Sample records for submarine pressure hulls

  1. Submarine Pressure Hull Collapse Considering Corrosion and Penetrations (United States)


    corrosion. Des valeurs de la pression d’écrasement sont calculées pour les diverses dimensions de la zone de corrosion, et ce, dans les cas de présence ou...Research & Development Canada DRDIM Director Research and Development Knowledge and Information Management OOC Out-of-circularity R&D Research...Support SLA (Mr. John Porter) 1 Project Manager , Submarine Scientific Support SLA (LCdr Wade Temple) 9 TOTAL LIST PART I LIST PART II: External

  2. Investigation of weldments in Victoria-class submarine pressure-hull using magnetic flux leakage and Barkhausen noise (United States)

    Samimi, A. A.; Babbar, V.; Krause, T. W.; Clapham, L.


    Evaluation of the stress state within submarine hulls can contribute to risk assessments, which provide assurance that in-service induced stresses will not adversely affect the service life of the naval structure. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using magnetic NDE techniques for identification of stresses associated with weldments in two original pressure hulls of Canada's Victoria class submarines. Magnetic Flux Leakage (MFL) and flux-controlled Barkhausen Noise measurements were investigated for identification of patch boundaries and welds in two sections of Victoria-class submarine-hull steel. While MFL showed clear demarcation of weld boundaries, Barkhausen measurements did not provide sufficiently clear response to identify these features in submarine hull samples. For a better understanding of Barkhausen response, uniaxial tensile stress was investigated on separate samples of submarine steel. A nonlinear dependence of Barkhausen response was observed, with a weaker sensitivity to tensile stresses below 200 MPa. This behavior, combined with the presence of substantial surface compressive stresses, was used to explain the observed insensitivity of Barkhausen measurements to the presence of welds.

  3. Pressure Hull Analysis under Shock Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Jung Lee


    Full Text Available The hull of high performance submarines must resist underwater shock loading due to exploding torpedoes or depth bombs. An underwater shock involving an initial shock wave and successive bubble pulsating waves is so complex that a theoretical technique for deriving shock pressure distribution is required for improving simulation efficiency. Complete shock loading is obtained theoretically in this work, and responses of a submarine pressure hull are calculated using ABAQUS USA (Underwater Shock Analysis codes. In the long run, this deflection and stress data will assist in examining the structural arrangement of the submarine pressure hull.

  4. Topology Model of the Flow around a Submarine Hull Form (United States)


    resistance and flow noise arising from flow-structure interaction, it is necessary to test the shape of the submarine , which includes the length-to...UNCLASSIFIED Topology Model of the Flow around a Submarine Hull Form S.-K. Lee Maritime Division Defence Science and Technology Group DST-Group–TR...3177 ABSTRACT A topology model constructed from surface-streamer visualisation describes the flow around a generic conventional submarine hull form at

  5. Scattering effect of submarine hull on propeller non-cavitation noise (United States)

    Wei, Yingsan; Shen, Yang; Jin, Shuanbao; Hu, Pengfei; Lan, Rensheng; Zhuang, Shuangjiang; Liu, Dezhi


    This paper investigates the non-cavitation noise caused by propeller running in the wake of submarine with the consideration of scattering effect caused by submarine's hull. The computation fluid dynamics (CFD) and acoustic analogy method are adopted to predict fluctuating pressure of propeller's blade and its underwater noise radiation in time domain, respectively. An effective iteration method which is derived in the time domain from the Helmholtz integral equation is used to solve multi-frequency waves scattering due to obstacles. Moreover, to minimize time interpolation caused numerical errors, the pressure and its derivative at the sound emission time is obtained by summation of Fourier series. It is noted that the time averaging algorithm is used to achieve a convergent result if the solution oscillated in the iteration process. Meanwhile, the developed iteration method is verified and applied to predict propeller noise scattered from submarine's hull. In accordance with analysis results, it is summarized that (1) the scattering effect of hull on pressure distribution pattern especially at the frequency higher than blade passing frequency (BPF) is proved according to the contour maps of sound pressure distribution of submarine's hull and typical detecting planes. (2) The scattering effect of the hull on the total pressure is observable in noise frequency spectrum of field points, where the maximum increment is up to 3 dB at BPF, 12.5 dB at 2BPF and 20.2 dB at 3BPF. (3) The pressure scattered from hull is negligible in near-field of propeller, since the scattering effect surrounding analyzed location of propeller on submarine's stern is significantly different from the surface ship. This work shows the importance of submarine's scattering effect in evaluating the propeller non-cavitation noise.

  6. Structural vibration and acoustic radiation of coupled propeller-shafting and submarine hull system due to propeller forces (United States)

    Qu, Yegao; Su, Jinpeng; Hua, Hongxing; Meng, Guang


    This paper investigates the structural and acoustic responses of a coupled propeller-shafting and submarine pressure hull system under different propeller force excitations. The entire system, which consists of a rigid propeller, a main shaft, two bearings and an orthogonally stiffened pressure hull, is submerged in a heavy fluid. The shaft is elastically connected to the pressure hull by a radial bearing and a thrust bearing. The theoretical model of the structural system is formulated based on a modified variational method, in which the propeller, the main shaft and the bearings are treated as a lumped mass, an elastic beam and spatially distributed spring-damper systems, respectively. The rings and stringers in the pressure hull are modeled as discrete structural elements. The acoustic field generated by the hull is calculated using a spectral Kirchhoff-Helmholtz integral formulation. A strongly coupled structure-acoustic interaction analysis is employed to achieve reasonable solutions for the coupled system. The displacement of the pressure hull and the sound pressure of the fluid are expanded in the form of a double mixed series using Fourier series and Chebyshev orthogonal polynomials, providing a flexible way for the present method to account for the individual contributions of circumferential wave modes to the vibration and acoustic responses of the pressure hull in an analytical manner. The contributions of different circumferential wave modes of the pressure hull to the structural and acoustic responses of the coupled system under axial, transversal and vertical propeller forces are investigated. Computed results are compared with those solutions obtained from the coupled finite element/boundary element method. Effects of the ring and the bearing stiffness on the acoustic responses of the coupled system are discussed.

  7. Effects of symmetrical foundation on sound radiation from a submarine hull structure. (United States)

    Li, Chenyang; Su, Jinpeng; Wang, Jian; Hua, Hongxing


    The effects of a passive noise control method for suppressing sound radiation from a submarine hull structure are investigated. The control method is realized by symmetrizing the foundation about the horizontal plane. The coupled finite element method and boundary element method are adopted to compute the acoustic characteristics of the submerged hull. From the numerical results, the symmetrical foundation has advantages in sound radiation reduction when the hull is subjected to the axial load, but has little influences in the vertical and transverse load cases. Using the modal decomposition technique, the contributions of each individual mode to the sound radiation are analyzed to reveal the mechanism of the control method.

  8. OPERATION HARDTACK. Project 3.5. Loading and Response of Submarine Hulls from Underwater Bursts (United States)


    Hulls from Underwater Bursts, Extracted Version 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Rich, H.L., Project Officer; Weinberger, F.; Habib, E.T.; Bort , R.L.; Sette, W.J...SLO A D IN G oa n d R E S P O N S E o f S U B M A R IN E tULLS from UNDERWATER BURSTS H. L. Rich, Project Officer F. Weinberger E.T. Habib R.L. Bort W...OBJECTIVES The objectives established for Project 3.5 were to: (1) determine the range ior lethal hull dam - age to a submarine-like (Squaw) target

  9. RANS simulation of cavitation and hull pressure fluctuation for marine propeller operating behind-hull condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang-Jun Paik


    Full Text Available Simulations of cavitation flow and hull pressure fluctuation for a marine propeller operating behind a hull using the unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations (RANS are presented. A full hull body submerged under the free surface is modeled in the computational domain to simulate directly the wake field of the ship at the propeller plane. Simulations are performed in design and ballast draught conditions to study the effect of cavitation number. And two propellers with slightly different geometry are simulated to validate the detectability of the numerical simulation. All simulations are performed using a commercial CFD software FLUENT. Cavitation patterns of the simulations show good agreement with the experimental results carried out in Samsung CAvitation Tunnel (SCAT. The simulation results for the hull pressure fluctuation induced by a propeller are also compared with the experimental results showing good agreement in the tendency and amplitude, especially, for the first blade frequency.

  10. Two-dimensional modeling of stepped planing hulls with open and pressurized air cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin I. Matveev


    Full Text Available A method of hydrodynamic discrete sources is applied for two-dimensional modeling of stepped planing surfaces. The water surface deformations, wetted hull lengths, and pressure distribution are calculated at given hull attitude and Froude number. Pressurized air cavities that improve hydrodynamic performance can also be modeled with the current method. Presented results include validation examples, parametric calculations of a single-step hull, effect of trim tabs, and performance of an infinite series of periodic stepped surfaces. It is shown that transverse steps can lead to higher lift-drag ratio, although at reduced lift capability, in comparison with a stepless hull. Performance of a multi-step configuration is sensitive to the wave pattern between hulls, which depends on Froude number and relative hull spacing.

  11. Prediction of propeller-induced hull-pressure fluctuations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Wijngaarden, H.C.J.


    The cavitating propeller often forms the primary source of noise and vibration on board ships. The propeller induces hydroacoustic pressure fluctuations due to the passing blades and, more importantly, the dynamic activity of cavities in the propeller’s immediate vicinity. The accurate prediction of

  12. Submarine hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Renilson, Martin


    This book adopts a practical approach and presents recent research together with applications in real submarine design and operation. Topics covered include hydrostatics, manoeuvring, resistance and propulsion of submarines. The author briefly reviews basic concepts in ship hydrodynamics and goes on to show how they are applied to submarines, including a look at the use of physical model experiments. The issues associated with manoeuvring in both the horizontal and vertical planes are explained, and readers will discover suggested criteria for stability, along with rudder and hydroplane effectiveness. The book includes a section on appendage design which includes information on sail design, different arrangements of bow planes and alternative stern configurations. Other themes explored in this book include hydro-acoustic performance, the components of resistance and the effect of hull shape. Readers will value the author’s applied experience as well as the empirical expressions that are presented for use a...

  13. High Speed Submarine Optical Fiber Communication System:Pressure and Temperature Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Mohammed


    Full Text Available In the present paper, the performance of high speed submarine optical fiber cable systems is investigated, taking into account both the pressure and the temperature effects. Both the pressure and the temperature are depth-dependent variables, while both the spectral losses and the dispersion effects are temperature as well as wavelength dependent variables. Two important cases with real fibers are processed: a case with dispersion cancellation and a case without dispersion cancellation. It is found that the ocean pressure (due to the depth shifts the dispersion-free wavelength towards the third communication window. In general, as the depth increases the maximum transmitted bit rate increases in the range of interest. The system capacity as well as the spectral losses, and the dispersion effects are parametrically investigated over wide-range ranges of the set of affecting parameters {wavelength, ocean depth (and consequently the ocean pressure and temperature, and the chemical structure}. Key Words: Submarine Optical Fiber, Undersea Optical Communication, Pressure and Temperature Effects, Transoceanic Optical Communications

  14. Submarine Hull Insulation Materials System. (United States)


    polyurethane adhesives , which contain isocyanates , must be considered. 3M scientists assured us, however, that MDI, an isocyanate of relatively low...low levels of isocyanates liberated from this polyurethane adhesive is actually lower than the hazard presented by the rather high levels of organic...until their adhesive cured, were held in place with small plywood clips. Installation went smoothly and quickly in areas in which a moderately good

  15. Unsteady hydrodynamics of blade forces and acoustic responses of a model scaled submarine excited by propeller's thrust and side-forces (United States)

    Wei, Yingsan; Wang, Yongsheng


    This study presents the unsteady hydrodynamics of the excitations from a 5-bladed propeller at two rotating speeds running in the wake of a small-scaled submarine and the behavior of the submarine's structure and acoustic responses under the propeller excitations. Firstly, the propeller flow and submarine flows are independently validated. The propulsion of the hull-propeller is simulated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD), so as to obtain the transient responses of the propeller excitations. Finally, the structure and acoustic responses of the submarine under propeller excitations are predicted using a finite element/boundary element model in the frequency domain. Results show that (1) the propeller excitations are tonal at the propeller harmonics, and the propeller transversal force is bigger than vertical force. (2) The structure and acoustic responses of the submarine hull is tonal mainly at the propeller harmonics and the resonant mode frequencies of the hull, and the breathing mode in axial direction as well as the bending modes in vertical and transversal directions of the hull can generate strong structure vibration and underwater noise. (3) The maximum sound pressure of the field points increases with the increasing propeller rotating speed at structure resonances and propeller harmonics, and the rudders resonant mode also contributes a lot to the sound radiation. Lastly, the critical rotating speeds of the submarine propeller are determined, which should be carefully taken into consideration when match the propeller with prime mover in the propulsion system. This work shows the importance of the propeller's tonal excitation and the breathing mode plus the bending modes in evaluating submarine's noise radiation.

  16. High accuracy station moving method for total station in submarine construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIN Shaosong


    Full Text Available [Objectives] When we measure submarine pressure hulls using a total station, it is essential to set several stations in order to complete the measurement of the whole cabin due to the complicated measuring environment. However, there are many restrictions related to the total station itself when moving stations, and it is also difficult to ensure measuring accuracy and satisfy the requirements of submarine measurement in complicated environments.[Methods] As such, a new station moving method is presented which can automatically establish standing relationships by measuring common points at every measuring position.[Results] This method can significantly improve accuracy and efficiency.[Conclusions] The experiment shows that the results of the new station moving method can meet sub-pixel precision and satisfy submarine measurement requirements with high accuracy.

  17. Algorithm describing pressure distribution of non-contact TNT explosion

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    Radosław Kiciński


    Full Text Available [b]Abstract[/b]. The aim of this study is to develop a computational algorithm, describing the shock wave pressure distribution in the space induced by non-contact TNT explosion. The procedure describes pressure distribution on a damp surface of the hull. Simulations have been carried out using Abaqus/CAE. The study also shows the pressure waveform descriptions provided by various authors and presents them in charts. The formulated conclusions convince efficiency of the algorithm application.[b]Keywords:[/b] Underwater explosion, shock wave, CAE, TNT, Kobben class submarine

  18. Hydrodynamics of single-deadrise hulls and their catamaran configurations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghazi S. Bari


    Full Text Available Asymmetric planing hulls are often used on high-speed catamarans. In this study, a linearized potential-flow method is applied for modeling steady hydrodynamics of single asymmetric hulls and their catamaran setups. Numerical results are validated with available experimental data and empirical correlations. Parametric calculation results are presented for the lift coefficient and the center of pressure for variable hull geometry, spacings, and speed regimes. The lift coefficient is found to increase at smaller hull spacings and decrease at higher Froude numbers and higher deadrise angles.

  19. CFD simulation on Kappel propeller with a hull wake field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shin, Keun Woo; Andersen, Poul; Møller Bering, Rasmus


    for propeller designers and the computational effort can be reduced by excluding the hull. The CFD simulation of a propeller flow with a hull wake is verified in order to use CFD as a propeller design tool. A Kappel propeller, which is an innovative tip-modified propeller, is handled. Kappel propellers....... It is investigated how the accuracy is improved, as the wake field is modelled more precisely. The thrust variation and pressure distribution on the blade from the CFD simulation with the hull wake model are also analyzed.......Marine propellers are designed not for the open-water operation, but for the operation behind a hull due to the inhomogeneous hull wake and thrust deduction. The adaptation for the hull wake is important for the propulsive efficiency and cavitation risk especially on single-screw ships. CFD...

  20. Air blast injuries killed the crew of the submarine H.L. Hunley.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel M Lance

    Full Text Available The submarine H.L. Hunley was the first submarine to sink an enemy ship during combat; however, the cause of its sinking has been a mystery for over 150 years. The Hunley set off a 61.2 kg (135 lb black powder torpedo at a distance less than 5 m (16 ft off its bow. Scaled experiments were performed that measured black powder and shock tube explosions underwater and propagation of blasts through a model ship hull. This propagation data was used in combination with archival experimental data to evaluate the risk to the crew from their own torpedo. The blast produced likely caused flexion of the ship hull to transmit the blast wave; the secondary wave transmitted inside the crew compartment was of sufficient magnitude that the calculated chances of survival were less than 16% for each crew member. The submarine drifted to its resting place after the crew died of air blast trauma within the hull.

  1. Dynamic Planar Convex Hull

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacob, Riko

    We determine the computational complexity of the dynamic convex hull problem in the planar case. We present a data structure that maintains a finite set of n points in the plane under insertion and deletion of points in amortized O(log n) time per operation. The space usage of the data structure...... is O(n). The data structure supports extreme point queries in a given direction, tangent queries through a given point, and queries for the neighboring points on the convex hull in O(log n) time. The extreme point queries can be used to decide whether or not a given line intersects the convex hull......, and the tangent queries to determine whether a given point is inside the convex hull. The space usage of the data structure is O(n). We give a lower bound on the amortized asymptotic time complexity that matches the performance of this data structure....

  2. Submarine Medicine Team (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Submarine Medicine Team conducts basic and applied research on biomedical aspects of submarine and diving environments. It focuses on ways to optimize the health...

  3. Processes driving submarine landslide geohazards in Alboran Sea: A complex interaction between fluid pressure, contouritic sedimentation and seismicity (United States)

    Lafosse, M.; Gorini, C.


    The active Eurasia-Nubia plate boundary runs across the Alboran Sea in the Western Mediterranean Sea. Earthquakes of magnitude Mw >6, fluid escape and thick accumulations are potential triggers of submarine landslides along the Alboran contouritic margins. Over the last decade, international collaboration between Spanish, French and Moroccan marine geologists working has allowed a large amount of high-resolution multibeam and multi- and single channel seismic data to be collected from the Alboran Sea. Multibeam and echosounder data collected during the SARAS Eurofleet cruise reveal the distribution of slope failures along the northern flank of the Xauen-Tofiño bank along the Moroccan margin and the southern flank of the Alboran ridge. Those highs are active folds located on both sides of the Trans Alboran Shear Zone (TASZ). Here we provide a detailed mapping and description of the morphology of the Xauen-Tofiño landslides, including volumetric estimates of the failed mass and the related mass transport deposits over the last 2 myr. The most voluminous Holocene landslide mobilized ~0.5 km3 of sediment at the initial stage of slope failure, and formed a ~2.2-2.4 km3 mass transport deposit. Twenty-eight and thirty-eight Mass Transport Deposits (MTD) were described from the Xauen and Tofiño banks, respectively. Boreholes analysis of ODP sites 976 and 979 allowed the calibration of some of the reflectors and relative ages of the pulses of tectonic activity and MTD's events. Active uplift pulses are observed at 1.19, 0.79 and 0.46 Ma for the Alboran ridge, and at 1.19 and 0.79 Ma for the Xauen-Tofiño Bank. We compute different parameters for each MTD's from the literature, including the volume of sediments involved and the porosity, thanks to physical laws. For few MTD's, we also map associated slump scars and compute parameters such as the run-off and the volume of sediments, deduced from the scar with a simple geometric reconstitution of the paleo-topography. The

  4. Effective Hull IMMR plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, Mireille


    The objective of the Hull Inspection, Maintenance and Repair Plan is to ensure the total integrity of the Floating Production Unit. To be efficient, the Monitoring has to be part of the Hull Inspection, Monitoring, Maintenance and Repair Plan (IMMR). The IMMR Plan should be developed during the design and project phases and take into account the interfaces between the different systems and teams' tasks in operation. The IMMR is multidisciplinary and form part of the hand-over to ensure an efficient and early implementation. Implementation of such a complex plan requires: - Cross-functionality: take advantage of the synergies - Boldness: break the mould and think outside the box - Listening: be attentive, be available, - Mutual support: during good and bad times. This paper presents the way Total believe the Hull IMMR Plan shall be developed, implemented and followed up. (Author)

  5. Submarine landslides: processes, triggers and hazard prediction. (United States)

    Masson, D G; Harbitz, C B; Wynn, R B; Pedersen, G; Løvholt, F


    Huge landslides, mobilizing hundreds to thousands of km(3) of sediment and rock are ubiquitous in submarine settings ranging from the steepest volcanic island slopes to the gentlest muddy slopes of submarine deltas. Here, we summarize current knowledge of such landslides and the problems of assessing their hazard potential. The major hazards related to submarine landslides include destruction of seabed infrastructure, collapse of coastal areas into the sea and landslide-generated tsunamis. Most submarine slopes are inherently stable. Elevated pore pressures (leading to decreased frictional resistance to sliding) and specific weak layers within stratified sequences appear to be the key factors influencing landslide occurrence. Elevated pore pressures can result from normal depositional processes or from transient processes such as earthquake shaking; historical evidence suggests that the majority of large submarine landslides are triggered by earthquakes. Because of their tsunamigenic potential, ocean-island flank collapses and rockslides in fjords have been identified as the most dangerous of all landslide related hazards. Published models of ocean-island landslides mainly examine 'worst-case scenarios' that have a low probability of occurrence. Areas prone to submarine landsliding are relatively easy to identify, but we are still some way from being able to forecast individual events with precision. Monitoring of critical areas where landslides might be imminent and modelling landslide consequences so that appropriate mitigation strategies can be developed would appear to be areas where advances on current practice are possible.

  6. On coreflective hulls in

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    topological spaces in the category [0; 1]-TOP of [0; 1]-topological spaces. We also show that the coreflective hull of a single-point s[0; 1]-topological space in the category s[0; 1]-TOP of stratified [0; 1]-topological spaces is the category of discrete [0; ...

  7. Dynamic Planar Convex Hull

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølfting; Jacob, Rico


    In this paper we determine the computational complexity of the dynamic convex hull problem in the planar case. We present a data structure that maintains a finite set of n points in the plane under insertion and deletion of points in amortized O(log n) time per operation. The space usage of the d...

  8. Hydrodynamic modeling of semi-planing hulls with air cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin I. Matveev


    Full Text Available High-speed heavy loaded monohull ships can benefit from application of drag-reducing air cavities under stepped hull bottoms. The subject of this paper is the steady hydrodynamic modeling of semi-planing air-cavity hulls. The current method is based on a linearized potential-flow theory for surface flows. The mathematical model description and parametric calculation results for a selected configuration with pressurized and open air cavities are presented.

  9. Low cost submarine robot


    Ponlachart Chotikarn; Werapong Koedsin; Boonlua Phongdara; Pattara Aiyarak


    A submarine robot is a semi-autonomous submarine robot used mainly for marine environmental research. We aim todevelop a low cost, semi-autonomous submarine robot which is able to travel underwater. The robot’s structure was designedand patented using a novel idea of the diving system employing a volume adjustment mechanism to vary the robot’s density.A light weight, flexibility and small structure provided by PVC can be used to construct the torpedo-liked shape robot.Hydraulic seal and O-rin...

  10. Low cost submarine robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponlachart Chotikarn


    Full Text Available A submarine robot is a semi-autonomous submarine robot used mainly for marine environmental research. We aim todevelop a low cost, semi-autonomous submarine robot which is able to travel underwater. The robot’s structure was designedand patented using a novel idea of the diving system employing a volume adjustment mechanism to vary the robot’s density.A light weight, flexibility and small structure provided by PVC can be used to construct the torpedo-liked shape robot.Hydraulic seal and O-ring rubbers are used to prevent water leaking. This robot is controlled by a wired communicationsystem.

  11. Characterizations of boundary pluripolar hulls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djire, I.K.; Wiegerinck, J.


    We present some basic properties of the so-called boundary relative extremal function and discuss boundary pluripolar sets and boundary pluripolar hulls. We show that for B-regular domains the boundary pluripolar hull is always trivial on the boundary of the domain and present a “boundary version”

  12. Hull-form optimization of KSUEZMAX to enhance resistance performance

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    Jong-Heon Park


    Full Text Available This paper deploys optimization techniques to obtain the optimum hull form of KSUEZMAX at the conditions of full-load draft and design speed. The processes have been carried out using a RaPID-HOP program. The bow and the stern hull-forms are optimized separately without altering neither, and the resulting versions of the two are then combined. Objective functions are the minimum values of wave-making and viscous pressure resistance coefficients for the bow and stern. Parametric modification functions for the bow hull-form variation are SAC shape, section shape (U-Vtype, DLWL type, bulb shape (bulb height and size; and those for the stern are SAC and section shape (U-Vtype, DLWL type. WAVIS version 1.3 code is usedfor the potential and the viscous-flow solver. Prior to the optimization, a parametric study has been conducted to observe the effects of design parameters on the objective functions. SQP has been applied for the optimization algorithm. The model tests have been conducted at a towing tank to evaluate the resistance performance of the optimized hull-form. It has been noted that the optimized hull-form brings 2.4% and 6.8% reduction in total and residual resistance coefficients compared to those of the original hull-form. The propulsive efficiency increases by 2.0% and the delivered power is reduced 3.7%, whereas the propeller rotating speed increases slightly by 0.41 rpm.

  13. Submarine Countermeasure and Launch Assembly

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Doleski, Robert F


    .... The vehicle includes a forward end portion, an aft end portion provided with a propeller and fins, a hull portion extending between the forward and aft portions, the hull portion being circular...

  14. Submarine Salt Karst Terrains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico Augustin


    Full Text Available Karst terrains that develop in bodies of rock salt (taken as mainly of halite, NaCl are special not only for developing in one of the most soluble of all rocks, but also for developing in one of the weakest rocks. Salt is so weak that many surface-piercing salt diapirs extrude slow fountains of salt that that gravity spread downslope over deserts on land and over sea floors. Salt fountains in the deserts of Iran are usually so dry that they flow at only a few cm/yr but the few rain storms a decade so soak and weaken them that they surge at dm/day for a few days. We illustrate the only case where the rates at which different parts of one of the many tens of subaerial salt karst terrains in Iran flows downslope constrains the rates at which its subaerial salt karst terrains form. Normal seawater is only 10% saturated in NaCl. It should therefore be sufficiently aggressive to erode karst terrains into exposures of salt on the thousands of known submarine salt extrusions that have flowed or are still flowing over the floors of hundreds of submarine basins worldwide. However, we know of no attempt to constrain the processes that form submarine salt karst terrains on any of these of submarine salt extrusions. As on land, many potential submarine karst terrains are cloaked by clastic and pelagic sediments that are often hundreds of m thick. Nevertheless, detailed geophysical and bathymetric surveys have already mapped likely submarine salt karst terrains in at least the Gulf of Mexico, and the Red Sea. New images of these two areas are offered as clear evidence of submarine salt dissolution due to sinking or rising aggressive fluids. We suggest that repeated 3D surveys of distinctive features (± fixed seismic reflectors of such terrains could measure any downslope salt flow and thus offer an exceptional opportunity to constrain the rates at which submarine salt karst terrains develop. Such rates are of interest to all salt tectonicians and the many

  15. The near boiling reactor: Conceptual design of a small inherently safe nuclear reactor to extend the operational capability of the Victoria Class submarine (United States)

    Cole, Christopher J. P.

    Nuclear power has several unique advantages over other air independent energy sources for nuclear combat submarines. An inherently safe, small nuclear reactor, capable of supply the hotel load of the Victoria Class submarines, has been conceptually developed. The reactor is designed to complement the existing diesel electric power generation plant presently onboard the submarine. The reactor, rated at greater than 1 MW thermal, will supply electricity to the submarine's batteries through an organic Rankine cycle energy conversion plant at 200 kW. This load will increase the operational envelope of the submarine by providing up to 28 continuous days submerged, allowing for an enhanced indiscretion ratio (ratio of time spent on the surface versus time submerged) and a limited under ice capability. The power plant can be fitted into the existing submarine by inserting a 6 m hull plug. With its simplistic design and inherent safety features, the reactor plant will require a minimal addition to the crew. The reactor employs TRISO fuel particles for increased safety. The light water coolant remains at atmospheric pressure, exiting the core at 96°C. Burn-up control and limiting excess reactivity is achieved through movable reflector plates. Shut down and regulatory control is achieved through the thirteen hafnium control rods. Inherent safety is achieved through the negative prompt and delayed temperature coefficients, as well as the negative void coefficient. During a transient, the boiling of the moderator results in a sudden drop in reactivity, essentially shutting down the reactor. It is this characteristic after which the reactor has been named. The design of the reactor was achieved through modelling using computer codes such as MCNP5, WIMS-AECL, FEMLAB, and MicroShield5, in addition to specially written software for kinetics, heat transfer and fission product poisoning calculations. The work has covered a broad area of research and has highlighted additional areas

  16. Engineering Hydrodynamic AUV Hulls (United States)

    Allen, J.


    AUV stands for autonomous underwater vehicle. AUVs are used in oceanography and are similar to gliders. MBARIs AUVs as well as other AUVs map the ocean floor which is very important. They also measure physical characteristics of the water, such as temperature and salinity. My science fair project for 4th grade was a STEM activity in which I built and tested 3 different AUV bodies. I wanted to find out which design was the most hydrodynamic. I tested three different lengths of AUV hulls to see which AUV would glide the farthest. The first was 6 inches. The second was 12 inches and the third was 18 inches. I used clay for the nosecone and cut a ruler into two and made it the fin. Each AUV used the same nosecone and fin. I tested all three designs in a pool. I used biomimicry to create my hypothesis. When I was researching I found that long slim animals swim fastest. So, my hypothesis is the longer AUV will glide farthest. In the end I was right. The longer AUV did glide the farthest.

  17. Effects of internal mass distribution and its isolation on the acoustic characteristics of a submerged hull (United States)

    Peters, Herwig; Kinns, Roger; Kessissoglou, Nicole


    The primary aim of machinery isolation in marine vessels is to isolate structural vibration of the onboard machinery from the hull and to reduce far-field radiation of underwater noise. A substantial proportion of the total submarine mass is on flexible mounts that isolate supported masses from the hull at frequencies above the mounting system resonant frequency. This reduces the dynamically effective mass of the hull and affects the signature of the marine vessel due to propeller excitation. A fully coupled finite element/boundary element (FE/BE) model has been developed to investigate the effect of mass distribution and isolation in a submerged hull. The finite element model of the structure includes internal structures to represent the machinery and other flexibly mounted components. Changes in the radiated sound power demonstrate the effect of machinery isolation on the acoustic signature of the submerged hull due to the external propeller forces. Results are also presented to show how the arrangement of flexible mounts for a large internal structure can influence the radiation due to machinery forces.

  18. Characterization Of Cladding Hull Wastes From Used Nuclear Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang K.H.


    Full Text Available Used cladding hulls from pressurized water reactor (PWR are characterized to provide useful information for the treatment and disposal of cladding hull wastes. The radioactivity and the mass of gamma emitting nuclides increases with an increase in the fuel burn-up and their removal ratios are found to be more than 99 wt.% except Co-60 and Cs-137. In the result of measuring the concentrations of U and Pu included in the cladding hull wastes, most of the residues are remained on the surface and the removal ratio of U and Pu are revealed to be over 99.98 wt.% for the fuel burn-up of 35,000 MWd/tU. An electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA line scanning shows that radioactive fission products are penetrated into the Zr oxide layer, which is proportional to the fuel burn-up. The oxidative decladding process exhibits more efficient removal ratio of radionuclides.

  19. Chemical environments of submarine hydrothermal systems (United States)

    Shock, Everett L.


    determinations rely on studies of pieces of deep oceanic crust uplifted by tectonic forces such as along the Southwest Indian Ridge, or more complete sections of oceanic crust called ophiolite sequences which are presently exposed on continents owing to tectonic emplacement. Much of what is thought to happen in submarine hydrothermal systems is inferred from studies of ophiolite sequences, and especially from the better-exposed ophiolites in Oman, Cyprus and North America. The focus of much that follows is on a few general features: pressure, temperature, oxidation states, fluid composition and mineral alteration, because these features will control whether organic synthesis can occur in hydrothermal systems.

  20. Phase 1 Final Report: Titan Submarine (United States)

    Oleson, Steven R.; Lorenz, Ralph D.; Paul, Michael V.


    The conceptual design of a submarine for Saturn's moon Titan was a funded NASA Innovative Advanced Concepts (NIAC) Phase 1 for 2014. The proposal stated the desire to investigate what science a submarine for Titan's liquid hydrocarbon seas might accomplish and what that submarine might look like. Focusing on a flagship class science system (100 kg), it was found that a submersible platform can accomplish extensive science both above and below the surface of the Kraken Mare. Submerged science includes mapping using side-looking sonar, imaging and spectroscopy of the lake, as well as sampling of the lake's bottom and shallow shoreline. While surfaced, the submarine will not only sense weather conditions (including the interaction between the liquid and atmosphere) but also image the shoreline, as much as 2 km inland. This imaging requirement pushed the landing date to Titan's next summer period (2047) to allow for lighted conditions, as well as direct-to-Earth communication, avoiding the need for a separate relay orbiter spacecraft. Submerged and surfaced investigation are key to understanding both the hydrological cycle of Titan as well as gather hints to how life may have begun on Earth using liquid, sediment, and chemical interactions. An estimated 25 Mb of data per day would be generated by the various science packages. Most of the science packages (electronics at least) can be safely kept inside the submarine pressure vessel and warmed by the isotope power system.The baseline 90-day mission would be to sail submerged and surfaced around and through Kraken Mare investigating the shoreline and inlets to evaluate the sedimentary interaction both on the surface and then below. Depths of Kraken have yet to be sensed (Ligeia to the north is thought to be 200 m (656 ft) deep), but a maximum depth of 1,000 m (3,281 ft) for Kraken Mare was assumed for the design). The sub would spend 20 d at the interface between Kraken Mare and Ligeia Mare for clues to the drainage of

  1. Adsorption of aqueous copper on peanut hulls (United States)

    Davis, Kanika Octavia

    A method was established for measuring the adsorption of Cu(II) from aqueous solution to unmodified and modified peanut hulls at constant temperature and pH. Modification of the hulls was performed by oxidation with alkaline hydrogen peroxide. During the modification process, the hydrogen peroxide solubilizes the lignin component, making the surface more porous which increases the availability of binding sites, while simultaneously oxidizing the cellulose. The oxidation of alcohol groups creates more binding sites by creating functional groups such as COO-, which increases chelation to metal ions. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirms delignification of the peanut hulls by the disappearance of carboxyl peaks of the modified hulls, which were originally produced from the lignin content. Although, oxidation is not fully confirmed, it is not ruled out because the expected carboxylate peak (1680 cm-1) maybe overshadowed by a broad peak due to OH bending of water adsorbed to the hulls. Hulls adsorbed copper from solutions in the concentration range of 50-1000 ppm of CuCl2. Concentrations of pre- and post-adsorption solutions were determined using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. The adsorption isotherms were fit to known two and three-parameter models, evaluated and the binding mechanism was inferred. Maximum surface coverage was 3.5 +/- 0.6 mg Cu2+ /g hull for unmodified hulls and 11 +/- 1 mg Cu2+/g hull for modified hulls. The adsorption for the hulls is best described by the Langmuir model, suggesting monolayer, homogeneous adsorption. With a free energy of adsorption of 10.5 +/- 0.9 kJ/mol for unmodified hulls and 14.5 +/-0.4 kJ/mol for modified hulls, the process is categorized as chemisorption for both types of hulls. The adsorption for both hulls is also described by the Redlich-Peterson model, giving beta nearer to 1 than 0, which further suggests homogeneous adsorption described by the Langmuir model. After rinsing the hulls

  2. Ultimate Longitudinal Strength of Composite Ship Hulls (United States)

    Zhang, Xiangming; Huang, Lingkai; Zhu, Libao; Tang, Yuhang; Wang, Anwen


    A simple analytical model to estimate the longitudinal strength of ship hulls in composite materials under buckling, material failure and ultimate collapse is presented in this paper. Ship hulls are regarded as assemblies of stiffened panels which idealized as group of plate-stiffener combinations. Ultimate strain of the plate-stiffener combination is predicted under buckling or material failure with composite beam-column theory. The effects of initial imperfection of ship hull and eccentricity of load are included. Corresponding longitudinal strengths of ship hull are derived in a straightforward method. A longitudinally framed ship hull made of symmetrically stacked unidirectional plies under sagging is analyzed. The results indicate that present analytical results have a good agreement with FEM method. The initial deflection of ship hull and eccentricity of load can dramatically reduce the bending capacity of ship hull. The proposed formulations provide a simple but useful tool for the longitudinal strength estimation in practical design.

  3. Open Architecture Framework for Improved Early Stage Submarine Design (United States)


    Figure 12 Data Structure Example – VPH ..................................................................................... 41 Figure 13 SUBSTART the MIT SMM (e.g. – VPH -VB, pressure hull volume without volume of the in-hull variable ballast). Tables 4 and 5 list the variables by module...MUD1frac FFsurf θ(x,t) V(t) VPH ∆ff VCGLEADs BTf MUDfwd GMt R(x) Vambt VPHguess ∆mbt VCGnsc BTops OBambt ηa tenvsurf Vaux VPH -VB ∆nsc VCGVL

  4. Analysis of flow over an axisymmetric hull-form using Large Eddy Simulation (United States)

    Kumar, Praveen; Mahesh, Krishnan


    Large eddy simulations are performed for flow over an idealized axisymmetric hull at a Reynolds number of 1.1 million, based on hull length and freestream velocity. The domain is chosen to minimize confinement effects and the grid is designed to capture the near-wall physics as well as the evolution of turbulent wake. The entire hull is broken up into bow, mid and stern region and analyzed individually before merging them together, to ensure accurate solution on the final grid. The boundary layer is tripped on the bow region of the hull to make it turbulent as done in experiment. The turbulent boundary layer evolves on the mid region of the hull and eventually separates on the stern region due to the adverse pressure gradient, and forms the wake. Results are shown for the flow field and the pressure and skin-friction on the hull. The sensitivity of wake to the boundary layer characteristics on the stern is discussed. This work is supported by the Office of Naval Research.

  5. SCICEX: Submarine Arctic Science Program (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Submarine Arctic Science Program, SCICEX, is a federal interagency collaboration among the operational Navy, research agencies, and the marine research community...

  6. The Submarine, 1776-1918

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Uhlig, Frank


    When, on 11 April 1900, the U.S. Navy thought the Holland, named for its designer, that little submarine joined a fleet consisting of two armored cruisers, six monitors, seven first and second-class battleships, and seventeen each...

  7. John Hull and the Money Culture (United States)

    Attfield, David


    John Hull's recent educational writings have included several on what he calls the "money culture". This is analysed and criticised in this article. Hull offers a Marxist and a neo-Marxist account of the role of money in western societies utilising the labour theory of value, false consciousness and the materialist interpretation of history. It is…

  8. Submarine landslides on the north continental slope of the South China Sea (United States)

    Wang, Weiwei; Wang, Dawei; Wu, Shiguo; Völker, David; Zeng, Hongliu; Cai, Guanqiang; Li, Qingping


    Recent and paleo-submarine landslides are widely distributed within strata in deep-water areas along continental slopes, uplifts, and carbonate platforms on the north continental margin of the South China Sea (SCS). In this paper, high-resolution 3D seismic data and multibeam data based on seismic sedimentology and geomorphology are employed to assist in identifying submarine landslides. In addition, deposition models are proposed that are based on specific geological structures and features, and which illustrate the local stress field over entire submarine landslides in deep-water areas of the SCS. The SCS is one of the largest fluvial sediment sinks in enclosed or semi-enclosed marginal seas worldwide. It therefore provides a set of preconditions for the formation of submarine landslides, including rapid sediment accumulation, formation of gas hydrates, and fluid overpressure. A new concept involving temporal and spatial analyses is tested to construct a relationship between submarine landslides and different time scale trigger mechanisms, and three mechanisms are discussed in the context of spatial scale and temporal frequency: evolution of slope gradient and overpressure, global environmental changes, and tectonic events. Submarine landslides that are triggered by tectonic events are the largest but occur less frequently, while submarine landslides triggered by the combination of slope gradient and over-pressure evolution are the smallest but most frequently occurring events. In summary, analysis shows that the formation of submarine landslides is a complex process involving the operation of different factors on various time scales.

  9. Submarine Information Organization and Prioritization and Submarine Officer of the Deck Experience (United States)


    The Submarine Review, 58-64. Shobe, K. (2002, May). Information organization and modeling of the submarine officer of the deck and sonar operator...Technical Report 01Oct00 - 31Sep02 SUBMARINE INFORMATION ORGANIZATION AND PRIORITIZATION AND SUBMARINE OFFICER OF THE DECK EXPERIENCE 51001 1) Katharine K

  10. Enhancing Submarine Operational Relevance: A Leadership Challenge

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daigle, Jr, Michael J


    .... This vision of submarine operations must change. As the military continues to shift to operations focused on joint capabilities, the submarine force must break from the closed, protective, and risk averse culture of its past and push forward...

  11. Submarine silicic volcanism: Processes and products

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kalangutkar, N.G.; Iyer, S.D.

    The occurrence of submarine silicic volcanics is rare at the mid-oceanic ridges, abyssal depths, seamounts and fracture zones. Hydrothermal processes are active in submarine silicic environments and are associated with host ores of Cu, Au, Ag, Pb...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sancar Bulut


    Full Text Available Emmer (Triticum dicoccum and einkorn (T. monococcum cultivation has a long history in Anatolia. The crops, cultivated in Anatolia over thousands years, can still be found in some parts of the country, especially Develi in the Kayseri province. The total cultivation area of these crops was around 36 000 ha in 2015. The species is mainly cultivated in sloping and marginal lands by poor farmers, where no other crops can be economically grown. Cultivation area is rapidly declining, and if such trend continues, hulled wheats will be shortly completely wiped out from Turkey. Present-day distribution of emmer and spelt within Turkey is concentrated in countryside areas of Develi where traditional farming systems still survive. This group of wheats is called in Turkish the general name of ‘kaplìca’ which means ‘covered’ or ‘hulled’. More specifically, the tetraploid species (emmer is called ‘gacer’ in the Develi. Being a low-yielding type of wheat, emmer was replaced by other improved varieties of Triticum. This decrease was mainly due to the widespread use of improved cultivars of wheat and the adoption of new agricultural techniques, but also to social and economic factors. In fact, wheat yielded 2840 t/ha, whereas hulled wheats yielded 1200 t/ha. The cultivation of these two crops shows disadvantages that relate to the harvesting techniques used and the need to dehisce the spikelets to obtain the grain for human consumption. The increasing interest in low-input systems due to the actual ecological and economical situation has led to a growing interest in specific genetic variability. Organic agriculture and health food products have been gaining increasing popularity that has led to a renewed interest in hulled wheat species such as emmer and spelt. The objective of this study was to estimate agronomical and grain quality characteristics of some Turkey (Develi emmer landraces. This effort was motivated by the fact that autochthonous

  13. 46 CFR 154.174 - Transverse contiguous hull structure. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transverse contiguous hull structure. 154.174 Section... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.174 Transverse contiguous hull structure. (a) The transverse contiguous hull structure of a vessel having cargo containment systems without secondary barriers must meet the standards of...

  14. 46 CFR 154.176 - Longitudinal contiguous hull structure. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Longitudinal contiguous hull structure. 154.176 Section... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.176 Longitudinal contiguous hull structure. (a) The longitudinal contiguous hull structure of a vessel having cargo containment systems without secondary barriers must meet the...

  15. 46 CFR 151.10-20 - Hull construction. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull construction. 151.10-20 Section 151.10-20 Shipping... BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Barge Hull Construction Requirements § 151.10-20 Hull construction. (a) Construction features. (1) Each barge hull shall be constructed with a suitable bow form...

  16. Stresses in a submarine topography under ocean waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mei, C.C.; McTigue, D.F.


    The problem of submarine slope stability is of interest to both offshore engineering and geology. In an uneven topography, the weight above a horizontal plane induces two-dimensional variation in the static stress field. The action of wave pressure, which changes with depth, further introduces excess pore pressure and dynamic stresses in the sea bottom. In the present paper, we combine a simple analytical theory for the static stress by the present authors, and the recent solution by Mei and Foda for wave-induced stresses in a plane poro-elastic sea bed to account for mild bottom slope and wave shoaling, to obtain the effective stress field in a submarine topography under sea waves. Sample results are given for a ridge and a canyon. In particular the dynamic pore pressure and the combined static and dynamic effective stresses are presented. 10 references, 11 figures.

  17. Stresses in a submarine topography under ocean waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mei, C.C.; McTigue, D.F.


    The problem of submarine slope stability is of interest to both offshore engineering and geology. In an uneven topography, the weight above a horizontal plane induces two-dimensional variation in the static stress field. The action of wave pressure, which changes with depth, further introduces excess pore pressure and dynamic stresses in the sea bottom. In the present paper, we combine a simple analytical theory for the static stress by the present authors, and the recent solution by Mei and Foda for wave-induced stresses in a plane poro-elastic sea bed to account for mild bottom slope and wave shoaling, and obtain the effective stress field in a submarine topography under sea waves. Sample results are given for a ridge and a canyon. In particular, the dynamic pore pressure and the combined static and dynamic effective stresses are presented.

  18. A new approach to hull consistency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolev Lubomir


    Full Text Available Hull consistency is a known technique to improve the efficiency of iterative interval methods for solving nonlinear systems describing steady-states in various circuits. Presently, hull consistency is checked in a scalar manner, i.e. successively for each equation of the nonlinear system with respect to a single variable. In the present poster, a new more general approach to implementing hull consistency is suggested which consists in treating simultaneously several equations with respect to the same number of variables.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Jong Choi


    Full Text Available The present study proposes an automatic hull form control algorithm to effectively control the hull form of a ship. A Gaussian distribution function is implemented in the proposed algorithm that automatically controls the hull form in conjunction with an optimization algorithm that is executed during the hull form optimization procedure. The hull form optimization algorithm adopts sequential quadratic programming for the optimizer, and the wave-making resistance is used as an objective function and is solved using the potential-based panel method. A high-speed passenger ship is selected as the target ship, and the results of a numerical analysis of the original hull are compared to those of the optimized hull obtained using the hull form optimization in order to verify the effectiveness of the hull-form optimization technique using the proposed automatic hull form control algorithm.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Jong Choi


    Full Text Available The present study proposes an automatic hull form control algorithm to effectively control the hull form of a ship. A Gaussian distribution function is implemented in the proposed algorithm that automatically controls the hull form in conjunction with an optimization algorithm that is executed during the hull form optimization procedure. The hull form optimization algorithm adopts sequential quadratic programming for the optimizer, and the wave-making resistance is used as an objective function and is solved using the potential-based panel method. A high-speed passenger ship is selected as the target ship, and the results of a numerical analysis of the original hull are compared to those of the optimized hull obtained using the hull form optimization in order to verify the effectiveness of the hull-form optimization technique using the proposed automatic hull form control algorithm.

  1. North American Submarine Cable Association (NASCA) Submarine Cables (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data show the locations of in-service and out-of-service submarine cables that are owned by members of NASCA and located in U.S. territorial waters. More...

  2. Service robot for hull-blasting


    Ortiz Zaragoza, Francisco José; Iborra García, Andrés José; Álvarez Torres, María Bárbara; Marín García, Fulgencio; Fernández Meroño, José María


    Present grit blasting technology for hull cleaning is very pollutant, environmentally unaffordable, and it is progressively forbidden in the most environmental countries (mainly north of Europe). At the time being, the above methodology has been partially substituted by ultra highpressure water blasting, however they do not show as good performance as the grit blasting systems. This paper describes a service robot for hull blasting. The technology we developed consists of the cleanin...

  3. Submarine geothermal resources (United States)

    Williams, D.L.


    Approximately 20% of the earth's heat loss (or 2 ?? 1012 cal/s) is released through 1% of the earth's surface area and takes the form of hydrothermal discharge from young (Pleistocene or younger) rocks adjacent to active seafloor-spreading centers and submarine volcanic areas. This amount is roughly equivalent to man's present gross energy consumption rate. A sub-seafloor geothermal reservoir, to be exploitable under future economic conditions, will have to be hot, porous, permeable, large, shallow, and near an energy-deficient, populated land mass. Furthermore, the energy must be recoverable using technology achievable at a competitive cost and numerous environmental, legal and institutional problems will have to be overcome. The highest-temperature reservoirs should be found adjacent to the zones of the seafloor extension or volcanism that are subject to high sedimentation rates. The relatively impermeable sediments reduce hydrothermal-discharge flow rates, forcing the heat to be either conducted away or released by high-temperature fluids, both of which lead to reservoir temperatures that can exceed 300??C. There is evidence that the oceanic crust is quite permeable and porous and that it was amenable to deep (3-5 km) penetration by seawater at least some time in the early stages of its evolution. Most of the heat escapes far from land, but there are notable exceptions. For example, in parts of the Gulf of California, thermal gradients in the bottom sediments exceed 1??C/m. In the coastal areas of the Gulf of California, where electricity and fresh water are at a premium, this potential resource lies in shallow water (< 200 m) and within sight of land. Other interesting areas include the Sea of Japan, the Sea of Okhotsk and the Andaman Sea along the margins of the western Pacific, the Tyrrhenian Sea west of Italy, and the southern California borderland and west flank of the Juan de Fuca Ridge off the west coast of the United States. Many questions remain to be

  4. Submarine canyons off Madras Coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Setty, M.G.A.P.

    Submarine canyons off the coast of Madras, Tamil Nadu, India were studied during cruise of @iINS Kistna@@ as part of the IIOE programme They consist of hill-like projections and V-shaped valleys Their other features are also reported...

  5. CO2-H2O based pretreatment and enzyme hydrolysis of soybean hulls. (United States)

    Islam, S M Mahfuzul; Li, Qian; Loman, Abdullah Al; Ju, Lu-Kwang


    The high carbohydrate content of soybean hull makes it an attractive biorefinery resource. But hydrolyzing its complex structure requires concerted enzyme activities, at least cellulase, xylanase, pectinase and α-galactosidase. Effective pretreatment that generates minimal inhibitory products is important to facilitate enzymatic hydrolysis. Combined CO2-H2O pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis by Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma reesei enzyme broths was studied here. The pretreatment was evaluated at 80°C-180°C temperature and 750psi-1800psi pressure, with fixed moisture content (66.7%) and pretreatment time (30min). Ground hulls without and with different pretreatments were hydrolyzed by enzyme at 50°C and pH 4.8 and compared for glucose, xylose, galactose, arabinose, mannose and total reducing sugar release. CO2-H2O pretreatment at 1250psi and 130°C was found to be optimal. Compared to the unpretreated hulls hydrolyzed with 2.5-fold more enzyme, this pretreatment improved glucose, xylose, galactose, arabinose and mannose releases by 55%, 35%, 105%, 683% and 52%, respectively. Conversions of 97% for glucose, 98% for xylose, 41% for galactose, 59% for arabinose, 87% for mannose and 89% for total reducing sugar were achieved with Spezyme CP at 18FPU/g hull. Monomerization of all carbohydrate types was demonstrated. At the optimum pretreatment condition, generation of inhibitors acetic acid, furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) was negligible, 1.5mg/g hull in total. The results confirmed the effective CO2-H2O pretreatment of soybean hulls at much lower pressure and temperature than those reported for biomass of higher lignin contents. The lower pressure requirement reduces the reactor cost and makes this new pretreatment method more practical and economical. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The hydrodynamics analysis for the underwater robot with a spherical hull (United States)

    Lan, Xiaojuan; Sun, Hanxu; Jia, Qingxuan


    The underwater spherical robot has a spherical pressure hull which contains power modules, sensors, and so on. It lacks robot arms or end effectors but is highly maneuverable, for the simplest symmetrical geometry is the sphere. This paper analyzes the spherical robot's hydrodynamic model with CFD software, concludes the spherical robot's hydrodynamic characteristics, and compares these characteristics with the hydrodynamic model of another underwater robot which has a streamlined hull. The effect of sphere hydraulic resistance on the control of the robot is analyzed with some examples.

  7. Environmental assessment of submarine power cables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isus, Daniel; Martinez, Juan D. [Grupo General Cable Sistemas, S.A., 08560-Manlleu, Barcelona (Spain); Arteche, Amaya; Del Rio, Carmen; Madina, Virginia [Tecnalia Research and Innovation, 20009 San Sebastian (Spain)


    Extensive analyses conducted by the European Community revealed that offshore wind energy have relatively benign effects on the marine environment by comparison to other forms of electric power generation [1]. However, the materials employed in offshore wind power farms suffer major changes to be confined to the marine environment at extreme conditions: saline medium, hydrostatic pressure... which can produce an important corrosion effect. This phenomenon can affect on the one hand, to the material from the structural viewpoint and on the other hand, to the marine environment. In this sense, to better understand the environmental impacts of generating electricity from offshore wind energy, this study evaluated the life cycle assessment for some new designs of submarine power cables developed by General Cable. To achieve this goal, three approaches have been carried out: leaching tests, eco-toxicity tests and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodologies. All of them are aimed to obtaining quantitative data for environmental assessment of selected submarine cables. LCA is a method used to assess environmental aspects and potential impacts of a product or activity. LCA does not include financial and social factors, which means that the results of an LCA cannot exclusively form the basis for assessment of a product's sustainability. Leaching tests results allowed to conclude that pH of seawater did not significantly changed by the presence of submarine three-core cables. Although, it was slightly higher in case of broken cable, pH values were nearly equals. Concerning to the heavy metals which could migrate to the aquatic medium, there were significant differences in both scenarios. The leaching of zinc is the major environmental concern during undersea operation of undamaged cables whereas the fully sectioned three-core cable produced the migration of significant quantities of copper and iron apart from the zinc migrated from the galvanized steel. Thus, the tar

  8. Silica Derived from Burned Rice Hulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. de Souza


    Full Text Available Three new processes to obtain silica having high specific surface area from burned pre-treated rice hulls are presented and discussed. These procedures allow for the simultaneous recovery of biomass energy and the production of high quality silica at thermoelectric plants, without the risk of using corrosive substances in the burning process. The first method involves treatment of the hull with hot organic acid solutions before burning, the second with boiling water, both using an autoclave at temperatures close to150 °C, while the third method renders the hull fragile by treating it at 250 °C and reducing it to a fine powder before burning. The first two methods result in white amorphous silica that can show 500 m²/g of specific surface area. The third method, which does not remove the alkaline elements from the hull, produces an amorphous gray carbon-free powder whose specific surface area can be as high as 250 m²/g. An investigation of the specific surface area of the prepared silica indicates the alkaline elements are not mixed with silica in the hulls or combined as insoluble compounds. A comparison is made of these processes and the dissolution of silica by sodium hydroxide solutions is discussed.

  9. Physical properties of peanut hull pellets. (United States)

    Fasina, O O


    Peanut hull (peanut pods and waste materials from processing of peanuts) was pelleted through a 3/16-in. (4.76 mm) diameter die. The effect of change in moisture content (4.2-21.2%, wet basis) of the pellets (due to exposure of the pellets to low or high humidity storage environments) on physical properties were measured. Pelleting increased the bulk density of the peanut hull from 151 kg/m(3) to more than 600 kg/m(3). Bulk density, particle density and durability of the pelleted peanut hull of pellets were significantly affected by moisture content attained by the pellets during exposure to the low or high humidity environment. Air relative humidity significantly influenced the rate at which the pellets exchange moisture with the environment while air temperature did not. The values of the constants of the GAB model were obtained from moisture sorption isotherm at 25 degrees C.

  10. SCICEX: Submarine Arctic Science Program, Version 1 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Submarine Arctic Science Program, SCICEX, is a federal interagency collaboration among the operational Navy, research agencies, and the marine research community...

  11. Effect of corrosion on the ship hull of a double hull very large crude oil carrier (United States)

    Vu Van, Tuyen; Yang, Ping


    This study aims to examine and analyze the effect of corrosion wastage on the ship hull of a double hull very large crude oil carrier. To calculate the ultimate bending moment capacity, along with the neutral axis position at the limit state, section modulus, and moment of inertia, the incremental-iterative method is employed. This paper also considered the residual strength checking criteria of ship hull and the ultimate stress behaviors of the representative structural elements. Then, Paik's probabilistic corrosion, which employs two levels of corrosion rate and three different assumptions of coating life time, is applied to assess the corrosion effects. The calculation results obtained through relevant analyses are also presented.

