WorldWideScience

Sample records for submarine line officer

  1. Submarine Information Organization and Prioritization and Submarine Officer of the Deck Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-07-12

    The Submarine Review, 58-64. Shobe, K. (2002, May). Information organization and modeling of the submarine officer of the deck and sonar operator...Technical Report 01Oct00 - 31Sep02 SUBMARINE INFORMATION ORGANIZATION AND PRIORITIZATION AND SUBMARINE OFFICER OF THE DECK EXPERIENCE 51001 1) Katharine K

  2. A Statistical Analysis of the Impact of Marital Status on Nuclear Submarine Officer Retention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Phelps, Matthew

    2001-01-01

    This thesis develops multivariate logit models to estimate the impact of marital status and the independent effect of dependent children on nuclear submarine officer retention beyond the minimum service requirement (MSR...

  3. Validation and verification of a virtual environment for training naval submarine officers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeltzer, David L.; Pioch, Nicholas J.

    1996-04-01

    A prototype virtual environment (VE) has been developed for training a submarine officer of the desk (OOD) to perform in-harbor navigation on a surfaced submarine. The OOD, stationed on the conning tower of the vessel, is responsible for monitoring the progress of the boat as it negotiates a marked channel, as well as verifying the navigational suggestions of the below- deck piloting team. The VE system allows an OOD trainee to view a particular harbor and associated waterway through a head-mounted display, receive spoken reports from a simulated piloting team, give spoken commands to the helmsman, and receive verbal confirmation of command execution from the helm. The task analysis of in-harbor navigation, and the derivation of application requirements are briefly described. This is followed by a discussion of the implementation of the prototype. This implementation underwent a series of validation and verification assessment activities, including operational validation, data validation, and software verification of individual software modules as well as the integrated system. Validation and verification procedures are discussed with respect to the OOD application in particular, and with respect to VE applications in general.

  4. Index of Submarine Medical Officer’s Qualification Theses 1944-1974

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-04-01

    DEAD SPACE MEASUREMENTS BEFCRE AND 1968-3009 -- ESP IRATORY DEAD SPACE VARIAION TUDINVL---t b-0 9 INJURIES ON+ A SYLLABUS DEALING WITH THE MANAGEMENT OF...SUBARIkNE MEDICINEO A SYLLABUS OF.- SUBMARINE MEDICAL QUALIFICATION THESES U. S. NAVAL SJBMARINE MEDICAL CENTER SUBMARIN BASE, NEW LCNOOjN, GROTON...CARBON DIOXIDE ABSORBENT EVALUATION AND CANNISTER DESIGN *= SUBMARINE MDCLUALIFICATICN THESES U. -S.NAVAL SUBMARE MEDICAL CENTER SUBMARINE BASE, NEW LCNDON

  5. Legislating for Correctional Line Officer Education and Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlman, Harvey S.

    This monograph was prepared for the Correctional Officers Educational Program, a joint project of the AACJC and the ABA Commission on Correctional Facilities and Services, which works toward the expansion of associate degree programs for line personnel through junior and community colleges. The monograph: (1) considers the role of the legislature…

  6. Submarine hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Renilson, Martin

    2015-01-01

    This book adopts a practical approach and presents recent research together with applications in real submarine design and operation. Topics covered include hydrostatics, manoeuvring, resistance and propulsion of submarines. The author briefly reviews basic concepts in ship hydrodynamics and goes on to show how they are applied to submarines, including a look at the use of physical model experiments. The issues associated with manoeuvring in both the horizontal and vertical planes are explained, and readers will discover suggested criteria for stability, along with rudder and hydroplane effectiveness. The book includes a section on appendage design which includes information on sail design, different arrangements of bow planes and alternative stern configurations. Other themes explored in this book include hydro-acoustic performance, the components of resistance and the effect of hull shape. Readers will value the author’s applied experience as well as the empirical expressions that are presented for use a...

  7. Afloat surface line commanding officer leadership : a comprehensive study

    OpenAIRE

    Provencher, Jerome R.

    1992-01-01

    CIVINS (Civilian Institutions) Thesis document This thesis explored the leadership styles of Navy commanding officers of afloat commands to determine if there were any differences in leadership styles and the effect, if any, of rank, age, commissioning source, education, ethnicity, location, and ship community type that influenced that leadership style. A review of the literature indicated that the Navy adopted the Situational Leadership Model in 1976. The Navy concurred with the philosoph...

  8. A Comparison of the Managerial Characteristics of Mid-Grade Navy Unrestricted Line Officers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    and leader and the functions of management and leadership is the widely differing views on where the demarcation lines should be drawn, both In tasks...developed in practice. Zaleznik agrees that leaders influence the actions and thoughts of others but adopts the position that leadership and management ...Unrestricted Line Officer Career Planning Guidebook, OPNAV P- 13-1986, 1986 edition. Welsh, A. N., The Skills of Management , AMACOM, 1981. Zaleznik , Abraham

  9. Submarine Medicine Team

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Submarine Medicine Team conducts basic and applied research on biomedical aspects of submarine and diving environments. It focuses on ways to optimize the health...

  10. Submarine Cable Lines - USACE IENC

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — These inland electronic Navigational charts (IENCs) were developed from available data used in maintenance of Navigation channels. Users of these IENCs should be...

  11. Submarine Pipeline Lines - USACE IENC

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — These inland electronic Navigational charts (IENCs) were developed from available data used in maintenance of Navigation channels. Users of these IENCs should be...

  12. Implementation of Policies to Bridge the Gap Between Police Officer Line of Duty Deaths and Agency Resiliency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    of-duty death • Research in brief, Line-of-Duty Deaths: Survivor and Departmental Responses • Better Not Bitter , 113-page paperback telling the...Sarasota County Sheriff’s Office, and Orange County Sheriff’s Office. Of the five law enforcement agencies analyzed, the Virginia State Police

  13. Low cost submarine robot

    OpenAIRE

    Ponlachart Chotikarn; Werapong Koedsin; Boonlua Phongdara; Pattara Aiyarak

    2010-01-01

    A submarine robot is a semi-autonomous submarine robot used mainly for marine environmental research. We aim todevelop a low cost, semi-autonomous submarine robot which is able to travel underwater. The robot’s structure was designedand patented using a novel idea of the diving system employing a volume adjustment mechanism to vary the robot’s density.A light weight, flexibility and small structure provided by PVC can be used to construct the torpedo-liked shape robot.Hydraulic seal and O-rin...

  14. Low cost submarine robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponlachart Chotikarn

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A submarine robot is a semi-autonomous submarine robot used mainly for marine environmental research. We aim todevelop a low cost, semi-autonomous submarine robot which is able to travel underwater. The robot’s structure was designedand patented using a novel idea of the diving system employing a volume adjustment mechanism to vary the robot’s density.A light weight, flexibility and small structure provided by PVC can be used to construct the torpedo-liked shape robot.Hydraulic seal and O-ring rubbers are used to prevent water leaking. This robot is controlled by a wired communicationsystem.

  15. Gender Integration on U.S. Navy Submarines: Views of the First Wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    submarines is to perform seek-and-destroy missions on enemy ships and submarines, conduct surveillance and reconnaissance, provide covert troop insertion...not only the missile payload they were designed to carry but also extended periods at sea without resupply. In terms of berthing and sanitary ...officer berthing and sanitary 28 facilities on board Ohio class submarines, however, no significant modifications would be necessary in order to

  16. Submarines, spacecraft and exhaled breath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleil, Joachim D; Hansel, Armin

    2012-03-01

    important concern is a suite of products from chemical reactions among oxidizing compounds with biological chemicals such as amines, thiols and carbonyls. SAMAP Meeting We (Armin and Joachim) attended the 2011 SAMAP conference in Taranto, Italy (10-14 October), which occurred just a few weeks after the IABR meeting in Parma, Italy (11-15 September 2011). It was held at the Officers' Club of the Taranto Naval Base under the patronage of the Italian navy; the local host was Lucio Ricciardi of the University of Insubria, Varese, Italy. At the 2011 SAMAP meeting, the theme was air-independent propulsion (AIP), meaning the capability of recharging the main batteries of the submarine without the need to surface. Only a few navies (e.g. US, UK, France, Russia, China) have historically had this capability using nuclear-powered submarines that can function underwater for extended periods of time (months). Most navies operate submarines with conventional diesel-electric propulsion, wherein diesel-powered generators charge battery banks which then drive an electric motor connected to the propeller. The batteries are charged while the boat is on the surface or during snorkelling, when the boat is submerged a few meters below the surface and a snorkel tube is extended to the surface. The period between battery charges can vary from several hours to one or two days depending on the power requirements and the nature of the mission. The process is necessary for breathing air revitalization (flushing out accumulated contaminants) and for the operation of the diesel engines. However, during this period the submarine is vulnerable to detection. Since the 1940s there have been various attempts to develop a power generation system that is independent of external air (AIP). To this end hydrogen peroxide was initially used and later liquid oxygen (LOX). Currently, most AIP submarines use fuel cell technology (LOX and hydrogen) to supplement the conventional diesel-electric system in order to

  17. Implementation of Policies to Bridge the Gap Between Police Officer Line of Duty Deaths and Agency Resiliency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Coast Post- trauma Retreat xvii EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Law enforcement officer line of duty deaths are an unfortunate part of contemporary society...comprehensive healing after a line of duty death. In addition, his recommendations for use of the West Coast Trauma Retreat and Operation Restore are...detective was shot multiple times in the chest and killed. All that changed the morning of January 24, 2011. The day started as a typical Monday

  18. Submarine Salt Karst Terrains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico Augustin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Karst terrains that develop in bodies of rock salt (taken as mainly of halite, NaCl are special not only for developing in one of the most soluble of all rocks, but also for developing in one of the weakest rocks. Salt is so weak that many surface-piercing salt diapirs extrude slow fountains of salt that that gravity spread downslope over deserts on land and over sea floors. Salt fountains in the deserts of Iran are usually so dry that they flow at only a few cm/yr but the few rain storms a decade so soak and weaken them that they surge at dm/day for a few days. We illustrate the only case where the rates at which different parts of one of the many tens of subaerial salt karst terrains in Iran flows downslope constrains the rates at which its subaerial salt karst terrains form. Normal seawater is only 10% saturated in NaCl. It should therefore be sufficiently aggressive to erode karst terrains into exposures of salt on the thousands of known submarine salt extrusions that have flowed or are still flowing over the floors of hundreds of submarine basins worldwide. However, we know of no attempt to constrain the processes that form submarine salt karst terrains on any of these of submarine salt extrusions. As on land, many potential submarine karst terrains are cloaked by clastic and pelagic sediments that are often hundreds of m thick. Nevertheless, detailed geophysical and bathymetric surveys have already mapped likely submarine salt karst terrains in at least the Gulf of Mexico, and the Red Sea. New images of these two areas are offered as clear evidence of submarine salt dissolution due to sinking or rising aggressive fluids. We suggest that repeated 3D surveys of distinctive features (± fixed seismic reflectors of such terrains could measure any downslope salt flow and thus offer an exceptional opportunity to constrain the rates at which submarine salt karst terrains develop. Such rates are of interest to all salt tectonicians and the many

  19. Testing of SIR (a transformable robotic submarine) in Lake Tahoe for future deployment at West Antarctic Ice Sheet grounding lines of Siple Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, R. D.; Scherer, R. P.; Griffiths, I.; Taylor, L.; Winans, J.; Mankoff, K. D.

    2011-12-01

    A remotely operated vehicle (ROV) has been custom-designed and built by DOER Marine to meet scientific requirements for exploring subglacial water cavities. This sub-ice rover (SIR) will explore and quantitatively document the grounding zone areas of the Ross Ice Shelf cavity using a 3km-long umbilical tether by deployment through an 800m-long ice borehole in a torpedo shape, which is also its default mode if operational failure occurs. Once in the ocean cavity it transforms via a diamond-shaped geometry into a rectangular form when all of its instruments come alive in its flight mode. Instrumentation includes 4 cameras (one forward-looking HD), a vertical scanning sonar (long-range imaging for spatial orientation and navigation), Doppler current meter (determine water current velocities), multi-beam sonar (image and swath map bottom topography), sub-bottom profiler (profile sub-sea-floor sediment for geological history), CTD (determine salinity, temperature and depth), DO meter (determine dissolved oxygen content in water), transmissometer (determine suspended particulate concentrations in water), laser particle-size analyzer (determine sizes of particles in water), triple laser-beams (determine size and volume of objects), thermistor probe (measure in situ temperatures of ice and sediment), shear vane probe (determine in situ strength of sediment), manipulator arm (deploy instrumentation packages, collect samples), shallow ice corer (collect ice samples and glacial debris), water sampler (determine sea water/freshwater composition, calibrate real-time sensors, sample microbes), shallow sediment corer (sample sea floor, in-ice and subglacial sediment for stratigraphy, facies, particle size, composition, structure, fabric, microbes). A sophisticated array of data handling, storing and displaying will allow real-time observations and environmental assessments to be made. This robotic submarine and other instruments will be tested in Lake Tahoe in September, 2011 and

  20. Cost Estimation Lessons Learned for Future Submarine Acquisition Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-17

    North Carolina and New Mexico 30 General Dynamics Electric Boat “U.S. Navy Awards General Dynamics $14 Billion Contract for Eight Virginia- Class...NAVSEA Program Executive officer, Submarines PMO 450, June 1995. “New SSN Program Life Cycle Cost Estimate.” Naval Center for Cost Analysis: GE-1300

  1. Improving Situational Awareness on Submarines Using Augmented Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    COSO ) are several pages of guidance for the evolution available to the watch officer for reference. There are also Operating Procedures that the watch...officer must follow to ensure the safe ascent to PD. The COSOs are specific to the each CO. The OPs are specific to a class of submarine. The...evolution in the framework described above can provide valuable insight to the capabilities of the proposed system. This of course is a hypothetical

  2. SCICEX: Submarine Arctic Science Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Submarine Arctic Science Program, SCICEX, is a federal interagency collaboration among the operational Navy, research agencies, and the marine research community...

  3. The Submarine, 1776-1918

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Uhlig, Frank

    2004-01-01

    When, on 11 April 1900, the U.S. Navy thought the Holland, named for its designer, that little submarine joined a fleet consisting of two armored cruisers, six monitors, seven first and second-class battleships, and seventeen each...

  4. Enhancing Submarine Operational Relevance: A Leadership Challenge

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daigle, Jr, Michael J

    2008-01-01

    .... This vision of submarine operations must change. As the military continues to shift to operations focused on joint capabilities, the submarine force must break from the closed, protective, and risk averse culture of its past and push forward...

  5. Submarine silicic volcanism: Processes and products

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kalangutkar, N.G.; Iyer, S.D.

    The occurrence of submarine silicic volcanics is rare at the mid-oceanic ridges, abyssal depths, seamounts and fracture zones. Hydrothermal processes are active in submarine silicic environments and are associated with host ores of Cu, Au, Ag, Pb...

  6. An ongoing large submarine landslide at the Japan trench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitta, S.; Kasaya, T.; Miura, S.; Kawamura, K.

    2013-12-01

    This paper deals with an active submarine landslide on a landward trench slope in the Japan trench. Studied area is located on the upper terrace ranging from 400 to 1200 m in water depth, off Sendai, northeast Japan. We have surveyed in detail the seabed topography using a multi narrow beam (hereafter MBES) and a subbottom profiler (hereafter SBP) during the cruise MR12-E02 of R/V Mirai. The survey lines were 12 lines in N-S, and 3 lines in E-W, and situated in the region from 141°45'E, 37°40'N to 142°33'E, 38°32'N. Moreover, we used multi-channel seismic profile by the cruise KR04-10 of R/V Kairei in the interpretation of the SBP results. In general, horseshoe-shaped depressions of about 100 km wide along the trench slope are arrayed along the Japan trench. It has thought that they were formed by large submarine landslides, but we could not understand critically the relationship between the depressions and the submarine landslides. Based on the survey results, we found signals of an active submarine landslide in the depression as follows. 1) We observed arcuate-shaped lineaments, which are sub-parallel to a horseshoe-shaped depression. The lineaments concentrate in the south region from 38°N at about 20 km wide. These lineaments are formed by deformation structures as anticlines, synclines and normal fault sense displacements. 2) Most of the synclines and anticlines are not buried to form the lineaments. 3) Normal faults cutting about 1 km deep are observed in a multi-channel seismic profile. The normal faults are located just below the arcuate-shaped lineaments, and are tilted eastward being the downslope direction. It indicates a large submarine landslide. We concluded that the arcuate-shaped lineaments were generated by surface sediment movement with the submarine landsliding. We think that the submarine landslide of about 20 km wide and about 1 km thick move continuously down the landward trench slope. This would be the formation process of the horseshoe

  7. North American Submarine Cable Association (NASCA) Submarine Cables

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data show the locations of in-service and out-of-service submarine cables that are owned by members of NASCA and located in U.S. territorial waters. More...

  8. Submarine geothermal resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D.L.

    1976-01-01

    Approximately 20% of the earth's heat loss (or 2 ?? 1012 cal/s) is released through 1% of the earth's surface area and takes the form of hydrothermal discharge from young (Pleistocene or younger) rocks adjacent to active seafloor-spreading centers and submarine volcanic areas. This amount is roughly equivalent to man's present gross energy consumption rate. A sub-seafloor geothermal reservoir, to be exploitable under future economic conditions, will have to be hot, porous, permeable, large, shallow, and near an energy-deficient, populated land mass. Furthermore, the energy must be recoverable using technology achievable at a competitive cost and numerous environmental, legal and institutional problems will have to be overcome. The highest-temperature reservoirs should be found adjacent to the zones of the seafloor extension or volcanism that are subject to high sedimentation rates. The relatively impermeable sediments reduce hydrothermal-discharge flow rates, forcing the heat to be either conducted away or released by high-temperature fluids, both of which lead to reservoir temperatures that can exceed 300??C. There is evidence that the oceanic crust is quite permeable and porous and that it was amenable to deep (3-5 km) penetration by seawater at least some time in the early stages of its evolution. Most of the heat escapes far from land, but there are notable exceptions. For example, in parts of the Gulf of California, thermal gradients in the bottom sediments exceed 1??C/m. In the coastal areas of the Gulf of California, where electricity and fresh water are at a premium, this potential resource lies in shallow water (< 200 m) and within sight of land. Other interesting areas include the Sea of Japan, the Sea of Okhotsk and the Andaman Sea along the margins of the western Pacific, the Tyrrhenian Sea west of Italy, and the southern California borderland and west flank of the Juan de Fuca Ridge off the west coast of the United States. Many questions remain to be

  9. Submarine canyons off Madras Coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Setty, M.G.A.P.

    Submarine canyons off the coast of Madras, Tamil Nadu, India were studied during cruise of @iINS Kistna@@ as part of the IIOE programme They consist of hill-like projections and V-shaped valleys Their other features are also reported...

  10. Incidence of fatal airway obstruction in police officers feloniously killed in the line of duty: a 10-year retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Laura A; Callaway, David W; Sztajnkrycer, Matthew D

    2013-10-01

    According to US military data, airway obstruction is the third leading cause of possibly preventable death in combat. In the absence of law enforcement-specific medical training, military experience has been translated to the law enforcement sector. The purpose of this study was to determine whether airway obstruction represents a significant cause of possibly preventable death in police officers, and whether current military combat lifesaver training programs might have prevented these fatalities. De-identified, open-source US Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Uniform Crime Report Law Enforcement Officers Killed and Assaulted (LEOKA) data for the years 1998-2007 were reviewed. Cases were included if officers were on duty at the time of fatal injury and died within one hour from time of wounding from penetrating face or neck trauma. After case identification, letters requesting autopsy reports were sent to the departments of victim officers. Reports were abstracted into a Microsoft Excel database. During the study period, 42 of 533 victim officers met inclusion criteria. Departmental response rate was 85.7%. Autopsy reports were provided for 29 officers; 23 (54.8%) cases remained in the final analysis. All officers died from gunshot wounds. No coroner specifically identified airway obstruction as either a direct cause of death or contributing factor. Based upon autopsy findings, three of 341 officers possibly succumbed to airway trauma (0.9%; 95% CI, 0.0%-1.9%). Endotracheal intubation was the most common advanced airway management technique utilized during attempted resuscitation. The limited LEOKA data suggests that acute airway obstruction secondary to penetrating trauma appears to be a rare cause of possibly preventable death in police officers. Based upon the nature of airway trauma, nasopharyngeal airways would not be expected to be an effective lifesaving intervention. This study highlights the requirement for a comprehensive mortality and "near miss

  11. SCICEX: Submarine Arctic Science Program, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Submarine Arctic Science Program, SCICEX, is a federal interagency collaboration among the operational Navy, research agencies, and the marine research community...

  12. Submarine landslides: advances and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locat, Jacques; Lee, Homa J.

    2002-01-01

    Due to the recent development of well-integrated surveying techniques of the sea floor, significant improvements were achieved in mapping and describing the morphology and architecture of submarine mass movements. Except for the occurrence of turbidity currents, the aquatic environment (marine and fresh water) experiences the same type of mass failure as that found on land. Submarine mass movements, however, can have run-out distances in excess of 100 km, so their impact on any offshore activity needs to be integrated over a wide area. This great mobility of submarinemass movements is still not very well understood, particularly for cases like the far-reaching debris flows mapped on the Mississippi Fan and the large submarine rock avalanches found around many volcanic islands. A major challenge ahead is the integration of mass movement mechanics in an appropriate evaluation of the hazard so that proper risk assessment methodologies can be developed and implemented for various human activities offshore, including the development of natural resources and the establishment of reliable communication corridors. Key words : submarine slides, hazards, risk assessment, morphology, mobility, tsunami. Le dveloppement rcent de techniques de levs hydrograhiques pour les fonds marins nous a permis d'atteindre une qualit ingale dans la cartographie et la description des glissements sous marins. l'exception des courants de turbidit, on retrouve dans le domaine aquatique les mmes types de mouvements de terrain que sur terre. Par contre, les glissements sous-marins peuvent atteindre des distances excdant 100 km de telle sorte que leur impact sur les activits offshore doit tre pris en compte sur degrandes tendues. La grande mobilit des glissements sous-marins n'est pas encore bien comprise, comme pour le cas des coules dedbris cartographies sur le cne du Mississippi ainsi que pour les grandes avalanches rocheuses sous-marines retrouves au pourtour des les volcaniques. Un dfi majeur

  13. LINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minas Bakalchev

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The perception of elements in a system often creates their interdependence, interconditionality, and suppression. The lines from a basic geometrical element have become the model of a reductive world based on isolation according to certain criteria such as function, structure, and social organization. Their traces are experienced in the contemporary world as fragments or ruins of a system of domination of an assumed hierarchical unity. How can one release oneself from such dependence or determinism? How can the lines become less “systematic” and forms more autonomous, and less reductive? How is a form released from modernistic determinism on the new controversial ground? How can these elements or forms of representation become forms of action in the present complex world? In this paper, the meaning of lines through the ideas of Le Corbusier, Leonidov, Picasso, and Hitchcock is presented. Spatial research was made through a series of examples arising from the projects of the architectural studio “Residential Transformations”, which was a backbone for mapping the possibilities ranging from playfulness to exactness, as tactics of transformation in the different contexts of the contemporary world.

  14. Similarities between rivers and submarine channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2013-02-01

    Scientists have long known that the width and depth of rivers follows a power law relationship with discharge. They have also noticed that submarine channels appear to be similar to terrestrial rivers, but there have not been many systematic comparisons of the relationships between submarine channel morphology and discharge. Konsoer et al. compared the width, depth, and slope of 177 submarine channels to those of 231 river cross sections. They found that submarine channels are up to an order of magnitude wider and deeper than the largest terrestrial rivers, but they exhibit a similar power law relationship between width and depth. For submarine channels that were similar in size to rivers, the authors found that submarine channels tend to be 1 to 2 orders of magnitude steeper than rivers. The authors also inferred values for sediment concentration in the turbidity currents in the channels and combined this with estimated mean flow velocities to look for a relationship between discharge and morphology in the channels. They found that like rivers, the width and depth of the submarine channels follow a power law scaling with discharge. (Journal of Geophysical Research-Earth Surface, doi:10.1029/2012JF002422, 2013)

  15. Simple models for the simulation of submarine melt for a Greenland glacial system model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckmann, Johanna; Perrette, Mahé; Ganopolski, Andrey

    2018-01-01

    Two hundred marine-terminating Greenland outlet glaciers deliver more than half of the annually accumulated ice into the ocean and have played an important role in the Greenland ice sheet mass loss observed since the mid-1990s. Submarine melt may play a crucial role in the mass balance and position of the grounding line of these outlet glaciers. As the ocean warms, it is expected that submarine melt will increase, potentially driving outlet glaciers retreat and contributing to sea level rise. Projections of the future contribution of outlet glaciers to sea level rise are hampered by the necessity to use models with extremely high resolution of the order of a few hundred meters. That requirement in not only demanded when modeling outlet glaciers as a stand alone model but also when coupling them with high-resolution 3-D ocean models. In addition, fjord bathymetry data are mostly missing or inaccurate (errors of several hundreds of meters), which questions the benefit of using computationally expensive 3-D models for future predictions. Here we propose an alternative approach built on the use of a computationally efficient simple model of submarine melt based on turbulent plume theory. We show that such a simple model is in reasonable agreement with several available modeling studies. We performed a suite of experiments to analyze sensitivity of these simple models to model parameters and climate characteristics. We found that the computationally cheap plume model demonstrates qualitatively similar behavior as 3-D general circulation models. To match results of the 3-D models in a quantitative manner, a scaling factor of the order of 1 is needed for the plume models. We applied this approach to model submarine melt for six representative Greenland glaciers and found that the application of a line plume can produce submarine melt compatible with observational data. Our results show that the line plume model is more appropriate than the cone plume model for simulating

  16. Submarine landslides in Arctic sedimentation: Canada Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, David C.; Shimeld, John; Hutchinson, Deborah R.; Lebedova-Ivanova, N; Chapman, C.

    2016-01-01

    Canada Basin of the Arctic Ocean is the least studied ocean basin in the World. Marine seismic field programs were conducted over the past 6 years using Canadian and American icebreakers. These expeditions acquired more than 14,000 line-km of multibeam bathymetric and multi-channel seismic reflection data over abyssal plain, continental rise and slope regions of Canada Basin; areas where little or no seismic reflection data existed previously. Canada Basin is a turbidite-filled basin with flat-lying reflections correlateable over 100s of km. For the upper half of the sedimentary succession, evidence of sedimentary processes other than turbidity current deposition is rare. The Canadian Archipelago and Beaufort Sea margins host stacked mass transport deposits from which many of these turbidites appear to derive. The stratigraphic succession of the MacKenzie River fan is dominated by mass transport deposits; one such complex is in excess of 132,000 km2 in area and underlies much of the southern abyssal plain. The modern seafloor is also scarred with escarpments and mass failure deposits; evidence that submarine landsliding is an ongoing process. In its latest phase of development, Canada Basin is geomorphologically confined with stable oceanographic structure, resulting in restricted depositional/reworking processes. The sedimentary record, therefore, underscores the significance of mass-transport processes in providing sediments to oceanic abyssal plains as few other basins are able to do.

  17. Near-bottom particulate matter dynamics in the Nazare submarine canyon under calm and stormy conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martín, J.; Palanques, A.; Vitorino, J.; Oliveira, A.; de Stigter, H.C.

    2011-01-01

    Two mooring lines equipped with near-bottom sediment traps were deployed in the axis of the Nazare submarine canyon at similar to 1600 and similar to 3300 m depth, respectively. We studied time-series of particle flux, composition (biogenic silica, carbonates, organic matter and lithogenic

  18. Tsunami Generated by a Two-Phase Submarine Debris Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pudasaini, S. P.

    2012-04-01

    strong and bore-type tsunami waves and run-ups in the coastal lines, and debris slide and deposition at the bottom floor. Strong debris shock waves are generated that travel upstream. Once the debris supply ceases, the shock front is diffused. The model analysis also includes mixing and separation of phases, including inter-phase mass and momentum exchanges and generation and interactions of solid and fluid waves. The state of the solid volume fraction governs the evolution of the fluid extra stress and thus effectively dominates the entire flow dynamics. So, the actual knowledge of the solid volume fraction is essential for the prediction of the turbidity currents, sediment transport and deposition in the subaerial and submarine environments. Applications of this model include (i) the sediment transport on hill slopes, river streams, hydraulic channels (e.g., hydropower dams and plants); lakes, fjords, coastal lines, and aquatic ecology; and (ii) submarine debris impact and the rupture of fiber optic, submarine cables and pipelines in ocean floor, and damage to offshore drilling platforms. The Phase-Froude numbers (the solid and fluid Froude numbers) are introduced that change drastically as the debris mass hits the fluid dam. The Phase-Froude numbers can be subcritical or super-critical, suggesting that the tsunami may be following or preceding the wave generating submarine slide and thus enhancing or reducing the tsunami waves. It is observed that the submarine debris front speed can be faster than the tsunami wave speed. This information can be useful for the early warning strategy in the coastal regions. These findings substantially increase the dynamical understanding of complex multi-phase systems and flows, allowing proper modeling of landslide and debris induced tsunami, the dynamics of turbidity currents and sediment transport, with associated applications in hazard mitigation, geomorphology and sedimentology.

  19. Calciclastic submarine fans: An integrated overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payros, Aitor; Pujalte, Victoriano

    2008-01-01

    Calciclastic submarine fans are rare in the stratigraphic record and no bona fide present-day analogue has been described to date. Possibly because of that, and although calciclastic submarine fans have long intrigued deep-water carbonate sedimentologists, they have largely been overlooked by the academic and industrial communities. To fill this gap we have compiled and critically reviewed the existing sedimentological literature on calciclastic submarine fans, thus offering an updated view of this type of carbonate slope sedimentary system. Calciclastic submarine fans range in length from just a few to more than 100 km. Three different types can be distinguished: (1) Coarse-grained, small-sized (depression associated with tectonic structures, an inherited topography, or large-scale mass failures.

  20. Aspects of Propeller Developements for a Submarine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul; kappel, Jens Julius; Spangenberg, Eugen

    2009-01-01

    Design and development of propellers for submarines are in some ways different from propellers for surface vessels. The most important demand is low acoustic signature that has priority over propeller efficiency, and the submarine propeller must be optimized with respect to acoustics rather than...... efficiency. Moreover the operating conditions of a submarine propeller are quite different. These aspects are discussed as well as the weighing of the various propeller parameters against the design objectives. The noise generated by the propeller can be characterized as thrust noise due to the inhomogeneous...... wake field of the submarine, trailing-edge noise and noise caused by turbulence in the inflow. The items discussed are demonstrated in a case study where a propeller of the Kappel type was developed. Three stages of the development are presented, including a design of an 8-bladed propeller where...

  1. Russia's Submarine Force: Determinants and Prospects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tully, John

    2001-01-01

    ... the determinants of these events, The Russian Federation inherited a huge submarine fleet from the Soviet Union, Due to the changing conditions in the world and in Russia, its future status is in doubt...

  2. SSN 774 Virginia Class Submarine (SSN 774)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Report: The VIRGINIA Class Submarine Program continues to deliver submarines within cost, ahead of schedule , with improved quality and with...baseline schedule threshold set ten years earlier, in 1994. June 20, 2006: USS TEXAS, which was essentially the second lead ship of the class , is the first...factored for the VIRGINIA Class based on weight. Public and private shipyard data was used, as well as the maintenance schedule provided in the CARD, Rev E

  3. Submarine landslides: processes, triggers and hazard prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, D G; Harbitz, C B; Wynn, R B; Pedersen, G; Løvholt, F

    2006-08-15

    Huge landslides, mobilizing hundreds to thousands of km(3) of sediment and rock are ubiquitous in submarine settings ranging from the steepest volcanic island slopes to the gentlest muddy slopes of submarine deltas. Here, we summarize current knowledge of such landslides and the problems of assessing their hazard potential. The major hazards related to submarine landslides include destruction of seabed infrastructure, collapse of coastal areas into the sea and landslide-generated tsunamis. Most submarine slopes are inherently stable. Elevated pore pressures (leading to decreased frictional resistance to sliding) and specific weak layers within stratified sequences appear to be the key factors influencing landslide occurrence. Elevated pore pressures can result from normal depositional processes or from transient processes such as earthquake shaking; historical evidence suggests that the majority of large submarine landslides are triggered by earthquakes. Because of their tsunamigenic potential, ocean-island flank collapses and rockslides in fjords have been identified as the most dangerous of all landslide related hazards. Published models of ocean-island landslides mainly examine 'worst-case scenarios' that have a low probability of occurrence. Areas prone to submarine landsliding are relatively easy to identify, but we are still some way from being able to forecast individual events with precision. Monitoring of critical areas where landslides might be imminent and modelling landslide consequences so that appropriate mitigation strategies can be developed would appear to be areas where advances on current practice are possible.

  4. Oceanographic data collected during the Submarine Ring of Fire 2006 expedition aboard the R/V MELVILLE along the Mariana Arc in the Philippine Sea from April 18, 2006 - May 13, 2006 (NODC Accession 0010750)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multiple data types were collected during the Submarine Ring of Fire 2006 expedition sponsored by the NOAA Office of Ocean Exploration.

  5. Learning from Experience, Volume 3: Lessons from the United Kingdom’s Astute Submarine Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear Installations Inspectorate NSRP nuclear steam-raising plant PNO Principal Naval Overseer RCNC Royal Corps of Naval Constructors SEPP Submarine...experience. The Royal Corps of Naval Constructors (RCNC)8 and the engineering officers of the Royal Navy supplemented the technical resources at the MOD...shipyard’s Dockside Test Organisation composed of members from the shipyard, the ship crew, and the MOD. They pre- pared the test agenda and acceptance

  6. Geomorphic process fingerprints in submarine canyons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothers, Daniel S.; ten Brink, Uri S.; Andrews, Brian D.; Chaytor, Jason D.; Twichell, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Submarine canyons are common features of continental margins worldwide. They are conduits that funnel vast quantities of sediment from the continents to the deep sea. Though it is known that submarine canyons form primarily from erosion induced by submarine sediment flows, we currently lack quantitative, empirically based expressions that describe the morphology of submarine canyon networks. Multibeam bathymetry data along the entire passive US Atlantic margin (USAM) and along the active central California margin near Monterey Bay provide an opportunity to examine the fine-scale morphology of 171 slope-sourced canyons. Log–log regression analyses of canyon thalweg gradient (S) versus up-canyon catchment area (A) are used to examine linkages between morphological domains and the generation and evolution of submarine sediment flows. For example, canyon reaches of the upper continental slope are characterized by steep, linear and/or convex longitudinal profiles, whereas reaches farther down canyon have distinctly concave longitudinal profiles. The transition between these geomorphic domains is inferred to represent the downslope transformation of debris flows into erosive, canyon-flushing turbidity flows. Over geologic timescales this process appears to leave behind a predictable geomorphic fingerprint that is dependent on the catchment area of the canyon head. Catchment area, in turn, may be a proxy for the volume of sediment released during geomorphically significant failures along the upper continental slope. Focused studies of slope-sourced submarine canyons may provide new insights into the relationships between fine-scale canyon morphology and down-canyon changes in sediment flow dynamics.

  7. New Generation Strategic Submarine Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    FUNCTION C. Buoyancy (Cont’d) 6. Trim Priming Pomp * Provides the capability to remove air from the trim system piping, in order to insure a positive...resubmnerge. 001 The Diving Officer of the Watch shall cart pressure air will nat be used and the ship will degree to 5 degree up angle. cow The Chid of the

  8. OPERATION HARDTACK. Project 3.5. Loading and Response of Submarine Hulls from Underwater Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    Hulls from Underwater Bursts, Extracted Version 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Rich, H.L., Project Officer; Weinberger, F.; Habib, E.T.; Bort , R.L.; Sette, W.J...SLO A D IN G oa n d R E S P O N S E o f S U B M A R IN E tULLS from UNDERWATER BURSTS H. L. Rich, Project Officer F. Weinberger E.T. Habib R.L. Bort W...OBJECTIVES The objectives established for Project 3.5 were to: (1) determine the range ior lethal hull dam - age to a submarine-like (Squaw) target

  9. Addressing submarine geohazards through scientific drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camerlenghi, A.

    2009-04-01

    Natural submarine geohazards (earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides, volcanic island flank collapses) are geological phenomena originating at or below the seafloor leading to a situation of risk for off-shore and on-shore structures and the coastal population. Addressing submarine geohazards means understanding their spatial and temporal variability, the pre-conditioning factors, their triggers, and the physical processes that control their evolution. Such scientific endeavour is nowadays considered by a large sector of the international scientific community as an obligation in order to contribute to the mitigation of the potentially destructive societal effects of submarine geohazards. The study of submarine geohazards requires a multi-disciplinary scientific approach: geohazards must be studied through their geological record; active processes must be monitored; geohazard evolution must be modelled. Ultimately, the information must be used for the assessment of vulnerability, risk analysis, and development of mitigation strategies. In contrast with the terrestrial environment, the oceanic environment is rather hostile to widespread and fast application of high-resolution remote sensing techniques, accessibility for visual inspection, sampling and installation of monitoring stations. Scientific Drilling through the IODP (including the related pre site-survey investigations, sampling, logging and in situ measurements capability, and as a platform for deployment of long term observatories at the surface and down-hole) can be viewed as the centre of gravity of an international, coordinated, multi-disciplinary scientific approach to address submarine geohazards. The IODP Initial Science Plan expiring in 2013 does not address openly geohazards among the program scientific objectives. Hazards are referred to mainly in relation to earthquakes and initiatives towards the understanding of seismogenesis. Notably, the only drilling initiative presently under way is the

  10. MVAC Submarine cable, impedance measurements and analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arentsen, Martin Trolle; Pedersen, Morten Virklund; Expethit, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    Due to environmental concerns an increase in off-shore windfarms has been observed in recent years, leading to an increased demand for three-core-wire-armoured submarine cables. However, the IEC Standard 60287 used to calculate the ampacity of these cables is widely recognized as being not accurate...

  11. German Submarine Offensives and South African Countermeasures

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evert

    'Good Hunting': German Submarine Offensives and South African. Countermeasures off the South African Coast during the Second World. War, 1942-1945. Evert Kleynhans. •. Abstract .... wolf packs south, Dönitz had hoped to cause a diversionary effect whereby the Allies would be forced to split their defensive forces ...

  12. Submarine Telecommunication Cables in Disputed Maritime Areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Logchem, Youri

    2014-01-01

    There are a considerable number of maritime areas where no boundary exists, or where a boundary is delimited only in part. This article deals with the issue of submarine telecommunication cables, which are sometimes placed on the seabed or buried in the subsoil of areas that are claimed by multiple

  13. Monitoring of the nuclear submarine Komsomolets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heldal, Hilde E.; Flo, Janita K.; Liebig, Penny L. [Institute of Marine Research, P. O. Box 1870 Nordnes, N-5817 Bergen (Norway); Gaefvert, Torbjoern; Rudjord, Anne Liv [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, P.O. Box 55, N-1332 Oesteraas (Norway); Gwynn, Justin P. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, The Fram Centre, N-9296 Tromsoe (Norway)

    2014-07-01

    The Soviet nuclear submarine Komsomolets sank on the 7 April 1989, 180 km southwest of Bear Island in the Norwegian Sea to a depth of about 1655 m. The submarine contains one nuclear reactor containing long-lived radionuclides such as cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) along with other fission and activation products, in addition to 2 mixed uranium/plutonium nuclear warheads containing weapons grade plutonium. Although several model studies have shown that a radioactive leakage from Komsomolets will have insignificant impact on fish and other marine organisms, there are still public concerns about the condition of the submarine and the potential for radioactive leakage. In order to document the contamination levels and to meet public concerns, monitoring of radioactive contamination in the area adjacent to the submarine has been ongoing since 1993. Samples of bottom seawater and sediments have been collected annually by the Institute of Marine Research (IMR) and have been analysed for {sup 137}Cs and plutonium-239,240 ({sup 239,240}Pu). So far, activity concentrations in the samples have been comparable to levels found in other samples from the Norwegian and Barents Seas. During sampling from R/V 'G. O. Sars' in April 2013, an area of about 1 km{sup 2} of the seabed around Komsomolets was mapped to precisely locate the submarine using a Kongsberg EM302 multibeam echo sounder, a Simrad EK60 single beam echo sounder and an Olex 3D bottom-mapping system. For sediment sampling, a Simrad MST342 mini-transponder was attached to a Smoegen box corer to allow for precise positioning of the corer. With the aid of the Kongsberg HiPAP (High Precision Acoustic Positioning) system, 4 box cores were collected around the submarine at a distance of 10 to 20 m. In addition, one box core was collected from a reference station about 100 m upstream of the submarine. Surface sediments and sediment cores were collected from the box cores taken at each sampling location. Sediment cores

  14. Chemical environments of submarine hydrothermal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shock, Everett L.

    1992-01-01

    Perhaps because black-smoker chimneys make tremendous subjects for magazine covers, the proposal that submarine hydrothermal systems were involved in the origin of life has caused many investigators to focus on the eye-catching hydrothermal vents. In much the same way that tourists rush to watch the spectacular eruptions of Old Faithful geyser with little regard for the hydrology of the Yellowstone basin, attention is focused on the spectacular, high-temperature hydrothermal vents to the near exclusion of the enormous underlying hydrothermal systems. Nevertheless, the magnitude and complexity of geologic structures, heat flow, and hydrologic parameters which characterize the geyser basins at Yellowstone also characterize submarine hydrothermal systems. However, in the submarine systems the scale can be considerably more vast. Like Old Faithful, submarine hydrothermal vents have a spectacular quality, but they are only one fascinating aspect of enormous geologic systems operating at seafloor spreading centers throughout all of the ocean basins. A critical study of the possible role of hydrothermal processes in the origin of life should include the full spectrum of probable environments. The goals of this chapter are to synthesize diverse information about the inorganic geochemistry of submarine hydrothermal systems, assemble a description of the fundamental physical and chemical attributes of these systems, and consider the implications of high-temperature, fluid-driven processes for organic synthesis. Information about submarine hydrothermal systems comes from many directions. Measurements made directly on venting fluids provide useful, but remarkably limited, clues about processes operating at depth. The oceanic crust has been drilled to approximately 2.0 km depth providing many other pieces of information, but drilling technology has not allowed the bore holes and core samples to reach the maximum depths to which aqueous fluids circulate in oceanic crust. Such

  15. Phase 1 Final Report: Titan Submarine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleson, Steven R.; Lorenz, Ralph D.; Paul, Michael V.

    2015-01-01

    The conceptual design of a submarine for Saturn's moon Titan was a funded NASA Innovative Advanced Concepts (NIAC) Phase 1 for 2014. The proposal stated the desire to investigate what science a submarine for Titan's liquid hydrocarbon seas might accomplish and what that submarine might look like. Focusing on a flagship class science system (100 kg), it was found that a submersible platform can accomplish extensive science both above and below the surface of the Kraken Mare. Submerged science includes mapping using side-looking sonar, imaging and spectroscopy of the lake, as well as sampling of the lake's bottom and shallow shoreline. While surfaced, the submarine will not only sense weather conditions (including the interaction between the liquid and atmosphere) but also image the shoreline, as much as 2 km inland. This imaging requirement pushed the landing date to Titan's next summer period (2047) to allow for lighted conditions, as well as direct-to-Earth communication, avoiding the need for a separate relay orbiter spacecraft. Submerged and surfaced investigation are key to understanding both the hydrological cycle of Titan as well as gather hints to how life may have begun on Earth using liquid, sediment, and chemical interactions. An estimated 25 Mb of data per day would be generated by the various science packages. Most of the science packages (electronics at least) can be safely kept inside the submarine pressure vessel and warmed by the isotope power system.The baseline 90-day mission would be to sail submerged and surfaced around and through Kraken Mare investigating the shoreline and inlets to evaluate the sedimentary interaction both on the surface and then below. Depths of Kraken have yet to be sensed (Ligeia to the north is thought to be 200 m (656 ft) deep), but a maximum depth of 1,000 m (3,281 ft) for Kraken Mare was assumed for the design). The sub would spend 20 d at the interface between Kraken Mare and Ligeia Mare for clues to the drainage of

  16. Miocene Current-Modified Submarine Fans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arce Perez, L. E.; Snedden, J.; Fisher, W. L.

    2016-12-01

    In the southwestern Gulf of Mexico, new and newly reprocessed seismic data has revealed a series of large bedforms, with set thicknesses of 130 to 250 meters. These exhibit hummocky, oblique and shingled to parallel seismic clinoform reflections. This seismic package has a paleowater depth of 450 meters. Those shingled seismic reflections in offshore east Mexico are interpreted as contourite drift deposits. These Miocene-age contourites may be related to strong ocean bottom currents that modified submarine fans and transported sediment to the north. Those contourites were identified on older seismic data, but are better imaged and interpreted on this new data. Plans are to map out and investigate the origin and extent of fans and contourites that extends over a large area of the Gulf of Mexico. In the Early Miocene several submarine fans systems were formed by the sediment input related to orogenic activity in Mexico. Submarine fan development persisted into the Middle Miocene due to continued uplift and erosion of the Mexican landmass. Initial, contourites are small and close proximity to the deep-water fan. In the Late Miocene time, contourite drift field reached its maximum extent in the Mexican deepwater area, anchored on its southern end by a submarine mound. This mounded submarine fan is located in the offshore northeast Veracruz and can be linked to increased uplift and erosion of the Trans-Mexican volcanic belt. In the Miocene-Pliocene, the large contourite drift begins to diminish in size and scale and is moribund by the Pliocene, with establishment of oceanic circulation similar to the present day. This research is important to understand more about the Gulf of Mexico and also for the Miocene timeframe that is a key phase in the earth's history. The role of the change in bottom water flow during progressive closure of the equatorial seaway separating North and South America will also be investigated.

  17. New Mapping of Mariana Submarine Volcanoes with Sidescan and Multibeam Sonars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embley, R. W.; Chadwick, W. W.; Baker, E. T.; Johnson, P. D.; Merle, S. G.; Ristau, S.

    2003-12-01

    An expedition in February/March 2003 on the R/V Thomas G. Thompson mapped more than 18,000 km2 with the towed MR1 sidescan sonar and almost 28,000 km2 with an EM300 hull-mounted multibeam system along the Mariana volcanic arc. The expedition was funded by NOAA's Office of Ocean Exploration (more on the expedition can be found at: http://oceanexplorer.noaa.gov/explorations/03fire/welcome.html). The MR1 sidescan surveys began at the northern end of a 2001 R/V Melville MR1 survey at 16§ N and extended to Nikko Volcano at 23\\deg 05'N. A portion of the southern back-arc spreading center and the arc volcanoes south of 16\\deg N were mapped using the EM300 system. Of 43 submarine arc volcanoes surveyed that have basal diameters of 10 km or greater, 17 have summit calderas or craters. Of these, however, only 5 have diameters more than 2 km. In an accompanying survey of hydrothermal activity along the arc, CTD casts and/or tows were conducted over more than 50 individual volcanoes. The 11 volcanoes with active hydrothermal systems found in the course of these surveys appear to be about equally divided between those with and without summit calderas or craters (for additional information, see Baker et al., Resing et al., and Lupton et al., this session). The flanks of the submarine volcanoes and islands of the central and northern Mariana Arc consist largely of volcaniclastic flows. Most of the larger edifices have high-backscatter spoke-like patterns that probably represent coarser and/or younger flows from the summits. Higher relief high-backscatter areas, also commonly exhibiting a radial pattern, are found on many of the volcanoes' flanks. These are probably lava flows erupted along radial fissures. The Mariana Arc volcanoes are shedding large volumes of volcaniclastic material westward into the back-arc basin through a series of deep-sea channels oriented transverse to the arc that are in many places fed by flows from several volcanoes. On many of the volcaniclastic

  18. Insulation coordination for lightning overvoltages on a long HVDC submarine cable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mader, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper demonstrates by detailed modelling and simulation a statistical approach to determining the lightning-induced overvoltage stresses on the insulation of a 220 km HVDC submarine cable due to lightning strikes to the overhead line, and explores methods of controlling these overvoltages to levels that will allow lightning impulse withstand levels as low as 2.0 per unit of working voltage with an adequate safety margin.

  19. Simple models for the simulation of submarine melt for a Greenland glacial system model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Beckmann

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Two hundred marine-terminating Greenland outlet glaciers deliver more than half of the annually accumulated ice into the ocean and have played an important role in the Greenland ice sheet mass loss observed since the mid-1990s. Submarine melt may play a crucial role in the mass balance and position of the grounding line of these outlet glaciers. As the ocean warms, it is expected that submarine melt will increase, potentially driving outlet glaciers retreat and contributing to sea level rise. Projections of the future contribution of outlet glaciers to sea level rise are hampered by the necessity to use models with extremely high resolution of the order of a few hundred meters. That requirement in not only demanded when modeling outlet glaciers as a stand alone model but also when coupling them with high-resolution 3-D ocean models. In addition, fjord bathymetry data are mostly missing or inaccurate (errors of several hundreds of meters, which questions the benefit of using computationally expensive 3-D models for future predictions. Here we propose an alternative approach built on the use of a computationally efficient simple model of submarine melt based on turbulent plume theory. We show that such a simple model is in reasonable agreement with several available modeling studies. We performed a suite of experiments to analyze sensitivity of these simple models to model parameters and climate characteristics. We found that the computationally cheap plume model demonstrates qualitatively similar behavior as 3-D general circulation models. To match results of the 3-D models in a quantitative manner, a scaling factor of the order of 1 is needed for the plume models. We applied this approach to model submarine melt for six representative Greenland glaciers and found that the application of a line plume can produce submarine melt compatible with observational data. Our results show that the line plume model is more appropriate than the cone plume

  20. Psychological Implications for Submarine Display Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-01

    This paper addresses a number of psychological issues pertaining to display design . We review the literature comparing 3-D and 2-D displays and...perceptual, cognitive and ecological factors that are relevant to display design for submarine environments. The Generative Transformational approach...to visual perception is outlined and the relevance of transformational theory to display design is discussed. The paper also discusses a number of

  1. Topology Model of the Flow around a Submarine Hull Form

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    resistance and flow noise arising from flow-structure interaction, it is necessary to test the shape of the submarine , which includes the length-to...UNCLASSIFIED Topology Model of the Flow around a Submarine Hull Form S.-K. Lee Maritime Division Defence Science and Technology Group DST-Group–TR...3177 ABSTRACT A topology model constructed from surface-streamer visualisation describes the flow around a generic conventional submarine hull form at

  2. A Lanchester model of submarine attack on a carrier battlegroup

    OpenAIRE

    Eagle, James N.

    1987-01-01

    A Lanchester model is developed for a battlegroup ASW engagement. Two variations are included. In the first, long-range missile firing submarines, short-range missile or torpedo firing submarines, and submarines firing only torpedoes distribute their attack uniformly over battlegroup escort ships and carriers. In the second variation, the attack is concentrated on the carriers. supported by the Naval War College http://archive.org/details/lanchestermodelo00eagl NA

  3. Biomonitoring of physiological status and cognitive performance of underway submariners undergoing a novel watch-standing schedule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duplessis, C. A.; Cullum, M. E.; Crepeau, L. J.

    2005-05-01

    Submarine watch-standers adhere to a 6 hour-on, 12 hour-off (6/12) watch-standing schedule, yoking them to an 18-hr day, engendering circadian desynchronization and chronic sleep deprivation. Moreover, the chronic social crowding, shift work, and confinement of submarine life provide additional stressors known to correlate with elevated secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) and cortisol levels, reduced performance, immunologic dysfunction, malignancies, infections, gastrointestinal illness, coronary disease, anxiety, and depression. We evaluated an alternative, compressed, fixed work schedule designed to enhance circadian rhythm entrainment, sleep hygiene, performance, and health on 10 underway submariners, who followed the alternative and 6/12 schedules for approximately 2 weeks each. We measured subjects" sleep, cognitive performance, and salivary biomarker levels. Pilot analysis of the salivary data on one subject utilizing ELISA suggests elevated biomarker levels of stress. Average PM cortisol levels were 0.2 μg/L (normal range: nondetectable - 0.15 μg/L), and mean sIgA levels were 562 μg/ml (normal range: 100-500 μg/ml). Future research exploiting real-time salivary bioassays, via fluorescent polarimetry technology, identified by the Office of Naval Research (ONR) as a future Naval requirement, allows researchers to address correlations between stress-induced elaboration of salivary biomarkers with physiological and performance decrements, thereby fostering insight into the underway submariner"s psychoimmunological status. This may help identify strategies that enhance resilience to stressors. Specifically, empirically-based modeling can identify optimal watch-standing schedules and stress-mitigating procedures -- within the operational constraints of the submarine milieu and the mission --that foster improved circadian entrainment and reduced stress reactivity, enhancing physiological health, operational performance, safety, and job satisfaction.

  4. Meta-Analysis of Data from the Submarine Ventilation Doctrine Test Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hoover, J

    1998-01-01

    .... The Submarine Ventilation Doctrine Test Program was developed to address submarine-specific issues regarding the use of ventilation systems to control smoke and heat movement, maintain habitability...

  5. Australia’s Submarine Design Capabilities and Capacities: Challenges and Options for the Future Submarine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    General Dynamics Electric Boat Corporation EMC electromagnetic compatibility EMF electromagnetic field EMI electromagnetic interference EPCM engineering...to-diagnose flow-induced radiated noise Own-sensor performance degradation Note: Risks can be reduced for given designs using scale models...Acoustic analysis Addresses the total radiated noise signature of submarine designs Radiated noise that an enemy might detect Self-noise that that

  6. North Sea submarine cable disruptions and fishing activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hintzen, N.T.; Machiels, M.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    At the North Sea seafloor, numerous submarine cables are positioned that connect telecommunication networks between countries. Worldwide, human activities cause most of the cable disruptions with fisheries accounting for nearly half of all reported faults. Due to a recent increase of submarine cable

  7. The 1929 Grand Banks submarine landslide revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulten, Irena; Mosher, David C.; Krastel, Sebastian; Piper, David J. W.; Kienast, Markus

    2017-04-01

    On November 18th, 1929 a large submarine landslide occurred along the St. Pierre Slope of the southwestern Grand Banks of Newfoundland, as a result of a Mw 7.2 earthquake. This submarine landslide led to the first recognition of naturally-occurring submarine turbidity currents and is one of the few landslides known to have generated a tsunami. The event caused 28 causalities in Newfoundland and severe infrastructural damage. Earlier investigations of the area identified widely distributed shallow mass failures (15 - 20 m high escarpments), but no evidence of a larger headscarp. It is difficult to conceive, therefore, how this distributed shallow failure that rapidly evolved into a turbidity current would have generated a tsunami. It is hypothesised in this study that a deeper rooted sediment failure ( 500 m), involving faulting and mass-rotation, was involved in the sediment failure and this displacement generated the tsunami. In order to test this hypothesis, the volume and kinematics of the 1929 slope failure are analysed by means of recently acquired high resolution seismic reflection and multibeam swath bathymetry data, in addition to a significant volume of legacy data. The data allow determination of: 1) the dimension of the failure area, 2) the thickness and volume of failed sediment on St. Pierre Slope, 3) fault patterns and displacements, and 4) styles of sediment failure involved. Shallow (20 m high) sinuous escarpments and a number of faults are observed along the upper St. Pierre Slope (500 - 2 500 m water depth). The uppermost and largest of these escarpments shows association with a fault system. Preliminary results, therefore, indicate a complex sediment failure pattern along the St. Pierre Slope, possibly involving a deep-seated decollement and mobilization of a large volume of surficial sediment through retrogressive failure. Causes for the tsunami are yet to be determined.

  8. Multivariable Control System Design for a Submarine,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-05-01

    perturbations applied to the nominal point were identical in all cases (see table 2.3). The comparisons show excellent correlation between the...Open Loop Singular Values for the 5 and 1S Knot Linear Modelo *~~* b % % V’ , * % ~ .%~ C 9 ~ V. --.- V. V.-.--.--46..- S. 77’ Model S20R5 20- 10- -0...without imparting a pitch angle to the submarine and provides an excellent example of both the usefulness of w(t) as a state variable and the

  9. Hydrogen isotope systematics of submarine basalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyser, T.K.; O'Neil, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    The D/H ratios and water contents in fresh submarine basalts from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, the East Pacific Rise, and Hawaii indicate that the primary D/H ratios of many submarine lavas have been altered by processes including (1) outgassing, (2) addition of seawater at magmatic temperature, and (3) low-temperature hydration of glass. Decreases in ??D and H2O+ from exteriors to interiors of pillows are explained by outgassing of water whereas inverse relations between ??D and H2O+ in basalts from the Galapagos Rise and the FAMOUS Area are attributed to outgassing of CH4 and H2. A good correlation between ??D values and H2O is observed in a suite of submarine tholeiites dredged from the Kilauea East Rift Zone where seawater (added directly to the magma), affected only the isotopic compositions of hydrogen and argon. Analyses of some glassy rims indicate that the outer millimeter of the glass can undergo lowtemperature hydration by hydroxyl groups having ??D values as low as -100. ??D values vary with H2O contents of subaerial transitional basalts from Molokai, Hawaii, and subaerial alkali basalts from the Society Islands, indicating that the primary ??D values were similar to those of submarine lavas. Extrapolations to possible unaltered ??D values and H2O contents indicate that the primary ??D values of most thoteiite and alkali basalts are near -80 ?? 5: the weight percentages of water are variable, 0.15-0.35 for MOR tholeiites, about 0.25 for Hawaiian tholeiites, and up to 1.1 for alkali basalts. The primary ??D values of -80 for most basalts are comparable to those measured for deep-seated phlogopites. These results indicate that hydrogen, in marked contrast to other elements such as Sr, Nd, Pb, and O, has a uniform isotopic composition in the mantle. This uniformity is best explained by the presence of a homogeneous reservoir of hydrogen that has existed in the mantle since the very early history of the Earth. ?? 1984.

