanks, mixing debris from many eruptions. Electron probe analyses of 91 fragments show that 15 Puipui pyroclasts are compositionally variable (normalized 6.5-7.2% MgO, ~49.6% SiO2) and distinct from prior eruptions in the area that have lower TiO2, K2O, Na2O, and K2O; and 52.3-53.7% SiO2. Pyroclasts of all compositions are highly degassed (<0.025% S) prior to eruption. The NE-trending segment, anchored by Maka volcano at the SE end, includes the Puipui flow. The morphology changes dramatically over short distances. The 1 km SW end is characterized by multiple extensional faults that parallel the ridge axis. The AUV survey ends on a sheet flow with drained ponds. To the NE, Maka is a 1.2 km diameter central volcano rising 300 m above the adjacent ridge to a summit at 1515 m. The ridge axis deepens steadily to 2140 m at the NE survey end and 1900 m to the SW. Rift zones on Maka parallel the ridge axis and are constructed of overlapping lava deltas. The NW and SE flanks are smooth like those at actively erupting West Mata

  11. The Upper Toluca Pumice (10.5 kyr): Product of the last major Plinian eruption of Nevado de Toluca volcano, Central Mexico (United States)

    Arce, J. L.; Macias, J. L.


    The last Plinian eruption at Nevado de Toluca volcano occurred 10.5 kyr ago producing the Upper Toluca Pumice (UTP). The UTP consists of four widespread fallout layers, interbedded with pyroclastic flow and surge deposits. The UTP event occurred under open vent conditions starting with hydromagmatic explosions that emplaced a hot pyroclastic flow (F0) on the east and northern flanks of the volcano. This explosion decompressed the magmatic system allowing almost immediately the formation of a 21 km high Plinian column that was dispersed by predominant winds 5o to the NE (PC0), which waned after some time. The eruption recommenced with the establishment of three Plinian columns that were dispersed in a NE-E direction, reaching heights of 39, 42, and 28 km, and deposited fall layers (PC1, PC2, and PC3) respectively. These Plinian columns were interrupted several times by phreatomagmatic and collapse events that emplaced pyroclastic flows (F1, F2, and F3) and surges (S1, and S2), mainly on the eastern and northern flanks of the volcano. The juvenile components of the UTP sequence are white, gray and banded pumice and gray juvenile lithic clasts both of dacitic composition (63-66wt% SiO2), and minor accidental lithics. The fallout deposits (PC1 and PC2) covered a minimum area of 2000 km2 with a total volume of 14 km3 (ca. 6 km3 D.R.E.); a mass eruption rate ranging from 3\\times107 to 5\\times108 kg/s and a total mass of 1.2\\times1013 kg. The UTP emplaced 1.5 m of gravel-sized pumice in the modern City of Toluca region and ca. 20 cm of fine sand in the Mexico City region. A future event of this magnitude might represent a major catastrophe to the 30 million people living in these cities and their surroundings.

  12. Environmental assessment of submarine power cables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isus, Daniel; Martinez, Juan D. [Grupo General Cable Sistemas, S.A., 08560-Manlleu, Barcelona (Spain); Arteche, Amaya; Del Rio, Carmen; Madina, Virginia [Tecnalia Research and Innovation, 20009 San Sebastian (Spain)


    Extensive analyses conducted by the European Community revealed that offshore wind energy have relatively benign effects on the marine environment by comparison to other forms of electric power generation [1]. However, the materials employed in offshore wind power farms suffer major changes to be confined to the marine environment at extreme conditions: saline medium, hydrostatic pressure... which can produce an important corrosion effect. This phenomenon can affect on the one hand, to the material from the structural viewpoint and on the other hand, to the marine environment. In this sense, to better understand the environmental impacts of generating electricity from offshore wind energy, this study evaluated the life cycle assessment for some new designs of submarine power cables developed by General Cable. To achieve this goal, three approaches have been carried out: leaching tests, eco-toxicity tests and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodologies. All of them are aimed to obtaining quantitative data for environmental assessment of selected submarine cables. LCA is a method used to assess environmental aspects and potential impacts of a product or activity. LCA does not include financial and social factors, which means that the results of an LCA cannot exclusively form the basis for assessment of a product's sustainability. Leaching tests results allowed to conclude that pH of seawater did not significantly changed by the presence of submarine three-core cables. Although, it was slightly higher in case of broken cable, pH values were nearly equals. Concerning to the heavy metals which could migrate to the aquatic medium, there were significant differences in both scenarios. The leaching of zinc is the major environmental concern during undersea operation of undamaged cables whereas the fully sectioned three-core cable produced the migration of significant quantities of copper and iron apart from the zinc migrated from the galvanized steel. Thus, the tar

  13. Environmental assessment of submarine power cables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isus, Daniel; Martinez, Juan D.; Arteche, Amaya; Del Rio, Carmen; Madina, Virginia


    Extensive analyses conducted by the European Community revealed that offshore wind energy have relatively benign effects on the marine environment by comparison to other forms of electric power generation [1]. However, the materials employed in offshore wind power farms suffer major changes to be confined to the marine environment at extreme conditions: saline medium, hydrostatic pressure... which can produce an important corrosion effect. This phenomenon can affect on the one hand, to the material from the structural viewpoint and on the other hand, to the marine environment. In this sense, to better understand the environmental impacts of generating electricity from offshore wind energy, this study evaluated the life cycle assessment for some new designs of submarine power cables developed by General Cable. To achieve this goal, three approaches have been carried out: leaching tests, eco-toxicity tests and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodologies. All of them are aimed to obtaining quantitative data for environmental assessment of selected submarine cables. LCA is a method used to assess environmental aspects and potential impacts of a product or activity. LCA does not include financial and social factors, which means that the results of an LCA cannot exclusively form the basis for assessment of a product's sustainability. Leaching tests results allowed to conclude that pH of seawater did not significantly changed by the presence of submarine three-core cables. Although, it was slightly higher in case of broken cable, pH values were nearly equals. Concerning to the heavy metals which could migrate to the aquatic medium, there were significant differences in both scenarios. The leaching of zinc is the major environmental concern during undersea operation of undamaged cables whereas the fully sectioned three-core cable produced the migration of significant quantities of copper and iron apart from the zinc migrated from the galvanized steel. Thus, the tar

  14. Improved Submariner Eyewear for Routine Wear and Emergency Equipment Use Underway (United States)


    information. 2.0 DESCRIPTION Naval Submarine Medical Research Laboratory (NSMRL) is seeking information from the eyewear industry that will provide...Improved Submariner Eyewear for Routine Wear and Emergency Equipment Use Underway by Alison America, MA Wayne G. Horn, MD...Submariner Eyewear for Routine Wear and Emergency Equipment Use Underway 50818 Alison America, MA Wayne G. Horn, MD Naval Submarine Medical Research

  15. What threat do turbidity currents and submarine landslides pose to submarine telecommunications cable infrastructure? (United States)

    Clare, Michael; Pope, Edward; Talling, Peter; Hunt, James; Carter, Lionel


    The global economy relies on uninterrupted usage of a network of telecommunication cables on the seafloor. These submarine cables carry ~99% of all trans-oceanic digital data and voice communications traffic worldwide, as they have far greater bandwidth than satellites. Over 9 million SWIFT banks transfers alone were made using these cables in 2004, totalling 7.4 trillion of transactions per day between 208 countries, which grew to 15 million SWIFT bank transactions last year. We outline the challenge of why, how often, and where seafloor cables are broken by natural causes; primarily subsea landslides and sediment flows (turbidity currents and also debris flows and hyperpycnal flows). These slides and flows can be very destructive. As an example, a sediment flow in 1929 travelled up to 19 m/s and broke 11 cables in the NE Atlantic, running out for ~800 km to the abyssal ocean. The 2006 Pingtung earthquake triggered a sediment flow that broke 22 cables offshore Taiwan over a distance of 450 km. Here, we present initial results from the first statistical analysis of a global database of cable breaks and causes. We first investigate the controls on frequency of submarine cable breaks in different environmental and geological settings worldwide. We assess which types of earthquake pose a significant threat to submarine cable networks. Meteorological events, such as hurricanes and typhoons, pose a significant threat to submarine cable networks, so we also discuss the potential impacts of future climate change on the frequency of such hazards. We then go on to ask what are the physical impacts of submarine sediment flows on submerged cables? A striking observation from past cable breaks is sometimes cables remain unbroken, whilst adjacent cables are severed (and record powerful flows travelling at up to 6 m/s). Why are some cables broken, but neighbouring cables remain intact? We provide some explanations for this question, and outline the need for future in

  16. A combined field and numerical approach to understanding dilute pyroclastic density current dynamics and hazard potential: Auckland Volcanic Field, New Zealand (United States)

    Brand, Brittany D.; Gravley, Darren M.; Clarke, Amanda B.; Lindsay, Jan M.; Bloomberg, Simon H.; Agustin-Flores, Javier; Németh, Károly


    The most dangerous and deadly hazards associated with phreatomagmatic eruptions in the Auckland Volcanic Field (AVF; Auckland, New Zealand) are those related to volcanic base surges - dilute, ground-hugging, particle laden currents with dynamic pressures capable of severe to complete structural damage. We use the well-exposed base surge deposits of the Maungataketake tuff ring (Manukau coast, Auckland), to reconstruct flow dynamics and destructive potential of base surges produced during the eruption. The initial base surge(s) snapped trees up to 0.5 m in diameter near their base as far as 0.7-0.9 km from the vent. Beyond this distance the trees were encapsulated and buried by the surge in growth position. Using the tree diameter and yield strength of the wood we calculate that dynamic pressures (Pdyn) in excess of 12-35 kPa are necessary to cause the observed damage. Next we develop a quantitative model for flow of and sedimentation from a radially-spreading, dilute pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) to determine the damage potential of the base surges produced during the early phases of the eruption and explore the implications of this potential on future eruptions in the region. We find that initial conditions with velocities on the order of 65 m s- 1, bulk density of 38 kg m- 3 and initial, near-vent current thicknesses of 60 m reproduce the field-based Pdyn estimates and runout distances. A sensitivity analysis revealed that lower initial bulk densities result in shorter run-out distances, more rapid deceleration of the current and lower dynamic pressures. Initial velocity does not have a strong influence on run-out distance, although higher initial velocity and slope slightly decrease runout distance due to higher rates of atmospheric entrainment. Using this model we determine that for base surges with runout distances of up to 4 km, complete destruction can be expected within 0.5 km from the vent, moderate destruction can be expected up to 2 km, but much

  17. Can rain cause volcanic eruptions? (United States)

    Mastin, Larry G.


    Volcanic eruptions are renowned for their violence and destructive power. This power comes ultimately from the heat and pressure of molten rock and its contained gases. Therefore we rarely consider the possibility that meteoric phenomena, like rainfall, could promote or inhibit their occurrence. Yet from time to time observers have suggested that weather may affect volcanic activity. In the late 1800's, for example, one of the first geologists to visit the island of Hawaii, J.D. Dana, speculated that rainfall influenced the occurrence of eruptions there. In the early 1900's, volcanologists suggested that some eruptions from Mount Lassen, Calif., were caused by the infiltration of snowmelt into the volcano's hot summit. Most such associations have not been provable because of lack of information; others have been dismissed after careful evaluation of the evidence.

  18. Anaerobic methanotrophic communities thrive in deep submarine permafrost. (United States)

    Winkel, Matthias; Mitzscherling, Julia; Overduin, Pier P; Horn, Fabian; Winterfeld, Maria; Rijkers, Ruud; Grigoriev, Mikhail N; Knoblauch, Christian; Mangelsdorf, Kai; Wagner, Dirk; Liebner, Susanne


    Thawing submarine permafrost is a source of methane to the subsurface biosphere. Methane oxidation in submarine permafrost sediments has been proposed, but the responsible microorganisms remain uncharacterized. We analyzed archaeal communities and identified distinct anaerobic methanotrophic assemblages of marine and terrestrial origin (ANME-2a/b, ANME-2d) both in frozen and completely thawed submarine permafrost sediments. Besides archaea potentially involved in anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) we found a large diversity of archaea mainly belonging to Bathyarchaeota, Thaumarchaeota, and Euryarchaeota. Methane concentrations and δ 13 C-methane signatures distinguish horizons of potential AOM coupled either to sulfate reduction in a sulfate-methane transition zone (SMTZ) or to the reduction of other electron acceptors, such as iron, manganese or nitrate. Analysis of functional marker genes (mcrA) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) corroborate potential activity of AOM communities in submarine permafrost sediments at low temperatures. Modeled potential AOM consumes 72-100% of submarine permafrost methane and up to 1.2 Tg of carbon per year for the total expected area of submarine permafrost. This is comparable with AOM habitats such as cold seeps. We thus propose that AOM is active where submarine permafrost thaws, which should be included in global methane budgets.

  19. Violent Explosive Eruptions in the Ararat Valley, Armenia and Associated Volcanic Hazards (United States)

    Meliksetian, Khachatur; Savov, Ivan; Connor, Charles; Gevorgyan, Hripsime; Connor, Laura; Navasardyan, Gevorg; Manucharyan, Davit; Jrbashyan, Ruben; Ghukasyan, Yura


    The Anatolian-Armenian-Iranian volcanically active orogenic plateau is located in the collision zone between the Arabian and Eurasian plates. The majority of regional geodynamic and petrologic models of collision-related magmatism use the model proposed by Keskin (2003), where volcanism is driven by Neo-Tethyan slab break-off, however an updated model by Neill et al. (2015) and Skolbeltsyn et al.(2014) comprise break-off of two slabs. One of the significant (and understudied) features of the regionally extensive collision zone volcanism is the diversity of eruption styles and also the presence of large number of highly explosive (Plinian) eruptions with VEI≥5 during the Middle-Upper Pleistocene. Geological records of the Ararat depression include several generations of thick low aspect ratio Quaternary ignimbrites erupted from Aragats volcano, as well as up to 3 m thick ash and pumice fall deposit from the Holocene-historically active Ararat volcano. The Ararat tephra fall deposit is studied at 12 newly discovered outcrops covering an area ˜1000 km2. It is noteworthy, that the Ararat tephra deposits are loose and unwelded and observed only in cross-sections in small depressions or in areas where they were rapidly covered by younger, colluvium deposits, presumably of Holocene age. Therefore, the spatial extent of the explosive deposits of Ararat is much bigger but not well preserved due to rapid erosion. Whole rock elemental, isotope (Sr, Nd) and mineral chemistry data demonstrate significant difference in the magma sources of the large Aragats and Ararat stratovolcanoes. Lavas and pyroclastic products of Aragats are high K calc-alkaline, and nearly always deprived from H2O rich phases such as amphibole. In contrasts lavas and pyroclastic products from Ararat are medium K calc-alkaline and volatile-rich (>4.6 wt% H2O and amphibole bearing) magmas. Here we shall attempt to reveal possible geochemical triggers of explosive eruptions in these volcanoes and assess

  20. Magmatic controls on eruption dynamics of the 1950 yr B.P. eruption of San Antonio Volcano, Tacaná Volcanic Complex, Mexico-Guatemala (United States)

    Mora, Juan Carlos; Gardner, James Edward; Macías, José Luis; Meriggi, Lorenzo; Santo, Alba Patrizia


    San Antonio Volcano, in the Tacaná Volcanic Complex, erupted ~ 1950 yr. B.P., with a Pelean type eruption that produced andesitic pyroclastic surges and block-and-ash flows destroying part of the volcano summit and producing a horse-shoe shaped crater open to the SW. Between 1950 and 800 yr B.P. the eruption continued with effusive andesites followed by a dacite lava flow and a summit dome, all from a single magma batch. All products consist of phenocrysts and microphenocrysts of zoned plagioclase, amphibole, pyroxene, magnetite ± ilmenite, set in partially crystallized groundmass of glass and microlites of the same mineral phases, except for the lack of amphibole. Included in the andesitic blocks of the block-and-ash flow deposit are basaltic andesite enclaves with elongated and ellipsoidal forms and chilled margins. The enclaves have intersertal textures with brown glass between microphenocrysts of plagioclase, hornblende, pyroxene, and olivine, and minor proportions of phenocrysts of plagioclase, hornblende, and pyroxene. A compositional range obtained of blocks and enclaves resulted from mixing between andesite (866 °C ± 22) and basaltic andesite (enclaves, 932 °C ± 22), which may have triggered the explosive Pelean eruption. Vestiges of that mixing are preserved as complex compositional zones in plagioclase and clinopyroxene-rich reaction rims in amphibole in the andesite. Whole-rock chemistry, geothermometry, experimental petrology and modeling results suggest that after the mixing event the eruption tapped hybrid andesitic magma (≤ 900 °C) and ended with effusive dacitic magma (~ 825 °C), all of which were stored at ~ 200 MPa water pressure. A complex open-system evolution that involved crustal end-members best explains the generation of effusive dacite from the hybrid andesite. Amphibole in the dacite is rimmed by reaction products of plagioclase, orthopyroxene, and Fe-Ti oxides produced by decompression during ascent. Amphibole in the andesite

  1. Parametric analysis of lava dome-collapse events and pyroclastic deposits at Shiveluch volcano, Kamchatka, using visible and infrared satellite data (United States)

    Krippner, Janine B.; Belousov, Alexander B.; Belousova, Marina G.; Ramsey, Michael S.