  12. Navigation and history of science: autopsy to submarine Kursk. Survival previsions were not sufficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Jáuregui-Lobera


    Full Text Available On August 12, 2000, Saturday, a Russian submarine of the Oscar II class, the K-141 Kursk, sank in the Barents Sea, while sailing as part of the "Summer-X Exercise" manoeuvres. The Kursk was a giant double-hulled submarine, with nine sealed compartments, considered impossible to be sunk. During the manoeuvres, at 08:51 local time, the Kursk requested permission to prepare a torpedo and it received the response "Dobro" (good in English. At 11:29:34 (07:29:50 UTC the Norwegian seismic monitoring network (NORSAR registered an earthquake of intensity 1.5 on the Richter scale at northeast of Murmansk, approximately 250 Km from Norway, and 80 Km from the Kola Peninsula. At 11:31:48, two minutes and fourteen seconds later, a second movement, 4.2 on the Richter scale and 250 times longer than the first, was recorded by different seismographs, even being detected in Alaska. It was equivalent to an explosion of 2-3 Tm of TNT. After a great confusion and propaganda, there was no choice other than to accept the facts: the Kursk had suffered two explosions, had sunk and the whole crew had perished. But what happened in that submarine? It seems clear that survival previsions were not sufficient.

  13. 46 CFR 154.180 - Contiguous hull structure: Welding procedure. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contiguous hull structure: Welding procedure. 154.180 Section 154.180 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.180 Contiguous hull structure: Welding procedure. Welding procedure tests for...

  14. 46 CFR 154.188 - Membrane tank: Inner hull steel. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Membrane tank: Inner hull steel. 154.188 Section 154.188... Structure § 154.188 Membrane tank: Inner hull steel. For a vessel with membrane tanks, the inner hull... “Rules for Building and Classing Steel Vessels”, 1981. ...

  15. 46 CFR 154.172 - Contiguous steel hull structure. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contiguous steel hull structure. 154.172 Section 154.172... Structure § 154.172 Contiguous steel hull structure. (a) Except as allowed in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this... construction of the contiguous steel hull structure must meet the thickness and steel grade in Table 1 for the...

  16. Determination of digestibility of almond hull in sheep | Yalchi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to determine the chemical composition and digestibility of almond hull using in vitro, sacco and vivo methods. Chemical compositions of almond hull and alfalfa hay were determined. The crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) of almond hull were lower than ...

  17. 46 CFR 154.178 - Contiguous hull structure: Heating system. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contiguous hull structure: Heating system. 154.178... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.178 Contiguous hull structure: Heating system. The heating system for... the heating capacity to meet § 154.174(b)(2) or § 154.176(b)(2); (b) Have stand-by heating to provide...

  18. Multi-Hull Flow Visualization: An Investigation of Flow Visualization Techniques for Trimaran Hulls

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Denz, Thomas; Smith, Stephanie; Shrestha, Rajeev


    .... However, much is unknown about the hydrodynamic characteristics of multiple hulls. The objective of this study was to explore innovative techniques for qualitatively visualizing flow that could provide insight to aid designers...

  19. Chemical composition and nutritional characteristics of some hull less and hulled barley cultivars grown in India. (United States)

    Jood, S; Kalra, S


    Three hull less and nine hulled barley cultivars were grown during 1995-96 at Research Farm, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar, India and were used for chemical analysis such as nutritional and antinutritional parameters. Dolma, a hull less barley cultivar had higher contents of protein, fat, starch, in vitro digestibility of protein and starch, in vitro availability of Ca, Fe and Zn. Hulled cultivar BH-331 showed higher values of phytic acid (925 mg/100 g), polyphenols (625 mg/100 g) and amylase inhibitor activity (169 AIU) which might have contributed towards poor in vitro digestibility of Ca, Fe and Zn. Phytic acid and polyphenols manifested significantly negative correlation with in vitro availability of Ca, Fe and Zn and protein digestibility. Whereas amylase inhibitor activity showed significant and negative correlation (-0.992) only with starch digestibility.

  20. Submarines, spacecraft and exhaled breath. (United States)

    Pleil, Joachim D; Hansel, Armin


    Foreword The International Association of Breath Research (IABR) meetings are an eclectic gathering of researchers in the medical, environmental and instrumentation fields; our focus is on human health as assessed by the measurement and interpretation of trace chemicals in human exhaled breath. What may have escaped our notice is a complementary field of research that explores the creation and maintenance of artificial atmospheres practised by the submarine air monitoring and air purification (SAMAP) community. SAMAP is comprised of manufacturers, researchers and medical professionals dealing with the engineering and instrumentation to support human life in submarines and spacecraft (including shuttlecraft and manned rockets, high-altitude aircraft, and the International Space Station (ISS)). Here, the immediate concerns are short-term survival and long-term health in fairly confined environments where one cannot simply 'open the window' for fresh air. As such, one of the main concerns is air monitoring and the main sources of contamination are CO(2) and other constituents of human exhaled breath. Since the inaugural meeting in 1994 in Adelaide, Australia, SAMAP meetings have been held every two or three years alternating between the North American and European continents. The meetings are organized by Dr Wally Mazurek (a member of IABR) of the Defense Systems Technology Organization (DSTO) of Australia, and individual meetings are co-hosted by the navies of the countries in which they are held. An overriding focus at SAMAP is life support (oxygen availability and carbon dioxide removal). Certainly, other air constituents are also important; for example, the closed environment of a submarine or the ISS can build up contaminants from consumer products, cooking, refrigeration, accidental fires, propulsion and atmosphere maintenance. However, the most immediate concern is sustaining human metabolism: removing exhaled CO(2) and replacing metabolized O(2). Another

  1. "Keisri hull" on viimast korda laval

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    Neli hooaega Ugala repertuaaris olnud Jaan Krossi romaani põhjal lavastatud draama "Keisri hull" etendub viimast korda 10. veebruaril. Viimane etendus on pühendatud Jaan Krossi 90. sünniaastapäevale, mis on 19. veebruaril. Lavastajad Peeter Tammearu ja Jaak Allik. Peaosas Peeter Tammearu

  2. Ultimate Strength of Ship Hulls under Torsion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paik, Jeom Kee; Thayamballi, Anil K.; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup


    For a ship hull with large deck openings such as container vessels and some large bulk carriers, the analysis of warping stresses and hatch opening deformations is an essential part of ship structural analyses. It is thus of importance to better understand the ultimate torsional strength characte......For a ship hull with large deck openings such as container vessels and some large bulk carriers, the analysis of warping stresses and hatch opening deformations is an essential part of ship structural analyses. It is thus of importance to better understand the ultimate torsional strength...... characteristics of ships with large hatch openings. The primary aim of the present study is to investigate the ultimate strength characteristics of ship hulls with large hatch openings under torsion. Axial (warping) as well as shear stresses are normally developed for thin-walled beams with open cross sections...... subjected to torsion. A procedure for calculating these stresses is briefly described. As an illustrative example, the distribution and magnitude of warping and shear stresses for a typical container vessel hull cross section under unit torsion is calculated by the procedure. By theoretical and numerical...

  3. Design and analysis of submarine radome (United States)

    Sandeep, C. Satya; Prasad, U. Shiva; Suresh, R.; Rathan, A.; Sravanthi, G.; Govardhan, D.


    Radomes are the electromagnetic windows that protect microwave sub-systems from the environmental effects. The major requirement of radome is its transparency to microwaves and for most of the cases mechanical properties are also equally important. Radome for underwater applications has to withstand high water pressure of the order of 45 bars. Composite materials owing to their high strength to weight ratio, high stiffness and better corrosion resistance are potential source for under water applications. The concept of 'tailoring' the material properties to suit the radome is obtained by selecting proper reinforcement, resin matrix and their compositions. The mechanical properties of composite material, evaluated by testing specimens as per ASTM standards, are utilized in designing the radome. The modulus properties calculated using classical theories of composite materials and compared with test results. ANSYS a Finite Element software package used to analyse the problem. As the cross sectional thickness of radome varies, the complexity in fabrication is overcome by adopting matched die techniques. The radome design and finite element analysis validation concluded by conducting the pressure test on radome. On the design a modal analysis is also carried to check for the natural frequency, So that resonance does not occur if the natural frequency of the radome coincides with the excitation frequency of the submarine Clinical information system (CIS) for UNRWA is a computerized distributed application that used in clinics which follows the United Nations Relief and Works Agency (UNRWA) to manage the clinical requirements and services.

  4. Submarine landslides: advances and challenges (United States)

    Locat, Jacques; Lee, Homa J.


    Due to the recent development of well-integrated surveying techniques of the sea floor, significant improvements were achieved in mapping and describing the morphology and architecture of submarine mass movements. Except for the occurrence of turbidity currents, the aquatic environment (marine and fresh water) experiences the same type of mass failure as that found on land. Submarine mass movements, however, can have run-out distances in excess of 100 km, so their impact on any offshore activity needs to be integrated over a wide area. This great mobility of submarinemass movements is still not very well understood, particularly for cases like the far-reaching debris flows mapped on the Mississippi Fan and the large submarine rock avalanches found around many volcanic islands. A major challenge ahead is the integration of mass movement mechanics in an appropriate evaluation of the hazard so that proper risk assessment methodologies can be developed and implemented for various human activities offshore, including the development of natural resources and the establishment of reliable communication corridors. Key words : submarine slides, hazards, risk assessment, morphology, mobility, tsunami. Le dveloppement rcent de techniques de levs hydrograhiques pour les fonds marins nous a permis d'atteindre une qualit ingale dans la cartographie et la description des glissements sous marins. l'exception des courants de turbidit, on retrouve dans le domaine aquatique les mmes types de mouvements de terrain que sur terre. Par contre, les glissements sous-marins peuvent atteindre des distances excdant 100 km de telle sorte que leur impact sur les activits offshore doit tre pris en compte sur degrandes tendues. La grande mobilit des glissements sous-marins n'est pas encore bien comprise, comme pour le cas des coules dedbris cartographies sur le cne du Mississippi ainsi que pour les grandes avalanches rocheuses sous-marines retrouves au pourtour des les volcaniques. Un dfi majeur

  5. Injection molded plastic helical gear filled with carbon powder made from rice hull (United States)

    Chen, Yen Chu; Itagaki, Takayoshi; Takahashi, Hideo; Takahashi, Mikio


    Natural materials are focused on the ecological responsibility, all over the world. The rice-hull contains natural silica about 20 wt.%. Therefore, a carbonized rice-hull; Rice-Hull-Silica-Carbon (RHSC) is focused as effective utilization of the discarded rice hull. In this study, test plastic helical gears were made form polyacetal copolymer filled with RHSC powder by injection molding. Test helical gears were operated on endurance test. The bulk temperature and noise of test gears were measured during gears operation. Then, the tooth damage of test gears were investigated by using optical microscope. It is clarified that difference of tooth damage by kind of test gears. Moreover, the transition of gear bulk temperature and noise during operation are investigated. Based on these results, the effect of RHSC powder is discussed. From the discussions, it seems reasonable to conclude : (1) The heat resistance of plastic gear is improved by adding the RHSC powder. (2) The fatigue life of plastic gear is improved by adding suitable amount of the RHSC powder. (3) The sound pressure level of plastic gear is reduced by adding the smaller median grain diameter of RHSC powder.

  6. Similarities between rivers and submarine channels (United States)

    Balcerak, Ernie


    Scientists have long known that the width and depth of rivers follows a power law relationship with discharge. They have also noticed that submarine channels appear to be similar to terrestrial rivers, but there have not been many systematic comparisons of the relationships between submarine channel morphology and discharge. Konsoer et al. compared the width, depth, and slope of 177 submarine channels to those of 231 river cross sections. They found that submarine channels are up to an order of magnitude wider and deeper than the largest terrestrial rivers, but they exhibit a similar power law relationship between width and depth. For submarine channels that were similar in size to rivers, the authors found that submarine channels tend to be 1 to 2 orders of magnitude steeper than rivers. The authors also inferred values for sediment concentration in the turbidity currents in the channels and combined this with estimated mean flow velocities to look for a relationship between discharge and morphology in the channels. They found that like rivers, the width and depth of the submarine channels follow a power law scaling with discharge. (Journal of Geophysical Research-Earth Surface, doi:10.1029/2012JF002422, 2013)

  7. FPSO global strength and hull optimization (United States)

    Ma, Junyuan; Xiao, Jianhua; Ma, Rui; Cao, Kai


    Global strength is a significant item for floating production storage and offloading (FPSO) design, and steel weight plays an important role in the building costs of FPSO. It is the main task to consider and combine these two aspects by optimizing hull dimensions. There are many optional methods for the global strength analysis. A common method is to use the ABS FPSO Eagle software to analyze the global strength including the rule check and direct strength analysis. And the same method can be adopted for the FPSO hull optimization by changing the depth. After calculation and optimization, the results are compared and analyzed. The results can be used as a reference for the future design or quotation purpose.

  8. Automatic welding systems for large ship hulls (United States)

    Arregi, B.; Granados, S.; Hascoet, JY.; Hamilton, K.; Alonso, M.; Ares, E.


    Welding processes represents about 40% of the total production time in shipbuilding. Although most of the indoor welding work is automated, outdoor operations still require the involvement of numerous operators. To automate hull welding operations is a priority in large shipyards. The objective of the present work is to develop a comprehensive welding system capable of working with several welding layers in an automated way. There are several difficulties for the seam tracking automation of the welding process. The proposed solution is the development of a welding machine capable of moving autonomously along the welding seam, controlling both the position of the torch and the welding parameters to adjust the thickness of the weld bead to the actual gap between the hull plates.

  9. European single-hull regulation in force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, Michael


    The European Union (EU)has decided that from 21 October 2003 no single-hull tanker carrying heavy grades of oil will be permitted to enter or leave ports or offshore installations or anchor in areas under the jurisdiction of the EU member states. Some of the provisions of the EU regulation will not be in force until 2010. The article looks back on what has led up to to the current regulations, beginning with the Titanic disaster of 1914.

  10. Submarine landslides of the Southern California Borderland (United States)

    Lee, H.J.; Greene, H. Gary; Edwards, B.D.; Fisher, M.A.; Normark, W.R.


    Conventional bathymetry, sidescan-sonar and seismic-reflection data, and recent, multibeam surveys of large parts of the Southern California Borderland disclose the presence of numerous submarine landslides. Most of these features are fairly small, with lateral dimensions less than ??2 km. In areas where multibeam surveys are available, only two large landslide complexes were identified on the mainland slope- Goleta slide in Santa Barbara Channel and Palos Verdes debris avalanche on the San Pedro Escarpment south of Palos Verdes Peninsula. Both of these complexes indicate repeated recurrences of catastrophic slope failure. Recurrence intervals are not well constrained but appear to be in the range of 7500 years for the Goleta slide. The most recent major activity of the Palos Verdes debris avalanche occurred roughly 7500 years ago. A small failure deposit in Santa Barbara Channel, the Gaviota mudflow, was perhaps caused by an 1812 earthquake. Most landslides in this region are probably triggered by earthquakes, although the larger failures were likely conditioned by other factors, such as oversteepening, development of shelf-edge deltas, and high fluid pressures. If a subsequent future landslide were to occur in the area of these large landslide complexes, a tsunami would probably result. Runup distances of 10 m over a 30-km-long stretch of the Santa Barbara coastline are predicted for a recurrence of the Goleta slide, and a runup of 3 m over a comparable stretch of the Los Angeles coastline is modeled for the Palos Verdes debris avalanche. ?? 2009 The Geological Society of America.

  11. Wave induced extreme hull girder loads on containerships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Shi, Bill


    This paper provides simple but rational procedures for prediction of extreme wave – induced sectional hull girder forces with reasonable engineering accuracy. The procedures take into account main ship hull characteristics such as: length, breadth, draught, block coefficient, bow flare coefficient......, forward speed and hull flexibility. The vertical hull girder loads are evaluated for specific operational profiles. Firstly a quadratic strip theory is presented which can give separate predictions for the hogging and sagging bending moments and shear forces and for hull girder loads. Then this procedure...... is based on rational methods it can be applied for novel single hull ship types not presently covered by the rules of the classification societies or to account for specific operational profiles....

  12. Proceedings of Tripartite Conference on Submarine Medicine and IEP B-52 - France, United Kingdom, United States (6th) Held in Groton, Connecticut on 1-4 June 1987 (United States)


    such as electrolysers -, scrubbers, and burners, etc, give a good general technical description of the hardware and provide details of the physical...control is achieved. Oxygen Generation - In nuclear submarines oxygen is pruvidedby use of electrolysers . Currently the majority of submarines are fitted...with High Pressure Electrolysers .. A new Low Pressure Electrolyser using solid polymer electrolyte developed by General Electric has now been

  13. Calciclastic submarine fans: An integrated overview (United States)

    Payros, Aitor; Pujalte, Victoriano


    Calciclastic submarine fans are rare in the stratigraphic record and no bona fide present-day analogue has been described to date. Possibly because of that, and although calciclastic submarine fans have long intrigued deep-water carbonate sedimentologists, they have largely been overlooked by the academic and industrial communities. To fill this gap we have compiled and critically reviewed the existing sedimentological literature on calciclastic submarine fans, thus offering an updated view of this type of carbonate slope sedimentary system. Calciclastic submarine fans range in length from just a few to more than 100 km. Three different types can be distinguished: (1) Coarse-grained, small-sized (depression associated with tectonic structures, an inherited topography, or large-scale mass failures.

  14. Aspects of Propeller Developements for a Submarine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul; kappel, Jens Julius; Spangenberg, Eugen


    Design and development of propellers for submarines are in some ways different from propellers for surface vessels. The most important demand is low acoustic signature that has priority over propeller efficiency, and the submarine propeller must be optimized with respect to acoustics rather than...... efficiency. Moreover the operating conditions of a submarine propeller are quite different. These aspects are discussed as well as the weighing of the various propeller parameters against the design objectives. The noise generated by the propeller can be characterized as thrust noise due to the inhomogeneous...... wake field of the submarine, trailing-edge noise and noise caused by turbulence in the inflow. The items discussed are demonstrated in a case study where a propeller of the Kappel type was developed. Three stages of the development are presented, including a design of an 8-bladed propeller where...

  15. Russia's Submarine Force: Determinants and Prospects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tully, John


    ... the determinants of these events, The Russian Federation inherited a huge submarine fleet from the Soviet Union, Due to the changing conditions in the world and in Russia, its future status is in doubt...

  16. Morphologically intelligent underactuated robot for underwater hull cleaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Souto, Daniel; Faina, Andres; López-Peña, Fernando


    In this paper we discuss a new type of robot for underwater hull cleaning on ships with non-magnetic hulls. This robot is based on the concept that cleaning hulls regularly, without waiting to take them out of the water, will improve the efficiency of the ships and will permit a reduction...... and constraints of the environment solves the most difficult problems that arise when moving along hulls. Some of these are changing planes, negotiating appendices, avoiding portholes, passing corners, and other elements. This greatly simplifies the control mechanisms that are required for its operation making...

  17. SSN 774 Virginia Class Submarine (SSN 774) (United States)


    Report: The VIRGINIA Class Submarine Program continues to deliver submarines within cost, ahead of schedule , with improved quality and with...baseline schedule threshold set ten years earlier, in 1994. June 20, 2006: USS TEXAS, which was essentially the second lead ship of the class , is the first...factored for the VIRGINIA Class based on weight. Public and private shipyard data was used, as well as the maintenance schedule provided in the CARD, Rev E

  18. Accelerated Solvent Extraction of Insecticides from Rice Hulls, Rice Bran, and Polished Rice Grains. (United States)

    Teló, Gustavo Mack; Senseman, Scott Allen; Marchesan, Enio; Camargo, Edinalvo Rabaioli; Carson, Katherine


    Analysis of pesticide residues in irrigated rice grains is important for food security. In this study, we analyzed accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) conditions for the extraction of thiamethoxam and chlorantraniliprole insecticides from rice hulls, rice bran, and polished rice grains. Several variables, including extraction solvent, extraction temperature, extraction pressure, cell size, static extraction time, and sample concentration, were investigated. The average recoveries of the three matrixes were between 89.7 and 109.7% at the fortification level of 0.75 mg/kg. The optimum ASE operating conditions were acetonitrile (100%) as extraction solvent, extraction temperature of 75°C for rice hulls and 100°C for rice bran and polished rice grains, extraction cell pressure of 10.3 MPa, 22 mL cell size, and two extraction cycles. The total extraction time was approximately 25 min. The extracted volume was evaporated to dryness and the residues were redissolved in 2 mL acetonitrile after 1 min of vortex-shaking. Thiamethoxam and chlorantraniliprole were analyzed by ultra-HPLC with tandem MS. In conclusion, ASE in rice hulls, rice bran, and polished rice grains offers the possibility of a fast and simple method for obtaining a quantitative extraction of the studied pesticides.

  19. Evaluation of Soybean Hulls in Grower Turkey Diets | Etuk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 42 day study was carried out to evaluate the effect of soybean hulls (SBH) in diets of grower turkeys. Four experimental turkey grower diets were formulated such that soybean hulls made up of 0.0 (control diet), 10.0, 20.0 and 30.0% of the diets respectively replacing maize and soybean meal. These diets were offered ...

  20. 46 CFR 115.655 - Hull examination reports. (United States)


    ... sign the report and confirm the validity of its contents. (b) If you use an underwater remotely operated vehicle (ROV) as the predominate means to examine the vessel's underwater hull plating, you must... the underwater survey portion of the Alternative Hull Examination (AHE), you must provide the Officer...

  1. 46 CFR 176.655 - Hull examination reports. (United States)


    ...) If you use an underwater remotely operated vehicle (ROV) as the predominate means to examine the vessel's underwater hull plating, you must provide the OCMI with a report in a format that is acceptable.... (a) If you use only divers for the underwater survey portion of the Alternative Hull Examination (AHE...

  2. 46 CFR 189.25-25 - Hull equipment. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull equipment. 189.25-25 Section 189.25-25 Shipping... CERTIFICATION Inspection for Certification § 189.25-25 Hull equipment. (a) At each inspection for certification... equipment: (1) All watertight doors shall be operated locally by manual power and also by hydraulic or...

  3. 46 CFR 115.645 - Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Procedure. (United States)


    ... underwater hull plating and a detailed examination of all hull welds, propellers, tailshafts, rudders, and... presence of a marine inspector once every five years; (4) Remove all passengers from the vessel when the sea valves are being examined, if required by the Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection (OCMI); (5...

  4. 33 CFR 181.29 - Hull identification number display. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hull identification number display. 181.29 Section 181.29 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... identification number display. Two identical hull identification numbers are required to be displayed on each...

  5. Calculation for Hull Strength Construction in Offshore Structures

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Sep 1, 2013 ... Ship classification societies such as Det Norske Veritas, American Bureau of Shipping, and Lloyd's. Register have established standard calculation forms for hull loads, strength requirements, thickness of hull plating, reinforcing stiffeners, girders, and other structures. This paper therefore used the relevant ...

  6. Hydrolysis of sweet blue lupin hull using subcritical water technology. (United States)

    Ciftci, Deniz; Saldaña, Marleny D A


    Hydrolysis of sweet blue lupin hulls was conducted in this study using subcritical water technology. Effects of process parameters, such as pressure (50-200 bar), temperature (160-220°C), flow rate (2-10 mL/min), and pH (2-12), were studied to optimize maximum hemicellulose sugars recovery in the extracts. Extracts were analyzed for total hemicellulose sugars, phenolics and organic carbon contents and solid residues left after treatments were also characterized. Temperature, flow rate, and pH had a significant effect on hemicellulose sugar removal; however, the effect of pressure was not significant. The highest yield of hemicellulose sugars in the extracts (85.5%) was found at 180°C, 50 bar, 5 mL/min and pH 6.2. The thermal stability of the solid residue obtained at optimum conditions improved after treatment and the crystallinity index increased from 11.5% to 58.6%. The results suggest that subcritical water treatment is a promising technology for hemicellulose sugars removal from biomass. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Low forced expiratory flow rates and forceful exhalation as a cause for arterial gas embolism during submarine escape training: a case report. (United States)

    Hartge, Francis J; Bennett, Thomas L


    A 26-year-old male U.S. Navy submariner suffered an arterial gas embolism during pressurized submarine escape training. Routine pretraining medical screening revealed no history of asthma, pneumothorax or recent respiratory infection. Pulmonary function testing and posterioranterior/lateral chest X-ray were normal. He forcefully exhaled at the start of his ascent and developed neurological abnormalities including lightheadedness with lower extremity weakness and paresthesias after surfacing. He fully recovered after a U.S. Navy Treatment Table 6. This case represents the first report of an arterial gas embolism since the U.S. Navy resumed pressurized submarine escape training utilizing the Submarine Escape and Immersion Equipment suit. We discuss possible contributing factors and propose that his AGE was caused by pulmonary barotrauma due to a combination of low forced expiratory flow rates and an overly forceful exhalation during his ascent.

  8. Geomorphic process fingerprints in submarine canyons (United States)

    Brothers, Daniel S.; ten Brink, Uri S.; Andrews, Brian D.; Chaytor, Jason D.; Twichell, David C.


    Submarine canyons are common features of continental margins worldwide. They are conduits that funnel vast quantities of sediment from the continents to the deep sea. Though it is known that submarine canyons form primarily from erosion induced by submarine sediment flows, we currently lack quantitative, empirically based expressions that describe the morphology of submarine canyon networks. Multibeam bathymetry data along the entire passive US Atlantic margin (USAM) and along the active central California margin near Monterey Bay provide an opportunity to examine the fine-scale morphology of 171 slope-sourced canyons. Log–log regression analyses of canyon thalweg gradient (S) versus up-canyon catchment area (A) are used to examine linkages between morphological domains and the generation and evolution of submarine sediment flows. For example, canyon reaches of the upper continental slope are characterized by steep, linear and/or convex longitudinal profiles, whereas reaches farther down canyon have distinctly concave longitudinal profiles. The transition between these geomorphic domains is inferred to represent the downslope transformation of debris flows into erosive, canyon-flushing turbidity flows. Over geologic timescales this process appears to leave behind a predictable geomorphic fingerprint that is dependent on the catchment area of the canyon head. Catchment area, in turn, may be a proxy for the volume of sediment released during geomorphically significant failures along the upper continental slope. Focused studies of slope-sourced submarine canyons may provide new insights into the relationships between fine-scale canyon morphology and down-canyon changes in sediment flow dynamics.

  9. Seismicity and sedimentation rate effects on submarine slope stability (United States)

    Ten Brink, U. S.; Andrews, B. D.; Miller, N. C.


    Large submarine mass-transport scars are commonly observed on continental margins, but are noticeably less abundant on margins that experience frequent earthquakes than on those that seldom experience them. This is a surprising observation, given that horizontal acceleration from earthquakes and associated strength loss from cyclic loading and liquefaction are commonly thought to provide the primary triggers for inducing failures and subsequent mass movements. Mapping submarine failure scars in ten margins worldwide, we find decreasing scar abundance with both increasing frequency of earthquakes and decreasing sedimentation rate. The decrease in scar abundance is interpreted to represent increasing slope stability. The increase in stability is non linear (power law with btectonic activity (salt diapirs, seamount subduction, etc.) leads to relatively rapid oversteepening of the slope, implying that the morphology of most margins is in fact, stable over many earthquake cycles. Note that the above correlation averages scar area and sedimentation rate over entire margin areas. Variations in sedimentation rate with time, such as over glacial-interglacial cycles, and intra-margin variations in seismic attenuation, sedimentation rate, composition, and pore pressure, have likely affected the abundance of slope failures in time and space.

  10. Boat Hull Blisters: Repair Techniques and Long Term Effects on Hull Degradation (United States)


    blistering of boat hulls is a serious problem which affects many fiber- glass polyester boats. It can range from a surficial cosmetic problem to a deep...something present in the resin itself. We have reported blistering vhen sorbitol is added to the resin. Pritchard has reported on the role of excess glycol...Is blistering and water absorption only a cosmetic and surficial problem or does deep seated damage occur after prolonged water exposure? The

  11. Experimental Evaluation of the Hydrodynamic Response of Crew Boat Hulls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pecher, Arthur; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    This report presents the results of an experimental study on 3 different hulls of crew boats intended for service to offshore wind turbines. Their hydrodynamic behaviour has been tested in various sea states representing general wave conditions that could be expected at offshore wind farms. Two...... different directions. • The connection forces between the hulls and the wind turbine pile. • The natural frequency of oscillation. For the study, realistic scale models of the hulls of the crew boats were supplied by the client, Hauschildt Marine. The laboratory tests were performed by Arthur Pecher under...

  12. Corn fiber hulls as a food additive or animal feed (United States)

    Abbas, Charles; Beery, Kyle E.; Cecava, Michael J.; Doane, Perry H.


    The present invention provides a novel animal feed or food additive that may be made from thermochemically hydrolyzed, solvent-extracted corn fiber hulls. The animal feed or food additive may be made, for instance, by thermochemically treating corn fiber hulls to hydrolyze and solubilize the hemicellulose and starch present in the corn fiber hulls to oligosaccharides. The residue may be extracted with a solvent to separate the oil from the corn fiber, leaving a solid residue that may be prepared, for instance by aggolmerating, and sold as a food additive or an animal feed.

  13. Addressing submarine geohazards through scientific drilling (United States)

    Camerlenghi, A.


    Natural submarine geohazards (earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides, volcanic island flank collapses) are geological phenomena originating at or below the seafloor leading to a situation of risk for off-shore and on-shore structures and the coastal population. Addressing submarine geohazards means understanding their spatial and temporal variability, the pre-conditioning factors, their triggers, and the physical processes that control their evolution. Such scientific endeavour is nowadays considered by a large sector of the international scientific community as an obligation in order to contribute to the mitigation of the potentially destructive societal effects of submarine geohazards. The study of submarine geohazards requires a multi-disciplinary scientific approach: geohazards must be studied through their geological record; active processes must be monitored; geohazard evolution must be modelled. Ultimately, the information must be used for the assessment of vulnerability, risk analysis, and development of mitigation strategies. In contrast with the terrestrial environment, the oceanic environment is rather hostile to widespread and fast application of high-resolution remote sensing techniques, accessibility for visual inspection, sampling and installation of monitoring stations. Scientific Drilling through the IODP (including the related pre site-survey investigations, sampling, logging and in situ measurements capability, and as a platform for deployment of long term observatories at the surface and down-hole) can be viewed as the centre of gravity of an international, coordinated, multi-disciplinary scientific approach to address submarine geohazards. The IODP Initial Science Plan expiring in 2013 does not address openly geohazards among the program scientific objectives. Hazards are referred to mainly in relation to earthquakes and initiatives towards the understanding of seismogenesis. Notably, the only drilling initiative presently under way is the

  14. MVAC Submarine cable, impedance measurements and analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arentsen, Martin Trolle; Pedersen, Morten Virklund; Expethit, Adrian


    Due to environmental concerns an increase in off-shore windfarms has been observed in recent years, leading to an increased demand for three-core-wire-armoured submarine cables. However, the IEC Standard 60287 used to calculate the ampacity of these cables is widely recognized as being not accurate...

  15. German Submarine Offensives and South African Countermeasures

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    'Good Hunting': German Submarine Offensives and South African. Countermeasures off the South African Coast during the Second World. War, 1942-1945. Evert Kleynhans. •. Abstract .... wolf packs south, Dönitz had hoped to cause a diversionary effect whereby the Allies would be forced to split their defensive forces ...

  16. Submarine Telecommunication Cables in Disputed Maritime Areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Logchem, Youri


    There are a considerable number of maritime areas where no boundary exists, or where a boundary is delimited only in part. This article deals with the issue of submarine telecommunication cables, which are sometimes placed on the seabed or buried in the subsoil of areas that are claimed by multiple

  17. Monitoring of the nuclear submarine Komsomolets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heldal, Hilde E.; Flo, Janita K.; Liebig, Penny L. [Institute of Marine Research, P. O. Box 1870 Nordnes, N-5817 Bergen (Norway); Gaefvert, Torbjoern; Rudjord, Anne Liv [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, P.O. Box 55, N-1332 Oesteraas (Norway); Gwynn, Justin P. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, The Fram Centre, N-9296 Tromsoe (Norway)


    The Soviet nuclear submarine Komsomolets sank on the 7 April 1989, 180 km southwest of Bear Island in the Norwegian Sea to a depth of about 1655 m. The submarine contains one nuclear reactor containing long-lived radionuclides such as cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) along with other fission and activation products, in addition to 2 mixed uranium/plutonium nuclear warheads containing weapons grade plutonium. Although several model studies have shown that a radioactive leakage from Komsomolets will have insignificant impact on fish and other marine organisms, there are still public concerns about the condition of the submarine and the potential for radioactive leakage. In order to document the contamination levels and to meet public concerns, monitoring of radioactive contamination in the area adjacent to the submarine has been ongoing since 1993. Samples of bottom seawater and sediments have been collected annually by the Institute of Marine Research (IMR) and have been analysed for {sup 137}Cs and plutonium-239,240 ({sup 239,240}Pu). So far, activity concentrations in the samples have been comparable to levels found in other samples from the Norwegian and Barents Seas. During sampling from R/V 'G. O. Sars' in April 2013, an area of about 1 km{sup 2} of the seabed around Komsomolets was mapped to precisely locate the submarine using a Kongsberg EM302 multibeam echo sounder, a Simrad EK60 single beam echo sounder and an Olex 3D bottom-mapping system. For sediment sampling, a Simrad MST342 mini-transponder was attached to a Smoegen box corer to allow for precise positioning of the corer. With the aid of the Kongsberg HiPAP (High Precision Acoustic Positioning) system, 4 box cores were collected around the submarine at a distance of 10 to 20 m. In addition, one box core was collected from a reference station about 100 m upstream of the submarine. Surface sediments and sediment cores were collected from the box cores taken at each sampling location. Sediment cores

  18. Study of integrated structure of mercury target container with safety hull

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaminaga, Masanori; Terada, Atsuhiko; Haga, Katsuhiro; Kinoshita, Hidetaka; Ishikura, Shuichi; Hino, Ryutaro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment


    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) are promoting a plan to construct a neutron scattering facility. In the facility, 1 MW pulsed proton beam from a high-intensity proton accelerator will be injected into a mercury target in order to produce high-intensity neutrons. In the spallation mercury target system design, an integrated structure of target container with a safety hull was proposed to ensure the safety and to collect mercury in a case of mercury leakage caused by the target beam window failure. The inner structure arrangement of the mercury target container was determined based on the thermal hydraulic analytical results of 3 GeV, 1 MW proton beam injection. The safety hull consists of containers for helium and heavy water. The containers for mercury target, helium and heavy water will be connected each other by reinforcement ribs mounted on the surface of each container. As for the feasibility of the integrated mercury target container with the safety hull, the static structure strength analyses were carried out under the condition of an internal pressure of 0.8 MPa, which was determined based on the maximum operation pressure of 0.5 MPa and the safety margin, in order to clarify its structural strength. As a result, it was made clear that the maximum static stress appeared on the each container by the internal pressure could be suppressed less than the allowable stress of SUS316L at 300degC, 142.5 MPa, by adding reinforcement ribs on the surface of each container. (author)

  19. Miocene Current-Modified Submarine Fans (United States)

    Arce Perez, L. E.; Snedden, J.; Fisher, W. L.


    In the southwestern Gulf of Mexico, new and newly reprocessed seismic data has revealed a series of large bedforms, with set thicknesses of 130 to 250 meters. These exhibit hummocky, oblique and shingled to parallel seismic clinoform reflections. This seismic package has a paleowater depth of 450 meters. Those shingled seismic reflections in offshore east Mexico are interpreted as contourite drift deposits. These Miocene-age contourites may be related to strong ocean bottom currents that modified submarine fans and transported sediment to the north. Those contourites were identified on older seismic data, but are better imaged and interpreted on this new data. Plans are to map out and investigate the origin and extent of fans and contourites that extends over a large area of the Gulf of Mexico. In the Early Miocene several submarine fans systems were formed by the sediment input related to orogenic activity in Mexico. Submarine fan development persisted into the Middle Miocene due to continued uplift and erosion of the Mexican landmass. Initial, contourites are small and close proximity to the deep-water fan. In the Late Miocene time, contourite drift field reached its maximum extent in the Mexican deepwater area, anchored on its southern end by a submarine mound. This mounded submarine fan is located in the offshore northeast Veracruz and can be linked to increased uplift and erosion of the Trans-Mexican volcanic belt. In the Miocene-Pliocene, the large contourite drift begins to diminish in size and scale and is moribund by the Pliocene, with establishment of oceanic circulation similar to the present day. This research is important to understand more about the Gulf of Mexico and also for the Miocene timeframe that is a key phase in the earth's history. The role of the change in bottom water flow during progressive closure of the equatorial seaway separating North and South America will also be investigated.

  20. "Keisri hull" kui müstiline fantasy / Siimon Prii

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Prii, Siimon


    30. sept. Ugalas esietendunud Jaan Krossi "Keisri hull" (autoridramatiseering), lavastajad Jaak Allik ja Peeter Tammearu. Kunstnik on Jaanus Laagriküll ja muusikaline kujundaja Peeter Konovalov. Peaosas Peeter Tammearu

  1. Hull shape optimization for autonomous underwater vehicles using CFD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Gao


    Full Text Available Drag estimation and shape optimization of autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV hulls are critical to energy utilization and endurance improvement. In the present work, a shape optimization platform composed of several commercial software packages is presented. Computational accuracy, efficiency and robustness were carefully considered and balanced. Comparisons between experiments and computational fluid dynamics (CFD were conducted to prove that a two-dimensional (2D unstructured mesh, a standard wall function and adaptive mesh refinement could greatly improve efficiency as well as guarantee accuracy. Details of the optimization platform were then introduced. A comparison of optimizers indicates that the multi-island genetic algorithm (MIGA obtains a better hull shape than particle swarm optimization (PSO, despite being a little more time consuming. The optimized hull shape under general volume requirement could provide reference for AUV hull design. Specific requirements based on optimization testify of the platform’s robustness.

  2. Grene and Hull on types and typological thinking in biology. (United States)

    Honenberger, Phillip


    Marjorie Grene (1910-2009) and David Hull (1935-2010) were among the most influential voices in late twentieth-century philosophy of biology. But, as Grene and Hull pointed out in published discussions of one another's work over the course of nearly forty years, they disagreed strongly on fundamental issues. Among these contested issues is the role of what is sometimes called "typology" and "typological thinking" in biology. In regard to taxonomy and the species problem, Hull joined Ernst Mayr's construal of typological thinking as a backward relic of pre-Darwinian science that should be overcome. Grene, however, treated the suspicion of typological thinking that characterized Hull's views, as well as those of other architects of the New Evolutionary Synthesis, as itself suspicious and even unsustainable. In this paper I review three debates between Grene and Hull bearing on the question of the validity of so-called typological thinking in biology: (1) a debate about the dispensability of concepts of "type" within evolutionary theory, paleontology, and taxonomy; (2) a debate about whether species can be adequately understood as individuals, and thereby independently of those forms of thinking Hull and Mayr had construed as "typological"; and (3) a debate about the prospects of a biologically informed theory of human nature. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. New Generation Strategic Submarine Study (United States)


    FUNCTION C. Buoyancy (Cont’d) 6. Trim Priming Pomp * Provides the capability to remove air from the trim system piping, in order to insure a positive...resubmnerge. 001 The Diving Officer of the Watch shall cart pressure air will nat be used and the ship will degree to 5 degree up angle. cow The Chid of the

  4. US Navy Submarine Sea Trial of the NASA Air Quality Monitor (United States)

    Limero, Thomas; Wallace, William T.; Manney, Joshua A.; Mudgett, Paul D.


    For the past four years, the Air Quality Monitor (AQM) has been the operational instrument for measuring trace volatile organic compounds on the International Space Station (ISS). The key components of the AQM are the inlet preconcentrator, the gas chromatograph (GC), and the differential mobility spectrometer. Most importantly, the AQM operates at atmospheric pressure and uses air as the GC carrier gas, which translates into a small reliable instrument. Onboard ISS there are two AQMs, with different GC columns that detect and quantify 22 compounds. The AQM data contributes valuable information to the assessment of air quality aboard ISS for each crew increment. The U.S. Navy is looking to update its submarine air monitoring suite of instruments, and the success of the AQM on ISS has led to a jointly planned submarine sea trial of a NASA AQM. In addition to the AQM, the Navy is also interested in the Multi-Gas Monitor (MGM), which was successfully flown on ISS as a technology demonstration to measure major constituent gases (oxygen, carbon dioxide, water vapor, and ammonia). A separate paper will present the MGM sea trial results. A prototype AQM, which is virtually identical to the operational AQM, has been readied for the sea trial. Only one AQM will be deployed during the sea trial, but it is sufficient to detect the compounds of interest to the Navy for the purposes of this trial. A significant benefit of the AQM is that runs can be scripted for pre-determined intervals and no crew intervention is required. The data from the sea trial will be compared to archival samples collected prior to and during the trial period. This paper will give a brief overview of the AQM technology and protocols for the submarine trial. After a quick review of the AQM preparation, the main focus of the paper will be on the results of the submarine trial. Of particular interest will be the comparison of the contaminants found in the ISS and submarine atmospheres, as both represent

  5. Evaluation of the biological activity of sunflower hull extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taha, F. S.; Wagdy, S. M.; Hassanein, M. M. M.; Hamed, S. F.


    This work was planned with the aim of adding value to sunflower seed hulls, a waste product of the oil industry by preparing a sunflower hull phenolic extract rich in chlorogenic acid (CGA). In order to fulfill this goal, the optimization for the extraction of a phenolic extract from the hulls was investigated. The parameters studied were: type of solvent, solvent to water ratio and hull to solvent ratio. In addition, the solvent mixtures were also studied. The resulting phenolic extracts were evaluated for their biological activities. This included phenolic content determination, evaluation of the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Chlorogenic acid was determined in two chosen hull extracts using the UV spectrophotometric method and HPLC analysis. The anti carcinogenic activity of the two chosen extracts was tested on seven different cell line carcinomas. The results revealed that all the phenolic extracts of sunflower hull studied contain between 190-312.5 mg phenolics/ 100 g hulls. The highest phenolic extraction was achieved with 80% methanol (1:30, hull to solvent, w/v ratio) and methanol to ethanol to water (7:7:6 v/v/v) mixture with values of 312.5 and 306.5 mg phenolics/100 g hulls, respectively. The free radical scavenging activity and antioxidant activity of all the samples ranged from 33.6-72.6%. The highest antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging activity were achieved by the same extracts that possessed the highest phenolic content, namely methanol to ethanol to water extract and 80% methanol with values 71.8 and 72.6%, 68.2 and 70.9% respectively, compared to 77.9 and 76.9% respectively for TBHQ. All the phenolic extracts possessed antimicrobial activity but to different levels against different pathogenic bacteria. The two chosen extracts also possessed anti carcinogenic activity, which differed among varying cell line carcinomas. The HPLC analysis indicated that chlorogenic acid was the main phenolic acid in the extract. Thus it can

  6. Flip to Regular Triangulation and Convex Hull. (United States)

    Gao, Mingcen; Cao, Thanh-Tung; Tan, Tiow-Seng


    Flip is a simple and local operation to transform one triangulation to another. It makes changes only to some neighboring simplices, without considering any attribute or configuration global in nature to the triangulation. Thanks to this characteristic, several flips can be independently applied to different small, non-overlapping regions of one triangulation. Such operation is favored when designing algorithms for data-parallel, massively multithreaded hardware, such as the GPU. However, most existing flip algorithms are designed to be executed sequentially, and usually need some restrictions on the execution order of flips, making them hard to be adapted to parallel computation. In this paper, we present an in depth study of flip algorithms in low dimensions, with the emphasis on the flexibility of their execution order. In particular, we propose a series of provably correct flip algorithms for regular triangulation and convex hull in 2D and 3D, with implementations for both CPUs and GPUs. Our experiment shows that our GPU implementation for constructing these structures from a given point set achieves up to two orders of magnitude of speedup over other popular single-threaded CPU implementation of existing algorithms.

  7. Ship Hull Principal Dimensions Optimization Employing Fuzzy Decision-Making Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Jianping


    Full Text Available The paper presents an optimization method for the ship hull principal dimensions scheme employing the fuzzy decision-making theory. First of all, the paper establishes the fuzzy decision-making model of the ship hull principal dimensions optimization, and then a series of ship hull principal dimensions schemes are accordingly constructed by employing the variable value method. On the basis of this, the fuzzy decision-making method is employed to evaluate the series ship hull principal dimensions schemes. Finally, the optimal ship hull principal dimensions scheme is obtained. The example demonstration verified the proposed method’s validity for ship hull principal dimensions optimization economic performance.

  8. Hull loss accident model for narrow body commercial aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somchanok Tiabtiamrat


    Full Text Available Accidents with narrow body aircraft were statistically evaluated covering six families of commercial aircraft includingBoeing B737, Airbus A320, McDonnell Douglas MD80, Tupolev TU134/TU154 and Antonov AN124. A risk indicator for eachflight phase was developed based on motion characteristics, duration time, and the presence of adverse weather conditions.The estimated risk levels based on these risk indicators then developed from the risk indicator. Regression analysis indicatedvery good agreement between the estimated risk level and the accident ratio of hull loss cases per number of delivered aircraft.The effect of time on the hull loss accident ratio per delivered aircraft was assessed for B737, A320 and MD80. Equationsrepresenting the effect of time on hull loss accident ratio per delivered aircraft were proposed for B737, A320, and MD80,while average values of hull loss accident ratio per delivered aircraft were found for TU134, TU154, and AN 124. Accidentprobability equations were then developed for each family of aircraft that the probability of an aircraft in a hull loss accidentcould be estimated for any aircraft family, flight phase, presence of adverse weather factor, hour of day, day of week, monthof year, pilot age, and pilot flight hour experience. A simplified relationship between estimated hull loss accident probabilityand unsafe acts by human was proposed. Numerical investigation of the relationship between unsafe acts by human andfatality ratio suggested that the fatality ratio in hull loss accident was dominated primarily by the flight phase media.

  9. Psychological Implications for Submarine Display Design (United States)


    This paper addresses a number of psychological issues pertaining to display design . We review the literature comparing 3-D and 2-D displays and...perceptual, cognitive and ecological factors that are relevant to display design for submarine environments. The Generative Transformational visual perception is outlined and the relevance of transformational theory to display design is discussed. The paper also discusses a number of

  10. A Lanchester model of submarine attack on a carrier battlegroup


    Eagle, James N.


    A Lanchester model is developed for a battlegroup ASW engagement. Two variations are included. In the first, long-range missile firing submarines, short-range missile or torpedo firing submarines, and submarines firing only torpedoes distribute their attack uniformly over battlegroup escort ships and carriers. In the second variation, the attack is concentrated on the carriers. supported by the Naval War College NA

  11. Development of a Fire-Resistant Anti-Sweat Submarine Hull Insulation Based on Fiber Glass Materials. (United States)


    the Armaflex foam, control sample showing only a small resistance (12.9) to a moderate bending. Moderate bending would be a one inch center...a minor amount on the order of one or two percent. By comparison, the compression set of the 3 pcf Armaflex II *i control was 53 percent. Smoke...The Armaflex II samples gave a reading of 203. The test does not seem to be able to discriminate between binder levels in the fiber glass. However

  12. Growth of Salmonella Enteritidis phage type 30 in almond hull and shell slurries and survival in drying almond hulls. (United States)

    Uesugi, Aaron R; Harris, Linda J


    Traceback investigation of a 2000 to 2001 outbreak of salmonellosis associated with consumption of raw almonds led to isolation of the outbreak strain Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis phage type (PT) 30 on three geographically linked almond farms. Interviews with these growers revealed that significant rain fell during the 2000 harvest when many almonds were drying on the ground. The objectives of this study were to document weather conditions during the 2000 harvest, determine the potential for growth of Salmonella Enteritidis PT 30 in hull or shell slurries, and evaluate survival of Salmonella Enteritidis PT 30 on wet almond hulls during drying. Dry almond hulls and in-shell kernels wetted for 24 h increased in weight by 250 to 300% and 100%, respectively. Both hull and shell slurries supported rapid growth of Salmonella Enteritidis PT 30 at 24 degrees C; slurries containing hulls also supported growth at 15 degrees C. Maximum Salmonella Enteritidis PT 30 concentrations of 6.2 and 7.8 log CFU/ml were observed at 15 and 24 degrees C, respectively. Salmonella Enteritidis PT 30 grown in wet hulls that were incubated at 24 degrees C survived drying at either 15 or 37 degrees C. Reductions of 1 to 3 log CFU/g of dry hull were observed during drying; reductions generally declined as incubation time increased from 2 to 7 days. Evaluation of shipping records revealed that approximately 60% of outbreak-associated almonds had not been exposed to rain, eliminating this factor as the sole cause of the outbreak. However, the data provide evidence that wet almonds may be a greater risk for high concentrations of Salmonella, and specific guidelines should be established for harvesting and processing almonds that have been exposed to rain or other water sources.

  13. Research on Fairing design and CFD Analysis of Submarine Pipeline Inspection ARV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Xiaojian


    Full Text Available Along with the fast development of the ocean exploitation, the cost-effective requirement of autonomous & remotely operated vehicle (ARV, which can perform more complicated missions such as the oil exploitation and the inspection of the submarine pipeline is more urgent. The submarine pipeline inspection ARV can help us better understand, protect and efficiently utilize them for human welfare. Fairing design of a new detection ARV are introduced in this paper. In order to select an appropriate thruster that will achieve the required speed of the ARV, the ANSYS-CFX tools are used to predicted the drag force. The CFD results reveal the distribution of velocity and pressure values of the ARV. In order to verify the CFD modeling process, a towed body was developed and analyzed, compared against the corresponding physical test data.

  14. Region-of-interest volumetric visual hull refinement

    KAUST Repository

    Knoblauch, Daniel


    This paper introduces a region-of-interest visual hull refinement technique, based on flexible voxel grids for volumetric visual hull reconstructions. Region-of-interest refinement is based on a multipass process, beginning with a focussed visual hull reconstruction, resulting in a first 3D approximation of the target, followed by a region-of-interest estimation, tasked with identifying features of interest, which in turn are used to locally refine the voxel grid and extract a higher-resolution surface representation for those regions. This approach is illustrated for the reconstruction of avatars for use in tele-immersion environments, where head and hand regions are of higher interest. To allow reproducability and direct comparison a publicly available data set for human visual hull reconstruction is used. This paper shows that region-of-interest reconstruction of the target is faster and visually comparable to higher resolution focused visual hull reconstructions. This approach reduces the amount of data generated through the reconstruction, allowing faster post processing, as rendering or networking of the surface voxels. Reconstruction speeds support smooth interactions between the avatar and the virtual environment, while the improved resolution of its facial region and hands creates a higher-degree of immersion and potentially impacts the perception of body language, facial expressions and eye-to-eye contact. Copyright © 2010 by the Association for Computing Machinery, Inc.

  15. Meta-Analysis of Data from the Submarine Ventilation Doctrine Test Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hoover, J


    .... The Submarine Ventilation Doctrine Test Program was developed to address submarine-specific issues regarding the use of ventilation systems to control smoke and heat movement, maintain habitability...

  16. Numerical Simulation of Galvanic Corrosion Caused by Shaft Grounding Systems in Steel Ship Hulls

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Y


    .... This led to the accelerated corrosion of the exposed steel ship hull on paint holidays because of the substantial difference of the electric potentials between the steel ship hull and the nickel...

  17. Wave-induced Ship Hull Vibrations in Stochastic Seaways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Dogliani, M.


    A theoretical Study is undertaken on the determination of wave-induced loads in flexible ship hulls. The calculations are performed within the framework of a non-linear, quadratic strip theory formulated in the frequency domain. Included are non-linear effects due to changes in added mass......, hydrodynamic damping and water line breadth with sectional immersion in waves. The study is limited to continuous excitations from the waves and thus transient so-called whipping vibrations due to slamming loads are not considered.Because of the non-linearities the ship hull responses become non...... to the large separation between dominating wave frequencies and the lowest two-node frequency of the hull beam. Both extreme value predictions and fatigue damage are considered.For a fast container ship the rigid body and two-node (springing) vertical wave-induced bending moments amidship are calculated...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni B. Paschoal


    Full Text Available The objectives of this work were to investigate the microstructure, crystallinity and thermal stability of nanofibrillated cellulose obtained from oat hulls using bleaching and acid hydrolysis at a mild temperature (45 ºC followed by ultrasonication. The oat hulls were bleached with peracetic acid, and after bleaching, the compact structure around the cellulosic fibers was removed, and the bundles became individualized. The extraction time (30 or 60 min did not affect the properties of the nanofibrillated cellulose, which presented a higher crystallinity index and thermal stability than the raw material (oat hulls. The nanocellulose formed interconnected webs of tiny fibers with diameters of 70-100 nm and lengths of several micrometers, producing nanofibers with a relatively high aspect ratio, thus indicating that these materials are suitable for polymer reinforcement.

  19. On Rational Design of Double Hull Tanker Structures against Collision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paik, Jeom Kee; Chung, Jang Young; Choe, Ich Hung


    This paper is a summary of recent research and development in areas related to the design technology for double hull tanker structures against low energy collision, jointly undertaken by the Hyundai Heavy Industries, the American Bureau of Shipping, the Technical University of Denmark and the Pusan...... National University. The goal of the study has been to establish a rational practical design oriented approach to collision resistance that is more sophisticated than previous theoretically based procedures and less complicated than conventional nonlinear finite element methods. The main tasks undertaken...... investigation of the energy absorption capability characteristics of a collided double hull VLCC side structure in collision, and (vi) development of a new modified Minorsky method for double hull tanker side structures. The tools developed and the results and insights obtained by the present study should...

  20. On the global ship hull bending energy in ship collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Li, Yujie


    During ship collisions part of the kinetic energy of the involved vessels immediately prior to contact is absorbed as energy dissipated by crushing of the hull structures, by friction and by elastic energy. The purpose of this report is to present an estimate of the elastic energy that can...... be stored in elastic hull vibrations during a ship collision. When a ship side is strengthened in order to improve the crashworthiness it has been argued in the scientific literature that a non-trivial part of the energy released for structural deformation during the collision can be absorbed as elastic...... energy in global ship hull vibrations, such that with strong ship sides less energy has to be spent in crushing of the striking ship bow and/or the struck ship side. In normal ship–ship collision analyses both the striking and struck ship are usually considered as rigid bodies where structural crushing...

  1. Turbulence modeling of transverse flow on ship hulls in shallow water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakobsen, Ken-Robert Gjelstad


    The hydrodynamic forces acting on a ship that travels in restricted water vary greatly with water depth and the geometry of the ship hull. This will affect the ship maneuverability in terms of various flow effects like for instance squat, when the ship is sucked down towards the seabed due to a pressure drop on the hull at forward speed. It is, thus, important to gain detailed knowledge on these aspects of marine engineering. The problem is in the present work addressed through a numerical investigation of turbulent transverse flow on two-dimensional ship sections in shallow water. The numerical code is validated against traditional flow problems in the literature. Namely, the Backward-facing step (BFS) and the Smoothly-contoured ramp (SCR). 2D and 3D laminar flows and 2D low Reynolds number turbulent flows are calculated, and the results are found to be in good agreement with the previous numerical and experimental comparison data. The turbulence model used in the calculations is the one-equation Spalart-Allmaras model. The overall goal of achieving more efficient and accurate numerical schemes will always be in focus of code development. Adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) is then a very helpful tool to save both time for grid generation prior to the calculations in question and the CPU hours needed to solve the governing equations. The latter is even more evident in a parallel environment. These aspects are included in the present investigation as part of the process to adapt and investigate a CFD tool suitable to handle turbulent flows on a ship hull in shallow water. Several physical and numerical parameters are included in the present study and the Plackett-Burman screening design is utilized to efficiently analyze the results. With the latter method, a simple function for calculating the drag force on a two-dimensional ship section as function of the given parameters has been obtained. (Author)

  2. Ship Hull Principal Dimensions Optimization Employing Fuzzy Decision-Making Theory


    Jianping, Chen; Jie, Xu; You, Gong; Li, Xu


    The paper presents an optimization method for the ship hull principal dimensions scheme employing the fuzzy decision-making theory. First of all, the paper establishes the fuzzy decision-making model of the ship hull principal dimensions optimization, and then a series of ship hull principal dimensions schemes are accordingly constructed by employing the variable value method. On the basis of this, the fuzzy decision-making method is employed to evaluate the series ship hull principal dimensi...