  10. Flow dynamics around downwelling submarine canyons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Spurgin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Flow dynamics around a downwelling submarine canyon were analysed with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model. Blanes Canyon (northwestern Mediterranean was used for topographic and initial forcing conditions. Fourteen scenarios were modelled with varying forcing conditions. Rossby and Burger numbers were used to determine the significance of Coriolis acceleration and stratification (respectively and their impacts on flow dynamics. A new non-dimensional parameter (χ was introduced to determine the significance of vertical variations in stratification. Some simulations do see brief periods of upwards displacement of water during the 10-day model period; however, the presence of the submarine canyon is found to enhance downwards advection of density in all model scenarios. High Burger numbers lead to negative vorticity and a trapped anticyclonic eddy within the canyon, as well as an increased density anomaly. Low Burger numbers lead to positive vorticity, cyclonic circulation, and weaker density anomalies. Vertical variations in stratification affect zonal jet placement. Under the same forcing conditions, the zonal jet is pushed offshore in more uniformly stratified domains. The offshore jet location generates upwards density advection away from the canyon, while onshore jets generate downwards density advection everywhere within the model domain. Increasing Rossby values across the canyon axis, as well as decreasing Burger values, increase negative vertical flux at shelf break depth (150 m. Increasing Rossby numbers lead to stronger downwards advection of a passive tracer (nitrate, as well as stronger vorticity within the canyon. Results from previous studies are explained within this new dynamic framework.

  11. Submarine Tailings Disposal (STD—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Dold

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The mining industry is a fundamental industry involved in the development of modern society, but is also the world’s largest waste producer. This role will be enhanced in the future, because ore grades are generally decreasing, thus leading to increases in the waste/metal production ratio. Mine wastes deposited on-land in so-called tailings dams, impoundments or waste-dumps have several associated environmental issues that need to be addressed (e.g., acid mine drainage formation due to sulphide oxidation, geotechnical stability, among others, and social concerns due to land use during mining. The mining industry recognizes these concerns and is searching for waste management alternatives for the future. One option used in the past was the marine shore or shallow submarine deposition of this waste material in some parts of the world. After the occurrence of some severe environmental pollution, today the deposition in the deep sea (under constant reducing conditions is seen as a new, more secure option, due to the general thought that sulphide minerals are geochemically stable under the reduced conditions prevailing in the deep marine environment. This review highlights the mineralogical and geochemical issues (e.g., solubility of sulphides in seawater; reductive dissolution of oxide minerals under reducing conditions, which have to be considered when evaluating whether submarine tailings disposal is a suitable alternative for mine waste.

  12. Submarine melt rates under Greenland's ice tongues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Nat; Straneo, Fiametta; Heimbach, Patrick; Cenedese, Claudia

    2017-04-01

    The few remaining ice tongues (ice-shelf like extensions) of Greenland's glaciers are undergoing rapid changes with potential implications for the stability of the ice sheet. Submarine melting is recognized as a major contributor to mass loss, yet the magnitude and spatial distribution of melt are poorly known or understood. Here, we use high resolution satellite imagery to infer the magnitude and spatial variability of melt rates under Greenland's largest remaining ice tongues: Ryder Glacier, Petermann Glacier and Nioghalvfjerdsbræ (79 North Glacier). We find that submarine plus aerial melt approximately balance the ice flux from the grounded ice sheet for the first two while at Nioghalvfjerdsbræ the total melt flux exceeds the inflow of ice indicating thinning of the ice tongue. We also show that melt rates under the ice tongues vary considerably, exceeding 60 m yr-1 near the grounding zone and decaying rapidly downstream. Channels, likely originating from upstream subglacial channels, give rise to large melt variations across the ice tongues. Using derived melt rates, we test simplified melt parameterizations appropriate for ice sheet models and find the best agreement with those that incorporate ice tongue geometry in the form of depth and slope.

  13. Environmental assessment of submarine power cables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isus, Daniel; Martinez, Juan D. [Grupo General Cable Sistemas, S.A., 08560-Manlleu, Barcelona (Spain); Arteche, Amaya; Del Rio, Carmen; Madina, Virginia [Tecnalia Research and Innovation, 20009 San Sebastian (Spain)

    2011-03-15

    Extensive analyses conducted by the European Community revealed that offshore wind energy have relatively benign effects on the marine environment by comparison to other forms of electric power generation [1]. However, the materials employed in offshore wind power farms suffer major changes to be confined to the marine environment at extreme conditions: saline medium, hydrostatic pressure... which can produce an important corrosion effect. This phenomenon can affect on the one hand, to the material from the structural viewpoint and on the other hand, to the marine environment. In this sense, to better understand the environmental impacts of generating electricity from offshore wind energy, this study evaluated the life cycle assessment for some new designs of submarine power cables developed by General Cable. To achieve this goal, three approaches have been carried out: leaching tests, eco-toxicity tests and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodologies. All of them are aimed to obtaining quantitative data for environmental assessment of selected submarine cables. LCA is a method used to assess environmental aspects and potential impacts of a product or activity. LCA does not include financial and social factors, which means that the results of an LCA cannot exclusively form the basis for assessment of a product's sustainability. Leaching tests results allowed to conclude that pH of seawater did not significantly changed by the presence of submarine three-core cables. Although, it was slightly higher in case of broken cable, pH values were nearly equals. Concerning to the heavy metals which could migrate to the aquatic medium, there were significant differences in both scenarios. The leaching of zinc is the major environmental concern during undersea operation of undamaged cables whereas the fully sectioned three-core cable produced the migration of significant quantities of copper and iron apart from the zinc migrated from the galvanized steel. Thus, the tar

  14. What threat do turbidity currents and submarine landslides pose to submarine telecommunications cable infrastructure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clare, Michael; Pope, Edward; Talling, Peter; Hunt, James; Carter, Lionel

    2016-04-01

    The global economy relies on uninterrupted usage of a network of telecommunication cables on the seafloor. These submarine cables carry ~99% of all trans-oceanic digital data and voice communications traffic worldwide, as they have far greater bandwidth than satellites. Over 9 million SWIFT banks transfers alone were made using these cables in 2004, totalling 7.4 trillion of transactions per day between 208 countries, which grew to 15 million SWIFT bank transactions last year. We outline the challenge of why, how often, and where seafloor cables are broken by natural causes; primarily subsea landslides and sediment flows (turbidity currents and also debris flows and hyperpycnal flows). These slides and flows can be very destructive. As an example, a sediment flow in 1929 travelled up to 19 m/s and broke 11 cables in the NE Atlantic, running out for ~800 km to the abyssal ocean. The 2006 Pingtung earthquake triggered a sediment flow that broke 22 cables offshore Taiwan over a distance of 450 km. Here, we present initial results from the first statistical analysis of a global database of cable breaks and causes. We first investigate the controls on frequency of submarine cable breaks in different environmental and geological settings worldwide. We assess which types of earthquake pose a significant threat to submarine cable networks. Meteorological events, such as hurricanes and typhoons, pose a significant threat to submarine cable networks, so we also discuss the potential impacts of future climate change on the frequency of such hazards. We then go on to ask what are the physical impacts of submarine sediment flows on submerged cables? A striking observation from past cable breaks is sometimes cables remain unbroken, whilst adjacent cables are severed (and record powerful flows travelling at up to 6 m/s). Why are some cables broken, but neighbouring cables remain intact? We provide some explanations for this question, and outline the need for future in

  15. Training of Russian Officers in Line Troops in the Second Half of the 17th – First Half of the 18th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksey N. Grebenkin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the attempts of officer training directly in the troops of Russian army, which were undertook in the second half of the 17th –first half of the 18th centuries. The author gives the characteristic to the training of “commanding people” in reytar regiment of I. Fanbukoven in 1649-1653 and comes to conclusion that it was effective. The author thinks that the military educational activity of the “toy” army was focused on the training of soldiers, not officers. The attempt of Peter I to organize the military training of young courtiers abroad wasn’t successful because of their weak base preparation. The training of officers in guard regiments was more effective, but it quickly became sham because young noblemen only numbered in lists of military units. Besides, regiment schools which had been organized in the guard troops since 1721 didn’t give so much military knowledge as the technical one, moreover training was organized on a rather low level. The author comes to conclusion that difficulties which were connected with the organization of officer training directly in the troops (such as lack of qualified teachers, impossibility of regular conduct of classes, etc. made the government to pay close attention to the development of boarding military schools – cadet corpses.

  16. Navy Ohio Replacement (SSBN[X]) Ballistic Missile Submarine Program: Background and Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-17

    propulsion technology first occurred many years ago: To help jumpstart the UK’s nuclear - powered submarine program, the United States transferred to the UK a... nuclear - powered attack submarines (SSNs), nuclear - powered cruise missile submarines (SSGNs), and nuclear - powered ballistic missile submarines (SSBNs). 2...2 In the designations SSN, SSGN, SSBN, and SSBN(X), the SS stands for submarine, N stands for nuclear - powered (meaning the ship is

  17. Submarine landside in the Bussol Graben: Structural and formation features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranov, B. V.; Lobkovsky, L. I.; Dozorova, K. A.; Rukavishnikova, D. D.

    2017-05-01

    Analysis of geophysical data obtained during a study of the insular slope in the central Kuril‒Kamchatka Trench during projects Kuriles-2005 and Kuriles-2006 promoted by the Presidium of the Russian Academy of Sciences revealed a large submarine landslide in this area. The landslide, located at the bottom of the transverse valley confined to the Bussol l Graben, resulted from the failure of the northeastern wall of a graben composed of sedimentary material. It exceeds 35 km3 in size, representing one of the large submarine landslides discovered to date on the slope of the Kuril‒Kamchatka Trench in submarine canyonfan environments.

  18. Management of demand based inventory aboard submarine tenders servicing attack (SSN) submarines

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, Timothy Joseph

    1990-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. This thesis examines the computation of inventory levels based on demand history aboard Submarine Tenders that use the Shipboard Automated Data Processing System (SUADPS) for inventory control. The focus of the thesis was the workload and supply effectiveness issues associated with the processing of the SUADPS levels setting program. The objective of the thesis was to determine the effect on supply effectiveness and stock churn if the...

  19. Breathing modes of Kolumbo submarine volcano (Santorini, Greece).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakalis, Evangelos; Mertzimekis, Theo J; Nomikou, Paraskevi; Zerbetto, Francesco

    2017-04-13

    Submarine volcanoes, such as Kolumbo (Santorini, Greece) are natural laboratories for fostering multidisciplinary studies. Their investigation requires the most innovative marine technology together with advanced data analysis. Conductivity and temperature of seawater were recorded directly above Kolumbo's hydrothermal vent system. The respective time series have been analyzed in terms of non-equilibrium techniques. The energy dissipation of the volcanic activity is monitored by the temperature variations of seawater. The venting dynamics of chemical products is monitored by water conductivity. The analysis of the time series in terms of stochastic processes delivers scaling exponents with turning points between consecutive regimes for both conductivity and temperature. Changes of conductivity are shown to behave as a universal multifractal and their variance is subdiffusive as the scaling exponents indicate. Temperature is constant over volcanic rest periods and a universal multifractal behavior describes its changes in line with a subdiffusive character otherwise. The universal multifractal description illustrates the presence of non-conservative conductivity and temperature fields showing that the system never retains a real equilibrium state. The existence of a repeated pattern of the combined effect of both seawater and volcanic activity is predicted. The findings can shed light on the dynamics of chemical products emitted from the vents and point to the presence of underlying mechanisms that govern potentially hazardous, underwater volcanic environments.

  20. Breathing modes of Kolumbo submarine volcano (Santorini, Greece)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakalis, Evangelos; Mertzimekis, Theo J.; Nomikou, Paraskevi; Zerbetto, Francesco

    2017-04-01

    Submarine volcanoes, such as Kolumbo (Santorini, Greece) are natural laboratories for fostering multidisciplinary studies. Their investigation requires the most innovative marine technology together with advanced data analysis. Conductivity and temperature of seawater were recorded directly above Kolumbo’s hydrothermal vent system. The respective time series have been analyzed in terms of non-equilibrium techniques. The energy dissipation of the volcanic activity is monitored by the temperature variations of seawater. The venting dynamics of chemical products is monitored by water conductivity. The analysis of the time series in terms of stochastic processes delivers scaling exponents with turning points between consecutive regimes for both conductivity and temperature. Changes of conductivity are shown to behave as a universal multifractal and their variance is subdiffusive as the scaling exponents indicate. Temperature is constant over volcanic rest periods and a universal multifractal behavior describes its changes in line with a subdiffusive character otherwise. The universal multifractal description illustrates the presence of non-conservative conductivity and temperature fields showing that the system never retains a real equilibrium state. The existence of a repeated pattern of the combined effect of both seawater and volcanic activity is predicted. The findings can shed light on the dynamics of chemical products emitted from the vents and point to the presence of underlying mechanisms that govern potentially hazardous, underwater volcanic environments.

  1. Submarine thermal springs on the Galapagos Rift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corliss, J.B.; Dymond, J.; Gordon, L.I.; Edmond, J.M.; Von Herzen, R. P.; Ballard, Richard D.; Green, K.; Williams, D.; Bainbridge, A.; Crane, K.; Van Andel, T. H.

    1979-01-01

    The submarine hydrothermal activity on and near the Galápagos Rift has been explored with the aid of the deep submersible Alvin. Analyses of water samples from hydrothermal vents reveal that hydrothermal activity provides significant or dominant sources and sinks for several components of seawater; studies of conductive and convective heat transfer suggest that two-thirds of the heat lost from new oceanic lithosphere at the Galápagos Rift in the first million years may be vented from thermal springs, predominantly along the axial ridge within the rift valley. The vent areas are populated by animal communities. They appear to utilize chemosynthesis by sulfur-oxidizing bacteria to derive their entire energy supply from reactions between the seawater and the rocks at high temperatures, rather than photosynthesis

  2. Improved OTEC System for a Submarine Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Yi; Jones, Jack; Valdez, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    An ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC), now undergoing development, is a less-massive, more-efficient means of exploiting the same basic principle as that of the proposed system described in "Alternative OTEC Scheme for a Submarine Robot" (NPO-43500), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 33, No. 1 (January 2009), page 50. The proposed system as described previously would be based on the thawing-expansion/freezing-contraction behavior of a wax or perhaps another suitable phase-change material (PCM). The power generated by the system would be used to recharge the batteries in a battery- powered unmanned underwater vehicle [UUV (essentially, a small exploratory submarine robot)] of a type that has been deployed in large numbers in research pertaining to global warming. A UUV of this type travels between the ocean surface and depths, measuring temperature and salinity. At one phase of its operational cycle, the previously proposed system would utilize the surface ocean temperature (which lies between 15 and 30 C over most of the Earth) to melt a PCM that has a melting/freezing temperature of about 10 C. At the opposite phase of its operational cycle, the system would utilize the lower ocean temperature at depth (e.g., between 4 and 7 C at a depth of 300 m) to freeze the PCM. The melting or freezing would cause the PCM to expand or contract, respectively, by about 9 volume percent. The PCM would be contained in tubes that would be capable of expanding and contracting with the PCM. The PCM-containing tubes would be immersed in a hydraulic fluid. The expansion and contraction would drive a flow of the hydraulic fluid against a piston that, in turn, would push a rack-and-pinion gear system to spin a generator to charge a battery.

  3. A model for tidewater glacier undercutting by submarine melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, D. A.; Nienow, P. W.; Goldberg, D. N.; Cowton, T. R.; Sole, A. J.

    2017-03-01

    Dynamic change at the marine-terminating margins of the Greenland Ice Sheet may be initiated by the ocean, particularly where subglacial runoff drives vigorous ice-marginal plumes and rapid submarine melting. Here we model submarine melt-driven undercutting of tidewater glacier termini, simulating a process which is key to understanding ice-ocean coupling. Where runoff emerges from broad subglacial channels we find that undercutting has only a weak impact on local submarine melt rate but increases total ablation by submarine melting due to the larger submerged ice surface area. Thus, the impact of melting is determined not only by the melt rate magnitude but also by the slope of the ice-ocean interface. We suggest that the most severe undercutting occurs at the maximum height in the fjord reached by the plume, likely promoting calving of ice above. It remains unclear, however, whether undercutting proceeds sufficiently rapidly to influence calving at Greenland's fastest-flowing glaciers.

  4. Submarine Upward Looking Sonar Ice Draft Profile Data and Statistics

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of upward looking sonar draft data collected by submarines in the Arctic Ocean. It includes data from both U.S. Navy and Royal Navy...

  5. Virtual Reality Training System for a Submarine Command Center

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maxwell, Douglas B

    2008-01-01

    The invention as disclosed is a system that uses a combined real and virtual display interaction methodology to generate the visual appearance of submarine combat control rooms and allow interaction...

  6. Studies on submarine control for periscope depth operations

    OpenAIRE

    Tolliver, John V.

    1996-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution in unlimited. Requirements for submarine periscope depth operations have been increased by integration with carrier battle groups, littoral operations, and contributions to joint surveillance. Improved periscope depth performance is therefore imperative. Submarine control personnel rely on a large number of analog gauges and indications. An integrated digital display system could enhance the ergonomics of the human control interface and display add...

  7. Exercise Aboard Attack Submarines: Rationale and New Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-08-18

    experience loss of physical fitness while underway. Bennett and co-workers (2) noted a 7% reduction of maximal oxygen consumption in non-exercising...Inc. designed and built a comprehensive resistance exercise device to help counteract muscle deconditioning during long term space flights (the SX... Physical activity aboard nuclear submarines as measured by pedometry. Groton: Naval Submarine Medical Research Laboratory, Report 1053, 1985, p. 12

  8. Are tilt measurements useful in detecting tsunamigenic submarine landslides?

    OpenAIRE

    Sascha Brune; Andrey Babeyko; Stephan V. Sobolev

    2009-01-01

    Large submarine landslides can generate dangerous tsunamis. Because of their long-period signal, detection of landslides by common seismological methods is difficult. Here we suggest a method of detecting submarine landslides by using an array of land-based tiltmeters. The displacement of a large volume of sediments during landsliding produces a detectable elastic response of the lithosphere. We propose a technique to calculate this response and to invert for tsunami relevant parameters like ...

  9. Installation of XLPE-Insulated 400 kV Submarine AC Power Cables under the Dardanelles Strait: A 4 GW Turkish Grid Reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Benato

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the 400 kV AC submarine link under the Dardanelles Strait composed of 12 submarine armoured single-core cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE-insulated cables (plus a back-up power cable. The link consists of two parallel-operated double-circuit links named Lâpseki–Sütlüce I and Lâpseki–Sütlüce II. The transmissible power is 4000 MW (1000 MW per circuit and the average length for a single-core cable is about 4.6 km: the submarine cables are part of overhead lines. This paper gives a wide account of the cable installations and, chiefly, of the cable protections on the seabed: different protection choices were extensively used (i.e., water jetting and mattressing.

  10. The development of permafrost bacterial communities under submarine conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitzscherling, Julia; Winkel, Matthias; Winterfeld, Maria; Horn, Fabian; Yang, Sizhong; Grigoriev, Mikhail N.; Wagner, Dirk; Overduin, Pier P.; Liebner, Susanne

    2017-07-01

    Submarine permafrost is more vulnerable to thawing than permafrost on land. Besides increased heat transfer from the ocean water, the penetration of salt lowers the freezing temperature and accelerates permafrost degradation. Microbial communities in thawing permafrost are expected to be stimulated by warming, but how they develop under submarine conditions is completely unknown. We used the unique records of two submarine permafrost cores from the Laptev Sea on the East Siberian Arctic Shelf, inundated about 540 and 2500 years ago, to trace how bacterial communities develop depending on duration of the marine influence and pore water chemistry. Combined with geochemical analysis, we quantified total cell numbers and bacterial gene copies and determined the community structure of bacteria using deep sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene. We show that submarine permafrost is an extreme habitat for microbial life deep below the seafloor with changing thermal and chemical conditions. Pore water chemistry revealed different pore water units reflecting the degree of marine influence and stages of permafrost thaw. Millennia after inundation by seawater, bacteria stratify into communities in permafrost, marine-affected permafrost, and seabed sediments. In contrast to pore water chemistry, the development of bacterial community structure, diversity, and abundance in submarine permafrost appears site specific, showing that both sedimentation and permafrost thaw histories strongly affect bacteria. Finally, highest microbial abundance was observed in the ice-bonded seawater unaffected but warmed permafrost of the longer inundated core, suggesting that permafrost bacterial communities exposed to submarine conditions start to proliferate millennia after warming.

  11. Cardiometabolic Health in Submariners Returning from a 3-Month Patrol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heath G. Gasier

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Confined space, limited exercise equipment, rotating shift work and reduced sleep may affect cardiometabolic health in submariners. To test this hypothesis, 53 male U.S. Submariners (20–39 years were studied before and after a 3-month routine submarine patrol. Measures included anthropometrics, dietary and physical activity, biomarkers of cardiometabolic health, energy and appetite regulation, and inflammation. Before deployment, 62% of submariners had a body fat % (BF% ≥ 25% (obesity, and of this group, 30% met the criteria for metabolic syndrome. In obese volunteers, insulin, the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, leptin, the leptin/adiponectin ratio, and pro-inflammatory chemokines growth-related oncogene and macrophage-derived chemokine were significantly higher compared to non-obese submariners. Following the patrol, a significant mean reduction in body mass (5% and fat-mass (11% occurred in the obese group as a result of reduced energy intake (~2000 kJ during the patrol; and, independent of group, modest improvements in serum lipids and a mean reduction in interferon γ-induced protein 10 and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 were observed. Since 43% of the submariners remained obese, and 18% continued to meet the criteria for metabolic syndrome following the patrol, the magnitude of weight loss was insufficient to completely abolish metabolic dysfunction. Submergence up to 3-months, however, does not appear to be the cause of obesity, which is similar to that of the general population.

  12. Solution of Supplee's submarine paradox through special and general relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Vieira, R S

    2016-01-01

    In 1989 Supplee described an apparent relativistic paradox on which a submarine seems to sink in a given frame while floating in another one. If the submarine density is adjusted to be the same as the water density (when both of them are at rest) and then it is put to move, the density of the submarine will become higher than that of the water, thanks to Lorentz contraction, and hence it sinks. However, in the submarine proper frame, is the water that becomes denser, so the submarine supposedly should float and we get a paradox situation. In this paper we analyze the submarine paradox in both a flat and a curved spacetime. In the case of a flat spacetime, we first show that any relativistic force field in special relativity can be written in the Lorentz form, so that it can always be decomposed into a static (electric-like) and a dynamic (magnetic-like) part. Taking into account the gravitomagnetic effects between the Earth and the water, a relativistic formulation of Archimedes principle can be established, ...

  13. Submarine Landslides at Santa Catalina Island, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legg, M. R.; Francis, R. D.

    2011-12-01

    Santa Catalina Island is an active tectonic block of volcanic and metamorphic rocks originally exposed during middle Miocene transtension along the evolving Pacific-North America transform plate boundary. Post-Miocene transpression created the existing large pop-up structure along the major strike-slip restraining bend of the Catalina fault that forms the southwest flank of the uplift. Prominent submerged marine terraces apparent in high-resolution bathymetric maps interrupt the steep submarine slopes in the upper ~400 meters subsea depths. Steep subaerial slopes of the island are covered by Quaternary landslides, especially at the sea cliffs and in the blueschist metamorphic rocks. The submarine slopes also show numerous landslides that range in area from a few hectares to more than three sq-km (300 hectares). Three or more landslides of recent origin exist between the nearshore and first submerged terrace along the north-facing shelf of the island's West End. One of these slides occurred during September 2005 when divers observed a remarkable change in the seafloor configuration after previous dives in the area. Near a sunken yacht at about 45-ft depth where the bottom had sloped gently into deeper water, a "sinkhole" had formed that dropped steeply to 100-ft or greater depths. Some bubbling sand was observed in the shallow water areas that may be related to the landslide process. High-resolution multibeam bathymetry acquired in 2008 by CSU Monterey Bay show this "fresh" slide and at least two other slides of varying age along the West End. The slides are each roughly 2 hectares in area and their debris aprons are spread across the first terrace at about 85-m water depth that is likely associated with the Last Glacial Maximum sealevel lowstand. Larger submarine slides exist along the steep Catalina and Catalina Ridge escarpments along the southwest flank of the island platform. A prominent slide block, exceeding 3 sq-km in area, appears to have slipped more than

  14. ROV Tiburon Investigation of Hawaiian Submarine Canyons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paull, C. K.; Greene, H. G.; Caress, D. W.; Clague, D. A.; Ussler, W.; Maher, N. M.

    2001-12-01

    MBARI conducted ROV dives around the Hawaiian Islands during an expedition of the R/V Western Flyer and Tiburon in the spring of 2001. Eight ROV dives were made to investigate five major submarine canyons offshore of Oahu, Molokai, and Hawaii in up to 3,434 m water depths. Four of these canyons are located off the windward (northern) side of these islands where onshore canyons are also well developed. Those canyons located offshore of Molokai and Oahu incise the head scars of the giant Nuuanu and Wailai submarine landslides. ROV observations and sediment and rock outcrop sampling were made in these canyons to determine their origin and present-day activity. The fifth canyon investigated is located on the leeward (southern) side of Molokai. The canyons along the windward side expose extensive stratigraphic sections that reveal the history of the islands' formation. In composite, these sections contain marine pillow basalt overlain by a substantial sequence of alternating subaerial lava flows, rounded boulder conglomerates, shallow water carbonates, and hyaloclastites that indicate coastal and marine deposition. These sequences illustrate the accretion and subsequent subsidence of the islands' flanks. These canyons also have morphologically distinct upper and lower sections. The upper reaches of the canyons are incised into the shallow water marine facies and contain broad axial channels through which active sediment transport is occurring. In contrast, the morphology of the lower canyons are strongly influenced by the giant landslides that massively altered the northern flanks of the Hawaiian chain. The lower canyons contain plunge pools and steep headwall scarps that are generally comprised of mechanically competent subaerial lava flows. The presence of multiple plunge pools with differentially eroded head scarps suggests retrogressive erosion (bottom-up process) with headward advancement of the various heads. Undercutting of the headwalls also produce periodic

  15. Relationship between work stress and health in submariners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan-nan JIANG

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the relationship between work stress and health in submariners. Methods In April 2008, 272 submariners trained in a navy base were selected as study subjects by random group sampling method, and tested by primary personal information questionnaire, self-rated health measurement scale (SRHMS, self-developed submariners' work stressors questionnaire, and work stress self-rated scale. Physical health, mental health and social health of submariners were analyzed, and scores were compared with the norm of reference scores. Correlations were analyzed respectively between 10 items of submariners' general information (including age, length of military service, education degree, years at the present post, times of receiving awards, on-duty hours, off-duty hours, hours of sleep, lost days of leave, positive attitude to work and their physical health score, mental health score, social health score, total health score, as well as between 15 submariners' work stressors (including workrelated risks, diet problems, high temperature, humidity and noise in workplace, shortage of clean clothes, illness, losing contact with outside, lack of information about the task, lacking supports from family members, relationship problems, lack of involvement in task decisions, boring and dull work, on duty, heavy work, high quality of work, coping with unexpected threat and their physical health score, mental health score, social health score and total health score. Results No significant difference was found between submariners' SRHMS total score and the normal referenced score (t=0.56, P>0.05, but the physical health score and mental health score were significantly lower than normal referenced scores respectively (t=–2.172, P<0.05; t=–3.299, P<0.01, and the social health score was significantly higher than normal referenced score (t=9.331, P<0.001. The age, length of military service, years at present post of submariners were related

  16. From submarine to lacustrine groundwater discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, Jörg; Meinikmann, Karin; Pöschke, Franziska; Nützmann, Gunnar; Rosenberry, Donald O.

    2017-01-01

    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) and its role in marine nutrient cycling are well known since the last decade. The freshwater equivalent, lacustrine groundwater discharge (LGD), is often still disregarded, although first reports of LGD are more than 50 years old. We identify nine different reasons why groundwater has long been disregarded in both freshwater and marine environments such as invisibility of groundwater discharge, the size of the interface and its difficult accessibility. Although there are some fundamental differences in the hydrology of SGD and LGD, caused primarily by seawater recirculation that occurs only in cases of SGD, there are also a lot of similarities such as a focusing of discharge to near-shore areas. Nutrient concentrations in groundwater near the groundwater–surface water interface might be anthropogenically enriched. Due to spatial heterogeneity of aquifer characteristics and biogeochemical processes, the quantification of groundwater-borne nutrient loads is challenging. Both nitrogen and phosphorus might be mobile in near-shore aquifers and in a lot of case studies large groundwater-borne nutrient loads have been reported.

  17. Design and analysis of submarine radome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandeep, C. Satya; Prasad, U. Shiva; Suresh, R.; Rathan, A.; Sravanthi, G.; Govardhan, D.

    2017-07-01

    Radomes are the electromagnetic windows that protect microwave sub-systems from the environmental effects. The major requirement of radome is its transparency to microwaves and for most of the cases mechanical properties are also equally important. Radome for underwater applications has to withstand high water pressure of the order of 45 bars. Composite materials owing to their high strength to weight ratio, high stiffness and better corrosion resistance are potential source for under water applications. The concept of 'tailoring' the material properties to suit the radome is obtained by selecting proper reinforcement, resin matrix and their compositions. The mechanical properties of composite material, evaluated by testing specimens as per ASTM standards, are utilized in designing the radome. The modulus properties calculated using classical theories of composite materials and compared with test results. ANSYS a Finite Element software package used to analyse the problem. As the cross sectional thickness of radome varies, the complexity in fabrication is overcome by adopting matched die techniques. The radome design and finite element analysis validation concluded by conducting the pressure test on radome. On the design a modal analysis is also carried to check for the natural frequency, So that resonance does not occur if the natural frequency of the radome coincides with the excitation frequency of the submarine Clinical information system (CIS) for UNRWA is a computerized distributed application that used in clinics which follows the United Nations Relief and Works Agency (UNRWA) to manage the clinical requirements and services.

  18. Submarine landslides of the Southern California Borderland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H.J.; Greene, H. Gary; Edwards, B.D.; Fisher, M.A.; Normark, W.R.

    2009-01-01

    Conventional bathymetry, sidescan-sonar and seismic-reflection data, and recent, multibeam surveys of large parts of the Southern California Borderland disclose the presence of numerous submarine landslides. Most of these features are fairly small, with lateral dimensions less than ??2 km. In areas where multibeam surveys are available, only two large landslide complexes were identified on the mainland slope- Goleta slide in Santa Barbara Channel and Palos Verdes debris avalanche on the San Pedro Escarpment south of Palos Verdes Peninsula. Both of these complexes indicate repeated recurrences of catastrophic slope failure. Recurrence intervals are not well constrained but appear to be in the range of 7500 years for the Goleta slide. The most recent major activity of the Palos Verdes debris avalanche occurred roughly 7500 years ago. A small failure deposit in Santa Barbara Channel, the Gaviota mudflow, was perhaps caused by an 1812 earthquake. Most landslides in this region are probably triggered by earthquakes, although the larger failures were likely conditioned by other factors, such as oversteepening, development of shelf-edge deltas, and high fluid pressures. If a subsequent future landslide were to occur in the area of these large landslide complexes, a tsunami would probably result. Runup distances of 10 m over a 30-km-long stretch of the Santa Barbara coastline are predicted for a recurrence of the Goleta slide, and a runup of 3 m over a comparable stretch of the Los Angeles coastline is modeled for the Palos Verdes debris avalanche. ?? 2009 The Geological Society of America.

  19. Seismic reflections associated with submarine gas hydrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreassen, K.

    1995-12-31

    Gas hydrates are often suggested as a future energy resource. This doctoral thesis improves the understanding of the concentration and distribution of natural submarine gas hydrates. The presence of these hydrates are commonly inferred from strong bottom simulating reflection (BSR). To investigate the nature of BSR, this work uses seismic studies of hydrate-related BSRs at two different locations, one where gas hydrates are accepted to exist and interpreted to be very extensive (in the Beaufort Sea), the other with good velocity data and downhole logs available (offshore Oregon). To ascertain the presence of free gas under the BSR, prestack offset data must supplement near-vertical incidence seismic data. A tentative model for physical properties of sediments partially saturated with gas hydrate and free gas is presented. This model, together with drilling information and seismic data containing the BSR beneath the Oregon margin and the Beaufort Sea, made it possible to better understand when to apply the amplitude-versus-offset (AVO) method to constrain BSR gas hydrate and gas models. Distribution of natural gas hydrates offshore Norway and Svalbard is discussed and interpreted as reflections from the base of gas hydrate-bearing sediments, overlying sediments containing free gas. Gas hydrates inferred to exist at the Norwegian-Svalbard continental margin correlate well with Cenozoic depocenters, and the associated gas is assumed to be mainly biogenic. Parts of that margin have a high potential for natural gas hydrates of both biogenic and thermogenic origin. 235 refs., 86 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. NSMRL: A Small Command with A Huge Presence for the Submarine Force

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daniel, J. C; Lamb, Jerry

    2005-01-01

    "To protect the health and enhance the performance of our warfighters through focused submarine, diving and surface research solutions" is the mission of the Naval Submarine Medical Research Laboratory (NSMRL...

  1. Conduct and Support of Amphibious Operations from United States Submarines in World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    twelfth war patrol of the Gato class submarine (See photos 1 and 2). They made history as the only Americans to conduct an offensive landing on a...Naval History Vol. 2, no. 1 (April 1, 2003), 1. 4 This monograph features five Gato class submarines, and three V-class submarines, but also addresses...1993), 67. 6 Photo 2: USS Barb (SS 220), representing the five Gato class submarines that participated in Operation Torch. Barb’s crew also

  2. Navy Ohio Replacement (SSBN[X]) Ballistic Missile Submarine Program: Background and Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-05

    Navy Ohio Replacement (SSBN[X]) Ballistic Missile Submarine Program: Background and Issues for Congress Ronald O’Rourke Specialist in Naval...Affairs April 5, 2016 Congressional Research Service 7-5700 www.crs.gov R41129 Navy Ohio Replacement (SSBN[X]) Ballistic Missile Submarine...Replacement (SSBN[X]) Ballistic Missile Submarine Program Congressional Research Service Contents Introduction

  3. Submarine fans: A critical retrospective (1950–2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Shanmugam

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available When we look back the contributions on submarine fans during the past 65 years (1950–2015, the empirical data on 21 modern submarine fans and 10 ancient deep-water systems, published by the results of the First COMFAN (Committee on FANs Meeting (Bouma et al., 1985a, have remained the single most significant compilation of data on submarine fans. The 1970s were the “heyday” of submarine fan models. In the 21st century, the general focus has shifted from submarine fans to submarine mass movements, internal waves and tides, and contourites. The purpose of this review is to illustrate the complexity of issues surrounding the origin and classification of submarine fans. The principal elements of submarine fans, composed of canyons, channels, and lobes, are discussed using nine modern case studies from the Mediterranean Sea, the Equatorial Atlantic, the Gulf of Mexico, the North Pacific, the NE Indian Ocean (Bay of Bengal, and the East Sea (Korea. The Annot Sandstone (Eocene–Oligocene, exposed at Peira-Cava area, SE France, which served as the type locality for the “Bouma Sequence”, was reexamined. The field details are documented in questioning the validity of the model, which was the basis for the turbidite-fan link. The 29 fan-related models that are of conceptual significance, developed during the period 1970–2015, are discussed using modern and ancient systems. They are: (1 the classic submarine fan model with attached lobes, (2 the detached-lobe model, (3 the channel-levee complex without lobes, (4 the delta-fed ramp model, (5 the gully-lobe model, (6 the suprafan lobe model, (7 the depositional lobe model, (8 the fan lobe model, (9 the ponded lobe model, (10 the nine models based on grain size and sediment source, (11 the four fan models based on tectonic settings, (12 the Jackfork debrite model, (13 the basin-floor fan model, (14 supercritical and subcritical fans, and (15 the three types of fan reservoirs. Each model is unique

  4. Process sedimentology of submarine fan deposits - new perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postma, George

    2017-04-01

    To link submarine fan process sedimentology with sand distribution, sand body architecture, texture and fabric, the field geologist studies sedimentary facies, facies associations (fan elements) and stratigraphy. Facies analysis resides on factual knowledge of modern fan morphodynamics and physical modelling of en-masse sediment transport. Where do we stand after 55 years of submarine research, i.e. the date when the first submarine fan model was launched by Arnold Bouma in 1962? Since that date students of submarine fans have worked on a number of important, recurring questions concerned with facies analysis of submarine successions in outcrop and core: 1. What type of sediment transport produced the beds? 2. What facies can be related to initial flow conditions? 3. What is the significance of grain size jumps and bounding surface hierarchy in beds consisting of crude and spaced stratification (traction carpets)? Do these point to multi flow events or to flow pulsations by one and the same event? 4. What facies associations relate to the basic elements of submarine fans? 5. What are the autogenic and allogenic signatures in submarine fans? Particularly in the last decade, the enormous technical advancement helped to obtain high-quality data from observations of density flows in modern canyons, deep basins and deep-water delta slopes (refs 1,2,3). In combination with both physical (refs 4,5) and numerical modelling (ref 6) these studies broke new ground into our understanding of density flow processes in various submarine environments and have led to new concepts of submarine fan building by super- and subcritical high-density flow (ref 7). Do these new concepts provide better answers to our recurrent questions related to the morphodynamics of submarine fans and prediction of sand body architecture? In discussing this open question, I shall 1. apply the new concepts to a modern and ancient example of a channel-lobe-transition-zone (ref 8); 2. raise the problem of

  5. Officer Education and Training in Oceanography for ASW and Other Naval Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, Larry Wayne

    The study into the knowledge and experience required for optimum performance by officers assigned to operational, R & D, and managerial duties in Anti-submarine Warfare concludes that oceanography should receive the major emphasis on an interdisciplinary graduate level program of the contributing disciplines in ASW. In planning education and…

  6. Submarine geology of South Kona landslide complex: investigation using ROV Kaiko

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokose, H.; Yoshida, S.

    2002-12-01

    KR01-12 cruise of Japan Marine Science and Technology Center using ROV KAIKO and its mother ship R/V KAIREI were carried out around Hawaii islands in the early fall of 2001. During this cruise, two dives of ROV KAIKO were made on western submarine flank of the island of Hawaii: South Kona landslide complex (K210:proximal part of the south Kona landslide, K211: distal block of the landslide). One single channel seismic reflection line was collected from vicinity of the above dive sites. These areas have never been systematically studied using submersible due to the bad sea state and /or the depth of outcrops. Valuable information about the submarine geology and in situ rock samples from western franks of the island of Hawaii were obtained. K211 site is one of the distal landslide block and can be divided into 3 geological units from bottom to top: picritic sheet lava and hyaloclastite, volcaniclastic deposit with picritic breccia, muddy breccia with highly vesiculated ol basalt. On the other hand, rocks recovered from K210 are composed mainly of aa clinker and aa lava which are highly vesiculated and reddish in color. The rocks from K210 is similar to the upper part of K211 in their bulk rock chemistry. Based on the geological and bulk rock chemistry, rocks recovered from both sites should be erupted subaerially. It suggests that these landslide blocks were composed subaerial portion of the paleo-Mauna Loa volcano.

  7. Submarine landslide triggered by eruption recorded by in-situ hydrophone at NW Rota-1 submarine volcano, Mariana Arc (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, B.; Dziak, R. P.; Embley, R. W.; Tunnicliffe, V.; Sherrin, J.; Cashman, K. V.; Deardorff, N.

    2010-12-01

    An expedition to NW Rota-1, Mariana Arc, in March 2010 with R/V Kilo Moana and ROV Jason found that the submarine volcano (summit depth 520 m) was still erupting more or less continuously as has been observed since 2004, In addition, the expedition also discovered that a major landslide had occurred since the last visit in April 2009, demonstrating the dynamic processes of eruption, collapse, and regrowth in the submarine arc environment. The dive observations reveal the responses of the volcano’s magmatic and hydrothermal systems to such a collapse, as well as how the resident chemosynthetic biological community has responded to the event. The morphologic changes from the landslide can be quantified by comparing multibeam bathymetric surveys between 2009 and 2010. The headwall of the slide is now ~100 m north of the former summit ridge where depth changes up to -90 m occurred between surveys. The slide excavated material from the upper southern slope of the volcano to a distance of 3.5 km downslope, and deposited material between 2-8 km from the summit down to at least 2800 m on the volcano flank. The area and volume of slide deposits (positive depth changes) are 7.1 x 106 m2 and 5.3 x 107 m3, respectively, and the maximum thickness is +42 m. The area and volume of material removed by the slide (negative depth changes) are 2.2 x 106 m2 and -4.1 x 107 m3, respectively. We have found no evidence for a local tsunami generated by this event. The changes in morphology near the summit show that the landslide primarily removed loose volcaniclastic deposits that had accumulated near the active eruptive vent, exposing an underlying stock-like core of resistant intrusive rocks and massive lavas at the summit. During March 2010, there were at least 5 active eruptive vents, located along a line 200-m long, that changed between active and inactive day-to-day and even hour-to-hour, suggesting that the near-surface magmatic plumbing system was still reorganizing after the

  8. A submarine volcanic eruption leads to a novel microbial habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danovaro, Roberto; Canals, Miquel; Tangherlini, Michael; Dell'Anno, Antonio; Gambi, Cristina; Lastras, Galderic; Amblas, David; Sanchez-Vidal, Anna; Frigola, Jaime; Calafat, Antoni M; Pedrosa-Pàmies, Rut; Rivera, Jesus; Rayo, Xavier; Corinaldesi, Cinzia

    2017-04-24

    Submarine volcanic eruptions are major catastrophic events that allow investigation of the colonization mechanisms of newly formed seabed. We explored the seafloor after the eruption of the Tagoro submarine volcano off El Hierro Island, Canary Archipelago. Near the summit of the volcanic cone, at about 130 m depth, we found massive mats of long, white filaments that we named Venus's hair. Microscopic and molecular analyses revealed that these filaments are made of bacterial trichomes enveloped within a sheath and colonized by epibiotic bacteria. Metagenomic analyses of the filaments identified a new genus and species of the order Thiotrichales, Thiolava veneris. Venus's hair shows an unprecedented array of metabolic pathways, spanning from the exploitation of organic and inorganic carbon released by volcanic degassing to the uptake of sulfur and nitrogen compounds. This unique metabolic plasticity provides key competitive advantages for the colonization of the new habitat created by the submarine eruption. A specialized and highly diverse food web thrives on the complex three-dimensional habitat formed by these microorganisms, providing evidence that Venus's hair can drive the restart of biological systems after submarine volcanic eruptions.

  9. Does calving matter? Evidence for significant submarine melt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomaus, Timothy C.; Larsen, Christopher F.; O’Neel, Shad

    2013-01-01

    During the summer in the northeast Pacific Ocean, the Alaska Coastal Current sweeps water with temperatures in excess of 12 °C past the mouths of glacierized fjords and bays. The extent to which these warm waters affect the mass balance of Alaskan tidewater glaciers is uncertain. Here we report hydrographic measurements made within Icy Bay, Alaska, and calculate rates of submarine melt at Yahtse Glacier, a tidewater glacier terminating in Icy Bay. We find strongly stratified water properties consistent with estuarine circulation and evidence that warm Gulf of Alaska water reaches the head of 40 km-long Icy Bay, largely unaltered. A 10–20 m layer of cold, fresh, glacially-modified water overlies warm, saline water. The saline water is observed to reach up to 10.4 °C within 1.5 km of the terminus of Yahtse Glacier. By quantifying the heat and salt deficit within the glacially-modified water, we place bounds on the rate of submarine melt. The submarine melt rate is estimated at >9 m d−1, at least half the rate at which ice flows into the terminus region, and can plausibly account for all of the submarine terminus mass loss. Our measurements suggest that summer and fall subaerial calving is a direct response to thermal undercutting of the terminus, further demonstrating the critical role of the ocean in modulating tidewater glacier dynamics.

  10. Submarine Construction in Germany (U-Bootbau in Deutschland),

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-04-25

    the IKL sister firm, Maschinenbau Gabler GmbH, also founded by Prof. Gabler, which, unlike IKL (involved solely in development), is a hardware...snorkels, radar masts, as well as wharf and dockside connections, for IKL and various submarine yards. Moreover, Maschinenbau Gabler is engaged in

  11. Dissolved Nutrients from Submarine Groundwater in Flic en Flac ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract—The aim of this study was to investigate dissolved nutrients in a submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) in Flic en Flac lagoon on the west coast of the volcanic island of Mauritius. The SGD enters Flic en Flac lagoon through a thin blanket of unconsolidated sediment through a fracture system and is concentrated ...

  12. Dissolved Nutrients from Submarine Groundwater in Flic en Flac ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate dissolved nutrients in a submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) in Flic en Flac lagoon on the west coast of the volcanic island of Mauritius. The SGD enters Flic en Flac lagoon through a thin blanket of unconsolidated sediment through a fracture system and is concentrated along the ...

  13. Simulation of Wave-Plus-Current Scour beneath Submarine Pipelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eltard-Larsen, Bjarke; Fuhrman, David R.; Sumer, B. Mutlu

    2016-01-01

    A fully coupled hydrodynamic and morphologic numerical model was utilized for the simulation of wave-plus-current scour beneath submarine pipelines. The model was based on incompressible Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations, coupled with k-ω turbulence closure, with additional bed and suspen...

  14. Sedimentary characteristics of samples collected from some submarine canyons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, Arnold H.

    Oriented rectangular cores of 20.3 × 30.5 cm and 45.7 cm high have been collected in a number of submarine canyons off southern California (U.S.A.) and off the southern tip of Baja California (Mexico) for a detailed study of their sedimentary structures. By applying several methods, mainly X-ray

  15. 'Good Hunting': German submarine offensives and South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The first German submarine offensive in South African waters during 1942, Operation Eisbär, was aimed at striking a devastating blow to shipping off the South African coast. By the end of December 1942, an estimated 310 864 tons of shipping had been sunk through Operation Eisbär and the first U-cruiser operation alone.

  16. Exploring the submarine Graham Bank in the Sicily Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Coltelli

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the Sicily Channel, volcanic activity has been concentrated mainly on the Pantelleria and Linosa islands, while minor submarine volcanism took place in the Adventure, Graham and Nameless banks. The volcanic activity spanned mostly during Plio-Pleistocene, however, historical submarine eruptions occurred in 1831 on the Graham Bank and in 1891 offshore Pantelleria Island. On the Graham Bank, 25 miles SW of Sciacca, the 1831 eruption formed the short-lived Ferdinandea Island that represents the only Italian volcano active in historical times currently almost completely unknown and not yet monitored. Moreover, most of the Sicily Channel seismicity is concentrated along a broad NS belt extending from the Graham Bank to Lampedusa Island. In 2012, the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV carried out a multidisciplinary oceanographic cruise, named “Ferdinandea 2012”, the preliminary results of which represent the aim of this paper. The cruise goal was the mapping of the morpho-structural features of some submarine volcanic centres located in the northwestern side of the Sicily Channel and the temporary recording of their seismic and degassing activity. During the cruise, three OBS/Hs (ocean bottom seismometer with hydrophone were deployed near the Graham, Nerita and Terribile submarine banks. During the following 9 months they have recorded several seismo-acoustic signals produced by both tectonic and volcanic sources. A high-resolution bathymetric survey was achieved on the Graham Bank and on the surrounding submarine volcanic centres. A widespread and voluminous gas bubbles emission was observed by both multibeam sonar echoes and a ROV (remotely operated vehicle along the NW side of the Graham Bank, where gas and seafloor samples were also collected.

  17. Swath sonar mapping of Earth's submarine plate boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbotte, S. M.; Ferrini, V. L.; Celnick, M.; Nitsche, F. O.; Ryan, W. B. F.

    2014-12-01

    The recent loss of Malaysia Airlines flight MH370 in an area of the Indian Ocean where less than 5% of the seafloor is mapped with depth sounding data (Smith and Marks, EOS 2014) highlights the striking lack of detailed knowledge of the topography of the seabed for much of the worlds' oceans. Advances in swath sonar mapping technology over the past 30 years have led to dramatic improvements in our capability to map the seabed. However, the oceans are vast and only an estimated 10% of the seafloor has been mapped with these systems. Furthermore, the available coverage is highly heterogeneous and focused within areas of national strategic priority and community scientific interest. The major plate boundaries that encircle the globe, most of which are located in the submarine environment, have been a significant focus of marine geoscience research since the advent of swath sonar mapping. While the location of these plate boundaries are well defined from satellite-derived bathymetry, significant regions remain unmapped at the high-resolutions provided by swath sonars and that are needed to study active volcanic and tectonic plate boundary processes. Within the plate interiors, some fossil plate boundary zones, major hotspot volcanoes, and other volcanic provinces have been the focus of dedicated research programs. Away from these major tectonic structures, swath mapping coverage is limited to sparse ocean transit lines which often reveal previously unknown deep-sea channels and other little studied sedimentary structures not resolvable in existing low-resolution global compilations, highlighting the value of these data even in the tectonically quiet plate interiors. Here, we give an overview of multibeam swath sonar mapping of the major plate boundaries of the globe as extracted from public archives. Significant quantities of swath sonar data acquired from deep-sea regions are in restricted-access international archives. Open access to more of these data sets would

  18. Remarks about the apparent increasing of the drag coefficient on flexible submarine cables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marichal, D. [Ecole Centrale de Nantes, 44 (France)

    2004-07-01

    A lot of elongated flexible underwater structures (towing and mooring cables, trawl lines, oil risers...) are used in exploitation of sea resources. All theoretical calculations require to know the hydrodynamic forces acting on these structures (especially the drag coefficient). It was usually assumed that the drag coefficient of a cylindrical element is a constant and takes the value of 1.2 as a rigid cylinder at the typical Reynolds numbers. But, if the cylindrical structure has transverse vibrations - as it is usual for submarine cables -, an important increase of the drag coefficient seems to appear Our purpose is to show that the first explanation of the drag coefficient increase comes partly from the problem formulation. It is usual to think that the towing speed is very important compared with the transverse motion velocity. But, in fact, the drag results in the combination of the normal component of the flow and this transverse motion velocity. (author)

  19. Sub-sea engineering course (offshore submarine systems); Subsea engineering course (systemes sous - marins offshore)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preedy, J.; Chasserot, J.L. [Azur Offshore Ltd (United Kingdom)

    2003-05-15

    This document gathers 770 pages of information about offshore submarine systems and 16 pages of appendix (glossary). Content: course introduction, introduction to sub-sea engineering, review of diver-assisted sub-sea production systems, sub-sea completion and christmas trees, basis of offshore exploration and production, sub-sea manifolds and templates, new technology for sub-sea production, flow-lines and pipelines, design of risers (flexible, towers, steel catenary and rigid), reliability, risks and human factors, review of deep-water (diver-less) sub-sea production systems, sub-sea control systems and chemical injection, case study - Malampaya Field Tie Back (Philippines), sub-sea systems inspection, maintenance and repair, cost evaluations, field assessments and cost data base, sub-sea well operations and flow assurance.

  20. [Medical-physiological characteristics of combat training of nuclear-power submarine crews].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovgusha, V V; Myznikov, I L; Shalabodov, S A; Bumaĭ, O K

    2009-10-01

    The article presents an observe of general questions of peculiarities of military-professional activity of submarine staff These questions are defining value in ideology of medical supply of submarine troops of NAVY in now-days conditions. The article also presents the statistics of morbidity in long termed sails for last forty years, it's dynamics by different categories of sail staff, on different stages of combat training activity in dependence of perioditation of work cycle of submarine staff The authors have examined modern condition of medical supply of submarines; have presented statistics of quality indexes of health of submarine staff The authors have formed main problems of medical supply of submarines and have proposed ways of their solving on modern stage.

  1. Development of a Web-Based Periscope Simulator for Submarine Officer Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    valuable advice, even during your vacations. Thank you, Chris, for presenting me with otherwise hard subjects of modeling and simulation in such a didactic ...environment, or intrinsic, when the motivation is built by the learning environment. 6. Teacher Role: Ranging from a didactic (direct participation) to...books.google.com/ books ?hl=en&lr=&id=JhV6Ry6UMDQC&oi=fnd&pg=PP2&dq=Simulation+Mo deling+Handbook:+A+Practical+Approach&ots=JiTEnN_- Jg&sig

  2. Towards a Game-Based Periscope Simulator for Submarine Officers Tactical Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    45 Table 5. Paired-Samples t- Test Results for Participants’ Adjusted Scores. ............55 Table 6. Paired-Samples t- Test Results for...Paired-Samples t- Test Results for Participants’ Adjusted Scores in the RTF Group...surface vessel. At this depth, there is sufficient separation from the keel of the surface ship and the top of the submarine’s sail (NATO, 2002). This

  3. Losses in armoured three-phase submarine cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebdrup, Thomas; Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da; Bak, Claus Leth

    2014-01-01

    increases the losses in armoured cables compared to unarmoured cables. In this paper a thorough state of the art analysis is conducted on armour losses in three-phase armoured submarine power cables. The analysis shows that the IEC 60287-1-1 standard overestimates the armour losses which lead...... to the installation of cables with excessive phase conductor cross section. This paper also presents an example of the potential economic benefits of having a better knowledge of the losses introduced by the armour.......The number of offshore wind farms will keep increasing in the future as a part of the shift towards a CO2 free energy production. The energy harvested from the wind farm must be brought to shore, which is often done by using a three-phase armoured submarine power cable. The use of an armour...

  4. Stresses in a submarine topography under ocean waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mei, C.C.; McTigue, D.F.

    1984-01-01

    The problem of submarine slope stability is of interest to both offshore engineering and geology. In an uneven topography, the weight above a horizontal plane induces two-dimensional variation in the static stress field. The action of wave pressure, which changes with depth, further introduces excess pore pressure and dynamic stresses in the sea bottom. In the present paper, we combine a simple analytical theory for the static stress by the present authors, and the recent solution by Mei and Foda for wave-induced stresses in a plane poro-elastic sea bed to account for mild bottom slope and wave shoaling, to obtain the effective stress field in a submarine topography under sea waves. Sample results are given for a ridge and a canyon. In particular the dynamic pore pressure and the combined static and dynamic effective stresses are presented. 10 references, 11 figures.

  5. Stresses in a submarine topography under ocean waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mei, C.C.; McTigue, D.F.

    1984-09-01

    The problem of submarine slope stability is of interest to both offshore engineering and geology. In an uneven topography, the weight above a horizontal plane induces two-dimensional variation in the static stress field. The action of wave pressure, which changes with depth, further introduces excess pore pressure and dynamic stresses in the sea bottom. In the present paper, we combine a simple analytical theory for the static stress by the present authors, and the recent solution by Mei and Foda for wave-induced stresses in a plane poro-elastic sea bed to account for mild bottom slope and wave shoaling, and obtain the effective stress field in a submarine topography under sea waves. Sample results are given for a ridge and a canyon. In particular, the dynamic pore pressure and the combined static and dynamic effective stresses are presented.

  6. Analysis of SSN 688 Class Submarine Maintenance Delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    errors an in-depth analysis into the job-level maintenance is required which is outside the scope of this analysis. 25 2. New Work Causes Late...attempting to determine the cause of this trend. Finally, this thesis proposes a solution to the systematic underestimation of availability durations by...illustrating the inherent error in the current equation and providing a notional equation to remove that error . 14. SUBJECT TERMS Submarine

  7. Submarine Pressure Hull Collapse Considering Corrosion and Penetrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    corrosion. Des valeurs de la pression d’écrasement sont calculées pour les diverses dimensions de la zone de corrosion, et ce, dans les cas de présence ou...Research & Development Canada DRDIM Director Research and Development Knowledge and Information Management OOC Out-of-circularity R&D Research...Support SLA (Mr. John Porter) 1 Project Manager , Submarine Scientific Support SLA (LCdr Wade Temple) 9 TOTAL LIST PART I LIST PART II: External

  8. Europe’s Grand Canyon: Nazaré submarine canyon

    OpenAIRE

    Tyler, P.; Amaro, T.; Arzola, R.; Cunha; Stigter, H. de; Gooday, A.; Huvenne, V.; Ingels, J; Kiriakoulakis, K; Lastras, G.; Masson, D.; Oliveira, A.; Pattenden, A.; Vanreusel, A.; van Weering, T.

    2009-01-01

    The Nazare submarine canyon extends similar to 210 km westward from the coast of Portugal, down to a water depth of > 4300 m. The considerable habitat heterogeneity found throughout the canyon is affected by strong currents and high turbidity, especially in the upper parts of the canyon. The canyon morphology comprises steep slopes, scarps, terraces, and overhangs, and a deeply incised thalweg is found in the lower part of the canyon. The seabed within the canyon is composed of varying propor...

  9. Submarine and Autonomous Vessel Proliferation: Implications for Future Strategic Stability at Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    replace the Ohio- class SSBN and Virginia -class SSN to replace the Los Angeles class attack submarine. Although more sophisticated than their...predecessors and with some modifications to demands of the post-Cold War era and (in the Virginia class) an emphasis on littoral conflict, these purchases...Congressional Research Service analyst Amy Woolf observes: “With few submarines in the fleet, the Navy would have to reduce the number of submarines on

  10. The future of the ballistic missile submarine force in the Russian nuclear triad

    OpenAIRE

    Lesiw, Richard T.

    2008-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis analyzes the current status of the Russian Federation's ballistic missile submarine force. It reviews the history of the ballistic missile submarine force, its current status, and the implementation of plans currently in progress and as well as the advantages and disadvantages of maintaining a ballistic missile submarine force. This thesis also assesses the other two legs of the nuclear triad - the intercontinental balli...