    For the years 2001 to 2013 of the ongoing eruption of Shiveluch volcano, a combination of different satellite remote sensing data are used to investigate the dome-collapse events and the resulting pyroclastic deposits. Shiveluch volcano in Kamchatka, Russia, is one of the world's most active dome-building volcanoes, which has produced some of the largest known historical block-and-ash flows (BAFs). Globally, quantitative data for deposits resulting from such large and long-lived dome-forming eruptions, especially like those at Shiveluch, are scarce. We use Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) thermal infrared (TIR), shortwave infrared (SWIR), and visible-near infrared (VNIR) data to analyze the dome-collapse scars and BAF deposits that were formed during eruptions and collapse events in 2001, 2004, 2005, 2007, 2009, 2010, and two events in 2013. These events produced flows with runout distances of as far as 19 km from the dome, and with aerial extents of as much as 22.3 km2. Over the 12 years of this period of investigation, there is no trend in deposit area or runout distances of the flows through time. However, two potentially predictive features are apparent in our data set: 1) the largest dome-collapse events occurred when the dome exceeded a relative height (from dome base to top) of 500 m; 2) collapses were preceded by thermal anomalies in six of the cases in which ASTER data were available, although the areal extent of these precursory thermal areas did not generally match the size of the collapse events as indicated by scar area (volumes are available for three collapse events). Linking the deposit distribution to the area, location, and temperature profiles of the dome-collapse scars provides a basis for determining similar future hazards at Shiveluch and at other dome-forming volcanoes. Because of these factors, we suggest that volcanic hazard analysis and mitigation at volcanoes with similar BAF emplacement behavior may

  2. Lava bubble-wall fragments formed by submarine hydrovolcanic explosions on Lo'ihi Seamount and Kilauea Volcano (United States)

    Clague, D.A.; Davis, A.S.; Bischoff, J.L.; Dixon, J.E.; Geyer, R.


    Glassy bubble-wall fragments, morphologically similar to littoral limu o Pele, have been found in volcanic sands erupted on Lo'ihi Seamount and along the submarine east rift zone of Kilauea Volcano. The limu o Pele fragments are undegassed with respect to H2O and S and formed by mild steam explosions. Angular glass sand fragments apparently form at similar, and greater, depths by cooling-contraction granulation. The limu o Pele fragments from Lo'ihi Seamount are dominantly tholeiitic basalt containing 6.25-7.25% MgO. None of the limu o Pele samples from Lo'ihi Seamount contains less than 5.57% MgO, suggesting that higher viscosity magmas do not form lava bubbles. The dissolved CO2 and H2O contents of 7 of the limu o Pele fragments indicate eruption at 1200??300 m depth (120??30 bar). These pressures exceed that generally thought to limit steam explosions. We conclude that hydrovolcanic eruptions are possible, with appropriate pre-mixing conditions, at pressures as great as 120 bar.

  3. Io - One of at Least Four Simultaneous Erupting Volcanic Eruptions (United States)


    This photo of an active volcanic eruption on Jupiter's satellite Io was taken 1 hour, 52 minutes after the accompanying picture, late in the evening of March 4, 1979, Pacific time. On the limb of the satellite can be seen one of at least four simultaneous volcanic eruptions -- the first such activity ever observed on another celestial body. Seen against the limb are plume-like structures rising more than 60 miles (100 kilometers) above the surface. Several eruptions have been identified with volcanic structures on the surface of Io, which have also been identified by Voyager 1's infrared instrument as being abnormally hot -- several hundred degrees warmer than surrounding terrain. The fact that several eruptions appear to be occurring at the same time suggests that Io has the most active surface in the solar system and that volcanism is going on there essentially continuously. Another characteristic of the observed volcanism is that it appears to be extremely explosive, with velocities more than 2,000 miles an hour (at least 1 kilometer per second). That is more violent than terrestrial volcanoes like Etna, Vesuvius or Krakatoa.

  4. Submarine silicic volcanism: Processes and products

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kalangutkar, N.G.; Iyer, S.D.

    hawaiite, mugearite, benmorite and trachyte to rhyolite (Prestvik et al., 2001). A plinian eruption produced rhyolitic ash and pumice while an initial phreatomagmatic explosion gave rise to lithic fragments characterised by bomb-like pumice blocks... blocks and bombs Selbekk and Tronnes (2007) Granophyres, rhyolites obsidian O’nions and Gronvold (1973) Rhyolite Sigvaldason (1974) Ascension and the Azores Quartz saturated residue Clague (1987) 14 Azores and the Canaries Silica oversaturated...

  5. After the disaster: the hydrogeomorphic, ecological, and biological responses to the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens, Washington (United States)

    Major, Jon J.; Crisafulli, Charlie; Bishop, John


    The 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens caused instantaneous landscape disturbance on a grand scale. On 18 May 1980, an ensemble of volcanic processes, including a debris avalanche, a directed pyroclastic density current, voluminous lahars, and widespread tephra fall, abruptly altered landscape hydrology and geomorphology, and created distinctive disturbance zones having varying impacts on regional biota. Response to the geological and ecological disturbances has been varied and complex. In general, eruption-induced alterations in landscape hydrology and geomorphology led to enhanced stormflow discharge and sediment transport. Although the hydrological response to landscape perturbation has diminished, enhanced sediment transport persists in some basins. In the nearly 30 years since the eruption, 350 million (metric) tons of suspended sediment has been delivered from the Toutle River watershed to the Cowlitz River (roughly 40 times the average annual preeruption suspended-sediment discharge of the Columbia River). Such prodigious sediment loading has wreaked considerable socioeconomic havoc, causing significant channel aggradation and loss of flood conveyance capacity. Significant and ongoing engineering efforts have been required to mitigate these problems. The overall biological evolution of the eruption-impacted landscape can be viewed in terms of a framework of survivor legacies. Despite appearances to the contrary, a surprising number of species survived the eruption, even in the most heavily devastated areas. With time, survivor “hotspots” have coalesced into larger patches, and have served as stepping stones for immigrant colonization. The importance of biological legacies will diminish with time, but the intertwined trajectories of geophysical and biological successions will influence the geological and biological responses to the 1980 eruption for decades to come.

  6. The eruptive chronology of the Ampato-Sabancaya volcanic complex (Southern Peru) (United States)

    Samaniego, Pablo; Rivera, Marco; Mariño, Jersy; Guillou, Hervé; Liorzou, Céline; Zerathe, Swann; Delgado, Rosmery; Valderrama, Patricio; Scao, Vincent


    We have reconstructed the eruptive chronology of the Ampato-Sabancaya volcanic complex (Southern Peru) on the basis of extensive fieldwork, and a large dataset of geochronological (40K-40Ar, 14C and 3He) and geochemical (major and trace element) data. This volcanic complex is composed of two successive edifices that have experienced discontinuous volcanic activity from Middle Pleistocene to Holocene times. The Ampato compound volcano consists of a basal edifice constructed over at least two cone-building stages dated at 450-400 ka and 230-200 ka. After a period of quiescence, the Ampato Upper edifice was constructed firstly during an effusive stage (80-70 ka), and then by the formation of three successive peaks: the Northern, Southern (40-20 ka) and Central cones (20-10 ka). The Southern peak, which is the biggest, experienced large explosive phases, resulting in deposits such as the Corinta plinian fallout. During the Holocene, eruptive activity migrated to the NE and constructed the mostly effusive Sabancaya edifice. This cone comprised many andesitic and dacitic blocky lava flows and a young terminal cone, mostly composed of pyroclastic material. Most samples from the Ampato-Sabancaya define a broad high-K magmatic trend composed of andesites and dacites with a mineral assemblage of plagioclase, amphibole, biotite, ortho- and clino-pyroxene, and Fe-Ti oxides. A secondary trend also exists, corresponding to rare dacitic explosive eruptions (i.e. Corinta fallout and flow deposits). Both magmatic trends are derived by fractional crystallisation involving an amphibole-rich cumulate with variable amounts of upper crustal assimilation. A marked change in the overall eruptive rate has been identified between Ampato ( 0.1 km3/ka) and Sabancaya (0.6-1.7 km3/ka). This abrupt change demonstrates that eruptive rates have not been homogeneous throughout the volcano's history. Based on tephrochronologic studies, the Late Holocene Sabancaya activity is characterised by strong

  7. Magmatic Ascent and Eruption Processes on Mercury (United States)

    Head, J. W.; Wilson, L.


    MESSENGER volcanic landform data and information on crustal composition allow us to model the generation, ascent, and eruption of magma; Mercury explosive and effusive eruption processes differ significantly from other terrestrial planetary bodies.

  8. Volcanic eruptions are cooling the earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groenaas, Sigbjoern


    The article discusses how volcanic eruptions may influence the climate. The environmental impacts both on the earth surface and the atmosphere are surveyed. Some major eruptions in modern times are mentioned

  9. Geology of Tok Island, Korea: eruptive and depositional processes of a shoaling to emergent island volcano (United States)

    Sohn, Y. K.


    Detailed mapping of Tok Island, located in the middle of the East Sea (Sea of Japan), along with lithofacies analysis and K-Ar age determinations reveal that the island is of early to late Pliocene age and comprises eight rock units: Trachyte I, Unit P-I, Unit P-II, Trachyandesite (2.7±0.1 Ma), Unit P-III, Trachyte II (2.7±0.1 Ma), Trachyte III (2.5±0.1 Ma) and dikes in ascending stratigraphic order. Trachyte I is a mixture of coherent trachytic lavas and breccias that are interpreted to be subaqueous lavas and related hyaloclastites. Unit P-I comprises massive and inversely graded basaltic breccias which resulted from subaerial gain flows and subaqueous debris flows. A basalt clast from the unit, derived from below Trachyte I, has an age of 4.6±0.4 Ma. Unit P-II is composed of graded and stratified lapilli tuffs with the characteristics of proximal pyroclastic surge deposits. The Trachyandesite is a massive subaerial lava ponded in a volcano-tectonic depression, probably a summit crater. A pyroclastic sequence containing flattened scoria clasts (Unit P-III) and a small volume subaerial lava (Trachyte II) occur above the Trachyandesite, suggesting resumption of pyroclastic activity and lava effusion. Afterwards, shallow intrusion of magma occurred, producing Trachyte III and trachyte dikes. The eight rock units provide an example of the changing eruptive and depositional processes and resultant succession of lithofacies as a seamount builds up above sea level to form an island volcano: Trachyte I represents a wholly subaqueous and effusive stage; Units P-I and P-II represent Surtseyan and Taalian eruptive phases during an explosive transitional (subaqueous to emergent) stage; and the other rock units represent later subaerial effusive and explosive stages. Reconstruction of volcano morphology suggests that the island is a remnant of the south-western crater rim of a volcano the vent of which lies several hundred meters to the north-east.

  10. Petrogenesis of Rinjani Post-1257-Caldera-Forming-Eruption Lava Flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heryadi Rachmat


    Full Text Available DOI:10.17014/ijog.3.2.107-126After the catastrophic 1257 caldera-forming eruption, a new chapter of Old Rinjani volcanic activity beganwith the appearance of Rombongan and Barujari Volcanoes within the caldera. However, no published petrogeneticstudy focuses mainly on these products. The Rombongan eruption in 1944 and Barujari eruptions in pre-1944, 1966,1994, 2004, and 2009 produced basaltic andesite pyroclastic materials and lava flows. A total of thirty-one sampleswere analyzed, including six samples for each period of eruption except from 2004 (only one sample. The sampleswere used for petrography, whole-rock geochemistry, and trace and rare earth element analyses. The Rombonganand Barujari lavas are composed of calc-alkaline and high K calc-alkaline porphyritic basaltic andesite. The magmashows narrow variation of SiO2 content that implies small changes during its generation. The magma that formedRombongan and Barujari lavas is island-arc alkaline basalt. Generally, data show that the rocks are enriched in LargeIon Lithophile Elements (LILE: K, Rb, Ba, Sr, and Ba and depleted in High Field Strength Elements (HFSE: Y, Ti,and Nb which are typically a suite from a subduction zone. The pattern shows a medium enrichment in Light REEand relatively depleted in Heavy REE. The processes are dominantly controlled by fractional crystallization andmagma mixing. All of the Barujari and Rombongan lavas would have been produced by the same source of magmawith little variation in composition caused by host rock filter process. New flux of magma would likely have occurredfrom pre-1944 until 2009 period that indicates slightly decrease and increase of SiO2 content. The Rombongan andBarujari lava generations show an arc magma differentiation trend.

  11. Doppler weather radar observations of the 2009 eruption of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska (United States)

    Schneider, David J.; Hoblitt, Richard P.


    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) deployed a transportable Doppler C-band radar during the precursory stage of the 2009 eruption of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska that provided valuable information during subsequent explosive events. We describe the capabilities of this new monitoring tool and present data captured during the Redoubt eruption. The MiniMax 250-C (MM-250C) radar detected seventeen of the nineteen largest explosive events between March 23 and April 4, 2009. Sixteen of these events reached the stratosphere (above 10 km) within 2–5 min of explosion onset. High column and proximal cloud reflectivity values (50 to 60 dBZ) were observed from many of these events, and were likely due to the formation of mm-sized accretionary tephra-ice pellets. Reflectivity data suggest that these pellets formed within the first few minutes of explosion onset. Rapid sedimentation of the mm-sized pellets was observed as a decrease in maximum detection cloud height. The volcanic cloud from the April 4 explosive event showed lower reflectivity values, due to finer particle sizes (related to dome collapse and related pyroclastic flows) and lack of significant pellet formation. Eruption durations determined by the radar were within a factor of two compared to seismic and pressure-sensor derived estimates, and were not well correlated. Ash dispersion observed by the radar was primarily in the upper troposphere below 10 km, but satellite observations indicate the presence of volcanogenic clouds in the stratosphere. This study suggests that radar is a valuable complement to traditional seismic and satellite monitoring of explosive eruptions.

  12. An Unusual Case Report of Erupted Odontoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhaval Mehta


    Full Text Available Odontomas are the most common of the odontogenic tumors of the jaws, which are benign, slow growing, and nonaggressive. They are usually asymptomatic and found in routine dental radiographic examination. Odontomas are usually associated with tooth eruption disturbances. Eruption of odontoma in oral cavity is rare entity. Here we report a case of an unusual erupted compound odontoma.