  3. Isolation and chemical analyses of nonfermented fiber fractions of oat hulls and cottonseed hulls. (United States)

    Garleb, K A; Bourquin, L D; Hsu, J T; Wagner, G W; Schmidt, S J; Fahey, G C


    The purpose of this study was to isolate, using both in situ and in vivo methodology, the nonfermented fiber fraction of oat hulls (OH) and cottonseed hulls (CSH) and to compare the concentrations of alkali-labile phenolic monomers, nitrobenzene oxidizable phenolic monomers, and neutral monosaccharides, as well as the cross polarization/magic angle spinning (CP/MAS) carbon-13 (13C) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra, of the nonfermented fraction with the original OH or CSH. The in situ isolation procedure involved a 30-h ruminal pretreatment and an 8-h acid:pepsin pretreatment followed by 1 to 7 additional days of incubation in the rumen. Fractions not fermented in vivo were isolated from duodena, ileal, and fecal material obtained from a site and extent of digestion trial in which these byproducts were fed to sheep at 80% of the diet (as-fed basis) and they represented the sole source of dietary fiber. Based on nonfermented fraction composition, both in situ and in vivo, all components analyzed were degraded to some extent. Also, all components present in original byproduct material were present in both the in situ and in vivo nonfermented fractions. Based on NMR analysis, cellulose crystallinity did not change during either long-term in situ or in vivo fermentation. However, CSH cellulose was more crystalline than that of OH. The ADL content of OH and CSH was 6.1% and 19.4%, respectively, and very little (15%) of the ADL disappeared during either in situ or in vivo fermentation. Much of the p-coumaric and ferulic acid of OH, associated with the cell wall matrix as lignin-carbohydrate and phenolic-carbohydrate complexes, was recovered in the fermented fractions. Data are interpreted to indicate that lignin encrustation and cellulose crystallinity are factors affecting CSH fermentation. Lignin encrustation and the presence of lignin-carbohydrate/phenolic-carbohydrate complexes are factors that inhibit OH fermentation.

  4. Australia’s Submarine Design Capabilities and Capacities: Challenges and Options for the Future Submarine (United States)


    General Dynamics Electric Boat Corporation EMC electromagnetic compatibility EMF electromagnetic field EMI electromagnetic interference EPCM flow-induced radiated noise Own-sensor performance degradation Note: Risks can be reduced for given designs using scale models...Acoustic analysis Addresses the total radiated noise signature of submarine designs Radiated noise that an enemy might detect Self-noise that that

  5. A Sensor System for Detection of Hull Surface Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Suardíaz


    Full Text Available This paper presents a sensor system for detecting defects in ship hull surfaces. The sensor was developed to enable a robotic system to perform grit blasting operations on ship hulls. To achieve this, the proposed sensor system captures images with the help of a camera and processes them in real time using a new defect detection method based on thresholding techniques. What makes this method different is its efficiency in the automatic detection of defects from images recorded in variable lighting conditions. The sensor system was tested under real conditions at a Spanish shipyard, with excellent results.

  6. 46 CFR 176.650 - Alternative Hull Examination Program options: Divers or underwater ROV. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alternative Hull Examination Program options: Divers or underwater ROV. 176.650 Section 176.650 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Hull and Tailshaft Examinations § 176.650 Alternative Hull...

  7. 78 FR 50335 - Double Hull Tanker Escorts on the Waters of Prince William Sound, Alaska (United States)


    ... require a two vessel escort system for double hull tankers over 5,000 GT transporting oil in bulk in PWS... 2008 that double hull tankers be escorted by a two vessel escort system when in transit through PWS... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 168 RIN 1625-AB96 Double Hull Tanker Escorts on the Waters of Prince...

  8. 37 CFR 212.5 - Recordation of distinctive identification of vessel hull designer. (United States)


    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recordation of distinctive identification of vessel hull designer. 212.5 Section 212.5 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE... of distinctive identification of vessel hull designer. (a) General. Any owner of a vessel hull may...

  9. North Sea submarine cable disruptions and fishing activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hintzen, N.T.; Machiels, M.A.M.


    At the North Sea seafloor, numerous submarine cables are positioned that connect telecommunication networks between countries. Worldwide, human activities cause most of the cable disruptions with fisheries accounting for nearly half of all reported faults. Due to a recent increase of submarine cable

  10. The 1929 Grand Banks submarine landslide revisited (United States)

    Schulten, Irena; Mosher, David C.; Krastel, Sebastian; Piper, David J. W.; Kienast, Markus


    On November 18th, 1929 a large submarine landslide occurred along the St. Pierre Slope of the southwestern Grand Banks of Newfoundland, as a result of a Mw 7.2 earthquake. This submarine landslide led to the first recognition of naturally-occurring submarine turbidity currents and is one of the few landslides known to have generated a tsunami. The event caused 28 causalities in Newfoundland and severe infrastructural damage. Earlier investigations of the area identified widely distributed shallow mass failures (15 - 20 m high escarpments), but no evidence of a larger headscarp. It is difficult to conceive, therefore, how this distributed shallow failure that rapidly evolved into a turbidity current would have generated a tsunami. It is hypothesised in this study that a deeper rooted sediment failure ( 500 m), involving faulting and mass-rotation, was involved in the sediment failure and this displacement generated the tsunami. In order to test this hypothesis, the volume and kinematics of the 1929 slope failure are analysed by means of recently acquired high resolution seismic reflection and multibeam swath bathymetry data, in addition to a significant volume of legacy data. The data allow determination of: 1) the dimension of the failure area, 2) the thickness and volume of failed sediment on St. Pierre Slope, 3) fault patterns and displacements, and 4) styles of sediment failure involved. Shallow (20 m high) sinuous escarpments and a number of faults are observed along the upper St. Pierre Slope (500 - 2 500 m water depth). The uppermost and largest of these escarpments shows association with a fault system. Preliminary results, therefore, indicate a complex sediment failure pattern along the St. Pierre Slope, possibly involving a deep-seated decollement and mobilization of a large volume of surficial sediment through retrogressive failure. Causes for the tsunami are yet to be determined.

  11. Long-term flow monitoring of submarine gas emanations (United States)

    Spickenbom, K.; Faber, E.; Poggenburg, J.; Seeger, C.


    consists of gas collector, sensor head and pressure housing for electronics and power supply. The collector is a plastic funnel, enclosed in a stainless-steel frame to add weight and stability. The whole unit is fixed to the sediment by nails or sediment screws. The sensor head is equipped with an "inverted tipping-bucket" sensor, which basically works like a turned upside-down rain gauge. It fills with the collected gas until full, then empties completely and starts again, which allows the calculation of the flow rate by container volume and frequency of the cycle. This sensor type is very robust due to a design nearly without moving parts and suitable for very low to medium flow rates. For higher flow rates different sensor heads using turbine wheels or pressure differences can be used. The pressure housing for this prototype is made of aluminium and contains a Hobo Pendant data logger with integrated battery supply. Since this setup is inexpensive, it can be deployed in numbers to cover larger areas. By addition of multi-channel data loggers, data transmission by acoustic modem or cable, relay stations on the seafloor or buoys etc. the infrastructure can be adapted to the environmental setting and financial budget. Prototype tests under laboratory conditions as well as field tests on natural submarine gas vents as an analogue to leaking storage sites have demonstrated the capabilities and robustness of the systems.

  12. Multivariable Control System Design for a Submarine, (United States)


    perturbations applied to the nominal point were identical in all cases (see table 2.3). The comparisons show excellent correlation between the...Open Loop Singular Values for the 5 and 1S Knot Linear Modelo *~~* b % % V’ , * % ~ .%~ C 9 ~ V. --.- V. V.-.--.--46..- S. 77’ Model S20R5 20- 10- -0...without imparting a pitch angle to the submarine and provides an excellent example of both the usefulness of w(t) as a state variable and the

  13. Hydrogen isotope systematics of submarine basalts (United States)

    Kyser, T.K.; O'Neil, J.R.


    The D/H ratios and water contents in fresh submarine basalts from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, the East Pacific Rise, and Hawaii indicate that the primary D/H ratios of many submarine lavas have been altered by processes including (1) outgassing, (2) addition of seawater at magmatic temperature, and (3) low-temperature hydration of glass. Decreases in ??D and H2O+ from exteriors to interiors of pillows are explained by outgassing of water whereas inverse relations between ??D and H2O+ in basalts from the Galapagos Rise and the FAMOUS Area are attributed to outgassing of CH4 and H2. A good correlation between ??D values and H2O is observed in a suite of submarine tholeiites dredged from the Kilauea East Rift Zone where seawater (added directly to the magma), affected only the isotopic compositions of hydrogen and argon. Analyses of some glassy rims indicate that the outer millimeter of the glass can undergo lowtemperature hydration by hydroxyl groups having ??D values as low as -100. ??D values vary with H2O contents of subaerial transitional basalts from Molokai, Hawaii, and subaerial alkali basalts from the Society Islands, indicating that the primary ??D values were similar to those of submarine lavas. Extrapolations to possible unaltered ??D values and H2O contents indicate that the primary ??D values of most thoteiite and alkali basalts are near -80 ?? 5: the weight percentages of water are variable, 0.15-0.35 for MOR tholeiites, about 0.25 for Hawaiian tholeiites, and up to 1.1 for alkali basalts. The primary ??D values of -80 for most basalts are comparable to those measured for deep-seated phlogopites. These results indicate that hydrogen, in marked contrast to other elements such as Sr, Nd, Pb, and O, has a uniform isotopic composition in the mantle. This uniformity is best explained by the presence of a homogeneous reservoir of hydrogen that has existed in the mantle since the very early history of the Earth. ?? 1984.

  14. Convex Hull Abstraction in Specialisation of CLP Programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peralta, J.C.; Gallagher, John Patrick


    We introduce an abstract domain consisting of atomic formulas constrained by linear arithmetic constraints (or convex hulls). This domain is used in an algorithm for specialization of constraint logic programs. The algorithm incorporates in a single phase both top-down goal directed propagation a...

  15. Chemical composition of hulled, dehulled and naked oat grains ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In grain samples of hulled (5 samples), dehulled (5 samples) and naked (4 samples) oats, the following components were determined: chemical composition (ash, crude protein, crude fat, crude fibre and its components) and amino acids and fatty acid composition. The grain of naked and dehulled oats contained ...

  16. On the epireflective hull of topological nearness groups in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To find the specific nature of the objects that are in the epireflective hull of the symmetric topological spaces in the category of nearness spaces is a long open problem. See [BCH05]for more information. Here we consider topological nearness groups as a full subcategory of nearness groups and ask the analogous question ...

  17. 46 CFR 282.23 - Hull and machinery insurance. (United States)


    ... OPERATORS OPERATING-DIFFERENTIAL SUBSIDY FOR LINER VESSELS ENGAGED IN ESSENTIAL SERVICES IN THE FOREIGN COMMERCE OF THE UNITED STATES Calculation of Subsidy Rates § 282.23 Hull and machinery insurance. (a... differential. Port risk premiums are eligible for subsidy but not for determining the U.S.-foreign cost...

  18. "Keisri hull" pürib taas filmiks

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    Eesti Filmi Sihtasutus otsustas anda arendustoetust mängufilmidele "Keisri hull" (režissöör Peeter Simm, arendaja Lege Artis Film), "Rahad ette" (režissöör Jaak Kilmi, arendaja Eetriüksus), "Öölendurid" (režissöör Peeter Urbla, arendaja Exitfilm)

  19. Op hulle stukke. Jeanette Ferreira, samesteller. Kaapstad: Human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    wat deur die Russe vir oorlogsdoeleindes opgelei is te deprogrammeer sodat hulle weer vrygelaat kan word. Daar kom egter 'n kin- kel in die kabel wanneer Edelweiss, die afrig- ter van die oorlogsdolfyne, uitvind wat die opdrag van Anton is. Hy verdwyn met die vier beste dolfyne. Daarna begin 'n soektog oor die lengte en ...

  20. Opvoeders se persepsies van hulle werkmotivering: 'n kwalitatiewe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    205. Opvoeders se persepsies van hulle werkmotivering: 'n kwalitatiewe studie. N.E.J. Wevers en G.M. Steyn. Fakulteit Opvoedkunde, Universiteit van Suid- Afrika, Posbus 392, Unisa, 0003 Suid-Afrika; Teachers' perception of their work motivation: a qualitative study.

  1. Flow dynamics around downwelling submarine canyons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Spurgin


    Full Text Available Flow dynamics around a downwelling submarine canyon were analysed with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model. Blanes Canyon (northwestern Mediterranean was used for topographic and initial forcing conditions. Fourteen scenarios were modelled with varying forcing conditions. Rossby and Burger numbers were used to determine the significance of Coriolis acceleration and stratification (respectively and their impacts on flow dynamics. A new non-dimensional parameter (χ was introduced to determine the significance of vertical variations in stratification. Some simulations do see brief periods of upwards displacement of water during the 10-day model period; however, the presence of the submarine canyon is found to enhance downwards advection of density in all model scenarios. High Burger numbers lead to negative vorticity and a trapped anticyclonic eddy within the canyon, as well as an increased density anomaly. Low Burger numbers lead to positive vorticity, cyclonic circulation, and weaker density anomalies. Vertical variations in stratification affect zonal jet placement. Under the same forcing conditions, the zonal jet is pushed offshore in more uniformly stratified domains. The offshore jet location generates upwards density advection away from the canyon, while onshore jets generate downwards density advection everywhere within the model domain. Increasing Rossby values across the canyon axis, as well as decreasing Burger values, increase negative vertical flux at shelf break depth (150 m. Increasing Rossby numbers lead to stronger downwards advection of a passive tracer (nitrate, as well as stronger vorticity within the canyon. Results from previous studies are explained within this new dynamic framework.

  2. Submarine Tailings Disposal (STD—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Dold


    Full Text Available The mining industry is a fundamental industry involved in the development of modern society, but is also the world’s largest waste producer. This role will be enhanced in the future, because ore grades are generally decreasing, thus leading to increases in the waste/metal production ratio. Mine wastes deposited on-land in so-called tailings dams, impoundments or waste-dumps have several associated environmental issues that need to be addressed (e.g., acid mine drainage formation due to sulphide oxidation, geotechnical stability, among others, and social concerns due to land use during mining. The mining industry recognizes these concerns and is searching for waste management alternatives for the future. One option used in the past was the marine shore or shallow submarine deposition of this waste material in some parts of the world. After the occurrence of some severe environmental pollution, today the deposition in the deep sea (under constant reducing conditions is seen as a new, more secure option, due to the general thought that sulphide minerals are geochemically stable under the reduced conditions prevailing in the deep marine environment. This review highlights the mineralogical and geochemical issues (e.g., solubility of sulphides in seawater; reductive dissolution of oxide minerals under reducing conditions, which have to be considered when evaluating whether submarine tailings disposal is a suitable alternative for mine waste.

  3. Submarine melt rates under Greenland's ice tongues (United States)

    Wilson, Nat; Straneo, Fiametta; Heimbach, Patrick; Cenedese, Claudia


    The few remaining ice tongues (ice-shelf like extensions) of Greenland's glaciers are undergoing rapid changes with potential implications for the stability of the ice sheet. Submarine melting is recognized as a major contributor to mass loss, yet the magnitude and spatial distribution of melt are poorly known or understood. Here, we use high resolution satellite imagery to infer the magnitude and spatial variability of melt rates under Greenland's largest remaining ice tongues: Ryder Glacier, Petermann Glacier and Nioghalvfjerdsbræ (79 North Glacier). We find that submarine plus aerial melt approximately balance the ice flux from the grounded ice sheet for the first two while at Nioghalvfjerdsbræ the total melt flux exceeds the inflow of ice indicating thinning of the ice tongue. We also show that melt rates under the ice tongues vary considerably, exceeding 60 m yr-1 near the grounding zone and decaying rapidly downstream. Channels, likely originating from upstream subglacial channels, give rise to large melt variations across the ice tongues. Using derived melt rates, we test simplified melt parameterizations appropriate for ice sheet models and find the best agreement with those that incorporate ice tongue geometry in the form of depth and slope.

  4. The Specialist Committee on Cavitation Induced Pressures, Final Report and Recommendations to the 23rd ITTC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friesch, J.; Kim, K.-H.; Andersen, Poul


    General Technical Conclusions Propeller-excited hull pressure fluctuations are strongly influenced by intermittence of sheet cavitation, the dynamics of tip vortex cavitation, and the statistical properties of the cavitation. On modern propellers, tip vortex cavitation may be even more important...... than sheet cavitation for hull pressure fluctuation. The influence of turbulence and blade surface roughness on cavitation-induced pressure fluctuations is still not quantifiable. Both experimental and numerical procedures for predicting propeller excitation need to be validated using results...... consider the influence of experimental boundary conditions: solid-boundary factors, hull vibration, and free-surface effects, before comparison with full-scale pressure levels. High-frequency excitation due to tip vortex cavitation must be considered during testing. Measurement of unsteady hull pressures...

  5. Submarine Slope Failure Primed and Triggered by Bottom Water Warming in Oceanic Hydrate-Bearing Deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Hyuk Kwon


    Full Text Available Many submarine slope failures in hydrate-bearing sedimentary deposits might be directly triggered, or at least primed, by gas hydrate dissociation. It has been reported that during the past 55 years (1955–2010 the 0–2000 m layer of oceans worldwide has been warmed by 0.09 °C because of global warming. This raises the following scientific concern: if warming of the bottom water of deep oceans continues, it would dissociate natural gas hydrates and could eventually trigger massive slope failures. The present study explored the submarine slope instability of oceanic gas hydrate-bearing deposits subjected to bottom water warming. One-dimensional coupled thermal-hydraulic-mechanical (T-H-M finite difference analyses were performed to capture the underlying physical processes initiated by bottom water warming, which includes thermal conduction through sediments, thermal dissociation of gas hydrates, excess pore pressure generation, pressure diffusion, and hydrate dissociation against depressurization. The temperature rise at the seafloor due to bottom water warming is found to create an excess pore pressure that is sufficiently large to reduce the stability of a slope in some cases. Parametric study results suggest that a slope becomes more susceptible to failure with increases in thermal diffusivity and hydrate saturation and decreases in pressure diffusivity, gas saturation, and water depth. Bottom water warming can be further explored to gain a better understanding of the past methane hydrate destabilization events on Earth, assuming that more reliable geological data is available.

  6. What threat do turbidity currents and submarine landslides pose to submarine telecommunications cable infrastructure? (United States)

    Clare, Michael; Pope, Edward; Talling, Peter; Hunt, James; Carter, Lionel


    The global economy relies on uninterrupted usage of a network of telecommunication cables on the seafloor. These submarine cables carry ~99% of all trans-oceanic digital data and voice communications traffic worldwide, as they have far greater bandwidth than satellites. Over 9 million SWIFT banks transfers alone were made using these cables in 2004, totalling 7.4 trillion of transactions per day between 208 countries, which grew to 15 million SWIFT bank transactions last year. We outline the challenge of why, how often, and where seafloor cables are broken by natural causes; primarily subsea landslides and sediment flows (turbidity currents and also debris flows and hyperpycnal flows). These slides and flows can be very destructive. As an example, a sediment flow in 1929 travelled up to 19 m/s and broke 11 cables in the NE Atlantic, running out for ~800 km to the abyssal ocean. The 2006 Pingtung earthquake triggered a sediment flow that broke 22 cables offshore Taiwan over a distance of 450 km. Here, we present initial results from the first statistical analysis of a global database of cable breaks and causes. We first investigate the controls on frequency of submarine cable breaks in different environmental and geological settings worldwide. We assess which types of earthquake pose a significant threat to submarine cable networks. Meteorological events, such as hurricanes and typhoons, pose a significant threat to submarine cable networks, so we also discuss the potential impacts of future climate change on the frequency of such hazards. We then go on to ask what are the physical impacts of submarine sediment flows on submerged cables? A striking observation from past cable breaks is sometimes cables remain unbroken, whilst adjacent cables are severed (and record powerful flows travelling at up to 6 m/s). Why are some cables broken, but neighbouring cables remain intact? We provide some explanations for this question, and outline the need for future in

  7. Navy Ohio Replacement (SSBN[X]) Ballistic Missile Submarine Program: Background and Issues for Congress (United States)


    propulsion technology first occurred many years ago: To help jumpstart the UK’s nuclear - powered submarine program, the United States transferred to the UK a... nuclear - powered attack submarines (SSNs), nuclear - powered cruise missile submarines (SSGNs), and nuclear - powered ballistic missile submarines (SSBNs). 2...2 In the designations SSN, SSGN, SSBN, and SSBN(X), the SS stands for submarine, N stands for nuclear - powered (meaning the ship is

  8. Submarine fiber cable network systems cost planning considerations with achieved high transmission capacity and signal quality enhancement (United States)

    Rashed, Ahmed Nabih Zaki


    This paper has presented theoretically the comparison between three types of fibers which are investigated extensively: plastic clad silica (PCS), polystyrene (PS) and perfluorinated graded index polymer optical fibers (PF GI-POF) for high speed undersea cable systems. Based on experimental data, both the deep ocean water temperature and pressure are tailored as functions of the water depth. It is taken into account the estimation of the total cost of the submarine fiber cable system for transmission techniques under study. The system capacity as well as the spectral losses, and the dispersion effects are parametrically investigated over wide range ranges of the set of affecting parameters {wavelength, ocean depth (and consequently the ocean pressure and temperature), and the chemical structure}. The results show that PCS has the optimum performance in compared with other fibers. Therefore PCS fiber is the most appropriate candidate among all types of fibers for high speed local submarine communication systems.

  9. Submarine landside in the Bussol Graben: Structural and formation features (United States)

    Baranov, B. V.; Lobkovsky, L. I.; Dozorova, K. A.; Rukavishnikova, D. D.


    Analysis of geophysical data obtained during a study of the insular slope in the central Kuril‒Kamchatka Trench during projects Kuriles-2005 and Kuriles-2006 promoted by the Presidium of the Russian Academy of Sciences revealed a large submarine landslide in this area. The landslide, located at the bottom of the transverse valley confined to the Bussol l Graben, resulted from the failure of the northeastern wall of a graben composed of sedimentary material. It exceeds 35 km3 in size, representing one of the large submarine landslides discovered to date on the slope of the Kuril‒Kamchatka Trench in submarine canyonfan environments.

  10. Management of demand based inventory aboard submarine tenders servicing attack (SSN) submarines


    Ross, Timothy Joseph


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. This thesis examines the computation of inventory levels based on demand history aboard Submarine Tenders that use the Shipboard Automated Data Processing System (SUADPS) for inventory control. The focus of the thesis was the workload and supply effectiveness issues associated with the processing of the SUADPS levels setting program. The objective of the thesis was to determine the effect on supply effectiveness and stock churn if the...

  11. Submarine explosive activity and ocean noise generation at Monowai Volcano, Kermadec Arc: constraints from hydroacoustic T-waves


    Grevemeyer, Ingo; Metz, Dirk; Watts, Anthony


    Submarine volcanic activity is difficult to detect, because eruptions at depth are strongly attenuated by seawater. With increasing depth the ambient water pressure increases and limits the expansion of gas and steam such that volcanic eruptions tend to be less violent and less explosive with depth. Furthermore, the thermal conductivity and heat capacity of water causes rapid cooling of ejected products and hence erupted magma cools much more quickly than during subaerial eruptions. Therefore...

  12. Submarine thermal springs on the Galapagos Rift (United States)

    Corliss, J.B.; Dymond, J.; Gordon, L.I.; Edmond, J.M.; Von Herzen, R. P.; Ballard, Richard D.; Green, K.; Williams, D.; Bainbridge, A.; Crane, K.; Van Andel, T. H.


    The submarine hydrothermal activity on and near the Galápagos Rift has been explored with the aid of the deep submersible Alvin. Analyses of water samples from hydrothermal vents reveal that hydrothermal activity provides significant or dominant sources and sinks for several components of seawater; studies of conductive and convective heat transfer suggest that two-thirds of the heat lost from new oceanic lithosphere at the Galápagos Rift in the first million years may be vented from thermal springs, predominantly along the axial ridge within the rift valley. The vent areas are populated by animal communities. They appear to utilize chemosynthesis by sulfur-oxidizing bacteria to derive their entire energy supply from reactions between the seawater and the rocks at high temperatures, rather than photosynthesis

  13. Improved OTEC System for a Submarine Robot (United States)

    Chao, Yi; Jones, Jack; Valdez, Thomas


    An ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC), now undergoing development, is a less-massive, more-efficient means of exploiting the same basic principle as that of the proposed system described in "Alternative OTEC Scheme for a Submarine Robot" (NPO-43500), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 33, No. 1 (January 2009), page 50. The proposed system as described previously would be based on the thawing-expansion/freezing-contraction behavior of a wax or perhaps another suitable phase-change material (PCM). The power generated by the system would be used to recharge the batteries in a battery- powered unmanned underwater vehicle [UUV (essentially, a small exploratory submarine robot)] of a type that has been deployed in large numbers in research pertaining to global warming. A UUV of this type travels between the ocean surface and depths, measuring temperature and salinity. At one phase of its operational cycle, the previously proposed system would utilize the surface ocean temperature (which lies between 15 and 30 C over most of the Earth) to melt a PCM that has a melting/freezing temperature of about 10 C. At the opposite phase of its operational cycle, the system would utilize the lower ocean temperature at depth (e.g., between 4 and 7 C at a depth of 300 m) to freeze the PCM. The melting or freezing would cause the PCM to expand or contract, respectively, by about 9 volume percent. The PCM would be contained in tubes that would be capable of expanding and contracting with the PCM. The PCM-containing tubes would be immersed in a hydraulic fluid. The expansion and contraction would drive a flow of the hydraulic fluid against a piston that, in turn, would push a rack-and-pinion gear system to spin a generator to charge a battery.

  14. A model for tidewater glacier undercutting by submarine melting (United States)

    Slater, D. A.; Nienow, P. W.; Goldberg, D. N.; Cowton, T. R.; Sole, A. J.


    Dynamic change at the marine-terminating margins of the Greenland Ice Sheet may be initiated by the ocean, particularly where subglacial runoff drives vigorous ice-marginal plumes and rapid submarine melting. Here we model submarine melt-driven undercutting of tidewater glacier termini, simulating a process which is key to understanding ice-ocean coupling. Where runoff emerges from broad subglacial channels we find that undercutting has only a weak impact on local submarine melt rate but increases total ablation by submarine melting due to the larger submerged ice surface area. Thus, the impact of melting is determined not only by the melt rate magnitude but also by the slope of the ice-ocean interface. We suggest that the most severe undercutting occurs at the maximum height in the fjord reached by the plume, likely promoting calving of ice above. It remains unclear, however, whether undercutting proceeds sufficiently rapidly to influence calving at Greenland's fastest-flowing glaciers.

  15. Submarine Upward Looking Sonar Ice Draft Profile Data and Statistics (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of upward looking sonar draft data collected by submarines in the Arctic Ocean. It includes data from both U.S. Navy and Royal Navy...

  16. Virtual Reality Training System for a Submarine Command Center

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maxwell, Douglas B


    The invention as disclosed is a system that uses a combined real and virtual display interaction methodology to generate the visual appearance of submarine combat control rooms and allow interaction...

  17. Using multiple geochemical tracers to characterize the hydrogeology of the submarine spring off Crescent Beach, Florida (United States)

    Swarzenski, P.W.; Reich, C.D.; Spechler, R.M.; Kindinger, J.L.; Moore, W.S.


    A spectacular submarine spring is located about 4 km east of Crescent Beach, FL, in the Atlantic Ocean. The single vent feature of Crescent Beach Spring provides a unique opportunity to examine onshore-offshore hydrogeologic processes, as well as point source submarine ground water discharge. The Floridan aquifer system in northeastern Florida consists of Tertiary interspersed limestone and dolomite strata. Impermeable beds confine the water-bearing zones under artesian pressure. Miocene and younger confining strata have been eroded away at the vent feature, enabling direct hydrologic communication of Eocene ground water with coastal bottom waters. The spring water had a salinity of 6.02, which was immediately diluted by ambient seawater during advection/mixing. The concentration of major solutes in spring water and onshore well waters confirm a generalized easterly flow direction of artesian ground water. Nutrient concentrations were generally low in the reducing vent samples, and the majority of the total nitrogen species existed as NH3. The submarine ground water tracers, Rn-222 (1174 dpm I-1, dpm), methane (232 nM) and barium (294.5 nM) were all highly enriched in the spring water relative to ambient seawater. The concentrations of the reverse redox elements U, V and Mo were expectedly low in the submarine waters. The strontium isotope ratio of the vent water (87Sr/86Sr = 0.70798) suggests that the spring water contain an integrated signature indicative of Floridan aquifer system ground water. Additional Sr isotopic ratios from a series of surficial and Lower Floridan well samples suggest dynamic ground water mixing, and do not provide clear evidence for a single hydrogeologic water source at the spring vent. In this karst-dominated aquifer, such energetic mixing at the vent feature is expected, and would be facilitated by conduit and fractured flow. Radium isotope activities were utilized to estimate flow-path trajectories and to provide information on

  18. Onboard monitoring of fatigue damage rates in the hull girder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ulrik Dam; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup


    Most new advanced ships have extensive data collection systems to be used for continuous monitoring of engine and hull performance, for voyage performance evaluation etc. Such systems could be expanded to include also procedures for stress monitoring and for decision support, where the most...... critical wave-induced ship extreme responses and fatigue damage accumulation can be estimated for hypothetical changes in ship course and speed in the automatically estimated wave environment.The aim of this paper is to outline a calculation procedure for fatigue damage rate prediction in hull girders......-induced stress ranges in a container ship, where the associated fatigue damage rates calculated from a combination of the rain-flow counting method and the Palmgren-Miner damage rule are compared with damage predictions obtained from a computationally much faster frequency fatigue analysis using a spectral...

  19. Studies on submarine control for periscope depth operations


    Tolliver, John V.


    Approved for public release; distribution in unlimited. Requirements for submarine periscope depth operations have been increased by integration with carrier battle groups, littoral operations, and contributions to joint surveillance. Improved periscope depth performance is therefore imperative. Submarine control personnel rely on a large number of analog gauges and indications. An integrated digital display system could enhance the ergonomics of the human control interface and display add...

  20. Exercise Aboard Attack Submarines: Rationale and New Options (United States)


    experience loss of physical fitness while underway. Bennett and co-workers (2) noted a 7% reduction of maximal oxygen consumption in non-exercising...Inc. designed and built a comprehensive resistance exercise device to help counteract muscle deconditioning during long term space flights (the SX... Physical activity aboard nuclear submarines as measured by pedometry. Groton: Naval Submarine Medical Research Laboratory, Report 1053, 1985, p. 12

  1. Are tilt measurements useful in detecting tsunamigenic submarine landslides?


    Sascha Brune; Andrey Babeyko; Stephan V. Sobolev


    Large submarine landslides can generate dangerous tsunamis. Because of their long-period signal, detection of landslides by common seismological methods is difficult. Here we suggest a method of detecting submarine landslides by using an array of land-based tiltmeters. The displacement of a large volume of sediments during landsliding produces a detectable elastic response of the lithosphere. We propose a technique to calculate this response and to invert for tsunami relevant parameters like ...

  2. Conversion of rice hull ash into soluble sodium silicate


    Edson Luiz Foletto; Ederson Gratieri; Leonardo Hadlich de Oliveira; Sérgio Luiz Jahn


    Sodium silicate is used as raw material for several purposes: silica gel production, preparation of catalysts, inks, load for medicines, concrete hardening accelerator, component of detergents and soaps, refractory constituent and deflocculant in clay slurries. In this work sodium silicate was produced by reacting rice hull ash (RHA) and aqueous sodium hydroxide, in open and closed reaction systems. The studied process variables were time, temperature of reaction and composition of the reacti...

  3. Effects of Geometry on the Steady Performance of Planing Hulls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, M. K.; Andersen, Poul


    is applied to practical hull forms with chines spray rails and with varying deadrise over the length of the boat. The deadrise variation has a large influence on lift and drag. For a design situation, where the total lift and centre of effort is given, the influence on the total drag is less due to change...... of the trim. Calculated results and experiments for resistance and trim agree well for high velocities. Keywords: planing boat, vortex lattice, spray...

  4. A Convex Hull Formulation for the Design of Optimal Mixtures


    Jonuzaj, S; Adjiman, CS


    The design of mixtures plays an important role in improving process and product performance but is challenging because it requires finding the optimal number, identities and compositions of mixture components and using nonlinear property models. To address this, a general modeling framework for mixture design problems is presented. It integrates Generalized Disjunctive Programming (GDP) into Computer-Aided Mixture/blend Design via Hull Reformulation (HR). The design methodology is applied suc...

  5. A Numerical Model for Torsion Analysis of Composite Ship Hulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel Chirica


    Full Text Available A new methodology based on a macroelement model proposed for torsional behaviour of the ship hull made of composite material is proposed in this paper. A computer program has been developed for the elastic analysis of linear torsion. The results are compared with the FEM-based licensed soft COSMOS/M results and measurements on the scale simplified model of a container ship, made of composite materials.

  6. The development of permafrost bacterial communities under submarine conditions (United States)

    Mitzscherling, Julia; Winkel, Matthias; Winterfeld, Maria; Horn, Fabian; Yang, Sizhong; Grigoriev, Mikhail N.; Wagner, Dirk; Overduin, Pier P.; Liebner, Susanne


    Submarine permafrost is more vulnerable to thawing than permafrost on land. Besides increased heat transfer from the ocean water, the penetration of salt lowers the freezing temperature and accelerates permafrost degradation. Microbial communities in thawing permafrost are expected to be stimulated by warming, but how they develop under submarine conditions is completely unknown. We used the unique records of two submarine permafrost cores from the Laptev Sea on the East Siberian Arctic Shelf, inundated about 540 and 2500 years ago, to trace how bacterial communities develop depending on duration of the marine influence and pore water chemistry. Combined with geochemical analysis, we quantified total cell numbers and bacterial gene copies and determined the community structure of bacteria using deep sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene. We show that submarine permafrost is an extreme habitat for microbial life deep below the seafloor with changing thermal and chemical conditions. Pore water chemistry revealed different pore water units reflecting the degree of marine influence and stages of permafrost thaw. Millennia after inundation by seawater, bacteria stratify into communities in permafrost, marine-affected permafrost, and seabed sediments. In contrast to pore water chemistry, the development of bacterial community structure, diversity, and abundance in submarine permafrost appears site specific, showing that both sedimentation and permafrost thaw histories strongly affect bacteria. Finally, highest microbial abundance was observed in the ice-bonded seawater unaffected but warmed permafrost of the longer inundated core, suggesting that permafrost bacterial communities exposed to submarine conditions start to proliferate millennia after warming.

  7. Cardiometabolic Health in Submariners Returning from a 3-Month Patrol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heath G. Gasier


    Full Text Available Confined space, limited exercise equipment, rotating shift work and reduced sleep may affect cardiometabolic health in submariners. To test this hypothesis, 53 male U.S. Submariners (20–39 years were studied before and after a 3-month routine submarine patrol. Measures included anthropometrics, dietary and physical activity, biomarkers of cardiometabolic health, energy and appetite regulation, and inflammation. Before deployment, 62% of submariners had a body fat % (BF% ≥ 25% (obesity, and of this group, 30% met the criteria for metabolic syndrome. In obese volunteers, insulin, the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, leptin, the leptin/adiponectin ratio, and pro-inflammatory chemokines growth-related oncogene and macrophage-derived chemokine were significantly higher compared to non-obese submariners. Following the patrol, a significant mean reduction in body mass (5% and fat-mass (11% occurred in the obese group as a result of reduced energy intake (~2000 kJ during the patrol; and, independent of group, modest improvements in serum lipids and a mean reduction in interferon γ-induced protein 10 and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 were observed. Since 43% of the submariners remained obese, and 18% continued to meet the criteria for metabolic syndrome following the patrol, the magnitude of weight loss was insufficient to completely abolish metabolic dysfunction. Submergence up to 3-months, however, does not appear to be the cause of obesity, which is similar to that of the general population.

  8. Solution of Supplee's submarine paradox through special and general relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Vieira, R S


    In 1989 Supplee described an apparent relativistic paradox on which a submarine seems to sink in a given frame while floating in another one. If the submarine density is adjusted to be the same as the water density (when both of them are at rest) and then it is put to move, the density of the submarine will become higher than that of the water, thanks to Lorentz contraction, and hence it sinks. However, in the submarine proper frame, is the water that becomes denser, so the submarine supposedly should float and we get a paradox situation. In this paper we analyze the submarine paradox in both a flat and a curved spacetime. In the case of a flat spacetime, we first show that any relativistic force field in special relativity can be written in the Lorentz form, so that it can always be decomposed into a static (electric-like) and a dynamic (magnetic-like) part. Taking into account the gravitomagnetic effects between the Earth and the water, a relativistic formulation of Archimedes principle can be established, ...

  9. Simulation of Propeller – Hull Interaction Using Ranse Solver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.N. Senthil Prakash


    Full Text Available This work simulates propeller-hull interaction effects by a novel method namely, coupling a Vortex Lattice Method (VLM with a RANSE solver. The VLM generates the propeller forces based on the inputs of blade geometry, wake at propeller inlet, the required thrust and the propeller revolutions. The propeller forces thus obtained are distributed in the fluid domain at the propeller disk region at specific cells. These cells lie close to the blade coordinates and the forces are assigned to the centroids of cells by means of a user-defined function (UDF. The introduction of the body forces into the fluid domain, emulates the propeller action in the field of flow with consequent influences on the flow kinematics. Therefore the interaction effect between propeller and ship hull is simulated successfully by coupling the two methods. Thereby the kinematical aspects such as effective wake conditions are obtained. The results based on the methodology have been verified by comparison with data from the KCS ship available in recent published literature. The method establishes a successful numerical tank approach in understanding the ship hull-propeller interaction problem.

  10. Fabrication of renewable biocomposites from soy hull and bioplastics (United States)

    Nanda, Malaya Ranjan

    This is an investigation for fabrication of biocomposites from soy hull and bioplastics like polylactide (PLA) and polyhydroxy butyrate-co- valerate (PHBV). The study was divided into three parts; the first was the development of a suitable PHBV/PLA blend. The second part involved the fabrication of composites from soy hull and PHBV/PLA blend and its comparison with polypropylene (PP)/soy hull composites. The third part was the effect of compatibilizer on the performance of the composites. From tensile study, the elongation of an optimized blend was found to be improved by 148 and 250% over the virgin polymers PHBV and PLA respectively. Scanning electron microscope revealed a stronger fiber-matrix interaction in PHBV/PLA composites over PP composites. Furthermore, the compatibilizer improved the impact and flexural strength by 56 and 32% respectively over the un-compatibilized counterpart; more significantly the resulting compatibilized composites showed improved hydrophobicity by more than 22% over un-compatibilized counterpart.

  11. Ensiling of elephant grass with soybean hulls or rice bran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    India Joelma Gatass Monteiro


    Full Text Available The goal was to evaluate the chemical composition and fermentation pattern of elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. cv. Roxo silage with different levels of soybean hulls or rice bran. Two trials were conducted, comprising of a completely randomized design, with four replicates each. Treatments consisted on the addition of 0%, 5%, 10%, and 15% of soybean hulls or rice bran to unwilted green elephant grass forage. Large PVC silos were used adopting a density of 600 kg of green mass m-3. The silos were opened 40 days after ensiling. The results revealed that the inclusion of 10% soybean hulls increased elephant grass forage dry matter (DM content to 31%, but did not alter the water soluble carbohydrate (WSC content or buffering capacity. The resultant silages exhibited good fermentation patterns in terms of pH (less than 3.97 and NH3-N (4.07% total N levels. The inclusion of rice bran increased both DM and WSC content in the forage, improving the fermentation pattern of silages (P < 0.05. This too was verified by a pH lower than 3.92 and a maximum NH3-N of 4.23% of the total N. The inclusion of 10% rice bran to the elephant grass improved the nutritional value of the forage to be ensiled and, hence, of the produced silage.

  12. Antioxidant and antiproteinase effects of buckwheat hull extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Šturdík


    Full Text Available Buckwheat is known not only due to its appropriate nutritional composition but the content of prophylactic compounds, too. These are responsible for buckwheat beneficial impact on human health. Most of them are concentrated in outer layers of buckwheat grain. The subject of this work was to screen hulls of nine common and one tartary buckwheat cultivar for the content of flavonoids and its antioxidant and antiproteinase effects. The highest content of total flavonoids was determined for tartary buckwheat cultivar Madawaska (0.6% of hulls weight. Among common buckwheat cultivars the best values reached samples Bamby (0.23% and KASHO-2 (0.11%. Antioxidant activity as detected via binding radical ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid and monitoring reducing power was the most effective for samples with highest flavonoid content. Buckwheat hulls effectively inhibited pathophysiological proteases thrombin and urokinase, whereas only little effects were seen to trypsin and elastase. In this testing there were again the best samples with highest flavonoid content. Only tartary buckwheat Madawaska effectively inhibited elastase at tested concentrations. No significant correlation was determined between flavonoid content and measured antioxidant or protease inhibitory action. Obtained results allow us to commend tartary buckwheat cultivar Madawaska as well as common buckwheat cultivars Bamby and KASHO-2 for further experiments.doi:10.5219/272

  13. 7 CFR 319.8-9 - Hull fiber and gin trash. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hull fiber and gin trash. 319.8-9 Section 319.8-9... Importation and Entry of Cotton and Covers § 319.8-9 Hull fiber and gin trash. (a) Entry of hull fiber will be authorized under the same conditions as are applicable to waste under this subpart. (b) Gin trash may be...

  14. Submarine Landslides at Santa Catalina Island, California (United States)

    Legg, M. R.; Francis, R. D.


    Santa Catalina Island is an active tectonic block of volcanic and metamorphic rocks originally exposed during middle Miocene transtension along the evolving Pacific-North America transform plate boundary. Post-Miocene transpression created the existing large pop-up structure along the major strike-slip restraining bend of the Catalina fault that forms the southwest flank of the uplift. Prominent submerged marine terraces apparent in high-resolution bathymetric maps interrupt the steep submarine slopes in the upper ~400 meters subsea depths. Steep subaerial slopes of the island are covered by Quaternary landslides, especially at the sea cliffs and in the blueschist metamorphic rocks. The submarine slopes also show numerous landslides that range in area from a few hectares to more than three sq-km (300 hectares). Three or more landslides of recent origin exist between the nearshore and first submerged terrace along the north-facing shelf of the island's West End. One of these slides occurred during September 2005 when divers observed a remarkable change in the seafloor configuration after previous dives in the area. Near a sunken yacht at about 45-ft depth where the bottom had sloped gently into deeper water, a "sinkhole" had formed that dropped steeply to 100-ft or greater depths. Some bubbling sand was observed in the shallow water areas that may be related to the landslide process. High-resolution multibeam bathymetry acquired in 2008 by CSU Monterey Bay show this "fresh" slide and at least two other slides of varying age along the West End. The slides are each roughly 2 hectares in area and their debris aprons are spread across the first terrace at about 85-m water depth that is likely associated with the Last Glacial Maximum sealevel lowstand. Larger submarine slides exist along the steep Catalina and Catalina Ridge escarpments along the southwest flank of the island platform. A prominent slide block, exceeding 3 sq-km in area, appears to have slipped more than

  15. Relation of submarine landslide to hydrate occurrences in Baiyun Depression, South China Sea (United States)

    Sun, Yunbao; Zhang, Xiaohua; Wu, Shiguo; Wang, Lei; Yang, Shengxiong


    Submarine landslides have been observed in the Baiyun Depression of the South China Sea. The occurrence of hydrates below these landslides indicates that these slope instabilities may be closely related to the massive release of methane. In this study, we used a simple Monte-Carlo model to determine the first-order deformation pattern of a gravitationally destabilizing slope. The results show that a stress concentration occurs due to hydrate dissociation on the nearby glide surface and on top of a gas chimney structure. Upon the dissolution of the gas hydrate, slope failure occurs due to the excess pore pressure generated by the dissociation of the gas hydrates. When gas hydrates dissociate at shallow depths, the excess pore pressure generated can be greater than the total stress acting at those points, along with the forces that resist sliding. Initially, the failure occurs at the toe of the slope, then extends to the interior. Although our investigation focused only on the contribution of hydrate decomposition to submarine landslide, this process is also affected by both the slope material properties and topography.

  16. ROV Tiburon Investigation of Hawaiian Submarine Canyons (United States)

    Paull, C. K.; Greene, H. G.; Caress, D. W.; Clague, D. A.; Ussler, W.; Maher, N. M.


    MBARI conducted ROV dives around the Hawaiian Islands during an expedition of the R/V Western Flyer and Tiburon in the spring of 2001. Eight ROV dives were made to investigate five major submarine canyons offshore of Oahu, Molokai, and Hawaii in up to 3,434 m water depths. Four of these canyons are located off the windward (northern) side of these islands where onshore canyons are also well developed. Those canyons located offshore of Molokai and Oahu incise the head scars of the giant Nuuanu and Wailai submarine landslides. ROV observations and sediment and rock outcrop sampling were made in these canyons to determine their origin and present-day activity. The fifth canyon investigated is located on the leeward (southern) side of Molokai. The canyons along the windward side expose extensive stratigraphic sections that reveal the history of the islands' formation. In composite, these sections contain marine pillow basalt overlain by a substantial sequence of alternating subaerial lava flows, rounded boulder conglomerates, shallow water carbonates, and hyaloclastites that indicate coastal and marine deposition. These sequences illustrate the accretion and subsequent subsidence of the islands' flanks. These canyons also have morphologically distinct upper and lower sections. The upper reaches of the canyons are incised into the shallow water marine facies and contain broad axial channels through which active sediment transport is occurring. In contrast, the morphology of the lower canyons are strongly influenced by the giant landslides that massively altered the northern flanks of the Hawaiian chain. The lower canyons contain plunge pools and steep headwall scarps that are generally comprised of mechanically competent subaerial lava flows. The presence of multiple plunge pools with differentially eroded head scarps suggests retrogressive erosion (bottom-up process) with headward advancement of the various heads. Undercutting of the headwalls also produce periodic

  17. Relationship between work stress and health in submariners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan-nan JIANG


    Full Text Available Objective To explore the relationship between work stress and health in submariners. Methods In April 2008, 272 submariners trained in a navy base were selected as study subjects by random group sampling method, and tested by primary personal information questionnaire, self-rated health measurement scale (SRHMS, self-developed submariners' work stressors questionnaire, and work stress self-rated scale. Physical health, mental health and social health of submariners were analyzed, and scores were compared with the norm of reference scores. Correlations were analyzed respectively between 10 items of submariners' general information (including age, length of military service, education degree, years at the present post, times of receiving awards, on-duty hours, off-duty hours, hours of sleep, lost days of leave, positive attitude to work and their physical health score, mental health score, social health score, total health score, as well as between 15 submariners' work stressors (including workrelated risks, diet problems, high temperature, humidity and noise in workplace, shortage of clean clothes, illness, losing contact with outside, lack of information about the task, lacking supports from family members, relationship problems, lack of involvement in task decisions, boring and dull work, on duty, heavy work, high quality of work, coping with unexpected threat and their physical health score, mental health score, social health score and total health score. Results No significant difference was found between submariners' SRHMS total score and the normal referenced score (t=0.56, P>0.05, but the physical health score and mental health score were significantly lower than normal referenced scores respectively (t=–2.172, P<0.05; t=–3.299, P<0.01, and the social health score was significantly higher than normal referenced score (t=9.331, P<0.001. The age, length of military service, years at present post of submariners were related

  18. Effects of adlay hull extracts on uterine contraction and Ca2+ mobilization in the rat. (United States)

    Hsia, Shih-Min; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Chiang, Wenchang; Wang, Paulus S


    Dysmenorrhea is directly related to elevated PGF(2alpha) levels. It is treated with nonsteroid antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in Western medicine. Since NSAIDs produce many side effects, Chinese medicinal therapy is considered as a feasible alternative medicine. Adlay (Coix lachryma-jobi L. var. ma-yuen Stapf.) has been used as a traditional Chinese medicine for treating dysmenorrhea. However, the relationship between smooth muscle contraction and adlay extracts remains veiled. Therefore, we investigated this relationship in the rat uterus by measuring uterine contraction activity and recording the intrauterine pressure. We studied the in vivo and in vitro effects of the methanolic extracts of adlay hull (AHM) on uterine smooth muscle contraction. The extracts were fractionated using four different solvents: water, 1-butanol, ethyl acetate, and n-hexane; the four respective fractions were AHM-Wa, AHM-Bu, AHM-EA, and AHM-Hex. AHM-EA and its subfractions (175 microg/ml) inhibited uterine contractions induced by PGF(2alpha), the Ca(2+) channel activator Bay K 8644, and high K(+) in a concentration-dependent manner in vitro. AHM-EA also inhibited PGF(2alpha)-induced uterine contractions in vivo; furthermore, 375 microg/ml of AHM-EA inhibited the Ca(2+)-dependent uterine contractions. Thus 375 microg/ml of AHM-EA consistently suppressed the increases in intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations induced by PGF(2alpha) and high K(+). We also demonstrated that naringenin and quercetin are the major pure chemical components of AHM-EA that inhibit PGF(2alpha)-induced uterine contractions. Thus AHM-EA probably inhibited uterine contraction by blocking external Ca(2+) influx, leading to a decrease in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration. Thus adlay hull may be considered as a feasible alternative therapeutic agent for dysmenorrhea.

  19. From submarine to lacustrine groundwater discharge (United States)

    Lewandowski, Jörg; Meinikmann, Karin; Pöschke, Franziska; Nützmann, Gunnar; Rosenberry, Donald O.


    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) and its role in marine nutrient cycling are well known since the last decade. The freshwater equivalent, lacustrine groundwater discharge (LGD), is often still disregarded, although first reports of LGD are more than 50 years old. We identify nine different reasons why groundwater has long been disregarded in both freshwater and marine environments such as invisibility of groundwater discharge, the size of the interface and its difficult accessibility. Although there are some fundamental differences in the hydrology of SGD and LGD, caused primarily by seawater recirculation that occurs only in cases of SGD, there are also a lot of similarities such as a focusing of discharge to near-shore areas. Nutrient concentrations in groundwater near the groundwater–surface water interface might be anthropogenically enriched. Due to spatial heterogeneity of aquifer characteristics and biogeochemical processes, the quantification of groundwater-borne nutrient loads is challenging. Both nitrogen and phosphorus might be mobile in near-shore aquifers and in a lot of case studies large groundwater-borne nutrient loads have been reported.

  20. Seismic reflections associated with submarine gas hydrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreassen, K.


    Gas hydrates are often suggested as a future energy resource. This doctoral thesis improves the understanding of the concentration and distribution of natural submarine gas hydrates. The presence of these hydrates are commonly inferred from strong bottom simulating reflection (BSR). To investigate the nature of BSR, this work uses seismic studies of hydrate-related BSRs at two different locations, one where gas hydrates are accepted to exist and interpreted to be very extensive (in the Beaufort Sea), the other with good velocity data and downhole logs available (offshore Oregon). To ascertain the presence of free gas under the BSR, prestack offset data must supplement near-vertical incidence seismic data. A tentative model for physical properties of sediments partially saturated with gas hydrate and free gas is presented. This model, together with drilling information and seismic data containing the BSR beneath the Oregon margin and the Beaufort Sea, made it possible to better understand when to apply the amplitude-versus-offset (AVO) method to constrain BSR gas hydrate and gas models. Distribution of natural gas hydrates offshore Norway and Svalbard is discussed and interpreted as reflections from the base of gas hydrate-bearing sediments, overlying sediments containing free gas. Gas hydrates inferred to exist at the Norwegian-Svalbard continental margin correlate well with Cenozoic depocenters, and the associated gas is assumed to be mainly biogenic. Parts of that margin have a high potential for natural gas hydrates of both biogenic and thermogenic origin. 235 refs., 86 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Submarine landslides in Arctic sedimentation: Canada Basin (United States)

    Mosher, David C.; Shimeld, John; Hutchinson, Deborah R.; Lebedova-Ivanova, N; Chapman, C.


    Canada Basin of the Arctic Ocean is the least studied ocean basin in the World. Marine seismic field programs were conducted over the past 6 years using Canadian and American icebreakers. These expeditions acquired more than 14,000 line-km of multibeam bathymetric and multi-channel seismic reflection data over abyssal plain, continental rise and slope regions of Canada Basin; areas where little or no seismic reflection data existed previously. Canada Basin is a turbidite-filled basin with flat-lying reflections correlateable over 100s of km. For the upper half of the sedimentary succession, evidence of sedimentary processes other than turbidity current deposition is rare. The Canadian Archipelago and Beaufort Sea margins host stacked mass transport deposits from which many of these turbidites appear to derive. The stratigraphic succession of the MacKenzie River fan is dominated by mass transport deposits; one such complex is in excess of 132,000 km2 in area and underlies much of the southern abyssal plain. The modern seafloor is also scarred with escarpments and mass failure deposits; evidence that submarine landsliding is an ongoing process. In its latest phase of development, Canada Basin is geomorphologically confined with stable oceanographic structure, resulting in restricted depositional/reworking processes. The sedimentary record, therefore, underscores the significance of mass-transport processes in providing sediments to oceanic abyssal plains as few other basins are able to do.

  2. Evaluation of the biological activity of sunflower hull extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha, F. S.


    Full Text Available This work was planned with the aim of adding value to sunflower seed hulls, a waste product of the oil industry by preparing a sunflower hull phenolic extract rich in chlorogenic acid (CGA. In order to fulfill this goal, the optimization for the extraction of a phenolic extract from the hulls was investigated. The parameters studied were: type of solvent, solvent to water ratio and hull to solvent ratio. In addition, the solvent mixtures were also studied. The resulting phenolic extracts were evaluated for their biological activities. This included phenolic content determination, evaluation of the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Chlorogenic acid was determined in two chosen hull extracts using the UV spectrophotometric method and HPLC analysis. The anticarcinogenic activity of the two chosen extracts was tested on seven different cell line carcinomas. The results revealed that all the phenolic extracts of sunflower hull studied contain between 190-312.5 mg phenolics/ 100 g hulls. The highest phenolic extraction was achieved with 80% methanol (1:30, hull to solvent, w/v ratio and methanol to ethanol to water (7:7:6 v/v/v mixture with values of 312.5 and 306.5 mg phenolics/100 g hulls, respectively. The free radical scavenging activity and antioxidant activity of all the samples ranged from 33.6-72.6%. The highest antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging activity were achieved by the same extracts that possessed the highest phenolic content, namely methanol to ethanol to water extract and 80% methanol with values 71.8 and 72.6%, 68.2 and 70.9% respectively, compared to 77.9 and 76.9% respectively for TBHQ. All the phenolic extracts possessed antimicrobial activity but to different levels against different pathogenic bacteria. The two chosen extracts also possessed anticarcinogenic activity, which differed among varying cell line carcinomas. The HPLC analysis indicated that chlorogenic acid was the main phenolic acid in the

  3. US Navy Submarine Sea Trial of NASA developed Multi-Gas Monitor (United States)

    Mudgett, Paul D.; Manney, Joshua A.; Smith, Matthew J.; O'Connor, Sara Jane; Pilgrim, Jeffrey S.


    During a successful 2 year technology demonstration of the tunable diode laser spectroscopy (TDLS) based Multi-Gas Monitor (MGM) on the International Space Station (ISS), we began discussing with the US Navy the possibility of conducting a sea trial of an MGM on a submarine. The sea trial would also include a gas chromatography/differential mobility spectrometer based Air Quality Monitor (AQM), which is used operationally on ISS for volatile organic compound analysis. AQM preparation and results will be the subject of a separate paper. The Navy's interest in testing NASA equipment in general relates to their ongoing search for better air monitoring technology. NASA's goal is studying submarines as closed environment analogs to spacecraft. MGM's core technology was developed by Vista Photonics Inc. using Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grants and expanded for various applications using NASA program funding. The MGM measures oxygen, carbon dioxide, ammonia and water vapor in ambient air, displays concentrations with temperature and pressure, and stores 30 second moving averages. The sea trial involves collocating the instrument with the Central Atmosphere Monitoring System (CAMS Mk II) of the submarine, connecting it to rack power prior to departure, and letting it run during the entire 90 day patrol. All data is stored within MGM, with no connection to the vessel data bus. Crew intervention is limited to checking MGM periodically to see that it is working and power cycling if necessary. After the trial is over, the unit with its data will be retrieved. Post sea trial calibration check and data analysis are planned and results will be compared with both CAMS Mk II data and results from MGM's ISS technology demonstration. Since the sea trial itself has been delayed, this paper describes the preparation of MGM for the sea trial and also provides a summary of the latest data from the ISS MGM technology demonstration.

  4. NSMRL: A Small Command with A Huge Presence for the Submarine Force

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daniel, J. C; Lamb, Jerry


    "To protect the health and enhance the performance of our warfighters through focused submarine, diving and surface research solutions" is the mission of the Naval Submarine Medical Research Laboratory (NSMRL...