  11. Navy Virginia (SSN-774) Class Attack Submarine Procurement: Background and Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-12

    reactors or non- nuclear power sources such as diesel engines or fuel cells. All U.S. Navy submarines are nuclear - powered. A submarine’s use of...the Navy’s plan to design and procure a next - generation ballistic missile submarine called the Ohio Replacement Program or SSBN(X). 26...the next several years require these submarines to use up their nuclear fuel cores more quickly than the Navy now projects, then the amounts of time

  12. Introduction to the special issue on submarine geohazard records and potential seafloor instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song-Chuen Chen Jia-Jyun Dong

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Submarine landslides frequently occur in passive continental margins or active margins (Hampton et al. 1996; Wynn et al. 2000; Mienert et al. 2002; Korup et al. 2007; Twichell et al. 2009; Cukur et al. 2016. Submarine landslides have been studied extensively not only for scientific research but also for submarine geohazards. Submarine landslides could jeopardize marine infrastructures, such as offshore drilling platforms or submarine telecommunication cables, and could even trigger disastrous tsunamis (Bondevik et al. 2005; Harbitz et al. 2006; Hornbach et al. 2007, 2008; Hsu et al. 2008; Su et al. 2012; Tappin et al. 2014; Li et al. 2015. For instance, one disastrous tsunami hitting the coastal area of southwestern Taiwan in 1781 or 1782 was reported (Chen 1830; Hsu 1983; the tsunami event was probably generated by submarine landslides in the offshore area of southwestern Taiwan (Li et al. 2015. Moreover, several submarine landslides triggered by the 2006 Pingtung earthquake have induced turbidity currents off southwest Taiwan and destroyed about 14 submarine telecommunication cables off SW Taiwan (Hsu et al. 2008. The area of southwest Taiwan currently has a dense population (more than 3 million people in total, one deep-water Kaohsiung Port, several tanks of liquefied natural gas and a nuclear power plant on the coast (Fig. 1. Numerous submarine telecommunication cables exist off SW Taiwan. If a considerable tsunami event would hit again the costal area of SW Taiwan, the damage could very serious. Likewise, there are two nuclear power plants on the coast of northern Taiwan (Fig. 2, and the population in northern Taiwan has more than 10 million people. Submarine telecommunication cables also exist off northern Taiwan. In any case, it is important to understand the status of seafloor stability in the offshore areas of SW and NE Taiwan. For that, this special issue of submarine geohazard records and potential seafloor instability is aimed to

  13. Navy Virginia (SSN 774) Class Attack Submarine Procurement: Background and Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-25

    powered attack submarines (SSNs). The SSNs are general -purpose submarines that can (when appropriately equipped and armed) perform a variety of...signs of tampering. The defective elbow pipe, used to funnel steam from the reactor to the sub’s propulsion turbines and generators , showed evidence of...Congressional Research Service Summary The Navy has been procuring Virginia (SSN-774) class nuclear- powered attack submarines since FY1998. The two Virginia

  14. Fuel-cell-propelled submarine-tanker-system study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Court, K E; Kumm, W H; O' Callaghan, J E

    1982-06-01

    This report provides a systems analysis of a commercial Arctic Ocean submarine tanker system to carry fossil energy to markets. The submarine is to be propelled by a modular Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell system. The power level is 20 Megawatts. The DOE developed electric utility type fuel cell will be fueled with methanol. Oxidant will be provided from a liquid oxygen tank carried onboard. The twin screw submarine tanker design is sized at 165,000 deadweight tons and the study includes costs and an economic analysis of the transport system of 6 ships. The route will be under the polar icecap from a loading terminal located off Prudhoe Bay, Alaska to a transshipment facility postulated to be in a Norwegian fjord. The system throughput of the gas-fed methanol cargo will be 450,000 barrels per day. The total delivered cost of the methanol including well head purchase price of natural gas, methanol production, and shipping would be $25/bbl from Alaska to the US East Coast. Of this, the shipping cost is $6.80/bbl. All costs in 1981 dollars.

  15. Estimating the empirical probability of submarine landslide occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, Eric L.; Parsons, Thomas E.; Mosher, David C.; Shipp, Craig; Moscardelli, Lorena; Chaytor, Jason D.; Baxter, Christopher D. P.; Lee, Homa J.; Urgeles, Roger

    2010-01-01

    The empirical probability for the occurrence of submarine landslides at a given location can be estimated from age dates of past landslides. In this study, tools developed to estimate earthquake probability from paleoseismic horizons are adapted to estimate submarine landslide probability. In both types of estimates, one has to account for the uncertainty associated with age-dating individual events as well as the open time intervals before and after the observed sequence of landslides. For observed sequences of submarine landslides, we typically only have the age date of the youngest event and possibly of a seismic horizon that lies below the oldest event in a landslide sequence. We use an empirical Bayes analysis based on the Poisson-Gamma conjugate prior model specifically applied to the landslide probability problem. This model assumes that landslide events as imaged in geophysical data are independent and occur in time according to a Poisson distribution characterized by a rate parameter λ. With this method, we are able to estimate the most likely value of λ and, importantly, the range of uncertainty in this estimate. Examples considered include landslide sequences observed in the Santa Barbara Channel, California, and in Port Valdez, Alaska. We confirm that given the uncertainties of age dating that landslide complexes can be treated as single events by performing statistical test of age dates representing the main failure episode of the Holocene Storegga landslide complex.

  16. Pockmark morphology and turbulent buoyant plumes at a submarine spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buongiorno Nardelli, B.; Budillon, F.; Watteaux, R.; Ciccone, F.; Conforti, A.; De Falco, G.; Di Martino, G.; Innangi, S.; Tonielli, R.; Iudicone, D.

    2017-09-01

    The input flow of groundwater from the seabed to the coastal ocean, known as Submarine Groundwater Discharge (SGD), has been only recently recognized as an important component of continental margin systems. It potentially impacts physical, chemical and biological marine dynamics. Independently of its specific nature (seepage, submarine springs, etc.) or fluid chemical composition, a SGD is generally characterized by low flow rates, hence making its detection and quantification very difficult, and explaining why it has been somewhat neglected by the scientific community for a long time. Along with the growing interest for SGDs emerged the need for in-situ observations in order to characterize in details how these SGDs behave. In this work, we describe the morphology of a pockmark field, detected in the Southern Tyrrhenian Sea (Mediterranean Sea), and provide observational evidences of the presence of active submarine springs over the coastal shelf area. We describe the effect of the fluid seeps on the water column stratification close to the main plumes and in the neighbouring areas, providing quantitative estimates of the intensity of the turbulent mixing and discussing their potential impact on the seabed morphology and pockmark formation in the context of turbulent buoyant plumes analytical modelling.

  17. Long-term eruptive activity at a submarine arc volcano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embley, Robert W; Chadwick, William W; Baker, Edward T; Butterfield, David A; Resing, Joseph A; de Ronde, Cornel E J; Tunnicliffe, Verena; Lupton, John E; Juniper, S Kim; Rubin, Kenneth H; Stern, Robert J; Lebon, Geoffrey T; Nakamura, Ko-ichi; Merle, Susan G; Hein, James R; Wiens, Douglas A; Tamura, Yoshihiko

    2006-05-25

    Three-quarters of the Earth's volcanic activity is submarine, located mostly along the mid-ocean ridges, with the remainder along intraoceanic arcs and hotspots at depths varying from greater than 4,000 m to near the sea surface. Most observations and sampling of submarine eruptions have been indirect, made from surface vessels or made after the fact. We describe here direct observations and sampling of an eruption at a submarine arc volcano named NW Rota-1, located 60 km northwest of the island of Rota (Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands). We observed a pulsating plume permeated with droplets of molten sulphur disgorging volcanic ash and lapilli from a 15-m diameter pit in March 2004 and again in October 2005 near the summit of the volcano at a water depth of 555 m (depth in 2004). A turbid layer found on the flanks of the volcano (in 2004) at depths from 700 m to more than 1,400 m was probably formed by mass-wasting events related to the eruption. Long-term eruptive activity has produced an unusual chemical environment and a very unstable benthic habitat exploited by only a few mobile decapod species. Such conditions are perhaps distinctive of active arc and hotspot volcanoes.

  18. Scientific Ocean Drilling to Assess Submarine Geohazards along European Margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ask, M. V.; Camerlenghi, A.; Kopf, A.; Morgan, J. K.; Ocean DrillingSeismic Hazard, P. E.

    2008-12-01

    Submarine geohazards are some of the most devastating natural events in terms of lives lost and economic impact. Earthquakes pose a big threat to society and infrastructure, but the understanding of their episodic generation is incomplete. Tsunamis are known for their potential of striking coastlines world-wide. Other geohazards originating below the sea surface are equally dangerous for undersea structures and the coastal population: submarine landslides and volcanic islands collapse with little warning and devastating consequences. The European scientific community has a strong focus on geohazards along European and nearby continental margins, especially given their high population densities, and long historic and prehistoric record of hazardous events. For example, the Mediterranean is surrounded by very densely-populated coastline and is the World's leading holiday destination, receiving up 30% of global tourism. In addition, its seafloor is criss-crossed by hydrocarbon pipelines and telecommunication cables. However, the governing processes and recurrence intervals of geohazards are still poorly understood. Examples include, but are not limited to, earthquakes and volcanic eruptions along the active tectonic margins of the Mediterranean and Sea of Marmara, landslides on both active and passive margins, and tsunamites and seismites in the sedimentary record that suggest a long history of similar events. The development of geophysical networks, drilling, sampling and long-term monitoring are crucial to the understanding of earthquake, landslide, and tsunami processes, and to mitigate the associated risks in densely populated and industrialized regions such as Europe. Scientific drilling, particularly in the submarine setting, offers a unique tool to obtain drill core samples, borehole measurements and long-term observations. Hence, it is a critical technology to investigate past, present, and possible future influences of hazardous processes in this area. The

  19. The Impact of the General Board of the Navy on Interwar Submarine Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-12

    Navy had developed the Gato class submarine, which was successful independently operating in the vast Pacific Ocean in support of War Plan Orange. The...development of the Gato class submarine, which was successful independently operating in the vast Pacific Ocean in support of War Plan Orange. The...

  20. Procurements by the Non-Acoustic Anti-Submarine Warfare Program Through the Environmental Technologies Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-14

    General, DoD, on contract offloading, including Report No. 93-068, " Procurement of Services for the Non-Acoustic Anti-Submarine Warfare Program...contract administration in response to Audit Report No. 93-042. Report No. 93-068, " Procurement of Services for the Non-Acoustic Anti- Submarine Warfare

  1. Study on the locational criteria for submarine rock repositories of low and medium level radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, G. H.; Kang, W. J.; Kim, T. J. and others [Chungnam National Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-01-15

    Submarine repositories have significant advantages over their land counterparts locating close to the areas of daily human activities. Consequently, the construction of submarine repositories on the vast continental shelves around Korean seas is considered to be highly positive. In this context, the development of locational criteria primarily targeting the safety of submarine rock repositories is very important.The contents of the present study are: analyzing characteristics of marine environment: Search of potential hazards to, and environmental impact by, the submarine repositories; Investigation of the oceanographic, geochemical, ecological and sedimentological characteristics of estuaries and coastal seas. Locating potential hazards to submarine repositories by: Bibliographical search of accidents leading to the destruction of submarine structures by turbidity currents and other potentials; Review of turbidity currents. Consideration of environmental impact caused by submarine repositories: Logistics to minimize the environmental impacts in site selection; Removal and dispersion processes of radionuclides in sea water. Analyses of oceanographical characteristics of, and hazard potentials in, the Korean seas. Evaluation of the MOST 91-7 criteria for applicability to submarine repositories and the subsequent proposition of additional criteria.

  2. Submarine landslides on the north continental slope of the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiwei; Wang, Dawei; Wu, Shiguo; Völker, David; Zeng, Hongliu; Cai, Guanqiang; Li, Qingping

    2018-02-01

    Recent and paleo-submarine landslides are widely distributed within strata in deep-water areas along continental slopes, uplifts, and carbonate platforms on the north continental margin of the South China Sea (SCS). In this paper, high-resolution 3D seismic data and multibeam data based on seismic sedimentology and geomorphology are employed to assist in identifying submarine landslides. In addition, deposition models are proposed that are based on specific geological structures and features, and which illustrate the local stress field over entire submarine landslides in deep-water areas of the SCS. The SCS is one of the largest fluvial sediment sinks in enclosed or semi-enclosed marginal seas worldwide. It therefore provides a set of preconditions for the formation of submarine landslides, including rapid sediment accumulation, formation of gas hydrates, and fluid overpressure. A new concept involving temporal and spatial analyses is tested to construct a relationship between submarine landslides and different time scale trigger mechanisms, and three mechanisms are discussed in the context of spatial scale and temporal frequency: evolution of slope gradient and overpressure, global environmental changes, and tectonic events. Submarine landslides that are triggered by tectonic events are the largest but occur less frequently, while submarine landslides triggered by the combination of slope gradient and over-pressure evolution are the smallest but most frequently occurring events. In summary, analysis shows that the formation of submarine landslides is a complex process involving the operation of different factors on various time scales.

  3. The risk of hydrogen explosion in a submarine p.I Catalytic combustion of hydrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kłos Ryszard

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The series of articles discuss issues related to conducting high risk projects on the example of modernisation of hydrogen incinerators on a submarine. The article depicts a technical problem situation connected with catalytic hydrogen combustion on a submarine.

  4. Post-eruptive Submarine Terrace Development of Capelinhos, Azores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhongwei Zhao, Will; Mitchell, Neil; Quartau, Rui; Tempera, Fernando; Bricheno, Lucy

    2017-04-01

    Erosion of the coasts of volcanic islands by waves creates shallow banks, but how erosion proceeds with time to create them and how it relates to wave climate is unclear. In this study, historical and recent marine geophysical data collected around the Capelinhos promontory (western Faial Island, Azores) offer an unusual opportunity to characterize how a submarine terrace developed after the eruption. The promontory was formed in 1957/58 during a Surtseyan eruption that terminated with extensive lava forming new rocky coastal cliffs. Historical measurements of coastline position are supplemented here with coastlines measured from 2004 and 2014 Google Earth images in order to characterize coastline retreat rate and distance for lava- and tephra-dominated cliffs. Swath mapping sonars were used to characterize the submarine geometry of the resulting terrace (terrace edge position, gradient and morphology). Limited photographs are available from a SCUBA dive and drop-down camera deployments to ground truth the submarine geomorphology. The results reveal that coastal retreat rates have decreased rapidly with the time after the eruption, possibly explained by the evolving resistance to erosion of cliff base materials. Surprisingly, coastline retreat rate decreases with terrace width in a simple inverse power law with terrace width. We suspect this is only a fortuitous result as wave attenuation over the terrace will not obviously produce the variation, but nevertheless it shows how rapidly the retreat rate declines. Understanding the relationship between terrace widening shelf and coastal cliff retreat rate may be more widely interesting if they can be used to understand how islands evolve over time into abrasional banks and guyots.

  5. Maximizing the probability an aerial anti-submarine torpedo detects its target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-Jie

    2009-06-01

    As a result of the high speed of anti-submarine patrol aircraft as well as their wide range, high efficiency and other characteristics, aerial torpedoes released by anti-submarine patrol aircraft have become the key anti submarine tool. In order to improve operational efficiency, a deep study was made of the target detection probabilities for aerial torpedoes released by anti-submarine patrol aircraft. The operational modes of aerial torpedoes were analyzed and mathematical-simulation models were then established. The detection probabilities of three attacking modes were then calculated. Measures were developed for improving low probabilities of detection when attacking a probable target position. This study provides an important frame of reference for the operation of aerial torpedo released by anti-submarine patrol aircraft.

  6. Main devices design of submarine oil-water separation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Wen-Bin; Liu, Bo-Hong

    2017-11-01

    In the process of offshore oil production, in order to thoroughly separate oil from produced fluid, solve the environment problem caused by oily sewage, and improve the economic benefit of offshore drilling, from the perspective of new oil-water separation, a set of submarine oil-water separation devices were designed through adsorption and desorption mechanism of the polymer materials for crude oil in this paper. The paper introduces the basic structure of gas-solid separation device, periodic separation device and adsorption device, and proves the rationality and feasibility of this device.

  7. Submarine glaciated landscapes of central and northern British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, John; Lintern, Gwyn

    2015-04-01

    Recent systematic multibeam sonar mapping and ground-truthing surveys in the fjords and coastal waters of central and northern British Columbia, Canada, provide information on glacial processes associated with the Cordilleran Ice Sheet, and also on postglacial processes that have strongly modified the glacial terrain. During the last glacial maximum, ice covered the Coast Range, except for nunataks. Convergent streamlined glacial landforms in the Strait of Georgia testify to a strong flow of ice towards the southeast, between Vancouver Island and the mainland. During ice retreat, thick deposits of acoustically stratified glaciomarine mud were deposited in glacially over deepened basins. Retreat through the Douglas Channel fjord system was punctuated by still stands, resulting in a series of submarine moraines. Postglacial processes have created a suite of landforms that mask the primary glacial terrain: 1) Fjord floors host thick deposits of acoustically transparent postglacial mud with highly variable distribution: banks up to 80-m thick are commonly adjacent to erosional zones with glaciomarine mud exposed at the seafloor; 2) In this region of high precipitation and snowpack melt, numerous cone-shaped Holocene fan deltas developed on the fjord sidewalls transport coarse sediment to the fjord floors. Larger deltas are developed at fjord heads, notably at Kitimat and Kildala; 3) Submarine slope failures in this tectonically active area have resulted in a suite of mass transport deposits on sidewalls and fjord floors. The very large submarine slope failures at Camano Sound and KitKat Inlet occurred on the steep, rear facets of large transverse moraines, and involved the failure of glaciomarine sediment that moved into deeper basins, perhaps as a retrogressive failure. The ages of these events are unknown, although the presence of postglacial mud in the slide scar at Caamano suggests that the event at that location occurred in the late glacial or early Holocene. Also

  8. Micro-tunneling as an alternative to submarine cable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russo, D.A. [Seattle City Light, WA (United States); Hansen, D. [CH2M Hill, Bellevue, WA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The geography that gives Seattle its beauty can pose unique challenges for the engineers attempting to provide service to the customers who live near or upon these features. Steep, wooded hills and greenbelts create familiar problems of construction and right-of-way maintenance. The waterways and adjoining shoreline zones present a more difficult set of requirements. When Seattle City Light determined it was necessary to install 2-26 KV feeders across the Salmon Bay waterway, they discovered that submarine cables could not be used. Shallow angle directional drilling and micro-tunneling were examined and it was fond that a microtunneled duct bank was the best method to use.

  9. The Perceived Effect of the Communications Subspecialty on a Naval Officer’s Career

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-01

    NAV NAV WEPS IMA S10750 RADCON EN-N WEPS ES WEPS /TSO’ NG T50 NAV WEPS /TSO LT SUBMARINE OFFICER ADVANCED COURSE (AOAC1 POST 10 SHORE TOUR/P. G. SCHOOL...8217application courses are necessary, e.g. encryption technology, multiplexing methods, battle group communications architecture, etc. (LCDR, 1110...publications, CMS, olline encryption . Should get more communications theory and hands on equipment training so will have feel for how difficult high frequency

  10. SUBMARINE LANDSLIDE AND LOCALIZED TSUNAMI POTENTIALITY OF MENTAWAI BASIN, SUMATRA, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haryadi Permana

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The new bathymetry and seismic data were acquired during the PreTI-Gap marine survey (February 15 to March 6, 2008. The survey was carried out along the NE margin of Mentawai Island using multi-beam swath bathymetry equipment, and 28-channels seismic streamer and four-airgun source. The first target was the Mega Island region near the epicenter of the 2007 great earthquake. The shallow bathymetry is characterized as a flat coral platform suggesting that 200 km elongated plateau is slowly subsiding without any active faults. Further north, from South Pagai to North of Siberut Islands, the seafloor morphology changes significantly. The deep and wide canyons or valleys produce very rough seafloor morphology between 50 and 1100 m water. In general, the submarine topography shows two break slopes at different depths. Between slope breaks, the undulating, hilly and circular features dominate, possibly caused by landslides. A push-up ridge is observed that dams the sediments eroded within a steep slope northeastward side. The seismic reflection data acquired along 14 dip seismic lines at the NE flank of Mentawai Islands, from Siberut to the South of Pagai Islands. We observed a set of southwestward dipping back thrust bounding the NE margin of the Mentawai Island. Keywords: submarine landslide, tsunami, Mentawai basin, Sumatra. Data batimetri dan seismik baru telah dihasilkan selama survey kelautan PreTi-Gap (15 Februari hingga 6 Maret 2008. Survei dilaksanakan sepanjang tepian timurlaut P. Mentawai menggunakan peralatan multibeam, seismic saluran ganda 28 kanal dengan sumber energi airgun. Sasaran pertama adalah memetakan kawasan pulau dekat pusat gempa tahun 2007. Kenampakan batimetri dangkal dicirikan dengan adanya dataran terumbu karang yang secara perlahan mengalami penurunan tanpa aktifitas sesar. Lebih jauh ke Utar, dari Pagai Selatan ke utara P. Siberut, morfologi dasar laut memperlihatkan perubahan secara signifikan, dimana lembah dasar laut

  11. Seismicity and sedimentation rate effects on submarine slope stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Brink, U. S.; Andrews, B. D.; Miller, N. C.

    2016-12-01

    Large submarine mass-transport scars are commonly observed on continental margins, but are noticeably less abundant on margins that experience frequent earthquakes than on those that seldom experience them. This is a surprising observation, given that horizontal acceleration from earthquakes and associated strength loss from cyclic loading and liquefaction are commonly thought to provide the primary triggers for inducing failures and subsequent mass movements. Mapping submarine failure scars in ten margins worldwide, we find decreasing scar abundance with both increasing frequency of earthquakes and decreasing sedimentation rate. The decrease in scar abundance is interpreted to represent increasing slope stability. The increase in stability is non linear (power law with btectonic activity (salt diapirs, seamount subduction, etc.) leads to relatively rapid oversteepening of the slope, implying that the morphology of most margins is in fact, stable over many earthquake cycles. Note that the above correlation averages scar area and sedimentation rate over entire margin areas. Variations in sedimentation rate with time, such as over glacial-interglacial cycles, and intra-margin variations in seismic attenuation, sedimentation rate, composition, and pore pressure, have likely affected the abundance of slope failures in time and space.

  12. An Automatic Procedure for the Quantitative Characterization of Submarine Bedforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Di Stefano

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A model for the extraction and quantitative characterization of submarine landforms from high-resolution digital bathymetry is presented. The procedure is fully automated and comprises two parts. The first part consists of an analytical model which extracts quantitative information from a Digital Elevation Model in the form of objects with similar parametric characteristics (terrain objects. The second part is a rule-based model where the terrain objects are reclassified into distinct landforms with well-defined three dimensional characteristics. For the focus of this work, the quantitative characterization of isolated dunes (height greater than 2 m is used to exemplify the process. The primary metrics used to extract terrain objects are the flatness threshold and the search radius, which are then used by the analytical model to identify the feature type. Once identified as dunes, a sequence of spatial analysis routines is applied to identify and compute metrics for each dune including length, height, width, ray of curvature, slope analysis for each stoss and lee side, and dune symmetry. Dividing the model into two parts, one scale-dependent and another centered around the shape of the landform, makes the model applicable to other submarine landforms like ripples, mega-ripples, and coral reefs, which also have well-defined three-dimensional characteristics.

  13. Fin propulsion on a human-powered submarine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Iain A.; Pocock, Benjamin; Harbuz, Antoni; Algie, Cam; Vochezer, Daniel; Chao, Ryan; Lu, Benjamin

    2015-03-01

    Nearly all surface and underwater vessels are driven by screw propulsion; ideal for coupling to rotary engines and well understood after over a century of development. But most aquatic creatures use fins for swimming. Although there are sound evolutionary reasons why fish have fins and not propellers, they are nevertheless agile, fast and efficient. Although fish-like robots such as the MIT Robotuna are providing good insight into fin-based swimming there are advantages for using humans in the experimental device. Like an airplane test pilot they can write crash reports. We present preliminary observations for the human powered finned submarine: Taniwha. The sub participated in the 2nd European International Submarine races in Gosport UK where it received a trophy for "Best Non-Propeller Performance". Two sets of Hobie Mirage fin drives fixed to the upper and lower rear surfaces of the sub are pedaled by the pilot. The pilot also has two levers at the front, one to pitch a pair of dive planes and one for yawing a large rudder. Good speed, we estimate to be greater than 6 m/s is possible with these fins although we haven't explored their full potential. Straying too near the surface or bottom can lead to an instability, synonymous to a stall, such that control is lost. The mechanism for this will be discussed and solutions offered. Fish are 400 million years in front of us but one day we'll catch them.

  14. Are tilt measurements useful in detecting tsunamigenic submarine landslides?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brune, Sascha; Babeyko, Andrey Y.; Sobolev, Stephan V.

    2009-06-01

    Large submarine landslides can generate dangerous tsunamis. Because of their long-period signal, detection of landslides by common seismological methods is difficult. Here we suggest a method of detecting submarine landslides by using an array of land-based tiltmeters. The displacement of a large volume of sediments during landsliding produces a detectable elastic response of the lithosphere. We propose a technique to calculate this response and to invert for tsunami relevant parameters like slide location, volume, and velocity. We exemplify our method by applying it to the Storegga slide west of Norway and other tsunamigenic landslide events. The parameter which can be most robustly estimated from tiltmeter array measurements is the product of slide volume and its velocity (slide tsunamigenic potential). This parameter also controls the amplitude of the generated tsunami wave. The inversion accuracy of this parameter and the estimated tsunami height near the coast depends on the noise level of tiltmeter measurements, distance of the tiltmeters from the slide, and slide tsunamigenic potential itself. The tsunamigenic potential of the most dangerous slides like Storegga can be estimated well by tiltmeters at the coast if the effective noise level does not exceed 50 nrad.

  15. A submarine fan in the Mesa Central, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Romo, G.; Arellano-Gil, J.; Mendoza-Rosales, C.; Nieto-Obregón, J.

    2000-10-01

    The contact between the Guerrero and Sierra Madre tectonostratigraphic terranes has been proposed to lie in the Mesa Central, east of the city of Zacatecas. Marine Triassic units have been assigned to the Guerrero Terrane. It is here proposed that this contact occurs to the west of the city of Zacatecas and the Triassic marine sequence assigned to the Sierra Madre Terrane. We analyzed the stratigraphic record and structural features of pre-Late Jurassic sequences at four localities in the Mesa Central. They contain a marine turbiditic Triassic unit, which includes La Bellena, Taray, and Zacatecas Formations, and a continental unit of probable Middle Jurassic age. Triassic sandstones were derived from a cratonic area, without the influence of arc volcanism. The sequences were affected by two phases of deformation. The Triassic formations are unconformably overlain by a continental volcano-sedimentary sequence that contains fragments of sandstones derived from the underlying unit. Sedimentologic characteristics of the Triassic unit fit a submarine fan model. The submarine fan developed at the continental margin of Pangaea during Triassic times. Turbidite associations in the San Rafael Area indicate a middle fan depositional environment, while in the Real de Catorce Area, they correspond to the distal part (basin plain facies). At La Ballena and Zacatecas the turbidite associations occur in the middle part and perhaps the external part of the fan.

  16. Feasibility study of submarine diesel exhaust valve interspace coating application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, W.; Zhou, M.; Bibby, D.; Huang, J.

    2008-05-15

    This document described a feasibility study conducted to evaluate surface coating systems applied to the surface of a diesel exhaust valve interspace on a VICTORIA Class submarine. A series of laboratory studies were conducted to determine the physical characteristics of the coatings, which will be subjected to high service temperatures, diesel exhaust gas, and seawater. The valves were made of Q1N steel castings. The surface coatings were designed to provide corrosion resistance and thermal protection to the valves. As part of the study, a survey was conducted on various state-of-the-art surface coating systems. Coatings were rated on their ability to protect the Q10 steel surface from corrosion, high temperatures and seawater. An additional requirement was that the coatings should not produce high amounts of hydrogen. Plating trials were conducted with a nickel-based alloy (Ni-Cu-P) placed on Q1N steel substrates with a hypophosphite reducing agent. The results of X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses suggested that the coatings can also be used to protect the external surfaces of various submarine components. 54 refs., 4 tabs., 10 figs.

  17. Occupational stress in submariners: the impact of isolated and confined work on psychological well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasher, Kate S; Dew, Angela B C; Kilminster, Shaun G; Bridger, Robert S

    2010-03-01

    This study aimed to identify work-related and personal factors associated with occupational stress in submariners. Work and well-being questionnaires were distributed to 219 male submariners (mean age 34 years), as part of a larger cohort study involving a stratified sample of 4951 Royal Navy (RN) personnel. The stress rate in submariners was 40%; significantly higher than the stress rate in the general RN, although once demographic factors were controlled for in a matched control sample, this difference was no longer significant. A summary model accounted for 49% of the variance in submariner stress, with key differences emerging between the occupational factors associated with stress in submariners and in the general RN. The longitudinal nature of this study permits stress in submariners to be monitored over 5 years, which will provide valuable insights into the chronicity of stress in this specialised occupational group. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This paper contributes to the current literature on the negative impact of working in isolated conditions. It is demonstrated that occupational stress in submarines can be partially explained using current theories of stress in the workplace. However, the constraints of a restricted environment introduce additional factors which can also be associated with occupational stress.

  18. Measuring currents in submarine canyons: technological and scientific progress in the past 30 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J. P.

    2011-01-01

    The development and application of acoustic and optical technologies and of accurate positioning systems in the past 30 years have opened new frontiers in the submarine canyon research communities. This paper reviews several key advancements in both technology and science in the field of currents in submarine canyons since the1979 publication of Currents in Submarine Canyons and Other Sea Valleys by Francis Shepard and colleagues. Precise placements of high-resolution, high-frequency instruments have not only allowed researchers to collect new data that are essential for advancing and generalizing theories governing the canyon currents, but have also revealed new natural phenomena that challenge the understandings of the theorists and experimenters in their predictions of submarine canyon flow fields. Baroclinic motions at tidal frequencies, found to be intensified both up canyon and toward the canyon floor, dominate the flow field and control the sediment transport processes in submarine canyons. Turbidity currents are found to frequently occur in active submarine canyons such as Monterey Canyon. These turbidity currents have maximum speeds of nearly 200 cm/s, much smaller than the speeds of turbidity currents in geological time, but still very destructive. In addition to traditional Eulerian measurements, Lagrangian flow data are essential in quantifying water and sediment transport in submarine canyons. A concerted experiment with multiple monitoring stations along the canyon axis and on nearby shelves is required to characterize the storm-trigger mechanism for turbidity currents.

  19. Overview of the NSI User Support Office (NSI USO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Lenore A.

    1991-01-01

    Overview of the NSI User Support Office is presented in the form of view graphs. The following subject areas are covered: hot line for user questions; NSI data base updates; on-line services via NSI NIC; and toolkit distribution.

  20. Prediction of nuclear submariner adaptability from autonomic indices and Rorschach Inkblot responses. Interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weybrew, B.B.; Molish, H.B.

    1986-09-09

    To identify the most valid predictors of submariner adaptability, the authors derived 23 indices from the responses of 170 nuclear submariners to the Rorschach Inkblot Test, 11 measures of Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) reactivity to contrived stress, and five adjustment criteria. Factor analysis of this 39x39 correlation matrix yielded two Rorschach Factors, one of which correlated with three criterion dimensions. Two unique factors were also discovered, one, a structured ANS factor, and the other, a complex criterion scale. Selected Rorschach scores and, to a lesser extent, certain ANS indices emanating from this study, may be usefully-valid predictors of the adaptability of nuclear submariners during long patrols.

  1. Marine litter in submarine canyons of the Bay of Biscay

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Beld, Inge M. J.; Guillaumont, Brigitte; Menot, Lénaïck; Bayle, Christophe; Arnaud-Haond, Sophie; Bourillet, Jean-François

    2017-11-01

    Marine litter is a matter of increasing concern worldwide, from shallow seas to the open ocean and from beaches to the deep-seafloor. Indeed, the deep sea may be the ultimate repository of a large proportion of litter in the ocean. We used footage acquired with a Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) and a towed camera to investigate the distribution and composition of litter in the submarine canyons of the Bay of Biscay. This bay contains many submarine canyons housing Vulnerable Marine Ecosystems (VMEs) such as scleractinian coral habitats. VMEs are considered to be important for fish and they increase the local biodiversity. The objectives of the study were to investigate and discuss: (i) litter density, (ii) the principal sources of litter, (iii) the influence of environmental factors on the distribution of litter, and (iv) the impact of litter on benthic communities. Litter was found in all 15 canyons and at three sites on the edge of the continental shelf/canyon, in 25 of 29 dives. The Belle-île and Arcachon Canyons contained the largest amounts of litter, up to 12.6 and 9.5 items per 100 images respectively. Plastic items were the most abundant (42%), followed by fishing-related items (16%). The litter had both a maritime and a terrestrial origin. The main sources could be linked to fishing activities, major shipping lanes and river discharges. Litter appeared to accumulate at water depths of 801-1100 m and 1401-1700 m. In the deeper of these two depth ranges, litter accumulated on a geologically structured area, accounting for its high frequency at this depth. A larger number of images taken in areas of coral in the shallower of these two depth ranges may account for the high frequency of litter detection at this depth. A larger number of litter items, including plastic objects in particular, were observed on geological structures and in coral areas than on areas of bare substratum. The distribution of fishing-related items was similar for the various types of

  2. Particle sedimentation and diffusive convection in submarine clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carazzo, G.; Jellinek, M.; Turchyn, A. V.

    2013-12-01

    The longevity of submarine plumes generated by the release of hydrothermal fluids during crustal rupturing or by the rapid cooling of an erupting lava flow constrains the input of crustal-derived elements into the deep-ocean. Decades of observations of episodic "event plumes" suggest that a key process governing the dynamics of a submarine cloud spreading out laterally from a buoyant rising plume is the production of internal layering. Here, we use geological data on submarine clouds and a new experimental apparatus producing at laboratory scale turbulent, hot particle-laden plumes and clouds to show that this layering occurs where particle diffusive convection driven by the differential diffusion of heat and small mineral precipitates gives rise to a large scale double diffusive instability. We show that this "particle diffusive convection" can extend the longevity of an event plume to two years after its emplacement, allowing iron-sulfide minerals to dissolve and deliver iron to the deep-ocean. The very long residence time imposed by diffusive convective effects does not allow iron-oxide minerals to dissolve but may lead to the formation of iron-rich sediments at large distances from the point of emission. We develop a new theoretical model that includes both sedimentation and dissolution processes to quantify the potential amount of iron produced by the dissolution of iron-sulfide minerals settling through the cloud by diffusive convection. A key prediction is that hydrothermal systems could provide 75% of the global budget of dissolved iron in the deep-ocean. The consideration of scale-basin variations suggests that the Southern Hemisphere is probably the most impacted by hydrothermal iron, consistent with observations and global ocean models. Photographs showing the typical evolution of a lab-scale turbulent, hot particle-laden plume. At stage 1, the buoyant plume reaches a level of neutral buoyancy and spreads out laterally forming a neutrally buoyant cloud

  3. Hawaiian submarine manganese-iron oxide crusts - A dating tool?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J.G.; Clague, D.A.

    2004-01-01

    Black manganese-iron oxide crusts form on most exposed rock on the ocean floor. Such crusts are well developed on the steep lava slopes of the Hawaiian Ridge and have been sampled during dredging and submersible dives. The crusts also occur on fragments detached from bedrock by mass wasting, on submerged coral reefs, and on poorly lithified sedimentary rocks. The thickness of the crusts was measured on samples collected since 1965 on the Hawaiian Ridge from 140 dive or dredge localities. Fifty-nine (42%) of the sites were collected in 2001 by remotely operated vehicles (ROVs). The thinner crusts on many samples apparently result from post-depositional breakage, landsliding, and intermittent burial of outcrops by sediment. The maximum crust thickness was selected from each dredge or dive site to best represent crusts on the original rock surface at that site. The measurements show an irregular progressive thickening of the crusts toward the northwest-i.e., progressive thickening toward the older volcanic features with increasing distance from the Hawaiian hotspot. Comparison of the maximum crust thickness with radiometric ages of related subaerial features supports previous studies that indicate a crust-growth rate of about 2.5 mm/m.y. The thickness information not only allows a comparison of the relative exposure ages of two or more features offshore from different volcanoes, but also provides specific age estimates of volcanic and landslide deposits. The data indicate that some of the landslide blocks within the south Kona landslide are the oldest exposed rock on Mauna Loa, Kilauea, or Loihi volcanoes. Crusts on the floors of submarine canyons off Kohala and East Molokai volcanoes indicate that these canyons are no longer serving as channelways for downslope, sediment-laden currents. Mahukona volcano was approximately synchronous with Hilo Ridge, both being younger than Hana Ridge. The Nuuanu landslide is considerably older than the Wailau landslide. The Waianae

  4. Newly recognized submarine slide complexes in the southern California Bight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, J. E.; Lee, H. J.; Edwards, B. D.; McGann, M.; Sliter, R. W.

    2012-12-01

    New high-resolution bathymetric and seismic-reflection surveys have imaged large (7) individual overlapping slides along the western margin of Santa Cruz Basin (SCB slide); 2) a series of slumps and slide scars on the slope south of San Pedro shelf (SPS slide); and 3) a slope failure along the shelf edge in northern San Diego County, termed the Del Mar slide. The SCB slide complex extends for 30 km along the western slope of Santa Cruz Basin, with debris lobes extending 5-8 km into the basin. Head scarps of some of these slides are 50-75 m high. The SPS slide complex also appears to consist of multiple slides, which roughly parallel the Palos Verdes Fault and the San Gabriel Canyon submarine channel on the shelf edge and slope south of San Pedro shelf. Slide deposits associated with this complex are only partially mapped due to limited high-resolution bathymetric coverage, but extend to the south in the area SW of Lasuen Knoll. Seismic-reflection profiles show that some of these deposits are up to 20 m thick. The Del Mar slide is located about 10 km north of La Jolla Canyon and extends about 6 km along the shelf edge. The head scarp lies along the trend of a branch of the Rose Canyon Fault Zone. Radiocarbon ages of sediment overlying this slide indicate the Del Mar slide is approximately 12-16 ka. These large slide complexes have several characteristics in common. Nearly all occur in areas of tectonic uplift. All of the complexes show evidence of recurrent slide activity, exhibiting multiple headwall scarps and debris lobes, and where available, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles of these slide areas provide evidence of older, buried mass transport deposits. Assuming typical sedimentation rates, the recurrence interval of major slide events appears to be on the order of tens of thousands of years. Most of the slide complexes do not appear to be located in areas of high sediment input. The SCB and Del Mar slides are in areas receiving relatively small

  5. Magmatic sill intrusions beneath El Hierro Island following the 2011-2012 submarine eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito-Saz, María Á.; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Parks, Michelle M.; García-Cañada, Laura; Domínguez Cerdeña, Itahiza

    2016-04-01

    El Hierro, the most southwestern island of Canary Islands, Spain, is a volcano rising from around 3600 m above the ocean floor and up to of 1500 m above sea level. A submarine eruption occurred off the coast of El Hierro in 2011-2012, which was the only confirmed eruption in the last ~ 600 years. Activity continued after the end of the eruption with six magmatic intrusions occurring between 2012-2014. Each of these intrusions was characterized by hundreds of earthquakes and 3-19 centimeters of observed ground deformation. Ground displacements at ten continuous GPS sites were initially inverted to determine the optimal source parameters (location, geometry, volume/pressure change) that best define these intrusions from a geodetic point of view. Each intrusive period appears to be associated with the formation of a separate sill, with inferred volumes between 0.02 - 0.3 km3. SAR images from the Canadian RADARSAT-2 satellite and the Italian Space Agency COSMO-SkyMed constellation have been used to produce high-resolution detailed maps of line-of-sight displacements for each of these intrusions. These data have been combined with the continuous GPS observations and a joint inversion undertaken to gain further constraints on the optimal source parameters for each of these separate intrusive events. The recorded activity helps to understand how an oceanic intraplate volcanic island grows through repeated sill intrusions; well documented by seismic, GPS and InSAR observations in the case of the El Hierro activity.

  6. Development and experimental verification of a robust active noise control system for a diesel engine in submarines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachau, D.; Jukkert, S.; Hövelmann, N.

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents the development and experimental validation of an ANC (active noise control)-system designed for a particular application in the exhaust line of a submarine. Thereby, tonal components of the exhaust noise in the frequency band from 75 Hz to 120 Hz are reduced by more than 30 dB. The ANC-system is based on the feedforward leaky FxLMS-algorithm. The observability of the sound pressure in standing wave field is ensured by using two error microphones. The noninvasive online plant identification method is used to increase the robustness of the controller. Online plant identification is extended by a time-varying convergence gain to improve the performance in the presence of slight error in the frequency of the reference signal.

  7. Submarine groundwater discharge revealed by radium isotopes (Ra-223 and Ra-224 near a paleochannel on the Southern Brazilian continental shelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Kammer Attisano

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Submarine Groundwater Discharge (SGD has been recognized as an important component of the ocean-continent interface. The few previous studies in Brazil have focused on nearshore areas. This paper explores SGD on the Southern Brazilian Continental Shelf using multiple lines of evidence that include radium isotopes, dissolved nutrients, and water mass observations. The results indicated that SGD may be occurring on the Continental Shelf in the Albardão region, near a paleochannel located 50 km offshore. This paleochannel may thus be a preferential pathway for the delivery of nutrient- and metal-enriched groundwater and porewater into continental shelf waters.

  8. Multi-scale evaluations of submarine groundwater discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Taniguchi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Multi-scale evaluations of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD have been made in Saijo, Ehime Prefecture, Shikoku Island, Japan, by using seepage meters for point scale, 222Rn tracer for point and coastal scales, and a numerical groundwater model (SEAWAT for coastal and basin scales. Daily basis temporal changes in SGD are evaluated by continuous seepage meter and 222Rn mooring measurements, and depend on sea level changes. Spatial evaluations of SGD were also made by 222Rn along the coast in July 2010 and November 2011. The area with larger 222Rn concentration during both seasons agreed well with the area with larger SGD calculated by 3D groundwater numerical simulations.

  9. Risk assessment in submarine outfall projects: the case of Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, Ana; Losada, Miguel Ángel; Reis, Maria Teresa; Neves, Maria Graça

    2013-02-15

    Submarine outfalls need to be evaluated as part of an integrated environmental protection system for coastal areas. Although outfalls are tight with the diversity of economic activities along a densely populated coastline being effluent treatment and effluent reuse a sign of economic prosperity, precautions must be taken in the construction of these structures. They must be designed so as to have the least possible impact on the environment and at the same time be economically viable. This paper outlines the initial phases of a risk assessment procedure for submarine outfall projects. This approach includes a cost-benefit analysis in which risks are systematically minimized or eliminated. The methods used in this study also allow for randomness and uncertainty. The input for the analysis is a wide range of information and data concerning the failure probability of outfalls and the consequences of an operational stoppage or failure. As part of this risk assessment, target design levels of reliability, functionality, and operationality were defined for the outfalls. These levels were based on an inventory of risks associated with such construction projects, and thus afforded the possibility of identifying possible failure modes. This assessment procedure was then applied to four case studies in Portugal. The results obtained were the values concerning the useful life of the outfalls at the four sites and their joint probability of failure against the principal failure modes assigned to ultimate and serviceability limit states. Also defined were the minimum operationality of these outfalls, the average number of admissible technical breakdowns, and the maximum allowed duration of a stoppage mode. It was found that these values were in consonance with the nature of the effluent (tourist-related, industrial, or mixed) as well as its importance for the local economy. Even more important, this risk assessment procedure was able to measure the impact of the outfalls on

  10. Imaging deformation in submarine thrust belts using seismic attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacopini, David; Butler, Robert W. H.

    2011-02-01

    Uncertainty exists as to the patterns of deformation that develop within submarine thrust belts. This case study uses a large-scale gravity-driven fold-thrust structure as an analogue for submarine fold thrust systems in general. Seismic attribute analysis and mapping provide ways of identifying complex fault patterns and associated deformation that are otherwise unresolved in conventional amplitude displays. These methods are developed and applied to a 3D dataset and used to investigate the geometry, internal architecture and the nature of the low signal/noise incoherency and discontinuities observed on the km-scale. Semblance (coherency), curvatures and spectral decomposition were all computed and used as attributes. Collectively these define volumes within the seismic data where the signal is greatly reduced — features termed here "disturbance geobodies". The study shows that thrust faults that, on conventional amplitude displays appear to be simple and continuous, are likely to consist of complex arrays of anastamosing fault strands. Adjacent to these composite fault zones are greater volumes of deformed rocks (disturbance geobodies) across which there are only minor stratal offsets. Similarly volumes of high stratal curvature coincide with disturbance geobodies, again interpreted as zones of weak, distributed deformation. These relationships between narrow thrust faults and broader zones of deformation are broadly comparable to those observed in outcrops within exhumed thrust systems. Application of the seismic imaging techniques developed here will improve the understanding of the localization of deformation in sedimentary successions with important implications for predicting fluid flow within other deep water structures such as subduction accretion complexes.

  11. Geo-hazard by sediment mass movements in submarine canyons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaith, Afif; Fakhri, Milad; Ivaldi, Roberta; Ciavola, Paolo

    2017-04-01

    Submarine mass movements and their consequences are of major concern for coastal communities and infrastructures but also for the exploitation and the development of seafloor resources. Elevated awareness of the need for better understanding of the underwater mass movement is coupled with great advances in underwater mapping technologies over the past two decades. The seafloor in the Nahr Ibrahim and Saida regions (Lebanon) is characterized by deep canyons, reaching one thousand meters depths in proximity of the coast. Signs of submarine mass movement instability related to these canyons create a connection between shallow and deep water. The presence of these canyons in a tectonically active area generates a particular drained mechanism to the sediment in form of mass movement and slumping. Identification of potential areas where slope movements could be triggered requires data with high spatial resolution. Since this area is poorly explored, in the framework of an international project between Lebanese Navy, Lebanese National Center for Marine Sciences, University of Ferrara and Italian Hydrographic Institute, we analyse the morpho-bathymetric and sedimentological characters of the coastal and shelf sectors. Multibeam echosounder and sub-bottom profiler acoustic systems calibrated with ground truths (sediment grab and core samples) allow us to characterize the nature of seafloor and sub-seafloor with particular detail to the geotechnical properties of sediments and high resolution seismic stratigraphy of the shallow layers. The detection of particular undersea features provides detail maps which are in support to littoral morpho-dynamics, coastal transport and sediment budget. Multilayer hydro-oceanographic map, referring to the seafloor dynamics in connection with deep water environment and drainage system, in accordance to the International Hydrographic Standards and nautical supports, are produced. This high resolution multibeam bathymetry dataset, integrated

  12. Did a "lucky shot" sink the submarine H.L. Hunley?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance, Rachel M; Warder, Henry; Bass, Cameron R Dale

    2017-01-01

    The H.L. Hunley was the first submarine to be successful in combat, sinking the Union vessel Housatonic outside Charleston Harbor in 1864 during the Civil War. However, despite marking a milestone in military history, little is known about this vessel or why it sank. One popular theory is the "lucky shot" theory: the hypothesis that small arms fire from the crew of the Housatonic may have sufficiently damaged the submarine to sink it. However, ballistic experiments with cast iron samples, analysis of historical experiments firing Civil War-era projectiles at cast iron samples, and calculation of the tidal currents and sinking trajectory of the submarine indicate that this theory is not likely. Based on our results, the "lucky shot" theory does not explain the sinking of the world's first successful combat submarine. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. The impact of glacier geometry on meltwater plume structure and submarine melt in Greenland fjords

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carroll, D.; Sutherland, D. A.; Hudson, B.; Moon, T.; Catania, G. A.; Shroyer, E. L.; Nash, J. D.; Bartholomaus, T. C.; Felikson, D.; Stearns, L. A.; Noël, B. P Y; van den Broeke, M. R.

    2016-01-01

    Meltwater from the Greenland Ice Sheet often drains subglacially into fjords, driving upwelling plumes at glacier termini. Ocean models and observations of submarine termini suggest that plumes enhance melt and undercutting, leading to calving and potential glacier destabilization. Here we

  14. An Analysis of the Effectiveness of a New Watchstanding Schedule for U.S. Submariners

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Osborn, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    A need exists within the U.S. submarine force to employ an operational schedule that provides more sleep and that is in better alignment with human circadian rhythms, thus improving cognitive effectiveness...

  15. Fuel cell systems for submarines: from the first idea to serial production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psoma, Angela; Sattler, Gunter

    The future submarines of Howaldtswerke-Deutsche Werft AG (HDW) will be equipped with fuel cell power plants for air independent propulsion. In the 1970s the decision for a fuel cell system on submarines was made. Tests in the 1980s confirmed the feasibility of fuel cells on submarines. Positive development results in the 1990s led to series production of fuel cell equipped submarines, which will be in operation from 2003 onwards. Strictly controlled development work was necessary to reach the goal of series production. The train of thought behind this process of development is described in this paper starting with the initial idea and ending with the description of the serial production of the fuel cell power plant. The future outlook gives an impression of current development work.

  16. Submarine Warfare in the 20th & 21st Centuries: A Bibliography

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Huygen, Michaele

    2003-01-01

    There are constant motions in the sea caused by atmospheric and seabed activities volcanic disruptions marine animals ships and submarines -- all of which create what is called the ambient noise level of the oceans...

  17. The risk of hydrogen explosion in a submarine p. IV The implementation of high risk projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kłos Ryszard

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This series of articles on high risk projects looks at the example of the modernisation of hydrogen incinerators on a submarine. The article describes problems connected with the management of such a project.

  18. Volume transport data from a submarine cable in the Florida Strait in 2014 (NODC Accession 0125429)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Daily mean and raw voltage volume transport data of the Florida Current collected with a submarine cable spanning from South Florida to the Grand Bahama Island in...

  19. Observations of nearshore groundwater discharge: Kahekili Beach Park submarine springs, Maui, Hawaii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.W. Swarzenski

    2017-06-01

    New hydrological insights for the region: Estimates of submarine groundwater discharge were derived for a primary vent site and surrounding coastal waters off west Maui, Hawaii using an excess 222Rn (t1/2 = 3.8 d mass balance model. Such estimates were complemented with a novel thoron (220Rn, t1/2 = 56 s groundwater discharge tracer application, as well as oceanographic time series and thermal infrared imagery analyses. In combination, this suite of techniques provides new insight into the connectivity of the coastal aquifer with the near-shore ocean and examines the physical drivers of submarine groundwater discharge. Lastly, submarine groundwater discharge derived constituent concentrations were tabulated and compared to surrounding seawater concentrations. Such work has implications for the management of coastal aquifers and downstream nearshore ecosystems that respond to sustained constituent loadings via this submarine route.

  20. Dance With the One That Brought You: Revitalizing Antisubmarine Warfare to Counter Chinese Diesel Submarines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Farrell, Richard

    2003-01-01

    .... Navy needs to revitalize ASW, or risk losing the ability to gain sea control in strategic areas of the East Asian Littoral and South China Sea due to a rising Chinese diesel-electric submarine threat...

  1. Submarine Upward Looking Sonar Ice Draft Profile Data and Statistics, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set consists of upward looking sonar sea ice draft data collected by submarines in the Arctic Ocean. It includes data from both U.S. Navy and Royal Navy...

  2. Navy Trident Submarine Conversion (SSGN) Program: Background and Issues for Congress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Rourke, Ronald

    2005-01-01

    ...) into cruisemissile- carrying and special operations forces (SOF) support submarines (SSGNs). The total estimated cost of the program, which has been increasing over time, is now $4,018 million...

  3. Officer Computer Utilization Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-03-01

    SOCIAL AND BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE 055 DENTISTRY 136 ANTHROPOLOGY 056 ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH 137 CRIMINAL JUSTICE 057 HEALTH ADMINISTRATION 138 GEOGRAPHY 058...154 LAW. ENVIRONMENTAL 162 VETERINARY 074 OTHER HISTORY FIELD 155 LAW. FORENSIC SCIENCE 163 OTHER 075 OTHER AREA STUDIES 156 LAW. INTERNATIONAL -7...SURVEY OFFICER 207 WEAPONS TECHNICAL INFORMATION OFFICER 208 WEAPONS TECHNICAL OFFICER -m GENERAL DENTISTRY 272 DENTA.. OFFICER GENERAL PRACTITIONER

  4. Office 365 For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Withee, Ken

    2012-01-01

    The information you need to create a virtual office that can be accessed anywhere Microsoft Office 365 is a revolutionary technology that allows individuals and companies of all sizes to create and maintain a virtual office in the cloud. Featuring familiar Office Professional applications, web apps, Exchange Online, and Lync Online, Office 365 offers business professionals added flexibility and an easy way to work on the go. This friendly guide explains the cloud, how Office 365 takes advantage of it, how to use the various components, and the many possibilities offered by Office 365. It provi

  5. Multi-core Fibers in Submarine Networks for High-Capacity Undersea Transmission Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nooruzzaman, Md; Morioka, Toshio

    2017-01-01

    Application of multi-core fibers in undersea networks for high-capacity submarine transmission systems is studied. It is demonstrated how different architectures of submerged branching unit affect network component counts in long-haul undersea transmission systems......Application of multi-core fibers in undersea networks for high-capacity submarine transmission systems is studied. It is demonstrated how different architectures of submerged branching unit affect network component counts in long-haul undersea transmission systems...

  6. They Have Not Yet Begun to Fight: Women in the United States Navy Submarine Fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-11

    Navy Nurse Corps in 1908. The Nurse Corps was highly educated for the time and maintained high professional standards.3 Regardless, the struggle to...nation’s navies who integrated women into their submarine fleets ahead of the U.S. Navy. Norway, Sweden , Australian, and Great Britain all...Nations such as Norway and Sweden have been incorporating females into their submarines since the mid-1980s. 39 Sweden has had female sailors

  7. The Close Aboard Bastion: a Soviet ballistic missile submarine deployment strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Kreitler, Walter M

    1988-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis describes and analyzes a possible deployment posture for the Soviet ballistic missile submarine force. It examines the proposition that the Soviet Navy will establish a point defense, labeled "Close Aboard Bastions" (CABs), for its ballistic missile submarine fleet within the Soviet claimed 12 nautical mile territorial sea. This is a logical derivation of the currently widely held view that the Soviets will estab...

  8. Submarine channel evolution linked to rising salt domes, Gulf of Mexico, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Rachel C.; Gani, M. Royhan; Roesler, Toby; Sarwar, Abu K. M.

    2016-08-01

    An examination of halokinetics and channel evolution together in a deepwater system provides an opportunity to investigate how submarine channel morphology is locally affected by rising salt domes. The study area is located in the northern Gulf of Mexico (GOM), directly off the Louisiana continental slope in a prominent salt dome region. The influence of salt growth on submarine channel evolution is relatively understudied, particularly in the GOM. Utilizing high-resolution 3D seismic and well data and seismic geomorphology techniques, a long-lived (~ 3 Myr) Plio-Pleistocene submarine channel system has been investigated to show a relationship between variable phases of salt motion and planform morphology of preserved submarine channels. Our data suggest that local salt motion acts as a driver for submarine channel evolution. During the late Pliocene, when salt moved upward at a relatively fast rate, channels show distinct entrenchment with narrow channel belts and overall less sinuosity. When salt motion slowed down at the beginning of the Pleistocene, channels aggraded rapidly with preserved levees, and moved toward an equilibrium state with the expansion of channel belt widths. As our results indicate, the rate of salt diapirism exerted a first-order control on channel location and morphology and distribution of reservoir-prone units. This study cautions against readily invoking allogenic factors (e.g., sea level and climate) in explaining changes in submarine channel behavior and associated fan sedimentation, particularly in regions with salt tectonics.

  9. Observations of nearshore groundwater discharge: Kahekili Beach Park submarine springs, Maui, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swarzenski, Peter W.; Dulai, H.; Kroeger, K.D.; Smith, C.G.; Dimova, N.; Storlazzi, C. D.; Prouty, N.G.; Gingerich, S.B.; Glenn, C. R.

    2016-01-01

    Study regionThe study region encompasses the nearshore, coastal waters off west Maui, Hawaii. Here abundant groundwater—that carries with it a strong land-based fingerprint—discharges into the coastal waters and over a coral reef.Study focusCoastal groundwater discharge is a ubiquitous hydrologic feature that has been shown to impact nearshore ecosystems and material budgets. A unique combined geochemical tracer and oceanographic time-series study addressed rates and oceanic forcings of submarine groundwater discharge at a submarine spring site off west Maui, Hawaii.New hydrological insights for the regionEstimates of submarine groundwater discharge were derived for a primary vent site and surrounding coastal waters off west Maui, Hawaii using an excess 222Rn (t1/2 = 3.8 d) mass balance model. Such estimates were complemented with a novel thoron (220Rn,t1/2 = 56 s) groundwater discharge tracer application, as well as oceanographic time series and thermal infrared imagery analyses. In combination, this suite of techniques provides new insight into the connectivity of the coastal aquifer with the near-shore ocean and examines the physical drivers of submarine groundwater discharge. Lastly, submarine groundwater discharge derived constituent concentrations were tabulated and compared to surrounding seawater concentrations. Such work has implications for the management of coastal aquifers and downstream nearshore ecosystems that respond to sustained constituent loadings via this submarine route.

  10. Experimental modeling of gravity underflow in submarine channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammad Ashraful

    Active and relic meandering channels are common on the seafloor adjacent to continental margins. These channels and their associated submarine fan deposits are products of the density-driven gravity flows known as turbidity currents. Unlike natural rivers, few attempts have been made to explore the process of channel meandering in the submarine environment. This research focuses on resolving the flow field of submarine channels by conducting experiments in a large laboratory basin. Saline and particulate density flows were studied in a straight channel, a single bend sinuous channel with vertical sidewalls and a multiple-bend sinuous channel with sloping sidewalls. Instantaneous velocities in steady developed currents were measured using 3-component acoustic Doppler velocity probes. Excess fractional density was measured at selected locations by collecting water sample using a siphon rake. Turbulent kinetic energy and Reynolds stress components are derived from the instantaneous velocity data of the straight channel experiments. Structure functions for mean velocity, Reynolds stress and turbulent kinetic energy profiles are derived by fitting normalized data. The normalized Reynolds-averaged velocity shows excellent similarity collapse while the Reynolds-stress and the turbulent kinetic energy profiles display reasonable similarity. Vertical profiles of the turbulent kinetic energy display two peaks separated by a zone of low turbulence; the ratio of the maximum to the depth-averaged turbulent kinetic energy is approximately 1.5. Theoretical profile of turbulent kinetic energy is derived. Comparisons of experimentally and theoretically derived turbulent kinetic energy profiles show reasonable agreement except at the position of velocity maximum where the theoretical profile displays a very small value. Velocity profiles derived from the measurements with confined flow in the single bend channel reveal that channel curvature drives two helical flow cells, one

  11. Long-term flow monitoring of submarine gas emanations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spickenbom, K.; Faber, E.; Poggenburg, J.; Seeger, C.

