Sample records for submarine dissub survivors

  1. Propranolol Effects on Decompression Sickness in a Simulated DISSUB Rescue in Swine. (United States)

    Forbes, Angela S; Regis, David P; Hall, Aaron A; Mahon, Richard T; Cronin, William A


    Disabled submarine (DISSUB) survivors may face elevated CO2 levels and inert gas saturation, putting them at risk for CO2 toxicity and decompression sickness (DCS). Propranolol was shown to reduce CO2 production in an experimental DISSUB model in humans but its effects on DCS in a DISSUB rescue scenario are unknown. A 100% oxygen prebreathe (OPB) reduces DCS incidence and severity and is incorporated into some DISSUB rescue protocols. We used a swine model of DISSUB rescue to study the effect of propranolol on DCS incidence and mortality with and without an OPB. In Experiment 1, male Yorkshire Swine (70 kg) were pressurized to 2.8 ATA for 22 h. Propranolol 1.0 mg · kg-1 (IV) was administered at 21.25 h. At 22 h, the animal was rapidly decompressed and observed for DCS type, onset time, and mortality. Experimental animals (N = 21; 69 ± 4.1 kg), PROP1.0, were compared to PROP1.0-OPB45 (N = 8; 69 ± 2.8 kg) with the same dive profile, except for a 45 min OPB prior to decompression. In Experiment 2, the same methodology was used with the following changes: swine pressurized to 2.8 ATA for 28 h; experimental group (N = 25; 67 ± 3.3 kg), PROP0.5 bis, propranolol 0.5 mg · kg-1 bis (twice) (IV) was administered at 22 h and 26 h. Control animals (N = 25; 67 ± 3.9 kg) received normal saline. OPB reduced mortality in PROP1.0-OBP45 compared to PROP1.0 (0% vs. 71%). PROP0.5 bis had increased mortality compared to CONTROL (60-% vs. 4%). Administration of beta blockers prior to saturation decompression appears to increase DCS and worsen mortality in a swine model; however, their effects in bounce diving remain unknown.Forbes AS, Regis DP, HallAA, Mahon RT, Cronin WA. Propranolol effects on decompression sickness in a simulated DISSUB rescue in swine. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(4):385-391.

  2. Summary: Disabled Submarine Heat Stress Conference (United States)


    impractical to obtain in large numbers of test subjects or DISSUB survivors. DISSUB Survivor Water Requirements The panel members discussed... water requirements after discussion of DISSUB conditions. The consensus of the panel was that one liter of water per day was the minimal requirement

  3. Thermo-Physiological Responses of Sailors in a Disabled Submarine with Interior Cabin Temperature and Humidity Slowly Rising as Predicted by Computer Simulation Techniques (United States)


    modeling; disabled submarine; DISSUB; thermoregulation Unclassified Unclassified Unclassified Unclassified 58 Adam W. Potter 508-233-4735 Reset iii...has been the threat of hypothermia from the environment caused by cold ocean water while waiting the sub’s rescue (Castellani et al., 2005...the SCENARIO thermo-physiological model developed at USARIEM by Kraning and Gonzalez (1997) (Fig 1). It is a rational human thermoregulation model

  4. Submarine hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Renilson, Martin


    This book adopts a practical approach and presents recent research together with applications in real submarine design and operation. Topics covered include hydrostatics, manoeuvring, resistance and propulsion of submarines. The author briefly reviews basic concepts in ship hydrodynamics and goes on to show how they are applied to submarines, including a look at the use of physical model experiments. The issues associated with manoeuvring in both the horizontal and vertical planes are explained, and readers will discover suggested criteria for stability, along with rudder and hydroplane effectiveness. The book includes a section on appendage design which includes information on sail design, different arrangements of bow planes and alternative stern configurations. Other themes explored in this book include hydro-acoustic performance, the components of resistance and the effect of hull shape. Readers will value the author’s applied experience as well as the empirical expressions that are presented for use a...

  5. Submarine Medicine Team (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Submarine Medicine Team conducts basic and applied research on biomedical aspects of submarine and diving environments. It focuses on ways to optimize the health...

  6. Low cost submarine robot


    Ponlachart Chotikarn; Werapong Koedsin; Boonlua Phongdara; Pattara Aiyarak


    A submarine robot is a semi-autonomous submarine robot used mainly for marine environmental research. We aim todevelop a low cost, semi-autonomous submarine robot which is able to travel underwater. The robot’s structure was designedand patented using a novel idea of the diving system employing a volume adjustment mechanism to vary the robot’s density.A light weight, flexibility and small structure provided by PVC can be used to construct the torpedo-liked shape robot.Hydraulic seal and O-rin...

  7. Low cost submarine robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponlachart Chotikarn


    Full Text Available A submarine robot is a semi-autonomous submarine robot used mainly for marine environmental research. We aim todevelop a low cost, semi-autonomous submarine robot which is able to travel underwater. The robot’s structure was designedand patented using a novel idea of the diving system employing a volume adjustment mechanism to vary the robot’s density.A light weight, flexibility and small structure provided by PVC can be used to construct the torpedo-liked shape robot.Hydraulic seal and O-ring rubbers are used to prevent water leaking. This robot is controlled by a wired communicationsystem.

  8. Submarine Salt Karst Terrains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico Augustin


    Full Text Available Karst terrains that develop in bodies of rock salt (taken as mainly of halite, NaCl are special not only for developing in one of the most soluble of all rocks, but also for developing in one of the weakest rocks. Salt is so weak that many surface-piercing salt diapirs extrude slow fountains of salt that that gravity spread downslope over deserts on land and over sea floors. Salt fountains in the deserts of Iran are usually so dry that they flow at only a few cm/yr but the few rain storms a decade so soak and weaken them that they surge at dm/day for a few days. We illustrate the only case where the rates at which different parts of one of the many tens of subaerial salt karst terrains in Iran flows downslope constrains the rates at which its subaerial salt karst terrains form. Normal seawater is only 10% saturated in NaCl. It should therefore be sufficiently aggressive to erode karst terrains into exposures of salt on the thousands of known submarine salt extrusions that have flowed or are still flowing over the floors of hundreds of submarine basins worldwide. However, we know of no attempt to constrain the processes that form submarine salt karst terrains on any of these of submarine salt extrusions. As on land, many potential submarine karst terrains are cloaked by clastic and pelagic sediments that are often hundreds of m thick. Nevertheless, detailed geophysical and bathymetric surveys have already mapped likely submarine salt karst terrains in at least the Gulf of Mexico, and the Red Sea. New images of these two areas are offered as clear evidence of submarine salt dissolution due to sinking or rising aggressive fluids. We suggest that repeated 3D surveys of distinctive features (± fixed seismic reflectors of such terrains could measure any downslope salt flow and thus offer an exceptional opportunity to constrain the rates at which submarine salt karst terrains develop. Such rates are of interest to all salt tectonicians and the many

  9. SCICEX: Submarine Arctic Science Program (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Submarine Arctic Science Program, SCICEX, is a federal interagency collaboration among the operational Navy, research agencies, and the marine research community...

  10. The Submarine, 1776-1918

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Uhlig, Frank


    When, on 11 April 1900, the U.S. Navy thought the Holland, named for its designer, that little submarine joined a fleet consisting of two armored cruisers, six monitors, seven first and second-class battleships, and seventeen each...

  11. Submarine Information Organization and Prioritization and Submarine Officer of the Deck Experience (United States)


    The Submarine Review, 58-64. Shobe, K. (2002, May). Information organization and modeling of the submarine officer of the deck and sonar operator...Technical Report 01Oct00 - 31Sep02 SUBMARINE INFORMATION ORGANIZATION AND PRIORITIZATION AND SUBMARINE OFFICER OF THE DECK EXPERIENCE 51001 1) Katharine K

  12. Enhancing Submarine Operational Relevance: A Leadership Challenge

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daigle, Jr, Michael J


    .... This vision of submarine operations must change. As the military continues to shift to operations focused on joint capabilities, the submarine force must break from the closed, protective, and risk averse culture of its past and push forward...

  13. Submarine silicic volcanism: Processes and products

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kalangutkar, N.G.; Iyer, S.D.

    The occurrence of submarine silicic volcanics is rare at the mid-oceanic ridges, abyssal depths, seamounts and fracture zones. Hydrothermal processes are active in submarine silicic environments and are associated with host ores of Cu, Au, Ag, Pb...

  14. North American Submarine Cable Association (NASCA) Submarine Cables (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data show the locations of in-service and out-of-service submarine cables that are owned by members of NASCA and located in U.S. territorial waters. More...

  15. Submarine geothermal resources (United States)

    Williams, D.L.


    Approximately 20% of the earth's heat loss (or 2 ?? 1012 cal/s) is released through 1% of the earth's surface area and takes the form of hydrothermal discharge from young (Pleistocene or younger) rocks adjacent to active seafloor-spreading centers and submarine volcanic areas. This amount is roughly equivalent to man's present gross energy consumption rate. A sub-seafloor geothermal reservoir, to be exploitable under future economic conditions, will have to be hot, porous, permeable, large, shallow, and near an energy-deficient, populated land mass. Furthermore, the energy must be recoverable using technology achievable at a competitive cost and numerous environmental, legal and institutional problems will have to be overcome. The highest-temperature reservoirs should be found adjacent to the zones of the seafloor extension or volcanism that are subject to high sedimentation rates. The relatively impermeable sediments reduce hydrothermal-discharge flow rates, forcing the heat to be either conducted away or released by high-temperature fluids, both of which lead to reservoir temperatures that can exceed 300??C. There is evidence that the oceanic crust is quite permeable and porous and that it was amenable to deep (3-5 km) penetration by seawater at least some time in the early stages of its evolution. Most of the heat escapes far from land, but there are notable exceptions. For example, in parts of the Gulf of California, thermal gradients in the bottom sediments exceed 1??C/m. In the coastal areas of the Gulf of California, where electricity and fresh water are at a premium, this potential resource lies in shallow water (< 200 m) and within sight of land. Other interesting areas include the Sea of Japan, the Sea of Okhotsk and the Andaman Sea along the margins of the western Pacific, the Tyrrhenian Sea west of Italy, and the southern California borderland and west flank of the Juan de Fuca Ridge off the west coast of the United States. Many questions remain to be

  16. Submarine canyons off Madras Coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Setty, M.G.A.P.

    Submarine canyons off the coast of Madras, Tamil Nadu, India were studied during cruise of @iINS Kistna@@ as part of the IIOE programme They consist of hill-like projections and V-shaped valleys Their other features are also reported...

  17. Desert Survivors! (United States)

    Horton, Jessica; Friedenstab, Steve


    This article describes a special third-grade classroom unit based on the reality show "Survivor." The goal of this engaging and interactive unit was to teach students about physical and behavioral adaptations that help animals survive in various desert biomes. The activity combines research, argument, and puppet play over one week of…

  18. SCICEX: Submarine Arctic Science Program, Version 1 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Submarine Arctic Science Program, SCICEX, is a federal interagency collaboration among the operational Navy, research agencies, and the marine research community...

  19. DBA Survivor

    CERN Document Server

    LaRock, Thomas


    DBA Survivor is a book to help new DBAs understand more about the world of database administration. More and more people are moving into the DBA profession, and many are looking for a getting-started guide. Blogs are written about how to be an exceptional DBA and what to do in your first 100 days. This book takes a different approach, injecting some humor into helping you understand how to hit the ground running, and most importantly how to survive as a DBA. And it's not just survival that matters. Author Thomas LaRock wants much more for you than mere survival. He wants you to have excellence

  20. Submarines, spacecraft and exhaled breath. (United States)

    Pleil, Joachim D; Hansel, Armin


    Foreword The International Association of Breath Research (IABR) meetings are an eclectic gathering of researchers in the medical, environmental and instrumentation fields; our focus is on human health as assessed by the measurement and interpretation of trace chemicals in human exhaled breath. What may have escaped our notice is a complementary field of research that explores the creation and maintenance of artificial atmospheres practised by the submarine air monitoring and air purification (SAMAP) community. SAMAP is comprised of manufacturers, researchers and medical professionals dealing with the engineering and instrumentation to support human life in submarines and spacecraft (including shuttlecraft and manned rockets, high-altitude aircraft, and the International Space Station (ISS)). Here, the immediate concerns are short-term survival and long-term health in fairly confined environments where one cannot simply 'open the window' for fresh air. As such, one of the main concerns is air monitoring and the main sources of contamination are CO(2) and other constituents of human exhaled breath. Since the inaugural meeting in 1994 in Adelaide, Australia, SAMAP meetings have been held every two or three years alternating between the North American and European continents. The meetings are organized by Dr Wally Mazurek (a member of IABR) of the Defense Systems Technology Organization (DSTO) of Australia, and individual meetings are co-hosted by the navies of the countries in which they are held. An overriding focus at SAMAP is life support (oxygen availability and carbon dioxide removal). Certainly, other air constituents are also important; for example, the closed environment of a submarine or the ISS can build up contaminants from consumer products, cooking, refrigeration, accidental fires, propulsion and atmosphere maintenance. However, the most immediate concern is sustaining human metabolism: removing exhaled CO(2) and replacing metabolized O(2). Another

  1. Submarine landslides: advances and challenges (United States)

    Locat, Jacques; Lee, Homa J.


    Due to the recent development of well-integrated surveying techniques of the sea floor, significant improvements were achieved in mapping and describing the morphology and architecture of submarine mass movements. Except for the occurrence of turbidity currents, the aquatic environment (marine and fresh water) experiences the same type of mass failure as that found on land. Submarine mass movements, however, can have run-out distances in excess of 100 km, so their impact on any offshore activity needs to be integrated over a wide area. This great mobility of submarinemass movements is still not very well understood, particularly for cases like the far-reaching debris flows mapped on the Mississippi Fan and the large submarine rock avalanches found around many volcanic islands. A major challenge ahead is the integration of mass movement mechanics in an appropriate evaluation of the hazard so that proper risk assessment methodologies can be developed and implemented for various human activities offshore, including the development of natural resources and the establishment of reliable communication corridors. Key words : submarine slides, hazards, risk assessment, morphology, mobility, tsunami. Le dveloppement rcent de techniques de levs hydrograhiques pour les fonds marins nous a permis d'atteindre une qualit ingale dans la cartographie et la description des glissements sous marins. l'exception des courants de turbidit, on retrouve dans le domaine aquatique les mmes types de mouvements de terrain que sur terre. Par contre, les glissements sous-marins peuvent atteindre des distances excdant 100 km de telle sorte que leur impact sur les activits offshore doit tre pris en compte sur degrandes tendues. La grande mobilit des glissements sous-marins n'est pas encore bien comprise, comme pour le cas des coules dedbris cartographies sur le cne du Mississippi ainsi que pour les grandes avalanches rocheuses sous-marines retrouves au pourtour des les volcaniques. Un dfi majeur

  2. Similarities between rivers and submarine channels (United States)

    Balcerak, Ernie


    Scientists have long known that the width and depth of rivers follows a power law relationship with discharge. They have also noticed that submarine channels appear to be similar to terrestrial rivers, but there have not been many systematic comparisons of the relationships between submarine channel morphology and discharge. Konsoer et al. compared the width, depth, and slope of 177 submarine channels to those of 231 river cross sections. They found that submarine channels are up to an order of magnitude wider and deeper than the largest terrestrial rivers, but they exhibit a similar power law relationship between width and depth. For submarine channels that were similar in size to rivers, the authors found that submarine channels tend to be 1 to 2 orders of magnitude steeper than rivers. The authors also inferred values for sediment concentration in the turbidity currents in the channels and combined this with estimated mean flow velocities to look for a relationship between discharge and morphology in the channels. They found that like rivers, the width and depth of the submarine channels follow a power law scaling with discharge. (Journal of Geophysical Research-Earth Surface, doi:10.1029/2012JF002422, 2013)

  3. Calciclastic submarine fans: An integrated overview (United States)

    Payros, Aitor; Pujalte, Victoriano


    Calciclastic submarine fans are rare in the stratigraphic record and no bona fide present-day analogue has been described to date. Possibly because of that, and although calciclastic submarine fans have long intrigued deep-water carbonate sedimentologists, they have largely been overlooked by the academic and industrial communities. To fill this gap we have compiled and critically reviewed the existing sedimentological literature on calciclastic submarine fans, thus offering an updated view of this type of carbonate slope sedimentary system. Calciclastic submarine fans range in length from just a few to more than 100 km. Three different types can be distinguished: (1) Coarse-grained, small-sized (depression associated with tectonic structures, an inherited topography, or large-scale mass failures.

  4. Aspects of Propeller Developements for a Submarine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul; kappel, Jens Julius; Spangenberg, Eugen


    Design and development of propellers for submarines are in some ways different from propellers for surface vessels. The most important demand is low acoustic signature that has priority over propeller efficiency, and the submarine propeller must be optimized with respect to acoustics rather than...... efficiency. Moreover the operating conditions of a submarine propeller are quite different. These aspects are discussed as well as the weighing of the various propeller parameters against the design objectives. The noise generated by the propeller can be characterized as thrust noise due to the inhomogeneous...... wake field of the submarine, trailing-edge noise and noise caused by turbulence in the inflow. The items discussed are demonstrated in a case study where a propeller of the Kappel type was developed. Three stages of the development are presented, including a design of an 8-bladed propeller where...

  5. Russia's Submarine Force: Determinants and Prospects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tully, John


    ... the determinants of these events, The Russian Federation inherited a huge submarine fleet from the Soviet Union, Due to the changing conditions in the world and in Russia, its future status is in doubt...

  6. SSN 774 Virginia Class Submarine (SSN 774) (United States)


    Report: The VIRGINIA Class Submarine Program continues to deliver submarines within cost, ahead of schedule , with improved quality and with...baseline schedule threshold set ten years earlier, in 1994. June 20, 2006: USS TEXAS, which was essentially the second lead ship of the class , is the first...factored for the VIRGINIA Class based on weight. Public and private shipyard data was used, as well as the maintenance schedule provided in the CARD, Rev E

  7. Submarine landslides: processes, triggers and hazard prediction. (United States)

    Masson, D G; Harbitz, C B; Wynn, R B; Pedersen, G; Løvholt, F


    Huge landslides, mobilizing hundreds to thousands of km(3) of sediment and rock are ubiquitous in submarine settings ranging from the steepest volcanic island slopes to the gentlest muddy slopes of submarine deltas. Here, we summarize current knowledge of such landslides and the problems of assessing their hazard potential. The major hazards related to submarine landslides include destruction of seabed infrastructure, collapse of coastal areas into the sea and landslide-generated tsunamis. Most submarine slopes are inherently stable. Elevated pore pressures (leading to decreased frictional resistance to sliding) and specific weak layers within stratified sequences appear to be the key factors influencing landslide occurrence. Elevated pore pressures can result from normal depositional processes or from transient processes such as earthquake shaking; historical evidence suggests that the majority of large submarine landslides are triggered by earthquakes. Because of their tsunamigenic potential, ocean-island flank collapses and rockslides in fjords have been identified as the most dangerous of all landslide related hazards. Published models of ocean-island landslides mainly examine 'worst-case scenarios' that have a low probability of occurrence. Areas prone to submarine landsliding are relatively easy to identify, but we are still some way from being able to forecast individual events with precision. Monitoring of critical areas where landslides might be imminent and modelling landslide consequences so that appropriate mitigation strategies can be developed would appear to be areas where advances on current practice are possible.

  8. Geomorphic process fingerprints in submarine canyons (United States)

    Brothers, Daniel S.; ten Brink, Uri S.; Andrews, Brian D.; Chaytor, Jason D.; Twichell, David C.


    Submarine canyons are common features of continental margins worldwide. They are conduits that funnel vast quantities of sediment from the continents to the deep sea. Though it is known that submarine canyons form primarily from erosion induced by submarine sediment flows, we currently lack quantitative, empirically based expressions that describe the morphology of submarine canyon networks. Multibeam bathymetry data along the entire passive US Atlantic margin (USAM) and along the active central California margin near Monterey Bay provide an opportunity to examine the fine-scale morphology of 171 slope-sourced canyons. Log–log regression analyses of canyon thalweg gradient (S) versus up-canyon catchment area (A) are used to examine linkages between morphological domains and the generation and evolution of submarine sediment flows. For example, canyon reaches of the upper continental slope are characterized by steep, linear and/or convex longitudinal profiles, whereas reaches farther down canyon have distinctly concave longitudinal profiles. The transition between these geomorphic domains is inferred to represent the downslope transformation of debris flows into erosive, canyon-flushing turbidity flows. Over geologic timescales this process appears to leave behind a predictable geomorphic fingerprint that is dependent on the catchment area of the canyon head. Catchment area, in turn, may be a proxy for the volume of sediment released during geomorphically significant failures along the upper continental slope. Focused studies of slope-sourced submarine canyons may provide new insights into the relationships between fine-scale canyon morphology and down-canyon changes in sediment flow dynamics.

  9. Addressing submarine geohazards through scientific drilling (United States)

    Camerlenghi, A.


    Natural submarine geohazards (earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides, volcanic island flank collapses) are geological phenomena originating at or below the seafloor leading to a situation of risk for off-shore and on-shore structures and the coastal population. Addressing submarine geohazards means understanding their spatial and temporal variability, the pre-conditioning factors, their triggers, and the physical processes that control their evolution. Such scientific endeavour is nowadays considered by a large sector of the international scientific community as an obligation in order to contribute to the mitigation of the potentially destructive societal effects of submarine geohazards. The study of submarine geohazards requires a multi-disciplinary scientific approach: geohazards must be studied through their geological record; active processes must be monitored; geohazard evolution must be modelled. Ultimately, the information must be used for the assessment of vulnerability, risk analysis, and development of mitigation strategies. In contrast with the terrestrial environment, the oceanic environment is rather hostile to widespread and fast application of high-resolution remote sensing techniques, accessibility for visual inspection, sampling and installation of monitoring stations. Scientific Drilling through the IODP (including the related pre site-survey investigations, sampling, logging and in situ measurements capability, and as a platform for deployment of long term observatories at the surface and down-hole) can be viewed as the centre of gravity of an international, coordinated, multi-disciplinary scientific approach to address submarine geohazards. The IODP Initial Science Plan expiring in 2013 does not address openly geohazards among the program scientific objectives. Hazards are referred to mainly in relation to earthquakes and initiatives towards the understanding of seismogenesis. Notably, the only drilling initiative presently under way is the

  10. MVAC Submarine cable, impedance measurements and analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arentsen, Martin Trolle; Pedersen, Morten Virklund; Expethit, Adrian


    Due to environmental concerns an increase in off-shore windfarms has been observed in recent years, leading to an increased demand for three-core-wire-armoured submarine cables. However, the IEC Standard 60287 used to calculate the ampacity of these cables is widely recognized as being not accurate...

  11. German Submarine Offensives and South African Countermeasures

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    'Good Hunting': German Submarine Offensives and South African. Countermeasures off the South African Coast during the Second World. War, 1942-1945. Evert Kleynhans. •. Abstract .... wolf packs south, Dönitz had hoped to cause a diversionary effect whereby the Allies would be forced to split their defensive forces ...

  12. Submarine Telecommunication Cables in Disputed Maritime Areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Logchem, Youri


    There are a considerable number of maritime areas where no boundary exists, or where a boundary is delimited only in part. This article deals with the issue of submarine telecommunication cables, which are sometimes placed on the seabed or buried in the subsoil of areas that are claimed by multiple

  13. Monitoring of the nuclear submarine Komsomolets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heldal, Hilde E.; Flo, Janita K.; Liebig, Penny L. [Institute of Marine Research, P. O. Box 1870 Nordnes, N-5817 Bergen (Norway); Gaefvert, Torbjoern; Rudjord, Anne Liv [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, P.O. Box 55, N-1332 Oesteraas (Norway); Gwynn, Justin P. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, The Fram Centre, N-9296 Tromsoe (Norway)


    The Soviet nuclear submarine Komsomolets sank on the 7 April 1989, 180 km southwest of Bear Island in the Norwegian Sea to a depth of about 1655 m. The submarine contains one nuclear reactor containing long-lived radionuclides such as cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) along with other fission and activation products, in addition to 2 mixed uranium/plutonium nuclear warheads containing weapons grade plutonium. Although several model studies have shown that a radioactive leakage from Komsomolets will have insignificant impact on fish and other marine organisms, there are still public concerns about the condition of the submarine and the potential for radioactive leakage. In order to document the contamination levels and to meet public concerns, monitoring of radioactive contamination in the area adjacent to the submarine has been ongoing since 1993. Samples of bottom seawater and sediments have been collected annually by the Institute of Marine Research (IMR) and have been analysed for {sup 137}Cs and plutonium-239,240 ({sup 239,240}Pu). So far, activity concentrations in the samples have been comparable to levels found in other samples from the Norwegian and Barents Seas. During sampling from R/V 'G. O. Sars' in April 2013, an area of about 1 km{sup 2} of the seabed around Komsomolets was mapped to precisely locate the submarine using a Kongsberg EM302 multibeam echo sounder, a Simrad EK60 single beam echo sounder and an Olex 3D bottom-mapping system. For sediment sampling, a Simrad MST342 mini-transponder was attached to a Smoegen box corer to allow for precise positioning of the corer. With the aid of the Kongsberg HiPAP (High Precision Acoustic Positioning) system, 4 box cores were collected around the submarine at a distance of 10 to 20 m. In addition, one box core was collected from a reference station about 100 m upstream of the submarine. Surface sediments and sediment cores were collected from the box cores taken at each sampling location. Sediment cores

  14. Chemical environments of submarine hydrothermal systems (United States)

    Shock, Everett L.


    Perhaps because black-smoker chimneys make tremendous subjects for magazine covers, the proposal that submarine hydrothermal systems were involved in the origin of life has caused many investigators to focus on the eye-catching hydrothermal vents. In much the same way that tourists rush to watch the spectacular eruptions of Old Faithful geyser with little regard for the hydrology of the Yellowstone basin, attention is focused on the spectacular, high-temperature hydrothermal vents to the near exclusion of the enormous underlying hydrothermal systems. Nevertheless, the magnitude and complexity of geologic structures, heat flow, and hydrologic parameters which characterize the geyser basins at Yellowstone also characterize submarine hydrothermal systems. However, in the submarine systems the scale can be considerably more vast. Like Old Faithful, submarine hydrothermal vents have a spectacular quality, but they are only one fascinating aspect of enormous geologic systems operating at seafloor spreading centers throughout all of the ocean basins. A critical study of the possible role of hydrothermal processes in the origin of life should include the full spectrum of probable environments. The goals of this chapter are to synthesize diverse information about the inorganic geochemistry of submarine hydrothermal systems, assemble a description of the fundamental physical and chemical attributes of these systems, and consider the implications of high-temperature, fluid-driven processes for organic synthesis. Information about submarine hydrothermal systems comes from many directions. Measurements made directly on venting fluids provide useful, but remarkably limited, clues about processes operating at depth. The oceanic crust has been drilled to approximately 2.0 km depth providing many other pieces of information, but drilling technology has not allowed the bore holes and core samples to reach the maximum depths to which aqueous fluids circulate in oceanic crust. Such

  15. Phase 1 Final Report: Titan Submarine (United States)

    Oleson, Steven R.; Lorenz, Ralph D.; Paul, Michael V.


    The conceptual design of a submarine for Saturn's moon Titan was a funded NASA Innovative Advanced Concepts (NIAC) Phase 1 for 2014. The proposal stated the desire to investigate what science a submarine for Titan's liquid hydrocarbon seas might accomplish and what that submarine might look like. Focusing on a flagship class science system (100 kg), it was found that a submersible platform can accomplish extensive science both above and below the surface of the Kraken Mare. Submerged science includes mapping using side-looking sonar, imaging and spectroscopy of the lake, as well as sampling of the lake's bottom and shallow shoreline. While surfaced, the submarine will not only sense weather conditions (including the interaction between the liquid and atmosphere) but also image the shoreline, as much as 2 km inland. This imaging requirement pushed the landing date to Titan's next summer period (2047) to allow for lighted conditions, as well as direct-to-Earth communication, avoiding the need for a separate relay orbiter spacecraft. Submerged and surfaced investigation are key to understanding both the hydrological cycle of Titan as well as gather hints to how life may have begun on Earth using liquid, sediment, and chemical interactions. An estimated 25 Mb of data per day would be generated by the various science packages. Most of the science packages (electronics at least) can be safely kept inside the submarine pressure vessel and warmed by the isotope power system.The baseline 90-day mission would be to sail submerged and surfaced around and through Kraken Mare investigating the shoreline and inlets to evaluate the sedimentary interaction both on the surface and then below. Depths of Kraken have yet to be sensed (Ligeia to the north is thought to be 200 m (656 ft) deep), but a maximum depth of 1,000 m (3,281 ft) for Kraken Mare was assumed for the design). The sub would spend 20 d at the interface between Kraken Mare and Ligeia Mare for clues to the drainage of

  16. Motherhood among Incest Survivors. (United States)

    Cohen, Tamar


    Mothers (n=26) who were incest survivors were compared with 28 mothers with no such history for 7 areas of parenting skills: role-image, objectivity, expectations, rapport, communication, limit-setting, and role-support. Significant differences were found on all seven scales, characterized by a tendency for the incest survivors to be less skillful…

  17. Miocene Current-Modified Submarine Fans (United States)

    Arce Perez, L. E.; Snedden, J.; Fisher, W. L.


    In the southwestern Gulf of Mexico, new and newly reprocessed seismic data has revealed a series of large bedforms, with set thicknesses of 130 to 250 meters. These exhibit hummocky, oblique and shingled to parallel seismic clinoform reflections. This seismic package has a paleowater depth of 450 meters. Those shingled seismic reflections in offshore east Mexico are interpreted as contourite drift deposits. These Miocene-age contourites may be related to strong ocean bottom currents that modified submarine fans and transported sediment to the north. Those contourites were identified on older seismic data, but are better imaged and interpreted on this new data. Plans are to map out and investigate the origin and extent of fans and contourites that extends over a large area of the Gulf of Mexico. In the Early Miocene several submarine fans systems were formed by the sediment input related to orogenic activity in Mexico. Submarine fan development persisted into the Middle Miocene due to continued uplift and erosion of the Mexican landmass. Initial, contourites are small and close proximity to the deep-water fan. In the Late Miocene time, contourite drift field reached its maximum extent in the Mexican deepwater area, anchored on its southern end by a submarine mound. This mounded submarine fan is located in the offshore northeast Veracruz and can be linked to increased uplift and erosion of the Trans-Mexican volcanic belt. In the Miocene-Pliocene, the large contourite drift begins to diminish in size and scale and is moribund by the Pliocene, with establishment of oceanic circulation similar to the present day. This research is important to understand more about the Gulf of Mexico and also for the Miocene timeframe that is a key phase in the earth's history. The role of the change in bottom water flow during progressive closure of the equatorial seaway separating North and South America will also be investigated.

  18. Psychological Implications for Submarine Display Design (United States)


    This paper addresses a number of psychological issues pertaining to display design . We review the literature comparing 3-D and 2-D displays and...perceptual, cognitive and ecological factors that are relevant to display design for submarine environments. The Generative Transformational visual perception is outlined and the relevance of transformational theory to display design is discussed. The paper also discusses a number of

  19. Pain in cancer survivors. (United States)

    Brown, Matthew Rd; Ramirez, Juan D; Farquhar-Smith, Paul


    Cancer and its treatment exert a heavy psychological and physical toll. Of the myriad symptoms which result, pain is common, encountered in between 30% and 60% of cancer survivors. Pain in cancer survivors is a major and growing problem, impeding the recovery and rehabilitation of patients who have beaten cancer and negatively impacting on cancer patients' quality of life, work prospects and mental health. Persistent pain in cancer survivors remains challenging to treat successfully. Pain can arise both due to the underlying disease and the various treatments the patient has been subjected to. Chemotherapy causes painful chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN), radiotherapy can produce late effect radiation toxicity and surgery may lead to the development of persistent post-surgical pain syndromes. This review explores a selection of the common causes of persistent pain in cancer survivors, detailing our current understanding of the pathophysiology and outlining both the clinical manifestations of individual pain states and the treatment options available.

  20. Topology Model of the Flow around a Submarine Hull Form (United States)


    resistance and flow noise arising from flow-structure interaction, it is necessary to test the shape of the submarine , which includes the length-to...UNCLASSIFIED Topology Model of the Flow around a Submarine Hull Form S.-K. Lee Maritime Division Defence Science and Technology Group DST-Group–TR...3177 ABSTRACT A topology model constructed from surface-streamer visualisation describes the flow around a generic conventional submarine hull form at

  1. A Lanchester model of submarine attack on a carrier battlegroup


    Eagle, James N.


    A Lanchester model is developed for a battlegroup ASW engagement. Two variations are included. In the first, long-range missile firing submarines, short-range missile or torpedo firing submarines, and submarines firing only torpedoes distribute their attack uniformly over battlegroup escort ships and carriers. In the second variation, the attack is concentrated on the carriers. supported by the Naval War College NA

  2. Meta-Analysis of Data from the Submarine Ventilation Doctrine Test Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hoover, J


    .... The Submarine Ventilation Doctrine Test Program was developed to address submarine-specific issues regarding the use of ventilation systems to control smoke and heat movement, maintain habitability...

  3. Australia’s Submarine Design Capabilities and Capacities: Challenges and Options for the Future Submarine (United States)


    General Dynamics Electric Boat Corporation EMC electromagnetic compatibility EMF electromagnetic field EMI electromagnetic interference EPCM flow-induced radiated noise Own-sensor performance degradation Note: Risks can be reduced for given designs using scale models...Acoustic analysis Addresses the total radiated noise signature of submarine designs Radiated noise that an enemy might detect Self-noise that that

  4. North Sea submarine cable disruptions and fishing activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hintzen, N.T.; Machiels, M.A.M.


    At the North Sea seafloor, numerous submarine cables are positioned that connect telecommunication networks between countries. Worldwide, human activities cause most of the cable disruptions with fisheries accounting for nearly half of all reported faults. Due to a recent increase of submarine cable

  5. The 1929 Grand Banks submarine landslide revisited (United States)

    Schulten, Irena; Mosher, David C.; Krastel, Sebastian; Piper, David J. W.; Kienast, Markus


    On November 18th, 1929 a large submarine landslide occurred along the St. Pierre Slope of the southwestern Grand Banks of Newfoundland, as a result of a Mw 7.2 earthquake. This submarine landslide led to the first recognition of naturally-occurring submarine turbidity currents and is one of the few landslides known to have generated a tsunami. The event caused 28 causalities in Newfoundland and severe infrastructural damage. Earlier investigations of the area identified widely distributed shallow mass failures (15 - 20 m high escarpments), but no evidence of a larger headscarp. It is difficult to conceive, therefore, how this distributed shallow failure that rapidly evolved into a turbidity current would have generated a tsunami. It is hypothesised in this study that a deeper rooted sediment failure ( 500 m), involving faulting and mass-rotation, was involved in the sediment failure and this displacement generated the tsunami. In order to test this hypothesis, the volume and kinematics of the 1929 slope failure are analysed by means of recently acquired high resolution seismic reflection and multibeam swath bathymetry data, in addition to a significant volume of legacy data. The data allow determination of: 1) the dimension of the failure area, 2) the thickness and volume of failed sediment on St. Pierre Slope, 3) fault patterns and displacements, and 4) styles of sediment failure involved. Shallow (20 m high) sinuous escarpments and a number of faults are observed along the upper St. Pierre Slope (500 - 2 500 m water depth). The uppermost and largest of these escarpments shows association with a fault system. Preliminary results, therefore, indicate a complex sediment failure pattern along the St. Pierre Slope, possibly involving a deep-seated decollement and mobilization of a large volume of surficial sediment through retrogressive failure. Causes for the tsunami are yet to be determined.

  6. Multivariable Control System Design for a Submarine, (United States)


    perturbations applied to the nominal point were identical in all cases (see table 2.3). The comparisons show excellent correlation between the...Open Loop Singular Values for the 5 and 1S Knot Linear Modelo *~~* b % % V’ , * % ~ .%~ C 9 ~ V. --.- V. V.-.--.--46..- S. 77’ Model S20R5 20- 10- -0...without imparting a pitch angle to the submarine and provides an excellent example of both the usefulness of w(t) as a state variable and the

  7. Hydrogen isotope systematics of submarine basalts (United States)

    Kyser, T.K.; O'Neil, J.R.


    The D/H ratios and water contents in fresh submarine basalts from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, the East Pacific Rise, and Hawaii indicate that the primary D/H ratios of many submarine lavas have been altered by processes including (1) outgassing, (2) addition of seawater at magmatic temperature, and (3) low-temperature hydration of glass. Decreases in ??D and H2O+ from exteriors to interiors of pillows are explained by outgassing of water whereas inverse relations between ??D and H2O+ in basalts from the Galapagos Rise and the FAMOUS Area are attributed to outgassing of CH4 and H2. A good correlation between ??D values and H2O is observed in a suite of submarine tholeiites dredged from the Kilauea East Rift Zone where seawater (added directly to the magma), affected only the isotopic compositions of hydrogen and argon. Analyses of some glassy rims indicate that the outer millimeter of the glass can undergo lowtemperature hydration by hydroxyl groups having ??D values as low as -100. ??D values vary with H2O contents of subaerial transitional basalts from Molokai, Hawaii, and subaerial alkali basalts from the Society Islands, indicating that the primary ??D values were similar to those of submarine lavas. Extrapolations to possible unaltered ??D values and H2O contents indicate that the primary ??D values of most thoteiite and alkali basalts are near -80 ?? 5: the weight percentages of water are variable, 0.15-0.35 for MOR tholeiites, about 0.25 for Hawaiian tholeiites, and up to 1.1 for alkali basalts. The primary ??D values of -80 for most basalts are comparable to those measured for deep-seated phlogopites. These results indicate that hydrogen, in marked contrast to other elements such as Sr, Nd, Pb, and O, has a uniform isotopic composition in the mantle. This uniformity is best explained by the presence of a homogeneous reservoir of hydrogen that has existed in the mantle since the very early history of the Earth. ?? 1984.

  8. Flow dynamics around downwelling submarine canyons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Spurgin


    Full Text Available Flow dynamics around a downwelling submarine canyon were analysed with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model. Blanes Canyon (northwestern Mediterranean was used for topographic and initial forcing conditions. Fourteen scenarios were modelled with varying forcing conditions. Rossby and Burger numbers were used to determine the significance of Coriolis acceleration and stratification (respectively and their impacts on flow dynamics. A new non-dimensional parameter (χ was introduced to determine the significance of vertical variations in stratification. Some simulations do see brief periods of upwards displacement of water during the 10-day model period; however, the presence of the submarine canyon is found to enhance downwards advection of density in all model scenarios. High Burger numbers lead to negative vorticity and a trapped anticyclonic eddy within the canyon, as well as an increased density anomaly. Low Burger numbers lead to positive vorticity, cyclonic circulation, and weaker density anomalies. Vertical variations in stratification affect zonal jet placement. Under the same forcing conditions, the zonal jet is pushed offshore in more uniformly stratified domains. The offshore jet location generates upwards density advection away from the canyon, while onshore jets generate downwards density advection everywhere within the model domain. Increasing Rossby values across the canyon axis, as well as decreasing Burger values, increase negative vertical flux at shelf break depth (150 m. Increasing Rossby numbers lead to stronger downwards advection of a passive tracer (nitrate, as well as stronger vorticity within the canyon. Results from previous studies are explained within this new dynamic framework.

  9. Submarine Tailings Disposal (STD—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Dold


    Full Text Available The mining industry is a fundamental industry involved in the development of modern society, but is also the world’s largest waste producer. This role will be enhanced in the future, because ore grades are generally decreasing, thus leading to increases in the waste/metal production ratio. Mine wastes deposited on-land in so-called tailings dams, impoundments or waste-dumps have several associated environmental issues that need to be addressed (e.g., acid mine drainage formation due to sulphide oxidation, geotechnical stability, among others, and social concerns due to land use during mining. The mining industry recognizes these concerns and is searching for waste management alternatives for the future. One option used in the past was the marine shore or shallow submarine deposition of this waste material in some parts of the world. After the occurrence of some severe environmental pollution, today the deposition in the deep sea (under constant reducing conditions is seen as a new, more secure option, due to the general thought that sulphide minerals are geochemically stable under the reduced conditions prevailing in the deep marine environment. This review highlights the mineralogical and geochemical issues (e.g., solubility of sulphides in seawater; reductive dissolution of oxide minerals under reducing conditions, which have to be considered when evaluating whether submarine tailings disposal is a suitable alternative for mine waste.

  10. Submarine melt rates under Greenland's ice tongues (United States)

    Wilson, Nat; Straneo, Fiametta; Heimbach, Patrick; Cenedese, Claudia


    The few remaining ice tongues (ice-shelf like extensions) of Greenland's glaciers are undergoing rapid changes with potential implications for the stability of the ice sheet. Submarine melting is recognized as a major contributor to mass loss, yet the magnitude and spatial distribution of melt are poorly known or understood. Here, we use high resolution satellite imagery to infer the magnitude and spatial variability of melt rates under Greenland's largest remaining ice tongues: Ryder Glacier, Petermann Glacier and Nioghalvfjerdsbræ (79 North Glacier). We find that submarine plus aerial melt approximately balance the ice flux from the grounded ice sheet for the first two while at Nioghalvfjerdsbræ the total melt flux exceeds the inflow of ice indicating thinning of the ice tongue. We also show that melt rates under the ice tongues vary considerably, exceeding 60 m yr-1 near the grounding zone and decaying rapidly downstream. Channels, likely originating from upstream subglacial channels, give rise to large melt variations across the ice tongues. Using derived melt rates, we test simplified melt parameterizations appropriate for ice sheet models and find the best agreement with those that incorporate ice tongue geometry in the form of depth and slope.

  11. Environmental assessment of submarine power cables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isus, Daniel; Martinez, Juan D. [Grupo General Cable Sistemas, S.A., 08560-Manlleu, Barcelona (Spain); Arteche, Amaya; Del Rio, Carmen; Madina, Virginia [Tecnalia Research and Innovation, 20009 San Sebastian (Spain)


    Extensive analyses conducted by the European Community revealed that offshore wind energy have relatively benign effects on the marine environment by comparison to other forms of electric power generation [1]. However, the materials employed in offshore wind power farms suffer major changes to be confined to the marine environment at extreme conditions: saline medium, hydrostatic pressure... which can produce an important corrosion effect. This phenomenon can affect on the one hand, to the material from the structural viewpoint and on the other hand, to the marine environment. In this sense, to better understand the environmental impacts of generating electricity from offshore wind energy, this study evaluated the life cycle assessment for some new designs of submarine power cables developed by General Cable. To achieve this goal, three approaches have been carried out: leaching tests, eco-toxicity tests and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodologies. All of them are aimed to obtaining quantitative data for environmental assessment of selected submarine cables. LCA is a method used to assess environmental aspects and potential impacts of a product or activity. LCA does not include financial and social factors, which means that the results of an LCA cannot exclusively form the basis for assessment of a product's sustainability. Leaching tests results allowed to conclude that pH of seawater did not significantly changed by the presence of submarine three-core cables. Although, it was slightly higher in case of broken cable, pH values were nearly equals. Concerning to the heavy metals which could migrate to the aquatic medium, there were significant differences in both scenarios. The leaching of zinc is the major environmental concern during undersea operation of undamaged cables whereas the fully sectioned three-core cable produced the migration of significant quantities of copper and iron apart from the zinc migrated from the galvanized steel. Thus, the tar

  12. What threat do turbidity currents and submarine landslides pose to submarine telecommunications cable infrastructure? (United States)

    Clare, Michael; Pope, Edward; Talling, Peter; Hunt, James; Carter, Lionel


    The global economy relies on uninterrupted usage of a network of telecommunication cables on the seafloor. These submarine cables carry ~99% of all trans-oceanic digital data and voice communications traffic worldwide, as they have far greater bandwidth than satellites. Over 9 million SWIFT banks transfers alone were made using these cables in 2004, totalling 7.4 trillion of transactions per day between 208 countries, which grew to 15 million SWIFT bank transactions last year. We outline the challenge of why, how often, and where seafloor cables are broken by natural causes; primarily subsea landslides and sediment flows (turbidity currents and also debris flows and hyperpycnal flows). These slides and flows can be very destructive. As an example, a sediment flow in 1929 travelled up to 19 m/s and broke 11 cables in the NE Atlantic, running out for ~800 km to the abyssal ocean. The 2006 Pingtung earthquake triggered a sediment flow that broke 22 cables offshore Taiwan over a distance of 450 km. Here, we present initial results from the first statistical analysis of a global database of cable breaks and causes. We first investigate the controls on frequency of submarine cable breaks in different environmental and geological settings worldwide. We assess which types of earthquake pose a significant threat to submarine cable networks. Meteorological events, such as hurricanes and typhoons, pose a significant threat to submarine cable networks, so we also discuss the potential impacts of future climate change on the frequency of such hazards. We then go on to ask what are the physical impacts of submarine sediment flows on submerged cables? A striking observation from past cable breaks is sometimes cables remain unbroken, whilst adjacent cables are severed (and record powerful flows travelling at up to 6 m/s). Why are some cables broken, but neighbouring cables remain intact? We provide some explanations for this question, and outline the need for future in

  13. Children of Holocaust Survivors. (United States)

    Segal, Shirley Ann

    As a result of the Holocaust, many survivors developed long term psychosocial impairment known as the Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), which is characterized by depression, anxiety, hypocondriasis, inability to concentrate or to express anger, nightmares, insomnia, obsessive thoughts, guilt, mistrust, and alienation. The literature in this…

  14. Navy Ohio Replacement (SSBN[X]) Ballistic Missile Submarine Program: Background and Issues for Congress (United States)


    propulsion technology first occurred many years ago: To help jumpstart the UK’s nuclear - powered submarine program, the United States transferred to the UK a... nuclear - powered attack submarines (SSNs), nuclear - powered cruise missile submarines (SSGNs), and nuclear - powered ballistic missile submarines (SSBNs). 2...2 In the designations SSN, SSGN, SSBN, and SSBN(X), the SS stands for submarine, N stands for nuclear - powered (meaning the ship is

  15. Submarine landside in the Bussol Graben: Structural and formation features (United States)

    Baranov, B. V.; Lobkovsky, L. I.; Dozorova, K. A.; Rukavishnikova, D. D.


    Analysis of geophysical data obtained during a study of the insular slope in the central Kuril‒Kamchatka Trench during projects Kuriles-2005 and Kuriles-2006 promoted by the Presidium of the Russian Academy of Sciences revealed a large submarine landslide in this area. The landslide, located at the bottom of the transverse valley confined to the Bussol l Graben, resulted from the failure of the northeastern wall of a graben composed of sedimentary material. It exceeds 35 km3 in size, representing one of the large submarine landslides discovered to date on the slope of the Kuril‒Kamchatka Trench in submarine canyonfan environments.

  16. Management of demand based inventory aboard submarine tenders servicing attack (SSN) submarines


    Ross, Timothy Joseph


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. This thesis examines the computation of inventory levels based on demand history aboard Submarine Tenders that use the Shipboard Automated Data Processing System (SUADPS) for inventory control. The focus of the thesis was the workload and supply effectiveness issues associated with the processing of the SUADPS levels setting program. The objective of the thesis was to determine the effect on supply effectiveness and stock churn if the...

  17. Submarine thermal springs on the Galapagos Rift (United States)

    Corliss, J.B.; Dymond, J.; Gordon, L.I.; Edmond, J.M.; Von Herzen, R. P.; Ballard, Richard D.; Green, K.; Williams, D.; Bainbridge, A.; Crane, K.; Van Andel, T. H.


    The submarine hydrothermal activity on and near the Galápagos Rift has been explored with the aid of the deep submersible Alvin. Analyses of water samples from hydrothermal vents reveal that hydrothermal activity provides significant or dominant sources and sinks for several components of seawater; studies of conductive and convective heat transfer suggest that two-thirds of the heat lost from new oceanic lithosphere at the Galápagos Rift in the first million years may be vented from thermal springs, predominantly along the axial ridge within the rift valley. The vent areas are populated by animal communities. They appear to utilize chemosynthesis by sulfur-oxidizing bacteria to derive their entire energy supply from reactions between the seawater and the rocks at high temperatures, rather than photosynthesis

  18. Improved OTEC System for a Submarine Robot (United States)

    Chao, Yi; Jones, Jack; Valdez, Thomas


    An ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC), now undergoing development, is a less-massive, more-efficient means of exploiting the same basic principle as that of the proposed system described in "Alternative OTEC Scheme for a Submarine Robot" (NPO-43500), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 33, No. 1 (January 2009), page 50. The proposed system as described previously would be based on the thawing-expansion/freezing-contraction behavior of a wax or perhaps another suitable phase-change material (PCM). The power generated by the system would be used to recharge the batteries in a battery- powered unmanned underwater vehicle [UUV (essentially, a small exploratory submarine robot)] of a type that has been deployed in large numbers in research pertaining to global warming. A UUV of this type travels between the ocean surface and depths, measuring temperature and salinity. At one phase of its operational cycle, the previously proposed system would utilize the surface ocean temperature (which lies between 15 and 30 C over most of the Earth) to melt a PCM that has a melting/freezing temperature of about 10 C. At the opposite phase of its operational cycle, the system would utilize the lower ocean temperature at depth (e.g., between 4 and 7 C at a depth of 300 m) to freeze the PCM. The melting or freezing would cause the PCM to expand or contract, respectively, by about 9 volume percent. The PCM would be contained in tubes that would be capable of expanding and contracting with the PCM. The PCM-containing tubes would be immersed in a hydraulic fluid. The expansion and contraction would drive a flow of the hydraulic fluid against a piston that, in turn, would push a rack-and-pinion gear system to spin a generator to charge a battery.

  19. A model for tidewater glacier undercutting by submarine melting (United States)

    Slater, D. A.; Nienow, P. W.; Goldberg, D. N.; Cowton, T. R.; Sole, A. J.


    Dynamic change at the marine-terminating margins of the Greenland Ice Sheet may be initiated by the ocean, particularly where subglacial runoff drives vigorous ice-marginal plumes and rapid submarine melting. Here we model submarine melt-driven undercutting of tidewater glacier termini, simulating a process which is key to understanding ice-ocean coupling. Where runoff emerges from broad subglacial channels we find that undercutting has only a weak impact on local submarine melt rate but increases total ablation by submarine melting due to the larger submerged ice surface area. Thus, the impact of melting is determined not only by the melt rate magnitude but also by the slope of the ice-ocean interface. We suggest that the most severe undercutting occurs at the maximum height in the fjord reached by the plume, likely promoting calving of ice above. It remains unclear, however, whether undercutting proceeds sufficiently rapidly to influence calving at Greenland's fastest-flowing glaciers.

  20. Submarine Upward Looking Sonar Ice Draft Profile Data and Statistics (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of upward looking sonar draft data collected by submarines in the Arctic Ocean. It includes data from both U.S. Navy and Royal Navy...

  1. Virtual Reality Training System for a Submarine Command Center

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maxwell, Douglas B


    The invention as disclosed is a system that uses a combined real and virtual display interaction methodology to generate the visual appearance of submarine combat control rooms and allow interaction...

  2. Studies on submarine control for periscope depth operations


    Tolliver, John V.


    Approved for public release; distribution in unlimited. Requirements for submarine periscope depth operations have been increased by integration with carrier battle groups, littoral operations, and contributions to joint surveillance. Improved periscope depth performance is therefore imperative. Submarine control personnel rely on a large number of analog gauges and indications. An integrated digital display system could enhance the ergonomics of the human control interface and display add...

  3. Exercise Aboard Attack Submarines: Rationale and New Options (United States)


    experience loss of physical fitness while underway. Bennett and co-workers (2) noted a 7% reduction of maximal oxygen consumption in non-exercising...Inc. designed and built a comprehensive resistance exercise device to help counteract muscle deconditioning during long term space flights (the SX... Physical activity aboard nuclear submarines as measured by pedometry. Groton: Naval Submarine Medical Research Laboratory, Report 1053, 1985, p. 12

  4. Are tilt measurements useful in detecting tsunamigenic submarine landslides?


    Sascha Brune; Andrey Babeyko; Stephan V. Sobolev


    Large submarine landslides can generate dangerous tsunamis. Because of their long-period signal, detection of landslides by common seismological methods is difficult. Here we suggest a method of detecting submarine landslides by using an array of land-based tiltmeters. The displacement of a large volume of sediments during landsliding produces a detectable elastic response of the lithosphere. We propose a technique to calculate this response and to invert for tsunami relevant parameters like ...

  5. The development of permafrost bacterial communities under submarine conditions (United States)

    Mitzscherling, Julia; Winkel, Matthias; Winterfeld, Maria; Horn, Fabian; Yang, Sizhong; Grigoriev, Mikhail N.; Wagner, Dirk; Overduin, Pier P.; Liebner, Susanne


    Submarine permafrost is more vulnerable to thawing than permafrost on land. Besides increased heat transfer from the ocean water, the penetration of salt lowers the freezing temperature and accelerates permafrost degradation. Microbial communities in thawing permafrost are expected to be stimulated by warming, but how they develop under submarine conditions is completely unknown. We used the unique records of two submarine permafrost cores from the Laptev Sea on the East Siberian Arctic Shelf, inundated about 540 and 2500 years ago, to trace how bacterial communities develop depending on duration of the marine influence and pore water chemistry. Combined with geochemical analysis, we quantified total cell numbers and bacterial gene copies and determined the community structure of bacteria using deep sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene. We show that submarine permafrost is an extreme habitat for microbial life deep below the seafloor with changing thermal and chemical conditions. Pore water chemistry revealed different pore water units reflecting the degree of marine influence and stages of permafrost thaw. Millennia after inundation by seawater, bacteria stratify into communities in permafrost, marine-affected permafrost, and seabed sediments. In contrast to pore water chemistry, the development of bacterial community structure, diversity, and abundance in submarine permafrost appears site specific, showing that both sedimentation and permafrost thaw histories strongly affect bacteria. Finally, highest microbial abundance was observed in the ice-bonded seawater unaffected but warmed permafrost of the longer inundated core, suggesting that permafrost bacterial communities exposed to submarine conditions start to proliferate millennia after warming.

  6. Cardiometabolic Health in Submariners Returning from a 3-Month Patrol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heath G. Gasier


    Full Text Available Confined space, limited exercise equipment, rotating shift work and reduced sleep may affect cardiometabolic health in submariners. To test this hypothesis, 53 male U.S. Submariners (20–39 years were studied before and after a 3-month routine submarine patrol. Measures included anthropometrics, dietary and physical activity, biomarkers of cardiometabolic health, energy and appetite regulation, and inflammation. Before deployment, 62% of submariners had a body fat % (BF% ≥ 25% (obesity, and of this group, 30% met the criteria for metabolic syndrome. In obese volunteers, insulin, the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, leptin, the leptin/adiponectin ratio, and pro-inflammatory chemokines growth-related oncogene and macrophage-derived chemokine were significantly higher compared to non-obese submariners. Following the patrol, a significant mean reduction in body mass (5% and fat-mass (11% occurred in the obese group as a result of reduced energy intake (~2000 kJ during the patrol; and, independent of group, modest improvements in serum lipids and a mean reduction in interferon γ-induced protein 10 and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 were observed. Since 43% of the submariners remained obese, and 18% continued to meet the criteria for metabolic syndrome following the patrol, the magnitude of weight loss was insufficient to completely abolish metabolic dysfunction. Submergence up to 3-months, however, does not appear to be the cause of obesity, which is similar to that of the general population.

  7. Solution of Supplee's submarine paradox through special and general relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Vieira, R S


    In 1989 Supplee described an apparent relativistic paradox on which a submarine seems to sink in a given frame while floating in another one. If the submarine density is adjusted to be the same as the water density (when both of them are at rest) and then it is put to move, the density of the submarine will become higher than that of the water, thanks to Lorentz contraction, and hence it sinks. However, in the submarine proper frame, is the water that becomes denser, so the submarine supposedly should float and we get a paradox situation. In this paper we analyze the submarine paradox in both a flat and a curved spacetime. In the case of a flat spacetime, we first show that any relativistic force field in special relativity can be written in the Lorentz form, so that it can always be decomposed into a static (electric-like) and a dynamic (magnetic-like) part. Taking into account the gravitomagnetic effects between the Earth and the water, a relativistic formulation of Archimedes principle can be established, ...

  8. Survivors on Cancer: the portrayal of survivors in print news. (United States)

    Kromm, Elizabeth Edsall; Smith, Katherine Clegg; Singer, Rachel Friedman


    This study examines the types of news stories that include comments by everyday cancer survivors and the messages or information these individuals provide. Even though these non-celebrity survivors increasingly serve on the front lines of cancer prevention and advocacy efforts and often engage with media, the role they play in the media discourse on cancer has not been a focus of research. We conducted a thematic content analysis of print news articles of non-celebrity cancer survivors in 15 leading national daily newspapers for four consecutive months starting in June 2005 to identify the issues or events that included a survivor perspective and the messages or information conveyed by the everyday survivors. Journalists included survivor commentary primarily when covering cancer fundraising events and when focusing on individual survivorship stories. In overall news coverage involving survivors, breast and prostate cancers received the greatest attention, followed by blood and lung cancers. Survivors spoke mainly about the diagnosis experience and life post-cancer. Our analysis of survivors' comments revealed that discussions of the diagnosis experience often convey fear and a lack of confidence in cancer screening practices, while cancer is portrayed as a positive life event. While evidence of a positive and hopeful portrayal of survivorship is an encouraging finding for continued efforts to decrease stigma associated with a cancer diagnosis and for the public understanding of the disease, it is important to consider potential negative implications of an idealized and restricted media discourse on survivorship. The increasing size and capacity of the survivor community offers opportunities for the cancer advocacy community to consider how news media portrayal of cancer and survivorship may contribute in both positive and potentially detrimental ways to public understanding of this disease, its survivors and life after cancer.

  9. Submarine Landslides at Santa Catalina Island, California (United States)

    Legg, M. R.; Francis, R. D.


    Santa Catalina Island is an active tectonic block of volcanic and metamorphic rocks originally exposed during middle Miocene transtension along the evolving Pacific-North America transform plate boundary. Post-Miocene transpression created the existing large pop-up structure along the major strike-slip restraining bend of the Catalina fault that forms the southwest flank of the uplift. Prominent submerged marine terraces apparent in high-resolution bathymetric maps interrupt the steep submarine slopes in the upper ~400 meters subsea depths. Steep subaerial slopes of the island are covered by Quaternary landslides, especially at the sea cliffs and in the blueschist metamorphic rocks. The submarine slopes also show numerous landslides that range in area from a few hectares to more than three sq-km (300 hectares). Three or more landslides of recent origin exist between the nearshore and first submerged terrace along the north-facing shelf of the island's West End. One of these slides occurred during September 2005 when divers observed a remarkable change in the seafloor configuration after previous dives in the area. Near a sunken yacht at about 45-ft depth where the bottom had sloped gently into deeper water, a "sinkhole" had formed that dropped steeply to 100-ft or greater depths. Some bubbling sand was observed in the shallow water areas that may be related to the landslide process. High-resolution multibeam bathymetry acquired in 2008 by CSU Monterey Bay show this "fresh" slide and at least two other slides of varying age along the West End. The slides are each roughly 2 hectares in area and their debris aprons are spread across the first terrace at about 85-m water depth that is likely associated with the Last Glacial Maximum sealevel lowstand. Larger submarine slides exist along the steep Catalina and Catalina Ridge escarpments along the southwest flank of the island platform. A prominent slide block, exceeding 3 sq-km in area, appears to have slipped more than

  10. ROV Tiburon Investigation of Hawaiian Submarine Canyons (United States)

    Paull, C. K.; Greene, H. G.; Caress, D. W.; Clague, D. A.; Ussler, W.; Maher, N. M.