  5. Conduct and Support of Amphibious Operations from United States Submarines in World War II (United States)


    twelfth war patrol of the Gato class submarine (See photos 1 and 2). They made history as the only Americans to conduct an offensive landing on a...Naval History Vol. 2, no. 1 (April 1, 2003), 1. 4 This monograph features five Gato class submarines, and three V-class submarines, but also addresses...1993), 67. 6 Photo 2: USS Barb (SS 220), representing the five Gato class submarines that participated in Operation Torch. Barb’s crew also

  6. Index of Submarine Medical Officer’s Qualification Theses 1944-1974 (United States)



  7. On the Global Ship Hull Bending Energy in Ship Collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Li, Y.


    to the impact location and where local and global bending vibration modes are neglected. That is, the structural deformation problem is considered quasi-static. In this paper a simple uniform free-free beam model is presented for estimating the energy transported into the global bending vibrations of the struck...... ship hull during ship-ship collisions. The striking ship is still considered as a rigid body. The local interaction between the two ships is modeled by a linear load-deflection relation. The analysis results for a simplified model of a struck coaster and of a large tanker show that the elastic energy...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Cupak


    Full Text Available Hulls of 9 boats operating in inland waterways and coastal Baltic waters along were examined for the presence of fouling organisms. A total of 23 animal taxa were recorded, 8 of them being alien species known to have been earlier introduced into the Baltic Sea basin. The most frequent taxa were: Amphibalanus improvisus, Chironomidae, Dreissena polymorpha, and Gammarus tigrinus. The fi ndings of this study clearly demonstrate the important role potentially played by small crafts in the introduction and spread of alien species not only in the River Odra estuary, but also in the coastal Baltic waters outside of the Odra plume.

  9. New Mapping of Mariana Submarine Volcanoes with Sidescan and Multibeam Sonars (United States)

    Embley, R. W.; Chadwick, W. W.; Baker, E. T.; Johnson, P. D.; Merle, S. G.; Ristau, S.


    An expedition in February/March 2003 on the R/V Thomas G. Thompson mapped more than 18,000 km2 with the towed MR1 sidescan sonar and almost 28,000 km2 with an EM300 hull-mounted multibeam system along the Mariana volcanic arc. The expedition was funded by NOAA's Office of Ocean Exploration (more on the expedition can be found at: The MR1 sidescan surveys began at the northern end of a 2001 R/V Melville MR1 survey at 16§ N and extended to Nikko Volcano at 23\\deg 05'N. A portion of the southern back-arc spreading center and the arc volcanoes south of 16\\deg N were mapped using the EM300 system. Of 43 submarine arc volcanoes surveyed that have basal diameters of 10 km or greater, 17 have summit calderas or craters. Of these, however, only 5 have diameters more than 2 km. In an accompanying survey of hydrothermal activity along the arc, CTD casts and/or tows were conducted over more than 50 individual volcanoes. The 11 volcanoes with active hydrothermal systems found in the course of these surveys appear to be about equally divided between those with and without summit calderas or craters (for additional information, see Baker et al., Resing et al., and Lupton et al., this session). The flanks of the submarine volcanoes and islands of the central and northern Mariana Arc consist largely of volcaniclastic flows. Most of the larger edifices have high-backscatter spoke-like patterns that probably represent coarser and/or younger flows from the summits. Higher relief high-backscatter areas, also commonly exhibiting a radial pattern, are found on many of the volcanoes' flanks. These are probably lava flows erupted along radial fissures. The Mariana Arc volcanoes are shedding large volumes of volcaniclastic material westward into the back-arc basin through a series of deep-sea channels oriented transverse to the arc that are in many places fed by flows from several volcanoes. On many of the volcaniclastic

  10. Hulled and hull-less barley cultivars with the genetic trait for low-phytic acid increased the apparent digestibility of phosphorus and calcium in diets for young swine (United States)

    A 35-d experiment was conducted using 63 crossbred pigs (35 barrows and 28 gilts) with an average initial BW of 7.0 kg and age of 28 d to evaluate the efficacy of the low-phytic acid (LPA) genetic trait in hulled and hull-less barley cultivars. The hulled cultivars were Harrington normal barley (NB)...

  11. Navy Ohio Replacement (SSBN[X]) Ballistic Missile Submarine Program: Background and Issues for Congress (United States)


    Navy Ohio Replacement (SSBN[X]) Ballistic Missile Submarine Program: Background and Issues for Congress Ronald O’Rourke Specialist in Naval...Affairs April 5, 2016 Congressional Research Service 7-5700 R41129 Navy Ohio Replacement (SSBN[X]) Ballistic Missile Submarine...Replacement (SSBN[X]) Ballistic Missile Submarine Program Congressional Research Service Contents Introduction

  12. High rates of gasified rice hull biochar affect geranium and tomato growth in a soilless substrate (United States)

    Gasified rice hull biochar (GRHB) is a byproduct of rice production, where rice hulls are gasified to generate energy for other aspects of rice processing. Other research has shown that GRHB up to 10% (v/v) in a soilless substrate can provide much, but not all, of a potted floriculture crops’ phosp...

  13. Gamma radiation effects on phenolics, antioxidants activity and in vitro digestion of pistachio (Pistachia vera) hull

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behgar, M., E-mail: [Agricultural, Medical and Industrial Research School, P.O. Box 31485498, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghasemi, S.; Naserian, A. [Faculty of Agriculture, Excellence Center in Animal Science, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, P.O. Box 917751163, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Borzoie, A.; Fatollahi, H. [Agricultural, Medical and Industrial Research School, P.O. Box 31485498, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    The effect of gamma radiation (10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 kGy) on tannin, total phenolics, antioxidants activity and in vitro digestion of pistachio hulls has been investigated in this study. The possibility of using the radial diffusion method based on software measurement of the rings area has also been investigated in this study. The software based method in radial diffusion method showed a higher r{sup 2} (0.995) value when compared to the traditional method. Irradiation reduced the tannin content (P<0.01) and activity of antioxidants (P<0.05) of pistachio hull extracts but increased the total phenolic content (P<0.05). There was no effect of gamma irradiation on the in vitro digestion of the pistachio hull. Irradiation decreased the digestion rate of the pistachio hull at the dose of 40 kGy when compared to the control. This study showed that gamma irradiation decreased tannin and antioxidants activity of pistachio hull. - Highlights: > we investigate the effects of gamma irradiation on pistachio hull. > We examine changes in phenolics, antioxidant and digestion of pistachio hull. > Computerized radial diffusion method gives precise regression for standard curve. > Gamma irradiation will decrease tannin and antioxidants of pistachio hull extracts.

  14. Sunflower hulls degradation by co-composting with different nitrogen sources. (United States)

    Conghos, M M; Aguirre, M E; Santamaría, R M


    The decomposition of sunflower hull and its mixtures was examined under mesophilic (M) and thermophilic (T) temperatures during 100 days. Thermophilic conditions were used to define the composting process. Vetch, alfalfa and ammonium nitrate were used as nitrogen co-substrates, in 6 treatments: sunflower hulls alone (C), sunflower hulls plus ammonium nitrate (CN), sunflower hulls plus alfalfa (CA), sunflower hulls plus alfalfa and ammonium nitrate (CAV), sunflower hulls plus vetch (CV), sunflower hulls plus vetch and ammonium nitrate (CVN). Total organic carbon (TOC), oxidizable carbon (OC), dry matter, ashes content, total nitrogen (N), cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, pH, electrical conductivity and C to N ratio were measured to asses the efficiency of the composting process and to determine the best amendment. Results show that sunflower hulls (Sh) treatment with the organic amendments had a better response than the inorganic ones. This was concluded from the variation in the fiberfractions, the decrease in dry matter and the major decrease in C to N ratio.

  15. 46 CFR 71.50-1 - Definitions relating to hull examinations. (United States)


    .... Remotely operated vehicle (ROV) team, at a minimum, consist of an ROV operator, a non-destructive testing... a combination of underwater surveys, internal examinations, and annual hull condition assessment... examination of all accessible parts of the vessel's underwater body and all through-hull fittings and...

  16. 46 CFR 71.50-25 - Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) procedure. (United States)


    ... and a detailed examination of all hull welds, propellers, tailshafts, rudders, and other hull appurtenances; (2) Examine all sea chests; (3) Remove and inspect all sea valves in the presence of a marine... examined, if required by the Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection (OCMI); (5) Allow access to all internal...

  17. 46 CFR 42.09-30 - Additional survey requirements for steel-hull vessels. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional survey requirements for steel-hull vessels...-30 Additional survey requirements for steel-hull vessels. (a) In addition to the requirements in § 42..., peaks, bilges, machinery spaces, and bunkers shall be examined to determine the condition of the framing...

  18. Rice hull smoke extract inactivates Salmonella Typhimurium in laboratory media and protects infected mice against mortality (United States)

    A recently discovered and characterized rice hull liquid smoke extract was tested for bactericidal activity against Salmonella Typhimurium using the disc-agar method. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) value of rice hull smoke extract was found to be 0.822% (v/v). The in vivo antibacterial a...

  19. Submarine fans: A critical retrospective (1950–2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Shanmugam


    Full Text Available When we look back the contributions on submarine fans during the past 65 years (1950–2015, the empirical data on 21 modern submarine fans and 10 ancient deep-water systems, published by the results of the First COMFAN (Committee on FANs Meeting (Bouma et al., 1985a, have remained the single most significant compilation of data on submarine fans. The 1970s were the “heyday” of submarine fan models. In the 21st century, the general focus has shifted from submarine fans to submarine mass movements, internal waves and tides, and contourites. The purpose of this review is to illustrate the complexity of issues surrounding the origin and classification of submarine fans. The principal elements of submarine fans, composed of canyons, channels, and lobes, are discussed using nine modern case studies from the Mediterranean Sea, the Equatorial Atlantic, the Gulf of Mexico, the North Pacific, the NE Indian Ocean (Bay of Bengal, and the East Sea (Korea. The Annot Sandstone (Eocene–Oligocene, exposed at Peira-Cava area, SE France, which served as the type locality for the “Bouma Sequence”, was reexamined. The field details are documented in questioning the validity of the model, which was the basis for the turbidite-fan link. The 29 fan-related models that are of conceptual significance, developed during the period 1970–2015, are discussed using modern and ancient systems. They are: (1 the classic submarine fan model with attached lobes, (2 the detached-lobe model, (3 the channel-levee complex without lobes, (4 the delta-fed ramp model, (5 the gully-lobe model, (6 the suprafan lobe model, (7 the depositional lobe model, (8 the fan lobe model, (9 the ponded lobe model, (10 the nine models based on grain size and sediment source, (11 the four fan models based on tectonic settings, (12 the Jackfork debrite model, (13 the basin-floor fan model, (14 supercritical and subcritical fans, and (15 the three types of fan reservoirs. Each model is unique

  20. Process sedimentology of submarine fan deposits - new perspectives (United States)

    Postma, George


    To link submarine fan process sedimentology with sand distribution, sand body architecture, texture and fabric, the field geologist studies sedimentary facies, facies associations (fan elements) and stratigraphy. Facies analysis resides on factual knowledge of modern fan morphodynamics and physical modelling of en-masse sediment transport. Where do we stand after 55 years of submarine research, i.e. the date when the first submarine fan model was launched by Arnold Bouma in 1962? Since that date students of submarine fans have worked on a number of important, recurring questions concerned with facies analysis of submarine successions in outcrop and core: 1. What type of sediment transport produced the beds? 2. What facies can be related to initial flow conditions? 3. What is the significance of grain size jumps and bounding surface hierarchy in beds consisting of crude and spaced stratification (traction carpets)? Do these point to multi flow events or to flow pulsations by one and the same event? 4. What facies associations relate to the basic elements of submarine fans? 5. What are the autogenic and allogenic signatures in submarine fans? Particularly in the last decade, the enormous technical advancement helped to obtain high-quality data from observations of density flows in modern canyons, deep basins and deep-water delta slopes (refs 1,2,3). In combination with both physical (refs 4,5) and numerical modelling (ref 6) these studies broke new ground into our understanding of density flow processes in various submarine environments and have led to new concepts of submarine fan building by super- and subcritical high-density flow (ref 7). Do these new concepts provide better answers to our recurrent questions related to the morphodynamics of submarine fans and prediction of sand body architecture? In discussing this open question, I shall 1. apply the new concepts to a modern and ancient example of a channel-lobe-transition-zone (ref 8); 2. raise the problem of

  1. Near-Real-Time Sismo-acoustic Submarine Station for offshore monitoring (United States)

    D'Anna, Giuseppe; D'Alessandro, Antonino; Fertitta, Gioacchino; Fraticelli, Nicola; Calore, Daniele


    From the early 1980's, Italian seismicity is monitored by the National Seismic Network (NSN). The network has been considerably enhanced by INGV since 2005 by 24-bit digital stations equipped with broad-band sensors. The NSN is nowadays constituted by about 300 on-land seismic station able to detect and locate also small magnitude earthquake in the whole Italian peninsula. However, the lack of offshore seismic stations does not allow the accurate estimation of hypocentral and focal parameters of small magnitude earthquakes occurring in offshore areas. As in the Mediterranean area there is an intense offshore seismic activity, an extension of the seismic monitoring to the sea would be beneficial. There are two types of stations that could be used to extend the network towards the sea: the first type is connected to the coast though a cable, the second type is isolated (or stand alone) and works autonomously. Both solutions have serious limitations: the first one, for several technical and economic problems, linked to the indispensable transmission/alimentation cable, cannot be installed far from the coast; the second one, allows access to the recorded data, only after they are recovered from the seabed. It is clear that these technical solutions are not suitable for the real time monitoring of the offshore seismicity or for the realization of a tsunami warning system. For this reason, in early 2010, the OBSLab of Gibilmanna begins the design of a submarine station able to overcome the limitations of the two systems above. The station isbuilt under the project EMSO-MedIT. The two stations built have already been tested in dock and ready for installation. One of this station will be installed, in few time, in the southern Tyrrhenian Sea, near the epicentre of the Palermo 2002 main shock. The sea bottom station will be equipped with 2 very broadband 3C seismometers, a broad band hydrophone, a differential and an absolute pressure gauge. The station includes a submarine


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Computational geometry is the mathematical science of computation by using the algorithm analysis to solve the problems of geometry. The problems of computational include polygon triangulations, convex hulls, Voronoi diagrams, and motion planning. Convex hull is the set of points that form a convex polygon that covers the entire set of points. The algorithms for determining the convex hull, among others, Graham Scan, Jarvis March, and Divide and Conquer. In the two-dimensional case, Graham Scan algorithm is highly efficient in the use of time complexity. This article discusses the quest convex hull of the data bank debtors, some of the data used to look at the classification accuracy of the convex hull formed. The coordinates of all the data found by using principal component analysis.After the data are analyzed, we get the accuracy of classification by 74%.

  3. Gas Hydrate Formation Amid Submarine Canyon Incision: Investigations From New Zealand's Hikurangi Subduction Margin (United States)

    Crutchley, G. J.; Kroeger, K. F.; Pecher, I. A.; Mountjoy, J. J.; Gorman, A. R.


    We investigate gas hydrate system dynamics beneath a submarine canyon on New Zealand's Hikurangi subduction margin using seismic reflection data and petroleum systems modeling. High seismic velocities just above the base of gas hydrate stability (BGHS) indicate that concentrated gas hydrates exist beneath the canyon. Two-dimensional gas hydrate formation modeling shows how the process of canyon incision at this location alters the distribution and concentration of gas hydrate. The key modeling result is that free gas is trapped beneath the gas hydrate layer and then "captured" into a concentrated gas hydrate deposit as a result of a downward-shift in the BGHS driven by canyon incision. Our study thus provides new insight into the functioning of this process. From our data, we also conceptualize two other models to describe how canyons could significantly change gas hydrate distribution and concentration. One scenario is related to deflection of fluid flow pathways from over-pressured regions at the BGHS toward the canyon, and the other is based on relationships between simultaneous seafloor uplift and canyon incision. The relationships and processes described are of global relevance because of considerations of gas hydrate as an energy resource and the influence of both submarine canyons and gas hydrate systems on seafloor biodiversity.

  4. 'Green' Submarine Cable Systems for Ocean/Climate Monitoring and Disaster Warning (United States)

    Barnes, C. R.; Butler, R.; Howe, B. M.; Bueti, M. C.


    A recent joint initiative between three UN agencies is proposing to develop trans-ocean mini-observatories to measure changing seafloor ocean observables. A Joint Task Force (JTF), established in 2012 by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) of UNESCO, is examining novel uses for submarine telecommunication cables. With ITU secretariat support, the JTF is developing a strategy and roadmap that could lead to enabling the availability of modified 'green' submarine cable systems equipped with scientific sensors (such as temperature, pressure and acceleration) for climate monitoring and disaster risk reduction (particularly tsunamis). If successful and needing support from industry and regulatory bodies, a wide network of mini-observatories could be established at many places across the world's ocean floors to measure these important parameters accurately over several decades. The initiative addresses two main issues: a) the need for sustained climate-quality data from the sparsely observed deep oceans and continental slopes but extending into coastal waters; and b) the desire to increase the reliability and integrity of the global tsunami warning networks. Presently, plans are being developed to launch a pilot project with the active involvement of cable industry players and existing ocean observatory researchers.

  5. Remote identification of the vibration amplitude of ship hull

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Pinchuk


    Full Text Available The aim is to develop the methodological support to determine vibration amplitude of the ship hull remotely using a coherent radar centimeter range based on the variation of the Doppler signal spectrum reflected from a vibrating surface.The paper presents a synthesized mathematical model of the radio signal reflected from the vibrating surface. It is the signal of coherent radar of continuous radiation with a known carrier frequency and the amplitude of the radiated signal. In the synthesis it was believed that the displacement in the radial direction with respect to the vibrating surface radar was sinusoidal.The dependences of the vibration amplitude on the value of the normalized Doppler radio signal spectrum at the second harmonic frequency are obtained. Cycle results of field experiments to study the variability of the sea surface, determining the level of its roughness, allows us to establish that the energy of surface waves of gravitational-capillary range has a high correlation with the wind speed. It is proved that the ratio of the spectral density levels at vibration frequency and its multiple frequencies is specified by the index of phase modulation linearly related to the amplitude of vibration of the ship hull.The results are significant for radar (radar detection of water targets using the coherent radar of centimeter range, ensuring the correct records of noise generated by the scattering of radio waves from the water surface.

  6. Measuring hull girder deformations on a 9300 TEU containership (United States)

    Koning, Jos; Schiere, Marcus


    A 9300 TEU container carrier was equipped in 2006 with instrumentation aimed at wave induced accelerations, and motions. In 2010 the system was extended with strain sensors to include structural loads. Section loads for vertical bending could be readily obtained but the originally intended derivation of horizontal bending and torsion from the measured strains was found to be unreliable. This paper addresses an alternative approach that was adopted in the post processing of results. In particular the concept to use acceleration sensors to capture global hull deformations along the length of the hull, and the use of a data fusion procedure to obtain section loads from combined sensor data and finite element calculations. The approach is illustrated by comparison of actually measured accelerations and local strains with values obtained from the data fusion model. It is concluded that the approach is promising but in need of further validation and development. In particular the number and shapes of the modes used may not have been sufficient to represent the true deflection and thus strain distributions along the high loaded areas.

  7. A Comparison of American, Norwegian, and Russian Standards in Calculating the Wall Thickness of Submarine Gas Pipeline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy Dianita


    Full Text Available One of the key issues in the pipeline design is wall thickness calculation. This paper highlights a comparison of wall thickness calculation methods of submarine gas pipeline based on Norwegian Standard (DNV-OS-F101, Indonesian Standard SNI 3474 which refers to American Standard(ASME B31.8, and Russian Standard (VN39-1.9-005-98. A calculation of wall thickness for a submarine gas pipeline in Indonesia (pressure 12 MPa, external diameter 668 mm gives the results of 18.2 mm (VN39-1.9-005-98, 16 mm (ASME B31.8, and 13.5 mm (DNV-OS-F101.The design formula of hoop stress due to internal pressure is interpreted in different ways for every standard. Only Norwegian Standard requires calculating hoop stresses in the inner surface, which leads to a decreased value of the wall thickness. Furthermore, the calculation of collapse factor dueto external pressure is only regulated in Americanand Norwegian Standards while Russian Standard uses that factor as an intermediate parameter in calculating local buckling. For propagation buckling, either Russian or American Standard explains empirical formula of critical hydrostatics pressure as the input in propagation buckling calculation. This formula is almost similar to the empirical formula of Norwegian Standard. From the comparison of these standards, DNV OS-F101 gives more stringent requirements than others

  8. An Analysis of Wind Power Development in the Town of Hull, MA, Appendix 2: LaCapra Financial Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Christopher


    The financial analysis and summary results presented in this document represent a first cut at an economic assessment of the proposed Hull Offshore Wind Project. Wind turbine price increases have outpaced the materials and labor price pressures faced by nonrenewable power plant developers due to increased demands on a limited pool of turbine manufacturers and offshore installation companies. Moreover, given the size of the proposed offshore facility, it may be difficult to contract with turbine manufacturers and/or foundation companies given the size and scope of competing worldwide demand. The results described in this report assume that such conditions will not significantly impact the prices that will have to be received from the output of the project; rather, the project size may require as a prerequisite that Hull be able to piggyback on other offshore efforts. The financial estimates provided here necessarily feature a range due to uncertainty in a number of project assumptions as well as overall uncertainty in offshore wind costs. Nevertheless, taken together, the analysis provides a ballpark revenue requirement of approximately $157/MWh for the municipal financing option, with higher estimates possible assuming escalation in costs to levels higher than assumed here.

  9. A submarine volcanic eruption leads to a novel microbial habitat. (United States)

    Danovaro, Roberto; Canals, Miquel; Tangherlini, Michael; Dell'Anno, Antonio; Gambi, Cristina; Lastras, Galderic; Amblas, David; Sanchez-Vidal, Anna; Frigola, Jaime; Calafat, Antoni M; Pedrosa-Pàmies, Rut; Rivera, Jesus; Rayo, Xavier; Corinaldesi, Cinzia


    Submarine volcanic eruptions are major catastrophic events that allow investigation of the colonization mechanisms of newly formed seabed. We explored the seafloor after the eruption of the Tagoro submarine volcano off El Hierro Island, Canary Archipelago. Near the summit of the volcanic cone, at about 130 m depth, we found massive mats of long, white filaments that we named Venus's hair. Microscopic and molecular analyses revealed that these filaments are made of bacterial trichomes enveloped within a sheath and colonized by epibiotic bacteria. Metagenomic analyses of the filaments identified a new genus and species of the order Thiotrichales, Thiolava veneris. Venus's hair shows an unprecedented array of metabolic pathways, spanning from the exploitation of organic and inorganic carbon released by volcanic degassing to the uptake of sulfur and nitrogen compounds. This unique metabolic plasticity provides key competitive advantages for the colonization of the new habitat created by the submarine eruption. A specialized and highly diverse food web thrives on the complex three-dimensional habitat formed by these microorganisms, providing evidence that Venus's hair can drive the restart of biological systems after submarine volcanic eruptions.

  10. Does calving matter? Evidence for significant submarine melt (United States)

    Bartholomaus, Timothy C.; Larsen, Christopher F.; O’Neel, Shad


    During the summer in the northeast Pacific Ocean, the Alaska Coastal Current sweeps water with temperatures in excess of 12 °C past the mouths of glacierized fjords and bays. The extent to which these warm waters affect the mass balance of Alaskan tidewater glaciers is uncertain. Here we report hydrographic measurements made within Icy Bay, Alaska, and calculate rates of submarine melt at Yahtse Glacier, a tidewater glacier terminating in Icy Bay. We find strongly stratified water properties consistent with estuarine circulation and evidence that warm Gulf of Alaska water reaches the head of 40 km-long Icy Bay, largely unaltered. A 10–20 m layer of cold, fresh, glacially-modified water overlies warm, saline water. The saline water is observed to reach up to 10.4 °C within 1.5 km of the terminus of Yahtse Glacier. By quantifying the heat and salt deficit within the glacially-modified water, we place bounds on the rate of submarine melt. The submarine melt rate is estimated at >9 m d−1, at least half the rate at which ice flows into the terminus region, and can plausibly account for all of the submarine terminus mass loss. Our measurements suggest that summer and fall subaerial calving is a direct response to thermal undercutting of the terminus, further demonstrating the critical role of the ocean in modulating tidewater glacier dynamics.

  11. Submarine Construction in Germany (U-Bootbau in Deutschland), (United States)


    the IKL sister firm, Maschinenbau Gabler GmbH, also founded by Prof. Gabler, which, unlike IKL (involved solely in development), is a hardware...snorkels, radar masts, as well as wharf and dockside connections, for IKL and various submarine yards. Moreover, Maschinenbau Gabler is engaged in

  12. Dissolved Nutrients from Submarine Groundwater in Flic en Flac ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract—The aim of this study was to investigate dissolved nutrients in a submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) in Flic en Flac lagoon on the west coast of the volcanic island of Mauritius. The SGD enters Flic en Flac lagoon through a thin blanket of unconsolidated sediment through a fracture system and is concentrated ...

  13. Dissolved Nutrients from Submarine Groundwater in Flic en Flac ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate dissolved nutrients in a submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) in Flic en Flac lagoon on the west coast of the volcanic island of Mauritius. The SGD enters Flic en Flac lagoon through a thin blanket of unconsolidated sediment through a fracture system and is concentrated along the ...

  14. Simulation of Wave-Plus-Current Scour beneath Submarine Pipelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eltard-Larsen, Bjarke; Fuhrman, David R.; Sumer, B. Mutlu


    A fully coupled hydrodynamic and morphologic numerical model was utilized for the simulation of wave-plus-current scour beneath submarine pipelines. The model was based on incompressible Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations, coupled with k-ω turbulence closure, with additional bed and suspen...

  15. Sedimentary characteristics of samples collected from some submarine canyons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, Arnold H.

    Oriented rectangular cores of 20.3 × 30.5 cm and 45.7 cm high have been collected in a number of submarine canyons off southern California (U.S.A.) and off the southern tip of Baja California (Mexico) for a detailed study of their sedimentary structures. By applying several methods, mainly X-ray

  16. 'Good Hunting': German submarine offensives and South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The first German submarine offensive in South African waters during 1942, Operation Eisbär, was aimed at striking a devastating blow to shipping off the South African coast. By the end of December 1942, an estimated 310 864 tons of shipping had been sunk through Operation Eisbär and the first U-cruiser operation alone.

  17. Cost Estimation Lessons Learned for Future Submarine Acquisition Programs (United States)


    North Carolina and New Mexico 30 General Dynamics Electric Boat “U.S. Navy Awards General Dynamics $14 Billion Contract for Eight Virginia- Class...NAVSEA Program Executive officer, Submarines PMO 450, June 1995. “New SSN Program Life Cycle Cost Estimate.” Naval Center for Cost Analysis: GE-1300

  18. A smart ROV solution for ship hull and harbor inspection (United States)

    Reed, Scott; Wood, Jon; Vazquez, Jose; Mignotte, Pierre-Yves; Privat, Benjamin


    Hull and harbor infrastructure inspections are frequently performed manually and involve quite a bit of risk and human and monetary resources. In any kind of threat and resource constrained environment, this involves unacceptable levels of risk and cost. Modern Remotely Operated Vehicles are highly refined machines that provide features and capabilities previously unavailable. Operations once carried out by divers can now be carried out more quickly, efficiently and safely by smart enabled ROVs. ROVs are rapidly deployable and capable of continuous, reliable operations in adverse conditions. They also provide a stable platform on which multiple sensors may be mounted and utilized to meet the harbor inspection problem. Automated Control software provides ROV's and their pilots with the capability to inspect complex, constrained environments such as those found in a harbor region. This application and the user interface allow the ROV to automatically conduct complex maneuvers relative to the area being inspected and relieves the training requirements and work load for the pilot, allowing he or she to focus on the primary task of survey, inspection and looking for possible threats (such as IEDs, Limpet Mines, signs of sabotage, etc). Real-time sensor processing tools can be integrated into the smart ROV solution to assist the operator. Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) algorithms are used to search through the sensor data collected by the ROV in real time. These algorithms provide immediate feedback on possible threats and notify the operator of regions that may require manual verification. Sensor data (sonar or video) is also mosaiced, providing the operator with real-time situational awareness and a coverage map of the hull or seafloor. Detected objects may also be placed in the context of the large scale characteristics of the hull (or bottom or pilings) and localized. Within the complex areas such as the harbor pier pilings and the running gear of the ship, real

  19. An ongoing large submarine landslide at the Japan trench (United States)

    Nitta, S.; Kasaya, T.; Miura, S.; Kawamura, K.


    This paper deals with an active submarine landslide on a landward trench slope in the Japan trench. Studied area is located on the upper terrace ranging from 400 to 1200 m in water depth, off Sendai, northeast Japan. We have surveyed in detail the seabed topography using a multi narrow beam (hereafter MBES) and a subbottom profiler (hereafter SBP) during the cruise MR12-E02 of R/V Mirai. The survey lines were 12 lines in N-S, and 3 lines in E-W, and situated in the region from 141°45'E, 37°40'N to 142°33'E, 38°32'N. Moreover, we used multi-channel seismic profile by the cruise KR04-10 of R/V Kairei in the interpretation of the SBP results. In general, horseshoe-shaped depressions of about 100 km wide along the trench slope are arrayed along the Japan trench. It has thought that they were formed by large submarine landslides, but we could not understand critically the relationship between the depressions and the submarine landslides. Based on the survey results, we found signals of an active submarine landslide in the depression as follows. 1) We observed arcuate-shaped lineaments, which are sub-parallel to a horseshoe-shaped depression. The lineaments concentrate in the south region from 38°N at about 20 km wide. These lineaments are formed by deformation structures as anticlines, synclines and normal fault sense displacements. 2) Most of the synclines and anticlines are not buried to form the lineaments. 3) Normal faults cutting about 1 km deep are observed in a multi-channel seismic profile. The normal faults are located just below the arcuate-shaped lineaments, and are tilted eastward being the downslope direction. It indicates a large submarine landslide. We concluded that the arcuate-shaped lineaments were generated by surface sediment movement with the submarine landsliding. We think that the submarine landslide of about 20 km wide and about 1 km thick move continuously down the landward trench slope. This would be the formation process of the horseshoe

  20. Effect of oat hulls on performance, gut capacity and feed passage time in broiler chickens. (United States)

    Hetland, H; Svihus, B


    1. Two experiments were conducted to study effects of oat hulls and their interaction with soluble fibre in broiler chickens. 2. In experiment 1, wheat or naked oats based diets with or without NSP-degrading enzymes were mixed with 0, 40 or 100 g/kg oat hulls which replaced a maize starch/soy isolate mixture, and the diets were fed to broiler chickens from 7-21 d of age. 3. Production results, AMEn determined between 14 and 16 d of age, and ileal digestibility indicated no negative effect of oat hulls on nutrient digestibility or weight gain. 4. Feed consumption increased significantly when oat hulls were included in the diet and relative gut weight increased correspondingly (Pdigestibility in wheat diets. 6. In experiment 2, mash diets were fed unsupplemented, or were supplemented with coarsely or finely ground oat hulls which replaced a maize starch/soy isolate mixture. 7. Faecal titanium dioxide excreted between 1 and 48 h after feeding of a gelatin capsule containing titanium dioxide, was used to calculate feed passage time. 8. There was a tendency (P=0.08) for faster feed passage with inclusion of coarsely ground oat hulls, but no effect of finely ground oat hulls was found.

  1. Hydrodynamic Characteristics of a Low-drag, Planing-tail Flying-boat Hull (United States)

    Suydam, Henry B


    The hydrodynamic characteristics of a flying-boat incorporating a low-drag, planing-tail hull were determined from model tests made in Langley tank number 2 and compared with tests of the same flying boat incorporating a conventional-type hull. The planing-tail model, with which stable take-offs were possible for a large range of elevator positions at all center-of-gravity locations tested, had more take-off stability than the conventional model. No upper-limit porpoising was encountered by the planing-tail model. The maximum changes in rise during landings were lower for the planing-tail model than for the conventional model at most contact trims, an indication of improved landing stability for the planing-tail model. The hydrodynamic resistance of the planing-tail hull was lower than the conventional hull at all speeds, and the load-resistance ratio was higher for the planing-tail hull, being especially high at the hump. The static trim of the planing-tail hull was much higher than the conventional hull, but the variation of trim with speed during take-off was smaller.

  2. Solid-state fermentation of Mortierella isabellina for lipid production from soybean hull. (United States)

    Zhang, Jianguo; Hu, Bo


    Soybean hull, generated from soybean processing, is a lignocellulosic material with limited industrial applications and little market value. This research is exploring a new application of soybean hull to be converted to fungal lipids for biodiesel production through solid-state fermentation. Mortierella isabellina was selected as the oil producer because of its high lipid content at low C/N ratio. Several cultivation factors were investigated, including moisture content, inoculums size, fungal spore age, and nutrient supplements, in an attempt to enhance the lipid production of the solid-state fermentation process. The results showed that lipid production with the increase of the moisture content and the spore age, while decreased as the size of inoculums increased. Nutrients addition (KH₂PO₄ 1.2 mg and MgSO₄ 0.6 mg/g soybean hull) improved the lipid production. The total final lipid reached 47.9 mg lipid from 1 g soybean hull after the conversion, 3.3-fold higher than initial lipid reserve in the soybean hull. The fatty acid profile analysis indicated that fatty acid content consisted of 30.0% of total lipid, and 80.4% of total fatty acid was C16 and C18. Therefore, lipid production from soybean hull is a possible option to enable soybean hull as a new resource for biodiesel production and to enhance the overall oil production from soybeans.

  3. Intake and digestibility of fatty acids in late-lactating dairy cows fed flaxseed hulls supplemented with monensin. (United States)

    Côrtes, Cristiano; da Silva-Kazama, Daniele; Kazama, Ricardo; Benchaar, Chaouki; Zeoula, Lucia M; Santos, Geraldo T D; Petit, Hélène V


    Flaxseed hull, a co-product obtained from flax processing, is a rich source of n-3 fatty acids but there is little information on digestibility of its nutrients by dairy cows. Four rumen-cannulated multiparous Holstein cows averaging 665 ± 21 kg of body weight and 190 ± 5 d in milk at the beginning of the experiment were assigned to a 4 × 4 Latin square design with four 28-d experimental periods to determine the effects of feeding monensin and flaxseed hulls on total tract apparent digestibility of nutrients and fatty acids. The four treatments were: (1) diet CO: control with neither flaxseed hulls nor monensin added; (2) diet FH containing 19·8 g flaxseed hulls/100 g dry matter (DM); (3) diet MO with 16 mg monensin/kg DM; (4) diet HM containing 19·8 g flaxseed hulls/100 g DM and 16 mg monensin/kg DM. Diets provided similar amounts of protein and net energy of lactation. Digestibility of crude protein was higher for diets containing flaxseed hulls and for diets supplemented with monensin. Flaxseed hulls supplementation decreased digestibility of acid and neutral detergent fibre. Significantly higher digestibility of ether extract and individual fatty acids was observed for treatments with flaxseed hulls compared with treatments without flaxseed hulls. A combination of flaxseed hulls and monensin did not result in better fatty acid digestibility than when feeding only flaxseed hulls.

  4. Classification of Fusarium-Infected Korean Hulled Barley Using Near-Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy and Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis. (United States)

    Lim, Jongguk; Kim, Giyoung; Mo, Changyeun; Oh, Kyoungmin; Yoo, Hyeonchae; Ham, Hyeonheui; Kim, Moon S


    The purpose of this study is to use near-infrared reflectance (NIR) spectroscopy equipment to nondestructively and rapidly discriminate Fusarium -infected hulled barley. Both normal hulled barley and Fusarium -infected hulled barley were scanned by using a NIR spectrometer with a wavelength range of 1175 to 2170 nm. Multiple mathematical pretreatments were applied to the reflectance spectra obtained for Fusarium discrimination and the multivariate analysis method of partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was used for discriminant prediction. The PLS-DA prediction model developed by applying the second-order derivative pretreatment to the reflectance spectra obtained from the side of hulled barley without crease achieved 100% accuracy in discriminating the normal hulled barley and the Fusarium -infected hulled barley. These results demonstrated the feasibility of rapid discrimination of the Fusarium -infected hulled barley by combining multivariate analysis with the NIR spectroscopic technique, which is utilized as a nondestructive detection method.

  5. Exploring the submarine Graham Bank in the Sicily Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Coltelli


    Full Text Available In the Sicily Channel, volcanic activity has been concentrated mainly on the Pantelleria and Linosa islands, while minor submarine volcanism took place in the Adventure, Graham and Nameless banks. The volcanic activity spanned mostly during Plio-Pleistocene, however, historical submarine eruptions occurred in 1831 on the Graham Bank and in 1891 offshore Pantelleria Island. On the Graham Bank, 25 miles SW of Sciacca, the 1831 eruption formed the short-lived Ferdinandea Island that represents the only Italian volcano active in historical times currently almost completely unknown and not yet monitored. Moreover, most of the Sicily Channel seismicity is concentrated along a broad NS belt extending from the Graham Bank to Lampedusa Island. In 2012, the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV carried out a multidisciplinary oceanographic cruise, named “Ferdinandea 2012”, the preliminary results of which represent the aim of this paper. The cruise goal was the mapping of the morpho-structural features of some submarine volcanic centres located in the northwestern side of the Sicily Channel and the temporary recording of their seismic and degassing activity. During the cruise, three OBS/Hs (ocean bottom seismometer with hydrophone were deployed near the Graham, Nerita and Terribile submarine banks. During the following 9 months they have recorded several seismo-acoustic signals produced by both tectonic and volcanic sources. A high-resolution bathymetric survey was achieved on the Graham Bank and on the surrounding submarine volcanic centres. A widespread and voluminous gas bubbles emission was observed by both multibeam sonar echoes and a ROV (remotely operated vehicle along the NW side of the Graham Bank, where gas and seafloor samples were also collected.

  6. Conversion of rice hull ash into soluble sodium silicate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Luiz Foletto


    Full Text Available Sodium silicate is used as raw material for several purposes: silica gel production, preparation of catalysts, inks, load for medicines, concrete hardening accelerator, component of detergents and soaps, refractory constituent and deflocculant in clay slurries. In this work sodium silicate was produced by reacting rice hull ash (RHA and aqueous sodium hydroxide, in open and closed reaction systems. The studied process variables were time, temperature of reaction and composition of the reaction mixture (expressed in terms of molar ratios NaOH/SiO2 and H2O/SiO2. About 90% silica conversion contained in the RHA into sodium silicate was achieved in closed system at 200 °C. The results showed that sodium silicate production from RHA can generate aggregate value to this residue.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remigiusz Romuald Iwańkowicz


    Full Text Available The specificity of the yard work requires the particularly careful treatment of the issues of scheduling and budgeting in the production planning processes. The article presents the method of analysis of the assembly sequence taking into account the duration of individual activities and the demand for resources. A method of the critical path and resource budgeting were used. Modelling of the assembly was performed using the acyclic graphs. It has been shown that the assembly sequences can have very different feasible budget regions. The proposed model is applied to the assembly processes of large-scale welded structures, including the hulls of ships. The presented computational examples have a simulation character. They show the usefulness of the model and the possibility to use it in a variety of analyses.

  8. Panel cutting method: new approach to generate panels on a hull in Rankine source potential approximation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Jong Choi


    Full Text Available In the present study, a new hull panel generation algorithm, namely panel cutting method, was developed to predict flow phenomena around a ship using the Rankine source potential based panel method, where the iterative method was used to satisfy the nonlinear free surface condition and the trim and sinkage of the ship was taken into account. Numerical computations were performed to investigate the validity of the proposed hull panel generation algorithm for Series 60 (CB=0.60 hull and KRISO container ship (KCS, a container ship designed by Maritime and Ocean Engineering Research Institute (MOERI. The computational results were validated by comparing with the existing experimental data.

  9. Driven around the bend: Spatial evolution and controls on the orientation of helical bend flow in a natural submarine gravity current (United States)

    Sumner, E.; Peakall, J.; Dorrell, R. M.; Parsons, D. R.; Darby, S. E.; Wynn, R. B.


    Submarine channel systems transport vast amounts of terrestrial sediment into the deep sea. Understanding the dynamics of the gravity currents that create these systems, and in particular, how these flows interact with and form bends, is fundamental to predicting system architecture and evolution. Bend flow is characterized by a helical structure and in rivers typically comprises inwardly directed near-bed flow and outwardly directed near-surface flow. Following a decade of debate, it is now accepted that helical flow in submarine channel bends can exhibit a variety of structures including being opposed to that observed in rivers. The new challenge is to understand what controls the orientation of helical flow cells within submarine flows and determines the conditions for reversal. We present data from the Black Sea showing, for the first time, the three-dimensional velocity and density structure of an active submarine gravity current. By calculating the forces acting on the flow, we evaluate what controls the orientation of helical flow cells. We demonstrate that radial pressure gradients caused by across-channel stratification of the flow are more important than centrifugal acceleration in controlling the orientation of helical flow. We also demonstrate that nonlocal acceleration of the flow due to topographic forcing and downstream advection of the cross-stream flow are significant terms in the momentum balance. These findings have major implications for conceptual and numerical models of submarine channel dynamics, because they show that three-dimensional models that incorporate across-channel flow stratification are required to accurately represent curvature-induced helical flow in such systems.

  10. Business Ethics & Other Paradoxes, Jimmy Winfield, George Hull and Greg Fried : review article

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Flockemann, Richard


    Business Ethics & Other Paradoxes by Jimmy Winfield, George Hull and Greg Fried is an attempt to demonstrate how careful philosophical analysis can help us resolve a number of deep ethical questions revolving around...

  11. Gamma radiation effects on phenolics, antioxidants activity and in vitro digestion of pistachio ( Pistachia vera) hull (United States)

    Behgar, M.; Ghasemi, S.; Naserian, A.; Borzoie, A.; Fatollahi, H.


    The effect of gamma radiation (10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 kGy) on tannin, total phenolics, antioxidants activity and in vitro digestion of pistachio hulls has been investigated in this study. The possibility of using the radial diffusion method based on software measurement of the rings area has also been investigated in this study. The software based method in radial diffusion method showed a higher r2 (0.995) value when compared to the traditional method. Irradiation reduced the tannin content ( Pphenolic content ( P<0.05). There was no effect of gamma irradiation on the in vitro digestion of the pistachio hull. Irradiation decreased the digestion rate of the pistachio hull at the dose of 40 kGy when compared to the control. This study showed that gamma irradiation decreased tannin and antioxidants activity of pistachio hull.

  12. Die onkunde van die Jode en hulle verwerping van die evangelie

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kontras uitgewys tussen die misdaad van die Jode en die doel van God wat in vers 18 uitgedruk word (Metzger ... ens (1978: 28) dat ons ons nie kan vrypleit deur ons te beroep op die verborge raad van God nie - ons ... volk mislei het deur hulle vir hulle eie doel teen Jesus te gebruik. SÓ gesien, kom Lukas 24: 20 tot sy reg, ...

  13. 46 CFR 42.09-35 - Additional survey requirements for wood-hull vessels. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional survey requirements for wood-hull vessels. 42.09-35 Section 42.09-35 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN VOYAGES BY SEA Load Line Assignments and Surveys-General Requirements § 42.09-35 Additional survey requirements for wood-hull...

  14. Valor nutritivo de silagem de capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. com diferentes níveis de casca de café Nutritive value of elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. silage with different levels of coffee hulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Lima de Souza


    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos de diferentes níveis de casca de café (0, 8,7; 17,4; 26,1; e 34,8 kg de casca de café/100 kg de forragem fresca sobre a composição bromatológica e a digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS da silagem de capim-elefante. Na produção das silagens foram utilizados 15 silos cilíndricos de PVC com de 0,25 m de diâmetro e 0,75 m de altura, adotando-se uma compactação de 550 kg/m³. O teor de MS aumentou em função dos níveis crescentes de casca, estimando-se acréscimo de 0,54% por unidade de casca de café adicionada. Os valores de pH foram menores para as silagens com casca, estimando-se valor mínimo de 3,78 para o nível de 26,87% de casca. O teor de PB (8,9% da silagem sem casca de café foi inferior aos 11,1% verificados na forragem fresca e nas silagens contendo casca de café. A adição de casca de café ao capim-elefante resultou em silagens com menores teores de fibra em detergente neutro e hemicelulose, ao mesmo tempo em que os teores de lignina das silagens foram aumentados. Foi estimada uma redução de apenas 0,14% na DIVMS das silagens por unidade de casca de café adicionada. A casca de café, em níveis iguais ou superiores a 17,4 kg de casca/100 kg de forragem fresca, revelou ser um bom aditivo para a ensilagem de capim-elefante com alto teor de umidade.One experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of five levels of coffee hulls (0, 8.7, 17.4, 26.1, and 34.8 kg/100 kg of fresh forage on the bromatologic composition and IVDMD of elephantgrass silage. Fifteen plastic silos measuring .25 of diameter x .75 of height were used. In the ensiling process the forage received a pressure of 550 kg/m³. The results showed that the percentage of dry matter increased linearly with increasing of coffee hulls. It was estimated an increasing of .54% for each unit of coffee hulls added. The pH value was inferior for silage with coffee hulls. It was estimated a minimum value of 3.78 for the level 26

  15. [Medical-physiological characteristics of combat training of nuclear-power submarine crews]. (United States)

    Dovgusha, V V; Myznikov, I L; Shalabodov, S A; Bumaĭ, O K


    The article presents an observe of general questions of peculiarities of military-professional activity of submarine staff These questions are defining value in ideology of medical supply of submarine troops of NAVY in now-days conditions. The article also presents the statistics of morbidity in long termed sails for last forty years, it's dynamics by different categories of sail staff, on different stages of combat training activity in dependence of perioditation of work cycle of submarine staff The authors have examined modern condition of medical supply of submarines; have presented statistics of quality indexes of health of submarine staff The authors have formed main problems of medical supply of submarines and have proposed ways of their solving on modern stage.

  16. Losses in armoured three-phase submarine cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebdrup, Thomas; Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da; Bak, Claus Leth


    increases the losses in armoured cables compared to unarmoured cables. In this paper a thorough state of the art analysis is conducted on armour losses in three-phase armoured submarine power cables. The analysis shows that the IEC 60287-1-1 standard overestimates the armour losses which lead...... to the installation of cables with excessive phase conductor cross section. This paper also presents an example of the potential economic benefits of having a better knowledge of the losses introduced by the armour.......The number of offshore wind farms will keep increasing in the future as a part of the shift towards a CO2 free energy production. The energy harvested from the wind farm must be brought to shore, which is often done by using a three-phase armoured submarine power cable. The use of an armour...

  17. Improving Situational Awareness on Submarines Using Augmented Reality (United States)


    COSO ) are several pages of guidance for the evolution available to the watch officer for reference. There are also Operating Procedures that the watch...officer must follow to ensure the safe ascent to PD. The COSOs are specific to the each CO. The OPs are specific to a class of submarine. The...evolution in the framework described above can provide valuable insight to the capabilities of the proposed system. This of course is a hypothetical

  18. Analysis of SSN 688 Class Submarine Maintenance Delays (United States)


    errors an in-depth analysis into the job-level maintenance is required which is outside the scope of this analysis. 25 2. New Work Causes Late...attempting to determine the cause of this trend. Finally, this thesis proposes a solution to the systematic underestimation of availability durations by...illustrating the inherent error in the current equation and providing a notional equation to remove that error . 14. SUBJECT TERMS Submarine

  19. Europe’s Grand Canyon: Nazaré submarine canyon


    Tyler, P.; Amaro, T.; Arzola, R.; Cunha; Stigter, H. de; Gooday, A.; Huvenne, V.; Ingels, J; Kiriakoulakis, K; Lastras, G.; Masson, D.; Oliveira, A.; Pattenden, A.; Vanreusel, A.; van Weering, T.


    The Nazare submarine canyon extends similar to 210 km westward from the coast of Portugal, down to a water depth of > 4300 m. The considerable habitat heterogeneity found throughout the canyon is affected by strong currents and high turbidity, especially in the upper parts of the canyon. The canyon morphology comprises steep slopes, scarps, terraces, and overhangs, and a deeply incised thalweg is found in the lower part of the canyon. The seabed within the canyon is composed of varying propor...

  20. Submarine and Autonomous Vessel Proliferation: Implications for Future Strategic Stability at Sea (United States)


    replace the Ohio- class SSBN and Virginia -class SSN to replace the Los Angeles class attack submarine. Although more sophisticated than their...predecessors and with some modifications to demands of the post-Cold War era and (in the Virginia class) an emphasis on littoral conflict, these purchases...Congressional Research Service analyst Amy Woolf observes: “With few submarines in the fleet, the Navy would have to reduce the number of submarines on

  1. The future of the ballistic missile submarine force in the Russian nuclear triad


    Lesiw, Richard T.


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis analyzes the current status of the Russian Federation's ballistic missile submarine force. It reviews the history of the ballistic missile submarine force, its current status, and the implementation of plans currently in progress and as well as the advantages and disadvantages of maintaining a ballistic missile submarine force. This thesis also assesses the other two legs of the nuclear triad - the intercontinental balli...

  2. Gender Integration on U.S. Navy Submarines: Views of the First Wave (United States)


    submarines is to perform seek-and-destroy missions on enemy ships and submarines, conduct surveillance and reconnaissance, provide covert troop insertion...not only the missile payload they were designed to carry but also extended periods at sea without resupply. In terms of berthing and sanitary ...officer berthing and sanitary 28 facilities on board Ohio class submarines, however, no significant modifications would be necessary in order to

  3. Navy Virginia (SSN-774) Class Attack Submarine Procurement: Background and Issues for Congress (United States)


    reactors or non- nuclear power sources such as diesel engines or fuel cells. All U.S. Navy submarines are nuclear - powered. A submarine’s use of...the Navy’s plan to design and procure a next - generation ballistic missile submarine called the Ohio Replacement Program or SSBN(X). 26...the next several years require these submarines to use up their nuclear fuel cores more quickly than the Navy now projects, then the amounts of time

  4. Introduction to the special issue on submarine geohazard records and potential seafloor instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song-Chuen Chen Jia-Jyun Dong


    Full Text Available Submarine landslides frequently occur in passive continental margins or active margins (Hampton et al. 1996; Wynn et al. 2000; Mienert et al. 2002; Korup et al. 2007; Twichell et al. 2009; Cukur et al. 2016. Submarine landslides have been studied extensively not only for scientific research but also for submarine geohazards. Submarine landslides could jeopardize marine infrastructures, such as offshore drilling platforms or submarine telecommunication cables, and could even trigger disastrous tsunamis (Bondevik et al. 2005; Harbitz et al. 2006; Hornbach et al. 2007, 2008; Hsu et al. 2008; Su et al. 2012; Tappin et al. 2014; Li et al. 2015. For instance, one disastrous tsunami hitting the coastal area of southwestern Taiwan in 1781 or 1782 was reported (Chen 1830; Hsu 1983; the tsunami event was probably generated by submarine landslides in the offshore area of southwestern Taiwan (Li et al. 2015. Moreover, several submarine landslides triggered by the 2006 Pingtung earthquake have induced turbidity currents off southwest Taiwan and destroyed about 14 submarine telecommunication cables off SW Taiwan (Hsu et al. 2008. The area of southwest Taiwan currently has a dense population (more than 3 million people in total, one deep-water Kaohsiung Port, several tanks of liquefied natural gas and a nuclear power plant on the coast (Fig. 1. Numerous submarine telecommunication cables exist off SW Taiwan. If a considerable tsunami event would hit again the costal area of SW Taiwan, the damage could very serious. Likewise, there are two nuclear power plants on the coast of northern Taiwan (Fig. 2, and the population in northern Taiwan has more than 10 million people. Submarine telecommunication cables also exist off northern Taiwan. In any case, it is important to understand the status of seafloor stability in the offshore areas of SW and NE Taiwan. For that, this special issue of submarine geohazard records and potential seafloor instability is aimed to

  5. Navy Virginia (SSN 774) Class Attack Submarine Procurement: Background and Issues for Congress (United States)


    powered attack submarines (SSNs). The SSNs are general -purpose submarines that can (when appropriately equipped and armed) perform a variety of...signs of tampering. The defective elbow pipe, used to funnel steam from the reactor to the sub’s propulsion turbines and generators , showed evidence of...Congressional Research Service Summary The Navy has been procuring Virginia (SSN-774) class nuclear- powered attack submarines since FY1998. The two Virginia

  6. Fuel-cell-propelled submarine-tanker-system study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Court, K E; Kumm, W H; O' Callaghan, J E


    This report provides a systems analysis of a commercial Arctic Ocean submarine tanker system to carry fossil energy to markets. The submarine is to be propelled by a modular Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell system. The power level is 20 Megawatts. The DOE developed electric utility type fuel cell will be fueled with methanol. Oxidant will be provided from a liquid oxygen tank carried onboard. The twin screw submarine tanker design is sized at 165,000 deadweight tons and the study includes costs and an economic analysis of the transport system of 6 ships. The route will be under the polar icecap from a loading terminal located off Prudhoe Bay, Alaska to a transshipment facility postulated to be in a Norwegian fjord. The system throughput of the gas-fed methanol cargo will be 450,000 barrels per day. The total delivered cost of the methanol including well head purchase price of natural gas, methanol production, and shipping would be $25/bbl from Alaska to the US East Coast. Of this, the shipping cost is $6.80/bbl. All costs in 1981 dollars.

  7. Estimating the empirical probability of submarine landslide occurrence (United States)

    Geist, Eric L.; Parsons, Thomas E.; Mosher, David C.; Shipp, Craig; Moscardelli, Lorena; Chaytor, Jason D.; Baxter, Christopher D. P.; Lee, Homa J.; Urgeles, Roger


    The empirical probability for the occurrence of submarine landslides at a given location can be estimated from age dates of past landslides. In this study, tools developed to estimate earthquake probability from paleoseismic horizons are adapted to estimate submarine landslide probability. In both types of estimates, one has to account for the uncertainty associated with age-dating individual events as well as the open time intervals before and after the observed sequence of landslides. For observed sequences of submarine landslides, we typically only have the age date of the youngest event and possibly of a seismic horizon that lies below the oldest event in a landslide sequence. We use an empirical Bayes analysis based on the Poisson-Gamma conjugate prior model specifically applied to the landslide probability problem. This model assumes that landslide events as imaged in geophysical data are independent and occur in time according to a Poisson distribution characterized by a rate parameter λ. With this method, we are able to estimate the most likely value of λ and, importantly, the range of uncertainty in this estimate. Examples considered include landslide sequences observed in the Santa Barbara Channel, California, and in Port Valdez, Alaska. We confirm that given the uncertainties of age dating that landslide complexes can be treated as single events by performing statistical test of age dates representing the main failure episode of the Holocene Storegga landslide complex.

  8. Pockmark morphology and turbulent buoyant plumes at a submarine spring (United States)

    Buongiorno Nardelli, B.; Budillon, F.; Watteaux, R.; Ciccone, F.; Conforti, A.; De Falco, G.; Di Martino, G.; Innangi, S.; Tonielli, R.; Iudicone, D.


    The input flow of groundwater from the seabed to the coastal ocean, known as Submarine Groundwater Discharge (SGD), has been only recently recognized as an important component of continental margin systems. It potentially impacts physical, chemical and biological marine dynamics. Independently of its specific nature (seepage, submarine springs, etc.) or fluid chemical composition, a SGD is generally characterized by low flow rates, hence making its detection and quantification very difficult, and explaining why it has been somewhat neglected by the scientific community for a long time. Along with the growing interest for SGDs emerged the need for in-situ observations in order to characterize in details how these SGDs behave. In this work, we describe the morphology of a pockmark field, detected in the Southern Tyrrhenian Sea (Mediterranean Sea), and provide observational evidences of the presence of active submarine springs over the coastal shelf area. We describe the effect of the fluid seeps on the water column stratification close to the main plumes and in the neighbouring areas, providing quantitative estimates of the intensity of the turbulent mixing and discussing their potential impact on the seabed morphology and pockmark formation in the context of turbulent buoyant plumes analytical modelling.