    2009-04-01

    One of the Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) strategies currently under study is the sequestration of CO2 in sub-seabed geological formations. Even after a thorough review of the geological setting, there is the possibility of leaks from the reservoirs. As part of the EU-financed project CO2ReMoVe (Research, Monitoring, Verification), which aims to develop innovative research and technologies for monitoring and verification of carbon dioxide geological storage, we are working on the development of submarine long-term gas flow monitoring systems. Technically, however, these systems are not limited to CO2 but can be used for monitoring of any free gas emission (bubbles) on the seafloor. The basic design of the gas flow sensor system was derived from former prototypes developed for monitoring CO2 and CH4 on mud volcanoes in Azerbaijan. This design was composed of a raft floating on the surface above the gas vent to collect the bubbles. Sensors for CO2 flux and concentration and electronics for data storage and transmission were mounted on the raft, together with battery-buffered solar panels for power supply. The system was modified for installation in open sea by using a buoy instead of a raft and a funnel on the seafloor to collect the gas, which is then guided above water level through a flexible tube. Besides some technical problems (condensed water in the tube, movement of the buoys due to waves leading to biased measurement of flow rates), this setup provides a cost-effective solution for shallow waters. However, a buoy interferes with ship traffic, and it is also difficult to adapt this design to greater water depths. These requirements can best be complied by a completely submersed system. To allow unattended long-term monitoring in a submarine environment, such a system has to be extremely durable. Therefore, we focussed on developing a mechanically and electrically as simple setup as possible, which has the additional advantage of low cost. The system

  12. Marriage/Family Issues and Wife Styles Across Naval Officer Career Stages: Their Implications for Career Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-05-01

    Another too common scenario is that one or the other partner becomes at this age involved in a brief sexual affair with someone who is younger in F an...11. being worried about my sexual perform- ance 1 2 3 4 5 12. feeling more bur- dened economically by increased finan- cial responsibilities 1 2 3 4 5...Research (Code 200) San Diego, CA 92152 Arlington, VA 22217 Command.ng Officer ACOS Research & Program Development Naval Submarine Medical Research Lab

  13. Using Google Earth for Submarine Operations at Pavilion Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deans, M. C.; Lees, D. S.; Fong, T.; Lim, D. S.

    2009-12-01

    During the July 2009 Pavilion Lake field test, we supported submarine "flight" operations using Google Earth. The Intelligent Robotics Group at NASA Ames has experience with ground data systems for NASA missions, earth analog field tests, disaster response, and the Gigapan camera system. Leveraging this expertise and existing software, we put together a set of tools to support sub tracking and mapping, called the "Surface Data System." This system supports flight planning, real time flight operations, and post-flight analysis. For planning, we make overlays of the regional bedrock geology, sonar bathymetry, and sonar backscatter maps that show geology, depth, and structure of the bottom. Placemarks show the mooring locations for start and end points. Flight plans are shown as polylines with icons for waypoints. Flight tracks and imagery from previous field seasons are embedded in the map for planning follow-on activities. These data provide context for flight planning. During flights, sub position is updated every 5 seconds from the nav computer on the chase boat. We periodically update tracking KML files and refresh them with network links. A sub icon shows current location of the sub. A compass rose shows bearings to indicate heading to the next waypoint. A "Science Stenographer" listens on the voice loop and transcribes significant observations in real time. Observations called up to the surface immediately appear on the map as icons with date, time, position, and what was said. After each flight, the science back room immediately has the flight track and georeferenced notes from the pilots. We add additional information in post-processing. The submarines record video continuously, with "event" timestamps marked by the pilot. We cross-correlate the event timestamps with position logs to geolocate events and put a preview image and compressed video clip into the map. Animated flight tracks are also generated, showing timestamped position and providing timelapse

  14. Did a submarine landslide contribute to the 2011 Tohoku tsunami?

    KAUST Repository

    Tappin, David R.

    2014-09-28

    Many studies have modeled the Tohoku tsunami of March 11, 2011 as being due entirely to slip on an earthquake fault, but the following discrepancies suggest that further research is warranted. (1) Published models of tsunami propagation and coastal impact underpredict the observed runup heights of up to 40 m measured along the coast of the Sanriku district in the northeast part of Honshu Island. (2) Published models cannot reproduce the timing and high-frequency content of tsunami waves recorded at three nearshore buoys off Sanriku, nor the timing and dispersion properties of the waveforms at offshore DART buoy #21418. (3) The rupture centroids obtained by tsunami inversions are biased about 60 km NNE of that obtained by the Global CMT Project. Based on an analysis of seismic and geodetic data, together with recorded tsunami waveforms, we propose that, while the primary source of the tsunami was the vertical displacement of the seafloor due to the earthquake, an additional tsunami source is also required. We infer the location of the proposed additional source based on an analysis of the travel times of higher-frequency tsunami waves observed at nearshore buoys. We further propose that the most likely additional tsunami source was a submarine mass failure (SMF—i.e., a submarine landslide). A comparison of pre- and post-tsunami bathymetric surveys reveals tens of meters of vertical seafloor movement at the proposed SMF location, and a slope stability analysis confirms that the horizontal acceleration from the earthquake was sufficient to trigger an SMF. Forward modeling of the tsunami generated by a combination of the earthquake and the SMF reproduces the recorded on-, near- and offshore tsunami observations well, particularly the high-frequency component of the tsunami waves off Sanriku, which were not well simulated by previous models. The conclusion that a significant part of the 2011 Tohoku tsunami was generated by an SMF source has important implications for

  15. HUD's Local Office Directory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — HUD is organized in 10 Regions. Each Region is managed by a Regional Administrator, who also oversees the Regional Office. Each Field Office within a Region is...

  16. LINE BALANCING IN SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi GÖKÇEN

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates how the Assembly Line Balancing (ALB methods known for the production systems can be applied in service systems. For this purpose, an application study is done in a Physical therapy and rehabilitation clinic. Each standart service provided to patients is taken into consideration as a product, and problem is solved as a mixed model ALB problem. In conclusion, it is seen that the ALB methods developed for the production systems are also applicable in service systems. So, it is possible to do similar studies at hospitals, tax offices, driving licence and passport offices, fast food restaurants, etc.

  17. Submarine pyroclastic deposits in Tertiary basins, NE Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polona Kralj

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In Tertiary basins of NE Slovenia, Upper Oligocene volcanic activity occurred in a submarine environment that experienced contemporaneous clastic sedimentation. Pyroclastic deposits are essentially related to gas- and watersupported eruption-fed density currents. At Trobni Dol, the Lako Basin, an over 100 m thick deposit formed by a sigle sustained volcanic explosion that fed gas-supported pyroclastic flow. Diagnostic features are large matrixshard content, normal grading of pumice lapilli, collapsed pumice lapilli and the presence of charcoal. In the Smrekovec Volcanic Complex, several but only up to 5 m thick deposits related to eruption-fed gassupported pyroclastic flows occur. Deposits settled from water-supported eruption-fed density currents form fining- and thinning-upward sedimentary units which resemble the units of volcaniclastic turbidites. Pyroclastic deposits related to gas- and water-supported density currents occur in an up to 1000 m thick succession composed of coherent volcanics, autoclastic, pyroclastic, reworked volcaniclastic and mixed volcaniclastic-siliciclastic deposits that indicate a complex explosive and depositional history of the Smrekovec Volcanic Complex.

  18. High-efficiency airfoil rudders applied to submarines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHOU Yimei

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Modern submarine design puts forward higher and higher requirements for control surfaces, and this creates a requirement for designers to constantly innovate new types of rudder so as to improve the efficiency of control surfaces. Adopting the high-efficiency airfoil rudder is one of the most effective measures for improving the efficiency of control surfaces. In this paper, we put forward an optimization method for a high-efficiency airfoil rudder on the basis of a comparative analysis of the various strengths and weaknesses of the airfoil, and the numerical calculation method is adopted to analyze the influence rule of the hydrodynamic characteristics and wake field by using the high-efficiency airfoil rudder and the conventional NACA rudder comparatively; at the same time, a model load test in a towing tank was carried out, and the test results and simulation calculation obtained good consistency:the error between them was less than 10%. The experimental results show that the steerage of a high-efficiency airfoil rudder is increased by more than 40% when compared with the conventional rudder, but the total resistance is close:the error is no more than 4%. Adopting a high-efficiency airfoil rudder brings much greater lifting efficiency than the total resistance of the boat. The results show that high-efficiency airfoil rudder has obvious advantages for improving the efficiency of control, giving it good application prospects.

  19. Submarine springs and coastal karst aquifers: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Perrine; Bakalowicz, Michel; de Marsily, Ghislain

    2007-06-01

    SummaryThis article reports on current knowledge of coastal karst aquifers, in which conduit flow is dominant, and its aim is to characterise the functioning of these systems which are closely linked to the sea. First, earlier and recent studies of these aquifers are discussed. On the basis of their findings, it can be shown that two essential mechanisms are involved in the functioning of these systems, i.e., aquifer discharge through submarine springs and saline intrusion through conduits open to the sea. Then, the conditions that give rise to these aquifers are described and particular emphasis is placed on the influence of deep karstification when the sea level falls. The base-level variations are attributed to the glaciations or, in the specific case of the Mediterranean, to the salinity crisis in the Messinian period. It is this inherited structure, sometimes containing very deep conduits below sea level, that today conditions the aquifer flow. The flow in the conduits open to the sea depends on the hydraulic head gradient between the aquifer and the sea and is therefore a function of the water density and head losses in the aquifer. This survey of coastal karst aquifers has revealed some common characteristics that show the development and/or functional capacity of their karstic drainage networks. A classification of such systems into three categories is proposed with the aim of assisting in the decision-making concerning potential exploitation of water resources in coastal regions.

  20. Sea-level-induced seismicity and submarine landslide occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothers, Daniel S.; Luttrell, Karen M.; Chaytor, Jason D.

    2013-01-01

    The temporal coincidence between rapid late Pleistocene sea-level rise and large-scale slope failures is widely documented. Nevertheless, the physical mechanisms that link these phenomena are poorly understood, particularly along nonglaciated margins. Here we investigate the causal relationships between rapid sea-level rise, flexural stress loading, and increased seismicity rates along passive margins. We find that Coulomb failure stress across fault systems of passive continental margins may have increased more than 1 MPa during rapid late Pleistocene–early Holocene sea-level rise, an amount sufficient to trigger fault reactivation and rupture. These results suggest that sea-level–modulated seismicity may have contributed to a number of poorly understood but widely observed phenomena, including (1) increased frequency of large-scale submarine landslides during rapid, late Pleistocene sea-level rise; (2) emplacement of coarse-grained mass transport deposits on deep-sea fans during the early stages of marine transgression; and (3) the unroofing and release of methane gas sequestered in continental slope sediments.

  1. NESTOR - Neutrino Extended Submarine Telescope with Oceanographic Research

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    {\\bf NESTOR} is a deep-sea neutrino telescope that is being deployed in the Mediterranean off the south-west coast of the Peleponnese in Greece. Neutrinos, when they interact in the earth below or in the seawater around the detector, produce muons that can be observed by the Cherenkov radiation, which they emit. At an operating depth of 4000 metres, the detector is effectively shielded from muons produced in atmospheric interactions. {\\bf The site:} A major feature of the Ionian Sea floor is the Hellenic Trench, the deepest in the Mediterranean, which in places exceeds 5000 meters. It runs close to the western coast of the Peleponnese and is protected on its western side by the submarine Eastern Mediterranean Ridge. It is far from big city pollution or the effluent of major river systems flowing into the Mediterranean and is protected from deep-water perturbations.\\\\ The NESTOR site is located on a broad plateau some 8 $\\times$ 9 kilometres in area on the eastern side of the Hellenic Trench at a mean depth of...

  2. Ecostructuring of marine nematode communities by submarine groundwater discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzelak, Katarzyna; Tamborski, Joseph; Kotwicki, Lech; Bokuniewicz, Henry

    2018-02-02

    Inputs of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) to the coastal ocean may alter local and regional-scale biology. Here, we report on nematode assemblages along the north shore of Long Island, NY. We test if nematode communities differed between sites impacted by mixed fresh-saline SGD and where SGD is exclusively saline. Diversity of nematodes was low at sites impacted by fresh SGD and communities were dominated by a few opportunistic genera. Moreover, a set of typical freshwater nematode genera restricted to impacted sites was observed. Their presence in the marine coastal zone is exceptional and underlines the structuring role that fresh SGD plays in the local ecosystem. Saline SGD structured nematode assemblages differently compared to sites impacted by fresh SGD. The number of nematode genera was markedly higher at saline SGD sites, with a different community structure. This study highlights the importance to which inputs of fresh SGD may have on local ecosystem diversity in marine coastal environments. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. SUBMARINE MASS MOVEMENT AND LOCALIZED TSUNAMI POTENTIALITY OF MENTAWAI BASIN, SUMATERA, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haryadi Permana

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The new bathymetry and seismic data were acquired during the PreTI-Gap marine survey (February 15 to March 6, 2008. The survey was carried out along the NE margin of Mentawai Island using multi-beam swath bathymetry equipment, and 28-channels seismic streamer and four-airgun source. The first target was the Mega Island region near the epicenter of the 2007 great earthquake. The shallow bathymetry is characterized as a flat coral platform suggesting that 200 km elongated plateau is slowly subsiding without any active faults. Further north, from South Pagai to North of Siberut Islands, the seafloor morphology changes significantly. The deep and wide canyons or valleys produce very rough seafloor morphology between 50 and 1100 m water depth. In general, the submarine topography shows two break slopes at different depths. Between slope breaks, the undulating, hilly and circular features dominate, possibly caused by mass movement. A push-up ridge is observed that dams the sediments eroded within a steep slope northeastward side. The seismic reflection data acquired along 14 dip seismic lines at the NE flank of Mentawai Islands, from Siberut to the South of Pagai Islands. We observed a set of southwestward dipping back thrust bounding the NE margin of the Mentawai Island and the push-up ridge observed on bathymetric image, which suggest that Mentawai fault is not pure a strike slip fault, but consists of a set of back thrusts. Such kind of back thrust movement at the flank of Mentawai basin can trigger mass movement or landslide that can produce localized tsunami causing damages to Sumatera mainland such as Padang, Painan or northern Bengkulu provinces and Mentawai Islands. Therefore, it is important to re-design the tsunami warning system, especially in this region, in order to mitigate tsunami risk to coastal region of western Sumatera.

  4. Composition, Distribution and Abundance of Anthropogenic Marine Debris in Northwest Atlantic Submarine Canyons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyl, T. P.; Nizinski, M. S.; Kinlan, B. P.; Shank, T. M.

    2016-02-01

    Submarine canyons are important productive habitats in the deep-sea, as well as downslope conduits for transporting sediment and organic material that enhances local and regional species diversity, including species and ecosystems vulnerable to anthropogenic activities. In 2012 and 2013, we documented and characterized deep-sea coral and sponge ecosystems in virtually unexplored northeast and mid-Atlantic canyons using WHOI's TowCam towed imaging system on the FSV Bigelow. Specifically, thirty-eight digital image TowCam surveys were completed in 10 canyons, with more than 91,000 images documenting not only deep-sea coral and sponge ecosystems and habitat features, but also anthropogenic debris. Canyons surveyed cover most of the latitudinal range of the northeast US region and include Toms Canyon complex, Ryan, Veatch, Gilbert, Powell, and Munson canyons. Each of these canyon hosted debris across depths of 550 to 2100m, consisting mostly of fisheries equipment, including fishing lines, traps, and nets. Potentially-land-based debris (e.g., plastic bags and magazines) was also present in all canyons surveyed. These substrates likely enhance colonization and often served as habitat for specific sessile and mobile species. Comparisons of debris in these canyons revealed depth-related differences, likely due to offshore extent of fishing activities, and will be compared to density and abundances of other deep-sea environments. The occurrence of anthropogenic debris on Northeast US canyon floors suggests major sources via transport ship and fishing-related activities and perhaps the rapid transport of debris through near-shore zones and entrainment in bottom currents.

  5. Office 2013 simplified

    CERN Document Server

    Marmel, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    A basic introduction to learn Office 2013 quickly, easily, and in full color Office 2013 has new features and tools to master, and whether you're upgrading from an earlier version or using the Office applications for the first time, you'll appreciate this simplified approach. Offering a clear, visual style of learning, this book provides you with concise, step-by-step instructions and full-color screen shots that walk you through the applications in the Microsoft Office 2013 suite: Word, Excel, PowerPoint, Outlook, and Publisher.Shows you how to tackle dozens of Office 2013

  6. Office 2013 for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Wallace

    2013-01-01

    Office 2013 For Dummies is the key to your brand new Office! Packed with straightforward, friendly instruction, this update to one of the bestselling Office books of all time gets you thoroughly up to speed and helps you learn how to take full advantage of the new features in Office 2013. After coverage of the fundamentals, you'll discover how to spice up your Word documents, edit Excel spreadsheets and create formulas, add pizazz to your PowerPoint presentation, and much more.Helps you harness the power of all five Office 2013 applications: Word, Excel, PowerPoint,

  7. The Enemy Below - The Global Diffusion of Submarines and Related Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, K G

    2002-09-05

    The end of the Cold War seemed to create a more peaceful international environment. September 11 reminded us of the dangers of complacency. Indeed, even before September 11 US forces had intervened in a number of wars and crises, including Panama, the Persian Gulf War, Somalia, Rwanda, Bosnia, Kosovo, several Taiwan Straits crises, the North Korea nuclear weapons crisis, and most recently Afghanistan. US ability to intervene in remote areas of the world is often dependent on the Navy's ability to project power ashore. As a result, US ability to influence events in crisis situations, especially between or among nuclear powers, may become more difficult along with our ability to conduct littoral warfare. Although the numbers of potentially hostile submarines have declined with the end of the Cold War, US anti-submarine warfare capabilities have also declined. Moreover, foreign submarines and related technologies are likely to diffuse globally. New technologies like Air Independent Propulsion (AIP), improved weapons and sensors will make conventional submarines more dangerous, and the spread of nuclear submarines even to a few more countries raise political, military, environmental, and safety concerns. Submarines are one of the key weapon systems used alone or in combination with other weapon systems such as coastal defense missiles, aircraft, and other sea-based missile platforms to deny US ability to project power ashore, Thus, other countries who wish to deny the US the ability to interfere with their regional or even global ambitions may emphasize the acquisition and/or development of submarines. As the world become more multipolar over the longer term, as the Chinese believe it will, countries such as Russia, China. etc., may be able to acquire the submarine capabilities to challenge us not just regionally, but in blue waters. To the extent that our alliance relationships require US naval access or superiority to sustain them, then our erstwhile friendly

  8. Westward advance of the deformation front and evolution of submarine canyons offshore of southwestern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wei-Chung; Liu, Char-Shine; Chi, Wu-Cheng; Chen, Liwen; Lin, Che-Chuan; Chen, Song-Chuen

    2017-11-01

    This study analyzes both 2D and 3D seismic images around the Palm Ridge area offshore of southwestern Taiwan to understand how the deformation front shifted westward and how tectonic activities interact with submarine canyon paths in the transition area between the active and passive margins. Palm Ridge is a submarine ridge that developed on the passive China continental margin by down-dip erosion of several tributaries of Penghu Canyon; it extends eastward across the deformation front into the submarine Taiwan accretionary wedge. The presence of proto-thrusts that are located west of the frontal thrust implies that the compressional stress field has advanced westward due to the convergence of the Philippine Sea Plate and Eurasian Plate. Since the deformation front is defined as the location of the most frontal contractional structure, no significant contractional structure should appear west of it. We thus suggest moving the location of the previously mapped deformation front farther west to where the westernmost proto-thrust lies. High-resolution seismic and bathymetric data reveal that the directions of the paleo-submarine canyons run transverse to the present slope dip, while the present submarine canyons head down slope in the study area. We propose that this might be the result of the westward migration of the deformation front that changed the paleo-bathymetry and thus the canyon path directions. The interactions of down-slope processes and active tectonics control the canyon paths in our study area.

  9. Influence of stiffness constant of stern bearing on vibration and acoustic radiation of whole submarine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Lucai

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available [Objectives] This paper studies the influence of the stiffness constant of a stern bearing on the vibration and acoustic radiation of a whole submarine.[Methods] Based on the form of SUBOFF, a whole submarine model is established in which the structures of the propeller and shaft are first formed in solid elements. Through calculating and comparing the structural vibration and acoustic radiation driven by a vertically excited force, the influence of the elastic coefficient of the stern bearing on the vibroacoustic of the overall submarine structure is mainly considered. [Results] It is demonstrated that the reduction of the elastic coefficient of the stern bearing leads to the convergence of structural vibration and acoustic radiation to the second order overall bending modal frequency, and the frequency gradually becomes lower, which can benefit the vibroacoustic reduction of submarines at frequencies higher than the second order overall bending modal frequency. [Conclusions] These results provide a reference for the acoustic design of submarine structures.

  10. Methane concentration inside a submarine mud volcano examined through seismic velocity profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kioka, Arata; Tsuji, Takeshi; Otsuka, Hironori; Ashi, Juichiro

    2017-04-01

    Mud volcanoes are considered to be among largest geological sources releasing hydrocarbon gases into the atmosphere. Numerous studies have revealed their origins and compositions from submarine mud volcanoes. A recent long-term observation at a submarine mud volcano sheds light on that larger volume of methane gas than expected is escaped from deep-water mud volcanoes, suggesting that the global methane flux from the seafloor is likely underestimated. Yet, estimates of the gas amount inside mud volcanoes have been still challenging, because of the difficulty of in-situ measurements. This study provides a new model to bridge methane amounts and seismic velocities in fluidized mud conduits of submarine mud volcanoes. This model is universally applicable and enables estimates of methane concentration in the mud conduits, using the seismic velocity profile derived from reflection/refraction seismic and/or downhole logging data. In this study, (1) we examine our modeled results through deep-drilling data obtained at mud volcanoes in the Olimpi mud field of the central Mediterranean Ridge accretionary margin, to evaluate the difference between in situ methane amounts and those calculated from our model, and (2) apply our model to the seismic velocity profile derived from seicmic data to estimate the methane amount inside the submarine mud volcano in the Nankai accretionary margin. Our scheme may provide an opportunity to re-estimate the total methane flux from submarine mud volcanoes.

  11. The Keelung Submarine Volcano in the near-shore area of northern Taiwan and its tectonic implication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ching-Hui; Hsu, Shu-Kun; Lin, Shiao-Shan; Yang, Tsanyao F.; Wang, Shiou-Ya; Doo, Wen-Bin; Lee, Hsiao-Fen; Lan, Tefang; Huang, Jian-Cheng; Liang, Chin-Wei

    2017-11-01

    The Taiwan mountain belt has been created due to the collision between the Philippine Sea Plate and the Eurasian Plate. Northernmost Taiwan and its offshore area are now under post-collisional collapse. The post-collisional magmatism is distributed around northern Taiwan. Here we first report a submarine volcano, named Keelung Submarine Volcano, existing in the near-shore area of northern Taiwan. The high 3He/4He ratios in the collected seawater samples suggest that the magma of the Keelung Submarine Volcano is derived from a mantle source. Geometrically, both the Keelung Submarine Volcano and the Tatun Volcano Group are situated above the western border of the subducted Philippine Sea Plate and may have a same magma source. Both volcanic areas belong to the northern Taiwan volcanic zone, instead of the Ryukyu volcanic front. The Keelung Submarine Volcano has been rotated clockwise ∼48° after its formation, which implies that the Keelung Submarine Volcano has formed before the Luzon arc collided against northern Taiwan. Consequently, the post-collisional model to explain the formation of the northern Taiwan volcanic zone is questionable. As indicated by numerous shallow earthquakes and persistent emissions of the volcanic gases out of the seafloor around the volcanic cone, the Keelung Submarine Volcano is as active as the Tatun Volcano Group. For the sake of volcanic hazard assessment, it is essential to monitor the activity of the Keelung Submarine Volcano.

  12. CFD RANS Simulations on a Generic Conventional Scale Model Submarine: Comparison between Fluent and OpenFOAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    1 – Hydrodynamics”, Defence Science and Technology Organisation Technical Report DSTO-TR-1622, 2004. UNCLASSIFIED DST-Group-TN-1449 UNCLASSIFIED...17 7. Joubert, P.N., “Some Aspects of Submarine Design Part 2– Shape of a Submarine 2026”, Defence Science and Technology Organisation Technical

  13. High accuracy station moving method for total station in submarine construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIN Shaosong

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available [Objectives] When we measure submarine pressure hulls using a total station, it is essential to set several stations in order to complete the measurement of the whole cabin due to the complicated measuring environment. However, there are many restrictions related to the total station itself when moving stations, and it is also difficult to ensure measuring accuracy and satisfy the requirements of submarine measurement in complicated environments.[Methods] As such, a new station moving method is presented which can automatically establish standing relationships by measuring common points at every measuring position.[Results] This method can significantly improve accuracy and efficiency.[Conclusions] The experiment shows that the results of the new station moving method can meet sub-pixel precision and satisfy submarine measurement requirements with high accuracy.

  14. Submarine landslide and tsunami hazards offshore southern Alaska: Seismic strengthening versus rapid sedimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Derek E.; Reece, Robert S.; Gulick, Sean P. S.; Lenz, Brandi L.

    2017-08-01

    The southern Alaskan offshore margin is prone to submarine landslides and tsunami hazards due to seismically active plate boundaries and extreme sedimentation rates from glacially enhanced mountain erosion. We examine the submarine landslide potential with new shear strength measurements acquired by Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 341 on the continental slope and Surveyor Fan. These data reveal lower than expected sediment strength. Contrary to other active margins where seismic strengthening enhances slope stability, the high-sedimentation margin offshore southern Alaska behaves like a passive margin from a shear strength perspective. We interpret that seismic strengthening occurs but is offset by high sedimentation rates and overpressure. This conclusion is supported by shear strength outside of the fan that follow an active margin trend. More broadly, seismically active margins with wet-based glaciers are susceptible to submarine landslide hazards because of the combination of high sedimentation rates and earthquake shaking.

  15. The Zambezi Channel: A new perspective on submarine channel evolution at low latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiles, E.; Green, A.; Watkeys, M.; Jokat, W.

    2017-06-01

    Submarine channels are not stand-alone systems. They are long-lived systems modified by imperceptibly slow processes and rapid gravity flows, in some part controlled by hinterland dynamics. The submarine Zambezi Channel, within the Mozambique Channel, receives sediment from the Zambezi River catchment which has a dynamic tectonic and morphological history. Using recently collected multibeam bathymetry and PARASOUND data we discuss the geomorphology of the Zambezi Channel. Results show this system to be distinct in geomorphologic character when compared to other low-latitude submarine channels, sharing similarities with high-latitude systems. We propose a new, source-to-sink, hypothesis for the evolution of the Zambezi Channel, taking in to consideration hinterland tectonics, palaeo-lake development, river capture and rapid gravity flows. This hypothesis accounts for the unique present-day anatomy of the Zambezi Channel within the dynamic framework of the systems regional setting.

  16. Research on Big Data Attribute Selection Method in Submarine Optical Fiber Network Fault Diagnosis Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Ganlang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available At present, in the fault diagnosis database of submarine optical fiber network, the attribute selection of large data is completed by detecting the attributes of the data, the accuracy of large data attribute selection cannot be guaranteed. In this paper, a large data attribute selection method based on support vector machines (SVM for fault diagnosis database of submarine optical fiber network is proposed. Mining large data in the database of optical fiber network fault diagnosis, and calculate its attribute weight, attribute classification is completed according to attribute weight, so as to complete attribute selection of large data. Experimental results prove that ,the proposed method can improve the accuracy of large data attribute selection in fault diagnosis database of submarine optical fiber network, and has high use value.

  17. Chemical Fluxes from a Recently Erupted Submarine Volcano on the Mariana Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, N. J.; Resing, J. A.; Lupton, J. E.; Larson, B. I.; Walker, S. L.; Baker, E. T.

    2016-12-01

    While hydrothermal circulation is paramount to the geochemical budget for a wide array of elements, relatively few flux estimates exist in the literature. To date most studies have concentrated on constraining global and vent-field scale inputs originating from ocean spreading ridges. The goal of this study is to directly measure the chemical flux from an active submarine volcano injecting hydrothermal fluids into the surface ocean. Ahyi Seamount, a submarine intraoceanic arc volcano located in the Northern Mariana Islands, has a summit depth TSM and total and dissolved Fe and Mn. Laboratory analyses found enriched concentrations of H2, 3He, CO2 and Fe, consistent with a recent eruption. Preliminary flux calculations estimate a Fe input of 16 mmol s-1. This indicates shallow submarine arc volcanoes are capable of supplying appreciable quantities of Fe into the surface ocean. Further laboratory analyses and calculations to characterize and constrain the fluxes of other chemical constituents are underway.

  18. Air blast injuries killed the crew of the submarine H.L. Hunley.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel M Lance

    Full Text Available The submarine H.L. Hunley was the first submarine to sink an enemy ship during combat; however, the cause of its sinking has been a mystery for over 150 years. The Hunley set off a 61.2 kg (135 lb black powder torpedo at a distance less than 5 m (16 ft off its bow. Scaled experiments were performed that measured black powder and shock tube explosions underwater and propagation of blasts through a model ship hull. This propagation data was used in combination with archival experimental data to evaluate the risk to the crew from their own torpedo. The blast produced likely caused flexion of the ship hull to transmit the blast wave; the secondary wave transmitted inside the crew compartment was of sufficient magnitude that the calculated chances of survival were less than 16% for each crew member. The submarine drifted to its resting place after the crew died of air blast trauma within the hull.

  19. Origin of the Easter Submarine Alignment: morphology and structural lineaments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristián Rodrigo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Easter submarine alignment corresponds to a sequence of seamounts and oceanic islands which runs from the Ahu-Umu volcanic fields in the west to its intersection with the Nazca Ridge in the east, with a total length of about 2.900 km and a strike of N85°E. Recent bathymetric compilations that include combined satellite derived and shipboard data (Global Topography and multibeam bathymetric data (from NGDC-NOAA are interpreted both qualitatively and quantitatively by using a morphological analysis, which was comprised of the determination of bathymetric patterns, trends in lineations and structures; height measurements, computation of basal areas and volumes of seamounts, in order to establish clues on the origin of this seamount chain and to establish relationships with the regional tectonics. In the study region 514 seamounts were counted, of which 334 had a basal area less than the reference seamount (Moai. In general, the largest seamounts (>1000 m in height tend to align and to have a larger volume, with an elongation of their bases along the seamount chain. On the other hand, smaller seamounts tend to be distributed more randomly with more circular bases. As a consequence of the morphological analysis, the best possible mechanism that explains the origin of the seamount chain is the existence of a localized hotspot to the west of the Salas y Gómez Island. The corresponding plume would contribute additional magmatic material towards the East Pacific Rise through canalizations, whose secondary branches would feed intermediate volcanoes. It is possible that within the Easter Island region there would be another minor contribution through fractures in the crust, due to the crustal weakening that was produced by the Easter Fracture Zone.

  20. The Atlas of Submarine Glacial Landforms: Modern, Quaternary and Ancient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowdeswell, Julian A.; Canals, Miquel; Jakobsson, Martin; Todd, Brian J.; Dowdeswell, Evelyn K.; Hogan, Kelly A.

    2017-04-01

    Twenty years ago, the international marine community brought together a first Atlas of Acoustic Images of the high-latitude geo-marine environment (Davies et al. 1997). The present Atlas is a new attempt to summarize the state of knowledge of high-latitude glacier-influenced systems, focusing on HR imagery derived from multibeam swath bathymetry and novel 2D and 3D seismic reflection tools. These new-generation techniques, aided by accurate global positioning, have revolutionized the imaging of the seafloor and subseafloor over the past two decades and have now been deployed widely in polar and subpolar waters, providing vast quantities of new data. It is, therefore, timely to provide a compilation of the variety of submarine glacial and related landforms, together with their stratigraphic setting where possible, for scientific, technological, environmental and economic reasons. The glacial imprint on the modern seabed and palaeo-shelf surfaces, buried in glacial-sedimentary depocentres, can now be imaged better than ever before using the above techniques, providing novel insights into present and past environmental conditions and sedimentary architecture. The understanding of polar regions and their changing ice cover is of enhanced significance as they are both a key driver of global change and important responders to it. Finally, industry is increasingly interested on the dimensions and architecture of glacial sedimentary depocentres on present and past continental shelves because of the hydrocarbon potential of some glacial-sedimentary systems. The Atlas consists of a comprehensive series of over 180 contributions that describe, illustrate and discuss the full variability of landforms found on the high-latitude, glacier-influenced systems, and is organised in terms of their positions on a continental margin into those from: (1) fjords, (2) continental shelves and plateaus, and (3) the deep margin and basins beyond. The Atlas has been published by the Geological

  1. Seismic site response of submarine slope offshore southwestern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Yi Lin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Widely distributed Bottom-Simulating Reflectors (BSRs have been observed in the area offshore of southwestern Taiwan where the active accretionary complex meets with the passive China continental margin. In order to clarify the link between seismic site response and sedimentary properties of submarine slope, we evaluate the response of seafloor sediments in regard to passive dynamic loads. The local site effect produced by shallow marine sediments was characterized by estimating the horizontal-to-vertical (H/V spectral ratios of data recorded by the short-period Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBSs. The results show that the maximal H/V ratios appeared in the range of 3.66 - 9.28 Hz, suggesting that the fundamental frequency is dominated by the effect related to the very shallow sediments. For most stations, the H/V ratios estimated based on the earthquakes and noise records were characterized by different patterns. Relatively broad H/V pattern was obtained when the signals were extracted from earthquakes. This phenomenon may be related to soil nonlinearity when a stronger motion applies. In comparison with the available geological structures and bulk density distribution obtained from coring experiments, we found a relatively higher fundamental frequency of about 8 - 9 Hz for the more rigid material, such as mud diapir and folding axes. For most of the area along the slope, the fundamental frequency shows a relatively low value, about 6 - 8 Hz. Finally, when a site is characterized by thick or lowest bulk density sedimentary layer, we observed a fundamental frequency lower than 5 Hz, which is the lowest in our assessment.

  2. Potential Impact of Submarine Power Cables on Crab Harvest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, A. S.; Nishimoto, M.

    2016-02-01

    Offshore renewable energy installations convert wave or wind energy to electricity and transfer the power to shore through transmission cables laid on or buried beneath the seafloor. West coast commercial fishermen, who harvest the highly prized Dungeness crab (Metacarcinus magister) and the rock crab (Cancer spp.), are concerned that the interface of crabs and electromagnetic fields (EMF) from these cables will present an electrified fence on the seafloor that their target resource will not cross. Combined with the assistance of professional fishermen, submarine transmission cables that electrify island communities and offshore oil platforms in the eastern Pacific provide an opportunity to test the harvest of crab species across power transmission cables. In situ field techniques give commercial crab species a choice to decide if they will cross fully energized, EMF emitting, power transmission cables, in response to baited traps. Each independent trial is either one of two possible responses: the crab crosses the cable to enter a trap (1) or the crab does not cross the cable to enter a trap (0). Conditions vary among sample units by the following categorical, fixed factors (i.e., covariates) of cable structure (buried or unburied); direction of cable from crab position (west or east, north or south); time and season. A generalized linear model is fit to the data to determine whether any of these factors affect the probability of crabs crossing an energized cable to enter baited traps. Additionally, the experimental design, aside from the number of runs (set of sample trials) and the dates of the runs, is the same in the Santa Barbara Channel for rock crab and Puget Sound for Dungeness crab, and allows us to compare the capture rates of the two species in the two areas. We present preliminary results from field testing in 2015.

  3. Anatomy of La Jolla submarine canyon system; offshore southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paull, C.K.; Caress, D.W.; Lundsten, E.; Gwiazda, R.; Anderson, K.; McGann, M.; Conrad, J.; Edwards, B.; Sumner, E.J.

    2013-01-01

    An autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) carrying a multibeam sonar and a chirp profiler was used to map sections of the seafloor within the La Jolla Canyon, offshore southern California, at sub-meter scales. Close-up observations and sampling were conducted during remotely operated vehicle (ROV) dives. Minisparker seismic-reflection profiles from a surface ship help to define the overall geometry of the La Jolla Canyon especially with respect to the pre-canyon host sediments. The floor of the axial channel is covered with unconsolidated sand similar to the sand on the shelf near the canyon head, lacks outcrops of the pre-canyon host strata, has an almost constant slope of 1.0° and is covered with trains of crescent shaped bedforms. The presence of modern plant material entombed within these sands confirms that the axial channel is presently active. The sand on the canyon floor liquefied during vibracore collection and flowed downslope, illustrating that the sediment filling the channel can easily fail even on this gentle slope. Data from the canyon walls help constrain the age of the canyon and extent of incision. Horizontal beds of moderately cohesive fine-grained sediments exposed on the steep canyon walls are consistently less than 1.232 million years old. The lateral continuity of seismic reflectors in minisparker profiles indicate that pre-canyon host strata extend uninterrupted from outside the canyon underneath some terraces within the canyon. Evidence of abandoned channels and point bar-like deposits are noticeably absent on the inside bend of channel meanders and in the subsurface of the terraces. While vibracores from the surface of terraces contain thin (< 10 cm) turbidites, they are inferred to be part of a veneer of recent sediment covering pre-canyon host sediments that underpin the terraces. The combined use of state of the art seafloor mapping and exploration tools provides a uniquely detailed view of the morphology within an active submarine canyon.

  4. Shock Testing the SEAWOLF Submarine, Final Environmental Impact Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-01

    usually closed while diving. Very dense bone surrounds the middle ear cavity, which is also lined with thick cavernous tissue, called the corpus ...the external auditory canal is long and narrow and is supported by cartilage. The canal is also lined with a thick, highly vascularized " cavernous ...opening is very small, or closed entirely. The auditory canal and the middle ear are lined with cavernous tissue; the middle and inner ears are also

  5. Scattering effect of submarine hull on propeller non-cavitation noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yingsan; Shen, Yang; Jin, Shuanbao; Hu, Pengfei; Lan, Rensheng; Zhuang, Shuangjiang; Liu, Dezhi

    2016-05-01

    This paper investigates the non-cavitation noise caused by propeller running in the wake of submarine with the consideration of scattering effect caused by submarine's hull. The computation fluid dynamics (CFD) and acoustic analogy method are adopted to predict fluctuating pressure of propeller's blade and its underwater noise radiation in time domain, respectively. An effective iteration method which is derived in the time domain from the Helmholtz integral equation is used to solve multi-frequency waves scattering due to obstacles. Moreover, to minimize time interpolation caused numerical errors, the pressure and its derivative at the sound emission time is obtained by summation of Fourier series. It is noted that the time averaging algorithm is used to achieve a convergent result if the solution oscillated in the iteration process. Meanwhile, the developed iteration method is verified and applied to predict propeller noise scattered from submarine's hull. In accordance with analysis results, it is summarized that (1) the scattering effect of hull on pressure distribution pattern especially at the frequency higher than blade passing frequency (BPF) is proved according to the contour maps of sound pressure distribution of submarine's hull and typical detecting planes. (2) The scattering effect of the hull on the total pressure is observable in noise frequency spectrum of field points, where the maximum increment is up to 3 dB at BPF, 12.5 dB at 2BPF and 20.2 dB at 3BPF. (3) The pressure scattered from hull is negligible in near-field of propeller, since the scattering effect surrounding analyzed location of propeller on submarine's stern is significantly different from the surface ship. This work shows the importance of submarine's scattering effect in evaluating the propeller non-cavitation noise.

  6. Submarine geology and geomorphology of active Sub-Antarctic volcanoes: Heard and McDonald Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, S. J.; Coffin, M. F.; Whittaker, J. M.; Lucieer, V.; Fox, J. M.; Carey, R.; Arculus, R. J.; Bowie, A. R.; Chase, Z.; Robertson, R.; Martin, T.; Cooke, F.

    2016-12-01

    Heard and McDonald Islands (HIMI) are World Heritage listed sub-Antarctic active volcanic islands in the Southern Indian Ocean. Built atop the Kerguelen Plateau by Neogene-Quaternary volcanism, HIMI represent subaerial exposures of the second largest submarine Large Igneous Province globally. Onshore, processes influencing island evolution include glaciers, weathering, volcanism, vertical tectonics and mass-wasting (Duncan et al. 2016). Waters surrounding HIMI are largely uncharted, due to their remote location. Hence, the extent to which these same processes shape the submarine environment around HIMI has not been investigated. In early 2016, we conducted marine geophysical and geologic surveys around HIMI aboard RV Investigator (IN2016_V01). Results show that volcanic and sedimentary features prominently trend east-west, likely a result of erosion by the eastward flowing Antarctic Circumpolar Current and tidal currents. However, spatial patterns of submarine volcanism and sediment distribution differ substantially between the islands. >70 sea knolls surround McDonald Island suggesting substantial submarine volcanism. Geophysical data reveals hard volcanic seafloor around McDonald Island, whereas Heard Island is characterised by sedimentary sequences tens of meters or more thick and iceberg scours - indicative of glacial processes. Differences in submarine geomorphology are likely due to the active glaciation of Heard Island and differing rock types (Heard: alkali basalt, McDonald: phonolite), and dominant products (clastics vs. lava). Variations may also reflect different magmatic plumbing systems beneath the two active volcanoes (Heard produces larger volumes of more focused lava, whilst McDonald extrudes smaller volumes of more evolved lavas from multiple vents across the edifice). Using geophysical data, corroborated with new and existing geologic data, we present the first geomorphic map revealing the processes that shape the submarine environment around HIMI.

  7. Health and environmental risk assessment associated with a potential recovery of the Russian submarine K-27

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosseini, A.; Amundsen, I.; Brown, J.E.; Dowdall, M.; Standring, W. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority/CERAD CoE (Norway); Bartnicki, J. [Norwegian Meteorological Institute/CERAD CoE (Norway); Karcher, M. [O.A.Sys - Ocean Atmosphere Systems GmbH (Germany); Lind, O.C.; Salbu, B. [Norwegian University of Life Sciences/CERAD CoE (Norway)

    2014-07-01

    The nuclear submarine K-27 is one of several objects with spent nuclear fuel (SNF) which has been dumped in the Arctic. It contained two liquid metal reactors (LMRs) of 70 MW maximum thermal power each and used Pb-Bi as the coolant. The reactors were loaded with 180 kg of U-235 at an enrichment of 90 %. In September 1981, the submarine was sunk in the shallow waters of Stepovoy Fjord at an estimated depth of 30 m. Concerns have been expressed by various parties regarding the issue of dumped nuclear waste in the Kara Sea and in particular the submarine K-27. To address these concerns and to provide a better basis for evaluating possible radiological impact (especially as a consequence of a potential recovery of the submarine), an environmental impact assessment has been undertaken. The study is based on construction of different hypothetical accident scenarios and evaluating possible associated consequences for human and the environment. In general, three main scenarios seem probable and thus appropriate for consideration. One is the 'zero- alternative', i.e. investigate the current and future impact assuming no interventions. The second considers an accidental scenario involving the raising of the submarine and the third an accidental scenario related to the transportation of the submarine to shore for defueling. With regards to the accidental scenarios related to raising and transportation of the submarine, two alternatives can be considered depending on where and how a hypothetical accident will take place and whether the subsequent releases occur under water or at the water surface. The issue of an uncontrolled chain reaction occurring as a result of a potential recovery of the submarine will be included in the assessment. The work includes application of state of the art 3D hydrodynamic and atmospheric dispersion models to investigate the transport, distribution and fate of relevant radionuclides following a hypothetical accident in aquatic and

  8. Impact of Submarine Geohazards on Organic Carbon Burial Offshore Southwestern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, C. C.; Tsai, P. H.; Liu, J. T.; Hsu, S. K.; Chiu, S. D.

    2015-12-01

    The tectonically active setting and climatic conditions give Taiwan a high exposure to severe natural hazards. After the Pingtung Earthquake and Morakot Typhoon which occurred in 2006 and 2009, the turbidity currents caused a series of submarine cable breaks along the Gaoping and Fangliao Submarine Canyons off SW Taiwan. Large amounts of terrestrial sediments were fast transported bypass the narrow continental shelf and rapidly moved southward through submarine canyons to the deep sea. Two piston cores which were taken from the Tsangyao Ridge and its adjacent area (OR5-1302-2-MT7 and MT6) might shed light on understanding the export of terrestrial organic carbon to the abyss by submarine geo-hazards. The 210Pb profile of MT7 in conjunction with the grain size data indicates the existence of the Pingtung Earthquake and Morakot Typhoon related deposits. The sedimentation rate of these two cores which derived from 210Pb is approximately 0.05 cm/yr. The cores collected from the Gaoping Submarine Canyon, Gaoping Slope and Fangliao Submarine Canyon are used for analyzing TOC, organic C/N and δ13C ratios. The concentrations of total organic carbon are ~0.5%, and C/N rations almost remain between 4 and 8. The high TOC (~1%) and C/N ratio (>10) are observed in the samples with plant debris. The fluctuation of TOC and C/N ratios in near-shore samples is higher than deep sea. In terms of δ13C-values, it progressively decreases with distances from coastal zone to the deep sea. Due to the larger proportions of land-derived organic carbon, the δ13C-values in the surface sediment of upper Gaoping Submarine Canyon, Gaoping Slope, and the turbidite layers at the head of Fangliao Submarine Canyon are lighter. Furthermore, we use the TOC concentrations and δ13C-values to estimate the fractional contributions of terrestrial organic carbon by a simple two component mixing model, and integrate with the 210Pb-derived sediment accumulation rates to evaluate the organic carbon burial

  9. Nuclear-powered submarine accidents; Les accidents de sous-marins nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tournyol du Clos, A.

    1996-04-01

    Most of nuclear-powered ships are military ships and submarines represent 95% of the total. Most of the propulsion reactors used are of PWR type. This paper gives the principal technical characteristics of PWR ship propulsion reactors and the differences with their civil homologues. The principal accidents that occurred on US and Russian nuclear-powered submarines are also listed and the possible effects of a shipwreck on the reactor behaviour are evaluated with their environmental impact. (J.S.). 1 tab., 1 photo.

  10. Modeling and Synthesis Methods for Retrofit Design of Submarine Actuation Systems. Energy Storage for Electric Actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-15

    sternplane v - sway w - heave u - surge X Y Z y z x Figure 2: Coordinate frame definitions of submarine vehicular dynamics. 2.1 Six Degree of Freedom...where Mν̇ is the total inertial matrix, C(ν) is the Coriolis/centripetal matrix, D(ν) is the total damping matrix, g(η) are the buoyancy and weight...Natick, MA. Retrofit Design of Submarine Actuation Systems Page 7 q - pitch w - heave u - surge δs Msp Figure 3: Hydrodynamic moment unit definition

  11. The impact of the Type 094 ballistic missile submarine on China's nuclear policy

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, Samuel D.

    2009-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution unlimited This thesis examines the implication of China’s near completion of a viable nuclear triad. The objective is to determine first, how this submarine will fit into China’s no-first-use policy with regards to their nuclear weapons. And second, determine how advanced this weapon platform will be. With the introduction of multiple Type 094 “Jin” class ballistic missile submarines, has Beijing set the stage for a possible return to Cold War leve...

  12. Oceanographic studies supporting the assessment of deep-sea disposal of defueled decommissioned nuclear submarines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross Heath, G.; Rea, David K.; Ness, Gordon; Dale Pillsbury, R.; Beasley, Thomas M.; Lopez, Carlos; Talbert, Daniel M.

    1984-12-01

    Based on criteria developed by the international Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), potential disposal sites for defueled, decommissioned nuclear submarines appear to exist in deep water south of the Mendocino Fracture Zone within 200 nautical miles of the United States Oceanographic measurements in the water column and at the sea floor in a study area (W-N) at 39 5°N, 127 5°W will allow the operational and radiological consequences of deep-sea disposal to be compared with land burial of old submarines. The W-N studies also are yielding new data that will provide insights to the deposition and early diagenesis of distal hemipelagic sediments

  13. Submarine Groundwater Discharge in Stony Brook Harbor, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, J. M.; Young, C.; Wong, T.; Hanson, G. N.

    2012-12-01

    As nutrients can significantly impact coastal ecosystems, understanding their path to embayments and oceans is crucial. In Stony Brook Harbor (Long Island, NY), submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) is the only significant contribution of freshwater and thus constitutes the main pathway for nutrients, which may eventually reach Long Island Sound. Subterranean estuaries have been shown to be highly reactive zones where nitrogen attenuation can occur. Understanding the fate of nitrogen in Stony Brook Harbor requires knowing the volume of groundwater entering the bay as well as the amount of denitrification, in the context of the hydrogeological framework. This is achieved by combining electrical resistivity survey, water sampling in piezometers, point conductivity and seepage measurements. A Trident probe inserted 60 cm deep into the sediments allows measuring the conductivity and temperature of the sediments and the overlying seawater. In spring 2011, five Trident transects spreading across the head of the harbor were used as a preliminary study to reveal potential locations for SGD. Locations with significant difference between sediment and seawater temperature and/or conductivities were further investigated using an AGI SuperSting 8-channel receiver resistivity meter. Two ultrasonic seepage meters were deployed in May and July 2011 about 20 m below the low tide mark. Five piezometers were aligned parallel to one resistivity survey. Our resistivity data indicate superficial mixing in the intertidal zone. The freshwater extends quite far under the seafloor, above 67 meters after the low tide mark for one location. The freshwater/saltwater interface seems to be almost horizontal. The piezometer data agree relatively well with the resistivity data. The preliminary average seepage rates observed vary from 3 to 60 cm/d. The resistivity sections reveal the presence of a thin layer of high conductivity above the low tide mark. This matches the observation of a superficial

  14. Draw the Line!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Draw the Line! International Conference, Copenhagen 2008 Papers, proceedings and recommendations is the second publication of the international three year long project "Understanding Puzzles in the Gendered European Map" (UPGEM), which is financed by the European Commission. In this publication we...... present proceedings from the UPGEM conference "Draw the Line!" in Copenhagen May 2008. The proceedings include contributions by UPGEM researchers, conference speeches by other researchers, politicians and gender equality officers in which they relate their work and research with the research done in UPGEM...... in the national contexts (see Draw the Line! Universities as workplaces for male and female researchers in Europe and http://www.upgem.dk/ ). We have also identified and discussed three scientific cultures in physics across the national borders. We call these scientific cultures: Hercules, Caretakers and Worker...

  15. Experimental research on the double-peak characteristic of underwater radiated noise in the near field on top of a submarine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ning; Wang, Sande; Guo, Tao; Li, Xiyou; Yu, Ziyang

    2011-06-01

    The double-peak characteristic of underwater radiated noise in the near field on top of the target submarine was analyzed in depth on the basis of submarine test data on the sea. The contribution of three major noise sources to the radiated noise of a submarine were compared and analyzed, and emphasis was put on the original source, production mechanism, and their correlative characteristics. On the basis of analysis on underwater tracking and pass through characteristics of the target submarine, the double-peak phenomenon was reasonably interpreted. Furthermore, the correctness of the theoretical interpretation was verified adequately in real submarine tests. The double-peak phenomenon indicates that the space distributing character on submarine radiated noise are both asymmetrical with time and space, whereas that is provided with directivity. Studying the double-peak phenomenon in depth has important reference value and meaning in engineering practice for understanding the underwater radiated noise field of submarines.

  16. The Italian Submarine Force in the Battle of the Atlantic: Left in the Dark

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-12

    design during the Interwar period. Part of this discussion will focus on German U-boat design and capabilities prior to the Versailles Treaty in...patrols can be attributed to the restrictions imposed by the Treaty of Versailles and the amount of time required to re-build a German submarine force...

  17. Kolumbo submarine volcano (Greece): An active window into the Aegean subduction system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Andrea Luca; Caracausi, Antonio; Chavagnac, Valèrie; Nomikou, Paraskevi; Polymenakou, Paraskevi N; Mandalakis, Manolis; Kotoulas, Georgios; Magoulas, Antonios; Castillo, Alain; Lampridou, Danai

    2016-06-17

    Submarine volcanism represents ~80% of the volcanic activity on Earth and is an important source of mantle-derived gases. These gases are of basic importance for the comprehension of mantle characteristics in areas where subaerial volcanism is missing or strongly modified by the presence of crustal/atmospheric components. Though, the study of submarine volcanism remains a challenge due to their hazardousness and sea-depth. Here, we report (3)He/(4)He measurements in CO2-dominated gases discharged at 500 m below sea level from the high-temperature (~220 °C) hydrothermal system of the Kolumbo submarine volcano (Greece), located 7 km northeast off Santorini Island in the central part of the Hellenic Volcanic Arc (HVA). We highlight that the mantle below Kolumbo and Santorini has a (3)He/(4)He signature of at least 7.0 Ra (being Ra the (3)He/(4)He ratio of atmospheric He equal to 1.39×10(-6)), 3 Ra units higher than actually known for gases-rocks from Santorini. This ratio is also the highest measured across the HVA and is indicative of the direct degassing of a Mid-Ocean-Ridge-Basalts (MORB)-like mantle through lithospheric faults. We finally highlight that the degassing of high-temperature fluids with a MORB-like (3)He/(4)He ratio corroborates a vigorous outgassing of mantle-derived volatiles with potential hazard at the Kolumbo submarine volcano.

  18. Environmental monitoring of El Hierro Island submarine volcano, by combining low and high resolution satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eugenio, F.; Martin, J.; Marcello, J.; Fraile-Nuez, E.

    2014-06-01

    El Hierro Island, located at the Canary Islands Archipelago in the Atlantic coast of North Africa, has been rocked by thousands of tremors and earthquakes since July 2011. Finally, an underwater volcanic eruption started 300 m below sea level on October 10, 2011. Since then, regular multidisciplinary monitoring has been carried out in order to quantify the environmental impacts caused by the submarine eruption. Thanks to this natural tracer release, multisensorial satellite imagery obtained from MODIS and MERIS sensors have been processed to monitor the volcano activity and to provide information on the concentration of biological, chemical and physical marine parameters. Specifically, low resolution satellite estimations of optimal diffuse attenuation coefficient (Kd) and chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentration under these abnormal conditions have been assessed. These remote sensing data have played a fundamental role during field campaigns guiding the oceanographic vessel to the appropriate sampling areas. In addition, to analyze El Hierro submarine volcano area, WorldView-2 high resolution satellite spectral bands were atmospherically and deglinted processed prior to obtain a high-resolution optimal diffuse attenuation coefficient model. This novel algorithm was developed using a matchup data set with MERIS and MODIS data, in situ transmittances measurements and a seawater radiative transfer model. Multisensor and multitemporal imagery processed from satellite remote sensing sensors have demonstrated to be a powerful tool for monitoring the submarine volcanic activities, such as discolored seawater, floating material and volcanic plume, having shown the capabilities to improve the understanding of submarine volcanic processes.

  19. The fate of the submarine ikaite tufa columns in southwest Greenland under changing climate conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Marc O.; Buchardt, Bjørn; Kühl, Michael

    2011-01-01

    carbonate tufa columns. Here, ikaite is formed as a result of submarine spring water mixing with cold seawater. As ikaite disintegrates at temperatures above 6–7uC, it has been speculated that global warming could endanger this unique habitat as well as other sites. In Ikka Fjord in situ water chemistry...

  20. Frontal and Lateral Submarine Lobe Fringes: Comparing Sedimentary Facies, Architecture and Flow Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spychala, Yvonne T.; Hodgson, David M.; Prélat, Amandine; Kane, Ian A.; Flint, Stephen S.; Mountney, Nigel P.

    2017-01-01

    Submarine lobe-fringe deposits form heterolithic successions that may include a high proportion of hybrid beds. The identification of lobe-fringe successions aids interpretation of paleogeographic setting and the degree of basin confinement. Here, for the first time, the sedimentological and

  1. Contributions for the modelling of submarine cables – current density and simplified modelling of wired layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da; Bak, Claus Leth; Ebdrup, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This article researches two topics relevant for the development of accurate formulae able to estimate the ampacity of HVAC submarine cables. Simplified formulae for estimating the current density distribution, which can be used for theoretical analyses, are developed and compared with the exact...

  2. The Future of the Ballistic Missile Submarine Force in the Russian Nuclear Triad

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    financial setbacks, missile technology failures, and the Kursk sinking in 2000, the SSBN force has slipped back to a lesser prominence.9 B. MAJOR...range category. In the battle for survival, the SLBMs and ALCMs are the most likely potential losers. When the two platforms – submarines and

  3. Scientific Ocean Drilling Behind the Assessment of Geo-Hazards from Submarine Slides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Ercilla

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The workshop ‘Scientific Ocean Drilling Behind the Assessment of Geo-hazards from Submarine Slides’ was held on 25–27 October 2006 in Barcelona (Spain. Fifty mainly European scientists and industry representatives attended from a wide spectrum of disciplines such as geophysics, stratigraphy, sedimentology, paleoceanography, marinegeotechnology, geotechnical engineering, and tsunami modeling.

  4. Estimation of submarine mass failure probability from a sequence of deposits with age dates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, Eric L.; Chaytor, Jason D.; Parsons, Thomas E.; ten Brink, Uri S.

    2013-01-01

    The empirical probability of submarine mass failure is quantified from a sequence of dated mass-transport deposits. Several different techniques are described to estimate the parameters for a suite of candidate probability models. The techniques, previously developed for analyzing paleoseismic data, include maximum likelihood and Type II (Bayesian) maximum likelihood methods derived from renewal process theory and Monte Carlo methods. The estimated mean return time from these methods, unlike estimates from a simple arithmetic mean of the center age dates and standard likelihood methods, includes the effects of age-dating uncertainty and of open time intervals before the first and after the last event. The likelihood techniques are evaluated using Akaike’s Information Criterion (AIC) and Akaike’s Bayesian Information Criterion (ABIC) to select the optimal model. The techniques are applied to mass transport deposits recorded in two Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) drill sites located in the Ursa Basin, northern Gulf of Mexico. Dates of the deposits were constrained by regional bio- and magnetostratigraphy from a previous study. Results of the analysis indicate that submarine mass failures in this location occur primarily according to a Poisson process in which failures are independent and return times follow an exponential distribution. However, some of the model results suggest that submarine mass failures may occur quasiperiodically at one of the sites (U1324). The suite of techniques described in this study provides quantitative probability estimates of submarine mass failure occurrence, for any number of deposits and age uncertainty distributions.

  5. CLAM - CoLlAborative eMbedded networks for submarine surveillance: An overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meratnia, Nirvana; Havinga, Paul J.M.; Casari, Paolo; Petrioli, Chiara; Grythe, Knut; Husoy, Thor; Zorzi, Michele

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the CLAM project, which aims at developing a collaborative embedded monitoring and control platform for submarine surveillance by combining cutting edge acoustic vector sensor technology and 1D, 2D, 3D sensor arrays, underwater wireless sensor networks protocol

  6. Terrestrial-style slow-moving earthflow kinematics in a submarine landslide complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshu J. Mountjoy; Jim McKean; Philip M. Barnes; Jarg R. Pettinga

    2009-01-01

    Morphometric analysis of Simrad EM300 multibeam bathymetric DEMs reveals details of deformation patterns in a ~145 km2 submarine landslide complex that are commonly associated with slow-moving earthflows in terrestrial settings. This mode of failure, where existing landslide debris is remobilised repeatedly along discrete shear boundaries and is...