    MBARI conducted ROV dives around the Hawaiian Islands during an expedition of the R/V Western Flyer and Tiburon in the spring of 2001. Eight ROV dives were made to investigate five major submarine canyons offshore of Oahu, Molokai, and Hawaii in up to 3,434 m water depths. Four of these canyons are located off the windward (northern) side of these islands where onshore canyons are also well developed. Those canyons located offshore of Molokai and Oahu incise the head scars of the giant Nuuanu and Wailai submarine landslides. ROV observations and sediment and rock outcrop sampling were made in these canyons to determine their origin and present-day activity. The fifth canyon investigated is located on the leeward (southern) side of Molokai. The canyons along the windward side expose extensive stratigraphic sections that reveal the history of the islands' formation. In composite, these sections contain marine pillow basalt overlain by a substantial sequence of alternating subaerial lava flows, rounded boulder conglomerates, shallow water carbonates, and hyaloclastites that indicate coastal and marine deposition. These sequences illustrate the accretion and subsequent subsidence of the islands' flanks. These canyons also have morphologically distinct upper and lower sections. The upper reaches of the canyons are incised into the shallow water marine facies and contain broad axial channels through which active sediment transport is occurring. In contrast, the morphology of the lower canyons are strongly influenced by the giant landslides that massively altered the northern flanks of the Hawaiian chain. The lower canyons contain plunge pools and steep headwall scarps that are generally comprised of mechanically competent subaerial lava flows. The presence of multiple plunge pools with differentially eroded head scarps suggests retrogressive erosion (bottom-up process) with headward advancement of the various heads. Undercutting of the headwalls also produce periodic

  11. Relationship between work stress and health in submariners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan-nan JIANG


    Full Text Available Objective To explore the relationship between work stress and health in submariners. Methods In April 2008, 272 submariners trained in a navy base were selected as study subjects by random group sampling method, and tested by primary personal information questionnaire, self-rated health measurement scale (SRHMS, self-developed submariners' work stressors questionnaire, and work stress self-rated scale. Physical health, mental health and social health of submariners were analyzed, and scores were compared with the norm of reference scores. Correlations were analyzed respectively between 10 items of submariners' general information (including age, length of military service, education degree, years at the present post, times of receiving awards, on-duty hours, off-duty hours, hours of sleep, lost days of leave, positive attitude to work and their physical health score, mental health score, social health score, total health score, as well as between 15 submariners' work stressors (including workrelated risks, diet problems, high temperature, humidity and noise in workplace, shortage of clean clothes, illness, losing contact with outside, lack of information about the task, lacking supports from family members, relationship problems, lack of involvement in task decisions, boring and dull work, on duty, heavy work, high quality of work, coping with unexpected threat and their physical health score, mental health score, social health score and total health score. Results No significant difference was found between submariners' SRHMS total score and the normal referenced score (t=0.56, P>0.05, but the physical health score and mental health score were significantly lower than normal referenced scores respectively (t=–2.172, P<0.05; t=–3.299, P<0.01, and the social health score was significantly higher than normal referenced score (t=9.331, P<0.001. The age, length of military service, years at present post of submariners were related

  12. Who are the cancer survivors?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovaldt, Hanna Birkbak; Suppli, N P; Olsen, M H


    Background: No nationwide studies on social position and prevalence of comorbidity among cancer survivors exist. Methods: We performed a nationwide prevalence study defining persons diagnosed with cancer 1943-2010 and alive on the census date 1 January 2011 as cancer survivors. Comorbidity was co...

  13. Brain tumor survivors speak out. (United States)

    Carlson-Green, Bonnie


    Although progress has been made in the treatment of childhood brain tumors,work remains to understand the complexities of disease, treatment, and contextual factors that underlie individual differences in outcome. A combination of both an idiographic approach (incorporating observations made by adult survivors of childhood brain tumors) and a nomothetic approach (reviewing the literature for brain tumor survivors as well as childhood cancer survivors) is presented. Six areas of concern are reviewed from both an idiographic and nomothetic perspective, including social/emotional adjustment, insurance, neurocognitive late effects, sexuality and relationships, employment, and where survivors accessed information about their disease and treatment and possible late effects. Guidelines to assist health care professionals working with childhood brain tumor survivors are offered with the goal of improving psychosocial and neurocognitive outcomes in this population.

  14. From submarine to lacustrine groundwater discharge (United States)

    Lewandowski, Jörg; Meinikmann, Karin; Pöschke, Franziska; Nützmann, Gunnar; Rosenberry, Donald O.


    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) and its role in marine nutrient cycling are well known since the last decade. The freshwater equivalent, lacustrine groundwater discharge (LGD), is often still disregarded, although first reports of LGD are more than 50 years old. We identify nine different reasons why groundwater has long been disregarded in both freshwater and marine environments such as invisibility of groundwater discharge, the size of the interface and its difficult accessibility. Although there are some fundamental differences in the hydrology of SGD and LGD, caused primarily by seawater recirculation that occurs only in cases of SGD, there are also a lot of similarities such as a focusing of discharge to near-shore areas. Nutrient concentrations in groundwater near the groundwater–surface water interface might be anthropogenically enriched. Due to spatial heterogeneity of aquifer characteristics and biogeochemical processes, the quantification of groundwater-borne nutrient loads is challenging. Both nitrogen and phosphorus might be mobile in near-shore aquifers and in a lot of case studies large groundwater-borne nutrient loads have been reported.

  15. Design and analysis of submarine radome (United States)

    Sandeep, C. Satya; Prasad, U. Shiva; Suresh, R.; Rathan, A.; Sravanthi, G.; Govardhan, D.


    Radomes are the electromagnetic windows that protect microwave sub-systems from the environmental effects. The major requirement of radome is its transparency to microwaves and for most of the cases mechanical properties are also equally important. Radome for underwater applications has to withstand high water pressure of the order of 45 bars. Composite materials owing to their high strength to weight ratio, high stiffness and better corrosion resistance are potential source for under water applications. The concept of 'tailoring' the material properties to suit the radome is obtained by selecting proper reinforcement, resin matrix and their compositions. The mechanical properties of composite material, evaluated by testing specimens as per ASTM standards, are utilized in designing the radome. The modulus properties calculated using classical theories of composite materials and compared with test results. ANSYS a Finite Element software package used to analyse the problem. As the cross sectional thickness of radome varies, the complexity in fabrication is overcome by adopting matched die techniques. The radome design and finite element analysis validation concluded by conducting the pressure test on radome. On the design a modal analysis is also carried to check for the natural frequency, So that resonance does not occur if the natural frequency of the radome coincides with the excitation frequency of the submarine Clinical information system (CIS) for UNRWA is a computerized distributed application that used in clinics which follows the United Nations Relief and Works Agency (UNRWA) to manage the clinical requirements and services.

  16. Submarine landslides of the Southern California Borderland (United States)

    Lee, H.J.; Greene, H. Gary; Edwards, B.D.; Fisher, M.A.; Normark, W.R.


    Conventional bathymetry, sidescan-sonar and seismic-reflection data, and recent, multibeam surveys of large parts of the Southern California Borderland disclose the presence of numerous submarine landslides. Most of these features are fairly small, with lateral dimensions less than ??2 km. In areas where multibeam surveys are available, only two large landslide complexes were identified on the mainland slope- Goleta slide in Santa Barbara Channel and Palos Verdes debris avalanche on the San Pedro Escarpment south of Palos Verdes Peninsula. Both of these complexes indicate repeated recurrences of catastrophic slope failure. Recurrence intervals are not well constrained but appear to be in the range of 7500 years for the Goleta slide. The most recent major activity of the Palos Verdes debris avalanche occurred roughly 7500 years ago. A small failure deposit in Santa Barbara Channel, the Gaviota mudflow, was perhaps caused by an 1812 earthquake. Most landslides in this region are probably triggered by earthquakes, although the larger failures were likely conditioned by other factors, such as oversteepening, development of shelf-edge deltas, and high fluid pressures. If a subsequent future landslide were to occur in the area of these large landslide complexes, a tsunami would probably result. Runup distances of 10 m over a 30-km-long stretch of the Santa Barbara coastline are predicted for a recurrence of the Goleta slide, and a runup of 3 m over a comparable stretch of the Los Angeles coastline is modeled for the Palos Verdes debris avalanche. ?? 2009 The Geological Society of America.

  17. Seismic reflections associated with submarine gas hydrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreassen, K.


    Gas hydrates are often suggested as a future energy resource. This doctoral thesis improves the understanding of the concentration and distribution of natural submarine gas hydrates. The presence of these hydrates are commonly inferred from strong bottom simulating reflection (BSR). To investigate the nature of BSR, this work uses seismic studies of hydrate-related BSRs at two different locations, one where gas hydrates are accepted to exist and interpreted to be very extensive (in the Beaufort Sea), the other with good velocity data and downhole logs available (offshore Oregon). To ascertain the presence of free gas under the BSR, prestack offset data must supplement near-vertical incidence seismic data. A tentative model for physical properties of sediments partially saturated with gas hydrate and free gas is presented. This model, together with drilling information and seismic data containing the BSR beneath the Oregon margin and the Beaufort Sea, made it possible to better understand when to apply the amplitude-versus-offset (AVO) method to constrain BSR gas hydrate and gas models. Distribution of natural gas hydrates offshore Norway and Svalbard is discussed and interpreted as reflections from the base of gas hydrate-bearing sediments, overlying sediments containing free gas. Gas hydrates inferred to exist at the Norwegian-Svalbard continental margin correlate well with Cenozoic depocenters, and the associated gas is assumed to be mainly biogenic. Parts of that margin have a high potential for natural gas hydrates of both biogenic and thermogenic origin. 235 refs., 86 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Submarine landslides in Arctic sedimentation: Canada Basin (United States)

    Mosher, David C.; Shimeld, John; Hutchinson, Deborah R.; Lebedova-Ivanova, N; Chapman, C.


    Canada Basin of the Arctic Ocean is the least studied ocean basin in the World. Marine seismic field programs were conducted over the past 6 years using Canadian and American icebreakers. These expeditions acquired more than 14,000 line-km of multibeam bathymetric and multi-channel seismic reflection data over abyssal plain, continental rise and slope regions of Canada Basin; areas where little or no seismic reflection data existed previously. Canada Basin is a turbidite-filled basin with flat-lying reflections correlateable over 100s of km. For the upper half of the sedimentary succession, evidence of sedimentary processes other than turbidity current deposition is rare. The Canadian Archipelago and Beaufort Sea margins host stacked mass transport deposits from which many of these turbidites appear to derive. The stratigraphic succession of the MacKenzie River fan is dominated by mass transport deposits; one such complex is in excess of 132,000 km2 in area and underlies much of the southern abyssal plain. The modern seafloor is also scarred with escarpments and mass failure deposits; evidence that submarine landsliding is an ongoing process. In its latest phase of development, Canada Basin is geomorphologically confined with stable oceanographic structure, resulting in restricted depositional/reworking processes. The sedimentary record, therefore, underscores the significance of mass-transport processes in providing sediments to oceanic abyssal plains as few other basins are able to do.

  19. NSMRL: A Small Command with A Huge Presence for the Submarine Force

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daniel, J. C; Lamb, Jerry


    "To protect the health and enhance the performance of our warfighters through focused submarine, diving and surface research solutions" is the mission of the Naval Submarine Medical Research Laboratory (NSMRL...

  20. Holocaust Child Survivors and Child Sexual Abuse (United States)

    Lev-Wiesel, Rachel; Amir, Marianne


    This study utilized a qualitative analysis of child survivors of the Holocaust who were sexually abused during World War II. The research study aimed to give this specific group of survivors a voice and to explore the impact of multiple extreme traumas, the Holocaust and childhood sexual abuse, on the survivors. Twenty-two child survivors of the…

  1. Conduct and Support of Amphibious Operations from United States Submarines in World War II (United States)


    twelfth war patrol of the Gato class submarine (See photos 1 and 2). They made history as the only Americans to conduct an offensive landing on a...Naval History Vol. 2, no. 1 (April 1, 2003), 1. 4 This monograph features five Gato class submarines, and three V-class submarines, but also addresses...1993), 67. 6 Photo 2: USS Barb (SS 220), representing the five Gato class submarines that participated in Operation Torch. Barb’s crew also

  2. Index of Submarine Medical Officer’s Qualification Theses 1944-1974 (United States)



  3. Navy Ohio Replacement (SSBN[X]) Ballistic Missile Submarine Program: Background and Issues for Congress (United States)


    Navy Ohio Replacement (SSBN[X]) Ballistic Missile Submarine Program: Background and Issues for Congress Ronald O’Rourke Specialist in Naval...Affairs April 5, 2016 Congressional Research Service 7-5700 R41129 Navy Ohio Replacement (SSBN[X]) Ballistic Missile Submarine...Replacement (SSBN[X]) Ballistic Missile Submarine Program Congressional Research Service Contents Introduction

  4. Submarine fans: A critical retrospective (1950–2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Shanmugam


    Full Text Available When we look back the contributions on submarine fans during the past 65 years (1950–2015, the empirical data on 21 modern submarine fans and 10 ancient deep-water systems, published by the results of the First COMFAN (Committee on FANs Meeting (Bouma et al., 1985a, have remained the single most significant compilation of data on submarine fans. The 1970s were the “heyday” of submarine fan models. In the 21st century, the general focus has shifted from submarine fans to submarine mass movements, internal waves and tides, and contourites. The purpose of this review is to illustrate the complexity of issues surrounding the origin and classification of submarine fans. The principal elements of submarine fans, composed of canyons, channels, and lobes, are discussed using nine modern case studies from the Mediterranean Sea, the Equatorial Atlantic, the Gulf of Mexico, the North Pacific, the NE Indian Ocean (Bay of Bengal, and the East Sea (Korea. The Annot Sandstone (Eocene–Oligocene, exposed at Peira-Cava area, SE France, which served as the type locality for the “Bouma Sequence”, was reexamined. The field details are documented in questioning the validity of the model, which was the basis for the turbidite-fan link. The 29 fan-related models that are of conceptual significance, developed during the period 1970–2015, are discussed using modern and ancient systems. They are: (1 the classic submarine fan model with attached lobes, (2 the detached-lobe model, (3 the channel-levee complex without lobes, (4 the delta-fed ramp model, (5 the gully-lobe model, (6 the suprafan lobe model, (7 the depositional lobe model, (8 the fan lobe model, (9 the ponded lobe model, (10 the nine models based on grain size and sediment source, (11 the four fan models based on tectonic settings, (12 the Jackfork debrite model, (13 the basin-floor fan model, (14 supercritical and subcritical fans, and (15 the three types of fan reservoirs. Each model is unique

  5. Process sedimentology of submarine fan deposits - new perspectives (United States)

    Postma, George


    To link submarine fan process sedimentology with sand distribution, sand body architecture, texture and fabric, the field geologist studies sedimentary facies, facies associations (fan elements) and stratigraphy. Facies analysis resides on factual knowledge of modern fan morphodynamics and physical modelling of en-masse sediment transport. Where do we stand after 55 years of submarine research, i.e. the date when the first submarine fan model was launched by Arnold Bouma in 1962? Since that date students of submarine fans have worked on a number of important, recurring questions concerned with facies analysis of submarine successions in outcrop and core: 1. What type of sediment transport produced the beds? 2. What facies can be related to initial flow conditions? 3. What is the significance of grain size jumps and bounding surface hierarchy in beds consisting of crude and spaced stratification (traction carpets)? Do these point to multi flow events or to flow pulsations by one and the same event? 4. What facies associations relate to the basic elements of submarine fans? 5. What are the autogenic and allogenic signatures in submarine fans? Particularly in the last decade, the enormous technical advancement helped to obtain high-quality data from observations of density flows in modern canyons, deep basins and deep-water delta slopes (refs 1,2,3). In combination with both physical (refs 4,5) and numerical modelling (ref 6) these studies broke new ground into our understanding of density flow processes in various submarine environments and have led to new concepts of submarine fan building by super- and subcritical high-density flow (ref 7). Do these new concepts provide better answers to our recurrent questions related to the morphodynamics of submarine fans and prediction of sand body architecture? In discussing this open question, I shall 1. apply the new concepts to a modern and ancient example of a channel-lobe-transition-zone (ref 8); 2. raise the problem of

  6. Conversations with Holocaust survivor residents. (United States)

    Hirst, Sandra P; LeNavenec, Carole Lynne; Aldiabat, Khaldoun


    Traumatic events in one's younger years can have an impact on how an individual copes with later life. One traumatic experience for Jewish individuals was the Holocaust. Some of these people are moving into long-term care facilities. It was within this context that the research question emerged: What are Holocaust survivor residents' perceptions of a life lived as they move into a long-term care facility? For this qualitative study, Holocaust survivors were individually interviewed. Findings emphasize that nursing care needs to ensure that Holocaust survivor residents participate in activities, receive timely health care, and receive recognition of their life experiences. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  7. Ageing Holocaust survivors in Australia. (United States)

    Paratz, Elizabeth D; Katz, Benny


    In recent years, a phenomenon of "late effects of the Holocaust" has emerged, with impacts on the psychological and physical health of ageing Holocaust survivors. As Holocaust survivors age, they may experience heightened anxiety around normal processes of ageing, worsened post-traumatic stress disorder with cognitive decline, and fear of the medical system. Holocaust survivors are at increased risk of osteoporosis, cardiometabolic disease due to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysfunction, cancer, and sequelae of Nazi medical experiments. From existing medical literature on this topic, practical principles of management are derived to create a framework for sensitive medical management of Holocaust survivors in Australia. The issues discussed are also relevant to the wider geriatric refugee or prisoner-of-war experience.

  8. Sexual minority cancer survivors' satisfaction with care. (United States)

    Jabson, Jennifer M; Kamen, Charles S


    Satisfaction with care is important to cancer survivors' health outcomes. Satisfaction with care is not equal for all cancer survivors, and sexual minority (i.e., lesbian, gay, and bisexual) cancer survivors may experience poor satisfaction with care. Data were drawn from the 2010 LIVESTRONG national survey. The final sample included 207 sexual minority cancer survivors and 4,899 heterosexual cancer survivors. Satisfaction with care was compared by sexual orientation, and a Poisson regression model was computed to test the associations between sexual orientation and satisfaction with care, controlling for other relevant variables. Sexual minority cancer survivors had lower satisfaction with care than did heterosexual cancer survivors (B = -0.12, SE = 0.04, Wald χ(2) = 9.25, pSexual minorities experience poorer satisfaction with care compared to heterosexual cancer survivors. Satisfaction with care is especially relevant to cancer survivorship in light of the cancer-related health disparities reported among sexual minority cancer survivors.

  9. A submarine volcanic eruption leads to a novel microbial habitat. (United States)

    Danovaro, Roberto; Canals, Miquel; Tangherlini, Michael; Dell'Anno, Antonio; Gambi, Cristina; Lastras, Galderic; Amblas, David; Sanchez-Vidal, Anna; Frigola, Jaime; Calafat, Antoni M; Pedrosa-Pàmies, Rut; Rivera, Jesus; Rayo, Xavier; Corinaldesi, Cinzia


    Submarine volcanic eruptions are major catastrophic events that allow investigation of the colonization mechanisms of newly formed seabed. We explored the seafloor after the eruption of the Tagoro submarine volcano off El Hierro Island, Canary Archipelago. Near the summit of the volcanic cone, at about 130 m depth, we found massive mats of long, white filaments that we named Venus's hair. Microscopic and molecular analyses revealed that these filaments are made of bacterial trichomes enveloped within a sheath and colonized by epibiotic bacteria. Metagenomic analyses of the filaments identified a new genus and species of the order Thiotrichales, Thiolava veneris. Venus's hair shows an unprecedented array of metabolic pathways, spanning from the exploitation of organic and inorganic carbon released by volcanic degassing to the uptake of sulfur and nitrogen compounds. This unique metabolic plasticity provides key competitive advantages for the colonization of the new habitat created by the submarine eruption. A specialized and highly diverse food web thrives on the complex three-dimensional habitat formed by these microorganisms, providing evidence that Venus's hair can drive the restart of biological systems after submarine volcanic eruptions.

  10. Does calving matter? Evidence for significant submarine melt (United States)

    Bartholomaus, Timothy C.; Larsen, Christopher F.; O’Neel, Shad


    During the summer in the northeast Pacific Ocean, the Alaska Coastal Current sweeps water with temperatures in excess of 12 °C past the mouths of glacierized fjords and bays. The extent to which these warm waters affect the mass balance of Alaskan tidewater glaciers is uncertain. Here we report hydrographic measurements made within Icy Bay, Alaska, and calculate rates of submarine melt at Yahtse Glacier, a tidewater glacier terminating in Icy Bay. We find strongly stratified water properties consistent with estuarine circulation and evidence that warm Gulf of Alaska water reaches the head of 40 km-long Icy Bay, largely unaltered. A 10–20 m layer of cold, fresh, glacially-modified water overlies warm, saline water. The saline water is observed to reach up to 10.4 °C within 1.5 km of the terminus of Yahtse Glacier. By quantifying the heat and salt deficit within the glacially-modified water, we place bounds on the rate of submarine melt. The submarine melt rate is estimated at >9 m d−1, at least half the rate at which ice flows into the terminus region, and can plausibly account for all of the submarine terminus mass loss. Our measurements suggest that summer and fall subaerial calving is a direct response to thermal undercutting of the terminus, further demonstrating the critical role of the ocean in modulating tidewater glacier dynamics.

  11. Submarine Construction in Germany (U-Bootbau in Deutschland), (United States)


    the IKL sister firm, Maschinenbau Gabler GmbH, also founded by Prof. Gabler, which, unlike IKL (involved solely in development), is a hardware...snorkels, radar masts, as well as wharf and dockside connections, for IKL and various submarine yards. Moreover, Maschinenbau Gabler is engaged in

  12. Dissolved Nutrients from Submarine Groundwater in Flic en Flac ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract—The aim of this study was to investigate dissolved nutrients in a submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) in Flic en Flac lagoon on the west coast of the volcanic island of Mauritius. The SGD enters Flic en Flac lagoon through a thin blanket of unconsolidated sediment through a fracture system and is concentrated ...

  13. Dissolved Nutrients from Submarine Groundwater in Flic en Flac ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate dissolved nutrients in a submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) in Flic en Flac lagoon on the west coast of the volcanic island of Mauritius. The SGD enters Flic en Flac lagoon through a thin blanket of unconsolidated sediment through a fracture system and is concentrated along the ...

  14. Simulation of Wave-Plus-Current Scour beneath Submarine Pipelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eltard-Larsen, Bjarke; Fuhrman, David R.; Sumer, B. Mutlu


    A fully coupled hydrodynamic and morphologic numerical model was utilized for the simulation of wave-plus-current scour beneath submarine pipelines. The model was based on incompressible Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations, coupled with k-ω turbulence closure, with additional bed and suspen...

  15. Sedimentary characteristics of samples collected from some submarine canyons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, Arnold H.

    Oriented rectangular cores of 20.3 × 30.5 cm and 45.7 cm high have been collected in a number of submarine canyons off southern California (U.S.A.) and off the southern tip of Baja California (Mexico) for a detailed study of their sedimentary structures. By applying several methods, mainly X-ray

  16. 'Good Hunting': German submarine offensives and South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The first German submarine offensive in South African waters during 1942, Operation Eisbär, was aimed at striking a devastating blow to shipping off the South African coast. By the end of December 1942, an estimated 310 864 tons of shipping had been sunk through Operation Eisbär and the first U-cruiser operation alone.

  17. Cost Estimation Lessons Learned for Future Submarine Acquisition Programs (United States)


    North Carolina and New Mexico 30 General Dynamics Electric Boat “U.S. Navy Awards General Dynamics $14 Billion Contract for Eight Virginia- Class...NAVSEA Program Executive officer, Submarines PMO 450, June 1995. “New SSN Program Life Cycle Cost Estimate.” Naval Center for Cost Analysis: GE-1300

  18. An ongoing large submarine landslide at the Japan trench (United States)

    Nitta, S.; Kasaya, T.; Miura, S.; Kawamura, K.


    This paper deals with an active submarine landslide on a landward trench slope in the Japan trench. Studied area is located on the upper terrace ranging from 400 to 1200 m in water depth, off Sendai, northeast Japan. We have surveyed in detail the seabed topography using a multi narrow beam (hereafter MBES) and a subbottom profiler (hereafter SBP) during the cruise MR12-E02 of R/V Mirai. The survey lines were 12 lines in N-S, and 3 lines in E-W, and situated in the region from 141°45'E, 37°40'N to 142°33'E, 38°32'N. Moreover, we used multi-channel seismic profile by the cruise KR04-10 of R/V Kairei in the interpretation of the SBP results. In general, horseshoe-shaped depressions of about 100 km wide along the trench slope are arrayed along the Japan trench. It has thought that they were formed by large submarine landslides, but we could not understand critically the relationship between the depressions and the submarine landslides. Based on the survey results, we found signals of an active submarine landslide in the depression as follows. 1) We observed arcuate-shaped lineaments, which are sub-parallel to a horseshoe-shaped depression. The lineaments concentrate in the south region from 38°N at about 20 km wide. These lineaments are formed by deformation structures as anticlines, synclines and normal fault sense displacements. 2) Most of the synclines and anticlines are not buried to form the lineaments. 3) Normal faults cutting about 1 km deep are observed in a multi-channel seismic profile. The normal faults are located just below the arcuate-shaped lineaments, and are tilted eastward being the downslope direction. It indicates a large submarine landslide. We concluded that the arcuate-shaped lineaments were generated by surface sediment movement with the submarine landsliding. We think that the submarine landslide of about 20 km wide and about 1 km thick move continuously down the landward trench slope. This would be the formation process of the horseshoe

  19. Exploring the submarine Graham Bank in the Sicily Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Coltelli


    Full Text Available In the Sicily Channel, volcanic activity has been concentrated mainly on the Pantelleria and Linosa islands, while minor submarine volcanism took place in the Adventure, Graham and Nameless banks. The volcanic activity spanned mostly during Plio-Pleistocene, however, historical submarine eruptions occurred in 1831 on the Graham Bank and in 1891 offshore Pantelleria Island. On the Graham Bank, 25 miles SW of Sciacca, the 1831 eruption formed the short-lived Ferdinandea Island that represents the only Italian volcano active in historical times currently almost completely unknown and not yet monitored. Moreover, most of the Sicily Channel seismicity is concentrated along a broad NS belt extending from the Graham Bank to Lampedusa Island. In 2012, the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV carried out a multidisciplinary oceanographic cruise, named “Ferdinandea 2012”, the preliminary results of which represent the aim of this paper. The cruise goal was the mapping of the morpho-structural features of some submarine volcanic centres located in the northwestern side of the Sicily Channel and the temporary recording of their seismic and degassing activity. During the cruise, three OBS/Hs (ocean bottom seismometer with hydrophone were deployed near the Graham, Nerita and Terribile submarine banks. During the following 9 months they have recorded several seismo-acoustic signals produced by both tectonic and volcanic sources. A high-resolution bathymetric survey was achieved on the Graham Bank and on the surrounding submarine volcanic centres. A widespread and voluminous gas bubbles emission was observed by both multibeam sonar echoes and a ROV (remotely operated vehicle along the NW side of the Graham Bank, where gas and seafloor samples were also collected.

  20. Childhood Cancer Survivor Study: An Overview (United States)

    ... of Childhood Treatment Childhood Cancer Genomics Study Findings Childhood Cancer Survivor Study: An Overview Dr. Greg Armstrong, ... Late Effects of Treatment for Childhood Cancer .) The Childhood Cancer Survivor Study ( CCSS ), funded by the National ...

  1. Detroit Research on Cancer Survivors Study (United States)

    An NCI press release about the launch of the Detroit Research on Cancer Survivors (ROCS) study, which will look at factors affecting cancer progression, recurrence, mortality, and quality of life among African-American cancer survivors.

  2. Secondhand Smoke Still Plagues Some Cancer Survivors (United States)

    ... Secondhand Smoke Still Plagues Some Cancer Survivors Study found they ... number of nonsmoking cancer survivors exposed to secondhand smoke is down significantly in the United States, but ...

  3. Stroke survivors' experiences of rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peoples, Hanne; Satink, Ton; Steultjens, Esther


    INTRODUCTION: The aim was to obtain the best available knowledge on stroke survivors' experiences of rehabilitation. The increase in demands for accountability in health care and acknowledgement of the importance of client participation in health decisions calls for systematic ways of integrating...... survivors' experiences of rehabilitation in a clinical setting. Data analysis entailed extracting, editing, grouping, and abstracting findings. RESULTS: Twelve studies were included. One theme, "Power and Empowerment" and six subcategories were identified: 1) Coping with a new situation, 2) Informational...... needs, 3) Physical and non-physical needs, 4) Being personally valued and treated with respect, 5) Collaboration with health care professionals and 6) Assuming responsibility and seizing control. DISCUSSION: The synthesis showed that stroke survivors' experiences of rehabilitation reflected individual...

  4. Cancer survivors' experience of time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Dorte M.; Elverdam, Beth


    survivors over time to explore how perceptions and experiences change. METHODS: An exploratory study was carried out in 2002-2004 with a purposive sample of adults who had experienced various forms of cancer. Data collection included 9 weeks of participant observation at a Cancer Rehabilitation Centre...... and ethnographic interviews with 23 informants. Ten men and 13 women were interviewed twice: 2 weeks after their stay and 18 months later. FINDINGS: Data were analysed from a culture-analytical perspective. Three main themes regarding the survivors' handling and perception of time were found: (1) cancer disrupts......AIM: This paper reports a study to explore how cancer survivors talk about, experience and manage time in everyday life. BACKGROUND: There is an increasing interest in specific physical and psychosocial aspects of life after cancer diagnosis and treatment, but hardly any research follows cancer...

  5. Internet Use and Breast Cancer Survivors (United States)

    Muhamad, Mazanah; Afshari, Mojgan; Mohamed, Nor Aini


    A survey was administered to 400 breast cancer survivors at hospitals and support group meetings in Peninsular Malaysia to explore their level of Internet use and factors related to the Internet use by breast cancer survivors. Findings of this study indicated that about 22.5% of breast cancer survivors used Internet to get information about breast…

  6. Rehabilitation interventions for cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Helle Ploug; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine; Johansen, Christoffer


    BACKGROUND: Today more and more people survive cancer. Cancer survivors need help to recover both from the cancer and the treatment. Rehabilitative interventions have been set up to meet their needs. However, there are studies that report no major effects following careful, targeted intervention...... parameters in rehabilitation courses for cancer survivors in Denmark. METHODS: The study was based on an ethnographic fieldwork with participant observation at nine week-long courses, on in-depth interviews and on written sources. Fieldwork is well-suited for studying interventions in context, such as social...

  7. Survivor care for pediatric cancer survivors: a continuously evolving discipline. (United States)

    Record, Elizabeth O; Meacham, Lillian R


    This article summarizes recent findings regarding the prevalence of chronic health conditions, cardiovascular and pulmonary late effects, and second malignancies in childhood cancer survivors (CCSs), and examines facilitators and barriers to survivor care. The estimated cumulative prevalence for a serious chronic disease in CCSs is 80% by age 45. The crude prevalence for cardiac conditions is 56.4% and for pulmonary dysfunction is 65.2%. Research in cardio-oncology is focused on better methods of predicting risk for cardiac dysfunction, and better methods of detection and interventions to prevent cardiac late effects. Pulmonary late effects, recognized to be a significant cause of late mortality, were detected by surveillance tests in more than 50% of CCSs but are often subclinical. Rates of subsequent malignant neoplasm continue to increase as the population ages. All of these factors make it clear that life-long surveillance is required and models of care should consider risk for late effects and socioeconomic and patient-specific factors. It is becoming clear that there is no age after which the occurrence of late effects plateaus and surveillance can be reduced. Survivors should be empowered to advocate for their survivor care and options for follow-up should be tailored to their needs.

  8. [Medical-physiological characteristics of combat training of nuclear-power submarine crews]. (United States)

    Dovgusha, V V; Myznikov, I L; Shalabodov, S A; Bumaĭ, O K


    The article presents an observe of general questions of peculiarities of military-professional activity of submarine staff These questions are defining value in ideology of medical supply of submarine troops of NAVY in now-days conditions. The article also presents the statistics of morbidity in long termed sails for last forty years, it's dynamics by different categories of sail staff, on different stages of combat training activity in dependence of perioditation of work cycle of submarine staff The authors have examined modern condition of medical supply of submarines; have presented statistics of quality indexes of health of submarine staff The authors have formed main problems of medical supply of submarines and have proposed ways of their solving on modern stage.

  9. Losses in armoured three-phase submarine cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebdrup, Thomas; Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da; Bak, Claus Leth


    increases the losses in armoured cables compared to unarmoured cables. In this paper a thorough state of the art analysis is conducted on armour losses in three-phase armoured submarine power cables. The analysis shows that the IEC 60287-1-1 standard overestimates the armour losses which lead...... to the installation of cables with excessive phase conductor cross section. This paper also presents an example of the potential economic benefits of having a better knowledge of the losses introduced by the armour.......The number of offshore wind farms will keep increasing in the future as a part of the shift towards a CO2 free energy production. The energy harvested from the wind farm must be brought to shore, which is often done by using a three-phase armoured submarine power cable. The use of an armour...

  10. Stresses in a submarine topography under ocean waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mei, C.C.; McTigue, D.F.


    The problem of submarine slope stability is of interest to both offshore engineering and geology. In an uneven topography, the weight above a horizontal plane induces two-dimensional variation in the static stress field. The action of wave pressure, which changes with depth, further introduces excess pore pressure and dynamic stresses in the sea bottom. In the present paper, we combine a simple analytical theory for the static stress by the present authors, and the recent solution by Mei and Foda for wave-induced stresses in a plane poro-elastic sea bed to account for mild bottom slope and wave shoaling, to obtain the effective stress field in a submarine topography under sea waves. Sample results are given for a ridge and a canyon. In particular the dynamic pore pressure and the combined static and dynamic effective stresses are presented. 10 references, 11 figures.

  11. Stresses in a submarine topography under ocean waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mei, C.C.; McTigue, D.F.


    The problem of submarine slope stability is of interest to both offshore engineering and geology. In an uneven topography, the weight above a horizontal plane induces two-dimensional variation in the static stress field. The action of wave pressure, which changes with depth, further introduces excess pore pressure and dynamic stresses in the sea bottom. In the present paper, we combine a simple analytical theory for the static stress by the present authors, and the recent solution by Mei and Foda for wave-induced stresses in a plane poro-elastic sea bed to account for mild bottom slope and wave shoaling, and obtain the effective stress field in a submarine topography under sea waves. Sample results are given for a ridge and a canyon. In particular, the dynamic pore pressure and the combined static and dynamic effective stresses are presented.

  12. Improving Situational Awareness on Submarines Using Augmented Reality (United States)


    COSO ) are several pages of guidance for the evolution available to the watch officer for reference. There are also Operating Procedures that the watch...officer must follow to ensure the safe ascent to PD. The COSOs are specific to the each CO. The OPs are specific to a class of submarine. The...evolution in the framework described above can provide valuable insight to the capabilities of the proposed system. This of course is a hypothetical

  13. Analysis of SSN 688 Class Submarine Maintenance Delays (United States)


    errors an in-depth analysis into the job-level maintenance is required which is outside the scope of this analysis. 25 2. New Work Causes Late...attempting to determine the cause of this trend. Finally, this thesis proposes a solution to the systematic underestimation of availability durations by...illustrating the inherent error in the current equation and providing a notional equation to remove that error . 14. SUBJECT TERMS Submarine

  14. Submarine Pressure Hull Collapse Considering Corrosion and Penetrations (United States)


    corrosion. Des valeurs de la pression d’écrasement sont calculées pour les diverses dimensions de la zone de corrosion, et ce, dans les cas de présence ou...Research & Development Canada DRDIM Director Research and Development Knowledge and Information Management OOC Out-of-circularity R&D Research...Support SLA (Mr. John Porter) 1 Project Manager , Submarine Scientific Support SLA (LCdr Wade Temple) 9 TOTAL LIST PART I LIST PART II: External

  15. Europe’s Grand Canyon: Nazaré submarine canyon


    Tyler, P.; Amaro, T.; Arzola, R.; Cunha; Stigter, H. de; Gooday, A.; Huvenne, V.; Ingels, J; Kiriakoulakis, K; Lastras, G.; Masson, D.; Oliveira, A.; Pattenden, A.; Vanreusel, A.; van Weering, T.


    The Nazare submarine canyon extends similar to 210 km westward from the coast of Portugal, down to a water depth of > 4300 m. The considerable habitat heterogeneity found throughout the canyon is affected by strong currents and high turbidity, especially in the upper parts of the canyon. The canyon morphology comprises steep slopes, scarps, terraces, and overhangs, and a deeply incised thalweg is found in the lower part of the canyon. The seabed within the canyon is composed of varying propor...

  16. Health Behaviors of Childhood Cancer Survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer S. Ford


    Full Text Available There has been a dramatic increase in the number of childhood cancer survivors living to an old age due to improved cancer treatments. However, these survivors are at risk of numerous late effects as a result of their cancer therapy. Engaging in protective health behaviors and limiting health damaging behaviors are vitally important for these survivors given their increased risks. We reviewed the literature on childhood cancer survivors’ health behaviors by searching for published data and conference proceedings. We examine the prevalence of a variety of health behaviors among childhood cancer survivors, identify significant risk factors, and describe health behavior interventions for survivors.

  17. Submarine and Autonomous Vessel Proliferation: Implications for Future Strategic Stability at Sea (United States)


    replace the Ohio- class SSBN and Virginia -class SSN to replace the Los Angeles class attack submarine. Although more sophisticated than their...predecessors and with some modifications to demands of the post-Cold War era and (in the Virginia class) an emphasis on littoral conflict, these purchases...Congressional Research Service analyst Amy Woolf observes: “With few submarines in the fleet, the Navy would have to reduce the number of submarines on

  18. The future of the ballistic missile submarine force in the Russian nuclear triad


    Lesiw, Richard T.


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis analyzes the current status of the Russian Federation's ballistic missile submarine force. It reviews the history of the ballistic missile submarine force, its current status, and the implementation of plans currently in progress and as well as the advantages and disadvantages of maintaining a ballistic missile submarine force. This thesis also assesses the other two legs of the nuclear triad - the intercontinental balli...

  19. Gender Integration on U.S. Navy Submarines: Views of the First Wave (United States)


    submarines is to perform seek-and-destroy missions on enemy ships and submarines, conduct surveillance and reconnaissance, provide covert troop insertion...not only the missile payload they were designed to carry but also extended periods at sea without resupply. In terms of berthing and sanitary ...officer berthing and sanitary 28 facilities on board Ohio class submarines, however, no significant modifications would be necessary in order to

  20. Navy Virginia (SSN-774) Class Attack Submarine Procurement: Background and Issues for Congress (United States)


    reactors or non- nuclear power sources such as diesel engines or fuel cells. All U.S. Navy submarines are nuclear - powered. A submarine’s use of...the Navy’s plan to design and procure a next - generation ballistic missile submarine called the Ohio Replacement Program or SSBN(X). 26...the next several years require these submarines to use up their nuclear fuel cores more quickly than the Navy now projects, then the amounts of time

  1. Introduction to the special issue on submarine geohazard records and potential seafloor instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song-Chuen Chen Jia-Jyun Dong


    Full Text Available Submarine landslides frequently occur in passive continental margins or active margins (Hampton et al. 1996; Wynn et al. 2000; Mienert et al. 2002; Korup et al. 2007; Twichell et al. 2009; Cukur et al. 2016. Submarine landslides have been studied extensively not only for scientific research but also for submarine geohazards. Submarine landslides could jeopardize marine infrastructures, such as offshore drilling platforms or submarine telecommunication cables, and could even trigger disastrous tsunamis (Bondevik et al. 2005; Harbitz et al. 2006; Hornbach et al. 2007, 2008; Hsu et al. 2008; Su et al. 2012; Tappin et al. 2014; Li et al. 2015. For instance, one disastrous tsunami hitting the coastal area of southwestern Taiwan in 1781 or 1782 was reported (Chen 1830; Hsu 1983; the tsunami event was probably generated by submarine landslides in the offshore area of southwestern Taiwan (Li et al. 2015. Moreover, several submarine landslides triggered by the 2006 Pingtung earthquake have induced turbidity currents off southwest Taiwan and destroyed about 14 submarine telecommunication cables off SW Taiwan (Hsu et al. 2008. The area of southwest Taiwan currently has a dense population (more than 3 million people in total, one deep-water Kaohsiung Port, several tanks of liquefied natural gas and a nuclear power plant on the coast (Fig. 1. Numerous submarine telecommunication cables exist off SW Taiwan. If a considerable tsunami event would hit again the costal area of SW Taiwan, the damage could very serious. Likewise, there are two nuclear power plants on the coast of northern Taiwan (Fig. 2, and the population in northern Taiwan has more than 10 million people. Submarine telecommunication cables also exist off northern Taiwan. In any case, it is important to understand the status of seafloor stability in the offshore areas of SW and NE Taiwan. For that, this special issue of submarine geohazard records and potential seafloor instability is aimed to

  2. Navy Virginia (SSN 774) Class Attack Submarine Procurement: Background and Issues for Congress (United States)


    powered attack submarines (SSNs). The SSNs are general -purpose submarines that can (when appropriately equipped and armed) perform a variety of...signs of tampering. The defective elbow pipe, used to funnel steam from the reactor to the sub’s propulsion turbines and generators , showed evidence of...Congressional Research Service Summary The Navy has been procuring Virginia (SSN-774) class nuclear- powered attack submarines since FY1998. The two Virginia

  3. Fuel-cell-propelled submarine-tanker-system study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Court, K E; Kumm, W H; O' Callaghan, J E


    This report provides a systems analysis of a commercial Arctic Ocean submarine tanker system to carry fossil energy to markets. The submarine is to be propelled by a modular Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell system. The power level is 20 Megawatts. The DOE developed electric utility type fuel cell will be fueled with methanol. Oxidant will be provided from a liquid oxygen tank carried onboard. The twin screw submarine tanker design is sized at 165,000 deadweight tons and the study includes costs and an economic analysis of the transport system of 6 ships. The route will be under the polar icecap from a loading terminal located off Prudhoe Bay, Alaska to a transshipment facility postulated to be in a Norwegian fjord. The system throughput of the gas-fed methanol cargo will be 450,000 barrels per day. The total delivered cost of the methanol including well head purchase price of natural gas, methanol production, and shipping would be $25/bbl from Alaska to the US East Coast. Of this, the shipping cost is $6.80/bbl. All costs in 1981 dollars.

  4. Estimating the empirical probability of submarine landslide occurrence (United States)

    Geist, Eric L.; Parsons, Thomas E.; Mosher, David C.; Shipp, Craig; Moscardelli, Lorena; Chaytor, Jason D.; Baxter, Christopher D. P.; Lee, Homa J.; Urgeles, Roger


    The empirical probability for the occurrence of submarine landslides at a given location can be estimated from age dates of past landslides. In this study, tools developed to estimate earthquake probability from paleoseismic horizons are adapted to estimate submarine landslide probability. In both types of estimates, one has to account for the uncertainty associated with age-dating individual events as well as the open time intervals before and after the observed sequence of landslides. For observed sequences of submarine landslides, we typically only have the age date of the youngest event and possibly of a seismic horizon that lies below the oldest event in a landslide sequence. We use an empirical Bayes analysis based on the Poisson-Gamma conjugate prior model specifically applied to the landslide probability problem. This model assumes that landslide events as imaged in geophysical data are independent and occur in time according to a Poisson distribution characterized by a rate parameter λ. With this method, we are able to estimate the most likely value of λ and, importantly, the range of uncertainty in this estimate. Examples considered include landslide sequences observed in the Santa Barbara Channel, California, and in Port Valdez, Alaska. We confirm that given the uncertainties of age dating that landslide complexes can be treated as single events by performing statistical test of age dates representing the main failure episode of the Holocene Storegga landslide complex.

  5. Pockmark morphology and turbulent buoyant plumes at a submarine spring (United States)

    Buongiorno Nardelli, B.; Budillon, F.; Watteaux, R.; Ciccone, F.; Conforti, A.; De Falco, G.; Di Martino, G.; Innangi, S.; Tonielli, R.; Iudicone, D.


    The input flow of groundwater from the seabed to the coastal ocean, known as Submarine Groundwater Discharge (SGD), has been only recently recognized as an important component of continental margin systems. It potentially impacts physical, chemical and biological marine dynamics. Independently of its specific nature (seepage, submarine springs, etc.) or fluid chemical composition, a SGD is generally characterized by low flow rates, hence making its detection and quantification very difficult, and explaining why it has been somewhat neglected by the scientific community for a long time. Along with the growing interest for SGDs emerged the need for in-situ observations in order to characterize in details how these SGDs behave. In this work, we describe the morphology of a pockmark field, detected in the Southern Tyrrhenian Sea (Mediterranean Sea), and provide observational evidences of the presence of active submarine springs over the coastal shelf area. We describe the effect of the fluid seeps on the water column stratification close to the main plumes and in the neighbouring areas, providing quantitative estimates of the intensity of the turbulent mixing and discussing their potential impact on the seabed morphology and pockmark formation in the context of turbulent buoyant plumes analytical modelling.

  6. Long-term eruptive activity at a submarine arc volcano. (United States)

    Embley, Robert W; Chadwick, William W; Baker, Edward T; Butterfield, David A; Resing, Joseph A; de Ronde, Cornel E J; Tunnicliffe, Verena; Lupton, John E; Juniper, S Kim; Rubin, Kenneth H; Stern, Robert J; Lebon, Geoffrey T; Nakamura, Ko-ichi; Merle, Susan G; Hein, James R; Wiens, Douglas A; Tamura, Yoshihiko


    Three-quarters of the Earth's volcanic activity is submarine, located mostly along the mid-ocean ridges, with the remainder along intraoceanic arcs and hotspots at depths varying from greater than 4,000 m to near the sea surface. Most observations and sampling of submarine eruptions have been indirect, made from surface vessels or made after the fact. We describe here direct observations and sampling of an eruption at a submarine arc volcano named NW Rota-1, located 60 km northwest of the island of Rota (Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands). We observed a pulsating plume permeated with droplets of molten sulphur disgorging volcanic ash and lapilli from a 15-m diameter pit in March 2004 and again in October 2005 near the summit of the volcano at a water depth of 555 m (depth in 2004). A turbid layer found on the flanks of the volcano (in 2004) at depths from 700 m to more than 1,400 m was probably formed by mass-wasting events related to the eruption. Long-term eruptive activity has produced an unusual chemical environment and a very unstable benthic habitat exploited by only a few mobile decapod species. Such conditions are perhaps distinctive of active arc and hotspot volcanoes.

  7. Psychosexual functioning of childhood cancer survivors. (United States)

    van Dijk, E M; van Dulmen-den Broeder, E; Kaspers, G J L; van Dam, E W C M; Braam, K I; Huisman, J


    The objective of the study is to explore psychosexual functioning and its relationship with quality of life in survivors of cancer in childhood. Sixty childhood cancer survivors completed two questionnaires: psychosexual and social functioning questionnaire and MOS-SF-36. Psychosexual problems were frequent. About 20% of the survivors felt a limitation in their sexual life due to their illness. Older survivors (> or =25 years) had significantly less experience with sexual intercourse than their age-matched peers in the Dutch population (p = 0.010). Survivors treated in adolescence had a delay in achieving psychosexual milestones compared with those treated in childhood: dating (ppsychosexual problems compared with survivors without these problems. In this cohort of childhood cancer survivors, psychosexual problems were frequent. Treatment in adolescence is a risk factor for a delay in psychosexual development. (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Scientific Ocean Drilling to Assess Submarine Geohazards along European Margins (United States)

    Ask, M. V.; Camerlenghi, A.; Kopf, A.; Morgan, J. K.; Ocean DrillingSeismic Hazard, P. E.


    Submarine geohazards are some of the most devastating natural events in terms of lives lost and economic impact. Earthquakes pose a big threat to society and infrastructure, but the understanding of their episodic generation is incomplete. Tsunamis are known for their potential of striking coastlines world-wide. Other geohazards originating below the sea surface are equally dangerous for undersea structures and the coastal population: submarine landslides and volcanic islands collapse with little warning and devastating consequences. The European scientific community has a strong focus on geohazards along European and nearby continental margins, especially given their high population densities, and long historic and prehistoric record of hazardous events. For example, the Mediterranean is surrounded by very densely-populated coastline and is the World's leading holiday destination, receiving up 30% of global tourism. In addition, its seafloor is criss-crossed by hydrocarbon pipelines and telecommunication cables. However, the governing processes and recurrence intervals of geohazards are still poorly understood. Examples include, but are not limited to, earthquakes and volcanic eruptions along the active tectonic margins of the Mediterranean and Sea of Marmara, landslides on both active and passive margins, and tsunamites and seismites in the sedimentary record that suggest a long history of similar events. The development of geophysical networks, drilling, sampling and long-term monitoring are crucial to the understanding of earthquake, landslide, and tsunami processes, and to mitigate the associated risks in densely populated and industrialized regions such as Europe. Scientific drilling, particularly in the submarine setting, offers a unique tool to obtain drill core samples, borehole measurements and long-term observations. Hence, it is a critical technology to investigate past, present, and possible future influences of hazardous processes in this area. The

  9. Tsunami Generated by a Two-Phase Submarine Debris Flow (United States)

    Pudasaini, S. P.


    The general two-phase debris flow model proposed by Pudasaini (2011) is employed to study subaerial and submarine debris flows, and the tsunami generated by the debris impact at lakes and oceans. The model includes several essential physical aspects, including Mohr-Coulomb plasticity for the solid stress, while the fluid stress is modelled as a solid volume fraction gradient enhanced non-Newtonian viscous stress. The generalized interfacial momentum transfer includes the viscous drag, buoyancy, and the virtual mass. The generalized drag covers both the solid-like and fluid-like contributions, and can be applied to linear to quadratic drags. Strong couplings exist between the solid and the fluid momentum transfer. The advantage of the real two-phase debris flow model over classical single-phase or quasi-two-phase models is that by considering the solid (and/or the fluid) volume fraction appropriately, the initial mass can be divided into several (even mutually disjoint) parts; a dry (landslide or rock slide), a fluid (water or muddy water; e.g., dams, rivers), and a general debris mixture material as needed in real flow simulations. This offers a unique and innovative opportunity within a single framework to simultaneously simulate (a) the sliding debris (or landslide), (b) the water lake or ocean, (c) the debris impact at the lake or ocean, (d) tsunami generation and propagation, (e) mixing and separation between the solid and the fluid phases, and (f) sediment transport and deposition process in the bathymetric surface. The new model is applied to two-phase subaerial and submarine debris flows. Benchmark numerical simulations reveal that the dynamics of the debris impact induced tsunamis are fundamentally different than the tsunami generated by pure rock avalanche and landslides. Special attention is paid to study the basic features of the debris impact to the mountain lakes or oceans. This includes the generation, amplification and propagation of the multiple

  10. Survivor-Victim Status, Attachment, and Sudden Death Bereavement. (United States)

    Reed, Mark D.; Greenwald, Jason Y.


    Examined significance of survivor-victim relationship in understanding grief following sudden death bereavement by suicide or accident. Results showed that survivor-victim attachment was more important than survivor status (parent versus sibling/child) in explaining grief reactions. Compared to accident survivors, suicide survivors experienced…

  11. Psychosocial Outcomes in Adult Survivors of Retinoblastoma (United States)

    Ford, Jennifer S.; Chou, Joanne F.; Sklar, Charles A.; Oeffinger, Kevin C.; Novetsky Friedman, Danielle; McCabe, Mary; Robison, Leslie L.; Kleinerman, Ruth A.; Li, Yuelin; Marr, Brian P.; Abramson, David H.; Dunkel, Ira J.


    Purpose Survival rates for individuals diagnosed with retinoblastoma (RB) exceed 95% in the United States; however, little is known about the long-term psychosocial outcomes of these survivors. Patients and Methods Adult RB survivors, diagnosed from 1932 to 1994 and treated in New York, completed a comprehensive questionnaire adapted from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS), by mail or telephone. Psychosocial outcomes included psychological distress, anxiety, depression, somatization, fear of cancer recurrence, satisfaction with facial appearance, post-traumatic growth, and post-traumatic stress symptoms; noncancer CCSS siblings served as a comparison group. Results A total of 470 RB survivors (53.6% with bilateral RB; 52.1% female) and 2,820 CCSS siblings were 43.3 (standard deviation [SD], 11) years and 33.2 (SD, 8.4) years old at the time of study, respectively. After adjusting for sociodemographic factors, RB survivors did not have significantly higher rates of depression, somatization, distress, or anxiety compared with CCSS siblings. Although RB survivors were more likely to report post-traumatic stress symptoms of avoidance and/or hyperarousal (both P < .01), only five (1.1%) of 470 met criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder. Among survivors, having a chronic medical condition did not increase the likelihood of psychological problems. Bilateral RB survivors were more likely than unilateral RB survivors to experience fears of cancer recurrence (P < .01) and worry about their children being diagnosed with RB (P < .01). However, bilateral RB survivors were no more likely to report depression, anxiety, or somatic complaints than unilateral survivors. Conclusion Most RB survivors do not have poorer psychosocial functioning compared with a noncancer sample. In addition, bilateral and unilateral RB survivors seem similar with respect to their psychological symptoms. PMID:26417002

  12. The Impact of the General Board of the Navy on Interwar Submarine Design (United States)


    Navy had developed the Gato class submarine, which was successful independently operating in the vast Pacific Ocean in support of War Plan Orange. The...development of the Gato class submarine, which was successful independently operating in the vast Pacific Ocean in support of War Plan Orange. The...

  13. Procurements by the Non-Acoustic Anti-Submarine Warfare Program Through the Environmental Technologies Laboratory (United States)


    General, DoD, on contract offloading, including Report No. 93-068, " Procurement of Services for the Non-Acoustic Anti-Submarine Warfare Program...contract administration in response to Audit Report No. 93-042. Report No. 93-068, " Procurement of Services for the Non-Acoustic Anti- Submarine Warfare

  14. Study on the locational criteria for submarine rock repositories of low and medium level radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, G. H.; Kang, W. J.; Kim, T. J. and others [Chungnam National Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    Submarine repositories have significant advantages over their land counterparts locating close to the areas of daily human activities. Consequently, the construction of submarine repositories on the vast continental shelves around Korean seas is considered to be highly positive. In this context, the development of locational criteria primarily targeting the safety of submarine rock repositories is very important.The contents of the present study are: analyzing characteristics of marine environment: Search of potential hazards to, and environmental impact by, the submarine repositories; Investigation of the oceanographic, geochemical, ecological and sedimentological characteristics of estuaries and coastal seas. Locating potential hazards to submarine repositories by: Bibliographical search of accidents leading to the destruction of submarine structures by turbidity currents and other potentials; Review of turbidity currents. Consideration of environmental impact caused by submarine repositories: Logistics to minimize the environmental impacts in site selection; Removal and dispersion processes of radionuclides in sea water. Analyses of oceanographical characteristics of, and hazard potentials in, the Korean seas. Evaluation of the MOST 91-7 criteria for applicability to submarine repositories and the subsequent proposition of additional criteria.

  15. Submarine landslides on the north continental slope of the South China Sea (United States)

    Wang, Weiwei; Wang, Dawei; Wu, Shiguo; Völker, David; Zeng, Hongliu; Cai, Guanqiang; Li, Qingping


    Recent and paleo-submarine landslides are widely distributed within strata in deep-water areas along continental slopes, uplifts, and carbonate platforms on the north continental margin of the South China Sea (SCS). In this paper, high-resolution 3D seismic data and multibeam data based on seismic sedimentology and geomorphology are employed to assist in identifying submarine landslides. In addition, deposition models are proposed that are based on specific geological structures and features, and which illustrate the local stress field over entire submarine landslides in deep-water areas of the SCS. The SCS is one of the largest fluvial sediment sinks in enclosed or semi-enclosed marginal seas worldwide. It therefore provides a set of preconditions for the formation of submarine landslides, including rapid sediment accumulation, formation of gas hydrates, and fluid overpressure. A new concept involving temporal and spatial analyses is tested to construct a relationship between submarine landslides and different time scale trigger mechanisms, and three mechanisms are discussed in the context of spatial scale and temporal frequency: evolution of slope gradient and overpressure, global environmental changes, and tectonic events. Submarine landslides that are triggered by tectonic events are the largest but occur less frequently, while submarine landslides triggered by the combination of slope gradient and over-pressure evolution are the smallest but most frequently occurring events. In summary, analysis shows that the formation of submarine landslides is a complex process involving the operation of different factors on various time scales.

  16. The risk of hydrogen explosion in a submarine p.I Catalytic combustion of hydrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kłos Ryszard


    Full Text Available The series of articles discuss issues related to conducting high risk projects on the example of modernisation of hydrogen incinerators on a submarine. The article depicts a technical problem situation connected with catalytic hydrogen combustion on a submarine.

  17. Post-eruptive Submarine Terrace Development of Capelinhos, Azores (United States)

    Zhongwei Zhao, Will; Mitchell, Neil; Quartau, Rui; Tempera, Fernando; Bricheno, Lucy


    Erosion of the coasts of volcanic islands by waves creates shallow banks, but how erosion proceeds with time to create them and how it relates to wave climate is unclear. In this study, historical and recent marine geophysical data collected around the Capelinhos promontory (western Faial Island, Azores) offer an unusual opportunity to characterize how a submarine terrace developed after the eruption. The promontory was formed in 1957/58 during a Surtseyan eruption that terminated with extensive lava forming new rocky coastal cliffs. Historical measurements of coastline position are supplemented here with coastlines measured from 2004 and 2014 Google Earth images in order to characterize coastline retreat rate and distance for lava- and tephra-dominated cliffs. Swath mapping sonars were used to characterize the submarine geometry of the resulting terrace (terrace edge position, gradient and morphology). Limited photographs are available from a SCUBA dive and drop-down camera deployments to ground truth the submarine geomorphology. The results reveal that coastal retreat rates have decreased rapidly with the time after the eruption, possibly explained by the evolving resistance to erosion of cliff base materials. Surprisingly, coastline retreat rate decreases with terrace width in a simple inverse power law with terrace width. We suspect this is only a fortuitous result as wave attenuation over the terrace will not obviously produce the variation, but nevertheless it shows how rapidly the retreat rate declines. Understanding the relationship between terrace widening shelf and coastal cliff retreat rate may be more widely interesting if they can be used to understand how islands evolve over time into abrasional banks and guyots.

  18. Managing chronic pain in survivors of torture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amris, Kirstine; Williams, Amanda C de C


    and welfare problems; persistent pain in the musculoskeletal system is one of the most common. There is little specific evidence on pain in survivors of torture; the guidelines on interdisciplinary specialist management are applicable. Most of the literature on refugee survivors of torture has an exclusive...... focus on psychological disorders, with particularly poor understanding of pain problems. This article summarizes the current status of assessment and treatment of pain problems in the torture survivor....

  19. Maximizing the probability an aerial anti-submarine torpedo detects its target (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-Jie


    As a result of the high speed of anti-submarine patrol aircraft as well as their wide range, high efficiency and other characteristics, aerial torpedoes released by anti-submarine patrol aircraft have become the key anti submarine tool. In order to improve operational efficiency, a deep study was made of the target detection probabilities for aerial torpedoes released by anti-submarine patrol aircraft. The operational modes of aerial torpedoes were analyzed and mathematical-simulation models were then established. The detection probabilities of three attacking modes were then calculated. Measures were developed for improving low probabilities of detection when attacking a probable target position. This study provides an important frame of reference for the operation of aerial torpedo released by anti-submarine patrol aircraft.

  20. Main devices design of submarine oil-water separation system (United States)

    Cai, Wen-Bin; Liu, Bo-Hong


    In the process of offshore oil production, in order to thoroughly separate oil from produced fluid, solve the environment problem caused by oily sewage, and improve the economic benefit of offshore drilling, from the perspective of new oil-water separation, a set of submarine oil-water separation devices were designed through adsorption and desorption mechanism of the polymer materials for crude oil in this paper. The paper introduces the basic structure of gas-solid separation device, periodic separation device and adsorption device, and proves the rationality and feasibility of this device.

  1. Submarine glaciated landscapes of central and northern British Columbia, Canada (United States)

    Shaw, John; Lintern, Gwyn


    Recent systematic multibeam sonar mapping and ground-truthing surveys in the fjords and coastal waters of central and northern British Columbia, Canada, provide information on glacial processes associated with the Cordilleran Ice Sheet, and also on postglacial processes that have strongly modified the glacial terrain. During the last glacial maximum, ice covered the Coast Range, except for nunataks. Convergent streamlined glacial landforms in the Strait of Georgia testify to a strong flow of ice towards the southeast, between Vancouver Island and the mainland. During ice retreat, thick deposits of acoustically stratified glaciomarine mud were deposited in glacially over deepened basins. Retreat through the Douglas Channel fjord system was punctuated by still stands, resulting in a series of submarine moraines. Postglacial processes have created a suite of landforms that mask the primary glacial terrain: 1) Fjord floors host thick deposits of acoustically transparent postglacial mud with highly variable distribution: banks up to 80-m thick are commonly adjacent to erosional zones with glaciomarine mud exposed at the seafloor; 2) In this region of high precipitation and snowpack melt, numerous cone-shaped Holocene fan deltas developed on the fjord sidewalls transport coarse sediment to the fjord floors. Larger deltas are developed at fjord heads, notably at Kitimat and Kildala; 3) Submarine slope failures in this tectonically active area have resulted in a suite of mass transport deposits on sidewalls and fjord floors. The very large submarine slope failures at Camano Sound and KitKat Inlet occurred on the steep, rear facets of large transverse moraines, and involved the failure of glaciomarine sediment that moved into deeper basins, perhaps as a retrogressive failure. The ages of these events are unknown, although the presence of postglacial mud in the slide scar at Caamano suggests that the event at that location occurred in the late glacial or early Holocene. Also

  2. Micro-tunneling as an alternative to submarine cable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russo, D.A. [Seattle City Light, WA (United States); Hansen, D. [CH2M Hill, Bellevue, WA (United States)


    The geography that gives Seattle its beauty can pose unique challenges for the engineers attempting to provide service to the customers who live near or upon these features. Steep, wooded hills and greenbelts create familiar problems of construction and right-of-way maintenance. The waterways and adjoining shoreline zones present a more difficult set of requirements. When Seattle City Light determined it was necessary to install 2-26 KV feeders across the Salmon Bay waterway, they discovered that submarine cables could not be used. Shallow angle directional drilling and micro-tunneling were examined and it was fond that a microtunneled duct bank was the best method to use.

  3. Seismicity and sedimentation rate effects on submarine slope stability (United States)

    Ten Brink, U. S.; Andrews, B. D.; Miller, N. C.