  9. Long-term eruptive activity at a submarine arc volcano. (United States)

    Embley, Robert W; Chadwick, William W; Baker, Edward T; Butterfield, David A; Resing, Joseph A; de Ronde, Cornel E J; Tunnicliffe, Verena; Lupton, John E; Juniper, S Kim; Rubin, Kenneth H; Stern, Robert J; Lebon, Geoffrey T; Nakamura, Ko-ichi; Merle, Susan G; Hein, James R; Wiens, Douglas A; Tamura, Yoshihiko


    Three-quarters of the Earth's volcanic activity is submarine, located mostly along the mid-ocean ridges, with the remainder along intraoceanic arcs and hotspots at depths varying from greater than 4,000 m to near the sea surface. Most observations and sampling of submarine eruptions have been indirect, made from surface vessels or made after the fact. We describe here direct observations and sampling of an eruption at a submarine arc volcano named NW Rota-1, located 60 km northwest of the island of Rota (Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands). We observed a pulsating plume permeated with droplets of molten sulphur disgorging volcanic ash and lapilli from a 15-m diameter pit in March 2004 and again in October 2005 near the summit of the volcano at a water depth of 555 m (depth in 2004). A turbid layer found on the flanks of the volcano (in 2004) at depths from 700 m to more than 1,400 m was probably formed by mass-wasting events related to the eruption. Long-term eruptive activity has produced an unusual chemical environment and a very unstable benthic habitat exploited by only a few mobile decapod species. Such conditions are perhaps distinctive of active arc and hotspot volcanoes.

  10. Modeled alongshore circulation and force balances onshore of a submarine canyon (United States)

    Hansen, Jeff E.; Raubenheimer, Britt; List, Jeffrey H.; Elgar, Steve


    Alongshore force balances, including the role of nonlinear advection, in the shoaling and surf zones onshore of a submarine canyon are investigated using a numerical modeling system (Delft3D/SWAN). The model is calibrated with waves and alongshore flows recorded over a period of 1.5 months at 26 sites along the 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 m depth contours spanning about 2 km of coast. Field observation-based estimates of the alongshore pressure and radiation-stress gradients are reproduced well by the model. Model simulations suggest that the alongshore momentum balance is between the sum of the pressure and radiation-stress gradients and the sum of the nonlinear advective terms and bottom stress, with the remaining terms (e.g., wind stress and turbulent mixing) being negligible. The simulations also indicate that unexplained residuals in previous field-based estimates of the momentum balance may be owing to the neglect of the nonlinear advective terms, which are similar in magnitude to the sum of the forcing (pressure and radiations stress gradients) and to the bottom stress.

  11. Extreme-value statistics from Lagrangian convex hull analysis I. Validation for homogeneous turbulent Boussinesq convection and MHD convection

    CERN Document Server

    Pratt, J; Müller, W -C; Chapman, S C; Watkins, N W


    We investigate the utility of the convex hull to analyze physical questions related to the dispersion of a group of much more than four Lagrangian tracer particles in a turbulent flow. Validation of standard dispersion behaviors is a necessary preliminary step for use of the convex hull to describe turbulent flows. In simulations of statistically homogeneous and stationary Navier-Stokes turbulence, neutral fluid Boussinesq convection, and MHD Boussinesq convection we show that the convex hull can be used to reasonably capture the dispersive behavior of a large group of tracer particles. We validate dispersion results produced with convex hull analysis against scalings for Lagrangian particle pair dispersion. In addition to this basic validation study, we show that convex hull analysis provides information that particle pair dispersion does not, in the form of a extreme value statistics, surface area, and volume for a cluster of particles. We use the convex hull surface area and volume to examine the degree of...

  12. A proposal on Correction of the Data obtained by Pressure Transducer Fitted on Vibratory Flat Plate in Water


    黒部, 雄三; 吉田, 三雄; Yuzo, KUROBE; Mitsuo, YOSHIDA; 運輸省船舶技術研究所推進性能部


    The pressure fluctuations induced by marine propellers are usually measured by means of pressure transducers fitted on hull plate or the local plate of ocean structure. In such a case the pressure transducers are oscillated with the plate, so the measured pressure fluctuations would be shifted from the real pressure fluctuations. If these vibrations are excessive, the effect of vibrations on the measured pressure fluctuations should be corrected. In this paper, as one of the simple cases the ...

  13. Factors affecting seismic response of submarine slopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Biscontin


    Full Text Available The response of submerged slopes on the continental shelf to seismic or storm loading has become an important element in the risk assessment for offshore structures and 'local' tsunami hazards worldwide. The geological profile of these slopes typically includes normally consolidated to lightly overconsolidated soft cohesive soils with layer thickness ranging from a few meters to hundreds of meters. The factor of safety obtained from pseudo-static analyses is not always a useful measure for evaluating the slope response, since values less than one do not necessarily imply slope failure with large movements of the soil mass. This paper addresses the relative importance of different factors affecting the response of submerged slopes during seismic loading. The analyses use a dynamic finite element code which includes a constitutive law describing the anisotropic stress-strain-strength behavior of normally consolidated to lightly overconsolidated clays. The model also incorporates anisotropic hardening to describe the effect of different shear strain and stress histories as well as bounding surface principles to provide realistic descriptions of the accumulation of the plastic strains and excess pore pressure during successive loading cycles. The paper presents results from parametric site response analyses on slope geometry and layering, soil material parameters, and input ground motion characteristics. The predicted maximum shear strains, permanent deformations, displacement time histories and maximum excess pore pressure development provide insight of slope performance during a seismic event.

  14. Significance of the actual nonlinear slope geometry for catastrophic failure in submarine landslides. (United States)

    Puzrin, Alexander M; Gray, Thomas E; Hill, Andrew J


    A simple approach to slope stability analysis of naturally occurring, mild nonlinear slopes is proposed through extension of shear band propagation (SBP) theory. An initial weak zone appears in the steepest part of the slope where the combined action of gravity and seismic loads overcomes the degraded peak shear resistance of the soil. If the length of this steepest part is larger than the critical length, the shear band will propagate into the quasi-stable parts of the slope, where the gravitational and seismically induced shear stresses are smaller than the peak but larger than the residual shear strength of the soil. Growth of a shear band is strongly dependent on the shape of the slope, seismic parameters and the strength of soil and less dependent on the slope inclination and the sensitivity of clay. For the slope surface with faster changing inclination, the criterion is more sensitive to the changes of the parameters. Accounting for the actual nonlinear slope geometry eliminates the main challenge of the SBP approach-determination of the length of the initial weak zone, because the slope geometry can be readily obtained from submarine site investigations. It also helps to identify conditions for the early arrest of the shear band, before failure in the sliding layer or a change in loading or excess pore water pressures occurs. The difference in the size of a landslide predicted by limiting equilibrium and SBP approaches can reach orders of magnitude, potentially providing an explanation for the immense dimensions of many observed submarine landslides that may be caused by local factors acting over a limited portion of the slope.

  15. Scientific Ocean Drilling to Assess Submarine Geohazards along European Margins (United States)

    Ask, M. V.; Camerlenghi, A.; Kopf, A.; Morgan, J. K.; Ocean DrillingSeismic Hazard, P. E.


    Submarine geohazards are some of the most devastating natural events in terms of lives lost and economic impact. Earthquakes pose a big threat to society and infrastructure, but the understanding of their episodic generation is incomplete. Tsunamis are known for their potential of striking coastlines world-wide. Other geohazards originating below the sea surface are equally dangerous for undersea structures and the coastal population: submarine landslides and volcanic islands collapse with little warning and devastating consequences. The European scientific community has a strong focus on geohazards along European and nearby continental margins, especially given their high population densities, and long historic and prehistoric record of hazardous events. For example, the Mediterranean is surrounded by very densely-populated coastline and is the World's leading holiday destination, receiving up 30% of global tourism. In addition, its seafloor is criss-crossed by hydrocarbon pipelines and telecommunication cables. However, the governing processes and recurrence intervals of geohazards are still poorly understood. Examples include, but are not limited to, earthquakes and volcanic eruptions along the active tectonic margins of the Mediterranean and Sea of Marmara, landslides on both active and passive margins, and tsunamites and seismites in the sedimentary record that suggest a long history of similar events. The development of geophysical networks, drilling, sampling and long-term monitoring are crucial to the understanding of earthquake, landslide, and tsunami processes, and to mitigate the associated risks in densely populated and industrialized regions such as Europe. Scientific drilling, particularly in the submarine setting, offers a unique tool to obtain drill core samples, borehole measurements and long-term observations. Hence, it is a critical technology to investigate past, present, and possible future influences of hazardous processes in this area. The

  16. Nonparametric illumination correction for scanned document images via convex hulls. (United States)

    Meng, Gaofeng; Xiang, Shiming; Zheng, Nanning; Pan, Chunhong


    A scanned image of an opened book page often suffers from various scanning artifacts known as scanning shading and dark borders noises. These artifacts will degrade the qualities of the scanned images and cause many problems to the subsequent process of document image analysis. In this paper, we propose an effective method to rectify these scanning artifacts. Our method comes from two observations: that the shading surface of most scanned book pages is quasi-concave and that the document contents are usually printed on a sheet of plain and bright paper. Based on these observations, a shading image can be accurately extracted via convex hulls-based image reconstruction. The proposed method proves to be surprisingly effective for image shading correction and dark borders removal. It can restore a desired shading-free image and meanwhile yield an illumination surface of high quality. More importantly, the proposed method is nonparametric and thus does not involve any user interactions or parameter fine-tuning. This would make it very appealing to nonexpert users in applications. Extensive experiments based on synthetic and real-scanned document images demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method.

  17. Evaluation of peanut hulls as an alternative to bleaching clays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassanein, M. M.; El-Shami, S. M.; Taha, F. S.


    Peanut hulls (PNH) were carbonized at different temperatures, times, and evaluated at different concentrations as an alternative to bleaching clays. Evaluation of bleached crude soybean oil with PNH was based on their delta free fatty acids, reduction in peroxide value (PV), reduction in phospholipids (PL) and bleachability. The performance of several commercially used bleaching clays was evaluated, for comparison. Mixtures were formulated including: PNH and Tonsil -N (TN), PNH and Fuller's earth (FE) and PNH and O-passive (OP) and examined. The oxidative stability of oils was determined. Results for the investigated commercial bleaching clays revealed: TN > FE > F > TF > OP. Highest reduction in PV and PL, and highest bleachability were achieved for soybean oil bleached with 2% PNH carbonized at 500 degree centigrade for 30 min (PNH). Mixtures of PNH with the three chosen bleaching clays indicated that 1PNH : 2TN gave the highest bleachability. CSO was miscella bleached in hexane using PNH and resulted in an appreciable improvement in all oil characteristics, especially in bleachability. Oxidative stability of oils was in the following order: TN > control > FE > PNH with Induction period values of 23.1 > 6.43 > 5.73 > 2.85 h, respectively. (Author) 20 refs.

  18. Characteristics and Treatment of Wastewater Generated During Underwater Hull Cleaning Operations of U.S. Navy Ships. (United States)


    that hull cleaning wastewater may not be toxic to microalgae in the surface waters because the measured dissolved copper concentrations during hull...relating to hull cleaning. Among other things, the studies measured dissolved copper in the wastewater ranging from 0.13 mg/L to 4.3 mg/L. These...cleanings were lower than the observed IC50 values for the microalgae . Calculations determined the approximate amount of waste that would be generated

  19. Tsunami Generated by a Two-Phase Submarine Debris Flow (United States)

    Pudasaini, S. P.


    The general two-phase debris flow model proposed by Pudasaini (2011) is employed to study subaerial and submarine debris flows, and the tsunami generated by the debris impact at lakes and oceans. The model includes several essential physical aspects, including Mohr-Coulomb plasticity for the solid stress, while the fluid stress is modelled as a solid volume fraction gradient enhanced non-Newtonian viscous stress. The generalized interfacial momentum transfer includes the viscous drag, buoyancy, and the virtual mass. The generalized drag covers both the solid-like and fluid-like contributions, and can be applied to linear to quadratic drags. Strong couplings exist between the solid and the fluid momentum transfer. The advantage of the real two-phase debris flow model over classical single-phase or quasi-two-phase models is that by considering the solid (and/or the fluid) volume fraction appropriately, the initial mass can be divided into several (even mutually disjoint) parts; a dry (landslide or rock slide), a fluid (water or muddy water; e.g., dams, rivers), and a general debris mixture material as needed in real flow simulations. This offers a unique and innovative opportunity within a single framework to simultaneously simulate (a) the sliding debris (or landslide), (b) the water lake or ocean, (c) the debris impact at the lake or ocean, (d) tsunami generation and propagation, (e) mixing and separation between the solid and the fluid phases, and (f) sediment transport and deposition process in the bathymetric surface. The new model is applied to two-phase subaerial and submarine debris flows. Benchmark numerical simulations reveal that the dynamics of the debris impact induced tsunamis are fundamentally different than the tsunami generated by pure rock avalanche and landslides. Special attention is paid to study the basic features of the debris impact to the mountain lakes or oceans. This includes the generation, amplification and propagation of the multiple

  20. Effects of biofouling development on drag forces of hull coatings for ocean-going ships: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholdt, Asger; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Olsen, S. M.


    This review presents a systematic overview of the literature and describes the experimental methods used to quantify the drag of hull coatings. It also summarizes the findings of hull coating's drag performance and identifies the main parameters impacting it. The advantages and disadvantages...... of the reported methods listed in this review provide an assessment of the most efficient methods to quantify the drag performance of hull coatings. This review determines that drag performance of hull coating technology varies depending on whether the coating condition is newly applied, after dynamic or static...

  1. Effects of Hull Scratching, Soaking, and Boiling on Antinutrients in Japanese Red Sword Bean (Canavalia gladiata). (United States)

    Une, Satsuki; Nonaka, Koji; Akiyama, Junich


    The effects of hull processing, soaking, and boiling on the content or activity of antinutrients in the red sword bean (RSB; Canavalia gladiata) were investigated. RSB seeds were compared with kidney bean (KB; Phaseolus vulgaris) seeds that are starch based and often used as processed products in Japan. RSB seeds had higher weight, thicker hull, and higher protein content, but lower moisture content compared with KB seeds. Because of the strong and thick hull, the relative water absorption of untreated RSB seeds was very low after soaking. Seeds were soaked after dehulling, scratching, and roasting. The results showed that hull scratching was the optimal method for increasing water absorption during soaking compared with dehulling and roasting. After soaking, the water used for soaking was discarded, since it had a high content of polyphenols and bitter taste, and RSB seeds were boiled in fresh water for 20, 40, and 60 min. The results showed that polyphenol and tannin contents, antioxidant activity, and hemagglutinating activity, as well as maltase, sucrase, and trypsin inhibitor activities in scratched RSB seeds decreased significantly after boiling compared with those in raw seeds, whereas amylase inhibitor activity showed no significant change. Overall, it was concluded that the combination of hull scratching, soaking, and boiling in fresh water can reduce thermal-stable or sensitive antinutrients in RSB and thus, significantly improve its nutritional value. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  2. Genetic Analysis and Mapping of TWH Gene in Rice Twisted Hull Mutant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-bo LI


    Full Text Available A mutant with twisted hulls was found in a breeding population of rice (Oryza sativa L.. The mutant shows less grain weight and inferior grain quality in addition to twisted hulls. Genetic analysis indicated that the phenotype of mutant was controlled by a single recessive gene (temporarily designated as TWH. To map the TWH gene, an F2 population was generated by crossing the twh mutant to R725, an indica rice variety with normal hulls. For bulked segregant analysis, the bulk of mutant plants was prepared by mixing equal amount of plant tissue from 10 twisted-hull plants and the bulk of normal plants was obtained by pooling equal amount tissue of 10 normal-hull plants. Two hundred and seven pairs of simple sequence repeat (SSR primers, which are distributed on 12 rice chromosomes, were used for polymorphism analysis of the parents and the two bulks. The TWH locus was initially mapped close to the SSR marker RM526 on chromosome 2. Therefore, further mapping was performed using 50 pairs of SSR primers around the marker RM526. The TWH was delimited between the SSR markers RM14128 and RM208 on the long arm of chromosome 2 at the genetic distances of 1.4 cM and 2.7 cM, respectively. These results provide the foundation for further fine mapping, cloning and functional analysis of the TWH gene.

  3. Test Studies of the Resistance and Seakeeping Performance of a Trimaran Planing Hull

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Weijia


    Full Text Available Towing tank tests in calm water were performed on a trimaran planing hull to verify its navigational properties with different displacements and centres of gravity, as well as to assess the effects of air jets and bilge keels on the hull’s planing capabilities, and to increase the longitudinal stability of the hull. Hydrostatic roll tests, zero speed tests, and sea trials in the presence of regular waves were conducted to investigate the hull’s seakeeping ability. The test results indicate that the influence of the location of the centre of gravity on the hull resistance is similar to that of a normal trimaran planing hull; namely, moving the centre of gravity backward will reduce the resistance but lower the stability. Bilge keels improve the longitudinal stability but slightly affect the resistance, and the presence of air jets in the hull’s channels decreases the trim angle and increases heaving but has little effect on the resistance. Frequent small-angle rolling occurs in waves. The heaving and pitching motions peak at the encounter frequency of , and the peaks increase with velocity and move towards greater encounter frequencies. When the encounter frequency exceeds, the hull motion decreases, which leads to changes in the navigation speed and frequency.

  4. Performance of Holstein-Zebu cows under partial replacement of corn by coffee hulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavares Anamaria Almeida Costa


    Full Text Available Replacement of corn by citrus pulp or coffee hulls explores the potential of dairy cows to digest fiber-rich feedstuffs. However, for the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, replacing citrus pulp by coffee hulls may reduce milk production costs, since citrus pulp needs to be imported from another state, while coffee hulls are highly available at essentially no cost. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the performance of crossbred cows fed concentrates containing 25% coffee hulls (Coffee or 25% citrus pulp (Pulp as a replacement for ground corn grain (Corn; 47.4% in the concentrate. Forty-two cows were blocked based on milk yield and allocated to one of the three treatments for 56 days, following a 14-day standardization period. Concentrates were fed twice a day during the milking routine, 1 kg to each 2.5 kg of the average milk yield for the block, determined at the end of the standardization period. The daily 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield was 7.5 kg for Corn, 7.9 kg for Pulp and 6.2 kg for Coffee (P 0.26. The Pulp concentrate provided the highest financial efficiency, while Coffee was the least efficient (P < 0.01. These data suggest that the potential of use of coffee hulls is low when added at rates equal to or greater than 25% of the concentrate offered during the milking routine.

  5. Development of a remotely controlled testing platform with low-drag air-ventilated hull (United States)

    Matveev, Konstantin I.; Perry, Nicholaus I.; Mattson, Alexander W.; Chaney, Christopher S.


    This paper addresses the development and testing of a remotely controlled boat platform with an innovative air-ventilated hull. The application of air cavities on the underside of ship hulls is a promising means for reducing hydrodynamic drag and pollutant emissions and increasing marine transportation efficiency. Despite this concept's potential, design optimization and high-performance operation of novel air-cavity ships remain a challenging problem. Hull construction and sensor instrumentation of the model-scale air-cavity boat is described in the paper. The modular structure of the hull allows for easy modifications, and an electric propulsion unit enables self-propelled operation. The boat is controlled remotely via a radio transmission system. Results of initial tests are reported, including thrust, speed, and airflow rate in several loading conditions. The constructed platform can be used for optimizing air-cavity systems and testing other innovative hull designs. This system can be also developed into a high-performance unmanned boat.

  6. Roasted sesame hulls improve broiler performance without affecting carcass characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamel Z. Mahmoud


    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of using graded levels of roasted sesame hulls (RSH on growth performance and meat quality characteristics in broiler chickens. A total of 360 day-old Lohmann chicks were randomly allocated into 24 floor pens and raised over 42 days. One of four dietary treatments was assigned to each group of six pens in a completely randomized fashion. The chicks in the control group were fed a corn-soybean based diet (RSH-0, while the chicks in treatments two, three, and four were fed graded levels of RSH at 4% (RSH-4, 8% (RSH-8, and 12% (RSH-12, respectively. Diets were formulated to meet broiler chicks’ requirements according to the National Research Council for both starter and finisher rations. The results showed that RSH inclusion increased (P<0.05 feed intake and final body weight without adversely affecting the feed conversion ratio. Broiler chicks fed RSH-12 had heavier (P<0.05 breast and leg cuts compared to the control-fed group with no change to their chemical composition. Water holding capacity (WHC, cooking loss (CL, and shear force (SF reported similar results in all dietary groups. The chemical composition of both thigh and breast cuts was not affected by the RSH. After one day of thawing, colour coordinates of breast cuts behaved similarly in all dietary groups. The results of this study suggest that the addition of RSH to broiler diets up to 12% improves their growth performance; nevertheless, carcass characteristics and meat quality showed no alterations compared to the control-fed group.

  7. The Impact of the General Board of the Navy on Interwar Submarine Design (United States)


    Navy had developed the Gato class submarine, which was successful independently operating in the vast Pacific Ocean in support of War Plan Orange. The...development of the Gato class submarine, which was successful independently operating in the vast Pacific Ocean in support of War Plan Orange. The...

  8. Procurements by the Non-Acoustic Anti-Submarine Warfare Program Through the Environmental Technologies Laboratory (United States)


    General, DoD, on contract offloading, including Report No. 93-068, " Procurement of Services for the Non-Acoustic Anti-Submarine Warfare Program...contract administration in response to Audit Report No. 93-042. Report No. 93-068, " Procurement of Services for the Non-Acoustic Anti- Submarine Warfare

  9. Study on the locational criteria for submarine rock repositories of low and medium level radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, G. H.; Kang, W. J.; Kim, T. J. and others [Chungnam National Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    Submarine repositories have significant advantages over their land counterparts locating close to the areas of daily human activities. Consequently, the construction of submarine repositories on the vast continental shelves around Korean seas is considered to be highly positive. In this context, the development of locational criteria primarily targeting the safety of submarine rock repositories is very important.The contents of the present study are: analyzing characteristics of marine environment: Search of potential hazards to, and environmental impact by, the submarine repositories; Investigation of the oceanographic, geochemical, ecological and sedimentological characteristics of estuaries and coastal seas. Locating potential hazards to submarine repositories by: Bibliographical search of accidents leading to the destruction of submarine structures by turbidity currents and other potentials; Review of turbidity currents. Consideration of environmental impact caused by submarine repositories: Logistics to minimize the environmental impacts in site selection; Removal and dispersion processes of radionuclides in sea water. Analyses of oceanographical characteristics of, and hazard potentials in, the Korean seas. Evaluation of the MOST 91-7 criteria for applicability to submarine repositories and the subsequent proposition of additional criteria.

  10. The risk of hydrogen explosion in a submarine p.I Catalytic combustion of hydrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kłos Ryszard


    Full Text Available The series of articles discuss issues related to conducting high risk projects on the example of modernisation of hydrogen incinerators on a submarine. The article depicts a technical problem situation connected with catalytic hydrogen combustion on a submarine.

  11. Ocean Engineering Studies Compiled 1991. Volume 8. Pressure Hulls - Cellular Sandwich Construction (United States)


    Trilling, Windenburg. Don- ing of the tubes to their elastic-stability limits nello and Tokugawa performed many experiments and presented no stimulus for...687-698; Vol. 26, September 1913, pp. 502-511; Vol. 29, January 1915, pp. 67-77. Tokugawa , T., "Model Experiments on the Elastic Stability of Closed

  12. Post-eruptive Submarine Terrace Development of Capelinhos, Azores (United States)

    Zhongwei Zhao, Will; Mitchell, Neil; Quartau, Rui; Tempera, Fernando; Bricheno, Lucy


    Erosion of the coasts of volcanic islands by waves creates shallow banks, but how erosion proceeds with time to create them and how it relates to wave climate is unclear. In this study, historical and recent marine geophysical data collected around the Capelinhos promontory (western Faial Island, Azores) offer an unusual opportunity to characterize how a submarine terrace developed after the eruption. The promontory was formed in 1957/58 during a Surtseyan eruption that terminated with extensive lava forming new rocky coastal cliffs. Historical measurements of coastline position are supplemented here with coastlines measured from 2004 and 2014 Google Earth images in order to characterize coastline retreat rate and distance for lava- and tephra-dominated cliffs. Swath mapping sonars were used to characterize the submarine geometry of the resulting terrace (terrace edge position, gradient and morphology). Limited photographs are available from a SCUBA dive and drop-down camera deployments to ground truth the submarine geomorphology. The results reveal that coastal retreat rates have decreased rapidly with the time after the eruption, possibly explained by the evolving resistance to erosion of cliff base materials. Surprisingly, coastline retreat rate decreases with terrace width in a simple inverse power law with terrace width. We suspect this is only a fortuitous result as wave attenuation over the terrace will not obviously produce the variation, but nevertheless it shows how rapidly the retreat rate declines. Understanding the relationship between terrace widening shelf and coastal cliff retreat rate may be more widely interesting if they can be used to understand how islands evolve over time into abrasional banks and guyots.

  13. Maximizing the probability an aerial anti-submarine torpedo detects its target (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-Jie


    As a result of the high speed of anti-submarine patrol aircraft as well as their wide range, high efficiency and other characteristics, aerial torpedoes released by anti-submarine patrol aircraft have become the key anti submarine tool. In order to improve operational efficiency, a deep study was made of the target detection probabilities for aerial torpedoes released by anti-submarine patrol aircraft. The operational modes of aerial torpedoes were analyzed and mathematical-simulation models were then established. The detection probabilities of three attacking modes were then calculated. Measures were developed for improving low probabilities of detection when attacking a probable target position. This study provides an important frame of reference for the operation of aerial torpedo released by anti-submarine patrol aircraft.

  14. Main devices design of submarine oil-water separation system (United States)

    Cai, Wen-Bin; Liu, Bo-Hong


    In the process of offshore oil production, in order to thoroughly separate oil from produced fluid, solve the environment problem caused by oily sewage, and improve the economic benefit of offshore drilling, from the perspective of new oil-water separation, a set of submarine oil-water separation devices were designed through adsorption and desorption mechanism of the polymer materials for crude oil in this paper. The paper introduces the basic structure of gas-solid separation device, periodic separation device and adsorption device, and proves the rationality and feasibility of this device.

  15. Submarine glaciated landscapes of central and northern British Columbia, Canada (United States)

    Shaw, John; Lintern, Gwyn


    Recent systematic multibeam sonar mapping and ground-truthing surveys in the fjords and coastal waters of central and northern British Columbia, Canada, provide information on glacial processes associated with the Cordilleran Ice Sheet, and also on postglacial processes that have strongly modified the glacial terrain. During the last glacial maximum, ice covered the Coast Range, except for nunataks. Convergent streamlined glacial landforms in the Strait of Georgia testify to a strong flow of ice towards the southeast, between Vancouver Island and the mainland. During ice retreat, thick deposits of acoustically stratified glaciomarine mud were deposited in glacially over deepened basins. Retreat through the Douglas Channel fjord system was punctuated by still stands, resulting in a series of submarine moraines. Postglacial processes have created a suite of landforms that mask the primary glacial terrain: 1) Fjord floors host thick deposits of acoustically transparent postglacial mud with highly variable distribution: banks up to 80-m thick are commonly adjacent to erosional zones with glaciomarine mud exposed at the seafloor; 2) In this region of high precipitation and snowpack melt, numerous cone-shaped Holocene fan deltas developed on the fjord sidewalls transport coarse sediment to the fjord floors. Larger deltas are developed at fjord heads, notably at Kitimat and Kildala; 3) Submarine slope failures in this tectonically active area have resulted in a suite of mass transport deposits on sidewalls and fjord floors. The very large submarine slope failures at Camano Sound and KitKat Inlet occurred on the steep, rear facets of large transverse moraines, and involved the failure of glaciomarine sediment that moved into deeper basins, perhaps as a retrogressive failure. The ages of these events are unknown, although the presence of postglacial mud in the slide scar at Caamano suggests that the event at that location occurred in the late glacial or early Holocene. Also

  16. Micro-tunneling as an alternative to submarine cable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russo, D.A. [Seattle City Light, WA (United States); Hansen, D. [CH2M Hill, Bellevue, WA (United States)


    The geography that gives Seattle its beauty can pose unique challenges for the engineers attempting to provide service to the customers who live near or upon these features. Steep, wooded hills and greenbelts create familiar problems of construction and right-of-way maintenance. The waterways and adjoining shoreline zones present a more difficult set of requirements. When Seattle City Light determined it was necessary to install 2-26 KV feeders across the Salmon Bay waterway, they discovered that submarine cables could not be used. Shallow angle directional drilling and micro-tunneling were examined and it was fond that a microtunneled duct bank was the best method to use.

  17. Hull forms and straight forward CFD free running trials of high-speed shuttle vessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WEI Chengzhu


    Full Text Available SV-SJTU high-speed shuttle vessels are developed by Shanghai Jiao Tong University for fine seakeeping and high speed purposes. A series of SV-SJTUs have been developed, and are introduced in this paper. Straight forward CFD free running trials were conducted and the results are also presented. Hull resistance and motions are predicted by solving URANS equations and adopting the overset mesh method. The results of the straight forward CFD free running trials prove that SV-SJTUs have little resistance and fine hull motion in calm water, and their wave-making and splashing differ with different hull forms. This paper presents the designs of a variety of high performance ships, thereby providing quantitative and quali-tative references for researchers.

  18. Selectivity of the Cd2+/Ca2+ exchange on modified rice hull silica. (United States)

    Sánchez-Flores, Norma A; Solache, Marcos; Olguín, M Teresa; Fripiat, José J; Pacheco-Malagón, Graciela; Saniger, José M; Bulbulian, Silvia


    The rice hull ash is composed by 94% of SiO2, an agricultural waste that can be recovered and purified by a depolymerization reaction yielding an organo-silicic gel. The purpose of this paper is to show that this silica can be used to fix Cd2+ from aqueous solution. The pH of hydrolysis of the organo-silicic gel is the main factor modifying the distribution between the solid and the solution. The contact time between the Cd2+ solution and the solid was studied to optimize the sorption conditions. The equilibrium measurements were performed after 40 hours at room temperature. The competition with Ca2+ ions in the solutions was also studied in order to evaluate the selectivity of the Cd2+ fixation. It was found that the rice hull ash has a higher capacity to fix Cd2+ than the rice hull derivatives.

  19. Structural Health Monitoring of Tall Buildings with Numerical Integrator and Convex-Concave Hull Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Thenozhi


    Full Text Available An important objective of health monitoring systems for tall buildings is to diagnose the state of the building and to evaluate its possible damage. In this paper, we use our prototype to evaluate our data-mining approach for the fault monitoring. The offset cancellation and high-pass filtering techniques are combined effectively to solve common problems in numerical integration of acceleration signals in real-time applications. The integration accuracy is improved compared with other numerical integrators. Then we introduce a novel method for support vector machine (SVM classification, called convex-concave hull. We use the Jarvis march method to decide the concave (nonconvex hull for the inseparable points. Finally the vertices of the convex-concave hull are applied for SVM training.

  20. Static analysis of the hull plate using the finite element method (United States)

    Ion, A.


    This paper aims at presenting the static analysis for two levels of a container ship's construction as follows: the first level is at the girder / hull plate and the second level is conducted at the entire strength hull of the vessel. This article will describe the work for the static analysis of a hull plate. We shall use the software package ANSYS Mechanical 14.5. The program is run on a computer with four Intel Xeon X5260 CPU processors at 3.33 GHz, 32 GB memory installed. In terms of software, the shared memory parallel version of ANSYS refers to running ANSYS across multiple cores on a SMP system. The distributed memory parallel version of ANSYS (Distributed ANSYS) refers to running ANSYS across multiple processors on SMP systems or DMP systems.

  1. Basic dye adsorption onto an agro-based waste material--sesame hull (Sesamum indicum L.). (United States)

    Feng, Yanfang; Yang, Fan; Wang, Yongqian; Ma, Li; Wu, Yonghong; Kerr, Philip G; Yang, Linzhang


    The aim of this project was to establish an economical and environmentally benign biotechnology for removing methylene blue (MB) from wastewater. The adsorption process of MB onto abandoned sesame hull (Sesamum indicum L.) (SH) was investigated in a batch system. The results showed that a wide range of pH (3.54-10.50) was favorable for the adsorption of MB onto SH. The Langmuir model displayed the best fit for the isothermal data. The exothermic adsorption process fits a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The maximum monolayer adsorption capacity (359.88 mg g(-1)) was higher than most previously investigated low-cost bioadsorbents (e.g., peanut hull, wheat straw, etc.). This study indicated that sesame hull is a promising, unconventional, affordable and environmentally friendly bio-measure that is easily deployed for removing high levels of MB from wastewater. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. 40 CFR 180.123a - Inorganic bromide residues in peanut hay and peanut hulls; statement of policy. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inorganic bromide residues in peanut... RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.123a Inorganic bromide residues in peanut hay and peanut hulls... to cattle of peanut hay and peanut hulls containing residues of inorganic bromides will contribute...

  3. Cultivation of Podospora anserina on soybean hulls results in an efficient enzyme cocktail for plant biomass hydrolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mäkelä, Miia R; Bouzid, Ourdia; Ruiz-Robleto, J.; Post, Harm; Peng, Mao; Heck, Albert; Altelaar, Maarten; de Vries, Ronald P


    The coprophilic ascomycete fungus Podospora anserina was cultivated on three different plant biomasses, i.e. cotton seed hulls (CSH), soybean hulls (SBH) and acid-pretreated wheat straw (WS) for four days, and the potential of the produced enzyme mixtures was compared in the enzymatic

  4. Improvement to the Standardization Life-Cycle-Cost Model for Hull, Mechanical, and Electrical Components and Equipments. (United States)


    Electrical Systems B Flame Arrestor-Ventilation Deck and Hull Machinery B Exhaust Floodlight -Electrical Electrical Systems B Flowmeter Fluid Systems B...Deck and Hull Machinery B Light Assembly-Signal Electrical Systems B Light Switch Assembly Electrical Systems C Light- Beacon Electrical Systems D Light

  5. Fermentative characteristics of coffee pulp silage with different proportions of coffee hulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adauto Ferreira Barcelos


    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the chemical composition and fermentation characteristics of the coffee pulp silages with different proportions of coffee hulls. The material was ensiled in PVC with 150 mm diameter by 750 mm high, according to the treatments: coffee pulp (CoP, CoP + 20% of coffee hulls (CH, CoP + 40% of CH and CoP + 60% CH in a completely randomized design with six replications. The silos were opened 60 days after closing, when samples were taken for determination of dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF, lignin, cellulose, pH, N-NH3, caffeine, calcium (Ca, phosphorus (P and in vitro digestibility of dry matter. We also determined gas production and effluent. There was a linear increase in DM content and pH, and a linear decrease of CP, NDF and ADF, lignin, cellulose, caffeine, Ca and P. This reduction occurs because the coffee hulls have lower levels than pulp to CP, NDF, ADF, caffeine, Ca and P. There was also a linear reduction in N-NH3 values, and only the highest percentage of silage with coffee hulls obtained below 10%, considered as the limit for good quality silage. Effluent production was higher for silage shelled coffee pulp and do not get any production in silage with 60% coffee hull. There was no significant difference in vitro digestibility of dry matter among treatments. The coffee hulls was effective in increasing DM content of CoP silage and to reduce NDF, ADF, N-NH3, providing nutritional value of silage satisfactory for cattle feed, creating an alternative for recovery of such waste. When considering the DM content found in silages, the amount of bark best coffee to be added to coffee pulp for the production of silage is between 30% and 35%.

  6. In vitro antibacterial and free radical scavenging activity of green hull of Juglans regia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pardeep Sharma


    Full Text Available Antioxidant supplements from plants are vital to count the oxidative damage in cells. We assessed the antioxidants and antibacterial activity of green hull of Juglans regia in this study. According to our results the maximum antibacterial activity was observed in ethanolic extract when compared to other extract. So, the ethanolic extract was studied for antioxidant activity which exhibited high antiradical activity against DPPH, hydroxyl, and nitric oxide radicals. In conclusion, green hull of J. regia showed strong reducing power activity and total antioxidant capacity. The results justify the therapeutic application of plant in the indigenous system of medicine. Keywords: Juglans regia, Ethanolic extract, Antioxidants, DPPH, Antibacterial activity

  7. Hydrodynamic design of an underwater hull cleaning robot and its evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Hyung Lee


    Full Text Available An underwater hull cleaning robot can be a desirable choice for the cleaning of large ships. It can make the cleaning process safe and economical. This paper presents a hydrodynamic design of an underwater cleaning robot and its evaluation for an underwater ship hull cleaning robot. The hydrodynamic design process of the robot body is described in detail. Optimal body design process with compromises among conflicting design requirements is given. Experimental results on the hydrodynamic performance of the robot are given.

  8. Construction of the discrete hull for the combinatorics of a regular pentagonal tiling of the plane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramirez-Solano, Maria


    The article A “regular” pentagonal tiling of the plane by P. L. Bowers and K. Stephenson, Conform. Geom. Dyn. 1, 58–86, 1997, defines a conformal pentagonal tiling. This is a tiling of the plane with remarkable combinatorial and geometric properties. However, it doesn’t have finite local complexi...... combinatorial data, which rather automatically has finite local complexity. In this paper we give a construction of the discrete hull just from the combinatorial data. The main result of this paper is that the discrete hull is a Cantor space....

  9. Acoustic emission localization on ship hull structures using a deep learning approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgoulas, George; Kappatos, Vassilios; Nikolakopoulos, George


    In this paper, deep belief networks were used for localization of acoustic emission events on ship hull structures. In order to avoid complex and time consuming implementations, the proposed approach uses a simple feature extraction module, which significantly reduces the extremely high dimension......In this paper, deep belief networks were used for localization of acoustic emission events on ship hull structures. In order to avoid complex and time consuming implementations, the proposed approach uses a simple feature extraction module, which significantly reduces the extremely high...

  10. Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) core and rice hulls as components of container media for growing Pinus halepensis M. seedlings. (United States)

    Marianthi, Tsakaldimi


    The feasibility of replacing peat or perlite with rice hulls and ground kenaf core to grow a Mediterranean species (Pinus halepensis M.), was investigated. Treatments involved the following growing media: 70 peat:30 perlite as a control, 70 peat:30 rice hulls, 50 peat:50 rice hulls, kenaf (100%) and 60 kenaf:20 peat:20 rice hulls. The seedlings' quality and the physical and chemical properties of the substrates were evaluated. After this, the seedlings were planted in the field and their field performance was recorded. The results showed that the growth medium 70 peat:30 rice hulls can successfully be used for the production of P. halepensis, since the seedlings' nursery and field performance were similar to, or even better than those obtained with the control medium. The seedlings produced in the growth media containing kenaf did not attain a suitable planting size and showed poorer field performance than control seedlings.

  11. Endogenous Phenolics in Hulls and Cotyledons of Mustard and Canola: A Comparative Study on Its Sinapates and Antioxidant Capacity (United States)

    Mayengbam, Shyamchand; Aachary, Ayyappan; Thiyam-Holländer, Usha


    Endogenous sinapic acid (SA), sinapine (SP), sinapoyl glucose (SG) and canolol (CAN) of canola and mustard seeds are the potent antioxidants in various lipid-containing systems. The study investigated these phenolic antioxidants using different fractions of canola and mustard seeds. Phenolic compounds were extracted from whole seeds and their fractions: hulls and cotyledons, using 70% methanol by the ultrasonication method and quantified using HPLC-DAD. The major phenolics from both hulls and cotyledons extracts were SP, with small amounts of SG, and SA with a significant difference of phenolic contents between the two seed fractions. Cotyledons showed relatively high content of SP, SA, SG and total phenolics in comparison to hulls (p mustard cotyledons > mustard seeds > canola seeds > mustard hulls > canola hulls. UPLC-tandem Mass Spectrometry confirmed the presence of sinapates and its fragmentation in these extracts. Further, a high degree of correlation (r = 0.93) was noted between DPPH scavenging activity and total phenolic content. PMID:26785070

  12. An Automatic Procedure for the Quantitative Characterization of Submarine Bedforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Di Stefano


    Full Text Available A model for the extraction and quantitative characterization of submarine landforms from high-resolution digital bathymetry is presented. The procedure is fully automated and comprises two parts. The first part consists of an analytical model which extracts quantitative information from a Digital Elevation Model in the form of objects with similar parametric characteristics (terrain objects. The second part is a rule-based model where the terrain objects are reclassified into distinct landforms with well-defined three dimensional characteristics. For the focus of this work, the quantitative characterization of isolated dunes (height greater than 2 m is used to exemplify the process. The primary metrics used to extract terrain objects are the flatness threshold and the search radius, which are then used by the analytical model to identify the feature type. Once identified as dunes, a sequence of spatial analysis routines is applied to identify and compute metrics for each dune including length, height, width, ray of curvature, slope analysis for each stoss and lee side, and dune symmetry. Dividing the model into two parts, one scale-dependent and another centered around the shape of the landform, makes the model applicable to other submarine landforms like ripples, mega-ripples, and coral reefs, which also have well-defined three-dimensional characteristics.

  13. Fin propulsion on a human-powered submarine (United States)

    Anderson, Iain A.; Pocock, Benjamin; Harbuz, Antoni; Algie, Cam; Vochezer, Daniel; Chao, Ryan; Lu, Benjamin


    Nearly all surface and underwater vessels are driven by screw propulsion; ideal for coupling to rotary engines and well understood after over a century of development. But most aquatic creatures use fins for swimming. Although there are sound evolutionary reasons why fish have fins and not propellers, they are nevertheless agile, fast and efficient. Although fish-like robots such as the MIT Robotuna are providing good insight into fin-based swimming there are advantages for using humans in the experimental device. Like an airplane test pilot they can write crash reports. We present preliminary observations for the human powered finned submarine: Taniwha. The sub participated in the 2nd European International Submarine races in Gosport UK where it received a trophy for "Best Non-Propeller Performance". Two sets of Hobie Mirage fin drives fixed to the upper and lower rear surfaces of the sub are pedaled by the pilot. The pilot also has two levers at the front, one to pitch a pair of dive planes and one for yawing a large rudder. Good speed, we estimate to be greater than 6 m/s is possible with these fins although we haven't explored their full potential. Straying too near the surface or bottom can lead to an instability, synonymous to a stall, such that control is lost. The mechanism for this will be discussed and solutions offered. Fish are 400 million years in front of us but one day we'll catch them.

  14. Are tilt measurements useful in detecting tsunamigenic submarine landslides? (United States)

    Brune, Sascha; Babeyko, Andrey Y.; Sobolev, Stephan V.


    Large submarine landslides can generate dangerous tsunamis. Because of their long-period signal, detection of landslides by common seismological methods is difficult. Here we suggest a method of detecting submarine landslides by using an array of land-based tiltmeters. The displacement of a large volume of sediments during landsliding produces a detectable elastic response of the lithosphere. We propose a technique to calculate this response and to invert for tsunami relevant parameters like slide location, volume, and velocity. We exemplify our method by applying it to the Storegga slide west of Norway and other tsunamigenic landslide events. The parameter which can be most robustly estimated from tiltmeter array measurements is the product of slide volume and its velocity (slide tsunamigenic potential). This parameter also controls the amplitude of the generated tsunami wave. The inversion accuracy of this parameter and the estimated tsunami height near the coast depends on the noise level of tiltmeter measurements, distance of the tiltmeters from the slide, and slide tsunamigenic potential itself. The tsunamigenic potential of the most dangerous slides like Storegga can be estimated well by tiltmeters at the coast if the effective noise level does not exceed 50 nrad.

  15. A submarine fan in the Mesa Central, Mexico (United States)

    Silva-Romo, G.; Arellano-Gil, J.; Mendoza-Rosales, C.; Nieto-Obregón, J.


    The contact between the Guerrero and Sierra Madre tectonostratigraphic terranes has been proposed to lie in the Mesa Central, east of the city of Zacatecas. Marine Triassic units have been assigned to the Guerrero Terrane. It is here proposed that this contact occurs to the west of the city of Zacatecas and the Triassic marine sequence assigned to the Sierra Madre Terrane. We analyzed the stratigraphic record and structural features of pre-Late Jurassic sequences at four localities in the Mesa Central. They contain a marine turbiditic Triassic unit, which includes La Bellena, Taray, and Zacatecas Formations, and a continental unit of probable Middle Jurassic age. Triassic sandstones were derived from a cratonic area, without the influence of arc volcanism. The sequences were affected by two phases of deformation. The Triassic formations are unconformably overlain by a continental volcano-sedimentary sequence that contains fragments of sandstones derived from the underlying unit. Sedimentologic characteristics of the Triassic unit fit a submarine fan model. The submarine fan developed at the continental margin of Pangaea during Triassic times. Turbidite associations in the San Rafael Area indicate a middle fan depositional environment, while in the Real de Catorce Area, they correspond to the distal part (basin plain facies). At La Ballena and Zacatecas the turbidite associations occur in the middle part and perhaps the external part of the fan.

  16. Feasibility study of submarine diesel exhaust valve interspace coating application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, W.; Zhou, M.; Bibby, D.; Huang, J.


    This document described a feasibility study conducted to evaluate surface coating systems applied to the surface of a diesel exhaust valve interspace on a VICTORIA Class submarine. A series of laboratory studies were conducted to determine the physical characteristics of the coatings, which will be subjected to high service temperatures, diesel exhaust gas, and seawater. The valves were made of Q1N steel castings. The surface coatings were designed to provide corrosion resistance and thermal protection to the valves. As part of the study, a survey was conducted on various state-of-the-art surface coating systems. Coatings were rated on their ability to protect the Q10 steel surface from corrosion, high temperatures and seawater. An additional requirement was that the coatings should not produce high amounts of hydrogen. Plating trials were conducted with a nickel-based alloy (Ni-Cu-P) placed on Q1N steel substrates with a hypophosphite reducing agent. The results of X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses suggested that the coatings can also be used to protect the external surfaces of various submarine components. 54 refs., 4 tabs., 10 figs.

  17. Occupational stress in submariners: the impact of isolated and confined work on psychological well-being. (United States)

    Brasher, Kate S; Dew, Angela B C; Kilminster, Shaun G; Bridger, Robert S


    This study aimed to identify work-related and personal factors associated with occupational stress in submariners. Work and well-being questionnaires were distributed to 219 male submariners (mean age 34 years), as part of a larger cohort study involving a stratified sample of 4951 Royal Navy (RN) personnel. The stress rate in submariners was 40%; significantly higher than the stress rate in the general RN, although once demographic factors were controlled for in a matched control sample, this difference was no longer significant. A summary model accounted for 49% of the variance in submariner stress, with key differences emerging between the occupational factors associated with stress in submariners and in the general RN. The longitudinal nature of this study permits stress in submariners to be monitored over 5 years, which will provide valuable insights into the chronicity of stress in this specialised occupational group. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This paper contributes to the current literature on the negative impact of working in isolated conditions. It is demonstrated that occupational stress in submarines can be partially explained using current theories of stress in the workplace. However, the constraints of a restricted environment introduce additional factors which can also be associated with occupational stress.

  18. Measuring currents in submarine canyons: technological and scientific progress in the past 30 years (United States)

    Xu, J. P.


    The development and application of acoustic and optical technologies and of accurate positioning systems in the past 30 years have opened new frontiers in the submarine canyon research communities. This paper reviews several key advancements in both technology and science in the field of currents in submarine canyons since the1979 publication of Currents in Submarine Canyons and Other Sea Valleys by Francis Shepard and colleagues. Precise placements of high-resolution, high-frequency instruments have not only allowed researchers to collect new data that are essential for advancing and generalizing theories governing the canyon currents, but have also revealed new natural phenomena that challenge the understandings of the theorists and experimenters in their predictions of submarine canyon flow fields. Baroclinic motions at tidal frequencies, found to be intensified both up canyon and toward the canyon floor, dominate the flow field and control the sediment transport processes in submarine canyons. Turbidity currents are found to frequently occur in active submarine canyons such as Monterey Canyon. These turbidity currents have maximum speeds of nearly 200 cm/s, much smaller than the speeds of turbidity currents in geological time, but still very destructive. In addition to traditional Eulerian measurements, Lagrangian flow data are essential in quantifying water and sediment transport in submarine canyons. A concerted experiment with multiple monitoring stations along the canyon axis and on nearby shelves is required to characterize the storm-trigger mechanism for turbidity currents.

  19. Prediction of nuclear submariner adaptability from autonomic indices and Rorschach Inkblot responses. Interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weybrew, B.B.; Molish, H.B.


    To identify the most valid predictors of submariner adaptability, the authors derived 23 indices from the responses of 170 nuclear submariners to the Rorschach Inkblot Test, 11 measures of Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) reactivity to contrived stress, and five adjustment criteria. Factor analysis of this 39x39 correlation matrix yielded two Rorschach Factors, one of which correlated with three criterion dimensions. Two unique factors were also discovered, one, a structured ANS factor, and the other, a complex criterion scale. Selected Rorschach scores and, to a lesser extent, certain ANS indices emanating from this study, may be usefully-valid predictors of the adaptability of nuclear submariners during long patrols.

  20. 14 CFR 25.529 - Hull and main float landing conditions. (United States)


    ... float landing conditions. (a) Symmetrical step, bow, and stern landing. For symmetrical step, bow, and stern landings, the limit water reaction load factors are those computed under § 25.527. In addition— (1.... (b) Unsymmetrical landing for hull and single float seaplanes. Unsymmetrical step, bow, and stern...

  1. 14 CFR 23.529 - Hull and main float landing conditions. (United States)


    ... Water Loads § 23.529 Hull and main float landing conditions. (a) Symmetrical step, bow, and stern landing. For symmetrical step, bow, and stern landings, the limit water reaction load factors are those.... Unsymmetrical step, bow, and stern landing conditions must be investigated. In addition— (1) The loading for...

  2. The flavonoid herbacetin diglucoside as a constituent of the lignan macromolecule from flaxseed hulls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struijs, K.; Vincken, J.P.; Verhoef, R.P.; Oostveen, van W.H.M.; Voragen, A.G.J.; Gruppen, H.


    Lignans in flaxseed are known to be part of a macromolecule in which they are connected through the linker-molecule hydroxy-methyl-glutaric acid (HMGA). In this study, the lignan macromolecule was extracted from flaxseed hulls and degraded to its monomeric constituents by complete saponification.

  3. Parboiled rice hull mulch in containers reduces liverwort and bittercress growth (United States)

    Use of preemergence herbicides for weed control is not always possible; some crops and many enclosed production sites are not labeled for herbicide applications. The objective of this research was to determine the utility of parboiled rice hull mulch for controlling two of the most common weeds in ...

  4. Chemical composition, antioxidant and antibacterial properties of Bene (Pistacia atlantica subsp. mutica) hull essential oil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rezaie, Mitra; Farhoosh, Reza; Sharif, Ali; Asili, Javad; Iranshahi, Mehrdad


    .... In this study, sixty three compounds were identified in the essential oil (EO) of Bene hull. The major components were determined to be α-pinene (20.8 %), camphene (8.4 %), β-myrcene (8.2 %) and limonene (8...

  5. Anti-diabetic effects of rice hull smoke extract in alloxan-induced diabetic mice (United States)

    We investigated the protective effect of a liquid rice hull smoke extract (RHSE) against diabetes in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Anti-diabetic effects of RHSE were evaluated in both the rat insulinoma-1 cell line (INS-1) and diabetic ICR mice induced by inraperitoneal (ip) injection of alloxan. ...

  6. 46 CFR 115.650 - Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program options: Divers or underwater ROV. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program options: Divers or underwater ROV. 115.650 Section 115.650 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150 PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS INSPECTION AND...

  7. 46 CFR 176.630 - The Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program application. (United States)


    ... conducting the hull examination; (b) The name of the participating diving contractor and underwater remotely operated vehicle (ROV) company accepted by the OCMI under § 176.650 of this part; (c) The name and... damage, underwater body cleanliness (if known), and the anticipated draft of the vessel at the time of...

  8. Characterization of hydrolytic degradation of polylactic acid/rice hulls composites in water at different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available Hydrolytic degradations of polylactic acid/rice hulls (PLA/RH composites with various rice hulls contents due to water absorptions at 23, 51 and 69°C were investigated by studying the thermal properties, chemical composition, molecular weight, and morphology of the degraded products. The results have attested that the stability of PLA/RH composites in water depends slightly on rice hulls contents but it is significantly influenced by water temperature. Water absorption in 30 days at 23°C was between 0.87 and 9.25% depending on rice hull contents. However, at thermophilic temperatures, the water absorption and degradation of these products were increased significantly. Saturations were achieved in less than 25 and 9 days at 51°C and 69°C, respectively, while hydrolytic degradation was demonstrated by an increase in fragility and development of crystallinity. At 69°C, there were significant reductions of the decomposition and glass transition temperatures of the polymer by 13°C. These changes were associated with the reduction of the molecular weight of PLA from 153.1 kDa to ~10.7 kDa due to hydrolysis of its ester group.

  9. The Effect of Hull Biofouling on Parameters Characterising Ship Propulsion System Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarełko Wiesła


    Full Text Available One of most important issues concerning technical objects is the increase of their operating performance. For a ship this performance mainly depends on the efficiency of its main pro-pulsion system and the resistance generated during its motion on water. The overall ship re-sistance, in turn, mainly depends on the hull friction resistance, closely related with the pres-ence of different types of roughness on the hull surface, including underwater part biofouling. The article analyses the effect of hull biofouling on selected parameters characterising the efficiency of the ship propulsion system with adjustable propeller. For this purpose a two-year research experiment was performed on a sailing vessel during its motor navigation phases. Based on the obtained results, three groups of characteristics were worked out for different combinations of engine rotational speed and adjustable propeller pitch settings. The obtained results have revealed that the phenomenon of underwater hull biofouling affects remarkably the parameters characterising propulsion system efficiency. In particular, the development of the biofouling layer leads to significant reduction of the speed of navigation.

  10. A mutation in the rice chalcone isomerase gene causes the golden hull and internode 1 phenotype. (United States)

    Hong, Lilan; Qian, Qian; Tang, Ding; Wang, Kejian; Li, Ming; Cheng, Zhukuan


    The biosynthesis of flavonoids, important secondary plant metabolites, has been investigated extensively, but few mutants of genes in this pathway have been identified in rice (Oryza sativa). The rice gold hull and internode (gh) mutants exhibit a reddish-brown pigmentation in the hull and internode and their phenotype has long been used as a morphological marker trait for breeding and genetic study. Here, we characterized that the gh1 mutant was a mutant of the rice chalcone isomerase gene (OsCHI). The result showed that gh1 had a Dasheng retrotransposon inserted in the 5′ UTR of the OsCHI gene, which resulted in the complete loss of OsCHI expression. gh1 exhibited golden pigmentation in hulls and internodes once the panicles were exposed to light. The total flavonoid content in gh1 hulls was increased threefold compared to wild type. Consistent with the gh1 phenotype, OsCHI transcripts were expressed in most tissues of rice and most abundantly in internodes. It was also expressed at high levels in panicles before heading, distributed mainly in lemmas and paleae, but its expression decreased substantially after the panicles emerged from the sheath. OsCHI encodes a protein functionally and structurally conserved to chalcone isomerases in other species. Our findings demonstrated that the OsCHI gene was indispensable for flux of the flavonoid pathway in rice.

  11. Rice hull smoke extract protects mice against a salmonella lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxemia (United States)

    Rice hulls accounting for 20% of the rice crop are a byproduct of post-harvest rice processing. Endotoxemia (sepsis, septic shock) is an inflammatory, virulent often fatal disease that results mainly from infection with Salmonella and other Gram-negative bacteria. The present study investigated the...

  12. Effect of Graded Levels of Soybean Hull on Blood, Carcass and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Graded Levels of Soybean Hull on Blood, Carcass and Organ Characteristics of Grower Pigs. ... (MCV) values with the groups on SBH diets. The heart girth circumference, heart weight, kidney weight, live body weight, and dressed carcass weight were all significantly (p<0.05) affected by the dietary levels of SBH.

  13. Quality characteristics of low fat chicken nuggets: effect of salt substitute blend and pea hull flour. (United States)

    Verma, Arun K; Banerjee, Rituparna; Sharma, Brahma Deo


    Effect of salt substitution (Treat I) and added pea hull flour (PHF) at 8 (Treat-II), 10 (Treat-III) and 12 % (Treat-IV) levels on the quality of low fat chicken nuggets (Control) was investigated. Replacement of NaCl significantly affected (P nuggets without significant effect on various attributes.

  14. Micro-heterogeneity of corn hulls cellulosic fiber biopolymer studied by multiple-particle tracking (MPT) (United States)

    A novel technique named multiple-particle tracking (MPT) was used to investigate the micro-structural heterogeneities of Z-trim, a zero calorie cellulosic fiber biopolymer produced from corn hulls. The Multiple-Particle Tracking (MPT) method was used in this study, which was originally described by ...