  13. Eruption Cyst in the Neonate. (United States)

    de Oliveira, Alline J; Silveira, Maria Lg; Duarte, Danilo A; Diniz, Michele B


    The pediatric dental approach to the oral cavity of newborns requires special attention, as many aspects are unique and peculiar to this period of life. It is important that pediatricians and pediatric dentists be aware of the characteristics within normal newborn patterns and prepared to make a correct diagnosis of abnormalities at early stages. Congenital eruption cysts (ECs) are rarely observed in newborns, as at this stage of a child's life, tooth eruption is unusual. This study reports a case of EC treated successfully by monitoring of the lesion, without any surgical procedure. In the 4th month, the lesion had completely regressed, and the deciduous central incisors had erupted without problems. The clinical and radiographic monitoring of ECs in newborns seems to be a satisfactory management procedure, similar to what is recommended for older children. How to cite this article: de Oliveira AJ, Silveira MLG, Duarte DA, Diniz MB. Eruption Cyst in the Neonate. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2018;11(1):58-60.

  14. Eruptive viscosity and volcano morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posin, S.B.; Greeley, R.


    Terrestrial central volcanoes formed predominantly from lava flows were classified as shields, stratovolcanoes, and domes. Shield volcanoes tend to be large in areal extent, have convex slopes, and are characterized by their resemblance to inverted hellenic war shields. Stratovolcanoes have concave slopes, whereas domes are smaller and have gentle convex slopes near the vent that increase near the perimeter. In addition to these differences in morphology, several other variations were observed. The most important is composition: shield volcanoes tend to be basaltic, stratovolcanoes tend to be andesitic, and domes tend to be dacitic. However, important exceptions include Fuji, Pico, Mayon, Izalco, and Fuego which have stratovolcano morphologies but are composed of basaltic lavas. Similarly, Ribkwo is a Kenyan shield volcano composed of trachyte and Suswa and Kilombe are shields composed of phonolite. These exceptions indicate that eruptive conditions, rather than composition, may be the primary factors that determine volcano morphology. The objective of this study is to determine the relationships, if any, between eruptive conditions (viscosity, erupted volume, and effusion rate) and effusive volcano morphology. Moreover, it is the goal of this study to incorporate these relationships into a model to predict the eruptive conditions of extraterrestrial (Martian) volcanoes based on their morphology

  15. New insights on entrainment and condensation in volcanic plumes: Constraints from independent observations of explosive eruptions and implications for assessing their impacts (United States)

    Aubry, Thomas J.; Jellinek, A. Mark


    The turbulent entrainment of atmosphere and the condensation of water vapor govern the heights of explosive volcanic plumes. These processes thus determine the delivery and the lifetime of volcanic ash and aerosols into the atmosphere. Predictions of plume heights using one-dimensional "integral" models of volcanic plumes, however, suffer from very large uncertainties, related to parameterizations for entrainment and condensation. In particular, the wind entrainment coefficient β, which governs the contribution of crosswinds to turbulent entrainment, is subject to uncertainties of one order of magnitude, leading to relative uncertainties of the order of 50% on plume height. In this study, we use a database of 94 eruptive phases with independent estimates of mass eruption rate and plume height to constrain and evaluate four popular 1D models. We employ re-sampling methods to account for observational uncertainties. We show that plume height predictions are significantly improved when: i) the contribution of water vapor condensation to the plume buoyancy flux is excluded; and ii) the wind entrainment coefficient β is held constant between 0.1 and 0.4. We explore implications of these results for predicting the climate impacts of explosive eruptions and the likelihood that eruptions will form stable umbrella clouds or devastating pyroclastic flows. Last, we discuss the sensitivity of our results to the definition of plume height in the model in light of a recent set of laboratory experiments and draw conclusions for improving future databases of eruption parameters.

  16. Virtual Reality Training System for a Submarine Command Center

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maxwell, Douglas B


    The invention as disclosed is a system that uses a combined real and virtual display interaction methodology to generate the visual appearance of submarine combat control rooms and allow interaction...

  17. Submarine Upward Looking Sonar Ice Draft Profile Data and Statistics (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of upward looking sonar draft data collected by submarines in the Arctic Ocean. It includes data from both U.S. Navy and Royal Navy...

  18. Origin of Abiotic Methane in Submarine Hydrothermal Systems (United States)

    Seewald, J. S.; German, C. R.; Grozeva, N. G.; Klein, F.; McDermott, J. M.; Ono, S.; Reeves, E. P.; Wang, D. T.


    Results of recent investigations into the chemical and isotopic composition of actively venting submarine hydrothermal fluids and volatile species trapped in fluid inclusions will be discussed in the context of processes responsible for abiotic CH4 formation.

  19. Fracture propagation in gas pipelines - relevance to submarine lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fearnehough, G D [British Gas Corp., Newcastle upon Tyne. Engineering Research Station


    This paper reviews the factors which control fracture propagation in pipes and suggests how they are influenced by submarine environments. If fracture arrest capability is required then these factors should be considered in terms of the design philosophy and the maximum tolerable length of fracture which can be repaired. The paper shows that brittle fracture characteristics of submarine pipelines are probably similar to land based lines and fracture arrest can only be guaranteed by appropriate material toughness specification. Resistance to ductile fracture propagation in submarine lines is enhanced by lower design stresses, thicker pipe, concrete coating and the effect of hydrostatic head on gas dynamics. However, additional factors due to submarine design can be deleterious viz: uncertainty about backfill integrity and a tendency of thicker steels to low fracture resistance arising from 'separation' formation. Attention is drawn to problems which may arise with transportation of gases rich in hydrocarbons and the use of mechanical methods of fracture arrest.

  20. Exploration of submarine wake and powering performance using CFD method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huizhi, Y.; Hongcui, S.; Nan, Z.; Renyou, Y.; Liangmei, Y.


    In response to the needs of better design and less time, Computational Fluid Dynamic(CFD) methods have become an impartible part in the ship design, especially in the earlier design phases. In this paper FLUENT software was used to predict the wake character and powering performance of submarine at model scale. By an effective combination of the block topology, grid, turbulence model and validation, the simulation scheme was developed and applied to the predictions of multiple designs and optimizations of the earlier submarine design iterations. The incompressible RANS equations with different turbulence models were solved. To handle the block interface between the propeller and submarine stern, sliding girds in multiple blocks were employed, unstructural grids were used in the block around the propeller. Submarine with/without stator and/or propeller were studied. The flow feature, forces and powering performance at various conditions were calculated. The results were compared with experimental data, and a good agreement was obtained. (author)

  1. Submarine Biofouling Control- Chlorination DATS Study at Pearl Harbor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wegand, John


    The intent of this document is to sumarize the chlorination studies performed at Naval Station, Pearl Harbor in support of biofouling control initiatives for the submarine community, as requested by NAVSEA 92T...

  2. 30 years in the life of an active submarine volcano: The evolution of Kick-`em-Jenny and implications for hazard in the southern Caribbean (United States)

    Allen, R. W.; Berry, C.; Henstock, T.; Collier, J.; Dondin, F. J. Y.; Latchman, J. L.; Robertson, R. E. A.


    Effective monitoring is an essential part of the process of identifying and mitigating volcanic hazards. In the submarine environment this task is made all the more difficult with observations typically limited to land-based seismic networks and infrequent shipboard surveys. Since announcing itself to the world in 1939, the Kick-`em-Jenny (KeJ) volcano, 8km off of the north coast of Grenada, has been the source of 13 episodes of T-phase recordings. These distinctive seismic signals, often coincident with heightened seismicity, have been interpreted as extrusive eruptions with a mean recurrence interval of 5-6 years. Visual confirmation of these episodes is rare and many would be unknown without the seismic evidence. By conducting new bathymetric surveys in 2016 and 2017 and reprocessing 3 further legacy data sets spanning more than 30 years and several such events we are able to present a clearer picture of the development of KeJ through time. The final bathymetric grids produced have a cell size of just 5m and, for the more modern surveys, a vertical accuracy on the order of 1m. These grids easily demonstrate the correlation between T-phase episodes and morphological changes at the volcano's edifice. In the time-period of observation we document a clear construction deficit at KeJ with only 5.75x106m3 of material added through constructive volcanism, while 5 times this amount is lost through landslides and volcanic dome collapse. The peak depth of KeJ now sits at 196m b.s.l., the lowest recorded since 1966. Limited recent magma production means that KeJ may be susceptible to larger eruptions with longer repeat times than those covered in our study. These larger eruptions would pose a more significant local hazard than the small scale volcanic events observed in recent decades. We conclude that T-phase recordings are likely to have a more varied origin than previously discussed, and are unlikely to be solely the result of extrusive submarine eruptions. This

  3. Volcanic Eruption: Students Develop a Contingency Plan (United States)

    Meisinger, Philipp; Wittlich, Christian


    , causing a blockage and afflux of the Rhine, which, due to the given conditions of a very narrow valley, would lead to excessive flooding affecting even the greater Rhine-Main-region. Not to mention the consequences of a pyroclastic flow, dropping volcanic bombs and further hazardous/disastrous consequences. In comparison to other "potentially active" or "active volcanoes", e.g. the Vesuvius, the Laacher See is scarcely monitored and according to recent publications poorly analyzed in terms of contingency and evacuation plans. This offers space for critical analysis and creative solutions to an existing problem. Short: We need geographers and their knowledge to provide help. Given these facts, the Laacher See could be the layout for a very interesting geography project bringing together previously gained knowledge and understanding of volcanic activities, their destructive powers, consequences and risks in case of an eruption in combination with their topographical characteristics. Your students thereby act the role of a geoscientist developing contingency plans and evacuation zones for the greater Laacher See area. This involves a detailed analysis of the topographical characteristics based on (classic) topographic maps or online via the use of a GIS (e.g. Google maps). In a second step students enlist the possible consequences they already know according to their range and copy them onto a transparency layer on the topographic map. Using such a layer technique students add population density, important topographic features and maybe even anticipated wind directions to their map. The information density and the specific layout of this map are thereby only determined by the student's previous knowledge, their personal abilities and skills and the amount of time provided. This offers the opportunities to even differentiate the task within your group and provide support adjusted to the individual students level. On the basis of their own thematic map your students should be

  4. Operational Planning for Theater Anti-Submarine Warfare (United States)


    or P-8 as a supplementary platform to a ship or sub and never assigned to search alone . This thesis allows the MPRA to search alone and has 10 a...Marina, I will truly miss sitting in class with you guys wondering what a basis is. Finally, to my dog, Dougie: thank you for not eating my homework...can have trouble searching and tracking one submarine, let alone multiple submarines in different regions or mission areas. B. LITERATURE REVIEW

  5. Topology Model of the Flow around a Submarine Hull Form (United States)


    UNCLASSIFIED Topology Model of the Flow around a Submarine Hull Form S.-K. Lee Maritime Division Defence Science and Technology Group DST-Group–TR...3177 ABSTRACT A topology model constructed from surface-streamer visualisation describes the flow around a generic conventional submarine hull form at...pure yaw angles of 0 ◦, 10 ◦ and 18 ◦. The model is used to develop equations for sway-force and yaw-moment coefficients which relate to the hull - form

  6. Pre-eruptive conditions of dacitic magma erupted during the 21.7 ka Plinian event at Nevado de Toluca volcano, Central Mexico (United States)

    Arce, J. L.; Gardner, J. E.; Macías, J. L.


    The Nevado de Toluca volcano in Central Mexico has been active over the last ca. 42 ka, during which tens of km3 of pyroclastic material were erupted and two important Plinian-type eruptions occurred at ca. 21.7 ka (Lower Toluca Pumice: LTP) and ca. 10.5 ka (Upper Toluca Pumice: UTP). Samples from both the LTP and UTP contain plagioclase, amphibole, iron-titanium oxides, and minor anhedral biotite, set in a vesicular, rhyolitic, glassy matrix. In addition, UTP dacites contain orthopyroxene. Analysis of melt inclusions in plagioclase phenocrysts yields H2O contents of 2-3.5 wt.% for LTP and 1.3-3.6 wt.% for UTP samples. Ilmenite-ulvospinel geothermometry yields an average temperature of ~ 868 °C for the LTP magma (hotter than the UTP magma, ~ 842 °C; Arce et al., 2006), whereas amphibole-plagioclase geothermometry yields a temperature of 825-859 °C for the LTP magma. Water-saturated experiments using LTP dacite suggest that: (i) amphibole is stable above 100 MPa and below 900 °C; (ii) plagioclase crystallizes below 250-100 MPa at temperatures of 850-900 °C; and (iii) pyroxene is stable only below pressures of 200-100 MPa and temperatures of 825-900 °C. Comparison of natural and experimental data suggests that the LTP dacitic magma was stored at 150-200 MPa (5.8-7.7 km below the volcano summit). No differences in pressure found between 21.7 ka and 10.5 ka suggest that these two magmas were stored at similar depths. Orthopyroxene produced in lower temperature LTP experiments is compositionally different to those found in UTP natural samples, suggesting that they originated in two different magma batches. Whole-rock chemistry, petrographic features, and mineral compositions suggest that magma mixing was responsible for the generation of the dacitic Plinian LTP eruption.

  7. Remote Sensing and GIS as Tools for Identifying Risk for Phreatomagmatic Eruptions in the Bishoftu Volcanic Field, Ethiopia (United States)

    Pennington, H. G.; Graettinger, A.


    Bishoftu is a fast-growing town in the Oromia region of Ethiopia, located 47 km southeast of the nation's capital, Addis Ababa. It is situated atop a monogenetic basaltic volcanic field, called the Bishoftu Volcanic Field (BVF), which is composed of maar craters, scoria cones, lava flows, and rhyolite domes. Although not well dated, the morphology and archeological evidence have been used to infer a Holocene age, indicating that the community is exposed to continued volcanic risk. The presence of phreatomagmatic constructs in particular indicates that the hazards are not only vent-localized, but may have far reaching impacts. Hazard mapping is an essential tool for evaluating and communicating risks. This study presents the results of GIS analyses of proximal and distal syn-eruptive hazards associated with phreatomagmatic eruptions in the BVF. A digitized infrastructure map based on a SPOT 6 satellite image is used to identify the areas at risk from eruption scenarios. Parameters such as wind direction, vent location, and explosion energy are varied for hazard simulations to quantify the area impacted by different eruption scenarios. Proximal syn-eruptive hazards include tephra fall, base pyroclastic surges, and ballistic bombs. Distal hazards include predominantly ash fall. Eruption scenarios are simulated using Eject and Plumeria models as well as similar case studies from other urban volcanic fields. Within 5 km of the volcanic field center, more than 30 km2 of residential and commercial/industrial infrastructure will be damaged by proximal syn-eruptive hazards, in addition to 34 km2 of agricultural land, 291 km of roads, more than 10 km of railway, an airport, and two health centers. Within 100 km of the volcanic field center, ash fall will affect 3946 km2 of agricultural land, 179 km2 of residential land, and 28 km2 of commercial/industrial land. Approximately 2700 km of roads and railways, 553 km of waterways, an airport, and 14 health centers are located

  8. Nature and Intensity of the 22-23 April 2015 Eruptions of Volcán Calbuco, Chile, from Satellite, Lightning, and Field Observations (United States)

    Van Eaton, A. R.; Amigo, A.; Bertin, D.; Mastin, L. G.; Giacosa, R.; Behnke, S. A.