    Large submarine mass-transport scars are commonly observed on continental margins, but are noticeably less abundant on margins that experience frequent earthquakes than on those that seldom experience them. This is a surprising observation, given that horizontal acceleration from earthquakes and associated strength loss from cyclic loading and liquefaction are commonly thought to provide the primary triggers for inducing failures and subsequent mass movements. Mapping submarine failure scars in ten margins worldwide, we find decreasing scar abundance with both increasing frequency of earthquakes and decreasing sedimentation rate. The decrease in scar abundance is interpreted to represent increasing slope stability. The increase in stability is non linear (power law with btectonic activity (salt diapirs, seamount subduction, etc.) leads to relatively rapid oversteepening of the slope, implying that the morphology of most margins is in fact, stable over many earthquake cycles. Note that the above correlation averages scar area and sedimentation rate over entire margin areas. Variations in sedimentation rate with time, such as over glacial-interglacial cycles, and intra-margin variations in seismic attenuation, sedimentation rate, composition, and pore pressure, have likely affected the abundance of slope failures in time and space.

  4. An Automatic Procedure for the Quantitative Characterization of Submarine Bedforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Di Stefano


    Full Text Available A model for the extraction and quantitative characterization of submarine landforms from high-resolution digital bathymetry is presented. The procedure is fully automated and comprises two parts. The first part consists of an analytical model which extracts quantitative information from a Digital Elevation Model in the form of objects with similar parametric characteristics (terrain objects. The second part is a rule-based model where the terrain objects are reclassified into distinct landforms with well-defined three dimensional characteristics. For the focus of this work, the quantitative characterization of isolated dunes (height greater than 2 m is used to exemplify the process. The primary metrics used to extract terrain objects are the flatness threshold and the search radius, which are then used by the analytical model to identify the feature type. Once identified as dunes, a sequence of spatial analysis routines is applied to identify and compute metrics for each dune including length, height, width, ray of curvature, slope analysis for each stoss and lee side, and dune symmetry. Dividing the model into two parts, one scale-dependent and another centered around the shape of the landform, makes the model applicable to other submarine landforms like ripples, mega-ripples, and coral reefs, which also have well-defined three-dimensional characteristics.

  5. Fin propulsion on a human-powered submarine (United States)

    Anderson, Iain A.; Pocock, Benjamin; Harbuz, Antoni; Algie, Cam; Vochezer, Daniel; Chao, Ryan; Lu, Benjamin


    Nearly all surface and underwater vessels are driven by screw propulsion; ideal for coupling to rotary engines and well understood after over a century of development. But most aquatic creatures use fins for swimming. Although there are sound evolutionary reasons why fish have fins and not propellers, they are nevertheless agile, fast and efficient. Although fish-like robots such as the MIT Robotuna are providing good insight into fin-based swimming there are advantages for using humans in the experimental device. Like an airplane test pilot they can write crash reports. We present preliminary observations for the human powered finned submarine: Taniwha. The sub participated in the 2nd European International Submarine races in Gosport UK where it received a trophy for "Best Non-Propeller Performance". Two sets of Hobie Mirage fin drives fixed to the upper and lower rear surfaces of the sub are pedaled by the pilot. The pilot also has two levers at the front, one to pitch a pair of dive planes and one for yawing a large rudder. Good speed, we estimate to be greater than 6 m/s is possible with these fins although we haven't explored their full potential. Straying too near the surface or bottom can lead to an instability, synonymous to a stall, such that control is lost. The mechanism for this will be discussed and solutions offered. Fish are 400 million years in front of us but one day we'll catch them.

  6. Are tilt measurements useful in detecting tsunamigenic submarine landslides? (United States)

    Brune, Sascha; Babeyko, Andrey Y.; Sobolev, Stephan V.


    Large submarine landslides can generate dangerous tsunamis. Because of their long-period signal, detection of landslides by common seismological methods is difficult. Here we suggest a method of detecting submarine landslides by using an array of land-based tiltmeters. The displacement of a large volume of sediments during landsliding produces a detectable elastic response of the lithosphere. We propose a technique to calculate this response and to invert for tsunami relevant parameters like slide location, volume, and velocity. We exemplify our method by applying it to the Storegga slide west of Norway and other tsunamigenic landslide events. The parameter which can be most robustly estimated from tiltmeter array measurements is the product of slide volume and its velocity (slide tsunamigenic potential). This parameter also controls the amplitude of the generated tsunami wave. The inversion accuracy of this parameter and the estimated tsunami height near the coast depends on the noise level of tiltmeter measurements, distance of the tiltmeters from the slide, and slide tsunamigenic potential itself. The tsunamigenic potential of the most dangerous slides like Storegga can be estimated well by tiltmeters at the coast if the effective noise level does not exceed 50 nrad.

  7. A submarine fan in the Mesa Central, Mexico (United States)

    Silva-Romo, G.; Arellano-Gil, J.; Mendoza-Rosales, C.; Nieto-Obregón, J.


    The contact between the Guerrero and Sierra Madre tectonostratigraphic terranes has been proposed to lie in the Mesa Central, east of the city of Zacatecas. Marine Triassic units have been assigned to the Guerrero Terrane. It is here proposed that this contact occurs to the west of the city of Zacatecas and the Triassic marine sequence assigned to the Sierra Madre Terrane. We analyzed the stratigraphic record and structural features of pre-Late Jurassic sequences at four localities in the Mesa Central. They contain a marine turbiditic Triassic unit, which includes La Bellena, Taray, and Zacatecas Formations, and a continental unit of probable Middle Jurassic age. Triassic sandstones were derived from a cratonic area, without the influence of arc volcanism. The sequences were affected by two phases of deformation. The Triassic formations are unconformably overlain by a continental volcano-sedimentary sequence that contains fragments of sandstones derived from the underlying unit. Sedimentologic characteristics of the Triassic unit fit a submarine fan model. The submarine fan developed at the continental margin of Pangaea during Triassic times. Turbidite associations in the San Rafael Area indicate a middle fan depositional environment, while in the Real de Catorce Area, they correspond to the distal part (basin plain facies). At La Ballena and Zacatecas the turbidite associations occur in the middle part and perhaps the external part of the fan.

  8. Feasibility study of submarine diesel exhaust valve interspace coating application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, W.; Zhou, M.; Bibby, D.; Huang, J.


    This document described a feasibility study conducted to evaluate surface coating systems applied to the surface of a diesel exhaust valve interspace on a VICTORIA Class submarine. A series of laboratory studies were conducted to determine the physical characteristics of the coatings, which will be subjected to high service temperatures, diesel exhaust gas, and seawater. The valves were made of Q1N steel castings. The surface coatings were designed to provide corrosion resistance and thermal protection to the valves. As part of the study, a survey was conducted on various state-of-the-art surface coating systems. Coatings were rated on their ability to protect the Q10 steel surface from corrosion, high temperatures and seawater. An additional requirement was that the coatings should not produce high amounts of hydrogen. Plating trials were conducted with a nickel-based alloy (Ni-Cu-P) placed on Q1N steel substrates with a hypophosphite reducing agent. The results of X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses suggested that the coatings can also be used to protect the external surfaces of various submarine components. 54 refs., 4 tabs., 10 figs.

  9. Outcome of paediatric intensive care survivors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoester, Hendrika; Grootenhuis, Martha A.; Bos, Albert P.


    The development of paediatric intensive care has contributed to the improved survival of critically ill children. Physical and psychological sequelae and consequences for quality of life (QoL) in survivors might be significant, as has been determined in adult intensive care unit (ICU) survivors.

  10. Increased health care use in cancer survivors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heins, M.J.; Rijken, P.M.; Schellevis, F.G.; Hoek, L. van der; Korevaar, J.C.


    Background: As the number of cancer survivors increases and these patients often experience long-lasting consequences of cancer and its treatment, more insight into primary health care use of cancer survivors is needed. We aimed to determine how often and for which reasons do adult cancer patients

  11. Increases health care use in cancer survivors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heins, M.J.; Rijken, P.M.; Schellevis, F.G.; Hoek, L. van der; Korevaar, J.C.


    Background: As the number of cancer survivors increases and these patients often experience longlasting consequences of cancer and its treatment, more insight into primary health care use of cancer survivors is needed. Research question: How often and for which reasons do adult cancer patients

  12. Orthostatic intolerance in survivors of childhood cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terlou, Annelinde; Ruble, Kathy; Stapert, Anne F.; Chang, Ho-Choong; Rowe, Peter C.; Schwartz, Cindy L.


    Purpose: To compare the prevalence and severity of orthostatic intolerance in survivors of childhood cancer and in healthy controls, and to correlate results of self-reported measures of health status with orthostatic testing in survivors of childhood cancer. Patient and methods: Thirty-nine

  13. Marriage and divorce among childhood cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Susanne Vinkel; Kejs, Anne Mette Tranberg; Engholm, Gerda


    Many childhood cancer survivors have psychosocial late effects. We studied the risks for cohabitation and subsequent separation. Through the Danish Cancer Register, we identified a nationwide, population-based cohort of all 1877 childhood cancer survivors born from 1965 to 1980, and in whom cancer...

  14. Marriage and divorce among childhood cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Susanne Vinkel; Kejs, Anne Mette Tranberg; Engholm, Gerda


    Many childhood cancer survivors have psychosocial late effects. We studied the risks for cohabitation and subsequent separation. Through the Danish Cancer Register, we identified a nationwide, population-based cohort of all 1877 childhood cancer survivors born from 1965 to 1980, and in whom cance...

  15. Stigma and psychological distress in suicide survivors. (United States)

    Scocco, Paolo; Preti, Antonio; Totaro, Stefano; Ferrari, Alessandro; Toffol, Elena


    Suicide bereavement is frequently related to clinically significant psychological distress and affected by stigma. This study was designed to evaluate the relationship between psychological distress by psychopathological domains and stigma, in a sample of individuals bereaved by suicide (suicide survivors). The data were collected between January 2012 and December 2014 and included information on sociodemographic variables (gender, age, marital status and education level) and responses to the Stigma of Suicide Survivor scale (STOSSS) and the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI). One hundred and fifty-five suicide survivors completed the evaluation and were included in the study. Levels of psychological distress in suicide survivors, as measured by BSI, were positively related to levels of perceived stigma toward suicide survivors, as measured by STOSSS. The association was not affected by age and gender, or by marital status, education level, days from suicide or a personal history of suicide attempt. Participants with higher scores on almost all subscales of the BSI, particularly the interpersonal sensitivity and paranoid ideation subscales, reported the highest levels of perceived stigma toward suicide survivors. Levels of distress in subjects bereaved by the suicide of a relative or friend were positively associated with levels of perceived stigma toward suicide survivors. Specific interventions dedicated to the bereavement of suicide survivors might help to alleviate not only psychological distress but also stigma towards loss by suicide. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Occupational stress in submariners: the impact of isolated and confined work on psychological well-being. (United States)

    Brasher, Kate S; Dew, Angela B C; Kilminster, Shaun G; Bridger, Robert S


    This study aimed to identify work-related and personal factors associated with occupational stress in submariners. Work and well-being questionnaires were distributed to 219 male submariners (mean age 34 years), as part of a larger cohort study involving a stratified sample of 4951 Royal Navy (RN) personnel. The stress rate in submariners was 40%; significantly higher than the stress rate in the general RN, although once demographic factors were controlled for in a matched control sample, this difference was no longer significant. A summary model accounted for 49% of the variance in submariner stress, with key differences emerging between the occupational factors associated with stress in submariners and in the general RN. The longitudinal nature of this study permits stress in submariners to be monitored over 5 years, which will provide valuable insights into the chronicity of stress in this specialised occupational group. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This paper contributes to the current literature on the negative impact of working in isolated conditions. It is demonstrated that occupational stress in submarines can be partially explained using current theories of stress in the workplace. However, the constraints of a restricted environment introduce additional factors which can also be associated with occupational stress.

  17. Measuring currents in submarine canyons: technological and scientific progress in the past 30 years (United States)

    Xu, J. P.


    The development and application of acoustic and optical technologies and of accurate positioning systems in the past 30 years have opened new frontiers in the submarine canyon research communities. This paper reviews several key advancements in both technology and science in the field of currents in submarine canyons since the1979 publication of Currents in Submarine Canyons and Other Sea Valleys by Francis Shepard and colleagues. Precise placements of high-resolution, high-frequency instruments have not only allowed researchers to collect new data that are essential for advancing and generalizing theories governing the canyon currents, but have also revealed new natural phenomena that challenge the understandings of the theorists and experimenters in their predictions of submarine canyon flow fields. Baroclinic motions at tidal frequencies, found to be intensified both up canyon and toward the canyon floor, dominate the flow field and control the sediment transport processes in submarine canyons. Turbidity currents are found to frequently occur in active submarine canyons such as Monterey Canyon. These turbidity currents have maximum speeds of nearly 200 cm/s, much smaller than the speeds of turbidity currents in geological time, but still very destructive. In addition to traditional Eulerian measurements, Lagrangian flow data are essential in quantifying water and sediment transport in submarine canyons. A concerted experiment with multiple monitoring stations along the canyon axis and on nearby shelves is required to characterize the storm-trigger mechanism for turbidity currents.

  18. Prediction of nuclear submariner adaptability from autonomic indices and Rorschach Inkblot responses. Interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weybrew, B.B.; Molish, H.B.


    To identify the most valid predictors of submariner adaptability, the authors derived 23 indices from the responses of 170 nuclear submariners to the Rorschach Inkblot Test, 11 measures of Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) reactivity to contrived stress, and five adjustment criteria. Factor analysis of this 39x39 correlation matrix yielded two Rorschach Factors, one of which correlated with three criterion dimensions. Two unique factors were also discovered, one, a structured ANS factor, and the other, a complex criterion scale. Selected Rorschach scores and, to a lesser extent, certain ANS indices emanating from this study, may be usefully-valid predictors of the adaptability of nuclear submariners during long patrols.

  19. Marine litter in submarine canyons of the Bay of Biscay (United States)

    van den Beld, Inge M. J.; Guillaumont, Brigitte; Menot, Lénaïck; Bayle, Christophe; Arnaud-Haond, Sophie; Bourillet, Jean-François


    Marine litter is a matter of increasing concern worldwide, from shallow seas to the open ocean and from beaches to the deep-seafloor. Indeed, the deep sea may be the ultimate repository of a large proportion of litter in the ocean. We used footage acquired with a Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) and a towed camera to investigate the distribution and composition of litter in the submarine canyons of the Bay of Biscay. This bay contains many submarine canyons housing Vulnerable Marine Ecosystems (VMEs) such as scleractinian coral habitats. VMEs are considered to be important for fish and they increase the local biodiversity. The objectives of the study were to investigate and discuss: (i) litter density, (ii) the principal sources of litter, (iii) the influence of environmental factors on the distribution of litter, and (iv) the impact of litter on benthic communities. Litter was found in all 15 canyons and at three sites on the edge of the continental shelf/canyon, in 25 of 29 dives. The Belle-île and Arcachon Canyons contained the largest amounts of litter, up to 12.6 and 9.5 items per 100 images respectively. Plastic items were the most abundant (42%), followed by fishing-related items (16%). The litter had both a maritime and a terrestrial origin. The main sources could be linked to fishing activities, major shipping lanes and river discharges. Litter appeared to accumulate at water depths of 801-1100 m and 1401-1700 m. In the deeper of these two depth ranges, litter accumulated on a geologically structured area, accounting for its high frequency at this depth. A larger number of images taken in areas of coral in the shallower of these two depth ranges may account for the high frequency of litter detection at this depth. A larger number of litter items, including plastic objects in particular, were observed on geological structures and in coral areas than on areas of bare substratum. The distribution of fishing-related items was similar for the various types of

  20. Particle sedimentation and diffusive convection in submarine clouds (United States)

    Carazzo, G.; Jellinek, M.; Turchyn, A. V.


    The longevity of submarine plumes generated by the release of hydrothermal fluids during crustal rupturing or by the rapid cooling of an erupting lava flow constrains the input of crustal-derived elements into the deep-ocean. Decades of observations of episodic "event plumes" suggest that a key process governing the dynamics of a submarine cloud spreading out laterally from a buoyant rising plume is the production of internal layering. Here, we use geological data on submarine clouds and a new experimental apparatus producing at laboratory scale turbulent, hot particle-laden plumes and clouds to show that this layering occurs where particle diffusive convection driven by the differential diffusion of heat and small mineral precipitates gives rise to a large scale double diffusive instability. We show that this "particle diffusive convection" can extend the longevity of an event plume to two years after its emplacement, allowing iron-sulfide minerals to dissolve and deliver iron to the deep-ocean. The very long residence time imposed by diffusive convective effects does not allow iron-oxide minerals to dissolve but may lead to the formation of iron-rich sediments at large distances from the point of emission. We develop a new theoretical model that includes both sedimentation and dissolution processes to quantify the potential amount of iron produced by the dissolution of iron-sulfide minerals settling through the cloud by diffusive convection. A key prediction is that hydrothermal systems could provide 75% of the global budget of dissolved iron in the deep-ocean. The consideration of scale-basin variations suggests that the Southern Hemisphere is probably the most impacted by hydrothermal iron, consistent with observations and global ocean models. Photographs showing the typical evolution of a lab-scale turbulent, hot particle-laden plume. At stage 1, the buoyant plume reaches a level of neutral buoyancy and spreads out laterally forming a neutrally buoyant cloud

  1. Hawaiian submarine manganese-iron oxide crusts - A dating tool? (United States)

    Moore, J.G.; Clague, D.A.


    Black manganese-iron oxide crusts form on most exposed rock on the ocean floor. Such crusts are well developed on the steep lava slopes of the Hawaiian Ridge and have been sampled during dredging and submersible dives. The crusts also occur on fragments detached from bedrock by mass wasting, on submerged coral reefs, and on poorly lithified sedimentary rocks. The thickness of the crusts was measured on samples collected since 1965 on the Hawaiian Ridge from 140 dive or dredge localities. Fifty-nine (42%) of the sites were collected in 2001 by remotely operated vehicles (ROVs). The thinner crusts on many samples apparently result from post-depositional breakage, landsliding, and intermittent burial of outcrops by sediment. The maximum crust thickness was selected from each dredge or dive site to best represent crusts on the original rock surface at that site. The measurements show an irregular progressive thickening of the crusts toward the northwest-i.e., progressive thickening toward the older volcanic features with increasing distance from the Hawaiian hotspot. Comparison of the maximum crust thickness with radiometric ages of related subaerial features supports previous studies that indicate a crust-growth rate of about 2.5 mm/m.y. The thickness information not only allows a comparison of the relative exposure ages of two or more features offshore from different volcanoes, but also provides specific age estimates of volcanic and landslide deposits. The data indicate that some of the landslide blocks within the south Kona landslide are the oldest exposed rock on Mauna Loa, Kilauea, or Loihi volcanoes. Crusts on the floors of submarine canyons off Kohala and East Molokai volcanoes indicate that these canyons are no longer serving as channelways for downslope, sediment-laden currents. Mahukona volcano was approximately synchronous with Hilo Ridge, both being younger than Hana Ridge. The Nuuanu landslide is considerably older than the Wailau landslide. The Waianae

  2. Newly recognized submarine slide complexes in the southern California Bight (United States)

    Conrad, J. E.; Lee, H. J.; Edwards, B. D.; McGann, M.; Sliter, R. W.


    New high-resolution bathymetric and seismic-reflection surveys have imaged large (7) individual overlapping slides along the western margin of Santa Cruz Basin (SCB slide); 2) a series of slumps and slide scars on the slope south of San Pedro shelf (SPS slide); and 3) a slope failure along the shelf edge in northern San Diego County, termed the Del Mar slide. The SCB slide complex extends for 30 km along the western slope of Santa Cruz Basin, with debris lobes extending 5-8 km into the basin. Head scarps of some of these slides are 50-75 m high. The SPS slide complex also appears to consist of multiple slides, which roughly parallel the Palos Verdes Fault and the San Gabriel Canyon submarine channel on the shelf edge and slope south of San Pedro shelf. Slide deposits associated with this complex are only partially mapped due to limited high-resolution bathymetric coverage, but extend to the south in the area SW of Lasuen Knoll. Seismic-reflection profiles show that some of these deposits are up to 20 m thick. The Del Mar slide is located about 10 km north of La Jolla Canyon and extends about 6 km along the shelf edge. The head scarp lies along the trend of a branch of the Rose Canyon Fault Zone. Radiocarbon ages of sediment overlying this slide indicate the Del Mar slide is approximately 12-16 ka. These large slide complexes have several characteristics in common. Nearly all occur in areas of tectonic uplift. All of the complexes show evidence of recurrent slide activity, exhibiting multiple headwall scarps and debris lobes, and where available, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles of these slide areas provide evidence of older, buried mass transport deposits. Assuming typical sedimentation rates, the recurrence interval of major slide events appears to be on the order of tens of thousands of years. Most of the slide complexes do not appear to be located in areas of high sediment input. The SCB and Del Mar slides are in areas receiving relatively small

  3. Unemployment among adult survivors of childhood cancer: a report from the childhood cancer survivor study. (United States)

    Kirchhoff, Anne C; Leisenring, Wendy; Krull, Kevin R; Ness, Kirsten K; Friedman, Debra L; Armstrong, Gregory T; Stovall, Marilyn; Park, Elyse R; Oeffinger, Kevin C; Hudson, Melissa M; Robison, Leslie L; Wickizer, Thomas


    Adult childhood cancer survivors report high levels of unemployment, although it is unknown whether this is because of health or employability limitations. We examined 2 employment outcomes from 2003 in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS): (1) health-related unemployment and (2) unemployed but seeking work. We compared survivors with a nearest-age CCSS sibling cohort and examined demographic and treatment-related risk groups for each outcome. We studied 6339 survivors and 1967 siblings ≥25 years of age excluding those unemployed by choice. Multivariable generalized linear models evaluated whether survivors were more likely to be unemployed than siblings and whether certain survivors were at a higher risk for unemployment. Survivors (10.4%) reported health-related unemployment more often than siblings (1.8%; Relative Risk [RR], 6.07; 95% Confidence Interval [CI], 4.32-8.53). Survivors (5.7%) were more likely to report being unemployed but seeking work than siblings (2.7%; RR, 1.90; 95% CI, 1.43-2.54). Health-related unemployment was more common in female survivors than males (Odds Ratio [OR], 1.73; 95% CI, 1.43-2.08). Cranial radiotherapy doses ≥25 Gy were associated with higher odds of unemployment (health-related: OR, 3.47; 95% CI, 2.54-4.74; seeking work: OR, 1.77; 95% CI, 1.15-2.71). Unemployed survivors reported higher levels of poor physical functioning than employed survivors, and had lower education and income and were more likely to be publicly insured than unemployed siblings. Childhood cancer survivors have higher levels of unemployment because of health or being between jobs. High-risk survivors may need vocational assistance.

  4. Outdoor Leadership Considerations with Women Survivors of Sexual Abuse. (United States)

    Mitten, Denise; Dutton, Rosalind


    Emphasizes the importance of leader awareness of the discomfort and need for emotional safety that may surface for women survivors of sexual abuse during an outdoor experience. Discusses survivor's self-perception and how this affects the outdoor experience; the impact of natural elements on survivors; and how to help survivors develop coping…

  5. 20 CFR 225.21 - Survivor Tier I PIA. (United States)


    ... INSURANCE AMOUNT DETERMINATIONS PIA's Used in Computing Survivor Annuities and the Amount of the Residual Lump-Sum Payable § 225.21 Survivor Tier I PIA. The Survivor Tier I PIA is used in computing the tier I component of a survivor annuity. This PIA is determined in accordance with section 215 of the Social...

  6. Multi-scale evaluations of submarine groundwater discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Taniguchi


    Full Text Available Multi-scale evaluations of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD have been made in Saijo, Ehime Prefecture, Shikoku Island, Japan, by using seepage meters for point scale, 222Rn tracer for point and coastal scales, and a numerical groundwater model (SEAWAT for coastal and basin scales. Daily basis temporal changes in SGD are evaluated by continuous seepage meter and 222Rn mooring measurements, and depend on sea level changes. Spatial evaluations of SGD were also made by 222Rn along the coast in July 2010 and November 2011. The area with larger 222Rn concentration during both seasons agreed well with the area with larger SGD calculated by 3D groundwater numerical simulations.

  7. Risk assessment in submarine outfall projects: the case of Portugal. (United States)

    Mendonça, Ana; Losada, Miguel Ángel; Reis, Maria Teresa; Neves, Maria Graça


    Submarine outfalls need to be evaluated as part of an integrated environmental protection system for coastal areas. Although outfalls are tight with the diversity of economic activities along a densely populated coastline being effluent treatment and effluent reuse a sign of economic prosperity, precautions must be taken in the construction of these structures. They must be designed so as to have the least possible impact on the environment and at the same time be economically viable. This paper outlines the initial phases of a risk assessment procedure for submarine outfall projects. This approach includes a cost-benefit analysis in which risks are systematically minimized or eliminated. The methods used in this study also allow for randomness and uncertainty. The input for the analysis is a wide range of information and data concerning the failure probability of outfalls and the consequences of an operational stoppage or failure. As part of this risk assessment, target design levels of reliability, functionality, and operationality were defined for the outfalls. These levels were based on an inventory of risks associated with such construction projects, and thus afforded the possibility of identifying possible failure modes. This assessment procedure was then applied to four case studies in Portugal. The results obtained were the values concerning the useful life of the outfalls at the four sites and their joint probability of failure against the principal failure modes assigned to ultimate and serviceability limit states. Also defined were the minimum operationality of these outfalls, the average number of admissible technical breakdowns, and the maximum allowed duration of a stoppage mode. It was found that these values were in consonance with the nature of the effluent (tourist-related, industrial, or mixed) as well as its importance for the local economy. Even more important, this risk assessment procedure was able to measure the impact of the outfalls on

  8. Imaging deformation in submarine thrust belts using seismic attributes (United States)

    Iacopini, David; Butler, Robert W. H.


    Uncertainty exists as to the patterns of deformation that develop within submarine thrust belts. This case study uses a large-scale gravity-driven fold-thrust structure as an analogue for submarine fold thrust systems in general. Seismic attribute analysis and mapping provide ways of identifying complex fault patterns and associated deformation that are otherwise unresolved in conventional amplitude displays. These methods are developed and applied to a 3D dataset and used to investigate the geometry, internal architecture and the nature of the low signal/noise incoherency and discontinuities observed on the km-scale. Semblance (coherency), curvatures and spectral decomposition were all computed and used as attributes. Collectively these define volumes within the seismic data where the signal is greatly reduced — features termed here "disturbance geobodies". The study shows that thrust faults that, on conventional amplitude displays appear to be simple and continuous, are likely to consist of complex arrays of anastamosing fault strands. Adjacent to these composite fault zones are greater volumes of deformed rocks (disturbance geobodies) across which there are only minor stratal offsets. Similarly volumes of high stratal curvature coincide with disturbance geobodies, again interpreted as zones of weak, distributed deformation. These relationships between narrow thrust faults and broader zones of deformation are broadly comparable to those observed in outcrops within exhumed thrust systems. Application of the seismic imaging techniques developed here will improve the understanding of the localization of deformation in sedimentary successions with important implications for predicting fluid flow within other deep water structures such as subduction accretion complexes.

  9. Geo-hazard by sediment mass movements in submarine canyons (United States)

    Ghaith, Afif; Fakhri, Milad; Ivaldi, Roberta; Ciavola, Paolo


    Submarine mass movements and their consequences are of major concern for coastal communities and infrastructures but also for the exploitation and the development of seafloor resources. Elevated awareness of the need for better understanding of the underwater mass movement is coupled with great advances in underwater mapping technologies over the past two decades. The seafloor in the Nahr Ibrahim and Saida regions (Lebanon) is characterized by deep canyons, reaching one thousand meters depths in proximity of the coast. Signs of submarine mass movement instability related to these canyons create a connection between shallow and deep water. The presence of these canyons in a tectonically active area generates a particular drained mechanism to the sediment in form of mass movement and slumping. Identification of potential areas where slope movements could be triggered requires data with high spatial resolution. Since this area is poorly explored, in the framework of an international project between Lebanese Navy, Lebanese National Center for Marine Sciences, University of Ferrara and Italian Hydrographic Institute, we analyse the morpho-bathymetric and sedimentological characters of the coastal and shelf sectors. Multibeam echosounder and sub-bottom profiler acoustic systems calibrated with ground truths (sediment grab and core samples) allow us to characterize the nature of seafloor and sub-seafloor with particular detail to the geotechnical properties of sediments and high resolution seismic stratigraphy of the shallow layers. The detection of particular undersea features provides detail maps which are in support to littoral morpho-dynamics, coastal transport and sediment budget. Multilayer hydro-oceanographic map, referring to the seafloor dynamics in connection with deep water environment and drainage system, in accordance to the International Hydrographic Standards and nautical supports, are produced. This high resolution multibeam bathymetry dataset, integrated

  10. Marriage and divorce among childhood cancer survivors. (United States)

    Koch, Susanne Vinkel; Kejs, Anne Mette Tranberg; Engholm, Gerda; Møller, Henrik; Johansen, Christoffer; Schmiegelow, Kjeld


    Many childhood cancer survivors have psychosocial late effects. We studied the risks for cohabitation and subsequent separation. Through the Danish Cancer Register, we identified a nationwide, population-based cohort of all 1877 childhood cancer survivors born from 1965 to 1980, and in whom cancer was diagnosed between 1965 and 1996 before they were 20 years of age. A sex-matched and age-matched population-based control cohort was used for comparison (n=45,449). Demographic and socioeconomic data were obtained from national registers and explored by discrete-time Cox regression analyses. Childhood cancer survivors had a reduced rate of cohabitation [rate ratio (RR) 0.78; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.73-0.83], owing to lower rates among survivors of both noncentral nervous system (CNS) tumors (RR 0.88; 95% CI: 0.83-0.95) and CNS tumors (RR 0.52; 95% CI: 0.45-0.59). Male CNS tumor survivors had a nonsignificantly lower rate (RR 0.47; 95% CI: 0.38-0.58) than females (RR 0.56; 95% CI: 0.47-0.68). The rates of separation were almost identical to those of controls. In conclusion, the rate of cohabitation was lower for all childhood cancer survivors than for the population-based controls, with the most pronounced reduction among survivors of CNS tumors. Mental deficits after cranial irradiation are likely to be the major risk factor.

  11. Did a "lucky shot" sink the submarine H.L. Hunley? (United States)

    Lance, Rachel M; Warder, Henry; Bass, Cameron R Dale


    The H.L. Hunley was the first submarine to be successful in combat, sinking the Union vessel Housatonic outside Charleston Harbor in 1864 during the Civil War. However, despite marking a milestone in military history, little is known about this vessel or why it sank. One popular theory is the "lucky shot" theory: the hypothesis that small arms fire from the crew of the Housatonic may have sufficiently damaged the submarine to sink it. However, ballistic experiments with cast iron samples, analysis of historical experiments firing Civil War-era projectiles at cast iron samples, and calculation of the tidal currents and sinking trajectory of the submarine indicate that this theory is not likely. Based on our results, the "lucky shot" theory does not explain the sinking of the world's first successful combat submarine. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. The impact of glacier geometry on meltwater plume structure and submarine melt in Greenland fjords

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carroll, D.; Sutherland, D. A.; Hudson, B.; Moon, T.; Catania, G. A.; Shroyer, E. L.; Nash, J. D.; Bartholomaus, T. C.; Felikson, D.; Stearns, L. A.; Noël, B. P Y; van den Broeke, M. R.


    Meltwater from the Greenland Ice Sheet often drains subglacially into fjords, driving upwelling plumes at glacier termini. Ocean models and observations of submarine termini suggest that plumes enhance melt and undercutting, leading to calving and potential glacier destabilization. Here we

  13. An Analysis of the Effectiveness of a New Watchstanding Schedule for U.S. Submariners

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Osborn, Christopher


    A need exists within the U.S. submarine force to employ an operational schedule that provides more sleep and that is in better alignment with human circadian rhythms, thus improving cognitive effectiveness...

  14. Fuel cell systems for submarines: from the first idea to serial production (United States)

    Psoma, Angela; Sattler, Gunter

    The future submarines of Howaldtswerke-Deutsche Werft AG (HDW) will be equipped with fuel cell power plants for air independent propulsion. In the 1970s the decision for a fuel cell system on submarines was made. Tests in the 1980s confirmed the feasibility of fuel cells on submarines. Positive development results in the 1990s led to series production of fuel cell equipped submarines, which will be in operation from 2003 onwards. Strictly controlled development work was necessary to reach the goal of series production. The train of thought behind this process of development is described in this paper starting with the initial idea and ending with the description of the serial production of the fuel cell power plant. The future outlook gives an impression of current development work.

  15. Submarine Warfare in the 20th & 21st Centuries: A Bibliography

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Huygen, Michaele


    There are constant motions in the sea caused by atmospheric and seabed activities volcanic disruptions marine animals ships and submarines -- all of which create what is called the ambient noise level of the oceans...

  16. The risk of hydrogen explosion in a submarine p. IV The implementation of high risk projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kłos Ryszard


    Full Text Available This series of articles on high risk projects looks at the example of the modernisation of hydrogen incinerators on a submarine. The article describes problems connected with the management of such a project.

  17. Volume transport data from a submarine cable in the Florida Strait in 2014 (NODC Accession 0125429) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Daily mean and raw voltage volume transport data of the Florida Current collected with a submarine cable spanning from South Florida to the Grand Bahama Island in...

  18. A Statistical Analysis of the Impact of Marital Status on Nuclear Submarine Officer Retention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Phelps, Matthew


    This thesis develops multivariate logit models to estimate the impact of marital status and the independent effect of dependent children on nuclear submarine officer retention beyond the minimum service requirement (MSR...

  19. Observations of nearshore groundwater discharge: Kahekili Beach Park submarine springs, Maui, Hawaii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.W. Swarzenski


    New hydrological insights for the region: Estimates of submarine groundwater discharge were derived for a primary vent site and surrounding coastal waters off west Maui, Hawaii using an excess 222Rn (t1/2 = 3.8 d mass balance model. Such estimates were complemented with a novel thoron (220Rn, t1/2 = 56 s groundwater discharge tracer application, as well as oceanographic time series and thermal infrared imagery analyses. In combination, this suite of techniques provides new insight into the connectivity of the coastal aquifer with the near-shore ocean and examines the physical drivers of submarine groundwater discharge. Lastly, submarine groundwater discharge derived constituent concentrations were tabulated and compared to surrounding seawater concentrations. Such work has implications for the management of coastal aquifers and downstream nearshore ecosystems that respond to sustained constituent loadings via this submarine route.

  20. Dance With the One That Brought You: Revitalizing Antisubmarine Warfare to Counter Chinese Diesel Submarines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Farrell, Richard


    .... Navy needs to revitalize ASW, or risk losing the ability to gain sea control in strategic areas of the East Asian Littoral and South China Sea due to a rising Chinese diesel-electric submarine threat...

  1. Submarine Upward Looking Sonar Ice Draft Profile Data and Statistics, Version 1 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set consists of upward looking sonar sea ice draft data collected by submarines in the Arctic Ocean. It includes data from both U.S. Navy and Royal Navy...

  2. Navy Trident Submarine Conversion (SSGN) Program: Background and Issues for Congress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Rourke, Ronald


    ...) into cruisemissile- carrying and special operations forces (SOF) support submarines (SSGNs). The total estimated cost of the program, which has been increasing over time, is now $4,018 million...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenika Walani


    Full Text Available In recent years, contingent and survivor workers have emerged as a common reality in business activities. Unfortunately, contingent worker has high job insecurity on his employment status. On the other side, downsizing activities can result in decreasing job security of survivor worker. As a consequence, both contingent and survivor workers very potential have low organizational commitment. However, organizations still have an opportunity to give their workers an exclusive treatment for building organizational commitment without ignoring the fact that workers have other commitment foci.

  4. Multi-core Fibers in Submarine Networks for High-Capacity Undersea Transmission Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nooruzzaman, Md; Morioka, Toshio


    Application of multi-core fibers in undersea networks for high-capacity submarine transmission systems is studied. It is demonstrated how different architectures of submerged branching unit affect network component counts in long-haul undersea transmission systems......Application of multi-core fibers in undersea networks for high-capacity submarine transmission systems is studied. It is demonstrated how different architectures of submerged branching unit affect network component counts in long-haul undersea transmission systems...

  5. They Have Not Yet Begun to Fight: Women in the United States Navy Submarine Fleet (United States)


    Navy Nurse Corps in 1908. The Nurse Corps was highly educated for the time and maintained high professional standards.3 Regardless, the struggle to...nation’s navies who integrated women into their submarine fleets ahead of the U.S. Navy. Norway, Sweden , Australian, and Great Britain all...Nations such as Norway and Sweden have been incorporating females into their submarines since the mid-1980s. 39 Sweden has had female sailors

  6. The Close Aboard Bastion: a Soviet ballistic missile submarine deployment strategy


    Kreitler, Walter M


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis describes and analyzes a possible deployment posture for the Soviet ballistic missile submarine force. It examines the proposition that the Soviet Navy will establish a point defense, labeled "Close Aboard Bastions" (CABs), for its ballistic missile submarine fleet within the Soviet claimed 12 nautical mile territorial sea. This is a logical derivation of the currently widely held view that the Soviets will estab...

  7. Submarine channel evolution linked to rising salt domes, Gulf of Mexico, USA (United States)

    Carter, Rachel C.; Gani, M. Royhan; Roesler, Toby; Sarwar, Abu K. M.


    An examination of halokinetics and channel evolution together in a deepwater system provides an opportunity to investigate how submarine channel morphology is locally affected by rising salt domes. The study area is located in the northern Gulf of Mexico (GOM), directly off the Louisiana continental slope in a prominent salt dome region. The influence of salt growth on submarine channel evolution is relatively understudied, particularly in the GOM. Utilizing high-resolution 3D seismic and well data and seismic geomorphology techniques, a long-lived (~ 3 Myr) Plio-Pleistocene submarine channel system has been investigated to show a relationship between variable phases of salt motion and planform morphology of preserved submarine channels. Our data suggest that local salt motion acts as a driver for submarine channel evolution. During the late Pliocene, when salt moved upward at a relatively fast rate, channels show distinct entrenchment with narrow channel belts and overall less sinuosity. When salt motion slowed down at the beginning of the Pleistocene, channels aggraded rapidly with preserved levees, and moved toward an equilibrium state with the expansion of channel belt widths. As our results indicate, the rate of salt diapirism exerted a first-order control on channel location and morphology and distribution of reservoir-prone units. This study cautions against readily invoking allogenic factors (e.g., sea level and climate) in explaining changes in submarine channel behavior and associated fan sedimentation, particularly in regions with salt tectonics.

  8. Observations of nearshore groundwater discharge: Kahekili Beach Park submarine springs, Maui, Hawaii (United States)

    Swarzenski, Peter W.; Dulai, H.; Kroeger, K.D.; Smith, C.G.; Dimova, N.; Storlazzi, C. D.; Prouty, N.G.; Gingerich, S.B.; Glenn, C. R.


    Study regionThe study region encompasses the nearshore, coastal waters off west Maui, Hawaii. Here abundant groundwater—that carries with it a strong land-based fingerprint—discharges into the coastal waters and over a coral reef.Study focusCoastal groundwater discharge is a ubiquitous hydrologic feature that has been shown to impact nearshore ecosystems and material budgets. A unique combined geochemical tracer and oceanographic time-series study addressed rates and oceanic forcings of submarine groundwater discharge at a submarine spring site off west Maui, Hawaii.New hydrological insights for the regionEstimates of submarine groundwater discharge were derived for a primary vent site and surrounding coastal waters off west Maui, Hawaii using an excess 222Rn (t1/2 = 3.8 d) mass balance model. Such estimates were complemented with a novel thoron (220Rn,t1/2 = 56 s) groundwater discharge tracer application, as well as oceanographic time series and thermal infrared imagery analyses. In combination, this suite of techniques provides new insight into the connectivity of the coastal aquifer with the near-shore ocean and examines the physical drivers of submarine groundwater discharge. Lastly, submarine groundwater discharge derived constituent concentrations were tabulated and compared to surrounding seawater concentrations. Such work has implications for the management of coastal aquifers and downstream nearshore ecosystems that respond to sustained constituent loadings via this submarine route.

  9. Unemployment among breast cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Kathrine; Ewertz, Marianne; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg


    AIM: Though about 20% of working age breast cancer survivors do not return to work after treatment, few studies have addressed risk factors for unemployment. The majority of studies on occupational consequences of breast cancer focus on non-employment, which is a mixture of sickness absence......, unemployment, retirement pensions and other reasons for not working. Unemployment in combination with breast cancer may represent a particular challenge for these women. The aim of the present study is therefore to analyze the risk for unemployment in the years following diagnosis and treatment for breast...... cancer. METHOD: This study included 14,750 women diagnosed with breast cancer in Denmark 2001-2009 identified through a population-based clinical database and linked with information from Danish administrative population based registers for information on labour market affiliation, socio...

  10. The Survivor Syndrome: Aftermath of Downsizing. (United States)

    Appelbaum, Steven H.; Delage, Claude; Labib, Nadia; Gault, George


    Downsizing can result in remaining staff developing "survivor syndrome," experiencing low morale, stress, and other psychosocial problems. If downsizing is necessary, precautions include managing perceptions and communications and empowering employees to take career ownership. (SK)

  11. Symptomatic and Palliative Care for Stroke Survivors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Creutzfeldt, Claire J; Holloway, Robert G; Walker, Melanie


    ... care needs of stroke survivors. Some of the most common and disabling post-stroke symptoms that are reviewed here include central post-stroke pain, hemiplegic shoulder pain, painful spasticity, fatigue, incontinence, post-stroke...

  12. Hopelessness Experience among Stroke Survivor in Semarang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawab Sawab


    Full Text Available Introduction: Hopelessness was a negative feelings about goal achievement and powerlessness feeling against an expectation. Hopelessness in stroke survivors can occur due to prolonged disability and neurologic defi cit. This condition can lead to emotional and mental disorders even a suicide action. Therefore, it was a need to explore hopelessness experience in stroke survivors. Method: This study was a qualitative descriptive phenomenology with 6 participants. Results: 7 themes were revealed in this study, (1 Physical changes as a response on hopelessness, (2 Loss response as a hopelessness stressor, (3 Dysfunction of the family process, (4 Loss of meaning of life, (5 Self support and motivation as a coping resource against hopelessness, (6 The spiritual meaning behind hopelessness, (7 Can go through a better life. Discussion: This study suggests to develop a nursing care standards in hopelessness, encourage a family support and family psychoeducation for stroke survivors. Keywords: Stroke survivor, hopelessness experiences, qualitative

  13. Outcome of paediatric intensive care survivors


    Knoester, Hendrika; Grootenhuis, Martha A; Bos, Albert P.


    The development of paediatric intensive care has contributed to the improved survival of critically ill children. Physical and psychological sequelae and consequences for quality of life (QoL) in survivors might be significant, as has been determined in adult intensive care unit (ICU) survivors. Awareness of sequelae due to the original illness and its treatment may result in changes in treatment and support during and after the acute phase. To determine the current knowledge on physical and ...

  14. Increased health care use in cancer survivors.


    Heins, M.J.; Rijken, P.M.; Schellevis, F.G.; Hoek, L. van der; Korevaar, J.C.


    Background: As the number of cancer survivors increases and these patients often experience long-lasting consequences of cancer and its treatment, more insight into primary health care use of cancer survivors is needed. We aimed to determine how often and for which reasons do adult cancer patients contact their Primary Care Physician (PCP) 2-5 years after diagnosis. Methods: Using data from the Netherlands Information Network of Primary Care (LINH), we determined the volume and diagnoses made...

  15. Increases health care use in cancer survivors.


    Heins, M.J.; Rijken, P.M.; Schellevis, F.G.; Hoek, L. van der; Korevaar, J.C.


    Background: As the number of cancer survivors increases and these patients often experience longlasting consequences of cancer and its treatment, more insight into primary health care use of cancer survivors is needed. Research question: How often and for which reasons do adult cancer patients contact their Primary Care Physician (PCP) 2-5 years after diagnosis. Methods: Using data from the Netherlands Information Network of Primary Care (LINH), we determined the volume and diagnoses made dur...

  16. Survivor-Reaktionen im Downsizing-Kontext


    Dietrich, Kristina


    Diese Arbeit untersucht die Reaktionen der nach einem Personalabbau (Downsizing) verbleibenden Mitarbeiter (Survivors) eines Unternehmens. Dabei werden die für die Ausbildung von positiven und negativen Survivor-Reaktionen als relevant angenommenen Antezedenzien in einem integrativen Rahmenmodell dargestellt und in ihren Zusammenhängen untersucht. Besonders ist dabei der metaanalytische Untersuchungsansatz, der statistisch fundierte und verlässliche Aussagen zu zentralen Zusammenhängen von Ev...

  17. Hopelessness Experience Among Stroke Survivor in Semarang


    Sawab Sawab; Moch Bahrudin; Novy Helena Catharina Daulima


    Introduction: Hopelessness was a negative feelings about goal achievement and powerlessness feeling against an expectation. Hopelessness in stroke survivors can occur due to prolonged disability and neurologic defi cit. This condition can lead to emotional and mental disorders even a suicide action. Therefore, it was a need to explore hopelessness experience in stroke survivors. Method: This study was a qualitative descriptive phenomenology with 6 participants. Results: 7 themes were revealed...

  18. Proteomic profiles in acute respiratory distress syndrome differentiates survivors from non-survivors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maneesh Bhargava

    Full Text Available Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS continues to have a high mortality. Currently, there are no biomarkers that provide reliable prognostic information to guide clinical management or stratify risk among clinical trial participants. The objective of this study was to probe the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF proteome to identify proteins that differentiate survivors from non-survivors of ARDS. Patients were divided into early-phase (1 to 7 days and late-phase (8 to 35 days groups based on time after initiation of mechanical ventilation for ARDS (Day 1. Isobaric tags for absolute and relative quantitation (iTRAQ with LC MS/MS was performed on pooled BALF enriched for medium and low abundance proteins from early-phase survivors (n = 7, early-phase non-survivors (n = 8, and late-phase survivors (n = 7. Of the 724 proteins identified at a global false discovery rate of 1%, quantitative information was available for 499. In early-phase ARDS, proteins more abundant in survivors mapped to ontologies indicating a coordinated compensatory response to injury and stress. These included coagulation and fibrinolysis; immune system activation; and cation and iron homeostasis. Proteins more abundant in early-phase non-survivors participate in carbohydrate catabolism and collagen synthesis, with no activation of compensatory responses. The compensatory immune activation and ion homeostatic response seen in early-phase survivors transitioned to cell migration and actin filament based processes in late-phase survivors, revealing dynamic changes in the BALF proteome as the lung heals. Early phase proteins differentiating survivors from non-survivors are candidate biomarkers for predicting survival in ARDS.

  19. Proteomic Profiles in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Differentiates Survivors from Non-Survivors (United States)

    Bhargava, Maneesh; Becker, Trisha L.; Viken, Kevin J.; Jagtap, Pratik D.; Dey, Sanjoy; Steinbach, Michael S.; Wu, Baolin; Kumar, Vipin; Bitterman, Peter B.; Ingbar, David H.; Wendt, Christine H.


    Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) continues to have a high mortality. Currently, there are no biomarkers that provide reliable prognostic information to guide clinical management or stratify risk among clinical trial participants. The objective of this study was to probe the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) proteome to identify proteins that differentiate survivors from non-survivors of ARDS. Patients were divided into early-phase (1 to 7 days) and late-phase (8 to 35 days) groups based on time after initiation of mechanical ventilation for ARDS (Day 1). Isobaric tags for absolute and relative quantitation (iTRAQ) with LC MS/MS was performed on pooled BALF enriched for medium and low abundance proteins from early-phase survivors (n = 7), early-phase non-survivors (n = 8), and late-phase survivors (n = 7). Of the 724 proteins identified at a global false discovery rate of 1%, quantitative information was available for 499. In early-phase ARDS, proteins more abundant in survivors mapped to ontologies indicating a coordinated compensatory response to injury and stress. These included coagulation and fibrinolysis; immune system activation; and cation and iron homeostasis. Proteins more abundant in early-phase non-survivors participate in carbohydrate catabolism and collagen synthesis, with no activation of compensatory responses. The compensatory immune activation and ion homeostatic response seen in early-phase survivors transitioned to cell migration and actin filament based processes in late-phase survivors, revealing dynamic changes in the BALF proteome as the lung heals. Early phase proteins differentiating survivors from non-survivors are candidate biomarkers for predicting survival in ARDS. PMID:25290099

  20. Pregnancy and Labor Complications in Female Survivors of Childhood Cancer: The British Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. (United States)

    Reulen, Raoul C; Bright, Chloe J; Winter, David L; Fidler, Miranda M; Wong, Kwok; Guha, Joyeeta; Kelly, Julie S; Frobisher, Clare; Edgar, Angela B; Skinner, Roderick; Wallace, W Hamish B; Hawkins, Mike M


    Female survivors of childhood cancer treated with abdominal radiotherapy who manage to conceive are at risk of delivering premature and low-birthweight offspring, but little is known about whether abdominal radiotherapy may also be associated with additional complications during pregnancy and labor. We investigated the risk of developing pregnancy and labor complications among female survivors of childhood cancer in the British Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (BCCSS). Pregnancy and labor complications were identified by linking the BCCSS cohort (n = 17 980) to the Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) for England. Relative risks (RRs) of pregnancy and labor complications were calculated by site of radiotherapy treatment (none/abdominal/cranial/other) and other cancer-related factors using log-binomial regression. All statistical tests were two-sided. A total of 2783 singleton pregnancies among 1712 female survivors of childhood cancer were identified in HES. Wilms tumor survivors treated with abdominal radiotherapy were at threefold risk of hypertension complicating pregnancy (relative risk = 3.29, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.29 to 4.71), while all survivors treated with abdominal radiotherapy were at risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (RR = 3.35, 95% CI = 1.41 to 7.93) and anemia complicating pregnancy (RR = 2.10, 95% CI = 1.27 to 3.46) compared with survivors treated without radiotherapy. Survivors treated without radiotherapy had similar risks of pregnancy and labor complications as the general population, except survivors were more likely to opt for an elective cesarean section (RR = 1.39, 95% CI = 1.16 to 1.70). Treatment with abdominal radiotherapy increases the risk of developing hypertension complicating pregnancy in Wilms tumor survivors, and diabetes mellitus and anemia complicating pregnancy in all survivors. These patients may require extra vigilance during pregnancy.

  1. Psychosocial aspects of childhood cancer survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Jin Seo


    Full Text Available The majority of childhood cancer survivors and their families will be psychologically healthy, but may desire and benefit from preventive care. A significant portion of the survivor population will be psychosocially distressed in various aspects by their harsh experience of long cancer treatment, and may warrant professional intervention and treatment. Pediatricians should be aware of the late psychological effects that can occur a year or 2 after treatment, possibly in many aspects of a survivor's life. Not only the cancer diagnosis, but also treatments such as chemotherapy, irradiation, and surgical intervention may exert different long-term effects on the psychosocial outcomes of survivors. Pediatricians need to be more concerned with maintaining and improving the psychological health of this growing number of childhood cancer survivors through long-term follow-up clinics, community support, or self-help groups. Research on all of the psychosocial aspects of childhood cancer survivors is important to recognize the reality and problems they face in Korea.

  2. Health Behaviors of Minority Childhood Cancer Survivors (United States)

    Stolley, Melinda R.; Sharp, Lisa K.; Tangney, Christy; Schiffer, Linda; Arroyo, Claudia; Kim, Yoonsang; Campbell, Richard; Schmidt, Mary Lou; Breen, Kathleen; Kinahan, Karen E.; Dilley, Kim; Henderson, Tara; Korenblit, Allen D.; Seligman, Katya


    Background Available data suggest that childhood cancer survivors (CCSs) are comparable to the general population on many lifestyle parameters. However, little is known about minority CCSs. This cross-sectional study describes and compares the body mass index (BMI) and health behaviors of African-American, Hispanic and White survivors to each other and to non-cancer controls. Methods Participants included 452 adult CCS (150 African-American, 152 Hispanic, 150 white) recruited through four childhood cancer treating institutions and 375 ethnically-matched non-cancer controls (125 in each racial/ethnic group) recruited via targeted digit dial. All participants completed a 2-hour in-person interview. Results Survivors and non-cancer controls reported similar health behaviors. Within survivors, smoking and physical activity were similar across racial/ethnic groups. African-American and Hispanic survivors reported lower daily alcohol use than whites, but consumed unhealthy diets and were more likely to be obese. Conclusions This unique study highlights that many minority CCSs exhibit lifestyle profiles that contribute to increased risk for chronic diseases and late effects. Recommendations for behavior changes must consider the social and cultural context in which minority survivors may live. PMID:25564774

  3. Mental health status of adolescent cancer survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mertens AC


    Full Text Available Ann C Mertens, Jordan Gilleland Marchak Aflac Cancer and Blood Disorder Center, Department of Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA Abstract: Due to the successful treatment of children with cancer, overall 5-year survival rates now exceed 80%. Because of this success in treating childhood cancer, concerns are now focusing on the potential risk of both physical and psychosocial late effects in these cancer survivors. There is limited data available for clinicians and researchers on the mental health of adolescent survivors of childhood cancers. The goal of this review is to provide a concise evaluation of the content and attributes of literature available on this often overlooked, yet vulnerable, population. Overall, studies on psychological outcomes in adolescent survivors of pediatric cancer suggest that the majority are mentally healthy and do not report significant levels of psychological distress. Several factors were recognized as playing an important role in adverse psychosocial outcomes in these adolescent cancer survivors: to include the diagnosis of a tumor in the central nervous system, central nervous system-directed cancer treatment, and physical late effects. To identify the subset of survivors who may benefit from systematic psychological services, systematic psychological screening of all adolescent cancer survivors during follow-up oncology visits is recommended. Further research into this critical area is needed to help identify other potential risk factors and guide the development of evidence-based support for these vulnerable adolescents. Keywords: adolescents, psychological, psychosocial, screening recommendations

  4. Recurrent trauma: Holocaust survivors cope with aging and cancer. (United States)

    Hantman, Shira; Solomon, Zahava


    The current study aims to determine whether elderly Holocaust survivors are affected differently from non-survivors by the adversity of aging and cancer. Holocaust survivors and non-survivors suffering from cancer, were assessed tapping PTSD, psychiatric symptomatology, psychosocial adjustment to illness and coping with the aftermath of the Holocaust. Findings indicate a significant difference between survivors and non-survivors in post-traumatic symptoms and their intensity, survivors endorsing significantly more PTSD symptoms. Survivors were classified into 3 sub-groups, namely "Victims," "Fighters," and "Those who made it". "Victims" reported the highest percentage of persons who met PTSD, psychiatric symptomatology and difficulty coping with the problems of old age. The diversity of responses points to heterogeneity of long-term adaptation and adjustment among Holocaust survivors and similar response to subsequent adversity.

  5. Experimental modeling of gravity underflow in submarine channels (United States)

    Islam, Mohammad Ashraful

    Active and relic meandering channels are common on the seafloor adjacent to continental margins. These channels and their associated submarine fan deposits are products of the density-driven gravity flows known as turbidity currents. Unlike natural rivers, few attempts have been made to explore the process of channel meandering in the submarine environment. This research focuses on resolving the flow field of submarine channels by conducting experiments in a large laboratory basin. Saline and particulate density flows were studied in a straight channel, a single bend sinuous channel with vertical sidewalls and a multiple-bend sinuous channel with sloping sidewalls. Instantaneous velocities in steady developed currents were measured using 3-component acoustic Doppler velocity probes. Excess fractional density was measured at selected locations by collecting water sample using a siphon rake. Turbulent kinetic energy and Reynolds stress components are derived from the instantaneous velocity data of the straight channel experiments. Structure functions for mean velocity, Reynolds stress and turbulent kinetic energy profiles are derived by fitting normalized data. The normalized Reynolds-averaged velocity shows excellent similarity collapse while the Reynolds-stress and the turbulent kinetic energy profiles display reasonable similarity. Vertical profiles of the turbulent kinetic energy display two peaks separated by a zone of low turbulence; the ratio of the maximum to the depth-averaged turbulent kinetic energy is approximately 1.5. Theoretical profile of turbulent kinetic energy is derived. Comparisons of experimentally and theoretically derived turbulent kinetic energy profiles show reasonable agreement except at the position of velocity maximum where the theoretical profile displays a very small value. Velocity profiles derived from the measurements with confined flow in the single bend channel reveal that channel curvature drives two helical flow cells, one

  6. Long-term flow monitoring of submarine gas emanations (United States)

    Spickenbom, K.; Faber, E.; Poggenburg, J.; Seeger, C.


    One of the Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) strategies currently under study is the sequestration of CO2 in sub-seabed geological formations. Even after a thorough review of the geological setting, there is the possibility of leaks from the reservoirs. As part of the EU-financed project CO2ReMoVe (Research, Monitoring, Verification), which aims to develop innovative research and technologies for monitoring and verification of carbon dioxide geological storage, we are working on the development of submarine long-term gas flow monitoring systems. Technically, however, these systems are not limited to CO2 but can be used for monitoring of any free gas emission (bubbles) on the seafloor. The basic design of the gas flow sensor system was derived from former prototypes developed for monitoring CO2 and CH4 on mud volcanoes in Azerbaijan. This design was composed of a raft floating on the surface above the gas vent to collect the bubbles. Sensors for CO2 flux and concentration and electronics for data storage and transmission were mounted on the raft, together with battery-buffered solar panels for power supply. The system was modified for installation in open sea by using a buoy instead of a raft and a funnel on the seafloor to collect the gas, which is then guided above water level through a flexible tube. Besides some technical problems (condensed water in the tube, movement of the buoys due to waves leading to biased measurement of flow rates), this setup provides a cost-effective solution for shallow waters. However, a buoy interferes with ship traffic, and it is also difficult to adapt this design to greater water depths. These requirements can best be complied by a completely submersed system. To allow unattended long-term monitoring in a submarine environment, such a system has to be extremely durable. Therefore, we focussed on developing a mechanically and electrically as simple setup as possible, which has the additional advantage of low cost. The system

  7. Using Google Earth for Submarine Operations at Pavilion Lake (United States)

    Deans, M. C.; Lees, D. S.; Fong, T.; Lim, D. S.


    During the July 2009 Pavilion Lake field test, we supported submarine "flight" operations using Google Earth. The Intelligent Robotics Group at NASA Ames has experience with ground data systems for NASA missions, earth analog field tests, disaster response, and the Gigapan camera system. Leveraging this expertise and existing software, we put together a set of tools to support sub tracking and mapping, called the "Surface Data System." This system supports flight planning, real time flight operations, and post-flight analysis. For planning, we make overlays of the regional bedrock geology, sonar bathymetry, and sonar backscatter maps that show geology, depth, and structure of the bottom. Placemarks show the mooring locations for start and end points. Flight plans are shown as polylines with icons for waypoints. Flight tracks and imagery from previous field seasons are embedded in the map for planning follow-on activities. These data provide context for flight planning. During flights, sub position is updated every 5 seconds from the nav computer on the chase boat. We periodically update tracking KML files and refresh them with network links. A sub icon shows current location of the sub. A compass rose shows bearings to indicate heading to the next waypoint. A "Science Stenographer" listens on the voice loop and transcribes significant observations in real time. Observations called up to the surface immediately appear on the map as icons with date, time, position, and what was said. After each flight, the science back room immediately has the flight track and georeferenced notes from the pilots. We add additional information in post-processing. The submarines record video continuously, with "event" timestamps marked by the pilot. We cross-correlate the event timestamps with position logs to geolocate events and put a preview image and compressed video clip into the map. Animated flight tracks are also generated, showing timestamped position and providing timelapse

  8. Did a submarine landslide contribute to the 2011 Tohoku tsunami?

    KAUST Repository

    Tappin, David R.


    Many studies have modeled the Tohoku tsunami of March 11, 2011 as being due entirely to slip on an earthquake fault, but the following discrepancies suggest that further research is warranted. (1) Published models of tsunami propagation and coastal impact underpredict the observed runup heights of up to 40 m measured along the coast of the Sanriku district in the northeast part of Honshu Island. (2) Published models cannot reproduce the timing and high-frequency content of tsunami waves recorded at three nearshore buoys off Sanriku, nor the timing and dispersion properties of the waveforms at offshore DART buoy #21418. (3) The rupture centroids obtained by tsunami inversions are biased about 60 km NNE of that obtained by the Global CMT Project. Based on an analysis of seismic and geodetic data, together with recorded tsunami waveforms, we propose that, while the primary source of the tsunami was the vertical displacement of the seafloor due to the earthquake, an additional tsunami source is also required. We infer the location of the proposed additional source based on an analysis of the travel times of higher-frequency tsunami waves observed at nearshore buoys. We further propose that the most likely additional tsunami source was a submarine mass failure (SMF—i.e., a submarine landslide). A comparison of pre- and post-tsunami bathymetric surveys reveals tens of meters of vertical seafloor movement at the proposed SMF location, and a slope stability analysis confirms that the horizontal acceleration from the earthquake was sufficient to trigger an SMF. Forward modeling of the tsunami generated by a combination of the earthquake and the SMF reproduces the recorded on-, near- and offshore tsunami observations well, particularly the high-frequency component of the tsunami waves off Sanriku, which were not well simulated by previous models. The conclusion that a significant part of the 2011 Tohoku tsunami was generated by an SMF source has important implications for

  9. Submarine pyroclastic deposits in Tertiary basins, NE Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polona Kralj


    Full Text Available In Tertiary basins of NE Slovenia, Upper Oligocene volcanic activity occurred in a submarine environment that experienced contemporaneous clastic sedimentation. Pyroclastic deposits are essentially related to gas- and watersupported eruption-fed density currents. At Trobni Dol, the Lako Basin, an over 100 m thick deposit formed by a sigle sustained volcanic explosion that fed gas-supported pyroclastic flow. Diagnostic features are large matrixshard content, normal grading of pumice lapilli, collapsed pumice lapilli and the presence of charcoal. In the Smrekovec Volcanic Complex, several but only up to 5 m thick deposits related to eruption-fed gassupported pyroclastic flows occur. Deposits settled from water-supported eruption-fed density currents form fining- and thinning-upward sedimentary units which resemble the units of volcaniclastic turbidites. Pyroclastic deposits related to gas- and water-supported density currents occur in an up to 1000 m thick succession composed of coherent volcanics, autoclastic, pyroclastic, reworked volcaniclastic and mixed volcaniclastic-siliciclastic deposits that indicate a complex explosive and depositional history of the Smrekovec Volcanic Complex.