  15. Marine litter in submarine canyons of the Bay of Biscay (United States)

    van den Beld, Inge M. J.; Guillaumont, Brigitte; Menot, Lénaïck; Bayle, Christophe; Arnaud-Haond, Sophie; Bourillet, Jean-François


    Marine litter is a matter of increasing concern worldwide, from shallow seas to the open ocean and from beaches to the deep-seafloor. Indeed, the deep sea may be the ultimate repository of a large proportion of litter in the ocean. We used footage acquired with a Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) and a towed camera to investigate the distribution and composition of litter in the submarine canyons of the Bay of Biscay. This bay contains many submarine canyons housing Vulnerable Marine Ecosystems (VMEs) such as scleractinian coral habitats. VMEs are considered to be important for fish and they increase the local biodiversity. The objectives of the study were to investigate and discuss: (i) litter density, (ii) the principal sources of litter, (iii) the influence of environmental factors on the distribution of litter, and (iv) the impact of litter on benthic communities. Litter was found in all 15 canyons and at three sites on the edge of the continental shelf/canyon, in 25 of 29 dives. The Belle-île and Arcachon Canyons contained the largest amounts of litter, up to 12.6 and 9.5 items per 100 images respectively. Plastic items were the most abundant (42%), followed by fishing-related items (16%). The litter had both a maritime and a terrestrial origin. The main sources could be linked to fishing activities, major shipping lanes and river discharges. Litter appeared to accumulate at water depths of 801-1100 m and 1401-1700 m. In the deeper of these two depth ranges, litter accumulated on a geologically structured area, accounting for its high frequency at this depth. A larger number of images taken in areas of coral in the shallower of these two depth ranges may account for the high frequency of litter detection at this depth. A larger number of litter items, including plastic objects in particular, were observed on geological structures and in coral areas than on areas of bare substratum. The distribution of fishing-related items was similar for the various types of

  16. Particle sedimentation and diffusive convection in submarine clouds (United States)

    Carazzo, G.; Jellinek, M.; Turchyn, A. V.


    The longevity of submarine plumes generated by the release of hydrothermal fluids during crustal rupturing or by the rapid cooling of an erupting lava flow constrains the input of crustal-derived elements into the deep-ocean. Decades of observations of episodic "event plumes" suggest that a key process governing the dynamics of a submarine cloud spreading out laterally from a buoyant rising plume is the production of internal layering. Here, we use geological data on submarine clouds and a new experimental apparatus producing at laboratory scale turbulent, hot particle-laden plumes and clouds to show that this layering occurs where particle diffusive convection driven by the differential diffusion of heat and small mineral precipitates gives rise to a large scale double diffusive instability. We show that this "particle diffusive convection" can extend the longevity of an event plume to two years after its emplacement, allowing iron-sulfide minerals to dissolve and deliver iron to the deep-ocean. The very long residence time imposed by diffusive convective effects does not allow iron-oxide minerals to dissolve but may lead to the formation of iron-rich sediments at large distances from the point of emission. We develop a new theoretical model that includes both sedimentation and dissolution processes to quantify the potential amount of iron produced by the dissolution of iron-sulfide minerals settling through the cloud by diffusive convection. A key prediction is that hydrothermal systems could provide 75% of the global budget of dissolved iron in the deep-ocean. The consideration of scale-basin variations suggests that the Southern Hemisphere is probably the most impacted by hydrothermal iron, consistent with observations and global ocean models. Photographs showing the typical evolution of a lab-scale turbulent, hot particle-laden plume. At stage 1, the buoyant plume reaches a level of neutral buoyancy and spreads out laterally forming a neutrally buoyant cloud

  17. Hawaiian submarine manganese-iron oxide crusts - A dating tool? (United States)

    Moore, J.G.; Clague, D.A.


    Black manganese-iron oxide crusts form on most exposed rock on the ocean floor. Such crusts are well developed on the steep lava slopes of the Hawaiian Ridge and have been sampled during dredging and submersible dives. The crusts also occur on fragments detached from bedrock by mass wasting, on submerged coral reefs, and on poorly lithified sedimentary rocks. The thickness of the crusts was measured on samples collected since 1965 on the Hawaiian Ridge from 140 dive or dredge localities. Fifty-nine (42%) of the sites were collected in 2001 by remotely operated vehicles (ROVs). The thinner crusts on many samples apparently result from post-depositional breakage, landsliding, and intermittent burial of outcrops by sediment. The maximum crust thickness was selected from each dredge or dive site to best represent crusts on the original rock surface at that site. The measurements show an irregular progressive thickening of the crusts toward the northwest-i.e., progressive thickening toward the older volcanic features with increasing distance from the Hawaiian hotspot. Comparison of the maximum crust thickness with radiometric ages of related subaerial features supports previous studies that indicate a crust-growth rate of about 2.5 mm/m.y. The thickness information not only allows a comparison of the relative exposure ages of two or more features offshore from different volcanoes, but also provides specific age estimates of volcanic and landslide deposits. The data indicate that some of the landslide blocks within the south Kona landslide are the oldest exposed rock on Mauna Loa, Kilauea, or Loihi volcanoes. Crusts on the floors of submarine canyons off Kohala and East Molokai volcanoes indicate that these canyons are no longer serving as channelways for downslope, sediment-laden currents. Mahukona volcano was approximately synchronous with Hilo Ridge, both being younger than Hana Ridge. The Nuuanu landslide is considerably older than the Wailau landslide. The Waianae

  18. Newly recognized submarine slide complexes in the southern California Bight (United States)

    Conrad, J. E.; Lee, H. J.; Edwards, B. D.; McGann, M.; Sliter, R. W.


    New high-resolution bathymetric and seismic-reflection surveys have imaged large (7) individual overlapping slides along the western margin of Santa Cruz Basin (SCB slide); 2) a series of slumps and slide scars on the slope south of San Pedro shelf (SPS slide); and 3) a slope failure along the shelf edge in northern San Diego County, termed the Del Mar slide. The SCB slide complex extends for 30 km along the western slope of Santa Cruz Basin, with debris lobes extending 5-8 km into the basin. Head scarps of some of these slides are 50-75 m high. The SPS slide complex also appears to consist of multiple slides, which roughly parallel the Palos Verdes Fault and the San Gabriel Canyon submarine channel on the shelf edge and slope south of San Pedro shelf. Slide deposits associated with this complex are only partially mapped due to limited high-resolution bathymetric coverage, but extend to the south in the area SW of Lasuen Knoll. Seismic-reflection profiles show that some of these deposits are up to 20 m thick. The Del Mar slide is located about 10 km north of La Jolla Canyon and extends about 6 km along the shelf edge. The head scarp lies along the trend of a branch of the Rose Canyon Fault Zone. Radiocarbon ages of sediment overlying this slide indicate the Del Mar slide is approximately 12-16 ka. These large slide complexes have several characteristics in common. Nearly all occur in areas of tectonic uplift. All of the complexes show evidence of recurrent slide activity, exhibiting multiple headwall scarps and debris lobes, and where available, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles of these slide areas provide evidence of older, buried mass transport deposits. Assuming typical sedimentation rates, the recurrence interval of major slide events appears to be on the order of tens of thousands of years. Most of the slide complexes do not appear to be located in areas of high sediment input. The SCB and Del Mar slides are in areas receiving relatively small

  19. Magmatic sill intrusions beneath El Hierro Island following the 2011-2012 submarine eruption (United States)

    Benito-Saz, María Á.; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Parks, Michelle M.; García-Cañada, Laura; Domínguez Cerdeña, Itahiza


    El Hierro, the most southwestern island of Canary Islands, Spain, is a volcano rising from around 3600 m above the ocean floor and up to of 1500 m above sea level. A submarine eruption occurred off the coast of El Hierro in 2011-2012, which was the only confirmed eruption in the last ~ 600 years. Activity continued after the end of the eruption with six magmatic intrusions occurring between 2012-2014. Each of these intrusions was characterized by hundreds of earthquakes and 3-19 centimeters of observed ground deformation. Ground displacements at ten continuous GPS sites were initially inverted to determine the optimal source parameters (location, geometry, volume/pressure change) that best define these intrusions from a geodetic point of view. Each intrusive period appears to be associated with the formation of a separate sill, with inferred volumes between 0.02 - 0.3 km3. SAR images from the Canadian RADARSAT-2 satellite and the Italian Space Agency COSMO-SkyMed constellation have been used to produce high-resolution detailed maps of line-of-sight displacements for each of these intrusions. These data have been combined with the continuous GPS observations and a joint inversion undertaken to gain further constraints on the optimal source parameters for each of these separate intrusive events. The recorded activity helps to understand how an oceanic intraplate volcanic island grows through repeated sill intrusions; well documented by seismic, GPS and InSAR observations in the case of the El Hierro activity.

  20. Development and experimental verification of a robust active noise control system for a diesel engine in submarines (United States)

    Sachau, D.; Jukkert, S.; Hövelmann, N.


    This paper presents the development and experimental validation of an ANC (active noise control)-system designed for a particular application in the exhaust line of a submarine. Thereby, tonal components of the exhaust noise in the frequency band from 75 Hz to 120 Hz are reduced by more than 30 dB. The ANC-system is based on the feedforward leaky FxLMS-algorithm. The observability of the sound pressure in standing wave field is ensured by using two error microphones. The noninvasive online plant identification method is used to increase the robustness of the controller. Online plant identification is extended by a time-varying convergence gain to improve the performance in the presence of slight error in the frequency of the reference signal.

  1. Ship hull fouling in the port of Recife, Pernambuco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Maria Rocha Farrapeira


    Full Text Available Ports of big coastal cities are exposed to exotic species as a consequence of shipping traffic. As the Port of Recife receives an annual average of 491 ships from other regions of Brazil and from all over the world, this work was aimed at knowing which marine animals were passively transported on such vessels hulls, in order to map and monitor new bioinvasions in the area. Thus, 32 vessels of several origins were investigated between November 2005 and March 2006, samples were taken and the macrofauna identified. Sixty species of associated animals were identified, consisting of 28 sessile species, particularly the Cirripedia Balanomorpha and Lepadomorpha as dominants, 8 sedentary animals, namely Mytillidae and Dreissenidae and 23 free-living species, particularly, Caprellidae, Gammaridae, Tanaidacea, Turbellaria, Nemertea and Polychaeta. The first occurrence of Conchoderma virgatum was recorded with exact location for the Brazilian littoral, and Conchoderma auritum, Amphibalanus subalbidus and Haliplanella lineata were recorded for the first time at the littoral of Pernambuco State. The invasion pathway was confirmed for Amphibalanus reticulatus and Mytilopsis leucophaeta, invader species of the estuarine area of Recife's city. Megabalanus coccopoma was considered as a risk invader species for the region.Regiões portuárias das grandes cidades litorâneas estão sujeitas à recepção de espécies exóticas como conseqüência da movimentação dos navios. Como o Porto do Recife recebe uma média anual de 491 atracações de navios, provenientes de várias regiões do Brasil e do mundo, objetivou-se conhecer quais animais marinhos eram transportados passivamente nos cascos das embarcações para mapear e monitorar novas invasões biológicas na área. Assim, foram investigados 32 barcos de diversas origens, nos meses de novembro de 2005 a março de 2006, tendo a macrofauna sido amostrada e identificada. Foram encontradas 60 espécies de animais

  2. Antiplatelet Aggregation Activity of Walnut Hull Extract via Suppression of Reactive Oxygen Species Generation and Caspase Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Meshkini


    Full Text Available Walnut hull (wal hull is an agricultural by-product that is widely used in traditional medicine for alleviating pain and treating skin diseases, however, recently it has gained much attention in modern pharmacology due to its antioxidant properties. The current study was aimed to determine the total phenolic, flavonoid, and tannin content of Persian wal hull extract and evaluate its biological effects on platelet function. Experimental data showed that acetone extract of wal hulls has a high content of polyphenolic compounds and antioxidant properties. The analytical study of crude extract by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry demonstrated different types of high- and low-molecular-weight compounds that are basically and biologically important. Moreover, an in vitro study revealed that wal hull extract at a concentration of 50 μg/mL inhibited thrombin-induced platelet aggregation and protein secretion by 50%, without any cytotoxic effects on platelets. The examined extract suppressed reactive oxygen species generation and also caspase activation in thrombin-stimulated platelets. Identically, N-acetylcysteine inhibited the increase of reactive oxygen species level induced by thrombin in platelets, and supported a link between cellular redox status and caspase activation in activated platelets. Presumably, the antiplatelet activity of wal hull extract is related to its polyphenolic compounds and their antioxidant properties. Therefore, wal hulls can be considered as a candidate for thrombotic disorders.

  3. Rice hull extracts inhibit proliferation of MCF-7 cells with G₁ cell cycle arrest in parallel with their antioxidant activity. (United States)

    Chung, Nam-Jin; Choi, Ki-Choon; Lee, Seung-Ah; Baek, Jin-A; Lee, Jeong-Chae


    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) has been a major dietary staple worldwide for centuries. Growing interest in the beneficial effects of antioxidants has inspired investigation of rice hulls as an attractive source of chemopreventive compounds for breast cancer intervention. We prepared methanol extracts from rice hulls of three Korean bred cultivars (japonica), Ilpum, Heugjinju, and Jeogjinju, and one japonica weedy rice, WD-3. We examined the antiproliferative potential of the hull extracts on MCF-7 human breast cancer cells and the related mechanisms thereof. Hull extracts inhibited proliferation of the cells and mediated G0/G1 phase arrest by suppressing cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases, where WD-3 extract showed the most potent. Blockage of p21 expression by small interfering RNA transfection attenuated G1 phase arrest induced by WD-3 extract. The WD-3 extract exhibited greater antioxidant potential and total phenolic compounds, compared with other rice hulls. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis for the F4 fractioned from WD-3 extract revealed that cinnamic acid derivatives were the major active constituents. The F4 fraction most potently inhibited proliferation of MCF-7 cells than WD-3 extract through the suppression of cell cycle regulatory factors. Collectively, our results suggest that the pigmented rice hulls possess greater antioxidant and chemopreventive activity against breast cancer than the other rice cultivars tested, demonstrating that WD-3 rice hulls are an attractive source of chemopreventive bioactive compounds.

  4. Impact of total substitution of corn for soybean hulls in diets for lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Patricia Viana Bastos


    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to assess the effect of substituting corn for soybean hulls on the apparent digestibility of nutrients, carcass performance and characteristics, and yield of cuts of 25 non-castrated male Santa Ines lambs with an initial body weight of 20±2 kg, at approximately 6 months of age, sheltered individually in stalls (1.10 × 1.0 m, considering a totally randomized design, fed 600 g/kg of forage and 400 g/kg of concentrate. Soybean hulls replaced corn at 0, 250, 500, 750, and 1,000 g/kg of dry matter. The intake of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF, NDF corrected for ash and protein (NDFap, total carbohydrates (TC, non-fibrous carbohydrates (NFC and total digestible nutrients (TDN in g/day, and the digestibility of NFC increased linearly with the soybean hull replacement. Crude protein intake displayed a quadratic response, whereas the intake of EE in g/day, the apparent digestibility coefficients of DM, OM, CP, EE, NDF, ADF, NDFap and TC, TDN, average daily gain, carcass characteristics, and yield of cuts were not affected by the soybean hull levels. Soybean hull substitution increased the intake of DM and nutrients, making it possible to replace up to 1,000 g/kg of dry matter in the diets for confined sheep, as it does not compromise performance, digestibility, carcass characteristics, or yield of cuts when used in sheep nutrition.

  5. Multi-scale evaluations of submarine groundwater discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Taniguchi


    Full Text Available Multi-scale evaluations of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD have been made in Saijo, Ehime Prefecture, Shikoku Island, Japan, by using seepage meters for point scale, 222Rn tracer for point and coastal scales, and a numerical groundwater model (SEAWAT for coastal and basin scales. Daily basis temporal changes in SGD are evaluated by continuous seepage meter and 222Rn mooring measurements, and depend on sea level changes. Spatial evaluations of SGD were also made by 222Rn along the coast in July 2010 and November 2011. The area with larger 222Rn concentration during both seasons agreed well with the area with larger SGD calculated by 3D groundwater numerical simulations.

  6. Risk assessment in submarine outfall projects: the case of Portugal. (United States)

    Mendonça, Ana; Losada, Miguel Ángel; Reis, Maria Teresa; Neves, Maria Graça


    Submarine outfalls need to be evaluated as part of an integrated environmental protection system for coastal areas. Although outfalls are tight with the diversity of economic activities along a densely populated coastline being effluent treatment and effluent reuse a sign of economic prosperity, precautions must be taken in the construction of these structures. They must be designed so as to have the least possible impact on the environment and at the same time be economically viable. This paper outlines the initial phases of a risk assessment procedure for submarine outfall projects. This approach includes a cost-benefit analysis in which risks are systematically minimized or eliminated. The methods used in this study also allow for randomness and uncertainty. The input for the analysis is a wide range of information and data concerning the failure probability of outfalls and the consequences of an operational stoppage or failure. As part of this risk assessment, target design levels of reliability, functionality, and operationality were defined for the outfalls. These levels were based on an inventory of risks associated with such construction projects, and thus afforded the possibility of identifying possible failure modes. This assessment procedure was then applied to four case studies in Portugal. The results obtained were the values concerning the useful life of the outfalls at the four sites and their joint probability of failure against the principal failure modes assigned to ultimate and serviceability limit states. Also defined were the minimum operationality of these outfalls, the average number of admissible technical breakdowns, and the maximum allowed duration of a stoppage mode. It was found that these values were in consonance with the nature of the effluent (tourist-related, industrial, or mixed) as well as its importance for the local economy. Even more important, this risk assessment procedure was able to measure the impact of the outfalls on

  7. Imaging deformation in submarine thrust belts using seismic attributes (United States)

    Iacopini, David; Butler, Robert W. H.


    Uncertainty exists as to the patterns of deformation that develop within submarine thrust belts. This case study uses a large-scale gravity-driven fold-thrust structure as an analogue for submarine fold thrust systems in general. Seismic attribute analysis and mapping provide ways of identifying complex fault patterns and associated deformation that are otherwise unresolved in conventional amplitude displays. These methods are developed and applied to a 3D dataset and used to investigate the geometry, internal architecture and the nature of the low signal/noise incoherency and discontinuities observed on the km-scale. Semblance (coherency), curvatures and spectral decomposition were all computed and used as attributes. Collectively these define volumes within the seismic data where the signal is greatly reduced — features termed here "disturbance geobodies". The study shows that thrust faults that, on conventional amplitude displays appear to be simple and continuous, are likely to consist of complex arrays of anastamosing fault strands. Adjacent to these composite fault zones are greater volumes of deformed rocks (disturbance geobodies) across which there are only minor stratal offsets. Similarly volumes of high stratal curvature coincide with disturbance geobodies, again interpreted as zones of weak, distributed deformation. These relationships between narrow thrust faults and broader zones of deformation are broadly comparable to those observed in outcrops within exhumed thrust systems. Application of the seismic imaging techniques developed here will improve the understanding of the localization of deformation in sedimentary successions with important implications for predicting fluid flow within other deep water structures such as subduction accretion complexes.

  8. Geo-hazard by sediment mass movements in submarine canyons (United States)

    Ghaith, Afif; Fakhri, Milad; Ivaldi, Roberta; Ciavola, Paolo


    Submarine mass movements and their consequences are of major concern for coastal communities and infrastructures but also for the exploitation and the development of seafloor resources. Elevated awareness of the need for better understanding of the underwater mass movement is coupled with great advances in underwater mapping technologies over the past two decades. The seafloor in the Nahr Ibrahim and Saida regions (Lebanon) is characterized by deep canyons, reaching one thousand meters depths in proximity of the coast. Signs of submarine mass movement instability related to these canyons create a connection between shallow and deep water. The presence of these canyons in a tectonically active area generates a particular drained mechanism to the sediment in form of mass movement and slumping. Identification of potential areas where slope movements could be triggered requires data with high spatial resolution. Since this area is poorly explored, in the framework of an international project between Lebanese Navy, Lebanese National Center for Marine Sciences, University of Ferrara and Italian Hydrographic Institute, we analyse the morpho-bathymetric and sedimentological characters of the coastal and shelf sectors. Multibeam echosounder and sub-bottom profiler acoustic systems calibrated with ground truths (sediment grab and core samples) allow us to characterize the nature of seafloor and sub-seafloor with particular detail to the geotechnical properties of sediments and high resolution seismic stratigraphy of the shallow layers. The detection of particular undersea features provides detail maps which are in support to littoral morpho-dynamics, coastal transport and sediment budget. Multilayer hydro-oceanographic map, referring to the seafloor dynamics in connection with deep water environment and drainage system, in accordance to the International Hydrographic Standards and nautical supports, are produced. This high resolution multibeam bathymetry dataset, integrated

  9. Intermediate products of sulfur disproportional reaction and their physical role in effusive to explosive submarine volcanic activity (United States)

    Nakamura, K.; Takano, B.; Butterfield, D. A.; Resing, J.; Chadwick, W. W.; Embley, R. W.


    Recent direct observations of submarine volcanic activity in the Mariana Arc are giving us a chance to examine the role of volcanic gas in submarine volcanic conduits. Unlike subaerial volcanoes, where hydrogeologic conditions have different character from place to place, the overlying water mass above submarine volcanoes gives a uniform hydrographic setting. Currently, the places where we can directly observe submarine volcanic activity are located deeper than 400 m, which raises the boiling point of seawater to over 240 deg C. This situation allows us to examine the interaction of volcanic gases with ambient seawater at a shorter distance from the magma source than at subaerial volcanic settings. Arc volcano settings give us longer and more frequent opportunities to make observations and provide a more diverse range of submarine volcanism than ridge settings. Among the three major components of volcanic gases (i.e., H2O, CO2 and SO2), water follows a two phase boundary below the critical temperature after volatile components leave from the magmatic source. Milky sulfur sol bearing hydrothermal fluid is commonly observed throughout Mariana active sites. Most of the sulfur sol (colloidal elemental sulfur and polysulfides) might be formed by disproportional reaction of sulfur dioxide with seawater when water vapor shrinks to liquid water. The reaction creates not only sulfur sol but also various types of sulfite, which affects the pH of seawater. We detected short-lived sulfite species in the water column above several active Mariana volcanoes such as NW Rota-1, Daikoku and Nikko by on-board HPLC. Because most observations are made on the liquid phase side of H2O boundary, it is very hard to get data to investigate the physical and chemical sulfur sol forming process occurring on the vapor phase side or at the critical state (i.e., near the magma source process). Carbon dioxide behaves as a gas at a wide range of pressures and temperatures and carries heat and

  10. Did a "lucky shot" sink the submarine H.L. Hunley? (United States)

    Lance, Rachel M; Warder, Henry; Bass, Cameron R Dale


    The H.L. Hunley was the first submarine to be successful in combat, sinking the Union vessel Housatonic outside Charleston Harbor in 1864 during the Civil War. However, despite marking a milestone in military history, little is known about this vessel or why it sank. One popular theory is the "lucky shot" theory: the hypothesis that small arms fire from the crew of the Housatonic may have sufficiently damaged the submarine to sink it. However, ballistic experiments with cast iron samples, analysis of historical experiments firing Civil War-era projectiles at cast iron samples, and calculation of the tidal currents and sinking trajectory of the submarine indicate that this theory is not likely. Based on our results, the "lucky shot" theory does not explain the sinking of the world's first successful combat submarine. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. The impact of glacier geometry on meltwater plume structure and submarine melt in Greenland fjords

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carroll, D.; Sutherland, D. A.; Hudson, B.; Moon, T.; Catania, G. A.; Shroyer, E. L.; Nash, J. D.; Bartholomaus, T. C.; Felikson, D.; Stearns, L. A.; Noël, B. P Y; van den Broeke, M. R.


    Meltwater from the Greenland Ice Sheet often drains subglacially into fjords, driving upwelling plumes at glacier termini. Ocean models and observations of submarine termini suggest that plumes enhance melt and undercutting, leading to calving and potential glacier destabilization. Here we

  12. An Analysis of the Effectiveness of a New Watchstanding Schedule for U.S. Submariners

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Osborn, Christopher


    A need exists within the U.S. submarine force to employ an operational schedule that provides more sleep and that is in better alignment with human circadian rhythms, thus improving cognitive effectiveness...

  13. Fuel cell systems for submarines: from the first idea to serial production (United States)

    Psoma, Angela; Sattler, Gunter

    The future submarines of Howaldtswerke-Deutsche Werft AG (HDW) will be equipped with fuel cell power plants for air independent propulsion. In the 1970s the decision for a fuel cell system on submarines was made. Tests in the 1980s confirmed the feasibility of fuel cells on submarines. Positive development results in the 1990s led to series production of fuel cell equipped submarines, which will be in operation from 2003 onwards. Strictly controlled development work was necessary to reach the goal of series production. The train of thought behind this process of development is described in this paper starting with the initial idea and ending with the description of the serial production of the fuel cell power plant. The future outlook gives an impression of current development work.

  14. Submarine Warfare in the 20th & 21st Centuries: A Bibliography

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Huygen, Michaele


    There are constant motions in the sea caused by atmospheric and seabed activities volcanic disruptions marine animals ships and submarines -- all of which create what is called the ambient noise level of the oceans...

  15. The risk of hydrogen explosion in a submarine p. IV The implementation of high risk projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kłos Ryszard


    Full Text Available This series of articles on high risk projects looks at the example of the modernisation of hydrogen incinerators on a submarine. The article describes problems connected with the management of such a project.

  16. Volume transport data from a submarine cable in the Florida Strait in 2014 (NODC Accession 0125429) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Daily mean and raw voltage volume transport data of the Florida Current collected with a submarine cable spanning from South Florida to the Grand Bahama Island in...

  17. A Statistical Analysis of the Impact of Marital Status on Nuclear Submarine Officer Retention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Phelps, Matthew


    This thesis develops multivariate logit models to estimate the impact of marital status and the independent effect of dependent children on nuclear submarine officer retention beyond the minimum service requirement (MSR...

  18. Observations of nearshore groundwater discharge: Kahekili Beach Park submarine springs, Maui, Hawaii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.W. Swarzenski


    New hydrological insights for the region: Estimates of submarine groundwater discharge were derived for a primary vent site and surrounding coastal waters off west Maui, Hawaii using an excess 222Rn (t1/2 = 3.8 d mass balance model. Such estimates were complemented with a novel thoron (220Rn, t1/2 = 56 s groundwater discharge tracer application, as well as oceanographic time series and thermal infrared imagery analyses. In combination, this suite of techniques provides new insight into the connectivity of the coastal aquifer with the near-shore ocean and examines the physical drivers of submarine groundwater discharge. Lastly, submarine groundwater discharge derived constituent concentrations were tabulated and compared to surrounding seawater concentrations. Such work has implications for the management of coastal aquifers and downstream nearshore ecosystems that respond to sustained constituent loadings via this submarine route.

  19. Dance With the One That Brought You: Revitalizing Antisubmarine Warfare to Counter Chinese Diesel Submarines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Farrell, Richard


    .... Navy needs to revitalize ASW, or risk losing the ability to gain sea control in strategic areas of the East Asian Littoral and South China Sea due to a rising Chinese diesel-electric submarine threat...

  20. Submarine Upward Looking Sonar Ice Draft Profile Data and Statistics, Version 1 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set consists of upward looking sonar sea ice draft data collected by submarines in the Arctic Ocean. It includes data from both U.S. Navy and Royal Navy...

  1. Navy Trident Submarine Conversion (SSGN) Program: Background and Issues for Congress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Rourke, Ronald


    ...) into cruisemissile- carrying and special operations forces (SOF) support submarines (SSGNs). The total estimated cost of the program, which has been increasing over time, is now $4,018 million...

  2. Possibility of submarine landslide triggering due to dissociation of hydrates - an approach through ring shear tests (United States)

    Fukuoka, Hiroshi; Dok, Atitkagna


    In Japan, the MH21 Research Consortium is developing the advanced technology of mining submarine methane hydrates by reducing pressure of hydrates to induce dissociation and gasification of hydrates. However, assessment and prediction technology of dissociation is still under development through intensive study. On the other hands, authors have pointed out the possibility of large-scale submarine landslides by the sliding surface liquefaction of the hydrate bearing- layers. Author has tested dry-ice and silica-sands mixture specimen as a methane hydrate substitutes in a series of partially-drained high speed / stress-controlled ring shear tests. Their results strongly suggest the possibility of sliding surface liquefaction under strong seismic condition, while the possibility of extensive dissociation especially under mining by reducing pressure is not clear. Author modified the ring shear apparatus DPRI-7 of Kyoto University so that it can cool down the specimen and measure the specimen temperature during shearing. Silica sands #7 submerged in TBAB (Tetra-butyl-ammonium bromide) solution was used for the specimen. This TBAB solution was frozen at around room temperature of 8 - 12 degrees Celsius under 1 atmospheric pressure. A series of constant speed shearing test was conducted to examine the rate-effect. Frictional characteristics was achieved under 0.1 - 10 cm/s of shear speed which was changed in stepping-up and down. The results show rather the temperature effect was obvious than the speed. At the first shearing of the specimen immediately after frozen, extreme high peak stress was obtained. Then the residual shear strength showed medium peak at temperature of about 4 degrees, then gradually decreased up to about 10 degrees. The medium peak of shear strength may come from the generation of angular grains due to crushing the specimen during initial shearing. The decreasing thereafter may have resulted from further crushing, rounding of the hydrates and

  3. Multi-core Fibers in Submarine Networks for High-Capacity Undersea Transmission Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nooruzzaman, Md; Morioka, Toshio


    Application of multi-core fibers in undersea networks for high-capacity submarine transmission systems is studied. It is demonstrated how different architectures of submerged branching unit affect network component counts in long-haul undersea transmission systems......Application of multi-core fibers in undersea networks for high-capacity submarine transmission systems is studied. It is demonstrated how different architectures of submerged branching unit affect network component counts in long-haul undersea transmission systems...

  4. They Have Not Yet Begun to Fight: Women in the United States Navy Submarine Fleet (United States)


    Navy Nurse Corps in 1908. The Nurse Corps was highly educated for the time and maintained high professional standards.3 Regardless, the struggle to...nation’s navies who integrated women into their submarine fleets ahead of the U.S. Navy. Norway, Sweden , Australian, and Great Britain all...Nations such as Norway and Sweden have been incorporating females into their submarines since the mid-1980s. 39 Sweden has had female sailors

  5. The Close Aboard Bastion: a Soviet ballistic missile submarine deployment strategy


    Kreitler, Walter M


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis describes and analyzes a possible deployment posture for the Soviet ballistic missile submarine force. It examines the proposition that the Soviet Navy will establish a point defense, labeled "Close Aboard Bastions" (CABs), for its ballistic missile submarine fleet within the Soviet claimed 12 nautical mile territorial sea. This is a logical derivation of the currently widely held view that the Soviets will estab...

  6. Submarine channel evolution linked to rising salt domes, Gulf of Mexico, USA (United States)

    Carter, Rachel C.; Gani, M. Royhan; Roesler, Toby; Sarwar, Abu K. M.


    An examination of halokinetics and channel evolution together in a deepwater system provides an opportunity to investigate how submarine channel morphology is locally affected by rising salt domes. The study area is located in the northern Gulf of Mexico (GOM), directly off the Louisiana continental slope in a prominent salt dome region. The influence of salt growth on submarine channel evolution is relatively understudied, particularly in the GOM. Utilizing high-resolution 3D seismic and well data and seismic geomorphology techniques, a long-lived (~ 3 Myr) Plio-Pleistocene submarine channel system has been investigated to show a relationship between variable phases of salt motion and planform morphology of preserved submarine channels. Our data suggest that local salt motion acts as a driver for submarine channel evolution. During the late Pliocene, when salt moved upward at a relatively fast rate, channels show distinct entrenchment with narrow channel belts and overall less sinuosity. When salt motion slowed down at the beginning of the Pleistocene, channels aggraded rapidly with preserved levees, and moved toward an equilibrium state with the expansion of channel belt widths. As our results indicate, the rate of salt diapirism exerted a first-order control on channel location and morphology and distribution of reservoir-prone units. This study cautions against readily invoking allogenic factors (e.g., sea level and climate) in explaining changes in submarine channel behavior and associated fan sedimentation, particularly in regions with salt tectonics.

  7. Observations of nearshore groundwater discharge: Kahekili Beach Park submarine springs, Maui, Hawaii (United States)

    Swarzenski, Peter W.; Dulai, H.; Kroeger, K.D.; Smith, C.G.; Dimova, N.; Storlazzi, C. D.; Prouty, N.G.; Gingerich, S.B.; Glenn, C. R.


    Study regionThe study region encompasses the nearshore, coastal waters off west Maui, Hawaii. Here abundant groundwater—that carries with it a strong land-based fingerprint—discharges into the coastal waters and over a coral reef.Study focusCoastal groundwater discharge is a ubiquitous hydrologic feature that has been shown to impact nearshore ecosystems and material budgets. A unique combined geochemical tracer and oceanographic time-series study addressed rates and oceanic forcings of submarine groundwater discharge at a submarine spring site off west Maui, Hawaii.New hydrological insights for the regionEstimates of submarine groundwater discharge were derived for a primary vent site and surrounding coastal waters off west Maui, Hawaii using an excess 222Rn (t1/2 = 3.8 d) mass balance model. Such estimates were complemented with a novel thoron (220Rn,t1/2 = 56 s) groundwater discharge tracer application, as well as oceanographic time series and thermal infrared imagery analyses. In combination, this suite of techniques provides new insight into the connectivity of the coastal aquifer with the near-shore ocean and examines the physical drivers of submarine groundwater discharge. Lastly, submarine groundwater discharge derived constituent concentrations were tabulated and compared to surrounding seawater concentrations. Such work has implications for the management of coastal aquifers and downstream nearshore ecosystems that respond to sustained constituent loadings via this submarine route.

  8. Review of Hull Structural Monitoring Systems for Navy Ships (United States)


    cases of uniaxial strain, the dummy gauge is attached perpendicularly to the active gauge. The dummy gauge is connected in a Wheatstone bridge ...interface (GUI) on the bridge . A more typical configuration with four long-base strain gauges (LBSGs) is however illustrated in Figure 2. In the bow to measure slamming incidents, bow emergence and slamming pressures. On larger vessels where the deckhouse and bridge are located aft

  9. Estimation of hull girder vertical bending moments including non-linear and flexibility effects using closed form expressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher


    A simple but rational procedure for prediction of extreme wave-induced hull girder bending moment is presented. The procedure takes into account main ship hull characteristics such as: length, breadth, draught, block coefficient, bow flare coefficient, forward speed and hull flexibility. The wave......-induced loads are evaluated for specific operational profiles. Non-linearity in the wave bending moment is modeled using results derived from a second-order strip theory and water entry solutions for wedge type sections. Hence, bow flare slamming is accounted for through a momentum type of approach......-linear strip theory calculations and supplemented with new closed form results for the hogging bending moment. Focus is on the extreme hull girder hogging bending moment. Due to the few input parameters this procedure can be used to estimate the wave-induced bending moments at the conceptual design phase...

  10. The roles of the convex hull and the number of potential intersections in performance on visually presented traveling salesperson problems. (United States)

    Vickers, Douglas; Lee, Michael D; Dry, Matthew; Hughes, Peter


    The planar Euclidean version of the traveling salesperson problem requires finding the shortest tour through a two-dimensional array of points. MacGregor and Ormerod (1996) have suggested that people solve such problems by using a global-to-local perceptual organizing process based on the convex hull of the array. We review evidence for and against this idea, before considering an alternative, local-to-global perceptual process, based on the rapid automatic identification of nearest neighbors. We compare these approaches in an experiment in which the effects of number of convex hull points and number of potential intersections on solution performance are measured. Performance worsened with more points on the convex hull and with fewer potential intersections. A measure of response uncertainty was unaffected by the number of convex hull points but increased with fewer potential intersections. We discuss a possible interpretation of these results in terms of a hierarchical solution process based on linking nearest neighbor clusters.

  11. Evaluation of Test Antifouling (AF) and Foul Release Coating Systems on Bilge Keel Panels and Ship Hulls

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Radakovich, Thomas


    .... Evaluation consisted of two phases, bilge keel panel testing and hull patch testing. Four ships served as test platforms for bilge keel panel testing; USS FOSTER (DD 980). USS THOMAS GATES (CG 51), USS LEYTE GULF (CG 55...

  12. Embryonic origins of hull cells in the flatworm Macrostomum lignano through cell lineage analysis: developmental and phylogenetic implications. (United States)

    Willems, Maxime; Egger, Bernhard; Wolff, Carsten; Mouton, Stijn; Houthoofd, Wouter; Fonderie, Pamela; Couvreur, Marjolein; Artois, Tom; Borgonie, Gaëtan


    The development of macrostomid flatworms is of interest for evolutionary developmental biology research because these taxa combine characteristics of the canonical spiral cleavage pattern with significant deviations from this pattern. One such deviation is the formation of hull cells, which surround the remaining embryonic primordium during early development. Using live observations with a 4D microscope system, histology, and 3D reconstructions, we analyzed the ontogeny of these hull cells in the macrostomid model organism Macrostomum lignano. Our cell lineage analysis allowed us to find the precursors of the hull cells in this species. We discuss the relation between macrostomid development and the development of other spiralians and the question of whether hull cells are homologous within rhabditophoran flatworms.

  13. The influence of proanthocyanidin-rich bean hulls and level of dietary protein on energy metabolizability and nutrient digestibility by adult cockerels. (United States)

    Longstaff, M A; Feuerstein, D; McNab, J M; McCorquodale, C


    Cotyledons and hulls were prepared from twelve varieties of field beans (Vicia faba L.). Adult cockerels were tube-fed either beans, cotyledons or hull diets containing high or low levels of protein. Metabolizable energy coefficients and starch digestibility coefficients were determined for beans, cotyledons and hull diets. Lipid digestibility coefficients from hull diets were also determined. When cotyledons were fed there were no significant differences in the way in which adult cockerels metabolized energy or digested starch from the proanthocyanidin-free and proanthocyanidin-rich varieties (0.780, 0.908, 0.775 and 0.918 respectively). When beans were fed, however, both energy metabolizability and starch digestibility decreased due to the presence of hulls, with proanthocyanidin-rich hulls decreasing values the most to 0.660 and 0.819 respectively, and proanthocyanidin-free hulls decreasing values to a lesser extent to 0.709 and 0.886 respectively. Diets composed of proanthocyanidin-rich hulls depressed metabolizable energy and maize starch digestibility. Their effect on maize starch digestibility, however, was considerably less than that on bean starch. Lipid digestibility was enhanced by proanthocyanidins but only when the protein content of the diet was high. There was a significant correlation (P bean starch digestibility v. proanthocyanidin content of coloured-flowered bean hulls (P < 0.001). The regression of maize starch digestibility v. hull proanthocyanidins was also significant at P < 0.005.

  14. Experimental modeling of gravity underflow in submarine channels (United States)

    Islam, Mohammad Ashraful

    Active and relic meandering channels are common on the seafloor adjacent to continental margins. These channels and their associated submarine fan deposits are products of the density-driven gravity flows known as turbidity currents. Unlike natural rivers, few attempts have been made to explore the process of channel meandering in the submarine environment. This research focuses on resolving the flow field of submarine channels by conducting experiments in a large laboratory basin. Saline and particulate density flows were studied in a straight channel, a single bend sinuous channel with vertical sidewalls and a multiple-bend sinuous channel with sloping sidewalls. Instantaneous velocities in steady developed currents were measured using 3-component acoustic Doppler velocity probes. Excess fractional density was measured at selected locations by collecting water sample using a siphon rake. Turbulent kinetic energy and Reynolds stress components are derived from the instantaneous velocity data of the straight channel experiments. Structure functions for mean velocity, Reynolds stress and turbulent kinetic energy profiles are derived by fitting normalized data. The normalized Reynolds-averaged velocity shows excellent similarity collapse while the Reynolds-stress and the turbulent kinetic energy profiles display reasonable similarity. Vertical profiles of the turbulent kinetic energy display two peaks separated by a zone of low turbulence; the ratio of the maximum to the depth-averaged turbulent kinetic energy is approximately 1.5. Theoretical profile of turbulent kinetic energy is derived. Comparisons of experimentally and theoretically derived turbulent kinetic energy profiles show reasonable agreement except at the position of velocity maximum where the theoretical profile displays a very small value. Velocity profiles derived from the measurements with confined flow in the single bend channel reveal that channel curvature drives two helical flow cells, one

  15. Performance and carcass traits of goat kids fed high-concentrate diets containing citrus pulp or soybean hulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Montanher Polizel


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The objective in this trial was to determine the effects of partial replacement of ground corn by citrus pulp or soybean hulls on performance and carcass characteristics of feedlot goat kids. Twenty one Boer x Saanen kids (initial BW 15.8 ± 0.7kg, nine males and 12 females, were distributed in a complete randomized block design, according to sex and initial body weight. Treatments were set by replacing 50% of ground corn (DM basis for citrus pulp or soybean hulls; whereas, forage concentrate ratio was of 10:90. Partial replacement of corn by citrus pulp or soybean hulls increased dry matter intake, average daily gain and final body weight, but feed efficiency was not affected. There was no difference between citrus pulp or soybean hulls. Inclusion of coproducts increased slaughter weight, hot and cold carcass weight and longissimus muscle area, with no difference between citrus pulp and soybean hulls. Subcutaneous fat thickness, hot and cold carcass yields, shrink after chilling and body wall thickness were not affected by treatments. Citrus pulp and soybean hulls can replace 50% of ground corn (DM basis increasing dry matter intake and weight gain in goat kids enabling higher slaughter weight at earlier age.

  16. Influence of harvest year in the physicochemical properties and antioxidant activity of flaxseed hull oils from Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahid Herchi


    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to determine the effect of five years on physico-chemical characteristics and antioxidant activity of flaxseed hull oils. Oil and protein on flaxseed hull varied between 20.15 and 22.56 and 17.45 and 19.14, respectively. The albumin fraction dominated the seed hull protein composition (44 - 47%. Flaxseed hull oils showed significantly high unsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratios (6.61 - 8.36 and calculated oxidizability (Cox values (10.88 - 12.30. The physiochemical parameters determined included saponification value (SV (174 -182 mg KOH/g, unsaponifiable matter (UM (1.32 - 1.64%, peroxide value (PV (1.70 - 2.20 mequiv/kg, Oxidation value (OV (4.40 - 5.90 and oil stability (1.10 - 1.42 h. The highest content of total phenolic acids and total tocopherols were recorded on hull sample collected in 2008. Flavanoid content ranged from 11 to 19 mg/100 g oil. Antioxidant activity differed significantly; the greatest inhibition (61.38% was for the hull sample collected in 2008.

  17. Distribution Characterization of Leaf and Hull Pubescences and Genetic Analysis of Their Numbers in japonica Rice (Oryza sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-biao ZHU


    Full Text Available Distributions of pubescences on leaf blade and hull in japonica rice were observed under an optical microscope. Numbers of leaf and hull pubescences in P1, P2, F1, B1, B2 and F2 generations were investigated in three combinations of japonica rice (Sidao 10A/Wuyujing 3R, Wuyujing 3A/Sidao 10R and Liuyan 189A/HR-122, and genetic analysis for these two traits were conducted by using the joint analysis method of P1, P2, F1, B1, B2 and F2 generations with the mixed major gene plus polygene inheritance models. Leaf pubescences characterized by swollen base and fine tip distributed regularly on the boundary between dark green stripe and light green stripe of leaf blade. Hull pubescences with various lengths distributed irregularly on the whole hull. Numbers of leaf pubescences in the reciprocal combinations of Sidao 10A/Wuyujing 3R and Wuyujing 3A/Sidao 10R and numbers of hull pubescences in all the three combinations were controlled by one pair of additive major genes plus additive-dominant polygenes. In the combination of Liuyan 189A/HR-122, number of leaf pubescences was controlled by one pair of additive-dominant major genes plus additive-dominant polygenes. Both numbers of leaf and hull pubescences were mainly governed by major genes.

  18. Hull Formula and Standard of Compensation for Expropriation in Postcolonial States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ya’kub Aiyub Kadir


    ABSTRAK: Setelah progam dekolonisasi negara-negara jajahan, salah satu isu yang mencuat dalam hukum internasional adalah perlindungan investasi asing dari nasionalisasi  negera negara baru merdeka. Dalam hal ini hull formula yang mulanya didesain oleh negara Amerika terhadap Mexico, digunakan sebagai standar kompensasi dari nasionalisasi. Dari perspektif negara negara poskolonial standar ini dianggap tidak adil, bahkan standar ini digunakan hanya untuk memperkuat dominasi negara negara penjajah di bekas jajahannya. Dengan menggunakan metodologi kajian hukum kritis, tulisan ini ingin mengkaji sejauhmana relevansi hull formula untuk diterapkan dalam konteks negara-negara poskolonial. Tulisan ini diharapkan dapat berkontribusi untuk pemahaman konsep tentang standar kompensasi terhadap nasionalisasi di negara negara poskolonial, dan dapat membuka wacana merumuskan kembali standar secara lebih fair dan adil dari perspektif  negara postkolonial.

  19. Coefficients of Propeller-hull Interaction in Propulsion System of Inland Waterway Vessels with Stern Tunnels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kulczyk


    Full Text Available Propeller-hull interaction coefficients - the wake fraction and the thrust deduction factor - play significant role in design of propulsion system of a ship. In the case of inland waterway vessels the reliable method of predicting these coefficients in early design stage is missing. Based on the outcomes from model tests and from numerical computations the present authors show that it is difficult to determine uniquely the trends in change of wake fraction and thrust deduction factor resulting from the changes of hull form or operating conditions. Nowadays the resistance and propulsion model tests of inland waterway vessels are carried out rarely because of relatively high costs. On the other hand, the degree of development of computational methods enables’ to estimate the reliable values o interaction coefficients. The computations referred to in the present paper were carried out using the authors’ own software HPSDKS and the commercial software Ansys Fluent.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Chmelová


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was determine suitable conditions for antioxidant extraction from different oat (Avena sativa L. varieties, specifically naked oat (Tatran, and yellow (Atego, black (Paddock and white (Fredy hulled oats. Antioxidant activity was determined by radical-scavenging activity on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical. The results showed that methanol reported the highest recovery of antioxidant compounds in range from 150 to 228 μg/g plant material. The highest antioxidant activities were measured in naked oat Tatran (228 μg/g plant material and black hulled oat Paddock (202 μg/g plant material. We achieved higher yields of antioxidant activities by increasing the solid-liquid ratio (w/v (229 – 303 μg/g plant material. Extraction time was 240 minutes for maximal antioxidant activities in all oat varieties.

  1. Research development of buckling and ultimate strength of hull plate and stiffened panel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Yanting


    Full Text Available Buckling and ultimate strength of hull plate and stiffened panel are important contents in the de-sign of ship structures,have achieved plenteous results in recent years. The research development of buck-ling and ultimate strength of steel hull plate and stiffened panel in the past decade at home and abroad is re-viewed for the convenience of carrying out studies and researches. The case of static loading is emphatical-ly described,the cyclic loading and dynamic loading are also introduced. A systematical overview is pre-sented for intact structures and damaged structures under single load or combined loads,in accordance with four kinds of research methods,which are experiment,numerical computation method,analytical method and comprehensive approach. The superiority and inferiority of each research method are assessed. Significant achievements are summarized,and six further problems are identified for the future study.

  2. Using Google Earth for Submarine Operations at Pavilion Lake (United States)

    Deans, M. C.; Lees, D. S.; Fong, T.; Lim, D. S.


    During the July 2009 Pavilion Lake field test, we supported submarine "flight" operations using Google Earth. The Intelligent Robotics Group at NASA Ames has experience with ground data systems for NASA missions, earth analog field tests, disaster response, and the Gigapan camera system. Leveraging this expertise and existing software, we put together a set of tools to support sub tracking and mapping, called the "Surface Data System." This system supports flight planning, real time flight operations, and post-flight analysis. For planning, we make overlays of the regional bedrock geology, sonar bathymetry, and sonar backscatter maps that show geology, depth, and structure of the bottom. Placemarks show the mooring locations for start and end points. Flight plans are shown as polylines with icons for waypoints. Flight tracks and imagery from previous field seasons are embedded in the map for planning follow-on activities. These data provide context for flight planning. During flights, sub position is updated every 5 seconds from the nav computer on the chase boat. We periodically update tracking KML files and refresh them with network links. A sub icon shows current location of the sub. A compass rose shows bearings to indicate heading to the next waypoint. A "Science Stenographer" listens on the voice loop and transcribes significant observations in real time. Observations called up to the surface immediately appear on the map as icons with date, time, position, and what was said. After each flight, the science back room immediately has the flight track and georeferenced notes from the pilots. We add additional information in post-processing. The submarines record video continuously, with "event" timestamps marked by the pilot. We cross-correlate the event timestamps with position logs to geolocate events and put a preview image and compressed video clip into the map. Animated flight tracks are also generated, showing timestamped position and providing timelapse

  3. Did a submarine landslide contribute to the 2011 Tohoku tsunami?

    KAUST Repository

    Tappin, David R.


    Many studies have modeled the Tohoku tsunami of March 11, 2011 as being due entirely to slip on an earthquake fault, but the following discrepancies suggest that further research is warranted. (1) Published models of tsunami propagation and coastal impact underpredict the observed runup heights of up to 40 m measured along the coast of the Sanriku district in the northeast part of Honshu Island. (2) Published models cannot reproduce the timing and high-frequency content of tsunami waves recorded at three nearshore buoys off Sanriku, nor the timing and dispersion properties of the waveforms at offshore DART buoy #21418. (3) The rupture centroids obtained by tsunami inversions are biased about 60 km NNE of that obtained by the Global CMT Project. Based on an analysis of seismic and geodetic data, together with recorded tsunami waveforms, we propose that, while the primary source of the tsunami was the vertical displacement of the seafloor due to the earthquake, an additional tsunami source is also required. We infer the location of the proposed additional source based on an analysis of the travel times of higher-frequency tsunami waves observed at nearshore buoys. We further propose that the most likely additional tsunami source was a submarine mass failure (SMF—i.e., a submarine landslide). A comparison of pre- and post-tsunami bathymetric surveys reveals tens of meters of vertical seafloor movement at the proposed SMF location, and a slope stability analysis confirms that the horizontal acceleration from the earthquake was sufficient to trigger an SMF. Forward modeling of the tsunami generated by a combination of the earthquake and the SMF reproduces the recorded on-, near- and offshore tsunami observations well, particularly the high-frequency component of the tsunami waves off Sanriku, which were not well simulated by previous models. The conclusion that a significant part of the 2011 Tohoku tsunami was generated by an SMF source has important implications for

  4. Geophysical evidence and inferred triggering factors of submarine landslides on the western continental margin of the Ulleung Basin, East Sea (United States)

    Cukur, Deniz; Kim, Seong-Pil; Kong, Gee-Soo; Bahk, Jang-Jun; Horozal, Senay; Um, In-Kwon; Lee, Gwang-Soo; Chang, Tae-Soo; Ha, Hun-Jun; Völker, David; Kim, Jung-Ki


    Submarine landslides form very complex depositional and erosional features on the seafloor, and their dynamics and triggering processes are yet to be understood completely. Numerous studies are being undertaken both because of the scientific significance but also for their potential harm to seafloor infrastructure and coastal areas. This study investigates the styles and causes of landsliding along the western margin of the Ulleung Basin in the East Sea, based on multiple sparker, subbottom profiler, multibeam echosounder and sediment core datasets collected in 2015. The bathymetric analyses indicate that the southern slope of the Ulleung Basin has experienced at least seven submarine failures. These failures left clear arcuate-shaped scarps that initiated at water depths of 600 m. The observed headwall scarps have heights that exceed 60 m and appear to be the result of retrogressive-type failures. Seismic reflection data clearly image the basal sliding surface that is characterized by a prominent high-amplitude reflector. Chaotic-to-transparent seismic facies occur immediately downslope of the headwall scarps; these represent 20 m thick landslide deposits. Gravity cores taken from areas adjacent to the scars suggest that these slides are older than ca. 97 ka. Interpretation of the present data shows that faults appear to cut recent sediments upslope of scarps, and that the slope may still be in an active phase of failure. Seismic data also image various overpressurized gases and/or gas fluids, as evidenced by the occurrence of pockmarks and seismic chimneys in upslope or adjacent areas of the scarps. Hence, earthquakes associated with tectonic activity and development of fluid overpressure may have acted as the main conditioning factor for destabilizing the slope sediments. Geotechnical stability analyses indicate that the sampled slope sediments are exceptionally stable under present-day conditions, even under seismic loading. This finding points to additional

  5. Properties of Moldings Prepared from LDPE-Pumpkin Seed Hulls Blend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Głogowska


    Full Text Available In recent decades, standard polymer blends for different applications have been more and more often replaced by blends containing raw materials. The use of natural materials as filler in thermoplastics brings both economic and environmental benefits. The use of a given vegetable filler depends on the geographic location and natural occurrence of the vegetables in a given geographic region. In Poland, for instance, the pumpkin is one of such vegetables. They are used for producing oil which is pressed from pumpkin seeds. Pumpkin seeds are then collected, dried and purified to produce waste material in hull form. Particles of ground pumpkin seed hulls with varying sizes and weight-in-weight concentration ranging from 0% to 20% relative to the matrix are used as filler in low-density polyethylene. Pumpkin seed hulls are ground and sieved. Four fractions of hulls with different particle sizes are produced: <0.2mm, 0.2mm-0.4mm, 0.4mm-0.6mm, 0.6mm-0.8mm. The paper reports the results of investigation of the mechanical properties, i.e., strength properties determined by static tensile testing and hardness measurement, of injection molds produced at constant processing parameters. In addition, the cross sections of the obtained products are subjected to microscopic examination. Relationships are determined between tensile modulus, maximum tensile stress, tensile stress at yield, maximum tensile strain, tensile strain at yield as well as Shore hardness and weigh-in-weight concentration of the powdered natural filler and its grain sizes. Finally, relevant conclusions are drawn.

  6. Design of high-speed planing hulls for the improvement of resistance and seakeeping performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Jin Kim


    Full Text Available High-speed vessels require good resistance and seakeeping performance for safe operations in rough seas. The resistance and seakeeping performance of high-speed vessels varies significantly depending on their hull forms. In this study, three planing hulls that have almost the same displacement and principal dimension are designed and the hydrodynamic characteristics of those hulls are estimated by high-speed model tests. All model ships are deep-V type planing hulls. The bows of no.2 and no.3 model ships are designed to be advantageous for wave-piercing in rough water. No. 2 and no. 3 model ships have concave and straight forebody cross-sections, respectively. And length-to-beam ratios of no.2 and no.3 models are larger than that of no.1 model. In calm water tests, running attitude and resistance of model ships are measured at various speeds. And motion tests in regular waves are performed to measure the heave and pitch motion responses of the model ships. The required power of no.1 (VPS model is smallest, but its vertical motion amplitudes in waves are the largest. No.2 (VWC model shows the smallest motion amplitudes in waves, but needs the greatest power at high speed. The resistance and seakeeping performance of no.3 (VWS model ship are the middle of three model ships, respectively. And in regular waves, no.1 model ship experiences ‘fly over’ phenomena around its resonant frequency. Vertical accelerations at specific locations such as F.P., center of gravity of model ships are measured at their resonant frequency. It is necessary to measure accelerations by accelerometers or other devices in model tests for the accurate prediction of vertical accelerations in real ships.

  7. Characterization and Mineralization Rates of Low Temperature Peanut Hull and Pine Chip Biochars


    Harris, Keith; Gaskin, Julia; Cabrera, Miguel; Miller, William; Das, K.C.


    Biochar can potentially increase soil fertility and sequester carbon by incorporating nutrients and stable black carbon into the soil; however its effect on soil nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) processes is not well understood. A defined methodology to characterize biochar is necessary to predict how specific biochars will affect C and N mineralization. We amended a Tifton soil (Fine-loamy, siliceous, thermic Plinthic Kandiudults) with peanut hull (Arachis hypogaea; PH; 2.1% N) and pine chip (Pin...

  8. Thin-Walled Beam Theories and Their Applications in the Torsional Strength Analysis of Ship Hulls. (United States)


    numerous deep web frames and transverse bulkheads. The system has been utilized in a study of a frigate under an assumed torsional/flexural load, the...transverse bulkheads and r deep web frames. Figure 18 indicates that, despite the poor agreement in twist angle, the axial stress results compare quite...under torsional loads. This will be the case for a typical warship hull, because of the large number of deep web frames and transverse bulkheads. The

  9. Carbonized rice hull as substratum to produce tamboril-da-mata and garapeira seedlings


    Huezer Viganô Sperandio; Waldir Nagel Schirmer; Marcos Vinicius Winckler Caldeira; Fabio Luiz Fleig Saidelles


    The production of forest seedlings, in quantity and quality, is one of the most important steps for the establishment of good stands with native species. Therefore, the substrate is the factor that makes a significant influence in the development of seedlings and many materials can be used in its original composition or combined. This work focus on evaluating the influence of carbonized rice hull as substrate for the production of seedlings of Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Vell.) Morong) and...