    On 22 April 2015, Calbuco Volcano in southern Chile erupted for the first time in 43 years. The two primary phases of eruption, separated by a few hours, produced pyroclastic density currents, lahars, and spectacular vertical eruption columns that rose into the stratosphere. Clear weather conditions allowed the populated areas of Puerto Montt and Puerto Varas full view of the lightning-rich eruption, which was rapidly shared through social media. A wealth of remote-sensing data was also publically available in near real-time. We used this information to assess the eruption behavior by combining satellite-based umbrella growth rates, and the location and frequency of volcanic lightning. Umbrella expansion rates from GOES-13 satellite retrievals correspond to eruption rates of about 4x106 kg s-1 for the first eruptive phase and 6x106 kg s-1 for the second phase, following the approach of Pouget et al. (2013, JVGR, 258, 100-112). The location and timing of lightning flashes were obtained from the World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN) Global Volcanic Lightning Monitor, which is updated approximately every minute (Ewert et al., 2010, Fall AGU Abstract AE31A-04). Interestingly, the onset of detected flashes was delayed by ~30 min after the start of each eruptive phase. Lighting provided a useful proxy for the waxing or waning intensity of the eruption, and helped identify the end of significant ash emissions. Using the 1-D volcanic plume model Plumeria, we have also simulated the vertical distribution of ash and ice in the plumes to examine potential causes of the extraordinary amount of volcanic lightning (1,094 flashes detected). Our analysis provides information on eruption timing, duration, and mass flow rate, which are necessary for ash dispersal modeling within hours of eruption. Results are also consistent with the field-based measurements of total erupted volume. We suggest that the combination of satellite-detected umbrella expansion rates with lightning

  9. Prediction of Solar Eruptions Using Filament Metadata (United States)

    Aggarwal, Ashna; Schanche, Nicole; Reeves, Katharine K.; Kempton, Dustin; Angryk, Rafal


    We perform a statistical analysis of erupting and non-erupting solar filaments to determine the properties related to the eruption potential. In order to perform this study, we correlate filament eruptions documented in the Heliophysics Event Knowledgebase (HEK) with HEK filaments that have been grouped together using a spatiotemporal tracking algorithm. The HEK provides metadata about each filament instance, including values for length, area, tilt, and chirality. We add additional metadata properties such as the distance from the nearest active region and the magnetic field decay index. We compare trends in the metadata from erupting and non-erupting filament tracks to discover which properties present signs of an eruption. We find that a change in filament length over time is the most important factor in discriminating between erupting and non-erupting filament tracks, with erupting tracks being more likely to have decreasing length. We attempt to find an ensemble of predictive filament metadata using a Random Forest Classifier approach, but find the probability of correctly predicting an eruption with the current metadata is only slightly better than chance.

  10. AMS radiocarbon dating of wood trunks in the pumiceous deposits of the Kikai-Akahoya eruption in Yakushima Island, SW Japan (United States)

    Okuno, Mitsuru; Nakamura, Toshio; Geshi, Nobuo; Kimura, Katsuhiko; Saito-Kokubu, Yoko; Kobayashi, Tetsuo


    Radiocarbon dating using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) was performed on numerous wood trunks from pumiceous deposits along the Nagata, Isso and Miyanoura rivers on the northern side of Yakushima Island, 60 km south of Kyushu Island. The obtained 14C dates were around 6.5 ka BP, which, in combination with the geological characteristics of the pumiceous deposits indicates that these specimens were buried during the Kikai-Akahoya (K-Ah) eruption from the Kikai caldera. However, the fact that they are not charred suggests that the origin of these deposits are not pyroclastic flows. Fourteen taxa (Pinus subgen. Diploxylon, Tsuga, Cryptomeria, Chamaecyparis, Myrica, Castanea, Castanopsis, Quercus subgen. Cyclobalanopsis, Trochodendron, Phellodendron, Lagerstroemia, Rhododendron, Myrsine and Symplocos) were identified through anatomical characteristics. This is the first discovery of forest species on the Yakushima Island before the devastating eruption.

  11. AMS radiocarbon dating of wood trunks in the pumiceous deposits of the Kikai-Akahoya eruption in Yakushima Island, SW Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuno, Mitsuru, E-mail: [Department of Earth System Science, Faculty of Science, Fukuoka University, 814-0180 Fukuoka (Japan); AIG Collaborative Research Institute for International Study on Eruptive History and Informatics, Fukuoka University, 814-0180 Fukuoka (Japan); Nakamura, Toshio [Center for Chronological Research, Nagoya University, 464-8602 Nagoya (Japan); Geshi, Nobuo [Geological Survey of Japan, National Institute of Advanced Science and Technology, 305-8567 Tsukuba (Japan); Kimura, Katsuhiko [Division of Environment System Management, Faculty of Symbiotic System Science, Fukushima University, 960-1296 Fukushima (Japan); Saito-Kokubu, Yoko [Tono Geoscience Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 959-31 Jorinji, Toki, Gifu 509-5102 (Japan); Kobayashi, Tetsuo [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Kagoshima University, 890-0065 Kagoshima (Japan)


    Radiocarbon dating using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) was performed on numerous wood trunks from pumiceous deposits along the Nagata, Isso and Miyanoura rivers on the northern side of Yakushima Island, 60 km south of Kyushu Island. The obtained {sup 14}C dates were around 6.5 ka BP, which, in combination with the geological characteristics of the pumiceous deposits indicates that these specimens were buried during the Kikai-Akahoya (K-Ah) eruption from the Kikai caldera. However, the fact that they are not charred suggests that the origin of these deposits are not pyroclastic flows. Fourteen taxa (Pinus subgen. Diploxylon, Tsuga, Cryptomeria, Chamaecyparis, Myrica, Castanea, Castanopsis, Quercus subgen. Cyclobalanopsis, Trochodendron, Phellodendron, Lagerstroemia, Rhododendron, Myrsine and Symplocos) were identified through anatomical characteristics. This is the first discovery of forest species on the Yakushima Island before the devastating eruption.

  12. Volcanic glass signatures in spectroscopic survey of newly proposed lunar pyroclastic deposits (United States)

    Besse, S.; Sunshine, J.M.; Gaddis, L.R.


    Moon Mineralogy Mapper spectroscopic observations are used to assess the mineralogy of five sites that have recently been proposed to include lunar dark mantle deposits (DMDs). Volcanic glasses have, for the first time, clearly been identified at the location of three of the proposed pyroclastic deposits. This is the first time that volcanic glasses have been identified at such a small scale on the lunar surface from remote sensing observations. Deposits at Birt E, Schluter, and Walther A appear to be glassy DMDs. Deposits at Birt E and Schluter show (1) morphological evidence suggesting a likely vent and (2) mineralogical evidence indicative of the presence of volcanic glasses. The Walther A deposits, although they show no morphological evidence of vents, have the spectroscopic characteristics diagnostic of volcanic glasses. The deposits of the Freundlich-Sharonov basin are separated in two areas: (1) the Buys-Ballot deposits lack mineralogical and morphological evidence and thus are found to be associated with mare volcanism not with DMDs and (2) the Anderson crater deposits, which do not exhibit glassy DMD signatures, but they appear to be associated with possible vent structures and so may be classifiable as DMDs. Finally, dark deposits near the crater Kopff are found to be associated with likely mare volcanism and not associated with DMDs. The spectral identification of volcanic glass seen in many of the potential DMDs is a strong indicator of their pyroclastic origin.

  13. Disruption of tephra fall deposits caused by lava flows during basaltic eruptions (United States)

    Brown, R. J.; Thordarson, T.; Self, S.; Blake, S.


    Observations in the USA, Iceland and Tenerife, Canary Islands reveal how processes occurring during basaltic eruptions can result in complex physical and stratigraphic relationships between lava and proximal tephra fall deposits around vents. Observations illustrate how basaltic lavas can disrupt, dissect (spatially and temporally) and alter sheet-form fall deposits. Complexity arises through synchronous and alternating effusive and explosive activity that results in intercalated lavas and tephra deposits. Tephra deposits can become disrupted into mounds and ridges by lateral and vertical displacement caused by movement (including inflation) of underlying pāhoehoe lavas and clastogenic lavas. Mounds of tephra can be rafted away over distances of 100 s to 1,000 s m from proximal pyroclastic constructs on top of lava flows. Draping of irregular topography by fall deposits and subsequent partial burial of topographic depressions by later lavas can result in apparent complexity of tephra layers. These processes, deduced from field relationships, have resulted in considerable stratigraphic complexity in the studied proximal regions where fallout was synchronous or alternated with inflation of subjacent lava sheets. These mechanisms may lead to diachronous contact relationships between fall deposits and lava flows. Such complexities may remain cryptic due to textural and geochemical quasi-homogeneity within sequences of interbedded basaltic fall deposits and lavas. The net effect of these processes may be to reduce the usefulness of data collected from proximal fall deposits for reconstructing basaltic eruption dynamics.

  14. Proximal ecological effects of the 1980 eruptions of Mount St. Helens (United States)

    Swanson, F. J.


    The diversity of ecosystems and volcanic processes involved in the 1980 eruptions of Mount St. Helens, southwest Washington, provide an excellent setting for examining effects of volcanic events on ecosystems. These eruptions included a lateral blast, debris avalanche, mudflows, pyroclastic flows, and airfall tephra. Affected ecosystems within 30 km of the vent were lakes, streams, upland and riparian forest, and meadows. Ecological disturbances imposed by the Mount St. Helens events were predominantly physical, rather than climatic or chemical which are the dominant classes of disturbances considered in analysis of global catastrophes. Analysis of ecosystem response to disturbance should be based on consideration of composition and structure of the predisturbance system in terms that represent potential survivability of organisms, mechanisms in the primary disturbance, initial survivors, secondary disturbances arising from the primary disturbance and the biological responses to secondary disturbances, invasion of the site by new propagules, interactions among secondary disturbance processes and surviving and invading organisms. Predicting ecosystem response to disturbance is enchanced by considering the mechanisms of disturbance rather than type of disturbance. In the 1980 Mount St. Helens events, the disturbance types, involved primarily the mechanisms of sedimentation, heating, and shear stress. Each disturbance type involved one or more mechanisms. Ecosystem response varied greatly across the landscape. Analysis of ecosystem response to disturbance, regardless of type, should include detailed consideration of the properties of individual species, primary and secondary disturbance mechanisms, and their distributions across landscapes.

  15. Volcanic eruptions and solar activity (United States)

    Stothers, Richard B.


    The historical record of large volcanic eruptions from 1500 to 1980 is subjected to detailed time series analysis. In two weak but probably statistically significant periodicities of about 11 and 80 yr, the frequency of volcanic eruptions increases (decreases) slightly around the times of solar minimum (maximum). Time series analysis of the volcanogenic acidities in a deep ice core from Greenland reveals several very long periods ranging from about 80 to about 350 yr which are similar to the very slow solar cycles previously detected in auroral and C-14 records. Solar flares may cause changes in atmospheric circulation patterns that abruptly alter the earth's spin. The resulting jolt probably triggers small earthquakes which affect volcanism.

  16. Relationship between work stress and health in submariners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan-nan JIANG


    Full Text Available Objective To explore the relationship between work stress and health in submariners. Methods In April 2008, 272 submariners trained in a navy base were selected as study subjects by random group sampling method, and tested by primary personal information questionnaire, self-rated health measurement scale (SRHMS, self-developed submariners' work stressors questionnaire, and work stress self-rated scale. Physical health, mental health and social health of submariners were analyzed, and scores were compared with the norm of reference scores. Correlations were analyzed respectively between 10 items of submariners' general information (including age, length of military service, education degree, years at the present post, times of receiving awards, on-duty hours, off-duty hours, hours of sleep, lost days of leave, positive attitude to work and their physical health score, mental health score, social health score, total health score, as well as between 15 submariners' work stressors (including workrelated risks, diet problems, high temperature, humidity and noise in workplace, shortage of clean clothes, illness, losing contact with outside, lack of information about the task, lacking supports from family members, relationship problems, lack of involvement in task decisions, boring and dull work, on duty, heavy work, high quality of work, coping with unexpected threat and their physical health score, mental health score, social health score and total health score. Results No significant difference was found between submariners' SRHMS total score and the normal referenced score (t=0.56, P>0.05, but the physical health score and mental health score were significantly lower than normal referenced scores respectively (t=–2.172, P<0.05; t=–3.299, P<0.01, and the social health score was significantly higher than normal referenced score (t=9.331, P<0.001. The age, length of military service, years at present post of submariners were related

  17. Tooth eruption and browridge formation. (United States)

    Russell, M D


    One of the most reasonable hypotheses regarding the functional significance of the browridge is that the supraorbital torus forms in response to masticatory stress during development. Oyen, Walker, and Rice (1979) have recently proposed a model that tests this hypothesis: if browridges are functionally related to masticatory stresses on the cranial vault, then changes in the biomechanics of the masticatory system ought to be reflected by changes in the browridge. To test their model they attempted to relate biomechanical discontinuities resulting from tooth eruption to episodes of bone deposition on the supraorbital tori of a developmental series of dry Papio crania. This paper reports on a parallel test of the model on a cross-sectional sample of Australian Aboriginal juvenile crania. This sample showed no relation between tooth eruption and the supraorbital surface morphology thought to be indicative of active bone deposition. It is also demonstrated that no significant relationship between tooth eruption and episodes of bone deposition is shown by the Papio sample. It is concluded that the use of small cross-sectional samples of dry crania does not provide a valid test of the model.

  18. Total grain-size distribution of four subplinian-Plinian tephras from Hekla volcano, Iceland: Implications for sedimentation dynamics and eruption source parameters (United States)

    Janebo, Maria H.; Houghton, Bruce F.; Thordarson, Thorvaldur; Bonadonna, Costanza; Carey, Rebecca J.


    The size distribution of the population of particles injected into the atmosphere during a volcanic explosive eruption, i.e., the total grain-size distribution (TGSD), can provide important insights into fragmentation efficiency and is a fundamental source parameter for models of tephra dispersal and sedimentation. Recent volcanic crisis (e.g. Eyjafjallajökull 2010, Iceland and Córdon Caulle 2011, Chile) and the ensuing economic losses, highlighted the need for a better constraint of eruption source parameters to be used in real-time forecasting of ash dispersal (e.g., mass eruption rate, plume height, particle features), with a special focus on the scarcity of published TGSD in the scientific literature. Here we present TGSD data associated with Hekla volcano, which has been very active in the last few thousands of years and is located on critical aviation routes. In particular, we have reconstructed the TGSD of the initial subplinian-Plinian phases of four historical eruptions, covering a range of magma composition (andesite to rhyolite), eruption intensity (VEI 4 to 5), and erupted volume (0.2 to 1 km3). All four eruptions have bimodal TGSDs with mass fraction of fine ash (primary fragmentation. Due to differences in plume height, this contrast is not seen in samples from individual sites, especially in the near field, where lapilli have a wider spatial coverage in the Plinian deposits. The distribution of pyroclast sizes in Plinian versus subplinian falls reflects competing influences of more efficient fragmentation (e.g., producing larger amounts of fine ash) versus more efficient particle transport related to higher and more vigorous plumes, displacing relatively coarse lapilli farther down the dispersal axis.

  19. Modeling tsunamis induced by retrogressive submarine landslides (United States)

    Løvholt, F.; Kim, J.; Harbitz, C. B.


    Enormous submarine landslides having volumes up to thousands of km3 and long run-out may cause tsunamis with widespread effects. Clay-rich landslides, such as Trænadjupet and Storegga offshore Norway commonly involve retrogressive mass and momentum release mechanisms that affect the tsunami generation. Therefore, such landslides may involve a large amount of smaller blocks. As a consequence, the failure mechanisms and release rate of the individual blocks are of importance for the tsunami generation. Previous attempts to model the tsunami generation due to retrogressive landslides are few, and limited to idealized conditions. Here, we review the basic effects of retrogression on tsunamigenesis in simple geometries. To this end, two different methods are employed for the landslide motion, a series block with pre-scribed time lags and kinematics, and a dynamic retrogressive model where the inter-block time lag is determined by the model. The effect of parameters such as time lag on wave-height, wave-length, and dispersion are discussed. Finally, we discuss how the retrogressive effects may have influenced the tsunamis due to large landslides such as the Storegga slide. The research leading to these results has received funding from the Research Council of Norway under grant number 231252 (Project TsunamiLand) and the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement 603839 (Project ASTARTE).