  10. Breathing modes of Kolumbo submarine volcano (Santorini, Greece). (United States)

    Bakalis, Evangelos; Mertzimekis, Theo J; Nomikou, Paraskevi; Zerbetto, Francesco


    Submarine volcanoes, such as Kolumbo (Santorini, Greece) are natural laboratories for fostering multidisciplinary studies. Their investigation requires the most innovative marine technology together with advanced data analysis. Conductivity and temperature of seawater were recorded directly above Kolumbo's hydrothermal vent system. The respective time series have been analyzed in terms of non-equilibrium techniques. The energy dissipation of the volcanic activity is monitored by the temperature variations of seawater. The venting dynamics of chemical products is monitored by water conductivity. The analysis of the time series in terms of stochastic processes delivers scaling exponents with turning points between consecutive regimes for both conductivity and temperature. Changes of conductivity are shown to behave as a universal multifractal and their variance is subdiffusive as the scaling exponents indicate. Temperature is constant over volcanic rest periods and a universal multifractal behavior describes its changes in line with a subdiffusive character otherwise. The universal multifractal description illustrates the presence of non-conservative conductivity and temperature fields showing that the system never retains a real equilibrium state. The existence of a repeated pattern of the combined effect of both seawater and volcanic activity is predicted. The findings can shed light on the dynamics of chemical products emitted from the vents and point to the presence of underlying mechanisms that govern potentially hazardous, underwater volcanic environments.

  11. High-efficiency airfoil rudders applied to submarines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHOU Yimei


    Full Text Available Modern submarine design puts forward higher and higher requirements for control surfaces, and this creates a requirement for designers to constantly innovate new types of rudder so as to improve the efficiency of control surfaces. Adopting the high-efficiency airfoil rudder is one of the most effective measures for improving the efficiency of control surfaces. In this paper, we put forward an optimization method for a high-efficiency airfoil rudder on the basis of a comparative analysis of the various strengths and weaknesses of the airfoil, and the numerical calculation method is adopted to analyze the influence rule of the hydrodynamic characteristics and wake field by using the high-efficiency airfoil rudder and the conventional NACA rudder comparatively; at the same time, a model load test in a towing tank was carried out, and the test results and simulation calculation obtained good consistency:the error between them was less than 10%. The experimental results show that the steerage of a high-efficiency airfoil rudder is increased by more than 40% when compared with the conventional rudder, but the total resistance is close:the error is no more than 4%. Adopting a high-efficiency airfoil rudder brings much greater lifting efficiency than the total resistance of the boat. The results show that high-efficiency airfoil rudder has obvious advantages for improving the efficiency of control, giving it good application prospects.

  12. Submarine springs and coastal karst aquifers: A review (United States)

    Fleury, Perrine; Bakalowicz, Michel; de Marsily, Ghislain


    SummaryThis article reports on current knowledge of coastal karst aquifers, in which conduit flow is dominant, and its aim is to characterise the functioning of these systems which are closely linked to the sea. First, earlier and recent studies of these aquifers are discussed. On the basis of their findings, it can be shown that two essential mechanisms are involved in the functioning of these systems, i.e., aquifer discharge through submarine springs and saline intrusion through conduits open to the sea. Then, the conditions that give rise to these aquifers are described and particular emphasis is placed on the influence of deep karstification when the sea level falls. The base-level variations are attributed to the glaciations or, in the specific case of the Mediterranean, to the salinity crisis in the Messinian period. It is this inherited structure, sometimes containing very deep conduits below sea level, that today conditions the aquifer flow. The flow in the conduits open to the sea depends on the hydraulic head gradient between the aquifer and the sea and is therefore a function of the water density and head losses in the aquifer. This survey of coastal karst aquifers has revealed some common characteristics that show the development and/or functional capacity of their karstic drainage networks. A classification of such systems into three categories is proposed with the aim of assisting in the decision-making concerning potential exploitation of water resources in coastal regions.

  13. Sea-level-induced seismicity and submarine landslide occurrence (United States)

    Brothers, Daniel S.; Luttrell, Karen M.; Chaytor, Jason D.


    The temporal coincidence between rapid late Pleistocene sea-level rise and large-scale slope failures is widely documented. Nevertheless, the physical mechanisms that link these phenomena are poorly understood, particularly along nonglaciated margins. Here we investigate the causal relationships between rapid sea-level rise, flexural stress loading, and increased seismicity rates along passive margins. We find that Coulomb failure stress across fault systems of passive continental margins may have increased more than 1 MPa during rapid late Pleistocene–early Holocene sea-level rise, an amount sufficient to trigger fault reactivation and rupture. These results suggest that sea-level–modulated seismicity may have contributed to a number of poorly understood but widely observed phenomena, including (1) increased frequency of large-scale submarine landslides during rapid, late Pleistocene sea-level rise; (2) emplacement of coarse-grained mass transport deposits on deep-sea fans during the early stages of marine transgression; and (3) the unroofing and release of methane gas sequestered in continental slope sediments.

  14. NESTOR - Neutrino Extended Submarine Telescope with Oceanographic Research

    CERN Document Server


    {\\bf NESTOR} is a deep-sea neutrino telescope that is being deployed in the Mediterranean off the south-west coast of the Peleponnese in Greece. Neutrinos, when they interact in the earth below or in the seawater around the detector, produce muons that can be observed by the Cherenkov radiation, which they emit. At an operating depth of 4000 metres, the detector is effectively shielded from muons produced in atmospheric interactions. {\\bf The site:} A major feature of the Ionian Sea floor is the Hellenic Trench, the deepest in the Mediterranean, which in places exceeds 5000 meters. It runs close to the western coast of the Peleponnese and is protected on its western side by the submarine Eastern Mediterranean Ridge. It is far from big city pollution or the effluent of major river systems flowing into the Mediterranean and is protected from deep-water perturbations.\\\\ The NESTOR site is located on a broad plateau some 8 $\\times$ 9 kilometres in area on the eastern side of the Hellenic Trench at a mean depth of...

  15. Ecostructuring of marine nematode communities by submarine groundwater discharge. (United States)

    Grzelak, Katarzyna; Tamborski, Joseph; Kotwicki, Lech; Bokuniewicz, Henry


    Inputs of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) to the coastal ocean may alter local and regional-scale biology. Here, we report on nematode assemblages along the north shore of Long Island, NY. We test if nematode communities differed between sites impacted by mixed fresh-saline SGD and where SGD is exclusively saline. Diversity of nematodes was low at sites impacted by fresh SGD and communities were dominated by a few opportunistic genera. Moreover, a set of typical freshwater nematode genera restricted to impacted sites was observed. Their presence in the marine coastal zone is exceptional and underlines the structuring role that fresh SGD plays in the local ecosystem. Saline SGD structured nematode assemblages differently compared to sites impacted by fresh SGD. The number of nematode genera was markedly higher at saline SGD sites, with a different community structure. This study highlights the importance to which inputs of fresh SGD may have on local ecosystem diversity in marine coastal environments. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Breathing modes of Kolumbo submarine volcano (Santorini, Greece) (United States)

    Bakalis, Evangelos; Mertzimekis, Theo J.; Nomikou, Paraskevi; Zerbetto, Francesco


    Submarine volcanoes, such as Kolumbo (Santorini, Greece) are natural laboratories for fostering multidisciplinary studies. Their investigation requires the most innovative marine technology together with advanced data analysis. Conductivity and temperature of seawater were recorded directly above Kolumbo’s hydrothermal vent system. The respective time series have been analyzed in terms of non-equilibrium techniques. The energy dissipation of the volcanic activity is monitored by the temperature variations of seawater. The venting dynamics of chemical products is monitored by water conductivity. The analysis of the time series in terms of stochastic processes delivers scaling exponents with turning points between consecutive regimes for both conductivity and temperature. Changes of conductivity are shown to behave as a universal multifractal and their variance is subdiffusive as the scaling exponents indicate. Temperature is constant over volcanic rest periods and a universal multifractal behavior describes its changes in line with a subdiffusive character otherwise. The universal multifractal description illustrates the presence of non-conservative conductivity and temperature fields showing that the system never retains a real equilibrium state. The existence of a repeated pattern of the combined effect of both seawater and volcanic activity is predicted. The findings can shed light on the dynamics of chemical products emitted from the vents and point to the presence of underlying mechanisms that govern potentially hazardous, underwater volcanic environments.

  17. Psychological outcomes of siblings of cancer survivors: a report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. (United States)

    Buchbinder, David; Casillas, Jacqueline; Krull, Kevin R; Goodman, Pam; Leisenring, Wendy; Recklitis, Christopher; Alderfer, Melissa A; Robison, Leslie L; Armstrong, Gregory T; Kunin-Batson, Alicia; Stuber, Margaret; Zeltzer, Lonnie K


    To identify risk factors for adverse psychological outcomes among adult siblings of long-term survivors of childhood cancer. Cross-sectional, self-report data from 3083 adult siblings (mean age 29 years, range 18-56 years) of 5 + year survivors of childhood cancer were analyzed to assess psychological outcomes as measured by the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 (BSI-18). Sociodemographic and health data, reported by both the siblings and their matched cancer survivors, were explored as risk factors for adverse sibling psychological outcomes through multivariable logistic regression. Self-reported symptoms of psychological distress, as measured by the global severity index of the BSI-18, were reported by 3.8% of the sibling sample. Less than 1.5% of siblings reported elevated scores on two or more of the subscales of the BSI-18. Risk factors for sibling depression included having a survivor brother (OR 2.22, 95% CI 1.42-3.55), and having a survivor with impaired general health (OR 2.15, 95% CI 1.18-3.78). Siblings who were younger than the survivor reported increased global psychological distress (OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.05-3.12), as did siblings of survivors reporting global psychological distress (OR 2.32, 95% CI 1.08-4.59). Siblings of sarcoma survivors reported more somatization than did siblings of leukemia survivors (OR 2.07, 95% CI 1.05-3.98). These findings suggest that siblings of long-term childhood cancer survivors are psychologically healthy in general. There are, however, small subgroups of siblings at risk for long-term psychological impairment who may benefit from preventive risk-reduction strategies during childhood while their sibling with cancer is undergoing treatment. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Unemployment among breast cancer survivors. (United States)

    Carlsen, Kathrine; Ewertz, Marianne; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Badsberg, Jens Henrik; Osler, Merete


    Though about 20% of working age breast cancer survivors do not return to work after treatment, few studies have addressed risk factors for unemployment. The majority of studies on occupational consequences of breast cancer focus on non-employment, which is a mixture of sickness absence, unemployment, retirement pensions and other reasons for not working. Unemployment in combination with breast cancer may represent a particular challenge for these women. The aim of the present study is therefore to analyze the risk for unemployment in the years following diagnosis and treatment for breast cancer. This study included 14,750 women diagnosed with breast cancer in Denmark 2001-2009 identified through a population-based clinical database and linked with information from Danish administrative population based registers for information on labour market affiliation, socio-demography and co-morbid conditions. Multivariable analyses were performed by Cox's proportional hazard models. Two years after treatment, 81% of patients were still part of the work force, 10% of which were unemployed. Increasing duration of unemployment before breast cancer was associated with an adjusted HR = 4.37 (95% CI: 3.90-4.90) for unemployment after breast cancer. Other risk factors for unemployment included low socioeconomic status and demography, while adjuvant therapy did not increase the risk of unemployment. Duration of unemployment before breast cancer was the most important determinant of unemployment after breast cancer treatment. This allows identification of a particularly vulnerable group of patients in need of rehabilitation.

  19. The Enemy Below - The Global Diffusion of Submarines and Related Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, K G


    The end of the Cold War seemed to create a more peaceful international environment. September 11 reminded us of the dangers of complacency. Indeed, even before September 11 US forces had intervened in a number of wars and crises, including Panama, the Persian Gulf War, Somalia, Rwanda, Bosnia, Kosovo, several Taiwan Straits crises, the North Korea nuclear weapons crisis, and most recently Afghanistan. US ability to intervene in remote areas of the world is often dependent on the Navy's ability to project power ashore. As a result, US ability to influence events in crisis situations, especially between or among nuclear powers, may become more difficult along with our ability to conduct littoral warfare. Although the numbers of potentially hostile submarines have declined with the end of the Cold War, US anti-submarine warfare capabilities have also declined. Moreover, foreign submarines and related technologies are likely to diffuse globally. New technologies like Air Independent Propulsion (AIP), improved weapons and sensors will make conventional submarines more dangerous, and the spread of nuclear submarines even to a few more countries raise political, military, environmental, and safety concerns. Submarines are one of the key weapon systems used alone or in combination with other weapon systems such as coastal defense missiles, aircraft, and other sea-based missile platforms to deny US ability to project power ashore, Thus, other countries who wish to deny the US the ability to interfere with their regional or even global ambitions may emphasize the acquisition and/or development of submarines. As the world become more multipolar over the longer term, as the Chinese believe it will, countries such as Russia, China. etc., may be able to acquire the submarine capabilities to challenge us not just regionally, but in blue waters. To the extent that our alliance relationships require US naval access or superiority to sustain them, then our erstwhile friendly

  20. Westward advance of the deformation front and evolution of submarine canyons offshore of southwestern Taiwan (United States)

    Han, Wei-Chung; Liu, Char-Shine; Chi, Wu-Cheng; Chen, Liwen; Lin, Che-Chuan; Chen, Song-Chuen


    This study analyzes both 2D and 3D seismic images around the Palm Ridge area offshore of southwestern Taiwan to understand how the deformation front shifted westward and how tectonic activities interact with submarine canyon paths in the transition area between the active and passive margins. Palm Ridge is a submarine ridge that developed on the passive China continental margin by down-dip erosion of several tributaries of Penghu Canyon; it extends eastward across the deformation front into the submarine Taiwan accretionary wedge. The presence of proto-thrusts that are located west of the frontal thrust implies that the compressional stress field has advanced westward due to the convergence of the Philippine Sea Plate and Eurasian Plate. Since the deformation front is defined as the location of the most frontal contractional structure, no significant contractional structure should appear west of it. We thus suggest moving the location of the previously mapped deformation front farther west to where the westernmost proto-thrust lies. High-resolution seismic and bathymetric data reveal that the directions of the paleo-submarine canyons run transverse to the present slope dip, while the present submarine canyons head down slope in the study area. We propose that this might be the result of the westward migration of the deformation front that changed the paleo-bathymetry and thus the canyon path directions. The interactions of down-slope processes and active tectonics control the canyon paths in our study area.

  1. Influence of stiffness constant of stern bearing on vibration and acoustic radiation of whole submarine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Lucai


    Full Text Available [Objectives] This paper studies the influence of the stiffness constant of a stern bearing on the vibration and acoustic radiation of a whole submarine.[Methods] Based on the form of SUBOFF, a whole submarine model is established in which the structures of the propeller and shaft are first formed in solid elements. Through calculating and comparing the structural vibration and acoustic radiation driven by a vertically excited force, the influence of the elastic coefficient of the stern bearing on the vibroacoustic of the overall submarine structure is mainly considered. [Results] It is demonstrated that the reduction of the elastic coefficient of the stern bearing leads to the convergence of structural vibration and acoustic radiation to the second order overall bending modal frequency, and the frequency gradually becomes lower, which can benefit the vibroacoustic reduction of submarines at frequencies higher than the second order overall bending modal frequency. [Conclusions] These results provide a reference for the acoustic design of submarine structures.

  2. Methane concentration inside a submarine mud volcano examined through seismic velocity profiles (United States)

    Kioka, Arata; Tsuji, Takeshi; Otsuka, Hironori; Ashi, Juichiro


    Mud volcanoes are considered to be among largest geological sources releasing hydrocarbon gases into the atmosphere. Numerous studies have revealed their origins and compositions from submarine mud volcanoes. A recent long-term observation at a submarine mud volcano sheds light on that larger volume of methane gas than expected is escaped from deep-water mud volcanoes, suggesting that the global methane flux from the seafloor is likely underestimated. Yet, estimates of the gas amount inside mud volcanoes have been still challenging, because of the difficulty of in-situ measurements. This study provides a new model to bridge methane amounts and seismic velocities in fluidized mud conduits of submarine mud volcanoes. This model is universally applicable and enables estimates of methane concentration in the mud conduits, using the seismic velocity profile derived from reflection/refraction seismic and/or downhole logging data. In this study, (1) we examine our modeled results through deep-drilling data obtained at mud volcanoes in the Olimpi mud field of the central Mediterranean Ridge accretionary margin, to evaluate the difference between in situ methane amounts and those calculated from our model, and (2) apply our model to the seismic velocity profile derived from seicmic data to estimate the methane amount inside the submarine mud volcano in the Nankai accretionary margin. Our scheme may provide an opportunity to re-estimate the total methane flux from submarine mud volcanoes.

  3. Health and well-being in adolescent survivors of early childhood cancer: a report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. (United States)

    Mertens, Ann C; Brand, Sarah; Ness, Kirsten K; Li, Zhenghong; Mitby, Pauline A; Riley, Anne; Patenaude, Andrea Farkas; Zeltzer, Lonnie


    With the growing number of childhood cancer survivors in the US, it is important to assess the well-being of these individuals, particularly during the transitional phase of adolescence. Data about adolescent survivors' overall health and quality of life will help identify survivor subgroups most in need of targeted attention to successfully transition to adulthood. This ancillary study to the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study focused on children 15-19 years of age who had been diagnosed with cancer before the age of 4 years. A cohort of siblings of pediatric cancer survivors of the same ages served as a comparison sample. Adolescent health was assessed using the Child Health and Illness Profile-Adolescent Edition (CHIP-AE) survey. The teen survey was sent to 444 survivor teens and 189 siblings. Of these, 307(69%) survivors and 97 (51%) siblings completed and returned the survey. The overall health profiles of siblings and survivors were similar. Among survivors, females scored significantly below males on satisfaction, discomfort, and disorders domains. Survivors diagnosed with central nervous system tumors scored less favorably than leukemia survivors in the global domains of satisfaction and disorders. In general, adolescent survivors fare favorably compared to healthy siblings. However, identification of the subset of pediatric cancer survivors who are more vulnerable to medical and psychosocial disorders in adolescence provides the opportunity for design and implementation of intervention strategies that may improve quality of life. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Recovering from Opioid Overdose: Resources for Overdose Survivors & Family Members (United States)

    SAMHSA Opioid Overdose Prevention TOOLKIT: Recovering From Opioid Overdose – Resources for Overdose Survivors & Family Members TABLE OF CONTENTS Recovering From Opioid Overdose Recovering from Opioid Overdose. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Resources for Overdose Survivors ...

  5. Breast cancer survivors of different sexual orientations: which factors explain survivors' quality of life and adjustment? (United States)

    Boehmer, U; Glickman, M; Winter, M; Clark, M A


    Little is known about differences by sexual orientation in explanatory factors of breast cancer survivors' quality of life, anxiety, and depression. Survivors were recruited from a cancer registry and additional survivors recruited through convenience methods. Data were collected via telephone survey from all 438 survivors, who were disease free and diagnosed with non-metastatic breast cancer an average of 5 years earlier. To explain quality of life, anxiety, and depression, we focused on sexual orientation as the primary independent factors, in addition, considering demographic, psychosocial, clinical, and functional factors as correlates. Sexual orientation had indirect associations with each of the outcomes, through disease-related and demographic factors as well as psychosocial and coping resources. The various explanatory models explain between 36% and 50% of the variance in outcomes and identified areas of strengths and vulnerabilities in sexual minority compared with heterosexual survivors. This study's findings of strengths among specific subgroups of sexual minority compared with heterosexual survivors require further explorations to identify the reasons for this finding. Most of the identified vulnerabilities among sexual minority compared with heterosexual survivors of breast cancer are amenable to change by interventions.

  6. The Keelung Submarine Volcano in the near-shore area of northern Taiwan and its tectonic implication (United States)

    Tsai, Ching-Hui; Hsu, Shu-Kun; Lin, Shiao-Shan; Yang, Tsanyao F.; Wang, Shiou-Ya; Doo, Wen-Bin; Lee, Hsiao-Fen; Lan, Tefang; Huang, Jian-Cheng; Liang, Chin-Wei


    The Taiwan mountain belt has been created due to the collision between the Philippine Sea Plate and the Eurasian Plate. Northernmost Taiwan and its offshore area are now under post-collisional collapse. The post-collisional magmatism is distributed around northern Taiwan. Here we first report a submarine volcano, named Keelung Submarine Volcano, existing in the near-shore area of northern Taiwan. The high 3He/4He ratios in the collected seawater samples suggest that the magma of the Keelung Submarine Volcano is derived from a mantle source. Geometrically, both the Keelung Submarine Volcano and the Tatun Volcano Group are situated above the western border of the subducted Philippine Sea Plate and may have a same magma source. Both volcanic areas belong to the northern Taiwan volcanic zone, instead of the Ryukyu volcanic front. The Keelung Submarine Volcano has been rotated clockwise ∼48° after its formation, which implies that the Keelung Submarine Volcano has formed before the Luzon arc collided against northern Taiwan. Consequently, the post-collisional model to explain the formation of the northern Taiwan volcanic zone is questionable. As indicated by numerous shallow earthquakes and persistent emissions of the volcanic gases out of the seafloor around the volcanic cone, the Keelung Submarine Volcano is as active as the Tatun Volcano Group. For the sake of volcanic hazard assessment, it is essential to monitor the activity of the Keelung Submarine Volcano.

  7. CFD RANS Simulations on a Generic Conventional Scale Model Submarine: Comparison between Fluent and OpenFOAM (United States)


    1 – Hydrodynamics”, Defence Science and Technology Organisation Technical Report DSTO-TR-1622, 2004. UNCLASSIFIED DST-Group-TN-1449 UNCLASSIFIED...17 7. Joubert, P.N., “Some Aspects of Submarine Design Part 2– Shape of a Submarine 2026”, Defence Science and Technology Organisation Technical

  8. Psychological status in childhood cancer survivors: a report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. (United States)

    Zeltzer, Lonnie K; Recklitis, Christopher; Buchbinder, David; Zebrack, Bradley; Casillas, Jacqueline; Tsao, Jennie C I; Lu, Qian; Krull, Kevin


    Psychological quality of life (QOL), health-related QOL (HRQOL), and life satisfaction outcomes and their associated risk factors are reviewed for the large cohort of survivors and siblings in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS). This review includes previously published manuscripts that used CCSS data focused on psychological outcome measures, including the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI-18), the Medical Outcomes Survey Short Form-36 (SF-36), the Cantril Ladder of Life, and other self-report questionnaires. Comparisons and contrasts are made between siblings and survivors, and to normative data when available, in light of demographic/health information and abstracted data from the medical record. These studies demonstrate that a significant proportion of survivors report more symptoms of global distress and poorer physical, but not emotional, domains of HRQOL. Other than brain tumor survivors, most survivors report both good present and expected future life satisfaction. Risk factors for psychological distress and poor HRQOL are female sex, lower educational attainment, unmarried status, annual household income less than $20,000, unemployment, lack of health insurance, presence of a major medical condition, and treatment with cranial radiation and/or surgery. Cranial irradiation impacted neurocognitive outcomes, especially in brain tumor survivors. Psychological distress also predicted poor health behaviors, including smoking, alcohol use, fatigue, and altered sleep. Psychological distress and pain predicted use of complementary and alternative medicine. Overall, most survivors are psychologically healthy and report satisfaction with their lives. However, certain groups of childhood cancer survivors are at high risk for psychological distress, neurocognitive dysfunction, and poor HRQOL, especially in physical domains. These findings suggest targeting interventions for groups at highest risk for adverse outcomes and examining the positive growth that remains

  9. Implementing the Exercise Guidelines for Cancer Survivors (United States)

    Wolin, Kathleen Y.; Schwartz, Anna L.; Matthews, Charles E.; Courneya, Kerry S.; Schmitz, Kathryn H.


    In 2009, the American College of Sports Medicine convened an expert roundtable to issue guidelines on exercise for cancer survivors. This multidisciplinary group evaluated the strength of the evidence for the safety and benefits of exercise as a therapeutic intervention for survivors. The panel concluded that exercise is safe and offers myriad benefits for survivors including improvements in physical function, strength, fatigue, quality of life (QOL), and possibly recurrence and survival. Recommendations for situations in which deviations from the US Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans are appropriate were provided. Here, we outline a process for implementing the guidelines in clinical practice, and provide recommendations for how the oncology care provider can interface with the exercise and physical therapy community. PMID:22579268

  10. Holocaust survivors: three waves of resilience research. (United States)

    Greene, Roberta R; Hantman, Shira; Sharabi, Adi; Cohen, Harriet


    Three waves of resilience research have resulted in resilience-enhancing educational and therapeutic interventions. In the first wave of inquiry, researchers explored the traits and environmental characteristics that enabled people to overcome adversity. In the second wave, researchers investigated the processes related to stress and coping. In the third wave, studies examined how people grow and are transformed following adverse events, often leading to self-actualize, client creativity and spirituality. In this article the authors examined data from a study, "Forgiveness, Resiliency, and Survivorship among Holocaust Survivors" funded by the John Templeton Foundation ( Greene, Armour, Hantman, Graham, & Sharabi, 2010 ). About 65% of the survivors scored on the high side for resilience traits. Of the survivors, 78% engaged in processes considered resilient and felt they were transcendent or had engaged in behaviors that help them grow and change over the years since the Holocaust, including leaving a legacy and contributing to the community.

  11. High accuracy station moving method for total station in submarine construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIN Shaosong


    Full Text Available [Objectives] When we measure submarine pressure hulls using a total station, it is essential to set several stations in order to complete the measurement of the whole cabin due to the complicated measuring environment. However, there are many restrictions related to the total station itself when moving stations, and it is also difficult to ensure measuring accuracy and satisfy the requirements of submarine measurement in complicated environments.[Methods] As such, a new station moving method is presented which can automatically establish standing relationships by measuring common points at every measuring position.[Results] This method can significantly improve accuracy and efficiency.[Conclusions] The experiment shows that the results of the new station moving method can meet sub-pixel precision and satisfy submarine measurement requirements with high accuracy.

  12. Submarine landslide and tsunami hazards offshore southern Alaska: Seismic strengthening versus rapid sedimentation (United States)

    Sawyer, Derek E.; Reece, Robert S.; Gulick, Sean P. S.; Lenz, Brandi L.


    The southern Alaskan offshore margin is prone to submarine landslides and tsunami hazards due to seismically active plate boundaries and extreme sedimentation rates from glacially enhanced mountain erosion. We examine the submarine landslide potential with new shear strength measurements acquired by Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 341 on the continental slope and Surveyor Fan. These data reveal lower than expected sediment strength. Contrary to other active margins where seismic strengthening enhances slope stability, the high-sedimentation margin offshore southern Alaska behaves like a passive margin from a shear strength perspective. We interpret that seismic strengthening occurs but is offset by high sedimentation rates and overpressure. This conclusion is supported by shear strength outside of the fan that follow an active margin trend. More broadly, seismically active margins with wet-based glaciers are susceptible to submarine landslide hazards because of the combination of high sedimentation rates and earthquake shaking.

  13. The Zambezi Channel: A new perspective on submarine channel evolution at low latitudes (United States)

    Wiles, E.; Green, A.; Watkeys, M.; Jokat, W.


    Submarine channels are not stand-alone systems. They are long-lived systems modified by imperceptibly slow processes and rapid gravity flows, in some part controlled by hinterland dynamics. The submarine Zambezi Channel, within the Mozambique Channel, receives sediment from the Zambezi River catchment which has a dynamic tectonic and morphological history. Using recently collected multibeam bathymetry and PARASOUND data we discuss the geomorphology of the Zambezi Channel. Results show this system to be distinct in geomorphologic character when compared to other low-latitude submarine channels, sharing similarities with high-latitude systems. We propose a new, source-to-sink, hypothesis for the evolution of the Zambezi Channel, taking in to consideration hinterland tectonics, palaeo-lake development, river capture and rapid gravity flows. This hypothesis accounts for the unique present-day anatomy of the Zambezi Channel within the dynamic framework of the systems regional setting.

  14. Research on Big Data Attribute Selection Method in Submarine Optical Fiber Network Fault Diagnosis Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Ganlang


    Full Text Available At present, in the fault diagnosis database of submarine optical fiber network, the attribute selection of large data is completed by detecting the attributes of the data, the accuracy of large data attribute selection cannot be guaranteed. In this paper, a large data attribute selection method based on support vector machines (SVM for fault diagnosis database of submarine optical fiber network is proposed. Mining large data in the database of optical fiber network fault diagnosis, and calculate its attribute weight, attribute classification is completed according to attribute weight, so as to complete attribute selection of large data. Experimental results prove that ,the proposed method can improve the accuracy of large data attribute selection in fault diagnosis database of submarine optical fiber network, and has high use value.

  15. Chemical Fluxes from a Recently Erupted Submarine Volcano on the Mariana Arc (United States)

    Buck, N. J.; Resing, J. A.; Lupton, J. E.; Larson, B. I.; Walker, S. L.; Baker, E. T.


    While hydrothermal circulation is paramount to the geochemical budget for a wide array of elements, relatively few flux estimates exist in the literature. To date most studies have concentrated on constraining global and vent-field scale inputs originating from ocean spreading ridges. The goal of this study is to directly measure the chemical flux from an active submarine volcano injecting hydrothermal fluids into the surface ocean. Ahyi Seamount, a submarine intraoceanic arc volcano located in the Northern Mariana Islands, has a summit depth TSM and total and dissolved Fe and Mn. Laboratory analyses found enriched concentrations of H2, 3He, CO2 and Fe, consistent with a recent eruption. Preliminary flux calculations estimate a Fe input of 16 mmol s-1. This indicates shallow submarine arc volcanoes are capable of supplying appreciable quantities of Fe into the surface ocean. Further laboratory analyses and calculations to characterize and constrain the fluxes of other chemical constituents are underway.

  16. Air blast injuries killed the crew of the submarine H.L. Hunley.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel M Lance

    Full Text Available The submarine H.L. Hunley was the first submarine to sink an enemy ship during combat; however, the cause of its sinking has been a mystery for over 150 years. The Hunley set off a 61.2 kg (135 lb black powder torpedo at a distance less than 5 m (16 ft off its bow. Scaled experiments were performed that measured black powder and shock tube explosions underwater and propagation of blasts through a model ship hull. This propagation data was used in combination with archival experimental data to evaluate the risk to the crew from their own torpedo. The blast produced likely caused flexion of the ship hull to transmit the blast wave; the secondary wave transmitted inside the crew compartment was of sufficient magnitude that the calculated chances of survival were less than 16% for each crew member. The submarine drifted to its resting place after the crew died of air blast trauma within the hull.

  17. Origin of the Easter Submarine Alignment: morphology and structural lineaments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristián Rodrigo


    Full Text Available The Easter submarine alignment corresponds to a sequence of seamounts and oceanic islands which runs from the Ahu-Umu volcanic fields in the west to its intersection with the Nazca Ridge in the east, with a total length of about 2.900 km and a strike of N85°E. Recent bathymetric compilations that include combined satellite derived and shipboard data (Global Topography and multibeam bathymetric data (from NGDC-NOAA are interpreted both qualitatively and quantitatively by using a morphological analysis, which was comprised of the determination of bathymetric patterns, trends in lineations and structures; height measurements, computation of basal areas and volumes of seamounts, in order to establish clues on the origin of this seamount chain and to establish relationships with the regional tectonics. In the study region 514 seamounts were counted, of which 334 had a basal area less than the reference seamount (Moai. In general, the largest seamounts (>1000 m in height tend to align and to have a larger volume, with an elongation of their bases along the seamount chain. On the other hand, smaller seamounts tend to be distributed more randomly with more circular bases. As a consequence of the morphological analysis, the best possible mechanism that explains the origin of the seamount chain is the existence of a localized hotspot to the west of the Salas y Gómez Island. The corresponding plume would contribute additional magmatic material towards the East Pacific Rise through canalizations, whose secondary branches would feed intermediate volcanoes. It is possible that within the Easter Island region there would be another minor contribution through fractures in the crust, due to the crustal weakening that was produced by the Easter Fracture Zone.

  18. The Atlas of Submarine Glacial Landforms: Modern, Quaternary and Ancient (United States)

    Dowdeswell, Julian A.; Canals, Miquel; Jakobsson, Martin; Todd, Brian J.; Dowdeswell, Evelyn K.; Hogan, Kelly A.


    Twenty years ago, the international marine community brought together a first Atlas of Acoustic Images of the high-latitude geo-marine environment (Davies et al. 1997). The present Atlas is a new attempt to summarize the state of knowledge of high-latitude glacier-influenced systems, focusing on HR imagery derived from multibeam swath bathymetry and novel 2D and 3D seismic reflection tools. These new-generation techniques, aided by accurate global positioning, have revolutionized the imaging of the seafloor and subseafloor over the past two decades and have now been deployed widely in polar and subpolar waters, providing vast quantities of new data. It is, therefore, timely to provide a compilation of the variety of submarine glacial and related landforms, together with their stratigraphic setting where possible, for scientific, technological, environmental and economic reasons. The glacial imprint on the modern seabed and palaeo-shelf surfaces, buried in glacial-sedimentary depocentres, can now be imaged better than ever before using the above techniques, providing novel insights into present and past environmental conditions and sedimentary architecture. The understanding of polar regions and their changing ice cover is of enhanced significance as they are both a key driver of global change and important responders to it. Finally, industry is increasingly interested on the dimensions and architecture of glacial sedimentary depocentres on present and past continental shelves because of the hydrocarbon potential of some glacial-sedimentary systems. The Atlas consists of a comprehensive series of over 180 contributions that describe, illustrate and discuss the full variability of landforms found on the high-latitude, glacier-influenced systems, and is organised in terms of their positions on a continental margin into those from: (1) fjords, (2) continental shelves and plateaus, and (3) the deep margin and basins beyond. The Atlas has been published by the Geological

  19. Seismic site response of submarine slope offshore southwestern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Yi Lin


    Full Text Available Widely distributed Bottom-Simulating Reflectors (BSRs have been observed in the area offshore of southwestern Taiwan where the active accretionary complex meets with the passive China continental margin. In order to clarify the link between seismic site response and sedimentary properties of submarine slope, we evaluate the response of seafloor sediments in regard to passive dynamic loads. The local site effect produced by shallow marine sediments was characterized by estimating the horizontal-to-vertical (H/V spectral ratios of data recorded by the short-period Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBSs. The results show that the maximal H/V ratios appeared in the range of 3.66 - 9.28 Hz, suggesting that the fundamental frequency is dominated by the effect related to the very shallow sediments. For most stations, the H/V ratios estimated based on the earthquakes and noise records were characterized by different patterns. Relatively broad H/V pattern was obtained when the signals were extracted from earthquakes. This phenomenon may be related to soil nonlinearity when a stronger motion applies. In comparison with the available geological structures and bulk density distribution obtained from coring experiments, we found a relatively higher fundamental frequency of about 8 - 9 Hz for the more rigid material, such as mud diapir and folding axes. For most of the area along the slope, the fundamental frequency shows a relatively low value, about 6 - 8 Hz. Finally, when a site is characterized by thick or lowest bulk density sedimentary layer, we observed a fundamental frequency lower than 5 Hz, which is the lowest in our assessment.

  20. Potential Impact of Submarine Power Cables on Crab Harvest (United States)

    Bull, A. S.; Nishimoto, M.


    Offshore renewable energy installations convert wave or wind energy to electricity and transfer the power to shore through transmission cables laid on or buried beneath the seafloor. West coast commercial fishermen, who harvest the highly prized Dungeness crab (Metacarcinus magister) and the rock crab (Cancer spp.), are concerned that the interface of crabs and electromagnetic fields (EMF) from these cables will present an electrified fence on the seafloor that their target resource will not cross. Combined with the assistance of professional fishermen, submarine transmission cables that electrify island communities and offshore oil platforms in the eastern Pacific provide an opportunity to test the harvest of crab species across power transmission cables. In situ field techniques give commercial crab species a choice to decide if they will cross fully energized, EMF emitting, power transmission cables, in response to baited traps. Each independent trial is either one of two possible responses: the crab crosses the cable to enter a trap (1) or the crab does not cross the cable to enter a trap (0). Conditions vary among sample units by the following categorical, fixed factors (i.e., covariates) of cable structure (buried or unburied); direction of cable from crab position (west or east, north or south); time and season. A generalized linear model is fit to the data to determine whether any of these factors affect the probability of crabs crossing an energized cable to enter baited traps. Additionally, the experimental design, aside from the number of runs (set of sample trials) and the dates of the runs, is the same in the Santa Barbara Channel for rock crab and Puget Sound for Dungeness crab, and allows us to compare the capture rates of the two species in the two areas. We present preliminary results from field testing in 2015.

  1. Anatomy of La Jolla submarine canyon system; offshore southern California (United States)

    Paull, C.K.; Caress, D.W.; Lundsten, E.; Gwiazda, R.; Anderson, K.; McGann, M.; Conrad, J.; Edwards, B.; Sumner, E.J.


    An autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) carrying a multibeam sonar and a chirp profiler was used to map sections of the seafloor within the La Jolla Canyon, offshore southern California, at sub-meter scales. Close-up observations and sampling were conducted during remotely operated vehicle (ROV) dives. Minisparker seismic-reflection profiles from a surface ship help to define the overall geometry of the La Jolla Canyon especially with respect to the pre-canyon host sediments. The floor of the axial channel is covered with unconsolidated sand similar to the sand on the shelf near the canyon head, lacks outcrops of the pre-canyon host strata, has an almost constant slope of 1.0° and is covered with trains of crescent shaped bedforms. The presence of modern plant material entombed within these sands confirms that the axial channel is presently active. The sand on the canyon floor liquefied during vibracore collection and flowed downslope, illustrating that the sediment filling the channel can easily fail even on this gentle slope. Data from the canyon walls help constrain the age of the canyon and extent of incision. Horizontal beds of moderately cohesive fine-grained sediments exposed on the steep canyon walls are consistently less than 1.232 million years old. The lateral continuity of seismic reflectors in minisparker profiles indicate that pre-canyon host strata extend uninterrupted from outside the canyon underneath some terraces within the canyon. Evidence of abandoned channels and point bar-like deposits are noticeably absent on the inside bend of channel meanders and in the subsurface of the terraces. While vibracores from the surface of terraces contain thin (< 10 cm) turbidites, they are inferred to be part of a veneer of recent sediment covering pre-canyon host sediments that underpin the terraces. The combined use of state of the art seafloor mapping and exploration tools provides a uniquely detailed view of the morphology within an active submarine canyon.

  2. Daily physical activity patterns in cancer survivors: a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, Josien; Kurvers, R.; Bloo, H.; Hermens, Hermanus J.; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam Marie Rosé


    In cancer survivors physical activity levels are measured primarily with questionnaires. As a result, insight in actual physical activity patterns of cancer survivors is lacking. Activity monitoring with accelerometers revealed that cancer survivors have lower levels of physical activity in the

  3. Participants' Perception of Therapeutic Factors in Groups for Incest Survivors. (United States)

    Wheeler, Inese; And Others


    Investigated member-perceived curative factors in an incest-survivor group, comparing therapeutic factors reported in closed, time-limited incest survivor group to those in Bonney et al.'s open, long-term survivor group and to Yalom's therapy groups. Findings suggest that relative importance of curative factors may be related to group stages.…

  4. Counseling Survivors of Suicide: Implications for Group Postvention. (United States)

    Moore, Maureen M.; Freeman, Stephen J.


    Discusses bereavement and mourning and reviews group applications for the resolution of uncomplicated grief. Presents studies that describe grief experiences of suicide survivors and community reaction to survivors. Argues that a structured group experience, where support is provided by other survivors, gives optimal help to people bereaved by…

  5. Cancer survivor identity shared in a social media intervention. (United States)

    Song, Hayeon; Nam, Yujung; Gould, Jessica; Sanders, W Scott; McLaughlin, Margaret; Fulk, Janet; Meeske, Kathleen A; Ruccione, Kathleen S


    This study investigates how cancer survivors construct their identities and the impact on their psychological health, as measured by depression and survivor self-efficacy. Fourteen young adult survivors of pediatric cancer participated in a customized social networking and video blog intervention program, the LIFECommunity, over a 6-month period. Survivors were asked to share their stories on various topics by posting video messages. Those video blog postings, along with survey data collected from participants, were analyzed to see how cancer survivors expressed their identities, and how these identities are associated with survivors' psychosocial outcomes. In survivors who held negative stereotypes about cancer survivors, there was a positive relationship with depression while positive stereotypes had a marginal association with cancer survivor efficacy. Findings indicate that although pediatric cancer survivors often do not publicly discuss a "cancer survivor identity," they do internalize both positive and negative stereotypes about cancer survivorship. It is important for practitioners to be aware of the long-term implications of cancer survivor identity and stereotypes.

  6. Health examination for A-bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Chikako [Hiroshima Atomic Bomb Casualty Council Health Management Center (Japan)


    The health examination for A-bomb survivors by national, prefectural and city administrations was described and discussed on its general concept, history, time change of examinee number, improvement of examination, prevalence of individual diseases, significance of cancer examinations, examinees` point of view and future problems. Subjects were the survivors living in Hiroshima city: in 1994, their number was 100,188, whose ages were 63 y in average for males consisting of 39.5% and 67 y for females of 60.5%. The examination was begun in 1957 on the law for medical care for the survivors firstly and then systematically in 1961. From 1965, it was performed 4 times a year, and in 1988, one examination in the four was made for cancer. Authors` Center examined previously 90% but recently 70% of the examinees. The remainder underwent the examination in other medical facilities. Tests are blood analysis, electrocardiography and computed radiography of chest with imaging plate, of which data have been accumulated either in photodisc or in host computer. From 1973 to 1993, the cardiovascular diseases increased from 6.1% to 26.9%, metabolic and endocrinic ones like diabetes, 3.6% to 19.7%, and bowel ones, 0.9% to 12.3%. Correlations of these diseases with A-bomb irradiation are not elucidated and possibly poor. Five classes of cancer examinations are performed but the examinee rate in the survivors is as low as 7.6-21.8% (1993). The cancer of the large intestine is increasing. The overall examinee rates in the survivors were 70.6% in 1965-1967, 69.5% in 1976-1977 and 58.2% in 1990. In conclusion, how to examine the survivors, who are getting older, as many as possible is the future problem. (H.O.)

  7. Scattering effect of submarine hull on propeller non-cavitation noise (United States)

    Wei, Yingsan; Shen, Yang; Jin, Shuanbao; Hu, Pengfei; Lan, Rensheng; Zhuang, Shuangjiang; Liu, Dezhi


    This paper investigates the non-cavitation noise caused by propeller running in the wake of submarine with the consideration of scattering effect caused by submarine's hull. The computation fluid dynamics (CFD) and acoustic analogy method are adopted to predict fluctuating pressure of propeller's blade and its underwater noise radiation in time domain, respectively. An effective iteration method which is derived in the time domain from the Helmholtz integral equation is used to solve multi-frequency waves scattering due to obstacles. Moreover, to minimize time interpolation caused numerical errors, the pressure and its derivative at the sound emission time is obtained by summation of Fourier series. It is noted that the time averaging algorithm is used to achieve a convergent result if the solution oscillated in the iteration process. Meanwhile, the developed iteration method is verified and applied to predict propeller noise scattered from submarine's hull. In accordance with analysis results, it is summarized that (1) the scattering effect of hull on pressure distribution pattern especially at the frequency higher than blade passing frequency (BPF) is proved according to the contour maps of sound pressure distribution of submarine's hull and typical detecting planes. (2) The scattering effect of the hull on the total pressure is observable in noise frequency spectrum of field points, where the maximum increment is up to 3 dB at BPF, 12.5 dB at 2BPF and 20.2 dB at 3BPF. (3) The pressure scattered from hull is negligible in near-field of propeller, since the scattering effect surrounding analyzed location of propeller on submarine's stern is significantly different from the surface ship. This work shows the importance of submarine's scattering effect in evaluating the propeller non-cavitation noise.

  8. Simple models for the simulation of submarine melt for a Greenland glacial system model (United States)

    Beckmann, Johanna; Perrette, Mahé; Ganopolski, Andrey


    Two hundred marine-terminating Greenland outlet glaciers deliver more than half of the annually accumulated ice into the ocean and have played an important role in the Greenland ice sheet mass loss observed since the mid-1990s. Submarine melt may play a crucial role in the mass balance and position of the grounding line of these outlet glaciers. As the ocean warms, it is expected that submarine melt will increase, potentially driving outlet glaciers retreat and contributing to sea level rise. Projections of the future contribution of outlet glaciers to sea level rise are hampered by the necessity to use models with extremely high resolution of the order of a few hundred meters. That requirement in not only demanded when modeling outlet glaciers as a stand alone model but also when coupling them with high-resolution 3-D ocean models. In addition, fjord bathymetry data are mostly missing or inaccurate (errors of several hundreds of meters), which questions the benefit of using computationally expensive 3-D models for future predictions. Here we propose an alternative approach built on the use of a computationally efficient simple model of submarine melt based on turbulent plume theory. We show that such a simple model is in reasonable agreement with several available modeling studies. We performed a suite of experiments to analyze sensitivity of these simple models to model parameters and climate characteristics. We found that the computationally cheap plume model demonstrates qualitatively similar behavior as 3-D general circulation models. To match results of the 3-D models in a quantitative manner, a scaling factor of the order of 1 is needed for the plume models. We applied this approach to model submarine melt for six representative Greenland glaciers and found that the application of a line plume can produce submarine melt compatible with observational data. Our results show that the line plume model is more appropriate than the cone plume model for simulating

  9. Submarine geology and geomorphology of active Sub-Antarctic volcanoes: Heard and McDonald Islands (United States)

    Watson, S. J.; Coffin, M. F.; Whittaker, J. M.; Lucieer, V.; Fox, J. M.; Carey, R.; Arculus, R. J.; Bowie, A. R.; Chase, Z.; Robertson, R.; Martin, T.; Cooke, F.


    Heard and McDonald Islands (HIMI) are World Heritage listed sub-Antarctic active volcanic islands in the Southern Indian Ocean. Built atop the Kerguelen Plateau by Neogene-Quaternary volcanism, HIMI represent subaerial exposures of the second largest submarine Large Igneous Province globally. Onshore, processes influencing island evolution include glaciers, weathering, volcanism, vertical tectonics and mass-wasting (Duncan et al. 2016). Waters surrounding HIMI are largely uncharted, due to their remote location. Hence, the extent to which these same processes shape the submarine environment around HIMI has not been investigated. In early 2016, we conducted marine geophysical and geologic surveys around HIMI aboard RV Investigator (IN2016_V01). Results show that volcanic and sedimentary features prominently trend east-west, likely a result of erosion by the eastward flowing Antarctic Circumpolar Current and tidal currents. However, spatial patterns of submarine volcanism and sediment distribution differ substantially between the islands. >70 sea knolls surround McDonald Island suggesting substantial submarine volcanism. Geophysical data reveals hard volcanic seafloor around McDonald Island, whereas Heard Island is characterised by sedimentary sequences tens of meters or more thick and iceberg scours - indicative of glacial processes. Differences in submarine geomorphology are likely due to the active glaciation of Heard Island and differing rock types (Heard: alkali basalt, McDonald: phonolite), and dominant products (clastics vs. lava). Variations may also reflect different magmatic plumbing systems beneath the two active volcanoes (Heard produces larger volumes of more focused lava, whilst McDonald extrudes smaller volumes of more evolved lavas from multiple vents across the edifice). Using geophysical data, corroborated with new and existing geologic data, we present the first geomorphic map revealing the processes that shape the submarine environment around HIMI.

  10. Health and environmental risk assessment associated with a potential recovery of the Russian submarine K-27

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosseini, A.; Amundsen, I.; Brown, J.E.; Dowdall, M.; Standring, W. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority/CERAD CoE (Norway); Bartnicki, J. [Norwegian Meteorological Institute/CERAD CoE (Norway); Karcher, M. [O.A.Sys - Ocean Atmosphere Systems GmbH (Germany); Lind, O.C.; Salbu, B. [Norwegian University of Life Sciences/CERAD CoE (Norway)


    The nuclear submarine K-27 is one of several objects with spent nuclear fuel (SNF) which has been dumped in the Arctic. It contained two liquid metal reactors (LMRs) of 70 MW maximum thermal power each and used Pb-Bi as the coolant. The reactors were loaded with 180 kg of U-235 at an enrichment of 90 %. In September 1981, the submarine was sunk in the shallow waters of Stepovoy Fjord at an estimated depth of 30 m. Concerns have been expressed by various parties regarding the issue of dumped nuclear waste in the Kara Sea and in particular the submarine K-27. To address these concerns and to provide a better basis for evaluating possible radiological impact (especially as a consequence of a potential recovery of the submarine), an environmental impact assessment has been undertaken. The study is based on construction of different hypothetical accident scenarios and evaluating possible associated consequences for human and the environment. In general, three main scenarios seem probable and thus appropriate for consideration. One is the 'zero- alternative', i.e. investigate the current and future impact assuming no interventions. The second considers an accidental scenario involving the raising of the submarine and the third an accidental scenario related to the transportation of the submarine to shore for defueling. With regards to the accidental scenarios related to raising and transportation of the submarine, two alternatives can be considered depending on where and how a hypothetical accident will take place and whether the subsequent releases occur under water or at the water surface. The issue of an uncontrolled chain reaction occurring as a result of a potential recovery of the submarine will be included in the assessment. The work includes application of state of the art 3D hydrodynamic and atmospheric dispersion models to investigate the transport, distribution and fate of relevant radionuclides following a hypothetical accident in aquatic and

  11. Impact of Submarine Geohazards on Organic Carbon Burial Offshore Southwestern Taiwan (United States)

    Su, C. C.; Tsai, P. H.; Liu, J. T.; Hsu, S. K.; Chiu, S. D.


    The tectonically active setting and climatic conditions give Taiwan a high exposure to severe natural hazards. After the Pingtung Earthquake and Morakot Typhoon which occurred in 2006 and 2009, the turbidity currents caused a series of submarine cable breaks along the Gaoping and Fangliao Submarine Canyons off SW Taiwan. Large amounts of terrestrial sediments were fast transported bypass the narrow continental shelf and rapidly moved southward through submarine canyons to the deep sea. Two piston cores which were taken from the Tsangyao Ridge and its adjacent area (OR5-1302-2-MT7 and MT6) might shed light on understanding the export of terrestrial organic carbon to the abyss by submarine geo-hazards. The 210Pb profile of MT7 in conjunction with the grain size data indicates the existence of the Pingtung Earthquake and Morakot Typhoon related deposits. The sedimentation rate of these two cores which derived from 210Pb is approximately 0.05 cm/yr. The cores collected from the Gaoping Submarine Canyon, Gaoping Slope and Fangliao Submarine Canyon are used for analyzing TOC, organic C/N and δ13C ratios. The concentrations of total organic carbon are ~0.5%, and C/N rations almost remain between 4 and 8. The high TOC (~1%) and C/N ratio (>10) are observed in the samples with plant debris. The fluctuation of TOC and C/N ratios in near-shore samples is higher than deep sea. In terms of δ13C-values, it progressively decreases with distances from coastal zone to the deep sea. Due to the larger proportions of land-derived organic carbon, the δ13C-values in the surface sediment of upper Gaoping Submarine Canyon, Gaoping Slope, and the turbidite layers at the head of Fangliao Submarine Canyon are lighter. Furthermore, we use the TOC concentrations and δ13C-values to estimate the fractional contributions of terrestrial organic carbon by a simple two component mixing model, and integrate with the 210Pb-derived sediment accumulation rates to evaluate the organic carbon burial

  12. Nuclear-powered submarine accidents; Les accidents de sous-marins nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tournyol du Clos, A.


    Most of nuclear-powered ships are military ships and submarines represent 95% of the total. Most of the propulsion reactors used are of PWR type. This paper gives the principal technical characteristics of PWR ship propulsion reactors and the differences with their civil homologues. The principal accidents that occurred on US and Russian nuclear-powered submarines are also listed and the possible effects of a shipwreck on the reactor behaviour are evaluated with their environmental impact. (J.S.). 1 tab., 1 photo.

  13. Modeling and Synthesis Methods for Retrofit Design of Submarine Actuation Systems. Energy Storage for Electric Actuators (United States)


    sternplane v - sway w - heave u - surge X Y Z y z x Figure 2: Coordinate frame definitions of submarine vehicular dynamics. 2.1 Six Degree of Freedom...where Mν̇ is the total inertial matrix, C(ν) is the Coriolis/centripetal matrix, D(ν) is the total damping matrix, g(η) are the buoyancy and weight...Natick, MA. Retrofit Design of Submarine Actuation Systems Page 7 q - pitch w - heave u - surge δs Msp Figure 3: Hydrodynamic moment unit definition

  14. The impact of the Type 094 ballistic missile submarine on China's nuclear policy


    Bell, Samuel D.


    Approved for public release, distribution unlimited This thesis examines the implication of China’s near completion of a viable nuclear triad. The objective is to determine first, how this submarine will fit into China’s no-first-use policy with regards to their nuclear weapons. And second, determine how advanced this weapon platform will be. With the introduction of multiple Type 094 “Jin” class ballistic missile submarines, has Beijing set the stage for a possible return to Cold War leve...

  15. Oceanographic studies supporting the assessment of deep-sea disposal of defueled decommissioned nuclear submarines (United States)

    Ross Heath, G.; Rea, David K.; Ness, Gordon; Dale Pillsbury, R.; Beasley, Thomas M.; Lopez, Carlos; Talbert, Daniel M.


    Based on criteria developed by the international Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), potential disposal sites for defueled, decommissioned nuclear submarines appear to exist in deep water south of the Mendocino Fracture Zone within 200 nautical miles of the United States Oceanographic measurements in the water column and at the sea floor in a study area (W-N) at 39 5°N, 127 5°W will allow the operational and radiological consequences of deep-sea disposal to be compared with land burial of old submarines. The W-N studies also are yielding new data that will provide insights to the deposition and early diagenesis of distal hemipelagic sediments

  16. Submarine landslide triggered by eruption recorded by in-situ hydrophone at NW Rota-1 submarine volcano, Mariana Arc (Invited) (United States)

    Chadwick, B.; Dziak, R. P.; Embley, R. W.; Tunnicliffe, V.; Sherrin, J.; Cashman, K. V.; Deardorff, N.


    An expedition to NW Rota-1, Mariana Arc, in March 2010 with R/V Kilo Moana and ROV Jason found that the submarine volcano (summit depth 520 m) was still erupting more or less continuously as has been observed since 2004, In addition, the expedition also discovered that a major landslide had occurred since the last visit in April 2009, demonstrating the dynamic processes of eruption, collapse, and regrowth in the submarine arc environment. The dive observations reveal the responses of the volcano’s magmatic and hydrothermal systems to such a collapse, as well as how the resident chemosynthetic biological community has responded to the event. The morphologic changes from the landslide can be quantified by comparing multibeam bathymetric surveys between 2009 and 2010. The headwall of the slide is now ~100 m north of the former summit ridge where depth changes up to -90 m occurred between surveys. The slide excavated material from the upper southern slope of the volcano to a distance of 3.5 km downslope, and deposited material between 2-8 km from the summit down to at least 2800 m on the volcano flank. The area and volume of slide deposits (positive depth changes) are 7.1 x 106 m2 and 5.3 x 107 m3, respectively, and the maximum thickness is +42 m. The area and volume of material removed by the slide (negative depth changes) are 2.2 x 106 m2 and -4.1 x 107 m3, respectively. We have found no evidence for a local tsunami generated by this event. The changes in morphology near the summit show that the landslide primarily removed loose volcaniclastic deposits that had accumulated near the active eruptive vent, exposing an underlying stock-like core of resistant intrusive rocks and massive lavas at the summit. During March 2010, there were at least 5 active eruptive vents, located along a line 200-m long, that changed between active and inactive day-to-day and even hour-to-hour, suggesting that the near-surface magmatic plumbing system was still reorganizing after the

  17. Specialized survivor clinic attendance increases adherence to cardiomyopathy screening guidelines in adult survivors of childhood cancer. (United States)

    Marr, Kristin C; Agha, Mohammad; Sutradhar, Rinku; Pole, Jason D; Hodgson, David; Guttmann, Astrid; Greenberg, Mark; Nathan, Paul C


    To determine if attendance at a specialized clinic for adult survivors of childhood cancer is associated with better rates of adherence to the Children's Oncology Group (COG) Long-term Follow-up (LTFU) guidelines for cardiomyopathy screening. We conducted a retrospective population-based study using administrative data in Ontario, Canada of 5-year survivors diagnosed between 1986 and 2005 at risk of therapy-related late cardiomyopathy. Patients were classified into three groups based on the recommended frequency of screening: annual, every 2 years, and every 5 years. Of 1811 eligible survivors followed for median 7.8 years (range 0-14.0), patients were adherent to screening for only 8.6% of their period of follow-up. Survivor clinic utilization had the strongest association with increased rates of adherence: when compared to no attendance, ≥ 5 clinic visits/10-year period had RR of adherence of 10.6 (95% CI 5.7-19.5) in the annual group, 3.3 (95% CI 2.3-4.8) in the every 2-year group, and 2.3 (95% CI 1.6-3.2) in the every 5-year group. Additional factors associated with increased adherence after adjusting for clinic attendance included annual assessment by a general practioner, female sex, diagnosis prior to 2003, and living in a rural area. In a model of specialized survivor care, increased clinic utilization is associated with improved patient adherence to COG LTFU cardiomyopathy screening guidelines. Specialized survivor clinics may improve health outcomes in survivors through improved adherence to screening. However, rates of adherence remain suboptimal and further multifacetted strategies need to be explored to improve overall rates of screening in adult survivors of childhood cancer.

  18. Holocaust survivors: the pain behind the agony. Increased prevalence of fibromyalgia among Holocaust survivors. (United States)

    Ablin, J N; Cohen, H; Eisinger, M; Buskila, D


    To assess the frequency of fibromyalgia among a population of Holocaust survivors in Israel as well as the occurrence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and concurrent psychiatric symptoms, including depression and anxiety among survivors. Eighty-three survivors of the Nazi Holocaust and 65 age-matched individuals not exposed to Nazi occupation were recruited. Physical examination and manual tender point assessment was performed for the establishment of the diagnosis of fibromyalgia and information was collected regarding quality of life (SF-36), physical function and health (FIQ), psychiatric symptoms (SCL-90) and PTSD symptoms (CAPS). Significantly increased rates of fibromyalgia were identified among Holocaust survivors compared with controls (23.81% vs. 10.94, p<0.05). Significantly increased rates of posttraumatic symptoms and measures of mental distress were also identified among survivors. The results indicate a significantly increased prevalence of fibromyalgia among Holocaust survivors six decades after the end of the Second World War. This finding furthers our knowledge regarding the long-term effect of stress on the development of fibromyalgia.

  19. Adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse: survivor's disclosure and nurse therapist's response. (United States)

    Weaver, P L; Varvaro, F F; Connors, R; Regan-Kubinski, M J


    Recent literature pertinent to adult survivors suggests that childhood sexual abuse is a serious problem, and that disclosure is on the rise. The aftereffects of childhood sexual abuse can cause dysfunction in various aspects of the survivor's physical and mental health. Understanding the traumagenic dynamics of childhood sexual abuse and its aftereffects provides direction for the nurse therapist during both the client's disclosure and intervention planning. This knowledge assists the therapist in promoting mental health and healing, as well as providing comfort for the therapist. The nurse therapist's reactions to the client's disclosure can affect the way the client feels about disclosure and the therapeutic relationship. If a negative message is conveyed to the survivor at the time of disclosure, the feelings of betrayal, stigmatization, and powerlessness that the survivor experienced as a child will be replicated. This can damage the therapeutic relationship and delay the healing process. When disclosure is received and acted upon in a sensitive, therapeutic manner, the survivor is empowered and can enter with the nurse therapist into an effective therapeutic alliance. Nurse therapists should gain awareness of the types of emotional responses that can be engendered in the health professional during disclosure. Awareness of these emotional reactions can lead to the identification of coping strategies useful to both the therapist and the adult survivor. Coping strategies useful to the therapist include maintaining adequate boundaries, understanding oneself and one's responses to sexual-abuse issues, utilizing ongoing consultation or supervision, and preventing burnout.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Financial Burden in Survivors of Childhood Cancer: A Report From the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. (United States)

    Nipp, Ryan D; Kirchhoff, Anne C; Fair, Douglas; Rabin, Julia; Hyland, Kelly A; Kuhlthau, Karen; Perez, Giselle K; Robison, Leslie L; Armstrong, Gregory T; Nathan, Paul C; Oeffinger, Kevin C; Leisenring, Wendy M; Park, Elyse R


    Purpose Survivors of childhood cancer may experience financial burden as a result of health care costs, particularly because these patients often require long-term medical care. We sought to evaluate the prevalence of financial burden and identify associations between a higher percentage of income spent on out-of-pocket medical costs (≥ 10% of annual income) and issues related to financial burden (jeopardizing care or changing lifestyle) among survivors of childhood cancer and a sibling comparison group. Methods Between May 2011 and April 2012, we surveyed an age-stratified, random sample of survivors of childhood cancer and a sibling comparison group who were enrolled in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. Participants reported their household income, out-of-pocket medical costs, and issues related to financial burden (questions were adapted from national surveys on financial burden). Logistic regression identified associations between participant characteristics, a higher percentage of income spent on out-of-pocket medical costs, and financial burden, adjusting for potential confounders. Results Among 580 survivors of childhood cancer and 173 siblings, survivors of childhood cancer were more likely to have out-of-pocket medical costs ≥ 10% of annual income (10.0% v 2.9%; P report spending a higher percentage of their income on out-of-pocket medical costs, which may influence their health-seeking behavior and potentially affect health outcomes. Our findings highlight the need to address financial burden in this population with long-term health care needs.