  7. Exchange Flow of Oil and Sea-Water in a Ruptured Submarine Pipeline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranenburg, C.

    1983-01-01

    The rupture of a submarine oil pipeline starts var10US mechanisms leading to an oil spill. Among these mechanisms the leakage of oil driven by the difference in specific gravities of oil and seawater is difficult to quantify. A simple mathematical model has been developed and laboratory experiments

  8. Buoyancy-driven leakage of oil from a ruptured submarine pipeline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranenburg, C.

    1983-01-01

    The rupture of a submarine oil pipeline starts various mechanisms leading to an oil spill. Among these mechanisms the leakage of oil driven by the difference in specific gravities of oil and sea-water is difficult to estimate. A simple mathematical model has been developed and laboratory experiments

  9. Geochemical stratigraphy of submarine lavas (3-5 Ma) from the Flamengos Valley, Santiago, Cape Verde

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barker, Abigail K; Holm, Paul Martin; Peate, David W.

    2009-01-01

    New high-precision Pb-Sr-Nd isotope, major and trace element and mineral chemistry data are presented for the submarine stage of ocean island volcanism on Santiago, one of the southern islands of the Cape Verde archipelago. Pillow basalts and hyaloclastites in the Flamengos Valley are divided...

  10. Common Submarine Radio Room: A Case Study of a System of Systems Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    11. Land Attack/Strike Mission Scenario (from PMW770 2011b, 52) .................30 Figure 12. CSG/ ESG Mission Scenario (from PMW770 2011b, 67...request EHF extremely high frequency ESG expeditionary strike group ETR Submarine communications electronics technician FRD Fleet readiness...expeditionary strike group operations mission (CSG/ ESG ) 4. Special operations forces mission (SOF) 5. Mine warfare operations mission (MIW) 6

  11. Mapping submarine sand waves with multiband imaging radar - 2. Experimental results and model comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogelzang, J.; Wensink, G.J.; Calkoen, C.J.; Kooij, M.W.A. van der

    1997-01-01

    On August 16, 1989, and on July 12, 1991, experiments were performed to study the mapping of submarine sand waves with the airborne imaging radar, a polarimetric (and, in 1991, interferometric) airborne P, L, and C band synthetic aperture radar system. The experiments took place in an area 30 km off

  12. Adaptation of a submarine transient detector to the detection of whale sounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hotho, G.H.

    1999-01-01

    As part of an international effort to investigate a potential link between acoustic trials (SWAC 4) of SACLANTCEN with a stranding of Cuvier's beaked whales on the Greek coast in May 1996. TNO-FEL's Transient Detection Demonstrator (TDD). a tool to automatically search for submarine transients in

  13. The Risk of Hydrogen Explosion an a Submarine Part 3 Production of Hydrogen Mixes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kłos Ryszard

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This series of articles presents the problems associated with the conduction of a high-risk project aimed at modernising the hydrogen combustion engines on a submarine. The article describes technical issues connected with obtaining hydrogen-air mixes.

  14. Global land-ocean linkage: direct inputs of nitrogen to coastal waters via submarine groundwater discharge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beusen, A.H.W.; Slomp, C.P.; Bouwman, A.F.

    2013-01-01

    The role of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD), the leakage of groundwater from aquifers into coastal waters, in coastal eutrophication has been demonstrated mostly for the North American and European coastlines, but poorly quantified in other regions. Here, we present the first spatially

  15. Possible climate preconditioning on submarine landslides along a convergent margin, Nankai Trough (NE Pacific)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Katrina; Usman, Muhammed O.; Satoguchi, Yasufumi; Nagahashi, Yoshitaka; Vadakkepuliyambatta, Sunil; Panieri, Giuliana; Strasser, Michael

    2017-12-01

    Submarine landslides are major agents of sediment mass transfer from the shallow to deep sea. Due to their rapid emplacement and tsunamigenic potential, such landslides are significant geohazards for society and off- and on-shore infrastructure. The relationship between climate change and the occurrence of submarine landslides is widely debated. However, there is a lack of continuous long-term submarine landslide records with which to comprehensively understand the relationship between climate-driven forces and submarine landslide occurrence. Here, using oxygen isotope stratigraphy in combination with tephrochronology, we date a 1 Myr continuous record of six landslide deposits (at 13.0-14.2, 323-339, 372-384, 394-413, 508-521, and 857-867 ka) recorded in a slope basin of the Nankai Trough subduction zone, off-shore Japan, which represents the major outcome of this study. The ages of the six landslides coincide mostly with interglacial periods. Thus, we propose that climate forcing might act as a preconditioning factor for slope instability in this active tectonic region.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  16. Autonomous long-term gamma-spectrometric monitoring of submarine groundwater discharge trends in Hawaii

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dulai, H.; Kameník, Jan; Waters, C. A.; Kennedy, J.; Babinec, J.; Jolly, J.; Williamson, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 307, č. 3 (2016), s. 1865-1870 ISSN 0236-5731. [10th International Conference on Methods and Applications of Radioanalytical Chemistry (MARC). Kailua Kona, 12.04.2015-17.04.2015] Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : submarine groundwater discharge * long-term SGD monitoring * underwater gammaspectrometry Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 1.282, year: 2016

  17. Probabilistic Hazard of Tsunamis Generated by Submarine Landslides in the Cook Strait Canyon (New Zealand)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Emily M.; Mountjoy, Joshu J.; Power, William L.; Mueller, Christof

    2016-12-01

    Cook Strait Canyon is a submarine canyon that lies within ten kilometres of Wellington, the capital city of New Zealand. The canyon walls are covered with scars from previous landslides which could have caused local tsunamis. Palaeotsunami evidence also points to past tsunamis in the Wellington region. Furthermore, the canyon's location in Cook Strait means that there is inhabited land in the path of both forward- and backward-propagating waves. Tsunamis induced by these submarine landslides pose hazard to coastal communities and infrastructure but major events are very uncommon and the historical record is not extensive enough to quantify this hazard. The combination of infrequent but potentially very consequential events makes realistic assessment of the hazard challenging. However, information on both magnitude and frequency is very important for land use planning and civil defence purposes. We use a multidisciplinary approach bringing together geological information with modelling to construct a Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessment of submarine landslide-generated tsunami. Although there are many simplifying assumptions used in this assessment, it suggests that the Cook Strait open coast is exposed to considerable hazard due to submarine landslide-generated tsunamis. We emphasise the uncertainties involved and present opportunities for future research.

  18. Beam propagation of tidal internal waves over a submarine slope of the Mascarene Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozov, E. G.; Nechvolodov, L. V.; Sabinin, K. D.

    2009-12-01

    The generation of internal tides over the Mascarene Ridge is studied on the basis of moored measurements and numerical modeling. The beam structure of the internal wave propagation over a submarine ridge is analyzed. The dependence of the beam propagation of the perturbations on the steepness of the slope, the depth of the ridge crest, and the stratification is studied.

  19. Noble gas systematics of submarine alkalic lavas near the Hawaiian hotspot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanyu, T.; Clague, D.A.; Kaneoka, I.; Dunai, T.J.; Davies, G.R.

    2005-01-01

    Noble gas isotopic ratios were determined for submarine alkalic volcanic rocks distributed around the Hawaiian islands to constrain the origin of such alkalic volcanism and hence understand the details of mantle upwelling beneath Hawaii. Samples were collected by dredging or using submersibles from

  20. Submarine groundwater discharge within a landslide scar at the French Mediterranean coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehler, Till; Mogollón, José M.; Moosdorf, Nils; Winkler, Andreas; Kopf, Achim; Pichler, Thomas

    2017-11-01

    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD), the flow of fresh and saline groundwater from the seabed into the coastal ocean, has been intensively investigated in the recent years. This research has usually been restricted to shallow water and intertidal areas, whereas knowledge about groundwater seepage in deeper water is mainly limited to point sources from karstic aquifers. In this study we observed submarine groundwater seepage and a subterranean estuary in sediments at water depths of 20-44 m located within the Ligurian Margin, western Mediterranean Sea. Here, a catastrophic submarine landslide occurred near the Nice airport (French Ligurian coast) in the fall of 1979 after a period of heavy rainfall. During two research cruises, gravity cores were recovered in and around the area of the landslide scar. Pore water samples collected from sediment cores indicated sediments containing freshwater within the landslide scar. Pore water profiles of selected ions, such as chloride, ammonium, manganese, sulfate and barium were used to assess transport and reaction processes within the sediment. A 1-dimensional transport model indicates in most cores upward pore water velocities of 2.3-8.8 cm yr-1. This study shows that submarine groundwater seepage along the French Mediterranean coastline can occur at water depths reaching 44 m.

  1. The non-technical side of office technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruel, Hubertus Johannes Maria

    2001-01-01

    Many office technology projects fail. The outcomes of these projects are often not in line with initial expectations. This book assumes that this disappointing result is largely the result of the fact that office technology projects are too IT-driven. The basic assumption is that the problems

  2. US Navy Submarine Sea Trial of the NASA Air Quality Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limero, Thomas; Wallace, William T.; Manney, Joshua A.; Mudgett, Paul D.

    2017-01-01

    For the past four years, the Air Quality Monitor (AQM) has been the operational instrument for measuring trace volatile organic compounds on the International Space Station (ISS). The key components of the AQM are the inlet preconcentrator, the gas chromatograph (GC), and the differential mobility spectrometer. Most importantly, the AQM operates at atmospheric pressure and uses air as the GC carrier gas, which translates into a small reliable instrument. Onboard ISS there are two AQMs, with different GC columns that detect and quantify 22 compounds. The AQM data contributes valuable information to the assessment of air quality aboard ISS for each crew increment. The U.S. Navy is looking to update its submarine air monitoring suite of instruments, and the success of the AQM on ISS has led to a jointly planned submarine sea trial of a NASA AQM. In addition to the AQM, the Navy is also interested in the Multi-Gas Monitor (MGM), which was successfully flown on ISS as a technology demonstration to measure major constituent gases (oxygen, carbon dioxide, water vapor, and ammonia). A separate paper will present the MGM sea trial results. A prototype AQM, which is virtually identical to the operational AQM, has been readied for the sea trial. Only one AQM will be deployed during the sea trial, but it is sufficient to detect the compounds of interest to the Navy for the purposes of this trial. A significant benefit of the AQM is that runs can be scripted for pre-determined intervals and no crew intervention is required. The data from the sea trial will be compared to archival samples collected prior to and during the trial period. This paper will give a brief overview of the AQM technology and protocols for the submarine trial. After a quick review of the AQM preparation, the main focus of the paper will be on the results of the submarine trial. Of particular interest will be the comparison of the contaminants found in the ISS and submarine atmospheres, as both represent

  3. Rapid Submarine Melting Driven by Subglacial Discharge, LeConte Glacier, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motyka, R. J.; Dryer, W. P.; Amundson, J. M.; Truffer, M.; Fahnestock, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    Submarine melting impacts the stability of tidewater glaciers worldwide, but the connections between the ocean, a warming climate, and retreat of outlet glaciers are poorly known. Clearly warm seawater plays an important role, but the tremendous heat potential resident in oceans and fjords must first be brought into contact with outlet glacier termini in order to affect them. We show here that for many glaciers, the principal process driving high rates of submarine melting is subglacial discharge of freshwater. This buoyant discharge draws in warm seawater, entraining it in a turbulent upwelling convective flow along the submarine face that melts glacier ice. To capture the effect of changing subglacial discharge on submarine melting, we conducted four days of hydrographic transects during late summer 2012 at LeConte Glacier, Alaska. A major rainstorm allowed us to directly measure the influence of large changes in subglacial discharge. We found strong submarine melt rates that increased from 9.0×1.0 to 16.8×1.3 m/d (ice face equivalent frontal ablation) as subglacial discharge increased from 130 to 440 m^3/s over a four day period. This subglacial discharge drove influx of warm seawater (thermal forcing ~ 8° C) to the terminus with fluxes increasing from 1800 to 4000 m3/s. Our ice equivalent frontal ablation rates due to submarine melting are two to three times values found for Greenland glaciers, where thermal forcing is substantially lower (~ 1 - 4 °C) and termini are wider. Together, these studies confirm the importance of submarine melting at grounded glaciers. At LeConte, the total frontal ablation rate (calving flux plus submarine melting) is ~ 3.0 x10^6 m^3/d w.e., which far surpasses surface ablation. One-half to two-thirds of the frontal ablation during September 2012 can be attributed to submarine melting. A two-layer model driven by a buoyant plume of subglacial discharge has been previously invoked to describe the proglacial fjord circulation

  4. Delineation of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) in a large-scaled reclaimed land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, B.; Park, S.; Hwang, J.; Song, S.; Choi, J.; Nam, K.

    2010-12-01

    The Saemangeum reclaimed land in Korea is currently under construction for an eco-friendly multifunctional complex including agriculture, eco-tourism, business, and renewable energy industry. Regarding water supply for the reclaimed land, groundwater is the sustainable water resource and submarine groundwater discharge (SGD), subsurface fluids flowing from land to the sea, is considered as an alternative one. This study was conducted to identify SGD below a southeastern part of the reclaimed land and to delineate its pathway by investigating groundwater chemistry and electrical resistivity distribution of subsurface. Thirty four groundwater samples were collected from shallow agricultural wells placed along the past coast line (~5 km length) of the southeastern part in May and October, 2009. Field parameters including pH, EC, temperature, and ORP were measured using a portable multi-sensor and alkalinity by titration. They were analyzed for stable isotopes (δ18O and δ2H), cations (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Si, and NH4), anions (Cl, NO3, SO4, and PO4), and metals (Fe and Mn). Mean EC value was 1,163 µS/cm, corresponding to the appropriate crop growth because the criteria of crop yield is less 2,000 µS/cm. Stable isotopes results were plotted on the local meteoric water line, indicating lighter than those from sea water. It implied that the groundwater originated from inland precipitation and occurred as SGD along the coast line. From the groundwater compositions showing various water types including Na-HCO3, Ca-Cl, and Na-Cl, it could be concluded that small-scale SGD and seawater intrusion have great influences on the groundwater quality. From correlation analysis of EC-pH, Cl-HCO3, NO3-SO4, NO3-Cl, and (Fe, Mn)-NH4, spatial distributions of SGD were identified. A small catchment (0.2 km2) in the reclaimed land was selected to delineate a SGD flow path by two-dimensional electrical resistivity survey. The longitudinal and transverse lines were 760 and 275 m, respectively

  5. Office 2010 Bible

    CERN Document Server

    Walkenbach, John; Groh, Michael R

    2010-01-01

    The best of the best from the bestselling authors of Excel, Word, and PowerPoint Bibles !. Take your pick of applications from the Office 2010 suite and your choice of leading experts to show you how to use them. This Office 2010 Bible features the best-of-the-best content from the Excel 2010 Bible , by "Mr. Spreadsheet" John Walkenbach; the Word 2010 Bible by Microsoft MVP Herb Tyson; the PowerPoint 2010 Bible , by PowerPoint expert Faithe Wempen; and coverage of Access 2010 from Microsoft MVP Michael Alexander. If you want to quickly and effectively begin using Office 2010, start i

  6. Office 2013 digital classroom

    CERN Document Server

    Holland, Walter

    2013-01-01

    This complete training package makes learning the new Office 2013 even easier! Featuring both a video training DVD and a full-color book, this training package is like having your own personal instructor guiding you through each lesson of learning Office 2013, all while you work at your own pace. The self-paced lessons allow you to discover the new features and capabilities of the new Office suite. Each lesson includes step-by-step instructions and lesson files, and provides valuable video tutorials that complement what you're learning and clearly demonstrate how to do tasks. This essential

  7. A submarine landslide source for the devastating 1964 Chenega tsunami, southern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothers, Daniel; Haeussler, Peter J.; Lee Liberty,; David Finlayson,; Geist, Eric L.; Labay, Keith A.; Michael Byerly,

    2016-01-01

    During the 1964 Great Alaska earthquake (Mw 9.2), several fjords, straits, and bays throughout southern Alaska experienced significant tsunami runup of localized, but unexplained origin. Dangerous Passage is a glacimarine fjord in western Prince William Sound, which experienced a tsunami that devastated the village of Chenega where 23 of 75 inhabitants were lost – the highest relative loss of any community during the earthquake. Previous studies suggested the source of the devastating tsunami was either from a local submarine landslide of unknown origin or from coseismic tectonic displacement. Here we present new observations from high-resolution multibeam bathymetry and seismic reflection surveys conducted in the waters adjacent to the village of Chenega. The seabed morphology and substrate architecture reveal a large submarine landslide complex in water depths of 120–360 m. Analysis of bathymetric change between 1957 and 2014 indicates the upper 20–50 m (∼0.7 km3) of glacimarine sediment was destabilized and evacuated from the steep face of a submerged moraine and an adjacent ∼21 km2 perched sedimentary basin. Once mobilized, landslide debris poured over the steep, 130 m-high face of a deeper moraine and then blanketed the terminal basin (∼465 m water depth) in 11 ± 5 m of sediment. These results, combined with inverse tsunami travel-time modeling, suggest that earthquake- triggered submarine landslides generated the tsunami that struck the village of Chenega roughly 4 min after shaking began. Unlike other tsunamigenic landslides observed in and around Prince William Sound in 1964, the failures in Dangerous Passage are not linked to an active submarine delta. The requisite environmental conditions needed to generate large submarine landslides in glacimarine fjords around the world may be more common than previously thought. 

  8. Boulder emplacement and remobilisation by cyclone and submarine landslide tsunami waves near Suva City, Fiji

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, A. Y. Annie; Terry, James P.; Ziegler, Alan; Pratap, Arti; Harris, Daniel

    2018-02-01

    The characteristics of a reef-top boulder field created by a local submarine landslide tsunami are presented for the first time. Our examination of large reef-derived boulders deposited by the 1953 tsunami near Suva City, Fiji, revealed that shorter-than-normal-period tsunami waves generated by submarine landslides can create a boulder field resembling a storm boulder field due to relatively short boulder transport distances. The boulder-inferred 1953 tsunami flow velocity is estimated at over 9 m s- 1 at the reef edge. Subsequent events, for example Cyclone Kina (1993), appear to have remobilised some large boulders. While prior research has demonstrated headward retreat of Suva Canyon in response to the repeated occurrence of earthquakes over the past few millennia, our results highlight the lingering vulnerability of the Fijian coastlines to high-energy waves generated both in the presence (tsunami) and absence (storm) of submarine failures and/or earthquakes. To explain the age discrepancies of U-Th dated coral comprising the deposited boulders, we introduce a conceptual model showing the role of repeated episodes of tsunamigenic submarine landslides in removing reef front sections through collapse. Subsequent high-energy wave events transport boulders from exposed older sections of the reef front onto the reef where they are deposited as 'new' boulders, alongside freshly detached sections of the living reef. In similar situations where anachronistic deposits complicate the deposition signal, age-dating of the coral boulders should not be used as a proxy for determining the timing of the submarine landslides or the tsunamis that generated them.

  9. The May 2010 submarine eruption from South Sarigan seamount, Northern Mariana Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGimsey, R. G.; Neal, C. A.; Searcy, C. K.; Camacho, J. T.; Aydlett, W. B.; Embley, R. W.; Trusdell, F.; Paskievitch, J. F.; Schneider, D. J.

    2010-12-01

    A sudden submarine explosive eruption occurred on May 29, 2010, from a seamount south of Sarigan Island in the Northern Mariana Islands, propelling a diffuse steam and ash cloud to high altitude. Pre-eruptive seismicity was recorded in early April by stations located on Sarigan and Anatahan Island, 42 km to the south, and indicated a source ~12-16 km south of Sarigan. On May 27-28, a change in seismicity—the appearance of tremor-like waveforms—may have marked the onset of volcanic activity. Also on May 27, an elongate patch of discolored ocean water and possible light-colored floating debris about 8-11 km south of Sarigan was observed from a helicopter. This material was likely produced during low-intensity eruptive activity, and an Information Statement from the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI) Emergency Management Office (EMO) and USGS issued at 2353 UTC May 28 described the observation. The Guam Weather Forecast Office of the National Weather Service reported that the area of discoloration, visible on satellite images at 2313 and 2330 UTC on May 28, was about 10 km2, about twice the size of Sarigan Island. Pulses of tremor merged into a nearly continuous signal by 0305 UTC on May 29, lasting for ~4.5 hours followed by nearly 4.5 hours of quiescence. The EMO issued a declaration closing the region south of Sarigan to all local boating traffic and issued an advisory to aircraft. The explosive onset of the main plume-producing event occurred at ~1148 UTC as confirmed by seismic records on Anatahan Island, with the strongest phase ending ~1200 UTC. Soon after, the Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center reported an eruption cloud reaching an estimated 40,000 feet (12 km) ASL that diminished rapidly on satellite imagery suggesting it was water-vapor dominated. Winds carried the cloud southwest over Guam, and although no ash fall was reported, the cloud was visible and was detected in Aura/OMI aerosol index imagery. Biologists on Sarigan Island

  10. Managing integrity of submarine gas pipeline based on the application of ASME B31.8-S standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wisianto, A. [Pertamina, West Java (Indonesia)

    2004-07-01

    Pertamina operates the East Java Gas Pipeline (EJGP) in Indonesia. The pipeline, which consists of offshore and onshore sections, began operation in 1994. This paper addressed the benefit of pipeline integrity management (PIM) for both onshore and offshore operations. Pertamina has considered adopting the ASME B31.8S onshore guideline for its submarine pipelines. The standard contains both technical and non-technical aspects, as well as a structured methodology which can help the operator in developing a comprehensive PIM and conducting remedial work. The intention of PIM is to prevent integrity problems from creating a significant impact on public safety, the environment and business operations. Pertamina has gathered data, identified potential hazards, performed risk assessments, surveys and engineering analysis in order to achieve high reliability, life extension, optimum cost and minimum lifecycle cost. A corrosion survey conducted by Pertamina on the EJGP revealed that the external corrosion protection is still in good condition and the remaining lifetime of the anode is more than 30 years. However, an in-line inspection will be conducted in the near future to increase the confidence level of corrosion protection. 10 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs.

  11. NCEP Internal Office Notes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) and its predecessors have produced internal publications, known as Office Notes, since the mid-1950's. In...

  12. Office of Child Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on Trafficking in Persons (OTIP) Public Assistance Reporting Information System (PARIS) By Region Office of Regional Operations (ORO) ... 2017 More News > Parent Resources Provider Resources CCDF Fundamentals Subscribe to Receive OCC Updates Home About What ...

  13. Office of the Chief Financial Officer Annual Report 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, Jeffrey

    2009-12-15

    Presented is the 2009 Chief Financial Officer's Annual Report. The data included in this report has been compiled from the Budget Office, the Controller, Procurement and Property Management and the Sponsored Projects Office.

  14. Apparent resistivity and spectral induced polarization in the submarine environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HERCULES DE SOUZA

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Relatively few investigations have employed electrical methods in the submarine environment, which may be promising for mineral deposits or threatened by environmental problems. We have measured the electric field using both disk and bar electrodes in the sea water at three different levels: sea surface, seven meters deep, and sea bottom at a depth of ten meters, employing a 2 m spacing dipole-dipole array with 7 array spacings of investigation, and 13 values of frequencies at steps of (2N hertz, N = -2, -1, 0, 1, 2,.....10. The measurement allowed the analysis of the electric field as a function of frequency and spacing, and of the spectral induced polarization. Modelling and interpretation of the apparent resistivity yielded a good fit with previous drilling data. Analysis of the spectrum of the complex apparent resistivity and the comparison with equivalent circuits, provided information about the grain size, the mineral composition and the major induced polarization phenomenon occurring below the sea. Therefore the result of the present research show the feasibility of measuring the variation of seawater resistivity in situ, as well as the resistivity of sea bottom sediments.Relativamente poucas investigações têm empregado métodos elétricos no ambiente submarino, o qual pode ser promissor para depósitos minerais ou ameaçado por problemas ambientais. Nós medimos o campo elétrico usando eletrodos em forma de disco e de barra na água do mar, em três níveis distintos: superfície, sete metros de profundidade, e fundo do mar a dez metros de profundidade, empregando um dispositivo dipolo-dipolo com 2m de afastamento, 7 níveis de investigação e 13 valores de freqüência a intervalos de (2N hertz, N = -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, ... 10. A medida permitiu a análise do campo elétrico como uma função de freqüência e afastamento, e da polarização induzida espectral. A modelagem e a interpretação da resistividade aparente se ajustaram bem

  15. Ecocitizen at the office

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2014-01-01

    At the office, I do as I would at home At the office, just as at home, we need to stay warm, have light, be equipped (with office material, furniture). We thus need energy and raw materials. This consumption is not without consequences for our environment. How to reduce our consumption? In everyday life, we already have behaviours that allow us to save energy and resources, to sort our waste. At the office it is important to act in the same way as at home, as we spend a lot of time at our workplace. How to act more responsibly at the office, to reduce the environmental impact, and how to stay motivated? Computer, printer, copy machine… or coffee machine. There are quite a few electrical appliances which are indispensable in our office. Always turned on, or almost, they are also often inactive, and it is during these phases of inactivity that two thirds of their consumption occurs. The way one uses the computer is important in order to limit its consumption. Use the sleep mode with care. A c...

  16. Geomorphology and sediment processes on the continental shelf and the submarine Akhziv canyon offshore north Galilee, eastern Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashqar, Lana; Bookman, Revital; Almogi-Labin, Ahuva; Ben-Avraham, Zvi

    2013-04-01

    The northern continental shelf of Israel is relatively steep and incised by submarine canyons. The Akhziv canyon is the largest and most developed and the southernmost in a series of canyons that formed off-shore Lebanon up to Beirut. The canyon is incised into the continental shelf 3 km from the northwestern Galilee coast to a depth of 1200 m. This study aims to understand processes responsible for the canyon morphology and the nature of sediment transport and accumulation mechanisms in the continental shelf and down the canyon to the deep sea. Moreover, the geological section in which the canyon is incised to, and the connection to the western Galilee fault system that transverse the continental shelf is explored for the regional perspective. Akhziv canyon consists of two main channels incised in cross-section V-shape at the upper part of the canyon that connect at 700m depth to produce a U-shaped main channel. The canyon's channels orientation implies a possible connection with the region's fault system. The high-resolution bathymetric map (the National Bathymetry Project) was used for the geomorphologic and morphometric analysis to define the connection between the canyon and the north- western Galilee streams that flow in a main east-west direction, parallel to the terrestrial fault system. Gaps in the submarine aeolian calcarenite ridge on the shallow shelf represent the continuation of terrestrial streams westward during low glacial sea level. Alluvial fans, mapped at 40m water depth, testify for sediment transport from land to the continental shelf toward the canyon head. Shallow high-resolution seismic lines (Sparker) were carried out along the continental shelf and canyon head to reveal the sub-surface structure. The seismic interpretation indicates the presence of channel incisions at depths of 10-15 m under the seafloor, with infill of young sediments which represents phases of deposition and erosion along the continental shelf. In addition, Piston

  17. Surfacing Rescue Container Concept Design for Trident Submarines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    Administration (MBA) from the University of Hawaii at Mãnoa. In 2003 he accepted a lateral transfer to the Engineering Duty Officer ( EDO ) community, and...maritime industry has created a large need for reliable offshore communications. As a result, a wide variety of inexpensive satellite communication...ed LS om up . If ew ers ate the r o ope ch ati syst oxy ec edo n we the e i se o con to RC e s per the cou ion r f bo ver rat arg ona ems ge

  18. Evaluation of Freshwater Aquatic Resources and Stormwater Management at U.S. Naval Submarine Base, Bangor, Washington

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    May, Christopher

    1997-01-01

    Surface and storm water conditions on the Naval Submarine Base (NSB), Bangor, Washington, are evaluated, and recommendations are made to improve water quality and enhance the ecological integrity of aquatic resources located on the base...

  19. Hydrothermal processes related to some Triassic and Jurassic submarine basaltic complexes in northeastern Hungary, the Dinarides and Hellenides

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gabriella B Kiss; Ferenc Molnár; Ladislav A Palinkas

    2016-01-01

      Comparative studies on hydrothermal alteration of submarine peperitic basalt occurrences related to the Triassic early rifting of the Neotethys were carried out in various parts of the Dinarides and Hellenides...

  20. Volume transport data from a submarine cable in the Florida Strait from 1982 to 1998 (NODC Accession 0087879)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Daily mean volume transport data of the Florida Current collected with a submarine cable spanning from South Florida to the Grand Bahama Island in the Florida Strait...

  1. RIMPAC 08: Naval Oceanographic Office glider operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Kevin L.; Grembowicz, Ken; Bricker, Bruce; Crossland, Steve; Bryant, Danielle; Torres, Marc; Giddings, Tom

    2009-05-01

    The Naval Oceanographic Office (NAVOCEANO) Glider Operations Center (GOC) supported its first joint-mission exercise during Rim of the Pacific (RIMPAC) 08, a multi-national naval exercise conducted during July 2008 near the Hawaiian Islands. NAVOCEANO personnel deployed four Seagliders from USNS SUMNER for Anti-submarine Warfare (ASW) operations and four Slocum gliders for Mine Warfare (MIW) operations. Each Seaglider was equipped with a Sea-Bird Electronics (SBE) 41cp CTD and Wet Labs, Inc. bb2fl ECO-puck optical sensor. The instrumentation suite on the Slocum gliders varied, but each Slocum glider had an SBE 41cp CTD combined with one of the following optical sensors: a Wet Labs, Inc. AUVb scattering sensor, a Wet Labs, Inc. bb3slo ECO-puck backscattering sensor, or a Satlantic, Inc. OCR radiometer. Using Iridium communications, the GOC had command and control of all eight gliders, with Department of Defense (DoD) personnel and DoD contractors serving as glider pilots. Raw glider data were transmitted each time a glider surfaced, and the subsequent data flow included processing, quality-control procedures, and the generation of operational and tactical products. The raw glider data were also sent to the Naval Research Laboratory at Stennis Space Center (NRLSSC) for fusion with satellite data and modeled data (currents, tides, etc.) to create optical forecasting, optical volume, and electro-optical identification (EOID) performance surface products. The glider-based products were delivered to the ASW and MIW Reach Back Cells for incorporation into METOC products and for dissemination to the Fleet. Based on the metrics presented in this paper, the inaugural joint-mission operation was a success.

  2. Submarine flow discharge changes as a way to explain incission-overspilling and other cycles in submarine channel sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milana, J. P.; Kneller, B.; Dykstra, M.

    2009-04-01

    -stratification. The second bedform recognized is related to described macrodunes, and is comparable to large-scale antidunes, and produce tabular bodies with very subtle undulating structure. The third and perhaps more important is described as "gravel sheets" although they could be also low-relief gravel dunes developed during low-flow events, on top of the large-scale bedforms or directly over a flat gravelly bed. It is well known that bedforms produce the effect of delay averaged sediment velocity with respect to flow velocity, and thus we propose that this delay has an important geological effect as it creates a lag time between the onset of discharge increase and the time the channel bed reaches an equilibrium with the dominant flows. The effect of changes in the transport efficiency of submarine slope systems in the resulting depositional architecture is already known. However, we introduce here the concept of lagging the coarsest-grained fractions, delayed by the fact they involve in bedform building which move at lower velocities of the flows and hence allow the system to pass along a stage in which flows are big and fast, but the bed is not in equilibrium with them and as a result, canyoning may occur. These changes in external conditions (flow discharge) is likely to occur as a result of changes of turbid water near the slope by fluvial action and hence it would be t result of the interplay of river discharge and eustacy.

  3. ESR dating of submarine hydrothermal activities using barite in sulfide deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoda, S.; Fujiwara, T.; Ishibashi, J.; Isono, Y.; Uchida, A.; Takamasa, A.; Nakai, S.

    2012-12-01

    The temporal change of submarine hydrothermal activities has been an important issue in the aspect of the evolution of hydrothermal systems which is related with ore formation (Urabe, 1995) and biological systems sustained by the chemical species arising from hydrothermal activities (Macdonald et al., 1980). Determining the ages of the hydrothermal deposit will provide essential information on such studies. Dating methods using disequilibrium between radioisotopes such as U-Th method (e.g. You and Bickle, 1998), 226}Ra-{210Pb and 228}Ra-{228Th method (e.g. Noguchi et al., 2011) have been applied to date submarine hydrothermal deposits. ESR (electron spin resonance) dating method is commonly applied to fossil teeth, shells, and quartz of Quaternay period where the natural accumulated dose is obtained from the intensities of the ESR signals which are created by natural radiation. The natural dose is divided by the dose rate to the mineral/sample to deduce the age. Okumura et al., (2010) made the first practical application of ESR (electron spin resonance) dating technique to a sample of submarine hydrothermal barite (BaSO4) to obtain preliminary ages, where Kasuya et al. (1991) first pointed out that barite can be used for ESR dating. Knowing that ESR dating of barite is promising, in this paper, we will present how we have investigated each factor that contributes ESR dating of barite in submarine hydrothermal sulfide deposition. (1) The best ESR condition for measuring the SO3- signal in barite is with the microwave power of 1mW and modulation amplitude of 0.1mT. (2) As results of heating experiments, the signal was found to be stable for the dating age range of several thousands. (3) 226Ra replacing Ba in barite is the source of the radiation. The amount of radioactive elements in sulfide mineral surrounding barite is negligible. (4) The external radiation from the sea water is negligible even in the submarine hydrothermal area where the radiation level is much

  4. Changes to United States Navy Submarine Design and Construction during World War I, as Determined by the General Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    and influence of operational doctrine that led to significant innovation during the interwar period. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW...naval technology and influence of operational doctrine that led to significant innovation during the interwar period. v ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Many...Russian government Anti Access and Area Denial programs, it can be seen how submarine design and construction remains as important today as when Germany

  5. Office Hysteroscopy in Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojghan Barati

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: For patients undergoing in vitro fertilization, lower pregnancy rates are observed inthe presence of uterine cavity anomalies and correction of these anomalies has been associated withimproved pregnancy rates. Office hysteroscopy has been proven to have superior sensitivity andspecificity in evaluation of the endometrial cavity. Diagnostic hysteroscopy can be performed inan office with minimal discomfort and at a much lower cost than in an operating room. Our studywas done to evaluate the importance of office hysteroscopy in diagnosis of pathology in normalappearing infertility work up.Materials and Methods: This study was performed from September 1, 2006 till September 1, 2008at Imam Khomayni hospital, Ahwaz, Iran. All infertile patients who had unexplained infertilityor uterine factor infertility were enrolled in the study and underwent office hysteroscopy. Theparticipants were divided into two groups. Group one was composed of 54 patients with unexplainedinfertility and group two was composed of 53 patients with abnormal vaginal sonography orhysterosalpangography.Results: Of the 54 patients with unexplained infertility; 33 patients (61.2% had normal and 21patients (38.8% had abnormal hysteroscopic findings. Among 53 patients in the uterine factorgroup, there were 7 women (13.3% who had a normal hysteroscopy and abnormal sonography orhysterography.Conclusion: In group one (unexplained infertility, there was a 38.8% positive finding in officehysteroscopy in spite of normal hysterosalpingography and sonography results. Therefore, it seemsthat office hysteroscopy should be a part of a routine work up in infertile patients.

  6. Draw the Line!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    present proceedings from the UPGEM conference "Draw the Line!" in Copenhagen May 2008. The proceedings include contributions by UPGEM researchers, conference speeches by other researchers, politicians and gender equality officers in which they relate their work and research with the research done in UPGEM......Draw the Line! International Conference, Copenhagen 2008 Papers, proceedings and recommendations is the second publication of the international three year long project "Understanding Puzzles in the Gendered European Map" (UPGEM), which is financed by the European Commission. In this publication we....... The UPGEM research has previously been published in national reports from each of the partner countries (Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Italy and Poland). In these individual national reports of universities as workplaces for male and female researchers we discuss scientific cultures in physics embedded...

  7. Afloat Surface Line Commanding Officer Leadership: A Comprehensive Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-05-01

    and development" (Ecker, 1987, p. 62). The Situational Leadership Model was based on an interplay among (1) the amount of guidance and direction (task...followers exhibited in performing a specific task, function or objective (Hersey & Blanchard, 1988). The Situational Leadership Model was based on the fact...thereafter, the Navy adopted the Situational Leadership model because it was felt that no one style of leadership was effective in all situations. The

  8. Representing distributed cognition in complex systems: how a submarine returns to periscope depth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Neville A

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the Event Analysis of Systemic Teamwork (EAST) method as a means of modelling distributed cognition in systems. The method comprises three network models (i.e. task, social and information) and their combination. This method was applied to the interactions between the sound room and control room in a submarine, following the activities of returning the submarine to periscope depth. This paper demonstrates three main developments in EAST. First, building the network models directly, without reference to the intervening methods. Second, the application of analysis metrics to all three networks. Third, the combination of the aforementioned networks in different ways to gain a broader understanding of the distributed cognition. Analyses have shown that EAST can be used to gain both qualitative and quantitative insights into distributed cognition. Future research should focus on the analyses of network resilience and modelling alternative versions of a system.

  9. Physical activity aboard nuclear submarines as measured by pedometry. Interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bondi, K.R.; Dougherty, J.H.

    1985-05-23

    Activity levels of 44 submarines were monitored before and during a fleet ballistic missile submarine patrol. These levels were determined by use of a pedometer worn on the hip. Readings were obtained daily and recorded in a log as miles walked. Through extensive preliminary testing it was determined that the miles unit was useless, due to variability in the sensitivity of the pedometer pendulum movements and the inability to determine a meaningful stride length . Results for any combination of pedometer/user were, however, repeatable. For lack of a better term, results are reported in miles per day and are as follows: Control = 2.11 + or - 0.32 and Underway = 1.01 + or - 0.27 (P<.05 Student T). This reduction of more than 50% in activity level may in part be responsible for the physical deconditioning observed during the course of a 40-70 day submergence period.

  10. Submarine groundwater discharge into the near-shore zone of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stieglitz, Thomas [Marine Geophysical Laboratory, School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville QLD 4811 (Australia) and Australian Institute of Marine Science, Townsville QLD 4810 (Australia)]. E-mail: thomas.stieglitz@jcu.edu.au

    2005-07-01

    Along the tropical coastline of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) region, little is known to date about submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) into the near-shore ocean. In an oceanographic sense, SGD consists of freshwater flow from land as well as seawater circulated through sediments. Recent radiochemical and geophysical studies, using the tracer {sup 222}Rn and apparent ground conductivity respectively, provide evidence for SGD to occur in a variety of hydrogeological settings. In this paper, a non-quantitative overview of different settings of SGD in the region is presented: (1) recirculation of seawater through animal burrows in mangrove forests, (2) freshwater SGD from unconfined aquifers as a narrow coastal fringe of freshwater along Wet Tropics beaches, (3) SGD from coastal dune systems in form of localised freshwater springs in the intertidal zone, (4) inner-shelf SGD from confined submarine aquifer systems comprised of riverine paleochannels incised into the shelf.

  11. Research on Fairing design and CFD Analysis of Submarine Pipeline Inspection ARV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Xiaojian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Along with the fast development of the ocean exploitation, the cost-effective requirement of autonomous & remotely operated vehicle (ARV, which can perform more complicated missions such as the oil exploitation and the inspection of the submarine pipeline is more urgent. The submarine pipeline inspection ARV can help us better understand, protect and efficiently utilize them for human welfare. Fairing design of a new detection ARV are introduced in this paper. In order to select an appropriate thruster that will achieve the required speed of the ARV, the ANSYS-CFX tools are used to predicted the drag force. The CFD results reveal the distribution of velocity and pressure values of the ARV. In order to verify the CFD modeling process, a towed body was developed and analyzed, compared against the corresponding physical test data.

  12. 76 FR 71449 - Reporting Line for the Commission's Ethics Counsel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-18

    ... 200 Reporting Line for the Commission's Ethics Counsel AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission... rules to reflect that the Commission's Office of the Ethics Counsel is now a stand-alone Office of the Commission and that the head of the Office, the Ethics Counsel, reports directly to the Chairman of the...

  13. Sediment community responses to marine vs. terrigenous organic matter in a submarine canyon

    OpenAIRE

    Hunter, W. R.; Jamieson, A; Huvenne, V. A. I.; Witte, U

    2013-01-01

    The Whittard Canyon is a branching submarine canyon on the Celtic continental margin, which may act as a conduit for sediment and organic matter (OM) transport from the European continental slope to the abyssal sea floor. In situ stable-isotope labelling experiments were conducted in the eastern and western branches of the Whittard Canyon, testing short-term (3–7 days) responses of sediment communities to deposition of nitrogen-rich marine (Thalassiosira weissflogii) and ni...

  14. Submarine groundwater discharge and associated nutrient fluxes to Discovery Bay, Jamaica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon-Smith, D.

    2013-05-01

    Recent studies have suggested that submarine groundwater discharge can be a significant source of terrestrially-derived nutrients to coastal waters as groundwater fluxes may be comparable to surface fluxes, especially where river flow is small or non-existent, and more attention is now being paid to the contribution of groundwater discharge to biogeochemical processes within the coastal zone. Due to the high temporal and spatial variability of groundwater discharge, quantification may be difficult and various methods have been used to estimate fluxes. The submarine groundwater discharge and associated nutrient fluxes to Discovery Bay, a small tropical embayment on the island of Jamaica, were investigated. Fluxes via submarine springs and seepage through bottom sediments were determined from direct flow measurements and chemical analysis of groundwater and coastal waters. The total groundwater discharge into the bay ranged from 13 to 67 x 103 m3 d-1. Discharge from submarine springs accounted for 70% of the total discharge during dry periods and was not affected by seasonal (rainfall-related) changes. After periods of heavy rainfall, seepage rates increased ten-fold and accounted for about 80% of the total discharge. Subterranean mixing of freshwater and marine water resulted in brackish (salinity ≥ 11) spring and seepage water. The nitrogen and phosphorus originating in the groundwater diluted conservatively within the bay and the average groundwater nutrient concentrations, predicted from dilution curves, were 97(±39) μM N and 0.76(±0.55) μM P. The highest nutrient fluxes to the bay (1200 mol N d-1 and 29 mol P d-1) occurred following heavy rainfall in the watershed. An extension of the study utilizing the naturally-occurring tracers Rn and Ra, to verify the groundwater discharge estimates, and the results of preliminary 222Rn surveys within the bay are also discussed.

  15. Undersea Communications Between Submarines and Unmanned Undersea Vehicles in a Command and Control Denied Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    models in the Map Aware Non- Unifonn Automata (MANA) modeling environment. This analysis explores the value of several different UUV characteristics as...configurations for UUV and submarine interaction in a C2DE area using a series of models in the Map Aware Non- Uniform Automata (MANA) modeling environment...Non-Uniform Automata MANA-V Map Aware Non-Uniform Automata -Vector Mbps Mega-bits Per Second MOE Measure of Effectiveness MSE Mean Square Error

  16. Zone Defense -- Anti-Submarine Warfare Strategy in the age of Littoral Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    systems malfunctioned at critical times and there is one documented case where the torpedoes they fired failed to detonate .9 However, they were still...Argentine submarine.25 While many ships in the U.S. Navy serve as multi-mission platforms, capable of simultaneously executing numerous tasks, the...fashion with the implosion of the Russian economy. Recently, the Russian economy has shown a resurgence and it has coincided with a resurgence in

  17. Coastal Karst Aquifers in Mediterranean Regions. 2. A Methodology for Exploring, Exploiting and monitoring Submarine Springs

    OpenAIRE

    Bakalowicz, Michel; Fleury, P.; Jouvencel, Bruno; Promé, Jean-Jacques; Becker, P.; Carlin, Thierry; Dörfliger, Nathalie; Seidel, Jean-Luc; Sergent, Philippe

    2003-01-01

    International audience; In coastal regions, the study of karst aquifers and the ground water resource exploitation require a specific methodology and exploration and monitoring techniques. Two directions are investigated, leading to new technological and methodological developments. The first investigation axis deals with the exploration of fresh water plumes from submarine karst springs. An Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) is being developed and tested in order to collect all data (salini...

  18. Deep water velocities and particle displacements induced by acoustic-gravity waves from submarine earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, T. C. A.; Kadri, U.

    2016-02-01

    An uplift of the ocean bottom caused by a submarine earthquake can generate Acoustic-Gravity Waves (AGW), progressive compression-type waves that travel at near the speed of sound in water. The role of AGW for oceans hydrodynamics has recently became a topic of increasing scientific interest. Kadri [Deep ocean water transport by acoustic-gravity waves, J.Geo. Res. Oceans, 119, (2014)] showed theoretically that AGW can contribute to deep ocean currents and circulation. We analyze and simulate the fundamental AGW modes generated by a submarine earthquake. We consider the first five AGW modes and show that they may all induce comparable temporal variations in water particle velocities at different depths in regions far from the epicenter. Results of temporal variations of horizontal and vertical fluid parcel velocities induced by AGW confirm chaotic flow trajectories at different water depths. A realistic example based on the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake shows that vertical water particle displacements of O(10-2 ) m can be generated at 1 Km depth in a 4 km water depth ocean. We show that the velocity field depends on the presence of the leading AGW modes. Each AGW mode becomes evanescent at a critical time, at which energy is transferred to the next higher modes. Consequently, the main pattern of the velocity field changes as the leading mode change. As an example, for a reference point located at 1000 Km from the epicenter, the first five AGW become evanescent after 1.6, 4.6, 7.7, 10.8 and 13.8 hours, respectively. Our analysis and simulations shed light on the spatio-temporal evolution of the deep water velocities and particle displacements induced by AGW that radiate during submarine earthquakes. Thus, this work is a contribution to understand the role of high moment magnitude submarine earthquakes in deep water mixing mechanism.

  19. Deformation microstructures and timing of a large submarine landslide drilled offshore Martinique (IODP Exp. 340)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyard, H.; Le Friant, A.; Brunet, M.; Boudon, G.; Emmanuel, L.; Caron, B.; Villemant, B.; Feuillet, N.

    2015-12-01

    Flank-instabilities constitute a recurrent process in the long-term evolution of many volcanoes. A very large submarine landslide deposit (~2100 km2, ~300 km3) drilled southwest Martinique island during the IODP Exp. 340 in 2012 is likely associated with one (or more) major volcanic flank collapse of Mount Pelée during the Late Pleistocene. A recent study revealed that this D1/D2 deposit is emergent in its central part, frontally confined, and mainly comprises remobilized seafloor sediments rather than debris avalanche material from the volcanic edifice (Brunet et al., subm). Here, we investigate the sedimentary microstructures and timing of deformation from the central (Hole 1400B, ~37 km from the coastline) and distal (Hole 1399A, ~70 km from the coastline) units of the D1/D2 deposit, in order to better understand the emplacement dynamics of such potentially tsunamigenic submarine landslides. High resolution CT-Scan analyses were continuously performed on more than 300 m of sediment cores, in order to characterize and distinguish the internal architecture and the complex deformation features of the sediments at each drilling site. The establishment of the stratigraphy, based on δ18O measurements and AMS 14C dating, is still in progress and may confirm the possible link between the submarine landslide deposits and the flank collapse scars observed on the subaerial part of Martinique. These new insights into the timing and emplacement processes of this large submarine landslide will have important implications for tsunami hazards. ReferenceBrunet, M., Le Friant, A., Boudon, G., Lafuerza, S., Talling, P., Hornbach, M., Lebas, E., Guyard, H., and IODP Expedition 340 science party, submitted. Composition, geometry and emplacement dynamics of a large volcanic island landslide offshore Martinique: from volcano flank-collapse to seafloor sediment failure? Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems.

  20. Onset of submarine debris flow deposition far from original giant landslide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talling, P J; Wynn, R B; Masson, D G; Frenz, M; Cronin, B T; Schiebel, R; Akhmetzhanov, A M; Dallmeier-Tiessen, S; Benetti, S; Weaver, P P E; Georgiopoulou, A; Zühlsdorff, C; Amy, L A

    2007-11-22

    Submarine landslides can generate sediment-laden flows whose scale is impressive. Individual flow deposits have been mapped that extend for 1,500 km offshore from northwest Africa. These are the longest run-out sediment density flow deposits yet documented on Earth. This contribution analyses one of these deposits, which contains ten times the mass of sediment transported annually by all of the world's rivers. Understanding how this type of submarine flow evolves is a significant problem, because they are extremely difficult to monitor directly. Previous work has shown how progressive disintegration of landslide blocks can generate debris flow, the deposit of which extends downslope from the original landslide. We provide evidence that submarine flows can produce giant debris flow deposits that start several hundred kilometres from the original landslide, encased within deposits of a more dilute flow type called turbidity current. Very little sediment was deposited across the intervening large expanse of sea floor, where the flow was locally very erosive. Sediment deposition was finally triggered by a remarkably small but abrupt decrease in sea-floor gradient from 0.05 degrees to 0.01 degrees. This debris flow was probably generated by flow transformation from the decelerating turbidity current. The alternative is that non-channelized debris flow left almost no trace of its passage across one hundred kilometres of flat (0.2 degrees to 0.05 degrees) sea floor. Our work shows that initially well-mixed and highly erosive submarine flows can produce extensive debris flow deposits beyond subtle slope breaks located far out in the deep ocean.

  1. The Dragonian Subsurface Abyss and Submarine Force’s Ability to Counter the Rising Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    36Desmond Ball , Trends in Military Acquisitions in the Asia-Pacific Region : Implications for Security and Prospects for Constraints and Controls...accessed January 24, 2013). 53IHS Jane’s, "Enter the Dragon : Inside China’s New Model Navy," Jane’s Navy International, April 20, 2011. https...99s-overhyped-submarine-threat/ (accessed November 7, 2011). Ball , Desmond. Trends in Military Acquisitions in the Asia-Pacific Region : Implications

  2. Professional orientation and pluralistic ignorance among jail correctional officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Carrie L; Lane, Jodi

    2014-06-01

    Research about the attitudes and beliefs of correctional officers has historically been conducted in prison facilities while ignoring jail settings. This study contributes to our understanding of correctional officers by examining the perceptions of those who work in jails, specifically measuring professional orientations about counseling roles, punitiveness, corruption of authority by inmates, and social distance from inmates. The study also examines whether officers are accurate in estimating these same perceptions of their peers, a line of inquiry that has been relatively ignored. Findings indicate that the sample was concerned about various aspects of their job and the management of inmates. Specifically, officers were uncertain about adopting counseling roles, were somewhat punitive, and were concerned both with maintaining social distance from inmates and with an inmate's ability to corrupt their authority. Officers also misperceived the professional orientation of their fellow officers and assumed their peer group to be less progressive than they actually were.

  3. Navigation and history of science: autopsy to submarine Kursk. Survival previsions were not sufficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Jáuregui-Lobera

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available On August 12, 2000, Saturday, a Russian submarine of the Oscar II class, the K-141 Kursk, sank in the Barents Sea, while sailing as part of the "Summer-X Exercise" manoeuvres. The Kursk was a giant double-hulled submarine, with nine sealed compartments, considered impossible to be sunk. During the manoeuvres, at 08:51 local time, the Kursk requested permission to prepare a torpedo and it received the response "Dobro" (good in English. At 11:29:34 (07:29:50 UTC the Norwegian seismic monitoring network (NORSAR registered an earthquake of intensity 1.5 on the Richter scale at northeast of Murmansk, approximately 250 Km from Norway, and 80 Km from the Kola Peninsula. At 11:31:48, two minutes and fourteen seconds later, a second movement, 4.2 on the Richter scale and 250 times longer than the first, was recorded by different seismographs, even being detected in Alaska. It was equivalent to an explosion of 2-3 Tm of TNT. After a great confusion and propaganda, there was no choice other than to accept the facts: the Kursk had suffered two explosions, had sunk and the whole crew had perished. But what happened in that submarine? It seems clear that survival previsions were not sufficient.

  4. Aerobic performance of Special Operations Forces personnel after a prolonged submarine deployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fothergill, D M; Sims, J R

    2000-10-01

    The US Navy's Sea, Air and Land Special Operations Forces personnel (SEALs) perform a physically demanding job that requires them to maintain fitness levels equivalent to elite athletes. As some missions require SEALs to be deployed aboard submarines for extended periods of time, the prolonged confinement could lead to deconditioning and impaired mission-related performance. The objective of this field study was to quantify changes in aerobic performance of SEAL personnel following a 33-day submarine deployment. Two age-matched groups of SEALs, a non-deployed SEAL team (NDST, n = 9) and a deployed SEAL team (DST, n = 10), performed two 12-min runs for distance (Cooper tests) 5 days apart pre-deployment and one Cooper test post-deployment. Subjects wore a Polar Vantage NVTM heart rate (HR) monitor during the tests to record exercise and recovery HR. Variables calculated from the HR profiles included mean exercise heart rate (HRmean), maximum exercise heart rate (HRmax), the initial slope of the HR recovery curve (HRrecslope) and HR recovery time (HRrectime). The second pre-deployment test (which was used in the comparison with the post-deployment test) showed a 2% mean increase in the distance achieved compared with the first (n = 18, p submarine compromises the aerobic performance of SEAL personnel. The resulting deconditioning could influence mission success.

  5. River and Submarine Groundwater Discharge Effects on Diatom Phytoplankton Abundance in the Gulf of Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alanna L. Lecher

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Gulf of Alaska is a highly productive ecosystem that supports fisheries and subsistence harvesting of marine resources. The highly productive summer season begins with a bloom that is dominated by diatoms. Both river and submarine groundwater discharge have been recognized as substantial terrestrial nutrient (nitrate and silicate sources to the Gulf’s coastal waters. Here, the response of in-situ phytoplankton to groundwater and river water additions was evaluated via a bioassay incubation experiment. Special attention was given to diatom genera, as previous studies have shown that submarine groundwater discharge preferentially induces growth of diatoms. The abundance of Pseudo-nitzschia spp., Chaetoceros spp., and Leptocylindrus spp. increased significantly in groundwater and river water containing treatments. Although groundwater and river water are both rich in nitrate and silicate, groundwater treatments with a higher salinity favored a higher relative abundance of Pseudo-nitzschia spp. Conversely, in the highest river water concentration treatments with lower salinity, relative abundances of Pseudo-nitzschia spp. decreased, while Chaetoceros spp. and Leptocylindrus spp. increased. Total abundances of all three genera increased in the lower salinity treatments. These findings could portend changes in the phytoplankton community composition in the Gulf of Alaska as the climate warms and river discharge increases in the coming decades. Furthermore, the findings support previous assertions that submarine groundwater discharge, with higher salinity than river water, is a preferable source of nutrients to the genus Pseudo-nitzschia.

  6. Anthropogenic impacts on deep submarine canyons of the western Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Vidal, A.; Tubau, X.; Llorca, M.; Woodall, L.; Canals, M.; Farré, M.; Barceló, D.; Thompson, R.

    2016-02-01

    Submarine canyons are seafloor geomorphic features connecting the shallow coastal ocean to the deep continental margin and basin. Often considered biodiversity hotspots, submarine canyons have been identified as preferential pathways for water, sediment, pollutant and litter transfers from the coastal to the deep ocean. Here we provide insights on the presence of some of the most insidious man-made debris and substances in submarine canyons of the western Mediterranean Sea, which are relevant to achieve a "Good Environmental Status" by 2020 as outlined in the European Union's ambitious Marine Strategy Framework Directive. Ranked by size on a decreasing basis, we review the origin, distribution and transport mechanisms of i) marine litter, including plastic, lost fishing gear and metallic objects; ii) microplastics in the form of fibers of rayon, polyester, polyamide and acetates; and iii) persistent organic pollutants including the toxic and persistent perfluoroalkyl substances. This integrated analysis allows us to understand the pivotal role of atmospheric driven oceanographic processes occurring in Mediterranean deep canyons (dense shelf water cascading, coastal storms) in spreading any type of man-made compound to the deep sea, where they sink and accumulate before getting buried.

  7. Turbidity Currents, Submarine Landslides and the 2006 Pingtung Earthquake off SW Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Kun Hsu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Submarine landslides or slumps may generate turbidity currents consisting of mixture of sediment and water. Large and fast-moving turbidity currents can incise and erode continental margins and cause damage to artificial structures such as telecommunication cables on the seafloor. In this study, we report that eleven submarine cables across the Kaoping canyon and Manila trench were broken in sequence from 1500 to 4000 m deep, as a consequence of submarine landslides and turbidity currents associated with the 2006 Pingtung earthquakes offshore SW Taiwan. We have established a full-scale scenario and calculation of the turbidity currents along the Kaoping canyon channel from the middle continental slope to the adjacent deep ocean. Our results show that turbidity current velocities vary downstream ranging from 20 to 3.7 and 5.7 m/s, which demonstrates a positive relationship between turbidity current velocity and bathymetric slope. The violent cable failures happened in this case evidenced the destructive power of the turbidity current to seafloor or underwater facilities that should not be underestimated.

  8. Frontally confined versus frontally emergent submarine landslides: A 3D seismic characterisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frey-Martinez, Jose; Cartwright, Joe; James, David [3DLab. School of Earth, Ocean and Planetary Sciences, Cardiff University, P.O. Box 914, Cardiff CF10 3YE (United Kingdom)

    2006-06-15

    Three-dimensional (3D) seismic data from the continental margin offshore Israel (Eastern Mediterranean) have been used to analyse the compressional structures within the toe regions of two major buried submarine landslides: the ISC and the T20. Both landslides are developed within a Plio-Pleistocene slope succession composed predominately of claystones, limestones and siltstones. The high spatial resolution provided by the seismic data has allowed a detailed analysis of the geometries and deformational structures within the toe regions of the two landslides, and this has been used to develop a mechanical model for their development. Importantly, it has been recognised that submarine landslides may be divided into two main types according to their form of frontal emplacement: frontally confined and frontally emergent. In the former, the landslide undergoes a restricted downslope translation and does not overrun the undeformed downslope strata. In the latter, much larger downslope translation occurs because the landslide is able to ramp up from its original basal shear surface and translate in an unconfined manner over the seafloor. We propose that these two types of submarine landslides are end members of a continuum of gravity-driven slope failure processes, which extends from landslides where the headscarp is completely evacuated, to landslides where the material remains entirely within the headscarp. The differentiation of these two end members is of critical importance as their respective mechanisms of formation, downslope propagation and emplacement are significantly different, and hence need to be taken into consideration when analysing their respective kinematics. (author)

  9. Users Office - Removal

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    As of 8 December 2010 and until the end of February 2011, the Users Office will move from Bldg. 60. New Location : Bldg. 510-R-033 Opening Hours: Monday, Tuesday, Thursday, Friday : 08.30 – 12.30 Monday to Friday: 14.00 – 16.00 Closed Wednesday mornings.