  20. Seismic reflections associated with submarine gas hydrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreassen, K


    Gas hydrates are often suggested as a future energy resource. This doctoral thesis improves the understanding of the concentration and distribution of natural submarine gas hydrates. The presence of these hydrates are commonly inferred from strong bottom simulating reflection (BSR). To investigate the nature of BSR, this work uses seismic studies of hydrate-related BSRs at two different locations, one where gas hydrates are accepted to exist and interpreted to be very extensive (in the Beaufort Sea), the other with good velocity data and downhole logs available (offshore Oregon). To ascertain the presence of free gas under the BSR, prestack offset data must supplement near-vertical incidence seismic data. A tentative model for physical properties of sediments partially saturated with gas hydrate and free gas is presented. This model, together with drilling information and seismic data containing the BSR beneath the Oregon margin and the Beaufort Sea, made it possible to better understand when to apply the amplitude-versus-offset (AVO) method to constrain BSR gas hydrate and gas models. Distribution of natural gas hydrates offshore Norway and Svalbard is discussed and interpreted as reflections from the base of gas hydrate-bearing sediments, overlying sediments containing free gas. Gas hydrates inferred to exist at the Norwegian-Svalbard continental margin correlate well with Cenozoic depocenters, and the associated gas is assumed to be mainly biogenic. Parts of that margin have a high potential for natural gas hydrates of both biogenic and thermogenic origin. 235 refs., 86 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Submarine landslides in Arctic sedimentation: Canada Basin (United States)

    Mosher, David C.; Shimeld, John; Hutchinson, Deborah R.; Lebedova-Ivanova, N; Chapman, C.


    Canada Basin of the Arctic Ocean is the least studied ocean basin in the World. Marine seismic field programs were conducted over the past 6 years using Canadian and American icebreakers. These expeditions acquired more than 14,000 line-km of multibeam bathymetric and multi-channel seismic reflection data over abyssal plain, continental rise and slope regions of Canada Basin; areas where little or no seismic reflection data existed previously. Canada Basin is a turbidite-filled basin with flat-lying reflections correlateable over 100s of km. For the upper half of the sedimentary succession, evidence of sedimentary processes other than turbidity current deposition is rare. The Canadian Archipelago and Beaufort Sea margins host stacked mass transport deposits from which many of these turbidites appear to derive. The stratigraphic succession of the MacKenzie River fan is dominated by mass transport deposits; one such complex is in excess of 132,000 km2 in area and underlies much of the southern abyssal plain. The modern seafloor is also scarred with escarpments and mass failure deposits; evidence that submarine landsliding is an ongoing process. In its latest phase of development, Canada Basin is geomorphologically confined with stable oceanographic structure, resulting in restricted depositional/reworking processes. The sedimentary record, therefore, underscores the significance of mass-transport processes in providing sediments to oceanic abyssal plains as few other basins are able to do.

  2. Seismic reflections associated with submarine gas hydrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreassen, K.


    Gas hydrates are often suggested as a future energy resource. This doctoral thesis improves the understanding of the concentration and distribution of natural submarine gas hydrates. The presence of these hydrates are commonly inferred from strong bottom simulating reflection (BSR). To investigate the nature of BSR, this work uses seismic studies of hydrate-related BSRs at two different locations, one where gas hydrates are accepted to exist and interpreted to be very extensive (in the Beaufort Sea), the other with good velocity data and downhole logs available (offshore Oregon). To ascertain the presence of free gas under the BSR, prestack offset data must supplement near-vertical incidence seismic data. A tentative model for physical properties of sediments partially saturated with gas hydrate and free gas is presented. This model, together with drilling information and seismic data containing the BSR beneath the Oregon margin and the Beaufort Sea, made it possible to better understand when to apply the amplitude-versus-offset (AVO) method to constrain BSR gas hydrate and gas models. Distribution of natural gas hydrates offshore Norway and Svalbard is discussed and interpreted as reflections from the base of gas hydrate-bearing sediments, overlying sediments containing free gas. Gas hydrates inferred to exist at the Norwegian-Svalbard continental margin correlate well with Cenozoic depocenters, and the associated gas is assumed to be mainly biogenic. Parts of that margin have a high potential for natural gas hydrates of both biogenic and thermogenic origin. 235 refs., 86 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Design and analysis of submarine radome (United States)

    Sandeep, C. Satya; Prasad, U. Shiva; Suresh, R.; Rathan, A.; Sravanthi, G.; Govardhan, D.


    Radomes are the electromagnetic windows that protect microwave sub-systems from the environmental effects. The major requirement of radome is its transparency to microwaves and for most of the cases mechanical properties are also equally important. Radome for underwater applications has to withstand high water pressure of the order of 45 bars. Composite materials owing to their high strength to weight ratio, high stiffness and better corrosion resistance are potential source for under water applications. The concept of 'tailoring' the material properties to suit the radome is obtained by selecting proper reinforcement, resin matrix and their compositions. The mechanical properties of composite material, evaluated by testing specimens as per ASTM standards, are utilized in designing the radome. The modulus properties calculated using classical theories of composite materials and compared with test results. ANSYS a Finite Element software package used to analyse the problem. As the cross sectional thickness of radome varies, the complexity in fabrication is overcome by adopting matched die techniques. The radome design and finite element analysis validation concluded by conducting the pressure test on radome. On the design a modal analysis is also carried to check for the natural frequency, So that resonance does not occur if the natural frequency of the radome coincides with the excitation frequency of the submarine Clinical information system (CIS) for UNRWA is a computerized distributed application that used in clinics which follows the United Nations Relief and Works Agency (UNRWA) to manage the clinical requirements and services.

  4. Pre-eruptive conditions of the ~31 ka rhyolitic magma of Tlaloc volcano, Sierra Nevada Volcanic Range, Central Mexico (United States)

    Macias, J.; Arce, J.; Rueda, H.; Gardner, J.


    Tlaloc volcano is located at the northern tip of the Sierra Nevada Volcanic Range in Central Mexico. This Pleistocene to Recent volcanic range consists from north to south of Tlaloc-Telapón-Teyotl-Iztaccíhuatl-and- Popocatépetl volcanoes. While andesitic to barely dacitic volcanism dominates the southern part of the range (i.e. Popocatépetl and Iztaccíhuatl); dacitic and rare rhyolithic volcanism (i.e. Telapón, Tlaloc) dominates the northern end. The known locus of rhyolitic magmatism took place at Tlaloc volcano with a Plinian-Subplinian eruption that occurred 31 ka ago. The eruption emplaced the so-called multilayered fallout and pumiceous pyroclastic flows (~2 km3 DRE). The deposit consists of 95% vol. of juvenile particles (pumice + crystals) and minor altered lithics 5% vol. The mineral association of the pumice fragments (74-76 % wt. SiO2) consists of quartz + plagioclase + sanidine + biotite and rare oxides set in a glassy groundmass with voids. Melt inclusions in quartz phenocrysts suggest that prior to the eruption the rhyolitic contain ~7% of H2O and Nevado de Toluca volcano (~6 km) some 50 km to the southwest.

  5. Phreatic eruption clouds: the activity of La Soufriere de Guadeloupe, F. W. I. , August-October, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiken, G.; Crowe, B.; McGetchin, T.; West, F.; Eichelberger, J.; Bartram, D.; Peterson, R.; Wohletz, K.


    From August to October, 1976, La Soufriere de Guadeloupe was observed, and recorded with an automated sequence camera and numerous handheld cameras. During the period of observation, the nature of volcanic activity ranged from mild steam emission to moderately energetic phraetic eruptions. The concurrent growth of clouds from separate vents (summit and flank) implies a common source. Simultaneous eruption of tephra-free and tephra-laden clouds from the same vent is puzzling and implies: (i) lateral changes in the degree of alteration of dome rocks along the elongate vent, hence erodability of the dome lavas, or (ii) differences in the gas velocities. These mixed clouds moved westward, downwind and downslope as a density current, with an approximate velocity of 10 to 25 m/sec. Upon reaching the sea the clouds continued to move forward, but at a decreased velocity, and spread laterally, having left behind the restrictions of valley walls. A thin gray veneer of moist tephra, ranging from several cm thick near the dome to less than 1 mm thick several km downwind, was deposited along a narrow corridor southwest of the summit. Tephra from the phreatic eruptions consisted mostly of hydrothermally altered lithic, mineral, and glass fragments derived from dome lavas; no fresh (juvenile) pyroclasts were present in the tephra.

  6. New insights on the petrology of submarine volcanics from the Western Pontine Archipelago (Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy) (United States)

    Conte, A. M.; Perinelli, C.; Bianchini, G.; Natali, C.; Martorelli, E.; Chiocci, F. L.


    The Pontine Islands form a volcanic archipelago in the Tyrrhenian Sea. It consists of two edifices, the islands of Ponza, Palmarola and Zannone and the islands of Ventotene and Santo Stefano, respectively. The Archipelago developed during two main volcanic cycles in the Plio-Pleistocene: 1) the Pliocene episode erupted subalkaline, silica-rich volcanic units, which constitute the dominant products in the western edifice (Ponza and Zannone Islands); 2) the Pleistocene episode erupted more alkaline products, represented by evolved rocks (trachytes to peralkaline rhyolites) in the islands of Ponza and Palmarola and by basic to intermediate rocks in the eastern edifice (Ventotene and Santo Stefano Islands). In this paper we present new geochemical and petrological data from submarine rock samples collected in two oceanographic cruises and a scuba diving survey. The main result is the recovery of relatively undifferentiated lithotypes that provide further insights on the magmatic spectrum existing in the Pontine Archipelago, allowing modelling of the whole suite of rocks by fractional crystallization processes. New major and trace element data and thermodynamic constrains (by the software PELE) indicate the existence of three distinct evolutionary trends corresponding to a HK calcalkaline series in the Pliocene, followed by a transitional and then by a shoshonite series in the Pleistocene. In particular, the transitional series, so far overlooked in the literature, is required in order to explain the genesis of several peralkaline felsic rocks recognized in the Archipelago. On the whole, the new geochemical data i) confirm the orogenic signature of the suites, ii) allow to rule out an anatectic origin for both subalkaline and peralkaline rhyolites and iii) indicate highly heterogeneous mantle sources, due to crustal components variously recycled in the mantle via subduction.

  7. Volcanic sulfur dioxide index and volcanic explosivity index inferred from eruptive volume of volcanoes in Jeju Island, Korea: application to volcanic hazard mitigation (United States)

    Ko, Bokyun; Yun, Sung-Hyo


    Jeju Island located in the southwestern part of Korea Peninsula is a volcanic island composed of lavaflows, pyroclasts, and around 450 monogenetic volcanoes. The volcanic activity of the island commenced with phreatomagmatic eruptions under subaqueous condition ca. 1.8-2.0 Ma and lasted until ca. 1,000 year BP. For evaluating volcanic activity of the most recently erupted volcanoes with reported age, volcanic explosivity index (VEI) and volcanic sulfur dioxide index (VSI) of three volcanoes (Ilchulbong tuff cone, Songaksan tuff ring, and Biyangdo scoria cone) are inferred from their eruptive volumes. The quantity of eruptive materials such as tuff, lavaflow, scoria, and so on, is calculated using a model developed in Auckland Volcanic Field which has similar volcanic setting to the island. The eruptive volumes of them are 11,911,534 m3, 24,987,557 m3, and 9,652,025 m3, which correspond to VEI of 3, 3, and 2, respectively. According to the correlation between VEI and VSI, the average quantity of SO2 emission during an eruption with VEI of 3 is 2-8 × 103 kiloton considering that the island was formed under intraplate tectonic setting. Jeju Island was regarded as an extinct volcano, however, several studies have recently reported some volcanic eruption ages within 10,000 year BP owing to the development in age dating technique. Thus, the island is a dormant volcano potentially implying high probability to erupt again in the future. The volcanoes might have explosive eruptions (vulcanian to plinian) with the possibility that SO2 emitted by the eruption reaches stratosphere causing climate change due to backscattering incoming solar radiation, increase in cloud reflectivity, etc. Consequently, recommencement of volcanic eruption in the island is able to result in serious volcanic hazard and this study provides fundamental and important data for volcanic hazard mitigation of East Asia as well as the island. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS: This research was supported by a grant [MPSS

  8. Volcanic Eruptions and Climate: Outstanding Research Issues (United States)

    Robock, Alan


    Large volcanic eruptions inject sulfur gases into the stratosphere, which convert to sulfate aerosols with an e-folding residence time of about one year. The radiative and chemical effects of this aerosol cloud produce responses in the climate system. Based on observations after major eruptions of the past and experiments with numerical models of the climate system, we understand much about their climatic impact, but there are also a number of unanswered questions. Volcanic eruptions produce global cooling, and are an important natural cause of interannual, interdecadal, and even centennial-scale climate change. One of the most interesting volcanic effects is the "winter warming" of Northern Hemisphere continents following major tropical eruptions. During the winter in the Northern Hemisphere following every large tropical eruption of the past century, surface air temperatures over North America, Europe, and East Asia were warmer than normal, while they were colder over Greenland and the Middle East. This pattern and the coincident atmospheric circulation correspond to the positive phase of the Arctic Oscillation. While this response is observed after recent major eruptions, most state-of-the-art climate models have trouble simulating winter warming. Why? High latitude eruptions in the Northern Hemisphere, while also producing global cooling, do not have the same impact on atmospheric dynamics. Both tropical and high latitude eruptions can weaken the Indian and African summer monsoon, and the effects can be seen in past records of flow in the Nile and Niger Rivers. Since the Mt. Pinatubo eruption in the Philippines in 1991, there have been no large eruptions that affected climate, but the cumulative effects of small eruptions over the past decade have had a small effect on global temperature trends. Some important outstanding research questions include: How much seasonal, annual, and decadal predictability is possible following a large volcanic eruption? Do

  9. The 2011-2012 eruption of Cordón Caulle volcano (Southern Andes): Evolution, crisis management and current hazards (United States)

    Silva Parejas, C.; Lara, L. E.; Bertin, D.; Amigo, A.; Orozco, G.


    A new kind of integrated approach was for first time achieved during the eruptive crisis of Cordón Caulle volcano (Southern Andes, 40.59°S, 72.12°W) in Chile. The monitoring network of SERNAGEOMIN around the volcano detected the increasing precursory seismicity, alerting the imminence of an eruption about 5 hours before its onset, on June 4, 2011. In addition, SERNAGEOMIN generated daily forecasts of tephra dispersal and fall (ASHFALL advection-diffusion model), and prepared simulations of areas affected by the possible occurrence of lahars and pyroclastic flows. Models were improved with observed effects on the field and satellite imagery, resulting in a good correlation. The information was timely supplied to the authorities as well as recommendations in order to better precise the vulnerable areas. Eruption has initially occurred from a couple of overlapped cones located along the eastern fault scarp of the Pleistocene-Holocene extensional graben of Cordón Caulle. Eruptive products have virtually the same bulk composition as those of the historical 1921 and 1960 eruptions, corresponding to phenocryst-poor rhyodacites (67-70 % SiO2). During the first eruptive stage, a ca. 15-km strong Plinian column lasting 27 hours emitted 0.2-0.4 km3 of magma (DRE). Thick tephra deposits have been accumulated in Chile and Argentina, whereas fine particles and aerosols dispersion disrupted air navigation across the Southern Hemisphere. The second ongoing eruptive stage, which started in mid-June, has been characterized by lava emission already covering a total area comparable to the 1960 lava flows with a total estimated volume Argentina until the end of the year. Main current hazards at Cordón Caulle volcano are fine tephra fallout, secondary lahars, minor explosions and lava flow front collapse. Even if this case can be considered successful from the point of view of eruption forecast and hazard assessment, a new protocol of volcanic alerts has been recently signed

  10. Submarine tectonic relief off Enshunada. Enshunadaoki no hendo chikei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwabuchi, Y; Sasahara, N; Hamamoto, F [Maritime Safety Agency, Tokyo (Japan); Yoshioka, S [10th Resional Maritime Safety Headquarters, Kagoshima (Japan); Kondo, T [Maritime Safety School, Kyoto (Japan)


    This paper reports on the results of investigations on the submarine relief structure off the Enshunada (a sea area which is on the south of the Tenryu River mouth and has about 50km east and west and about 100km north and south) using a bathymetric surveying ship equipped with a narrow multibeam echo sounder. The submarine relief structure of this sea area is clarified into the following topographical districts arranged north to south (each extends roughly in the northeast-southwest direction): the Enshu trough and Tenryu submarine canyon upper valley located in the center thereof, ridges represented by No.l and No.2 Tenryu knolls, the ridge and trough zone where minor ridges and troughes appear complicatedly and repeatedly, and the Nankai trough. The paper contains causes of formation of the Tenryu submarine canyon, the Ryuyo submarine canyon which is located in the northwestern slope of No.2 Tenryu knoll and has a distinct shape, oval-shaped domes scattered in the bottom of Nankai trough, etc. and also opinions on landslide topography seen in the ridge and trough zone. 13 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Ozone depletion following future volcanic eruptions (United States)

    Eric Klobas, J.; Wilmouth, David M.; Weisenstein, Debra K.; Anderson, James G.; Salawitch, Ross J.