  1. Community reintegration among stroke survivors in Osun ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background Stroke is a major neurological problem and a leading cause of disability in the elderly in Nigeria. The incidence is increasing due to increasing risk factors, but many stroke victims now survive because of improved medical care. These survivors become community-dwellers after inpatient rehabilitation. Aims To ...

  2. Survivors of Downsizing: Helpful and Hindering Experiences (United States)

    Amundson, Norman E.; Borgen, William A.; Jordan, Sharalyn; Erlebach, Anne C.


    Thirty-one downsizing survivors from both the private and public sector were interviewed to determine incidents that either helped or hindered their transition through 1 or more organizational downsizings. A critical incident technique was used to analyze and organize the data around themes that emerged, themes were represented by both positive…

  3. Esophageal atresia: comparison between survivors and mortality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The places of study were Bahrami Hospital and Children's Medical Center, two referral centers for pediatric surgery in Tehran. The duration of the study was 2 years, starting from April 1999. Survivors and mortality cases were compared with regard to sex, type of surgery, suture material, and technique of anastomosis.

  4. Subsequent Reproductive Performance in Survivors of Complicated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There were 2 cases of postpartum hemorrhage. 103 (44%) of the subjects who still desired pregnancy were yet unable to conceive. Conclusions The subsequent reproductive performance in survivors of complicated abortion appears to be largely characterized by a high rate of sub-fertility, fetal wastage and preterm ...

  5. The survivors of childhood solid tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, M.C.; Thompson, E.I.; Simone, J.V. (St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (USA))


    With the improvement in cancer therapy in recent years, the number of cancer survivors is rapidly increasing. Potential late medical and psychosocial sequelae of cancer therapy are reviewed. A practical guide for the primary health care giver is provided. 161 refs.

  6. Differentiating incest survivors who self-mutilate. (United States)

    Turell, S C; Armsworth, M W


    This study was an exploratory analysis of the variables which differentiated incest survivors who self-mutilate from those who do not. A sample of women incest survivors (N = 84) were divided into two groups based on the presence or absence of self-mutilation. Participants included both community and clinical populations. A packet consisting of a demographic questionnaire, Sexual Attitudes Survey, Diagnostic Inventory of Personality and Symptoms, Dissociative Events Scale and the Beck Depression Inventory was completed by each participant. Demographic, incest, and family of origin variables distinguished the self-mutilating women from those who did not. These include ethnicity and educational experiences; duration, frequency, and perpetrator characteristics regarding the incest; and multiple abuses, instability, birth order, and loss of mother in one's family of origin. Psychological and physical health concerns also differentiated between the two groups. Many variables may differentiate between women incest survivors who self-mutilate from those who do not. A rudimentary checklist to describe the lives of incest survivors who self-mutilate resulted from these findings. The importance of the concept of embodiment is also discussed.

  7. A Spiritual Framework in Incest Survivors Treatment (United States)

    Beveridge, Kelli; Cheung, Monit


    Through an examination of recent incest treatment development, this article emphasizes the theoretical concept of "integration" within the treatment process for female adult incest survivors. Spirituality as a therapeutic foundation is discussed with examples of therapeutic techniques. A case study illustrates the psycho-spiritual process of…

  8. Endocrine sequelae in childhood cancer survivors. (United States)

    Casano Sancho, Paula


    Thanks to the advances in cancer treatment, the five-year survival rate after childhood cancer has increased up to 80%. Therefore 1/500 young adults will be a survivor. Endocrine sequelae are most common, affecting 40-60% of survivors. The most frequent sequelae include growth failure and gonadal and thyroid diseases. Sequelae occur more frequently in survivors from central nervous system tumors, leukemia, and lymphoma. Their development will depend on the type of cancer, its location, age at diagnosis, and treatment administered. Treatments associated to more endocrine sequels are cranial radiotherapy and hematopoietic cell transplantation. Because of the high prevalence of endocrine sequelae, international guidelines recommend endocrinologists to prospectively evaluate the survivors. As some of these endocrine changes will not develop until adult life, transition programs should be implemented, and active investigation should be made to decrease the endocrine consequences of cancer treatment. Copyright © 2017 SEEN y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Sexual dysfunction in Nigerian stroke survivors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Sep 3, 2013 ... Objectives: This survey reports sexual dysfunction in Nigerian stroke survivors, and determines the influence of socio- ... Participants completed the Beck Depression Inventory, Stroke Specific Quality of Life Scale and post-stroke sexual function ..... Medical. Aspects of Human Sexuality 1979; 13: 16-30. 25.

  10. Ebola Survivor and Her Pregnancy Outcome

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    Dr. Moon Kim, a medical epidemiologist at the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health, discusses an Ebola virus disease survivor and the delivery of her baby.  Created: 12/14/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 12/14/2016.

  11. Swath sonar mapping of Earth's submarine plate boundaries (United States)

    Carbotte, S. M.; Ferrini, V. L.; Celnick, M.; Nitsche, F. O.; Ryan, W. B. F.


    The recent loss of Malaysia Airlines flight MH370 in an area of the Indian Ocean where less than 5% of the seafloor is mapped with depth sounding data (Smith and Marks, EOS 2014) highlights the striking lack of detailed knowledge of the topography of the seabed for much of the worlds' oceans. Advances in swath sonar mapping technology over the past 30 years have led to dramatic improvements in our capability to map the seabed. However, the oceans are vast and only an estimated 10% of the seafloor has been mapped with these systems. Furthermore, the available coverage is highly heterogeneous and focused within areas of national strategic priority and community scientific interest. The major plate boundaries that encircle the globe, most of which are located in the submarine environment, have been a significant focus of marine geoscience research since the advent of swath sonar mapping. While the location of these plate boundaries are well defined from satellite-derived bathymetry, significant regions remain unmapped at the high-resolutions provided by swath sonars and that are needed to study active volcanic and tectonic plate boundary processes. Within the plate interiors, some fossil plate boundary zones, major hotspot volcanoes, and other volcanic provinces have been the focus of dedicated research programs. Away from these major tectonic structures, swath mapping coverage is limited to sparse ocean transit lines which often reveal previously unknown deep-sea channels and other little studied sedimentary structures not resolvable in existing low-resolution global compilations, highlighting the value of these data even in the tectonically quiet plate interiors. Here, we give an overview of multibeam swath sonar mapping of the major plate boundaries of the globe as extracted from public archives. Significant quantities of swath sonar data acquired from deep-sea regions are in restricted-access international archives. Open access to more of these data sets would

  12. Submarine Groundwater Discharge in Stony Brook Harbor, NY (United States)

    Durand, J. M.; Young, C.; Wong, T.; Hanson, G. N.


    As nutrients can significantly impact coastal ecosystems, understanding their path to embayments and oceans is crucial. In Stony Brook Harbor (Long Island, NY), submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) is the only significant contribution of freshwater and thus constitutes the main pathway for nutrients, which may eventually reach Long Island Sound. Subterranean estuaries have been shown to be highly reactive zones where nitrogen attenuation can occur. Understanding the fate of nitrogen in Stony Brook Harbor requires knowing the volume of groundwater entering the bay as well as the amount of denitrification, in the context of the hydrogeological framework. This is achieved by combining electrical resistivity survey, water sampling in piezometers, point conductivity and seepage measurements. A Trident probe inserted 60 cm deep into the sediments allows measuring the conductivity and temperature of the sediments and the overlying seawater. In spring 2011, five Trident transects spreading across the head of the harbor were used as a preliminary study to reveal potential locations for SGD. Locations with significant difference between sediment and seawater temperature and/or conductivities were further investigated using an AGI SuperSting 8-channel receiver resistivity meter. Two ultrasonic seepage meters were deployed in May and July 2011 about 20 m below the low tide mark. Five piezometers were aligned parallel to one resistivity survey. Our resistivity data indicate superficial mixing in the intertidal zone. The freshwater extends quite far under the seafloor, above 67 meters after the low tide mark for one location. The freshwater/saltwater interface seems to be almost horizontal. The piezometer data agree relatively well with the resistivity data. The preliminary average seepage rates observed vary from 3 to 60 cm/d. The resistivity sections reveal the presence of a thin layer of high conductivity above the low tide mark. This matches the observation of a superficial

  13. Experimental research on the double-peak characteristic of underwater radiated noise in the near field on top of a submarine (United States)

    Liu, Ning; Wang, Sande; Guo, Tao; Li, Xiyou; Yu, Ziyang


    The double-peak characteristic of underwater radiated noise in the near field on top of the target submarine was analyzed in depth on the basis of submarine test data on the sea. The contribution of three major noise sources to the radiated noise of a submarine were compared and analyzed, and emphasis was put on the original source, production mechanism, and their correlative characteristics. On the basis of analysis on underwater tracking and pass through characteristics of the target submarine, the double-peak phenomenon was reasonably interpreted. Furthermore, the correctness of the theoretical interpretation was verified adequately in real submarine tests. The double-peak phenomenon indicates that the space distributing character on submarine radiated noise are both asymmetrical with time and space, whereas that is provided with directivity. Studying the double-peak phenomenon in depth has important reference value and meaning in engineering practice for understanding the underwater radiated noise field of submarines.

  14. The Italian Submarine Force in the Battle of the Atlantic: Left in the Dark (United States)


    design during the Interwar period. Part of this discussion will focus on German U-boat design and capabilities prior to the Versailles Treaty in...patrols can be attributed to the restrictions imposed by the Treaty of Versailles and the amount of time required to re-build a German submarine force...

  15. Kolumbo submarine volcano (Greece): An active window into the Aegean subduction system. (United States)

    Rizzo, Andrea Luca; Caracausi, Antonio; Chavagnac, Valèrie; Nomikou, Paraskevi; Polymenakou, Paraskevi N; Mandalakis, Manolis; Kotoulas, Georgios; Magoulas, Antonios; Castillo, Alain; Lampridou, Danai


    Submarine volcanism represents ~80% of the volcanic activity on Earth and is an important source of mantle-derived gases. These gases are of basic importance for the comprehension of mantle characteristics in areas where subaerial volcanism is missing or strongly modified by the presence of crustal/atmospheric components. Though, the study of submarine volcanism remains a challenge due to their hazardousness and sea-depth. Here, we report (3)He/(4)He measurements in CO2-dominated gases discharged at 500 m below sea level from the high-temperature (~220 °C) hydrothermal system of the Kolumbo submarine volcano (Greece), located 7 km northeast off Santorini Island in the central part of the Hellenic Volcanic Arc (HVA). We highlight that the mantle below Kolumbo and Santorini has a (3)He/(4)He signature of at least 7.0 Ra (being Ra the (3)He/(4)He ratio of atmospheric He equal to 1.39×10(-6)), 3 Ra units higher than actually known for gases-rocks from Santorini. This ratio is also the highest measured across the HVA and is indicative of the direct degassing of a Mid-Ocean-Ridge-Basalts (MORB)-like mantle through lithospheric faults. We finally highlight that the degassing of high-temperature fluids with a MORB-like (3)He/(4)He ratio corroborates a vigorous outgassing of mantle-derived volatiles with potential hazard at the Kolumbo submarine volcano.

  16. Environmental monitoring of El Hierro Island submarine volcano, by combining low and high resolution satellite imagery (United States)

    Eugenio, F.; Martin, J.; Marcello, J.; Fraile-Nuez, E.


    El Hierro Island, located at the Canary Islands Archipelago in the Atlantic coast of North Africa, has been rocked by thousands of tremors and earthquakes since July 2011. Finally, an underwater volcanic eruption started 300 m below sea level on October 10, 2011. Since then, regular multidisciplinary monitoring has been carried out in order to quantify the environmental impacts caused by the submarine eruption. Thanks to this natural tracer release, multisensorial satellite imagery obtained from MODIS and MERIS sensors have been processed to monitor the volcano activity and to provide information on the concentration of biological, chemical and physical marine parameters. Specifically, low resolution satellite estimations of optimal diffuse attenuation coefficient (Kd) and chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentration under these abnormal conditions have been assessed. These remote sensing data have played a fundamental role during field campaigns guiding the oceanographic vessel to the appropriate sampling areas. In addition, to analyze El Hierro submarine volcano area, WorldView-2 high resolution satellite spectral bands were atmospherically and deglinted processed prior to obtain a high-resolution optimal diffuse attenuation coefficient model. This novel algorithm was developed using a matchup data set with MERIS and MODIS data, in situ transmittances measurements and a seawater radiative transfer model. Multisensor and multitemporal imagery processed from satellite remote sensing sensors have demonstrated to be a powerful tool for monitoring the submarine volcanic activities, such as discolored seawater, floating material and volcanic plume, having shown the capabilities to improve the understanding of submarine volcanic processes.

  17. The fate of the submarine ikaite tufa columns in southwest Greenland under changing climate conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Marc O.; Buchardt, Bjørn; Kühl, Michael


    carbonate tufa columns. Here, ikaite is formed as a result of submarine spring water mixing with cold seawater. As ikaite disintegrates at temperatures above 6–7uC, it has been speculated that global warming could endanger this unique habitat as well as other sites. In Ikka Fjord in situ water chemistry...

  18. Frontal and Lateral Submarine Lobe Fringes: Comparing Sedimentary Facies, Architecture and Flow Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spychala, Yvonne T.; Hodgson, David M.; Prélat, Amandine; Kane, Ian A.; Flint, Stephen S.; Mountney, Nigel P.


    Submarine lobe-fringe deposits form heterolithic successions that may include a high proportion of hybrid beds. The identification of lobe-fringe successions aids interpretation of paleogeographic setting and the degree of basin confinement. Here, for the first time, the sedimentological and

  19. Contributions for the modelling of submarine cables – current density and simplified modelling of wired layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da; Bak, Claus Leth; Ebdrup, Thomas


    This article researches two topics relevant for the development of accurate formulae able to estimate the ampacity of HVAC submarine cables. Simplified formulae for estimating the current density distribution, which can be used for theoretical analyses, are developed and compared with the exact...

  20. The Future of the Ballistic Missile Submarine Force in the Russian Nuclear Triad (United States)


    financial setbacks, missile technology failures, and the Kursk sinking in 2000, the SSBN force has slipped back to a lesser prominence.9 B. MAJOR...range category. In the battle for survival, the SLBMs and ALCMs are the most likely potential losers. When the two platforms – submarines and

  1. Scientific Ocean Drilling Behind the Assessment of Geo-Hazards from Submarine Slides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Ercilla


    Full Text Available The workshop ‘Scientific Ocean Drilling Behind the Assessment of Geo-hazards from Submarine Slides’ was held on 25–27 October 2006 in Barcelona (Spain. Fifty mainly European scientists and industry representatives attended from a wide spectrum of disciplines such as geophysics, stratigraphy, sedimentology, paleoceanography, marinegeotechnology, geotechnical engineering, and tsunami modeling.

  2. Estimation of submarine mass failure probability from a sequence of deposits with age dates (United States)

    Geist, Eric L.; Chaytor, Jason D.; Parsons, Thomas E.; ten Brink, Uri S.


    The empirical probability of submarine mass failure is quantified from a sequence of dated mass-transport deposits. Several different techniques are described to estimate the parameters for a suite of candidate probability models. The techniques, previously developed for analyzing paleoseismic data, include maximum likelihood and Type II (Bayesian) maximum likelihood methods derived from renewal process theory and Monte Carlo methods. The estimated mean return time from these methods, unlike estimates from a simple arithmetic mean of the center age dates and standard likelihood methods, includes the effects of age-dating uncertainty and of open time intervals before the first and after the last event. The likelihood techniques are evaluated using Akaike’s Information Criterion (AIC) and Akaike’s Bayesian Information Criterion (ABIC) to select the optimal model. The techniques are applied to mass transport deposits recorded in two Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) drill sites located in the Ursa Basin, northern Gulf of Mexico. Dates of the deposits were constrained by regional bio- and magnetostratigraphy from a previous study. Results of the analysis indicate that submarine mass failures in this location occur primarily according to a Poisson process in which failures are independent and return times follow an exponential distribution. However, some of the model results suggest that submarine mass failures may occur quasiperiodically at one of the sites (U1324). The suite of techniques described in this study provides quantitative probability estimates of submarine mass failure occurrence, for any number of deposits and age uncertainty distributions.

  3. CLAM - CoLlAborative eMbedded networks for submarine surveillance: An overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meratnia, Nirvana; Havinga, Paul J.M.; Casari, Paolo; Petrioli, Chiara; Grythe, Knut; Husoy, Thor; Zorzi, Michele


    This paper provides an overview of the CLAM project, which aims at developing a collaborative embedded monitoring and control platform for submarine surveillance by combining cutting edge acoustic vector sensor technology and 1D, 2D, 3D sensor arrays, underwater wireless sensor networks protocol

  4. Terrestrial-style slow-moving earthflow kinematics in a submarine landslide complex (United States)

    Joshu J. Mountjoy; Jim McKean; Philip M. Barnes; Jarg R. Pettinga


    Morphometric analysis of Simrad EM300 multibeam bathymetric DEMs reveals details of deformation patterns in a ~145 km2 submarine landslide complex that are commonly associated with slow-moving earthflows in terrestrial settings. This mode of failure, where existing landslide debris is remobilised repeatedly along discrete shear boundaries and is...

  5. Exchange Flow of Oil and Sea-Water in a Ruptured Submarine Pipeline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranenburg, C.


    The rupture of a submarine oil pipeline starts var10US mechanisms leading to an oil spill. Among these mechanisms the leakage of oil driven by the difference in specific gravities of oil and seawater is difficult to quantify. A simple mathematical model has been developed and laboratory experiments

  6. Buoyancy-driven leakage of oil from a ruptured submarine pipeline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranenburg, C.


    The rupture of a submarine oil pipeline starts various mechanisms leading to an oil spill. Among these mechanisms the leakage of oil driven by the difference in specific gravities of oil and sea-water is difficult to estimate. A simple mathematical model has been developed and laboratory experiments

  7. Geochemical stratigraphy of submarine lavas (3-5 Ma) from the Flamengos Valley, Santiago, Cape Verde

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barker, Abigail K; Holm, Paul Martin; Peate, David W.


    New high-precision Pb-Sr-Nd isotope, major and trace element and mineral chemistry data are presented for the submarine stage of ocean island volcanism on Santiago, one of the southern islands of the Cape Verde archipelago. Pillow basalts and hyaloclastites in the Flamengos Valley are divided...

  8. Common Submarine Radio Room: A Case Study of a System of Systems Approach (United States)


    11. Land Attack/Strike Mission Scenario (from PMW770 2011b, 52) .................30 Figure 12. CSG/ ESG Mission Scenario (from PMW770 2011b, 67...request EHF extremely high frequency ESG expeditionary strike group ETR Submarine communications electronics technician FRD Fleet readiness...expeditionary strike group operations mission (CSG/ ESG ) 4. Special operations forces mission (SOF) 5. Mine warfare operations mission (MIW) 6

  9. Mapping submarine sand waves with multiband imaging radar - 2. Experimental results and model comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogelzang, J.; Wensink, G.J.; Calkoen, C.J.; Kooij, M.W.A. van der


    On August 16, 1989, and on July 12, 1991, experiments were performed to study the mapping of submarine sand waves with the airborne imaging radar, a polarimetric (and, in 1991, interferometric) airborne P, L, and C band synthetic aperture radar system. The experiments took place in an area 30 km off

  10. Adaptation of a submarine transient detector to the detection of whale sounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hotho, G.H.


    As part of an international effort to investigate a potential link between acoustic trials (SWAC 4) of SACLANTCEN with a stranding of Cuvier's beaked whales on the Greek coast in May 1996. TNO-FEL's Transient Detection Demonstrator (TDD). a tool to automatically search for submarine transients in

  11. The Risk of Hydrogen Explosion an a Submarine Part 3 Production of Hydrogen Mixes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kłos Ryszard


    Full Text Available This series of articles presents the problems associated with the conduction of a high-risk project aimed at modernising the hydrogen combustion engines on a submarine. The article describes technical issues connected with obtaining hydrogen-air mixes.

  12. Global land-ocean linkage: direct inputs of nitrogen to coastal waters via submarine groundwater discharge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beusen, A.H.W.; Slomp, C.P.; Bouwman, A.F.


    The role of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD), the leakage of groundwater from aquifers into coastal waters, in coastal eutrophication has been demonstrated mostly for the North American and European coastlines, but poorly quantified in other regions. Here, we present the first spatially

  13. Possible climate preconditioning on submarine landslides along a convergent margin, Nankai Trough (NE Pacific) (United States)

    Kremer, Katrina; Usman, Muhammed O.; Satoguchi, Yasufumi; Nagahashi, Yoshitaka; Vadakkepuliyambatta, Sunil; Panieri, Giuliana; Strasser, Michael


    Submarine landslides are major agents of sediment mass transfer from the shallow to deep sea. Due to their rapid emplacement and tsunamigenic potential, such landslides are significant geohazards for society and off- and on-shore infrastructure. The relationship between climate change and the occurrence of submarine landslides is widely debated. However, there is a lack of continuous long-term submarine landslide records with which to comprehensively understand the relationship between climate-driven forces and submarine landslide occurrence. Here, using oxygen isotope stratigraphy in combination with tephrochronology, we date a 1 Myr continuous record of six landslide deposits (at 13.0-14.2, 323-339, 372-384, 394-413, 508-521, and 857-867 ka) recorded in a slope basin of the Nankai Trough subduction zone, off-shore Japan, which represents the major outcome of this study. The ages of the six landslides coincide mostly with interglacial periods. Thus, we propose that climate forcing might act as a preconditioning factor for slope instability in this active tectonic region.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  14. Near-bottom particulate matter dynamics in the Nazare submarine canyon under calm and stormy conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martín, J.; Palanques, A.; Vitorino, J.; Oliveira, A.; de Stigter, H.C.


    Two mooring lines equipped with near-bottom sediment traps were deployed in the axis of the Nazare submarine canyon at similar to 1600 and similar to 3300 m depth, respectively. We studied time-series of particle flux, composition (biogenic silica, carbonates, organic matter and lithogenic

  15. Autonomous long-term gamma-spectrometric monitoring of submarine groundwater discharge trends in Hawaii

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dulai, H.; Kameník, Jan; Waters, C. A.; Kennedy, J.; Babinec, J.; Jolly, J.; Williamson, M.


    Roč. 307, č. 3 (2016), s. 1865-1870 ISSN 0236-5731. [10th International Conference on Methods and Applications of Radioanalytical Chemistry (MARC). Kailua Kona, 12.04.2015-17.04.2015] Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : submarine groundwater discharge * long-term SGD monitoring * underwater gammaspectrometry Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 1.282, year: 2016

  16. Probabilistic Hazard of Tsunamis Generated by Submarine Landslides in the Cook Strait Canyon (New Zealand) (United States)

    Lane, Emily M.; Mountjoy, Joshu J.; Power, William L.; Mueller, Christof


    Cook Strait Canyon is a submarine canyon that lies within ten kilometres of Wellington, the capital city of New Zealand. The canyon walls are covered with scars from previous landslides which could have caused local tsunamis. Palaeotsunami evidence also points to past tsunamis in the Wellington region. Furthermore, the canyon's location in Cook Strait means that there is inhabited land in the path of both forward- and backward-propagating waves. Tsunamis induced by these submarine landslides pose hazard to coastal communities and infrastructure but major events are very uncommon and the historical record is not extensive enough to quantify this hazard. The combination of infrequent but potentially very consequential events makes realistic assessment of the hazard challenging. However, information on both magnitude and frequency is very important for land use planning and civil defence purposes. We use a multidisciplinary approach bringing together geological information with modelling to construct a Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessment of submarine landslide-generated tsunami. Although there are many simplifying assumptions used in this assessment, it suggests that the Cook Strait open coast is exposed to considerable hazard due to submarine landslide-generated tsunamis. We emphasise the uncertainties involved and present opportunities for future research.

  17. Beam propagation of tidal internal waves over a submarine slope of the Mascarene Ridge (United States)

    Morozov, E. G.; Nechvolodov, L. V.; Sabinin, K. D.


    The generation of internal tides over the Mascarene Ridge is studied on the basis of moored measurements and numerical modeling. The beam structure of the internal wave propagation over a submarine ridge is analyzed. The dependence of the beam propagation of the perturbations on the steepness of the slope, the depth of the ridge crest, and the stratification is studied.

  18. Noble gas systematics of submarine alkalic lavas near the Hawaiian hotspot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanyu, T.; Clague, D.A.; Kaneoka, I.; Dunai, T.J.; Davies, G.R.


    Noble gas isotopic ratios were determined for submarine alkalic volcanic rocks distributed around the Hawaiian islands to constrain the origin of such alkalic volcanism and hence understand the details of mantle upwelling beneath Hawaii. Samples were collected by dredging or using submersibles from

  19. Submarine groundwater discharge within a landslide scar at the French Mediterranean coast (United States)

    Oehler, Till; Mogollón, José M.; Moosdorf, Nils; Winkler, Andreas; Kopf, Achim; Pichler, Thomas


    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD), the flow of fresh and saline groundwater from the seabed into the coastal ocean, has been intensively investigated in the recent years. This research has usually been restricted to shallow water and intertidal areas, whereas knowledge about groundwater seepage in deeper water is mainly limited to point sources from karstic aquifers. In this study we observed submarine groundwater seepage and a subterranean estuary in sediments at water depths of 20-44 m located within the Ligurian Margin, western Mediterranean Sea. Here, a catastrophic submarine landslide occurred near the Nice airport (French Ligurian coast) in the fall of 1979 after a period of heavy rainfall. During two research cruises, gravity cores were recovered in and around the area of the landslide scar. Pore water samples collected from sediment cores indicated sediments containing freshwater within the landslide scar. Pore water profiles of selected ions, such as chloride, ammonium, manganese, sulfate and barium were used to assess transport and reaction processes within the sediment. A 1-dimensional transport model indicates in most cores upward pore water velocities of 2.3-8.8 cm yr-1. This study shows that submarine groundwater seepage along the French Mediterranean coastline can occur at water depths reaching 44 m.

  20. US Navy Submarine Sea Trial of the NASA Air Quality Monitor (United States)

    Limero, Thomas; Wallace, William T.; Manney, Joshua A.; Mudgett, Paul D.


    For the past four years, the Air Quality Monitor (AQM) has been the operational instrument for measuring trace volatile organic compounds on the International Space Station (ISS). The key components of the AQM are the inlet preconcentrator, the gas chromatograph (GC), and the differential mobility spectrometer. Most importantly, the AQM operates at atmospheric pressure and uses air as the GC carrier gas, which translates into a small reliable instrument. Onboard ISS there are two AQMs, with different GC columns that detect and quantify 22 compounds. The AQM data contributes valuable information to the assessment of air quality aboard ISS for each crew increment. The U.S. Navy is looking to update its submarine air monitoring suite of instruments, and the success of the AQM on ISS has led to a jointly planned submarine sea trial of a NASA AQM. In addition to the AQM, the Navy is also interested in the Multi-Gas Monitor (MGM), which was successfully flown on ISS as a technology demonstration to measure major constituent gases (oxygen, carbon dioxide, water vapor, and ammonia). A separate paper will present the MGM sea trial results. A prototype AQM, which is virtually identical to the operational AQM, has been readied for the sea trial. Only one AQM will be deployed during the sea trial, but it is sufficient to detect the compounds of interest to the Navy for the purposes of this trial. A significant benefit of the AQM is that runs can be scripted for pre-determined intervals and no crew intervention is required. The data from the sea trial will be compared to archival samples collected prior to and during the trial period. This paper will give a brief overview of the AQM technology and protocols for the submarine trial. After a quick review of the AQM preparation, the main focus of the paper will be on the results of the submarine trial. Of particular interest will be the comparison of the contaminants found in the ISS and submarine atmospheres, as both represent

  1. Rapid Submarine Melting Driven by Subglacial Discharge, LeConte Glacier, Alaska (United States)

    Motyka, R. J.; Dryer, W. P.; Amundson, J. M.; Truffer, M.; Fahnestock, M. A.


    Submarine melting impacts the stability of tidewater glaciers worldwide, but the connections between the ocean, a warming climate, and retreat of outlet glaciers are poorly known. Clearly warm seawater plays an important role, but the tremendous heat potential resident in oceans and fjords must first be brought into contact with outlet glacier termini in order to affect them. We show here that for many glaciers, the principal process driving high rates of submarine melting is subglacial discharge of freshwater. This buoyant discharge draws in warm seawater, entraining it in a turbulent upwelling convective flow along the submarine face that melts glacier ice. To capture the effect of changing subglacial discharge on submarine melting, we conducted four days of hydrographic transects during late summer 2012 at LeConte Glacier, Alaska. A major rainstorm allowed us to directly measure the influence of large changes in subglacial discharge. We found strong submarine melt rates that increased from 9.0×1.0 to 16.8×1.3 m/d (ice face equivalent frontal ablation) as subglacial discharge increased from 130 to 440 m^3/s over a four day period. This subglacial discharge drove influx of warm seawater (thermal forcing ~ 8° C) to the terminus with fluxes increasing from 1800 to 4000 m3/s. Our ice equivalent frontal ablation rates due to submarine melting are two to three times values found for Greenland glaciers, where thermal forcing is substantially lower (~ 1 - 4 °C) and termini are wider. Together, these studies confirm the importance of submarine melting at grounded glaciers. At LeConte, the total frontal ablation rate (calving flux plus submarine melting) is ~ 3.0 x10^6 m^3/d w.e., which far surpasses surface ablation. One-half to two-thirds of the frontal ablation during September 2012 can be attributed to submarine melting. A two-layer model driven by a buoyant plume of subglacial discharge has been previously invoked to describe the proglacial fjord circulation

  2. Specialized survivor clinic attendance is associated with decreased rates of emergency department visits in adult survivors of childhood cancer. (United States)

    Sutradhar, Rinku; Agha, Mohammad; Pole, Jason D; Greenberg, Mark; Guttmann, Astrid; Hodgson, David; Nathan, Paul C


    Survivors of childhood cancer are at considerable risk of experiencing treatment-related adverse health outcomes. To provide survivors with specialized care focused on these risks during adulthood, the government of Ontario funded a provincial network of specialized survivor clinics in 1999. The aim of this study was to determine whether prior attendance at survivor clinics by adult survivors of childhood cancer was associated with rates of emergency department (ED) visits. This was a population-based, retrospective cohort study using multiple linked administrative health databases. The cohort consisted of all adult survivors of childhood cancer diagnosed between January 1, 1986 and December 31, 2005 in Ontario, Canada. A recurrent event regression model was used to evaluate the association between prior attendance at survivor clinics and the rate of ED visits; adjustments were made for individual, demographic, treatment, and provider characteristics. The study consisted of 3912 adult survivors of childhood cancer. Individuals who had at least 1 prior visit to a survivor clinic had a 19% decreased rate of ED visits in comparison with individuals who had not visited a survivor clinic (adjusted relative rate, 0.81; 95% confidence interval, 0.78-0.85). Each additional prior visit to a survivor clinic was associated with a 5% decrease in the rate of ED visits (adjusted relative rate, 0.95; 95% confidence interval, 0.93-0.96). These results were independent of whether or not survivors received care from a primary care physician. Attendance at a specialized survivor clinic was significantly associated with decreased ED visits among adult survivors of childhood cancer. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  3. A submarine landslide source for the devastating 1964 Chenega tsunami, southern Alaska (United States)

    Brothers, Daniel; Haeussler, Peter J.; Lee Liberty,; David Finlayson,; Geist, Eric L.; Labay, Keith A.; Michael Byerly,


    During the 1964 Great Alaska earthquake (Mw 9.2), several fjords, straits, and bays throughout southern Alaska experienced significant tsunami runup of localized, but unexplained origin. Dangerous Passage is a glacimarine fjord in western Prince William Sound, which experienced a tsunami that devastated the village of Chenega where 23 of 75 inhabitants were lost – the highest relative loss of any community during the earthquake. Previous studies suggested the source of the devastating tsunami was either from a local submarine landslide of unknown origin or from coseismic tectonic displacement. Here we present new observations from high-resolution multibeam bathymetry and seismic reflection surveys conducted in the waters adjacent to the village of Chenega. The seabed morphology and substrate architecture reveal a large submarine landslide complex in water depths of 120–360 m. Analysis of bathymetric change between 1957 and 2014 indicates the upper 20–50 m (∼0.7 km3) of glacimarine sediment was destabilized and evacuated from the steep face of a submerged moraine and an adjacent ∼21 km2 perched sedimentary basin. Once mobilized, landslide debris poured over the steep, 130 m-high face of a deeper moraine and then blanketed the terminal basin (∼465 m water depth) in 11 ± 5 m of sediment. These results, combined with inverse tsunami travel-time modeling, suggest that earthquake- triggered submarine landslides generated the tsunami that struck the village of Chenega roughly 4 min after shaking began. Unlike other tsunamigenic landslides observed in and around Prince William Sound in 1964, the failures in Dangerous Passage are not linked to an active submarine delta. The requisite environmental conditions needed to generate large submarine landslides in glacimarine fjords around the world may be more common than previously thought. 

  4. Boulder emplacement and remobilisation by cyclone and submarine landslide tsunami waves near Suva City, Fiji (United States)

    Lau, A. Y. Annie; Terry, James P.; Ziegler, Alan; Pratap, Arti; Harris, Daniel


    The characteristics of a reef-top boulder field created by a local submarine landslide tsunami are presented for the first time. Our examination of large reef-derived boulders deposited by the 1953 tsunami near Suva City, Fiji, revealed that shorter-than-normal-period tsunami waves generated by submarine landslides can create a boulder field resembling a storm boulder field due to relatively short boulder transport distances. The boulder-inferred 1953 tsunami flow velocity is estimated at over 9 m s- 1 at the reef edge. Subsequent events, for example Cyclone Kina (1993), appear to have remobilised some large boulders. While prior research has demonstrated headward retreat of Suva Canyon in response to the repeated occurrence of earthquakes over the past few millennia, our results highlight the lingering vulnerability of the Fijian coastlines to high-energy waves generated both in the presence (tsunami) and absence (storm) of submarine failures and/or earthquakes. To explain the age discrepancies of U-Th dated coral comprising the deposited boulders, we introduce a conceptual model showing the role of repeated episodes of tsunamigenic submarine landslides in removing reef front sections through collapse. Subsequent high-energy wave events transport boulders from exposed older sections of the reef front onto the reef where they are deposited as 'new' boulders, alongside freshly detached sections of the living reef. In similar situations where anachronistic deposits complicate the deposition signal, age-dating of the coral boulders should not be used as a proxy for determining the timing of the submarine landslides or the tsunamis that generated them.

  5. Long-term survivors of childhood Ewing sarcoma: report from the childhood cancer survivor study. (United States)

    Ginsberg, Jill P; Goodman, Pamela; Leisenring, Wendy; Ness, Kirsten K; Meyers, Paul A; Wolden, Suzanne L; Smith, Stephanie M; Stovall, Marilyn; Hammond, Sue; Robison, Leslie L; Oeffinger, Kevin C


    The survival of Ewing sarcoma (ES) patients has improved since the 1970s but is associated with considerable future health risks. The study population consisted of long-term (> or =5-year) survivors of childhood ES diagnosed before age 21 from 1970 to 1986. Cause-specific mortality was evaluated in eligible survivors (n = 568), and subsequent malignant neoplasms, chronic health conditions, infertility, and health status were evaluated in the subset participating in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (n = 403). Outcomes were compared with the US population and sibling control subjects (n = 3899). Logistic, Poisson, or Cox proportional hazards models, with adjustments for sex, age, race/ethnicity, and potential intrafamily correlation, were used. Statistical tests were two-sided. Cumulative mortality of ES survivors was 25.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 21.1 to 28.9) 25 years after diagnosis. The all-cause standardized mortality ratio was 13.3 (95% CI = 11.2 to 15.8) overall, 23.1 (95% CI = 17.6 to 29.7) for women, and 10.0 (95% CI = 7.9 to 12.5) for men. The nonrecurrence-progression non-external cause standardized mortality ratio (subsequent non-ES malignant neoplasms and cardiac and pulmonary causes potentially attributable to ES treatment) was 8.7 (95% CI = 6.2 to 12.0). Twenty-five years after ES diagnosis, cumulative incidence of subsequent malignant neoplasms, excluding nonmelanoma skin cancers, was 9.0% (95% CI = 5.8 to 12.2). Compared with siblings, survivors had an increased risk of severe, life-threatening, or disabling chronic health conditions (relative risk = 6.0, 95% CI = 4.1 to 9.0). Survivors had lower fertility rates (women: P = .005; men: P < .001) and higher rates of moderate to extreme adverse health status (P < .001). Long-term survivors of childhood ES exhibit excess mortality and morbidity.

  6. Gastric cancer in atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oshiro, Hisashi; Itamoto, Toshiyuki; Sumimoto, Ryo [Hiroshima Prefectural Hiroshima Hospital (Japan)] [and others


    This is a retrospective review of gastric cancer in A-bomb survivors. Firstly, surgical cases of gastric cancer (1968-88) were compared in 514 A-bomb survivors and 1,092 non-exposed persons. The average age was 63.5 years in the exposed group and 60.0 years in the non-exposed group. Although there were much more men than women in the non-exposed group (67.3% vs 32.7%), there was no great difference in the exposed group (56.0% vs 44.0%). The frequency of early gastric cancer tended to be higher in the exposed group, and thus, both the curative resection and 5-year survival rates were slightly higher. This seems to have been attributed to periodical health examination for A-bomb survivors. Secondly, the frequency of gastric cancer was examined in relation to the age at the time of A-bombing (ATA). According to the ATA, 538 A-bomb survivors (1968-89) were divided into the <19 year group (n=118), 20-29 year group (n=134), 30-39 year group (n=178), and >40 year group (n=108). The <19 year group accounted for more A-bomb survivors directly exposed to A-bombing. Using 1,138 other non-exposed patients as controls, there was no factors specific to the exposed group. Thirdly, the distance from the hypocenter was examined in 569 A-bomb survivors (1966-1990) by dividing them into the {<=}2.0 km group (n=137), >2.1 km group (n=168), and secondarily exposed group (n=264). In all three groups, well-differentiated cancer was predominant. The frequency of poorly differentiated cancer was higher in those exposed nearer the hypocenter; this was significant in both the {<=}2.0 km and >2.1 km groups than the secondarily exposed group. In directly exposed groups, the frequency of poorly differentiated cancer was high in the age group of <50 and the frequency of well differentiated cancer was high in the age group of >60. This suggests the relationship between exposure doses and poorly differentiated gastric cancer. (N.K.).

  7. Apparent resistivity and spectral induced polarization in the submarine environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Relatively few investigations have employed electrical methods in the submarine environment, which may be promising for mineral deposits or threatened by environmental problems. We have measured the electric field using both disk and bar electrodes in the sea water at three different levels: sea surface, seven meters deep, and sea bottom at a depth of ten meters, employing a 2 m spacing dipole-dipole array with 7 array spacings of investigation, and 13 values of frequencies at steps of (2N hertz, N = -2, -1, 0, 1, 2,.....10. The measurement allowed the analysis of the electric field as a function of frequency and spacing, and of the spectral induced polarization. Modelling and interpretation of the apparent resistivity yielded a good fit with previous drilling data. Analysis of the spectrum of the complex apparent resistivity and the comparison with equivalent circuits, provided information about the grain size, the mineral composition and the major induced polarization phenomenon occurring below the sea. Therefore the result of the present research show the feasibility of measuring the variation of seawater resistivity in situ, as well as the resistivity of sea bottom sediments.Relativamente poucas investigações têm empregado métodos elétricos no ambiente submarino, o qual pode ser promissor para depósitos minerais ou ameaçado por problemas ambientais. Nós medimos o campo elétrico usando eletrodos em forma de disco e de barra na água do mar, em três níveis distintos: superfície, sete metros de profundidade, e fundo do mar a dez metros de profundidade, empregando um dispositivo dipolo-dipolo com 2m de afastamento, 7 níveis de investigação e 13 valores de freqüência a intervalos de (2N hertz, N = -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, ... 10. A medida permitiu a análise do campo elétrico como uma função de freqüência e afastamento, e da polarização induzida espectral. A modelagem e a interpretação da resistividade aparente se ajustaram bem

  8. Employment status and occupational level of adult survivors of childhood cancer in Great Britain: The British childhood cancer survivor study. (United States)

    Frobisher, Clare; Lancashire, Emma R; Jenkinson, Helen; Winter, David L; Kelly, Julie; Reulen, Raoul C; Hawkins, Michael M


    The British Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (BCCSS) provides the first detailed investigation of employment and occupation to be undertaken in a large population-based cohort. Previous studies have been limited by design issues such as using small numbers of survivors with specific diagnoses, and involved limited assessment of employment status and occupational level. The BCCSS includes 17,981 5-year survivors of childhood cancer. Employment status and occupational level were ascertained by questionnaire from eligible survivors (n = 14,836). Multivariate logistic regression was used to explore factors associated with employment and occupation, and to compare survivors to their demographic peers in the general population. Employment status was available for 10,257 survivors. Gender, current age, cancer type, radiotherapy, age at diagnosis and epilepsy were consistently associated with being: employed; unable to work; in managerial or non-manual occupations. Overall, survivors were less likely to be working than expected (OR (99% CI): 0.89 (0.81-0.98)), and this deficit was greatest for irradiated CNS neoplasm survivors (0.34 (0.28-0.41)). Compared to the general population, survivors were fivefold more likely to be unable to work due to illness/disability; the excess was 15-fold among CNS neoplasm survivors treated with radiotherapy. Overall survivors were less likely to be in managerial occupations than expected (0.85 (0.77-0.94)). However, bone sarcoma survivors were more likely to be in these occupations than expected (1.37 (1.01-1.85)) and also similarly for non-manual occupations (1.90 (1.37-2.62)). Survivors of retinoblastoma (1.55 (1.20-2.01)) and 'other' neoplasm group (1.62 (1.30-2.03)) were also more likely to be in non-manual occupations than expected. © 2017 The Authors International Journal of Cancer published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of UICC.

  9. Who are happy survivors? Physical, psychosocial, and spiritual factors associated with happiness of breast cancer survivors during the transition from cancer patient to survivor. (United States)

    Kang, Danbee; Kim, Im-Ryung; Choi, Eun-Kyung; Yoon, Jung Hee; Lee, Se-Kyung; Lee, Jeong Eon; Nam, Seok Jin; Han, Wonshik; Noh, Dong-Young; Cho, Juhee


    This study aims to evaluate physical, psychosocial, and spiritual factors associated with happiness in breast cancer survivors during the reentry period. It is a cross-sectional study with 283 nonmetastatic breast cancer survivors who completed treatment within 1 year. We included survivors who completed questionnaires on happiness and health-related quality of life (QoL) 2 years after cancer diagnosis. Happiness and QoL was measured using the Subjective Happiness Scale and EORTC QLQ-C30, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression was used to find factors associated with happiness. The mean age of the study participants was 48.5 ± 7.8 years. Among the 283 survivors, 14.5%, 43.8%, 32.5%, and 2.1% reported being "very happy," "happy," "neutral," and "not happy at all," respectively. Happy survivors reported a better general health status and QoL (67.6 vs 49.6; P Happy survivors were more likely to feel certain about the future (27.2% vs 11.9%, P happiness. During the reentry period, breast cancer survivors who are hopeful and have a clear purpose in life are more likely to be happy than those who are not. Setting proper life goals might be beneficial to help breast cancer survivors who experience persistent QoL issues. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Management of Unexplained Symptoms in Survivors of Cancer (United States)

    Feuerstein, Michael; Bruns, Gina L.; Pollman, Courtney; Todd, Briana L.


    Quality health care for survivors of cancer must evaluate and manage symptoms that are reported at the surveillance visit but are not linked to a cancer recurrence or a new cancer. At present, this does not always occur. This article analyzes quality of health care for survivors of cancer, taking empirical evidence and clinical expertise into consideration. Although emotional distress on the part of the survivor of cancer may exacerbate or even explain the presence of experienced symptoms, there are other potential explanations as well. When survivors present with persistent symptoms (even if unexplained) after cancer diagnosis and treatment, the symptoms can impact the survivor's function and well-being. Oncologists and other providers need to assess and directly target these symptoms for appropriate triage to those who can best help these survivors reduce the symptoms and their impact. PMID:21358961


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korobeynikov G.V.


    Full Text Available The purpose of the study: approbation of the prevention program of physical rehabilitation for Chernobyl disaster survivors in lifestyle aspects. Sixty persons who were disaster survivors and workers of Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant aged 32-60 have rehabilitation during 21 days. The complex of training prevention programs of physical and psycho-emotional rehabilitation methods was elaborated. The study of efficacy of training prevention programs among Chernobyl disaster survivors. The results showed the improvement of psycho-emotional status and normalization of cardiovascular vegetative regulation after training prevention programs in Chernobyl disasters survivors. The studies show that the preventive programs for Chernobyl disaster survivors in lifestyle aspects had the high effect. This displays the decrease of tempo of aging and the improving of physical and psychological health status of Chernobyl disaster survivors during preventive course.

  12. The epidemiology of long- and short-term cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarlbæk, Lene; Christensen, Linda; Bruera, Eduardo


    , 2.4% lung cancer. Short-term survivors: 21% lung cancer, 7.2% breast cancer. Chemotherapy was provided to 15% of all patients, and to 10% of the 60 + year olds. Discussion. The epidemiology of long- and short-term survivors shows significant differences with regard to age at TOCD, cancer types......' difference in age at TOCD was seen between long- and short-term survivors, with median ages of 60 versus 72 years, respectively. Females comprised 64% of long-term, and 46% of short-term survivors. The proportion of breast and lung cancers differed between the groups: Long-term survivors: 31% breast cancer......Introduction. In this study, we present data from a population-based cohort of incident cancer patients separated in long- and short-term survivors. Our aim was to procure denominators for use in the planning of rehabilitation and palliative care programs. Material and methods. A registry...

  13. Providing services to trafficking survivors: Understanding practices across the globe. (United States)

    Steiner, Jordan J; Kynn, Jamie; Stylianou, Amanda M; Postmus, Judy L


    Human trafficking is a global issue, with survivors representing all genders, ages, races, ethnicities, religions, and countries. However, little research exists that identifies effective practices in supporting survivors of human trafficking. The research that does exist is Western-centric. To fill this gap in the literature, the goal of this research was to understand practices used throughout the globe with adult human trafficking survivors. A qualitative approach was utilized. Providers from 26 countries, across six different continents, were interviewed to allow for a comprehensive and multi-faceted understanding of practices in working with survivors. Participants identified utilizing an empowerment-based, survivor, and human life-centered approach to working with survivors, emphasized the importance of engaging in community level interventions, and highlighted the importance of government recognition of human trafficking. Findings provide information from the perspective of advocates on best practices in the field that can be used by agencies to enhance human trafficking programming.

  14. Evaluation of Freshwater Aquatic Resources and Stormwater Management at U.S. Naval Submarine Base, Bangor, Washington

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    May, Christopher


    Surface and storm water conditions on the Naval Submarine Base (NSB), Bangor, Washington, are evaluated, and recommendations are made to improve water quality and enhance the ecological integrity of aquatic resources located on the base...

  15. Hydrothermal processes related to some Triassic and Jurassic submarine basaltic complexes in northeastern Hungary, the Dinarides and Hellenides

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gabriella B Kiss; Ferenc Molnár; Ladislav A Palinkas


      Comparative studies on hydrothermal alteration of submarine peperitic basalt occurrences related to the Triassic early rifting of the Neotethys were carried out in various parts of the Dinarides and Hellenides...

  16. Volume transport data from a submarine cable in the Florida Strait from 1982 to 1998 (NODC Accession 0087879) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Daily mean volume transport data of the Florida Current collected with a submarine cable spanning from South Florida to the Grand Bahama Island in the Florida Strait...

  17. Submarine flow discharge changes as a way to explain incission-overspilling and other cycles in submarine channel sequences (United States)

    Milana, J. P.; Kneller, B.; Dykstra, M.


    -stratification. The second bedform recognized is related to described macrodunes, and is comparable to large-scale antidunes, and produce tabular bodies with very subtle undulating structure. The third and perhaps more important is described as "gravel sheets" although they could be also low-relief gravel dunes developed during low-flow events, on top of the large-scale bedforms or directly over a flat gravelly bed. It is well known that bedforms produce the effect of delay averaged sediment velocity with respect to flow velocity, and thus we propose that this delay has an important geological effect as it creates a lag time between the onset of discharge increase and the time the channel bed reaches an equilibrium with the dominant flows. The effect of changes in the transport efficiency of submarine slope systems in the resulting depositional architecture is already known. However, we introduce here the concept of lagging the coarsest-grained fractions, delayed by the fact they involve in bedform building which move at lower velocities of the flows and hence allow the system to pass along a stage in which flows are big and fast, but the bed is not in equilibrium with them and as a result, canyoning may occur. These changes in external conditions (flow discharge) is likely to occur as a result of changes of turbid water near the slope by fluvial action and hence it would be t result of the interplay of river discharge and eustacy.

  18. Reduced male fertility in childhood cancer survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Hee Lee


    Full Text Available With advances in cancer treatment, more pediatric cancer patients have increased their life expectancy. Because cancer-related therapy causes various physical and psychological problems, many male survivors experience later problems with thyroid and sexual functions, and with growth. As outcomes have improved, more survivors need to maintain their reproductive function to maximize their long-term quality of life. Cancer and cancer-related treatment can impair fertility by damage to the testes, to the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, or to the genitourinary organs. Prior radiation therapy to the testes, the use of alkylating agents, and central hypogonadism further impair fertility in male survivors of childhood cancer. Following any course of chemotherapy, peripubertal maturation, any testicular volume changes, and symptoms of androgen deficiency should be monitored systematically. If patients request fertility testing, spermatogenesis status can be evaluated either directly by semen analysis or indirectly by determination of the levels of testosterone/gonadotropins and by monitoring any changes in testicular volume. According to the patient's condition, semen cryopreservation, hormonal therapy, or assisted reproduction technologies should be provided.

  19. Process theology's relevance for older survivors of domestic violence. (United States)

    Bowland, Sharon


    Pastoral work with survivors of domestic violence may reveal theological struggles. Understandings of scripture that reinforce a sense of powerlessness and alienation from God may contribute to an impaired relationship and limit resources for healing. One framework for re-imaging a relationship with God is process theology. This framework was applied to a case study for one survivor. The application resulted in a line of inquiry that may assist survivors in their healing process.

  20. School attendance in childhood cancer survivors and their siblings. (United States)

    French, Amy E; Tsangaris, Elena; Barrera, Maru; Guger, Sharon; Brown, Robert; Urbach, Stacey; Stephens, Derek; Nathan, Paul C


    To investigate school absenteeism among childhood cancer survivors and their siblings and examine factors related to absenteeism in survivors. A cross-sectional study was conducted among consecutive cancer survivors attending a large pediatric cancer survivor clinic. Absenteeism rates were obtained for survivors and their closest in age sibling from school report cards. Absenteeism was compared with a population control group of 167752 students using 1-sample t tests. The Child Vulnerability Scale, Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory, and Behavior Assessment System for Children were administered to survivors. Univariate and multiple regression analyses assessed variables associated with days absent. One hundred thirty-one survivors (median age at assessment: 13.4 years, range 8.0-19.2; median age at diagnosis: 9.4 years, range 4.3-17.3) and 77 siblings (median age at assessment: 13 years, age range 7-18) participated. Survivors and siblings missed significantly more school days than the population control group (mean ± SD: 9.6 ± 9.2 and 9.9 ± 9.8 vs 5.0 ± 5.6 days, respectively, P sibling pairs (N = 77), there was no difference in absenteeism (9.6 ± 9.2 vs 9.9 ± 9.8 days, P = .85). Absenteeism in survivors was significantly associated with a low Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory Physical Health Summary Score (P = .01). Parents' perception of their child's vulnerability and emotional and social functioning were not associated with absenteeism. Childhood cancer survivors and siblings miss more school than the general population. The only predictor of absenteeism in survivors is poor physical quality of health. More research should be devoted to school attendance and other outcomes in siblings of childhood cancer survivors. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Hospitalization Rates Among Survivors of Young Adult Malignancies. (United States)

    Richardson, Devon P; Daly, Corinne; Sutradhar, Rinku; Paszat, Lawrence F; Wilton, Andrew S; Rabeneck, Linda; Baxter, Nancy N


    There are limited data on health care use among survivors of young adult cancers. We aimed to describe patterns of hospitalization among a cohort of long-term survivors compared with noncancer controls. Persons diagnosed between the ages of 20 and 44 years with malignancies in Ontario, Canada, from 1992 to 1999, who lived at least 5 years recurrence free, were identified using the Ontario Cancer Registry and matched to noncancer controls. Hospitalizations were determined using hospital discharges, and rates were compared between survivors and controls. The absolute excess rate of hospitalizations was determined for each type of malignancy in survivors per 100 person-years of follow-up. The cohort included 20,275 survivors and 101,344 noncancer controls. During the study period, 6,948 (34.3%) survivors were admitted to the hospital and the adjusted relative rate (ARR) of hospitalizations in survivors compared with controls was 1.51 (95% CI, 1.48 to 1.54). The rate of hospitalization was highest for survivors of upper GI, leukemia, and urologic malignancies. The hospitalization rate (per person) for survivors significantly decreased from 0.22 in the first time period examined (5 to 8 years after diagnosis) to 0.15 in the last time period examined (18 to 20 years after diagnosis, P < .0001). However, at all time periods, survivors were more likely to be hospitalized than controls (ARR at 5 to 8 years, 1.67 [95% CI, 1.57 to 1.81]; ARR at 18 to 20 years, 1.22 [95% CI, 1.08 to 1.37]). Survivors of young adult cancers have an increased rate of hospitalization compared with controls. The rate of hospitalization for 20-year survivors did not return to baseline, indicating a substantial and persistent burden of late effects among this generally young population. © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  2. Physical Activity in Child and Adolescent Cancer Survivors: A Review


    Gilliam, Margaux B.; Schwebel, David C.


    Childhood cancer survivors are at increased risk for future health problems. As such, physical activity (PA) has been targeted as a health promotion priority in child and adolescent cancer survivors. Research indicates that a large portion of pediatric survivors do not meet PA recommendations. Using Bronfenbrenner’s ecological theory as a framework, this review presents a conceptual model to explain child and adolescent survivors’ PA. The model considers predictors of PA across six domains: (...

  3. Rehabilitation in cancer survivors - with focus on physical activity


    Gjerset, Gunhild Maria


    The number of cancer survivors in the Western world has markedly increased over the last few decades. With the growing number of survivors, it has become relevant to address the health of cancer survivors and how to improve it. The malignancy, and more often the cancer treatment, might have negative effects upon physical and psychological aspects of the survivors’ health. For those who experience such adverse effects, professional assistance in addition to their own efforts might be needed in...



    Korobeynikov G.V.; Drojjin V.U.


    The purpose of the study: approbation of the prevention program of physical rehabilitation for Chernobyl disaster survivors in lifestyle aspects. Sixty persons who were disaster survivors and workers of Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant aged 32-60 have rehabilitation during 21 days. The complex of training prevention programs of physical and psycho-emotional rehabilitation methods was elaborated. The study of efficacy of training prevention programs among Chernobyl disaster survivors. The results...

  5. Simple models for the simulation of submarine melt for a Greenland glacial system model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Beckmann


    Full Text Available Two hundred marine-terminating Greenland outlet glaciers deliver more than half of the annually accumulated ice into the ocean and have played an important role in the Greenland ice sheet mass loss observed since the mid-1990s. Submarine melt may play a crucial role in the mass balance and position of the grounding line of these outlet glaciers. As the ocean warms, it is expected that submarine melt will increase, potentially driving outlet glaciers retreat and contributing to sea level rise. Projections of the future contribution of outlet glaciers to sea level rise are hampered by the necessity to use models with extremely high resolution of the order of a few hundred meters. That requirement in not only demanded when modeling outlet glaciers as a stand alone model but also when coupling them with high-resolution 3-D ocean models. In addition, fjord bathymetry data are mostly missing or inaccurate (errors of several hundreds of meters, which questions the benefit of using computationally expensive 3-D models for future predictions. Here we propose an alternative approach built on the use of a computationally efficient simple model of submarine melt based on turbulent plume theory. We show that such a simple model is in reasonable agreement with several available modeling studies. We performed a suite of experiments to analyze sensitivity of these simple models to model parameters and climate characteristics. We found that the computationally cheap plume model demonstrates qualitatively similar behavior as 3-D general circulation models. To match results of the 3-D models in a quantitative manner, a scaling factor of the order of 1 is needed for the plume models. We applied this approach to model submarine melt for six representative Greenland glaciers and found that the application of a line plume can produce submarine melt compatible with observational data. Our results show that the line plume model is more appropriate than the cone plume

  6. ESR dating of submarine hydrothermal activities using barite in sulfide deposition (United States)

    Toyoda, S.; Fujiwara, T.; Ishibashi, J.; Isono, Y.; Uchida, A.; Takamasa, A.; Nakai, S.


    The temporal change of submarine hydrothermal activities has been an important issue in the aspect of the evolution of hydrothermal systems which is related with ore formation (Urabe, 1995) and biological systems sustained by the chemical species arising from hydrothermal activities (Macdonald et al., 1980). Determining the ages of the hydrothermal deposit will provide essential information on such studies. Dating methods using disequilibrium between radioisotopes such as U-Th method (e.g. You and Bickle, 1998), 226}Ra-{210Pb and 228}Ra-{228Th method (e.g. Noguchi et al., 2011) have been applied to date submarine hydrothermal deposits. ESR (electron spin resonance) dating method is commonly applied to fossil teeth, shells, and quartz of Quaternay period where the natural accumulated dose is obtained from the intensities of the ESR signals which are created by natural radiation. The natural dose is divided by the dose rate to the mineral/sample to deduce the age. Okumura et al., (2010) made the first practical application of ESR (electron spin resonance) dating technique to a sample of submarine hydrothermal barite (BaSO4) to obtain preliminary ages, where Kasuya et al. (1991) first pointed out that barite can be used for ESR dating. Knowing that ESR dating of barite is promising, in this paper, we will present how we have investigated each factor that contributes ESR dating of barite in submarine hydrothermal sulfide deposition. (1) The best ESR condition for measuring the SO3- signal in barite is with the microwave power of 1mW and modulation amplitude of 0.1mT. (2) As results of heating experiments, the signal was found to be stable for the dating age range of several thousands. (3) 226Ra replacing Ba in barite is the source of the radiation. The amount of radioactive elements in sulfide mineral surrounding barite is negligible. (4) The external radiation from the sea water is negligible even in the submarine hydrothermal area where the radiation level is much

  7. Changes to United States Navy Submarine Design and Construction during World War I, as Determined by the General Board. (United States)


    and influence of operational doctrine that led to significant innovation during the interwar period. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW...naval technology and influence of operational doctrine that led to significant innovation during the interwar period. v ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Many...Russian government Anti Access and Area Denial programs, it can be seen how submarine design and construction remains as important today as when Germany

  8. Lost Productivity in Stroke Survivors: An Econometrics Analysis. (United States)

    Vyas, Manav V; Hackam, Daniel G; Silver, Frank L; Laporte, Audrey; Kapral, Moira K


    Stroke leads to a substantial societal economic burden. Loss of productivity among stroke survivors is a significant contributor to the indirect costs associated with stroke. We aimed to characterize productivity and factors associated with employability in stroke survivors. We used the Canadian Community Health Survey 2011-2012 to identify stroke survivors and employment status. We used multivariable logistic models to determine the impact of stroke on employment and on factors associated with employability, and used Heckman models to estimate the effect of stroke on productivity (number of hours worked/week and hourly wages). We included data from 91,633 respondents between 18 and 70 years and identified 923 (1%) stroke survivors. Stroke survivors were less likely to be employed (adjusted OR 0.39, 95% CI 0.33-0.46) and had hourly wages 17.5% (95% CI 7.7-23.7) lower compared to the general population, although there was no association between work hours and being a stroke survivor. We found that factors like older age, not being married, and having medical comorbidities were associated with lower odds of employment in stroke survivors in our sample. Stroke survivors are less likely to be employed and they earn a lower hourly wage than the general population. Interventions such as dedicated vocational rehabilitation and policies targeting return to work could be considered to address this lost productivity among stroke survivors. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.