  10. Effect of alum (top-dressed and mixed) with rice hulls on pH and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the experiment was to evaluate the effects of alum top dressed or mixed with rice hulls as litter management methods on pH and NH3 emissions. A total of 180 broiler chickens were randomly allocated to 12 pens to a density of 0.07 m2/bird for 5 weeks, creating 4 replicates of 3 experimental treatments with 15 ...

  11. Maintained ship hull girder ultimate strength reliability considering corrosion and fatigue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yong; Cui, W.; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup


    The prupose of this paper is to propose a methodology to assess the time-variant ultimate strength of ship hull girder under the degradations of corrosion and fatigue. The effects of fatigue cracks on the tensile and compressive residual ultimate strength of stiffened panels and unstiffened plates...... developed is illustrated by application to a tanker. For a given set of inspection and repair criteria, the ultimate bending moment and reliability as a function of ship age is predicted....

  12. The Effect of Material and Side Walls on Hull Deflection during a Blast Event (United States)


    and has a great resistance to corrosion . When aluminum reacts with oxygen, a thin layer of oxide is created and provides corrosion protection .3...made of aluminum rather than steel is the vehicle hull because the same level of protection could be achieved at a lighter weight. A rectangular...the design of military vehicles. Since World War II, rolled homogeneous armor (RHA) steel has been the primary material used to protect main armor

  13. Purified cellulose, soybean hulls and citrus pulp as a source of fiber for weaned piglets


    Leonardo Augusto Fonseca Pascoal; Maria Cristina Thomaz; Pedro Henrique Watanabe; Urbano dos Santos Ruiz; Alessandro Borges Amorim; Everton Daniel; Susana Zaneti da Silva


    Dietary fiber is an important component, which has a direct effect on intake, digestion, and absorption of nutrients; and also alters intestinal microbiota and morphology according to solubility. One digestibility trial and one performance experiment were performed to evaluate the effects of sources of fiber in diets for 21 day weaned piglets. The experimental diets used in both trials consisted of a control diet and diets with purified cellulose, soybean hulls or citrus pulp as a main source...

  14. Losses through gases and effluent and nutritional value of Brachiaria decumbens with addition of soybean hulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Clayton Oliveira Dantas


    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the losses of nutrient through gases and effluents, the nutrient recovery, fermentation parameters and the chemical parameters of silages of Brachiaria decumbens with the addition of soybean hulls, testing five levels of inclusion: 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40% (as is, with five replications per treatment. After the standardization cut of the forage, performed at 5 cm from the soil level, the soil was fertilized with nitrogen and potassium in the form of ammonium sulfate and potassium chloride, respectively, at 60 kg/ha. After 60 days, the grass was cut at 10 cm from the soil and ensiled. Experimental silos with capacity of 10 liters with Bunsen valve were used. Silos had 3 kg of sand conditioned at the bottom for retention of the effluents. The results show that the contents of dry matter, crude protein, acid detergent insoluble fiber and total digestible nutrients presented positive linear behavior with the inclusion of soybean hulls. In the grass silages with addition of soybean hulls, there was greater recovery of dry matter in relation to the control silage, which is a reflection of the negative linear behavior for the values of losses of gases and effluent. There was quadratic behavior in the pH values and negative linear behavior for the ammonia N values and buffering capacity with the inclusion of the additive in the grass silage. Inclusion of soybean hulls is sufficient to improve the fermentation pattern and minimize the losses through gases and effluents, contributing to the nutrient recovery, in addition to promoting overall improvement of the nutritional value of Brachiaria grass silages.

  15. An interpolation method of b-spline surface for hull form design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung-Bae Jung


    Full Text Available This paper addresses the problem of B-spline surface interpolation of scattered points for a hull form design, which are not arbitrarily scattered, but can be arranged in a series of contours permitting variable number of points in the contours. A new approach that allows different parameter value for each point on the same contour has been adopted. The usefulness and quality of the interpolation has been demonstrated with some experimental results.

  16. Efficiency measurement with a non-convex free disposal hull technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fukuyama, Hirofumi; Hougaard, Jens Leth; Sekitani, Kazuyuki


    We investigate the basic monotonicity properties of least-distance (in)efficiency measures on the class of non-convex FDH (free disposable hull) technologies. We show that any known FDH least-distance measure violates strong monotonicity over the strongly (Pareto-Koopmans) efficient frontier....... Taking this result into account, we develop a new class of FDH least-distance measures that satisfy strong monotonicity and show that the developed (in)efficiency measurement framework has a natural profit interpretation....

  17. Design of a High Speed Planing Hull with a Cambered Step and Surface Piercing Hydrofoils (United States)


    than 15 degrees to achieve the best results. The Model 5631 Dynaplane design addresses the extension of Clement’s design with respect to a 20...specific applications. In our very high speed Dynaplane configuration, the SPSC hydrofoils designed by Dr. Brizzolara proved to be the best option. 43...Adapted from original code written by Greg Mitchell and Clint Lawler % for use in the Resistance Module for the Planing Hull Analysis and

  18. Visual hull method for tomographic PIV measurement of flow around moving objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adhikari, D.; Longmire, E.K. [University of Minnesota, Department of Aerospace Engineering and Mechanics, Minneapolis, MN (United States)


    Tomographic particle image velocimetry (PIV) is a recently developed method to measure three components of velocity within a volumetric space. We present a visual hull technique that automates identification and masking of discrete objects within the measurement volume, and we apply existing tomographic PIV reconstruction software to measure the velocity surrounding the objects. The technique is demonstrated by considering flow around falling bodies of different shape with Reynolds number {proportional_to}1,000. Acquired image sets are processed using separate routines to reconstruct both the volumetric mask around the object and the surrounding tracer particles. After particle reconstruction, the reconstructed object mask is used to remove any ghost particles that otherwise appear within the object volume. Velocity vectors corresponding with fluid motion can then be determined up to the boundary of the visual hull without being contaminated or affected by the neighboring object velocity. Although the visual hull method is not meant for precise tracking of objects, the reconstructed object volumes nevertheless can be used to estimate the object location and orientation at each time step. (orig.)

  19. Visual hull method for tomographic PIV measurement of flow around moving objects (United States)

    Adhikari, D.; Longmire, E. K.


    Tomographic particle image velocimetry (PIV) is a recently developed method to measure three components of velocity within a volumetric space. We present a visual hull technique that automates identification and masking of discrete objects within the measurement volume, and we apply existing tomographic PIV reconstruction software to measure the velocity surrounding the objects. The technique is demonstrated by considering flow around falling bodies of different shape with Reynolds number ~1,000. Acquired image sets are processed using separate routines to reconstruct both the volumetric mask around the object and the surrounding tracer particles. After particle reconstruction, the reconstructed object mask is used to remove any ghost particles that otherwise appear within the object volume. Velocity vectors corresponding with fluid motion can then be determined up to the boundary of the visual hull without being contaminated or affected by the neighboring object velocity. Although the visual hull method is not meant for precise tracking of objects, the reconstructed object volumes nevertheless can be used to estimate the object location and orientation at each time step.

  20. GOLD HULL AND INTERNODE2 encodes a primarily multifunctional cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase in rice. (United States)

    Zhang, Kewei; Qian, Qian; Huang, Zejun; Wang, Yiqin; Li, Ming; Hong, Lilan; Zeng, Dali; Gu, Minghong; Chu, Chengcai; Cheng, Zhukuan


    Lignin content and composition are two important agronomic traits for the utilization of agricultural residues. Rice (Oryza sativa) gold hull and internode phenotype is a classical morphological marker trait that has long been applied to breeding and genetics study. In this study, we have cloned the GOLD HULL AND INTERNODE2 (GH2) gene in rice using a map-based cloning approach. The result shows that the gh2 mutant is a lignin-deficient mutant, and GH2 encodes a cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD). Consistent with this finding, extracts from roots, internodes, hulls, and panicles of the gh2 plants exhibited drastically reduced CAD activity and undetectable sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase activity. When expressed in Escherichia coli, purified recombinant GH2 was found to exhibit strong catalytic ability toward coniferaldehyde and sinapaldehyde, while the mutant protein gh2 completely lost the corresponding CAD and sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase activities. Further phenotypic analysis of the gh2 mutant plants revealed that the p-hydroxyphenyl, guaiacyl, and sinapyl monomers were reduced in almost the same ratio compared to the wild type. Our results suggest GH2 acts as a primarily multifunctional CAD to synthesize coniferyl and sinapyl alcohol precursors in rice lignin biosynthesis.

  1. Composition of liquid rice hull smoke and anti-inflammatory effects in mice. (United States)

    Kim, Sung Phil; Yang, Jun Young; Kang, Mi Young; Park, Jun Cheol; Nam, Seok Hyun; Friedman, Mendel


    A new liquid rice hull smoke extract with a smoky aroma and sugar-like odor prepared by pyrolysis of rice hulls followed by liquefaction of the resulting smoke contained 161 compounds characterized by GC/MS. Antioxidative, antiallergic, and anti-inflammatory activities of the extract were assessed in vitro and in vivo. At pH 5, the extract inhibited 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radicals and suppressed nitric oxide (NO) and β-hexosaminidase releases from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW264.7 mouse macrophage leukemia cells and ionophore A23187-stimulated RBL-2H3 rat basophilic cells without significant cytotoxicity. 12-O-Tetradecanolylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) was applied to the ears of CD-1 mice to induce inflammation (edema), which was accompanied by increases in a series of biomarkers. Topical application of 1% of the extract as well as feeding mice a standard diet with 1% extract for two weeks significantly reduced the expression of biomarkers associated with the TPA-induced inflammation. These include tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), IL-1β, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), leukotriene B(4) (LTB(4)), prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), myeloperoxidase (MPO). These in vitro and in vivo findings demonstrate the potential value of rice hull smoke extract derived from a major agricultural byproduct to serve as a new biomaterial for the improvement of food quality and safety and the environment.

  2. GOLD HULL AND INTERNODE2 Encodes a Primarily Multifunctional Cinnamyl-Alcohol Dehydrogenase in Rice1 (United States)

    Zhang, Kewei; Qian, Qian; Huang, Zejun; Wang, Yiqin; Li, Ming; Hong, Lilan; Zeng, Dali; Gu, Minghong; Chu, Chengcai; Cheng, Zhukuan


    Lignin content and composition are two important agronomic traits for the utilization of agricultural residues. Rice (Oryza sativa) gold hull and internode phenotype is a classical morphological marker trait that has long been applied to breeding and genetics study. In this study, we have cloned the GOLD HULL AND INTERNODE2 (GH2) gene in rice using a map-based cloning approach. The result shows that the gh2 mutant is a lignin-deficient mutant, and GH2 encodes a cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD). Consistent with this finding, extracts from roots, internodes, hulls, and panicles of the gh2 plants exhibited drastically reduced CAD activity and undetectable sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase activity. When expressed in Escherichia coli, purified recombinant GH2 was found to exhibit strong catalytic ability toward coniferaldehyde and sinapaldehyde, while the mutant protein gh2 completely lost the corresponding CAD and sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase activities. Further phenotypic analysis of the gh2 mutant plants revealed that the p-hydroxyphenyl, guaiacyl, and sinapyl monomers were reduced in almost the same ratio compared to the wild type. Our results suggest GH2 acts as a primarily multifunctional CAD to synthesize coniferyl and sinapyl alcohol precursors in rice lignin biosynthesis. PMID:16443696

  3. Convex hull or crossing avoidance? Solution heuristics in the traveling salesperson problem. (United States)

    MacGregor, James N; Chronicle, Edward P; Ormerod, Thomas C


    Untrained adults appear to have access to cognitive processes that allow them to perform well in the Euclidean version of the traveling salesperson problem (E-TSP). They do so despite the famous computational intractability of the problem, which stems from its combinatorial complexity. A current hypothesis is the humans' good performance is based on following a strategy of connecting boundary points in order (the convex hull hypothesis). Recently, an alternative has been proposed, that performance is governed by a strategy of avoiding crossings. We examined the crossing avoidance hypothesis from the perspectives of its capacity to explain existing data, its theoretical adequacy, and its ability to explain the results of three new experiments. In Experiment 1, effects on the solution quality of number of points versus number of interior points were compared. In Experiment 2, the distributions of observed paths were compared with those predicted from the two hypotheses. In Experiment 3, figural effects were varied to induce crossings. The results of the experiments were more consistent with the convex hull than with the crossing avoidance hypothesis. Despite its simplicity and intuitive appeal, crossing avoidance does not provide a complete alternative to the convex hull hypothesis. Further elucidation of human strategies and heuristics for optimization problems such as the E-TSP will aid our understanding of how cognitive processes have adapted to the demands of combinatorial difficulty.

  4. Countercurrent extraction of soluble sugars from almond hulls and assessment of the bioenergy potential. (United States)

    Holtman, Kevin M; Offeman, Richard D; Franqui-Villanueva, Diana; Bayati, Andre K; Orts, William J


    Almond hulls contain considerable proportions (37% by dry weight) of water-soluble, fermentable sugars (sucrose, glucose, and fructose), which can be extracted for industrial purposes. The maximum optimal solids loading was determined to be 20% for sugar extraction, and the addition of 0.5% (w/v) pectinase aided in maintaining a sufficient free water volume for sugar recovery. A laboratory countercurrent extraction experiment utilizing a 1 h steep followed by three extraction (wash) stages produced a high-concentration (131 g/L fermentable sugar) syrup. Overall, sugar recovery efficiency was 88%. The inner stage washing efficiencies were compatible with solution equilibrium calculations, indicating that efficiency was high. The concentrated sugar syrup was fermented to ethanol at high efficiency (86% conversion), and ethanol concentrations in the broth were 7.4% (v/v). Thin stillage contained 233 g SCOD/L, which was converted to biomethane at an efficiency of 90% with a biomethane potential of 297 mL/g SCODdestroyed. Overall, results suggested that a minima of 49 gal (185 L) ethanol and 75 m(3) methane/t hulls (dry whole hull basis) are achievable.

  5. Bow hull-form optimization in waves of a 66,000 DWT bulk carrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Won Yu


    Full Text Available This paper uses optimization techniques to obtain bow hull form of a 66,000 DWT bulk carrier in calm water and in waves. Parametric modification functions of SAC and section shape of DLWL are used for hull form variation. Multi-objective functions are applied to minimize the wave-making resistance in calm water and added resistance in regular head wave of λ/L = 0.5. WAVIS version 1.3 is used to obtain wave-making resistance. The modified Fujii and Takahashi's formula is applied to obtain the added resistance in short wave. The PSO algorithm is employed for the optimization technique. The resistance and motion characteristics in calm water and regular and irregular head waves of the three hull forms are compared. It has been shown that the optimal brings 13.2% reduction in the wave-making resistance and 13.8% reduction in the added resistance at λ/L = 0.5; and the mean added resistance reduces by 9.5% at sea state 5.

  6. Realistic evaluation of hull performance for rowing shells, canoes, and kayaks in unsteady flow. (United States)

    Day, Alexander; Campbell, Ian; Clelland, David; Doctors, Lawrence J; Cichowicz, Jakub


    In this study, we investigated the effect of hull dynamics in shallow water on the hydrodynamic performance of rowing shells as well as canoes and kayaks. An approach was developed to generate data in a towing tank using a test rig capable of reproducing realistic speed profiles. The impact of unsteady shallow-water effects on wave-making resistance was examined via experimental measurements on a benchmark hull. The data generated were used to explore the validity of a computational approach developed to predict unsteady shallow-water wave resistance. Comparison of measured and predicted results showed that the computational approach correctly predicted complex unsteady wave-resistance phenomena at low oscillation frequency and speed, but that total resistance was substantially under-predicted at moderate oscillation frequency and speed. It was postulated that this discrepancy arose from unsteady viscous effects. This was investigated via hot-film measurements for a full-scale single scull in unsteady flow in both towing-tank and field-trial conditions. Results suggested a strong link between acceleration and turbulence and demonstrated that the measured real-world viscous-flow behaviour could be successfully reproduced in the tank. Thus a suitable tank-test approach could provide a reliable guide to hull performance characterization in unsteady flow.

  7. Submarine pyroclastic deposits in Tertiary basins, NE Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polona Kralj


    Full Text Available In Tertiary basins of NE Slovenia, Upper Oligocene volcanic activity occurred in a submarine environment that experienced contemporaneous clastic sedimentation. Pyroclastic deposits are essentially related to gas- and watersupported eruption-fed density currents. At Trobni Dol, the Lako Basin, an over 100 m thick deposit formed by a sigle sustained volcanic explosion that fed gas-supported pyroclastic flow. Diagnostic features are large matrixshard content, normal grading of pumice lapilli, collapsed pumice lapilli and the presence of charcoal. In the Smrekovec Volcanic Complex, several but only up to 5 m thick deposits related to eruption-fed gassupported pyroclastic flows occur. Deposits settled from water-supported eruption-fed density currents form fining- and thinning-upward sedimentary units which resemble the units of volcaniclastic turbidites. Pyroclastic deposits related to gas- and water-supported density currents occur in an up to 1000 m thick succession composed of coherent volcanics, autoclastic, pyroclastic, reworked volcaniclastic and mixed volcaniclastic-siliciclastic deposits that indicate a complex explosive and depositional history of the Smrekovec Volcanic Complex.

  8. Breathing modes of Kolumbo submarine volcano (Santorini, Greece). (United States)

    Bakalis, Evangelos; Mertzimekis, Theo J; Nomikou, Paraskevi; Zerbetto, Francesco


    Submarine volcanoes, such as Kolumbo (Santorini, Greece) are natural laboratories for fostering multidisciplinary studies. Their investigation requires the most innovative marine technology together with advanced data analysis. Conductivity and temperature of seawater were recorded directly above Kolumbo's hydrothermal vent system. The respective time series have been analyzed in terms of non-equilibrium techniques. The energy dissipation of the volcanic activity is monitored by the temperature variations of seawater. The venting dynamics of chemical products is monitored by water conductivity. The analysis of the time series in terms of stochastic processes delivers scaling exponents with turning points between consecutive regimes for both conductivity and temperature. Changes of conductivity are shown to behave as a universal multifractal and their variance is subdiffusive as the scaling exponents indicate. Temperature is constant over volcanic rest periods and a universal multifractal behavior describes its changes in line with a subdiffusive character otherwise. The universal multifractal description illustrates the presence of non-conservative conductivity and temperature fields showing that the system never retains a real equilibrium state. The existence of a repeated pattern of the combined effect of both seawater and volcanic activity is predicted. The findings can shed light on the dynamics of chemical products emitted from the vents and point to the presence of underlying mechanisms that govern potentially hazardous, underwater volcanic environments.

  9. High-efficiency airfoil rudders applied to submarines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHOU Yimei


    Full Text Available Modern submarine design puts forward higher and higher requirements for control surfaces, and this creates a requirement for designers to constantly innovate new types of rudder so as to improve the efficiency of control surfaces. Adopting the high-efficiency airfoil rudder is one of the most effective measures for improving the efficiency of control surfaces. In this paper, we put forward an optimization method for a high-efficiency airfoil rudder on the basis of a comparative analysis of the various strengths and weaknesses of the airfoil, and the numerical calculation method is adopted to analyze the influence rule of the hydrodynamic characteristics and wake field by using the high-efficiency airfoil rudder and the conventional NACA rudder comparatively; at the same time, a model load test in a towing tank was carried out, and the test results and simulation calculation obtained good consistency:the error between them was less than 10%. The experimental results show that the steerage of a high-efficiency airfoil rudder is increased by more than 40% when compared with the conventional rudder, but the total resistance is close:the error is no more than 4%. Adopting a high-efficiency airfoil rudder brings much greater lifting efficiency than the total resistance of the boat. The results show that high-efficiency airfoil rudder has obvious advantages for improving the efficiency of control, giving it good application prospects.

  10. Submarine springs and coastal karst aquifers: A review (United States)

    Fleury, Perrine; Bakalowicz, Michel; de Marsily, Ghislain


    SummaryThis article reports on current knowledge of coastal karst aquifers, in which conduit flow is dominant, and its aim is to characterise the functioning of these systems which are closely linked to the sea. First, earlier and recent studies of these aquifers are discussed. On the basis of their findings, it can be shown that two essential mechanisms are involved in the functioning of these systems, i.e., aquifer discharge through submarine springs and saline intrusion through conduits open to the sea. Then, the conditions that give rise to these aquifers are described and particular emphasis is placed on the influence of deep karstification when the sea level falls. The base-level variations are attributed to the glaciations or, in the specific case of the Mediterranean, to the salinity crisis in the Messinian period. It is this inherited structure, sometimes containing very deep conduits below sea level, that today conditions the aquifer flow. The flow in the conduits open to the sea depends on the hydraulic head gradient between the aquifer and the sea and is therefore a function of the water density and head losses in the aquifer. This survey of coastal karst aquifers has revealed some common characteristics that show the development and/or functional capacity of their karstic drainage networks. A classification of such systems into three categories is proposed with the aim of assisting in the decision-making concerning potential exploitation of water resources in coastal regions.

  11. Sea-level-induced seismicity and submarine landslide occurrence (United States)

    Brothers, Daniel S.; Luttrell, Karen M.; Chaytor, Jason D.


    The temporal coincidence between rapid late Pleistocene sea-level rise and large-scale slope failures is widely documented. Nevertheless, the physical mechanisms that link these phenomena are poorly understood, particularly along nonglaciated margins. Here we investigate the causal relationships between rapid sea-level rise, flexural stress loading, and increased seismicity rates along passive margins. We find that Coulomb failure stress across fault systems of passive continental margins may have increased more than 1 MPa during rapid late Pleistocene–early Holocene sea-level rise, an amount sufficient to trigger fault reactivation and rupture. These results suggest that sea-level–modulated seismicity may have contributed to a number of poorly understood but widely observed phenomena, including (1) increased frequency of large-scale submarine landslides during rapid, late Pleistocene sea-level rise; (2) emplacement of coarse-grained mass transport deposits on deep-sea fans during the early stages of marine transgression; and (3) the unroofing and release of methane gas sequestered in continental slope sediments.

  12. NESTOR - Neutrino Extended Submarine Telescope with Oceanographic Research

    CERN Document Server


    {\\bf NESTOR} is a deep-sea neutrino telescope that is being deployed in the Mediterranean off the south-west coast of the Peleponnese in Greece. Neutrinos, when they interact in the earth below or in the seawater around the detector, produce muons that can be observed by the Cherenkov radiation, which they emit. At an operating depth of 4000 metres, the detector is effectively shielded from muons produced in atmospheric interactions. {\\bf The site:} A major feature of the Ionian Sea floor is the Hellenic Trench, the deepest in the Mediterranean, which in places exceeds 5000 meters. It runs close to the western coast of the Peleponnese and is protected on its western side by the submarine Eastern Mediterranean Ridge. It is far from big city pollution or the effluent of major river systems flowing into the Mediterranean and is protected from deep-water perturbations.\\\\ The NESTOR site is located on a broad plateau some 8 $\\times$ 9 kilometres in area on the eastern side of the Hellenic Trench at a mean depth of...

  13. Ecostructuring of marine nematode communities by submarine groundwater discharge. (United States)

    Grzelak, Katarzyna; Tamborski, Joseph; Kotwicki, Lech; Bokuniewicz, Henry


    Inputs of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) to the coastal ocean may alter local and regional-scale biology. Here, we report on nematode assemblages along the north shore of Long Island, NY. We test if nematode communities differed between sites impacted by mixed fresh-saline SGD and where SGD is exclusively saline. Diversity of nematodes was low at sites impacted by fresh SGD and communities were dominated by a few opportunistic genera. Moreover, a set of typical freshwater nematode genera restricted to impacted sites was observed. Their presence in the marine coastal zone is exceptional and underlines the structuring role that fresh SGD plays in the local ecosystem. Saline SGD structured nematode assemblages differently compared to sites impacted by fresh SGD. The number of nematode genera was markedly higher at saline SGD sites, with a different community structure. This study highlights the importance to which inputs of fresh SGD may have on local ecosystem diversity in marine coastal environments. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Breathing modes of Kolumbo submarine volcano (Santorini, Greece) (United States)

    Bakalis, Evangelos; Mertzimekis, Theo J.; Nomikou, Paraskevi; Zerbetto, Francesco


    Submarine volcanoes, such as Kolumbo (Santorini, Greece) are natural laboratories for fostering multidisciplinary studies. Their investigation requires the most innovative marine technology together with advanced data analysis. Conductivity and temperature of seawater were recorded directly above Kolumbo’s hydrothermal vent system. The respective time series have been analyzed in terms of non-equilibrium techniques. The energy dissipation of the volcanic activity is monitored by the temperature variations of seawater. The venting dynamics of chemical products is monitored by water conductivity. The analysis of the time series in terms of stochastic processes delivers scaling exponents with turning points between consecutive regimes for both conductivity and temperature. Changes of conductivity are shown to behave as a universal multifractal and their variance is subdiffusive as the scaling exponents indicate. Temperature is constant over volcanic rest periods and a universal multifractal behavior describes its changes in line with a subdiffusive character otherwise. The universal multifractal description illustrates the presence of non-conservative conductivity and temperature fields showing that the system never retains a real equilibrium state. The existence of a repeated pattern of the combined effect of both seawater and volcanic activity is predicted. The findings can shed light on the dynamics of chemical products emitted from the vents and point to the presence of underlying mechanisms that govern potentially hazardous, underwater volcanic environments.

  15. Determination of Chemical Composition, Physical Characteristics and Nutritive Value of Treated Walnut Hull by Neurospora Sitophila through Nylon Bag and Gas Production Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maasoomeh Takalloozadeh


    Full Text Available In this research, chemical composition, gas production characteristics, effective degradability and nutritive value index (NVI of DM and CP by in situ method of treated walnut hull by Nurospora Sitophila were studied. Three fistulated Kermani ram were used for determination of Walnut hull degradability. Data were analysed using completely randomize design. By processing walnut hull with Neurospora Sitophila, water holding capacity and total content of tannin and phenol decreased significantly, while the insoluble ash increased significantly. Processing had no significant effect on degradability parameters and NVI of dry matter and crude protein. Gas production volume in untreated Walnut hull in times 6, 12 and 24 hours increased significantly with comparison to the treated Walnut hull. Generally, processing of walnut hull with Nurospora Sitophila had no significant effect on nutritive value of this feedstuff.

  16. Complete Non-Radioactive Operability Tests for Cladding Hull Chlorination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, Emory D [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Johnson, Jared A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hylton, Tom D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brunson, Ronald Ray [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hunt, Rodney Dale [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); DelCul, Guillermo Daniel [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bradley, Eric Craig [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Spencer, Barry B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    Non-radioactive operability tests were made to test the metal chlorination reactor and condenser and their accessories using batch chlorinations of non-radioactive cladding samples and to identify optimum operating practices and components that need further modifications prior to installation of the equipment into the hot cell for tests on actual used nuclear fuel (UNF) cladding. The operability tests included (1) modifications to provide the desired heating and reactor temperature profile; and (2) three batch chlorination tests using, respectively, 100, 250, and 500 g of cladding. During the batch chlorinations, metal corrosion of the equipment was assessed, pressurization of the gas inlet was examined and the best method for maintaining solid salt product transfer through the condenser was determined. Also, additional accessing equipment for collection of residual ash and positioning of the unit within the hot cell were identified, designed, and are being fabricated.

  17. Hulled and hull-less barley grains with the genetic trait for low-phytic acid increased the apparent total-tract digestibility of phosphorus and calcium in diets for young swine. (United States)

    Veum, T L; Raboy, V


    A 35-d experiment was conducted using 63 crossbred pigs (35 barrows and 28 gilts) with an initial average BW of 7.0 kg and age of 28 d to evaluate the efficacy of the low-phytic acid (LPA) genetic trait in hulled or hull-less barley in isocaloric diets. Hulled barleys were the normal barley (NB) cultivar Harrington and the near-isogenic LPA mutant 955 (M955) with P availabilities of 36 and 95%, respectively. Hull-less lines were produced by crossing NB and the LPA mutant 422 line with a hull-less line, producing hull-less NB (HNB) and hull-less mutant 422 (HM422) with P availabilities of 41 and 66%, respectively. Pigs were in individual metabolism cages or pens for Phase 1 (d 0 to 14) and Phase 2 (d 14 to 35). Diets defined as NB, HNB, HM422, or M955 with no added inorganic P (iP) had available P (aP) concentrations of 0.27, 0.28, 0.35, and 0.40% for Phase 1 and 0.15, 0.17, 0.23, and 0.31% for Phase 2, respectively. Only diet M955 was adequate in aP. Therefore, iP was added to the P-deficient diets to make diets NB + iP, HNB + iP, and HM422 + iP with aP equal to that in diet M955. Overall (d 0 to 35), ADG and G:F were greater ( absorbed greater ( + iP that was equal to diet M955 in aP. Therefore, LPA barley, especially M955 with 95% aP, will reduce the use of iP in swine diets, reduce P pollution from swine manure, and support the goal of achieving global P sustainability.

  18. Submarine mass wasting and associated tsunami risk offshore western Thailand, Andaman Sea, Indian Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Schwab


    Full Text Available 2-D seismic data from the top and the western slope of Mergui Ridge in water depths between 300 and 2200 m off the Thai west coast have been investigated in order to identify mass transport deposits (MTDs and evaluate the tsunamigenic potential of submarine landslides in this outer shelf area. Based on our newly collected data, 17 mass transport deposits have been identified. Minimum volumes of individual MTDs range between 0.3 km3 and 14 km3. Landslide deposits have been identified in three different settings: (i stacked MTDs within disturbed and faulted basin sediments at the transition of the East Andaman Basin to the Mergui Ridge; (ii MTDs within a pile of drift sediments at the basin-ridge transition; and (iii MTDs near the edge of/on top of Mergui Ridge in relatively shallow water depths (< 1000 m. Our data indicate that the Mergui Ridge slope area seems to have been generally unstable with repeated occurrence of slide events. We find that the most likely causes for slope instabilities may be the presence of unstable drift sediments, excess pore pressure, and active tectonics. Most MTDs are located in large water depths (> 1000 m and/or comprise small volumes suggesting a small tsunami potential. Moreover, the recurrence rates of failure events seem to be low. Some MTDs with tsunami potential, however, have been identified on top of Mergui Ridge. Mass-wasting events that may occur in the future at similar locations may trigger tsunamis if they comprise sufficient volumes. Landslide tsunamis, emerging from slope failures in the working area and affecting western Thailand coastal areas therefore cannot be excluded, though the probability is very small compared to the probability of earthquake-triggered tsunamis, arising from the Sunda Trench.

  19. The Enemy Below - The Global Diffusion of Submarines and Related Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, K G


    The end of the Cold War seemed to create a more peaceful international environment. September 11 reminded us of the dangers of complacency. Indeed, even before September 11 US forces had intervened in a number of wars and crises, including Panama, the Persian Gulf War, Somalia, Rwanda, Bosnia, Kosovo, several Taiwan Straits crises, the North Korea nuclear weapons crisis, and most recently Afghanistan. US ability to intervene in remote areas of the world is often dependent on the Navy's ability to project power ashore. As a result, US ability to influence events in crisis situations, especially between or among nuclear powers, may become more difficult along with our ability to conduct littoral warfare. Although the numbers of potentially hostile submarines have declined with the end of the Cold War, US anti-submarine warfare capabilities have also declined. Moreover, foreign submarines and related technologies are likely to diffuse globally. New technologies like Air Independent Propulsion (AIP), improved weapons and sensors will make conventional submarines more dangerous, and the spread of nuclear submarines even to a few more countries raise political, military, environmental, and safety concerns. Submarines are one of the key weapon systems used alone or in combination with other weapon systems such as coastal defense missiles, aircraft, and other sea-based missile platforms to deny US ability to project power ashore, Thus, other countries who wish to deny the US the ability to interfere with their regional or even global ambitions may emphasize the acquisition and/or development of submarines. As the world become more multipolar over the longer term, as the Chinese believe it will, countries such as Russia, China. etc., may be able to acquire the submarine capabilities to challenge us not just regionally, but in blue waters. To the extent that our alliance relationships require US naval access or superiority to sustain them, then our erstwhile friendly

  20. Westward advance of the deformation front and evolution of submarine canyons offshore of southwestern Taiwan (United States)

    Han, Wei-Chung; Liu, Char-Shine; Chi, Wu-Cheng; Chen, Liwen; Lin, Che-Chuan; Chen, Song-Chuen


    This study analyzes both 2D and 3D seismic images around the Palm Ridge area offshore of southwestern Taiwan to understand how the deformation front shifted westward and how tectonic activities interact with submarine canyon paths in the transition area between the active and passive margins. Palm Ridge is a submarine ridge that developed on the passive China continental margin by down-dip erosion of several tributaries of Penghu Canyon; it extends eastward across the deformation front into the submarine Taiwan accretionary wedge. The presence of proto-thrusts that are located west of the frontal thrust implies that the compressional stress field has advanced westward due to the convergence of the Philippine Sea Plate and Eurasian Plate. Since the deformation front is defined as the location of the most frontal contractional structure, no significant contractional structure should appear west of it. We thus suggest moving the location of the previously mapped deformation front farther west to where the westernmost proto-thrust lies. High-resolution seismic and bathymetric data reveal that the directions of the paleo-submarine canyons run transverse to the present slope dip, while the present submarine canyons head down slope in the study area. We propose that this might be the result of the westward migration of the deformation front that changed the paleo-bathymetry and thus the canyon path directions. The interactions of down-slope processes and active tectonics control the canyon paths in our study area.

  1. Influence of stiffness constant of stern bearing on vibration and acoustic radiation of whole submarine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Lucai


    Full Text Available [Objectives] This paper studies the influence of the stiffness constant of a stern bearing on the vibration and acoustic radiation of a whole submarine.[Methods] Based on the form of SUBOFF, a whole submarine model is established in which the structures of the propeller and shaft are first formed in solid elements. Through calculating and comparing the structural vibration and acoustic radiation driven by a vertically excited force, the influence of the elastic coefficient of the stern bearing on the vibroacoustic of the overall submarine structure is mainly considered. [Results] It is demonstrated that the reduction of the elastic coefficient of the stern bearing leads to the convergence of structural vibration and acoustic radiation to the second order overall bending modal frequency, and the frequency gradually becomes lower, which can benefit the vibroacoustic reduction of submarines at frequencies higher than the second order overall bending modal frequency. [Conclusions] These results provide a reference for the acoustic design of submarine structures.

  2. Methane concentration inside a submarine mud volcano examined through seismic velocity profiles (United States)

    Kioka, Arata; Tsuji, Takeshi; Otsuka, Hironori; Ashi, Juichiro


    Mud volcanoes are considered to be among largest geological sources releasing hydrocarbon gases into the atmosphere. Numerous studies have revealed their origins and compositions from submarine mud volcanoes. A recent long-term observation at a submarine mud volcano sheds light on that larger volume of methane gas than expected is escaped from deep-water mud volcanoes, suggesting that the global methane flux from the seafloor is likely underestimated. Yet, estimates of the gas amount inside mud volcanoes have been still challenging, because of the difficulty of in-situ measurements. This study provides a new model to bridge methane amounts and seismic velocities in fluidized mud conduits of submarine mud volcanoes. This model is universally applicable and enables estimates of methane concentration in the mud conduits, using the seismic velocity profile derived from reflection/refraction seismic and/or downhole logging data. In this study, (1) we examine our modeled results through deep-drilling data obtained at mud volcanoes in the Olimpi mud field of the central Mediterranean Ridge accretionary margin, to evaluate the difference between in situ methane amounts and those calculated from our model, and (2) apply our model to the seismic velocity profile derived from seicmic data to estimate the methane amount inside the submarine mud volcano in the Nankai accretionary margin. Our scheme may provide an opportunity to re-estimate the total methane flux from submarine mud volcanoes.

  3. Genetic Control of a Transition from Black to Straw-White Seed Hull in Rice Domestication1[C][W][OA (United States)

    Zhu, Bo-Feng; Si, Lizhen; Wang, Zixuan; Jingjie Zhu, Yan Zhou; Shangguan, Yingying; Lu, Danfeng; Fan, Danlin; Li, Canyang; Lin, Hongxuan; Qian, Qian; Sang, Tao; Zhou, Bo; Minobe, Yuzo; Han, Bin


    The genetic mechanism involved in a transition from the black-colored seed hull of the ancestral wild rice (Oryza rufipogon and Oryza nivara) to the straw-white seed hull of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa) during grain ripening remains unknown. We report that the black hull of O. rufipogon was controlled by the Black hull4 (Bh4) gene, which was fine-mapped to an 8.8-kb region on rice chromosome 4 using a cross between O. rufipogon W1943 (black hull) and O. sativa indica cv Guangluai 4 (straw-white hull). Bh4 encodes an amino acid transporter. A 22-bp deletion within exon 3 of the bh4 variant disrupted the Bh4 function, leading to the straw-white hull in cultivated rice. Transgenic study indicated that Bh4 could restore the black pigment on hulls in cv Guangluai 4 and Kasalath. Bh4 sequence alignment of all taxa with the outgroup Oryza barthii showed that the wild rice maintained comparable levels of nucleotide diversity that were about 70 times higher than those in the cultivated rice. The results from the maximum likelihood Hudson-Kreitman-Aguade test suggested that the significant reduction in nucleotide diversity in rice cultivars could be caused by artificial selection. We propose that the straw-white hull was selected as an important visual phenotype of nonshattered grains during rice domestication. PMID:21263038

  4. Effect of five year storage on total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of almond (Amygdalus communisL. hull and shell from different genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadijeh Sadat Moosavi Dolatabadi


    Full Text Available Objectives: Almond (Prunus amygdalus hull and shell are agricultural by-products that are a source of phenolic compounds.The processing of almond produce shell and hull, accounts for more than 50% by dry weight of the almond fruits. Recently, more studies have focused on the influence of storage conditions and postharvest handling on the nutritional quality of fruits, especially the antioxidant phenolics. In this study, influence of long-term storage (five years on the total phenolic and antioxidant capacity of almond hull and shell from different genotypes was evaluated. Materials and Methods: The fruits of subjected genotypes were collected and their hull and shell were separated. They were dried and reduced to fine powder. This powder stored at room temperature for five years. The total phenolic content (TPC and bioactivities (antioxidant potential: DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging and reducing power of extracts were evaluated using spectrophotometric methods. Results: It was found that TPC content and bioactivity levels in the stored almond hull and shell were different, compared to the hulls and shells which were evaluated in 2007. S1-4 genotype had the highest TPC and reducing power in its hull and shell.Low correlation coefficient was observed between phenolic content and the DPPH radical scavenging percentage in hull and shell extract. Conclusions: For the first time, results of this investigation showed that storage can influence the antioxidant and antiradical potential of almond hull and shell.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul VICENZI


    Full Text Available Suco de maçã da variedade Fuji processado com casca de arroz como auxiliar na prensagem foi avaliado sensorialmente. Na prensagem foi utilizada pressão de trabalho de 150 e 200kgf/cm² sobre a polpa triturada e adicionado casca de arroz nas concentrações de 0; 1; 3 e 5%. Após o processamento foram efetuadas avaliações de rendimento e sensoriais por equipe de julgadores treinados. A maior concentração de casca de arroz proporcionou maior incremento no rendimento de extração do suco de maçã, superior às médias das testemunhas. Na pressão de 150kgf/cm² a testemunha obteve um rendimento de 59,91%, enquanto a concentração com 5% de casca de arroz teve um rendimento de 76,09%. Para a pressão de 200kgf/cm², a testemunha apresentou média de 66,52% e a concentração com 5% de casca de arroz obteve o maior rendimento de extração, média de 73,19%. Na avaliação sensorial, observa-se diferença significativa entre as testemunhas e os tratamentos, especialmente quanto aos atributos cor, odor e sabor. Na qualidade geral, os sucos obtidos com o tratamento testemunha foram considerados de melhor qualidade que aqueles obtidos com os tratamentos onde foi adicionado auxiliar de prensagem casca de arroz, indicando que este tratamento influencia negativamente na qualidade final do produto.The apple juice of the Fuji variety went through a sensorial evaluation in which it was processed together with rice hull that served as a pressing aid. The triturated pulp was pressed under a working pressure of 150 and 200kgf/cm² and rice hull was added in a concentration of 0; 1; 3 and 5%. A group of trained testers submitted the product of the process to sensory and yield evaluations. The highest concentration of rice hull provided higher increase in the yield of the apple juice extraction, higher than the average of the witnesses. Using a working pressure of 150kgf/cm² the yield obtained with the witness was of 59.91% while the 5% rice hull

  6. The Keelung Submarine Volcano in the near-shore area of northern Taiwan and its tectonic implication (United States)

    Tsai, Ching-Hui; Hsu, Shu-Kun; Lin, Shiao-Shan; Yang, Tsanyao F.; Wang, Shiou-Ya; Doo, Wen-Bin; Lee, Hsiao-Fen; Lan, Tefang; Huang, Jian-Cheng; Liang, Chin-Wei


    The Taiwan mountain belt has been created due to the collision between the Philippine Sea Plate and the Eurasian Plate. Northernmost Taiwan and its offshore area are now under post-collisional collapse. The post-collisional magmatism is distributed around northern Taiwan. Here we first report a submarine volcano, named Keelung Submarine Volcano, existing in the near-shore area of northern Taiwan. The high 3He/4He ratios in the collected seawater samples suggest that the magma of the Keelung Submarine Volcano is derived from a mantle source. Geometrically, both the Keelung Submarine Volcano and the Tatun Volcano Group are situated above the western border of the subducted Philippine Sea Plate and may have a same magma source. Both volcanic areas belong to the northern Taiwan volcanic zone, instead of the Ryukyu volcanic front. The Keelung Submarine Volcano has been rotated clockwise ∼48° after its formation, which implies that the Keelung Submarine Volcano has formed before the Luzon arc collided against northern Taiwan. Consequently, the post-collisional model to explain the formation of the northern Taiwan volcanic zone is questionable. As indicated by numerous shallow earthquakes and persistent emissions of the volcanic gases out of the seafloor around the volcanic cone, the Keelung Submarine Volcano is as active as the Tatun Volcano Group. For the sake of volcanic hazard assessment, it is essential to monitor the activity of the Keelung Submarine Volcano.

  7. CFD RANS Simulations on a Generic Conventional Scale Model Submarine: Comparison between Fluent and OpenFOAM (United States)


    1 – Hydrodynamics”, Defence Science and Technology Organisation Technical Report DSTO-TR-1622, 2004. UNCLASSIFIED DST-Group-TN-1449 UNCLASSIFIED...17 7. Joubert, P.N., “Some Aspects of Submarine Design Part 2– Shape of a Submarine 2026”, Defence Science and Technology Organisation Technical

  8. Submarine landslide and tsunami hazards offshore southern Alaska: Seismic strengthening versus rapid sedimentation (United States)

    Sawyer, Derek E.; Reece, Robert S.; Gulick, Sean P. S.; Lenz, Brandi L.


    The southern Alaskan offshore margin is prone to submarine landslides and tsunami hazards due to seismically active plate boundaries and extreme sedimentation rates from glacially enhanced mountain erosion. We examine the submarine landslide potential with new shear strength measurements acquired by Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 341 on the continental slope and Surveyor Fan. These data reveal lower than expected sediment strength. Contrary to other active margins where seismic strengthening enhances slope stability, the high-sedimentation margin offshore southern Alaska behaves like a passive margin from a shear strength perspective. We interpret that seismic strengthening occurs but is offset by high sedimentation rates and overpressure. This conclusion is supported by shear strength outside of the fan that follow an active margin trend. More broadly, seismically active margins with wet-based glaciers are susceptible to submarine landslide hazards because of the combination of high sedimentation rates and earthquake shaking.

  9. The Zambezi Channel: A new perspective on submarine channel evolution at low latitudes (United States)

    Wiles, E.; Green, A.; Watkeys, M.; Jokat, W.


    Submarine channels are not stand-alone systems. They are long-lived systems modified by imperceptibly slow processes and rapid gravity flows, in some part controlled by hinterland dynamics. The submarine Zambezi Channel, within the Mozambique Channel, receives sediment from the Zambezi River catchment which has a dynamic tectonic and morphological history. Using recently collected multibeam bathymetry and PARASOUND data we discuss the geomorphology of the Zambezi Channel. Results show this system to be distinct in geomorphologic character when compared to other low-latitude submarine channels, sharing similarities with high-latitude systems. We propose a new, source-to-sink, hypothesis for the evolution of the Zambezi Channel, taking in to consideration hinterland tectonics, palaeo-lake development, river capture and rapid gravity flows. This hypothesis accounts for the unique present-day anatomy of the Zambezi Channel within the dynamic framework of the systems regional setting.

  10. Research on Big Data Attribute Selection Method in Submarine Optical Fiber Network Fault Diagnosis Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Ganlang


    Full Text Available At present, in the fault diagnosis database of submarine optical fiber network, the attribute selection of large data is completed by detecting the attributes of the data, the accuracy of large data attribute selection cannot be guaranteed. In this paper, a large data attribute selection method based on support vector machines (SVM for fault diagnosis database of submarine optical fiber network is proposed. Mining large data in the database of optical fiber network fault diagnosis, and calculate its attribute weight, attribute classification is completed according to attribute weight, so as to complete attribute selection of large data. Experimental results prove that ,the proposed method can improve the accuracy of large data attribute selection in fault diagnosis database of submarine optical fiber network, and has high use value.

  11. Chemical Fluxes from a Recently Erupted Submarine Volcano on the Mariana Arc (United States)

    Buck, N. J.; Resing, J. A.; Lupton, J. E.; Larson, B. I.; Walker, S. L.; Baker, E. T.


    While hydrothermal circulation is paramount to the geochemical budget for a wide array of elements, relatively few flux estimates exist in the literature. To date most studies have concentrated on constraining global and vent-field scale inputs originating from ocean spreading ridges. The goal of this study is to directly measure the chemical flux from an active submarine volcano injecting hydrothermal fluids into the surface ocean. Ahyi Seamount, a submarine intraoceanic arc volcano located in the Northern Mariana Islands, has a summit depth TSM and total and dissolved Fe and Mn. Laboratory analyses found enriched concentrations of H2, 3He, CO2 and Fe, consistent with a recent eruption. Preliminary flux calculations estimate a Fe input of 16 mmol s-1. This indicates shallow submarine arc volcanoes are capable of supplying appreciable quantities of Fe into the surface ocean. Further laboratory analyses and calculations to characterize and constrain the fluxes of other chemical constituents are underway.

  12. Origin of the Easter Submarine Alignment: morphology and structural lineaments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristián Rodrigo


    Full Text Available The Easter submarine alignment corresponds to a sequence of seamounts and oceanic islands which runs from the Ahu-Umu volcanic fields in the west to its intersection with the Nazca Ridge in the east, with a total length of about 2.900 km and a strike of N85°E. Recent bathymetric compilations that include combined satellite derived and shipboard data (Global Topography and multibeam bathymetric data (from NGDC-NOAA are interpreted both qualitatively and quantitatively by using a morphological analysis, which was comprised of the determination of bathymetric patterns, trends in lineations and structures; height measurements, computation of basal areas and volumes of seamounts, in order to establish clues on the origin of this seamount chain and to establish relationships with the regional tectonics. In the study region 514 seamounts were counted, of which 334 had a basal area less than the reference seamount (Moai. In general, the largest seamounts (>1000 m in height tend to align and to have a larger volume, with an elongation of their bases along the seamount chain. On the other hand, smaller seamounts tend to be distributed more randomly with more circular bases. As a consequence of the morphological analysis, the best possible mechanism that explains the origin of the seamount chain is the existence of a localized hotspot to the west of the Salas y Gómez Island. The corresponding plume would contribute additional magmatic material towards the East Pacific Rise through canalizations, whose secondary branches would feed intermediate volcanoes. It is possible that within the Easter Island region there would be another minor contribution through fractures in the crust, due to the crustal weakening that was produced by the Easter Fracture Zone.

  13. The Atlas of Submarine Glacial Landforms: Modern, Quaternary and Ancient (United States)

    Dowdeswell, Julian A.; Canals, Miquel; Jakobsson, Martin; Todd, Brian J.; Dowdeswell, Evelyn K.; Hogan, Kelly A.


    Twenty years ago, the international marine community brought together a first Atlas of Acoustic Images of the high-latitude geo-marine environment (Davies et al. 1997). The present Atlas is a new attempt to summarize the state of knowledge of high-latitude glacier-influenced systems, focusing on HR imagery derived from multibeam swath bathymetry and novel 2D and 3D seismic reflection tools. These new-generation techniques, aided by accurate global positioning, have revolutionized the imaging of the seafloor and subseafloor over the past two decades and have now been deployed widely in polar and subpolar waters, providing vast quantities of new data. It is, therefore, timely to provide a compilation of the variety of submarine glacial and related landforms, together with their stratigraphic setting where possible, for scientific, technological, environmental and economic reasons. The glacial imprint on the modern seabed and palaeo-shelf surfaces, buried in glacial-sedimentary depocentres, can now be imaged better than ever before using the above techniques, providing novel insights into present and past environmental conditions and sedimentary architecture. The understanding of polar regions and their changing ice cover is of enhanced significance as they are both a key driver of global change and important responders to it. Finally, industry is increasingly interested on the dimensions and architecture of glacial sedimentary depocentres on present and past continental shelves because of the hydrocarbon potential of some glacial-sedimentary systems. The Atlas consists of a comprehensive series of over 180 contributions that describe, illustrate and discuss the full variability of landforms found on the high-latitude, glacier-influenced systems, and is organised in terms of their positions on a continental margin into those from: (1) fjords, (2) continental shelves and plateaus, and (3) the deep margin and basins beyond. The Atlas has been published by the Geological

  14. Seismic site response of submarine slope offshore southwestern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Yi Lin


    Full Text Available Widely distributed Bottom-Simulating Reflectors (BSRs have been observed in the area offshore of southwestern Taiwan where the active accretionary complex meets with the passive China continental margin. In order to clarify the link between seismic site response and sedimentary properties of submarine slope, we evaluate the response of seafloor sediments in regard to passive dynamic loads. The local site effect produced by shallow marine sediments was characterized by estimating the horizontal-to-vertical (H/V spectral ratios of data recorded by the short-period Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBSs. The results show that the maximal H/V ratios appeared in the range of 3.66 - 9.28 Hz, suggesting that the fundamental frequency is dominated by the effect related to the very shallow sediments. For most stations, the H/V ratios estimated based on the earthquakes and noise records were characterized by different patterns. Relatively broad H/V pattern was obtained when the signals were extracted from earthquakes. This phenomenon may be related to soil nonlinearity when a stronger motion applies. In comparison with the available geological structures and bulk density distribution obtained from coring experiments, we found a relatively higher fundamental frequency of about 8 - 9 Hz for the more rigid material, such as mud diapir and folding axes. For most of the area along the slope, the fundamental frequency shows a relatively low value, about 6 - 8 Hz. Finally, when a site is characterized by thick or lowest bulk density sedimentary layer, we observed a fundamental frequency lower than 5 Hz, which is the lowest in our assessment.

  15. Potential Impact of Submarine Power Cables on Crab Harvest (United States)

    Bull, A. S.; Nishimoto, M.


    Offshore renewable energy installations convert wave or wind energy to electricity and transfer the power to shore through transmission cables laid on or buried beneath the seafloor. West coast commercial fishermen, who harvest the highly prized Dungeness crab (Metacarcinus magister) and the rock crab (Cancer spp.), are concerned that the interface of crabs and electromagnetic fields (EMF) from these cables will present an electrified fence on the seafloor that their target resource will not cross. Combined with the assistance of professional fishermen, submarine transmission cables that electrify island communities and offshore oil platforms in the eastern Pacific provide an opportunity to test the harvest of crab species across power transmission cables. In situ field techniques give commercial crab species a choice to decide if they will cross fully energized, EMF emitting, power transmission cables, in response to baited traps. Each independent trial is either one of two possible responses: the crab crosses the cable to enter a trap (1) or the crab does not cross the cable to enter a trap (0). Conditions vary among sample units by the following categorical, fixed factors (i.e., covariates) of cable structure (buried or unburied); direction of cable from crab position (west or east, north or south); time and season. A generalized linear model is fit to the data to determine whether any of these factors affect the probability of crabs crossing an energized cable to enter baited traps. Additionally, the experimental design, aside from the number of runs (set of sample trials) and the dates of the runs, is the same in the Santa Barbara Channel for rock crab and Puget Sound for Dungeness crab, and allows us to compare the capture rates of the two species in the two areas. We present preliminary results from field testing in 2015.

  16. Anatomy of La Jolla submarine canyon system; offshore southern California (United States)

    Paull, C.K.; Caress, D.W.; Lundsten, E.; Gwiazda, R.; Anderson, K.; McGann, M.; Conrad, J.; Edwards, B.; Sumner, E.J.


    An autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) carrying a multibeam sonar and a chirp profiler was used to map sections of the seafloor within the La Jolla Canyon, offshore southern California, at sub-meter scales. Close-up observations and sampling were conducted during remotely operated vehicle (ROV) dives. Minisparker seismic-reflection profiles from a surface ship help to define the overall geometry of the La Jolla Canyon especially with respect to the pre-canyon host sediments. The floor of the axial channel is covered with unconsolidated sand similar to the sand on the shelf near the canyon head, lacks outcrops of the pre-canyon host strata, has an almost constant slope of 1.0° and is covered with trains of crescent shaped bedforms. The presence of modern plant material entombed within these sands confirms that the axial channel is presently active. The sand on the canyon floor liquefied during vibracore collection and flowed downslope, illustrating that the sediment filling the channel can easily fail even on this gentle slope. Data from the canyon walls help constrain the age of the canyon and extent of incision. Horizontal beds of moderately cohesive fine-grained sediments exposed on the steep canyon walls are consistently less than 1.232 million years old. The lateral continuity of seismic reflectors in minisparker profiles indicate that pre-canyon host strata extend uninterrupted from outside the canyon underneath some terraces within the canyon. Evidence of abandoned channels and point bar-like deposits are noticeably absent on the inside bend of channel meanders and in the subsurface of the terraces. While vibracores from the surface of terraces contain thin (< 10 cm) turbidites, they are inferred to be part of a veneer of recent sediment covering pre-canyon host sediments that underpin the terraces. The combined use of state of the art seafloor mapping and exploration tools provides a uniquely detailed view of the morphology within an active submarine canyon.

  17. Simple models for the simulation of submarine melt for a Greenland glacial system model (United States)

    Beckmann, Johanna; Perrette, Mahé; Ganopolski, Andrey


    Two hundred marine-terminating Greenland outlet glaciers deliver more than half of the annually accumulated ice into the ocean and have played an important role in the Greenland ice sheet mass loss observed since the mid-1990s. Submarine melt may play a crucial role in the mass balance and position of the grounding line of these outlet glaciers. As the ocean warms, it is expected that submarine melt will increase, potentially driving outlet glaciers retreat and contributing to sea level rise. Projections of the future contribution of outlet glaciers to sea level rise are hampered by the necessity to use models with extremely high resolution of the order of a few hundred meters. That requirement in not only demanded when modeling outlet glaciers as a stand alone model but also when coupling them with high-resolution 3-D ocean models. In addition, fjord bathymetry data are mostly missing or inaccurate (errors of several hundreds of meters), which questions the benefit of using computationally expensive 3-D models for future predictions. Here we propose an alternative approach built on the use of a computationally efficient simple model of submarine melt based on turbulent plume theory. We show that such a simple model is in reasonable agreement with several available modeling studies. We performed a suite of experiments to analyze sensitivity of these simple models to model parameters and climate characteristics. We found that the computationally cheap plume model demonstrates qualitatively similar behavior as 3-D general circulation models. To match results of the 3-D models in a quantitative manner, a scaling factor of the order of 1 is needed for the plume models. We applied this approach to model submarine melt for six representative Greenland glaciers and found that the application of a line plume can produce submarine melt compatible with observational data. Our results show that the line plume model is more appropriate than the cone plume model for simulating

  18. Submarine geology and geomorphology of active Sub-Antarctic volcanoes: Heard and McDonald Islands (United States)

    Watson, S. J.; Coffin, M. F.; Whittaker, J. M.; Lucieer, V.; Fox, J. M.; Carey, R.; Arculus, R. J.; Bowie, A. R.; Chase, Z.; Robertson, R.; Martin, T.; Cooke, F.