    While explosive volcanic eruptions cause ozone loss in the current atmosphere due to an enhancement in the availability of reactive chlorine following the stratospheric injection of sulfur, future eruptions are expected to increase total column ozone as halogen loading approaches preindustrial levels. The timing of this shift in the impact of major volcanic eruptions on the thickness of the ozone layer is poorly known. Modeling four possible climate futures, we show that scenarios with the smallest increase in greenhouse gas concentrations lead to the greatest risk to ozone from heterogeneous chemical processing following future eruptions. We also show that the presence in the stratosphere of bromine from natural, very short-lived biogenic compounds is critically important for determining whether future eruptions will lead to ozone depletion. If volcanic eruptions inject hydrogen halides into the stratosphere, an effect not considered in current ozone assessments, potentially profound reductions in column ozone would result.

  12. An Air Quality Assessment Onboard an Oberon Class Submarine: HMCS Okanagan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Severs, Y


    ... submarine to determine if the atmosphere complied with Air Purification Standard BR 1326. The objective of the study was to obtain information to assist in developing plans for future submarine air quality management...

  13. Subjective Symptomology and Postural Control During Simulation of a Survival Environmemt Aboard a Disabled Submarine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cymerman, Allen


    Subjective symptoms and postural control were assessed in 7 submariners during 5 days exposure to a simulated disabled submarine environment (DISSUB) (4C, 2.5% carbon dioxide, 16.75% oxygen, 85% humidity...

  14. Pyroclast/snow interactions and thermally driven slurry formation. Part 2: Experiments and theoretical extension to polydisperse tephra (United States)

    Walder, J.S.


    Erosion of snow by pyroclastic flows and surges presumably involves mechanical scour, but there may be thermally driven phenomena involved as well. To investigate this possibility, layers of hot (up to 400??C), uniformly sized, fine- to medium-grained sand were emplaced vertically onto finely shaved ice ('snow'); thus there was no relative shear motion between sand and snow and no purely mechanical scour. In some cases large vapor bubbles, commonly more than 10 mm across, rose through the sand layer, burst at the surface, and caused complete convective overturn of the sand, which then scoured and mixed with snow and transformed into a slurry. In other cases no bubbling occurred and the sand passively melted its way downward into the snow as a wetting front moved upward into the sand. A continuum of behaviors between these two cases was observed. Vigorous bubbling and convection were generally favored by high temperature, small grain size, and small layer thickness. A physically based theory of heat- and mass transfer at the pyroclast/snow interface, developed in Part 1 of this paper, does a good job of explaining the observations as a manifestation of unstable vapor-driven fluidization. The theory, when extrapolated to the behavior of actual, poorly sorted pyroclastic flow sediments, leads to the prediction that the observed 'thermal-scour' phenomenon should also occur for many real pyroclastic flows passing over snow. 'Thermal scour' is therefore likely to be involved in the generation of lahars.

  15. Flux Cancellation Leading to CME Filament Eruptions (United States)

    Popescu, Roxana M.; Panesar, Navdeep K.; Sterling, Alphonse C.; Moore, Ronald L.


    Solar filaments are strands of relatively cool, dense plasma magnetically suspended in the lower density hotter solar corona. They trace magnetic polarity inversion lines (PILs) in the photosphere below, and are supported against gravity at heights of up to approx.100 Mm above the chromosphere by the magnetic field in and around them. This field erupts when it is rendered unstable, often by magnetic flux cancellation or emergence at or near the PIL. We have studied the evolution of photospheric magnetic flux leading to ten observed filament eruptions. Specifically, we look for gradual magnetic changes in the neighborhood of the PIL prior to and during eruption. We use Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) images from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA), and magnetograms from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI), both on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), to study filament eruptions and their photospheric magnetic fields. We examine whether flux cancellation or/and emergence leads to filament eruptions. We find that continuous flux cancellation was present at the PIL for many hours prior to each eruption. We present two CME-producing eruptions in detail and find the following: (a) the pre-eruption filament-holding core field is highly sheared and appears in the shape of a sigmoid above the PIL; (b) at the start of the eruption the opposite arms of the sigmoid reconnect in the middle above the site of (tether-cutting) flux cancellation at the PIL; (c) the filaments first show a slow-rise, followed by a fast-rise as they erupt. We conclude that these two filament eruptions result from flux cancellation in the middle of the sheared field, and thereafter evolve in agreement with the standard model for a CME/flare filament eruption from a closed bipolar magnetic field [flux cancellation (van Ballegooijen and Martens 1989 and Moore and Roumelrotis 1992) and runaway tether-cutting (Moore et. al 2001)].

  16. Competing styles of deep-marine explosive eruptions revealed from Axial seamount and Juan De Fuca ridge push core records (United States)

    Portner, R. A.; Clague, D. A.; Paduan, J. B.; Martin, J. F.


    Pyroclastic lithofacies from Axial seamount record two distinct styles of deep-marine explosive eruption activity at 1.4-1.5 km water depth. The first style is preserved by limu o Pele-rich ash, which is widely distributed and thin bedded. Individual beds are normal to coarse-tail graded with increasing planar grain-fabric and decreasing limu o Pele thickness upward. Grain-size generally ranges from medium lapilli to medium ash, which is well to poorly sorted depending on the abundance of outsized fluidal shards. Fluidal shards include limu o Pele and Pele's hair, and lesser amounts of tendril-like tube pumice and droplet-like shards. Rare blocky to fluidal lapilli contain up to 70% vesicles. Angular plagioclase and basalt lithics occur in minor amounts (2-15%). Most beds display overall upward changes in particle morphology from dense blocky angular lapilli in their bases to fluidal ash in their tops. Shards are most equidimensional near the base, and most varied in the mid-upper parts of most beds where 4-8 mm size limu occur with 1-2 mm blocky shards. This outsized-component association results from drastically different settling speeds for the two morphologies. Outsized fluidal shards become abundant across a relatively sharp boundary in the middle to lower portions of most beds causing a seemingly double-graded appearance. These systematic changes in particle morphology and grain size suggest a cogenetic association of blocky and fluidal shards to the same depositional event and causative eruption. Fluidal-vesicular particle morphologies suggest that this lithofacies represents ash fall from magmatically explosive eruptions. Planar-grain fabric trends, absence of shard imbrication, and grading profiles suggest that beds were deposited via near-vertical suspension fall-out from weak turbidity flows. The second pyroclastic lithofacies is dominated by normal graded greenish grey ashy mud beds. Ash makes up 10-80% of individual beds, and is well-sorted, coarse- to

  17. Index of Submarine Medical Officer’s Qualification Theses 1944-1974 (United States)



  18. Erupted Compound Odontomas: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinash Tejasvi M.L.


    Full Text Available The tumors in which odontogenic differentiation is fully expressed are the odontomas. Odontomas are considered as hamartomas rather than a true neoplasm. These tumors are composed of enamel, dentine, cementum and pulp tissue. It is most commonly associated with the eruption of the teeth. They are usually discovered on routine radiographic examination. In exceptional cases, the odontoma erupts in to the mouth. Nine cases of erupted compound odontomas are reported in the English literature, and the present paper reports another case of an erupted compound odontoma in a 22-year-old female patient.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeongwoo; Chae, Jongchul [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of); Liu, Chang; Jing, Ju [Space Weather Research Laboratory, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ 07102 (United States)


    It is now a common practice to use local magnetic parameters such as magnetic decay index for explaining solar eruptions from active regions, but there can be an alternative view that the global properties of the source region should be counted as a more important factor. We discuss this issue based on Solar Dynamics Observatory observations of the three successive eruptions within 1.5 hr from the NOAA active region 11444 and the magnetic parameters calculated using the nonlinear force-free field model. Two violent eruptions occurred in the regions with relatively high magnetic twist number (0.5–1.5) and high decay index (0.9–1.1) at the nominal height of the filament (12″) and otherwise a mild eruption occurred, which supports the local-parameter paradigm. Our main point is that the time sequence of the eruptions did not go with these parameters. It is argued that an additional factor, in the form of stabilizing force, should operate to determine the onset of the first eruption and temporal behaviors of subsequent eruptions. As supporting evidence, we report that the heating and fast plasma flow continuing for a timescale of an hour was the direct cause for the first eruption and that the unidirectional propagation of the disturbance determined the timing of subsequent eruptions. Both of these factors are associated with the overall magnetic structure rather than local magnetic properties of the active region.

  20. Winter warming from large volcanic eruptions (United States)

    Robock, Alan; Mao, Jianping


    An examination of the Northern Hemisphere winter surface temperature patterns after the 12 largest volcanic eruptions from 1883-1992 shows warming over Eurasia and North America and cooling over the Middle East which are significant at the 95-percent level. This pattern is found in the first winter after tropical eruptions, in the first or second winter after midlatitude eruptions, and in the second winter after high latitude eruptions. The effects are independent of the hemisphere of the volcanoes. An enhanced zonal wind driven by heating of the tropical stratosphere by the volcanic aerosols is responsible for the regions of warming, while the cooling is caused by blocking of incoming sunlight.

  1. Submarine fans: A critical retrospective (1950–2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Shanmugam


    Full Text Available When we look back the contributions on submarine fans during the past 65 years (1950–2015, the empirical data on 21 modern submarine fans and 10 ancient deep-water systems, published by the results of the First COMFAN (Committee on FANs Meeting (Bouma et al., 1985a, have remained the single most significant compilation of data on submarine fans. The 1970s were the “heyday” of submarine fan models. In the 21st century, the general focus has shifted from submarine fans to submarine mass movements, internal waves and tides, and contourites. The purpose of this review is to illustrate the complexity of issues surrounding the origin and classification of submarine fans. The principal elements of submarine fans, composed of canyons, channels, and lobes, are discussed using nine modern case studies from the Mediterranean Sea, the Equatorial Atlantic, the Gulf of Mexico, the North Pacific, the NE Indian Ocean (Bay of Bengal, and the East Sea (Korea. The Annot Sandstone (Eocene–Oligocene, exposed at Peira-Cava area, SE France, which served as the type locality for the “Bouma Sequence”, was reexamined. The field details are documented in questioning the validity of the model, which was the basis for the turbidite-fan link. The 29 fan-related models that are of conceptual significance, developed during the period 1970–2015, are discussed using modern and ancient systems. They are: (1 the classic submarine fan model with attached lobes, (2 the detached-lobe model, (3 the channel-levee complex without lobes, (4 the delta-fed ramp model, (5 the gully-lobe model, (6 the suprafan lobe model, (7 the depositional lobe model, (8 the fan lobe model, (9 the ponded lobe model, (10 the nine models based on grain size and sediment source, (11 the four fan models based on tectonic settings, (12 the Jackfork debrite model, (13 the basin-floor fan model, (14 supercritical and subcritical fans, and (15 the three types of fan reservoirs. Each model is unique

  2. Contemporary sediment-transport processes in submarine canyons. (United States)

    Puig, Pere; Palanques, Albert; Martín, Jacobo


    Submarine canyons are morphological incisions into continental margins that act as major conduits of sediment from shallow- to deep-sea regions. However, the exact mechanisms involved in sediment transfer within submarine canyons are still a subject of investigation. Several studies have provided direct information about contemporary sedimentary processes in submarine canyons that suggests different modes of transport and various triggering mechanisms. Storm-induced turbidity currents and enhanced off-shelf advection, hyperpycnal flows and failures of recently deposited fluvial sediments, dense shelf-water cascading, canyon-flank failures, and trawling-induced resuspension largely dominate present-day sediment transfer through canyons. Additionally, internal waves periodically resuspend ephemeral deposits within canyons and contribute to dispersing particles or retaining and accumulating them in specific regions. These transport processes commonly deposit sediments in the upper- and middle-canyon reaches for decades or centuries before being completely or partially flushed farther down-canyon by large sediment failures.

  3. 33 CFR 165.1302 - Bangor Naval Submarine Base, Bangor, WA. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bangor Naval Submarine Base... Bangor Naval Submarine Base, Bangor, WA. (a) Location. The following is a security zone: The waters of... States Naval vessels. (ii) Vessels that are performing work at Naval Submarine Base Bangor pursuant to a...

  4. History of Military Psychology at the U. S. Naval Submarine Medical Research Laboratory (United States)


    the first nuclear submarine, were gigantic increases in the environmental demands imposed upon the submarine crewmembers. Some of these changes had to...urgency for an empirical determination of the maximum duration a submarine could remain submerged before debilitative symptoms appeared in significant


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friedrich, Walter L.; Sørensen, Annette Højen; Katsipis, Samson


    Conclusions Several detailed geological observations in the landscape of Santorini enable us to claim that the two harbour towns were located on the inner side of the caldera wall on the island of Thera prior to the Minoan Eruption. This hypothesis is in agreement with the excavation sites of Bal...... that the fresco shows a joyful scene where the inhabitants of Bronze Age Santorini celebrate the seasonal change in connection with the arrival of life-giving rainwater either at the beginning of spring or at the end of the sailing season in autumn (Pl. CXLVIIc)....

  6. Floating sandstones off El Hierro (Canary Islands, Spain): the peculiar case of the October 2011 eruption (United States)

    Troll, V. R.; Klügel, A.; Longpré, M.-A.; Burchardt, S.; Deegan, F. M.; Carracedo, J. C.; Wiesmaier, S.; Kueppers, U.; Dahren, B.; Blythe, L. S.; Hansteen, T.; Freda, C.; Budd, D. A.; Jolis, E. M.; Jonsson, E.; Meade, F.; Berg, S.; Mancini, L.; Polacci, M.


    The eruption that started off the south coast of El Hierro, Canary Islands, in October 2011 has emitted intriguing eruption products found floating in the sea. These specimens appeared as floating volcanic "bombs" that have in the meantime been termed "restingolites" (after the close-by village of La Restinga) and exhibit cores of white and porous pumice-like material. Currently the nature and origin of these "floating stones" is vigorously debated among researchers, with important implications for the interpretation of the hazard potential of the ongoing eruption. The "restingolites" have been proposed to be either (i) juvenile high-silica magma (e.g. rhyolite), (ii) remelted magmatic material (trachyte), (iii) altered volcanic rock, or (iv) reheated hyaloclastites or zeolite from the submarine slopes of El Hierro. Here, we provide evidence that supports yet a different conclusion. We have collected and analysed the structure and composition of samples and compared the results to previous work on similar rocks found in the archipelago. Based on their high silica content, the lack of igneous trace element signatures, and the presence of remnant quartz crystals, jasper fragments and carbonate relicts, we conclude that "restingolites" are in fact xenoliths from pre-island sedimentary rocks that were picked up and heated by the ascending magma causing them to partially melt and vesiculate. They hence represent messengers from depth that help us to understand the interaction between ascending magma and crustal lithologies in the Canary Islands as well as in similar Atlantic islands that rest on sediment/covered ocean crust (e.g. Cape Verdes, Azores). The occurrence of these "restingolites" does therefore not indicate the presence of an explosive high-silica magma that is involved in the ongoing eruption.

  7. Polygenic eruptions on Alba Patera, Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouginis-Mark, P.J.; Wilson, L.; Zimbelman, J.R.


    A new model for the evolution of the martian volcano Alba Patera is constructed. Numerous digitate channel networks on the flanks of the volcano are interpreted to be carved by sapping due to the release of nonjuvenile water from unconsolidated flank deposits. The particle size of these deposits is estimated to be 3-10 microns, which, together with theoretical modelling of the disperison of explosively derived volcanic materials, leads to the conclusion that the flank deposits on Alba Patera are low-relief pyroclastic flows. The recognition of numerous late-stage summit and subterminal lava flows thus makes Alba Patera a unique martian volcano that is transitional between the older pyroclastic-dominated highland paterae and the more recent effusive central-vent volcanoes such as the Tharsis Montes. 61 refs

  8. Mass Flux of Tephra Sampled Frequently During the Ongoing Halema`uma`u Eruption (Invited) (United States)

    Swanson, D.; Wooten, K.; Orr, T. R.