    Henderson, Tara O.; Oeffinger, Kevin C.; Whitton, John; Leisenring, Wendy; Neglia, Joseph; Meadows, Anna; Crotty, Catherine; Rubin, David T.; Diller, Lisa; Inskip, Peter; Smith, Susan A.; Stovall, Marilyn; Constine, Louis S.; Hammond, Sue; Armstrong, Greg T.; Robison, Leslie L.; Nathan, Paul C.


    Background Childhood cancer survivors develop gastrointestinal malignancies more frequently and at a younger age than the general population, but risk factors for their development have not been well characterized. Objective To determine the risk and associated risk factors for gastrointestinal subsequent malignant neoplasms (SMN) in childhood cancer survivors. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting The Childhood Cancer Survivor Study, a multi-center study of childhood cancer survivors diagnosed between 1970 and 1986. Patients 14,358 survivors of a malignancy diagnosed at cancer survivors than the general population (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.5-6.1). Colorectal cancer SIR was 4.2 (95% CI: 2.8-6.3). The highest gastrointestinal SMN risk was associated with abdominal radiation (SIR=11.2, 95% CI: 7.6-16.4). However, survivors not exposed to radiation had a significantly increased risk (SIR=2.4, 95% CI-1.4-3.9). In addition to abdominal radiation, high dose procarbazine (RR=3.2, 95% CI 1.1-9.4) and platinum drugs (RR 7.6, 95% CI: 2.3-25.5) independently increased the gastrointestinal SMN risk. Limitations This cohort has not yet attained an age at which gastrointestinal malignancy risk is greatest. Conclusions Childhood cancer survivors, particularly those exposed to abdominal radiation, are at increased risk for gastrointestinal SMN. These findings suggest that surveillance of at-risk childhood cancer survivors should commence at a younger age than recommended for the general population. PMID:22665813

  10. Life satisfaction in adult survivors of childhood brain tumors. (United States)

    Crom, Deborah B; Li, Zhenghong; Brinkman, Tara M; Hudson, Melissa M; Armstrong, Gregory T; Neglia, Joseph; Ness, Kirsten K


    Adult survivors of childhood brain tumors experience multiple, significant, lifelong deficits as a consequence of their malignancy and therapy. Current survivorship literature documents the substantial impact such impairments have on survivors' physical health and quality of life. Psychosocial reports detail educational, cognitive, and emotional limitations characterizing survivors as especially fragile, often incompetent, and unreliable in evaluating their circumstances. Anecdotal data suggest some survivors report life experiences similar to those of healthy controls. The aim of our investigation was to determine whether life satisfaction in adult survivors of childhood brain tumors differs from that of healthy controls and to identify potential predictors of life satisfaction in survivors. This cross-sectional study compared 78 brain tumor survivors with population-based matched controls. Chi-square tests, t tests, and linear regression models were used to investigate patterns of life satisfaction and identify potential correlates. Results indicated that life satisfaction of adult survivors of childhood brain tumors was similar to that of healthy controls. Survivors' general health expectations emerged as the primary correlate of life satisfaction. Understanding life satisfaction as an important variable will optimize the design of strategies to enhance participation in follow-up care, reduce suffering, and optimize quality of life in this vulnerable population. © 2014 by Association of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology Nurses.

  11. Intensive care survivor-reported symptoms: a longitudinal study of survivors' symptoms. (United States)

    Langerud, Anne Kathrine; Rustøen, Tone; Småstuen, Milada Cvancarova; Kongsgaard, Ulf; Stubhaug, Audun


    There is growing interest in potential long-term outcomes following intensive care, but few researchers have studied the prevalence of multiple symptoms or the association between pain and other symptoms. To investigate the prevalence of anxiety, depression, fatigue, sleep disturbance and post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) among intensive care survivors 3 months and 1 year after being discharged from an intensive care unit (ICU) and to determine whether pain is associated with higher prevalence of these symptoms 3 months and 1 year after ICU stay. Exploratory, longitudinal cohort of intensive care survivors from two mixed ICUs in a tertiary referral hospital in Norway. Intensive care survivors completed surveys at 3 months (n = 118) and 1 year (n = 89) after ICU discharge. Clinical Trials: NCT02279212. Prevalence rates of intensive care survivors' symptoms were pain 58 (49·2%), anxiety/depression 24/118 (20·8%), fatigue 18/118(15·3%), PTSS 15 (12·8%) and sleep disturbance 58/118 (49·2%) at 3 months after ICU discharge (n = 118). Prevalence rates at 1 year (n = 89) changed only slightly to pain 34 (38·2%), anxiety/depression 17 (20·0%), fatigue 12 (13·8%), PTSS 13 (15·1%) and sleep disturbance 40/89 (46·5%). Associations were strong between pain and presence of sleep disturbance, anxiety/depression, PTSS and fatigue. Intensive care survivors have multiple symptoms and the prevalence rates of these symptoms remained almost unchanged from 3 months to 1 year after ICU discharge. The presence of pain was associated with high odds for the presence of sleep disturbance, anxiety/depression, PTSS and fatigue, compared to a no-pain group. ICU survivors may benefit from targeted interventions designed to alleviate the symptom burden. Knowledge about ICU survivor's prevalence and risk for having multiple symptoms may help health care professionals to give better care, if needed, to the ICU survivors. © 2017 British Association of Critical Care

  12. Representing distributed cognition in complex systems: how a submarine returns to periscope depth. (United States)

    Stanton, Neville A


    This paper presents the Event Analysis of Systemic Teamwork (EAST) method as a means of modelling distributed cognition in systems. The method comprises three network models (i.e. task, social and information) and their combination. This method was applied to the interactions between the sound room and control room in a submarine, following the activities of returning the submarine to periscope depth. This paper demonstrates three main developments in EAST. First, building the network models directly, without reference to the intervening methods. Second, the application of analysis metrics to all three networks. Third, the combination of the aforementioned networks in different ways to gain a broader understanding of the distributed cognition. Analyses have shown that EAST can be used to gain both qualitative and quantitative insights into distributed cognition. Future research should focus on the analyses of network resilience and modelling alternative versions of a system.

  13. Physical activity aboard nuclear submarines as measured by pedometry. Interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bondi, K.R.; Dougherty, J.H.


    Activity levels of 44 submarines were monitored before and during a fleet ballistic missile submarine patrol. These levels were determined by use of a pedometer worn on the hip. Readings were obtained daily and recorded in a log as miles walked. Through extensive preliminary testing it was determined that the miles unit was useless, due to variability in the sensitivity of the pedometer pendulum movements and the inability to determine a meaningful stride length . Results for any combination of pedometer/user were, however, repeatable. For lack of a better term, results are reported in miles per day and are as follows: Control = 2.11 + or - 0.32 and Underway = 1.01 + or - 0.27 (P<.05 Student T). This reduction of more than 50% in activity level may in part be responsible for the physical deconditioning observed during the course of a 40-70 day submergence period.

  14. Submarine groundwater discharge into the near-shore zone of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stieglitz, Thomas [Marine Geophysical Laboratory, School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville QLD 4811 (Australia) and Australian Institute of Marine Science, Townsville QLD 4810 (Australia)]. E-mail:


    Along the tropical coastline of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) region, little is known to date about submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) into the near-shore ocean. In an oceanographic sense, SGD consists of freshwater flow from land as well as seawater circulated through sediments. Recent radiochemical and geophysical studies, using the tracer {sup 222}Rn and apparent ground conductivity respectively, provide evidence for SGD to occur in a variety of hydrogeological settings. In this paper, a non-quantitative overview of different settings of SGD in the region is presented: (1) recirculation of seawater through animal burrows in mangrove forests, (2) freshwater SGD from unconfined aquifers as a narrow coastal fringe of freshwater along Wet Tropics beaches, (3) SGD from coastal dune systems in form of localised freshwater springs in the intertidal zone, (4) inner-shelf SGD from confined submarine aquifer systems comprised of riverine paleochannels incised into the shelf.

  15. Research on Fairing design and CFD Analysis of Submarine Pipeline Inspection ARV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Xiaojian


    Full Text Available Along with the fast development of the ocean exploitation, the cost-effective requirement of autonomous & remotely operated vehicle (ARV, which can perform more complicated missions such as the oil exploitation and the inspection of the submarine pipeline is more urgent. The submarine pipeline inspection ARV can help us better understand, protect and efficiently utilize them for human welfare. Fairing design of a new detection ARV are introduced in this paper. In order to select an appropriate thruster that will achieve the required speed of the ARV, the ANSYS-CFX tools are used to predicted the drag force. The CFD results reveal the distribution of velocity and pressure values of the ARV. In order to verify the CFD modeling process, a towed body was developed and analyzed, compared against the corresponding physical test data.

  16. Sediment community responses to marine vs. terrigenous organic matter in a submarine canyon


    Hunter, W. R.; Jamieson, A; Huvenne, V. A. I.; Witte, U


    The Whittard Canyon is a branching submarine canyon on the Celtic continental margin, which may act as a conduit for sediment and organic matter (OM) transport from the European continental slope to the abyssal sea floor. In situ stable-isotope labelling experiments were conducted in the eastern and western branches of the Whittard Canyon, testing short-term (3–7 days) responses of sediment communities to deposition of nitrogen-rich marine (Thalassiosira weissflogii) and ni...

  17. Submarine groundwater discharge and associated nutrient fluxes to Discovery Bay, Jamaica (United States)

    Gordon-Smith, D.


    Recent studies have suggested that submarine groundwater discharge can be a significant source of terrestrially-derived nutrients to coastal waters as groundwater fluxes may be comparable to surface fluxes, especially where river flow is small or non-existent, and more attention is now being paid to the contribution of groundwater discharge to biogeochemical processes within the coastal zone. Due to the high temporal and spatial variability of groundwater discharge, quantification may be difficult and various methods have been used to estimate fluxes. The submarine groundwater discharge and associated nutrient fluxes to Discovery Bay, a small tropical embayment on the island of Jamaica, were investigated. Fluxes via submarine springs and seepage through bottom sediments were determined from direct flow measurements and chemical analysis of groundwater and coastal waters. The total groundwater discharge into the bay ranged from 13 to 67 x 103 m3 d-1. Discharge from submarine springs accounted for 70% of the total discharge during dry periods and was not affected by seasonal (rainfall-related) changes. After periods of heavy rainfall, seepage rates increased ten-fold and accounted for about 80% of the total discharge. Subterranean mixing of freshwater and marine water resulted in brackish (salinity ≥ 11) spring and seepage water. The nitrogen and phosphorus originating in the groundwater diluted conservatively within the bay and the average groundwater nutrient concentrations, predicted from dilution curves, were 97(±39) μM N and 0.76(±0.55) μM P. The highest nutrient fluxes to the bay (1200 mol N d-1 and 29 mol P d-1) occurred following heavy rainfall in the watershed. An extension of the study utilizing the naturally-occurring tracers Rn and Ra, to verify the groundwater discharge estimates, and the results of preliminary 222Rn surveys within the bay are also discussed.

  18. Undersea Communications Between Submarines and Unmanned Undersea Vehicles in a Command and Control Denied Environment (United States)


    models in the Map Aware Non- Unifonn Automata (MANA) modeling environment. This analysis explores the value of several different UUV characteristics as...configurations for UUV and submarine interaction in a C2DE area using a series of models in the Map Aware Non- Uniform Automata (MANA) modeling environment...Non-Uniform Automata MANA-V Map Aware Non-Uniform Automata -Vector Mbps Mega-bits Per Second MOE Measure of Effectiveness MSE Mean Square Error

  19. Zone Defense -- Anti-Submarine Warfare Strategy in the age of Littoral Warfare (United States)


    systems malfunctioned at critical times and there is one documented case where the torpedoes they fired failed to detonate .9 However, they were still...Argentine submarine.25 While many ships in the U.S. Navy serve as multi-mission platforms, capable of simultaneously executing numerous tasks, with the implosion of the Russian economy. Recently, the Russian economy has shown a resurgence and it has coincided with a resurgence in

  20. Insulation coordination for lightning overvoltages on a long HVDC submarine cable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mader, D.J.


    This paper demonstrates by detailed modelling and simulation a statistical approach to determining the lightning-induced overvoltage stresses on the insulation of a 220 km HVDC submarine cable due to lightning strikes to the overhead line, and explores methods of controlling these overvoltages to levels that will allow lightning impulse withstand levels as low as 2.0 per unit of working voltage with an adequate safety margin.

  1. Coastal Karst Aquifers in Mediterranean Regions. 2. A Methodology for Exploring, Exploiting and monitoring Submarine Springs


    Bakalowicz, Michel; Fleury, P.; Jouvencel, Bruno; Promé, Jean-Jacques; Becker, P.; Carlin, Thierry; Dörfliger, Nathalie; Seidel, Jean-Luc; Sergent, Philippe


    International audience; In coastal regions, the study of karst aquifers and the ground water resource exploitation require a specific methodology and exploration and monitoring techniques. Two directions are investigated, leading to new technological and methodological developments. The first investigation axis deals with the exploration of fresh water plumes from submarine karst springs. An Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) is being developed and tested in order to collect all data (salini...

  2. Deep water velocities and particle displacements induced by acoustic-gravity waves from submarine earthquakes (United States)

    Oliveira, T. C. A.; Kadri, U.


    An uplift of the ocean bottom caused by a submarine earthquake can generate Acoustic-Gravity Waves (AGW), progressive compression-type waves that travel at near the speed of sound in water. The role of AGW for oceans hydrodynamics has recently became a topic of increasing scientific interest. Kadri [Deep ocean water transport by acoustic-gravity waves, J.Geo. Res. Oceans, 119, (2014)] showed theoretically that AGW can contribute to deep ocean currents and circulation. We analyze and simulate the fundamental AGW modes generated by a submarine earthquake. We consider the first five AGW modes and show that they may all induce comparable temporal variations in water particle velocities at different depths in regions far from the epicenter. Results of temporal variations of horizontal and vertical fluid parcel velocities induced by AGW confirm chaotic flow trajectories at different water depths. A realistic example based on the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake shows that vertical water particle displacements of O(10-2 ) m can be generated at 1 Km depth in a 4 km water depth ocean. We show that the velocity field depends on the presence of the leading AGW modes. Each AGW mode becomes evanescent at a critical time, at which energy is transferred to the next higher modes. Consequently, the main pattern of the velocity field changes as the leading mode change. As an example, for a reference point located at 1000 Km from the epicenter, the first five AGW become evanescent after 1.6, 4.6, 7.7, 10.8 and 13.8 hours, respectively. Our analysis and simulations shed light on the spatio-temporal evolution of the deep water velocities and particle displacements induced by AGW that radiate during submarine earthquakes. Thus, this work is a contribution to understand the role of high moment magnitude submarine earthquakes in deep water mixing mechanism.

  3. Deformation microstructures and timing of a large submarine landslide drilled offshore Martinique (IODP Exp. 340) (United States)

    Guyard, H.; Le Friant, A.; Brunet, M.; Boudon, G.; Emmanuel, L.; Caron, B.; Villemant, B.; Feuillet, N.


    Flank-instabilities constitute a recurrent process in the long-term evolution of many volcanoes. A very large submarine landslide deposit (~2100 km2, ~300 km3) drilled southwest Martinique island during the IODP Exp. 340 in 2012 is likely associated with one (or more) major volcanic flank collapse of Mount Pelée during the Late Pleistocene. A recent study revealed that this D1/D2 deposit is emergent in its central part, frontally confined, and mainly comprises remobilized seafloor sediments rather than debris avalanche material from the volcanic edifice (Brunet et al., subm). Here, we investigate the sedimentary microstructures and timing of deformation from the central (Hole 1400B, ~37 km from the coastline) and distal (Hole 1399A, ~70 km from the coastline) units of the D1/D2 deposit, in order to better understand the emplacement dynamics of such potentially tsunamigenic submarine landslides. High resolution CT-Scan analyses were continuously performed on more than 300 m of sediment cores, in order to characterize and distinguish the internal architecture and the complex deformation features of the sediments at each drilling site. The establishment of the stratigraphy, based on δ18O measurements and AMS 14C dating, is still in progress and may confirm the possible link between the submarine landslide deposits and the flank collapse scars observed on the subaerial part of Martinique. These new insights into the timing and emplacement processes of this large submarine landslide will have important implications for tsunami hazards. ReferenceBrunet, M., Le Friant, A., Boudon, G., Lafuerza, S., Talling, P., Hornbach, M., Lebas, E., Guyard, H., and IODP Expedition 340 science party, submitted. Composition, geometry and emplacement dynamics of a large volcanic island landslide offshore Martinique: from volcano flank-collapse to seafloor sediment failure? Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems.

  4. Learning from Experience, Volume 3: Lessons from the United Kingdom’s Astute Submarine Program (United States)


    Nuclear Installations Inspectorate NSRP nuclear steam-raising plant PNO Principal Naval Overseer RCNC Royal Corps of Naval Constructors SEPP Submarine...experience. The Royal Corps of Naval Constructors (RCNC)8 and the engineering officers of the Royal Navy supplemented the technical resources at the MOD...shipyard’s Dockside Test Organisation composed of members from the shipyard, the ship crew, and the MOD. They pre- pared the test agenda and acceptance

  5. Onset of submarine debris flow deposition far from original giant landslide. (United States)

    Talling, P J; Wynn, R B; Masson, D G; Frenz, M; Cronin, B T; Schiebel, R; Akhmetzhanov, A M; Dallmeier-Tiessen, S; Benetti, S; Weaver, P P E; Georgiopoulou, A; Zühlsdorff, C; Amy, L A


    Submarine landslides can generate sediment-laden flows whose scale is impressive. Individual flow deposits have been mapped that extend for 1,500 km offshore from northwest Africa. These are the longest run-out sediment density flow deposits yet documented on Earth. This contribution analyses one of these deposits, which contains ten times the mass of sediment transported annually by all of the world's rivers. Understanding how this type of submarine flow evolves is a significant problem, because they are extremely difficult to monitor directly. Previous work has shown how progressive disintegration of landslide blocks can generate debris flow, the deposit of which extends downslope from the original landslide. We provide evidence that submarine flows can produce giant debris flow deposits that start several hundred kilometres from the original landslide, encased within deposits of a more dilute flow type called turbidity current. Very little sediment was deposited across the intervening large expanse of sea floor, where the flow was locally very erosive. Sediment deposition was finally triggered by a remarkably small but abrupt decrease in sea-floor gradient from 0.05 degrees to 0.01 degrees. This debris flow was probably generated by flow transformation from the decelerating turbidity current. The alternative is that non-channelized debris flow left almost no trace of its passage across one hundred kilometres of flat (0.2 degrees to 0.05 degrees) sea floor. Our work shows that initially well-mixed and highly erosive submarine flows can produce extensive debris flow deposits beyond subtle slope breaks located far out in the deep ocean.

  6. The Dragonian Subsurface Abyss and Submarine Force’s Ability to Counter the Rising Threat (United States)


    36Desmond Ball , Trends in Military Acquisitions in the Asia-Pacific Region : Implications for Security and Prospects for Constraints and Controls...accessed January 24, 2013). 53IHS Jane’s, "Enter the Dragon : Inside China’s New Model Navy," Jane’s Navy International, April 20, 2011. https...99s-overhyped-submarine-threat/ (accessed November 7, 2011). Ball , Desmond. Trends in Military Acquisitions in the Asia-Pacific Region : Implications

  7. Navigation and history of science: autopsy to submarine Kursk. Survival previsions were not sufficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Jáuregui-Lobera


    Full Text Available On August 12, 2000, Saturday, a Russian submarine of the Oscar II class, the K-141 Kursk, sank in the Barents Sea, while sailing as part of the "Summer-X Exercise" manoeuvres. The Kursk was a giant double-hulled submarine, with nine sealed compartments, considered impossible to be sunk. During the manoeuvres, at 08:51 local time, the Kursk requested permission to prepare a torpedo and it received the response "Dobro" (good in English. At 11:29:34 (07:29:50 UTC the Norwegian seismic monitoring network (NORSAR registered an earthquake of intensity 1.5 on the Richter scale at northeast of Murmansk, approximately 250 Km from Norway, and 80 Km from the Kola Peninsula. At 11:31:48, two minutes and fourteen seconds later, a second movement, 4.2 on the Richter scale and 250 times longer than the first, was recorded by different seismographs, even being detected in Alaska. It was equivalent to an explosion of 2-3 Tm of TNT. After a great confusion and propaganda, there was no choice other than to accept the facts: the Kursk had suffered two explosions, had sunk and the whole crew had perished. But what happened in that submarine? It seems clear that survival previsions were not sufficient.

  8. Aerobic performance of Special Operations Forces personnel after a prolonged submarine deployment. (United States)

    Fothergill, D M; Sims, J R


    The US Navy's Sea, Air and Land Special Operations Forces personnel (SEALs) perform a physically demanding job that requires them to maintain fitness levels equivalent to elite athletes. As some missions require SEALs to be deployed aboard submarines for extended periods of time, the prolonged confinement could lead to deconditioning and impaired mission-related performance. The objective of this field study was to quantify changes in aerobic performance of SEAL personnel following a 33-day submarine deployment. Two age-matched groups of SEALs, a non-deployed SEAL team (NDST, n = 9) and a deployed SEAL team (DST, n = 10), performed two 12-min runs for distance (Cooper tests) 5 days apart pre-deployment and one Cooper test post-deployment. Subjects wore a Polar Vantage NVTM heart rate (HR) monitor during the tests to record exercise and recovery HR. Variables calculated from the HR profiles included mean exercise heart rate (HRmean), maximum exercise heart rate (HRmax), the initial slope of the HR recovery curve (HRrecslope) and HR recovery time (HRrectime). The second pre-deployment test (which was used in the comparison with the post-deployment test) showed a 2% mean increase in the distance achieved compared with the first (n = 18, p submarine compromises the aerobic performance of SEAL personnel. The resulting deconditioning could influence mission success.

  9. River and Submarine Groundwater Discharge Effects on Diatom Phytoplankton Abundance in the Gulf of Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alanna L. Lecher


    Full Text Available The Gulf of Alaska is a highly productive ecosystem that supports fisheries and subsistence harvesting of marine resources. The highly productive summer season begins with a bloom that is dominated by diatoms. Both river and submarine groundwater discharge have been recognized as substantial terrestrial nutrient (nitrate and silicate sources to the Gulf’s coastal waters. Here, the response of in-situ phytoplankton to groundwater and river water additions was evaluated via a bioassay incubation experiment. Special attention was given to diatom genera, as previous studies have shown that submarine groundwater discharge preferentially induces growth of diatoms. The abundance of Pseudo-nitzschia spp., Chaetoceros spp., and Leptocylindrus spp. increased significantly in groundwater and river water containing treatments. Although groundwater and river water are both rich in nitrate and silicate, groundwater treatments with a higher salinity favored a higher relative abundance of Pseudo-nitzschia spp. Conversely, in the highest river water concentration treatments with lower salinity, relative abundances of Pseudo-nitzschia spp. decreased, while Chaetoceros spp. and Leptocylindrus spp. increased. Total abundances of all three genera increased in the lower salinity treatments. These findings could portend changes in the phytoplankton community composition in the Gulf of Alaska as the climate warms and river discharge increases in the coming decades. Furthermore, the findings support previous assertions that submarine groundwater discharge, with higher salinity than river water, is a preferable source of nutrients to the genus Pseudo-nitzschia.

  10. Anthropogenic impacts on deep submarine canyons of the western Mediterranean Sea (United States)

    Sanchez-Vidal, A.; Tubau, X.; Llorca, M.; Woodall, L.; Canals, M.; Farré, M.; Barceló, D.; Thompson, R.


    Submarine canyons are seafloor geomorphic features connecting the shallow coastal ocean to the deep continental margin and basin. Often considered biodiversity hotspots, submarine canyons have been identified as preferential pathways for water, sediment, pollutant and litter transfers from the coastal to the deep ocean. Here we provide insights on the presence of some of the most insidious man-made debris and substances in submarine canyons of the western Mediterranean Sea, which are relevant to achieve a "Good Environmental Status" by 2020 as outlined in the European Union's ambitious Marine Strategy Framework Directive. Ranked by size on a decreasing basis, we review the origin, distribution and transport mechanisms of i) marine litter, including plastic, lost fishing gear and metallic objects; ii) microplastics in the form of fibers of rayon, polyester, polyamide and acetates; and iii) persistent organic pollutants including the toxic and persistent perfluoroalkyl substances. This integrated analysis allows us to understand the pivotal role of atmospheric driven oceanographic processes occurring in Mediterranean deep canyons (dense shelf water cascading, coastal storms) in spreading any type of man-made compound to the deep sea, where they sink and accumulate before getting buried.

  11. Turbidity Currents, Submarine Landslides and the 2006 Pingtung Earthquake off SW Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Kun Hsu


    Full Text Available Submarine landslides or slumps may generate turbidity currents consisting of mixture of sediment and water. Large and fast-moving turbidity currents can incise and erode continental margins and cause damage to artificial structures such as telecommunication cables on the seafloor. In this study, we report that eleven submarine cables across the Kaoping canyon and Manila trench were broken in sequence from 1500 to 4000 m deep, as a consequence of submarine landslides and turbidity currents associated with the 2006 Pingtung earthquakes offshore SW Taiwan. We have established a full-scale scenario and calculation of the turbidity currents along the Kaoping canyon channel from the middle continental slope to the adjacent deep ocean. Our results show that turbidity current velocities vary downstream ranging from 20 to 3.7 and 5.7 m/s, which demonstrates a positive relationship between turbidity current velocity and bathymetric slope. The violent cable failures happened in this case evidenced the destructive power of the turbidity current to seafloor or underwater facilities that should not be underestimated.

  12. Frontally confined versus frontally emergent submarine landslides: A 3D seismic characterisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frey-Martinez, Jose; Cartwright, Joe; James, David [3DLab. School of Earth, Ocean and Planetary Sciences, Cardiff University, P.O. Box 914, Cardiff CF10 3YE (United Kingdom)


    Three-dimensional (3D) seismic data from the continental margin offshore Israel (Eastern Mediterranean) have been used to analyse the compressional structures within the toe regions of two major buried submarine landslides: the ISC and the T20. Both landslides are developed within a Plio-Pleistocene slope succession composed predominately of claystones, limestones and siltstones. The high spatial resolution provided by the seismic data has allowed a detailed analysis of the geometries and deformational structures within the toe regions of the two landslides, and this has been used to develop a mechanical model for their development. Importantly, it has been recognised that submarine landslides may be divided into two main types according to their form of frontal emplacement: frontally confined and frontally emergent. In the former, the landslide undergoes a restricted downslope translation and does not overrun the undeformed downslope strata. In the latter, much larger downslope translation occurs because the landslide is able to ramp up from its original basal shear surface and translate in an unconfined manner over the seafloor. We propose that these two types of submarine landslides are end members of a continuum of gravity-driven slope failure processes, which extends from landslides where the headscarp is completely evacuated, to landslides where the material remains entirely within the headscarp. The differentiation of these two end members is of critical importance as their respective mechanisms of formation, downslope propagation and emplacement are significantly different, and hence need to be taken into consideration when analysing their respective kinematics. (author)

  13. Survivorship education for Latina breast cancer survivors: Empowering Survivors through education. (United States)

    Juarez, Gloria; Mayorga, Lina; Hurria, Arti; Ferrell, Betty


    Nueva Luz is an English and Spanish quality of life (QOL) intervention developed to address the educational needs of Latina breast cancer survivors and provide strategies to assist in their transition into survivorship. A qualitative approach was used to evaluate the English and Spanish educational intervention (Nueva Luz). A purposive sample of eight Latina breast cancer survivors was selected from the group who received the intervention to participate in a digitally recorded interview. Data was analyzed using thematic analysis. Findings provide evidence that the one-on-one tailored approach is a feasible and acceptable method of providing a bilingual psychosocial intervention. The provision of printed bilingual information along with the verbal instruction from a bilingual and culturally competent health care provider can be effective in helping Latina breast cancer survivor's transition successfully into survivorship, improve QOL and contribute to better patient outcomes. The study informs our understanding of the cultural context in patient education content and delivery of psychosocial interventions. The findings may also have relevance for other ethnic minority cancer survivors.

  14. Understanding the Early Support Needs of Survivors of Traumatic Events: The Example of Severe Injury Survivors. (United States)

    Brand, Rachel M; Chisholm, Katherine; Terhaag, Sonia; Lau, Winnie; Forbes, David; Holmes, Alex; O'Donnell, Meaghan


    In the aftermath of a potentially traumatic event, people may experience a range of mental health outcomes, including subclinical symptoms and distress. There is growing evidence that trauma survivors with subclinical symptoms are at increased risk of developing later psychiatric disorders, and this is especially the case with severe injury survivors. There is a need to develop evidence-based, early, brief interventions for those who are at risk of developing trauma-related psychopathology. To date, interventions for this at-risk group have largely been derived from expert consensus. This study therefore aimed to understand the early psychosocial difficulties and perceived needs from the perspective of trauma survivors to further inform intervention development. Forty-three survivors of a serious injury, identified as high risk for developing trauma-related psychopathology, were interviewed and qualitative methods (Thematic Analysis) were used to synthesize the data gathered. Participants described 5 main stressors: trauma-related psychological reactions, relationship stress, unsatisfactory services and support systems, reduced functioning, and negative thoughts and emotions in relation to recovery. In addition, participants described 3 main factors that were helpful in recovery: positive coping, professional support, and social support. These findings can inform posttrauma intervention development for those at risk of later psychological symptoms. In particular, the results support approaches focusing on promoting activity, supporting social relationships, stress and arousal management, and cognitive restructuring. In addition, future interventions might helpfully target rumination, worry, and reexperiencing symptoms. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Longitudinal smoking patterns in survivors of childhood cancer: An update from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. (United States)

    Gibson, Todd M; Liu, Wei; Armstrong, Gregory T; Srivastava, Deo Kumar; Hudson, Melissa M; Leisenring, Wendy M; Mertens, Ann C; Klesges, Robert C; Oeffinger, Kevin C; Nathan, Paul C; Robison, Leslie L


    Survivors of pediatric cancer have elevated risks of mortality and morbidity. Many late adverse effects associated with cancer treatment (eg, second cancers and cardiac and pulmonary disease) are also associated with cigarette smoking, and this suggests that survivors who smoke may be at high risk for these conditions. This study examined the self-reported smoking status for 9397 adult survivors of childhood cancer across 3 questionnaires (median time interval, 13 years). The smoking prevalence among survivors was compared with the smoking prevalence among siblings and the prevalence expected on the basis of age-, sex-, race-, and calendar time-specific rates in the US population. Multivariable regression models examined characteristics associated with longitudinal smoking patterns across all 3 questionnaires. At the baseline, 19% of survivors were current smokers, whereas 24% of siblings were current smokers, and 29% were expected to be current smokers on the basis of US rates. Current smoking among survivors dropped to 16% and 14% on follow-up questionnaires, with similar decreases in the sibling prevalence and the expected prevalence. Characteristics associated with consistent never-smoking included a higher household income (relative risk [RR], 1.16; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.08-1.25), higher education (RR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.22-1.43), and receipt of cranial radiation therapy (RR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.03-1.14). Psychological distress (RR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.80-0.92) and heavy alcohol drinking (RR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.58-0.71) were inversely associated. Among ever-smokers, a higher income (RR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.04-1.32) and education (RR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.10-1.38) were associated with quitting, whereas cranial radiation (RR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.76-0.97) and psychological distress (RR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.72-0.90) were associated with not having quit. The development of adverse health conditions was not associated with smoking patterns. Despite modest declines in smoking prevalence

  16. Survivors of Political Violence: Conceptualizations, Empirical Findings, and Ecological Interventions (United States)

    Stanciu, Elena Amalia; Rogers, Jennifer L.


    There is a vast body of literature on survivors of political violence that has emerged over the past several decades. Most studies focus on the psychological effects of political violence on survivors, as understood within the Western framework of mental health. Studies that conceptualize and examine models that account for the complexity of the…

  17. Comparison of trauma on survivors of sexual assault and intimate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Jun 20, 2014 ... Background: Gender-based violence is a challenge in South Africa, despite available interventions. Caring for the survivors of both forms of violence is critical for ensuring their speedy recovery. Objectives: To compare the effects of trauma on female survivors of sexual assault versus those experienced by ...

  18. Daily physical activity patterns in cancer survivors: a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, Josien; van Weering, Marit; Kurvers, Roel; Tönis, Thijs; Hermens, Hermanus J.; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam Marie Rosé


    In cancer survivors activity levels have been studied primarily by means of questionnaires, while objective information on actual daily activity levels and their distribution throughout the day is lacking. The findings of this study suggest that especially cancer survivors who received chemotherapy

  19. Rape survivor care crisis – mines the worst?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The dire need for better healthcare worker training in rape forensics and safe survivor care has never been better illustrated than by the horrifying rape statistics Médecins. Sans Frontières (MSF) presented last month from the platinum-mining boom town of. Rustenburg. Promising to increase its rape survivor care and ...

  20. Gait characteristics of hemiparetic stroke survivors in Osun State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stroke is one of the leading causes of severe handicap. Deficiencies in walking may present significant challenges to mobility, resulting in abnormal and inefficient gait patterns in stroke survivors. This study compared the gait characteristics of hemiparetic stroke survivors and those of healthy individuals and determined the ...

  1. Comparison of trauma on survivors of sexual assault and intimate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Jun 20, 2014 ... a psychologist by the survivor support officer (SSO), who is a trauma counsellor. Within the context of Limpopo Province, survivors who reported sexual assault at the clinic had experienced stranger rape and rape by non-strangers who were not intimate partners, whilst those who reported physical assault ...

  2. Adult height and age at menarche in childhood cancer survivors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noorda, E. M.; Somers, R.; van Leeuwen, F. E.; Vulsma, T.; Behrendt, H.


    The aim of this study was to assess the long-term effects of cancer treatments on adult height and age at menarche in survivors of various types of childhood cancer. 285 childhood cancer survivors (161 men and 124 women), at least 18 years old and having been off treatment for at least 5 years, were

  3. Impact of cardiovascular counseling and screening in Hodgkin lymphoma survivors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daniëls, L.A.; Krol, S.D.G.; de Graaf, M.A.; Scholte, A.J.H.A.; van 't Veer, M.B.; Putter, H.; de Roos, A.; Schalij, M.J.; van de Poll-Franse, L.; Creutzberg, C.L.


    Purpose Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the most common nonmalignant cause of death in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) survivors, especially after mediastinal irradiation. The role of screening for CVD in HL survivors is unclear, but confrontation with risks of CVD may have a negative influence on

  4. Ethical Issues in Counseling Adult Survivors of Incest. (United States)

    Daniluk, Judith C. and Haverkamp, Beth E.


    Counseling adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse raises ethical issues which include maintaining client confidentiality when the situations have been both immoral and illegal or working with survivors without appropriate training. Principles such as autonomy, fidelity, justice, beneficence and nonmaleficence, and self-interest are examined, as…

  5. Projective drawings: helping adult survivors of childhood abuse recognize boundaries. (United States)

    Glaister, J A


    1. Boundary issues for adult childhood trauma survivors are complex, problematic, difficult to resolve, and occur on a level of unawareness. 2. Boundary concepts can be found in all types of projective drawings. 3. Projective drawings can facilitate awareness and understanding of boundary problems experienced by adult childhood trauma survivors.

  6. Posttraumatic stress symptoms in adult survivors of childhood cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langeveld, N. E.; Grootenhuis, M. A.; Voûte, P. A.; de Haan, R. J.


    Background. Previous research suggests that posttraurnatic stress disorder (PTSD) is present in survivors of childhood cancer. The aim of the current study was to explore posttraurnatic stress symptoms in a sample of young adult survivors of childhood cancer. In addition, the impact of demographic,

  7. Quality of life in young adult survivors of childhood cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langeveld, N. E.; Stam, H.; Grootenhuis, M. A.; Last, B. F.


    In recent years the necessity of measuring quality of life in childhood cancer survivors has been stressed. This paper gives an overview of the results of studies into the quality of life (QL) of young adult survivors of childhood cancer and suggest areas for future research. The review located 30

  8. No excess fatigue in young adult survivors of childhood cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langeveld, N. E.; Grootenhuis, M. A.; Voûte, P. A.; de Haan, R. J.; van den Bos, C.


    Clinical reports suggest that many survivors of childhood cancer experience fatigue as a long-term effect of their treatment. To investigate this issue further, we assessed the level of fatigue in young adult survivors of childhood cancer. We compared the results with a group of young adults with no

  9. Learning Profiles of Survivors of Pediatric Brain Tumors (United States)

    Barkon, Beverly


    By 2010 it is predicted that one in 900 adults will be survivors of some form of pediatric cancer. The numbers are somewhat lower for survivors of brain tumors, though their numbers are increasing. Schools mistakenly believe that these children easily fit pre-existing categories of disability. Though these students share some of the…

  10. Cancer survivors' rehabilitation needs in a primary health care context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Thorbjørn; Søndergaard, Jens; Sokolowski, Ineta


    BACKGROUND: Studies of cancer survivors' rehabilitation needs have mostly addressed specific areas of needs, e.g. physical aspects and/or rehabilitation needs in relation to specific cancer types. OBJECTIVE: To assess cancer survivors' perceived need for physical and psychosocial rehabilitation, ...

  11. Emergency mental health and psychosocial support for survivors of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To describe the design and delivery of emergency mental health and psychosocial support services for the survivors of Post-Election Violence in Eldoret, Kenya. Design: A longitudinal intervention. Setting: The North Rift Valley region in western Kenya. Subjects: A total of 80,772 survivors received mental health ...

  12. Family Survivors of Suicide and Accidental Death: Consequences for Widows. (United States)

    McNiel, Dale E.; And Others


    Examined the impact of completed suicide on the surviving family, comparing widows (N=13) whose husbands had died through suicide to widows (N=13) whose husbands had died in accidents. Found suicide survivors showed no more family dysfunction, life stress, or psychiatric symptomatology than accident survivors. (Author/ABL)

  13. Poststroke spasticity: sequelae and burden on stroke survivors and caregivers. (United States)

    Zorowitz, Richard D; Gillard, Patrick J; Brainin, Michael


    Among the estimated 20% to 40% of stroke survivors who develop spasticity, the burden of this condition on patients, caregivers, and society is substantial. Stroke survivors with spasticity may experience reductions in their ability to perform activities of daily living and in their health-related quality of life. The occurrence of spasticity in stroke survivors may also result in an increased burden on their caregivers, who exhibit poorer physical and emotional health as compared with the general population. The responsibilities that caregivers have to the stroke survivor--in terms of providing medical care, protecting from falls, and assisting with feeding and hygiene, among other tasks of daily living--must be balanced with their responsibilities to other family members and to themselves. Caregivers of stroke survivors often report a feeling of confinement with little opportunity for relief, and although social support can be helpful, it is frequently limited in its availability. In terms of the socioeconomic burden of spasticity after stroke, recent data point to a 4-fold increase in health care costs associated with stroke survivors with spasticity compared with stroke survivors without spasticity. Thus, it is important to reduce the burden of spasticity after stroke. Consequently, effective spasticity treatment that reduces spasticity and the level of disability experienced by stroke survivors will likely increase their functioning and their health-related quality of life and will also result in a diminished burden on their caregivers.

  14. Health Information Needs of Childhood Cancer Survivors and Their Family

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knijnenburg, Sebastiaan L.; Kremer, Leontien C.; van den Bos, Cor; Braam, Katja I.; Jaspers, Monique W. M.


    Background. Knowledge about past disease, treatment, and possible late effects has previously been shown to be low in survivors of childhood cancer and their relatives. This study investigated the information needs of childhood cancer survivors and their parents and explored possible determinants

  15. Work disability assessment of cancer survivors: insurance physicians ' perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Muijen, P.; Duijts, S.F.A.; van der Aa, D.A.; van der Beek, A.J.; Anema, J.R.


    Background: Assessing work disability in cancer survivors is a complex decision-making process. In the Netherlands, physicians employed by the Dutch Social Security Agency (SSA) play a key role in assessing work disability of cancer survivors on long-term sick leave. Aims: To investigate the aspects

  16. Adult Adjustment of Survivors of Institutional Child Abuse in Ireland (United States)

    Carr, Alan; Dooley, Barbara; Fitzpatrick, Mark; Flanagan, Edel; Flanagan-Howard, Roisin; Tierney, Kevin; White, Megan; Daly, Margaret; Egan, Jonathan


    Objective: To document the adult adjustment of survivors of childhood institutional abuse. Method: Two hundred and forty-seven adult survivors of institutional abuse with a mean age of 60 were interviewed with a protocol that included the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, modules from the Structured Clinical Interview for Axis I Disorders of DSM IV…

  17. Perceived control, adjustment, and communication problems in laryngeal cancer survivors. (United States)

    Blood, G W; Dineen, M; Kauffman, S M; Raimondi, S C; Simpson, K C


    Health locus of control, adjustment to cancer, and communication experiences after a laryngectomy were investigated in 63 laryngeal cancer survivors. Survivors who showed internal control also scored as better adjusted and had fewer communication problems. Scales were intercorrelated (.68 to .92).


    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bickerstaffe, Alice; Beelen, Anita; Nollet, Frans


    Objectives: Many polio survivors have symptoms that are known risk factors for falls in elderly people. This study aims to determine the: (i) frequency; (ii) consequences; (iii) circumstances; and (iv) factors associated with falls in polio survivors. Methods: A survey was conducted among 376 polio

  19. Why Rape Survivors Participate in the Criminal Justice System (United States)

    Patterson, Debra; Campbell, Rebecca


    After a rape, survivors may seek help from multiple community organizations including the criminal justice system (CJS). Research has found that few survivors report their assaults to the police and of those who do report, many withdraw their participation during the investigation. However, relatively little is known about the factors that lead…

  20. ECHN honors cancer survivors with fun, food and inspirational stories. (United States)

    Botvin, Judith D


    A nostalgia theme was fully explored by Eastern Connecticut Health Network (ECHN), Manchester, Conn., in its celebration of Cancer Survivors Day, June 6. The observance is sponsored by the national Cancer Survivors Day organization. This year more than 700 facilities across the country observed the occasion.

  1. Executive function and coping in stroke survivors. (United States)

    Kegel, Jessica; Dux, Moira; Macko, Richard


    Stroke is a leading cause of disability and sequelae may include physical, emotional, and cognitive impairments. The methods employed to cope with distress, both emotional and cognitive, have not been evaluated in individuals post-stroke. However, research in traumatic brain injury (TBI) suggests that executive function is positively correlated with adaptive coping and negatively correlated with maladaptive coping strategies (Krpan et al., 2007). Examination of these constructs post-stroke may assist with enriching our understanding of cognitive and emotional symptomatology and optimize rehabilitation strategies. The present study aimed to assess the association between executive function and coping strategies in a sample of chronic stroke survivors. The researchers hypothesized that executive function would be positively correlated with adaptive coping strategies and negatively correlated with maladaptive coping strategies. Fifteen stroke survivors were administered a battery of cognitive tests assessing executive function and also completed the Ways of Coping Questionnaire (WAYS), a self-report coping measure. Analyses indicated that executive function deficits were related to increased avoidant coping. Contrary to expectations, executive function was not significantly related to active coping. In addition, post hoc analyses revealed that executive function was a significant predictor of avoidant coping after controlling for demographics. Our data, in accordance with prior work in TBI, suggests that executive function and aspects of coping are associated. Rehabilitation strategies that improve executive function may also lead to utilization of adaptive coping strategies. Research has shown that aerobic exercise increases activation in the frontal lobe and improves executive function (Colcombe & Kramer, 2003; Colcombe et al., 2004). Future studies should examine whether aerobic exercise positively affects executive function and coping in stroke survivors.

  2. Using multiple geochemical tracers to characterize the hydrogeology of the submarine spring off Crescent Beach, Florida (United States)

    Swarzenski, P.W.; Reich, C.D.; Spechler, R.M.; Kindinger, J.L.; Moore, W.S.


    A spectacular submarine spring is located about 4 km east of Crescent Beach, FL, in the Atlantic Ocean. The single vent feature of Crescent Beach Spring provides a unique opportunity to examine onshore-offshore hydrogeologic processes, as well as point source submarine ground water discharge. The Floridan aquifer system in northeastern Florida consists of Tertiary interspersed limestone and dolomite strata. Impermeable beds confine the water-bearing zones under artesian pressure. Miocene and younger confining strata have been eroded away at the vent feature, enabling direct hydrologic communication of Eocene ground water with coastal bottom waters. The spring water had a salinity of 6.02, which was immediately diluted by ambient seawater during advection/mixing. The concentration of major solutes in spring water and onshore well waters confirm a generalized easterly flow direction of artesian ground water. Nutrient concentrations were generally low in the reducing vent samples, and the majority of the total nitrogen species existed as NH3. The submarine ground water tracers, Rn-222 (1174 dpm I-1, dpm), methane (232 nM) and barium (294.5 nM) were all highly enriched in the spring water relative to ambient seawater. The concentrations of the reverse redox elements U, V and Mo were expectedly low in the submarine waters. The strontium isotope ratio of the vent water (87Sr/86Sr = 0.70798) suggests that the spring water contain an integrated signature indicative of Floridan aquifer system ground water. Additional Sr isotopic ratios from a series of surficial and Lower Floridan well samples suggest dynamic ground water mixing, and do not provide clear evidence for a single hydrogeologic water source at the spring vent. In this karst-dominated aquifer, such energetic mixing at the vent feature is expected, and would be facilitated by conduit and fractured flow. Radium isotope activities were utilized to estimate flow-path trajectories and to provide information on

  3. Fertility in female childhood cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Bruin, Marie L; Van Dulmen-den Broeder, Eline; Van den Berg, Marleen H


    chemotherapy and radiotherapy may have an adverse effect on ovarian function, ovarian reserve and uterine function, clinically leading to sub-fertility, infertility, premature menopause and/or adverse pregnancy outcomes. Here we will first address normal female fertility and methods to detect decreased...... fertility. Hence we will focus on direct effects as well as late fertility-related adverse effects caused by chemotherapy and radiotherapy, and we will conclude with a summary of current options for fertility preservation in female childhood cancer survivors....

  4. Peer Support Services for Bereaved Survivors: A Systematic Review. (United States)

    Bartone, Paul T; Bartone, Jocelyn V; Violanti, John M; Gileno, Zaneta M


    This systematic literature review assesses the evidence regarding benefits of peer support services for bereaved survivors of sudden or unexpected death. Reports were included that addressed peer support services for adults who experienced death of a family member, close friend, or coworker. Of the 32 studies meeting all inclusion criteria, most showed evidence that peer support was helpful to bereaved survivors, reducing grief symptoms and increasing well-being and personal growth. Studies also showed benefits to providers of peer support, including increased personal growth and positive meaning in life. Several studies addressed the growing trend of Internet-based peer support programs, finding that these are beneficial in part due to their easy accessibility. Peer support appears to be especially valuable for survivors of suicide loss, a result that may be related to stigma and lack of support from family and friends experienced by many suicide survivors. The reviewed studies provide consistent evidence that peer support is beneficial to bereaved survivors.

  5. Second-generation Holocaust survivors: Psychological, theological, and moral challenges. (United States)

    Juni, Samuel


    Drawing from trauma theory, psychodynamic conceptualization, developmental psychology, clinical data, and personal experience, this article portrays a life haunted by tragedy predating its victims. Healthy child development is outlined, with particular attention to socialization and theological perspectives. Key characteristics of trauma are delineated, highlighting the nuances of trauma that are most harmful. As is the case with general trauma, Holocaust survivors are described as evincing survivor's guilt and paranoia in response to their experiences. Divergent disorders resulting from the Holocaust are described for 1st-generation and 2nd-generation survivors, respectively. Primary trauma responses and pervasive attitudes of survivors are shown to have harmful ramifications on their children's personality and worldview as well as on their interpersonal and theistic object relations. These limitations translate into problems in the adult lives of second generation survivors.

  6. Cognitive problems among breast cancer survivors: loneliness enhances risk. (United States)

    Jaremka, Lisa M; Peng, Juan; Bornstein, Robert; Alfano, Catherine M; Andridge, Rebecca R; Povoski, Stephen P; Lipari, Adele M; Agnese, Doreen M; Farrar, William B; Yee, Lisa D; Carson, William E; Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice K


    Cancer survivors often experience cognitive difficulties after treatment completion. Although chemotherapy enhances risk for cognitive problems, it is likely only one piece of a complex puzzle that explains survivors' cognitive functioning. Loneliness may be one psychosocial risk factor. The current studies included both subjective and objective cognitive measures and tested whether lonelier breast cancer survivors would have more concentration and memory complaints and experience more concentration difficulties than their less lonely counterparts. The relationship between loneliness and cognitive function was tested among three samples of breast cancer survivors. Study 1 was a sample of breast cancer survivors (n = 200) who reported their concentration and memory problems. Study 2a was a sample of breast cancer survivors (n = 185) and noncancer controls (n = 93) who reported their concentration and memory problems. Study 2b was a subsample of Study 2a breast cancer survivors (n = 22) and noncancer controls (n = 21) who completed a standardized neuropsychological test assessing concentration. Studies 1 and 2a revealed that lonelier women reported more concentration and memory problems than less lonely women. Study 2b utilized a standardized neuropsychological continuous performance test and demonstrated that lonelier women experienced more concentration problems than their less lonely counterparts. These studies demonstrated that loneliness is linked to concentration and memory complaints and the experience of concentration problems among breast cancer survivors. The results were also highly consistent across three samples of breast cancer survivors. These data suggest that loneliness may be a risk factor for cognitive difficulties among cancer survivors. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Higher prevalence of osteoporosis among female Holocaust survivors. (United States)

    Marcus, E-L; Menczel, J


    The prevalence of osteoporosis was statistically significantly higher among female Holocaust survivors than among those who were not exposed to the Holocaust. These findings support the importance of nutrition and environmental conditions during childhood and adolescence on BMD in older adults. Holocaust survivors during childhood and adolescence experienced undernutrition and lack of exercise and sunlight. The study aimed to establish if Holocaust survivors have higher prevalence of osteoporosis than subjects who were not Holocaust survivors. Seventy-three female Jewish Holocaust survivors > or = 60 years old and 60 female European-born Jews > or =60 years old who were not in the Holocaust were examined. BMD was measured using DXA of the lumbar spine and hips. The Cochran-Armitage trend test was used to test for an increasing trend in decreased BMD in the Holocaust survivors versus controls. Among Holocaust survivors 54.8% had osteoporosis, 39.7% osteopenia, and 5.5% normal BMD, whereas among controls 25.0% had osteoporosis, 55.0% osteopenia, and 20.0% normal BMD (p = 0.0001). In those who were Holocaust survivors 58.0% had osteoporosis, 34.0% osteopenia, and 8.0% normal BMD, whereas among controls 20.0% had osteoporosis, 57.8% osteopenia, and 22.2% normal BMD (p = 0.0003). In those > or =17 years old in 1945, among Holocaust survivors 47.8% had osteoporosis, 52.2% osteopenia and none had normal BMD, whereas among controls 40.0% had osteoporosis, 46.7% osteopenia, and 13.3% normal BMD (p = 0.28). The prevalence of osteoporosis was significantly higher among Holocaust survivors.

  8. Cardiopulmonary exercise performance is reduced in congenital diaphragmatic hernia survivors. (United States)

    Bojanić, Katarina; Grizelj, Ruža; Dilber, Daniel; Šarić, Dalibor; Vuković, Jurica; Pianosi, Paolo T; Driscoll, David J; Weingarten, Toby N; Pritišanac, Ena; Schroeder, Darrell R; Sprung, Juraj


    Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is associated with lung hypoplasia. CDH survivors may have pulmonary morbidity that can decrease cardiopulmonary exercise. We aimed to examine whether cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) results differ in CDH survivors versus healthy age-matched controls and whether CPET results among CDH survivors differ according to self-reported daily activity. In one medical center in Croatia, CDH survivors-patients with surgically corrected CDH who were alive at age 5 years-were invited to participate in spirometry and CPET. Values were compared with those of controls matched 2:1 by age and sex for each CDH survivor aged 7 years or older. Among 27 CDH survivors aged 5-20 years, 13 (48%) had continued symptoms or spirometric evidence of pulmonary disease. Compared with controls (n = 44), survivors (n = 22) had lower peak oxygen consumption (V˙O2 mean [SD], 35.7 [6.9] vs. 45.3 [8.2] ml/kg per min; P exercise, V˙O2/heart rate (P different (P = 0.72). Among survivors, mean (SD) V˙O2peak (ml/kg per min) differed by self-reported activity level: athletic, 40.3 (5.0); normal, 35.8 (6.5); and sedentary, 32.1 (6.8) (by ANOVA, P = 0.10 across three groups and P = 0.04 athletic vs. sedentary). More than half of CDH survivors continue to have chronic pulmonary disease. CDH survivors had lower aerobic exercise capacity than controls. Self-reporting information on daily activities may identify CDH patients with low V˙O2max who may benefit from physical training. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2016;51:1320-1329. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Nutritional interventions for survivors of childhood cancer. (United States)

    Cohen, Jennifer E; Wakefield, Claire E; Cohn, Richard J


    Childhood cancer survivors are at a higher risk of developing health conditions such as osteoporosis, and cardiovascular disease than their peers. Health-promoting behaviour, such as consuming a healthy diet, could lessen the impact of these chronic issues, yet the prevalence rate of health-protecting behaviour amongst survivors of childhood cancer is similar to that of the general population. Targeted nutritional interventions may prevent or reduce the incidence of these chronic diseases. The primary aim of this review was to assess the efficacy of a range of nutritional interventions designed to improve the nutritional intake of childhood cancer survivors, as compared to a control group of childhood cancer survivors who did not receive the intervention. Secondary objectives were to assess metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors, measures of weight and body fat distribution, behavioural change, changes in knowledge regarding disease risk and nutritional intake, participants' views of the intervention, measures of health status and quality of life, measures of harm associated with the process or outcomes of the intervention, and cost-effectiveness of the intervention We searched the electronic databases of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2013, Issue 3), MEDLINE/PubMed (from 1945 to April 2013), and Embase/Ovid (from 1980 to April 2013). We ran the search again in August 2015; we have not yet fully assessed these results, but we have identified one ongoing trial. We conducted additional searching of ongoing trial registers - the International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number register and the National Institutes of Health register (both screened in the first half of 2013) - reference lists of relevant articles and reviews, and conference proceedings of the International Society for Paediatric Oncology and the International Conference on Long-Term Complications of Treatment of Children and Adolescents for Cancer (both 2008 to

  10. Psychological Adjustment in Breast Cancer Survivors. (United States)

    Stanton, Annette L; Bower, Julienne E


    Women living with a diagnosis of breast cancer constitute more than 20 % of the cancer survivor population in the United States. Research on trajectories of psychological adjustment in women recently diagnosed with breast suggests that the largest proportion of women evidences relatively low psychological distress either from the point of diagnosis or after a period of recovery. Substantial heterogeneity exists, however, and some women are at risk for lingering depression, anxiety, fear of cancer recurrence and other long-term psychological effects. Most women diagnosed with breast cancer also report a number of benefits that arise from their experience of cancer. Longitudinal studies have illuminated risk and protective factors for psychological adjustment in breast cancer survivors, which we describe in this chapter. Effective psychosocial interventions, as evidenced in randomized controlled trials, also are available for bolstering breast cancer-related adjustment. We offer directions for research to deepen the understanding of biological, psychological, and social contributors to positive adjustment in the context of breast cancer, as well as suggestions for the development of optimally efficient evidence-based psychosocial interventions for women living with the disease.

  11. Evidence from acoustic imaging for submarine volcanic activity in 2012 off the west coast of El Hierro (Canary Islands, Spain) (United States)

    Pérez, Nemesio M.; Somoza, Luis; Hernández, Pedro A.; de Vallejo, Luis González; León, Ricardo; Sagiya, Takeshi; Biain, Ander; González, Francisco J.; Medialdea, Teresa; Barrancos, José; Ibáñez, Jesús; Sumino, Hirochika; Nogami, Kenji; Romero, Carmen


    We report precursory geophysical, geodetic, and geochemical signatures of a new submarine volcanic activity observed off the western coast of El Hierro, Canary Islands. Submarine manifestation of this activity has been revealed through acoustic imaging of submarine plumes detected on the 20-kHz chirp parasound subbottom profiler (TOPAS PS18) mounted aboard the Spanish RV Hespérides on June 28, 2012. Five distinct "filament-shaped" acoustic plumes emanating from the flanks of mounds have been recognized at water depth between 64 and 88 m on a submarine platform located NW El Hierro. These plumes were well imaged on TOPAS profiles as "flares" of high acoustic contrast of impedance within the water column. Moreover, visible plumes composed of white rafts floating on the sea surface and sourcing from the location of the submarine plumes were reported by aerial photographs on July 3, 2012, 5 days after acoustic plumes were recorded. In addition, several geophysical and geochemical data support the fact that these submarine vents were preceded by several precursory signatures: (i) a sharp increase of the seismic energy release and the number of daily earthquakes of magnitude ≥2.5 on June 25, 2012, (ii) significant vertical and horizontal displacements observed at the Canary Islands GPS network (Nagoya University-ITER-GRAFCAN) with uplifts up to 3 cm from June 25 to 26, 2012, (iii) an anomalous increase of the soil gas radon activity, from the end of April until the beginning of June reaching peak values of 2.7 kBq/m3 on June 3, 2012, and (iv) observed positive peak in the air-corrected value of 3He/4He ratio monitored in ground waters (8.5 atmospheric 3He/4He ratio ( R A)) at the northwestern El Hierro on June 16, 2012. Combining these submarine and subaerial information, we suggest these plumes are the consequence of submarine vents exhaling volcanic gas mixed with fine ash as consequence of an event of rapid rise of volatile-rich magma beneath the NW submarine ridge

  12. "We are survivors and not a virus:" Content analysis of media reporting on Ebola survivors in Liberia. (United States)

    Mayrhuber, Elisabeth Anne-Sophie; Niederkrotenthaler, Thomas; Kutalek, Ruth


    The Ebola virus disease epidemic between 2013 and 2016 in West Africa was unprecedented. It resulted in approximately 28.000 cases and 10.000 Ebola survivors. Many survivors face social, economic and health-related predicaments and media reporting is crucially important in infectious disease outbreaks. However, there is little research on reporting of the social situation of Ebola survivors in Liberia. The study used a mixed methods approach and analysed media reports from the Liberian Daily Observer (DOL), a daily newspaper available online in English. We were interested to know how the situation of Ebola survivors was portrayed; in what way issues such as stigma and discrimination were addressed; and which stigma reduction interventions were covered and how. We included all articles on the situation of Ebola survivors in the quantitative and in-depth qualitative analysis published between April 2014 and March 2016. The DOL published 148 articles that portrayed the social situation of Ebola survivors between the 24 months observation period. In these articles, Ebola survivors were often defined beyond biological terms, reflecting on a broader social definition of survivorship. Survivorship was associated with challenges such as suffering from after-effects, social and economic consequences and psychological distress. Almost 50% of the articles explicitly mentioned stigmatisation in their reporting on Ebola survivors. This was contextualised in untrustworthiness towards international responses and the local health care system and inconclusive knowledge on cures and transmission routes. In the majority of DOL articles stigma reduction and engaging survivors in the response was reported as crucially important. Reporting in the DOL was educational-didactical and well-balanced in terms of disseminating available medical knowledge and reflecting the social situation of Ebola survivors. While the articles contextualised factors contributing to stigmatisation throughout

  13. "We are survivors and not a virus:" Content analysis of media reporting on Ebola survivors in Liberia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Anne-Sophie Mayrhuber


    Full Text Available The Ebola virus disease epidemic between 2013 and 2016 in West Africa was unprecedented. It resulted in approximately 28.000 cases and 10.000 Ebola survivors. Many survivors face social, economic and health-related predicaments and media reporting is crucially important in infectious disease outbreaks. However, there is little research on reporting of the social situation of Ebola survivors in Liberia.The study used a mixed methods approach and analysed media reports from the Liberian Daily Observer (DOL, a daily newspaper available online in English. We were interested to know how the situation of Ebola survivors was portrayed; in what way issues such as stigma and discrimination were addressed; and which stigma reduction interventions were covered and how. We included all articles on the situation of Ebola survivors in the quantitative and in-depth qualitative analysis published between April 2014 and March 2016.The DOL published 148 articles that portrayed the social situation of Ebola survivors between the 24 months observation period. In these articles, Ebola survivors were often defined beyond biological terms, reflecting on a broader social definition of survivorship. Survivorship was associated with challenges such as suffering from after-effects, social and economic consequences and psychological distress. Almost 50% of the articles explicitly mentioned stigmatisation in their reporting on Ebola survivors. This was contextualised in untrustworthiness towards international responses and the local health care system and inconclusive knowledge on cures and transmission routes. In the majority of DOL articles stigma reduction and engaging survivors in the response was reported as crucially important.Reporting in the DOL was educational-didactical and well-balanced in terms of disseminating available medical knowledge and reflecting the social situation of Ebola survivors. While the articles contextualised factors contributing to

  14. Meaningful Use of an Electronic Personal Health Record (ePHR) among Pediatric Cancer Survivors. (United States)

    Williamson, Rebecca S; Cherven, Brooke O; Gilleland Marchak, Jordan; Edwards, Paula; Palgon, Michael; Escoffery, Cam; Meacham, Lillian R; Mertens, Ann C


    Background and Objectivs: Survivors of pediatric and adolescent cancer are at an increased risk of chronic and debilitating health conditions and require life-long specialized care. Stand-alone electronic personal health records (ePHRs) may aid their self-management. This analysis characterizes young adult survivors and parents who meaningfully use an ePHR, Cancer SurvivorLink TM , designed for survivors of pediatric and adolescent cancer. This was a retrospective observational study of patients seen at a pediatric survivor clinic for annual survivor care. Young adult survivors and/or parent proxies for survivors survivors/parents registered and 38% of registrants used SurvivorLink meaningfully. Young adult registrants who transferred to adult care during the study period were more likely to be meaningful users (aOR: 2.6 (95% CI: 1.1, 6.1)) and used the ePHR twice as frequently as those who continued to receive care in our institution's pediatric survivor clinic. Among survivors who continued to receive care at our institution, being a registrant was associated with having an annual follow-up visit (aOR: 2.6 (95% CI: 1.2, 5.8)). While ePHRs may not be utilized by all survivors, SurvivorLink is a resource for a subset and may serve as an important bridge for patients who transfer their care. Using SurvivorLink was also associated with receiving recommended annual survivor care.