    Heard and McDonald Islands (HIMI) are World Heritage listed sub-Antarctic active volcanic islands in the Southern Indian Ocean. Built atop the Kerguelen Plateau by Neogene-Quaternary volcanism, HIMI represent subaerial exposures of the second largest submarine Large Igneous Province globally. Onshore, processes influencing island evolution include glaciers, weathering, volcanism, vertical tectonics and mass-wasting (Duncan et al. 2016). Waters surrounding HIMI are largely uncharted, due to their remote location. Hence, the extent to which these same processes shape the submarine environment around HIMI has not been investigated. In early 2016, we conducted marine geophysical and geologic surveys around HIMI aboard RV Investigator (IN2016_V01). Results show that volcanic and sedimentary features prominently trend east-west, likely a result of erosion by the eastward flowing Antarctic Circumpolar Current and tidal currents. However, spatial patterns of submarine volcanism and sediment distribution differ substantially between the islands. >70 sea knolls surround McDonald Island suggesting substantial submarine volcanism. Geophysical data reveals hard volcanic seafloor around McDonald Island, whereas Heard Island is characterised by sedimentary sequences tens of meters or more thick and iceberg scours - indicative of glacial processes. Differences in submarine geomorphology are likely due to the active glaciation of Heard Island and differing rock types (Heard: alkali basalt, McDonald: phonolite), and dominant products (clastics vs. lava). Variations may also reflect different magmatic plumbing systems beneath the two active volcanoes (Heard produces larger volumes of more focused lava, whilst McDonald extrudes smaller volumes of more evolved lavas from multiple vents across the edifice). Using geophysical data, corroborated with new and existing geologic data, we present the first geomorphic map revealing the processes that shape the submarine environment around HIMI.

  19. Rice brans, rice bran oils, and rice hulls: composition, food and industrial uses, and bioactivities in humans, animals, and cells. (United States)

    Friedman, Mendel


    Rice plants produce bioactive rice brans and hulls that have been reported to have numerous health-promoting effects in cells, animals, and humans. The main objective of this review is to consolidate and integrate the widely scattered information on the composition and the antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and immunostimulating effects of rice brans from different rice cultivars, rice bran oils derived from rice brans, rice hulls, liquid rice hull smoke derived from rice hulls, and some of their bioactive compounds. As part of this effort, this paper also presents brief summaries on the preparation of health-promoting foods including bread, corn flakes, frankfurters, ice cream, noodles, pasta, tortillas, and zero-trans-fat shortening as well as industrial products such bioethanol and biodiesel fuels. Also covered are antibiotic, antiallergic, anticarcinogenic, antidiabetic, cardiovascular, allelochemical, and other beneficial effects and the mechanisms of the bioactivities. The results show that food-compatible and safe formulations with desirable nutritional and biological properties can be used to develop new multifunctional foods as well as bioethanol and biodiesel fuel. The overlapping aspects are expected to contribute to a better understanding of the potential impact of the described health-promoting potential of the rice-derived brans, oils, and hulls in food and medicine. Such an understanding will enhance nutrition and health and benefit the agricultural and industrial economies.

  20. The Application of Rice Hull Mulch and Potassium Nitrate on Growth and Yield of Kailan (Brassica oleraceae var. Long Leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Ramadiana


    Full Text Available Potassium (K is absorbed by plants in larger amounts than any other mineral element except N to optimalize plant growth. Mulches may be influenced an available K at vegetative growth phase of plant. The research was conducted in Simpang Kanan Village, Gisting, Tanggamus Lampung Province. The objectives of this research were to study the application of KNO3 and rice hull mulch on growth and yield of kailan. Fields experiments were arranged by a factorial in a completely randomized block design with 10 treatments and 3 replications. A first factor was (1 dosages of KNO3 (150, 175, 200, 225, and 250 kg ha-1 and the second factor was mulch of the rice hull (with and without the rice hull. The results showed that the application of the rice hull did not significantly affected the yield of kailan, however the application of KNO3 till 250 kg ha-1 increased the level of greenness up to 6.10% and the wide of leaf up to 18,57%. In addition, the present of potassium fertilizer suspended with the rice hull significantly affected the width of kalian leaf.

  1. Kolkhoung (Pistacia khinjuk Hull Oil and Kernel Oil as Antioxidative Vegetable Oils with High Oxidative Stability and Nutritional Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Asnaashari


    Full Text Available In this study, in order to introduce natural antioxidative vegetable oil in food industry, the kolkhoung hull oil and kernel oil were extracted. To evaluate their antioxidant efficiency, gas chromatography analysis of the composition of kolkhoung hull and kernel oil fatty acids and high–performance liquid chromatography analysis of tocopherols were done. Also, the oxidative stability of the oil was considered based on the peroxide value and anisidine value during heating at 100, 110 and 120 °C. Gas chromatography analysis showed that oleic acid was the major fatty acid of both types of oil (hull and kernel and based on a low content of saturated fatty acids, high content of monounsaturated fatty acids, and the ratio of ω-6 and ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, they were nutritionally well-balanced. Moreover, both hull and kernel oil showed high oxidative stability during heating, which can be attributed to high content of tocotrienols. Based on the results, kolkhoung hull oil acted slightly better than its kernel oil. However, both of them can be added to oxidation–sensitive oils to improve their shelf life.

  2. Health and environmental risk assessment associated with a potential recovery of the Russian submarine K-27

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosseini, A.; Amundsen, I.; Brown, J.E.; Dowdall, M.; Standring, W. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority/CERAD CoE (Norway); Bartnicki, J. [Norwegian Meteorological Institute/CERAD CoE (Norway); Karcher, M. [O.A.Sys - Ocean Atmosphere Systems GmbH (Germany); Lind, O.C.; Salbu, B. [Norwegian University of Life Sciences/CERAD CoE (Norway)


    The nuclear submarine K-27 is one of several objects with spent nuclear fuel (SNF) which has been dumped in the Arctic. It contained two liquid metal reactors (LMRs) of 70 MW maximum thermal power each and used Pb-Bi as the coolant. The reactors were loaded with 180 kg of U-235 at an enrichment of 90 %. In September 1981, the submarine was sunk in the shallow waters of Stepovoy Fjord at an estimated depth of 30 m. Concerns have been expressed by various parties regarding the issue of dumped nuclear waste in the Kara Sea and in particular the submarine K-27. To address these concerns and to provide a better basis for evaluating possible radiological impact (especially as a consequence of a potential recovery of the submarine), an environmental impact assessment has been undertaken. The study is based on construction of different hypothetical accident scenarios and evaluating possible associated consequences for human and the environment. In general, three main scenarios seem probable and thus appropriate for consideration. One is the 'zero- alternative', i.e. investigate the current and future impact assuming no interventions. The second considers an accidental scenario involving the raising of the submarine and the third an accidental scenario related to the transportation of the submarine to shore for defueling. With regards to the accidental scenarios related to raising and transportation of the submarine, two alternatives can be considered depending on where and how a hypothetical accident will take place and whether the subsequent releases occur under water or at the water surface. The issue of an uncontrolled chain reaction occurring as a result of a potential recovery of the submarine will be included in the assessment. The work includes application of state of the art 3D hydrodynamic and atmospheric dispersion models to investigate the transport, distribution and fate of relevant radionuclides following a hypothetical accident in aquatic and

  3. Impact of Submarine Geohazards on Organic Carbon Burial Offshore Southwestern Taiwan (United States)

    Su, C. C.; Tsai, P. H.; Liu, J. T.; Hsu, S. K.; Chiu, S. D.


    The tectonically active setting and climatic conditions give Taiwan a high exposure to severe natural hazards. After the Pingtung Earthquake and Morakot Typhoon which occurred in 2006 and 2009, the turbidity currents caused a series of submarine cable breaks along the Gaoping and Fangliao Submarine Canyons off SW Taiwan. Large amounts of terrestrial sediments were fast transported bypass the narrow continental shelf and rapidly moved southward through submarine canyons to the deep sea. Two piston cores which were taken from the Tsangyao Ridge and its adjacent area (OR5-1302-2-MT7 and MT6) might shed light on understanding the export of terrestrial organic carbon to the abyss by submarine geo-hazards. The 210Pb profile of MT7 in conjunction with the grain size data indicates the existence of the Pingtung Earthquake and Morakot Typhoon related deposits. The sedimentation rate of these two cores which derived from 210Pb is approximately 0.05 cm/yr. The cores collected from the Gaoping Submarine Canyon, Gaoping Slope and Fangliao Submarine Canyon are used for analyzing TOC, organic C/N and δ13C ratios. The concentrations of total organic carbon are ~0.5%, and C/N rations almost remain between 4 and 8. The high TOC (~1%) and C/N ratio (>10) are observed in the samples with plant debris. The fluctuation of TOC and C/N ratios in near-shore samples is higher than deep sea. In terms of δ13C-values, it progressively decreases with distances from coastal zone to the deep sea. Due to the larger proportions of land-derived organic carbon, the δ13C-values in the surface sediment of upper Gaoping Submarine Canyon, Gaoping Slope, and the turbidite layers at the head of Fangliao Submarine Canyon are lighter. Furthermore, we use the TOC concentrations and δ13C-values to estimate the fractional contributions of terrestrial organic carbon by a simple two component mixing model, and integrate with the 210Pb-derived sediment accumulation rates to evaluate the organic carbon burial

  4. Nuclear-powered submarine accidents; Les accidents de sous-marins nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tournyol du Clos, A.


    Most of nuclear-powered ships are military ships and submarines represent 95% of the total. Most of the propulsion reactors used are of PWR type. This paper gives the principal technical characteristics of PWR ship propulsion reactors and the differences with their civil homologues. The principal accidents that occurred on US and Russian nuclear-powered submarines are also listed and the possible effects of a shipwreck on the reactor behaviour are evaluated with their environmental impact. (J.S.). 1 tab., 1 photo.

  5. Modeling and Synthesis Methods for Retrofit Design of Submarine Actuation Systems. Energy Storage for Electric Actuators (United States)


    sternplane v - sway w - heave u - surge X Y Z y z x Figure 2: Coordinate frame definitions of submarine vehicular dynamics. 2.1 Six Degree of Freedom...where Mν̇ is the total inertial matrix, C(ν) is the Coriolis/centripetal matrix, D(ν) is the total damping matrix, g(η) are the buoyancy and weight...Natick, MA. Retrofit Design of Submarine Actuation Systems Page 7 q - pitch w - heave u - surge δs Msp Figure 3: Hydrodynamic moment unit definition

  6. The impact of the Type 094 ballistic missile submarine on China's nuclear policy


    Bell, Samuel D.


    Approved for public release, distribution unlimited This thesis examines the implication of China’s near completion of a viable nuclear triad. The objective is to determine first, how this submarine will fit into China’s no-first-use policy with regards to their nuclear weapons. And second, determine how advanced this weapon platform will be. With the introduction of multiple Type 094 “Jin” class ballistic missile submarines, has Beijing set the stage for a possible return to Cold War leve...

  7. Oceanographic studies supporting the assessment of deep-sea disposal of defueled decommissioned nuclear submarines (United States)

    Ross Heath, G.; Rea, David K.; Ness, Gordon; Dale Pillsbury, R.; Beasley, Thomas M.; Lopez, Carlos; Talbert, Daniel M.


    Based on criteria developed by the international Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), potential disposal sites for defueled, decommissioned nuclear submarines appear to exist in deep water south of the Mendocino Fracture Zone within 200 nautical miles of the United States Oceanographic measurements in the water column and at the sea floor in a study area (W-N) at 39 5°N, 127 5°W will allow the operational and radiological consequences of deep-sea disposal to be compared with land burial of old submarines. The W-N studies also are yielding new data that will provide insights to the deposition and early diagenesis of distal hemipelagic sediments

  8. Software development to estimate the leaked volume from ruptured submarine pipelines; Desenvolvimento de um software para estimativa do volume vazado a partir de dutos submarions rompidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quadri, Marintho B.; Machado, Ricardo A.F.; Nogueira, Andre L.; Lopes, Toni J. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica; Baptista, Renan M. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)


    The considerable increasing in the world petroleum consumption as the exhaustion of onshore reserves in the last decades leads the companies to exploit petroleum in offshore reserves (both shallow and deep water). As in onshore operations, accidents may also occur in submarine exploration. Leaking from submarine pipelines arises from corrosion pit and from axial or radial breakage. In all these three situations, the leaking is divided in three steps: pipeline depressurization until the internal pressure becomes equal to the external one; advective migration in which the driven force is the difference in the physical properties of the fluids; oil spill movement in the sea surface. A great number of mathematical models are Also available for the first and third steps. For the second one and theoretically, the most important situation, there is a restricted number of works respected to the oil volume leaked. The present study presents a software that is capable to accurate simulate a leakage through the advective migration phenomena. The software was validated for situations for different holes radii located in the upper side of a horizontal pipeline. Model results presented very good agreement with experimental data. (author)

  9. Submarine landslide triggered by eruption recorded by in-situ hydrophone at NW Rota-1 submarine volcano, Mariana Arc (Invited) (United States)

    Chadwick, B.; Dziak, R. P.; Embley, R. W.; Tunnicliffe, V.; Sherrin, J.; Cashman, K. V.; Deardorff, N.


    An expedition to NW Rota-1, Mariana Arc, in March 2010 with R/V Kilo Moana and ROV Jason found that the submarine volcano (summit depth 520 m) was still erupting more or less continuously as has been observed since 2004, In addition, the expedition also discovered that a major landslide had occurred since the last visit in April 2009, demonstrating the dynamic processes of eruption, collapse, and regrowth in the submarine arc environment. The dive observations reveal the responses of the volcano’s magmatic and hydrothermal systems to such a collapse, as well as how the resident chemosynthetic biological community has responded to the event. The morphologic changes from the landslide can be quantified by comparing multibeam bathymetric surveys between 2009 and 2010. The headwall of the slide is now ~100 m north of the former summit ridge where depth changes up to -90 m occurred between surveys. The slide excavated material from the upper southern slope of the volcano to a distance of 3.5 km downslope, and deposited material between 2-8 km from the summit down to at least 2800 m on the volcano flank. The area and volume of slide deposits (positive depth changes) are 7.1 x 106 m2 and 5.3 x 107 m3, respectively, and the maximum thickness is +42 m. The area and volume of material removed by the slide (negative depth changes) are 2.2 x 106 m2 and -4.1 x 107 m3, respectively. We have found no evidence for a local tsunami generated by this event. The changes in morphology near the summit show that the landslide primarily removed loose volcaniclastic deposits that had accumulated near the active eruptive vent, exposing an underlying stock-like core of resistant intrusive rocks and massive lavas at the summit. During March 2010, there were at least 5 active eruptive vents, located along a line 200-m long, that changed between active and inactive day-to-day and even hour-to-hour, suggesting that the near-surface magmatic plumbing system was still reorganizing after the

  10. Purified cellulose, soybean hulls and citrus pulp as a source of fiber for weaned piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Augusto Fonseca Pascoal


    Full Text Available Dietary fiber is an important component, which has a direct effect on intake, digestion, and absorption of nutrients; and also alters intestinal microbiota and morphology according to solubility. One digestibility trial and one performance experiment were performed to evaluate the effects of sources of fiber in diets for 21 day weaned piglets. The experimental diets used in both trials consisted of a control diet and diets with purified cellulose, soybean hulls or citrus pulp as a main source of dietary fiber. To evaluate the digestibility of nutrients (Assay 1, the total feces and urine collection method was used. The fiber sources did not affect nutrient digestibility, except for soluble fiber, which increased with the inclusion of citrus (Citrus sinensisL. pulp. To evaluate performance, morphophysiology and microbiology of the digestive tract of weaned piglets, a total of 32 castrated male piglets was used. Slaughter of animals was implemented at 35 and 50 days of age. The use of soybean (Glycine max L. hulls and citrus pulp in diets increased the number of goblet cells and the density of villi in the jejunum. The viscosities of stomach and cecum contents increased due to the addition of citrus pulp. Soybean hulls and the citrus pulp included in diets reduced the occurrence of E. coli in the small intestines of piglets slaughtered at 35 days of age. Among the fiber sources, purified cellulose in piglet diets promotes better performance of animals, due to the modulation of the small intestine microbiota, with lower E. coli occurrence resulting in higher villus density.

  11. Microstructure development of chars derived from high-temperature pyrolysis of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) hulls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.A. Boateng; P.H. Cooke; K.B. Hicks [US Department of Agriculture, Wyndmoor, PA (United States). Agriculture Research Service, Eastern Regional Research Center


    Fast pyrolysis of biomass is a thermochemical conversion process that provides an economic production of pyrolysis oils/bio-oils. The process also results in a residual solid residue, char, that comprises carbon and mineral ash that can be a potential source of fuel or a valuable co-product. Depending on the exposure time and temperature, pyrolysis can increase the interfacial surface areas of the residual char thereby enhancing its absorptive capacity. Char residues can be used for physical or chemical absorption and as catalyst support or base material for fertilizers. The reactions that occur during char combustion or gasification are heterogeneous hence the reaction rates are microstructure dependent. Ashes from biomass derived chars can be high either in calcium or silica with the latter exceeding 90% levels in certain grain hull residues. Depending on the microstructural transformations which occur during thermal degradation of the biomass, silica-laden ashes can be a potential source of pozzolan for the construction industry. In this study, the microstructure of the chars derived from fast pyrolysis of barley-hull was studied using environmental scanning electron microscopy under low vacuum conditions. The results indicate a gradual increase in convoluted microstructure related to the superficial organization of epidermal cells, including stomata and trichomes that eventually assume the form of various morphotypes of phytoliths. Characterization of the temporal events of high temperature evolution of the hull microstructure provides practical implications of its combustion reactivities and also provides information useful for predicting potential masonry applications for the resulting ash. 18 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. [Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) hulls: a posible commercial source of pectins]. (United States)

    Barazarte, Humberto; Sangronis, Elba; Unai, Emaldi


    Commercial exploitation of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) generates a volume of hulls that could be used in the production of pectins on an industrial scale. Therefore, pectins from cocoa hulls were extracted at different pH and temperature conditions, and their main chemical characteristics were evaluated. EDTA at 0.5% was used for the extraction at pHs 3, 4 and 5 and temperatures of 60, 75 and 90 degrees C, under a 3 2 factorial design. The response variables were yield, content of anhydrous galacturonic acid (AGA), content of metoxil, degree of esterification and equivalent weight of the pectins extracted. The strength of the pectic gel was determined with a TA-XT2 texturometer. Strawberry jam was made with the pectin extracted, and its acceptability was determined using a 7-point hedonic scale. The results obtained were as follows: an extraction yield from 2.64 to 4.69 g/100 g; an AGA content between 49.8 and 64.06 g/100 g; a content of metoxil between 4.72 and 7.18 g/100 g; a degree of esterification between 37.94 and 52.20%; an equivalent weight from 385.47 to 464.61 g/equivalent of H+, and a degree of gelation between 28.64 and 806.03 g force. The pectin extracted at pH 4 and 90 degrees C showed a gelation power of 422.16 g force, purity 62.26 g/100 g of AGA, and a yield of extraction of 3.89 g/100 g and allowed to prepare ajam with an average level of liking of "like moderately". Pectins from cocoa hulls show potential application in the food industry, but it is necessary to optimize the extraction parameters to increase its yield.

  13. Instrument for determining the transuranic element content of chopped leached fuel hulls and other materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodzinski, R. L.; Wogman, N. A.; Nielson, H. L.; Brown, D. P.


    An instrument has been designed, constructed, and evaluated for the identification and quantitative determination of transuranic elements by detection of neutrons emitted from their (..cap alpha.., n) and spontaneous fission reactions. Although optimized for batch evaluation of chopped leached nuclear fuel cladding hulls, the principle can be adapted to continuous feed operations. Unique electronic circuitry permits the sorting of neutron emissions depending on their origin which can be directly related to the isotopic composition of very small amounts of transuranic activities present in extreme gamma radiation fields. Efficiencies, sensitivities, and detection limits are discussed.

  14. An Analysis of Wind Power Development in the Town of Hull, MA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Christopher


    Over the past three decades the Town of Hull, MA has solidified its place in U.S. wind energy history through its leadership in community-based generation. This is illustrated by its commissioning of the first commercial-scale wind turbine on the Atlantic coastline, the first suburban-sited turbine in the continental United States, pursuit of community-based offshore wind, and its push toward creating an energy independent community. The town's history and demographics are briefly outlined, followed by experience in projects to provide wind power, including pre-construction and feasibility efforts, financial aspects, and market/industry factors.

  15. In situ degradation of almond (Prunus dulcis L.) hulls, a potential feed material for ruminants


    JAFARI, SAEID; Alizadeh, Alireza; IMNI, ALI; Meng, Goh Yong; Rajion, Mohamed Ali; EBRAHIMI, Mahdi


    The nutritive values of almond hulls (Ahs), alfalfa (ALF), and sugar beet pulp (SBP) were determined using the in situ nylon bag technique. The ruminal dry matter (DM) degradation kinetics of 4 varieties of Ahs were compared with ALF and SBP. The almond varieties tested were Rabbi (RAB), Mamaii (MAM), Shahrud 15 (SH15), and Shokufe (SH). Samples were incubated in triplicate at 0, 4, 8, 12, 16, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h in 3 rumen-fistulated steers. The average total degradability fraction (TDF) of...

  16. The Thermal Cracking Experiment Research of Tar from Rice Hull Gasification for Power Generation (United States)

    Wu, Z. S.; Mi, T.; We, Q. X.; Chen, Y. F.; Li, X. H.

    the tar from rice hull gasification for power generation which is cracked in high temperature is studied in this paper, the results reveal the part of compositions which have smaller RT in tar is first cracked into H2, CO2 and carbon, and then carbon react with H2 and CO2, and CH4, CO are formed; the cracked efficiency of tar can reach 28.66%, the carbon deposit among cracked tar can reach 12.76%, the results of the GC-MS analysis showed the aromatic extent of with tar cracking reaction carrying out in high temperature.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimo PENKOV


    Full Text Available Using adapted methods for balanced experiments with waterfowl, the apparent (AMEn-0 and the true (TMEn-0 metabolizable energy of hull-less barley have been established. Despite the lower content of crude fi ber, the energy values were similar to the common barley (Hordeum sativa L.. The AMEn-0 and the TMEn-0 of the forage for Muscovy ducks were 12.29 MJ/kg DM and 13.28 MJ/kg DM, and the coeffi cients of the gross energy transformation - 68.97 and 74.52, respectively.

  18. Convex hull and tour crossings in the Euclidean traveling salesperson problem: implications for human performance studies. (United States)

    Van Rooij, Iris; Stege, Ulrike; Schactman, Alissa


    Recently there has been growing interest among psychologists in human performance on the Euclidean traveling salesperson problem (E-TSP). A debate has been initiated on what strategy people use in solving visually presented E-TSP instances. The most prominent hypothesis is the convex-hull hypothesis, originally proposed by MacGregor and Ormerod (1996). We argue that, in the literature so far, there is no evidence for this hypothesis. Alternatively we propose and motivate the hypothesis that people aim at avoiding crossings.

  19. The Effect of Rise Angle of V-Hull Non Ballast Ship on Seakeeping Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elkady Hesham


    Full Text Available In this paper a new concept in ship design was used to be alternative of ballast water system, to emerge that remedy the introduction of invasive marine species and the disadvantages of ballast water treatment systems. Thus, the hydrodynamic influences due to hull line variation of this kind of ships were studied, using the invariant cross-section area curve under the design draft to change the rise angle at bottom. Then numerical calculation was used to get the seakeeping at each angle. Two 3D models were constructed for 59000 DWT oil tankers and 35000 DWT bulk carriers, where the result of the bulk carrier was exposed.

  20. Characterization of fly ash, slag and glass hull for the obtaining of vitreous materials (United States)

    Ayala Valderrama, D. M.; Gómez Cuaspud, J. A.


    This article presents the structural and thermal characterization of fly ash, the waste from blast furnace slag and the glass hull, generated as common residues in industry, which cannot be recycled easily or destroyed in a simple and fast way. In the particular case of fly ash, at present are being used as a lightweight aggregate in the production of cement, concrete and additive in the production of glass and glass ceramics. As far as the slag and hull, are being used as additives for the asphalt and concretes, however its use still is restricted, reason why its use in alternative ways are necessary. Initially the chemical composition of residues was established, determining that the fly ashes contains SiO2, Al2O3 and Fe2O3 oxides; 90% of the total composition, was confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis. As minor constituents, small percentages of Mg, P, S, K, Na and Ti were found. For the slag case, the phases of Fe3O4, Ca3Mg (SiO2)4 and Ca(MgAl)(Si,Al)2O6 were identified, observing the presence of amorphous phase higher than 94% of the total phase of the system. Meanwhile, the glass hull sample showed a higher percentage of 95% amorphicity, mainly identifying a weak signal associated with silicon oxide SiO2. The thermal analyses of the samples, exhibit a decrease in mass for samples between 25-1000°C was observed, which can be attributed to different physical-chemical events that occur in the materials. The heat flow for each sample is related with the removal of the water retained by the physisorption processes around 92-110°C in all cases. With this previous characterization of the precursors, a sample was composed using 70% fly ash, 10% slag and 20% of glass hull was composed and treated at 1200°C/1.5 hours, obtaining a dense black glassy material for potential applications in field of the glass ceramics.

  1. MAO-A inhibitory activity of quercetin from Calluna vulgaris (L.) Hull

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saaby, Lasse; Rasmussen, Hasse Bonde; Jäger, Anna Katharina


    AIM OF THE STUDY: This study investigated MAO-A inhibitory activity of methanol extract of Calluna vulgaris (L.) Hull., which traditionally has been used as a nerve calming remedy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A methanolic extract of Calluna vulgaris was partitioned against heptane, ethyl acetate...... and water. The three fractions were tested in a photometric peroxidase linked MAO-A bioassay. The ethyl acetate phase showed the highest MAO-A inhibitory activity. Quercetin was isolated by VLC through bioassay-guided fractionation and purified by re-crystallisation. The structure was elucidated by LC...

  2. Separation and HPLC-MS identification of phenolic antioxidants from agricultural residues: Almond hulls and grape pomace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubilar, M.; Pinelo, Manuel; Shene, C.


    Almond hulls and grape pomace are residues abundantly generated by agricultural industries, which could be processed to obtain bioactive products. To this purpose, crude ethanol extracts from both agricultural byproducts were attained and subsequently fractionated in order to obtain an organic....../water fraction (FOW). Extracts and fractions were analyzed for antioxidant power and their phenolic components tentatively identified by HPLC-MS. Chromatographic peaks of almond hull extracts showed the occurrence of hydroxybenzoic and cinnamic acid derivatives, with minor presence of flavan-3-ols (ECG, EGCG...... was assessed by DPPH and TBARS assays. Almond hulls showed inhibition percentages lower than 50% in both assays, while the inhibition percentage ranged from 80% to 90% in pomace extracts. Red grape pomace extract was the most efficient antioxidant, with an EC50 value of 0.91 g/L for TBARS and 0.20 g/L for DPPH...

  3. Effect of corn- and soybean hull-based creep feed and backgrounding diets on lifelong performance and carcass traits of calves from pasture and rangeland conditions (United States)

    Three separate studies were conducted to investigate the life-long effect of creep feeding, creep feeding energy source (soybean hulls, SC, or corn, CC) and interactive effects of creep feed with backgrounding dietary energy source (soybean hulls, SBR, or corn, CBR) on calf growth performance, carca...

  4. Fermentation of oat and soybean hull hydrolysates into ethanol and xylitol by recombinant industrial strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae under diverse oxygen environments (United States)

    In this study, we evaluated the capacity of recombinant industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae YRH 396 and YRH 400 strains to ferment sugars from oat hull and soybean hull hydrolysates into ethanol and xylitol. The strains were genetically modified by chromosomal integration of Pichia stipitis XYLI/XYL...

  5. Swath sonar mapping of Earth's submarine plate boundaries (United States)

    Carbotte, S. M.; Ferrini, V. L.; Celnick, M.; Nitsche, F. O.; Ryan, W. B. F.


    The recent loss of Malaysia Airlines flight MH370 in an area of the Indian Ocean where less than 5% of the seafloor is mapped with depth sounding data (Smith and Marks, EOS 2014) highlights the striking lack of detailed knowledge of the topography of the seabed for much of the worlds' oceans. Advances in swath sonar mapping technology over the past 30 years have led to dramatic improvements in our capability to map the seabed. However, the oceans are vast and only an estimated 10% of the seafloor has been mapped with these systems. Furthermore, the available coverage is highly heterogeneous and focused within areas of national strategic priority and community scientific interest. The major plate boundaries that encircle the globe, most of which are located in the submarine environment, have been a significant focus of marine geoscience research since the advent of swath sonar mapping. While the location of these plate boundaries are well defined from satellite-derived bathymetry, significant regions remain unmapped at the high-resolutions provided by swath sonars and that are needed to study active volcanic and tectonic plate boundary processes. Within the plate interiors, some fossil plate boundary zones, major hotspot volcanoes, and other volcanic provinces have been the focus of dedicated research programs. Away from these major tectonic structures, swath mapping coverage is limited to sparse ocean transit lines which often reveal previously unknown deep-sea channels and other little studied sedimentary structures not resolvable in existing low-resolution global compilations, highlighting the value of these data even in the tectonically quiet plate interiors. Here, we give an overview of multibeam swath sonar mapping of the major plate boundaries of the globe as extracted from public archives. Significant quantities of swath sonar data acquired from deep-sea regions are in restricted-access international archives. Open access to more of these data sets would

  6. Submarine Groundwater Discharge in Stony Brook Harbor, NY (United States)

    Durand, J. M.; Young, C.; Wong, T.; Hanson, G. N.


    As nutrients can significantly impact coastal ecosystems, understanding their path to embayments and oceans is crucial. In Stony Brook Harbor (Long Island, NY), submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) is the only significant contribution of freshwater and thus constitutes the main pathway for nutrients, which may eventually reach Long Island Sound. Subterranean estuaries have been shown to be highly reactive zones where nitrogen attenuation can occur. Understanding the fate of nitrogen in Stony Brook Harbor requires knowing the volume of groundwater entering the bay as well as the amount of denitrification, in the context of the hydrogeological framework. This is achieved by combining electrical resistivity survey, water sampling in piezometers, point conductivity and seepage measurements. A Trident probe inserted 60 cm deep into the sediments allows measuring the conductivity and temperature of the sediments and the overlying seawater. In spring 2011, five Trident transects spreading across the head of the harbor were used as a preliminary study to reveal potential locations for SGD. Locations with significant difference between sediment and seawater temperature and/or conductivities were further investigated using an AGI SuperSting 8-channel receiver resistivity meter. Two ultrasonic seepage meters were deployed in May and July 2011 about 20 m below the low tide mark. Five piezometers were aligned parallel to one resistivity survey. Our resistivity data indicate superficial mixing in the intertidal zone. The freshwater extends quite far under the seafloor, above 67 meters after the low tide mark for one location. The freshwater/saltwater interface seems to be almost horizontal. The piezometer data agree relatively well with the resistivity data. The preliminary average seepage rates observed vary from 3 to 60 cm/d. The resistivity sections reveal the presence of a thin layer of high conductivity above the low tide mark. This matches the observation of a superficial

  7. Experimental research on the double-peak characteristic of underwater radiated noise in the near field on top of a submarine (United States)

    Liu, Ning; Wang, Sande; Guo, Tao; Li, Xiyou; Yu, Ziyang


    The double-peak characteristic of underwater radiated noise in the near field on top of the target submarine was analyzed in depth on the basis of submarine test data on the sea. The contribution of three major noise sources to the radiated noise of a submarine were compared and analyzed, and emphasis was put on the original source, production mechanism, and their correlative characteristics. On the basis of analysis on underwater tracking and pass through characteristics of the target submarine, the double-peak phenomenon was reasonably interpreted. Furthermore, the correctness of the theoretical interpretation was verified adequately in real submarine tests. The double-peak phenomenon indicates that the space distributing character on submarine radiated noise are both asymmetrical with time and space, whereas that is provided with directivity. Studying the double-peak phenomenon in depth has important reference value and meaning in engineering practice for understanding the underwater radiated noise field of submarines.

  8. Design and deployment of autoclave pressure vessels for the portable deep-sea drill rig MeBo (Meeresboden-Bohrgerät

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Pape


    Full Text Available Pressure barrels for sampling and preservation of submarine sediments under in situ pressure with the robotic sea-floor drill rig MeBo (Meeresboden-Bohrgerät housed at the MARUM (Bremen, Germany were developed. Deployments of the so-called MDP (MeBo pressure vessel during two offshore expeditions off New Zealand and off Spitsbergen, Norway, resulted in the recovery of sediment cores with pressure stages equaling in situ hydrostatic pressure. While initially designed for the quantification of gas and gas-hydrate contents in submarine sediments, the MDP also allows for analysis of the sediments under in situ pressure with methods typically applied by researchers from other scientific fields (geotechnics, sedimentology, microbiology, etc.. Here we report on the design and operational procedure of the MDP and demonstrate full functionality by presenting the first results from pressure-core degassing and molecular gas analysis.

  9. Characteristics and treatment of wastewater generated during underwater hull cleaning operations of U.S. Navy ships


    Forbes, Donna J.


    For the last 15 years the U.S Navy has been using an underwater diver-operated brush mechanism to clean marine fouling on ship hulls. During this operation, it has been shown that 1 to 2 mils of antifouling paint (which is 40-50 percent cuprous oxide by weight) are removed, resulting in the discharge of up to 1300 pounds of copper into the surrounding surface waters. This paper reviewed and summarized the recent studies which have been conducted relating to hull cleaning. Among other things, ...

  10. Economic and Environmental Impact Trade-Offs Related to In-Water Hull Cleanings of Merchant Vessels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagoropoulos, Aris; Kjær, Louise Laumann; Dong, Yan


    they are an established practice, their associated environmental and economic trade-offs and conflicts have remained largely unexplored. The purpose of this article is to quantitatively assess both economic and environmental impacts of hull management schemes on the operation of tanker vessels. After identifying induced...... and avoided costs and environmental impacts from the hull management system, we used both temporally and spatially distributed models to capture the degradation of the antifouling system as well as the global sailing profile of the vessels. Last, we analyzed how each of the modeled impacts varied...

  11. Soybean hulls as a primary ingredient in forage-free diets for limit-fed growing cattle. (United States)

    Löest, C A; Titgemeyer, E C; Drouillard, J S; Blasi, D A; Bindel, D J


    In Exp. 1, 300 heifers (260 kg initial BW) were used to compare growth performance of cattle fed forage-free diets containing predominantly soybean hulls with that of cattle receiving roughage- and corn-based diets and to determine whether cattle fed soybean hull-based diets would respond to supplementation with methionine hydroxy analogue (MHA), lipid-coated betaine, or concentrated separator by-product (CSB; a source of betaine). Treatments included 1) a roughage-based diet fed at 2.75% of BW, 2) a corn-based diet fed at 1.5% of BW, 3) a corn-based diet fed at 2.25% of BW, 4) a soybean hull-based diet fed at 1.5% of BW (SH1.5), 5) a soybean hull-based diet fed at 2.25% of BW (SH2.25), 6) SH1.5 top-dressed with 11.4 g/d Alimet (10 g/d MHA), 7) SH2.25 top-dressed with 11.4 g/d Alimet, 8) SH2.25 top-dressed with 7 g/d of a lipid-coated betaine product (4.2 g/d betaine), and 9) SH2.25 top-dressed with 250 g/d CSB (15.5 g/d betaine). Supplemental MHA, betaine, and CSB did not change DMI, ADG, or gain:feed ratio for cattle fed soybean hulls. Heifers fed soybean hull-based diets gained 29% slower (P < 0.05) and had 27% lower gain:feed ratios than heifers fed the corn-based diets. Cattle fed soybean hull-based diets had gains that were lower (P < 0.05) than those of cattle fed the roughage-based diets, but gain:feed ratios were similar because cattle were fed less of the soybean hull-based diets. Roughage-fed cattle had similar gains but 25% lower (P < 0.05) gain:feed ratios than cattle fed the corn-based diets. In Exp. 2, degradation by ruminal microbes of betaine in anhydrous betaine, betaine-HCl, feed-grade betaine, lipid-coated betaine, and CSB was evaluated in vitro using ruminal inocula collected from steers fed a high-grain or high-roughage diet. The roughage diet led to less betaine disappearance than the grain diet. More betaine was degraded from CSB than from other sources, perhaps because sugars provided by CSB stimulated fermentation, but no large differences

  12. Hydrodynamic Tests in the N.A.C.A. Tank of a Model of the Hull of the Short Calcutta Flying Boat (United States)

    Ward, Kenneth E


    The hydrodynamic characteristics of a model of the hull of the Short Calcutta (N.A.C.A. Model 47) are presented in non-dimensional form. This model represents one of a series of hulls of successful foreign and domestic flying boats the characteristics of which are being obtained under similar test conditions in the N.A.C.A. tank. The take-off distance and time for a flying boat having the hull of the Calcutta are compared at two values of the gross load with the corresponding distances and times for the same flying boat having hulls of two representative American types, the Sikorsky S-40 and the N.A.C.A. 11-A. This comparison indicates that for hulls of the widely different forms compared, the differences in take-off time and distance are negligible.

  13. The Italian Submarine Force in the Battle of the Atlantic: Left in the Dark (United States)


    design during the Interwar period. Part of this discussion will focus on German U-boat design and capabilities prior to the Versailles Treaty in...patrols can be attributed to the restrictions imposed by the Treaty of Versailles and the amount of time required to re-build a German submarine force...

  14. Kolumbo submarine volcano (Greece): An active window into the Aegean subduction system. (United States)

    Rizzo, Andrea Luca; Caracausi, Antonio; Chavagnac, Valèrie; Nomikou, Paraskevi; Polymenakou, Paraskevi N; Mandalakis, Manolis; Kotoulas, Georgios; Magoulas, Antonios; Castillo, Alain; Lampridou, Danai


    Submarine volcanism represents ~80% of the volcanic activity on Earth and is an important source of mantle-derived gases. These gases are of basic importance for the comprehension of mantle characteristics in areas where subaerial volcanism is missing or strongly modified by the presence of crustal/atmospheric components. Though, the study of submarine volcanism remains a challenge due to their hazardousness and sea-depth. Here, we report (3)He/(4)He measurements in CO2-dominated gases discharged at 500 m below sea level from the high-temperature (~220 °C) hydrothermal system of the Kolumbo submarine volcano (Greece), located 7 km northeast off Santorini Island in the central part of the Hellenic Volcanic Arc (HVA). We highlight that the mantle below Kolumbo and Santorini has a (3)He/(4)He signature of at least 7.0 Ra (being Ra the (3)He/(4)He ratio of atmospheric He equal to 1.39×10(-6)), 3 Ra units higher than actually known for gases-rocks from Santorini. This ratio is also the highest measured across the HVA and is indicative of the direct degassing of a Mid-Ocean-Ridge-Basalts (MORB)-like mantle through lithospheric faults. We finally highlight that the degassing of high-temperature fluids with a MORB-like (3)He/(4)He ratio corroborates a vigorous outgassing of mantle-derived volatiles with potential hazard at the Kolumbo submarine volcano.

  15. Environmental monitoring of El Hierro Island submarine volcano, by combining low and high resolution satellite imagery (United States)

    Eugenio, F.; Martin, J.; Marcello, J.; Fraile-Nuez, E.


    El Hierro Island, located at the Canary Islands Archipelago in the Atlantic coast of North Africa, has been rocked by thousands of tremors and earthquakes since July 2011. Finally, an underwater volcanic eruption started 300 m below sea level on October 10, 2011. Since then, regular multidisciplinary monitoring has been carried out in order to quantify the environmental impacts caused by the submarine eruption. Thanks to this natural tracer release, multisensorial satellite imagery obtained from MODIS and MERIS sensors have been processed to monitor the volcano activity and to provide information on the concentration of biological, chemical and physical marine parameters. Specifically, low resolution satellite estimations of optimal diffuse attenuation coefficient (Kd) and chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentration under these abnormal conditions have been assessed. These remote sensing data have played a fundamental role during field campaigns guiding the oceanographic vessel to the appropriate sampling areas. In addition, to analyze El Hierro submarine volcano area, WorldView-2 high resolution satellite spectral bands were atmospherically and deglinted processed prior to obtain a high-resolution optimal diffuse attenuation coefficient model. This novel algorithm was developed using a matchup data set with MERIS and MODIS data, in situ transmittances measurements and a seawater radiative transfer model. Multisensor and multitemporal imagery processed from satellite remote sensing sensors have demonstrated to be a powerful tool for monitoring the submarine volcanic activities, such as discolored seawater, floating material and volcanic plume, having shown the capabilities to improve the understanding of submarine volcanic processes.

  16. The fate of the submarine ikaite tufa columns in southwest Greenland under changing climate conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Marc O.; Buchardt, Bjørn; Kühl, Michael


    carbonate tufa columns. Here, ikaite is formed as a result of submarine spring water mixing with cold seawater. As ikaite disintegrates at temperatures above 6–7uC, it has been speculated that global warming could endanger this unique habitat as well as other sites. In Ikka Fjord in situ water chemistry...

  17. Frontal and Lateral Submarine Lobe Fringes: Comparing Sedimentary Facies, Architecture and Flow Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spychala, Yvonne T.; Hodgson, David M.; Prélat, Amandine; Kane, Ian A.; Flint, Stephen S.; Mountney, Nigel P.


    Submarine lobe-fringe deposits form heterolithic successions that may include a high proportion of hybrid beds. The identification of lobe-fringe successions aids interpretation of paleogeographic setting and the degree of basin confinement. Here, for the first time, the sedimentological and

  18. Contributions for the modelling of submarine cables – current density and simplified modelling of wired layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da; Bak, Claus Leth; Ebdrup, Thomas


    This article researches two topics relevant for the development of accurate formulae able to estimate the ampacity of HVAC submarine cables. Simplified formulae for estimating the current density distribution, which can be used for theoretical analyses, are developed and compared with the exact...

  19. The Future of the Ballistic Missile Submarine Force in the Russian Nuclear Triad (United States)


    financial setbacks, missile technology failures, and the Kursk sinking in 2000, the SSBN force has slipped back to a lesser prominence.9 B. MAJOR...range category. In the battle for survival, the SLBMs and ALCMs are the most likely potential losers. When the two platforms – submarines and

  20. Scientific Ocean Drilling Behind the Assessment of Geo-Hazards from Submarine Slides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Ercilla


    Full Text Available The workshop ‘Scientific Ocean Drilling Behind the Assessment of Geo-hazards from Submarine Slides’ was held on 25–27 October 2006 in Barcelona (Spain. Fifty mainly European scientists and industry representatives attended from a wide spectrum of disciplines such as geophysics, stratigraphy, sedimentology, paleoceanography, marinegeotechnology, geotechnical engineering, and tsunami modeling.

  1. Estimation of submarine mass failure probability from a sequence of deposits with age dates (United States)

    Geist, Eric L.; Chaytor, Jason D.; Parsons, Thomas E.; ten Brink, Uri S.


    The empirical probability of submarine mass failure is quantified from a sequence of dated mass-transport deposits. Several different techniques are described to estimate the parameters for a suite of candidate probability models. The techniques, previously developed for analyzing paleoseismic data, include maximum likelihood and Type II (Bayesian) maximum likelihood methods derived from renewal process theory and Monte Carlo methods. The estimated mean return time from these methods, unlike estimates from a simple arithmetic mean of the center age dates and standard likelihood methods, includes the effects of age-dating uncertainty and of open time intervals before the first and after the last event. The likelihood techniques are evaluated using Akaike’s Information Criterion (AIC) and Akaike’s Bayesian Information Criterion (ABIC) to select the optimal model. The techniques are applied to mass transport deposits recorded in two Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) drill sites located in the Ursa Basin, northern Gulf of Mexico. Dates of the deposits were constrained by regional bio- and magnetostratigraphy from a previous study. Results of the analysis indicate that submarine mass failures in this location occur primarily according to a Poisson process in which failures are independent and return times follow an exponential distribution. However, some of the model results suggest that submarine mass failures may occur quasiperiodically at one of the sites (U1324). The suite of techniques described in this study provides quantitative probability estimates of submarine mass failure occurrence, for any number of deposits and age uncertainty distributions.

  2. CLAM - CoLlAborative eMbedded networks for submarine surveillance: An overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meratnia, Nirvana; Havinga, Paul J.M.; Casari, Paolo; Petrioli, Chiara; Grythe, Knut; Husoy, Thor; Zorzi, Michele


    This paper provides an overview of the CLAM project, which aims at developing a collaborative embedded monitoring and control platform for submarine surveillance by combining cutting edge acoustic vector sensor technology and 1D, 2D, 3D sensor arrays, underwater wireless sensor networks protocol

  3. Terrestrial-style slow-moving earthflow kinematics in a submarine landslide complex (United States)

    Joshu J. Mountjoy; Jim McKean; Philip M. Barnes; Jarg R. Pettinga


    Morphometric analysis of Simrad EM300 multibeam bathymetric DEMs reveals details of deformation patterns in a ~145 km2 submarine landslide complex that are commonly associated with slow-moving earthflows in terrestrial settings. This mode of failure, where existing landslide debris is remobilised repeatedly along discrete shear boundaries and is...

  4. Exchange Flow of Oil and Sea-Water in a Ruptured Submarine Pipeline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranenburg, C.


    The rupture of a submarine oil pipeline starts var10US mechanisms leading to an oil spill. Among these mechanisms the leakage of oil driven by the difference in specific gravities of oil and seawater is difficult to quantify. A simple mathematical model has been developed and laboratory experiments

  5. Buoyancy-driven leakage of oil from a ruptured submarine pipeline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranenburg, C.


    The rupture of a submarine oil pipeline starts various mechanisms leading to an oil spill. Among these mechanisms the leakage of oil driven by the difference in specific gravities of oil and sea-water is difficult to estimate. A simple mathematical model has been developed and laboratory experiments

  6. Geochemical stratigraphy of submarine lavas (3-5 Ma) from the Flamengos Valley, Santiago, Cape Verde

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barker, Abigail K; Holm, Paul Martin; Peate, David W.


    New high-precision Pb-Sr-Nd isotope, major and trace element and mineral chemistry data are presented for the submarine stage of ocean island volcanism on Santiago, one of the southern islands of the Cape Verde archipelago. Pillow basalts and hyaloclastites in the Flamengos Valley are divided...

  7. Common Submarine Radio Room: A Case Study of a System of Systems Approach (United States)


    11. Land Attack/Strike Mission Scenario (from PMW770 2011b, 52) .................30 Figure 12. CSG/ ESG Mission Scenario (from PMW770 2011b, 67...request EHF extremely high frequency ESG expeditionary strike group ETR Submarine communications electronics technician FRD Fleet readiness...expeditionary strike group operations mission (CSG/ ESG ) 4. Special operations forces mission (SOF) 5. Mine warfare operations mission (MIW) 6

  8. Mapping submarine sand waves with multiband imaging radar - 2. Experimental results and model comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogelzang, J.; Wensink, G.J.; Calkoen, C.J.; Kooij, M.W.A. van der


    On August 16, 1989, and on July 12, 1991, experiments were performed to study the mapping of submarine sand waves with the airborne imaging radar, a polarimetric (and, in 1991, interferometric) airborne P, L, and C band synthetic aperture radar system. The experiments took place in an area 30 km off

  9. Adaptation of a submarine transient detector to the detection of whale sounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hotho, G.H.


    As part of an international effort to investigate a potential link between acoustic trials (SWAC 4) of SACLANTCEN with a stranding of Cuvier's beaked whales on the Greek coast in May 1996. TNO-FEL's Transient Detection Demonstrator (TDD). a tool to automatically search for submarine transients in

  10. The Risk of Hydrogen Explosion an a Submarine Part 3 Production of Hydrogen Mixes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kłos Ryszard


    Full Text Available This series of articles presents the problems associated with the conduction of a high-risk project aimed at modernising the hydrogen combustion engines on a submarine. The article describes technical issues connected with obtaining hydrogen-air mixes.

  11. Global land-ocean linkage: direct inputs of nitrogen to coastal waters via submarine groundwater discharge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beusen, A.H.W.; Slomp, C.P.; Bouwman, A.F.


    The role of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD), the leakage of groundwater from aquifers into coastal waters, in coastal eutrophication has been demonstrated mostly for the North American and European coastlines, but poorly quantified in other regions. Here, we present the first spatially

  12. Possible climate preconditioning on submarine landslides along a convergent margin, Nankai Trough (NE Pacific) (United States)

    Kremer, Katrina; Usman, Muhammed O.; Satoguchi, Yasufumi; Nagahashi, Yoshitaka; Vadakkepuliyambatta, Sunil; Panieri, Giuliana; Strasser, Michael


    Submarine landslides are major agents of sediment mass transfer from the shallow to deep sea. Due to their rapid emplacement and tsunamigenic potential, such landslides are significant geohazards for society and off- and on-shore infrastructure. The relationship between climate change and the occurrence of submarine landslides is widely debated. However, there is a lack of continuous long-term submarine landslide records with which to comprehensively understand the relationship between climate-driven forces and submarine landslide occurrence. Here, using oxygen isotope stratigraphy in combination with tephrochronology, we date a 1 Myr continuous record of six landslide deposits (at 13.0-14.2, 323-339, 372-384, 394-413, 508-521, and 857-867 ka) recorded in a slope basin of the Nankai Trough subduction zone, off-shore Japan, which represents the major outcome of this study. The ages of the six landslides coincide mostly with interglacial periods. Thus, we propose that climate forcing might act as a preconditioning factor for slope instability in this active tectonic region.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  13. Near-bottom particulate matter dynamics in the Nazare submarine canyon under calm and stormy conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martín, J.; Palanques, A.; Vitorino, J.; Oliveira, A.; de Stigter, H.C.


    Two mooring lines equipped with near-bottom sediment traps were deployed in the axis of the Nazare submarine canyon at similar to 1600 and similar to 3300 m depth, respectively. We studied time-series of particle flux, composition (biogenic silica, carbonates, organic matter and lithogenic

  14. Autonomous long-term gamma-spectrometric monitoring of submarine groundwater discharge trends in Hawaii

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dulai, H.; Kameník, Jan; Waters, C. A.; Kennedy, J.; Babinec, J.; Jolly, J.; Williamson, M.


    Roč. 307, č. 3 (2016), s. 1865-1870 ISSN 0236-5731. [10th International Conference on Methods and Applications of Radioanalytical Chemistry (MARC). Kailua Kona, 12.04.2015-17.04.2015] Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : submarine groundwater discharge * long-term SGD monitoring * underwater gammaspectrometry Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 1.282, year: 2016

  15. Probabilistic Hazard of Tsunamis Generated by Submarine Landslides in the Cook Strait Canyon (New Zealand) (United States)

    Lane, Emily M.; Mountjoy, Joshu J.; Power, William L.; Mueller, Christof


    Cook Strait Canyon is a submarine canyon that lies within ten kilometres of Wellington, the capital city of New Zealand. The canyon walls are covered with scars from previous landslides which could have caused local tsunamis. Palaeotsunami evidence also points to past tsunamis in the Wellington region. Furthermore, the canyon's location in Cook Strait means that there is inhabited land in the path of both forward- and backward-propagating waves. Tsunamis induced by these submarine landslides pose hazard to coastal communities and infrastructure but major events are very uncommon and the historical record is not extensive enough to quantify this hazard. The combination of infrequent but potentially very consequential events makes realistic assessment of the hazard challenging. However, information on both magnitude and frequency is very important for land use planning and civil defence purposes. We use a multidisciplinary approach bringing together geological information with modelling to construct a Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessment of submarine landslide-generated tsunami. Although there are many simplifying assumptions used in this assessment, it suggests that the Cook Strait open coast is exposed to considerable hazard due to submarine landslide-generated tsunamis. We emphasise the uncertainties involved and present opportunities for future research.

  16. Beam propagation of tidal internal waves over a submarine slope of the Mascarene Ridge (United States)

    Morozov, E. G.; Nechvolodov, L. V.; Sabinin, K. D.


    The generation of internal tides over the Mascarene Ridge is studied on the basis of moored measurements and numerical modeling. The beam structure of the internal wave propagation over a submarine ridge is analyzed. The dependence of the beam propagation of the perturbations on the steepness of the slope, the depth of the ridge crest, and the stratification is studied.

  17. Noble gas systematics of submarine alkalic lavas near the Hawaiian hotspot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanyu, T.; Clague, D.A.; Kaneoka, I.; Dunai, T.J.; Davies, G.R.


    Noble gas isotopic ratios were determined for submarine alkalic volcanic rocks distributed around the Hawaiian islands to constrain the origin of such alkalic volcanism and hence understand the details of mantle upwelling beneath Hawaii. Samples were collected by dredging or using submersibles from

  18. Submarine groundwater discharge within a landslide scar at the French Mediterranean coast (United States)

    Oehler, Till; Mogollón, José M.; Moosdorf, Nils; Winkler, Andreas; Kopf, Achim; Pichler, Thomas


    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD), the flow of fresh and saline groundwater from the seabed into the coastal ocean, has been intensively investigated in the recent years. This research has usually been restricted to shallow water and intertidal areas, whereas knowledge about groundwater seepage in deeper water is mainly limited to point sources from karstic aquifers. In this study we observed submarine groundwater seepage and a subterranean estuary in sediments at water depths of 20-44 m located within the Ligurian Margin, western Mediterranean Sea. Here, a catastrophic submarine landslide occurred near the Nice airport (French Ligurian coast) in the fall of 1979 after a period of heavy rainfall. During two research cruises, gravity cores were recovered in and around the area of the landslide scar. Pore water samples collected from sediment cores indicated sediments containing freshwater within the landslide scar. Pore water profiles of selected ions, such as chloride, ammonium, manganese, sulfate and barium were used to assess transport and reaction processes within the sediment. A 1-dimensional transport model indicates in most cores upward pore water velocities of 2.3-8.8 cm yr-1. This study shows that submarine groundwater seepage along the French Mediterranean coastline can occur at water depths reaching 44 m.

  19. Genetic variability of hull-less barley accessions based on molecular and quantitative data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Meneses Sayd


    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to characterize and quantify the genetic, molecular, and agronomic variability of hull-less barley genotypes, for the selection of parents and identification of genotypes adapted to the irrigated production system in the Brazilian Cerrado. Eighteen hull-less barley accessions were evaluated, and three covered barley accessions served as reference. The characterization was based on 157 RAPD molecular markers and ten agronomic traits. Genetic distance matrices were obtained based on molecular markers and quantitative traits. Graphic grouping and dispersion analyses were performed. Genetic, molecular, and agronomic variability was high among genotypes. Ethiopian accessions were genetically more similar, and the Brazilian ones were genetically more distant. For agronomic traits, two more consistent groupings were obtained, one with the most two-rowed materials, and the other with six-rowed materials. The more diverging materials were the two-rowed CI 13453, CN Cerrado 5, CN Cerrado 1, and CN Cerrado 2. The PI 356466, CN Cerrado 1, PI 370799, and CI 13453 genotypes show agronomic traits of interest and, as genetically different genotypes, they are indicated for crossing, in breeding programs.

  20. The use of rice hulls for sustainable control of NOx emissions in deep space missions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, X.H.; Shi, Y.; Chang, S.G.; Fisher, J.W.; Pisharody, S.; Moran, M.J.; Wignarajah, K.


    The use of the activated carbon produced from rice hulls to control NOx emissions for the future deep space missions has been demonstrated. The optimal carbonization temperature range was found to be between 600 C and 750 C. The burnoff of 61.8% was found at 700 C in pyrolysis and 750 C in activation. The BET surface area of the activated carbon from rice hulls was determined to be 172 m{sup 2}/g when prepared at 700 C. The presence of oxygen in flue gas is essential for effective adsorption of NO by the activated carbon. On the contrary, water vapor inhibits the adsorption efficiency of NO. Consequently, water vapor in flue gas should be removed by drying agents before adsorption to ensure high NO adsorption efficiency. All of NO in the flue gas was removed for more than one and a half hours when 10% oxygen was present and using a ratio of the carbon weight to the flue gas flow rate (W/F) of 15.4 g-min/L. The reduction of the adsorbed NO to form N{sub 2} can be effectively accomplished under anaerobic conditions at 550 C. For NO saturated activated carbon, the loss of carbon mass was determined to be about 0.16% of the activated carbon per cycle of regeneration. The reduction of the adsorbed NO also regenerates the activated carbon. The regenerated activated carbon exhibits improved NO adsorption efficiency.