    The ongoing summit eruption of Kilauea provides an unparalleled opportunity to track, almost daily, the production of tephra. The eruption began on 19 March 2008, and tephra has been erupted every day since then to the end of August 2009. Most of the time, tephra is ejected quasi-continuously from the vent accompanied by a light gray to white gas plume, occasionally broken by a more vigorous pulse (“brown plume”) richer in ejecta. In early April 2008, an array of 10 plastic buckets was placed within 400 m of the new vent in Halema`uma`u down the prevailing NE wind direction. The configuration of the array, spanning an area of about 73,000 m2, has not changed since then. Buckets are emptied frequently, initially every day and, since summer 2008, on all weekdays. The contents are dried and weighed, and an “average network accumulation rate” is calculated in g/m2/hour. In addition, componentry analyses are made of the >0.5-mm size fraction from a bucket near the vent, in order to categorize the tephra into juvenile and lithic fractions. To estimate the total mass of tephra ejected from the vent for a given collection, we first drew isomass contours for several daily collections and plotted isomass versus square root of area to obtain the total mass of the deposit. From this, we developed an empirical multiplication factor that allows us to estimate, within ~25 percent, the total ejected mass per day in kilograms from the total collected mass in grams. The tephra is a mix of vitric and lithic pyroclasts, mostly ash in size. The vitric clasts, interpreted as juvenile, include Pele’s hair and tears, hollow spherules, dumbbells, pumice, and bits of coarsely vesicular glass. All these clasts were probably produced by weak spattering at the top of the lava column, which has rarely been seen. Especially since fall 2008, some vitric clasts are partly coated with secondary minerals or rock dust. We interpret such clasts as recycled, first erupted during spattering

  9. Nuclear submarine utilization. Financial deadlock and search for its output

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dovgusha, V.V.; Tikhonov, M.N.


    Program of nuclear submarine utilization in the Russian Federation is described. The program provides for complete solution of all problems, connected with nuclear submarine utilization, including reconstruction of ship-repair and ship-cutting plants, metal fabrication plants, construction of points of temporary radioactive waste storages, new burials, as well as required social support of personnel, working under unhealthy conditions. The program is based on guaranteed and sufficient financing from extra-budgetary sources, as well as on new technologies, enabling to utilize all written off ships during 10-15 years

  10. Inherited retarded eruption in the permanent dentition. (United States)

    Rasmussen, P; Kotsaki, A


    The term retarded eruption, may be used in cases where eruption is inhibited, causing an interruption in the coordination of tooth formation and tooth eruption. The phenomenon may be local or general, and several etiological factors for retarded eruption have been listed, comprising a lack of space, ankylosis, cysts, supernumerary teeth, hormone and vitamin deficiencies and several developmental disturbances and syndromes. The present paper describes several cases of retarded eruption where no factors other than inheritance have been evident. So far 14 cases have been evaluated, 9 boys and 5 girls. In addition several cases have been registered among parents and grandparents of the probands. Typical features are: retarded eruption, defined as more than 3 SD beyond mean eruption figures, comprises all teeth in the permanent dentition, and in 5 cases also second primary molars. The chronology of tooth formation are within normal limits. Consequently the teeth finish development still laying deeply buried in the jaws, often in aberrant positions and with curves or hooks on the roots. When the teeth finally get the "signal" for eruption, 5-15 years beyond normal eruption time, they move rather quickly into right positions, despite the long eruption paths and the hooked roots. Permanent teeth without, as well as with predecessors, are affected. Extraction of predecessors does not seem to provoke eruption. The main features in management are to take care of the primary teeth, to improve-esthetics, and offer surgery and orthodontics when needed. Analyses of pedigrees indicates that the genetic transmittance may be autosomal dominant as both sexes are affected, about half of the siblings show the trait, and the trait shows continuity through generations.

  11. Nannofossils in 2011 El Hierro eruptive products reinstate plume model for Canary Islands (United States)

    Zaczek, Kirsten; Troll, Valentin R.; Cachao, Mario; Ferreira, Jorge; Deegan, Frances M.; Carracedo, Juan Carlos; Soler, Vicente; Meade, Fiona C.; Burchardt, Steffi


    The origin and life cycle of ocean islands have been debated since the early days of Geology. In the case of the Canary archipelago, its proximity to the Atlas orogen led to initial fracture-controlled models for island genesis, while later workers cited a Miocene-Quaternary east-west age-progression to support an underlying mantle-plume. The recent discovery of submarine Cretaceous volcanic rocks near the westernmost island of El Hierro now questions this systematic age-progression within the archipelago. If a mantle-plume is indeed responsible for the Canaries, the onshore volcanic age-progression should be complemented by progressively younger pre-island sedimentary strata towards the west, however, direct age constraints for the westernmost pre-island sediments are lacking. Here we report on new age data obtained from calcareous nannofossils in sedimentary xenoliths erupted during the 2011 El Hierro events, which date the sub-island sedimentary rocks to between late Cretaceous and Pliocene in age. This age-range includes substantially younger pre-volcanic sedimentary rocks than the Jurassic to Miocene strata known from the older eastern islands and now reinstate the mantle-plume hypothesis as the most plausible explanation for Canary volcanism. The recently discovered Cretaceous submarine volcanic rocks in the region are, in turn, part of an older, fracture-related tectonic episode.

  12. Global Significant Volcanic Eruptions Database, 4360 BC to present (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Significant Volcanic Eruptions Database is a global listing of over 600 eruptions from 4360 BC to the present. A significant eruption is classified as one that...

  13. Palifermin-associated papular eruption. (United States)

    King, Brett; Knopp, Eleanor; Galan, Anjela; Nuovo, Gerard; Tigelaar, Robert; McNiff, Jennifer


    Palifermin is a recombinant human keratinocyte growth factor that is used to reduce the duration and severity of oral mucositis in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation after myelotoxic therapy. Cutaneous adverse reactions associated with keratinocyte growth factor are reported to be rash, pruritus, and erythema. After receiving palifermin following autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and treatment with melphalan, a patient developed erythema and lichenoid papules that were distributed primarily in intertriginous areas. A biopsy specimen of the papules showed a striking resemblance to verrucae, but in situ hybridization studies were negative for human papillomavirus. Immunohistochemical staining with antibodies to Ki-67 and cytokeratin 5/6 showed increased keratinocyte proliferation in lesional skin. After treatment with palifermin, a papular eruption clinically resembling lichen planus or plane warts, with histologic features of verruca plana, and intertriginous erythema may occur. In this case, neither eruption required treatment, and spontaneous resolution was observed over days to weeks. Histopathologic staining patterns of Ki-67 and cytokeratin 5/6 may be useful in identifying adverse reactions to palifermin therapy.

  14. Carbon transport in Monterey Submarine Canyon (United States)

    Barry, J.; Paull, C. K.; Xu, J. P.; Clare, M. A.; Gales, J. A.; Buck, K. R.; Lovera, C.; Gwiazda, R.; Maier, K. L.; McGann, M.; Parsons, D. R.; Simmons, S.; Rosenberger, K. J.; Talling, P. J.


    Submarine canyons are important conduits for sediment transport from continental margins to the abyss, but the rate, volume, and time scales of material transport have been measured only rarely. Using moorings with current meters, sediment traps (10 m above bottom) and optical backscatter sensors, we measured near-bottom currents, suspended sediment concentrations, and sediment properties at 1300 m depth in Monterey Canyon and at a non-canyon location on the continental slope at the same depth. Flow and water column backscatter were used to characterize "ambient" conditions when tidal currents dominated the flow field, and occasional "sediment transport events" when anomalously high down-canyon flow with sediment-laden waters arrived at the canyon mooring. The ambient sediment flux measured in sediment traps in Monterey Canyon was 350 times greater than measured at the non-canyon location. Although the organic carbon content of the canyon sediment flux during ambient periods was low (1.8 %C) compared to the slope location (4.9 %C), the ambient carbon transport in the canyon was 130 times greater than at the non-canyon site. Material fluxes during sediment transport events were difficult to measure owing to clogging of sediment traps, but minimal estimates indicate that mass transport during events exceeds ambient sediment fluxes through the canyon by nearly 3 orders of magnitude, while carbon transport is 380 times greater. Estimates of the instantaneous and cumulative flux of sediment and carbon from currents, backscatter, and sediment properties indicated that: 1) net flux is down-canyon, 2) flux is dominated by sediment transport events, and 3) organic carbon flux through 1300 m in Monterey Canyon was ca. 1500 MT C per year. The injection of 1500 MTCy-1 into the deep-sea represents ca. 260 km2 of the sediment C flux measured at the continental slope station (5.8 gCm-2y-1) and is sufficient to support a benthic community carbon demand of 5 gCm-2y-1 over 300 km2.

  15. Geology, tectonics, and the 2002-2003 eruption of the Semeru volcano, Indonesia: Interpreted from high-spatial resolution satellite imagery (United States)

    Solikhin, Akhmad; Thouret, Jean-Claude; Gupta, Avijit; Harris, Andy J. L.; Liew, Soo Chin


    The paper illustrates the application of high-spatial resolution satellite images in interpreting volcanic structures and eruption impacts in the Tengger-Semeru massif in east Java, Indonesia. We use high-spatial resolution images (IKONOS and SPOT 5) and aerial photos in order to analyze the structures of Semeru volcano and map the deposits. Geological and tectonic mapping is based on two DEMs and on the interpretation of aerial photos and four SPOT and IKONOS optical satellite images acquired between 1996 and 2002. We also compared two thermal Surface Kinetic Temperature ASTER images before and after the 2002-2003 eruption in order to delineate and evaluate the impacts of the pyroclastic density currents. Semeru's principal structural features are probably due to the tectonic setting of the volcano. A structural map of the Tengger-Semeru massif shows four groups of faults orientated N40, N160, N75, and N105 to N140. Conspicuous structures, such as the SE-trending horseshoe-shaped scar on Semeru's summit cone, coincide with the N160-trending faults. The direction of minor scars on the east flank parallels the first and second groups of faults. The Semeru composite cone hosts the currently active Jonggring-Seloko vent. This is located on, and buttressed against, the Mahameru edifice at the head of a large scar that may reflect a failure plane at shallow depth. Dipping 35° towards the SE, this failure plane may correspond to a weak basal layer of weathered volcaniclastic rocks of Tertiary age. We suggest that the deformation pattern of Semeru and its large scar may be induced by flank spreading over the weak basal layer of the volcano. It is therefore necessary to consider the potential for flank and summit collapse in the future. The last major eruption took place in December 2002-January 2003, and involved emplacement of block-and-ash flows. We have used the 2003 ASTER Surface Kinetic Temperature image to map the 2002-2003 pyroclastic density current deposits. We

  16. Nested Architecture of Pyroclastic Bedforms Generated by a Single Flow Event: Outcrop Examples from the Izu Volcanic Islands, Japan (United States)

    Nemoto, Y.; Yoshida, S.


    We claim that compound bedforms, where small bedforms (e.g., dunes and antidunes) occur within and around the larger bedforms, are common in pyroclastic-flow deposits, using Quaternary-Holocene outcrop examples from the modern Izu volcanic island chain some 100-150 km SSW of Tokyo. The nested occurrence of bedforms have been well documented for siliciclastic deposits, as exemplified by compound dunes where small dunes (c. cm- dm thick) occur between the avalanche surfaces within larger dunes, indicating that these dunes of different sizes were produced simultaneously. However, compound dunes have rarely been reported from pyroclastic deposits. In contrast, we have discovered that compound dunes are common in pyroclastic flow deposits in the late Pleistocene & Holocene outcrops in Niijima and Oshima of the Izu volcanic island chain. Moreover, these outcrops contain abundant compound antidunes, which have been reported from neither siliciclastic or pyroclastic deposits. This is probably because flume studies, where most of published antidune studies are based, focus on small (c. cm-dm high) antidunes. In Niijima Island, we examined pyroclastic-flow deposits shed from Mt. Miyatsuka (14 ka) and Mt. Mukai (886 A.D.). Both groups of deposits contain abundant antidune stratifications, which commonly form nested structures in a two- or three-fold hierarchy, with subordinate crossbeddings originated from dune migrations. Each class of antidunes is characterized by multiple scour surfaces and vertical aggradations around mounds of lag deposits above erosion surfaces, and typically has both upstream and downstream accretion components with different proportions. The late Pleistocene pyroclastic outcrops of the nearby Oshima Island exhibit similar patterns. The geometry of the accretion surfaces vary significantly in the outcrops of both Niijima and Oshima. Whereas the antidunes dominated by upstream accretion are characterized by (1) gently inclined accretion surface and (2

  17. The timing of compositionally-zoned magma reservoirs and mafic 'priming' weeks before the 1912 Novarupta-Katmai rhyolite eruption (United States)

    Singer, Brad S.; Costa, Fidel; Herrin, Jason S.; Hildreth, Wes; Fierstein, Judith


    The June 6, 1912 eruption of more than 13 km3 of dense rock equivalent (DRE) magma at Novarupta vent, Alaska was the largest of the 20th century. It ejected >7 km3 of rhyolite, ~1.3 km3 of andesite and ~4.6 km3 of dacite. Early ideas about the origin of pyroclastic flows and magmatic differentiation (e.g., compositional zonation of reservoirs) were shaped by this eruption. Despite being well studied, the timing of events that led to the chemically and mineralogically zoned magma reservoir remain poorly known. Here we provide new insights using the textures and chemical compositions of plagioclase and orthopyroxene crystals and by reevaluating previous U-Th isotope data. Compositional zoning of the magma reservoir likely developed a few thousand years before the eruption by several additions of mafic magma below an extant silicic reservoir. Melt compositions calculated from Sr contents in plagioclase fill the compositional gap between 68 and 76% SiO2 in whole pumice clasts, consistent with uninterrupted crystal growth from a continuum of liquids. Thus, our findings support a general model in which large volumes of crystal-poor rhyolite are related to intermediate magmas through gradual separation of melt from crystal-rich mush. The rhyolite is incubated by, but not mixed with, episodic recharge pulses of mafic magma that interact thermochemically with the mush and intermediate magmas. Hot, Mg-, Ca-, and Al-rich mafic magma intruded into, and mixed with, deeper parts of the reservoir (andesite and dacite) multiple times. Modeling the relaxation of the Fe-Mg concentrations in orthopyroxene and Mg in plagioclase rims indicates that the final recharge event occurred just weeks prior to the eruption. Rapid addition of mass, volatiles, and heat from the recharge magma, perhaps aided by partial melting of cumulate mush below the andesite and dacite, pressurized the reservoir and likely propelled a ~10 km lateral dike that allowed the overlying rhyolite to reach the surface.

  18. Flank Collapse Assessment At Kick-'em-Jenny Submarine Volcano (Lesser Antilles): A Combined Approach Using Modelling and Experiments (United States)

    Dondin, F. J. Y.; Heap, M. J.; Robertson, R. E. A.; Dorville, J. F. M.; Carey, S.