  15. Subsequent Neoplasms in 5-Year Survivors of Childhood Cancer: The Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (United States)

    Whitton, John; Leisenring, Wendy; Mertens, Ann C.; Hammond, Sue; Stovall, Marilyn; Donaldson, Sarah S.; Meadows, Anna T.; Robison, Leslie L.; Neglia, Joseph P.


    Background The occurrence of subsequent neoplasms has direct impact on the quantity and quality of life in cancer survivors. We have expanded our analysis of these events in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS) to better understand the occurrence of these events as the survivor population ages. Methods The incidence of and risk for subsequent neoplasms occurring 5 years or more after the childhood cancer diagnosis were determined among 14 359 5-year survivors in the CCSS who were treated from 1970 through 1986 and who were at a median age of 30 years (range = 5–56 years) for this analysis. At 30 years after childhood cancer diagnosis, we calculated cumulative incidence at 30 years of subsequent neoplasms and calculated standardized incidence ratios (SIRs), excess absolute risks (EARs) for invasive second malignant neoplasms, and relative risks for subsequent neoplasms by use of multivariable Poisson regression. Results Among 14 359 5-year survivors, 1402 subsequently developed 2703 neoplasms. Cumulative incidence at 30 years after the childhood cancer diagnosis was 20.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 19.1% to 21.8%) for all subsequent neoplasms, 7.9% (95% CI = 7.2% to 8.5%) for second malignant neoplasms (excluding nonmelanoma skin cancer), 9.1% (95% CI = 8.1% to 10.1%) for nonmelanoma skin cancer, and 3.1% (95% CI = 2.5% to 3.8%) for meningioma. Excess risk was evident for all primary diagnoses (EAR = 2.6 per 1000 person-years, 95% CI = 2.4 to 2.9 per 1000 person-years; SIR = 6.0, 95% CI = 5.5 to 6.4), with the highest being for Hodgkin lymphoma (SIR = 8.7, 95% CI = 7.7 to 9.8) and Ewing sarcoma (SIR = 8.5, 95% CI = 6.2 to 11.7). In the Poisson multivariable analysis, female sex, older age at diagnosis, earlier treatment era, diagnosis of Hodgkin lymphoma, and treatment with radiation therapy were associated with increased risk of subsequent neoplasm. Conclusions As childhood cancer survivors progress through adulthood, risk of subsequent neoplasms

  16. Disposal of Russian nuclear submarines and surface ships; Deutsch-russisches Gemeinschaftsprojekt zur Entsorgung russischer Atom-U-Boote

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klammt, Jens-Uwe; Menger, Bernd; Mietann, Detlef [Energiewerke Nord GmbH, Rubenow (Germany)


    A German contribution to the initiative of the Global G8 Partnership against the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction is a project for the disposal of decommissioned nuclear submarines of the Russian Northern Sea Fleet. The Federal Republic of Germany makes available a total of 600 million euro for this purpose for the period of 2003 to 2014. Since 2003, a long-term store has been under construction in the Saida Bay in the Murmansk region for land-based storage of mothballed reactor sections from decommissioned nuclear submarines and components of nuclear surface ships with a total of 178 storage positions, the necessary infrastructure included. At the present time, 33 mothballed reactor sections of disassembled nuclear submarines are stored there. Work is also under way to build and equip a center for conditioning, treatment, and long-term storage of radioactive waste from the northwestern region of Russia, which will be commissioned in 2014. This waste management center is a key item in Russian plans for the establishment of radiologically safe conditions in the region. Germany financed the disassembly of 20 submarines into reactor sections fit for storage. Extensive assistance was provided in improving the material technical basis of the shipyard commissioned to dispose of the nuclear submarines. (orig.)

  17. Investigation of weldments in Victoria-class submarine pressure-hull using magnetic flux leakage and Barkhausen noise (United States)

    Samimi, A. A.; Babbar, V.; Krause, T. W.; Clapham, L.


    Evaluation of the stress state within submarine hulls can contribute to risk assessments, which provide assurance that in-service induced stresses will not adversely affect the service life of the naval structure. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using magnetic NDE techniques for identification of stresses associated with weldments in two original pressure hulls of Canada's Victoria class submarines. Magnetic Flux Leakage (MFL) and flux-controlled Barkhausen Noise measurements were investigated for identification of patch boundaries and welds in two sections of Victoria-class submarine-hull steel. While MFL showed clear demarcation of weld boundaries, Barkhausen measurements did not provide sufficiently clear response to identify these features in submarine hull samples. For a better understanding of Barkhausen response, uniaxial tensile stress was investigated on separate samples of submarine steel. A nonlinear dependence of Barkhausen response was observed, with a weaker sensitivity to tensile stresses below 200 MPa. This behavior, combined with the presence of substantial surface compressive stresses, was used to explain the observed insensitivity of Barkhausen measurements to the presence of welds.

  18. The study of the impact of ice conditions on the possibility of the submarine vessels surfacing in the ice cover (United States)

    Zemlyak, V. L.; Kozin, V. M.; Baurin, N. O.; Ipatov, K. I.; Kandelya, M. V.


    Traditionally submarine vessels emerging from under ice cover performing by static loading of ice from bellow through the creation of positive buoyancy by main ballast tanks. However thickness of ice (approximately 1 meter) from under which modern submarine vessel can emerge essentially limits the use of traditional method, particularly during submarine vessels motion in the severe ice conditions of Arctic region. For breaking the ice cover of greater thickness can be used flexural gravity waves caused by the submarine vessel motion with certain critical speed near the bottom ice. It is also known that in the coastal areas water depth is often less than 100 meters, and the presence of projections on the bottom surface may effect on the wave propagation pattern. This paper presents experimental study of influence of bottom contour on the deflection and the length of the flexural gravity waves from the movement of submarine. Ice cover failure pattern determined. Assessment of ice-breaking capacity of flexural-gravity waves with using the criterion of ice failure is performed.

  19. Petrological and geochemical Highlights in the floating fragments of the October 2011 submarine eruption offshore El Hierro (Canary Islands): Relevance of submarine hydrothermal processes (United States)

    Rodriguez-Losada, Jose A.; Eff-Darwich, Antonio; Hernandez, Luis E.; Viñas, Ronaldo; Pérez, Nemesio; Hernandez, Pedro; Melián, Gladys; Martinez-Frías, Jesús; Romero-Ruiz, M. Carmen; Coello-Bravo, Juan Jesús


    This paper describes the main physical, petrological and geochemical features of the floating fragments that were emitted in the initial stages of the 2011-2012 submarine eruption off the coast of the Canarian island of El Hierro, located 380 km from the Northwest African Coast. It attempts to assess the potential of radiometric analyses to discern the intriguing origin of the floating fragments and the differences between their constituent parts. In this regard, the material that conforms the core of the fragments contains the largest concentration of uranium (U) ever found in volcanic rocks of the Canary Islands. This enrichment in U is not found in the content of thorium (Th), hence the floating fragments have an unusual U/Th ratio, namely equal to or larger than 3. Although the origin of this material is under discussion, it is proposed that the enrichment in U is the result of hydrothermal processes.

  20. Increased risk of attempted suicide among aging holocaust survivors. (United States)

    Barak, Yoram; Aizenberg, Dov; Szor, Henry; Swartz, Marnina; Maor, Rachel; Knobler, Haim Y


    Suicide rates are higher in elderly persons than in those at other phase of the life-cycle. The majority of World War II (WWII) veterans and Holocaust survivors still define their war experiences as being the "most significant stressor" of their lives. Aging of survivors is frequently associated with depression, reactivation of traumatic syndromes, physical disorders, loss, and psychological distress, possibly increasing the risk of suicide. The aim of the present study was to investigate, among a large cohort of elderly Holocaust survivors, whether their WWII experiences confer an increased risk of suicidal behavior. All medical records of elderly patients admitted to a psychiatric hospital in Israel during a 5-year period were retrospectively evaluated. Suicidal patients were compared with patients who had not attempted suicide. Of 921 eligible patients, 374 were Holocaust survivors; 135 (14.6%) had attempted suicide in the month before admission. Ninety Holocaust survivors (24%) had attempted suicide, versus 45 of the 502 patients (8.2%) with no WWII experience. The risk of attempted suicide among Holocaust survivors was significantly increased. Although these findings are from a highly selected sample, we suggest that aging Holocaust survivors are at increased risk of attempting suicide. The growth of the elderly population, of whom many had had traumatic life experiences, emphasizes the need to implement preventive strategies so that suicidal risk may be contained.

  1. Life experiences after stroke among Iranian stroke survivors. (United States)

    Dalvandi, A; Heikkilä, K; Maddah, S S B; Khankeh, H R; Ekman, S L


    Stroke is a major cause of disability worldwide. It is a life-threatening and life-altering event, which leaves many physical and mental disabilities, thus creating major social and economic burdens. Experiencing a stroke and its aftermath can be devastating for patients and their families. In Iran, many services are not available for those who lack property; this may result in many difficulties and long-term problems for stroke survivors and their family members who are usually the main caregivers in Iranian cultural. Despite its effect on their lives, little is known about how the survivors perceive stroke in the Iranian context, therefore, knowing more about this process may enhance problem identification and problem solving. To illuminate how stroke survivors experience and perceive life after stroke. A grounded theory approach was recruited using semi-structured interviews with 10 stroke survivors. The survivors perceived that inadequate social and financial support, lack of an educational plan, lack of access to rehabilitative services, physical and psychological problems led them to functional disturbances, poor socio-economical situation and life disintegration. The core concept of life after stroke was functional disturbances. The study shows the need to support the stroke survivors in their coping process with their new situation by providing appropriate discharge plans, social and financial support, social insurances and training programmes for the stroke survivors and their families.

  2. Survivor in the cancer context: a concept analysis. (United States)

    Hebdon, Megan; Foli, Karen; McComb, Sara


    The aim of this analysis was to define survivor in the cancer context. Cancer survivor has been used in the cancer lexicon, but may not represent the individuals it defines. This concept analysis was completed according to Walker and Avant's method. PubMed, PsychInfo, CINAHL, JSTOR, Google and medical and public health websites. Thirty sources from multiple disciplines, published between 1987-2013, were analysed for recurrent themes and conceptual meaning. Critical attributes, antecedents and consequences were extrapolated. Model, related and contrary cases were developed based on an amalgamation of clinical observations. Illegitimate, borderline and invented cases were excluded for this reason. Survivor in the cancer context is an individual with a history of malignancy, who has lived through a personalized challenge and has ongoing positive and negative consequences. Not all cancer survivors would identify themselves using the term survivor. This contributes to the paradigm shift of cancer as a chronic disease as it establishes the unique nature of the cancer experience while highlighting the long-term concerns related to this set of diseases. The Theory of Uncertainty in Illness provides a framework to understand the individualized nature of being a cancer survivor. Nursing research and practice should address the personal experiences of cancer survivors while still focusing on general survivorship needs. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Accelerated aging among cancer survivors: from pediatrics to geriatrics. (United States)

    Henderson, Tara O; Ness, Kirsten K; Cohen, Harvey Jay


    There are almost 14-million cancer survivors in the United States and the population is growing. Almost two-thirds of these survivors are age 65 or older. Given this, it is imperative to understand the impact of cancer and its therapies on the aging process. Childhood cancer survivors, diagnosed with cancer at age 21 or younger, particularly females, have rates of frailty similar to rates in older adults. This phenomenon appears to start early, suggesting an aging phenotype. Frailty among childhood cancer survivors increases risk for chronic disease and mortality. Adults diagnosed with cancer are faced with the effects of cancer and its therapies compounded by the issues of multiple morbidities that occur with the typical aging process. Intervention studies to date have focused on smoking cessation, diet, and exercise, as well as improving rates of late effects surveillance in childhood cancer survivors. No intervention studies have specifically addressed the issue of frailty or multiple morbidities in cancer survivors. Concerted efforts must continue to create and disseminate survivorship care plans to all cancer survivors.

  4. Obesity in Childhood Cancer Survivors: Call for Early Weight Management. (United States)

    Zhang, Fang Fang; Parsons, Susan K


    A high prevalence of obesity and cardiometabolic conditions has been increasingly recognized in childhood cancer survivors. In particular, survivors of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia have been found to be at risk of becoming overweight or obese early in treatment, with increases in weight maintained throughout treatment and beyond. Nutrition plays an important role in the etiology of obesity and cardiometabolic conditions and is among the few modifiable factors that can prevent or delay the early onset of these chronic conditions. However, nutritional intake in childhood cancer survivors has not been adequately examined and the evidence is built on data from small cohorts of survivors. In addition, the long-term impact of cancer diagnosis and treatment on survivors' nutritional intake as well as how survivors' nutritional intake is associated with chronic health conditions have not been well quantified in large-scale studies. Promoting family-based healthy lifestyles, preferably at a sensitive window of unhealthy weight gain, is a priority for preventing the early onset of obesity and cardiometabolic conditions in childhood cancer survivors. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  5. Screening for vitamin D insufficiency in pediatric cancer survivors. (United States)

    Esbenshade, Adam J; Sopfe, Jenna; Zhao, Zhiguo; Li, Zeda; Campbell, Kristin; Simmons, Jill H; Friedman, Debra L


    Corticosteroids increase risk for decreased bone mineral density, which can be worsened by vitamin D insufficiency (VDI) or deficiency (VDD). In the Vanderbilt cancer survivorship clinic, we obtained screening total 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels (VDL) in 171 cancer survivors cancer, and compared this group to a control group of 97 healthy pediatric patients. VDD was diagnosed in 15.8% and VDI in 34.5% of cancer survivors and VDD/VDI combined was associated with body mass index (BMI) >85th percentile (Odds ratio [OR] = 5.4; P survivor/control group multivariable analysis, cancer diagnosis did not increase VDI/VDD risk, but significant associations persisted with elevated BMI (P pediatric cancer survivors treated with corticosteroids and healthy children. The impact of VDD/VDI in cancer survivors may be greater due to risk for impaired bone health superimposed on that conferred from corticosteroid exposure. Thus, screening VDLs should be obtained in pediatric cancer survivors treated with corticosteroids, particularly in those with elevated BMI, older age, or non-Caucasian race. Prospective studies evaluating the impact of interventions to minimize VDD/VDI on long-term bone health in survivors are required. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Nature-based experiences and health of cancer survivors. (United States)

    Ray, Heather; Jakubec, Sonya L


    Although exposure to, and interaction with, natural environments are recognized as health-promoting, little is understood about the use of nature contact in treatment and rehabilitation for cancer survivors. This narrative review summarizes the literature exploring the influence of nature-based experiences on survivor health. Key databases included CINAHL, EMBASE, Medline, Web of Science, PubMed, PsycArticles, ProQuest, and Cancerlit databases. Sixteen articles met inclusion criteria and were reviewed. Four major categories emerged: 1) Dragon boat racing may enhance breast cancer survivor quality of life, 2) Natural environment may counteract attentional fatigue in newly diagnosed breast cancer survivors, 3) Adventure programs provide a positive experience for children and adolescent survivors, fostering a sense of belonging and self-esteem, and 4) Therapeutic landscapes may decrease state-anxiety, improving survivor health. This review contributes to a better understanding of the therapeutic effects of nature-based experiences on cancer survivor health, providing a point of entry for future study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Achieving value in mobile health applications for cancer survivors. (United States)

    Davis, Sharon Watkins; Oakley-Girvan, Ingrid


    This study aimed to identify appropriate development and testing strategies for mobile health applications for cancer survivors. In January of 2016, we conducted a PubMed search for mobile applications for cancer survivors. A total of 32 articles were selected for inclusion, including 13 review articles, and 19 articles describing an mHealth application or intervention. We assessed mobile app development and testing strategies and standards as described in these articles. We identified seven elements of patient empowerment applications for cancer survivors, strategies for application development that take advantage of smartphone capabilities, issues for consideration in developing new applications, and steps for creating user-centered mobile health applications that provide meaningful value for cancer survivors. However, few mobile health apps implemented empowerment elements, underwent rigorous design approaches, or included assessment of use in the cancer survivor population. There is tremendous potential for mobile health apps to benefit cancer survivors. However, there are specific issues for consideration in developing new applications and steps for creating user-centered applications which are not routinely used. This diminishes the value for the cancer survivor population but could be easily addressed through standardized development and testing procedures. Smartphone applications have the potential to improve the cancer survivorship experience, but users should look for evidence that the application was appropriately developed and tested.

  8. Extreme Sport/Adventure Activity Correlates in Gynecologic Cancer Survivors. (United States)

    Crawford, Jennifer J; Vallance, Jeff K; Holt, Nicholas L; Courneya, Kerry S


    We examined the demographic, medical and behavioral correlates of participation and interest in extreme sport/adventure activities (ESAA) in gynecologic cancer survivors. A random sample of 621 gynecologic cancer survivors in Alberta, Canada, completed a mailed self-report questionnaire assessing medical, demographic, and behavioral variables and participation and interest in ESAA. Multivariate analyses revealed that gynecologic cancer survivors were more likely to participate in ESAA if they met aerobic exercise guidelines (OR=1.75 [95%CI:1.02-2.99]), had better general health (OR=1.71 [95%CI: 1.01-2.90]), had cervical or ovarian cancer (OR=1.95 [95%CI:0.97-3.93]), were employed (OR=1.71 [95%CI:0.95-3.08]), and were of healthy weight (OR=1.58 [95%CI:0.93-2.68]). Moreover, gynecologic cancer survivors were more likely to be interested in trying an ESAA if they had cervical or ovarian cancer (OR=1.76 [95%CI:0.94-3.27]) and were meeting the strength exercise guidelines (OR=1.68 [95%CI:0.95-2.98]). Medical, demographic, and behavioral variables correlate with participation and interest in ESAA in gynecologic cancer survivors. The pattern of correlates suggests that gynecologic cancer survivors are more likely to participate in ESSA if they have the physical capability and financial resources. Interventions to promote ESAA in gynecologic cancer survivors need to address these 2 key barriers.

  9. Adoption consideration and concerns among young adult female cancer survivors. (United States)

    Gorman, Jessica R; Whitcomb, Brian W; Standridge, Daniel; Malcarne, Vanessa L; Romero, Sally A D; Roberts, Samantha A; Su, H Irene


    We compared adoption consideration between female young adult cancer survivors and women of the same age in the general US population, hypothesizing that cancer survivors who desired children would report greater interest in adoption than an age-adjusted general population sample who desired children. After age-standardizing the cancer survivor cohort to match the age distribution of the 2006-2010 National Survey for Family Growth (NSFG), we estimated adoption consideration among women age 18-35 years who wanted a (another) child in the two cohorts overall and within age groups. We assessed characteristics and concerns related to adoption consideration among cancer survivors. Among cancer survivors, 81.6 % (95 % CI 75.7-87.6) reported that they would consider adoption compared to 40.3 % (95 % CI 40.3-40.3) of women in the general population. While over 80 % of the cancer survivor sample reported that they would consider adoption, only 15 % of cancer survivors reported no concerns about adoption. The most common concerns were desire for a biological child (48 %), expense (45 %), adoption agency candidacy (41 %), and needing more information (39 %). We observed a twofold higher interest in adoption when comparing the cancer survivor with the general population, suggesting that adoption is a consideration for many young women who have survived cancer. Adoption is an important family-building option for those who want to have a child but are unable to or choose not to have a biological child. However, young adult survivors may need more support to understand and navigate this process.

  10. Awareness of Dietary and Alcohol Guidelines Among Colorectal Cancer Survivors. (United States)

    Hawkins, Nikki A; Berkowitz, Zahava; Rodriguez, Juan L


    Although dietary habits can affect colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors' health, it is unclear how familiar survivors are with dietary guidelines, what they believe about healthy eating and alcohol consumption, and what hinders healthy dietary habits after cancer. This study assessed CRC survivors' familiarity with dietary guidelines, their eating and drinking habits, and perceived facilitators and barriers to healthy eating after cancer, including social support and self-efficacy for maintaining a healthy diet and limiting alcohol. A total of 593 individuals (50% female; mean age, 74 years) diagnosed with CRC approximately 6 years prior to study entry in early 2010 were identified through California Cancer Registry records and participated in a cross-sectional mailed survey assessing health behavior after cancer (46% adjusted response rate). Analyses were conducted in 2014-2015. Survivors were most familiar with-and most likely to follow-recommendations to choose low-fat foods; 15% had never heard of recommendations to limit alcohol. Survivors were more aware of recommendations involving messages to limit/avoid versus approach/choose certain foods. The most common barrier to a healthy diet involved the effort required (26%). Survivors received more family/friend support and provider recommendations for healthy eating than limiting alcohol. Results provide an overview of awareness of and adherence to dietary recommendations among CRC survivors, highlighting the need for increasing awareness of recommendations that are especially relevant for survivors. Suggestions are made for modifying diet-related messages to facilitate comprehension and recall among CRC survivors, and increasing awareness among groups with the lowest awareness levels. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Association Between Sarcopenia and Metabolic Syndrome in Cancer Survivors. (United States)

    Lee, Su Jung; Kim, Nam Cho

    Advanced cancer treatments have improved survival from cancer, but the incidence of cardiovascular disease in survivors has recently increased. Sarcopenia and metabolic syndrome (MetS) are related to cancer survival, and sarcopenia is an emerging risk factor for cardiovascular disease. However, evidence of a relationship between sarcopenia and MetS in cancer survivors is lacking. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of sarcopenia and MetS in cancer survivors and to investigate independent predictors of MetS in cancer survivors. From the fourth and fifth Korea National Health and Nutritional Exam Survey (2008-2011), 798 consecutive cancer survivors were analyzed. Sarcopenia was defined as the appendicular skeletal muscle mass divided by weight less than 1 SD below the sex-specific healthy population aged 20 to 39 years. Metabolic syndrome was defined using the National Cholesterol Education Program definition. Among 798 cancer survivors, the prevalence rates of sarcopenia and MetS were 23.1% and 30.0%, respectively. Survivors with sarcopenia were more likely to have a higher waist circumference, body mass index, triglyceride level, and blood pressure and to have a lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level compared with those without sarcopenia. In multivariable analysis, sarcopenia was an independent predictor of MetS (odds ratio, 2.76; 95% confidence interval, 1.92-3.97). In addition, age and type of cancer were independent predictors of MetS. Sarcopenia was associated with an increased prevalence of MetS in cancer survivors. Interventions to prevent sarcopenia may be necessary to improve cardiovascular outcome in cancer survivors.

  12. Complementary and alternative medicine use among US cancer survivors. (United States)

    John, Gabriella M; Hershman, Dawn L; Falci, Laura; Shi, Zaixing; Tsai, Wei-Yann; Greenlee, Heather


    US cancer survivors commonly use vitamins/minerals and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). We compare use of vitamins/minerals and CAM between adult cancer survivors and cancer-free adults and estimate annual out-of-pocket expenses. Data on self-reported vitamin/mineral and CAM use in the past 12 months from the cross-sectional 2012 US National Health Interview Survey were used to estimate prevalence of use and out-of-pocket expenditures. The cohort included adults with (n = 2977) and without (n = 30,551) a self-reported cancer diagnosis. Approximately 79 % of cancer survivors and 68 % of cancer-free adults reported using ≥1 vitamins/minerals and/or CAM modality in the past year. Compared to cancer-free adults, cancer survivors were more likely to report use of vitamin/minerals (75 vs. 61 %, P alternative medical systems (5 vs. 4 %, P = 0.04). Adult cancer survivors and cancer-free adults spent an annual estimated $6.7 billion and $52 billion out-of-pocket, respectively, on vitamins/minerals and CAM. Survivors spent 60 % of the total on vitamins/minerals ($4 billion), 18 % ($1.2 billion) on non-vitamin/mineral natural products, and 7 % ($0.5 billion) on massage. Compared with cancer-free adults, a higher proportion of cancer survivors report vitamin/mineral and CAM use. Cancer survivors, who accounted for 6.9 % of the total population, accrued more than 11.4 % of the annual out-of-pocket costs on vitamins/minerals and CAM spent by US adults. Given the high use of vitamins/minerals and CAM in cancer survivors, studies are needed to analyze health outcomes and the cost/benefit ratio of such use.

  13. Total antioxidant status (TAS in childhood cancer survivors Total antioxidant status (TAS in childhood cancer survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryna Krawczuk-Rybak


    Full Text Available Total antioxidant status (TAS, and the influence of treatment and correlation between TAS and parameters
    involved in metabolic syndrome (MS in pediatric cancer survivors were evaluated. One hundred children
    and adolescents were studied. Twenty-five survivors received radiotherapy, 12 were obese or overweight.
    Additionally, we analyzed TAS in eight children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL at diagnosis and
    during treatment after remission induction. The control group consisted of 22 healthy children. Serum concentrations
    of TAS, glucose, cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, fibrinogen and insulin were measured. In
    cancer survivors, independently of diagnosis and kind of treatment (radiotherapy anthracyclines administration,
    the mean serum TAS did not differ significantly from the control group. No correlations were observed
    with age at the time of diagnosis or interval after the end of treatment. TAS values did not correlate with traits of
    the metabolic syndrome. In a group of eight patients with ALL at diagnosis and after induction of remission,
    TAS values were lower than in the control and cancer survivor groups. Antioxidant status was not found to be
    deteriorated in children after anticancer treatment, irrespective of diagnosis or kind of treatment, which might
    indicate sufficient antioxidant prevention. However, the possibility of the development of MS and cardiovascular
    disease in adulthood indicates the need for future studies.Total antioxidant status (TAS, and the influence of treatment and correlation between TAS and parameters
    involved in metabolic syndrome (MS in pediatric cancer survivors were evaluated. One hundred children
    and adolescents were studied. Twenty-five survivors received radiotherapy, 12 were obese or overweight.
    Additionally, we analyzed TAS in eight children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL at diagnosis and

  14. Predictors of successful use of a web-based healthcare document storage and sharing system for pediatric cancer survivors: Cancer SurvivorLink™. (United States)

    Williamson, Rebecca; Meacham, Lillian; Cherven, Brooke; Hassen-Schilling, Leann; Edwards, Paula; Palgon, Michael; Espinoza, Sofia; Mertens, Ann


    Cancer SurvivorLink™, , is a patient-controlled communication tool where survivors can electronically store and share documents with healthcare providers. Functionally, SurvivorLink serves as an electronic personal health record-a record of health-related information managed and controlled by the survivor. Recruitment methods to increase registration and the characteristics of registrants who completed each step of using SurvivorLink are described. Pediatric cancer survivors were recruited via mailings, survivor clinic, and community events. Recruitment method and Aflac Survivor Clinic attendance was determined for each registrant. Registration date, registrant type (parent vs. survivor), zip code, creation of a personal health record in SurvivorLink, storage of documents, and document sharing were measured. Logistic regression was used to determine the characteristics that predicted creation of a health record and storage of documents. To date, 275 survivors/parents have completed registration: 63 were recruited via mailing, 99 from clinic, 56 from community events, and 57 via other methods. Overall, 66.9 % registrants created a personal health record and 45.7 % of those stored a health document. There were no significant predictors for creating a personal health record. Attending a survivor clinic was the strongest predictor of document storage (p survivor clinic is the biggest predictor of registering and using SurvivorLink. Many survivors must advocate for their survivorship care. Survivor Link provides educational material and supports the dissemination of survivor-specific follow-up recommendations to facilitate shared clinical care decision making.

  15. Second Neoplasms in Survivors of Childhood Cancer: Findings From the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study Cohort (United States)

    Meadows, Anna T.; Friedman, Debra L.; Neglia, Joseph P.; Mertens, Ann C.; Donaldson, Sarah S.; Stovall, Marilyn; Hammond, Sue; Yasui, Yutaka; Inskip, Peter D.


    Purpose To review the reports of subsequent neoplasms (SNs) in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS) cohort that were made through January 1, 2006, and published before July 31, 2008, and to discuss the host-, disease-, and therapy-related risk factors associated with SNs. Patients and Methods SNs were ascertained by survivor self-reports and subsequently confirmed by pathology findings or medical record review. Cumulative incidence of SNs and standardized incidence ratios for second malignant neoplasms (SMNs) were calculated. The impact of host-, disease-, and therapy-related risk factors was evaluated by Poisson regression. Results Among 14,358 cohort members, 730 reported 802 SMNs (excluding nonmelanoma skin cancers). This represents a 2.3-fold increase in the number of SMNs over that reported in the first comprehensive analysis of SMNs in the CCSS cohort, which was done 7 years ago. In addition, 66 cases of meningioma and 1,007 cases of nonmelanoma skin cancer were diagnosed. The 30-year cumulative incidence of SMNs was 9.3% and that of nonmelanoma skin cancer was 6.9%. Risk of SNs remains elevated for more than 20 years of follow-up for all primary childhood cancer diagnoses. In multivariate analyses, risks differ by SN subtype, but include radiotherapy, age at diagnosis, sex, family history of cancer, and primary childhood cancer diagnosis. Female survivors whose primary childhood cancer diagnosis was Hodgkin's lymphoma or sarcoma and who received radiotherapy are at particularly increased risk. Analyses of risk associated with radiotherapy demonstrated different dose-response curves for specific SNs. Conclusion Childhood cancer survivors are at a substantial and increasing risk for SNs, including nonmelanoma skin cancer and meningiomas. Health care professionals should understand the magnitude of these risks to provide individuals with appropriate counseling and follow-up. PMID:19255307

  16. Tobacco Use Among Siblings of Childhood Cancer Survivors: A Report From the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. (United States)

    Buchbinder, David; Oeffinger, Kevin; Franco-Villalobos, Conrado; Yasui, Yutaka; Alderfer, Melissa A; Armstrong, Gregory T; Casillas, Jacqueline; Ford, Jennifer; Krull, Kevin R; Leisenring, Wendy; Recklitis, Christopher; Robison, Leslie L; Zeltzer, Lonnie K; Lown, E Anne


    Having a brother or sister with childhood cancer may influence health behaviors during adulthood. The aim of this study was to compare tobacco use in siblings of survivors with peers and to identify factors associated with sibling tobacco use. A retrospective cohort study was conducted using adult siblings (N = 1,974) of 5+ year cancer survivors in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS) and participants (N = 24,105, weighted to match CCSS) in the 2007 National Health Interview Survey. Self-reported tobacco use, sociodemographic, and cancer-related risk factors were analyzed. Siblings were equally likely to have ever smoked compared to their peers (odds ratio [OR] 1.02, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.93-1.12). Siblings were less likely to be current smokers (OR 0.83, 95%CI 0.73-0.94), but more likely to be former smokers (OR 1.21, 95%CI 1.08-1.35). Siblings with low education were more likely to ever smoke (OR 1.51, 95%CI 1.15-2.00) and be current smokers (OR 1.67, 95%CI 1.24-2.26) compared to their peers. Among siblings, risk factors for current tobacco use included the following: low income Siblings of survivors take up smoking at similar rates to their peers, but are more likely to quit. Efforts are needed to address disparities by providing greater psychosocial support and education for the lowest socioeconomic status families facing childhood cancer. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Digital elevation models in the marine domain: investigating the offshore tsunami hazard from submarine landslides (United States)

    Tappin, David R.


    Over the past 30 years multibeam bathymetry has replaced single-beam echo soundings as the main tool used to map the sea floor. Developed as a military tool its expansion into the scientific domain has revolutionized our ability not only to visualise seabed morphology, but also to interpret the active processes taking place at and beneath the seabed. DEMs derived from multibeam are now comparable to those on land. One aspect of the improved seabed visualization is in mapping marine geohazards, in this instance, submarine landslides. One of the first multibeam surveys actually programmed to investigate an actual event was in 1999 after the tsunami on the north coast of Papua New Guinea killed 2,200 people. It was a wake-up call, as the relatively small magnitude earthquake - 7.1 - could not generate tsunami waves up to 15m high at the coast. The submarine slump was clearly visible on the multibeam and associated seabed sampling confirmed that it was a recent event. Subsequent research proved that the landslide generated the tsunami as, again for the first time the multibeam was used as the basis for the tsunami simulations. Since 1999 many submarine landslides have been mapped, but not all have an associated identified tsunami. Some landslides are associated with earthquakes and this causes confusion if there is an anomalously large tsunami for example Alaska, 1946 and Java, 2006. Others are suspected of causing a tsunami, but their evidence on the seabed is hard to identify as with Messina, 1908. The most confusing recent tsunami event has been 2011 Japan tsunami, where a submarine landslide to the north of the main rupture is almost certainly responsible for the 40m high coastal waves that struck northern Honshu. The seabed has now been mapped on a broadscale by satellite gravity, but maps from this method cannot identify any but the largest seabed morphologies; most submarine landslides cannot therefore be recognised. Large seabed areas still remain unmapped to

  18. Thyroid abnormalities in survivors of childhood cancer. (United States)

    Çağlar, Ayla Akca; Oğuz, Aynur; Pınarlı, Faruk Güçlü; Karadeniz, Ceyda; Okur, Arzu; Bideci, Aysun; Koçak, Ülker; Bora, Hüseyin


    To investigate the late side effects of childhood cancer therapy on the thyroid gland and to determine the risk factors for development of thyroid disorder among childhood cancer survivors. One hundred and twenty relapse-free survivors of childhood cancer (aged 6-30 years) were included in this study. The diagnoses of patients were lymphoma, leukemia, brain tumor, rhabdomyosarcoma and nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). The patients were divided into two groups depending on the treatment: group 1-chemotherapy (ChT) only (n=52) and group 2-combination therapy of ChT + radiotherapy (RT) (head/neck/thorax) (n=68). Thyroid function tests, urinary iodine levels, and thyroid gland ultrasound examinations were evaluated in both groups. Incidence of thyroid disease was 66% (n=79) in the survivors. The thyroid abnormalities were: hypothyroidism (HT) (n=32, 27%), thyroid nodules (n=27, 22%), thyroid parenchymal heterogeneity (n=40, 33%), autoimmune thyroiditis (n=36, 30%), and thyroid malignancy (n=3, 2%). While the incidence of HT and thyroid nodules in group 2 was significantly higher than in group 1, the incidence of thyroid parenchymal heterogeneity and autoimmune thyroiditis was similar in the two patient groups. HT and thyroid malignancy were seen only in group 2. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, a history of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), brain tumor and NPC, as well as cervical irradiation and 5000-5999 cGy doses of radiation were found to constitute risk factors for HT. History of HL and 4000-5999 cGy doses of radiation were risk factors for thyroid nodules. Head/neck irradiation and treatment with platinum derivatives were risk factors for autoimmune thyroiditis. In univariate analysis, a history of NPC, cervical + nasopharyngeal irradiation, and treatment with platinum derivatives were risk factors for thyroid parenchymal heterogeneity. Our results indicate that there is especially an increased risk of HT and thyroid nodules in patients treated with combination

  19. Cancer Survivors: The Success Story That's Straining Health Care. (United States)

    Allen, Summer E


    Since President Richard Nixon declared a "War on Cancer" in 1971, the number of cancer survivors in the United States has quadrupled [1] and is still rising. Thanks to advance in cancer detection and treatment, the almost 15 million cancer survivors in the United States today could grow to some 19 million by 2024 [2]. Increasing survival rates have resulted in a shift: cancer is often treated as a chronic illness rather than a death sentence. However, having so many cancer survivors to monitor, track, and treat has led to growing pains for healthcare providers-forcing them to develop new ways to treat this increasing yet still vulnerable population.

  20. Noncancer-related mortality risks in adult survivors of pediatric malignancies: the childhood cancer survivor study. (United States)

    Cox, Cheryl L; Nolan, Vikki G; Leisenring, Wendy; Yasui, Yutaka; Ogg, Susan W; Mertens, Ann C; Neglia, Joseph P; Ness, Kirsten K; Armstrong, Gregory T; Robison, Les L


    We sought to identify factors, other than cancer-related treatment and presence/severity of chronic health conditions, which may be associated with late mortality risk among adult survivors of pediatric malignancies. Using the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study cohort and a case-control design, 445 participants who died from causes other than cancer recurrence/progression or non-health-related events were compared with 7,162 surviving participants matched for primary diagnosis, age at baseline questionnaire, time from diagnosis to baseline questionnaire, and time at-risk. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for overall/cause-specific mortality. Independent measures included number/severity of chronic conditions, medical care, health-related behaviors, and health perceptions/concerns. Adjusting for education, income, chemotherapy/radiation exposures, and number/severity of chronic health conditions, an increased risk for all-cause mortality was associated with exercising fewer than 3 days/week (OR = 1.72, CI 1.27-2.34), being underweight (OR = 2.58, CI 1.55-4.28), increased medical care utilization (P cancer treatment and chronic health conditions modify the risk of death among adult survivors of pediatric cancer. Continued cohort observation may inform interventions to reduce mortality.

  1. Energy dissipation by submarine obstacles during landslide impact on reservoir - potentially avoiding catastrophic dam collapse (United States)

    Kafle, Jeevan; Kattel, Parameshwari; Mergili, Martin; Fischer, Jan-Thomas; Tuladhar, Bhadra Man; Pudasaini, Shiva P.


    Dense geophysical mass flows such as landslides, debris flows and debris avalanches may generate super tsunami waves as they impact water bodies such as the sea, hydraulic reservoirs or mountain lakes. Here, we apply a comprehensive and general two-phase, physical-mathematical mass flow model (Pudasaini, 2012) that consists of non-linear and hyperbolic-parabolic partial differential equations for mass and momentum balances, and present novel, high-resolution simulation results for two-phase flows, as a mixture of solid grains and viscous fluid, impacting fluid reservoirs with obstacles. The simulations demonstrate that due to the presence of different obstacles in the water body, the intense flow-obstacle-interaction dramatically reduces the flow momentum resulting in the rapid energy dissipation around the obstacles. With the increase of obstacle height overtopping decreases but, the deflection and capturing (holding) of solid mass increases. In addition, the submarine solid mass is captured by the multiple obstacles and the moving mass decreases both in amount and speed as each obstacle causes the flow to deflect into two streams and also captures a portion of it. This results in distinct tsunami and submarine flow dynamics with multiple surface water and submarine debris waves. This novel approach can be implemented in open source GIS modelling framework r.avaflow, and be applied in hazard mitigation, prevention and relevant engineering or environmental tasks. This might be in particular for process chains, such as debris impacts in lakes and subsequent overtopping. So, as the complex flow-obstacle-interactions strongly and simultaneously dissipate huge energy at impact such installations potentially avoid great threat against the integrity of the dam. References: Pudasaini, S. P. (2012): A general two-phase debris flow model. J. Geophys. Res. 117, F03010, doi: 10.1029/ 2011JF002186.

  2. US Navy Submarine Sea Trial of NASA developed Multi-Gas Monitor (United States)

    Mudgett, Paul D.; Manney, Joshua A.; Smith, Matthew J.; O'Connor, Sara Jane; Pilgrim, Jeffrey S.


    During a successful 2 year technology demonstration of the tunable diode laser spectroscopy (TDLS) based Multi-Gas Monitor (MGM) on the International Space Station (ISS), we began discussing with the US Navy the possibility of conducting a sea trial of an MGM on a submarine. The sea trial would also include a gas chromatography/differential mobility spectrometer based Air Quality Monitor (AQM), which is used operationally on ISS for volatile organic compound analysis. AQM preparation and results will be the subject of a separate paper. The Navy's interest in testing NASA equipment in general relates to their ongoing search for better air monitoring technology. NASA's goal is studying submarines as closed environment analogs to spacecraft. MGM's core technology was developed by Vista Photonics Inc. using Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grants and expanded for various applications using NASA program funding. The MGM measures oxygen, carbon dioxide, ammonia and water vapor in ambient air, displays concentrations with temperature and pressure, and stores 30 second moving averages. The sea trial involves collocating the instrument with the Central Atmosphere Monitoring System (CAMS Mk II) of the submarine, connecting it to rack power prior to departure, and letting it run during the entire 90 day patrol. All data is stored within MGM, with no connection to the vessel data bus. Crew intervention is limited to checking MGM periodically to see that it is working and power cycling if necessary. After the trial is over, the unit with its data will be retrieved. Post sea trial calibration check and data analysis are planned and results will be compared with both CAMS Mk II data and results from MGM's ISS technology demonstration. Since the sea trial itself has been delayed, this paper describes the preparation of MGM for the sea trial and also provides a summary of the latest data from the ISS MGM technology demonstration.

  3. Preparation of the NASA Air Quality Monitor for a U.S. Navy Submarine Sea Trial (United States)

    Limero, Thomas; Wallace, William T.; Manney, Joshua A.; Smith, Matthew J.; O'Connor, Sara Jane; Mudgett, Paul D.


    For the past 4 years, the Air Quality Monitor (AQM) has been the operational instrument for measuring trace volatile organic compounds on the International Space Station (ISS). The key components of the AQM are the inlet preconcentrator, the gas chromatograph (GC), and the differential mobility spectrometer. Onboard the ISS are two AQMs with different GC columns that detect and quantify 22 compounds. The AQM data contributes valuable information to the assessment of air quality aboard ISS for each crew increment. The US Navy is looking to update its submarine air monitoring suite of instruments and the success of the AQM on ISS has led to a jointly planned submarine sea trial of a NASA AQM. In addition to the AQM, the Navy is also interested in the Multi-Gas Monitor (MGM), which measures major constituent gases (oxygen, carbon dioxide, water vapor, and ammonia). A separate paper will present the MGM sea trial preparation and the analysis of most recent ISS data. A prototype AQM, which is virtually identical to the operational AQM, has been readied for the sea trial. Only one AQM will be deployed during the sea trial, but this is sufficient for NASA purposes and to detect the compounds of interest to the US Navy for this trial. The data from the sea trial will be compared to data from archival samples collected before, during, and after the trial period. This paper will start with a brief history of past collaborations between NASA and the U.S. and U.K. navies for trials of air monitoring equipment. An overview of the AQM technology and protocols for the submarine trial will be presented. The majority of the presentation will focus on the AQM preparation and a summary of available data from the trial.

  4. Growth History of Kaena Volcano, the Isolated, Dominantly Submarine, Precursor Volcano to Oahu, Hawaii (United States)

    Sinton, J. M.; Eason, D. E.


    The construction of O'ahu began with the recently recognized, ~3.5-4.9 Ma Ka'ena Volcano, as an isolated edifice in the Kaua'i Channel. Ka'ena remained submarine until, near the end of its lifetime as magma supply waned and the volcano transitioned to a late-shield stage of activity, it emerged to reach a maximum elevation of ~1000 m above sea level. We estimate that Ka'ena was emergent only for the last 15-25% of its lifespan, and that subaerial lavas make up < 5% of the total volume (20-27 x 103 km3). O'ahu's other volcanoes, Wai'anae (~3.9-2.85 Ma) and Ko'olau (~3.0-1.9 Ma), were built at least partly on the flanks of earlier edifices and both were active subaerial volcanoes for at least 1 Ma. The constructional history of Ka'ena contrasts with that of Wai'anae, Ko'olau, and many other Hawaiian volcanoes, which likely emerge within a few hundred kyr after inception, and with subaerial lavas comprising up to 35 volume % of the volcano. These relations suggest that volcano growth history and morphology are critically dependent on whether volcanic initiation and growth occur in the deep ocean floor (isolated), or on the flanks of pre-existing edifices. Two other volcanoes that likely formed in isolation are West Moloka'i and Kohala, both of which have long submarine rift zones, and neither attained great heights above sea level despite having substantial volume. The partitioning of volcanism between submarine and subaerial volcanism depends on the distance between volcanic centers, whether new volcanoes initiate on the flanks of earlier ones, and the time over which neighboring volcanoes are concurrently active. Ka'ena might represent an end-member in this spectrum, having initiated far from its next oldest neighbor and completed much of its evolution in isolation.

  5. Submarine hydrothermal environments as sites for the origin and evolution of life (United States)

    Hoffman, S.; Baross, J.


    That life formed and evolved in hydrothermal environments is proposed. This hypothesis is plausible in terms of the tectonic, paleontological, and degassing history of the Earth. Submarine hydrothermal vents are the only contemporary geological environment which may truly be called primeval and which today continue to be a major source of gases and dissolved elements to the ocean. The microbial assemblages in present day hydrothermal systems therefore could be living analogues of the earliest microbial communities to develop on Earth. The evidence for the hypothesis is reviewed.

  6. Near-Real-Time Sismo-acoustic Submarine Station for offshore monitoring (United States)

    D'Anna, Giuseppe; D'Alessandro, Antonino; Fertitta, Gioacchino; Fraticelli, Nicola; Calore, Daniele


    From the early 1980's, Italian seismicity is monitored by the National Seismic Network (NSN). The network has been considerably enhanced by INGV since 2005 by 24-bit digital stations equipped with broad-band sensors. The NSN is nowadays constituted by about 300 on-land seismic station able to detect and locate also small magnitude earthquake in the whole Italian peninsula. However, the lack of offshore seismic stations does not allow the accurate estimation of hypocentral and focal parameters of small magnitude earthquakes occurring in offshore areas. As in the Mediterranean area there is an intense offshore seismic activity, an extension of the seismic monitoring to the sea would be beneficial. There are two types of stations that could be used to extend the network towards the sea: the first type is connected to the coast though a cable, the second type is isolated (or stand alone) and works autonomously. Both solutions have serious limitations: the first one, for several technical and economic problems, linked to the indispensable transmission/alimentation cable, cannot be installed far from the coast; the second one, allows access to the recorded data, only after they are recovered from the seabed. It is clear that these technical solutions are not suitable for the real time monitoring of the offshore seismicity or for the realization of a tsunami warning system. For this reason, in early 2010, the OBSLab of Gibilmanna begins the design of a submarine station able to overcome the limitations of the two systems above. The station isbuilt under the project EMSO-MedIT. The two stations built have already been tested in dock and ready for installation. One of this station will be installed, in few time, in the southern Tyrrhenian Sea, near the epicentre of the Palermo 2002 main shock. The sea bottom station will be equipped with 2 very broadband 3C seismometers, a broad band hydrophone, a differential and an absolute pressure gauge. The station includes a submarine

  7. Focused sound from three-dimensional sound propagation effects over a submarine canyon. (United States)

    Chiu, Linus Y S; Lin, Ying-Tsong; Chen, Chi-Fang; Duda, Timothy F; Calder, Brian


    Ship noise data reveal an intensification of the near-surface sound field over a submarine canyon. Numerical modeling of sound propagation is used to study the effect. The noise data were collected during an ocean acoustic and physical oceanography experiment northeast of Taiwan in 2009. In situ measurements of water sound-speed profiles and a database of high-resolution bathymetry are used in the modeling study. The model results suggest that the intensification is caused by three-dimensional sound focusing by the concave canyon seafloor. Uncertainties in the model results from unsampled aspects of the environment are discussed. © 2011 Acoustical Society of America

  8. [Effect of noise in submarine compartment on signal discrimination and arithmetic performance]. (United States)

    Hu, Z; Liang, Z; Shi, X; Tang, Z


    To study the effects of noise level in submarine compartment on signal discrimination and arithmetic performance, experiments were carried out on 13 subjects. The results showed that as noise level raised from moderate (73 dBA) to higher levels (85-92 dBA), work efficiency showed a progressive decrease, but when noise level reached 96 dBA the decrease in efficiency reached a steady state. The results indicated that impairment of efficiency apparently occurred at a level of 85 dBA and that the interference effect of noise was more pronounced on task performance with mental strain.

  9. Effects of symmetrical foundation on sound radiation from a submarine hull structure. (United States)

    Li, Chenyang; Su, Jinpeng; Wang, Jian; Hua, Hongxing


    The effects of a passive noise control method for suppressing sound radiation from a submarine hull structure are investigated. The control method is realized by symmetrizing the foundation about the horizontal plane. The coupled finite element method and boundary element method are adopted to compute the acoustic characteristics of the submerged hull. From the numerical results, the symmetrical foundation has advantages in sound radiation reduction when the hull is subjected to the axial load, but has little influences in the vertical and transverse load cases. Using the modal decomposition technique, the contributions of each individual mode to the sound radiation are analyzed to reveal the mechanism of the control method.

  10. Characteristics and features of the submarine landslides in passive and active margin southwestern offshore Taiwan (United States)

    Yeh, Y. C.


    In the past decade, numerous multi-channel seismic surveys as well as near seafloor high resolution geophysical investigations were conducted in order to explore and estimate the reserves of gas hydrate southwestern offshore Taiwan. The previous object was focused on searching substitute energy (i.e. gas hydrate) rather than geo-hazards. However, it is suggested that most of the gas hydrate is generally distributed at slope area southwestern offshore Taiwan, which indicates the slope may be failed when steady state was disturbed by some factors, such as sea level or climate change. In addition, once gas hydrate was dissociated, this may induce submarine landslide that further cause devastated tsunami. Thus, it is of great urgency to investigate potential landslide area, particularly, the hydrate-rich continental slope (active and passive margins) in adjacent to populous city like Kaohsiung. In this study, we collected several high resolution multi-channel seismic data with ten seconds shooting rate and 3.125 meters group interval streamer by using R/V ORI and R/V ORV. The seismic data were processed in conventional data processing strategy: bad trace clean, geometry settings, band-pass filter, de-convolution, surface-related multiple rejection, radon filter, stacking,kirchhoff migration and time to depth conversion. Combine the results obtained from the MCS data and subbottom profiles, two major results could be raised in the active margin as followed: (1) Most of the surface creeping and landslide was occurred shallower than 500 meters in water depth, which should be related to the inter-bedded fluid activities. (2) The landslide distribution is lagly affected by the presence of diaper, suggesting the subsequent mud diapirism may destruct slope stability; (3) The submarine landslide deeper than 800 meters in water depth distributes in the thrust fold area, that is probably referred to active thrusting. In the passive margin, large volume mass transportation

  11. A model to calculate effectiveness of a submarine-launched nuclear ASW weapon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnoli, D.E.


    LLNL's Navy Tactical Applications Group (NTAG) has produced a computer model to calculate the probability of kill of a submarine-launched nuclear ASW standoff-weapon. Because of the uncertainties associated with target position and motion and with weapon delivery, this is a problem appropriately treated statistically. The code is a Monte Carlo's simulation which follows the engagement from localization through optional evasive maneuvers of the target to attack and damage assessment. For a given scenario (weapon characteristics, target characteristics, firing platform depth and hardness, etc.) the code produces a table and ultimately a plot of Pk as a function of range. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  12. OPERATION HARDTACK. Project 3.5. Loading and Response of Submarine Hulls from Underwater Bursts (United States)


    Hulls from Underwater Bursts, Extracted Version 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Rich, H.L., Project Officer; Weinberger, F.; Habib, E.T.; Bort , R.L.; Sette, W.J...SLO A D IN G oa n d R E S P O N S E o f S U B M A R IN E tULLS from UNDERWATER BURSTS H. L. Rich, Project Officer F. Weinberger E.T. Habib R.L. Bort W...OBJECTIVES The objectives established for Project 3.5 were to: (1) determine the range ior lethal hull dam - age to a submarine-like (Squaw) target

  13. Logistics of nuclear fuel production for nuclear submarines; Logistica de producao de combustiveis para submarinos nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Leonam dos Santos [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo (CTMSP), SP (Brazil). E-mail:


    The future acquisition of nuclear attack submarines by Brazilian Navy along next century will imply new requirements on Naval Logistic Support System. These needs will impact all the six logistic functions. Among them, fuel supply could be considered as the one which requires the most important capacitating effort, including not only technological development of processes but also the development of a national industrial basis for effective production of nuclear fuel. This paper presents the technical aspects of the processes involved and an annual production dimensioning for an squadron composed by four units. (author)

  14. Discerning Primary and Secondary Processes in the Volatile Geochemistry of Submarine Basalts (United States)

    Hauri, E. H.


    Defining the primary volatile composition of submarine basalts from mid-ocean ridges, back-arc basins and arc-front volcanoes is key to understanding volatile cycling and the influence of volatiles on melting in the upper mantle. The volatile and halogen geochemistry of submarine volcanic glasses and melt inclusions has been the subject of an increasing number of studies that have made progress in distinguishing between secondary seawater contamination of magmas, and true melting and mantle-source variations, thus enabling observed magma compositions to be used to study the time-integrated cycling of volatiles through the upper mantle. But fewer studies have examined in detail the local-and segment-scale variations of volatiles together with trace elements and radiogenic isotopes, so that it can be understood how and where in the oceanic crust submarine magmas are contaminated by seawater-derived components. Mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB) are significantly affected by secondary seawater assimilation processes due to their low volatile contents. From combined CO2-H2O-Cl systematics, it is apparent that addition of seawater-derived components is enhanced in magmas that ascend more slowly through the crust, and/or erupt away from the ridge axis. Highly depleted magmas that erupt in extensional zones within transform faults (e.g. Siqueiros) show little evidence for seawater addition, due to the near absence of thick crust and hydrothermal systems in such environments. At the same time, there also exists a second tier of more subtle seawater addition that is evident as a function of the extent of differentiation in MORB, pointing to combined assimilation and fractional crystallization as an important process operating in MORB petrogeneis. In detail the geochemistry of the assimilants can vary substantially from simple seawater compositions. Discerning seawater contamination in arc and back-arc magmas is more difficult, not only because of higher volatile concentrations

  15. Predictors of attendance at specialized survivor clinics in a population-based cohort of adult survivors of childhood cancer. (United States)

    Nathan, Paul C; Agha, Mohammad; Pole, Jason D; Hodgson, David; Guttmann, Astrid; Sutradhar, Rinku; Greenberg, Mark L


    The purpose of the present study is to determine predictors of attendance at a network of publicly funded specialized survivor clinics by a population-based cohort of adult survivors of childhood cancer. We conducted a retrospective study linking data on eligible patients identified in a provincial pediatric cancer registry with health administrative databases to determine attendance at five specialized survivor clinics in the Canadian province of Ontario between 1999 and 2012. Eligible survivors were treated for cancer at ≤18 years between 1986 and 2005, had survived ≥5 years from their most recent pediatric cancer event, and contributed ≥1 year of follow-up after age 18 years. We assessed the impact of cancer type, treatment intensity, cumulative chemotherapy doses, radiation, socioeconomic status, distance to nearest clinic, and care from a primary care physician (PCP) on attendance using recurrent event multivariable regression. Of 7482 children and adolescents treated for cancer over the study period, 3972 were eligible for study inclusion, of which 3912 successfully linked to administrative health data. After a median of 7.8 years (range 0.2-14.0) of follow-up, 1695/3912 (43.3 %) had attended at least one adult survivor clinic visit. Significantly increased rates of attendance were associated with female gender, higher treatment intensity, radiation, higher alkylating agent exposure, higher socioeconomic status, and an annual exam by a PCP. Distance significantly impacted attendance with survivors living >50 km away less likely to attend than those living within 10 km (relative rate 0.77, p = 0.003). Despite free access to survivor clinics, the majority of adult survivors of childhood cancer do not attend. Alternate models of care need to be developed and assessed, particularly for survivors living far from a specialized clinic and those at lower risk of developing late effects.

  16. Male infertility in long-term survivors of pediatric cancer: a report from the childhood cancer survivor study. (United States)

    Wasilewski-Masker, K; Seidel, K D; Leisenring, W; Mertens, A C; Shnorhavorian, M; Ritenour, C W; Stovall, M; Green, D M; Sklar, C A; Armstrong, G T; Robison, L L; Meacham, L R


    The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of male infertility and treatment-related risk factors in childhood cancer survivors. Within the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study, 1,622 survivors and 274 siblings completed the Male Health Questionnaire. The analysis was restricted to survivors (938/1,622; 57.8 %) and siblings (174/274; 63.5 %) who tried to become pregnant. Relative risks (RR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) for the prevalence of self-reported infertility were calculated using generalized linear models for demographic variables and treatment-related factors to account for correlation among survivors and siblings of the same family. All statistical tests were two-sided. Among those who provided self-report data, the prevalence of infertility was 46.0 % in survivors versus 17.5 % in siblings (RR = 2.64, 95 % CI 1.88-3.70, p survivors who met the definition for infertility, 37 % had reported at least one pregnancy with a female partner that resulted in a live birth. In a multivariable analysis, risk factors for infertility included an alkylating agent dose (AAD) score ≥3 (RR = 2.13, 95 % CI 1.69-2.68 for AAD ≥3 versus AAD survivors who experience infertility father their own children, suggesting episodes of both fertility and infertility. This and the novel association of infertility with bleomycin warrant further investigation. Though infertility is common, male survivors reporting infertility often father their own children. Bleomycin may pose some fertility risk.

  17. Survivors speak: a qualitative analysis of motivational factors influencing breast cancer survivors' participation in a sprint distance triathlon. (United States)

    Robinson, Karen M; Piacentine, Linda B; Waltke, Leslie J; Ng, Alexander V; Tjoe, Judy A


    To examine motivational factors influencing breast cancer survivors to participate in triathlon training, complete a triathlon and maintain an exercise thereafter. Routine exercise has been shown to improve quality of life and reduce recurrence for breast cancer survivors. Yet physical and psychological factors present barriers for initiating and maintaining an exercise routine. Research is limited in exploring factors of exercise motivation from the survivor's perspective. Qualitative design using focus groups and individual follow-up phone interviews to explore motivation for exercise initiation and maintenance. One to two weeks after completing a triathlon, 11 breast cancer survivors who trained together participated in one of three focus groups to discuss their experience. Five months post triathlon 6 of the 11 participants were successfully contacted and phone interviews were conducted to explore exercise maintenance. Focus groups and interviews were analysed using content and thematic analysis. Five themes emerged (1) Champion for Exercise, (2) Part of a Team, (3) Everyone Had a Story, (4) Not Really Exercise and (5) What Do We Do Now? Overall, survivors recognised their need for lifestyle change (e.g. moving from a sedentary lifestyle to a more active one). More importantly, they identified the team approach to exercise initiation was crucial in their success in sustaining a behavioural change. Emphasis needed on developing team exercise training programmes for survivors. Nurses can play a critical role in discussing with survivors, the benefits of exercise initiation and maintenance. Breast cancer survivors are hesitant to initiate routine exercise. Training with women who share a common lived experience increases the likelihood of success. Nurses are in a position to encourage breast cancer survivors to participate in group exercise programmes as a way to improve quality of life. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Biomonitoring of physiological status and cognitive performance of underway submariners undergoing a novel watch-standing schedule (United States)

    Duplessis, C. A.; Cullum, M. E.; Crepeau, L. J.


    Submarine watch-standers adhere to a 6 hour-on, 12 hour-off (6/12) watch-standing schedule, yoking them to an 18-hr day, engendering circadian desynchronization and chronic sleep deprivation. Moreover, the chronic social crowding, shift work, and confinement of submarine life provide additional stressors known to correlate with elevated secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) and cortisol levels, reduced performance, immunologic dysfunction, malignancies, infections, gastrointestinal illness, coronary disease, anxiety, and depression. We evaluated an alternative, compressed, fixed work schedule designed to enhance circadian rhythm entrainment, sleep hygiene, performance, and health on 10 underway submariners, who followed the alternative and 6/12 schedules for approximately 2 weeks each. We measured subjects" sleep, cognitive performance, and salivary biomarker levels. Pilot analysis of the salivary data on one subject utilizing ELISA suggests elevated biomarker levels of stress. Average PM cortisol levels were 0.2 μg/L (normal range: nondetectable - 0.15 μg/L), and mean sIgA levels were 562 μg/ml (normal range: 100-500 μg/ml). Future research exploiting real-time salivary bioassays, via fluorescent polarimetry technology, identified by the Office of Naval Research (ONR) as a future Naval requirement, allows researchers to address correlations between stress-induced elaboration of salivary biomarkers with physiological and performance decrements, thereby fostering insight into the underway submariner"s psychoimmunological status. This may help identify strategies that enhance resilience to stressors. Specifically, empirically-based modeling can identify optimal watch-standing schedules and stress-mitigating procedures -- within the operational constraints of the submarine milieu and the mission --that foster improved circadian entrainment and reduced stress reactivity, enhancing physiological health, operational performance, safety, and job satisfaction.

  19. Survivor from asphyxiation due to helium inhalation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Etteri


    Full Text Available In this rare case report we describe a 27- year-old white man survived to suicide by asphyxiation using the so-called suicide bag (or exit bag filled with helium supplied through a plastic tube. He had no previous psychiatric or organic illnesses. At the time of presentation to our Emergency Department he was awake and reported severe dyspnea with a clinical pattern of acute respiratory failure. Imaging studies showed pulmonary edema and the patient was treated with non-invasive ventilation in Intensive Care Unit. After 15 days the patient was discharged from hospital in optimal conditions. These rare cases of survivor might suggest the possible causes of death from inhaling helium.