  10. Office-based anaesthesia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    setting. Data for South Africa are lacking, but there seems to be consistent growth in this area, ... inter-patient variation in response to a given dose of a given drug or drug ... Successful office-based anaesthesia requires a particular set of skills.

  11. Research and Communication Officer

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Under the supervision of the Regional Director in Dakar, Senegal, and working closely with the Director of Communications in Ottawa, the Research and Communication Officer seeks to ensure visibility for. IDRC and its research partners and to disseminate the results of research financed by the Centre. He/ she participates ...

  12. Chinese officers in Cirebon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Haryono

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The city of Cirebon was not as large as Batavia (Jakarta or Semarang, but its location on the northern shore of Java made it an important harbour city from which the inland regions of the southern part of West Java could be serviced. As a harbour town, Cirebon became the regional centre of trade and commerce, and many Chinese immigrants settled there. As were other cities, Cirebon fell under the governance of the VOC and later of the Netherlands Indies administration A Chinese officer was appointed to deal with Chinese community issues in the region. With the exception of the well-known Major (Majoor der Chinezen Tan Tjin Kie, whose funeral is described in his son’s book, little is known about the other Chinese officers in Cirebon. Most publications concentrate on the Chinese officers in Batavia or Semarang or in other large cities. Numerous Chinese officers were appointed in Cirebon and in the surrounding regions. Many of them were members of four or five big families. This article describes their lives, families, and descendants, their businesses, and their whereabouts.

  13. ERGONOMIC OFFICE POSITION ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DUMITRU Bogdan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper present the risks faced by people working in the office. In the next pages you will find some methods and suggestions how to prevent the appearance of occupational diseases. These suggestions can help anyone to rearrange his work place in order to make his job more pleasant and healthy.

  14. 76 FR 5391 - Office of Biotechnology Activities, Office of Science Policy, Office of the Director

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of Biotechnology Activities, Office of Science Policy, Office of the Director Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the...

  15. Using multiple geochemical tracers to characterize the hydrogeology of the submarine spring off Crescent Beach, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swarzenski, P.W.; Reich, C.D.; Spechler, R.M.; Kindinger, J.L.; Moore, W.S.

    2001-01-01

    A spectacular submarine spring is located about 4 km east of Crescent Beach, FL, in the Atlantic Ocean. The single vent feature of Crescent Beach Spring provides a unique opportunity to examine onshore-offshore hydrogeologic processes, as well as point source submarine ground water discharge. The Floridan aquifer system in northeastern Florida consists of Tertiary interspersed limestone and dolomite strata. Impermeable beds confine the water-bearing zones under artesian pressure. Miocene and younger confining strata have been eroded away at the vent feature, enabling direct hydrologic communication of Eocene ground water with coastal bottom waters. The spring water had a salinity of 6.02, which was immediately diluted by ambient seawater during advection/mixing. The concentration of major solutes in spring water and onshore well waters confirm a generalized easterly flow direction of artesian ground water. Nutrient concentrations were generally low in the reducing vent samples, and the majority of the total nitrogen species existed as NH3. The submarine ground water tracers, Rn-222 (1174 dpm I-1, dpm), methane (232 nM) and barium (294.5 nM) were all highly enriched in the spring water relative to ambient seawater. The concentrations of the reverse redox elements U, V and Mo were expectedly low in the submarine waters. The strontium isotope ratio of the vent water (87Sr/86Sr = 0.70798) suggests that the spring water contain an integrated signature indicative of Floridan aquifer system ground water. Additional Sr isotopic ratios from a series of surficial and Lower Floridan well samples suggest dynamic ground water mixing, and do not provide clear evidence for a single hydrogeologic water source at the spring vent. In this karst-dominated aquifer, such energetic mixing at the vent feature is expected, and would be facilitated by conduit and fractured flow. Radium isotope activities were utilized to estimate flow-path trajectories and to provide information on

  16. High Line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiib, Hans

    2015-01-01

    factories and warehouses on Gansevoort Street. Today the High Line is a beautiful park covered with new tiles, viewing platforms and smaller recreational areas. The park bridge has simple, uniform, urban fittings and features a variety of flowering plants, grasses, shrubs and trees from around the world......, and galleries. With the High Line, a new urban architectural typology has been created that is aesthetically enriching and sets new standards for urban transformation and urban life. “The park accommodates the wild, the cultivated, the intimate and the social. Access points are durational experiences designed...

  17. Office support staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choat, Dennis E

    2005-11-01

    The pace at which we live and practice in this new century leaves little time to manage many of the menial tasks of day-to-day survival. This is especially true in the field of medicine. With today's insurance policies and procedures, Health Information Privacy Protection Act (HIPPA) regulations, and the low return of payment for time invested, it is crucial to have a supportive group of people around you to help make your valuable time as meaningful as possible. This article will describe an arrangement of ancillary office staff for a colorectal practice. There will be detailed information on job descriptions, expectations, and level of training required for each. Upon completion of this article, one should be able to identify the personnel needed to establish and manage an efficient office from the front desk to the billing department and ultimately the practice manager.

  18. The Users Office turns 20

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    20 years ago, in the summer of 1989, an office was created to assist the thousands of users who come to CERN each year, working over the broad range of projects and collaborations. Chris Onions (right), head of the Users’ Office, with Bryan Pattison (left), the Office’s founder.Before the inception of the Users Office, it was common for users to spend at least an entire day moving from office to office in search of necessary documentation and information in order to make their stay official. "Though the Office has undergone various changes throughout its lifetime, it has persisted in being a welcoming bridge to facilitate the installation of visitors coming from all over the world", says Chris Onions, head of the Users Office. This September, the Office will celebrate its 20-year anniversary with a drink offered to representatives of the User community, the CERN management and staff members from the services with whom the Office is involved. &...

  19. Office software Individual coaching

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2010-01-01

    If one or several particular topics cause you sleepless nights, you can get the help of our trainer who will come to your workplace for a multiple of 1-hour slots . All fields in which our trainer can help are detailed in the course description in our training catalogue (Microsoft Office software, Adobe applications, i-applications etc.). Please discover these new courses in our catalogue! Tel. 74924

  20. 75 FR 15713 - Office of Biotechnology Activities; Office of Science Policy; Office of the Director; Notice of a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of Biotechnology Activities; Office of Science..., Advisory Committee Coordinator, Office of Biotechnology Activities, Office of Science Policy, Office of the... of Biotechnology Activities, National Institutes of Health. BILLING CODE 4140-01-P ...

  1. Submarine glacial landforms record Late Pleistocene ice-sheet dynamics, Inner Hebrides, Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dove, Dayton; Arosio, Riccardo; Finlayson, Andrew; Bradwell, Tom; Howe, John A.

    2015-09-01

    We use ∼7000 km2 of high-resolution swath bathymetry data to describe and map the submarine glacial geomorphology, and reconstruct Late Pleistocene ice sheet flow configurations and retreat dynamics within the Inner Hebrides, western Scotland. Frequently dominated by outcrops of structurally complex bedrock, the seabed also comprises numerous assemblages of well-preserved glacigenic landforms typical of grounded ice sheet flow and punctuated ice-margin retreat. The occurrence and character of the glacially streamlined landforms is controlled in part by the shallow geology and topography, however these factors alone cannot account for the location, orientation, and configuration of the observed landforms. We attribute the distribution of these elongate streamlined landforms to the onset zone of the former Hebrides Ice Stream (HIS) - part of a major ice stream system that drained 5-10% of the last British-Irish Ice Sheet (BIIS). We suggest this geomorphic signature represents the transition from slow 'sheet flow' to 'streaming flow' as ice accelerated out from an environment characterized by numerous bedrock obstacles (e.g. islands, headlands), towards the smooth, sediment dominated shelf. The majority of streamlined landforms associated with the HIS indicate ice sheet flow to the southwest, with regional-scale topography clearly playing a major role in governing the configuration of flow. During maximal glacial conditions (∼29-23 ka) we infer that the HIS merged with the North Channel-Malin Shelf Ice Stream to form a composite ice stream system that ultimately reached the continental shelf edge at the Barra-Donegal Trough-Mouth Fan. Taken collectively however, the pattern of landforms now preserved at seabed (e.g. convergent flow indicators, cross-cutting flow sets) is more indicative of a thinning ice mass, undergoing reorganization during overall ice sheet retreat (during latter stages of Late Weischselian glaciation). Suites of moraines overprinting the

  2. Evidence from acoustic imaging for submarine volcanic activity in 2012 off the west coast of El Hierro (Canary Islands, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Nemesio M.; Somoza, Luis; Hernández, Pedro A.; de Vallejo, Luis González; León, Ricardo; Sagiya, Takeshi; Biain, Ander; González, Francisco J.; Medialdea, Teresa; Barrancos, José; Ibáñez, Jesús; Sumino, Hirochika; Nogami, Kenji; Romero, Carmen

    2014-12-01

    We report precursory geophysical, geodetic, and geochemical signatures of a new submarine volcanic activity observed off the western coast of El Hierro, Canary Islands. Submarine manifestation of this activity has been revealed through acoustic imaging of submarine plumes detected on the 20-kHz chirp parasound subbottom profiler (TOPAS PS18) mounted aboard the Spanish RV Hespérides on June 28, 2012. Five distinct "filament-shaped" acoustic plumes emanating from the flanks of mounds have been recognized at water depth between 64 and 88 m on a submarine platform located NW El Hierro. These plumes were well imaged on TOPAS profiles as "flares" of high acoustic contrast of impedance within the water column. Moreover, visible plumes composed of white rafts floating on the sea surface and sourcing from the location of the submarine plumes were reported by aerial photographs on July 3, 2012, 5 days after acoustic plumes were recorded. In addition, several geophysical and geochemical data support the fact that these submarine vents were preceded by several precursory signatures: (i) a sharp increase of the seismic energy release and the number of daily earthquakes of magnitude ≥2.5 on June 25, 2012, (ii) significant vertical and horizontal displacements observed at the Canary Islands GPS network (Nagoya University-ITER-GRAFCAN) with uplifts up to 3 cm from June 25 to 26, 2012, (iii) an anomalous increase of the soil gas radon activity, from the end of April until the beginning of June reaching peak values of 2.7 kBq/m3 on June 3, 2012, and (iv) observed positive peak in the air-corrected value of 3He/4He ratio monitored in ground waters (8.5 atmospheric 3He/4He ratio ( R A)) at the northwestern El Hierro on June 16, 2012. Combining these submarine and subaerial information, we suggest these plumes are the consequence of submarine vents exhaling volcanic gas mixed with fine ash as consequence of an event of rapid rise of volatile-rich magma beneath the NW submarine ridge

  3. Disposal of Russian nuclear submarines and surface ships; Deutsch-russisches Gemeinschaftsprojekt zur Entsorgung russischer Atom-U-Boote

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klammt, Jens-Uwe; Menger, Bernd; Mietann, Detlef [Energiewerke Nord GmbH, Rubenow (Germany)

    2009-08-15

    A German contribution to the initiative of the Global G8 Partnership against the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction is a project for the disposal of decommissioned nuclear submarines of the Russian Northern Sea Fleet. The Federal Republic of Germany makes available a total of 600 million euro for this purpose for the period of 2003 to 2014. Since 2003, a long-term store has been under construction in the Saida Bay in the Murmansk region for land-based storage of mothballed reactor sections from decommissioned nuclear submarines and components of nuclear surface ships with a total of 178 storage positions, the necessary infrastructure included. At the present time, 33 mothballed reactor sections of disassembled nuclear submarines are stored there. Work is also under way to build and equip a center for conditioning, treatment, and long-term storage of radioactive waste from the northwestern region of Russia, which will be commissioned in 2014. This waste management center is a key item in Russian plans for the establishment of radiologically safe conditions in the region. Germany financed the disassembly of 20 submarines into reactor sections fit for storage. Extensive assistance was provided in improving the material technical basis of the shipyard commissioned to dispose of the nuclear submarines. (orig.)

  4. Investigation of weldments in Victoria-class submarine pressure-hull using magnetic flux leakage and Barkhausen noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samimi, A. A.; Babbar, V.; Krause, T. W.; Clapham, L.

    2014-02-01

    Evaluation of the stress state within submarine hulls can contribute to risk assessments, which provide assurance that in-service induced stresses will not adversely affect the service life of the naval structure. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using magnetic NDE techniques for identification of stresses associated with weldments in two original pressure hulls of Canada's Victoria class submarines. Magnetic Flux Leakage (MFL) and flux-controlled Barkhausen Noise measurements were investigated for identification of patch boundaries and welds in two sections of Victoria-class submarine-hull steel. While MFL showed clear demarcation of weld boundaries, Barkhausen measurements did not provide sufficiently clear response to identify these features in submarine hull samples. For a better understanding of Barkhausen response, uniaxial tensile stress was investigated on separate samples of submarine steel. A nonlinear dependence of Barkhausen response was observed, with a weaker sensitivity to tensile stresses below 200 MPa. This behavior, combined with the presence of substantial surface compressive stresses, was used to explain the observed insensitivity of Barkhausen measurements to the presence of welds.

  5. The study of the impact of ice conditions on the possibility of the submarine vessels surfacing in the ice cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemlyak, V. L.; Kozin, V. M.; Baurin, N. O.; Ipatov, K. I.; Kandelya, M. V.

    2017-11-01

    Traditionally submarine vessels emerging from under ice cover performing by static loading of ice from bellow through the creation of positive buoyancy by main ballast tanks. However thickness of ice (approximately 1 meter) from under which modern submarine vessel can emerge essentially limits the use of traditional method, particularly during submarine vessels motion in the severe ice conditions of Arctic region. For breaking the ice cover of greater thickness can be used flexural gravity waves caused by the submarine vessel motion with certain critical speed near the bottom ice. It is also known that in the coastal areas water depth is often less than 100 meters, and the presence of projections on the bottom surface may effect on the wave propagation pattern. This paper presents experimental study of influence of bottom contour on the deflection and the length of the flexural gravity waves from the movement of submarine. Ice cover failure pattern determined. Assessment of ice-breaking capacity of flexural-gravity waves with using the criterion of ice failure is performed.

  6. Annual Report 2008 -- Office of the Chief Financial Officer (OCFO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, Jeffrey

    2008-12-22

    It is with great pleasure that I present to you the 2008 Chief Financial Officer's Annual Report. The data included in this report has been compiled from the Budget Office, the Controller, Procurement and Property Management and the Sponsored Projects Office. Also included are some financial comparisons with other DOE Laboratories and a glossary of commonly used acronyms.

  7. Effects of office innovation on office workers' health and performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Eline M.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.; Sluiter, Judith K.

    2009-01-01

    The implementation of an innovative office concept (e.g. open-plan, flexible workplaces and a paperless office concept) on health and productivity among office workers was evaluated with questionnaires of 138 workers at baseline and 6 and 15 months afterwards. Work-related fatigue, general health,

  8. Petrological and geochemical Highlights in the floating fragments of the October 2011 submarine eruption offshore El Hierro (Canary Islands): Relevance of submarine hydrothermal processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Losada, Jose A.; Eff-Darwich, Antonio; Hernandez, Luis E.; Viñas, Ronaldo; Pérez, Nemesio; Hernandez, Pedro; Melián, Gladys; Martinez-Frías, Jesús; Romero-Ruiz, M. Carmen; Coello-Bravo, Juan Jesús

    2015-02-01

    This paper describes the main physical, petrological and geochemical features of the floating fragments that were emitted in the initial stages of the 2011-2012 submarine eruption off the coast of the Canarian island of El Hierro, located 380 km from the Northwest African Coast. It attempts to assess the potential of radiometric analyses to discern the intriguing origin of the floating fragments and the differences between their constituent parts. In this regard, the material that conforms the core of the fragments contains the largest concentration of uranium (U) ever found in volcanic rocks of the Canary Islands. This enrichment in U is not found in the content of thorium (Th), hence the floating fragments have an unusual U/Th ratio, namely equal to or larger than 3. Although the origin of this material is under discussion, it is proposed that the enrichment in U is the result of hydrothermal processes.

  9. The Office of Airline Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The Office of Airline Information (OAI) mandate is to collect, validate, compile and disseminate data on airline traffic, performance, finances, and fares. Each quarter, BTS Office of Airline Information (OAI) processes more than 3,800 filings sub...

  10. Enter the Chief Knowledge Officer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner, Dede

    2000-01-01

    Describes the activities done and supported by Chief Knowledge Officers (CKO) and Chief Learning Officers (CLO). Reports on the common characteristics of organizations that foster and support knowledge management, organizational learning, and the formation of CKO and CLO positions. (JOW)

  11. Office of Disability Employment Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Facebook Twitter RSS Email Office of Disability Employment Policy (ODEP) Menu About ODEP ... LABOR DEPARTMENT Español A to Z Index Agencies Office of Inspector General Leadership Team Contact Us Subscribe ...

  12. Virtuelt skrivebord med open office

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kurt Gammelgaard

    2009-01-01

    SDUs erfaringer med projektet Port 22: en virtuel platform med Open Office som kontorpakke til studerende.......SDUs erfaringer med projektet Port 22: en virtuel platform med Open Office som kontorpakke til studerende....

  13. New Office Technology and Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockroft, David

    1980-01-01

    Shows that there are potential problems associated with technological change which demand both serious analytical treatment and the development of sophisticated industrial and social policies. Discusses the office sector, office technology, employment, and trade unions. (CT)

  14. Ergonomics in the office environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Theodore K.

    1993-01-01

    Perhaps the four most popular 'ergonomic' office culprits are: (1) the computer or visual display terminal (VDT); (2) the office chair; (3) the workstation; and (4) other automated equipment such as the facsimile machine, photocopier, etc. Among the ergonomics issues in the office environment are visual fatigue, musculoskeletal disorders, and radiation/electromagnetic (VLF,ELF) field exposure from VDT's. We address each of these in turn and then review some regulatory considerations regarding such stressors in the office and general industrial environment.

  15. PROBLEMS AND SUGGESTIONS FOR OFFICE FURNITURE MANUFACTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cevdet Söğütlü

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the problems encountered in production lines for office furniture manufacturers and gives suggestions to the problems. For this response, a questionnaire was designed and conducted with directors or owners of 50 office furniture manufacturers of small, medium and large scale size enterprises which were randomly selected from different cities. The questionnaire aims to focus on identifying the fundamental obstacles for production, marketing, sales and law. The data from questionnaire was calculated with frequency numbers and percentages for statistical values. In respect to the scope of dependent variables for the study, relationships between the independent variables such as the size of the company scale and Chi Square Single Analysis of Variance (ANOVA were determined. According to the results, 52% of customers constitute owners. The biggest obstacle is the lack of qualified personnel in office furniture production while 46% of customers complain about pour designs. As a result, the study concludes with specific obstacles for logistics (30%, distributions (18%, unpaid bills after delivery (28%, and unconscious of the consumer (24% in the office furniture sector.

  16. Office software Individual coaching

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2010-01-01

    If one or several particular topics cause you sleepless nights, you can get help from our trainer who will come to your workplace for a multiple of 1-hour slots . All fields in which our trainer can help are detailed in the course description in our training catalogue (Microsoft Office software, Adobe applications, i-applications etc.) Discover these new courses in our catalogue! http://cta.cern.ch/cta2/f?p=110:9 Technical Training Service Technical.Training@cern.ch Tel 74924

  17. Educational Services Officer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    range of subject matter Sexual Harassment Programs) areas. The Instructor’s Guide (NAVEDTRA 10821-BI) and Student’s Journal (NAVEDTRA 10. Career...Fold along dotted line and staple or tape) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY NAVAL DUCATION AND TRAINING PROGRAM POSTA. ANO P669 PAID MANAGlNDT SUPqORT

  18. Digital elevation models in the marine domain: investigating the offshore tsunami hazard from submarine landslides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tappin, David R.

    2015-04-01

    Over the past 30 years multibeam bathymetry has replaced single-beam echo soundings as the main tool used to map the sea floor. Developed as a military tool its expansion into the scientific domain has revolutionized our ability not only to visualise seabed morphology, but also to interpret the active processes taking place at and beneath the seabed. DEMs derived from multibeam are now comparable to those on land. One aspect of the improved seabed visualization is in mapping marine geohazards, in this instance, submarine landslides. One of the first multibeam surveys actually programmed to investigate an actual event was in 1999 after the tsunami on the north coast of Papua New Guinea killed 2,200 people. It was a wake-up call, as the relatively small magnitude earthquake - 7.1 - could not generate tsunami waves up to 15m high at the coast. The submarine slump was clearly visible on the multibeam and associated seabed sampling confirmed that it was a recent event. Subsequent research proved that the landslide generated the tsunami as, again for the first time the multibeam was used as the basis for the tsunami simulations. Since 1999 many submarine landslides have been mapped, but not all have an associated identified tsunami. Some landslides are associated with earthquakes and this causes confusion if there is an anomalously large tsunami for example Alaska, 1946 and Java, 2006. Others are suspected of causing a tsunami, but their evidence on the seabed is hard to identify as with Messina, 1908. The most confusing recent tsunami event has been 2011 Japan tsunami, where a submarine landslide to the north of the main rupture is almost certainly responsible for the 40m high coastal waves that struck northern Honshu. The seabed has now been mapped on a broadscale by satellite gravity, but maps from this method cannot identify any but the largest seabed morphologies; most submarine landslides cannot therefore be recognised. Large seabed areas still remain unmapped to

  19. The Home-Office Deduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kertz, Consuelo Lauda; Hartgraves, Al L.

    1987-01-01

    The Tax Reform Act of 1986 applies more severe restrictions on the home-office deduction to employees than to self-employed individuals. The recent changes in the home-office rules are explained and the remaining opportunities for faculty to deduct home-office expenses are outlined. (MLW)

  20. Hydrological data concerning submarine groundwater discharge along the western margin of Indian River Lagoon, east-central Florida - December 2016 and January 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloskey, Terrence A.; Smith, Christopher G.; Zaremba, Nicholas; McBride, Elsie; Everhart, Cheyenne

    2017-01-01

    Indian River Lagoon, one of the most biologically diverse estuarine systems in the continental United States, is a shallow brackish lagoon stretching along approximately 200 kilometers (km) of the Atlantic coast of central Florida. Lagoon width varies from ~0.5 – 9.0 km, with substantial human infrastructure lining both shores. Scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center investigated submarine groundwater discharge at Eau Gallie North, a site along the western shore in the central section of the lagoon, using continuous resistivity profiling (CRP). The CRP array was towed behind a boat along five shore-parallel transects located ~125, 200, 350, 500 and 750 meters offshore and traversing ~1.5 km along north-south transects. Each transect was given a track name (EB., EC., ED., EE., and EF.) and lines were run both north to south and south to north. Repetitive profiles will be conducted along these same tracks, at various times, in order to determine temporal variability. As resistivity is a function of both geology and salinity, temporal changes will reflect salinity changes, as the underlying geology will be presumed to remain constant. Resistivity data were assigned geographic coordinates and water depth values, in order to produce modeled resistivity, accounting for salinity and geologic parameters.  This data release provides the raw resistivity, geographical and water parameter data collected in December 2016 and January 2017.

  1. Experimental study of oil-water with paraffin precipitation in submarine pipelines; Estudo experimental do escoamento oleo-agua com precipitacao de parafinas em dutos submarinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bordalo, Sergio N.; Oliveira, Rafael de Castro [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Engenharia de Petroleo], e-mail: bordalo@dep.fem.unicamp.br, e-mail: rafael@dep.fem.unicamp.br

    2006-07-01

    The deposition of paraffins in submarine pipelines poses a serious problem for the offshore petroleum production. Paraffins precipitate off oily solutions due to a temperature decrease according to the phase equilibrium conditions of the liquid-solid system. After some time, the continuous precipitation leads to deposits in the internal walls of the pipe, clogging the lines and promoting an increase in the head loss of the flow. Consequently, there is an increase in the pressure gradient required to maintain the flow, and the flow rate is reduced. A complete obstruction of the pipeline may occur. In the present work, this phenomenon was studied in a simulation of the subsea operational conditions, where the oil pipelines laying on the seabed are subjected to low temperatures, just a little above the freezing point of water. The pipeline behaves as a heat exchanger and the hot oil from the underground reservoir emerging from the wellhead is effectively cooled down to the point where paraffin precipitation occurs somewhere along the line. An experimental apparatus was built for a 25.4 mm (1 in) diameter pipe-flow model with 13 m of length, submerged in a chilling bath of near frozen water. Stream wise pressure and temperature gradients were measured, in order to evaluate the differences in the behavior of paraffin deposition between one-phase oil flow and two-phase oil-water flow. (author)

  2. Energy dissipation by submarine obstacles during landslide impact on reservoir - potentially avoiding catastrophic dam collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafle, Jeevan; Kattel, Parameshwari; Mergili, Martin; Fischer, Jan-Thomas; Tuladhar, Bhadra Man; Pudasaini, Shiva P.

    2017-04-01

    Dense geophysical mass flows such as landslides, debris flows and debris avalanches may generate super tsunami waves as they impact water bodies such as the sea, hydraulic reservoirs or mountain lakes. Here, we apply a comprehensive and general two-phase, physical-mathematical mass flow model (Pudasaini, 2012) that consists of non-linear and hyperbolic-parabolic partial differential equations for mass and momentum balances, and present novel, high-resolution simulation results for two-phase flows, as a mixture of solid grains and viscous fluid, impacting fluid reservoirs with obstacles. The simulations demonstrate that due to the presence of different obstacles in the water body, the intense flow-obstacle-interaction dramatically reduces the flow momentum resulting in the rapid energy dissipation around the obstacles. With the increase of obstacle height overtopping decreases but, the deflection and capturing (holding) of solid mass increases. In addition, the submarine solid mass is captured by the multiple obstacles and the moving mass decreases both in amount and speed as each obstacle causes the flow to deflect into two streams and also captures a portion of it. This results in distinct tsunami and submarine flow dynamics with multiple surface water and submarine debris waves. This novel approach can be implemented in open source GIS modelling framework r.avaflow, and be applied in hazard mitigation, prevention and relevant engineering or environmental tasks. This might be in particular for process chains, such as debris impacts in lakes and subsequent overtopping. So, as the complex flow-obstacle-interactions strongly and simultaneously dissipate huge energy at impact such installations potentially avoid great threat against the integrity of the dam. References: Pudasaini, S. P. (2012): A general two-phase debris flow model. J. Geophys. Res. 117, F03010, doi: 10.1029/ 2011JF002186.

  3. US Navy Submarine Sea Trial of NASA developed Multi-Gas Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudgett, Paul D.; Manney, Joshua A.; Smith, Matthew J.; O'Connor, Sara Jane; Pilgrim, Jeffrey S.

    2017-01-01

    During a successful 2 year technology demonstration of the tunable diode laser spectroscopy (TDLS) based Multi-Gas Monitor (MGM) on the International Space Station (ISS), we began discussing with the US Navy the possibility of conducting a sea trial of an MGM on a submarine. The sea trial would also include a gas chromatography/differential mobility spectrometer based Air Quality Monitor (AQM), which is used operationally on ISS for volatile organic compound analysis. AQM preparation and results will be the subject of a separate paper. The Navy's interest in testing NASA equipment in general relates to their ongoing search for better air monitoring technology. NASA's goal is studying submarines as closed environment analogs to spacecraft. MGM's core technology was developed by Vista Photonics Inc. using Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grants and expanded for various applications using NASA program funding. The MGM measures oxygen, carbon dioxide, ammonia and water vapor in ambient air, displays concentrations with temperature and pressure, and stores 30 second moving averages. The sea trial involves collocating the instrument with the Central Atmosphere Monitoring System (CAMS Mk II) of the submarine, connecting it to rack power prior to departure, and letting it run during the entire 90 day patrol. All data is stored within MGM, with no connection to the vessel data bus. Crew intervention is limited to checking MGM periodically to see that it is working and power cycling if necessary. After the trial is over, the unit with its data will be retrieved. Post sea trial calibration check and data analysis are planned and results will be compared with both CAMS Mk II data and results from MGM's ISS technology demonstration. Since the sea trial itself has been delayed, this paper describes the preparation of MGM for the sea trial and also provides a summary of the latest data from the ISS MGM technology demonstration.

  4. Preparation of the NASA Air Quality Monitor for a U.S. Navy Submarine Sea Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limero, Thomas; Wallace, William T.; Manney, Joshua A.; Smith, Matthew J.; O'Connor, Sara Jane; Mudgett, Paul D.

    2017-01-01

    For the past 4 years, the Air Quality Monitor (AQM) has been the operational instrument for measuring trace volatile organic compounds on the International Space Station (ISS). The key components of the AQM are the inlet preconcentrator, the gas chromatograph (GC), and the differential mobility spectrometer. Onboard the ISS are two AQMs with different GC columns that detect and quantify 22 compounds. The AQM data contributes valuable information to the assessment of air quality aboard ISS for each crew increment. The US Navy is looking to update its submarine air monitoring suite of instruments and the success of the AQM on ISS has led to a jointly planned submarine sea trial of a NASA AQM. In addition to the AQM, the Navy is also interested in the Multi-Gas Monitor (MGM), which measures major constituent gases (oxygen, carbon dioxide, water vapor, and ammonia). A separate paper will present the MGM sea trial preparation and the analysis of most recent ISS data. A prototype AQM, which is virtually identical to the operational AQM, has been readied for the sea trial. Only one AQM will be deployed during the sea trial, but this is sufficient for NASA purposes and to detect the compounds of interest to the US Navy for this trial. The data from the sea trial will be compared to data from archival samples collected before, during, and after the trial period. This paper will start with a brief history of past collaborations between NASA and the U.S. and U.K. navies for trials of air monitoring equipment. An overview of the AQM technology and protocols for the submarine trial will be presented. The majority of the presentation will focus on the AQM preparation and a summary of available data from the trial.

  5. Growth History of Kaena Volcano, the Isolated, Dominantly Submarine, Precursor Volcano to Oahu, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinton, J. M.; Eason, D. E.

    2014-12-01

    The construction of O'ahu began with the recently recognized, ~3.5-4.9 Ma Ka'ena Volcano, as an isolated edifice in the Kaua'i Channel. Ka'ena remained submarine until, near the end of its lifetime as magma supply waned and the volcano transitioned to a late-shield stage of activity, it emerged to reach a maximum elevation of ~1000 m above sea level. We estimate that Ka'ena was emergent only for the last 15-25% of its lifespan, and that subaerial lavas make up < 5% of the total volume (20-27 x 103 km3). O'ahu's other volcanoes, Wai'anae (~3.9-2.85 Ma) and Ko'olau (~3.0-1.9 Ma), were built at least partly on the flanks of earlier edifices and both were active subaerial volcanoes for at least 1 Ma. The constructional history of Ka'ena contrasts with that of Wai'anae, Ko'olau, and many other Hawaiian volcanoes, which likely emerge within a few hundred kyr after inception, and with subaerial lavas comprising up to 35 volume % of the volcano. These relations suggest that volcano growth history and morphology are critically dependent on whether volcanic initiation and growth occur in the deep ocean floor (isolated), or on the flanks of pre-existing edifices. Two other volcanoes that likely formed in isolation are West Moloka'i and Kohala, both of which have long submarine rift zones, and neither attained great heights above sea level despite having substantial volume. The partitioning of volcanism between submarine and subaerial volcanism depends on the distance between volcanic centers, whether new volcanoes initiate on the flanks of earlier ones, and the time over which neighboring volcanoes are concurrently active. Ka'ena might represent an end-member in this spectrum, having initiated far from its next oldest neighbor and completed much of its evolution in isolation.

  6. Submarine hydrothermal environments as sites for the origin and evolution of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, S.; Baross, J.

    1985-01-01

    That life formed and evolved in hydrothermal environments is proposed. This hypothesis is plausible in terms of the tectonic, paleontological, and degassing history of the Earth. Submarine hydrothermal vents are the only contemporary geological environment which may truly be called primeval and which today continue to be a major source of gases and dissolved elements to the ocean. The microbial assemblages in present day hydrothermal systems therefore could be living analogues of the earliest microbial communities to develop on Earth. The evidence for the hypothesis is reviewed.

  7. Near-Real-Time Sismo-acoustic Submarine Station for offshore monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Anna, Giuseppe; D'Alessandro, Antonino; Fertitta, Gioacchino; Fraticelli, Nicola; Calore, Daniele

    2016-04-01

    From the early 1980's, Italian seismicity is monitored by the National Seismic Network (NSN). The network has been considerably enhanced by INGV since 2005 by 24-bit digital stations equipped with broad-band sensors. The NSN is nowadays constituted by about 300 on-land seismic station able to detect and locate also small magnitude earthquake in the whole Italian peninsula. However, the lack of offshore seismic stations does not allow the accurate estimation of hypocentral and focal parameters of small magnitude earthquakes occurring in offshore areas. As in the Mediterranean area there is an intense offshore seismic activity, an extension of the seismic monitoring to the sea would be beneficial. There are two types of stations that could be used to extend the network towards the sea: the first type is connected to the coast though a cable, the second type is isolated (or stand alone) and works autonomously. Both solutions have serious limitations: the first one, for several technical and economic problems, linked to the indispensable transmission/alimentation cable, cannot be installed far from the coast; the second one, allows access to the recorded data, only after they are recovered from the seabed. It is clear that these technical solutions are not suitable for the real time monitoring of the offshore seismicity or for the realization of a tsunami warning system. For this reason, in early 2010, the OBSLab of Gibilmanna begins the design of a submarine station able to overcome the limitations of the two systems above. The station isbuilt under the project EMSO-MedIT. The two stations built have already been tested in dock and ready for installation. One of this station will be installed, in few time, in the southern Tyrrhenian Sea, near the epicentre of the Palermo 2002 main shock. The sea bottom station will be equipped with 2 very broadband 3C seismometers, a broad band hydrophone, a differential and an absolute pressure gauge. The station includes a submarine

  8. Focused sound from three-dimensional sound propagation effects over a submarine canyon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Linus Y S; Lin, Ying-Tsong; Chen, Chi-Fang; Duda, Timothy F; Calder, Brian

    2011-06-01

    Ship noise data reveal an intensification of the near-surface sound field over a submarine canyon. Numerical modeling of sound propagation is used to study the effect. The noise data were collected during an ocean acoustic and physical oceanography experiment northeast of Taiwan in 2009. In situ measurements of water sound-speed profiles and a database of high-resolution bathymetry are used in the modeling study. The model results suggest that the intensification is caused by three-dimensional sound focusing by the concave canyon seafloor. Uncertainties in the model results from unsampled aspects of the environment are discussed. © 2011 Acoustical Society of America

  9. [Effect of noise in submarine compartment on signal discrimination and arithmetic performance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Z; Liang, Z; Shi, X; Tang, Z

    1997-06-01

    To study the effects of noise level in submarine compartment on signal discrimination and arithmetic performance, experiments were carried out on 13 subjects. The results showed that as noise level raised from moderate (73 dBA) to higher levels (85-92 dBA), work efficiency showed a progressive decrease, but when noise level reached 96 dBA the decrease in efficiency reached a steady state. The results indicated that impairment of efficiency apparently occurred at a level of 85 dBA and that the interference effect of noise was more pronounced on task performance with mental strain.

  10. Effects of symmetrical foundation on sound radiation from a submarine hull structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chenyang; Su, Jinpeng; Wang, Jian; Hua, Hongxing

    2015-11-01

    The effects of a passive noise control method for suppressing sound radiation from a submarine hull structure are investigated. The control method is realized by symmetrizing the foundation about the horizontal plane. The coupled finite element method and boundary element method are adopted to compute the acoustic characteristics of the submerged hull. From the numerical results, the symmetrical foundation has advantages in sound radiation reduction when the hull is subjected to the axial load, but has little influences in the vertical and transverse load cases. Using the modal decomposition technique, the contributions of each individual mode to the sound radiation are analyzed to reveal the mechanism of the control method.

  11. Characteristics and features of the submarine landslides in passive and active margin southwestern offshore Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Y. C.

    2016-12-01

    In the past decade, numerous multi-channel seismic surveys as well as near seafloor high resolution geophysical investigations were conducted in order to explore and estimate the reserves of gas hydrate southwestern offshore Taiwan. The previous object was focused on searching substitute energy (i.e. gas hydrate) rather than geo-hazards. However, it is suggested that most of the gas hydrate is generally distributed at slope area southwestern offshore Taiwan, which indicates the slope may be failed when steady state was disturbed by some factors, such as sea level or climate change. In addition, once gas hydrate was dissociated, this may induce submarine landslide that further cause devastated tsunami. Thus, it is of great urgency to investigate potential landslide area, particularly, the hydrate-rich continental slope (active and passive margins) in adjacent to populous city like Kaohsiung. In this study, we collected several high resolution multi-channel seismic data with ten seconds shooting rate and 3.125 meters group interval streamer by using R/V ORI and R/V ORV. The seismic data were processed in conventional data processing strategy: bad trace clean, geometry settings, band-pass filter, de-convolution, surface-related multiple rejection, radon filter, stacking,kirchhoff migration and time to depth conversion. Combine the results obtained from the MCS data and subbottom profiles, two major results could be raised in the active margin as followed: (1) Most of the surface creeping and landslide was occurred shallower than 500 meters in water depth, which should be related to the inter-bedded fluid activities. (2) The landslide distribution is lagly affected by the presence of diaper, suggesting the subsequent mud diapirism may destruct slope stability; (3) The submarine landslide deeper than 800 meters in water depth distributes in the thrust fold area, that is probably referred to active thrusting. In the passive margin, large volume mass transportation

  12. A model to calculate effectiveness of a submarine-launched nuclear ASW weapon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnoli, D.E.

    1989-06-01

    LLNL's Navy Tactical Applications Group (NTAG) has produced a computer model to calculate the probability of kill of a submarine-launched nuclear ASW standoff-weapon. Because of the uncertainties associated with target position and motion and with weapon delivery, this is a problem appropriately treated statistically. The code is a Monte Carlo's simulation which follows the engagement from localization through optional evasive maneuvers of the target to attack and damage assessment. For a given scenario (weapon characteristics, target characteristics, firing platform depth and hardness, etc.) the code produces a table and ultimately a plot of Pk as a function of range. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Logistics of nuclear fuel production for nuclear submarines; Logistica de producao de combustiveis para submarinos nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Leonam dos Santos [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo (CTMSP), SP (Brazil). E-mail: leosg@uol.com.br

    2000-07-01

    The future acquisition of nuclear attack submarines by Brazilian Navy along next century will imply new requirements on Naval Logistic Support System. These needs will impact all the six logistic functions. Among them, fuel supply could be considered as the one which requires the most important capacitating effort, including not only technological development of processes but also the development of a national industrial basis for effective production of nuclear fuel. This paper presents the technical aspects of the processes involved and an annual production dimensioning for an squadron composed by four units. (author)

  14. Discerning Primary and Secondary Processes in the Volatile Geochemistry of Submarine Basalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauri, E. H.

    2012-12-01

    Defining the primary volatile composition of submarine basalts from mid-ocean ridges, back-arc basins and arc-front volcanoes is key to understanding volatile cycling and the influence of volatiles on melting in the upper mantle. The volatile and halogen geochemistry of submarine volcanic glasses and melt inclusions has been the subject of an increasing number of studies that have made progress in distinguishing between secondary seawater contamination of magmas, and true melting and mantle-source variations, thus enabling observed magma compositions to be used to study the time-integrated cycling of volatiles through the upper mantle. But fewer studies have examined in detail the local-and segment-scale variations of volatiles together with trace elements and radiogenic isotopes, so that it can be understood how and where in the oceanic crust submarine magmas are contaminated by seawater-derived components. Mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB) are significantly affected by secondary seawater assimilation processes due to their low volatile contents. From combined CO2-H2O-Cl systematics, it is apparent that addition of seawater-derived components is enhanced in magmas that ascend more slowly through the crust, and/or erupt away from the ridge axis. Highly depleted magmas that erupt in extensional zones within transform faults (e.g. Siqueiros) show little evidence for seawater addition, due to the near absence of thick crust and hydrothermal systems in such environments. At the same time, there also exists a second tier of more subtle seawater addition that is evident as a function of the extent of differentiation in MORB, pointing to combined assimilation and fractional crystallization as an important process operating in MORB petrogeneis. In detail the geochemistry of the assimilants can vary substantially from simple seawater compositions. Discerning seawater contamination in arc and back-arc magmas is more difficult, not only because of higher volatile concentrations

  15. production lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingshan Li

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, serial production lines with finished goods buffers operating in the pull regime are considered. The machines are assumed to obey Bernoulli reliability model. The problem of satisfying customers demand is addressed. The level of demand satisfaction is quantified by the due-time performance (DTP, which is defined as the probability to ship to the customer a required number of parts during a fixed time interval. Within this scenario, the definitions of DTP bottlenecks are introduced and a method for their identification is developed.

  16. Mastering VBA for Office 2010

    CERN Document Server

    Mansfield, Richard

    2010-01-01

    A comprehensive guide to the language used to customize Microsoft Office. Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) is the language used for writing macros, automating Office applications, and creating custom applications in Word, Excel, PowerPoint, Outlook, and Access. This complete guide shows both IT professionals and novice developers how to master VBA in order to customize the entire Office suite for specific business needs.: Office 2010 is the leading productivity suite, and the VBA language enables customizations of all the Office programs; this complete guide gives both novice and experience

  17. Teach yourself visually Office 2013

    CERN Document Server

    Marmel, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    Learn the new Microsoft Office suite the easy, visual way Microsoft Office 2013 is a power-packed suite of office productivity tools including Word, Excel, PowerPoint, Outlook, Access, and Publisher. This easy-to-use visual guide covers the basics of all six programs, with step-by-step instructions and full-color screen shots showing what you should see at each step. You'll also learn about using Office Internet and graphics tools, while the additional examples and advice scattered through the book give you tips on maximizing the Office suite. If you learn best when you can see how

  18. Office of the Chief Financial Officer Annual Report 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, Jeffrey

    2007-12-18

    2007 was a year of progress and challenges for the Office of the Chief Financial Officer (OCFO). I believe that with the addition of a new Controller, the OCFO senior management team is stronger than ever. With the new Controller on board, the senior management team spent two intensive days updating our strategic plan for the next five years ending in 2012, while making sure that we continue to execute on our existing strategic initiatives. In 2007 the Budget Office, teaming with Human Resources, worked diligently with our colleagues on campus to reengineer the Multi-Location Appointment (MLA) process, making it easier for our Principal Investigators (PIs) to work simultaneously between the Laboratory and UC campuses. The hiring of a point-of-contact in Human Resources to administer the program will also make the process flow smoother. In order to increase our financial flexibility, the OCFO worked with the Department of Energy (DOE) to win approval to reduce the burden rates on research and development (R&D) subcontracts and Intra-University Transfers (IUT). The Budget Office also performed a 'return on investment' (ROI) analysis to secure UCRP funding for a much needed vocational rehabilitation counselor. This new counselor now works with employees who are on medical leave to ensure that they can return to work in a more timely fashion, or if not able to return, usher them through the various options available to them. Under the direction of the new Controller, PriceWaterhouse Coopers (PWC) performed their annual audit of the Laboratory's financial data and reported positive results. In partnership with the Financial Policy and Training Office, the Controller's Office also helped to launch self-assessments of some of our financial processes, including timekeeping and resource adjustments. These self assessments were conducted to promote efficiencies and mitigate risk. In some cases they provided assurance that our practices are sound, and in

  19. Badge Office Process Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haurykiewicz, John Paul [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dinehart, Timothy Grant [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Parker, Robert Young [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-12

    The purpose of this process analysis was to analyze the Badge Offices’ current processes from a systems perspective and consider ways of pursuing objectives set forth by SEC-PS, namely increased customer flow (throughput) and reduced customer wait times. Information for the analysis was gathered for the project primarily through Badge Office Subject Matter Experts (SMEs), and in-person observation of prevailing processes. Using the information gathered, a process simulation model was constructed to represent current operations and allow assessment of potential process changes relative to factors mentioned previously. The overall purpose of the analysis was to provide SEC-PS management with information and recommendations to serve as a basis for additional focused study and areas for potential process improvements in the future.

  20. Configuration Control Office

    CERN Multimedia

    Beltramello, O

    In order to enable Technical Coordination to manage the detector configuration and to be aware of all changes in this configuration, a baseline of the envelopes has been created in April 2001. Fifteen system and multi-system envelope drawings have been approved and baselined. An EDMS file is associated with each approved envelope, which provides a list of the current known unsolved conflicts related to the envelope and a list of remaining drawing inconsistencies to be corrected. The envelope status with the associated drawings and EDMS file can be found on the web at this adress: http://atlasinfo.cern.ch/Atlas/TCOORD/Activities/Installation/Configuration/ Any modification in the baseline has to be requested via the Engineering Change Requests. The procedure can be found under: http://atlasinfo.cern.ch/Atlas/TCOORD/Activities/TcOffice/Quality/ECR/ TC will review all the systems envelopes in the near future and manage conflict resolution with the collaboration of the systems.

  1. The office based CHIVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Passariello F

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Fausto Passariello,1 Stefano Ermini,2 Massimo Cappelli,3 Roberto Delfrate,4 Claude Franceschi5 1Centro Diagnostico Aquarius, Napoli, Italy; 2Private Practice, Grassina, Italy; 3Private Practice, Firenze, Italy; 4Casa di Cure Figlie di Maria, Cremona, Italy; 5Hospital St Joseph, Service d'Explorations Vasculaires, Paris, France Abstract: The cure Conservatrice Hémodynamique de l'Insuffisance Veineuse en Ambulatoire (CHIVA can be office based (OB. The OB-CHIVA protocol is aimed at transferring CHIVA procedures to specialists rooms. The protocol will check the feasibility of OB-CHIVA, data pertaining to recurrence, and will offer the opportunity to study saphenous femoral junction (SFJ stump evolution, the role of the washing vessels and the arch recanalization rate, and gather new data about the effect of the length of the treated saphenous vein. A simplified diagnostic procedure will allow an essential ultrasound examination of the venous net while a schematic and easily readable algorithm guides therapeutic choices. The Riobamba draining crossotomy (RDC tactic is composed of a set of OB procedures. While some of these procedures are, at the moment, only proposals, others are already applied. Devices generally used in ablative procedures such as Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (LASER, radio frequency, steam, and mechanical devices are used in this context to serve to conservative interventions for CHIVA. New techniques have also been proposed for devalvulation and tributary disconnection. Detailed follow-up is necessary in order to determine the effects of therapy and possible disease evolution. Finally, information is added about the informed consent and the ethical considerations of OB-CHIVA research. Keywords: CHIVA, office based procedures, LASER, RF, steam

  2. Parallel Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James G. Worner

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available James Worner is an Australian-based writer and scholar currently pursuing a PhD at the University of Technology Sydney. His research seeks to expose masculinities lost in the shadow of Australia’s Anzac hegemony while exploring new opportunities for contemporary historiography. He is the recipient of the Doctoral Scholarship in Historical Consciousness at the university’s Australian Centre of Public History and will be hosted by the University of Bologna during 2017 on a doctoral research writing scholarship.   ‘Parallel Lines’ is one of a collection of stories, The Shapes of Us, exploring liminal spaces of modern life: class, gender, sexuality, race, religion and education. It looks at lives, like lines, that do not meet but which travel in proximity, simultaneously attracted and repelled. James’ short stories have been published in various journals and anthologies.

  3. Prodigious submarine landslides during the inception and early growth of volcanic islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, James E; Jarvis, Ian

    2017-12-12

    Volcanic island inception applies large stresses as the ocean crust domes in response to magma ascension and is loaded by eruption of lavas. There is currently limited information on when volcanic islands are initiated on the seafloor, and no information regarding the seafloor instabilities island inception may cause. The deep sea Madeira Abyssal Plain contains a 43 million year history of turbidites among which many originate from mass movements in the Canary Islands. Here, we investigate the composition and timing of a distinctive group of turbidites that we suggest represent a new unique record of large-volume submarine landslides triggered during the inception, submarine shield growth, and final subaerial emergence of the Canary Islands. These slides are predominantly multi-stage and yet represent among the largest mass movements on the Earth's surface up to three or more-times larger than subaerial Canary Islands flank collapses. Thus whilst these deposits provide invaluable information on ocean island geodynamics they also represent a significant, and as yet unaccounted, marine geohazard.

  4. Significant discharge of CO2 from hydrothermalism associated with the submarine volcano of El Hierro Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana-Casiano, J M; Fraile-Nuez, E; González-Dávila, M; Baker, E T; Resing, J A; Walker, S L

    2016-05-09

    The residual hydrothermalism associated with submarine volcanoes, following an eruption event, plays an important role in the supply of CO2 to the ocean. The emitted CO2 increases the acidity of seawater. The submarine volcano of El Hierro, in its degasification stage, provided an excellent opportunity to study the effect of volcanic CO2 on the seawater carbonate system, the global carbon flux, and local ocean acidification. A detailed survey of the volcanic edifice was carried out using seven CTD-pH-ORP tow-yo studies, localizing the redox and acidic changes, which were used to obtain surface maps of anomalies. In order to investigate the temporal variability of the system, two CTD-pH-ORP yo-yo studies were conducted that included discrete sampling for carbonate system parameters. Meridional tow-yos were used to calculate the amount of volcanic CO2 added to the water column for each surveyed section. The inputs of CO2 along multiple sections combined with measurements of oceanic currents produced an estimated volcanic CO2 flux = 6.0 10(5) ± 1.1 10(5 )kg d(-1) which is ~0.1% of global volcanic CO2 flux. Finally, the CO2 emitted by El Hierro increases the acidity above the volcano by ~20%.

  5. Cyclic thermal behavior associated to the degassing process at El Hierro submarine volcano, Canary Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraile-Nuez, E.; Santana-Casiano, J. M.; González-Dávila, M.

    2016-12-01

    One year after the ceasing of magmatic activity in the shallow submarine volcano of the island of El Hierro, significant physical-chemical anomalies produced by the degassing process as: (i) thermal anomalies increase of +0.44 °C, (ii) pH decrease of -0.034 units, (iii) total dissolved inorganic carbon, CT increase by +43.5 µmol kg-1 and (iv) total alkalinity, AT by +12.81 µmol kg-1 were still present in the area. These evidences highlight the potential role of the shallow degassing processes as a natural ecosystem-scale experiments for the study of significant effects of global change stressors on marine environments. Additionally, thermal time series obtained from a temporal yo-yo CTD study, in isopycnal components, over one of the most active points of the submarine volcano have been analyzed in order to investigate the behavior of the system. Signal processing of the thermal time series highlights a strong cyclic temperature period of 125-150 min at 99.9% confidence, due to characteristic time-scales revealed in the periodogram. These long cycles might reflect dynamics occurring within the shallow magma supply system below the island of El Hierro.

  6. Significant discharge of CO2 from hydrothermalism associated with the submarine volcano of El Hierro Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana-Casiano, J. M.; Fraile-Nuez, E.; González-Dávila, M.; Baker, E. T.; Resing, J. A.; Walker, S. L.

    2016-05-01

    The residual hydrothermalism associated with submarine volcanoes, following an eruption event, plays an important role in the supply of CO2 to the ocean. The emitted CO2 increases the acidity of seawater. The submarine volcano of El Hierro, in its degasification stage, provided an excellent opportunity to study the effect of volcanic CO2 on the seawater carbonate system, the global carbon flux, and local ocean acidification. A detailed survey of the volcanic edifice was carried out using seven CTD-pH-ORP tow-yo studies, localizing the redox and acidic changes, which were used to obtain surface maps of anomalies. In order to investigate the temporal variability of the system, two CTD-pH-ORP yo-yo studies were conducted that included discrete sampling for carbonate system parameters. Meridional tow-yos were used to calculate the amount of volcanic CO2 added to the water column for each surveyed section. The inputs of CO2 along multiple sections combined with measurements of oceanic currents produced an estimated volcanic CO2 flux = 6.0 105 ± 1.1 105 kg d-1 which is ~0.1% of global volcanic CO2 flux. Finally, the CO2 emitted by El Hierro increases the acidity above the volcano by ~20%.

  7. Tsunamis caused by submarine slope failures along western Great Bahama Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnyder, Jara S D; Eberli, Gregor P; Kirby, James T; Shi, Fengyan; Tehranirad, Babak; Mulder, Thierry; Ducassou, Emmanuelle; Hebbeln, Dierk; Wintersteller, Paul

    2016-11-04

    Submarine slope failures are a likely cause for tsunami generation along the East Coast of the United States. Among potential source areas for such tsunamis are submarine landslides and margin collapses of Bahamian platforms. Numerical models of past events, which have been identified using high-resolution multibeam bathymetric data, reveal possible tsunami impact on Bimini, the Florida Keys, and northern Cuba. Tsunamis caused by slope failures with terminal landslide velocity of 20 ms-1 will either dissipate while traveling through the Straits of Florida, or generate a maximum wave of 1.5 m at the Florida coast. Modeling a worst-case scenario with a calculated terminal landslide velocity generates a wave of 4.5 m height. The modeled margin collapse in southwestern Great Bahama Bank potentially has a high impact on northern Cuba, with wave heights between 3.3 to 9.5 m depending on the collapse velocity. The short distance and travel time from the source areas to densely populated coastal areas would make the Florida Keys and Miami vulnerable to such low-probability but high-impact events.

  8. The Enemy is Still Below: The Global Diffusion of Submarines and Related Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, K G

    2012-06-05

    The spread of submarines and related technology is an end product of globalization. Globalization is not a new story. By one estimate, our ancestors first crossed out of Africa roughly 80,000 years ago, and began the process that they now call globalization. With the dispersion of people around the world came the development of culture and civilization as well as the spread of ideas, goods, and technology. The process of globalization then is a long-standing one, not an innovation of the late 20th and early 21st centuries. Over the millennia, this process has been an uneven one. Globalization has often cuased great disruptions even to the societies that initiated various innovations in culture and civilization, including science and technology. Indeed, many cultures and civilizations have disappeared while some regions failed to advance as rapidly as others, so the process of globalization is not just one of continuing progress. Globalization in the current era seems to be penetrating the most remote corners of the world at a remarkable rate as a result of advances in science and technology, particularly information technology. The diffusion of science and technology is not necessarily a benign development. It could increase the potential for a global military industrial base that may have an adverse affect on world stability in the future. For example, the spread of key military capabilities, like submarines, could still have an impact, especially over the longer term, on the US capability to project power overseas.

  9. Gas Hydrate Formation Amid Submarine Canyon Incision: Investigations From New Zealand's Hikurangi Subduction Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crutchley, G. J.; Kroeger, K. F.; Pecher, I. A.; Mountjoy, J. J.; Gorman, A. R.

    2017-12-01

    We investigate gas hydrate system dynamics beneath a submarine canyon on New Zealand's Hikurangi subduction margin using seismic reflection data and petroleum systems modeling. High seismic velocities just above the base of gas hydrate stability (BGHS) indicate that concentrated gas hydrates exist beneath the canyon. Two-dimensional gas hydrate formation modeling shows how the process of canyon incision at this location alters the distribution and concentration of gas hydrate. The key modeling result is that free gas is trapped beneath the gas hydrate layer and then "captured" into a concentrated gas hydrate deposit as a result of a downward-shift in the BGHS driven by canyon incision. Our study thus provides new insight into the functioning of this process. From our data, we also conceptualize two other models to describe how canyons could significantly change gas hydrate distribution and concentration. One scenario is related to deflection of fluid flow pathways from over-pressured regions at the BGHS toward the canyon, and the other is based on relationships between simultaneous seafloor uplift and canyon incision. The relationships and processes described are of global relevance because of considerations of gas hydrate as an energy resource and the influence of both submarine canyons and gas hydrate systems on seafloor biodiversity.

  10. High Speed Submarine Optical Fiber Communication System:Pressure and Temperature Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Mohammed

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, the performance of high speed submarine optical fiber cable systems is investigated, taking into account both the pressure and the temperature effects. Both the pressure and the temperature are depth-dependent variables, while both the spectral losses and the dispersion effects are temperature as well as wavelength dependent variables. Two important cases with real fibers are processed: a case with dispersion cancellation and a case without dispersion cancellation. It is found that the ocean pressure (due to the depth shifts the dispersion-free wavelength towards the third communication window. In general, as the depth increases the maximum transmitted bit rate increases in the range of interest. The system capacity as well as the spectral losses, and the dispersion effects are parametrically investigated over wide-range ranges of the set of affecting parameters {wavelength, ocean depth (and consequently the ocean pressure and temperature, and the chemical structure}. Key Words: Submarine Optical Fiber, Undersea Optical Communication, Pressure and Temperature Effects, Transoceanic Optical Communications

  11. Relation of submarine landslide to hydrate occurrences in Baiyun Depression, South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yunbao; Zhang, Xiaohua; Wu, Shiguo; Wang, Lei; Yang, Shengxiong

    2018-02-01

    Submarine landslides have been observed in the Baiyun Depression of the South China Sea. The occurrence of hydrates below these landslides indicates that these slope instabilities may be closely related to the massive release of methane. In this study, we used a simple Monte-Carlo model to determine the first-order deformation pattern of a gravitationally destabilizing slope. The results show that a stress concentration occurs due to hydrate dissociation on the nearby glide surface and on top of a gas chimney structure. Upon the dissolution of the gas hydrate, slope failure occurs due to the excess pore pressure generated by the dissociation of the gas hydrates. When gas hydrates dissociate at shallow depths, the excess pore pressure generated can be greater than the total stress acting at those points, along with the forces that resist sliding. Initially, the failure occurs at the toe of the slope, then extends to the interior. Although our investigation focused only on the contribution of hydrate decomposition to submarine landslide, this process is also affected by both the slope material properties and topography.

  12. Deep macrobenthic communities from Nazaré Submarine Canyon (NW Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Cúrdia

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Macrofauna community structure within Nazaré Submarine Canyon is analysed and used to assess the potential effects of natural enrichment in this area subjected to accumulation of coastal sediments. A transect including three stations (2894, 3514 and 4141 m was carried out in the Nazaré Submarine Canyon (NW Portugal during a cruise of OMEX II programme (Ocean Margin Exchange, in the winter season of 1999. Although data was not collected in order to calculate sedimentation rates, sampling station at 2894 m is located in an area characterised by high levels of sedimentation, thus a high amount of organic matter is expected to be available for the local communities. Faunistic data are discussed in the context of the different features of the stations sampled. Multivariate analysis clearly separates the shallowest station from the other ones, which otherwise appear to be very similar. It also revealed a perceptible gradient along sediment depth at all stations, from shallow to deeper layers. Exceptionally depressed species richness and low evenness values were observed at the 2894 m station. The high number of individuals of a single species, Cossura sp. A, and the atypical diversity, dominance and evenness values obtained for this station support the hypothesis of community disturbance due to organic enrichment.