    In the Lesser Antilles over 52 volcanic landslide episodes have been identified. These episodes serve as a testament to the hazard posed by volcanic landslides to a region composed of many islands that are small independent countries with vulnerable local economies. This study presents a relative slope stability analysis (RIA) to investigate the stability condition of the only active submarine volcano of the Lesser Antilles Arc: Kick-'em-Jenny Submarine Volcano (KeJ). Thus we hope to provide better constraint on the landslide source geometry to help mitigate volcanic landslide hazards at a KeJ. KeJ is located ca. 8 km north of Grenada island. KeJ lies within a collapse scar from a prehistorical flank collapse. This collapse was associated with a voluminous landslide deposit of about 4.4km3 with a 14 km runout. Numerial simulations showed that this event could generate a regional tsunami. We aim to quantify potential initial volumes of collapsed material using a RIA. The RIA evaluates the critical potential failure surface associated with factor of safety (Fs) inferior to unity and compares them to areas of deficit/surplus of mass/volume obtained from the comparison of an high resolution digital elevation model of the edifice with an ideal 3D surface. We use freeware programs VolcanoFit 2.0 and SSAP 4.7. and produce a 3D representation of the stability map. We report, for the first time, results of a Limit Equilibrium Method performed using geomechanical parameters retrieved from rock mechanics tests performed on two rock basaltic-andesite rock samples collected from within the crater of the volcano during the 1-18 November 2013 NA039 E/V Nautilus cruise. We performed triaxial and uniaxial deformation tests to obtain values of strength at the top and bottom of the edifice. We further characterized the permeability and P-wave velocity of the samples collected. The chosen internal structure for the model is composed of three bodies: (i) a body composed of basaltic

  19. At Periscope Depth: Exploring Submarine Proliferation In Southeast Asia (United States)


    papers and op-eds; and relevant books . This thesis will not include human subjects because the scope of the research will not permit gathering...Soviet-built submarines required.36 Furthermore, the hulls were purchased secondhand and thus had a shortened

  20. Sedimentary characteristics of samples collected from some submarine canyons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, Arnold H.

    Oriented rectangular cores of 20.3 × 30.5 cm and 45.7 cm high have been collected in a number of submarine canyons off southern California (U.S.A.) and off the southern tip of Baja California (Mexico) for a detailed study of their sedimentary structures. By applying several methods, mainly X-ray

  1. The brazilian nuclear submarine dossier: Navy's priority and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, L.P.


    This work discusses the feasibility of the brazilian nuclear submarine. It is related to navy's remodeling and is considered as a priority. It would bring Brazil closer to developed countries. It considers the slip, itself, the weapon's system as well as the nuclear propulsion. (author)

  2. Non-linearity aspects in the design of submarine pipelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernández, M.L.


    An arbitrary attempt has been made to classify and discuss some non-linearity aspects related to design, construction and operation of submarine pipelines. Non-linearities usually interrelate and take part of a comprehensive design, making difficult to quantify their individual influence or

  3. France and nuclear proliferation: the new generation of nuclear submarines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrillot, B.


    Ten years after the end of the 'cold war' the French government has pursued its national defense program with the construction of a new generation of nuclear submarines with new type of missiles and nuclear heads. This book analyzes the possible solutions for a step by step elimination of nuclear weapons from the French weapons stock. (J.S.)

  4. PAUT-based defect detection method for submarine pressure hulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-jae Jung


    Full Text Available A submarine has a pressure hull that can withstand high hydraulic pressure and therefore, requires the use of highly advanced shipbuilding technology. When producing a pressure hull, periodic inspection, repair, and maintenance are conducted to maintain its soundness. Of the maintenance methods, Non-Destructive Testing (NDT is the most effective, because it does not damage the target but sustains its original form and function while inspecting internal and external defects. The NDT process to detect defects in the welded parts of the submarine is applied through Magnetic particle Testing (MT to detect surface defects and Ultrasonic Testing (UT and Radiography Testing (RT to detect internal defects. In comparison with RT, UT encounters difficulties in distinguishing the types of defects, can yield different results depending on the skills of the inspector, and stores no inspection record. At the same time, the use of RT gives rise to issues related to worker safety due to radiation exposure. RT is also difficult to apply from the perspectives of the manufacturing of the submarine and economic feasibility. Therefore, in this study, the Phased Array Ultrasonic Testing (PAUT method was applied to propose an inspection method that can address the above disadvantages by designing a probe to enhance the precision of detection of hull defects and the reliability of calculations of defect size. Keywords: Submarine pressure hull, Non-destructive testing, Phased array ultrasonic testing

  5. Multicore fibers for high-capacity submarine transmission systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nooruzzaman, Md.; Morioka, Toshio


    Applications of multicore fibers (MCFs) in undersea transmission systems are investigated, and various potential architectures of branching units for MCF-based undersea transmission systems are presented. Some MCF-based submarine network architectures based on the amount of data traffic are also...

  6. Hydroids from submarine cliffs near Arthur Harbour, Palmer Archipelago, Antarctica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervoort, W.


    At the instigation of Dr. Joel W. Hedgpeth, Resident Director, Marine Science Center, Oregon State University, Newport, Oregon, U.S.A., I studied samples of hydroids, collected by Dr. John C. McCain and Dr. William E. Stout from submarine cliffs in the region around Palmer Station, Antarctica. The

  7. Cold-water coral banks and submarine landslides: a review (United States)

    de Mol, Ben; Huvenne, Veerle; Canals, Miquel


    This paper aims to review the relation between cold-water coral bank development and submarine landslides. Both are common features on continental margins, but so far it has not been reviewed which effect—if at all—they may have upon each other. Indirect and direct relations between coral banks and landslides are evaluated here, based on four case studies: the Magellan Mound Province in the Porcupine Seabight, where fossil coral banks appear partly on top of a buried slide deposit; the Sula Ridge Reef Complex and the Storegga landslide both off mid-Norway; and the Mauritania coral bank province, associated with the Mauritanian Slide Complex. For each of these locations, positive and negative relationships between both features are discussed, based on available datasets. Locally submarine landslides might directly favour coral bank development by creating substratum where corals can settle on, enhancing turbulence due to abrupt seabed morphological variations and, in some cases, causing fluid seepage. In turn, some of these processes may contribute to increased food availability and lower sedimentation rates. Landslides can also affect coral bank development by direct erosion of the coral banks, and by the instantaneous increase of turbidity, which may smother the corals. On the other hand, coral banks might have a stabilising function and delay or stop the headwall retrogradation of submarine landslides. Although local relationships can be deduced from these case studies, no general and direct relationship exists between submarine landslides and cold-water coral banks.

  8. A new approach to the unrest and subsequent eruption at El Hierro Island (2011) based on petrological, seismological, geodetical and gravimetric data (United States)

    Meletlidis, Stavros; Di Roberto, Alessio; Domínguez Cerdeña, Itahiza; Pompilio, Massimo; García-Cañada, Laura; Bertagnini, Antonella; Benito Saz, Maria Angeles; Del Carlo, Paola; Sainz-Maza Aparicio, Sergio; Lopez Moreno, Carmen; Moure García, David


    A shallow submarine eruption took place on 10th October 2011, about 1.8 km off the coast of La Restinga, a small village located in El Hierro (Canary Islands, Spain). The eruption lasted for about four months and ended by early March 2012. The eruption was preceded by an unrest episode that initiated about three months before, in July 2011, and characterized by more than 10,000 localized earthquakes accompanied by up to 5 cm of vertical ground deformation. In the Canary Islands, this event represents the first case of an eruption that was monitored since the unrest to the end by the monitoring network of IGN (Instituto Geográfico National), providing a huge dataset that includes geophysical (seismic, magnetic and gravimetric), geodetic, geochemistry and petrological data. In this work we use the seismic, GPS and gravity records collected by IGN along with the petrological data derived from the study of various lava balloons, scoriaceous fragments and ash.Geophysical and geochemical monitoring tools provide a variety of information that need to be interpreted in terms of magma movement and/or interaction of magma with host rocks. We present a model, based on this data, which describes the intrusion and ascent of the magma. According to this model, a major intrusion beneath and around preexisting high-density magmatic bodies, localized in the central sector of the island, led to an eruption in the Southern sector of the island. After a failed attempt to reach the surface, while various dykes were emplaced, through a low fractured area in the Central and Northern parts of the island, the ascending magma finally found its way in the submarine area of La Restinga, in the South rift zone, at a depth of 350 m below sea level. Feeding of the eruption was achieved by the ascension of an important volume of material from the upper mantle which was emplaced near the crust-mantle boundary. However, the very energetic post-eruptive unrests - we had five episodes up today with

  9. 3_D modeling using TLS and GPR techniques to characterize above and below-ground wood distribution in pyroclastic deposits along the Blanco River (Chilean Patagonia) (United States)

    Valdebenito, Galo; Tonon, Alessia; Iroume, Andrés; Alvarado, David; Fuentes, Carlos; Picco, Lorenzo; Lenzi, Mario


    To date, the study of in-stream wood in rivers has been focused mainly on quantifying wood pieces deposited above the ground. However, in some particular river systems, the presence of buried dead wood can also represent an important component of wood recruitment and budgeting dynamics. This is the case of the Blanco River (Southern Chile) severely affected by the eruption of Chaitén Volcano occurred between 2008 and 2009. The high pyroclastic sediment deposition and transport affected the channel and the adjacent forest, burying wood logs and standing trees. The aim of this contribution is to assess the presence and distribution of wood in two study areas (483 m2 and 1989 m2, respectively) located along the lower streambank of the Blanco River, and covered by thick pyroclastic deposition up to 5 m. The study areas were surveyed using two different devices, a Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS) and a Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR). The first was used to scan the above surface achieving a high point cloud density (≈ 2000 points m-2) which allowed us to identify and measure the wood volume. The second, was used to characterize the internal morphology of the volcanic deposits and to detect the presence and spatial distribution of buried wood up to a depth of 4 m. Preliminary results have demonstrated differences in the numerousness and volume of above wood between the two study areas. In the first one, there were 43 wood elements, 33 standing trees and 10 logs, with a total volume of 2.96 m3 (109.47 m3 km-1), whereas the second one was characterized by the presence of just 7 standing trees and 11 wood pieces, for a total amount of 0.77 m3 (7.73 m3 km-1). The dimensions of the wood elements vary greatly according to the typology, standing trees show the higher median values in diameter and length (0.15 m and 2.91 m, respectively), whereas the wood logs were smaller (0.06 m and 1.12 m, respectively). The low dimensions of deposited wood can be probably connected to their

  10. Thermal vesiculation during volcanic eruptions. (United States)

    Lavallée, Yan; Dingwell, Donald B; Johnson, Jeffrey B; Cimarelli, Corrado; Hornby, Adrian J; Kendrick, Jackie E; von Aulock, Felix W; Kennedy, Ben M; Andrews, Benjamin J; Wadsworth, Fabian B; Rhodes, Emma; Chigna, Gustavo


    Terrestrial volcanic eruptions are the consequence of magmas ascending to the surface of the Earth. This ascent is driven by buoyancy forces, which are enhanced by bubble nucleation and growth (vesiculation) that reduce the density of magma. The development of vesicularity also greatly reduces the 'strength' of magma, a material parameter controlling fragmentation and thus the explosive potential of the liquid rock. The development of vesicularity in magmas has until now been viewed (both thermodynamically and kinetically) in terms of the pressure dependence of the solubility of water in the magma, and its role in driving gas saturation, exsolution and expansion during decompression. In contrast, the possible effects of the well documented negative temperature dependence of solubility of water in magma has largely been ignored. Recently, petrological constraints have demonstrated that considerable heating of magma may indeed be a common result of the latent heat of crystallization as well as viscous and frictional heating in areas of strain localization. Here we present field and experimental observations of magma vesiculation and fragmentation resulting from heating (rather than decompression). Textural analysis of volcanic ash from Santiaguito volcano in Guatemala reveals the presence of chemically heterogeneous filaments hosting micrometre-scale vesicles. The textures mirror those developed by disequilibrium melting induced via rapid heating during fault friction experiments, demonstrating that friction can generate sufficient heat to induce melting and vesiculation of hydrated silicic magma. Consideration of the experimentally determined temperature and pressure dependence of water solubility in magma reveals that, for many ascent paths, exsolution may be more efficiently achieved by heating than by decompression. We conclude that the thermal path experienced by magma during ascent strongly controls degassing, vesiculation, magma strength and the effusive

  11. Arenal-type pyroclastic flows: A probabilistic event tree risk analysis (United States)

    Meloy, Anthony F.


    A quantitative hazard-specific scenario-modelling risk analysis is performed at Arenal volcano, Costa Rica for the newly recognised Arenal-type pyroclastic flow (ATPF) phenomenon using an event tree framework. These flows are generated by the sudden depressurisation and fragmentation of an active basaltic andesite lava pool as a result of a partial collapse of the crater wall. The deposits of this type of flow include angular blocks and juvenile clasts, which are rarely found in other types of pyroclastic flow. An event tree analysis (ETA) is a useful tool and framework in which to analyse and graphically present the probabilities of the occurrence of many possible events in a complex system. Four event trees are created in the analysis, three of which are extended to investigate the varying individual risk faced by three generic representatives of the surrounding community: a resident, a worker, and a tourist. The raw numerical risk estimates determined by the ETA are converted into a set of linguistic expressions (i.e. VERY HIGH, HIGH, MODERATE etc.) using an established risk classification scale. Three individually tailored semi-quantitative risk maps are then created from a set of risk conversion tables to show how the risk varies for each individual in different areas around the volcano. In some cases, by relocating from the north to the south, the level of risk can be reduced by up to three classes. While the individual risk maps may be broadly applicable, and therefore of interest to the general community, the risk maps and associated probability values generated in the ETA are intended to be used by trained professionals and government agencies to evaluate the risk and effectively manage the long-term development of infrastructure and habitation. With the addition of fresh monitoring data, the combination of both long- and short-term event trees would provide a comprehensive and consistent method of risk analysis (both during and pre-crisis), and as such

  12. Operating Below Crush Depth: The Formation, Evolution, and Collapse of the Imperial Japanese Navy Submarine Force in World War II (United States)


    Subamrine, Medium) LCDR Lieutenant Commander LT Lieutenant NM Nautical Mile RADM Rear Admiral ST Sen- Taka (Submarine, High Speed) STo Sen-Toku...Special Submarine) STS Sen- Taka -Sho (Submarine, High Speed(Victory)) USS United States Ship VADM Vice Admiral 1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION On...Kirai-Sen meaning Mine-Layer, KT for Kai-Toku-Chu meaning Medium, Special Submarine, ST for Sen- Taka meaning Submarine, High speed, STo for Sen Toku

  13. Situation awareness measures for simulated submarine track management. (United States)

    Loft, Shayne; Bowden, Vanessa; Braithwaite, Janelle; Morrell, Daniel B; Huf, Samuel; Durso, Francis T


    The aim of this study was to examine whether the Situation Present Assessment Method (SPAM) and the Situation Awareness Global Assessment Technique (SAGAT) predict incremental variance in performance on a simulated submarine track management task and to measure the potential disruptive effect of these situation awareness (SA) measures. Submarine track managers use various displays to localize and track contacts detected by own-ship sensors. The measurement of SA is crucial for designing effective submarine display interfaces and training programs. Participants monitored a tactical display and sonar bearing-history display to track the cumulative behaviors of contacts in relationship to own-ship position and landmarks. SPAM (or SAGAT) and the Air Traffic Workload Input Technique (ATWIT) were administered during each scenario, and the NASA Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) and Situation Awareness Rating Technique were administered postscenario. SPAM and SAGAT predicted variance in performance after controlling for subjective measures of SA and workload, and SA for past information was a stronger predictor than SA for current/future information. The NASA-TLX predicted performance on some tasks. Only SAGAT predicted variance in performance on all three tasks but marginally increased subjective workload. SPAM, SAGAT, and the NASA-TLX can predict unique variance in submarine track management performance. SAGAT marginally increased subjective workload, but this increase did not lead to any performance decrement. Defense researchers have identified SPAM as an alternative to SAGAT because it would not require field exercises involving submarines to be paused. SPAM was not disruptive, but it is potentially problematic that SPAM did not predict variance in all three performance tasks. © 2014, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  14. Large explosive basaltic eruptions at Katla volcano, Iceland: Fragmentation, grain size and eruption dynamics (United States)

    Schmith, Johanne; Höskuldsson, Ármann; Holm, Paul Martin; Larsen, Guðrún


    Katla volcano in Iceland produces hazardous large explosive basaltic eruptions on a regular basis, but very little quantitative data for future hazard assessments exist. Here details on fragmentation mechanism and eruption dynamics are derived from a study of deposit stratigraphy with detailed granulometry and grain morphology analysis, granulometric modeling, componentry and the new quantitative regularity index model of fragmentation mechanism. We show t