  20. Resilience in Elderly Survivors of Child Maltreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Rodin


    Full Text Available Resilience is a multifaceted construct that refers to the positive adaptation of individuals, despite exposure to adversity. This study of resilience in older individuals who have experienced adversity was conducted to deepen the understanding of the factors that contribute to resilience in this population. This qualitative study used purposive and homogeneous sampling criteria to recruit nine participants above the age of 65 with a past history of childhood maltreatment who were judged by their health care professionals to be unusually resilient. Resilience was found to be highly evident in this sample, despite earlier trauma and the subsequent challenges of old age. The authors found active engagement in relationships and in valued activities to be the most often mentioned contributors to resilience in these older survivors of childhood maltreatment. These findings have important implications for public policy and social interventions to preserve the well-being of older individuals who have experienced adversity.

  1. Mortality of atomic bomb survivors in Nagasaki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mine, Mariko; Honda, Sumihisa; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Yokota, Kenichi; Tomonaga, Masao; Okumura, Yutaka [Atomic Bomb Disease Institute, Nagasaki Univ. School of Medicine, Nagasaki (Japan)


    We analyzed the risk in 2,743 atomic bomb survivors by using a new dosimetry system. From the database, we selected 2,743 exposed persons and a total of three times 2,743 age-matched controls who were living far from the center of the A-bomb radiation in Nagasaki at the time of the explosion and who were still alive in 1971. The mortalities from all causes for male subjects exposed were slightly lower than, or almost equal to, those of unexposed persons. Death from cancer, however, increased in both sexes after all levels of irradiation except in males exposed to 0.01-0.49 Gy. In males, the risk was showed significant reduction in death from all diseases other than cancer classified according to 0.31-0.40 Gy. (author)

  2. "To All Stroke Survivors - Never, Ever Give Up" (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Stroke Rehabilitation "To All Stroke Survivors – Never, Ever Give Up." Past Issues / Spring ... have for other Americans who are recovering from strokes and other serious health challenges? What about their ...

  3. Analysis of Activity Patterns and Performance in Polio Survivors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Klein, Mary


    The goals of this project were: 1) to study the temporal relationship between activity level and health status in polio survivors and to compare the results with those obtained from an age-matched control population and 2...

  4. Analysis of Activity Patterns and Performance in Polio Survivors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Klein, Mary


    The goals of this project are: 1) to study the temporal relationship between activity level and health status in polio survivors and to compare the results with those obtained from an age-matched control population and 2...

  5. The Right Balance: Helping Cancer Survivors Achieve a Healthy Weight (United States)

    An article about interventions that aim to help survivors maintain a healthy weight to reduce the risk of cancer recurrence and death and decrease the likelihood of chronic and late effects of cancer treatment.

  6. Correlates of Return to Work for Breast Cancer Survivors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reynard R. Bouknight; Cathy J. Bradley; Zhehui Luo


    To identify correlates of return to work for employed breast cancer survivors. Patients included 416 employed women with newly diagnosed breast cancer identified from the Metropolitan Detroit Cancer Surveillance System...

  7. Attentional bias to violent images in survivors of dating violence. (United States)

    Lee, Jeong-Ha; Lee, Jang-Han


    This study investigated the time-course characteristics of attentional bias, such as vigilance and maintenance, towards violent stimuli in dating violence (DV) survivors. DV survivors with PTSD symptoms (DV-PTSD group; n=14), DV survivors without PTSD symptoms (Trauma Control group; n=14), and individuals who were never exposed to dating violence (NDV group; n=15) viewed slides that presented four categories of images (violent, dysphoric, positive, and neutral) per slide, for ten seconds. Our results revealed that the DV-PTSD group spent more time on violent stimuli than did the Trauma Control or NDV groups. The DV survivors, both with and without PTSD symptoms, spent more time on dysphoric stimuli and less time on happy stimuli than did the NDV group. In addition to the effects of PTSD, researchers should also be considering the effects of simple traumatic exposure.

  8. Need For Improved Skin Cancer Surveillance in Pediatric Cancer Survivors. (United States)

    Sharma, Divya; Lee, Thomas; Friedman, Adam J; Redbord, Kelley Pagliai


    Survivors of pediatric cancer are at increased risk of developing secondary malignancies, with non-melanoma skin cancer being the most common. These patients are also at increased risk of melanoma. Currently, guidelines provided by the National Cancer Institute and Children's Oncology Group emphasize the importance of annual clinical examination for skin cancer screening; however, the literature reports that less than one-third of survivors of pediatric cancer have ever had a clinical skin exam by a physician. In this article, we review the risk factors for skin cancer in survivors of pediatric cancer as well as the current evidence and recommendations for their care. We suggest that dermatologists collectively establish guidelines for skin cancer surveillance in survivors of pediatric cancer.

  9. Cardiovascular Effects in Childhood Cancer Survivors Treated with Anthracyclines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian I. Franco


    Full Text Available Anthracyclines are commonly used to treat childhood leukemias and lymphomas, as well as other malignancies, leading to a growing population of long-term childhood cancer survivors. However, their use is limited by cardiotoxicity, increasing survivors' vulnerability to treatment-related complications that can markedly affect their quality of life. Survivors are more likely to suffer from heart failure, coronary artery disease, and cerebrovascular accidents compared to the general population. The specific mechanisms of anthracycline cardiotoxicity are complex and remain unclear. Hence, determining the factors that may increase susceptibility to cardiotoxicity is of great importance, as is monitoring patients during and after treatment. Additionally, treatment and prevention options, such as limiting cumulative dosage, liposomal anthracyclines, and dexrazoxane, continue to be explored. Here, we review the cardiovascular complications associated with the use of anthracyclines in treating malignancies in children and discuss methods for preventing, screening, and treating such complications in childhood cancer survivors.

  10. Chromosomal Abnormalities in Offspring of Young Cancer Survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Betina Frydenlund; Schmidt, Anne Aarslev; Mulvihill, John J


    Danish cancer survivors and 40 859 offspring (40 794 live-born children and 65 fetuses) of 19 536 siblings. Chromosomal abnormalities include numeric and structural abnormalities. Odds ratios were estimated by multiple logistic regression models comparing the risk of chromosomal abnormalities among...... compared with their siblings' offspring (odds ratio = 0.99, 95% confidence interval = 0.67 to 1.44, two-sided P = .94), with similar risk between male and female survivors. Cancer survivors were not more likely than their siblings to have children with a chromosomal abnormality.......To examine whether cancer survivors diagnosed before age 35 years are more likely to have offspring with chromosomal abnormalities than their siblings, chromosomal abnormalities were determined in a population-based cohort of 14 611 offspring (14 580 live-born children and 31 fetuses) of 8945...

  11. What Prostate Cancer Survivors Need to Know about Osteoporosis (United States)

    ... What Prostate Cancer Survivors Need to Know About Osteoporosis The Impact of Prostate Cancer The National Cancer ... Management Strategies Resources For Your Information Facts About Osteoporosis Osteoporosis is a condition in which bones become ...

  12. Healthcare Professionals' Attitudes to Rehabilitation Programming for Male Cancer Survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handberg, Charlotte; Midtgaard, Julie; Nielsen, Claus Vinther


    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to describe and interpret the attitudes and conduct of hospital healthcare professionals (HCPs) in association with male cancer survivors and their municipal rehabilitation participation. Design: Ethnographic fieldwork was conducted, consisting of participant...

  13. Restoring rape survivors: justice, advocacy, and a call to action. (United States)

    Koss, Mary P


    Rape results in mental and physical health, social, and legal consequences. For the latter, restorative justice-based programs might augment community response, but they generate controversy among advocates and policy makers. This article identifies survivors' needs and existing community responses to them. Survivors feel their legal needs are most poorly met due to justice system problems that can be summarized as attrition, retraumatization, and disparate treatment across gender, class, and ethnic lines. Empirical data support each problem and the conclusion that present justice options are inadequate. The article concludes by identifying common ground in advocacy and restorative justice goals and calls for a holistic approach to the needs of rape survivors that includes advocating for expanded justice alternatives. A call to action is issued to implement restorative alternatives to expand survivor choice and offender accountability. Conventional and restorative justice are often viewed as mutually exclusive whereas the author argues they are complementary.

  14. Family function and health behaviours of stroke survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si-Si Jiang


    Conclusions: Family function and health behaviours in stroke survivors are related, and need further improvement. Healthcare workers should pay close attention to patients' family function and health behaviours and find the reasons which may be influence their level.

  15. Relationships and Recovery for Young Adult Lymphoma Survivors (United States)

    ... Donate Donate Now Fundraise for LRF Planned Giving Relationships and Recovery for Young Adult Lymphoma Survivors By ... like this? The simple answer is with: "I love you..." and then go from there; because if ...

  16. Cancer Survivors: Managing Your Emotions After Cancer Treatment (United States)

    ... self-conscious about your body. Changes in skin color, weight gain or loss, the loss of a ... other cancer survivors who are having the same emotions you are. Contact your local chapter of the ...

  17. Class, race and ethnicity and information avoidance among cancer survivors


    McCloud, R F; Jung, M.; Gray, S W; Viswanath, K.


    Background: Information seeking may increase cancer survivors' ability to make decisions and cope with the disease, but many also avoid cancer information after diagnosis. The social determinants and subsequent communication barriers that lead to avoidance have not been explored. The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of social determinants on information avoidance among cancer survivors. Methods: We examined how health information avoidance is associated with structural and in...

  18. Interact: A Mixed Reality Virtual Survivor for Holocaust Testimonies


    Ma, Minhua; Coward, Sarah; Walker, Chris


    In this paper we present Interact---a mixed reality virtual survivor for Holocaust education. It was created to preserve the powerful and engaging experience of listening to, and interacting with, Holocaust survivors, allowing future generations of audience access to their unique stories. Interact demonstrates how advanced filming techniques, 3D graphics and natural language processing can be integrated and applied to specially-recorded testimonies to enable users to ask questions and receive...

  19. Marriage and divorce among young adult cancer survivors. (United States)

    Kirchhoff, Anne C; Yi, Jaehee; Wright, Jennifer; Warner, Echo L; Smith, Ken R


    We examined marital outcomes among cancer survivors diagnosed during early adulthood from the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System dataset. Eligible participants were ages 20-39 years. Of the 74,433 eligible, N = 1,198 self-reported a cancer diagnosis between the ages of 18 and 37, were ≥2 years past diagnosis, and did not have non-melanoma skin cancer. The remaining N = 67,063 were controls. Using generalized linear models adjusted for age, gender, race, and education, we generated relative risks (RR) and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI) to examine survivor status on indicators of ever married, currently married, and divorced/separated. Survivors were slightly older than controls [33.0 (SD = 3.8) vs. 30.0 (SD = 4.0); p divorce/separation than controls (18 % vs. 10 %; RR = 1.77, 95 % CI 1.43-2.19). Divorce/separation risk persisted for female survivors (RR 1.83, 95 % CI 1.49-2.25), survivors ages 20-29 (RR 2.57, 95 % CI 1.53-4.34), and survivors ages 30-39 (RR 1.62, 95 % CI 1.29-2.04). The emotional and financial burdens of cancer may lead to marital stress for younger cancer survivors. Young survivors may face a higher risk of divorce; support systems are needed to assist them in the years following diagnosis.

  20. Sexual Function in Cervical Cancer Survivors after Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhiraj Daga


    Full Text Available Background: This study evaluated sexual function in cervical cancer survivors after concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Methods: Study participants comprised survivors of locally advanced cervical cancer (stages IIB-IVA who completed concurrent chemoradiotherapy along with intracavitary brachytherapy at least two years prior at Dr S.N.Medical College, Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India. We used the Female Sexual Function Index questionnaire to assess sexual function. The cut-off score of the Female Sexual Function Index that identified female sexual arousal disorder was 26.55. A score less than 26.55 indicated the presence of female sexual arousal disorder. Results:A total of 48 locally advanced cervical cancer survivors enrolled in the study. Survivors had a mean age of 46.5 years. All received chemoradiotherapy along with intracavitary brachytherapy. The average time for treatment was 53.5 days. Patients had an average score for sexual desire of 2, 2.3 for arousal, 2.3 for sexual satisfaction, and 2.1 for pain during intercourse. The overall average score was 11.84 (range: 3.2-19.5 with a cut-off of 26.55. All survivors suffered from female sexual arousal disorder. Conclusion: Cervical cancer survivors had decreased sexual function which indicated female sexual arousal disorder. Patient education and active treatment of complications related to cancer treatments is a must for improvement of sexual function among survivors. Long-term complications should be considered in terms of treatment planning and follow-up treatment to improve the quality of life of cancer survivors.

  1. Assessing Walking Strategies Using Insole Pressure Sensors for Stroke Survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Munoz-Organero


    Full Text Available Insole pressure sensors capture the different forces exercised over the different parts of the sole when performing tasks standing up such as walking. Using data analysis and machine learning techniques, common patterns and strategies from different users to achieve different tasks can be automatically extracted. In this paper, we present the results obtained for the automatic detection of different strategies used by stroke survivors when walking as integrated into an Information Communication Technology (ICT enhanced Personalised Self-Management Rehabilitation System (PSMrS for stroke rehabilitation. Fourteen stroke survivors and 10 healthy controls have participated in the experiment by walking six times a distance from chair to chair of approximately 10 m long. The Rivermead Mobility Index was used to assess the functional ability of each individual in the stroke survivor group. Several walking strategies are studied based on data gathered from insole pressure sensors and patterns found in stroke survivor patients are compared with average patterns found in healthy control users. A mechanism to automatically estimate a mobility index based on the similarity of the pressure patterns to a stereotyped stride is also used. Both data gathered from stroke survivors and healthy controls are used to evaluate the proposed mechanisms. The output of trained algorithms is applied to the PSMrS system to provide feedback on gait quality enabling stroke survivors to self-manage their rehabilitation.

  2. Cancer survivors' experiences of discharge from hospital follow-up. (United States)

    Harrison, S E; Watson, E K; Ward, A M; Khan, N F; Turner, D; Adams, E; Forman, D; Roche, M F; Rose, P W


    Discharge from hospital follow-up is a key time point in the cancer journey. With recommendations for earlier discharge of cancer survivors, attention to the discharge process is likely to become increasingly important. This study explored cancer survivors' experiences of discharge from hospital follow-up. Survivors of breast, colorectal and prostate cancer (n= 1275), 5-16 years post diagnosis were approached to take part in a questionnaire survey. The questionnaire included questions about discharge status, provision of time/information prior to discharge, feelings at discharge and satisfaction with how discharge was managed. Completed questionnaires were returned by 659 survivors (51.7%). Approximately one-third of respondents were not discharged from follow-up 5-16 years post diagnosis. Of those discharged, a substantial minority reported insufficient time (27.9%), information (24.5-45.0%) or adverse emotions (30.9%) at the time of discharge. However, 90.6% of respondents reported satisfaction with how discharge from hospital follow-up was managed. Despite high levels of satisfaction, discharge of cancer survivors from hospital follow-up could be improved with the provision of additional time, information and support. Better structuring of the final hospital appointment or a review appointment in primary care at this time could help to ensure that discharge from hospital follow-up is managed optimally for cancer survivors. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Surveillance and Care of the Gynecologic Cancer Survivor. (United States)

    Faubion, Stephanie S; MacLaughlin, Kathy L; Long, Margaret E; Pruthi, Sandhya; Casey, Petra M


    Care of the gynecologic cancer survivor extends beyond cancer treatment to encompass promotion of sexual, cardiovascular, bone, and brain health; management of fertility, contraception, and vasomotor symptoms; and genetic counseling. This is a narrative review of the data and guidelines regarding care and surveillance of the gynecologic cancer survivor. We searched databases including PubMed, Cochrane, and Scopus using the search terms gynecologic cancer, cancer surveillance, and cancer survivor and reached a consensus for articles chosen for inclusion in the review based on availability in the English language and publication since 2001, as well as key older articles, consensus statements, and practice guidelines from professional societies. However, we did not undertake an extensive systematic search of the literature to identify all potentially relevant studies, nor did we utilize statistical methods to summarize data. We offer clinical recommendations for the management of gynecologic cancer survivors based on review of evidence and our collective clinical experience. Key messages include the limitations of laboratory studies, including CA-125, and imaging in the setting of gynecologic cancer surveillance, hormonal and non-hormonal management of treatment-related vasomotor symptoms and genitourinary syndrome of menopause, as well as recommendations for general health screening, fertility preservation, and contraception. A holistic approach to care extending beyond cancer treatment alone benefits gynecologic cancer survivors. In addition to surveillance for cancer recurrence and late treatment side effects, survivors benefit from guidance on hormonal, contraceptive, and fertility management and promotion of cardiovascular, bone, brain, and sexual health.

  4. Infertility Education: Experiences and Preferences of Childhood Cancer Survivors. (United States)

    Cherven, Brooke O; Mertens, Ann; Wasilewski-Masker, Karen; Williamson, Rebecca; Meacham, Lillian R


    The majority of children diagnosed with cancer will become long-term survivors; however, many will suffer late effects of treatment, including infertility. Educating patients about potential risk for infertility is important, yet little is known regarding when patients would like to hear this information. The purpose of this study was to assess young adult survivors' previous experience in receiving education about their risk for infertility and determine their preferences for infertility education at various time points during and after treatment. Only 36% of survivors report receiving education about risk for infertility at diagnosis, 39% at end of therapy, and 72% in long-term follow-up/survivor clinic visits. Survivors consistently identified their oncologist as a preferred educator at each time point. Although almost all participants identified wanting education at diagnosis, this time point alone may not be sufficient. End of therapy and survivorship may be times this message should be repeated and adapted for the survivor's needs and developmental stage: conversations about the impact of cancer treatment on future fertility should be ongoing. © 2015 by Association of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology Nurses.

  5. Objectively assessed physical activity levels in Spanish cancer survivors. (United States)

    Ruiz-Casado, Ana; Verdugo, Ana Soria; Solano, María J Ortega; Aldazabal, Itziar Pagola; Fiuza-Luces, Carmen; Alejo, Lidia Brea; del Hierro, Julio R Padilla; Palomo, Isabel; Aguado-Arroyo, Oscar; Garatachea, Nuria; Cebolla, Héctor; Lucia, Alejandro


    To objectively assess physical activity (PA) levels in a cohort of Spanish cancer survivors. Descriptive, cross-sectional. The Hospital Universitario de Fuenlabrada and two healthcare centers in Madrid, Spain. 204 cancer survivors and 115 adults with no history of cancer. Participants wore a triaxial accelerometer for seven or more consecutive days to assess PA levels. Body mass index (BMI), indirect indicators of adiposity (waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio), and cardiorespiratory fitness also were determined. Light, moderate, vigorous, and total PA (sum of the former). Most (94%) of the cancer survivors met international recommendations for moderate PA, but very few (3%) fulfilled those (75 minutes or more per week) for vigorous PA. Except for lower total (minute per day, p=0.048) and vigorous PA levels (p0.05). A high percentage of the survivors (33%) were obese (BMI greater than 30 kg/m2), and many also showed poor cardiorespiratory fitness (45% were below the 8 metabolic equivalent threshold). Although cancer survivors overall met international PA recommendations for a healthy lifestyle, their BMI and cardiorespiratory profiles were not within the healthy range. Cancer survivors need to be informed about healthy lifestyle habits and should be regularly monitored.

  6. Home-Based Psychoeducational Intervention for Breast Cancer Survivors. (United States)

    Şengün İnan, Figen; Üstün, Besti


    It is important to manage psychological distress and improve the quality of life (QOL) in patients after breast cancer treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a home-based, psychoeducational program on distress, anxiety, depression, and QOL in breast cancer survivors. The study was a single-group pretest and posttest quasi-experimental design. The data were collected using the Distress Thermometer, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and the Turkish version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life Instrument, short form. The home-based, individual, face-to-face psychoeducational program was structured according to breast cancer survivors' needs and the Neuman Systems Model. A total of 32 Turkish breast cancer survivors participated in this study. There were statistically significant differences in the mean scores for distress, anxiety, and depression in the breast cancer survivors over 4 measurements. The mean scores for all subscales of the QOL at 6 months postintervention were significantly higher than the mean scores at baseline. The results indicated that the psychoeducational program may be effective in reducing distress, anxiety, and depression and in improving the QOL in breast cancer survivors. Psychoeducational programs may be effective and should be considered as part of the survivorship care for breast cancer survivors.

  7. Sexual violence in post-conflict Liberia: survivors and their care. (United States)

    Tayler-Smith, K; Zachariah, R; Hinderaker, S G; Manzi, M; De Plecker, E; Van Wolvelaer, P; Gil, T; Goetghebuer, S; Ritter, H; Bawo, L; Davis-Worzi, C


    Using routine data from three clinics offering care to survivors of sexual violence (SV) in Monrovia, Liberia, we describe the characteristics of SV survivors and the pattern of SV and discuss how the current approach could be better adapted to meet survivors' needs. There were 1500 survivors seeking SV care between January 2008 and December 2009. Most survivors were women (98%) and median age was 13 years (Interquartile range: 9-17 years). Sexual aggression occurred during day-to-day activities in 822 (55%) cases and in the survivor's home in 552 (37%) cases. The perpetrator was a known civilian in 1037 (69%) SV events. Only 619 (41%) survivors sought care within 72 h. The current approach could be improved by: effectively addressing the psychosocial needs of child survivors, reaching male survivors, targeting the perpetrators in awareness and advocacy campaigns and reducing delays in seeking care. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Social, demographic, and medical influences on physical activity in child and adolescent cancer survivors. (United States)

    Gilliam, Margaux B; Madan-Swain, Avi; Whelan, Kimberly; Tucker, Diane C; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Schwebel, David C


    This study evaluated associations between social, environmental, demographic, and medical predictors, and child and adolescent survivors' physical activity (PA). A structured telephone survey was conducted with 105 caregiver-survivor (aged 8-16 years) pairs and 36 caregivers of younger survivors (aged 6-7 years) alone. Participants completed measures assessing survivor PA and proposed predictors of PA including demographic, medical, social, and environmental influences. Social influences, including family PA, family support for PA, and peer support for PA, emerged as unique predictors of survivor PA. These variables predicted PA after controlling for demographic and medical factors. Child survivors' PA was more strongly predicted by family influences while adolescent survivors' PA was more strongly influenced by family and peer influences. Child and adolescent survivors' PA is strongly influenced by social factors. This finding parallels results with healthy children. PA interventions should focus on family and peer support to increase survivors' PA behaviors.

  9. Prodigious submarine landslides during the inception and early growth of volcanic islands. (United States)

    Hunt, James E; Jarvis, Ian


    Volcanic island inception applies large stresses as the ocean crust domes in response to magma ascension and is loaded by eruption of lavas. There is currently limited information on when volcanic islands are initiated on the seafloor, and no information regarding the seafloor instabilities island inception may cause. The deep sea Madeira Abyssal Plain contains a 43 million year history of turbidites among which many originate from mass movements in the Canary Islands. Here, we investigate the composition and timing of a distinctive group of turbidites that we suggest represent a new unique record of large-volume submarine landslides triggered during the inception, submarine shield growth, and final subaerial emergence of the Canary Islands. These slides are predominantly multi-stage and yet represent among the largest mass movements on the Earth's surface up to three or more-times larger than subaerial Canary Islands flank collapses. Thus whilst these deposits provide invaluable information on ocean island geodynamics they also represent a significant, and as yet unaccounted, marine geohazard.

  10. Significant discharge of CO2 from hydrothermalism associated with the submarine volcano of El Hierro Island. (United States)

    Santana-Casiano, J M; Fraile-Nuez, E; González-Dávila, M; Baker, E T; Resing, J A; Walker, S L


    The residual hydrothermalism associated with submarine volcanoes, following an eruption event, plays an important role in the supply of CO2 to the ocean. The emitted CO2 increases the acidity of seawater. The submarine volcano of El Hierro, in its degasification stage, provided an excellent opportunity to study the effect of volcanic CO2 on the seawater carbonate system, the global carbon flux, and local ocean acidification. A detailed survey of the volcanic edifice was carried out using seven CTD-pH-ORP tow-yo studies, localizing the redox and acidic changes, which were used to obtain surface maps of anomalies. In order to investigate the temporal variability of the system, two CTD-pH-ORP yo-yo studies were conducted that included discrete sampling for carbonate system parameters. Meridional tow-yos were used to calculate the amount of volcanic CO2 added to the water column for each surveyed section. The inputs of CO2 along multiple sections combined with measurements of oceanic currents produced an estimated volcanic CO2 flux = 6.0 10(5) ± 1.1 10(5 )kg d(-1) which is ~0.1% of global volcanic CO2 flux. Finally, the CO2 emitted by El Hierro increases the acidity above the volcano by ~20%.

  11. Cyclic thermal behavior associated to the degassing process at El Hierro submarine volcano, Canary Islands. (United States)

    Fraile-Nuez, E.; Santana-Casiano, J. M.; González-Dávila, M.


    One year after the ceasing of magmatic activity in the shallow submarine volcano of the island of El Hierro, significant physical-chemical anomalies produced by the degassing process as: (i) thermal anomalies increase of +0.44 °C, (ii) pH decrease of -0.034 units, (iii) total dissolved inorganic carbon, CT increase by +43.5 µmol kg-1 and (iv) total alkalinity, AT by +12.81 µmol kg-1 were still present in the area. These evidences highlight the potential role of the shallow degassing processes as a natural ecosystem-scale experiments for the study of significant effects of global change stressors on marine environments. Additionally, thermal time series obtained from a temporal yo-yo CTD study, in isopycnal components, over one of the most active points of the submarine volcano have been analyzed in order to investigate the behavior of the system. Signal processing of the thermal time series highlights a strong cyclic temperature period of 125-150 min at 99.9% confidence, due to characteristic time-scales revealed in the periodogram. These long cycles might reflect dynamics occurring within the shallow magma supply system below the island of El Hierro.

  12. Significant discharge of CO2 from hydrothermalism associated with the submarine volcano of El Hierro Island (United States)

    Santana-Casiano, J. M.; Fraile-Nuez, E.; González-Dávila, M.; Baker, E. T.; Resing, J. A.; Walker, S. L.


    The residual hydrothermalism associated with submarine volcanoes, following an eruption event, plays an important role in the supply of CO2 to the ocean. The emitted CO2 increases the acidity of seawater. The submarine volcano of El Hierro, in its degasification stage, provided an excellent opportunity to study the effect of volcanic CO2 on the seawater carbonate system, the global carbon flux, and local ocean acidification. A detailed survey of the volcanic edifice was carried out using seven CTD-pH-ORP tow-yo studies, localizing the redox and acidic changes, which were used to obtain surface maps of anomalies. In order to investigate the temporal variability of the system, two CTD-pH-ORP yo-yo studies were conducted that included discrete sampling for carbonate system parameters. Meridional tow-yos were used to calculate the amount of volcanic CO2 added to the water column for each surveyed section. The inputs of CO2 along multiple sections combined with measurements of oceanic currents produced an estimated volcanic CO2 flux = 6.0 105 ± 1.1 105 kg d-1 which is ~0.1% of global volcanic CO2 flux. Finally, the CO2 emitted by El Hierro increases the acidity above the volcano by ~20%.

  13. Tsunamis caused by submarine slope failures along western Great Bahama Bank. (United States)

    Schnyder, Jara S D; Eberli, Gregor P; Kirby, James T; Shi, Fengyan; Tehranirad, Babak; Mulder, Thierry; Ducassou, Emmanuelle; Hebbeln, Dierk; Wintersteller, Paul


    Submarine slope failures are a likely cause for tsunami generation along the East Coast of the United States. Among potential source areas for such tsunamis are submarine landslides and margin collapses of Bahamian platforms. Numerical models of past events, which have been identified using high-resolution multibeam bathymetric data, reveal possible tsunami impact on Bimini, the Florida Keys, and northern Cuba. Tsunamis caused by slope failures with terminal landslide velocity of 20 ms-1 will either dissipate while traveling through the Straits of Florida, or generate a maximum wave of 1.5 m at the Florida coast. Modeling a worst-case scenario with a calculated terminal landslide velocity generates a wave of 4.5 m height. The modeled margin collapse in southwestern Great Bahama Bank potentially has a high impact on northern Cuba, with wave heights between 3.3 to 9.5 m depending on the collapse velocity. The short distance and travel time from the source areas to densely populated coastal areas would make the Florida Keys and Miami vulnerable to such low-probability but high-impact events.

  14. The Enemy is Still Below: The Global Diffusion of Submarines and Related Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, K G


    The spread of submarines and related technology is an end product of globalization. Globalization is not a new story. By one estimate, our ancestors first crossed out of Africa roughly 80,000 years ago, and began the process that they now call globalization. With the dispersion of people around the world came the development of culture and civilization as well as the spread of ideas, goods, and technology. The process of globalization then is a long-standing one, not an innovation of the late 20th and early 21st centuries. Over the millennia, this process has been an uneven one. Globalization has often cuased great disruptions even to the societies that initiated various innovations in culture and civilization, including science and technology. Indeed, many cultures and civilizations have disappeared while some regions failed to advance as rapidly as others, so the process of globalization is not just one of continuing progress. Globalization in the current era seems to be penetrating the most remote corners of the world at a remarkable rate as a result of advances in science and technology, particularly information technology. The diffusion of science and technology is not necessarily a benign development. It could increase the potential for a global military industrial base that may have an adverse affect on world stability in the future. For example, the spread of key military capabilities, like submarines, could still have an impact, especially over the longer term, on the US capability to project power overseas.

  15. Gas Hydrate Formation Amid Submarine Canyon Incision: Investigations From New Zealand's Hikurangi Subduction Margin (United States)

    Crutchley, G. J.; Kroeger, K. F.; Pecher, I. A.; Mountjoy, J. J.; Gorman, A. R.


    We investigate gas hydrate system dynamics beneath a submarine canyon on New Zealand's Hikurangi subduction margin using seismic reflection data and petroleum systems modeling. High seismic velocities just above the base of gas hydrate stability (BGHS) indicate that concentrated gas hydrates exist beneath the canyon. Two-dimensional gas hydrate formation modeling shows how the process of canyon incision at this location alters the distribution and concentration of gas hydrate. The key modeling result is that free gas is trapped beneath the gas hydrate layer and then "captured" into a concentrated gas hydrate deposit as a result of a downward-shift in the BGHS driven by canyon incision. Our study thus provides new insight into the functioning of this process. From our data, we also conceptualize two other models to describe how canyons could significantly change gas hydrate distribution and concentration. One scenario is related to deflection of fluid flow pathways from over-pressured regions at the BGHS toward the canyon, and the other is based on relationships between simultaneous seafloor uplift and canyon incision. The relationships and processes described are of global relevance because of considerations of gas hydrate as an energy resource and the influence of both submarine canyons and gas hydrate systems on seafloor biodiversity.

  16. High Speed Submarine Optical Fiber Communication System:Pressure and Temperature Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Mohammed


    Full Text Available In the present paper, the performance of high speed submarine optical fiber cable systems is investigated, taking into account both the pressure and the temperature effects. Both the pressure and the temperature are depth-dependent variables, while both the spectral losses and the dispersion effects are temperature as well as wavelength dependent variables. Two important cases with real fibers are processed: a case with dispersion cancellation and a case without dispersion cancellation. It is found that the ocean pressure (due to the depth shifts the dispersion-free wavelength towards the third communication window. In general, as the depth increases the maximum transmitted bit rate increases in the range of interest. The system capacity as well as the spectral losses, and the dispersion effects are parametrically investigated over wide-range ranges of the set of affecting parameters {wavelength, ocean depth (and consequently the ocean pressure and temperature, and the chemical structure}. Key Words: Submarine Optical Fiber, Undersea Optical Communication, Pressure and Temperature Effects, Transoceanic Optical Communications

  17. Validation and verification of a virtual environment for training naval submarine officers (United States)

    Zeltzer, David L.; Pioch, Nicholas J.


    A prototype virtual environment (VE) has been developed for training a submarine officer of the desk (OOD) to perform in-harbor navigation on a surfaced submarine. The OOD, stationed on the conning tower of the vessel, is responsible for monitoring the progress of the boat as it negotiates a marked channel, as well as verifying the navigational suggestions of the below- deck piloting team. The VE system allows an OOD trainee to view a particular harbor and associated waterway through a head-mounted display, receive spoken reports from a simulated piloting team, give spoken commands to the helmsman, and receive verbal confirmation of command execution from the helm. The task analysis of in-harbor navigation, and the derivation of application requirements are briefly described. This is followed by a discussion of the implementation of the prototype. This implementation underwent a series of validation and verification assessment activities, including operational validation, data validation, and software verification of individual software modules as well as the integrated system. Validation and verification procedures are discussed with respect to the OOD application in particular, and with respect to VE applications in general.

  18. Relation of submarine landslide to hydrate occurrences in Baiyun Depression, South China Sea (United States)

    Sun, Yunbao; Zhang, Xiaohua; Wu, Shiguo; Wang, Lei; Yang, Shengxiong


    Submarine landslides have been observed in the Baiyun Depression of the South China Sea. The occurrence of hydrates below these landslides indicates that these slope instabilities may be closely related to the massive release of methane. In this study, we used a simple Monte-Carlo model to determine the first-order deformation pattern of a gravitationally destabilizing slope. The results show that a stress concentration occurs due to hydrate dissociation on the nearby glide surface and on top of a gas chimney structure. Upon the dissolution of the gas hydrate, slope failure occurs due to the excess pore pressure generated by the dissociation of the gas hydrates. When gas hydrates dissociate at shallow depths, the excess pore pressure generated can be greater than the total stress acting at those points, along with the forces that resist sliding. Initially, the failure occurs at the toe of the slope, then extends to the interior. Although our investigation focused only on the contribution of hydrate decomposition to submarine landslide, this process is also affected by both the slope material properties and topography.

  19. Deep macrobenthic communities from Nazaré Submarine Canyon (NW Portugal

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    J. Cúrdia


    Full Text Available Macrofauna community structure within Nazaré Submarine Canyon is analysed and used to assess the potential effects of natural enrichment in this area subjected to accumulation of coastal sediments. A transect including three stations (2894, 3514 and 4141 m was carried out in the Nazaré Submarine Canyon (NW Portugal during a cruise of OMEX II programme (Ocean Margin Exchange, in the winter season of 1999. Although data was not collected in order to calculate sedimentation rates, sampling station at 2894 m is located in an area characterised by high levels of sedimentation, thus a high amount of organic matter is expected to be available for the local communities. Faunistic data are discussed in the context of the different features of the stations sampled. Multivariate analysis clearly separates the shallowest station from the other ones, which otherwise appear to be very similar. It also revealed a perceptible gradient along sediment depth at all stations, from shallow to deeper layers. Exceptionally depressed species richness and low evenness values were observed at the 2894 m station. The high number of individuals of a single species, Cossura sp. A, and the atypical diversity, dominance and evenness values obtained for this station support the hypothesis of community disturbance due to organic enrichment.

  20. 'Green' Submarine Cable Systems for Ocean/Climate Monitoring and Disaster Warning (United States)

    Barnes, C. R.; Butler, R.; Howe, B. M.; Bueti, M. C.


    A recent joint initiative between three UN agencies is proposing to develop trans-ocean mini-observatories to measure changing seafloor ocean observables. A Joint Task Force (JTF), established in 2012 by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) of UNESCO, is examining novel uses for submarine telecommunication cables. With ITU secretariat support, the JTF is developing a strategy and roadmap that could lead to enabling the availability of modified 'green' submarine cable systems equipped with scientific sensors (such as temperature, pressure and acceleration) for climate monitoring and disaster risk reduction (particularly tsunamis). If successful and needing support from industry and regulatory bodies, a wide network of mini-observatories could be established at many places across the world's ocean floors to measure these important parameters accurately over several decades. The initiative addresses two main issues: a) the need for sustained climate-quality data from the sparsely observed deep oceans and continental slopes but extending into coastal waters; and b) the desire to increase the reliability and integrity of the global tsunami warning networks. Presently, plans are being developed to launch a pilot project with the active involvement of cable industry players and existing ocean observatory researchers.

  1. Neural Network Course Changing and Track Keeping Controller for a Submarine

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    Dur Muhammad Pathan


    Full Text Available This paper presents the performance of ANN (Artificial Neural Networks technique for the development of controller for heading motions of submarine. A MLP (Multi-Layer Preceptron FFNN (Feed-Forward Neural Network is used for development of controller. Supervised type of learning is used for training of network by using back-propagation Algorithm. The training is performed by providing a nonlinear sliding mode controller as a supervisor. The development of controller is based on nonlinear decoupled heading model of a submarine without consideration of external environmental disturbances. To demonstrate the robustness of controller the performance of controller is tested in different operating conditions: course changing, track keeping and under the influence of sea currents. Simulations results show that in all cases, the heading error comes to zero, which indicates that the actual heading converges to the desired heading in finite time. The maximum error is observed 0.5o for 45o command angle, in presence of sea currents. The result demonstrates that the performance neural network controller has been robust.

  2. Submarine Groundwater Discharge of Trace Elements and Isotopes from Karst Systems (Invited) (United States)

    Charette, M. A.; Henderson, P. B.; Gonneea, M. E.; Breier, C.; Murray, J.; Jenson, J. W.; Morales, S.; Herrera-Silveira, J.


    Coastal hydrogeology is a major driver of the flux of trace elements and isotopes associated with submarine groundwater discharge (SGD). Karst geomorphology, which makes up 25% of the world’s coastline, is often characterized by highly permeable soils result that result in fast infiltration of rainfall such that overland runoff is minimal. As a result, the major vector for land-ocean freshwater transport is submarine groundwater discharge. This talk will focus on process studies at two karst settings: the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico and Guam in the western Pacific Mariana Island chain. A feature common to both locations was minimal non-conservative behavior of trace metals and isotopes within subsurface mixing zones at the coast and substantial fluxes of trace metals associated with dissolution of carbonate minerals within the aquifer. The levels of trace metal enrichment appear correlated with subsurface path length, with groundwater endmember concentrations at the Yucatan site being ~2-5 times higher than at Guam. We surmise that SGD fluxes from karst systems were less significant during glacial periods when carbonate platforms are fully exposed and therefore subject to less intense weathering processes. These results have implications for interpretation of trace element and isotope distributions in the geologic record.

  3. Experimental study on hydrodynamic coefficients for high-incidence-angle maneuver of a submarine

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    Jong-Yong Park


    Full Text Available Snap rolling during hard turning and instability during emergency rising are important features of submarine operation. Hydrodynamics modeling using a high incidence flow angle is required to predict these phenomena. In the present study, a quasi-steady dynamics model of a submarine suitable for high-incidence-angle maneuvering applications is developed. To determine the hydrodynamic coefficients of the model, static tests, dynamic tests, and control surface tests were conducted in a towing tank and wind tunnel. The towing tank test is conducted utilizing a Reynolds number of 3.12 × 106, and the wind tunnel test is performed utilizing a Reynolds number of 5.11 × 106. In addition, least squares, golden section search, and surface fitting using polynomial models were used to analyze the experimental results. The obtained coefficients are presented in tabular form and can be used for various purposes such as hard turning simulation, emergency rising simulation, and controller design.

  4. Submarine geology of South Kona landslide complex: investigation using ROV Kaiko (United States)

    Yokose, H.; Yoshida, S.


    KR01-12 cruise of Japan Marine Science and Technology Center using ROV KAIKO and its mother ship R/V KAIREI were carried out around Hawaii islands in the early fall of 2001. During this cruise, two dives of ROV KAIKO were made on western submarine flank of the island of Hawaii: South Kona landslide complex (K210:proximal part of the south Kona landslide, K211: distal block of the landslide). One single channel seismic reflection line was collected from vicinity of the above dive sites. These areas have never been systematically studied using submersible due to the bad sea state and /or the depth of outcrops. Valuable information about the submarine geology and in situ rock samples from western franks of the island of Hawaii were obtained. K211 site is one of the distal landslide block and can be divided into 3 geological units from bottom to top: picritic sheet lava and hyaloclastite, volcaniclastic deposit with picritic breccia, muddy breccia with highly vesiculated ol basalt. On the other hand, rocks recovered from K210 are composed mainly of aa clinker and aa lava which are highly vesiculated and reddish in color. The rocks from K210 is similar to the upper part of K211 in their bulk rock chemistry. Based on the geological and bulk rock chemistry, rocks recovered from both sites should be erupted subaerially. It suggests that these landslide blocks were composed subaerial portion of the paleo-Mauna Loa volcano.

  5. Partitioning of Submarine Melt and Calving across the front of Store Glacier, Greenland (United States)

    Hubbard, A., II; Chauche, N.


    Processes unique to the marine-termini of fast-flowing tidewater outlet glaciers can potentially drive extreme rates of mass wastage thereby providing a rapid link between the terrestrial ice reservoir and the oceanic sink. Here we attempt to directly quantify the pattern and magnitude of calving and melt at the front of Store Glacier, a major outlet draining the western sector of the Greenland ice sheet. Integration of range-survey technologies on a robust, heavy displacement marine platform coupled with high-resolution photogrammetry allowed the production of accurate, ~m resolution 3d digital terrain models (DTMs) of the glacier front. A swath-interferometric sonar system calibrated via an inertial motion unit stabilized with RTK GPS and vector-compass data-streams was combined with photogrammetric processing of repeat UAV surveys. The results of three repeat surveys across the front of Store Glaciers in 2012 is presented during which significant ice flow, melt and calving events were imaged, complimented with AWS, on-ice GPS stations and time-lapse/video camera sequences. The residual of successive DTMs yield the 3d pattern of frontal change allowing the processes calving and melt to be quantified and constrained in unprecedented detail. The pattern of submarine melt is further validated against indirect estimates of submarine melt derived from oceanographic circulation measurements within the fjord.

  6. Submarine Channel Association with Seamount Chain Alignment on the Ontong Java Plateau (United States)

    Meyers, H. G., IV; Sautter, L.


    The Ontong Java Plateau (OJP), north of the Solomon Islands, Indonesia, is a submerged seafloor platform, larger than Alaska and full of intricate systems of channels, atolls and seamounts. This area has remained relatively unstudied because of both the area's remote location and low number of ships carrying advanced sonar systems. The OJP is believed to have been formed by one of the largest volcanic eruptions in Earth's history. This study uses EM302 multibeam sonar data collected on the R/V Falkor in 2014 by the University of Tasmania's Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies to better understand relationships between the seafloor geomorphology and tectonic processes that formed numerous unexplored seamounts. The area surveyed is situated along the OJP's central northeast margin, and includes a small chain of six seamounts that range from 300 to 700 m in vertical relief. These seamounts are situated within the axis of a major 14 km wide submarine channel that was likely formed by a sequence of turbidity currents. Using CARIS HIPS and SIPS 9.0 post-processing software, seamount and channel morphology were characterized with 2 dimensional profiles and 3 dimensional images. Backscatter intensity was used to identify relative substrate hardness of the seamounts and surrounding seafloor areas. Scour and depositional features from the turbidity flows are evident at the base of several seamounts, indicating that the submarine channel bifurcated when turbidity flows encountered the seamount chain.

  7. Submarine fresh groundwater discharge into Laizhou Bay comparable to the Yellow River flux (United States)

    Wang, Xuejing; Li, Hailong; Jiao, Jiu Jimmy; Barry, D. A.; Li, Ling; Luo, Xin; Wang, Chaoyue; Wan, Li; Wang, Xusheng; Jiang, Xiaowei; Ma, Qian; Qu, Wenjing


    Near- and off-shore fresh groundwater resources become increasingly important with the social and economic development in coastal areas. Although large scale (hundreds of km) submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) to the ocean has been shown to be of the same magnitude order as river discharge, submarine fresh groundwater discharge (SFGD) with magnitude comparable to large river discharge is never reported. Here, we proposed a method coupling mass-balance models of water, salt and radium isotopes based on field data of 223Ra, 226Ra and salinity to estimate the SFGD, SGD. By applying the method in Laizhou Bay (a water area of ~6000 km2), we showed that the SFGD and SGD are 0.57 ~ 0.88 times and 7.35 ~ 8.57 times the annual Yellow River flux in August 2012, respectively. The estimate of SFGD ranges from 4.12 × 107 m3/d to 6.36 × 107 m3/d, while SGD ranges from 5.32 × 108 m3/d to 6.20 × 108 m3/d. The proportion of the Yellow River input into Laizhou Bay was less than 14% of the total in August 2012. Our method can be used to estimate SFGD in various coastal waters. PMID:25742712

  8. Elemental mercury at submarine hydrothermal vents in the Bay of Plenty, Taupo volcanic zone, New Zealand (United States)

    Stoffers, P.; Hannington, M.; Wright, I.; Herzig, P.; de Ronde, C.; Scientific Party, Shipboard


    Hot springs in active geothermal areas such as Yellowstone National Park, the Geysers geothermal field in California, and the Taupo volcanic zone in New Zealand are notably enriched in the trace metals Au, Ag, As, Sb, and Hg. Such near-surface hot springs have formed many of the world's important deposits of gold and silver and some of the largest deposits of mercury. The majority of these are associated with continental geothermal systems in subaerial environments. Here we report the discovery of active mercury-depositing hot springs in a submarine setting, at nearly 200 m water depth, within the offshore extension of the Taupo volcanic zone of New Zealand. These vents contain the first documented occurrence of elemental mercury on the sea floor and provide an important link between offshore hydrothermal activity and mercury-depositing geothermal systems on land. The discovery has implications for mercury transport in sea-floor hydrothermal systems and underscores the importance of submarine volcanic and geothermal activity as a source of mercury in the oceans.

  9. Submarine Slope Failure Primed and Triggered by Bottom Water Warming in Oceanic Hydrate-Bearing Deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Hyuk Kwon


    Full Text Available Many submarine slope failures in hydrate-bearing sedimentary deposits might be directly triggered, or at least primed, by gas hydrate dissociation. It has been reported that during the past 55 years (1955–2010 the 0–2000 m layer of oceans worldwide has been warmed by 0.09 °C because of global warming. This raises the following scientific concern: if warming of the bottom water of deep oceans continues, it would dissociate natural gas hydrates and could eventually trigger massive slope failures. The present study explored the submarine slope instability of oceanic gas hydrate-bearing deposits subjected to bottom water warming. One-dimensional coupled thermal-hydraulic-mechanical (T-H-M finite difference analyses were performed to capture the underlying physical processes initiated by bottom water warming, which includes thermal conduction through sediments, thermal dissociation of gas hydrates, excess pore pressure generation, pressure diffusion, and hydrate dissociation against depressurization. The temperature rise at the seafloor due to bottom water warming is found to create an excess pore pressure that is sufficiently large to reduce the stability of a slope in some cases. Parametric study results suggest that a slope becomes more susceptible to failure with increases in thermal diffusivity and hydrate saturation and decreases in pressure diffusivity, gas saturation, and water depth. Bottom water warming can be further explored to gain a better understanding of the past methane hydrate destabilization events on Earth, assuming that more reliable geological data is available.

  10. The Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC and the Development of Narco-Submarines

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    Michelle Jacome Jaramillo


    Full Text Available The Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC have been one of the world's most consistently formidable violent non-state actors over the last forty years. Unsurprisingly, the group has provided one of the most compelling and concerning examples of the level of technical sophistication attainable by sub-state organizations. Over the last two decades the group has carried out an iterative and innovative process that, in reaction to improved detection capabilities, has brought them from depending on disposable go-fast boats to transport drugs to possessing fully submersible and reusable covert vessels for transportation. The following case study will discuss the development of narco-submarines and the underlying motivations behind the pursuit of this complex engineering task. The case study will outline the different phases of the narco-submarine development and highlight FARC’s determination to overcome the challenges present in each design. This discussion will show how FARC’s systematized acquiring of information and expertise has resulted in the accomplishment of fully submersible vessels, capable of transporting more than 10 tons of illicit product.

  11. Tectonic activity and the evolution of submarine canyons: The Cook Strait Canyon system, New Zealand (United States)

    Micallef, Aaron; Mountjoy, Joshu; Barnes, Philip; Canals, Miquel; Lastras, Galderic


    Submarine canyons are Earth's most dramatic erosional features, comprising steep-walled valleys that originate in the continental shelf and slope. They play a key role in the evolution of continental margins by transferring sediments into deep water settings and are considered important biodiversity hotspots, pathways for nutrients and pollutants, and analogues of hydrocarbon reservoirs. Although comprising only one third of continental margins worldwide, active margins host more than half of global submarine canyons. We still lack of thorough understanding of the coupling between active tectonics and submarine canyon processes, which is necessary to improve the modelling of canyon evolution in active margins and derive tectonic information from canyon morphology. The objectives of this study are to: (i) understand how tectonic activity influences submarine canyon morphology, processes, and evolution in an active margin, and (2) formulate a generalised model of canyon development in response to tectonic forcing based on morphometric parameters. We fulfil these objectives by analysing high resolution geophysical data and imagery from Cook Strait Canyon system, offshore New Zealand. Using these data, we demonstrate that tectonic activity, in the form of major faults and structurally-generated tectonic ridges, leaves a clear topographic signature on submarine canyon location and morphology, in particular their dendritic and sinuous planform shapes, steep and linear longitudinal profiles, and cross-sectional asymmetry and width. We also report breaks/changes in canyon longitudinal slope gradient, relief and slope-area regression models at the intersection with faults. Tectonic activity gives rise to two types of knickpoints in the Cook Strait Canyon. The first type consists of low slope gradient, rounded and diffusive knickpoints forming as a result of short wavelength folds or fault break outs and being restored to an equilibrium profile by upstream erosion and

  12. Psychosexual development and satisfaction in long-term survivors of childhood cancer : Neurotoxic treatment intensity as a risk indicator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehmann, Vicky; Tuinman, Marrit; Keim, Madelaine C.; Winning, Adrien M.; Olshefski, Randal S.; Bajwa, Rajinder P. S.; Hagedoorn, Mariet; Gerhardt, Cynthia A.


    BACKGROUNDRisk factors for impairment in psychosexual development and satisfaction among adult survivors of childhood cancer are poorly understood. The authors compared psychosexual outcomes between survivors and healthy controls, and tested whether at-risk survivors can be identified by 1)

  13. Factors Related to Drug Abuse in the Submarine Service. IV. Correlates of Permissiveness of Attitudes Toward Drug Abuse (United States)


    originating from the Submarine Service and from the civilian sector. Thus, borrowing from the language of psychoanalysis , D.A. cases may be classified...A. flashback 97 o 0 3 B. C. D. E, habituation psychosis revelation, I don’t know 17. LSD has been stated (with some scientific

  14. “Hello, HELLO! Anyone there? - on the need to assess the tsunami risk to global submarine telecommunications infrastructure (United States)

    Dominey-Howes, D.; Goff, J. R.


    National economies are increasingly dependent on the global telecommunications system - and in particular, its submarine cable infrastructure. Submarine cable traffic represents about 30% of global GDP so the cost of losing, or even simply slowing, communications traffic is high. Many natural hazards are capable of damaging and destroying this infrastructure but tsunamis are the most significant threat, particularly in waters >1000 m deep. Submarine cables and their shore-based infrastructure (the anchor points), are at risk from direct and indirect tsunami-related effects. During the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami in India and Indonesia, cables were broken (direct effect) as the tsunami eroded supporting sediments, and were further damaged by floating/submerged objects and intense nearshore currents. Shore-based infrastructure was also directly damaged in India, Indonesia, and the Maldives. The 1929 Grand Banks earthquake generated a submarine landslide and tsunami off Newfoundland which broke 12 submarine telegraph cables. In 2006, an earthquake in Taiwan generated submarine landslides and a tsunami. These landslides caused one of the largest disruptions of modern telecommunications history when nine cables in the Strait of Luzon were broken disabling vital connections between SE Asia and the rest of the world. Although electronic traffic in and out of Australia was slowed, it did not cease because >70% of our traffic is routed via cables that pass through Hawaii. This is extremely significant because Hawaii is an internationally recognised bottleneck or “choke point” in the global telecommunications network. The fact that Hawaii is a choke point is important because it is regularly affected by numerous large magnitude natural hazards. Any damage to the submarine telecommunications infrastructure routed through Hawaii could result in significant impacts on the electronic flow of data and voice traffic, negatively affecting dependent economies such as Australia

  15. Searching for maintenance in exercise interventions for cancer survivors. (United States)

    Jankowski, Catherine M; Ory, Marcia G; Friedman, Daniela B; Dwyer, Andrea; Birken, Sarah A; Risendal, Betsy


    Translating evidence-based exercise interventions into practice is important for expanding the capacity to support cancer survivors. Using the reach, efficacy/effectiveness, adoption, implementation, and maintenance (RE-AIM) framework and scoping study methodology, we addressed the research question, "What is known about the maintenance of exercise interventions for cancer survivors that would inform translation from research to practice and community settings?" Maintenance was investigated at the individual and setting level. Literature searches were performed in the PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), and Sport Discus databases for articles published from January 2009 to June 2012. Abstracts were judged using a priori criteria for the survivor population, exercise intervention, and maintenance on the individual or setting level. We included completed and planned randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and other study designs. Publications meeting the criteria were reviewed and coded. Of the 211 abstracts meeting patient and exercise criteria, 24 (19 RCTs) met the maintenance criteria. Nine of the 12 completed RCTs demonstrated maintenance of intervention outcomes after 3 to 14 months of follow-up. The planned RCTs described interventions lasting 2 to 4.5 months and maintenance intervals lasting 3 to 12 months following the active intervention. Maintenance at the setting level was reported in one publication. On the individual level, intervention outcomes were maintained in most studies, in a variety of settings and survivor subpopulations. Maintenance on the setting level was scarcely addressed. This scoping study suggests several strategies that could be taken by agencies, clinicians, and researchers to develop more effective and sustainable exercise programs for cancer survivors. Many benefits of exercise training are maintained for months after cancer survivors complete controlled research studies but relatively little is

  16. Exploration of Exercise Outcome Expectations Among Breast Cancer Survivors. (United States)

    Hirschey, Rachel; Docherty, Sharron L; Pan, Wei; Lipkus, Isaac

    Exercise is associated with decreased recurrence risk and improved survival and quality of life for breast cancer survivors. However, only an estimated 17% to 37% of survivors adhere to the American Cancer Society exercise guidelines. A critical first step to increase exercise among survivors is to understand how they believe exercise will affect them. The aim of this study is to explore common exercise outcome expectations among 20 female survivors of stage IA to IIB breast cancer who completed adjuvant treatment and an exercise intervention. A mixed-method descriptive study consisting of semistructured telephone interviews assessed exercise outcome expectations and how the experience of cancer and its treatment influenced the expected outcomes of exercise. The qualitative data were analyzed using a summative content analysis procedure; means were calculated for each item of the exercise outcome questionnaire. The qualitative and quantitative data were compared and contrasted. The sample was 70% white and 30% African American, with a mean (SD) age of 62 (8.5) years, and mean (SD) time since treatment completion of 4.2 (1.3) years. Three themes emerged from the interviews: (1) prevalence of common expectations, (2) pervasive impact of fatigue, and (3) a brighter future. Overall, findings revealed that breast cancer survivors have low levels of agreement that exercise may mitigate late and long-term cancer and treatment effects. In general, breast cancer survivors (even those who are motivated to exercise) do not hold strong beliefs that exercise will decrease late and long-term treatment effects. Clinicians can educate survivors about exercise benefits.

  17. Quality of life of adult retinoblastoma survivors in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cohen-Kettenis Peggy T


    Full Text Available Abstract Background To assess the quality of life (QoL and predictors thereof in Dutch adult hereditary and non-hereditary retinoblastoma (RB survivors. Methods In this population-based cross-sectional study, a generic QoL questionnaire (SF-36 and a disease-specific interview were administered to 87 adult RB survivors aged 18 to 35 years. Their QoL data were compared with those of a Dutch healthy reference group. Among the RB hereditary/non-hereditary survivors, the QoL was compared and predictors for QoL were identified by linear multiple regression analyses. Results As a group, RB survivors scored significantly lower than the reference group on the SF-36 subscale 'mental health' (t = -27, df = 86, p Conclusion In this exploratory study, it appears that the group of adult RB survivors experience a relatively good overall but slightly decreased QoL compared with the reference group. However, they report more problems with regard to their mental health (anxiety, feelings of depression, and loss of control. Hereditary RB survivors differ significantly from non-hereditary RB survivors only in 'general health'. Bullying in childhood and subjective experience of impairment are the main predictors of a worse QoL. In order to prevent worsening of QoL, or perhaps to improve it, clinicians should make an inventory of these issues at an early stage. We recommend further research to assess the specific psychological factors that may lead to mental health problems in this population.

  18. Emotional distress among adult survivors of childhood cancer. (United States)

    Oancea, S Cristina; Brinkman, Tara M; Ness, Kirsten K; Krull, Kevin R; Smith, Webb A; Srivastava, D Kumar; Robison, Leslie L; Hudson, Melissa M; Gurney, James G


    The purposes of this study were to estimate the prevalence of emotional distress in a large cohort of adult survivors of childhood cancer and to evaluate the interrelationship of risk factors including cancer-related late effects. Adult survivors of childhood cancer (N = 1,863), median age of 32 years at follow-up, completed comprehensive medical evaluations. Clinically relevant emotional distress was assessed using the Brief Symptom Inventory 18 and was defined as T-scores ≥63. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using multivariable logistic regression models to identify risk factors for distress. Path analysis was used to examine associations among identified risk factors. Elevated global distress was reported by 15.1% of survivors. Cancer-related pain was associated with elevated distress (OR 8.72; 95% CI, 5.32-14.31). Survivors who reported moderate learning or memory problems were more likely to have elevated distress than survivors who reported no learning or memory problems (OR 3.27; 95% CI, 2.17-4.93). Path analysis implied that cancer-related pain has a direct effect on distress symptoms and an indirect effect through socioeconomic status and learning or memory problems. Similar results were observed for learning or memory problems. Childhood cancer-related morbidities including pain and learning or memory problems appear to be directly and indirectly associated with elevated distress symptoms decades after treatment. Understanding these associations may help inform intervention targets for survivors of childhood cancer experiencing symptoms of distress. A subset of long-term childhood cancer survivors experience significant emotional distress. Physical and cognitive late effects may contribute to these symptoms.

  19. Fear of cancer recurrence in prostate cancer survivors. (United States)

    van de Wal, Marieke; van Oort, Inge; Schouten, Joost; Thewes, Belinda; Gielissen, Marieke; Prins, Judith


    Background High fear of cancer recurrence (FCR) is an understudied topic in prostate cancer (PCa) survivors. This study aimed to detect the prevalence, consequences and characteristics associated with high FCR in PCa survivors. Material and methods This cross-sectional study included patients diagnosed with localized PCa and treated with curative radical prostatectomy between 1992 and 2012. We administered the Cancer Worry Scale (CWS) to assess FCR severity (primary outcome measure). Secondary outcomes included distress, quality of life (QOL), post-traumatic symptoms, and multidimensional aspects of FCR. χ(2)-tests, t-tests and Pearson's correlations examined the relationship between FCR and medical/demographic characteristics. MANOVA analyses and χ2-tests identified differences between PCa survivors with high and low FCR. Results Two hundred eighty-three PCa survivors (median age of 70.0 years) completed the questionnaires a median time of 7.1 years after surgery. About a third (36%) of all PCa survivors experienced high FCR. High FCR was associated with lower QOL, more physical problems, higher distress and more post-traumatic stress symptoms. PCa survivors with high FCR reported disease-related triggers (especially medical examinations), felt helpless and experienced problems in social relationships. High FCR was associated with a younger age and having received adjuvant radiotherapy. Conclusions Results illustrate that FCR is a significant problem in PCa survivors. Younger men and those treated with adjuvant radiotherapy are especially at risk. Those with high FCR experience worse QOL and higher symptom burden. Health care providers should pay specific attention to this problem and provide appropriate psychosocial care when needed.

  20. Yield of Urinalysis Screening in Pediatric Cancer Survivors. (United States)

    Ramirez, Matthew D; Mertens, Ann C; Esiashvili, Natia; Meacham, Lillian R; Wasilewski-Masker, Karen


    The Children's Oncology Group (COG) publishes consensus guidelines with screening recommendations for early identification of treatment-related morbidities among childhood cancer survivors. We sought to estimate the yield of recommended yearly urinalysis screening for genitourinary complications as per Version 3.0 of the COG Long-Term Follow-Up Guidelines and identify possible risk factors for abnormal screening in a survivor population. A database of pediatric cancer survivors evaluated between January 2008 and March 2012 at Children's Healthcare of Atlanta was queried for survivors at risk for genitourinary late effects. The frequency of abnormal urinalyses (protein ≥1+ and/or presence of glucose and/or ≥5 red blood cells per high power field) was estimated. Risk factors associated with abnormal screening were identified. Chart review identified 773 survivors (57% male; 67% Caucasian; 60% leukemia/lymphoma survivors; mean age at diagnosis, 5.7 years [range: birth to 17.7 years]; time from diagnosis to initial screening, 7.6 years [range: 2.3 to 21.5 years]) who underwent urinalysis. Abnormal results were found in 78 (5.3%) of 1,484 total urinalyses. Multivariable analysis revealed higher dose ifosfamide (odds ratio [OR] = 6.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.9-16.0) and total body irradiation (TBI, OR = 3.0, 95% CI 1.0-8.4) as significant risk factors for abnormal initial urinalysis screening. Pediatric cancer survivors exposed to higher dose ifosfamide or TBI may be at higher risk of abnormal findings on urinalysis screening. Targeted screening of these higher risk patients should be considered. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.