  13. 'Green' Submarine Cable Systems for Ocean/Climate Monitoring and Disaster Warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, C. R.; Butler, R.; Howe, B. M.; Bueti, M. C.

    2013-12-01

    A recent joint initiative between three UN agencies is proposing to develop trans-ocean mini-observatories to measure changing seafloor ocean observables. A Joint Task Force (JTF), established in 2012 by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) of UNESCO, is examining novel uses for submarine telecommunication cables. With ITU secretariat support, the JTF is developing a strategy and roadmap that could lead to enabling the availability of modified 'green' submarine cable systems equipped with scientific sensors (such as temperature, pressure and acceleration) for climate monitoring and disaster risk reduction (particularly tsunamis). If successful and needing support from industry and regulatory bodies, a wide network of mini-observatories could be established at many places across the world's ocean floors to measure these important parameters accurately over several decades. The initiative addresses two main issues: a) the need for sustained climate-quality data from the sparsely observed deep oceans and continental slopes but extending into coastal waters; and b) the desire to increase the reliability and integrity of the global tsunami warning networks. Presently, plans are being developed to launch a pilot project with the active involvement of cable industry players and existing ocean observatory researchers.

  14. Neural Network Course Changing and Track Keeping Controller for a Submarine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dur Muhammad Pathan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the performance of ANN (Artificial Neural Networks technique for the development of controller for heading motions of submarine. A MLP (Multi-Layer Preceptron FFNN (Feed-Forward Neural Network is used for development of controller. Supervised type of learning is used for training of network by using back-propagation Algorithm. The training is performed by providing a nonlinear sliding mode controller as a supervisor. The development of controller is based on nonlinear decoupled heading model of a submarine without consideration of external environmental disturbances. To demonstrate the robustness of controller the performance of controller is tested in different operating conditions: course changing, track keeping and under the influence of sea currents. Simulations results show that in all cases, the heading error comes to zero, which indicates that the actual heading converges to the desired heading in finite time. The maximum error is observed 0.5o for 45o command angle, in presence of sea currents. The result demonstrates that the performance neural network controller has been robust.

  15. Submarine Groundwater Discharge of Trace Elements and Isotopes from Karst Systems (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charette, M. A.; Henderson, P. B.; Gonneea, M. E.; Breier, C.; Murray, J.; Jenson, J. W.; Morales, S.; Herrera-Silveira, J.

    2010-12-01

    Coastal hydrogeology is a major driver of the flux of trace elements and isotopes associated with submarine groundwater discharge (SGD). Karst geomorphology, which makes up 25% of the world’s coastline, is often characterized by highly permeable soils result that result in fast infiltration of rainfall such that overland runoff is minimal. As a result, the major vector for land-ocean freshwater transport is submarine groundwater discharge. This talk will focus on process studies at two karst settings: the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico and Guam in the western Pacific Mariana Island chain. A feature common to both locations was minimal non-conservative behavior of trace metals and isotopes within subsurface mixing zones at the coast and substantial fluxes of trace metals associated with dissolution of carbonate minerals within the aquifer. The levels of trace metal enrichment appear correlated with subsurface path length, with groundwater endmember concentrations at the Yucatan site being ~2-5 times higher than at Guam. We surmise that SGD fluxes from karst systems were less significant during glacial periods when carbonate platforms are fully exposed and therefore subject to less intense weathering processes. These results have implications for interpretation of trace element and isotope distributions in the geologic record.

  16. Experimental study on hydrodynamic coefficients for high-incidence-angle maneuver of a submarine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Yong Park

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Snap rolling during hard turning and instability during emergency rising are important features of submarine operation. Hydrodynamics modeling using a high incidence flow angle is required to predict these phenomena. In the present study, a quasi-steady dynamics model of a submarine suitable for high-incidence-angle maneuvering applications is developed. To determine the hydrodynamic coefficients of the model, static tests, dynamic tests, and control surface tests were conducted in a towing tank and wind tunnel. The towing tank test is conducted utilizing a Reynolds number of 3.12 × 106, and the wind tunnel test is performed utilizing a Reynolds number of 5.11 × 106. In addition, least squares, golden section search, and surface fitting using polynomial models were used to analyze the experimental results. The obtained coefficients are presented in tabular form and can be used for various purposes such as hard turning simulation, emergency rising simulation, and controller design.

  17. Partitioning of Submarine Melt and Calving across the front of Store Glacier, Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, A., II; Chauche, N.

    2015-12-01

    Processes unique to the marine-termini of fast-flowing tidewater outlet glaciers can potentially drive extreme rates of mass wastage thereby providing a rapid link between the terrestrial ice reservoir and the oceanic sink. Here we attempt to directly quantify the pattern and magnitude of calving and melt at the front of Store Glacier, a major outlet draining the western sector of the Greenland ice sheet. Integration of range-survey technologies on a robust, heavy displacement marine platform coupled with high-resolution photogrammetry allowed the production of accurate, ~m resolution 3d digital terrain models (DTMs) of the glacier front. A swath-interferometric sonar system calibrated via an inertial motion unit stabilized with RTK GPS and vector-compass data-streams was combined with photogrammetric processing of repeat UAV surveys. The results of three repeat surveys across the front of Store Glaciers in 2012 is presented during which significant ice flow, melt and calving events were imaged, complimented with AWS, on-ice GPS stations and time-lapse/video camera sequences. The residual of successive DTMs yield the 3d pattern of frontal change allowing the processes calving and melt to be quantified and constrained in unprecedented detail. The pattern of submarine melt is further validated against indirect estimates of submarine melt derived from oceanographic circulation measurements within the fjord.

  18. Submarine Channel Association with Seamount Chain Alignment on the Ontong Java Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, H. G., IV; Sautter, L.

    2016-02-01

    The Ontong Java Plateau (OJP), north of the Solomon Islands, Indonesia, is a submerged seafloor platform, larger than Alaska and full of intricate systems of channels, atolls and seamounts. This area has remained relatively unstudied because of both the area's remote location and low number of ships carrying advanced sonar systems. The OJP is believed to have been formed by one of the largest volcanic eruptions in Earth's history. This study uses EM302 multibeam sonar data collected on the R/V Falkor in 2014 by the University of Tasmania's Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies to better understand relationships between the seafloor geomorphology and tectonic processes that formed numerous unexplored seamounts. The area surveyed is situated along the OJP's central northeast margin, and includes a small chain of six seamounts that range from 300 to 700 m in vertical relief. These seamounts are situated within the axis of a major 14 km wide submarine channel that was likely formed by a sequence of turbidity currents. Using CARIS HIPS and SIPS 9.0 post-processing software, seamount and channel morphology were characterized with 2 dimensional profiles and 3 dimensional images. Backscatter intensity was used to identify relative substrate hardness of the seamounts and surrounding seafloor areas. Scour and depositional features from the turbidity flows are evident at the base of several seamounts, indicating that the submarine channel bifurcated when turbidity flows encountered the seamount chain.

  19. Submarine fresh groundwater discharge into Laizhou Bay comparable to the Yellow River flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuejing; Li, Hailong; Jiao, Jiu Jimmy; Barry, D. A.; Li, Ling; Luo, Xin; Wang, Chaoyue; Wan, Li; Wang, Xusheng; Jiang, Xiaowei; Ma, Qian; Qu, Wenjing

    2015-01-01

    Near- and off-shore fresh groundwater resources become increasingly important with the social and economic development in coastal areas. Although large scale (hundreds of km) submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) to the ocean has been shown to be of the same magnitude order as river discharge, submarine fresh groundwater discharge (SFGD) with magnitude comparable to large river discharge is never reported. Here, we proposed a method coupling mass-balance models of water, salt and radium isotopes based on field data of 223Ra, 226Ra and salinity to estimate the SFGD, SGD. By applying the method in Laizhou Bay (a water area of ~6000 km2), we showed that the SFGD and SGD are 0.57 ~ 0.88 times and 7.35 ~ 8.57 times the annual Yellow River flux in August 2012, respectively. The estimate of SFGD ranges from 4.12 × 107 m3/d to 6.36 × 107 m3/d, while SGD ranges from 5.32 × 108 m3/d to 6.20 × 108 m3/d. The proportion of the Yellow River input into Laizhou Bay was less than 14% of the total in August 2012. Our method can be used to estimate SFGD in various coastal waters. PMID:25742712

  20. Elemental mercury at submarine hydrothermal vents in the Bay of Plenty, Taupo volcanic zone, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffers, P.; Hannington, M.; Wright, I.; Herzig, P.; de Ronde, C.; Scientific Party, Shipboard

    1999-10-01

    Hot springs in active geothermal areas such as Yellowstone National Park, the Geysers geothermal field in California, and the Taupo volcanic zone in New Zealand are notably enriched in the trace metals Au, Ag, As, Sb, and Hg. Such near-surface hot springs have formed many of the world's important deposits of gold and silver and some of the largest deposits of mercury. The majority of these are associated with continental geothermal systems in subaerial environments. Here we report the discovery of active mercury-depositing hot springs in a submarine setting, at nearly 200 m water depth, within the offshore extension of the Taupo volcanic zone of New Zealand. These vents contain the first documented occurrence of elemental mercury on the sea floor and provide an important link between offshore hydrothermal activity and mercury-depositing geothermal systems on land. The discovery has implications for mercury transport in sea-floor hydrothermal systems and underscores the importance of submarine volcanic and geothermal activity as a source of mercury in the oceans.

  1. Submarine Slope Failure Primed and Triggered by Bottom Water Warming in Oceanic Hydrate-Bearing Deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Hyuk Kwon

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Many submarine slope failures in hydrate-bearing sedimentary deposits might be directly triggered, or at least primed, by gas hydrate dissociation. It has been reported that during the past 55 years (1955–2010 the 0–2000 m layer of oceans worldwide has been warmed by 0.09 °C because of global warming. This raises the following scientific concern: if warming of the bottom water of deep oceans continues, it would dissociate natural gas hydrates and could eventually trigger massive slope failures. The present study explored the submarine slope instability of oceanic gas hydrate-bearing deposits subjected to bottom water warming. One-dimensional coupled thermal-hydraulic-mechanical (T-H-M finite difference analyses were performed to capture the underlying physical processes initiated by bottom water warming, which includes thermal conduction through sediments, thermal dissociation of gas hydrates, excess pore pressure generation, pressure diffusion, and hydrate dissociation against depressurization. The temperature rise at the seafloor due to bottom water warming is found to create an excess pore pressure that is sufficiently large to reduce the stability of a slope in some cases. Parametric study results suggest that a slope becomes more susceptible to failure with increases in thermal diffusivity and hydrate saturation and decreases in pressure diffusivity, gas saturation, and water depth. Bottom water warming can be further explored to gain a better understanding of the past methane hydrate destabilization events on Earth, assuming that more reliable geological data is available.

  2. The Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC and the Development of Narco-Submarines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Jacome Jaramillo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC have been one of the world's most consistently formidable violent non-state actors over the last forty years. Unsurprisingly, the group has provided one of the most compelling and concerning examples of the level of technical sophistication attainable by sub-state organizations. Over the last two decades the group has carried out an iterative and innovative process that, in reaction to improved detection capabilities, has brought them from depending on disposable go-fast boats to transport drugs to possessing fully submersible and reusable covert vessels for transportation. The following case study will discuss the development of narco-submarines and the underlying motivations behind the pursuit of this complex engineering task. The case study will outline the different phases of the narco-submarine development and highlight FARC’s determination to overcome the challenges present in each design. This discussion will show how FARC’s systematized acquiring of information and expertise has resulted in the accomplishment of fully submersible vessels, capable of transporting more than 10 tons of illicit product.

  3. 76 FR 77240 - Office of Biotechnology Activities, Office of Science Policy, Office of the Director; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of Biotechnology Activities, Office of Science..., NIH Office of Biotechnology Activities, 6705 Rockledge Drive, Suite 750, Bethesda, Maryland 20892...

  4. 75 FR 2549 - Office of Biotechnology Activities; Office of Science Policy; Office of the Director; Notice of a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of Biotechnology Activities; Office of Science... concerning this meeting, contact Ms. Laurie Lewallen, Advisory Committee Coordinator, Office of Biotechnology...: January 11, 2010. Kelly R. Fennington, Special Assistant to the Director, Office of Biotechnology...

  5. Tectonic activity and the evolution of submarine canyons: The Cook Strait Canyon system, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micallef, Aaron; Mountjoy, Joshu; Barnes, Philip; Canals, Miquel; Lastras, Galderic

    2016-04-01

    Submarine canyons are Earth's most dramatic erosional features, comprising steep-walled valleys that originate in the continental shelf and slope. They play a key role in the evolution of continental margins by transferring sediments into deep water settings and are considered important biodiversity hotspots, pathways for nutrients and pollutants, and analogues of hydrocarbon reservoirs. Although comprising only one third of continental margins worldwide, active margins host more than half of global submarine canyons. We still lack of thorough understanding of the coupling between active tectonics and submarine canyon processes, which is necessary to improve the modelling of canyon evolution in active margins and derive tectonic information from canyon morphology. The objectives of this study are to: (i) understand how tectonic activity influences submarine canyon morphology, processes, and evolution in an active margin, and (2) formulate a generalised model of canyon development in response to tectonic forcing based on morphometric parameters. We fulfil these objectives by analysing high resolution geophysical data and imagery from Cook Strait Canyon system, offshore New Zealand. Using these data, we demonstrate that tectonic activity, in the form of major faults and structurally-generated tectonic ridges, leaves a clear topographic signature on submarine canyon location and morphology, in particular their dendritic and sinuous planform shapes, steep and linear longitudinal profiles, and cross-sectional asymmetry and width. We also report breaks/changes in canyon longitudinal slope gradient, relief and slope-area regression models at the intersection with faults. Tectonic activity gives rise to two types of knickpoints in the Cook Strait Canyon. The first type consists of low slope gradient, rounded and diffusive knickpoints forming as a result of short wavelength folds or fault break outs and being restored to an equilibrium profile by upstream erosion and

  6. 75 FR 10293 - Office of Biotechnology Activities; Office of Science Policy; Office of the Director; Notice of a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... Biotechnology Activities; Office of Science Policy; Office of the Director; Notice of a Meeting of the NIH Blue..., Office of Biotechnology Activities, Office of Science Policy, Office of the Director, National Institutes... [email protected] . Dated: March 1, 2010. Amy P. Patterson, Director, Office of Biotechnology Activities...

  7. Physical activity of office workers

    OpenAIRE

    E Biernat; Tomaszewski, P.; K Milde

    2010-01-01

    Inactivity or insufficient physical activity is risk factor for metabolic or cardiovascular diseases. In most of cases the nature of work of office employees does not require high physical efforts and consists mostly of sitting but the reports on leisure activity of office workers are still lacking. Thus, the aim of the study was to assess physical activity of civil and local administration workers and bank officials. 293 randomly selected office workers took part in the study. They were recr...

  8. Implementation of Project Management office

    OpenAIRE

    Malegová, Emília

    2012-01-01

    The goal of my thesis is to describe Project management office, its functions; a structure and its place in an organization as well as assumptions for its right implementation in an orgnanization. A first and a second section of the thesis introduce project management and project management office as such. Basic functions and models are described. A third section deals with each stages of implementatation of the office with a particular focus on main analysis and documents. Trends in implemen...

  9. Factors Related to Drug Abuse in the Submarine Service. IV. Correlates of Permissiveness of Attitudes Toward Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-07-23

    originating from the Submarine Service and from the civilian sector. Thus, borrowing from the language of psychoanalysis , D.A. cases may be classified...A. flashback 97 o 0 3 B. C. D. E, habituation psychosis revelation, I don’t know 17. LSD has been stated (with some scientific

  10. Battlefield Electromagnetic Environments Office (BEEO)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Battlefield Electromagnetic Environments Office (BEEO) develops, maintains, and operates the Army Materiel Command (AMC) databases for spectrum management, per...

  11. Office 2010 Visual Quick Tips

    CERN Document Server

    Gunter, Sherry Kinkoph

    2010-01-01

    Get more done in Office 2010 in less time with these Quick Tips!. Whether you're new to Microsoft Office or updating from older versions, this is the perfect resource to get you quickly up to speed on Office 2010. Every application is covered, including Word, Excel, PowerPoint, Outlook, and Publisher. Full-color screenshots and numbered steps clearly explain dozens of features and functions-while quick shortcuts, tips, and tricks help you save time and boost productivity. You'll also find great new ways to access and use some Office apps right from the Web.: Walks you through dozens of new fea

  12. Stakeholder Relations Office

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Scientists, politicians, the public, school children, our neighbours, you. All of these groups of people have a stake in CERN, and all are important to us.   The list of stakeholders in an organisation as large and complex as CERN is a long and ever lengthening one. Each group has its own specific interests and needs in terms of what kind of information it requires from CERN and how we should engage. It’s important, therefore, for us to ensure that we’re communicating optimally with everyone we care about and who cares about us. This is something that CERN has always taken seriously. The CERN Courier, for example, was first published in 1959 and we had a pro-active public information office right from the start. Today, our stakeholder relations are spread between several groups and teams, reflecting the nature of CERN today. But while we’re already doing a good job, I think we can do better by exploiting the synergies between these teams, and that’s wh...

  13. Integrated Budget Office Toolbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushing, Douglas A.; Blakeley, Chris; Chapman, Gerry; Robertson, Bill; Horton, Allison; Besser, Thomas; McCarthy, Debbie

    2010-01-01

    The Integrated Budget Office Toolbox (IBOT) combines budgeting, resource allocation, organizational funding, and reporting features in an automated, integrated tool that provides data from a single source for Johnson Space Center (JSC) personnel. Using a common interface, concurrent users can utilize the data without compromising its integrity. IBOT tracks planning changes and updates throughout the year using both phasing and POP-related (program-operating-plan-related) budget information for the current year, and up to six years out. Separating lump-sum funds received from HQ (Headquarters) into separate labor, travel, procurement, Center G&A (general & administrative), and servicepool categories, IBOT creates a script that significantly reduces manual input time. IBOT also manages the movement of travel and procurement funds down to the organizational level and, using its integrated funds management feature, helps better track funding at lower levels. Third-party software is used to create integrated reports in IBOT that can be generated for plans, actuals, funds received, and other combinations of data that are currently maintained in the centralized format. Based on Microsoft SQL, IBOT incorporates generic budget processes, is transportable, and is economical to deploy and support.

  14. Psychology of office design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, M A; Stone, P H; Giffin, K S

    1990-01-01

    The design of a physician's office can affect whether patients return, follow advice, or recommend the physician to other people. Color is an important element in design. It can make people relaxed or excited; it can help or hinder vision. Decreased color perception and differentiation occurs with increased age. In addition, color reflects the personality of the person who chooses or uses it. Furniture also reflects personality. Arrangement is important in making people feel comfortable and easy and safe to move between pieces. Most people prefer to sit alone when waiting to see physicians. Firm-cushioned furniture with arm rests allows people to sit and rise more easily. Color, mirrors, glass, and other decorating items can help make a small space look larger, a narrow space wider, or a low space higher. Mixing textures creates interesting effects. Patterns in wall coverings and upholstery also increase visual interest and alter perception of size and shape. Personal mementos can make patients feel a physician is a more humane person, although they also can make a female physician appear less professional and capable, depending on the patients' perceptions. Even lighting levels increase visual acuity. People usually prefer some closeness in architecture as a defensive position. Institutionalized approaches to building increase patients' anxiety. The reception area makes the first impression. It should be welcoming, restful and divided into smaller waiting areas. Incandescent lighting is more relaxing than fluorescent.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. “Hello, HELLO! Anyone there? - on the need to assess the tsunami risk to global submarine telecommunications infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominey-Howes, D.; Goff, J. R.

    2009-12-01

    National economies are increasingly dependent on the global telecommunications system - and in particular, its submarine cable infrastructure. Submarine cable traffic represents about 30% of global GDP so the cost of losing, or even simply slowing, communications traffic is high. Many natural hazards are capable of damaging and destroying this infrastructure but tsunamis are the most significant threat, particularly in waters >1000 m deep. Submarine cables and their shore-based infrastructure (the anchor points), are at risk from direct and indirect tsunami-related effects. During the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami in India and Indonesia, cables were broken (direct effect) as the tsunami eroded supporting sediments, and were further damaged by floating/submerged objects and intense nearshore currents. Shore-based infrastructure was also directly damaged in India, Indonesia, and the Maldives. The 1929 Grand Banks earthquake generated a submarine landslide and tsunami off Newfoundland which broke 12 submarine telegraph cables. In 2006, an earthquake in Taiwan generated submarine landslides and a tsunami. These landslides caused one of the largest disruptions of modern telecommunications history when nine cables in the Strait of Luzon were broken disabling vital connections between SE Asia and the rest of the world. Although electronic traffic in and out of Australia was slowed, it did not cease because >70% of our traffic is routed via cables that pass through Hawaii. This is extremely significant because Hawaii is an internationally recognised bottleneck or “choke point” in the global telecommunications network. The fact that Hawaii is a choke point is important because it is regularly affected by numerous large magnitude natural hazards. Any damage to the submarine telecommunications infrastructure routed through Hawaii could result in significant impacts on the electronic flow of data and voice traffic, negatively affecting dependent economies such as Australia

  16. Office Space: How Will Technology Affect the Education Office Environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, C. William

    2009-01-01

    The office environment 10 years from now will be different from the one today. More office personnel will be organized around processes rather than functions. More work activities will be done by teams rather than individuals, and those teams will change over time, as will the nature of the work projects and the people who constitute the team. The…

  17. VT Digital Line Graph Miscellaneous Transmission Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This datalayer is comprised of Miscellaineous Transmission Lines. Digital line graph (DLG) data are digital representations of cartographic...

  18. 78 FR 10583 - Copyright Office Fees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    ... States Copyright Office 37 CFR Part 201 Copyright Office Fees AGENCY: U.S. Copyright Office, Library of... States Copyright Office is extending the deadline for filing reply comments regarding its notice of... must be received in the Office of the General Counsel of the Copyright Office no later than 5 p.m...

  19. 78 FR 5345 - Copyright Office Fees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    ... States Copyright Office 37 CFR Parts 201 and 210 Copyright Office Fees AGENCY: U.S. Copyright Office...: The United States Copyright Office is extending the deadline for filing reply comments regarding its... regulation must be received in the Office of the General Counsel of the Copyright Office no later than 5 p.m...

  20. Relations Between Coastal Catchment Attributes and Submarine Groundwater Discharge at Different Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosdorf, N.; Langlotz, S. T.

    2016-02-01

    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) has been recognized as a relevant field of coastal research in the last years. Its implications on local scale have been documented by an increasing number of studies researching individual locations with SGD. The local studies also often emphasize its large variability. On the other end, global scale studies try to estimate SGD related fluxes of e.g. carbon (Cole et al., 2007) and nitrogen (Beusen et al., 2013). These studies naturally use a coarse resolution, too coarse to represent the aforementioned local variability of SGD (Moosdorf et al., 2015). A way to transfer information of the local variability of SGD to large scale flux estimates is needed. Here we discuss the upscaling of local studies based on the definition and typology of coastal catchments. Coastal catchments are those stretches of coast that do not drain into major rivers but directly into the sea. Their attributes, e.g. climate, topography, land cover, or lithology can be used to extrapolate from the local scale to larger scales. We present first results of a typology, compare coastal catchment attributes to SGD estimates from field studies and discuss upscaling as well as the associated uncertainties. This study aims at bridging the gap between the scales and enabling an improved representation of local scale variability on continental to global scale. With this, it can contribute to a recent initiative to model large scale SGD fluxes (NExT SGD). References: Beusen, A.H.W., Slomp, C.P., Bouwman, A.F., 2013. Global land-ocean linkage: direct inputs of nitrogen to coastal waters via submarine groundwater discharge. Environmental Research Letters, 8(3): 6. Cole, J.J., Prairie, Y.T., Caraco, N.F., McDowell, W.H., Tranvik, L.J., Striegl, R.G., Duarte, C.M., Kortelainen, P., Downing, J.A., Middelburg, J.J., Melack, J., 2007. Plumbing the global carbon cycle: Integrating inland waters into the terrestrial carbon budget. Ecosystems, 10(1): 171-184. Moosdorf, N

  1. The timing of sediment transport down Monterey Submarine Canyon, offshore California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Thomas; Paull, Charles K.; Ussler, William III; McGann, Mary; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter; Lundsten, Eve M.

    2013-01-01

    While submarine canyons are the major conduits through which sediments are transported from the continents out into the deep sea, the time it takes for sediment to pass down through a submarine canyon system is poorly constrained. Here we report on the first study to couple optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages of quartz sand deposits and accelerator mass spectrometry 14C ages measured on benthic foraminifera to examine the timing of sediment transport through the axial channel of Monterey Submarine Canyon and Fan, offshore California. The OSL ages date the timing of sediment entry into the canyon head while the 14C ages of benthic foraminifera record the deposition of hemipelagic sediments that bound the sand horizons. We use both single-grain and small (∼2 mm area) single-aliquot regeneration approaches on vibracore samples from fining-upward sequences at various water depths to demonstrate relatively rapid, decadal-scale sand transport to at least 1.1 km depth and more variable decadal- to millennial-scale transport to a least 3.5 km depth on the fan. Significant differences between the time sand was last exposed at the canyon head (OSL age) and the timing of deposition of the sand (from 14C ages of benthic foraminifera in bracketing hemipelagic sediments) are interpreted as indicating that the sand does not pass through the entire canyon instantly in large individual events, but rather moves multiple times before emerging onto the fan. The increased spread in single-grain OSL dates with water depth provides evidence of mixing and temporary storage of sediment as it moves through the canyon system. The ages also indicate that the frequency of sediment transport events decreases with distance down the canyon channel system. The amalgamated sands near the canyon head yield OSL ages that are consistent with a sub-decadal recurrence frequency while the fining-upward sand sequences on the fan indicate that the channel is still experiencing events with a 150

  2. Simulating hydroplaning of submarine landslides by quasi 3D depth averaged finite element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Blasio, Fabio; Battista Crosta, Giovanni

    2014-05-01

    G.B. Crosta, H. J. Chen, and F.V. De Blasio Dept. Of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Università degli Studi di Milano Bicocca, Milano, Italy Klohn Crippen Berger, Calgary, Canada Subaqueous debris flows/submarine landslides, both in the open ocean as well as in fresh waters, exhibit extremely high mobility, quantified by a ratio between vertical to horizontal displacement of the order 0.01 or even much less. It is possible to simulate subaqueous debris flows with small-scale experiments along a flume or a pool using a cohesive mixture of clay and sand. The results have shown a strong enhancement of runout and velocity compared to the case in which the same debris flow travels without water, and have indicated hydroplaning as a possible explanation (Mohrig et al. 1998). Hydroplaning is started when the snout of the debris flow travels sufficiently fast. This generates lift forces on the front of the debris flow exceeding the self-weight of the sediment, which so begins to travel detached from the bed, literally hovering instead of flowing. Clearly, the resistance to flow plummets because drag stress against water is much smaller than the shear strength of the material. The consequence is a dramatic increase of the debris flow speed and runout. Does the process occur also for subaqueous landslides and debris flows in the ocean, something twelve orders of magnitude larger than the experimental ones? Obviously, no experiment will ever be capable to replicate this size, one needs to rely on numerical simulations. Results extending a depth-integrated numerical model for debris flows (Imran et al., 2001) indicate that hydroplaning is possible (De Blasio et al., 2004), but more should be done especially with alternative numerical methodologies. In this work, finite element methods are used to simulate hydroplaning using the code MADflow (Chen, 2014) adopting a depth averaged solution. We ran some simulations on the small scale of the laboratory experiments, and secondly

  3. Updated size distribution of submarine landslides along the U.S. Atlantic margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Brink, U. S.; Chaytor, J. D.; Andrews, B. D.; Brothers, D. S.; Geist, E. L.

    2012-12-01

    The volume of failed material in submarine landslides is one of the primary factors controlling tsunami amplitude, hence the cumulative volume distribution of submarine landslides on the U.S. Atlantic continental slope and rise provides information important for the evaluation of tsunami hazard potential for U.S. the East Coast. Landslide size distributions also help constrain the initiation mechanisms of submarine landslides in siliciclastic and carbonate environments [1,2], and thus improve our understanding of the pre-conditioning and propagation of landslides. Previous compilations of landslide distributions along the Atlantic continental margin used regional side-scan sonar data, seismic reflection profiles and multibeam bathymetry data that lacked coverage of large portions of the upper continental slope [3, 4]. We updated this regional database by compiling and merging multibeam echosounder data from 36 surveys conducted by various federal agencies and academia between Georges Banks and Cape Hatteras from 1990-2012. The result is a continuous 594,000 km2 digital bathymetric surface with a spatial resolution of 100 m spanning water depths between 55-6150 m. The new grid allows better identification and delineation of the areas and heights of the headwall scarps, and more precise volume estimates of the evacuated slide regions. Acoustic backscatter derived from the multibeam data and an updated compilation of sub-bottom seismic profiles and core logs improve the identification of the extent of mass transport deposits. The updated analysis includes uncertainties in the determination of the landslide areas. The cumulative area and volume distributions of the landslides excavations, their area/volume ratio, the water depth of the head wall, and the fraction of slope and rise areas covered by headwall scarps and landslide deposits, are quantified and discussed. Combining landslide size distribution with the overall rate of occurrence of landslides derived from age

  4. Space-for-time substitution and the evolution of submarine canyons in a passive, progradational margin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micallef, Aaron; Ribó, Marta; Canals, Miquel; Puig, Pere; Lastras, Galderic; Tubau, Xavier

    2013-04-01

    40% of submarine canyons worldwide are located in passive margins, where they constitute preferential conduits of sediment and biodiversity hotspots. Recent studies have presented evidence that submarine canyons incising passive, progradational margins can co-evolve with the adjacent continental slope during long-term margin construction. The stages of submarine canyon initiation and their development into a mature canyon-channel system are still poorly constrained, however, which is problematic when attempting to reconstruct the development of passive continental margins. In this study we analyse multibeam echosounder and seismic reflection data from the southern Ebro margin (western Mediterranean Sea) to document the stages through which a first-order gully develops into a mature, shelf-breaching canyon and, finally, into a canyon-channel system. This morphological evolution allows the application of a space-for-time substitution approach. Initial gully growth on the continental slope takes place via incision and downslope elongation, with limited upslope head retreat. Gravity flows are the main driver of canyon evolution, whereas slope failures are the main agent of erosion; they control the extent of valley widening, promote tributary development, and their influence becomes more significant with time. Breaching of the continental shelf by a canyon results in higher water/sediment loads that enhance canyon development, particularly in the upper reaches. Connection of the canyon head with a paleo-river changes evolution dynamics significantly, promoting development of a channel and formation of depositional landforms. Morphometric analyses demonstrate that canyons develop into geometrically self-similar systems that approach steady-state and higher drainage efficiency. Canyon activity in the southern Ebro margin is pulsating and enhanced during sea level lowstands. Rapid sedimentation by extension of the palaeo-Millars River into the outermost shelf and upper

  5. Internal tides affect benthic community structure in an energetic submarine canyon off SW Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Jian-Xiang; Chen, Guan-Ming; Chiou, Ming-Da; Jan, Sen; Wei, Chih-Lin

    2017-07-01

    Submarine canyons are major conduits of terrestrial and shelf organic matter, potentially benefiting the seafloor communities in the food-deprived deep sea; however, strong bottom currents driven by internal tides and the potentially frequent turbidity currents triggered by storm surges, river flooding, and earthquakes may negatively impact the benthos. In this study, we investigated the upper Gaoping Submarine Canyon (GPSC), a high-sediment-yield canyon connected to a small mountain river (SMR) off southwest (SW) Taiwan. By contrasting the benthic meiofaunal and macrofaunal communities within and outside the GPSC, we examined how food supplies and disturbance influenced the benthic community assemblages. The benthic communities in the upper GPSC were mainly a nested subset of the adjacent slope assemblages. Several meiofaunal (e.g. ostracods) and macrofaunal taxa (e.g. peracarid crustaceans and mollusks) that typically occurred on the slope were lost from the canyon. The polychaete families switched from diverse feeding guilds on the slope to motile subsurface deposit feeders dominant in the canyon. The diminishing of epibenthic peracarids and proliferation of deep burrowing polychaetes in the GPSC resulted in macrofauna occurring largely within deeper sediment horizons in the canyon than on the slope. The densities and numbers of taxa were depressed with distinct and more variable composition in the canyon than on the adjacent slope. Both the densities and numbers of taxa were negatively influenced by internal tide flushing and positively influenced by food availability; however, the internal tides also negatively influenced the food supplies. While the meiofauna and macrofauna densities were both depressed by the extreme physical conditions in the GPSC, only the macrofaunal densities increased with depth in the canyon, presumably related to increased frequency and intensity of disturbance toward the canyon head. The population densities of meiofauna, on the

  6. Seismic evidence of a second submarine eruption in the north of El Hierro Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, R.; Berrocoso, M.; de la Cruz-Reyna, S.; Marrero, J. M.; Garcia, A.

    2012-04-01

    From the July 19, 2011 an increase of seismicity, accompanied by a remarkable process of deformation, was detected on the island of El Hierro. This reactivation process, instrumental and scientifically monitored, culminates in the occurrence of a submarine eruption, with the emergence of a strong tremor signal, in the south of the island on October 10, 2011. Both processes (unrest and eruption) have different phases and behaviors clearly evidenced by the deformation and seismicity. This work is the result of an exhaustive analysis of seismic signals from three stations deployed on the island of El Hierro(CTAB and CTIG (IGN) and REST (CSIC)), in order to explain the behavior of the volcanic system responsible for the submarine eruption of Las Calmas sea and its evolution, as well as evidence of a second submarine eruption in the north of the island (ElGolfo). The spectral content of signals from the seismic stations in the north of the island (CTIG and CTAB) and the area around the eruption (REST) has the dominant peak at different frequencies. The amplitude modulations of the seismic noise evolved differently in CTAB and CTIG than REST being particularly significant changes in amplitude and frequency after the occurrence of events of magnitude greater than 4. The evolution of the volcano-tectonic cumulative seismic energy shows the occurrence of two similar eruptive episodes, in which two phases can be distinguished. The first phase of both cycles has a constant rate with seismic events of magnitude less than 3 to reach the energy of 10 ^ 11 Joule. From that moment the magnitude grows rapidly exceeding magnitude 4. In the second phase the seismic events are mainly located in the south of the island, before the onset of visual evidences of the eruption (October 11, 2011) and later (November 2011) the seismic events are mainly located in the north of the island, where no visible signs have been detected. In both cases the appearance or changes in the tremor signal

  7. Assessing potential impacts of energized submarine power cables on crab harvests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Milton S.; Nishimoto, Mary M.; Clark, Scott; McCrea, Merit; Bull, Ann Scarborough

    2017-12-01

    Offshore renewable energy facilities transmit electricity to shore through submarine power cables. Electromagnetic field emissions (EMFs) are generated from the transmission of electricity through these cables, such as the AC inter-array (between unit) and AC export (to shore) cables often used in offshore energy production. The EMF has both an electric component and a magnetic component. While sheathing can block the direct electric field, the magnetic field is not blocked. A concern raised by fishermen on the Pacific Coast of North America is that commercially important Dungeness crab (Metacarcinus magister Dana, 1852)) might not cross over an energized submarine power cable to enter a baited crab trap, thus potentially reducing their catch. The presence of operating energized cables off southern California and in Puget Sound (cables that are comparable to those within the arrays of existing offshore wind energy devices) allowed us to conduct experiments on how energized power cables might affect the harvesting of both M. magister and another commercially important crab species, Cancer productus Randall, 1839. In this study we tested the questions: 1) Is the catchability of crabs reduced if these animals must traverse an energized power cable to enter a trap and 2) if crabs preferentially do not cross an energized cable, is it the cable structure or the EMF emitted from that cable that deters crabs from crossing? In field experiments off southern California and in Puget Sound, crabs were given a choice of walking over an energized power cable to a baited trap or walking directly away from that cable to a second baited trap. Based on our research we found no evidence that the EMF emitted by energized submarine power cables influenced the catchability of these two species of commercially important crabs. In addition, there was no difference in the crabs' responses to lightly buried versus unburied cables. We did observe that, regardless of the position of the cable

  8. Athena Community Office

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Núnez, S.; Barcons, X.; Barret, D.; Bozzo, E.; Carrera, F. J.; Ceballos, M. T.; Gómez, S.; Monterde, M. P.; Rau, A.

    2017-03-01

    The Athena Community Office (ACO) has been established by ESA's Athena Science Study Team (ASST) in order to obtain support in performing its tasks assigned by ESA, and most specially in the ASST role as "focal point for the interests of the broad scientific community". The ACO is led by the Instituto de Física de Cantabria (CSIC-UC), and its activities are funded by CSIC and UC. Further ACO contributors are the University of Geneva, MPE and IRAP. In this poster, we present ACO to the Spanish Astronomical Community, informing about its main responsibilities, which are: assist the ASST in organising and collecting support from the Athena Working Groups and Topical Panels; organise and maintain the documentation generated by the Athena Working Groups and Topical Panels; manage the Working Group and Topical Panel membership lists; assist the ASST in promoting Athena science capabilities in the research world, through conferences and workshops; keep a record of all papers and presentations related to Athena; support the production of ASST documents; produce and distribute regularly an Athena Newsletter, informing the community about all mission and science developments; create and maintain the Athena Community web portal; maintain an active communication activity; promote, organise and support Athena science-related public outreach, in coordination with ESA and other agencies involved when appropriate; and, design, produce materials and provide pointers to available materials produced by other parties. In summary, ACO is meant to become a focal point to facilitate the scientific exchange between the Athena activities and the scientific community at large, and to disseminate the Athena science objectives to the general public.

  9. What set's the officer apart?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, M.M.; Moelker, R.

    2016-01-01

    The Officer Corps constitutes the backbone of the military. Privates and NCOs come and go. Political leaders are replaced. But the officer corps, the military profession per se, endures. The focus of this paper is how the military profession is maintained by military academies. A profession is

  10. Correctional Officers With Case Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Richard J.; Vandergoot, David

    1977-01-01

    The Maryland Division of Correction has implemented an innovative program that permits correctional officers to combine counseling case-management functions with their custory functions. Basically, the program relies on the quality of individual programming that results from the close personal, working relationship developed between officer and…

  11. Richland Operations Office technology summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-01

    This document has been prepared by the Department of Energy`s Environmental Management Office of Technology Development to highlight its research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities funded through the Richland Operations Office. Technologies and processes described have the potential to enhance cleanup and waste management efforts.

  12. Characterizing Volcanic Processes using Near-bottom, High Resolution Magnetic Mapping of the Caldera and Inner Crater of the Kick'em Jenny Submarine Volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruchala, T. L.; Chen, M.; Tominaga, M.; Carey, S.

    2016-12-01

    Kick'em Jenny (KEJ) is an active submarine volcano located in the Lesser Antilles subduction zone, 7.5 km north of the Caribbean island Grenada. KEJ, known as one of the most explosive volcanoes in Caribbean, erupted 12 times since 1939 with recent eruptions in 2001 and possibly in 2015. Multiple generations of submarine landslides and canyons have been observed in which some of them can be attributed to past eruptions. The structure of KEJ can be characterized as a 1300 m high conical profile with its summit crater located around 180 m in depth. Active hydrothermal venting and dominantly CO2 composition gas seepage take place inside this 250m diameter crater, with the most activity occurring primarily within a small ( 70 x 110 m) depression zone (inner crater). In order to characterize the subsurface structure and decipher the processes of this volcanic system, the Nautilus NA054 expedition in 2014 deployed the underwater Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) Hercules to conduct near-bottom geological observations and magnetometry surveys transecting KEJ's caldera. Raw magnetic data was corrected for vehicle induced magnetic noise, then merged with ROV to ship navigation at 1 HZ. To extract crustal magnetic signatures, the reduced magnetic data was further corrected for external variations such as the International Geomagnetic Reference Field and diurnal variations using data from the nearby San Juan Observatory. We produced a preliminary magnetic anomaly map of KEJ's caldera for subsequent inversion and forward modeling to delineate in situ magnetic source distribution in understanding volcanic processes. We integrated the magnetic characterization of the KEJ craters with shipboard multibeam, ROV visual descriptions, and photomosaics. Initial observations show the distribution of short wavelength scale highly magnetized source centered at the north western part of the inner crater. Although locations of gas seeps are ubiquitous over the inner crater area along ROV

  13. Patrol Officer Daily Noise Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbertson, Lynn R; Vosburgh, Donna J H

    2015-01-01

    Previous research shows that police officers are at a higher risk for noise induced hearing loss (NIHL). Little data exists on the occupational tasks, outside of the firing range, that might lead to the increased risk of NIHL. The current study collected noise dosimetry from patrol officers in a smaller department and a larger department in southern Wisconsin, United States. The noise dosimeters simultaneously measured noise in three virtual dosimeters that had different thresholds, criterion levels, and exchange rates. The virtual dosimeters were set to: the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) hearing conservation criteria (OSHA-HC), the OSHA permissible exposure level criteria (OSHA-PEL), and the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH). In addition to wearing a noise dosimeter during their respective work days, officers completed a log form documenting the type of task performed, the duration of that task, if the task involved the use of a siren, and officer characteristics that may have influenced their noise exposure, such as the type of dispatch radio unit worn. Analysis revealed that the normalized 8-hour time weighted averages (TWA) for all officers fell below the recommended OSHA and ACGIH exposure limits. The tasks involving the use of the siren had significantly higher levels than the tasks without (p = 0.005). The highest noise exposure levels were encountered when patrol officers were assisting other public safety agencies such as a fire department or emergency medical services (79 dBA). Canine officers had higher normalized 8-hr TWA noise exposure than regular patrol officers (p = 0.002). Officers with an evening work schedule had significantly higher noise exposure than the officers with a day or night work schedule (p = 0.023). There were no significant differences in exposure levels between the two departments (p = 0.22). Results suggest that this study population is unlikely to experience NIHL as

  14. Interactions between Brief Flashed Lines at Threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-11

    ORAIAIN 6 OFC ’PO 4 4M FMNTRIGOGNZTO lol in AFI, C 203 2- 44 . NAME OF PFN IG PORAIION lbOFFICE SYMBOL 7il PRO4MEN MINTRUNT INCNIATON NM ,.. .oAFOSR...Cass, P. C. (1986) Facilitatory interactionE between flashed lines. Perceptinn. jj,443-460. omith, P.A. and Cass, P C. (1967) Aliasing in the

  15. RECCE: SMALL TEAM MISSIONS BEHIND ENEMY LINES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    plt

    Recce: Small team missions behind enemy lines is an autobiography by. Colonel (retired) Koos Stadler. The book mainly covers his career as a Special. Forces officer and reconnaissance soldier during South Africa's so-called Border. War in Namibia (formerly South West Africa) and Angola, and his involvement in.

  16. Potential tsunamigenic hazard associated to submarine mass movement along the Ionian continental margin (Mediterranean Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceramicola, S.; Tinti, S.; Praeg, D.; Zaniboni, F.; Planinsek, P.

    2012-04-01

    Submarine mass movements are natural geomorphic processes that transport marine sediment down continental slopes into deep-marine environments. Type of mass wasting include creep, slides, slump, debris flows, each with its own features and taking place over timescale from seconds to years. Submarine landslides can be triggered by a number of different causes, either internal (such as changes in physical chemical sediment properties) or external (e.g. earthquakes, volcanic activity, salt movements, sea level changes etc.). Landslides may mobilize sediments in such a way as to form an impulsive vertical displacement of a body of water, originating a wave or series of waves with long wavelengths and long periods called tsunamis ('harbor waves'). Over 600 km of continental margin has been investigated by OGS in the Ionian sea using geophysical data - morpho-bathymetry (Reson 8111, 8150) and sub-bottom profiles (7-10 KHz) - collected aboard the research vessel OGS Explora in the framework of the MAGIC Project (Marine Geohazard along the Italian Coasts), funded by the Italian Civil Protection. The objective of this project is the definition of elements that may constitute geological risk for coastal areas. Geophysical data allowed the recognition of four main types of mass wasting phenomena along the slopes of the ICM: 1) mass transport complexes (MTCs) within intra-slope basins. Seabed imagery show the slopes of all the seabed ridges to be marked by headwall scarps recording widespread failure, multiple debris flows in several basins indicate one or more past episodes of failure that may be linked to activity on the faults bounding the structural highs. 2) submarine landslide - a multiple failure event have been identified (Assi landslide) at about 6 km away from the coastline nearby Riace Marina. Headwall scars up to 50 m high across water depths of 700 to 1400 m, while sub-bottom profiles indicate stacked slide deposits at and near seabed. 4) canyon headwalls - in the

  17. A proposal of multi-objective function for submarine rigid pipelines route optimization via evolutionary algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, D.H.; Medeiros, A.R. [Subsea7, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Jacob, B.P.; Lima, B.S.L.P.; Albrecht, C.H. [Universidade Federaldo Rio de Janeiro (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao de Programas de Pos-graduacao em Engenharia

    2009-07-01

    This work presents studies regarding the determination of optimal pipeline routes for offshore applications. The assembly of an objective function is presented; this function can be later associated with Evolutionary Algorithm to implement a computational tool for the automatic determination of the most advantageous pipeline route for a given scenario. This tool may reduce computational overheads, avoid mistakes with route interpretation, and minimize costs with respect to submarine pipeline design and installation. The following aspects can be considered in the assembly of the objective function: Geophysical and geotechnical data obtained from the bathymetry and sonography; the influence of the installation method, total pipeline length and number of free spans to be mitigated along the routes as well as vessel time for both cases. Case studies are presented to illustrate the use of the proposed objective function, including a sensitivity analysis intended to identify the relative influence of selected parameters in the evaluation of different routes. (author)

  18. Hydrodynamic modeling of magmatic-hydrothermal activity at submarine arc volcanoes, with implications for ore formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruen, Gillian; Weis, Philipp; Driesner, Thomas; Heinrich, Christoph A.; de Ronde, Cornel E. J.

    2014-10-01

    Subduction-related magmas have higher volatile contents than mid-ocean ridge basalts, which affects the dynamics of associated submarine hydrothermal systems. Interaction of saline magmatic fluids with convecting seawater may enhance ore metal deposition near the seafloor, making active submarine arcs a preferred modern analogue for understanding ancient massive sulfide deposits. We have constructed a quantitative hydrological model for sub-seafloor fluid flow based on observations at Brothers volcano, southern Kermadec arc, New Zealand. Numerical simulations of multi-phase hydrosaline fluid flow were performed on a two-dimensional cross-section cutting through the NW Caldera and the Upper Cone sites, two regions of active venting at the Brothers volcanic edifice, with the former hosting sulfide mineralization. Our aim is to explore the flow paths of saline magmatic fluids released from a crystallizing magma body at depth and their interaction with seawater circulating through the crust. The model includes a 3 × 2km2 sized magma chamber emplaced at ∼ 2.5 km beneath the seafloor connected to the permeable cone via a ∼ 200 m wide feeder dike. During the simulation, a magmatic fluid was temporarily injected from the top of the cooling magma chamber into the overlying convection system, assuming hydrostatic conditions and a static permeability distribution. The simulations predict a succession of hydrologic regimes in the subsurface of Brothers volcano, which can explain some of the present-day hydrothermal observations. We find that sub-seafloor phase separation, inferred from observed vent fluid salinities, and the temperatures of venting at Brothers volcano can only be achieved by input of a saline magmatic fluid at depth, consistent with chemical and isotopic data. In general, our simulations show that the transport of heat, water, and salt from magmatic and seawater sources is partly decoupled. Expulsion of magmatic heat and volatiles occurs within the first

  19. Numerical and experimental investigations of submarine groundwater discharge to a coastal lagoon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haider, Kinza

    of the groundwater discharge occurred near the shoreline of the lagoon, but also off-shore discharge from deep confined aquifers system occurred at places where confining clay layers are eroded by buried valleys. The simulated fresh groundwater discharge was a non-negligible component, 59 % of recharge on the lagoon......The main goal of this study is to understand and estimate the amount of submarine groundwater discharge into Ringkøbing Fjord from shallow and deep aquifer systems at the Eastern shoreline from Ringkøbing catchment in Western Denmark. In order to accomplish this objective, the study was initiated...... using an existing large-scale airborne geophysical survey and hydrogeological data from the boreholes in the study area. This data helped in locating zones of groundwater discharge as well estimating complex salinity distribution under the sediment bed along with information about geology under lagoon...

  20. United Space Alliance waits to test its one-man submarine for SRB retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The one-man submarine dubbed DeepWorker 2000 sits on the deck of Liberty Star, one of two KSC solid rocket booster recovery ships. Inside the sub is the pilot, Anker Rasmussen. The sub is being tested on its ability to duplicate the sometimes hazardous job United Space Alliance (USA) divers perform to recover the expended boosters in the ocean after a launch. The boosters splash down in an impact area about 140 miles east of Jacksonville and after recovery are towed back to KSC for refurbishment by the specially rigged recovery ships. DeepWorker 2000 was built by Nuytco Research Ltd., North Vancouver, British Columbia. It is 8.25 feet long, 5.75 feet high, and weighs 3,800 pounds. USA is a prime contractor to NASA for the Space Shuttle program.

  1. Effect of an offshore sinkhole perforation in a coastal confined aquifer on submarine groundwater discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratesi, S.E.; Leonard, V.; Sanford, W.E.

    2007-01-01

    In order to explore submarine groundwater discharge in the vicinity of karst features that penetrate the confining layer of an offshore, partially confined aquifer, we constructed a three-dimensional groundwater model using the SUTRA (Saturated-Unsaturated TRAnsport) variable-density groundwater flow model. We ran a parameter sensitivity analysis, testing the effects of recharge rates, permeabilities of the aquifer and confining layer, and thickness of the confining layer. In all simulations, less than 20% of the freshwater recharge for the entire model exits through the sinkhole. Recirculated seawater usually accounts for 10-30% of the total outflow from the model. Often, the sinkhole lies seaward of the transition zone and acts as a recharge feature for recirculating seawater. The permeability ratio between aquifer and confining layer influences the configuration of the freshwater wedge the most; as confining layer permeability decreases, the wedge lengthens and the fraction of total discharge exiting through the sinkhole increases. Copyright ?? 2007 IAHS Press.

  2. Analytical Expression of Equivalent Transverse Magnetic Permeability for Three-core Wire Armoured Submarine Cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viafora, Nicola; Baù, Matteo; Dall, Laurits Bergholdt

    2016-01-01

    As three-core wire-armoured submarine cables become progressively more relevant, the need for refined modelling techniques grows likewise. IEC Standard 60287 indications though are still widely recognized to be insufficiently accurate, since several effects due to the presence of the collective...... of a simplified yet effective formulation. Such analytical approach is tested in a 2D FEM environment in terms of power losses distribution and compared both to the IEC indications and to an existing formula in the literature. It is found that the values of permeability proposed by the IEC Standard underestimate...... the induced sheath power losses due to the presence of the armour, whereas the proposed approach improves the accuracy, as the magnetic flux density enhancement within the cable is accounted for....

  3. Response of the Black Sea methane budget to massive short-term submarine inputs of methane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmale, O.; Haeckel, M.; McGinnis, D. F.

    2011-01-01

    A steady state box model was developed to estimate the methane input into the Black Sea water column at various water depths. Our model results reveal a total input of methane of 4.7 Tg yr(-1). The model predicts that the input of methane is largest at water depths between 600 and 700 m (7......% of the total input), suggesting that the dissociation of methane gas hydrates at water depths equivalent to their upper stability limit may represent an important source of methane into the water column. In addition we discuss the effects of massive short-term methane inputs (e. g. through eruptions of deep......-water mud volcanoes or submarine landslides at intermediate water depths) on the water column methane distribution and the resulting methane emission to the atmosphere. Our non-steady state simulations predict that these inputs will be effectively buffered by intense microbial methane consumption...

  4. Mapping the sound field of an erupting submarine volcano using an acoustic glider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Haru; Haxel, Joseph H; Dziak, Robert P; Bohnenstiehl, Delwayne R; Embley, Robert W

    2011-03-01

    An underwater glider with an acoustic data logger flew toward a recently discovered erupting submarine volcano in the northern Lau basin. With the volcano providing a wide-band sound source, recordings from the two-day survey produced a two-dimensional sound level map spanning 1 km (depth) × 40 km(distance). The observed sound field shows depth- and range-dependence, with the first-order spatial pattern being consistent with the predictions of a range-dependent propagation model. The results allow constraining the acoustic source level of the volcanic activity and suggest that the glider provides an effective platform for monitoring natural and anthropogenic ocean sounds. © 2011 Acoustical Society of America

  5. Initiation of breakout of half-buried submarine pipe from sea bed due to wave action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, A.W.K. [Nanyang Technological Univ. (Singapore). School of Civil and Structural Engineering; Foda, M.A. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1996-12-31

    A formulation is presented for the analysis of the breakout of a half-buried submarine pipe due to wave action. The formulation accounts for the contact between the pipe and the soil due to the oscillating horizontal hydrodynamic force. Results demonstrate the existence of an initial gap in the breakout experiments. With this initial gap the gap flux dominated the influx of water into the gap throughout the breakout process. The linear pipe rise persisted although the second-order expansion of the gap should have grown to the same order of magnitude as the initial gap with the poro-rigid soil assumption. It is postulated that the persistence of the linear rise was due to the localized passive failure around the ends of the soil trench which inhibited the growth of the opening due to the pipe`s rise. (Author)

  6. Significance of the actual nonlinear slope geometry for catastrophic failure in submarine landslides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puzrin, Alexander M; Gray, Thomas E; Hill, Andrew J

    2015-03-08

    A simple approach to slope stability analysis of naturally occurring, mild nonlinear slopes is proposed through extension of shear band propagation (SBP) theory. An initial weak zone appears in the steepest part of the slope where the combined action of gravity and seismic loads overcomes the degraded peak shear resistance of the soil. If the length of this steepest part is larger than the critical length, the shear band will propagate into the quasi-stable parts of the slope, where the gravitational and seismically induced shear stresses are smaller than the peak but larger than the residual shear strength of the soil. Growth of a shear band is strongly dependent on the shape of the slope, seismic parameters and the strength of soil and less dependent on the slope inclination and the sensitivity of clay. For the slope surface with faster changing inclination, the criterion is more sensitive to the changes of the parameters. Accounting for the actual nonlinear slope geometry eliminates the main challenge of the SBP approach-determination of the length of the initial weak zone, because the slope geometry can be readily obtained from submarine site investigations. It also helps to identify conditions for the early arrest of the shear band, before failure in the sliding layer or a change in loading or excess pore water pressures occurs. The difference in the size of a landslide predicted by limiting equilibrium and SBP approaches can reach orders of magnitude, potentially providing an explanation for the immense dimensions of many observed submarine landslides that may be caused by local factors acting over a limited portion of the slope.

  7. The Chronic Detrimental Impact of Interruptions in a Simulated Submarine Track Management Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loft, Shayne; Sadler, Andreas; Braithwaite, Janelle; Huf, Samuel

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this article is to examine the extent to which interruptions negatively impact situation awareness and long-term performance in a submarine track management task where pre- and postinterruption display scenes remained essentially identical. Interruptions in command and control task environments can degrade performance well beyond the first postinterruption action typically measured for sequential static tasks, because individuals need to recover their situation awareness for multiple unfolding display events. Participants in the current study returned to an unchanged display scene following interruption and therefore could be more immune to such long-term performance deficits. The task required participants to monitor a display to detect contact heading changes and to make enemy engagement decisions. Situation awareness (Situation Present Assessment Method) and subjective workload (NASA-Task Load Index) were measured. The interruption replaced the display for 20 s with a blank screen, during which participants completed a classification task. Situation awareness after returning from interruption was degraded. Participants were slower to make correct engagement decisions and slower and less accurate in detecting heading changes, despite these task decisions being made at least 40 s following the interruption. Interruptions negatively impacted situation awareness and long-term performance because participants needed to redetermine the location and spatial relationship between the displayed contacts when returning from interruption, either because their situation awareness for the preinterruption scene decayed or because they did not encode the preinterruption scene. Interruption in work contexts such as submarines is unavoidable, and further understanding of how operators are affected is required to improve work design and training. © 2015, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  8. Looking for Larvae Above an Erupting Submarine Volcano, NW Rota-1, Mariana Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, S.; Hanson, M.; Tunnicliffe, V.; Chadwick, W. W., Jr.; Breuer, E. R.

    2016-02-01

    In 2009 the first marine protected areas for deep-sea hydrothermal vents in U.S. waters were established as part of the Volcanic Unit of the Marianas Trench Marine National Monument. In this region, hydrothermal vents are located along the Mariana Arc and back-arc spreading center. In particular hydrothermal vents are located near the summit of NW Rota-1, an active submarine volcano on the Mariana Arc which was erupting between 2003 and 2010 and ceased as of 2014. NW Rota-1 experienced a massive landslide in late 2009, decimating the habitat on the southern side of the volcano. This project looked at zooplankton tow samples taken from the water column above NW Rota-1 in 2010, searching for larvae which have the potential to recolonize the sea floor after such a major disturbance. Samples were sorted in entirety into coarse taxa, and then larvae were removed for DNA barcoding. Overall zooplankton composition was dominated by copepods, ostracods, and chaetognaths, the majority of which are pelagic organisms. Comparatively few larvae of benthic invertebrates were found, but shrimp, gastropod, barnacle, and polychaete larvae did appear in low numbers in the samples. Species-level identification obtained via genetic barcoding will allow for these larvae to be matched to species known to inhabit the benthic communities at NW Rota-1. Identified larvae will give insight into the organisms which can re-colonize the seafloor vent communities after a disturbance such as the 2009 landslide. Communities at hydrothermal vents at other submarine volcanoes in the Monument may act as sources for these larvae, but connectivity in this region of complex topography is unknown. As the microinvertebrate biodiversity in the Monument has yet to be fully characterized, our project also provides an opportunity to better describe both the zooplankton and benthic community composition in this area of the Monument.

  9. Paleoseismicity on the Dense Network of Holocene Submarine Faults in Beppu Bay, Southwest Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazaki, K.; Matsuoka, H.; Okamura, M.; Chida, N.

    2003-12-01

    Beppu Bay, approximately 30 km by 15 km in size, contains a complex network of Holocene submarine faults whose total length amounts to 230km. They are normal dip-slip fault with left-lateral strike-slip component. The maximum vertical offset accumulated in the past 7,300 years exceeds 20 m. A detailed study on paleoseismicity on one of the faults shows a feature of the time-predictable recurrence, i.e., the larger the vertical offset, the longer the following inter-event time. Branching features can be often recognized near the end of fault and the consistency in branching direction of neighboring faults suggest repeated rupture propagation in the same direction. A detailed examination of high-resolution seismic profiling of branch indicates a repeat of branching and a slow transition of rupture from an old branch to a new one. The central Beppu-Bay fault running WNW to ESE in the center of the bay forms the northern boundary of the major graben structure of the bay. The Asamigawa fault in the west of the bay, running parallel to the central Beppu-Bay fault, has been considered as the southern boundary, but its eastern continuation was not clear. Recent seismic profiling carried out by Chida et al. (2003) showed an existence of Holocene normal fault beneath the city of Oita whose population is 440,000 and interpreted it as a part of the southern boundary. Our high-resolution shallow-water profiling survey revealed the submarine portion of the southern boundary fault, filling a gap between two subaerial faults. We continuously sample marine sediments down to a subbottom depth of 20m by piston coring and correlate specific features of sediment, 20 volcanic ash layers, a few features of magnetic susceptibility and coarse fraction together with C-14 ages of echinoids, pelecypods, and plant remains on the both sides of a targe fault to estimate the date and vertical offset of paleoearthquakes.

  10. Submarine Groundwater Discharge at a Single Spot Location: Evaluation of Different Detection Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Schubert

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD into the ocean is of general interest because it acts as vehicle for the transport of dissolved contaminants and/or nutrients into the coastal sea and because it may be accompanied by the loss of significant volumes of freshwater. Due to the large-scale and long-term nature of the related hydrological processes, environmental tracers are required for SGD investigation. The water parameters of electrical conductivity and temperature, the naturally occurring radionuclides of radon and radium as well as the stable water isotopes 18O and 2H have proven in previous studies their general suitability for the detection and quantification of SGD. However, individual hydrogeological settings require a site-specific application of this “tool box”. This study evaluates and compares the applicability of the abovementioned tracers for investigating SGD from a distinct submarine source in a karst environment at Cabbé, southern France. The specific advantages and disadvantages of each individual parameter under the given hydrogeological conditions are discussed. Radon appeared to be the most suitable environmental tracer in the site specific context. The water temperature was less reliable due to the little temperature difference between seawater and groundwater and since the diurnal variation of the air temperature masks potential SGD signals. Radium isotopes are less applicable in the studied region due to the lack of a well-developed subterranean estuary. The stable water isotopes showed results consistent with the salinity and radon data; however, the significantly higher effort required for stable isotope analyses is disadvantageous. A multi-temporal thermal remote sensing approach proved to be a powerful tool for initial SGD surveying.

  11. Partly standing internal tides in a dendritic submarine canyon observed by an ocean glider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Rob A.; Aslam, Tahmeena; Huvenne, Veerle A. I.

    2017-08-01

    An autonomous ocean glider is used to make the first direct measurements of internal tides within Whittard Canyon, a large, dendritic submarine canyon system that incises the Celtic Sea continental slope and a site of high benthic biodiversity. This is the first time a glider has been used for targeted observations of internal tides in a submarine canyon. Vertical isopycnal displacement observations at different stations fit a one-dimensional model of partly standing semidiurnal internal tides - comprised of a major, incident wave propagating up the canyon limbs and a minor wave reflected back down-canyon by steep, supercritical bathymetry near the canyon heads. The up-canyon internal tide energy flux in the primary study limb decreases from 9.2 to 2.0 kW m-1 over 28 km (a dissipation rate of 1 - 2.5 ×10-7 Wkg-1), comparable to elevated energy fluxes and internal tide driven mixing measured in other canyon systems. Within Whittard Canyon, enhanced mixing is inferred from collapsed temperature-salinity curves and weakened dissolved oxygen concentration gradients near the canyon heads. It has previously been hypothesised that internal tides impact benthic fauna through elevated near-bottom current velocities and particle resuspension. In support of this, we infer order 20 cm s-1 near-bottom current velocities in the canyon and observe high concentrations of suspended particulate matter. The glider observations are also used to estimate a 1 °C temperature range and 12 μmol kg-1 dissolved oxygen concentration range, experienced twice a day by organisms on the canyon walls, due to the presence of internal tides. This study highlights how a well-designed glider mission, incorporating a series of tide-resolving stations at key locations, can be used to understand internal tide dynamics in a region of complex topography, a sampling strategy that is applicable to continental shelves and slopes worldwide.

  12. Submarine geology of Hana Ridge and Haleakala Volcano's northeast flank, Maui

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eakins, Barry W.; Robinson, Joel E.

    2006-01-01

    We present a morphostructural analysis of the submarine portions of Haleakala Volcano and environs, based upon a 4-year program of geophysical surveys and submersible explorations of the underwater flanks of Hawaiian volcanoes that was conducted by numerous academic and governmental research organizations in Japan and the U.S. and funded primarily by the Japan Agency for Marine–Earth Science and Technology. A resulting reconnaissance geologic map features the 135-km-long Hana Ridge, the 3000 km2 Hana slump on the volcano's northeast flank, and island-surrounding terraces that are the submerged parts of volcanic shields. Hana Ridge below 2000 m water depth exhibits the lobate morphology typical of the subaqueously erupted parts of Hawaiian rift zones, with some important distinctions: namely, subparallel crestlines, which we propose result from the down-rift migration of offsets in the dike intrusion zone, and an amphitheater at its distal toe, where a submarine landslide has embayed the ridge tip. Deformation of Haleakala's northeast flank is limited to that part identified as the Hana slump, which lies downslope from the volcano's submerged shield, indicating that flank mobility is also limited in plan, inconsistent with hypothesized volcanic spreading driven by rift-zone dilation. The leading edge of the slump has transverse basins and ridges that resemble the thrust ramps of accretionary prisms, and we present a model to describe the slump's development that emphasizes the role of coastally generated fragmental basalt on gravitational instability of Haleakala's northeast flank and that may be broadly applicable to other ocean-island slumps.

  13. 76 FR 40849 - Post Office (PO) Box Fee Groups for Merged Locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-12

    ... 111 Post Office (PO) Box Fee Groups for Merged Locations AGENCY: Postal Service. TM ACTION: Proposed... Service, Domestic Mail Manual (DMM ) 508.4 to allow Post Office TM (PO) Box fee groups to be merged due to... , with a subject line of ``PO Box Fee Group for Merged Locations.'' Faxed comments are not accepted. FOR...

  14. Improving Development Teams to Support Deliberate Development of Air Force Officers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    lottery ) for breaking ties would undermine officer confidence in the system. It should be clear that we are not recommending a random process, only...attends which of the small schools:30 • a lottery • line numbers • a central PME board. Determining When Officers Will Attend AFPC analyses

  15. Understanding broadband over power line

    CERN Document Server

    Held, Gilbert

    2006-01-01

    Understanding Broadband over Power Line explores all aspects of the emerging technology that enables electric utilities to provide support for high-speed data communications via their power infrastructure. This book examines the two methods used to connect consumers and businesses to the Internet through the utility infrastructure: the existing electrical wiring of a home or office; and a wireless local area network (WLAN) access point.Written in a practical style that can be understood by network engineers and non-technologists alike, this volume offers tutorials on electric utility infrastru

  16. Low forced expiratory flow rates and forceful exhalation as a cause for arterial gas embolism during submarine escape training: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartge, Francis J; Bennett, Thomas L

    2015-01-01

    A 26-year-old male U.S. Navy submariner suffered an arterial gas embolism during pressurized submarine escape training. Routine pretraining medical screening revealed no history of asthma, pneumothorax or recent respiratory infection. Pulmonary function testing and posterioranterior/lateral chest X-ray were normal. He forcefully exhaled at the start of his ascent and developed neurological abnormalities including lightheadedness with lower extremity weakness and paresthesias after surfacing. He fully recovered after a U.S. Navy Treatment Table 6. This case represents the first report of an arterial gas embolism since the U.S. Navy resumed pressurized submarine escape training utilizing the Submarine Escape and Immersion Equipment suit. We discuss possible contributing factors and propose that his AGE was caused by pulmonary barotrauma due to a combination of low forced expiratory flow rates and an overly forceful exhalation during his ascent.

  17. Successive, large mass-transport deposits in the south Kermadec fore-arc basin, New Zealand: The Matakaoa Submarine Instability Complex

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Geoffroy Lamarche; Cathy Joanne; Jean-Yves Collot

    2008-01-01

    Four >100 km3 mass-transport deposits (MTDs) identified from their morphology and seismic facies across the Matakaoa Margin and Raukumara fore-arc basin, NE New Zealand, constitute the Matakaoa Submarine Instability Complex (MSIC...

  18. CRED 10m Gridded bathymetry of the submarine volcanos between Olosega and Ta'u Islands of the Manu'a Island group, American Samoa (Arc ASCII Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry of the submarine volcanos between Olosega and Ta'u Islands of the Manu'a Island group, American Samoa This survey provides almost complete...

  19. Submarine groundwater discharge at Kahana Bay, Oahu, 1997-2001: in situ CTD and water chemistry tracer data (NODC Accession 0011399)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) is neither well understood nor commonly investigated in Hawaii, but it is recognized as a potential pollution source to coastal...

  20. Office of Equal Opportunity Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Jennifer L.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Office of Equal Opportunity Programs works to provide quality service for all programs and/or to assist the Center in becoming a model workplace. During the summer of 2004, I worked with Deborah Cotleur along with other staff members to create and modify customer satisfaction surveys. This office aims to assist in developing a model workplace by providing functions as a change agent to the center by serving as an advisor to management to ensure equity throughout the Center. In addition, the office serves as a mediator for the Center in addressing issues and concerns. Lastly, the office provides assistance to employees to enable attainment of personal and organizational goals. The Office of Equal Opportunities is a staff office which reports and provides advice to the Center Director and Executive Leadership, implements laws, regulations, and presidential executive orders, and provides center wide leadership and assistance to NASA GRC employees. Some of the major responsibilities of the office include working with the discrimination complaints program, special emphasis programs (advisory groups), management support, monitoring and evaluation, contract compliance, and community outreach. During my internship in this office, my main objective was to create four customer satisfaction surveys based on EO retreats, EO observances, EO advisory boards, and EO mediation/counseling. I created these surveys after conducting research on past events and surveys as well as similar survey research created and conducted by other NASA centers, program for EO Advisory group members, leadership training sessions for supervisors, preventing sexual harassment training sessions, and observance events. I also conducted research on the style and format from feedback surveys from the Marshall Equal Opportunity website, the Goddard website, and the main NASA website. Using the material from the Office of Equal Opportunity Programs at Glenn Research Center along with my

  1. 10 CFR 1.31 - Office of the Chief Financial Officer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... comply with the Federal Manager's Financial Integrity Act of 1982; (e) Develops and manages an agencywide... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Office of the Chief Financial Officer. 1.31 Section 1.31... Financial Officer § 1.31 Office of the Chief Financial Officer. The Office of the Chief Financial Officer...

  2. Analysis of Submarine Landslides and Canyons along the U.S. Atlantic Margin Using Extended Continental Shelf Mapping Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaytor, J. D.; Brothers, D. S.; Ten Brink, U. S.; Hoy, S. K.; Baxter, C.; Andrews, B.

    2013-12-01

    U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) studies of the U.S. Atlantic continental slope and rise aim to understand the: 1) the role of submarine landslides in tsunami generation, and 2) the linkages between margin morphology and sedimentary processes, particularly in and around submarine canyon systems. Data from U.S. Extended Continental Shelf (ECS) and numerous subsequent mapping surveys have facilitated the identification and characterization of submarine landslides and related features in fine detail over an unprecedented spatial extent. Ongoing analysis of USGS collected piston cores, sub-bottom and multichannel seismic (MCS) reflection profiles, and an extensive suite of legacy MCS data from two landslides, the Southern New England landslide zone and the Currituck Landslide, suggest that the most recent major landslide events are pre-Holocene, but that failures were complex and most likely multi-phase, at times resulting in extensive overlapping debris deposits. Piston core records plus visual observations of the seafloor from recent TowCam deployments and NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer ROV dives reveal ongoing development of colluvial wedge-style debris aprons at the base of scarps within these landslides, showing that these regions continue to evolve long after the initial failure events. Multibeam bathymetry data and MCS profiles along the upper slope reveal evidence for vertical fluid migration and possible seabed gas expulsion. These observations underscore the need to reevaluate the sources of pore fluid overpressure in slope sediments and their role in landslide generation. ECS and more recent multibeam mapping have provided the opportunity to investigate the full extent of submarine canyon morphology and evolution from Cape Hatteras up to the US-Canadian EEZ, which has led to better understanding of the important role of antecedent margin physiography on their development. Six submarine canyon systems along the margin (Veatch, Hydrographer, Hudson, Wilmington

  3. Proceedings of Tripartite Conference on Submarine Medicine and IEP B-52 - France, United Kingdom, United States (6th) Held in Groton, Connecticut on 1-4 June 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-10-03

    such as electrolysers -, scrubbers, and burners, etc, give a good general technical description of the hardware and provide details of the physical...control is achieved. Oxygen Generation - In nuclear submarines oxygen is pruvidedby use of electrolysers . Currently the majority of submarines are fitted...with High Pressure Electrolysers .. A new Low Pressure Electrolyser using solid polymer electrolyte developed by General Electric has now been

  4. Development and validation of a modified Hybrid-III six-year-old dummy model for simulating submarining in motor-vehicle crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jingwen; Klinich, Kathleen D; Reed, Matthew P; Kokkolaras, Michael; Rupp, Jonathan D

    2012-06-01

    In motor-vehicle crashes, young school-aged children restrained by vehicle seat belt systems often suffer from abdominal injuries due to submarining. However, the current anthropomorphic test device, so-called "crash dummy", is not adequate for proper simulation of submarining. In this study, a modified Hybrid-III six-year-old dummy model capable of simulating and predicting submarining was developed using MADYMO (TNO Automotive Safety Solutions). The model incorporated improved pelvis and abdomen geometry and properties previously tested in a modified physical dummy. The model was calibrated and validated against four sled tests under two test conditions with and without submarining using a multi-objective optimization method. A sensitivity analysis using this validated child dummy model showed that dummy knee excursion, torso rotation angle, and the difference between head and knee excursions were good predictors for submarining status. It was also shown that restraint system design variables, such as lap belt angle, D-ring height, and seat coefficient of friction (COF), may have opposite effects on head and abdomen injury risks; therefore child dummies and dummy models capable of simulating submarining are crucial for future restraint system design optimization for young school-aged children. Copyright © 2011 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. 76 FR 52731 - On-Line Complaint Form for Service-Related Issues in Air Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-23

    ... Office of the Secretary On-Line Complaint Form for Service-Related Issues in Air Transportation AGENCY... of information from the public using an on-line complaint form. The on-line complaint form allows the... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Submission of Aviation Consumer Protection Division Webpage On-Line Aviation...

  6. Office of Personnel Management (OPM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The purpose of this agreement is for SSA to verify SSN information for the Office of Personnel Management. OPM will use the SSN verifications in its investigative...

  7. Office Operative Hysteroscopy: An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Christina Alicia; Isaacson, Keith

    2017-08-10

    Hysteroscopy is considered the gold standard for the evaluation of intracavitary pathology in both premenopausal and postmenopausal patients associated with abnormal uterine bleeding, as well as for the evaluation of infertile patients with suspected cavity abnormalities. Office-based operative hysteroscopy allows patients to resume activities immediately and successfully integrates clinical practice into a "see and treat" modality, avoiding the added risks of anesthesia and the inconvenience of the operating room. For 2017, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services has provided a substantial increase in reimbursement for a select number of office-based hysteroscopic procedures. This review provides an update on the indications, equipment, and procedures for office hysteroscopy, as well as the management of complications that may arise within an office-based practice. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. DOE JGI Project Management Office

    OpenAIRE

    Mcgowan, Marcia

    2008-01-01

    The JGI Project Management Office (PMO) was formed in 2006 to better handle the tracking, organization and flow of projects through the JGI sequencing pipeline. Each project manager specializes in specific project types and is responsible for communication and coordination.

  9. 75 FR 63753 - Family Offices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-18

    ... of these exceptions. We understand that many family offices have been structured to take advantage of... marriage and their lineal descendants, and the spouses of such children and descendents). \\22\\ For example...

  10. 77 FR 18742 - Copyright Office Fees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-28

    ... Copyright Office 37 CFR Parts 201 and 203 Copyright Office Fees AGENCY: Copyright Office, Library of Congress. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Copyright Office is proposing the adoption of... the costs to the Office for services that benefit both copyright owners and the public, and provide...

  11. 77 FR 72788 - Copyright Office Fees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ... Copyright Office 37 CFR Parts 201 and 203 Copyright Office Fees AGENCY: Copyright Office, Library of Congress. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Copyright Office has further revised its...: Comments must be received in the Copyright Office no later than 5 p.m. Eastern Standard Time (EST) on...

  12. 12 CFR 4.4 - Washington office.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Washington office. 4.4 Section 4.4 Banks and... EXAMINERS Organization and Functions § 4.4 Washington office. The Washington office of the OCC is the main office and headquarters of the OCC. The Washington office directs OCC policy, oversees OCC operations...

  13. 49 CFR 1325.3 - Federal office.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Federal office. 1325.3 Section 1325.3... FEDERAL OFFICE OR THEIR REPRESENTATIVES § 1325.3 Federal office. For the purposes of this section, Federal office means the office of President or Vice President of the United States; or of Senator or...

  14. 12 CFR 583.13 - Office.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Office. 583.13 Section 583.13 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DEFINITIONS FOR REGULATIONS AFFECTING SAVINGS AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 583.13 Office. The term Office means the Office of Thrift Supervision. ...

  15. 29 CFR 401.18 - Office.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Office. 401.18 Section 401.18 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS MEANING OF TERMS USED IN THIS SUBCHAPTER § 401.18 Office. Office means the Office of Labor-Management Standards...

  16. 12 CFR 561.34 - Office.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Office. 561.34 Section 561.34 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DEFINITIONS FOR REGULATIONS AFFECTING ALL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 561.34 Office. The term Office means the Office as established in section 3 of the...

  17. 40 CFR 1.25 - Staff Offices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Staff Offices. 1.25 Section 1.25... INFORMATION Headquarters § 1.25 Staff Offices. (a) Office of Administrative Law Judges. The Office of... proceedings. The Office provides supervision of the Administrative Law Judges, who operate as a component of...

  18. Intervention requirements for deep water pipe lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matteelli, R.; Mazzoli, A.

    1982-12-01

    The theoretical analysis, although pushed to the highest levels of sophistication, cannot be left out of the program of global and local survey along the route, but has to be carried out by suitably equipped mini-submarines, manned or unmanned. The results of the survey supported by theoretical analysis allows the continuous updating of the configuration that is processed during computerized simulation. The final results of the integrated technique is often the individuation, along the route, of sections with a distinct level of reliability, and in particular the identification of those areas that will require an inspection program. Plant safety requires that the operational life of the line be continuously aided through a suitably scheduled inspection program. According to the levels of risk identified along the route, an inspection schedule is programed at different levels of accuracy and at diversified periodic distribution to minimize the number of vehicles used and to reduce the cost of inspection and maintenance without compromising the plant safety. As inspection and maintenance programs are costly, this has given rise to the development of remote control and monitoring techniques, as used on onshore plants. A possible future development could be the installation of a suitable monitoring system capable of transmitting to the shore station all the necessary information of the actual parameters affecting the safety condition of the sealine.

  19. OPENING HOURS FOR CARDS OFFICE

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    Due to the extra workload generated by the global renewal of French cards and in order to preserve the level of service offered by the cards office, please note that this office will in future be open every morning from 8.30 a.m. to 12.30 p.m. until further notice. The service can be contacted by telephone during the same hours. Thank you for your understanding.

  20. Probation officer skills : spanish context

    OpenAIRE

    Nagdev Nagdev, Nidhi

    2016-01-01

    Probation has always been conceived as a community sanction where Probation Officers accompany the convict on the path of desistance. International literature on the effectiveness of probation indicates that the skills used by Probation Officers, in the interviews, with the convicts effect on the subsequent recidivism of the offenders. These skills are related to the use of Core Correctional Practices and the Risk Need and Responsivity model, considering them the bases of the relationship bet...

  1. Office 2007 The Missing Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Grover, Chris; Vander Veer, E A

    2009-01-01

    Quickly learn the most useful features of Microsoft Office 2007 with our easy to read four-in-one guide. This fast-paced book gives you the basics of Word, Excel, PowerPoint and Access so you can start using the new versions of these major Office applications right away. It's a great way to master all 4 programs without having to stock up on a shelf-load of different books.

  2. 75 FR 58410 - Office of Biotechnology Activities, Office of Science Policy, Office of the Director; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of Biotechnology Activities, Office of Science... of Biotechnology Activities, 6705 Rockledge Drive, Suite 750, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, (301) 496...

  3. Submarine fiber cable network systems cost planning considerations with achieved high transmission capacity and signal quality enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashed, Ahmed Nabih Zaki

    2013-01-01

    This paper has presented theoretically the comparison between three types of fibers which are investigated extensively: plastic clad silica (PCS), polystyrene (PS) and perfluorinated graded index polymer optical fibers (PF GI-POF) for high speed undersea cable systems. Based on experimental data, both the deep ocean water temperature and pressure are tailored as functions of the water depth. It is taken into account the estimation of the total cost of the submarine fiber cable system for transmission techniques under study. The system capacity as well as the spectral losses, and the dispersion effects are parametrically investigated over wide range ranges of the set of affecting parameters {wavelength, ocean depth (and consequently the ocean pressure and temperature), and the chemical structure}. The results show that PCS has the optimum performance in compared with other fibers. Therefore PCS fiber is the most appropriate candidate among all types of fibers for high speed local submarine communication systems.

  4. Development of an underwater ROV system for submarine cable maintenance. Kaitei cable maintenance yo suichu robot no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iyama, T.; Takahashi, Y.; Kaya, F.; Shigemitsu, T. (Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries, Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1992-07-01

    For the purpose of repairing, burying, and inspecting submarine telecommunication cables more speedily and at greater depth than conventional processes, an underwater remotely operated robot system for submarine cable maintenance has been developed. The system is composed of an underwater remotely operated vehicle (ROV), tether cables, a tether management system, umbilical cables, a launch and recovery system, control units, and electric power units. The ROV is loaded with thrusters for propulsion, a television camera, a cable location system, manipulators, a cable gripper/cutter unit, a cable burier/digger unit, a variable ballast unit, various sensors, et al. Since its entrance into service in October, 1989, the system has been successfully operated in various sea areas around Japan with a crew of three or four for operation and maintenance. This paper describes the outline of the system configuration and their specifications. 12 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Effectiveness of Unmanned Surface Vehicles in Anti-submarine Warfare with the Goal of Protecting a High Value Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    author and do not reflect the official policy or position of the Department of Defense or the U.S. Government . IRB Protocol number ____N/A...Communication SOA Speed of Advance SSK Diesel Electric Submarine TDZ Torpedo Danger Zone UAV Unmanned Aerial Vehicle USV Unmanned Surface Vehicle UUV...sensors. Agent-based models can perform non-linear behavior patterns , capture organizational dynamics, and provide valuable insights about real-world

  6. Learning from Experience, Volume 2: Lessons from the U.S. Navy’s Ohio, Seawolf, and Virginia Submarine Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    man/docs/bur/index.html Barney, LT James R., and RADM John J. Zerr, USN, “NSSN - New Attack Submarine: US Navy’s ‘ Paperless Submarine’ Undergoes...Trident: Setting the Requirements, Kennedy School of Government, C15-88-802.0, 1987. ———, Trident Contracting (B): Evaluating the Bids, Cambridge...Mass.: Harvard Kennedy School of Government, 1988a. ———, Trident Contracting (C): Negotiating the Contract, Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Kennedy School

  7. Navy Columbia Class (Ohio Replacement) Ballistic Missile Submarine (SSBN[X]) Program: Background and Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-25

    nuclear deterrent force, or “triad,” which also includes land-based intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs) and land-based long-range bombers. At any...any vessel owned, operated, or controlled by the Department of Defense that carries operational intercontinental ballistic missiles . Precedents for...Navy Columbia Class (Ohio Replacement) Ballistic Missile Submarine (SSBN[X]) Program: Background and Issues for Congress Ronald O’Rourke

  8. Satellite-derived submarine melt rates and mass balance (2011–2015 for Greenland's largest remaining ice tongues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Wilson

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Ice-shelf-like floating extensions at the termini of Greenland glaciers are undergoing rapid changes with potential implications for the stability of upstream glaciers and the ice sheet as a whole. While submarine melting is recognized as a major contributor to mass loss, the spatial distribution of submarine melting and its contribution to the total mass balance of these floating extensions is incompletely known and understood. Here, we use high-resolution WorldView satellite imagery collected between 2011 and 2015 to infer the magnitude and spatial variability of melt rates under Greenland's largest remaining ice tongues – Nioghalvfjerdsbræ (79 North Glacier, 79N, Ryder Glacier (RG, and Petermann Glacier (PG. Submarine melt rates under the ice tongues vary considerably, exceeding 50 m a−1 near the grounding zone and decaying rapidly downstream. Channels, likely originating from upstream subglacial channels, give rise to large melt variations across the ice tongues. We compare the total melt rates to the influx of ice to the ice tongue to assess their contribution to the current mass balance. At Petermann Glacier and Ryder Glacier, we find that the combined submarine and aerial melt approximately balances the ice flux from the grounded ice sheet. At Nioghalvfjerdsbræ the total melt flux (14.2 ± 0.96 km3 a−1 w.e., water equivalent exceeds the inflow of ice (10.2 ± 0.59 km3 a−1 w.e., indicating present thinning of the ice tongue.

  9. Submarine explosive activity and ocean noise generation at Monowai Volcano, Kermadec Arc: constraints from hydroacoustic T-waves

    OpenAIRE

    Grevemeyer, Ingo; Metz, Dirk; Watts, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Submarine volcanic activity is difficult to detect, because eruptions at depth are strongly attenuated by seawater. With increasing depth the ambient water pressure increases and limits the expansion of gas and steam such that volcanic eruptions tend to be less violent and less explosive with depth. Furthermore, the thermal conductivity and heat capacity of water causes rapid cooling of ejected products and hence erupted magma cools much more quickly than during subaerial eruptions. Therefore...

  10. From nuclear submarines to graduate medical education: applying David Marquet’s intent-based leadership model

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez-Salvador, Camilo; Oney, Rebecca; Song, Sungjin A.; Camacho, Macario

    2017-01-01

    L. David Marquet, a decorated Navy Captain, transformed an underperforming submarine crew by empowering his subordinates to be leaders and reach their full potential. He called this intent-based leadership (IBL). What would happen if Marquet’s model were implemented in Graduate Medical Education (GME)? In this letter to the editor, we summarize the potential of the IBL model in graduate medical education as opposed to the traditional leader-follower method. IBL harnesses human productivity to...

  11. ASSESSING LANDSLIDE-TSUNAMI HAZARD IN SUBMARINE CANYONS, USING THE COOK STRAIT CANYON SYSTEM AS AN EXAMPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Power

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Tsunami generated by submarine landslides are now recognised as an important hazard, following several historical events. Submarine landslides can occur in a variety of settings such as on continental slopes, volcanic slopes, and submerged canyons and fjords. While significant progress has been made in understanding tsunami generation processes on open slopes, the problem of tsunami generation by landslides within submarine canyons has received less attention. In this paper we examine the tsunami hazard posed by submarine landslides in the Cook Strait canyon system, near Wellington, New Zealand. Understanding of the hazard posed by this tsunami source has practical value because of its proximity to a populated coast. Our studies also provide general results highlighting the differences between tsunami generation on open coasts and tsunami generation within canyons. Geotechnical and geological studies of the Cook Strait region reveal evidence for many large landslide scars in the canyon walls, these are interpreted to be failures of consolidated material which descend the slopes on the sides of the canyon. Scouring of the base of the canyon slopes by strong tidal currents is believed to be an important process in bringing slopes to the point of failure, with most large failures expected to occur during earthquake shaking. We present the results of computer simulations of landslide failures using simplified canyon geometries represented in either 2D (vertical slice or 3D. These simulations were made using Gerris, an adaptive-grid fluid dynamics solver. A key finding is that the sudden deceleration of the landslide material after reaching the canyon floor, leads to larger amplitude waves in the back-propagation direction (i.e. in the opposite direction to the initial landslide motion.

  12. Combining airborne thermal infrared images and radium isotopes to study submarine groundwater discharge along the French Mediterranean coastline

    OpenAIRE

    Simon Bejannin; Pieter van Beek; Thomas Stieglitz; Marc Souhaut; Joseph Tamborski

    2017-01-01

    Study region: The French Mediterranean coastline, which includes karstic springs discharging into coastal seas and coastal lagoons. Study focus: We investigated submarine groundwater discharge (SGD), an important vector for many chemical elements that may impact the quality of the coastal environment. First, we acquired airborne thermal infrared (TIR) images to detect terrestrial groundwater inputs. Then we report in situ data (salinity; temperature; radium isotopes). We use these data i) ...

  13. Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Literacy Health Care Quality Healthy People healthfinder Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Spotlight: This ... 16/2017 This site is coordinated by the Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office of ...

  14. Marine electrical resistivity imaging of submarine groundwater discharge: Sensitivity analysis and application in Waquoit Bay, Massachusetts, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Rory; Day-Lewis, Frederick D.; Abarca, Elena; Harvey, Charles F.; Karam, Hanan N.; Liu, Lanbo; Lane, John W.

    2010-01-01

    Electrical resistivity imaging has been used in coastal settings to characterize fresh submarine groundwater discharge and the position of the freshwater/salt-water interface because of the relation of bulk electrical conductivity to pore-fluid conductivity, which in turn is a function of salinity. Interpretation of tomograms for hydrologic processes is complicated by inversion artifacts, uncertainty associated with survey geometry limitations, measurement errors, and choice of regularization method. Variation of seawater over tidal cycles poses unique challenges for inversion. The capabilities and limitations of resistivity imaging are presented for characterizing the distribution of freshwater and saltwater beneath a beach. The experimental results provide new insight into fresh submarine groundwater discharge at Waquoit Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve, East Falmouth, Massachusetts (USA). Tomograms from the experimental data indicate that fresh submarine groundwater discharge may shut down at high tide, whereas temperature data indicate that the discharge continues throughout the tidal cycle. Sensitivity analysis and synthetic modeling provide insight into resolving power in the presence of a time-varying saline water layer. In general, vertical electrodes and cross-hole measurements improve the inversion results regardless of the tidal level, whereas the resolution of surface arrays is more sensitive to time-varying saline water layer.

  15. Sun glitter imaging analysis of submarine sand waves in HJ-1A/B satellite CCD images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huaguo; He, Xiekai; Yang, Kang; Fu, Bin; Guan, Weibing

    2014-11-01

    Submarine sand waves are a widespread bed-form in tidal environment. Submarine sand waves induce current convergence and divergence that affect sea surface roughness thus become visible in sun glitter images. These sun glitter images have been employed for mapping sand wave topography. However, there are lots of effect factors in sun glitter imaging of the submarine sand waves, such as the imaging geometry and dynamic environment condition. In this paper, several sun glitter images from HJ-1A/B in the Taiwan Banks are selected. These satellite sun glitter images are used to discuss sun glitter imaging characteristics in different sensor parameters and dynamic environment condition. To interpret the imaging characteristics, calculating the sun glitter radiance and analyzing its spatial characteristics of the sand wave in different images is the best way. In this study, a simulated model based on sun glitter radiation transmission is adopted to certify the imaging analysis in further. Some results are drawn based on the study. Firstly, the sun glitter radiation is mainly determined by sensor view angle. Second, the current is another key factor for the sun glitter. The opposite current direction will cause exchanging of bright stripes and dark stripes. Third, brightness reversal would happen at the critical angle. Therefore, when using sun glitter image to obtain depth inversion, one is advised to take advantage of image properties of sand waves and to pay attention to key dynamic environment condition and brightness reversal.

  16. Office of the Chief Financial Officer 2012 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Kim [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-01-31

    Fiscal Year 2012 was a year of progress and change in the Office of the Chief Financial Officer (OCFO) organization. The notable accomplishments outlined below strengthened the quality of the OCFO’s stewardship and services in support of the scientific mission of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). Three strategies were key to this progress: organizational transformation aligned with our goals; process redesign and effective use of technology to improve efficiency, and innovative solutions to meet new challenges. Over the next year we will continue to apply these strategies to further enhance our contributions to the Lab’s scientific mission. What follows is the budget, funding and costs for the office for FY 2012.

  17. Evaluation of tsunami hazard associated to the Assi submarine landslide along the Ionian Calabrian margin, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaniboni, F.; Tinti, S.; Pagnoni, G.; Ceramicola, S.; Planinsek, P.; Marson, I.

    2012-04-01

    Continental margins are frequently prone to submarine sliding, which constitutes a severe hazard when the slides occur close to the coast and move in shallow water, since they might generate destructive waves. In the Mediterranean Sea, especially, the potential sources of landslide-induced tsunamis are often located critically close to coastal communities, and the knowledge of how the event may evolve together with awareness of the associated risk are key factors for civil protection issues. A series of recent geophysical surveys carried out by OGS in the framework of The MAGIC (Marine Geohazards along the Italian Coasts) project, brought relevant contribution to the imaging and functioning of submarine landslides. Along the tectonically active Ionian Calabrian Margin (ICM) a multiple failure event has been identified (Assi landslide) at about 6 km away from the coastline nearby Riace Marina: headwall scars, mobilized sediments along the scour, stacked deposits at and near the seabed, at the foot of the slope have been identified. The data allowed to estimate the volume of mobilized material and to reconstruct the failure dynamics. One of the most susceptible areas along the ICM is located in the southern part, around the coastal village of Riace Marina in the province of Reggio Calabria. The coastal area adjacent to Riace Marina is not a very urbanized settlement, however becomes intensely crowded in the tourist season. The evidence of the occurrence of such an extensive failure event so close to the coast, motivated us to assess the potential tsunamigenic hazard associated to the Assi submarine landslide event in this area. A number of scenarios were considered starting from a more conservative scenario (i.e. a sequence of successive failures) to the most critical case (i.e. a unique big event mobilizing all the sediments at once). In this work we present the results concerning the worst-case scenario, that is we assume that a single big landslide event occurred

  18. Submarine landslides in contourite drifts along the Pianosa Ridge (Northern Tyrrhenian Sea): A geotechnical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miramontes Garcia, Elda; Sultan, Nabil; Garziglia, Sebastien; Jouet, Gwenael; Cauquil, Eric; Cattaneo, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    The Pianosa Ridge is a tectonic structure in the Northern Tyrrhenian Sea that forms the eastern flank of the Corsica trough (between Corsica and the Tuscan shelf). It is characterised by the presence of submarine landslides within the Pianosa Contourite Depositional System. Multibeam bathymetry, High-Resolution-72 channel (50-250 Hz) and CHIRP (3200-5200 Hz) seismic reflection profiles, collected during cruises PRISME2 and PRISME3 in 2013, revealed that bottom currents created a heterogeneous sedimentation pattern, resulting in zones of preferential deposition (drifts) and zones of erosion and/or non-deposition (moat and abraded surfaces). The sector where the largest submarine landslides took place is characterised by the presence of a plastered drift, a sediment body with a maximum thickness in the mid-low continental slope and a moat at the toe of the slope. Calypso piston cores and piezocone CPTu data acquired during the PRISME3 cruise in 2013 also provide valuable information about the lithology, geomechanical properties and stress history of contourite drifts and of the shallowest submarine landslide, named Pianosa Slump. Contourites in this area are mostly muddy, with coarser layers deposited during sea level falls. During sea level low-stands sedimentation rates (up to 115 cm•kyr-1 in the plastered drift) are higher than during sea level high-stands (20 cm•kyr-1 in the plastered drift). The plastered drift is underconsolidated with Overconsolidation Ratios (OCR) that range between 0.5 and 0.8. The Pianosa Slump formed in the plastered drift at 43-50 kyr BP has a volume of 2.62 km3, and it is covered by 17-20 m of sediment. The basal shear surface of the Pianosa Slump, at 30-56 m below the present-day seafloor, is correlated with a sediment layer characterised by the presence of zeolite minerals (up to 4% of sediment volume), high water content, low density, high compressibility, high permeability, high undrained shear strength and a post-peak strain

  19. Who Becomes a Limited Duty Officer and Chief Warrant Officer? An Examination of Differences of Limited Duty Officers and Chief Warrant Officers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Manuel, Walter F

    2006-01-01

    .... The results of the study revealed the background characteristics age, education, race and ethnicity groups were significantly different between the Limited Duty Officer and Chief Warrant Officer Communities...

  20. Selected Regional Judicial Officer Cases, 2005 - Present

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset contains selected cases involving EPA's Regional Judicial Officers (RJOs) from 2005 to present. EPA's Regional Judicial Officers (RJOs) perform...

  1. Office 2010 Web Apps For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Weverka, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Enhance your Microsoft Office 2010 experience with Office 2010 Web Apps!. Office Web Apps complement Office, making it easy to access and edit files from anywhere. It also simplifies collaboration with those who don't have Microsoft Office on their computers. This helpful book shows you the optimum ways you can use Office Web Apps to save time and streamline your work. Veteran For Dummies author Peter Weverka begins with an introduction to Office Web Apps and then goes on to clearly explain how Office Web Apps provide you with easier, faster, more flexible ways to get things done.: Walks you t

  2. Peripheral intravenous line - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    PIV - infants; Peripheral IV - infants; Peripheral line - infants; Peripheral line - neonatal ... A peripheral intravenous line (PIV) is a small, short, plastic tube, called a catheter. A health care provider puts the PIV through the ...

  3. Sewer Main Pipe Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This is a line feature dataset with lines across the island of Guam. These lines represent the sewer mains that carry refuse to the sewer plants for processing and...

  4. First Use of an Autonomous Glider for Exploring Submarine Volcanism in the SW Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, H.; Embley, R. W.; Haxel, J. H.; Dziak, R. P.; Bohnenstiehl, D. R.; Stalin, S.; Meinig, C.

    2010-12-01

    A 1000-m Slocum glider® (Teledyne Webb Research Corporation) with CTD, turbidity, and hydrophone sensors was operated for two days in the Northeast Lau Basin. The survey was conducted near West Mata Volcano, where in November of 2008 the NOAA PMEL Vents program observed an active eruption at its 1207 m summit—the deepest submarine activity ever before witnessed. Our goal was to use the glider as a forensic tool to search for other nearby eruption sites with onboard sensors that detect the chemical and hydroacoustic signatures associated with the volcanic and hydrothermal plumes. The glider was launched approximately 40 km to the west of West Mata. It flew toward West Mata and was recovered near the summit of the volcano after repeating 13 yos during a 41-hour mission. Although the recordings were affected by mechanical noise from the glider’s rudder, the data demonstrate that the system can detect the wide-band noises (>1 kHz) associated with submarine volcanic and intense hydrothermal activity. The glider recorded complex acoustic amplitudes due to the multiple raypaths from West Mata as well as temporal variations in the volcano’s rate of activity, and demonstrated that these geologic processes contribute to the region’s high ambient noise levels. With the exception of the deployment and recovery, the mission was managed entirely by the shore teams in PMEL (Seattle, WA) and OSU labs (Newport, OR), ~5000 miles away without an engineer onboard. The dive cycle of the 950-m dives was ~3.5 hours and the average speed was ~0.27 cm/s. The CTD data were downloaded at every surface cycle and appeared to be of high quality. However we found that the sensitivity of the Wetlabs ECO flntu turbidity sensor was not adequate for the detection of volcanic plumes. The mission demonstrated PMEL’s ability to use autonomous gliders to monitor a variety of environmental parameters including ambient sound levels, temperature, salinity and turbidity for the purpose of finding

  5. Cyclic eruptions and sector collapses at Monowai submarine volcano, Kermadec arc: 1998-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, W. W.; Wright, I. C.; Schwarz-Schampera, U.; Hyvernaud, O.; Reymond, D.; de Ronde, C. E. J.

    2008-10-01

    Repeated multibeam bathymetric surveys at Monowai Cone, a shallow submarine basaltic volcano and part of the Monowai Volcanic Center in the northern Kermadec arc, were conducted in 1998, 2004, and 2007. These surveys document dramatic depth changes at the volcano including negative changes up to -176 m from two sector collapses and positive changes up to +138 m from volcanic reconstruction near the summit and debris avalanche deposits downslope of the slide scars. One sector collapse occurred on the SE slope between 1998 and 2004 with a volume of ˜0.09 km3, and another occurred on the SW slope between 2004 and 2007 with a volume of ˜0.04 km3. The volume of positive depth change due to addition of volcanic material by eruption is of the same order: ˜0.05 km3 between 1998 and 2004 and ˜0.06 km3 between 2004 and 2007. During these time intervals, monitoring by the Polynesian Seismic Network detected frequent T wave swarms at Monowai, indicative of explosive eruptive activity every few months. An unusual T wave swarm on 24 May 2002 was previously interpreted as the collapse event between the 1998 and 2004 surveys, but no similarly anomalous T waves were detected between 2004 and 2007, probably because the Polynesian Seismic Network stations were acoustically shadowed from the second slide event. We interpret that the sector collapses on Monowai are caused by the unstable loading of fragmental erupted material on the summit and steep upper slopes of the volcano (>20°). Moreover, there appears to be a cyclic pattern in which recurrent eruptions oversteepen the cone and periodically lead to collapse events that transport volcaniclastic material downslope to the lower apron of the volcano. Volumetric rate calculations suggest that these two processes may be more or less in equilibrium. The repeated collapses at Monowai are relatively modest in volume (involving only 0.1-0.5% of the edifice volume), have occurred much more frequently than is estimated for larger debris

  6. Can submarine groundwater discharge be a major source of mercury input to north Gulf of Mexico?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, X.; Das, R.; Odom, L.

    2009-12-01

    Atmosphere deposition is generally regarded to be the primary source of mercury in the open ocean. Bone et al., 2007 measured an order of magnitude higher mercury concentration (0.47-1.9 nM of Hg m-2 day-1) in the submarine ground water discharge to the Waquoit Bay (Massachusetts), than the atmospheric deposition rate for the northeastern U.S and far greater than the dissolved Hg introduced through riverine input. This is a report initial findings of an investigation begun in April, 2009 to study what role submarine groundwater discharge along the northern Gulf of Mexico coast (Florida) might have in supplying dissolved mercury and methylmercury to gulf waters. Initial efforts have concentrated on part of a pristine and previously studied (Santos et al., 2008) subterranean estuary. The subterranean estuary is the zone in which encroaching seawater mixes with groundwater from land-based recharge. We collected water samples from five permanent PVC wells over small spatial scales (~ 10 m), sampling the subterranean estuary water at 4 m depth. Fresh groundwater and sea water were collected as well. Within the narrow subterranean estuary zone of the study area, both total dissolved mercury and methylmercury filtered samples reach concentrations nearly two orders of magnitude higher than that in either of the presumed end members (groundwater and seawater). Peak concentrations are approximately in the center of the zone (total mercury = 99.7 pM; methylmercury=16.9 pM). By comparison, Sunderland et al. (2009) found methylmercury concentration in North Pacific Ocean water to be 0.33pM. Isotopic measurements of mercury across the subterranean estuary zone reveal a mass-dependent fractionation pattern of heavy isotope enrichment increasing from δ202Hg = 0.1 (landward) to 1.1 (seaward). { δ202Hg = [(202Hg/200Hg)water/(202Hg/200Hg)NIST3133] -1x1000} Because of the low concentrations, isotopic measurements of seawater and groundwater are not presently available. While no

  7. 76 FR 69031 - Order of Succession for the Office of the Chief Human Capital Officer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-07

    ... Succession for the Office of the Chief Human Capital Officer AGENCY: Office of the Chief Human Capital Officer, HUD. ACTION: Notice of order of succession. SUMMARY: In this notice, the Chief Human Capital... Office of the Chief Human Capital Officer. DATES: Effective Date: October 20, 2011. FOR FURTHER...

  8. 12 CFR 1710.17 - Certification of disclosures by chief executive officer and chief financial officer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... officer and chief financial officer. 1710.17 Section 1710.17 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF FEDERAL HOUSING ENTERPRISE OVERSIGHT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT SAFETY AND SOUNDNESS CORPORATE GOVERNANCE... chief financial officer. The chief executive officer and the chief financial officer of an Enterprise...

  9. Argon systematics of neutron irradiated submarine basalt glasses from the deep south rift zone of Loihi seamount and the {sup 40}Ar/{sup 36}Ar ratio of the Hawaiian plume source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trieloff, M.; Falter, M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Jessberger, E.K. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany)]|[Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Planetologie

    1998-12-31

    Submarine basalt glasses from Loihi seamount dredged at the southern rift zone between 3 and 5 km depth were studied. These glasses contain neon with the highest {sup 20}Ne/{sup 22}Ne ratios measured so far in submarine volcanics and constrain a well defined correlation line in a Ne-3-isotope plot (Valbracht et al., 1997). Within this study that focussed on argon isotopes an increased resolution regarding temperature and crushing steps was used: High {sup 40}Ar/{sup 36}Ar ratios at intermediate temperatures and in several crushing steps were measured which are related to argon from vesicle populations containing the most pristine mantle signature. This argon is highly improbable to be related to olivine phenocrysts and a possible contamination by MORB type noble gases. Our best constraint on the argon isotopic composition of the Loihi glasses is {sup 40}Ar/{sup 36}Ar=6590{+-}840, providing a lower limit of >5750 for the Hawaiian lower mantle source, further attesting its partially degassed nature concerning primordial noble gases. The argon distribution in the investigated Loihi glasses shows characteristic features very similar to MORB glasses. The isotopic composition of vesicle argon released by crushing covers the complete range between the atmospheric and the mantle endmember. In low vesicularity glasses mantle argon shows a nearly perfect correlation with the glass dissolved, neutron induced argon isotopes in the course of stepheating, while in glasses of higher vesicularity mantle argon partitioned into the vesicles. This is independently confirmed by the comparison of the argon yield by crushing and heating. On the other hand, the stepheating release pattern of the atmospheric component does hardly correlate with glass dissolved argon, independent on vesicularity. A significant fraction of the atmospheric contaminant is related to vesicles and pyroxene microlites, and is moreover associated with microdefects or, alternatively, is inhomogeneously distributed

  10. Unsteady hydrodynamics of blade forces and acoustic responses of a model scaled submarine excited by propeller's thrust and side-forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yingsan; Wang, Yongsheng

    2013-04-01

    This study presents the unsteady hydrodynamics of the excitations from a 5-bladed propeller at two rotating speeds running in the wake of a small-scaled submarine and the behavior of the submarine's structure and acoustic responses under the propeller excitations. Firstly, the propeller flow and submarine flows are independently validated. The propulsion of the hull-propeller is simulated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD), so as to obtain the transient responses of the propeller excitations. Finally, the structure and acoustic responses of the submarine under propeller excitations are predicted using a finite element/boundary element model in the frequency domain. Results show that (1) the propeller excitations are tonal at the propeller harmonics, and the propeller transversal force is bigger than vertical force. (2) The structure and acoustic responses of the submarine hull is tonal mainly at the propeller harmonics and the resonant mode frequencies of the hull, and the breathing mode in axial direction as well as the bending modes in vertical and transversal directions of the hull can generate strong structure vibration and underwater noise. (3) The maximum sound pressure of the field points increases with the increasing propeller rotating speed at structure resonances and propeller harmonics, and the rudders resonant mode also contributes a lot to the sound radiation. Lastly, the critical rotating speeds of the submarine propeller are determined, which should be carefully taken into consideration when match the propeller with prime mover in the propulsion system. This work shows the importance of the propeller's tonal excitation and the breathing mode plus the bending modes in evaluating submarine's noise radiation.

  11. Modeling ecosystem processes with variable freshwater inflow to the Caloosahatchee River Estuary, southwest Florida. II. Nutrient loading, submarine light, and seagrasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzelli, Christopher; Doering, Peter; Wan, Yongshan; Sun, Detong

    2014-12-01

    Short- and long-term changes in estuarine biogeochemical and biological attributes are consequences of variations in both the magnitude and composition of freshwater inputs. A common conceptualization of estuaries depicts nutrient loading from coastal watersheds as the stressor that promotes algal biomass, decreases submarine light penetration, and degrades seagrass habitats. Freshwater inflow depresses salinity while simultaneously introducing colored dissolved organic matter (color or CDOM) which greatly reduces estuarine light penetration. This is especially true for sub-tropical estuaries. This study applied a model of the Caloosahatchee River Estuary (CRE) in southwest Florida to explore the relationships between freshwater inflow, nutrient loading, submarine light, and seagrass survival. In two independent model series, the loading of dissolved inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus (DIN and DIP) was reduced by 10%, 20%, 30%, and 50% relative to the base model case from 2002 to 2009 (2922 days). While external nutrient loads were reduced by lowering inflow (Q0) in the first series (Q0 series), reductions were accomplished by decreasing the incoming concentrations of DIN and DIP in the second series (NP Series). The model also was used to explore the partitioning of submarine light extinction due to chlorophyll a, CDOM, and turbidity. Results suggested that attempting to control nutrient loading by decreasing freshwater inflow could have minor effects on water column concentrations but greatly influence submarine light and seagrass biomass. This is because of the relative importance of Q0 to salinity and submarine light. In general, light penetration and seagrass biomass decreased with increased inflow and CDOM. Increased chlorophyll a did account for more submarine light extinction in the lower estuary. The model output was used to help identify desirable levels of inflow, nutrient loading, water quality, salinity, and submarine light for seagrass in the lower CRE

  12. Office Overview | Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research (OCCPR) at the National Cancer Institute (NCI) aims to improve prevention, early detection, diagnosis, and treatment of cancer by enhancing the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of cancer, advancing proteome/proteogenome science and technology development through community resources (data and reagents), and accelerating the translation of molecular findings into the clinic.

  13. 77 FR 66624 - Office of Biotechnology Activities, Office of Science Policy, Office of the Director; Notice of...

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    2012-11-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of Biotechnology Activities, Office of Science... 20892. Contact Person: Ronna Hill, NSABB Program Assistant, NIH Office of Biotechnology Activities, 6705...

  14. 76 FR 28793 - Office of Biotechnology Activities, Office of Science Policy, Office of the Director; Notice of...

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    2011-05-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of Biotechnology Activities, Office of Science... Assistant, NIH Office of Biotechnology Activities, 6705 Rockledge Drive, Suite 750, Bethesda, Maryland 20892...

  15. 76 FR 3918 - Office of Biotechnology Activities, Office of Science Policy, Office of the Director; Notice of...

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    2011-01-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of Biotechnology Activities, Office of Science..., Bethesda, Maryland 20892. Contact Person: Ronna Hill, NSABB Program Assistant NIH Office of Biotechnology...

  16. Gravitational, erosional and depositional processes on volcanic ocean islands: Insights from the submarine morphology of Madeira Archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quartau, Rui; Ramalho, Ricardo S.; Madeira, José; Santos, Rúben; Rodrigues, Aurora; Roque, Cristina; Carrara, Gabriela; Brum da Silveira, António

    2018-01-01

    The submarine flanks of volcanic ocean islands are shaped by a variety of physical processes. Whilst volcanic constructional processes are relatively well understood, the gravitational, erosional and depositional processes that lead to the establishment of large submarine tributary systems are still poorly comprehended. Until recently, few studies have offered a comprehensive source-to-sink approach, linking subaerial morphology with near-shore shelf, slope and far-field abyssal features. In particular, few studies have addressed how different aspects of the subaerial part of the system (island height, climate, volcanic activity, wave regime, etc.) may influence submarine flank morphologies. We use multibeam bathymetric and backscatter mosaics of an entire archipelago - Madeira - to investigate the development of their submarine flanks. Crucially, this dataset extends from the nearshore to the deep sea, allowing a solid correlation between submarine morphologies with the physical and geological setting of the islands. In this study we also established a comparison with other island settings, which allowed us to further explore the wider implications of the observations. The submarine flanks of the Madeira Archipelago are deeply dissected by large landslides, most of which also affected the subaerial edifices. Below the shelf break, landslide chutes extend downslope forming poorly defined depositional lobes. Around the islands, a large tributary system composed of gullies and channels has formed where no significant rocky/ridge outcrops are present. In Madeira Island these were likely generated by turbidity currents that originated as hyperpycnal flows, whilst on Porto Santo and Desertas their origin is attributed to storm-induced offshore sediment transport. At the lower part of the flanks (-3000 to -4300 m), where seafloor gradients decrease to 0.5°-3°, several scour and sediment wave fields are present, with the former normally occurring upslope of the latter

  17. Response of the Black Sea methane budget to massive short-term submarine inputs of methane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Schmale

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A steady state box model was developed to estimate the methane input into the Black Sea water column at various water depths. Our model results reveal a total input of methane of 4.7 Tg yr−1. The model predicts that the input of methane is largest at water depths between 600 and 700 m (7% of the total input, suggesting that the dissociation of methane gas hydrates at water depths equivalent to their upper stability limit may represent an important source of methane into the water column. In addition we discuss the effects of massive short-term methane inputs (e.g. through eruptions of deep-water mud volcanoes or submarine landslides at intermediate water depths on the water column methane distribution and the resulting methane emission to the atmosphere. Our non-steady state simulations predict that these inputs will be effectively buffered by intense microbial methane consumption and that the upward flux of methane is strongly hampered by the pronounced density stratification of the Black Sea water column. For instance, an assumed input of methane of 179 Tg CH4 d−1 (equivalent to the amount of methane released by 1000 mud volcano eruptions at a water depth of 700 m will only marginally influence the sea/air methane flux increasing it by only 3%.

  18. CO2 leakage alters biogeochemical and ecological functions of submarine sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molari, Massimiliano; Guilini, Katja; Lott, Christian; Weber, Miriam; de Beer, Dirk; Meyer, Stefanie; Ramette, Alban; Wegener, Gunter; Wenzhöfer, Frank; Martin, Daniel; Cibic, Tamara; De Vittor, Cinzia; Vanreusel, Ann; Boetius, Antje

    2018-01-01

    Subseabed CO2 storage is considered a future climate change mitigation technology. We investigated the ecological consequences of CO2 leakage for a marine benthic ecosystem. For the first time with a multidisciplinary integrated study, we tested hypotheses derived from a meta-analysis of previous experimental and in situ high-CO2 impact studies. For this, we compared ecological functions of naturally CO2-vented seafloor off the Mediterranean island Panarea (Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy) to those of nonvented sands, with a focus on biogeochemical processes and microbial and faunal community composition. High CO2 fluxes (up to 4 to 7 mol CO2 m−2 hour−1) dissolved all sedimentary carbonate, and comigration of silicate and iron led to local increases of microphytobenthos productivity (+450%) and standing stocks (+300%). Despite the higher food availability, faunal biomass (−80%) and trophic diversity were substantially lower compared to those at the reference site. Bacterial communities were also structurally and functionally affected, most notably in the composition of heterotrophs and microbial sulfate reduction rates (−90%). The observed ecological effects of CO2 leakage on submarine sands were reproduced with medium-term transplant experiments. This study assesses indicators of environmental impact by CO2 leakage and finds that community compositions and important ecological functions are permanently altered under high CO2. PMID:29441359

  19. Radionuclides as tracer for submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) research at Dapeng Bay in Southern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jun-Chen; Su, Chih-Chieh

    2017-04-01

    Conventionally, river is the most important source for delivering nutrients, such as nitrogen, phosphorus and silicon, and trace elements into the ocean. The issues of land-sea interaction by rivers have been long-tern concerned and studied, on contrary, the pathway and impact through submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) is still unclear and the relevant researches need to be strengthened. The research site, Dapeng Bay, is located at Pingtung County in Southern Taiwan. Dapeng Bay is an bag-shape lagoon with a sand spit serving as the single outlet of the bay. The longshore currents transport sediments which delivered by Donggang and Linbian Rivers deposited at the nearshore and eventually form the semi-enclosed shallow bay. In the Dapeng Bay, there is no river poured into the lagoon and the main sources of freshwater are rainwater, domestic wastewater and fish ponds etc. The tidal driven water exchange between lagoon and ocean is through the sand spit outlet. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the weighting and seasonal change between SGD and riverine input in the Dapeng Bay. The radium isotopes, 223Ra (11.4d), 224Ra (3.7d), 226Ra (1600y), 228Ra (5.7y), were used as tracers for assessing SGD and riverine inputs. Samples were collected by using MnO2-coated fibers for radium isotopes adsorption.

  20. Temperature as a tracer of hydrological dynamics in an anchialine cave system with a submarine spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Villar, David; Cukrov, Neven; Krklec, Kristina

    2018-01-01

    Although temperature is a nonconservative tracer, it often provides useful information to understand hydrological processes. This study explores the potential of temperature to characterize the hydrological dynamics of a submarine spring and its coastal karst aquifer in Krka Estuary (Croatia). The estuary is well stratified and its water column has a clear thermocline. A network of loggers was designed to monitor the temperature along vertical profiles in the estuary and the coastal aquifer, taking advantage of an anchialine cave that enabled access to the subterranean estuary. The location of the thermocline in the groundwater, which defines the upper boundary of the saline intrusion, depends on (1) the recharge of the aquifer via infiltration of precipitation, (2) the evolution of the thermocline in the estuary, and (3) the tidal oscillations. The sources of water flowing though the anchialine cave were identified: brackish water from the estuary above the thermocline, saline water from the estuary below the thermocline, and freshwater from infiltrated precipitation. A conceptual model is described that characterizes the hydrological dynamics of this coastal aquifer and its interactions with the estuary. Thus, at least for some hydrological settings, temperature is a valid tracer to characterize the main hydrological processes. The measurement of temperature is inexpensive compared to other (conservative) tracers. Therefore, for those hydrological settings that have water masses with distinct temperatures, the use of temperature as a tracer to establish conceptual models of the hydrological dynamics is encouraged.